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Teks -- Matthew 26:1-75 (NET)

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Konteks
The Plot Against Jesus
26:1 When Jesus had finished saying all these things, he told his disciples, 26:2 “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.” 26:3 Then the chief priests and the elders of the people met together in the palace of the high priest, who was named Caiaphas. 26:4 They planned to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. 26:5 But they said, “Not during the feast, so that there won’t be a riot among the people.”
Jesus’ Anointing
26:6 Now while Jesus was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper, 26:7 a woman came to him with an alabaster jar of expensive perfumed oil, and she poured it on his head as he was at the table. 26:8 When the disciples saw this, they became indignant and said, “Why this waste? 26:9 It could have been sold at a high price and the money given to the poor!” 26:10 When Jesus learned of this, he said to them, “Why are you bothering bothering this woman? She has done a good service for me. 26:11 For you will always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me! 26:12 When she poured this oil on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 26:13 I tell you the truth, wherever this gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will also be told in memory of her.”
The Plan to Betray Jesus
26:14 Then one of the twelve, the one named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests 26:15 and said, “What will you give me to betray him into your hands?” So they set out thirty silver coins for him. 26:16 From that time on, Judas began looking for an opportunity to betray him.
The Passover
26:17 Now on the first day of the feast of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus and said, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?” 26:18 He said, “Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is near. I will observe the Passover with my disciples at your house.”’” 26:19 So the disciples did as Jesus had instructed them, and they prepared the Passover. 26:20 When it was evening, he took his place at the table with the twelve. 26:21 And while they were eating he said, “I tell you the truth, one of you will betray me.” 26:22 They became greatly distressed and each one began to say to him, “Surely not I, Lord?” 26:23 He answered, “The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me will betray me. 26:24 The Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.” 26:25 Then Judas, the one who would betray him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?” Jesus replied, “You have said it yourself.”
The Lord’s Supper
26:26 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat, this is my body.” 26:27 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you, 26:28 for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 26:29 I tell you, from now on I will not drink of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” 26:30 After singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
The Prediction of Peter’s Denial
26:31 Then Jesus said to them, “This night you will all fall away because of me, for it is written: ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’ 26:32 But after I am raised, I will go ahead of you into Galilee.” 26:33 Peter said to him, “If they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away!” 26:34 Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth, on this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” 26:35 Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I will never deny you.” And all the disciples said the same thing.
Gethsemane
26:36 Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to the disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.” 26:37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and became anguished and distressed. 26:38 Then he said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay awake with me.” 26:39 Going a little farther, he threw himself down with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father, if possible, let this cup pass from me! Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 26:40 Then he came to the disciples and found them sleeping. He said to Peter, “So, couldn’t you stay awake with me for one hour? 26:41 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 26:42 He went away a second time and prayed, “My Father, if this cup cannot be taken away unless I drink it, your will must be done.” 26:43 He came again and found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open. 26:44 So leaving them again, he went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same thing once more. 26:45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour is approaching, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 26:46 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer is approaching!”
Betrayal and Arrest
26:47 While he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, arrived. With him was a large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and elders of the people. 26:48 (Now the betrayer had given them a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the man. Arrest him!”) 26:49 Immediately he went up to Jesus and said, “Greetings, Rabbi,” and kissed him. 26:50 Jesus said to him, “Friend, do what you are here to do.” Then they came and took hold of Jesus and arrested him. 26:51 But one of those with Jesus grabbed his sword, drew it out, and struck the high priest’s slave, cutting off his ear. 26:52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back in its place! For all who take hold of the sword will die by the sword. 26:53 Or do you think that I cannot call on my Father, and that he would send me more than twelve legions of angels right now? 26:54 How then would the scriptures that say it must happen this way be fulfilled?” 26:55 At that moment Jesus said to the crowd, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest me like you would an outlaw? Day after day I sat teaching in the temple courts, yet you did not arrest me. 26:56 But this has happened so that the scriptures of the prophets would be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples left him and fled.
Condemned by the Sanhedrin
26:57 Now the ones who had arrested Jesus led him to Caiaphas, the high priest, in whose house the experts in the law and the elders had gathered. 26:58 But Peter was following him from a distance, all the way to the high priest’s courtyard. After going in, he sat with the guards to see the outcome. 26:59 The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were trying to find false testimony against Jesus so that they could put him to death. 26:60 But they did not find anything, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally two came forward 26:61 and declared, “This man said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.’” 26:62 So the high priest stood up and said to him, “Have you no answer? What is this that they are testifying against you?” 26:63 But Jesus was silent. The high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.” 26:64 Jesus said to him, “You have said it yourself. But I tell you, from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power and coming on the clouds of heaven.” 26:65 Then the high priest tore his clothes and declared, “He has blasphemed! Why do we still need witnesses? Now you have heard the blasphemy! 26:66 What is your verdict?” They answered, “He is guilty and deserves death.” 26:67 Then they spat in his face and struck him with their fists. And some slapped him, 26:68 saying, “Prophesy for us, you Christ! Who hit you?”
Peter’s Denials
26:69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. A slave girl came to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.” 26:70 But he denied it in front of them all: “I don’t know what you’re talking about!” 26:71 When he went out to the gateway, another slave girl saw him and said to the people there, “This man was with Jesus the Nazarene.” 26:72 He denied it again with an oath, “I do not know the man!” 26:73 After a little while, those standing there came up to Peter and said, “You really are one of them too– even your accent gives you away!” 26:74 At that he began to curse, and he swore with an oath, “I do not know the man!” At that moment a rooster crowed. 26:75 Then Peter remembered what Jesus had said: “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went outside and wept bitterly.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Bethany a small town on the east slope of the Mount of Olives,a town located east of the Jordan river
 · Caiaphas the son-in-law of Annas; a high priest of the Jews
 · Galilean the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Gethsemane a place
 · Iscariot the surname of Judas, the man who betrayed Christ
 · Judas a son of Mary and Joseph; half-brother of Jesus)
 · Mount of Olives a ridge east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley and rising about 200 feet above the city (NIV note)
 · Nazareth a town in lower Galilee about halfway between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea
 · Passover a Jewish religious feast. It may also refer to the lamb sacrificed and eaten at the feast.
 · Peter a man who was a leader among the twelve apostles and wrote the two epistles of Peter
 · Rabbi a title given to teachers and others of an exalted position
 · Simon a son of Jonas and brother of Andrew; an apostle of Jesus Christ,a man who was one of the apostles of Christ and also called 'the Zealot',a brother of Jesus,a man who was a well-know victim of leprosy who had been healed by Jesus (NIV note),a man from Cyrene who was forced to carry the cross of Jesus,a Pharisee man in whose house Jesus' feet were washed with tears and anointed,the father of Judas Iscariot,a man who was a sorcerer in Samaria and who wanted to buy the gifts of the Spirit,a man who was a tanner at Joppa and with whom Peter was staying when Cornelius sent for him
 · Zebedee the father of James and John, who were two of the twelve apostles


Topik/Tema Kamus: LAW IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | Month | BETHLEHEM | LORD'S SUPPER; (EUCHARIST) | SIMON (2) | Homicide | Jesus, The Christ | JESUS CHRIST, 4E2 | Prayer | Prisoners | JUDAS ISCARIOT | Caiaphas | Peter | Bethany | Priest | PETER, SIMON | Minister | Court | Government | Gethsemane | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Mat 26:2 - Cometh Cometh ( ginetai ). Futuristic use of the present middle indicative. This was probably our Tuesday evening (beginning of Jewish Wednesday). The passo...

Cometh ( ginetai ).

Futuristic use of the present middle indicative. This was probably our Tuesday evening (beginning of Jewish Wednesday). The passover began on our Thursday evening (beginning of Jewish Friday).

Robertson: Mat 26:2 - After two days After two days ( meta duo hēmeras ) is just the familiar popular mode of speech. The passover came technically on the second day from this time.

After two days ( meta duo hēmeras )

is just the familiar popular mode of speech. The passover came technically on the second day from this time.

Robertson: Mat 26:2 - Is delivered up Is delivered up ( paradidotai ). Another instance of the futuristic present passive indicative. The same form occurs in Mat 26:24. Thus Jesus sets a ...

Is delivered up ( paradidotai ).

Another instance of the futuristic present passive indicative. The same form occurs in Mat 26:24. Thus Jesus sets a definite date for the coming crucifixion which he has been predicting for six months.

Robertson: Mat 26:3 - Then were gathered together the chief priests and elders of the people Then were gathered together the chief priests and elders of the people ( Tote sunēchthēsan hoi archiereis kai hoi presbuteroi tou laou ). A meeti...

Then were gathered together the chief priests and elders of the people ( Tote sunēchthēsan hoi archiereis kai hoi presbuteroi tou laou ).

A meeting of the Sanhedrin as these two groups indicate (cf. Mat 21:23).

Robertson: Mat 26:3 - Unto the court Unto the court ( eis tēn aulēn ). The atrium or court around which the palace buildings were built. Here in this open court this informal meeti...

Unto the court ( eis tēn aulēn ).

The atrium or court around which the palace buildings were built. Here in this open court this informal meeting was held. Caiaphas was high priest a.d. 18 to 36. His father-in-law Annas had been high priest a.d. 6 to 15 and was still called high priest by many.

Robertson: Mat 26:4 - They took counsel together They took counsel together ( sunebouleusanto ). Aorist middle indicative, indicating their puzzled state of mind. They have had no trouble in finding...

They took counsel together ( sunebouleusanto ).

Aorist middle indicative, indicating their puzzled state of mind. They have had no trouble in finding Jesus (Joh 11:57). Their problem now is how to take Jesus by subtilty and kill him (hina ton Iēsoun dolōi kratēsosin kai apokteinōsin ). The Triumphal Entry and the Tuesday debate in the temple revealed the powerful following that Jesus had among the crowds from Galilee.

Robertson: Mat 26:5 - A tumult A tumult ( thorubos ). They feared the uprising in behalf of Jesus and were arguing that the matter must be postponed till after the feast was over w...

A tumult ( thorubos ).

They feared the uprising in behalf of Jesus and were arguing that the matter must be postponed till after the feast was over when the crowds had scattered. Then they could catch him "by craft"(dolōi ) as they would trap a wild beast.

Robertson: Mat 26:6 - In the house of Simon the leper In the house of Simon the leper ( en oikiāi Simōnos tou leprou ). Evidently a man who had been healed of his leprosy by Jesus who gave the feast ...

In the house of Simon the leper ( en oikiāi Simōnos tou leprou ).

Evidently a man who had been healed of his leprosy by Jesus who gave the feast in honour of Jesus. All sorts of fantastic theories have arisen about it. Some even identify this Simon with the one in Luk 7:36., but Simon was a very common name and the details are very different. Some hold that it was Martha’ s house because she served (Joh 12:2) and that Simon was either the father or husband of Martha, but Martha loved to serve and that proves nothing. Some identify Mary of Bethany with the sinful woman in Luke 7 and even with Mary Magdalene, both gratuitous and groundless propositions. For the proof that Mary of Bethany, Mary Magdalene, and the sinful woman of Luke 7 are all distinct see my Some Minor Characters in the New Testament. John (Joh 12:1) apparently locates the feast six days before the passover, while Mark (Mar 14:3) and Matthew (Mat 26:6) seem to place it on the Tuesday evening (Jewish Wednesday) just two days before the passover meal. It is possible that John anticipates the date and notes the feast at Bethany at this time because he does not refer to Bethany again. If not, the order of Mark must be followed. According to the order of Mark and Matthew, this feast took place at the very time that the Sanhedrin was plotting about the death of Jesus (Mar 14:1.).

Robertson: Mat 26:7 - An alabaster cruse of exceeding precious ointment An alabaster cruse of exceeding precious ointment ( alabastron murou barutimou ). The flask was of alabaster, a carbonate of lime or sulphate of lime...

An alabaster cruse of exceeding precious ointment ( alabastron murou barutimou ).

The flask was of alabaster, a carbonate of lime or sulphate of lime, white or yellow stone, named alabaster from the town in Egypt where it was chiefly found. It was used for a phial employed for precious ointments in ancient writers, inscriptions and papyri just as we speak of a glass for the vessel made of glass. It had a cylindrical form at the top, as a rule, like a closed rosebud (Pliny). Matthew does not say what the ointment (murou ) was, only saying that it was "exceeding precious"(barutimou ), of weighty value, selling at a great price. Here only in the N.T. "An alabaster of nard (murou ) was a present for a king"(Bruce). It was one of five presents sent by Cambyses to the King of Ethiopia (Herodotus, iii. 20).

Robertson: Mat 26:7 - She poured it upon his head She poured it upon his head ( katecheen epi tēs kephalēs autou ). So Mark (Mar 14:3), while John (Joh 12:3) says that she "anointed the feet of J...

She poured it upon his head ( katecheen epi tēs kephalēs autou ).

So Mark (Mar 14:3), while John (Joh 12:3) says that she "anointed the feet of Jesus."Why not both? The verb katecheen is literally to pour down. It is the first aorist active indicative, unusual form.

Robertson: Mat 26:8 - This waste This waste ( hē apōleia hautē ). Dead loss (apōleia ) they considered it, nothing but sentimental aroma. It was a cruel shock to Mary of Bet...

This waste ( hē apōleia hautē ).

Dead loss (apōleia ) they considered it, nothing but sentimental aroma. It was a cruel shock to Mary of Bethany to hear this comment. Matthew does not tell as John does (Joh 12:4) that it was Judas who made the point which the rest endorsed. Mark explains that they mentioned "three hundred pence,"while Matthew (Mat 26:9) only says "for much"(pollou ).

Robertson: Mat 26:10 - Why trouble ye the woman? Why trouble ye the woman? ( ti kopous parechete tēi gunaiki̇ ) A phrase not common in Greek writers, though two examples occur in the papyri for g...

Why trouble ye the woman? ( ti kopous parechete tēi gunaiki̇ )

A phrase not common in Greek writers, though two examples occur in the papyri for giving trouble. Kopos is from koptō , to beat, smite, cut. It is a beating, trouble, and often work, toil. Jesus champions Mary’ s act with this striking phrase. It is so hard for some people to allow others liberty for their own personalities to express themselves. It is easy to raise small objections to what we do not like and do not understand.

Robertson: Mat 26:10 - A good work upon me A good work upon me ( ergon kalon eis eme ). A beautiful deed upon Jesus himself.

A good work upon me ( ergon kalon eis eme ).

A beautiful deed upon Jesus himself.

Robertson: Mat 26:12 - To prepare me for burial To prepare me for burial ( pros to entaphiasai me ). Mary alone had understood what Jesus had repeatedly said about his approaching death. The discip...

To prepare me for burial ( pros to entaphiasai me ).

Mary alone had understood what Jesus had repeatedly said about his approaching death. The disciples were so wrapped up in their own notions of a political kingdom that they failed utterly to sympathize with Jesus as he faced the cross. But Mary with the woman’ s fine intuitions did begin to understand and this was her way of expressing her high emotions and loyalty. The word here is the same used in Joh 19:40 about what Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus did for the body of Jesus before burial with the addition of pros to showing the purpose of Mary (the infinitive of purpose). Mary was vindicated by Jesus and her noble deed has become a "memorial of her"(eis mnēmosumon autēs ) as well as of Jesus.

Robertson: Mat 26:15 - What are ye willing to give me? What are ye willing to give me? ( ti thelete moi dounai̇ ) This "brings out the chaffering aspect of the transaction"(Vincent). "Mary and Judas ex...

What are ye willing to give me? ( ti thelete moi dounai̇ )

This "brings out the chaffering aspect of the transaction"(Vincent). "Mary and Judas extreme opposites: she freely spending in love, he willing to sell his Master for money"(Bruce). And her act of love provoked Judas to his despicable deed, this rebuke of Jesus added to all the rest.

Robertson: Mat 26:15 - And I will deliver him unto you And I will deliver him unto you ( kagō hūmin paradōsō auton ). The use of kai with a co-ordinate clause is a colloquialism (common in the ...

And I will deliver him unto you ( kagō hūmin paradōsō auton ).

The use of kai with a co-ordinate clause is a colloquialism (common in the Koiné as in the Hebrew use of wav. "A colloquialism or a Hebraism, the traitor mean in style as in spirit"(Bruce). The use of egō seems to mean "I though one of his disciples will hand him over to you if you give me enough."

Robertson: Mat 26:15 - They weighed unto him They weighed unto him ( hoi de estēsan auto ). They placed the money in the balances or scales. "Coined money was in use, but the shekels may have ...

They weighed unto him ( hoi de estēsan auto ).

They placed the money in the balances or scales. "Coined money was in use, but the shekels may have been weighed out in antique fashion by men careful to do an iniquitous thing in the most orthodox way"(Bruce). It is not known whether the Sanhedrin had offered a reward for the arrest of Jesus or not.

Robertson: Mat 26:15 - Thirty pieces of silver Thirty pieces of silver ( triakonta arguria ). A reference to Zec 11:12. If a man’ s ox gored a servant, he had to pay this amount (Exo 21:32). ...

Thirty pieces of silver ( triakonta arguria ).

A reference to Zec 11:12. If a man’ s ox gored a servant, he had to pay this amount (Exo 21:32). Some manuscripts have statēras (staters). These thirty silver shekels were equal to 120 denarii , less than five English pounds, less than twenty-five dollars, the current price of a slave. There was no doubt contempt for Jesus in the minds of both the Sanhedrin and Judas in this bargain.

Robertson: Mat 26:16 - Sought opportunity Sought opportunity ( ezētei eukarian ). A good chance. Note imperfect tense. Judas went at his business and stuck to it.

Sought opportunity ( ezētei eukarian ).

A good chance. Note imperfect tense. Judas went at his business and stuck to it.

Robertson: Mat 26:17 - To eat the passover To eat the passover ( phagein to pascha ). There were two feasts rolled into one, the passover feast and the feast of unleavened bread. Either name w...

To eat the passover ( phagein to pascha ).

There were two feasts rolled into one, the passover feast and the feast of unleavened bread. Either name was employed. Here the passover meal is meant, though in Joh 18:28 it is probable that the passover feast is referred to as the passover meal (the last supper) had already been observed. There is a famous controversy on the apparent disagreement between the Synoptic Gospels and the Fourth Gospel on the date of this last passover meal. My view is that the five passages in John (Joh 13:1., Joh 13:27; Joh 18:28; Joh 19:14, Joh 19:31) rightly interpreted agree with the Synoptic Gospels (Mat 26:17, Mat 26:20; Mar 14:12, Mar 14:17; Luk 22:7, Luk 22:14) that Jesus ate the passover meal at the regular time about 6 p.m. beginning of 15 Nisan. The passover lamb was slain on the afternoon of 14 Nisan and the meal eaten at sunset the beginning of 15 Nisan. According to this view Jesus ate the passover meal at the regular time and died on the cross the afternoon of 15 Nisan. See my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ , pp.279-284. The question of the disciples here assumes that they are to observe the regular passover meal. Note the deliberative subjunctive (hetoimasōmen ) after theleis with hina . For the asyndeton see Robertson, Grammar , p. 935.

Robertson: Mat 26:18 - To such a man To such a man ( pros ton deina ). The only instance in the N.T. of this old Attic idiom. The papyri show it for "Mr. X"and the modern Greek keeps it....

To such a man ( pros ton deina ).

The only instance in the N.T. of this old Attic idiom. The papyri show it for "Mr. X"and the modern Greek keeps it. Jesus may have indicated the man’ s name. Mark (Mar 14:13) and Luke (Luk 22:10) describe him as a man bearing a pitcher of water. It may have been the home of Mary the mother of John Mark.

Robertson: Mat 26:18 - I keep the passover at thy house I keep the passover at thy house ( pros se poiō to pascha ). Futuristic present indicative. The use of pros se for "at thy house"is neat Greek of...

I keep the passover at thy house ( pros se poiō to pascha ).

Futuristic present indicative. The use of pros se for "at thy house"is neat Greek of the classic period. Evidently there was no surprise in this home at the command of Jesus. It was a gracious privilege to serve him thus.

Robertson: Mat 26:20 - He was sitting at meat He was sitting at meat ( anekeito ). He was reclining, lying back on the left side on the couch with the right hand free. Jesus and the Twelve all re...

He was sitting at meat ( anekeito ).

He was reclining, lying back on the left side on the couch with the right hand free. Jesus and the Twelve all reclined. The paschal lamb had to be eaten up entirely (Exo 12:4, Exo 12:43).

Robertson: Mat 26:21 - One of you One of you ( heis ex humōn ). This was a bolt from the blue for all except Judas and he was startled to know that Jesus understood his treacherous ...

One of you ( heis ex humōn ).

This was a bolt from the blue for all except Judas and he was startled to know that Jesus understood his treacherous bargain.

Robertson: Mat 26:22 - Is it I, Lord? Is it I, Lord? ( mēti egō eimi , Kurie̱ ). The negative expects the answer No and was natural for all save Judas. But he had to bluff it out by ...

Is it I, Lord? ( mēti egō eimi , Kurie̱ ).

The negative expects the answer No and was natural for all save Judas. But he had to bluff it out by the same form of question (Mat 26:25). The answer of Jesus,

Robertson: Mat 26:22 - Thou hast said Thou hast said ( su eipas ) , means Yes.

Thou hast said ( su eipas )

, means Yes.

Robertson: Mat 26:23 - He that dipped He that dipped ( ho embapsas ). They all dipped their hands, having no knives, forks, or spoons. The aorist participle with the article simply means ...

He that dipped ( ho embapsas ).

They all dipped their hands, having no knives, forks, or spoons. The aorist participle with the article simply means that the betrayer is the one who dips his hand in the dish (en tōi trubliōi ) or platter with the broth of nuts and raisins and figs into which the bread was dipped before eating. It is plain that Judas was not recognized by the rest as indicated by what Jesus has said. This language means that one of those who had eaten bread with him had violated the rights of hospitality by betraying him. The Arabs today are punctilious on this point. Eating one’ s bread ties your hands and compels friendship. But Judas knew full well as is shown in Mat 26:25 though the rest apparently did not grasp it.

Robertson: Mat 26:24 - Good were it for that man Good were it for that man ( kalon ēn autōi ). Conclusion of second-class condition even though an is not expressed. It is not needed with verbs...

Good were it for that man ( kalon ēn autōi ).

Conclusion of second-class condition even though an is not expressed. It is not needed with verbs of obligation and necessity. There are some today who seek to palliate the crime of Judas. But Jesus here pronounces his terrible doom. And Judas heard it and went on with his hellish bargain with the Sanhedrin. Apparently Judas went out at this stage (Joh 13:31).

Robertson: Mat 26:26 - And blessed and brake it And blessed and brake it ( eulogēsas eklasen ). Special "Grace"in the middle of the passover meal, "as they were eating,"for the institution of the...

And blessed and brake it ( eulogēsas eklasen ).

Special "Grace"in the middle of the passover meal, "as they were eating,"for the institution of the Supper. Jesus broke one of the passover wafers or cakes that each might have a piece, not as a symbol of the breaking of his body as the Textus Receptus has it in 1Co 11:24. The correct text there has only to huper humōn without klōmenon . As a matter of fact the body of Jesus was not "broken"(Joh 19:33) as John expressly states.

Robertson: Mat 26:26 - This is my body This is my body ( touto estin to sōma mou ). The bread as a symbol represents the body of Jesus offered for us, "a beautifully simple, pathetic, ...

This is my body ( touto estin to sōma mou ).

The bread as a symbol represents the body of Jesus offered for us, "a beautifully simple, pathetic, and poetic symbol of his death"(Bruce). But some have made it "run into fetish worship"(Bruce). Jesus, of course, does not mean that the bread actually becomes his body and is to be worshipped. The purpose of the memorial is to remind us of his death for our sins.

Robertson: Mat 26:28 - The Covenant The Covenant ( tēs diathēkēs ). The adjective kainēs in Textus Receptus is not genuine. The covenant is an agreement or contract between tw...

The Covenant ( tēs diathēkēs ).

The adjective kainēs in Textus Receptus is not genuine. The covenant is an agreement or contract between two (dia , duo , thēke , from tithēmi ). It is used also for will (Latin, testamentum ) which becomes operative at death (Heb 9:15-17). Hence our New Testament. Either covenant or will makes sense here. Covenant is the idea in Heb 7:22; Heb 8:8 and often. In the Hebrew to make a covenant was to cut up the sacrifice and so ratify the agreement (Gen 15:9-18). Lightfoot argues that the word diathēke means covenant in the N.T. except in Heb 9:15-17. Jesus here uses the solemn words of Exo 24:8 "the blood of the covenant"at Sinai. "My blood of the covenant"is in contrast with that. This is the New Covenant of Jeremiah 31; Heb 8:1-13.

Robertson: Mat 26:28 - Which is shed for many Which is shed for many ( to peri pollōn ekchunnomenon ). A prophetic present passive participle. The act is symbolized by the ordinance. Cf. the pu...

Which is shed for many ( to peri pollōn ekchunnomenon ).

A prophetic present passive participle. The act is symbolized by the ordinance. Cf. the purpose of Christ expressed in Mat 20:28. There anti and here peri .

Robertson: Mat 26:28 - Unto remission of sins Unto remission of sins ( eis aphesin hamartiōn ). This clause is in Matthew alone but it is not to be restricted for that reason. It is the truth. ...

Unto remission of sins ( eis aphesin hamartiōn ).

This clause is in Matthew alone but it is not to be restricted for that reason. It is the truth. This passage answers all the modern sentimentalism that finds in the teaching of Jesus only pious ethical remarks or eschatological dreamings. He had the definite conception of his death on the cross as the basis of forgiveness of sin. The purpose of the shedding of his blood of the New Covenant was precisely to remove (forgive) sins.

Robertson: Mat 26:29 - When I drink it new with you When I drink it new with you ( hotan auto pinō meth' humōn kaimon ). This language rather implies that Jesus himself partook of the bread and the...

When I drink it new with you ( hotan auto pinō meth' humōn kaimon ).

This language rather implies that Jesus himself partook of the bread and the wine, though it is not distinctly stated. In the Messianic banquet it is not necessary to suppose that Jesus means the language literally, "the fruit of the vine."Deissmann ( Bible Studies , pp. 109f.) gives an instance of genēma used of the vine in a papyrus 230 b.c. The language here employed does not make it obligatory to employ wine rather than pure grape juice if one wishes the other.

Robertson: Mat 26:30 - Sang a hymn Sang a hymn ( humnēsantes ). The Hallel , part of Psalms 115-118. But apparently they did not go out at once to the Garden of Gethsemane. Jesus ta...

Sang a hymn ( humnēsantes ).

The Hallel , part of Psalms 115-118. But apparently they did not go out at once to the Garden of Gethsemane. Jesus tarried with them in the Upper Room for the wonderful discourse and prayer in John 14-17. They may have gone out to the street after Joh 14:31. It was no longer considered obligatory to remain in the house after the passover meal till morning as at the start (Exo 12:22). Jesus went out to Gethsemane, the garden of the agony, outside of Jerusalem, toward the Mount of Olives.

Robertson: Mat 26:33 - I will never be offended I will never be offended ( egō oudepote skandalisthēsomai ). "Made to stumble,"not "offended."Volitive future passive indicative. Peter ignored t...

I will never be offended ( egō oudepote skandalisthēsomai ).

"Made to stumble,"not "offended."Volitive future passive indicative. Peter ignored the prophecy of the resurrection of Jesus and the promised meeting in Galilee (Mat 26:32). The quotation from Zec 13:7 made no impression on him. He was intent on showing that he was superior to "all"the rest. Judas had turned traitor and all were weak, Peter in particular, little as he knew it. So Jesus has to make it plainer by pointing out "this night"as the time (Mat 26:34).

Robertson: Mat 26:33 - Before the cock crows Before the cock crows ( prin alektora phōnēsai ). No article in the Greek, "before a cock crow."Mark (Mar 14:30) says that Peter will deny Jesus ...

Before the cock crows ( prin alektora phōnēsai ).

No article in the Greek, "before a cock crow."Mark (Mar 14:30) says that Peter will deny Jesus thrice before the cock crows twice. When one cock crows in the morning, others generally follow. The three denials lasted over an hour. Some scholars hold that chickens were not allowed in Jerusalem by the Jews, but the Romans would have them.

Robertson: Mat 26:35 - Even if I must die with thee Even if I must die with thee ( k…n deēi me sun soi apothanein ). Third-class condition. A noble speech and meant well. His boast of loyalty is mad...

Even if I must die with thee ( k…n deēi me sun soi apothanein ).

Third-class condition. A noble speech and meant well. His boast of loyalty is made still stronger by ou mē se aparnēsomai . The other disciples were undoubtedly embarrassed by Peter’ s boast and lightheartedly joined in the same profession of fidelity.

Robertson: Mat 26:36 - Gethsemane Gethsemane ( Gethsēmanei ). The word means oil-press in the Hebrew, or olive vat. The place (chōrion ) was an enclosed plot or estate, "garden,"...

Gethsemane ( Gethsēmanei ).

The word means oil-press in the Hebrew, or olive vat. The place (chōrion ) was an enclosed plot or estate, "garden,"or orchard (kēpos ). It is called villa in the Vulgate according to Joh 18:1. It was beyond the torrent Kedron at the foot of the Mount of Olives about three-fourths of a mile from the eastern walls of Jerusalem. There are now eight old olive trees still standing in this enclosure. One cannot say that they are the very trees near which Jesus had his Agony, but they are very old. "They will remain so long as their already protracted life is spared, the most venerable of their race on the surface of the earth. Their guarded trunks and scanty foliage will always be regarded as the most affecting of the sacred memorials in or about Jerusalem"(Stanley, Sinai and Palestine ).

Robertson: Mat 26:36 - Here Here ( autou ) , Yonder (ekei ). Jesus clearly pointed to the place where he would pray. Literally "there."

Here ( autou )

, Yonder (ekei ). Jesus clearly pointed to the place where he would pray. Literally "there."

Robertson: Mat 26:37 - He took with him He took with him ( paralabōn ). Taking along, by his side (parȧ ), as a mark of special favour and privilege, instead of leaving this inner circ...

He took with him ( paralabōn ).

Taking along, by his side (parȧ ), as a mark of special favour and privilege, instead of leaving this inner circle of three (Peter, James, and John) with the other eight. The eight would serve as a sort of outer guard to watch by the gate of the garden for the coming of Judas while the three would be able to share the agony of soul already upon Jesus so as at least to give him some human sympathy which he craved as he sought help from the Father in prayer. These three had been with Jesus on the Mount of Transfiguration and now they are with him in this supreme crisis. The grief of Christ was now severe.

Robertson: Mat 26:37 - -- @@The word for sore troubled (adēmonein ) is of doubtful etymology. There is an adjective adēmos equal to apodēmos meaning "not at home,"...

@@The word for sore troubled (adēmonein ) is of doubtful etymology. There is an adjective adēmos equal to apodēmos meaning "not at home,""away from home,"like the German unheimisch, unheimlich. But whatever the etymology, the notion of intense discomfort is plain. The word adēmonein occurs in P.Oxy. II, 298,456 of the first century a.d. where it means "excessively concerned."See note on Phi 2:26 where Paul uses it of Epaphroditus. Moffatt renders it here "agitated."The word occurs sometimes with aporeō to be at a loss as to which way to go. The Braid Scots has it "sair putten-aboot."Here Matthew has also "to be sorrowful"(lupeisthai ), but Mark (Mar 14:33) has the startling phrase greatly amazed and sore troubled (ekthambeisthai kai adēmonein ), a "feeling of terrified surprise."

Robertson: Mat 26:38 - Watch with me Watch with me ( grēgoreite met' emou ). This late present from the perfect egrēgora means to keep awake and not go to sleep. The hour was late ...

Watch with me ( grēgoreite met' emou ).

This late present from the perfect egrēgora means to keep awake and not go to sleep. The hour was late and the strain had been severe, but Jesus pleaded for a bit of human sympathy as he wrestled with his Father. It did not seem too much to ask. He had put his sorrow in strong language, "even unto death"(heōs thanatou ) that ought to have alarmed them.

Robertson: Mat 26:39 - He went forward a little He went forward a little ( proelthōn mikron ). As if he could not fight the battle in their immediate presence. He was on his face, not on his knee...

He went forward a little ( proelthōn mikron ).

As if he could not fight the battle in their immediate presence. He was on his face, not on his knees (McNeile).

Robertson: Mat 26:39 - This cup This cup ( to potērion touto ). The figure can mean only the approaching death. Jesus had used it of his coming death when James and John came to h...

This cup ( to potērion touto ).

The figure can mean only the approaching death. Jesus had used it of his coming death when James and John came to him with their ambitious request, "the cup which I am about to drink"(Mat 20:22). But now the Master is about to taste the bitter dregs in the cup of death for the sin of the world. He was not afraid that he would die before the Cross, though he instinctively shrank from the cup, but instantly surrendered his will to the Father’ s will and drank it to the full. Evidently Satan tempted Christ now to draw back from the Cross. Here Jesus won the power to go on to Calvary.

Robertson: Mat 26:40 - What What ( houtōs ). The Greek adverb is not interrogation or exclamatory ti , but only "so"or "thus."There is a tone of sad disappointment at the disc...

What ( houtōs ).

The Greek adverb is not interrogation or exclamatory ti , but only "so"or "thus."There is a tone of sad disappointment at the discovery that they were asleep after the earnest plea that they keep awake (Mat 26:38). "Did you not thus have strength enough to keep awake one hour?"Every word struck home.

Robertson: Mat 26:41 - Watch and pray Watch and pray ( grēgoreite kai proseuchesthe ). Jesus repeats the command of Mat 26:38 with the addition of prayer and with the warning against th...

Watch and pray ( grēgoreite kai proseuchesthe ).

Jesus repeats the command of Mat 26:38 with the addition of prayer and with the warning against the peril of temptation. He himself was feeling the worst of all temptations of his earthly life just then. He did not wish then to enter such temptation (peirasmon , here in this sense, not mere trial). Thus we are to understand the prayer in Mat 6:13 about leading (being led) into temptation. Their failure was due to weakness of the flesh as is often the case.

Robertson: Mat 26:41 - Spirit Spirit ( pneuma ) here is the moral life (intellect , will , emotions ) as opposed to the flesh (cf. Isa 31:3; Rom 7:25).

Spirit ( pneuma )

here is the moral life (intellect , will , emotions ) as opposed to the flesh (cf. Isa 31:3; Rom 7:25).

Robertson: Mat 26:41 - Except I drink it Except I drink it ( ean mē auto piō ). Condition of the third class undetermined, but with likelihood of determination, whereas if this cannot p...

Except I drink it ( ean mē auto piō ).

Condition of the third class undetermined, but with likelihood of determination, whereas if this cannot pass away (ei ou dunatai touto parelthein ) is first-class condition, determined as fulfilled, assumed to be true. This delicate distinction accurately presents the real attitude of Jesus towards this subtle temptation.

Robertson: Mat 26:43 - For their eyes were heavy For their eyes were heavy ( ēsan gar autōn hoi ophthalmoi bebarēmenoi ). Past perfect passive indicative periphrastic. Their eyes had been weig...

For their eyes were heavy ( ēsan gar autōn hoi ophthalmoi bebarēmenoi ).

Past perfect passive indicative periphrastic. Their eyes had been weighted down with sleep and still were as they had been on the Mount of Transfiguration (Luk 9:32).

Robertson: Mat 26:45 - Sleep on now and take your rest Sleep on now and take your rest ( katheudete loipon kai anapauesthe ). This makes it "mournful irony"(Plummer) or reproachful concession: "Ye may sle...

Sleep on now and take your rest ( katheudete loipon kai anapauesthe ).

This makes it "mournful irony"(Plummer) or reproachful concession: "Ye may sleep and rest indefinitely so far as I am concerned; I need no longer your watchful interest"(Bruce). It may be a sad query as Goodspeed: "Are you still sleeping and taking your rest?"So Moffatt. This use of loipon for now or henceforth is common in the papyri.

Robertson: Mat 26:45 - The hour is at hand The hour is at hand ( ēggiken hē hōra ). Time for action has now come. They have missed their chance for sympathy with Jesus. He has now won th...

The hour is at hand ( ēggiken hē hōra ).

Time for action has now come. They have missed their chance for sympathy with Jesus. He has now won the victory without their aid. "The Master’ s time of weakness is past; He is prepared to face the worst"(Bruce).

Robertson: Mat 26:45 - Is betrayed Is betrayed ( paradidotai ). Futuristic present or inchoative present, the first act in the betrayal is at hand. Jesus had foreseen his "hour"for lon...

Is betrayed ( paradidotai ).

Futuristic present or inchoative present, the first act in the betrayal is at hand. Jesus had foreseen his "hour"for long and now he faces it bravely.

Robertson: Mat 26:46 - He is at hand He is at hand ( ēggiken ). The same verb and tense used of the hour above, present perfect active of eggizō , to draw near, the very form used by...

He is at hand ( ēggiken ).

The same verb and tense used of the hour above, present perfect active of eggizō , to draw near, the very form used by John the Baptist of the coming of the kingdom of heaven (Mat 3:2). Whether Jesus heard the approach of the betrayer with the crowd around him or saw the lights or just felt the proximity of the traitor before he was there (J. Weiss), we do not know and it matters little. The scene is pictured as it happened with lifelike power.

Robertson: Mat 26:47 - While he yet spake While he yet spake ( eti autou lalountos ). It was an electric moment as Jesus faced Judas with his horde of helpers as if he turned to meet an army.

While he yet spake ( eti autou lalountos ).

It was an electric moment as Jesus faced Judas with his horde of helpers as if he turned to meet an army.

Robertson: Mat 26:47 - Let us go Let us go ( agōmen ) , Jesus had said. And here he is. The eight at the gate seemed to have given no notice. Judas is described here as "one of the...

Let us go ( agōmen )

, Jesus had said. And here he is. The eight at the gate seemed to have given no notice. Judas is described here as "one of the twelve"(heis tōn dōdeka ) in all three Synoptic Gospels (Mar 14:43; Mat 26:47; Luk 22:47). The very horror of the thing is thus emphasized, that one of the chosen twelve apostles should do this dastardly deed.

Robertson: Mat 26:47 - A great multitude A great multitude ( ochlos polus ). The chief priests and Pharisees had furnished Judas a band of soldiers from the garrison in Antonia (Joh 18:3) an...

A great multitude ( ochlos polus ).

The chief priests and Pharisees had furnished Judas a band of soldiers from the garrison in Antonia (Joh 18:3) and the temple police (Luk 22:52) with swords (knives) and staves (clubs) with a hired rabble who had lanterns also (Joh 18:3) in spite of the full moon. Judas was taking no chances of failure for he well knew the strange power of Jesus.

Robertson: Mat 26:48 - Gave them a sign Gave them a sign ( edōken autois sēmeion ). Probably just before he reached the place, though Mark (Mar 14:44) has "had given"(dedōkei ) which...

Gave them a sign ( edōken autois sēmeion ).

Probably just before he reached the place, though Mark (Mar 14:44) has "had given"(dedōkei ) which certainly means before arrival at Gethsemane. At any rate Judas had given the leaders to understand that he would kiss (philēsō ) Jesus in order to identify him for certain. The kiss was a common mode of greeting and Judas chose that sign and actually "kissed him fervently"(katephilēsen , Mat 26:49), though the compound verb sometimes in the papyri has lost its intensive force. Bruce thinks that Judas was prompted by the inconsistent motives of smouldering love and cowardice. At any rate this revolting ostentatious kiss is "the most terrible instance of the hekousia philēmata echthrou (Pro 27:6),"the profuse kisses of an enemy (McNeile). This same compound verb occurs in Luk 7:38 of the sinful woman, in Luk 15:20 of the Father’ s embrace of the Prodigal Son, and in Act 20:37 of the Ephesian elders and Paul.

Robertson: Mat 26:50 - Do that for which thou art come Do that for which thou art come ( eph' ho parei ). Moffatt and Goodspeed take it: "Do your errand."There has been a deal of trouble over this phrase....

Do that for which thou art come ( eph' ho parei ).

Moffatt and Goodspeed take it: "Do your errand."There has been a deal of trouble over this phrase. Deissmann ( Light from the Ancient East , pp. 125 to 131) has proven conclusively that it is a question, eph' ho in late Greek having the interrogative sense of epi ti (Robertson, Grammar , p. 725). The use of eph' ho for "why here"occurs on a Syrian tablet of the first century a.d. 50 that it "was current coin in the language of the people"(Deissmann). Most of the early translations (Old Latin, Old Syriac) took it as a question. So the Vulgate has ad quid venisti. In this instance the Authorized Version is correct against the Revised. Jesus exposes the pretence of Judas and shows that he does not believe in his paraded affection (Bruce).

Robertson: Mat 26:51 - One of them that were with Jesus One of them that were with Jesus ( heis tōn meta Iēsou ). Like the other Synoptics Matthew conceals the name of Peter, probably for prudential re...

One of them that were with Jesus ( heis tōn meta Iēsou ).

Like the other Synoptics Matthew conceals the name of Peter, probably for prudential reasons as he was still living before a.d. 68. John writing at the end of the century mentions Peter’ s name (Joh 18:10). The sword or knife was one of the two that the disciples had (Luk 22:38). Bruce suggests that it was a large knife used in connexion with the paschal feast. Evidently Peter aimed to cut off the man’ s head, not his ear (ōtion is diminutive in form, but not in sense, as often in the Koiné ). He may have been the leader of the band. His name, Malchus, is also given by John (Joh 18:10) because Peter was then dead and in no danger.

Robertson: Mat 26:52 - Put up again thy sword Put up again thy sword ( apostrepson tēn machairan sou ). Turn back thy sword into its place. It was a stern rebuke for Peter who had misunderstood...

Put up again thy sword ( apostrepson tēn machairan sou ).

Turn back thy sword into its place. It was a stern rebuke for Peter who had misunderstood the teaching of Jesus in Luk 22:38 as well as in Mat 5:39 (cf. Joh 18:36). The reason given by Jesus has had innumerable illustrations in human history. The sword calls for the sword. Offensive war is here given flat condemnation. The Paris Pact of 1928 (the Kellogg Treaty) is certainly in harmony with the mind of Christ. The will to peace is the first step towards peace, the outlawing of war. Our American cities are often ruled by gangsters who kill each other off.

Robertson: Mat 26:53 - Even now Even now ( arti ). Just now, at this very moment.

Even now ( arti ).

Just now, at this very moment.

Robertson: Mat 26:53 - Legions Legions ( legionas ). A Latin word. Roman soldiers in large numbers were in Palestine later in a.d. 66, but they were in Caesarea and in the tower o...

Legions ( legionas ).

A Latin word. Roman soldiers in large numbers were in Palestine later in a.d. 66, but they were in Caesarea and in the tower of Antonia in Jerusalem. A full Roman legion had 6,100 foot and 726 horse in the time of Augustus. But Jesus sees more than twelve legions at his command (one for each apostle) and shows his undaunted courage in this crisis. One should recall the story of Elisha at Dothan (2Ki 6:17).

Robertson: Mat 26:54 - Must be Must be ( dei ). Jesus sees clearly his destiny now that he has won the victory in Gethsemane.

Must be ( dei ).

Jesus sees clearly his destiny now that he has won the victory in Gethsemane.

Robertson: Mat 26:55 - As against a robber As against a robber ( hōs epi lēistēn ). As a robber, not as a thief, but a robber hiding from justice. He will be crucified between two robber...

As against a robber ( hōs epi lēistēn ).

As a robber, not as a thief, but a robber hiding from justice. He will be crucified between two robbers and on the very cross planned for their leader, Barabbas. They have come with no warrant for any crime, but with an armed force to seize Jesus as if a highway robber. Jesus reminds them that he used to sit (imperfect, ekathezomēn ) in the temple and teach. But he sees God’ s purpose in it all for the prophets had foretold his "cup."The desertion of Jesus by the disciples followed this rebuke of the effort of Peter. Jesus had surrendered. So they fled.

Robertson: Mat 26:58 - To see the end To see the end ( idein to telos ). Peter rallied from the panic and followed afar off (makrothen ), "more courageous than the rest and yet not coura...

To see the end ( idein to telos ).

Peter rallied from the panic and followed afar off (makrothen ), "more courageous than the rest and yet not courageous enough"(Bruce). John the Beloved Disciple went on into the room where Jesus was. The rest remained outside, but Peter "sat with the officers"to see and hear and hoping to escape notice.

Robertson: Mat 26:59 - Sought false witness against Jesus Sought false witness against Jesus ( ezētoun pseudomarturian ). Imperfect tense, kept on seeking. Judges have no right to be prosecutors and least ...

Sought false witness against Jesus ( ezētoun pseudomarturian ).

Imperfect tense, kept on seeking. Judges have no right to be prosecutors and least of all to seek after false witness and even to offer bribes to get it.

Robertson: Mat 26:60 - They found it not They found it not ( kai ouch heuron ). They found false witnesses in plenty, but not the false witness that would stand any sort of test.

They found it not ( kai ouch heuron ).

They found false witnesses in plenty, but not the false witness that would stand any sort of test.

Robertson: Mat 26:61 - I am able to destroy the temple of God I am able to destroy the temple of God ( dunamai katalusai ton naon tou theou ). What he had said (Joh 2:19) referred to the temple of his body which...

I am able to destroy the temple of God ( dunamai katalusai ton naon tou theou ).

What he had said (Joh 2:19) referred to the temple of his body which they were to destroy (and did) and which he would raise again in three days as he did. It was a pitiful perversion of what Jesus had said and even so the two witnesses disagreed in their misrepresentation (Mar 14:59).

Robertson: Mat 26:63 - Held his peace Held his peace ( esiōpa ). Kept silent, imperfect tense. Jesus refused to answer the bluster of Caiaphas.

Held his peace ( esiōpa ).

Kept silent, imperfect tense. Jesus refused to answer the bluster of Caiaphas.

Robertson: Mat 26:63 - I adjure thee by the living God I adjure thee by the living God ( exorkizō se kata tou theou tou zōntos ). So Caiaphas put Jesus on oath in order to make him incriminate himself...

I adjure thee by the living God ( exorkizō se kata tou theou tou zōntos ).

So Caiaphas put Jesus on oath in order to make him incriminate himself, a thing unlawful in Jewish jurisprudence. He had failed to secure any accusation against Jesus that would stand at all. But Jesus did not refuse to answer under solemn oath, clearly showing that he was not thinking of oaths in courts of justice when he prohibited profanity. The charge that Caiaphas makes is that Jesus claims to be the Messiah, the Son of God. To refuse to answer would be tantamount to a denial. So Jesus answered knowing full well the use that would be made of his confession and claim.

Robertson: Mat 26:64 - Thou hast said Thou hast said ( su eipas ). This is a Greek affirmative reply. Mark (Mar 14:62) has it plainly, "I am"(eimi ). But this is not all that Jesus said ...

Thou hast said ( su eipas ).

This is a Greek affirmative reply. Mark (Mar 14:62) has it plainly, "I am"(eimi ). But this is not all that Jesus said to Caiaphas. He claims that the day will come when Jesus will be the Judge and Caiaphas the culprit using the prophetic language in Dan 7:13 and Psa 109:1. It was all that Caiaphas wanted.

Robertson: Mat 26:65 - He hath spoken blasphemy He hath spoken blasphemy ( eblasphēmēsen ). There was no need of witnesses now, for Jesus had incriminated himself by claiming under oath to be t...

He hath spoken blasphemy ( eblasphēmēsen ).

There was no need of witnesses now, for Jesus had incriminated himself by claiming under oath to be the Messiah, the Son of God. Now it would not be blasphemy for the real Messiah to make such a claim, but it was intolerable to admit that Jesus could be the Messiah of Jewish hope. At the beginning of Christ’ s ministry he occasionally used the word Messiah of himself, but he soon ceased, for it was plain that it would create trouble. The people would take it in the sense of a political revolutionist who would throw off the Roman yoke. If he declined that role, the Pharisees would have none of him for that was the kind of a Messiah that they desired. But the hour has now come. At the Triumphal Entry Jesus let the Galilean crowds hail him as Messiah, knowing what the effect would be. Now the hour has struck. He has made his claim and has defied the High Priest.

Robertson: Mat 26:66 - He is worthy of death He is worthy of death ( enochos thanatou estin ). Held in the bonds of death (en , echō ) as actually guilty with the genitive (thanatou ). The d...

He is worthy of death ( enochos thanatou estin ).

Held in the bonds of death (en , echō ) as actually guilty with the genitive (thanatou ). The dative expresses liability as in Mat 5:21 (tēi krisei ) and as eis and the accusative (Mat 5:22). They took the vote though it was at night and they no longer had the power of death since the Romans took it away from them. Death was the penalty of blasphemy (Lev 24:15). But they enjoyed taking it as their answer to his unanswerable speeches in the temple that dreadful Tuesday a few days before. It was unanimous save that Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus did not agree. They were probably absent and not even invited as being under suspicion for being secret disciples of Christ.

Robertson: Mat 26:68 - Thou Christ Thou Christ ( Christe ). With definite sneer at his claims under oath in Mat 26:63. With uncontrolled glee and abandon like a lot of hoodlums these d...

Thou Christ ( Christe ).

With definite sneer at his claims under oath in Mat 26:63. With uncontrolled glee and abandon like a lot of hoodlums these doctors of divinity insulted Jesus. They actually spat in his face, buffeted him on the neck (ekolaphisan , from kolaphos the fist), and struck him in the face with the palms of their hands (erapisan , from rapis , a rod), all personal indignities after the legal injustice already done. They thus gave vent to their spite and hatred.

Robertson: Mat 26:69 - Thou also Thou also ( kai su ). Peter had gone within (esō ) the palace (Mat 26:58), but was sitting without (exō ) the hall where the trial was going ...

Thou also ( kai su ).

Peter had gone within (esō ) the palace (Mat 26:58), but was sitting without (exō ) the hall where the trial was going on in the open central court with the servants or officers (hupēretōn , under rowers, literally, Mat 26:58) of the Sanhedrin. But he could possibly see through the open door above what was going on inside. It is not plain at what stage of the Jewish trial the denials of Peter took place nor the precise order in which they came as the Gospels give them variously. This maid (paidiskē , slave girl) stepped up to Peter as he was sitting in the court and pointedly said: "Thou also wast with Jesus the Galilean."Peter was warming himself by the fire and the light shone in his face. She probably had noticed Peter come in with John the Beloved Disciple who went on up into the hall of trial. Or she may have seen Peter with Jesus on the streets of Jerusalem.

Robertson: Mat 26:70 - I know not what thou sayest I know not what thou sayest ( ouk oida ti legeis ). It was an affectation of extreme ignorance (Bruce) that deceived no one. It was an easy and ancie...

I know not what thou sayest ( ouk oida ti legeis ).

It was an affectation of extreme ignorance (Bruce) that deceived no one. It was an easy and ancient dodge and easy subterfuge. Dalman ( Words of Jesus , 80f.) suggests that Peter used the Galilean Aramaean word for know instead of the Judean Aramaean word which betrayed at once his Galilean residence.

Robertson: Mat 26:71 - Into the porch Into the porch ( eis ton pulōna ). But Peter was not safe out here, for another maid recognized him and spoke of him as "this fellow"(houtos ) wit...

Into the porch ( eis ton pulōna ).

But Peter was not safe out here, for another maid recognized him and spoke of him as "this fellow"(houtos ) with a gesture to those out there.

Robertson: Mat 26:72 - With an oath With an oath ( meta horkou ). This time Peter added an oath, probably a former habit so common to the Jews at that time, and denied acquaintance with...

With an oath ( meta horkou ).

This time Peter added an oath, probably a former habit so common to the Jews at that time, and denied acquaintance with Jesus. He even refers to Jesus as "the man"(ton anthrōpon ), an expression that could convey contempt, "the fellow."

Robertson: Mat 26:73 - They that stood by They that stood by ( hoi hestōtes ). The talk about Peter continued. Luke (Luk 22:59) states that the little while was about an hour. The bystander...

They that stood by ( hoi hestōtes ).

The talk about Peter continued. Luke (Luk 22:59) states that the little while was about an hour. The bystanders came up to Peter and bluntly assert that he was "of a truth"(alēthōs ) one of the followers of Jesus for his speech betrayed him. Even the Revised Version retains "bewrayeth,"quaint old English for "betrayeth."The Greek has it simply "makes thee evident"(dēlon se poiei ). His dialect (lalia ) clearly revealed that he was a Galilean. The Galileans had difficulty with the gutterals and Peter’ s second denial had exposed him to the tormenting raillery of the loungers who continued to nag him.

Robertson: Mat 26:74 - Then began he to curse and to swear Then began he to curse and to swear ( tote ērxato katathematizein kai omnuein ). He repeated his denial with the addition of profanity to prove tha...

Then began he to curse and to swear ( tote ērxato katathematizein kai omnuein ).

He repeated his denial with the addition of profanity to prove that he was telling the truth instead of the lie that they all knew. His repeated denials gave him away still more, for he could not pronounce the Judean gutterals. He called down on himself (katathematizein ) imprecations in his desperate irritation and loss of self-control at his exposure.

Robertson: Mat 26:74 - The cock crew The cock crew ( alektōn ephōnēsen ). No article in the Greek, just "a cock crew"at that juncture, "straightway"(euthus ). But it startled Pete...

The cock crew ( alektōn ephōnēsen ).

No article in the Greek, just "a cock crew"at that juncture, "straightway"(euthus ). But it startled Peter.

Robertson: Mat 26:75 - Peter remembered Peter remembered ( emnēsthē ho Petros ). A small thing, but magna circumstantia (Bengel). In a flash of lightning rapidity he recalled the word...

Peter remembered ( emnēsthē ho Petros ).

A small thing, but magna circumstantia (Bengel). In a flash of lightning rapidity he recalled the words of Jesus a few hours before (Mat 26:34) which he had then scouted with the proud boast that "even if I must die with thee, yet will I not deny thee"(Mat 26:35). And now this triple denial was a fact. There is no extenuation for the base denials of Peter. He had incurred the dread penalty involved in the words of Jesus in Mat 10:33 of denial by Jesus before the Father in heaven. But Peter’ s revulsion of feeling was as sudden as his sin.

Robertson: Mat 26:75 - He went out and wept bitterly He went out and wept bitterly ( exelthōn exō eklausen pikrōs ). Luke adds that the Lord turned and looked upon Peter (Luk 22:61). That look bro...

He went out and wept bitterly ( exelthōn exō eklausen pikrōs ).

Luke adds that the Lord turned and looked upon Peter (Luk 22:61). That look brought Peter back to his senses. He could not stay where he now was with the revilers of Jesus. He did not feel worthy or able to go openly into the hall where Jesus was. So outside he went with a broken heart. The constative aorist here does not emphasize as Mark’ s imperfect does (Mar 14:72, eklaien ) the continued weeping that was now Peter’ s only consolation. The tears were bitter, all the more so by reason of that look of understanding pity that Jesus gave him. One of the tragedies of the Cross is the bleeding heart of Peter. Judas was a total wreck and Peter was a near derelict. Satan had sifted them all as wheat, but Jesus had prayed specially for Peter (Luk 22:31.). Will Satan show Peter to be all chaff as Judas was?

Vincent: Mat 26:2 - Is betrayed Is betrayed ( παραδίδοται ) The present tense expresses here something which, though future, is as good as present, because already ...

Is betrayed ( παραδίδοται )

The present tense expresses here something which, though future, is as good as present, because already determined, or because it must ensue in virtue of an unalterable law. Thus the passover is (γίνεται ): it must come round at the fixed season. The Son of Man is betrayed according to the divine decree. Compare Mat 26:24.

Vincent: Mat 26:3 - Palace Palace ( αὐλὴν ) But the word never means palace in the New Testament. It is the court, the open court or hall, forming the centre o...

Palace ( αὐλὴν )

But the word never means palace in the New Testament. It is the court, the open court or hall, forming the centre of an oriental building, and often used as a meeting-place. Rev., court. Wyc., hall.

Vincent: Mat 26:7 - An alabaster box An alabaster box ( ἀλάβαστρον ) Rev., cruse; flask in margin. Lit., an alabaster, just as we call a drinking-vessel made of gla...

An alabaster box ( ἀλάβαστρον )

Rev., cruse; flask in margin. Lit., an alabaster, just as we call a drinking-vessel made of glass a glass. Luther renders glass. It was a kind of cruet, having a cylindrical form at the top. Pliny compares these vessels to a closed rosebud, and says that ointments are best preserved in them.

Vincent: Mat 26:8 - To what purpose is this waste? To what purpose is this waste? Wyc., Whereto this loss? Tynd., What needed this waste? See on Joh 12:3.

To what purpose is this waste?

Wyc., Whereto this loss? Tynd., What needed this waste? See on Joh 12:3.

Vincent: Mat 26:10 - When Jesus understood it When Jesus understood it ( γνοὺς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ) The A. V. implies that some time elapsed before Jesus was aware of the dis...

When Jesus understood it ( γνοὺς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς )

The A. V. implies that some time elapsed before Jesus was aware of the disciples' complaint. But the statement is that Jesus perceived it at once. Rev., rightly, Jesus perceiving it.

Vincent: Mat 26:10 - Good Good work ( καλὸν ) Lit., beautiful, but in a moral sense: an excellent, morally beautiful deed.

Good work ( καλὸν )

Lit., beautiful, but in a moral sense: an excellent, morally beautiful deed.

Vincent: Mat 26:15 - What will ye give? What will ye give? ( τί θέλετέ μοι δοῦναι ?) Rather, What are ye willing to give me? It brings out the chaffering as...

What will ye give? ( τί θέλετέ μοι δοῦναι ?)

Rather, What are ye willing to give me? It brings out the chaffering aspect of the transaction. So Rev.

Vincent: Mat 26:15 - They covenanted with him for They covenanted with him for ( ἔστησαν αὐτῷ ) But the meaning is, they weighed unto him; or, very literally, they placed ...

They covenanted with him for ( ἔστησαν αὐτῷ )

But the meaning is, they weighed unto him; or, very literally, they placed for him (in the balance). Although coined shekels were in circulation, weighing appears to have been practised, especially when considerable sums were paid out of the temple-treasury.

Vincent: Mat 26:15 - Thirty pieces of silver Thirty pieces of silver ( τριάκοντα ἀργύρια ) Matthew refers to Zec 11:12. These pieces were shekels of the sanctuary, of s...

Thirty pieces of silver ( τριάκοντα ἀργύρια )

Matthew refers to Zec 11:12. These pieces were shekels of the sanctuary, of standard weight, and therefore heavier than the ordinary shekel. See on Mat 17:24. Reckoning the Jerusalem shekel at seventy-two cents, the sum would be twenty-one dollars and sixty cents. This was the price which, by the Mosaic law, a man was condemned to pay if his ox should gore a servant (Exo 21:32). Our Lord, the sacrifice for men, was paid for out of the temple-money, destined for the purchase of sacrifices. He who " took on him the form of a servant" was sold at the legal price of a slave.

Vincent: Mat 26:18 - Such a man Such a man ( τὸν δεῖνα ) The indefiniteness is the Evangelist's, not our Lord's. He, doubtless, described the per- son and where to f...

Such a man ( τὸν δεῖνα )

The indefiniteness is the Evangelist's, not our Lord's. He, doubtless, described the per- son and where to find him.

Vincent: Mat 26:20 - He sat down He sat down ( ἀνέκειτο ) But this rendering misses the force of the imperfect tense, which denotes something in progress. The Evangel...

He sat down ( ἀνέκειτο )

But this rendering misses the force of the imperfect tense, which denotes something in progress. The Evangelist says he was sitting or reclining, introducing us to something which has been going on for some time.

Vincent: Mat 26:22 - Began Began to say ( ἤρξεντο ) Denoting the commencement of a series of questions; one after the other ( every one ) saying, Is it I?

Began to say ( ἤρξεντο )

Denoting the commencement of a series of questions; one after the other ( every one ) saying, Is it I?

Vincent: Mat 26:22 - Is it I? Is it I? ( μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι ) The form of the negative expects a negative answer. " Surely I am not the one. "

Is it I? ( μήτι ἐγώ εἰμι )

The form of the negative expects a negative answer. " Surely I am not the one. "

Vincent: Mat 26:23 - The dish The dish ( τρυβλίῳ ) Wyc., platter. A dish containing a broth made with nuts, raisins, dates, figs, etc., into which' pieces of brea...

The dish ( τρυβλίῳ )

Wyc., platter. A dish containing a broth made with nuts, raisins, dates, figs, etc., into which' pieces of bread were dipped.

Vincent: Mat 26:25 - Which betrayed Which betrayed ( ὁ παραδιδοὺς ) The article with the participle has the force of an epithet: The betrayer.

Which betrayed ( ὁ παραδιδοὺς )

The article with the participle has the force of an epithet: The betrayer.

Vincent: Mat 26:28 - Testament Testament ( διαθήκης ) From διατίθημι , to distribute; dispose of. Hence of the disposition of one's property. On the idea ...

Testament ( διαθήκης )

From διατίθημι , to distribute; dispose of. Hence of the disposition of one's property. On the idea of disposing or arranging is based that of settlement or agreement, and thence of a covenant. The Hebrew word of which this is a translation is primarily covenant, from a verb meaning to cut. Hence the phrase, to make a covenant, in connection with dividing the victims slain in ratification of covenants (Gen 15:9-18). Covenant is the general Old Testament sense of the word (1Ki 20:34; Isa 28:15; 1Sa 18:3); and so in the New Testament. Compare Mar 14:24; Luk 1:72; Luk 22:20; Act 3:25; Act 7:8. Bishop Lightfoot, on Gal 3:15, observes that the word is never found in the New Testament in any other sense than that of covenant, with the exception of Heb 9:15-17, where it is testament. We cannot admit this exception, since we regard that passage as one of the best illustrations of the sense of covenant. See on Heb 9:15-17. Render here as Rev., covenant.

Vincent: Mat 26:28 - Is shed Is shed ( ἐκχυννόμενον ) The present participle, is being shed. Christ's thought goes forward to the consummation.

Is shed ( ἐκχυννόμενον )

The present participle, is being shed. Christ's thought goes forward to the consummation.

Vincent: Mat 26:29 - New New ( καινὸν ) Another adjective, νεόν , is employed to denote new wine in the sense of freshly-made (Mat 9:17; Mar 2:22; Luk 5:3...

New ( καινὸν )

Another adjective, νεόν , is employed to denote new wine in the sense of freshly-made (Mat 9:17; Mar 2:22; Luk 5:37, Luk 5:38, Luk 5:39). The difference is between newness regarded in point of time or of quality. The young, for instance, who have lately sprung up, are νείοι , or νεώτεροι (Luk 15:12, Luk 15:13). The new garment (Luk 5:36) is contrasted as to quality with a worn and threadbare one. Hence καινοῦ . So a new heaven (2Pe 3:13) is καινὸς , contrasted with that which shows signs of dissolution. The tomb in which the body of Jesus was laid was καινὸν (Mat 27:60); in which no other body had lain, making it ceremonially unclean; not recently hewn. Trench (" Synonyms" ) cites a passage from Polybius, relating a stratagem by which a town was nearly taken, and saying " we are still new (καινοί ) and young (νέοι ) in regard of such deceits." Here καινοί expresses the inexperience of the men; νέοι , their youth. Still, the distinction cannot be pressed in all cases. Thus, 1Co 5:7, " Purge out the old leaven that ye may be a new (νέον ) lump;" and Col 3:10, " Put on the new (νέον ) man," plainly carry the sense of quality. In our Lord's expression, " drink it new ," the idea of quality is dominant. All the elements of festivity in the heavenly kingdom will be of a new and higher quality. In the New Testament, besides the two cases just cited, νέος is applied to wine, to the young, and once to a covenant.

Vincent: Mat 26:30 - Sung a hymn Sung a hymn Very probably the second part of the Jewish Hallel or Hallelujah, embracing Psalms 115, 116, Psa 117:1-2, 118.

Sung a hymn

Very probably the second part of the Jewish Hallel or Hallelujah, embracing Psalms 115, 116, Psa 117:1-2, 118.

Vincent: Mat 26:30 - They went out They went out In the original institution of the Passover it was enjoined that no one should go out of his house until morning (Exo 12:22). Evide...

They went out

In the original institution of the Passover it was enjoined that no one should go out of his house until morning (Exo 12:22). Evidently this had ceased to be regarded as obligatory.

Vincent: Mat 26:32 - I will go before you I will go before you The thought links itself with what Christ had just said about the shepherd and the sheep. Compare Joh 10:4. I will go before...

I will go before you

The thought links itself with what Christ had just said about the shepherd and the sheep. Compare Joh 10:4. I will go before you, as a shepherd before his flock.

Vincent: Mat 26:34 - Before the cock crow Before the cock crow A little more graphic if the article is omitted, as in the Greek. Before a single cock shall be heard, early in the night,...

Before the cock crow

A little more graphic if the article is omitted, as in the Greek. Before a single cock shall be heard, early in the night, thou shalt deny me. Dr. Thomson (" Land and Book" ) says that the barn-door fowls " swarm round every door, share in the food of their possessors, are at home among the children in every room, roost overhead at night, and with their ceaseless crowing are the town-clock and the morning-bell to call up sleepers at early dawn."

Vincent: Mat 26:35 - Though I should die Though I should die ( κἂν δέῃ με ἀποθανεῖν ) The A. V. misses the force of δέῃ : " Though it should be neces...

Though I should die ( κἂν δέῃ με ἀποθανεῖν )

The A. V. misses the force of δέῃ : " Though it should be necessary for me to die." Wyc., " If it shall behove me to die. " Rev., excellently, " Even if I must die. "

Vincent: Mat 26:36 - Gethsemane Gethsemane Meaning oil-press. Beyond the brook Kedron, and distant about three-quarters of a mile from the walls of Jerusalem. Dean Stanley say...

Gethsemane

Meaning oil-press. Beyond the brook Kedron, and distant about three-quarters of a mile from the walls of Jerusalem. Dean Stanley says of the olive-trees there: " In spite of all the doubts that can be raised against their antiquity, the eight aged olive-trees, if only by their manifest difference from all others on the mountain, have always struck the most indifferent observers. They will remain, so long as their already protracted life is spared, the most venerable of their race on the surface of the earth. Their gnarled trunks and scanty foliage will always be regarded as the most affecting of the sacred memorials in or about Jerusalem; the most nearly approaching to the everlasting hills themselves in the force with which they carry us back to the events of the gospel history" (" Sinai and Palestine" ).

Vincent: Mat 26:40 - What! What! It is hardly possible to convey the exact force of the Greek οὕτως , thus or so. The idea is, " are ye thus unable, or so u...

What!

It is hardly possible to convey the exact force of the Greek οὕτως , thus or so. The idea is, " are ye thus unable, or so utterly unable to watch?"

Vincent: Mat 26:45 - The hour is at hand The hour is at hand He probably heard the tramp and saw the lanterns of Judas and his band.

The hour is at hand

He probably heard the tramp and saw the lanterns of Judas and his band.

Vincent: Mat 26:47 - One of the twelve One of the twelve Repeated in all three evangelists, in the narratives both of the betrayal and of the arrest. By the time Matthew's Gospel was w...

One of the twelve

Repeated in all three evangelists, in the narratives both of the betrayal and of the arrest. By the time Matthew's Gospel was written, the phrase had become a stereotyped designation of the traitor, like he that betrayed him.

Vincent: Mat 26:47 - A great multitude A great multitude The Sanhedrin had neither soldiery nor a regularly-armed band at command. In Joh 18:3, Judas receives a cohort of soldiers an...

A great multitude

The Sanhedrin had neither soldiery nor a regularly-armed band at command. In Joh 18:3, Judas receives a cohort of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees. Part of the band would consist of this regularly-armed cohort, and the rest of a crowd armed with cudgels, and embracing some of the servants of conspicuous men in the Sanhedrin.

Vincent: Mat 26:49 - Kissed him Kissed him ( κατεφίλησεν ) The compound verb has the force of an emphatic, ostentatious salute. Meyer says embraced and kissed. ...

Kissed him ( κατεφίλησεν )

The compound verb has the force of an emphatic, ostentatious salute. Meyer says embraced and kissed. The same word is used of the tender caressing of the Lord's feet by the woman in the Pharisee's house (Luk 7:38), of the father's embrace of the returned prodigal (Luk 15:20), and of the farewell of the Ephesian elders to Paul (Act 20:37).

Vincent: Mat 26:50 - Wherefore art thou come ? Wherefore art thou come ? ( ἐφ ' o$ pa/rei ) The interrogation of the A. V. is wrong. The expression is elliptical and condensed. Literally i...

Wherefore art thou come ? ( ἐφ ' o$ pa/rei )

The interrogation of the A. V. is wrong. The expression is elliptical and condensed. Literally it is, that for which thou art here; and the mind is to supply do or be about. The Lord spurns the traitor's embrace, and says, in effect, " Enough of this hypocritical fawning. Do what you are here to do." So Rev., Do that for which thou art come.

Vincent: Mat 26:51 - The servant The servant ( τὸν δοῦλον ) The article marks the special servant; the body- servant .

The servant ( τὸν δοῦλον )

The article marks the special servant; the body- servant .

Vincent: Mat 26:51 - Ear Ear ( ὠτίον ) A diminutive in form but not in sense; according to a Greek popular usage which expressed parts of the body by diminutives...

Ear ( ὠτίον )

A diminutive in form but not in sense; according to a Greek popular usage which expressed parts of the body by diminutives; as ῥίνια , the nostrils; ὀμμάτιον , the eye; σαρκίον , the body. Peter aimed his blow at the servant's head, but missed.

Vincent: Mat 26:52 - Put up again Put up again Peter was still brandishing his sword.

Put up again

Peter was still brandishing his sword.

Vincent: Mat 26:53 - Twelve legions of angels Twelve legions of angels Compare the story of Elisha at Dothan (2Ki 6:17).

Twelve legions of angels

Compare the story of Elisha at Dothan (2Ki 6:17).

Vincent: Mat 26:55 - A thief A thief ( λῃστὴν ) Better Rev., a robber. See Joh 10:1, Joh 10:8; and Luk 23:39-43. It is more than a petty stealer; rather one with ...

A thief ( λῃστὴν )

Better Rev., a robber. See Joh 10:1, Joh 10:8; and Luk 23:39-43. It is more than a petty stealer; rather one with associates, who would require an armed band to apprehend him. Hence the propriety of the reference to swords and staves.

Vincent: Mat 26:55 - I sat I sat ( ἐκαθεζόμην ) The imperfect tense, denoting something habitual. I was accustomed to sit.

I sat ( ἐκαθεζόμην )

The imperfect tense, denoting something habitual. I was accustomed to sit.

Vincent: Mat 26:63 - I adjure thee I adjure thee I call upon thee to swear. The high-priest put Christ upon oath.

I adjure thee

I call upon thee to swear. The high-priest put Christ upon oath.

Vincent: Mat 26:63 - That That ( ἵνα ) In order that; signifying the design with which he adjured the Lord.

That ( ἵνα )

In order that; signifying the design with which he adjured the Lord.

Vincent: Mat 26:64 - Thou hast said Thou hast said An affirmation. You have spoken the truth. What thou hast asked me is the fact. Compare Mat 26:25.

Thou hast said

An affirmation. You have spoken the truth. What thou hast asked me is the fact. Compare Mat 26:25.

Vincent: Mat 26:64 - Nevertheless Nevertheless ( πλὴν ) However. Apart from my affirmation, you shall see for yourself.

Nevertheless ( πλὴν )

However. Apart from my affirmation, you shall see for yourself.

Vincent: Mat 26:66 - Guilty of death Guilty of death ( ἔνοχος θανάτου ) Rev., worthy of death. See on Mat 23:18. ἐν , in, ἔχω , to hold. The idea is...

Guilty of death ( ἔνοχος θανάτου )

Rev., worthy of death. See on Mat 23:18. ἐν , in, ἔχω , to hold. The idea is, literally, holden of death; in bonds to death.

Vincent: Mat 26:67 - Buffet Buffet ( ἐκολάφισαν ) With the fist.

Buffet ( ἐκολάφισαν )

With the fist.

Vincent: Mat 26:67 - Smote with the palms of their hands Smote with the palms of their hands All expressed by one word, ἐράπισαν , from ῥαπίς , a rod, and meaning to smite with rod...

Smote with the palms of their hands

All expressed by one word, ἐράπισαν , from ῥαπίς , a rod, and meaning to smite with rods, not with the palms. The same word is employed in Mat 5:39. It came to mean generally to strike.

Vincent: Mat 26:69 - A damsel A damsel ( μία παιδίσκη ) Lit., one damsel, because the writer has in mind a second one (Mat 26:71).

A damsel ( μία παιδίσκη )

Lit., one damsel, because the writer has in mind a second one (Mat 26:71).

Vincent: Mat 26:71 - Gone out Gone out Through fear of being further questioned.

Gone out

Through fear of being further questioned.

Vincent: Mat 26:72 - The man The man As if he did not know Jesus' name.

The man

As if he did not know Jesus' name.

Vincent: Mat 26:74 - To curse To curse ( καταθεματίζειν ) A new development of profanity. Hitherto he had merely sworn. Now he adds imprecation; invoking c...

To curse ( καταθεματίζειν )

A new development of profanity. Hitherto he had merely sworn. Now he adds imprecation; invoking curses on himself if the case be not as he says.

Wesley: Mat 26:1 - When Jesus had finished all these discourses When he had spoken all he had to speak. Till then he would not enter upon his passion: then he would delay it no longer. Mar 14:1; Luk 22:1.

When he had spoken all he had to speak. Till then he would not enter upon his passion: then he would delay it no longer. Mar 14:1; Luk 22:1.

Wesley: Mat 26:2 - After two days is the passover The manner wherein this was celebrated gives much light to several circumstances that follow. The master of the family began the feast with a cup of w...

The manner wherein this was celebrated gives much light to several circumstances that follow. The master of the family began the feast with a cup of wine, which having solemnly blessed, he divided among the guests, Luk 22:17. Then the supper began with the unleavened bread and bitter herbs; which when they had all tasted, one of the young persons present, according to Exo 12:26, asked the reason of the solemnity. This introduced the showing forth, or declaration of it: in allusion to which we read of showing forth the Lord's death, 1Co 11:26. Then the master rose up and took another cup, before the lamb was tasted. After supper, he took a thin loaf or cake, which he broke and divided to all at the table, and likewise the cup, usually called the cup of thanksgiving, of which he drank first, and then all the guests. It was this bread and this cup which our Lord consecrated to be a standing memorial of his death.

Wesley: Mat 26:3 - The chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people (Heads of families.) These together constituted the sanhedrim, or great council, which had the supreme authority, both in civil and ecclesiastical aff...

(Heads of families.) These together constituted the sanhedrim, or great council, which had the supreme authority, both in civil and ecclesiastical affairs.

Wesley: Mat 26:5 - But they said, Not at the feast This was the result of human wisdom. But when Judas came they changed their purpose. So the counsel of God took place, and the true paschal Lamb was o...

This was the result of human wisdom. But when Judas came they changed their purpose. So the counsel of God took place, and the true paschal Lamb was offered up on the great day of the paschal solemnity.

Wesley: Mat 26:6 - -- Mar 14:3.

Wesley: Mat 26:8 - His disciples seeing it, had indignation, saying It seems several of them were angry, and spoke, though none so warmly as Judas Iscariot.

It seems several of them were angry, and spoke, though none so warmly as Judas Iscariot.

Wesley: Mat 26:11 - Ye have the poor always with you Such is the wise and gracious providence of God, that we may have always opportunities of relieving their wants, and so laying up for ourselves treasu...

Such is the wise and gracious providence of God, that we may have always opportunities of relieving their wants, and so laying up for ourselves treasures in heaven.

Wesley: Mat 26:12 - She hath done it for my burial As it were for the embalming of my body. Indeed this was not her design: but our Lord puts this construction upon it, to confirm thereby what he had b...

As it were for the embalming of my body. Indeed this was not her design: but our Lord puts this construction upon it, to confirm thereby what he had before said to his disciples, concerning his approaching death.

Wesley: Mat 26:13 - This Gospel That is, this part of the Gospel history.

That is, this part of the Gospel history.

Wesley: Mat 26:14 - -- Mar 14:10; Luk 22:3.

Wesley: Mat 26:15 - They bargained with him for thirty pieces of silver (About three pounds fifteen shillings sterling; or sixteen dollars sixty - seven cents,) the price of a slave, Exo 21:32.

(About three pounds fifteen shillings sterling; or sixteen dollars sixty - seven cents,) the price of a slave, Exo 21:32.

Wesley: Mat 26:17 - On the first day of unleavened bread Being Thursday, the fourteenth day of the first month, Exo 12:6, Exo 12:15. Mar 14:12; Luk 22:7

Being Thursday, the fourteenth day of the first month, Exo 12:6, Exo 12:15. Mar 14:12; Luk 22:7

Wesley: Mat 26:18 - The Master saith, My time is at hand That is, the time of my suffering.

That is, the time of my suffering.

Wesley: Mat 26:20 - -- Mar 14:17; Luk 22:14.

Wesley: Mat 26:23 - He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish Which it seems Judas was doing at that very time. This dish was a vessel full of vinegar, wherein they dipped their bitter herbs.

Which it seems Judas was doing at that very time. This dish was a vessel full of vinegar, wherein they dipped their bitter herbs.

Wesley: Mat 26:24 - The Son of man goeth through sufferings to glory, as it is written of him Yet this is no excuse for him that betrayeth him: miserable will that man be: it had been good for that man if he had not been born - May not the same...

Yet this is no excuse for him that betrayeth him: miserable will that man be: it had been good for that man if he had not been born - May not the same be said of every man that finally perishes? But who can reconcile this, if it were true of Judas alone, with the doctrine of universal salvation?

Wesley: Mat 26:25 - Thou hast said That is, it is as thou hast said.

That is, it is as thou hast said.

Wesley: Mat 26:26 - Jesus took the bread the bread or cake, which the master of the family used to divide among them, after they had eaten the passover. The custom our Lord now transferred to...

the bread or cake, which the master of the family used to divide among them, after they had eaten the passover. The custom our Lord now transferred to a nobler use. This bread is, that is, signifies or represents my body, according to the style of the sacred writers. Thus Gen 40:12, The three branches are three days. Thus Gal 4:24, St. Paul speaking of Sarah and Hagar, says, These are the two covenants. Thus in the grand type of our Lord, Exo 12:11, God says of the paschal lamb, This is the Lord's passover. Now Christ substituting the holy communion for the passover, follows the style of the Old Testament, and uses the same expressions the Jews were wont to use in celebrating the passover.

Wesley: Mat 26:27 - And he took the cup Called by the Jews the cup of thanksgiving; which the master of the family used likewise to give to each after supper.

Called by the Jews the cup of thanksgiving; which the master of the family used likewise to give to each after supper.

Wesley: Mat 26:28 - -- This is the sign of my blood, whereby the new testament or covenant is confirmed.

This is the sign of my blood, whereby the new testament or covenant is confirmed.

Wesley: Mat 26:28 - Which is shed for many As many as spring from Adam.

As many as spring from Adam.

Wesley: Mat 26:29 - I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, till I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom That is, I shall taste no more wine, till I drink wine of quite another kind in the glorious kingdom of my Father. And of this you shall also partake ...

That is, I shall taste no more wine, till I drink wine of quite another kind in the glorious kingdom of my Father. And of this you shall also partake with me.

Wesley: Mat 26:30 - And when they had sung the hymn Which was constantly sung at the close of the passover. It consisteth of six psalms, from the 113th to the 118th. Psa 113:1 &c.

Which was constantly sung at the close of the passover. It consisteth of six psalms, from the 113th to the 118th. Psa 113:1 &c.

Wesley: Mat 26:30 - The mount of Olives Was over against the temple, about two miles from Jerusalem. Mar 14:26; Luk 22:39; Joh 18:1.

Was over against the temple, about two miles from Jerusalem. Mar 14:26; Luk 22:39; Joh 18:1.

Wesley: Mat 26:31 - All ye will be offended at me Something will happen to me, which will occasion your falling into sin by forsaking me. Zec 13:7.

Something will happen to me, which will occasion your falling into sin by forsaking me. Zec 13:7.

Wesley: Mat 26:32 - -- But notwithstanding this, after I am risen I will go before you (as a shepherd before his sheep) into Galilee. Though you forsake me, I will not for t...

But notwithstanding this, after I am risen I will go before you (as a shepherd before his sheep) into Galilee. Though you forsake me, I will not for this forsake you.

Wesley: Mat 26:34 - Before cock crowing thou wilt deny me thrice That is, before three in the morning, the usual time of cock crowing: although one cock was heard to crow once, after Peter's first denial of his Lord...

That is, before three in the morning, the usual time of cock crowing: although one cock was heard to crow once, after Peter's first denial of his Lord.

Wesley: Mat 26:35 - In like manner also said all the disciples But such was the tenderness of our Lord, that he would not aggravate their sin by making any reply.

But such was the tenderness of our Lord, that he would not aggravate their sin by making any reply.

Wesley: Mat 26:36 - Then cometh Jesus to a place called Gethsemane That is, the valley of fatness. The garden probably had its name from its soil and situation, laying in some little valley between two of those many h...

That is, the valley of fatness. The garden probably had its name from its soil and situation, laying in some little valley between two of those many hills, the range of which constitutes the mount of Olives. Mar 14:32; Luk 22:40.

Wesley: Mat 26:37 - And taking with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee To be witnesses of all; he began to be sorrowful and in deep anguish - Probably from feeling the arrows of the Almighty stick fast in his soul, while ...

To be witnesses of all; he began to be sorrowful and in deep anguish - Probably from feeling the arrows of the Almighty stick fast in his soul, while God laid on him the iniquities of us all. Who can tell what painful and dreadful sensations were then impressed on him by the immediate hand of God? The former word in the original properly signifies, to be penetrated with the most exquisite sorrow; the latter to be quite depressed, and almost overwhelmed with the load.

Wesley: Mat 26:39 - And going a little farther About a stone's cast, Luk 22:41- So that the apostles could both see and hear him still. If it be possible, let this cup pass from me - And it did pas...

About a stone's cast, Luk 22:41- So that the apostles could both see and hear him still. If it be possible, let this cup pass from me - And it did pass from him quickly. When he cried unto God with strong cries and tears, he was heard in that which he feared. God did take away the terror and severity of that inward conflict.

Wesley: Mat 26:41 - The spirit Your spirit: ye yourselves.

Your spirit: ye yourselves.

Wesley: Mat 26:41 - The flesh Your nature. How gentle a rebuke was this, and how kind an apology! especially at a time when our Lord's own mind was so weighed down with sorrow.

Your nature. How gentle a rebuke was this, and how kind an apology! especially at a time when our Lord's own mind was so weighed down with sorrow.

Wesley: Mat 26:45 - Sleep on now, if you can, and take your rest For any farther service you can be of to me.

For any farther service you can be of to me.

Wesley: Mat 26:47 - -- Mar 14:43; Luk 22:47; Joh 18:2.

Wesley: Mat 26:50 - -- The heroic behaviour of the blessed Jesus, in the whole period of his sufferings, will be observed by every attentive eye, and felt by every pious hea...

The heroic behaviour of the blessed Jesus, in the whole period of his sufferings, will be observed by every attentive eye, and felt by every pious heart: although the sacred historians, according to their usual but wonderful simplicity, make no encomiums upon it. With what composure does he go forth to meet the traitor! With what calmness receive that malignant kiss! With what dignity does he deliver himself into the hands of his enemies! Yet plainly showing his superiority over them, and even then leading as it were captivity captive!

Wesley: Mat 26:51 - And one of them striking the servant of the high priest Probably the person that seized Jesus first; Cut off his ear - Aiming, it seems, to cleave his head, but that by a secret providence interposing, he d...

Probably the person that seized Jesus first; Cut off his ear - Aiming, it seems, to cleave his head, but that by a secret providence interposing, he declined the blow. Mar 14:47; Luk 22:49; Joh 18:10.

Wesley: Mat 26:52 - All they that take the sword Without God's giving it them: without sufficient authority.

Without God's giving it them: without sufficient authority.

Wesley: Mat 26:53 - He will presently give me more than twelve legions of angels The least of whom, it is probable, could overturn the earth and destroy all the inhabitants of it.

The least of whom, it is probable, could overturn the earth and destroy all the inhabitants of it.

Wesley: Mat 26:55 - -- Mar 14:48; Luk 22:52

Wesley: Mat 26:57 - They led him away to Caiaphas From the house of Annas, the father - in - law of Caiaphas, to whom they had carried him first. Mar 14:53; Luk 22:54; Joh 18:12.

From the house of Annas, the father - in - law of Caiaphas, to whom they had carried him first. Mar 14:53; Luk 22:54; Joh 18:12.

Wesley: Mat 26:58 - But Peter followed him afar off Variously agitated by conflicting passions; love constrained him to follow his Master; fear made him follow afar off. And going in, sat with the serva...

Variously agitated by conflicting passions; love constrained him to follow his Master; fear made him follow afar off. And going in, sat with the servants - Unfit companions as the event showed.

Wesley: Mat 26:60 - Yet found they none On whose evidence they could condemn him to die.

On whose evidence they could condemn him to die.

Wesley: Mat 26:60 - At last came two false witnesses Such they were, although part of what they said was true; because our Lord did not speak some of those words at all; nor any of them in this sense.

Such they were, although part of what they said was true; because our Lord did not speak some of those words at all; nor any of them in this sense.

Wesley: Mat 26:64 - Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man He speaks in the third person, modestly, and yet plainly; Sitting on the right hand of power - That is, the right hand of God: And coming upon the clo...

He speaks in the third person, modestly, and yet plainly; Sitting on the right hand of power - That is, the right hand of God: And coming upon the clouds of heaven - As he is represented by Daniel, Dan 7:13-14. Our Lord looked very unlike that person now! But nothing could be more awful, more majestic and becoming, than such an admonition in such circumstances!

Wesley: Mat 26:65 - Then the high priest rent his clothes Though the high priest was forbidden to rend his clothes (that is, his upper garment) in some cases where others were allowed to do it, Lev 21:10; yet...

Though the high priest was forbidden to rend his clothes (that is, his upper garment) in some cases where others were allowed to do it, Lev 21:10; yet in case of blasphemy or any public calamity, it was thought allowable. Caiaphas hereby expressed, in the most artful manner, his horror at hearing such grievous blasphemy.

Wesley: Mat 26:67 - Then After he had declared he was the Son of God, the sanhedrim doubtless ordered him to be carried out, while they were consulting what to do. And then it...

After he had declared he was the Son of God, the sanhedrim doubtless ordered him to be carried out, while they were consulting what to do. And then it was that the soldiers who kept him began these insults upon him.

Wesley: Mat 26:72 - He denied with an oath To which possibly he was not unaccustomed, before our Lord called him.

To which possibly he was not unaccustomed, before our Lord called him.

Wesley: Mat 26:73 - Surely thou art also one of them, for thy speech discovereth thee Malchus might have brought a stronger proof than this. But such is the overruling providence of God, that the world, in the height of their zeal, comm...

Malchus might have brought a stronger proof than this. But such is the overruling providence of God, that the world, in the height of their zeal, commonly catch hold of the very weakest of all arguments against the children of God.

Wesley: Mat 26:74 - Then began he to curse and to swear Having now quite lost the reins, the government of himself.

Having now quite lost the reins, the government of himself.

Clarke: Mat 26:1 - When Jesus had finished all these sayings When Jesus had finished all these sayings - He began these sayings on Mount Olivet, Mat 24:1, and continued them till be entered into Bethany, whith...

When Jesus had finished all these sayings - He began these sayings on Mount Olivet, Mat 24:1, and continued them till be entered into Bethany, whither he was going.

Clarke: Mat 26:2 - The passover The passover - A feast instituted in Egypt, to commemorate the destroying angel’ s passing over the houses of the Israelites, when he slew the ...

The passover - A feast instituted in Egypt, to commemorate the destroying angel’ s passing over the houses of the Israelites, when he slew the firstborn of the Egyptians. See the whole of this business largely explained in the Notes on Exodus 12:1-27 (note). This feast began on the fourteenth day of the first moon, in the first month, Nisan, and it lasted only one day; but it was immediately followed by the days of unleavened bread, which were seven, so that the whole lasted eight days, and all the eight days are sometimes called the feast of the passover, and sometimes the feast or days of unleavened bread. See Luk 22:1-7. The three most signal benefits vouchsafed to the Israelites were

1.    The deliverance from the slavery of Egypt; to commemorate which they kept the feast of unleavened bread, and the passover

2.    The giving of the law; to commemorate which, they kept the feast of weeks

3.    Their sojourning in the wilderness, and entrance into the promised land; to commemorate which, they kept the feast of tabernacles

See these largely explained, Exo 23:14 (note); Leviticus 23:2-40 (note)

Clarke: Mat 26:2 - The Son of man is betrayed, (rather delivered up), to be crucified The Son of man is betrayed, (rather delivered up), to be crucified - With what amazing calmness and precision does our blessed Lord speak of this aw...

The Son of man is betrayed, (rather delivered up), to be crucified - With what amazing calmness and precision does our blessed Lord speak of this awful event! What a proof does he here give of his prescience in so correctly predicting it; and of his love in so cheerfully undergoing it! Having instructed his disciples and the Jews by his discourses, edified them by his example, convinced them by his miracles, he now prepares to redeem them by his blood! These two verses have no proper connection with this chapter, and should be joined to the preceding.

Clarke: Mat 26:3 - Then assembled together the chief priests Then assembled together the chief priests - That is, during the two days that preceded the passover

Then assembled together the chief priests - That is, during the two days that preceded the passover

Clarke: Mat 26:3 - The high priest, who was called Caiaphas The high priest, who was called Caiaphas - Caiaphas succeeded Simon, son of Camith, about a.d. 16, or, as Calmet thinks, 25. He married the daughter...

The high priest, who was called Caiaphas - Caiaphas succeeded Simon, son of Camith, about a.d. 16, or, as Calmet thinks, 25. He married the daughter of Annas, who was joined with him in the priesthood. About two years after our Lord’ s crucifixion, Caiaphas and Pilate were both deposed by Vitellius, then governor of Syria, and afterwards emperor. Caiaphas, unable to bear this disgrace, and the stings of his conscience for the murder of Christ, killed himself about a.d. 35. See Joseph. Ant. b. xviii. c. 2-4.

Clarke: Mat 26:4 - And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty - The providence of God frustrated their artful machinations; and that event which they wished ...

And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty - The providence of God frustrated their artful machinations; and that event which they wished to conduct with the greatest privacy and silence was transacted with all possible celebrity, amidst the thousands who resorted to Jerusalem, at this season, for the keeping of the passover. It was, doubtless, of the very first importance that the crucifixion of Christ, which was preparatory to the most essential achievement of Christianity, viz. his resurrection from the grave, should be exhibited before many witnesses, and in the most open manner, that infidelity might not attempt, in future, to invalidate the evidences of the Christian religion, by alleging that these things were done in a corner. See Wakefield in loco.

Clarke: Mat 26:5 - Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar - It was usual for the Jews to punish criminals at the public festivals; but in this case they were af...

Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar - It was usual for the Jews to punish criminals at the public festivals; but in this case they were afraid of an insurrection, as our Lord had become very popular. The providence of God directed it thus, for the reason given in the preceding note

He who observes a festival on motives purely human violates it in his heart, and is a hypocrite before God. It is likely they feared the Galileans, as being the countrymen of our Lord, more than they feared the people of Jerusalem.

Clarke: Mat 26:6 - In Bethany In Bethany - For a solution of the difficulties in this verse, about the time of the anointing, see the observations at the end of this chapter

In Bethany - For a solution of the difficulties in this verse, about the time of the anointing, see the observations at the end of this chapter

Clarke: Mat 26:6 - Simon the Leper Simon the Leper - This was probably no more than a surname, as Simon the Canaanite, Mat 10:4, and Barsabas Justus, Act 1:23, and several others. Yet...

Simon the Leper - This was probably no more than a surname, as Simon the Canaanite, Mat 10:4, and Barsabas Justus, Act 1:23, and several others. Yet it might have been some person that Christ had healed of this disease. See Mat 11:5.

Clarke: Mat 26:7 - There came unto him a woman There came unto him a woman - There is much contention among commentators about the transaction mentioned here, and in Joh 12:3; some supposing them...

There came unto him a woman - There is much contention among commentators about the transaction mentioned here, and in Joh 12:3; some supposing them to be different, others to be the same. Bishop Newcome’ s view of the subject I have placed at the end of the chapter

Some think that the woman mentioned here was Mary, the sister of Lazarus; others Mary Magdalene; but against the former opinion it is argued that it is not likely, had this been Mary the sister of Lazarus, that Matthew and Mark would have suppressed her name. Besides, say they, we should not confound the repast which is mentioned here, with that mentioned by John, Joh 12:3. This one was made only two days before the passover, and that one six days before: the one was made at the house of Simon the leper, the other at the house of Lazarus, Joh 12:1, Joh 12:2. At this, the woman poured the oil on the head of Christ; at the other, Mary anointed Christ’ s feet with it. See on Mar 14:3 (note), and see the notes at the end of this chapter, (Bishop Newcome's Account of the Anointing).

Clarke: Mat 26:8 - His disciples His disciples - One of them, viz. Judas. This mode of speaking was common among the Hebrews. So, Mat 27:44, the thieves also, i.e. one of them. So, ...

His disciples - One of them, viz. Judas. This mode of speaking was common among the Hebrews. So, Mat 27:44, the thieves also, i.e. one of them. So, Mat 28:17, some doubted, i.e. one, Thomas. See also Gen 8:4; Jdg 12:7; Neh 6:7, etc. By a figure called among rhetoricians enallagè, the plural is put for the singular; it is, however, possible that Judas, who made the objection, was followed in the sentiment by the rest of the disciples.

Clarke: Mat 26:9 - And given to the poor And given to the poor - How often does charity serve as a cloak for covetousness! God is sometimes robbed of his right under the pretense of devotin...

And given to the poor - How often does charity serve as a cloak for covetousness! God is sometimes robbed of his right under the pretense of devoting what is withheld to some charitable purpose, to which there was no intention ever to give it.

Clarke: Mat 26:10 - Why trouble ye the woman? Why trouble ye the woman? - Or, Why do ye put the woman to pain? See this sense of κοπους παρεχειν, established by Kypke in loco. A g...

Why trouble ye the woman? - Or, Why do ye put the woman to pain? See this sense of κοπους παρεχειν, established by Kypke in loco. A generous mind is ever pained when it is denied the opportunity of doing good, or when its proffered kindness is refused.

Clarke: Mat 26:11 - Ye have the poor always with you Ye have the poor always with you - And, consequently, have the opportunity of doing them good at any time; but me ye have not always; my bodily pres...

Ye have the poor always with you - And, consequently, have the opportunity of doing them good at any time; but me ye have not always; my bodily presence is about to be removed from you for ever. The woman, under a presentiment of my death is preparing me for my burial.

Clarke: Mat 26:12 - She did it for my burial She did it for my burial - Or, She hath done it to embalm me - ενταφιασαι με . The Septuagint use ενταφιαϚης for the person...

She did it for my burial - Or, She hath done it to embalm me - ενταφιασαι με . The Septuagint use ενταφιαϚης for the person whose office it was to embalm, Gen 50:2, and ενταφιαζω for the Hebrew הנט which signifies to prepare with spices, or aromatics, Gen 50:3. Our Lord took this opportunity to tell them, once more, that he was shortly to die.

Clarke: Mat 26:13 - Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached - Another remarkable proof of the prescience of Christ. Such a matter as this, humanly speaking, depended ...

Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached - Another remarkable proof of the prescience of Christ. Such a matter as this, humanly speaking, depended on mere fortuitous circumstances, yet so has God disposed matters, that the thing has continued, hitherto, as firm and regular as the ordinances of heaven

Clarke: Mat 26:13 - For a memorial of her For a memorial of her - As embalming preserves the body from corruption, and she has done this good work to embalm and preserve this body, so will I...

For a memorial of her - As embalming preserves the body from corruption, and she has done this good work to embalm and preserve this body, so will I order every thing concerning this transaction to be carefully recorded, to preserve her memory to the latest ages. The actions which the world blames, through the spirit of envy, covetousness, or malice, God takes delight to distinguish and record.

Clarke: Mat 26:14 - Then - Judas Then - Judas - After this supper at Bethany, Judas returned to Jerusalem, and made his contract with the chief priests.

Then - Judas - After this supper at Bethany, Judas returned to Jerusalem, and made his contract with the chief priests.

Clarke: Mat 26:15 - Thirty pieces of silver Thirty pieces of silver - Τριακοντα αργυρια, thirty silverlings; but στατηρας, staters, is the reading of the Codex Bezae,...

Thirty pieces of silver - Τριακοντα αργυρια, thirty silverlings; but στατηρας, staters, is the reading of the Codex Bezae, three copies of the Itala, Eusebius, and Origen sometimes; and στατηρας αργυριου, silver staters, is the reading of the famous Basil MS. No. 1, in Griesbach, and one copy of the Itala

A stater was the same as the shekel, and worth about 3s. English money, according to Dean Prideaux: a goodly price for the Savior of the world! Thirty staters, about 4l. 10s. the common price for the meanest slave! See Exo 21:32. The rabbins say, thirty סלעין selain of pure silver was the standard price for a slave, whether good or bad, male or female. See tract Erachin, fol. 14, and Shekalim, cap. 1. Each selaa weighed 384 barley-corns; the same number was contained in a shekel; and therefore the shekel and the selaa were the same. See the notes on Gen 20:16, and Exo 38:24.

Clarke: Mat 26:16 - He sought opportunity He sought opportunity - Ευκαιριαν, a convenient or fit opportunity. Men seldom leave a crime imperfect: when once sin is conceived, it mee...

He sought opportunity - Ευκαιριαν, a convenient or fit opportunity. Men seldom leave a crime imperfect: when once sin is conceived, it meets, in general, with few obstacles, till it brings forth death. How deceitful, how deeply damning, is the love of money! Well might a heathen exclaim, while contemplating the grave of a person who was murdered for the sake of his wealth: -

- Quid non mortalia pectora cogis Auri Sacra Fames?

Virg. Aen. iii. 5

"O! cursed lust of gold! what wilt thou not compel the human heart to perpetrate?

Judas is deservedly considered as one of the most infamous of men, his conduct base beyond description, and his motives vile. But how many, since his time, have walked in the same way! How many, for the sake of worldly wealth, have renounced the religion of their Lord and Master, and sold Jesus, and their interest in heaven, for a short-lived portion of secular good! From Joh 12:6, we learn that Judas, who was treasurer to our Lord and his disciples, (for he carried the bag), was a thief, and frequently purloined a portion of what was given for the support of this holy family. Being disappointed of the prey he hoped to have from the sale of the precious ointment, Mat 26:9, he sold his Master to make up the sum. A thorough Jew!

Clarke: Mat 26:17 - Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread - As the feast of unleavened bread did not begin till the day after the passover, the fifteenth d...

Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread - As the feast of unleavened bread did not begin till the day after the passover, the fifteenth day of the month, Lev 23:5, Lev 23:6; Num 28:16, Num 28:17, this could not have been, properly, the first day of that feast; but as the Jews began to eat unleavened bread on the fourteenth, Exo 12:18, this day was often termed the first of unleavened bread. The evangelists use it in this sense, and call even the paschal day by this name. See Mar 14:12; Luk 22:7

Clarke: Mat 26:17 - Where wilt thou that we prepare Where wilt thou that we prepare - How astonishing is this, that He who created all things, whether visible or invisible, and by whom all things were...

Where wilt thou that we prepare - How astonishing is this, that He who created all things, whether visible or invisible, and by whom all things were upheld, should so empty himself as not to be proprietor of a single house in his whole creation, to eat the last passover with his disciples! This is certainly a mystery, and so, less or more is every thing that God does. But how inveterate and destructive must the nature of sin be, when such emptying and humiliation were necessary to its destruction! It is worthy of note what the Talmudists say, that the inhabitants of Jerusalem did not let out their houses to those who came to the annual feasts; but afforded all accommodations of this kind gratis. A man might therefore go and request the use of any room, on such an occasion, which was as yet unoccupied. The earthen jug, and the skin of the sacrifice, were left with the host. See Lightfoot, vol. ii. p. 21.

Clarke: Mat 26:18 - Go - to such a man Go - to such a man - Τον δεινα It is probable that this means some person with whom Christ was well acquainted, and who was known to the d...

Go - to such a man - Τον δεινα It is probable that this means some person with whom Christ was well acquainted, and who was known to the disciples. Grotius observes that the Greeks use this form when they mean some particular person who is so well known that there is no need to specify him by name. The circumstances are more particularly marked in Luk 22:8, etc

Clarke: Mat 26:18 - My time is at hand My time is at hand - That is, the time of my crucifixion. Kypke has largely shown that καιρος is often used among the Greeks for affliction ...

My time is at hand - That is, the time of my crucifixion. Kypke has largely shown that καιρος is often used among the Greeks for affliction and calamity. It might be rendered here, the time of my crucifixion is at hand.

Clarke: Mat 26:19 - And the disciples did And the disciples did - The disciples that were sent on this errand were Peter and John. See Luk 22:8

And the disciples did - The disciples that were sent on this errand were Peter and John. See Luk 22:8

Clarke: Mat 26:19 - They made ready the passover They made ready the passover - That is, they provided the lamb, etc., which were appointed by the law for this solemnity. Mr. Wakefield justly obser...

They made ready the passover - That is, they provided the lamb, etc., which were appointed by the law for this solemnity. Mr. Wakefield justly observes, "that the Jews considered the passover as a sacrificial rite; Josephus calls it θυσιαν, A Sacrifice; and Trypho, in Justin Martyr, speaks of προβατον του πασχα θυειν, Sacrificing the paschal lamb. But what comes nearer to the point is this, that Maimonides, one of the most eminent of the Jewish rabbins, has a particular treatise on the paschal sacrifice; and throughout that piece, speaks of the lamb as a victim, and of the solemnity itself as a sacrifice. And R. Bechai, in his commentary on Lev 2:11, says that the paschal sacrifice was of a piacular nature, in order to expiate the guilt contracted by the idolatrous practices of the Israelites in Egypt."It was highly necessary that this should be considered as an expiatory sacrifice, as it typified that Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. For much more on this important subject than can, with propriety, be introduced into these notes, see a Discourse on the Eucharist, lately published by the author of this work.

Clarke: Mat 26:20 - Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve. Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve. - It is a common opinion that our Lord ate the passover some hours before the Jews ate it; ...

Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve. - It is a common opinion that our Lord ate the passover some hours before the Jews ate it; for the Jews, according to custom, ate theirs at the end of the fourteenth day, but Christ ate his the preceding even, which was the beginning of the same sixth day, or Friday; the Jews begin their day at sunsetting, we at midnight. Thus Christ ate the passover on the same day with the Jews, but not on the same hour. Christ kept this passover the beginning of the fourteenth day, the precise day and hour in which the Jews had eaten their first passover in Egypt. See Exo 12:6-12. And in the same part of the same day in which the Jews had sacrificed their first paschal lamb, viz. between the two evenings, about the ninth hour, or 3 o’ clock, Jesus Christ our passover was sacrificed for us: for it was at this hour that he yielded up his last breath; and then it was that, the sacrifice being completed, Jesus said, It Is Finished. See Exo 12:6, etc., and Deu 16:6, etc. See on Joh 18:28 (note), and the Treatise on the Eucharist, referred to Mat 26:19; and see the notes on Mat 26:26 and following verses.

Clarke: Mat 26:21 - One of you shall betray me One of you shall betray me - Or, will deliver me up. Judas had already betrayed him, Mat 26:15, and he was now about to deliver him into the hands o...

One of you shall betray me - Or, will deliver me up. Judas had already betrayed him, Mat 26:15, and he was now about to deliver him into the hands of the chief priests, according to the agreement he had made with them.

Clarke: Mat 26:22 - They were exceeding sorrowful They were exceeding sorrowful - That is, the eleven who were innocent; and the hypocritical traitor, Judas, endeavored to put on the appearance of s...

They were exceeding sorrowful - That is, the eleven who were innocent; and the hypocritical traitor, Judas, endeavored to put on the appearance of sorrow. Strange! Did he not know that Christ knew the secrets of his soul! Or had his love of money so far blinded him, as to render him incapable of discerning even this, with which he had been before so well acquainted?

Clarke: Mat 26:23 - He that dippeth his hand He that dippeth his hand - As the Jews ate the passover a whole family together, it was not convenient for them all to dip their bread in the same d...

He that dippeth his hand - As the Jews ate the passover a whole family together, it was not convenient for them all to dip their bread in the same dish; they therefore had several little dishes or plates, in which was the juice of the bitter herbs, mentioned Exo 12:8, on different parts of the table; and those who were nigh one of these, dipped their bread in it. As Judas is represented as dipping in the same dish with Christ, it shows that he was either near or opposite to him. If this man’ s heart had not been hardened, and his conscience seared beyond all precedent, by the deceitfulness of his sin, would he have showed his face in this sacred assembly, or have thus put the seal to his own perdition, by eating of this sacrificial lamb? Is it possible that he could feel no compunction? Alas! having delivered himself up into the hands of the devil, he was capable of delivering up his Master into the hands of the chief priests; and thus, when men are completely hardened by the deceitfulness of sin, they can outwardly perform the most solemn acts of devotion, without feeling any sort of inward concern about the matter.

Clarke: Mat 26:24 - The Son of man goeth The Son of man goeth - That is, is about to die. Going, going away, departing, etc., are frequently used in the best Greek and Latin writers, for de...

The Son of man goeth - That is, is about to die. Going, going away, departing, etc., are frequently used in the best Greek and Latin writers, for death, or dying. The same words are often used in the Scriptures in the same sense

Clarke: Mat 26:24 - It had been good for that man It had been good for that man - Can this be said of any sinner, in the common sense in which it is understood, if there be any redemption from hell&...

It had been good for that man - Can this be said of any sinner, in the common sense in which it is understood, if there be any redemption from hell’ s torments? If a sinner should suffer millions of millions of years in them, and get out at last to the enjoyment of heaven, then it was well for him that he had been born, for still he has an eternity of blessedness before him. Can the doctrine of the non-eternity of hell’ s torments stand in the presence of this saying? Or can the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked consist with this declaration? It would have been well for that man if he had never been born! Then he must be in some state of conscious existence, as non-existence is said to be better than that state in which he is now found. It was common for the Jews to say of any flagrant transgressor, It would have been better for him had he never been born. See several examples in Schoettgen. See the case of Judas argued at the end of Acts 1 (note).

Clarke: Mat 26:25 - Judas - said, Master, is it I? Judas - said, Master, is it I? - What excessive impudence! He knew, in his conscience, that he had already betrayed his Master, and was waiting now ...

Judas - said, Master, is it I? - What excessive impudence! He knew, in his conscience, that he had already betrayed his Master, and was waiting now for the servants of the chief priests, that he might deliver him into their hands; and yet he says, (hoping that he had transacted his business so privately that it had not yet transpired), Master, is it I? It is worthy of remark, that each of the other disciples said κυριε, Lord, is it I? But Judas dares not, or will not, use this august title, but simply says ραββι, Teacher, is it I

Clarke: Mat 26:25 - Thou hast said Thou hast said - Συ ειπας, or אתון אמריתון atun amaritun , "Ye have said,"was a common form of expression for Yes. It Is so. "Wh...

Thou hast said - Συ ειπας, or אתון אמריתון atun amaritun , "Ye have said,"was a common form of expression for Yes. It Is so. "When the Zipporenses inquired whether Rabbi Judas was dead? the son of Kaphra answered, Ye have said,"i.e. He is dead. See Schoettgen. Hor. Hebr. p.

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - Jesus took bread Jesus took bread - This is the first institution of what is termed the Lord’ s Supper. To every part of this ceremony, as here mentioned, the u...

Jesus took bread - This is the first institution of what is termed the Lord’ s Supper. To every part of this ceremony, as here mentioned, the utmost attention should be paid

To do this, in the most effectual manner, I think it necessary to set down the text of the three evangelists who have transmitted the whole account, collated with that part of St. Paul’ s First Epistle to the Corinthians which speaks of the same subject, and which, he assures us, he received by Divine revelation. It may seem strange that, although John (13:1-38) mentions all the circumstances preceding the holy supper, and, from 14:1-31 the circumstances which succeeded the breaking of the bread, and in chapters 15, 16, and 17, the discourse which followed the administration of the cup; yet he takes no notice of the Divine institution at all. This is generally accounted for on his knowledge of what the other three evangelists had written; and on his conviction that their relation was true, and needed no additional confirmation, as the matter was amply established by the conjoint testimony of three such respectable witnesses

Mat 26:26

Mar 14:22Luk 22:191Co 11:23-24
And as they were eating, Jesus took bread and blessed it ( ευλογησας and blessed God) and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat, this is my body.And as they did eat, Jesus took bread and blessed ( ευλογησας, blessed God) and brake it, and to them, and said, Take, eat, this is my body.And he took bread and gave thanks, ( ευχαριϚησας, i.e. to God), and gave brake it, and gave unto them, saying: This is my body which is given for you: This do in remembrance of me.The Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread; And when he had given thanks ( και ευχαριϚησος, i.e. to God) he brake it, and said, Take, eat, this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.

After giving the bread, the discourse related, John 14:1-31, inclusive, is supposed by Bishop Newcome to have been delivered by our Lord, for the comfort and support of his disciples under their present and approaching trials

Mat 26:27-29Mar 14:23-25Luk 22:201Co 11:25
And he took the cup, and gave thanks ( ευχαριϚησας ), and gave it to them, saying: Drink ye all of it.And he took the cup; and when he had given thanks, ( ευχαριϚησας ), he gave it to them; and they all drank of it.Likewise also the cup, after supper, saying:After the same manner also, he took the cup, when he had supped, saying:
For this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many or the remission of sins.And he said unto them, This is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many.This cup is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed for you.This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’ s kingdom.Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.  

After this, our Lord resumes that discourse which is found in the 15th, 16th, and 17th chapters of John, beginning with the last verse of chap. 14, Arise, let us go hence. Then succeed the following words, which conclude the whole ceremony

Mat 26:30Mar 14:26Luk 22:39Joh 14:1
And when they had sung a hymn, they went out into the Mount of Olives.And when they had sung a hymn, they went out into the Mount of Olives.And he came out, and went as he was wont to the Mount of Olives. And his disciples also followed him.When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Kedron.

From the preceding harmonized view of this important transaction, as described by three Evangelists and one Apostle, we see the first institution, nature, and design of what has been since called The Lord’ s Supper. To every circumstance, as set down here, and the mode of expression by which such circumstances are described, we should pay the deepest attention.

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - As they were eating As they were eating - Either an ordinary supper, or the paschal lamb, as some think. See the observations at the end of this chapter

As they were eating - Either an ordinary supper, or the paschal lamb, as some think. See the observations at the end of this chapter

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - Jesus took bread Jesus took bread - Of what kind? Unleavened bread, certainly, because there was no other kind to be had in all Judea at this time; for this was the ...

Jesus took bread - Of what kind? Unleavened bread, certainly, because there was no other kind to be had in all Judea at this time; for this was the first day of unleavened bread, (Mat 26:17), i.e. the 14th of the month Nisan, when the Jews, according to the command of God, (Exo 12:15-20; Exo 23:15; Exo 34:25), were to purge away all leaven from their houses; for he who sacrificed the passover, having leaven in his dwelling, was considered to be such a transgressor of the Divine law as could no longer be tolerated among the people of God; and therefore was to be cut off from the congregation of Israel. Leo of Modena, who has written a very sensible treatise on the customs of the Jews, observes, "That so strictly do some of the Jews observe the precept concerning the removal of all leaven from their houses, during the celebration of the paschal solemnity, that they either provide vessels entirely new for baking, or else have a set for the purpose, which are dedicated solely to the service of the passover, and never brought out on any other occasion.

To this divinely instituted custom of removing all leaven previously to the paschal solemnity, St. Paul evidently alludes, 1Co 5:6-8. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ, our passover, is sacrificed for us; therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the Unleavened bread of sincerity and truth

Now, if any respect should be paid to the primitive institution, in the celebration of this Divine ordinance, then, unleavened, unyeasted bread should be used. In every sign, or type, the thing signifying or pointing out that which is beyond itself should either have certain properties, or be accompanied with certain circumstances, as expressive as possible of the thing signified. Bread, simply considered in itself, may be an emblem apt enough of the body of our Lord Jesus, which was given for us; but the design of God was evidently that it should not only point out this, but also the disposition required in those who should celebrate both the antetype and the type; and this the apostle explains to be sincerity and truth, the reverse of malice and wickedness. The very taste of the bread was instructive: it pointed out to every communicant, that he who came to the table of God with malice or ill-will against any soul of man, or with wickedness, a profligate or sinful life, might expect to eat and drink judgment to himself, as not discerning that the Lord’ s body was sacrificed for this very purpose, that all sin might be destroyed; and that sincerity, ειλικρινεια, such purity as the clearest light can discern no stain in, might be diffused through the whole soul; and that truth, the law of righteousness and true holiness, might regulate and guide all the actions of life. Had the bread used on these occasions been of the common kind, it would have been perfectly unfit, or improper, to have communicated these uncommon significations; and, as it was seldom used, its rare occurrence would make the emblematical representation more deeply impressive; and the sign, and the thing signified, have their due correspondence and influence

These circumstances considered, will it not appear that the use of common bread in the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper is highly improper? He who can say, "This is a matter of no importance,"may say with equal propriety, the bread itself is of no importance; and another may say, the wine is of no importance; and a third may say, "neither the bread nor wine is any thing, but as they lead to spiritual references; and, the spiritual reference being once understood, the signs are useless."Thus we may, through affected spirituality, refine away the whole ordinance of God; and, with the letter and form of religion, abolish religion itself. Many have already acted in this way, not only to their loss, but to their ruin, by showing how profoundly wise they are above what is written. Let those, therefore, who consider that man shall live by every word which proceeds from the mouth of God, and who are conscientiously solicitous that each Divine institution be not only preserved, but observed in all its original integrity, attend to this circumstance. The Lutheran Church makes use of unleavened bread to the present day

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - And blessed it And blessed it - Both St. Matthew and St. Mark use the word ευλογησας, blessed, instead of ευχαριϚησας, gave thanks, which is ...

And blessed it - Both St. Matthew and St. Mark use the word ευλογησας, blessed, instead of ευχαριϚησας, gave thanks, which is the word used by St. Luke and St. Paul. But instead of ευλογησας, blessed, ευχαριϚησας, gave thanks, is the reading of ten MSS. in uncial characters, of the Dublin Codex rescriptus, published by Dr. Barrett, and of more than one hundred others, of the greatest respectability. This is the reading also of the Syriac and Arabic, and is confirmed by several of the primitive fathers. The terms, in this case, are nearly of the same import, as both blessing and giving thanks were used on these occasions. But what was it that our Lord blessed? Not the bread, though many think the contrary, being deceived by the word It, which is improperly supplied in our version. In all the four places referred to above, whether the word blessed or gave thanks is used, it refers not to the bread, but to God, the dispenser of every good. Our Lord here conforms himself to that constant Jewish custom, viz. of acknowledging God as the author of every good and perfect gift, by giving thanks on taking the bread and taking the cup at their ordinary meals. For every Jew was forbidden to eat, drink, or use any of God’ s creatures without rendering him thanks; and he who acted contrary to this command was considered as a person who was guilty of sacrilege

From this custom we have derived the decent and laudable one of saying grace ( gratas thanks) before and after meat. The Jewish form of blessing, probably that which our Lord used on this occasion, none of my readers will be displeased to find here, though it has been mentioned once before. On taking the bread they say: -

ברוך אתה אלהינו מלך העולם המוצא לחם מן הארץ

Baruch atta Elohinoo , Melech , haolam, ha motse Lechem min haarets

Blessed be thou, our God, King of the universe, who bringest forth bread out of the earth

Likewise, on taking the cup, they say: -

ברוך אלהינו מלך העולם בורא פרי הגף

Baruch Elohinoo , Melech , haolam , Bore perey haggephen

Blessed be our God, the King of the universe, the Creator of the fruit it of the vine

The Mohammedans copy their example, constantly saying before and after meat: -

Bismillahi arahmani arraheemi

In the name of God, the most merciful, the most compassionate

No blessing, therefore, of the elements is here intended; they were already blessed, in being sent as a gift of mercy from the bountiful Lord; but God the sender is blessed, because of the liberal provision he has made for his worthless creatures. Blessing and touching the bread are merely Popish ceremonies, unauthorized either by Scripture or the practice of the pure Church of God; necessary of course to those who pretend to transmute, by a kind of spiritual incantation, the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Jesus Christ; a measure the grossest in folly, and most stupid in nonsense, to which God in judgment ever abandoned the fallen spirit of man

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - And brake it And brake it - We often read in the Scriptures of breaking bread, but never of cutting it. The Jewish people had nothing similar to our high-raised ...

And brake it - We often read in the Scriptures of breaking bread, but never of cutting it. The Jewish people had nothing similar to our high-raised loaf: their bread was made broad and thin, and was consequently very brittle, and, to divide it, there was no need of a knife

The breaking of the bread I consider essential to the proper performance of this solemn and significant ceremony: because this act was designed by our Lord to shadow forth the wounding, piercing, and breaking of his body upon the cross; and, as all this was essentially necessary to the making a full atonement for the sin of the world, so it is of vast importance that this apparently little circumstance, the breaking of the bread, should be carefully attended to, that the godly communicant may have every necessary assistance to enable him to discern the Lord’ s body, while engaged in this most important and Divine of all God’ s ordinances. But who does not see that one small cube of fermented, i.e. leavened bread, previously divided from the mass with a knife, and separated by the fingers of the minister, can never answer the end of the institution, either as to the matter of the bread, or the mode of dividing it? Man is naturally a dull and heedless creature, especially in spiritual things, and has need of the utmost assistance of his senses, in union with those expressive rites and ceremonies which the Holy Scripture, not tradition, has sanctioned, in order to enable him to arrive at spiritual things, through the medium of earthly similitudes

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - And gave it to the disciples And gave it to the disciples - Not only the breaking, but also the Distribution, of the bread are necessary parts of this rite. In the Romish Church...

And gave it to the disciples - Not only the breaking, but also the Distribution, of the bread are necessary parts of this rite. In the Romish Church, the bread is not broken nor delivered to the people, that They may take and eat; but the consecrated wafer is put upon their tongue by the priest; and it is generally understood by the communicants, that they should not masticate, but swallow it whole

"That the breaking of this bread to be distributed,"says Dr. Whitby, "is a necessary part of this rite is evident, first, by the continual mention of it by St. Paul and all the evangelists, when they speak of the institution of this sacrament, which shows it to be a necessary part of it. 2dly, Christ says, Take, eat, this is my body, Broken for you, 1Co 11:24. But when the elements are not broken, it can be no more said, This is my body broken for you, than where the elements are not given. 3dly, Our Lord said, Do this in remembrance of me: i.e. ‘ Eat this bread, broken in remembrance of my body broken on the cross:’ now, where no body broken is distributed, there, nothing can be eaten in memorial of his broken body. Lastly, The apostle, by saying, The bread which we Break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? sufficiently informs us that the eating of his broken body is necessary to that end, 1Co 10:10. Hence it was that this rite, of distributing bread broken, continued for a thousand years, and was, as Humbertus testifies, observed in the Roman Church in the eleventh century."Whitby in loco. At present, the opposite is as boldly practised as if the real Scriptural rite had never been observed in the Church of Christ

Clarke: Mat 26:26 - This is my body This is my body - Here it must be observed that Christ had nothing in his hands, at this time, but part of that unleavened bread which he and his di...

This is my body - Here it must be observed that Christ had nothing in his hands, at this time, but part of that unleavened bread which he and his disciples had been eating at supper, and therefore he could mean no more than this, viz. that the bread which he was now breaking represented his body, which, in the course of a few hours, was to be crucified for them. Common sense, unsophisticated with superstition and erroneous creeds, - and reason, unawed by the secular sword of sovereign authority, could not possibly take any other meaning than this plain, consistent, and rational one, out of these words. "But,"says a false and absurd creed, "Jesus meant, when he said, Hoc Est Corpus Meum, This is my body, and Hic Est Calix Sanguinis Mei, This is the chalice of my blood, that the bread and wine were substantially changed into his body, including flesh, blood, bones, yea, the whole Christ, in his immaculate humanity and adorable divinity!"And, for denying this, what rivers of righteous blood have been shed by state persecutions and by religious wars! Well it may be asked, "Can any man of sense believe, that, when Christ took up that bread and broke it, it was his own body which he held in his own hands, and which himself broke to pieces, and which he and his disciples ate?"He who can believe such a congeries of absurdities, cannot be said to be a volunteer in faith; for it is evident, the man can neither have faith nor reason, as to this subject

Let it be observed, if any thing farther is necessary on this point, that the paschal lamb, is called the passover, because it represented the destroying angel’ s passing over the children of Israel, while he slew the firstborn of the Egyptians; and our Lord and his disciples call this lamb the passover, several times in this chapter; by which it is demonstrably evident, that they could mean no more than that the lamb sacrificed on this occasion was a memorial of, and Represented, the means used for the preservation of the Israelites from the blast of the destroying angel

Besides, our Lord did not say, hoc est corpus meum , (this is my body), as he did not speak in the Latin tongue; though as much stress has been laid upon this quotation from the Vulgate as if the original of the three evangelists had been written in the Latin language. Had he spoken in Latin, following the idiom of the Vulgate, he would have said, Panis hic corpus meum signficat , or, Symbolum est corporis mei : - hoc poculum sanguinem meum representat , or, symbolum est sanguinis mei : - this bread signifies my body; this cup represents my blood. But let it be observed that, in the Hebrew, Chaldee, and Chaldeo-Syriac languages, as used in the Bible, there is no term which expresses to mean, signify, denote, though both the Greek and Latin abound with them: hence the Hebrews use a figure, and say, it is, for, it signifies. So Gen 41:26, Gen 41:27. The seven kine Are (i.e. represent) seven years. This Is (represents) the bread of affliction which our fathers ate in the land of Egypt. Dan 7:24. The ten horns Are (i.e. signify) ten kings. They drank of the spiritual Rock which followed them, and the Rock Was (represented) Christ. 1Co 10:4. And following this Hebrew idiom, though the work is written in Greek, we find in Rev 1:20, The seven stars Are (represent) the angels of the seven Churches: and the seven candlesticks Are (represent) the seven Churches. The same form of speech is used in a variety of places in the New Testament, where this sense must necessarily be given to the word. Mat 13:38, Mat 13:39. The field IS (represents) the world: the good seed Are (represent or signify) the children of the kingdom: the tares Are (signify) the children of the wicked one. The enemy Is (signifies) the devil: the harvest Is (represents) the end of the world: the reapers Are (i.e. signify) the angels. Luk 8:9. What might this parable Be? Τις ΕΙΗ η παραβολη αυτη : - What does this parable Signify? Joh 7:36. Τις ΕΣΤΙΝ αυτος ο λογος : What is the Signification of this saying? Joh 10:6. They understood not what things they Were, τινα ΗΝ, what was the Signification of the things he had spoken to them. Act 10:17. Τι αν ΕΙΗ οραμα, what this vision Might Be; properly rendered by our translators, what this vision should Mean. Gal 4:24. For these Are the two covenants, αυται γαρ ΕΙΣΙΝ αι δυο διαθηκαι, these Signify the two covenants. Luk 15:26. He asked, τι ΕΙΗ ταυτα, what these things Meant. See also Luk 18:36. After such unequivocal testimony from the Sacred writings, can any person doubt that, This bread is my body, has any other meaning than, This bread Represents my body

The Latins use the verb, sum , in all its forms, with a similar latitude of meaning. So, Esse oneri ferendo , he is Able to bear the burthen: bene Esse , to Live sumptuously: male Esse , to Live miserably: recte Esse , to Enjoy good health: Est mihi fistula , I Possess a flute: EST hodie in rebus , he now Enjoys a plentiful fortune: Est mihi namque domi pater , I Have a father at home, etc.: Esse solvendo , to be Able to pay: Fuimus Troes, Fuit Ilium ; the Trojans are Extinct, Troy is No More

In Greek also, and Hebrew, it often signifies to live, to die, to be killed. Ουκ ΕΙΜΙ, I am Dead, or a dead man. Mat 2:18 : Rachel weeping for her children, οτι ουκ ΕΙΣΙ, because they Were Murdered. Gen 42:36 : Joseph is not, יוסף איננו Yoseph einennu , Ιωσηφ ουκ ΕΣΤΙΝ, Sept., Joseph is Devoured by a Wild Beast. Rom 4:17 : Calling the things that Are not, as if they were Alive. So Plutarch in Laconicis: "This shield thy father always preserved; preserve thou it, or may thou not Be," Η μη ΕΣΟ, may thou Perish. ΟΥΚ ΟΝΤΕΣ νομοι, Abrogated laws. ΕΙΜΙ εν εμοι, I Possess a sound understanding. Εις πατερα υμιν ΕΣΟΜΑΙ, I will Perform the Part of a father to you. ΕΙΜΙ της πολεως της δε, I Am an Inhabitant of that city. 1Ti 1:7 : Desiring to Be teachers of the law, θελοντες ΕΙΝΑΙ νομοδιδασκαλοι, desiring to be Reputed teachers of the law, i.e. Able divines. Τα ΟΝΤΑ, the things that Are, i.e. Noble and Honorable men: τα μη ΟΝΤΑ, the things that are not, viz. the Vulgar, or those of Ignoble Birth

Tertullian seems to have had a correct notion of those words of our Lord

Acceptum panem et distributum discipulis, corpus illum suum fecit, Hoc Est Corpus Meum dicendo, id est, Figura corporis mei

Advers. Marc. l. v. c. 40

"Having taken the bread, and distributed that body to his disciples, he made it his body by saying, This is my body, i.e. a Figure of my body.

That our Lord neither spoke in Greek nor Latin, on this occasion, needs no proof. It was, most probably, in what was formerly called the Chaldaic, now the Syriac, that our Lord conversed with his disciples. Through the providence of God, we have complete versions of the Gospels in this language, and in them it is likely we have the precise words spoken by our Lord on this occasion. In Mat 26:26, Mat 26:27, the words in the Syriac version are, hanau pagree , This is my body, hanau demee , This is my blood, of which forms of speech the Greek is a verbal translation; nor would any man, even in the present day, speaking in the same language, use, among the people to whom it was vernacular, other terms than the above to express, This represents my body, and this represents my blood

As to the ancient Syrian Church on the Malabar coast, it is a fact that it never held the doctrine of transubstantiation, nor does it appear that it was ever heard of in that Church till the year 1599, when Don Alexis Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, and the Jesuit Fransic Rez, invaded that Church, and by tricks, impostures, and the assistance of the heathen governors of Cochin, and other places, whom they gained over by bribes and presents, overthrew the whole of this ancient Church, and gave the oppressed people the rites, creeds, etc., of the papal Catholic Church in its place. Vid. La Croz. Hist. du Ch. des Indes

This was done at the Synod of Diamper, which began its sessions at Agomale, June 20, 1599. The tricks of this unprincipled prelate, the tool of Pope Clement VIII., and Philip II., King of Portugal, are amply detailed by Mr. La Croze, in the work already quoted

But this form of speech is common, even in our own language, though we have terms enow to fill up the ellipsis. Suppose a man entering into a museum, enriched with the remains of ancient Greek sculpture: his eyes are attracted by a number of curious busts; and, on inquiring what they are, he learns, this is Socrates, that Plato, a third Homer; others Hesiod, Horace, Virgil, Demosthenes, Cicero, Herodotus, Livy, Caesar, Nero, Vespasian, etc. Is he deceived by this information? Not at all: he knows well that the busts he sees are not the identical persons of those ancient philosophers, poets, orators, historians, and emperors, but only Representations of their persons in sculpture, between which and the originals there is as essential a difference as between a human body, instinct with all the principles of rational vitality, and a block of marble. When, therefore, Christ took up a piece of bread, brake it, and said, This IS my body, who, but the most stupid of mortals, could imagine that he was, at the same time, handling and breaking his own body! Would not any person, of plain common sense, see as great a difference between the man Christ Jesus, and the piece of bread, as between the block of marble and the philosopher it represented, in the case referred to above? The truth is, there is scarcely a more common form of speech in any language than, This IS, for, This Represents or Signifies. And as our Lord refers, in the whole of this transaction, to the ordinance of the passover, we may consider him as saying: "This bread is now my body, in that sense in which the paschal lamb has been my body hitherto; and this cup is my blood of the New Testament, in the same sense as the blood of bulls and goats has been my blood under the Old: Exodus 24; Hebrews 9. That is, the paschal lamb and the sprinkling of blood represented my sacrifice to the present time this bread and this wine shall represent my body and blood through all future ages; therefore, Do this in remembrance of me.

St. Luke and St. Paul add a circumstance here which is not noticed either by St. Matthew or St. Mark. After, this is my body, the former adds, which is given for you; the latter, which is broken for you; the sense of which is: "As God has in his bountiful providence given you bread for the sustenance of your lives, so in his infinite grace he has given you my body to save your souls unto life eternal. But as this bread must be broken and masticated, in order to its becoming proper nourishment, so my body must be broken, i.e. crucified, for you, before it can be the bread of life to your souls. As, therefore, your life depends on the bread which God’ s bounty has provided for your bodies, so your eternal life depends on the sacrifice of my body on the cross for your souls."Besides, there is here an allusion to the offering of sacrifice - an innocent creature was brought to the altar of God, and its blood (the life of the beast) was poured out for, or in behalf of, the person who brought it. Thus Christ says, alluding to the sacrifice of the paschal lamb, This is my body, το υπερ υμων διδομενον, which Is Given in your stead, or in your behalf; a free Gift, from God’ s endless mercy, for the salvation of your souls. This is my body, το υπερ υμων κλωμενον, (1Co 11:24), which is broken - sacrificed in your stead; as without the breaking (piercing) of the body, and spilling of the blood, there was no remission

In this solemn transaction we must weigh every word, as there is none without its appropriate and deeply emphatic meaning. So it is written, Eph 5:2. Christ hath loved us, and given himself, υπερ ημων, on our account, or in our stead, an offering and a Sacrifice ( θυσια ) to God for a sweet-smelling savor; that, as in the sacrifice offered by Noah, Gen 8:21, (to which the apostle evidently alludes), from which it is said, The Lord smelled a sweet savor, ריח הניחח riach hanichoach , a savor of rest, so that he became appeased towards the earth, and determined that there should no more be a flood to destroy it; in like manner, in the offering and sacrifice of Christ for us, God is appeased towards the human race, and has in consequence decreed that whosoever believeth in him shall not perish, but have everlasting life.

Clarke: Mat 26:27 - And he took the cup And he took the cup - Μετα το δειπνησαι, after having supped, Luk 22:20, and 1Co 11:25. Whether the supper was on the paschal lamb, ...

And he took the cup - Μετα το δειπνησαι, after having supped, Luk 22:20, and 1Co 11:25. Whether the supper was on the paschal lamb, or whether it was a common or ordinary meal, I shall not wait here to inquire: see at the end of this chapter. In the parallel place, in Luke 22, we find our Lord taking the cup, Luk 22:17, and again Luk 22:19; by the former of which was probably meant the cup of blessing, כוס הברכה kos haberakah , which the master of a family took, and, after blessing God, gave to each of his guests by way of welcome: but this second taking the cup is to be understood as belonging to the very important rite which he was now instituting, and on which he lays a very remarkable stress. With respect to the bread, he had before simply said, Take, eat, this is my body; but concerning the cup he says, Drink ye all of this: for as this pointed out the very essence of the institution, viz. the blood of atonement, it was necessary that each should have a particular application of it; therefore he says, Drink ye All of This. By this we are taught that the cup is essential to the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper; so that they who deny the cup to the people sin against God’ s institution; and they who receive not the cup are not partakers of the body and blood of Christ. If either could without mortal prejudice be omitted, it might be the bread; but the cup, as pointing out the blood poured out, i.e. the life, by which alone the great sacrificial act is performed, and remission of sins procured, is absolutely indispensable. On this ground it is demonstrable, that there is not a priest under heaven, who denies the cup to the people, that can be said to celebrate the Lord’ s Supper at all; nor is there one of their votaries that ever received the holy sacrament. All pretension to this is an absolute farce, so long as the cup, the emblem of the atoning blood, is denied. How strange is it, that the very men who plead so much for the bare literal meaning of this is my body, in the preceding verse, should deny all meaning to drink Ye All of this cup, in this verse! And though Christ has in the most positive manner enjoined it, they will not permit one of the laity to taste it! O, what a thing is man - a constant contradiction to reason and to himself

I have just said that our blessed Lord lays remarkable stress on the administration of the cup, and on that which himself assures us is represented by it. As it is peculiarly emphatic, I beg leave to set down the original text, which the critical reader will do well minutely to examine

Τουτο γαρ εϚι ΤΟ αιμα μου ΤΟ της καινης διαθηκης, ΤΟ περι πολλων εκχυνομενον εις αφεσιν αμαρτιων

The following literal translation and paraphrase do not exceed its meaning: -

For This is That blood of mine which was pointed out by all the sacrifices under the Jewish law, and particularly by the shedding and sprinkling of the blood of the paschal lamb. That blood of the sacrifice slain for the ratification of the new covenant. The blood ready to be poured out for the multitudes, the whole Gentile world as well as the Jews, for the taking away of sins; sin, whether original or actual, in all its power and guilt, in all its internal energy and pollution

Clarke: Mat 26:27 - And gave thanks And gave thanks - See the form used on this occasion, on Mat 26:26 (note); and see the Mishna, Tract ברכות Beracoth .

And gave thanks - See the form used on this occasion, on Mat 26:26 (note); and see the Mishna, Tract ברכות Beracoth .

Clarke: Mat 26:28 - For this is my blood of the New Testament For this is my blood of the New Testament - This is the reading both here and in St. Mark; but St. Luke and St. Paul say, This cup is the New Testam...

For this is my blood of the New Testament - This is the reading both here and in St. Mark; but St. Luke and St. Paul say, This cup is the New Testament in my blood. This passage has been strangely mistaken: by New Testament, many understand nothing more than the book commonly known by this name, containing the four Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, apostolical Epistles, and book of the Revelation; and they think that the cup of the New Testament means no more than merely that cup which the book called the New Testament enjoins in the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper. As this is the case, it is highly necessary that this term should be explained. The original, Η Καινη Διαθηκη, which we translate, The New Testament, and which is the general title of all the contents of the book already described, simply means, the new Covenant. Covenant, from con , together, and venio , I come, signifies an agreement, contract, or compact, between two parties, by which both are mutually bound to do certain things, on certain conditions and penalties. It answers to the Hebrew ברית berith , which often signifies, not only the covenant or agreement, but also the sacrifice which was slain on the occasion, by the blood of which the covenant was ratified; and the contracting parties professed to subject themselves to such a death as that of the victim, in case of violating their engagements. An oath of this kind, on slaying the covenant sacrifice, was usual in ancient times: so in Homer, when a covenant was made between the Greeks and the Trojans, and the throats of lambs were cut, and their blood poured out, the following form of adjuration was used by the contracting parties: -

Ζευ κυδιϚε, μεγιϚε, και αθανατοι θεοι αλλοι,

Οπποτεροι προτεροι υπερ ορκια πημηνειαν,

Ωδε σφ εγκεφαλος χαμαδις ρεοι, ως οδε οινος,

Αυτων, και τεκεων· αλοχοι δ αλλοισι μιγειεν

All glorious Jove, and ye, the powers of heaven

Whoso shall violate this contract first

So be their blood, their children’ s and their own

Poured out, as this libation, on the groun

And let their wives bring forth to other men

Iliad l. iii. v. 298-30

Our blessed Savior is evidently called the Διαθηκη, ברית berith , or covenant sacrifice, Isa 42:6; Isa 49:8; Zec 9:11. And to those Scriptures he appears to allude, as in them the Lord promises to give him for a covenant (sacrifice) to the Gentiles, and to send forth, by the blood of this covenant (victim) the prisoners out of the pit. The passages in the sacred writings which allude to this grand sacrificial and atoning act are almost innumerable. See the Preface to Matthew

In this place, our Lord terms his blood the blood of the New covenant; by which he means that grand plan of agreement, or reconciliation, which God was now establishing between himself and mankind, by the passion and death of his Son, through whom alone men could draw nigh to God; and this New covenant is mentioned in contradistinction from the Old covenant, η παλαια Διαθηκη, 2Co 3:14, by which appellative all the books of the Old Testament were distinguished, because they pointed out the way of reconciliation to God by the blood of the various victims slain under the law; but now, as the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world, was about to be offered up, a New and Living way was thereby constituted, so that no one henceforth could come unto the Father but by Him. Hence all the books of the New Testament, which bear unanimous testimony to the doctrine of salvation by faith through the blood of Jesus, are termed, Η Καινη Διαθηκη, The New covenant. See the Preface

Dr. Lightfoot’ s Observations on this are worthy of serious notice

"This is my blood of the New Testament. Not only the seal of the covenant, but the sanction of the new covenant. The end of the Mosaic economy, and the confirming of a new one. The confirmation of the old covenant was by the blood of bulls and goats, Exodus 24, Hebrews 9, because blood was still to be shed: the confirmation of the new was by a cup of wine, because under the new covenant there is no farther shedding of blood. As it is here said of the cup, This cup is the New Testament in my blood; so it might be said of the cup of blood, Exodus 24, That cup was the Old Testament in the blood of Christ: there, all the articles of that covenant being read over, Moses sprinkled all the people with blood, and said, This is the blood of the covenant which God hath made with you; and thus the old covenant or testimony was confirmed. In like manner, Christ, having published all the articles of the new covenant, he takes the cup of wine, and gives them to drink, and saith. This is the New Testament in my blood; and thus the new covenant was established."- Works, vol. ii. p. 260

Clarke: Mat 26:28 - Which is shed ( εκχυνομενον, poured out) for many Which is shed ( εκχυνομενον, poured out) for many - Εκχεω and εκχυω, to pour out, are often used in a sacrificial sense in t...

Which is shed ( εκχυνομενον, poured out) for many - Εκχεω and εκχυω, to pour out, are often used in a sacrificial sense in the Septuagint, and signify to pour out or sprinkle the blood of the sacrifices before the altar of the Lord, by way of atonement. See 2Ki 16:15; Lev 8:15; Lev 9:9; Exo 29:12; Lev 4:7, Lev 4:14, Lev 4:17, Lev 4:30, Lev 4:34; and in various other places. Our Lord, by this very remarkable mode of expression, teaches us that, as his body was to be broken or crucified, υπερ ημων, in our stead, so here the blood was to be poured out to make an atonement, as the words, remission of sins, sufficiently prove for without shedding of blood there was no remission, Heb 9:22, nor any remission by shedding of blood, but in a sacrificial way. See the passages above, and on Mat 26:26 (note)

The whole of this passage will receive additional light when collated with Isa 53:11, Isa 53:12. By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify Many, for he shall bear their iniquities - because he hath Poured Out his soul unto death, and he bare the sin of Many. The pouring out of the soul unto death, in the prophet, answers to, this is the blood of the new covenant which is poured out for you, in the evangelists; and the רבים, rabbim , multitudes, in Isaiah, corresponds to the Many, πολλων, of Matthew and Mark. The passage will soon appear plain, when we consider that two distinct classes of persons are mentioned by the prophet

1.    The Jews. Isa 53:4. Surely he hath borne Our griefs, and carried Our sorrows. Isa 53:5. But he was wounded for Our transgressions, he was bruised for Our iniquities, the chastisement of Our peace was upon him. Isa 53:6. All We like sheep have gone astray, and the Lord hath laid upon him the iniquity of Us all

2.    The Gentiles. Isa 53:11. By his knowledge, בדעתו bedaato , i.e. by his being made known, published as Christ crucified among the Gentiles, he shall justify רבים rabbim , the multitudes, (the Gentiles), for he shall (also) bear Their offenses, as well as Ours, the Jews, Isa 53:4, etc

It is well known that the Jewish dispensation, termed by the apostle as above, η παλαια διαθηκη, the Old covenant, was partial and exclusive. None were particularly interested in it save the descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob: whereas the Christian dispensation, η καινη διαθηκη, the New covenant, referred to by our Lord in this place, was universal; for as Jesus Christ by the grace of God tasted death for Every man, Heb 2:9, and is that Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the World, Joh 1:29, who would have All Men to be saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth, 1Ti 2:4, even that knowledge of Christ crucified, by which they are to be justified, Isa 53:11, therefore he has commanded his disciples to go into all the world, and preach the Gospel to Every Creature, Mar 16:15. The reprobate race, those who were no people, and not beloved, were to be called in; for the Gospel was to be preached to all the world, though it was to begin at Jerusalem, Luk 24:47. For this purpose was the blood of the new covenant sacrifice poured out for the multitudes, that there might be but one fold, as there is but one Shepherd; and that God might be All and in All

Clarke: Mat 26:28 - For the remission of sins For the remission of sins - Εις αφεσις αμαρτιων, for (or, in reference to) the taking away of sins. For, although the blood is she...

For the remission of sins - Εις αφεσις αμαρτιων, for (or, in reference to) the taking away of sins. For, although the blood is shed, and the atonement made, no man’ s sins are taken away until, as a true penitent, he returns to God, and, feeling his utter incapacity to save himself, believes in Christ Jesus, who is the justifier of the ungodly

The phrase, αφεσις των αμαρτιων, remission of sins, (frequently used by the Septuagint), being thus explained by our Lord, is often used by the evangelists and the apostles; and does not mean merely the pardon of sins, as it is generally understood, but the removal or taking away of sins; not only the guilt, but also the very nature of sin, and the pollution of the soul through it; and comprehends all that is generally understood by the terms justification and sanctification. For the use and meaning of the phrase αφεσις αμαρτιων, see Mar 1:4; Luk 1:77; Luk 3:3; Luk 24:47; Act 2:38; Act 5:31; Act 10:43; Act 13:38; Act 26:18; Col 1:14; Heb 10:18

Both St. Luke and St. Paul add, that, after giving the bread, our Lord said, Do this in remembrance of me. And after giving the cup, St. Paul alone adds, This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. The account, as given by St. Paul, should be carefully followed, being fuller, and received, according to his own declaration, by especial revelation from God. See 1Co 11:23, For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, etc. See the harmonized view above.

Clarke: Mat 26:29 - I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine - These words seem to intimate no more than this: We shall not have another opportunity of eat...

I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine - These words seem to intimate no more than this: We shall not have another opportunity of eating this bread and drinking this wine together; as in a few hours my crucifixion shall take place

Clarke: Mat 26:29 - Until that day when I drink it new with you Until that day when I drink it new with you - That is, I shall no more drink of the produce of the vine with you; but shall drink new wine - wine of...

Until that day when I drink it new with you - That is, I shall no more drink of the produce of the vine with you; but shall drink new wine - wine of a widely different nature from this - a wine which the kingdom of God alone can afford. The term new in Scripture is often taken in this sense. So the New heaven, the New earth, the New covenant, the New man - mean a heaven, earth, covenant, man, of a very different nature from the former. It was our Lord’ s invariable custom to illustrate heavenly things by those of earth, and to make that which had last been the subject of conversation the means of doing it. Thus he uses wine here, of which they had lately drunk, and on which he had held the preceding discourse, to point out the supreme blessedness of the kingdom of God. But however pleasing and useful wine may be to the body and how helpful soever, as an ordinance of God. It may be to the soul in the holy sacrament; yet the wine of the kingdom, the spiritual enjoyments at the right hand of God, will be infinitely more precious and useful. From what our Lord says here, we learn that the sacrament of his supper is a type and a pledge, to genuine Christians, of the felicity they shall enjoy with Christ in the kingdom of glory.

Clarke: Mat 26:30 - And when they had sung a hymn And when they had sung a hymn - Υμνησαντες means, probably, no more than a kind of recitative reading or chanting. As to the hymn itself...

And when they had sung a hymn - Υμνησαντες means, probably, no more than a kind of recitative reading or chanting. As to the hymn itself, we know, from the universal consent of Jewish antiquity, that it was composed of Psa 113:1-9, Psa 114:1-8, 115, 116, Psa 117:1-2, and 118, termed by the Jews הלל halel , from הללו־יה halelu -yah , the first word in Psa 113:1-9. These six Psalms were always sung at every paschal solemnity. They sung this great hillel on account of the five great benefits referred to in it; viz

1.    The Exodus from Egypt, Psa 114:1. When Israel went out of Egypt, etc

2.    The miraculous division of the Red Sea, Psa 114:3. The sea saw it and fled

3.    The promulgation of the law, Psa 114:4. The mountains skipped like lambs

4.    The resurrection of the dead, Psa 116:9. I will walk before the Lord in the land of the living

5.    The passion of the Messiah, Psa 115:1. Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, etc

See Schoettgen, Hor. Hebr. p. 231, and my Discourse on the nature and design of the Eucharist, 8vo. Lond. 1808.

Clarke: Mat 26:31 - All ye shall be offended All ye shall be offended - Or rather, Ye will all be stumbled - παντες υμεις σκανδαλισθησεσθε - ye will all forsake me,...

All ye shall be offended - Or rather, Ye will all be stumbled - παντες υμεις σκανδαλισθησεσθε - ye will all forsake me, and lose in a great measure your confidence in me

Clarke: Mat 26:31 - This night This night - The time of trial is just at hand

This night - The time of trial is just at hand

Clarke: Mat 26:31 - I will smite the shepherd I will smite the shepherd - It will happen to you as to a flock of sheep, whose shepherd has been slain - the leader and guardian being removed, the...

I will smite the shepherd - It will happen to you as to a flock of sheep, whose shepherd has been slain - the leader and guardian being removed, the whole flock shall be scattered, and be on the point of becoming a prey to ravenous beasts.

Clarke: Mat 26:32 - But after I am risen again But after I am risen again - Don’ t lose your confidence; for though I shall appear for a time to be wholly left to wicked men, and be brought ...

But after I am risen again - Don’ t lose your confidence; for though I shall appear for a time to be wholly left to wicked men, and be brought under the power of death, yet I will rise again, and triumph over all your enemies and mine

Clarke: Mat 26:32 - I will go before you I will go before you - Still alluding to the case of the shepherd and his sheep. Though the shepherd has been smitten and the sheep scattered, the s...

I will go before you - Still alluding to the case of the shepherd and his sheep. Though the shepherd has been smitten and the sheep scattered, the shepherd shall revive again, collect the scattered flock, and go before them, and lead them to peace, security, and happiness.

Clarke: Mat 26:33 - Peter - said unto him, Though all men shall be offended - yet will I never Peter - said unto him, Though all men shall be offended - yet will I never - The presumptuous person imagines he can do every thing, and can do noth...

Peter - said unto him, Though all men shall be offended - yet will I never - The presumptuous person imagines he can do every thing, and can do nothing: thinks he can excel all, and excels in nothing: promises every thing, and performs nothing. The humble man acts a quite contrary part. There is nothing we know so little of as ourselves - nothing we see less of than our own weakness and poverty. The strength of pride is only for a moment. Peter, though vainly confident, was certainly sincere - he had never been put to a sore trial, and did not know his own strength. Had this resolution of his been formed in the strength of God, he would have been enabled to maintain it against earth and hell. This most awful denial of Christ, and his abandoning him in the time of trial, was sufficient to have disqualified him for ever from being, in any sense, head of the Church, had such a supremacy been ever designed him. Such a supremacy was never given him by Christ; but the fable of it is in the Church of Rome, and the mock Peter, not Peter the apostle, is there and there only to be found.

Clarke: Mat 26:34 - Jesus said Jesus said - Our Lord’ s answer to Peter is very emphatic and impressive. Verily - I speak a solemn weighty truth, thou wilt not only be stumbl...

Jesus said - Our Lord’ s answer to Peter is very emphatic and impressive. Verily - I speak a solemn weighty truth, thou wilt not only be stumbled, fall off, and forsake thy Master, but thou wilt even deny that thou hast, or ever had, any knowledge of or connection with me; and this thou wilt do, not by little and little, through a long process of time, till the apostasy, daily gathering strength, shall be complete; but thou wilt do it this very night, and that not once only, but thrice; and this thou wilt do also in the earlier part of the night, before even a cock shall crow. Was not this warning enough to him not to trust in his own strength, but to depend on God?

Clarke: Mat 26:35 - Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee - He does not take the warning which his Lord gave him - he trusts in the warm, sincere atta...

Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee - He does not take the warning which his Lord gave him - he trusts in the warm, sincere attachment to Christ which he now feels, not considering that this must speedily fail, unless supported by the power of God.

Clarke: Mat 26:36 - A place called Gethsemane A place called Gethsemane - A garden at the foot of the mount of Olives. The name seems to be formed from גת gath , a press, and סמן shemen ,...

A place called Gethsemane - A garden at the foot of the mount of Olives. The name seems to be formed from גת gath , a press, and סמן shemen , oil; probably the place where the produce of the mount of Olives was prepared for use. The garden of the oil-press, or olive-press

Clarke: Mat 26:36 - Sit ye here Sit ye here - Or, stay in this place, while I go and pray yonder: and employ ye the time as I shall employ it - in watching unto prayer.

Sit ye here - Or, stay in this place, while I go and pray yonder: and employ ye the time as I shall employ it - in watching unto prayer.

Clarke: Mat 26:37 - And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee - That is, James and John; the same persons who had beheld his transfiguration on the mount -...

And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee - That is, James and John; the same persons who had beheld his transfiguration on the mount - that they might contemplate this agony in the light of that glory which they had there seen; and so be kept from being stumbled by a view of his present humiliation

Clarke: Mat 26:37 - Began to be sorrowful Began to be sorrowful - Λυπεισθαι, from λυω, to dissolve - exquisite sorrow, such as dissolves the natural vigor, and threatens to sep...

Began to be sorrowful - Λυπεισθαι, from λυω, to dissolve - exquisite sorrow, such as dissolves the natural vigor, and threatens to separate soul and body

Clarke: Mat 26:37 - And very heavy And very heavy - Overwhelmed with anguish - αδημονειν . This word is used by the Greeks to denote the most extreme anguish which the soul ...

And very heavy - Overwhelmed with anguish - αδημονειν . This word is used by the Greeks to denote the most extreme anguish which the soul can feel - excruciating anxiety and torture of spirit.

Clarke: Mat 26:38 - Then saith he Then saith he - Then saith - Jesus: - I have added the word Jesus, ὁ Ιησους, on the authority of a multitude of eminent MSS. See them in G...

Then saith he - Then saith - Jesus: - I have added the word Jesus, ὁ Ιησους, on the authority of a multitude of eminent MSS. See them in Griesbach

Clarke: Mat 26:38 - My soul is exceeding sorrowful, (or, is surrounded with exceeding sorrow), even unto death My soul is exceeding sorrowful, (or, is surrounded with exceeding sorrow), even unto death - This latter word explains the two former: My soul is so...

My soul is exceeding sorrowful, (or, is surrounded with exceeding sorrow), even unto death - This latter word explains the two former: My soul is so dissolved in sorrow, my spirit is filled with such agony and anguish, that, if speedy succor be not given to my body, death must be the speedy consequence

Now, the grand expiatory sacrifice begins to be offered: in this garden Jesus enters fully into the sacerdotal office; and now, on the altar of his immaculate divinity, begins to offer his own body - his own life - a lamb without spot, for the sin of the world. St. Luke observes, Luk 22:43, Luk 22:44, that there appeared unto him an angel from heaven strengthening him; and that, being in an agony, his sweat was like great drops of blood falling to the ground. How exquisite must this anguish have been, when it forced the very blood through the coats of the veins, and enlarged the pores in such a preternatural manner as to cause them to empty it out in large successive drops! In my opinion, the principal part of the redemption price was paid in this unprecedented and indescribable agony

Bloody sweats are mentioned by many authors; but none was ever such as this - where a person in perfect health, (having never had any predisposing sickness to induce a debility of the system), and in the full vigor of life, about thirty-three years of age, suddenly, through mental pressure, without any fear of death, sweat great drops of blood; and these continued, during his wrestling with God to fall to the ground

To say that all this was occasioned by the fear he had of the ignominious death which he was about to die confutes itself - for this would not only rob him of his divinity, for which purpose it is brought, but it deprives him of all excellency, and even of manhood itself. The prospect of death could not cause him to suffer thus, when he knew that in less than three days he was to be restored to life, and be brought into an eternity of blessedness. His agony and distress can receive no consistent explication but on this ground - He Suffered, the Just for the Unjust, that he might Bring us to God. O glorious truth! O infinitely meritorious suffering! And O! above all, the eternal love, that caused him to undergo such sufferings for the sake of Sinners!

Clarke: Mat 26:39 - Fell on his face Fell on his face - See the note on Luk 22:44. This was the ordinary posture of the supplicant when the favor was great which was asked, and deep hum...

Fell on his face - See the note on Luk 22:44. This was the ordinary posture of the supplicant when the favor was great which was asked, and deep humiliation required. The head was put between the knees, and the forehead brought to touch the earth - this was not only a humiliating, but a very painful posture also

Clarke: Mat 26:39 - This cup This cup - The word cup is frequently used in the Sacred Writings to point out sorrow, anguish, terror, death. It seems to be an allusion to a very ...

This cup - The word cup is frequently used in the Sacred Writings to point out sorrow, anguish, terror, death. It seems to be an allusion to a very ancient method of punishing criminals. A cup of poison was put into their hands, and they were obliged to drink it. Socrates was killed thus, being obliged by the magistrates of Athens to drink a cup of the juice of hemlock. To death, by the poisoned cup, there seems an allusion in Heb 2:9, Jesus Christ, by the grace of God, Tasted death for every man. The whole world are here represented as standing guilty and condemned before the tribunal of God; into every man’ s hand the deadly cup is put, and he is required to drink off the poison - Jesus enters, takes every man’ s cup out of his hand, and drinks off the poison, and thus tastes or suffers the death which every man otherwise must have undergone

Clarke: Mat 26:39 - Pass from me Pass from me - Perhaps there is an allusion here to several criminals standing in a row, who are all to drink of the same cup; but, the judge extend...

Pass from me - Perhaps there is an allusion here to several criminals standing in a row, who are all to drink of the same cup; but, the judge extending favor to a certain one, the cup passes by him to the next

Instead of προελθων μικρον, going a little forward, many eminent MSS. have προσελθων, coming a little forward - but the variation is of little moment. At the close of this verse several MSS. add the clause in Luk 22:43, There appeared an angel, etc.

Clarke: Mat 26:40 - He - saith unto Peter He - saith unto Peter - He addressed himself more particularly to this apostle, because of the profession he had made, Mat 26:33; as if he had said:...

He - saith unto Peter - He addressed himself more particularly to this apostle, because of the profession he had made, Mat 26:33; as if he had said: "Is this the way you testify your affectionate attachment to me? Ye all said you were ready to die with me; what, then, cannot you watch One hour?"Instead of ουκ ισχυσατε, could Ye not, the Codex Alexandrinus, the later Syriac in the margin, three of the Itala, and Juvencus, read ουκ ισχυσας, couldst Thou not - referring the reproach immediately to Peter, who had made the promises mentioned before.

Clarke: Mat 26:41 - That ye enter not into temptation That ye enter not into temptation - If ye cannot endure a little fatigue when there is no suffering, how will ye do when the temptation, the great t...

That ye enter not into temptation - If ye cannot endure a little fatigue when there is no suffering, how will ye do when the temptation, the great trial of your fidelity and courage, cometh? Watch - that ye be not taken unawares; and pray - that when it comes ye may be enabled to bear it

Clarke: Mat 26:41 - The spirit - is willing, but the flesh is weak The spirit - is willing, but the flesh is weak - Your inclinations are good - ye are truly sincere; but your good purposes will be overpowered by yo...

The spirit - is willing, but the flesh is weak - Your inclinations are good - ye are truly sincere; but your good purposes will be overpowered by your timidity. Ye wish to continue steadfast in your adherence to your Master; but your fears will lead you to desert him.

Clarke: Mat 26:42 - O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me - If it be not possible - to redeem fallen man, unless I drink this cup, unless I suffer death fo...

O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me - If it be not possible - to redeem fallen man, unless I drink this cup, unless I suffer death for them; thy will be done - I am content to suffer whatever may be requisite to accomplish the great design. In this address the humanity of Christ most evidently appears; for it was his humanity alone that could suffer; and if it did not appear that he had felt these sufferings, it would have been a presumption that he had not suffered, and consequently made no atonement. And had he not appeared to have been perfectly resigned in these sufferings, his sacrifice could not have been a free-will but a constrained offering, and therefore of no use to the salvation of mankind.

Clarke: Mat 26:43 - Their eyes were heavy Their eyes were heavy - That is, they could not keep them open. Was there nothing preternatural in this? Was there no influence here from the powers...

Their eyes were heavy - That is, they could not keep them open. Was there nothing preternatural in this? Was there no influence here from the powers of darkness?

Clarke: Mat 26:44 - Prayed the third time Prayed the third time - So St. Paul - I besought the Lord Thrice that it might depart from me, 2Co 12:8. This thrice repeating the same petition arg...

Prayed the third time - So St. Paul - I besought the Lord Thrice that it might depart from me, 2Co 12:8. This thrice repeating the same petition argues deep earnestness of soul.

Clarke: Mat 26:45 - Sleep on now, and take your rest Sleep on now, and take your rest - Perhaps it might be better to read these words interrogatively, and paraphrase them thus: Do ye sleep on still? W...

Sleep on now, and take your rest - Perhaps it might be better to read these words interrogatively, and paraphrase them thus: Do ye sleep on still? Will no warnings avail? Will no danger excite you to watchfulness and prayer? My hour - in which I am to be delivered up, is at hand; therefore now think of your own personal safety

Clarke: Mat 26:45 - The Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners The Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners - Αμαρτωλων, viz. the Gentiles or heathens, who were generally distinguished by this ...

The Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners - Αμαρτωλων, viz. the Gentiles or heathens, who were generally distinguished by this appellation from the Jews. Here it probably means the Roman cohort that was stationed on festivals for the defense of the temple. By the Romans he was adjudged to death; for the Jews acknowledged that they had no power in capital cases. See the note on Mat 9:10.

Clarke: Mat 26:46 - Rise, let us be going Rise, let us be going - That is, to meet them, giving thereby the fullest proof that I know all their designs, and might have, by flight or otherwis...

Rise, let us be going - That is, to meet them, giving thereby the fullest proof that I know all their designs, and might have, by flight or otherwise, provided for my own safety; but I go willingly to meet that death which their malice designs me, and, through it, provide for the life of the world.

Clarke: Mat 26:47 - Judas, one of the twelve Judas, one of the twelve - More deeply to mark his base ingratitude and desperate wickedness - He was One of the Twelve - and he is a Traitor, and o...

Judas, one of the twelve - More deeply to mark his base ingratitude and desperate wickedness - He was One of the Twelve - and he is a Traitor, and one of the vilest too that ever disgraced human nature

Clarke: Mat 26:47 - A great multitude with swords and staves A great multitude with swords and staves - They did not come as officers of justice, but as a desperate mob. Justice had nothing to do in this busin...

A great multitude with swords and staves - They did not come as officers of justice, but as a desperate mob. Justice had nothing to do in this business. He who a little before had been one of the leaders of the flock of Christ is now become the leader of ruffians and murderers! What a terrible fall!

Clarke: Mat 26:48 - Gave them a sign Gave them a sign - How coolly deliberate is this dire apostate! The man whom I shall kiss - how deeply hypocritical! That is he, hold him fast, seiz...

Gave them a sign - How coolly deliberate is this dire apostate! The man whom I shall kiss - how deeply hypocritical! That is he, hold him fast, seize him - how diabolically malicious

Clarke: Mat 26:48 - Hail, Master Hail, Master - A usual compliment among the Jews. Judas pretends to wish our Lord continued health while he is meditating his destruction How many c...

Hail, Master - A usual compliment among the Jews. Judas pretends to wish our Lord continued health while he is meditating his destruction

How many compliments of this kind are there in the world! Judas had a pattern in Joab, who, while he pretends to inquire tenderly for the health of Amasa, thrust him through with his sword; but the disciple here vastly outdoes his master, and through a motive, if possible, still more base. Let all those who use unmeaning or insidious compliments rank for ever with Joab and Judas

Clarke: Mat 26:48 - And kissed him And kissed him - And tenderly kissed him - this is the proper meaning of the original word κατεφιλησεν, he kissed him again and again - ...

And kissed him - And tenderly kissed him - this is the proper meaning of the original word κατεφιλησεν, he kissed him again and again - still pretending the most affectionate attachment to him, though our Lord had before unmasked him.

Clarke: Mat 26:50 - Jesus said - Friend Jesus said - Friend - Rather, companion, εταιρε, (not Friend), wherefore, rather, against whom ( εφ ’ ὃ, the reading of all the...

Jesus said - Friend - Rather, companion, εταιρε, (not Friend), wherefore, rather, against whom ( εφ ὃ, the reading of all the best MSS.) art thou come? How must these words have cut his very soul, if he had any sensibility left! Surely, thou, who hast so long been my companion, art not come against me, thy Lord, Teacher and Friend! What is the human heart not capable of, when abandoned by God, and influenced by Satan and the love of money

Clarke: Mat 26:50 - Laid hands on Jesus Laid hands on Jesus - But not before they had felt that proof of his sovereign power by which they had all been struck down to the earth, Joh 18:6. ...

Laid hands on Jesus - But not before they had felt that proof of his sovereign power by which they had all been struck down to the earth, Joh 18:6. It is strange that, after this, they should dare to approach him; but the Scriptures must be fulfilled.

Clarke: Mat 26:51 - One of them which were with Jesus One of them which were with Jesus - This was Peter - struck a servant of the high priest’ s, the servant’ s name was Malchus, Joh 18:10, a...

One of them which were with Jesus - This was Peter - struck a servant of the high priest’ s, the servant’ s name was Malchus, Joh 18:10, and smote off his ear. In Luk 22:51, it is said, Jesus touched and healed it. Here was another miracle, and striking proof of the Divinity of Christ. Peter did not cut the ear, merely, he cut it Off, αφειλεν . Now to heal it, Jesus must either take up the ear and put it on again, or else create a new one - either of these was a miracle, which nothing less than unlimited power could produce. See the note on Joh 18:10.

Clarke: Mat 26:52 - Put up again thy sword into his place Put up again thy sword into his place - Neither Christ nor his religion is to be defended by the secular arm. God is sufficiently able to support hi...

Put up again thy sword into his place - Neither Christ nor his religion is to be defended by the secular arm. God is sufficiently able to support his ark: Uzzah need not stretch out his hand on the occasion. Even the shadow of public justice is not to be resisted by a private person, when coming from those in public authority. The cause of a Christian is the cause of God: sufferings belong to one, and vengeance to the other. Let the cause, therefore, rest in his hands, who will do it ample justice

Clarke: Mat 26:52 - Shall perish with the sword Shall perish with the sword - Instead of απολουνται, shall perish, many excellent MSS., versions, and fathers, have αποθανουντ...

Shall perish with the sword - Instead of απολουνται, shall perish, many excellent MSS., versions, and fathers, have αποθανουνται, shall die. The general meaning of this verse is, they who contend in battle are likely, on both sides, to become the sacrifices of their mutual animosities. But it is probably a prophetic declaration of the Jewish and Roman states. The Jews put our Lord to death under the sanction of the Romans - both took the sword against Christ, and both perished by it. The Jews by the sword of the Romans, and the Romans by that of the Goths, Vandals, etc. The event has verified the prediction - the Jewish government has been destroyed upwards of 1700 years, and the Roman upwards of 1000. Confer with this passage, Psa 2:4, Psa 2:9; Psa 110:1, Psa 110:5, Psa 110:6. But how came Peter to have a sword? Judea was at this time so infested with robbers and cut-throats that it was not deemed safe for any person to go unarmed. He probably carried one for his mere personal safety.

Clarke: Mat 26:53 - More than twelve legions of angels? More than twelve legions of angels? - As if he had said, Instead of you twelve, one of whom is a traitor, my Father can give me more than twelve leg...

More than twelve legions of angels? - As if he had said, Instead of you twelve, one of whom is a traitor, my Father can give me more than twelve legions of angels to defend me. A legion, at different times, contained different numbers; 4,200, 5,000, and frequently 6,000 men; and from this saying, taking the latter number, which is the common rate, may we not-safely believe that the angels of God amount to more than 72,000?

Clarke: Mat 26:54 - But how then But how then - Had I such a defense - shall the Scriptures be fulfilled, which say, that thus it must be? That is, that I am to suffer and die for t...

But how then - Had I such a defense - shall the Scriptures be fulfilled, which say, that thus it must be? That is, that I am to suffer and die for the sin of the world. Probably the Scriptures to which our Lord principally refers are Psalm 22, 69, and especially Isa 53:1-12, and Dan 9:24-27. Christ shows that they had no power against him but what he permitted; and that he willingly gave up himself into their hands.

Clarke: Mat 26:55 - Are ye come out as against a thief Are ye come out as against a thief - At this time Judea was much infested by robbers, so that armed men were obliged to be employed against them - t...

Are ye come out as against a thief - At this time Judea was much infested by robbers, so that armed men were obliged to be employed against them - to this our Lord seems to allude. See on Mat 26:52 (note)

Clarke: Mat 26:55 - I sat daily with you I sat daily with you - Why come in this hostile manner? Every day, for four days past, ye might have met with me in the temple, whither I went to te...

I sat daily with you - Why come in this hostile manner? Every day, for four days past, ye might have met with me in the temple, whither I went to teach you the way of salvation. See on Mat 21:17 (note).

Clarke: Mat 26:56 - But all this was done But all this was done - This is probably the observation of the evangelist. See on Mat 2:23 (note)

But all this was done - This is probably the observation of the evangelist. See on Mat 2:23 (note)

Clarke: Mat 26:56 - Then all the disciples forsook him and fled Then all the disciples forsook him and fled - O what is man! How little is even his utmost sincerity to be depended on! Jesus is abandoned by all! -...

Then all the disciples forsook him and fled - O what is man! How little is even his utmost sincerity to be depended on! Jesus is abandoned by all! - even zealous Peter and loving John are among the fugitives! Was ever master so served by his scholars? Was ever parent so treated by his children? Is there not as much zeal and love among them all as might make one martyr for God and truth? Alas! no. He had but twelve who professed inviolable attachment to him; one of these betrayed him, another denied him with oaths, and the rest run away and utterly abandon him to his implacable enemies! Are there not found among his disciples still

1st. Persons who betray him and his cause

2dly. Persons who deny him and his people

3dly. Persons who abandon him, his people, his cause, and his truth

Reader! dost thou belong to any of these classes?

Clarke: Mat 26:57 - They - led him away to Caiaphas They - led him away to Caiaphas - John says, Joh 18:13, that they led him first to Annas; but this appears to have been done merely to do him honor ...

They - led him away to Caiaphas - John says, Joh 18:13, that they led him first to Annas; but this appears to have been done merely to do him honor as the father-in-law of Caiaphas, and his colleague in the high priesthood. But as the Sanhedrin was assembled at the house of Caiaphas, it was there he must be brought to undergo his mock trial: but see on Joh 18:13 (note).

Clarke: Mat 26:58 - Peter followed him afar off Peter followed him afar off - Poor Peter! this is the beginning of his dreadful fall. His fear kept him from joining the company, and publicly ackno...

Peter followed him afar off - Poor Peter! this is the beginning of his dreadful fall. His fear kept him from joining the company, and publicly acknowledging his Lord; and his affection obliged him to follow at a distance that he might see the end

Clarke: Mat 26:58 - And sat with the servants, to see the end And sat with the servants, to see the end - When a man is weak in faith, and can as yet only follow Christ at a distance, he should avoid all danger...

And sat with the servants, to see the end - When a man is weak in faith, and can as yet only follow Christ at a distance, he should avoid all dangerous places, and the company of those who are most likely to prove a snare to him. Had not Peter got to the high priest’ s palace, and sat down with the servants, he would not thus have denied his Lord and Master. Servants-officers, υπηρετων . Such as we term serjeants, constables, etc.

Clarke: Mat 26:59 - All the council sought false witness All the council sought false witness - What a prostitution of justice! - they first resolve to ruin him, and then seek the proper means of effecting...

All the council sought false witness - What a prostitution of justice! - they first resolve to ruin him, and then seek the proper means of effecting it: they declare him criminal, and after that do all they can to fix some crime upon him, that they may appear to have some shadow of justice on their side when they put him to death. It seems to have been a common custom of this vile court to employ false witness, on any occasion, to answer their own ends. See this exemplified in the case of Stephen, Act 6:11-13.

Clarke: Mat 26:60 - Though many false witnesses came Though many false witnesses came - There is an unaccountable confusion in the MSS. in this verse: without stating the variations, which may be seen ...

Though many false witnesses came - There is an unaccountable confusion in the MSS. in this verse: without stating the variations, which may be seen in Griesbach, I shall give that which I believe to be the genuine sense of the evangelist. Then the chief priests and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; but they found it not, though many false witnesses came up. At last two false witnesses came up, saying; This man said, etc. It is the property of falsity to be ever inconsistent, and to contradict itself; therefore they could not find two consistent testimonies, without which the Jewish law did not permit any person to be put to death. However, the hand of God was in this business: for the credit of Jesus, and the honor of the Christian religion, he would not permit him to be condemned on a false accusation; and, therefore, at last they were obliged to change their ground, and, to the eternal confusion of the unrighteous council, he is condemned on the very evidence of his own innocence, purity, and truth!

Clarke: Mat 26:61 - I am able to destroy the temple of God I am able to destroy the temple of God - 1st. These words were not fairly quoted. Jesus had said, Joh 2:19, Destroy this temple, and I will build it...

I am able to destroy the temple of God -

1st. These words were not fairly quoted. Jesus had said, Joh 2:19, Destroy this temple, and I will build it again in three days

2dly. The inuendo which they produce, applying these words to a pretended design to destroy the temple at Jerusalem, was utterly unfair; for these words he spoke of the temple of his body

It is very easy, by means of a few small alterations, to render the most holy things and innocent persons odious to the world, and even to take away the life of the innocent.

Clarke: Mat 26:62 - Answerest thou nothing? Answerest thou nothing? - The accusation was so completely frivolous that it merited no notice: besides, Jesus knew that they were determined to put...

Answerest thou nothing? - The accusation was so completely frivolous that it merited no notice: besides, Jesus knew that they were determined to put him to death, and that his hour was come; and that therefore remonstrance or defense would be of no use: he had often before borne sufficient testimony to the truth.

Clarke: Mat 26:63 - I adjure thee by the living God I adjure thee by the living God - I put thee to thy oath. To this solemn adjuration Christ immediately replies, because he is now called on, in the ...

I adjure thee by the living God - I put thee to thy oath. To this solemn adjuration Christ immediately replies, because he is now called on, in the name of God, to bear another testimony to the truth. The authority of God in the most worthless magistrate should be properly respected. However necessary our Lord saw it to be silent, when the accusations were frivolous, and the evidence contradictory, he felt no disposition to continue this silence, when questioned concerning a truth, for which he came into the world to shed his blood.

Clarke: Mat 26:64 - Thou hast said Thou hast said - That is, I am the Christ, the promised Messiah, (see on Mat 26:25 (note)); and you and this whole nation shall shortly have the ful...

Thou hast said - That is, I am the Christ, the promised Messiah, (see on Mat 26:25 (note)); and you and this whole nation shall shortly have the fullest proof of it: for hereafter, in a few years, ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, fully invested with absolute dominion, and coming in the clouds of heaven, to execute judgment upon this wicked race. See Mat 24:30. Our Lord appears to refer to Dan 7:13 : One like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, etc. This may also refer to the final judgment.

Clarke: Mat 26:65 - The high priest rent his clothes The high priest rent his clothes - This rending of the high priest’ s garments was expressly contrary to the law, Lev 10:6 : Lev 21:10. But it ...

The high priest rent his clothes - This rending of the high priest’ s garments was expressly contrary to the law, Lev 10:6 : Lev 21:10. But it was a common method of expressing violent grief, Gen 37:29, Gen 37:34; Job 1:20, and horror at what was deemed blasphemous or impious. 2Ki 18:37; 2Ki 19:1; Act 14:14. All that heard a blasphemous speech were obliged to rend their clothes, and never to sew them up again. See Lightfoot

Clarke: Mat 26:65 - He hath spoken blasphemy He hath spoken blasphemy - Quesnel’ s note on this is worthy of notice. "See here a false zeal, a mask of religion, and a passionate and sediti...

He hath spoken blasphemy - Quesnel’ s note on this is worthy of notice. "See here a false zeal, a mask of religion, and a passionate and seditious way of proceeding, tending only to incense and stir up others, all which are common to those who would oppress truth by cabal, and without proof. By crying out, ‘ heresy, blasphemy, and faction,’ though contrary to all appearance, men fail not to stir up those in power, to gain the simple, to give some shadow of authority to the ill-disposed, to cast devout but ignorant people into scruples, and thereby to advance the mystery of iniquity, which is the mystery of all ages."This was the very plan his Catholic brethren adopted in this country, in the reign of Queen Mary, called the bloody queen, because of the many murders of righteous men which she sanctioned at the mouth of her Catholic priesthood.

Clarke: Mat 26:66 - He is guilty of death He is guilty of death - Ενοχος θανατου εστι, he is liable to death. All the forms of justice are here violated. The judge becomes ...

He is guilty of death - Ενοχος θανατου εστι, he is liable to death. All the forms of justice are here violated. The judge becomes a party and accuser, and proceeds to the verdict without examining whether all the prophecies concerning the Messiah, and the innumerable miracles which he wrought, did not justify him. Examination and proof are the ruin of all calumnies, and of the authors of them, and therefore they take care to keep off from these two things. See Quesnel.

Clarke: Mat 26:67 - Then did they spit in his face Then did they spit in his face - This was done as a mark of the most profound contempt. See Job 16:10; Job 30:10; Isa 50:6; Mic 5:1. The judges now ...

Then did they spit in his face - This was done as a mark of the most profound contempt. See Job 16:10; Job 30:10; Isa 50:6; Mic 5:1. The judges now delivered him into the hands of the mob

Clarke: Mat 26:67 - And buffeted him And buffeted him - Smote him with their fists, εκολαφισαν . This is the translation of Theophylact. Κολαφιζειν, says he, means...

And buffeted him - Smote him with their fists, εκολαφισαν . This is the translation of Theophylact. Κολαφιζειν, says he, means, "to beat with the hand, the fingers being clenched. Συγκαμτομενων των δακτυλων, or, to speak more briefly, to buffet with the fist.

Clarke: Mat 26:67 - Smote him with the palms of their hands Smote him with the palms of their hands - Ερραπισαν. Ραπιζω, says Suidas, means " παταξαι την γναθον απλη τη ...

Smote him with the palms of their hands - Ερραπισαν. Ραπιζω, says Suidas, means " παταξαι την γναθον απλη τη χειρι, to smite the cheek with the open hand."Thus they offered him indignity in all its various and vexatious forms. Insults of this kind are never forgiven by the world: Jesus not only takes no revenge, (though it be completely in his power), but bears all with meekness, without even one word of reply.

Clarke: Mat 26:68 - Prophesy unto us, thou Christ Prophesy unto us, thou Christ - Their conduct toward him now was expressly prophesied of, by a man whose Divine mission they did not pretend to deny...

Prophesy unto us, thou Christ - Their conduct toward him now was expressly prophesied of, by a man whose Divine mission they did not pretend to deny; see Isa 50:6. It appears that, before they buffeted him, they bound up his eyes, See Mar 14:65.

Clarke: Mat 26:69 - A damsel came unto him A damsel came unto him - A maid servant, παιδισκη . See this translation vindicated by Kypke

A damsel came unto him - A maid servant, παιδισκη . See this translation vindicated by Kypke

Clarke: Mat 26:69 - Thou also wast with Jesus Thou also wast with Jesus - What a noble opportunity had Peter now to show his zeal for the insulted cause of truth, and his attachment to his Maste...

Thou also wast with Jesus - What a noble opportunity had Peter now to show his zeal for the insulted cause of truth, and his attachment to his Master. But, alas! he is shorn of his strength. Constables and maid servants are no company for an apostle, except when he is delivering to them the message of salvation. Evil communications corrupt good manners. Had Peter been in better company, he would not have had so foul a fall.

Clarke: Mat 26:70 - But he denied before them all But he denied before them all - So the evil principle gains ground. Before, he followed at a distance, now he denies; this is the second gradation i...

But he denied before them all - So the evil principle gains ground. Before, he followed at a distance, now he denies; this is the second gradation in his fall.

Clarke: Mat 26:71 - Unto them that were there Unto them that were there - Instead of λεγει τοις εκει· και, more than one hundred MSS., many of which are of the first authority ...

Unto them that were there - Instead of λεγει τοις εκει· και, more than one hundred MSS., many of which are of the first authority and antiquity, have λεγει αυτοις· εκει και, she saith unto them, this man was There also. I rather think this is the genuine reading. Τοις might have been easily mistaken for αυτοις, if the first syllable αυ were but a little faded in a MS. from which others were copied: and then the placing of the point after εκει· instead of after αυτοις· would naturally follow, as placed after τοις, it would make no sense. Griesbach approves of this reading.

Clarke: Mat 26:72 - And again he denied with an oath And again he denied with an oath - This is a third gradation of his iniquity. He has told a lie, and he swears to support it. A liar has always some...

And again he denied with an oath - This is a third gradation of his iniquity. He has told a lie, and he swears to support it. A liar has always some suspicion that his testimony is not credited, for he is conscious to his own falsity, and is therefore naturally led to support his assertions by oaths.

Clarke: Mat 26:73 - Thy speech Thy speech - Thy manner of speech, η λαλια σου, that dialect of thine - his accent being different from that of Jerusalem. From various ex...

Thy speech - Thy manner of speech, η λαλια σου, that dialect of thine - his accent being different from that of Jerusalem. From various examples given by Lightfoot and Schoettgen, we find that the Galileans had a very corrupt pronunciation, frequently interchanging ת ה א and ע, and so blending or dividing words as to render them unintelligible, or cause them to convey a contrary sense

Clarke: Mat 26:73 - Bewrayeth thee Bewrayeth thee - Δηλου σε ποιει, maketh thee manifest, from the Anglo-saxon, to accuse, betray ; a word long since lost from our langua...

Bewrayeth thee - Δηλου σε ποιει, maketh thee manifest, from the Anglo-saxon, to accuse, betray ; a word long since lost from our language.

Clarke: Mat 26:74 - Then began he to curse and to swear Then began he to curse and to swear - Rather, Then he began positively to affirm - καταθεματιζειν, from κατα intensive, and τ...

Then began he to curse and to swear - Rather, Then he began positively to affirm - καταθεματιζειν, from κατα intensive, and τιθημι, I lay down, place, affirm. But the common reading is καταναθεματιζειν, which signifies to wish curses on himself. The former reading is supported by almost every MS. of value, and is, beyond dispute, the true reading, and has been received by Griesbach into the text. The business is bad enough, but the common reading makes it worse. In Mat 26:72, Peter is said to deny with an oath; here, he positively affirms and swears, probably by the name of God, for this is the import of the word ομνυειν . This makes the fourth and final gradation in the climax of Peter’ s fall. From these awful beginnings it is not unfair to conclude that Peter might have gone almost as far as Judas himself, had not the traitorous business been effected before. Yet all this evil sprung simply from the fear of man. How many denials of Christ and his truth have sprung since, from the same cause

Clarke: Mat 26:74 - The cock crew The cock crew - This animal becomes, in the hand of God, the instrument of awaking the fallen apostle, at last, to a sense of his fall, danger, and ...

The cock crew - This animal becomes, in the hand of God, the instrument of awaking the fallen apostle, at last, to a sense of his fall, danger, and duty. When abandoned of God, the smallest thing may become the occasion of a fall; and, when in the hand of God, the smallest matter may become the instrument of our restoration. Let us never think lightly of what are termed little sins: the smallest one has the seed of eternal ruin in it. Let us never think contemptibly of the feeblest means of grace: each may have the seed of eternal salvation in it. Let us ever remember that the great Apostle Peter fell through fear of a servant maid, and rose through the crowing of a cock.

Clarke: Mat 26:75 - Peter remembered the word of Jesus Peter remembered the word of Jesus - St. Luke says, Luk 22:61, The Lord turned and looked upon Peter. So it appears he was nigh to our Lord, either ...

Peter remembered the word of Jesus - St. Luke says, Luk 22:61, The Lord turned and looked upon Peter. So it appears he was nigh to our Lord, either at the time when the cock crew, or shortly after. The delicacy of this reproof was great - he must be reproved and alarmed, otherwise he will proceed yet farther in his iniquity; Christ is in bonds, and cannot go and speak to him; if he call aloud, the disciple is discovered, and falls a victim to Jewish malice and Roman jealousy; he therefore does the whole by a look. In the hand of Omnipotence every thing is easy, and he can save by a few, as well as by many

Clarke: Mat 26:75 - He went out He went out - He left the place where he had sinned, and the company which had been the occasion of his transgression

He went out - He left the place where he had sinned, and the company which had been the occasion of his transgression

Clarke: Mat 26:75 - And wept bitterly And wept bitterly - Felt bitter anguish of soul, which evidenced itself by the tears of contrition which flowed plentifully from his eyes. Let him t...

And wept bitterly - Felt bitter anguish of soul, which evidenced itself by the tears of contrition which flowed plentifully from his eyes. Let him that standeth take heed lest he fall! Where the mighty have been slain, what shall support the feeble? Only the grace of the Almighty God

This transaction is recorded by the inspired penmen

1st. That all may watch unto prayer, and shun the occasions of sin

2dly. That if a man be unhappily overtaken in a fault, he may not despair, but cast himself immediately with a contrite heart on the infinite tenderness and compassion of God. See the notes on Joh 18:27

I have touched on the subject of our Lord’ s anointing but slightly in the preceding notes, because the controversy upon this point is not yet settled; and, except to harmonists, it is a matter of comparatively little importance. Bishop Newcome has written largely on this fact, and I insert an extract from his notes

Calvin: Mat 26:1 - NO PHRASE Christ now confirms again what we have seen that he had sometimes predicted to his disciples; but this last prediction clearly shows how willingly he...

Christ now confirms again what we have seen that he had sometimes predicted to his disciples; but this last prediction clearly shows how willingly he offered himself to die; and it was necessary that he should do so, because God could not be appeased but by a sacrifice of obedience. He intended, at the same time, to prevent the disciples from taking offense, lest they might be altogether discouraged by the thought that he was dragged to death by necessity. Two purposes were thus served by this statement: to testify, first, that the Son of God willingly surrendered himself to die, in order to reconcile the world to the Father, (for in no other way could the guilt of sins have been expiated, or righteousness obtained for us;) and, secondly, that he did not die like one oppressed by violence which he could not escape, but because he voluntarily offered himself to die. He therefore declares that he comes to Jerusalem with the express intention of suffering death there; for while he was at liberty to withdraw and to dwell in a safe retreat till that time was come, he knowingly and willfully comes forward at the exact time. And though it was of no advantage to the disciples to be informed, at that time, of the obedience which he was rendering to the Father, yet afterwards this doctrine tended in no small degree to the edification of their faith. In like manner, it is of singular utility to us at the present day, because we behold, as in a bright mirror, the voluntary sacrifice, by which all the transgressions of the world were blotted out, and, contemplating the Son of God advancing with cheerfulness and courage to death, we already behold him victorious over death.

Calvin: Mat 26:3 - Then were assembled the chief priests. Matthew Mat 26:3.Then were assembled the chief priests. Matthew does not mean that they assembled during the two days, but introduces this narrative to show...

Mat 26:3.Then were assembled the chief priests. Matthew does not mean that they assembled during the two days, but introduces this narrative to show, that Christ was not led by any opinion of man to fix the day of his death; for by what conjectures could he have been led to it, since his enemies themselves had resolved to delay for a time? The meaning therefore is, that by the spirit of prophecy he spoke of his own death, which no man could have suspected to be so near at hand. John explains the reason why the scribes and priests held this meeting: it was because, from day to day, the people flocked to Christ in greater multitudes, (Joh 11:48.) And at that time it was decided, at the instigation of Caiaphas, that he should be put to death, because they could not succeed against him in any other way.

Calvin: Mat 26:5 - But they said, Not during the festival 5.But they said, Not during the festival They did not think it a fit season, till the festival was past, and the crowd was dispersed. Hence we infe...

5.But they said, Not during the festival They did not think it a fit season, till the festival was past, and the crowd was dispersed. Hence we infer that, although those hungry dogs eagerly opened their mouths to devour Christ, or rather, rushed furiously upon him, still God withheld them, by a secret restraint, from doing any thing by their deliberation or at their pleasure. So far as lies in their power, they delay till another time; but, contrary to their wish, God hastens the hour. And it is of great importance for us to hold, that Christ was not unexpectedly dragged to death by the violence of his enemies, but was led to it by the providence of God; for our confidence in the propitiation is founded on the conviction that he was offered to God as that sacrifice which God had appointed from the beginning. And therefore he determined that; his Son should be sacrificed on the very day of the passover, that the ancient figure might give place to the only sacrifice of eternal redemption. Those who had no other design in view than to ruin Christ thought that another time would be more appropriate; but God, who had appointed him to be a sacrifice for the expiation of sins, selected a suitable day for contrasting the body with its shadow, by placing them together. Hence also we obtain a brighter display of the fruit of Christ’s suffering.

Calvin: Mat 26:6 - And when Jesus was in Bethany 6.And when Jesus was in Bethany What the Evangelist now relates had happened a little before Christ came to Jerusalem, but is here introduced seasona...

6.And when Jesus was in Bethany What the Evangelist now relates had happened a little before Christ came to Jerusalem, but is here introduced seasonably, in order to inform us what was the occasion that suddenly drove the priests to make haste. They did not venture to attack Christ by open violence, and to oppress him by stratagem was no easy matter; but now that Judas suggests to them a plan of which they had not thought, the very facility of execution leads them to adopt a different opinion. As to some slight diversity between John’s narrative and that of Matthew and Mark, it is easy to remove the apparent inconsistency, which has led some commentators erroneously to imagine that it is a different narrative. Joh 12:3 expresses the name of the woman who anointed Christ, which is omitted by the other two Evangelists; but he does not mention the person who received Christ as a guest, while Mat 26:6 and Mar 14:3 expressly state that he was then at supper in the house of Simon the leper. As to its being said by John that his feet were anointed, while the other two Evangelists say that she anointed his head, this involves no contradiction. Unquestionably we know that anointments were not poured on the feet; but as it was then poured in greater abundance than usual, John, by way of amplification, informs us that Christ’s very feet were moistened with the oil. Mark too relates, that she broke the alabaster-box, and poured the whole of the ointment on his head; and it agrees very well with this to say that it flowed down to his feet. Let us therefore hold it to be a settled point, that all the three Evangelists relate the same narrative.

Calvin: Mat 26:8 - And when the disciples saw it 8.And when the disciples saw it This also is not unusual with the Evangelists, when a thing has been done by one, to attribute it to many persons, if...

8.And when the disciples saw it This also is not unusual with the Evangelists, when a thing has been done by one, to attribute it to many persons, if they give their consent to it. John says that the murmur proceeded from Judas, who betrayed Christ, (Joh 12:4.) Matthew and Mark include all the disciples along with him. The reason is, that none of the others would ever have dared to murmur if the wicked slander of Judas had not served for a torch to kindle them. But when he began, under a plausible pretext, to condemn the expense as superfluous, all of them easily caught the contagion. And this example shows what danger arises from malignant and envenomed tongues; for even those who are naturally reasonable, and candid, and modest, if they do not exercise prudence and caution, are easily deceived by unfavorable speeches, and led to adopt false judgments. But if light and foolish credulity induced the disciples of Christ to take part with Judas, what shall become of us, if we are too easy in admitting murmurers, who are in the habit of carping wickedly at the best actions?

We ought to draw from it another warning, not to pronounce rashly on a matter which is not sufficiently known. The disciples seize on what Judas said, and, as it has some show of plausibility, they are too harsh in forming a judgment. They ought, on the contrary, to have inquired more fully if the action deserved reproof; more especially when their Master was present, by whose decision it was their duty to abide. Let us know, therefore, that we act improperly, when we form our opinion without paying regard to the word of God; for, as Paul informs us,

None of us liveth or dieth to himself, but all must stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, where we must give our account,
(Rom 14:7; 2Co 5:10.)

And though there was a wide difference between Judas and the others — because he wickedly held out a plausible cloak for his theft, while the rest were actuated by foolish simplicity — still we see how their imprudence withdrew them from Christ, and made them the companions of Judas.

Calvin: Mat 26:10 - Why do you trouble the woman? // For she hath performed a good action towards me 10.Why do you trouble the woman? It is wonderful that Christ, whose whole life was a rule and pattern of temperance and frugality, now approves of im...

10.Why do you trouble the woman? It is wonderful that Christ, whose whole life was a rule and pattern of temperance and frugality, now approves of immoderate expense, which appears to have been closely allied to luxury and superfluous indulgence. But we must observe the kind of defense which he employs; for he does not maintain that the woman did right, in such a manner as if he wished that the same thing should be done every day, but maintains that what she had done in a single instance was agreeable to God, because it must have been done for a good reason. Though Christ had no desire for the use of the ointment, yet this anointing pleased him on account of the circumstances in which it happened. Hence we infer that certain extraordinary ways of acting are sometimes approved by God, and yet that it would be improper to make them an example. Nor have we any reason to doubt that Mary was led by a secret movement of the Spirit to anoint Christ; as it is certain that, whenever the saints were called to any extraordinary performance, they were led by an unusual movement, so as not to attempt any thing without the guidance and authority of God. There was no precept in existence enjoining on Mary this anointing, nor was it necessary that a law should be laid down for every single action; but as the heavenly calling is the only origin and principle of proper conduct, and as God rejects every thing which men undertake at their own suggestion, Mary was directed by the inspiration of the Spirit, so that this duty, which she performed to Christ, was founded on assured confidence.

For she hath performed a good action towards me By this reply, Christ not merely defended the cause of one woman, but likewise maintained the holy boasting of all who rest satisfied with having themselves and their works approved by God. It will often happen that not only censure, but open condemnation, is pronounced on godly men, who are convinced in their own consciences that what they do is agreeable to the command of God; and it is ascribed to pride, if they set at naught the false judgments of the world, and rest satisfied with being approved by God alone. Since this is a hard temptation, and since it is scarcely possible not to be shaken by the agreement of many people against us, even when they are in the wrong, we ought to hold this doctrine, that none will ever be courageous and steady in acting properly, unless they depend solely on the will of God. And therefore Christ settles here the distinction between what is good and evil by his own solitary decision: for by affirming that what the woman has done is a good action, when that action had been already condemned by the disciples, he represses by this word the rashness of men, who freely allow themselves to pronounce judgment.

Relying on this testimony, let us learn to set little value on any reports concerning us that are spread abroad in the world, provided we know that what men condemn God approves. In this manner Isaiah, when oppressed by wicked calumnies, makes reference to God as his voucher, (Isa 50:7,) and Paul likewise appeals to the day of the Lord, (1Co 4:3.) Let us therefore learn to pay no deference to the opinions of men farther than that they may be edified by our example in obedience to God, and when the world rises against us with a loud noise, let us satisfy ourselves with this consolation, that what is reckoned bad on earth is pronounced to be good in heaven.

Calvin: Mat 26:11 - For you have the poor always with you 11.For you have the poor always with you Christ does not simply defend the anointing, so that we may imitate it, but assures us that it pleases God o...

11.For you have the poor always with you Christ does not simply defend the anointing, so that we may imitate it, but assures us that it pleases God on some particular account. This must be carefully weighed, that we may not fall into the error of contriving expensive modes of worshipping God, as the Papists do; for, hearing it said that Christ was pleased with being anointed by Mary, they supposed that he took delight in incense, wax-tapers, splendid decorations, and pompous exhibitions of that nature. Hence arises the great display which is to be found in their ceremonies; and they do not believe that they will worship God in a proper manner, if they are not immoderate in expense. But Christ plainly makes this exception, that what he wished to be done once would not be agreeable to him in future. For by saying that the poor will always be in the world, he distinguishes between the ordinary service, which ought to be maintained among believers, and that extraordinary service, which ceased after his ascension to heaven.

Do we wish to lay out our money properly on true sacrifices? Let us bestow it on the poor, for Christ says that he is not with us, to be served by outward display. True, indeed, we know and fed by the experience of faith, that he is present with us by power and spiritual grace; but he is not visibly with us, so as to receive from us earthly honors. How utterly mad, therefore, is the obstinacy of those who press upon him foolish expenses which he does not choose, and which he absolutely refuses! Again, when he says that the poor will always be with us, we infer from it, that if many are in poverty, this does not arise from accident, but that, by a fixed purpose, God presents to us those on whom our charity may be exercised. In short, this passage teaches us that, though the Lord commands us to dedicate to him ourselves and all our property, yet, with respect to himself, lie demands no worship but that which is spiritual, and which is attended by no expense, but rather desires us to bestow on the poor what superstition foolishly expends on the worship of God.

Calvin: Mat 26:12 - She hath done it to bury me 12.She hath done it to bury me By these words Christ confirms what we have said, that the precious ointment was not valued by him on account of its...

12.She hath done it to bury me By these words Christ confirms what we have said, that the precious ointment was not valued by him on account of its odor, but solely in reference to his burial. It was because he wished to testify by this symbol, that his grave would yield a sweet odor, as it breathed life and salvation through the whole world. Accordingly, we are told by John (Joh 12:7) that Christ praised Mary for having reserved that anointing till the day of his burial. But since the truth of this figure has been made fully apparent, and since Christ, in departing from the sepulcher, perfumed not one house, but the whole world, by the quickening odor of his death, it would be childish to repeat an action for which no reason and no advantage could be assigned.

Calvin: Mat 26:13 - Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached 13.Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached He says that this action will do honor to Mary, because it will be praised by the doctrine of the gosp...

13.Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached He says that this action will do honor to Mary, because it will be praised by the doctrine of the gospel. Hence we infer, that we ought to estimate our works not by the opinion of men, but by the testimony of the word of God. When he says that she will be held in honorable remembrance throughout the whole world, by this comparison he indirectly censures his disciples; for among strangers, and in distant parts of the world, all nations, with one consent, will applaud this action, which the members of his own household condemned with such bitterness. Christ gently reproves the disciples also, for not entertaining sufficiently honorable views of his future reign; but at the same time, by this expression he bears testimony to the calling of the Gentiles, on which our salvation is founded. In what sense the gospel must be preached throughout the whole world, we have explained under Mat 24:14

Calvin: Mat 26:14 - Then one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot Mat 26:14.Then one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot Christ’s admonition was so far from being of any avail for softening the heart of J...

Mat 26:14.Then one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot Christ’s admonition was so far from being of any avail for softening the heart of Judas, or producing any change in it for the better, that he immediately went away, without any concern, to transact an infamous bargain with his enemies. It was amazing and prodigious stupidity, that he considered himself to have found, in the expense of the ointment, a fair excuse for so heinous a crime; and next, that, after having been warned by the words of Christ, he did not perceive what he was doing. 180 The bare mention of the burying ought to have softened a heart of iron; for it would have been easy to infer from it, that Christ offered himself as a sacrifice for the salvation of the human race. But we see in this mirror how great is the blindness of wicked desires, and how powerfully they fascinate the mind. Judas was inflamed with the desire to steal; long practice had hardened him in wickedness; and now when he meets with no other prey, he does not scruple to betray basely to death the Son of God, the Author of life, and, though restrained by a holy admonition, rushes violently forward.

With good reason, therefore, does Luke expressly say that Satan entered into him; not that the Spirit of God formerly directed him, for he would not have been addicted to theft and robbery, if he had not been the slave of Satan. But Luke means, that he was at that time wholly given up to Satan, so that, like a desperate man, he violently sought his destruction. For though Satan drives us every day to crimes, and reigns in us, when he hurries us into a course of extraordinary wickedness; yet he is said to enter into the reprobate, when he takes possession of all their senses, overthrows the fear of God, extinguishes the light of reason, and destroys every feeling of shame. This extremity of vengeance God does not execute on any but those who are already devoted to destruction. Let us therefore learn to repent early, lest our long-continued harshness should confirm the reign of Satan within us; for as soon as we have been abandoned to this tyranny, his rage will have no bounds. It is particularly worthy of notice, that the cause and source of so great blindness in Judas was avarice, which makes it evident that it is justly denominated by Paul the root of all evils, (1Ti 6:10.) To inquire here whether or not Satan entered into Judas bodily is an idle speculation. We ought rather to consider how fearfully monstrous it is, that men formed after the image of God, and appointed to be temples for the Holy Spirit, should not only be turned into filthy stables or sinks, but should become the wretched abodes of Satan.

Calvin: Mat 26:17 - Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus 17.Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus It is first inquired, Why does the day which preceded the sacrificing of the...

17.Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus It is first inquired, Why does the day which preceded the sacrificing of the lamb receive the name of the day of unleavened bread? For the Law did not forbid the use of leaven till the lamb was eaten, (Exo 12:18.) But this difficulty may be speedily removed, for the phrase refers to the following day, as is sufficiently evident from Mark and Luke. Since, therefore, the day of killing and eating the passover was at hand, the disciples ask Christ where he wishes them to eat the passover.

But hence arises a more difficult question. How did Christ observe that ceremony on the day before the whole nation celebrated the public passover? For John plainly affirms that the day on which Christ was crucified was, among the Jews, the preparation, not of the Sabbath, but of the passover, (Joh 19:14;) and that

they did not enter into the hall of judgment, lest they should be defiled, because next day they were to eat the passover,
(Joh 18:28.)

I am aware that there are some who resort to evasions, which do not, however, give them any relief; for no sophistry can set aside the fact; that, on the day they crucified Christ, they did not keep the feast, (when it would not have been lawful to have any public executions) and that they had, at that the a solemn preparation, so that they ate the passover after that Christ had been buried.

It comes now to be inquired, Why did Christ anticipate? For it must not be supposed that, in this ceremony, he took any liberty which was at variance with the prescriptions of the Law. As to the notion entertained by some, that the Jews, through their eagerness to put Christ to death, delayed the passover, it is ably refuted by Bucer, and, indeed, falls to the ground by its own absurdity. I have no doubt, therefore, that Christ observed the day appointed by the Law, and that the Jews followed a custom which had been long in use. First, it is beyond a doubt that Christ was put to death on the day before the Sabbath; for he was hastily buried before sunset in a sepulcher which was at hand, (Joh 19:42,) because it was necessary to abstain from work after the commencement of the evening. Now it is universally admitted that, by an ancient custom, when the passover and other festivals happened on Friday, they were delayed till the following day, because the people would have reckoned it hard to abstain from work on two successive days. The Jews maintain that this law was laid down immediately after the return of the people from the Babylonish captivity, and that it was done by a revelation from heaven, that they may not be thought to have made any change, of their own accord, in the commandments of God.

Now if it was the custom, at that time, to join two festivals in one, (as the Jews themselves admit, and as their ancient writings prove,) it is a highly probable conjecture that Christ, who celebrated the passover on the day before the Sabbath, observed the day prescribed by the Law; for we know how careful he was not to depart from a single iota of the Law. Having determined to be subject to the Law, that he might deliver us from its yoke, he did not forget this subjection at his latest hour; and therefore he would rather have chosen to omit an outward ceremony, than to transgress the ordinance which God had appointed, and thus lay himself open to the slanders of wicked men. Even the Jews themselves unquestionably will not deny that, whenever the Sabbath immediately followed the passover, it was on one day, instead of both, that they abstained from work, and that this was enjoined by the Rabbins. Hence it follows that Christ, in departing from the ordinary custom, attempted nothing contrary to the Law.

Calvin: Mat 26:18 - Go into the city to such a man // My time is near 18.Go into the city to such a man Matthew specifies a certain man; the other two Evangelists relate that the disciples were sent as to an unknown i...

18.Go into the city to such a man Matthew specifies a certain man; the other two Evangelists relate that the disciples were sent as to an unknown individual, because a sign was given to them of a man carrying a pitcher of water. But this difference is easily reconciled; for Matthew passing by the miracle, describes that man who was then unknown to the disciples; for it cannot be doubted that, when they came to the house, they found that it was one of their acquaintances. Christ enjoins him authoritatively to make ready a lodging for himself and his disciples, calling him master; and the man immediately complies But though he might have expressly pointed out the man by name, he chose rather to direct his disciples to him by a miracle, that, when they shortly afterwards saw him reduced to a state of weakness, their faith might remain firm, being supported by this evidence. It was no slight confirmation that, a few hours before he was put to death, he had given an undoubted proof that he was God, that they might know that he was not constrained by necessity, but yielded of his own accord. And though at the very time when the weariness occurred, this was perhaps of no advantage to them, yet the recollection of it was afterwards useful; as even in the present day, in order to rise above the offense of the cross, it is of great importance to us to know that, along with the weakness of the flesh, the glory of divinity appeared in Christ about the very time of his death.

My time is near Though he celebrated the passover correctly according to the injunction of the Law, yet he appears to assign this reason for the express purpose of avoiding the blame of self-will. He says, therefore, that there are reasons why he must make haste, and not comply with a received custom, because he is called to a greater sacrifice. And yet, as we have said, he introduces no change in the ceremony, but repeats once and again, that the time of his death is near, in order to inform them that he hastens cheerfully to do what the Father had appointed. And as to his connecting the figure of the sacrifice with the reality, in this way he exhorted believers to compare with the ancient figures what he accomplished in reality. This comparison is highly fitted to illustrate the power and efficacy of his death; for the passover was enjoined on the Jews, not merely to remind them of an ancient deliverance, but also that they might expect future and more excellent deliverance from Christ. Such is the import of what Paul says, that

Christ our passover is sacrificed for us, (1Co 5:7.)

Calvin: Mat 26:19 - And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them 19.And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them The readiness with which the disciples comply ought to be observed as a proof of their holy subm...

19.And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them The readiness with which the disciples comply ought to be observed as a proof of their holy submission; for a doubt might naturally arise, when in search of an unknown man, whether they would obtain from the master of the house what they asked by their Master’s command, while they were aware that everywhere he was not only despised but even hated. Yet they make no anxious inquiry about the result, but peaceably obey the injunction. And if we are desirous to have our faith approved, we ought to abide by this rule, to be satisfied with the command alone and go forward wherever God commands, and, expecting the success which he promises, not to indulge in excessive anxiety.

Calvin: Mat 26:20 - When the evening was come, he sat down at table 20.When the evening was come, he sat down at table Not to eat the passover, which they were bound to do standing, as travelers, when they are in ha...

20.When the evening was come, he sat down at table Not to eat the passover, which they were bound to do standing, as travelers, when they are in haste, are wont to take food hastily,

with shoes on their feet, and a staff in their hand,
(Exo 12:11;)

but I consider the meaning to be, that after having observed the solemn rite, he sat down at table to supper. Accordingly, the Evangelists say, when the evening was come: for, at the commencement of the evening, they killed the lamb, and ate the flesh of it roasted.

Calvin: Mat 26:21 - One of you will betray me Mat 26:21.One of you will betray me To render the treachery of Judas more detestable, he points out the aggravated baseness of it by this circumstance...

Mat 26:21.One of you will betray me To render the treachery of Judas more detestable, he points out the aggravated baseness of it by this circumstance, that he was meditating the act of betraying him while he sat with him at the holy table. For if a stranger had done this, it would have been more easily endured; but that one of his intimate friends should form such a design, and — what is more — that, after having entered into an infamous bargain, he should be present at the sacred banquet, was incredibly monstrous. And therefore Luke employs a connecting particle which marks a contrast: but yet, (πλὴν) lo, the hand of him that betrayeth me. And though Luke adds this saying of Christ after the supper was finished, we cannot obtain from it any certainty as to the order of time, which, we know, was often disregarded by the Evangelists. Yet I do not deny that it is probable that Judas was present, when Christ distributed to his disciples the symbols of his flesh and blood.

Calvin: Mat 26:22 - They began every one of them to say to him 22.They began every one of them to say to him I do not think that the disciples were alarmed, as persons struck with terror are wont to give themselv...

22.They began every one of them to say to him I do not think that the disciples were alarmed, as persons struck with terror are wont to give themselves uneasiness without any reason; but, abhorring the crime, they are desirous to clear themselves from the suspicion of it. It is, indeed, a mark of reverence, that when indirectly blamed, they do not reply angrily to their Master, but each person constitutes himself his own judge, (as the object which we ought chiefly to aim at is, to be acquitted by his own mouth;) but, relying on a good conscience, they wish to declare frankly how far they are from meditating such a crime.

Calvin: Mat 26:23 - But he answering said 23.But he answering said Christ, by his reply, neither removes their doubt, nor points out the person of Judas, but only confirms what he said a litt...

23.But he answering said Christ, by his reply, neither removes their doubt, nor points out the person of Judas, but only confirms what he said a little before, that one of his friends sitting at the table is the traitor. And though they thought it hard to be left in suspense and perplexity for a time, that they might employ themselves in contemplating the atrocity of the crime, it was afterwards followed by another advantage, when they perceived that the prediction of the psalm was fulfilled,

He that ate pleasant food with me 184
hath lifted up his heel against me, (Psa 41:10.)

Besides, in the person of Judas, our Lord intended to admonish his followers in all ages, not to be discouraged or faint on account of intimate friends proving to be traitors; because the same thing that was experienced by Him who is the Head of the whole Church, must happen to us who are members of it.

Calvin: Mat 26:24 - The Son of man indeed goeth // It had been good for that man 24.The Son of man indeed goeth Here Christ meets an offense, which might otherwise have greatly shaken pious minds. For what could be more unreasonab...

24.The Son of man indeed goeth Here Christ meets an offense, which might otherwise have greatly shaken pious minds. For what could be more unreasonable than that the Son of God should be infamously betrayed by a disciple, and abandoned to the rage of enemies, in order to be dragged to an ignominious death? But Christ declares that all this takes place only by the will of God; and he proves this decree by the testimony of Scripture, because God formerly revealed, by the mouth of his Prophet, what he had determined.

We now perceive what is intended by the words of Christ. It was, that the disciples, knowing that what was done was regulated by the providence of God, might not imagine that his life or death was determined by chance. But the usefulness of this doctrine extends much farther; for never are we fully confirmed in the result of the death of Christ, till we are convinced that he was not accidentally dragged by men to the cross, but that the sacrifice had been appointed by an eternal decree of God for expiating the sins of the world. For whence do we obtain reconciliation, but because Christ has appeased the Father by his obedience? Wherefore let us always place before our minds the providence of God, which Judas himself, and all wicked men — though it is contrary to their wish, and though they have another end in view — are compelled to obey. Let us always hold this to be a fixed principle, that Christ suffered, because it pleased God to have such an expiation.

And yet Christ does not affirm that Judas was freed from blame, on the ground that he did nothing but what God had appointed. For though God, by his righteous judgment, appointed for the price of our redemption the death of his Son, yet nevertheless, Judas, in betraying Christ, brought upon himself righteous condemnation, because he was full of treachery and avarice. In short, God’s determination that the world should be redeemed, does not at all interfere with Judas being a wicked traitor. Hence we perceive, that though men can do nothing but what God has appointed, still this does not free them from condemnation, when they are led by a wicked desire to sin. For though God directs them, by an unseen bridle, to an end which is unknown to them, nothing is farther from their intention than to obey his decrees. Those two principles, no doubt, appear to human reason Lo be inconsistent with each other, that God regulates the affairs of men by his Providence in such a manner, that nothing is done but by his will and command, and yet he damns the reprobate, by whom he has carried into execution what he intended. But we see how Christ, in this passage, reconciles both, by pronouncing a curse on Judas, though what he contrived against God had been appointed by God; not that Judas’s act of betraying ought strictly to be called the work of God, but because God turned the treachery of Judas so as to accomplish His own purpose.

I am aware of the manner in which some commentators endeavor to avoid this rock. They acknowledge that what had been written was accomplished through the agency of Judas, because God testified by predictions what He fore-knew. By way of softening the doctrine, which appears to them to be somewhat harsh, they substitute the foreknowledge of God in place of the decree, as if God merely beheld from a distance future events, and did not arrange them according to his pleasure. But very differently does the Spirit settle this question; for not only does he assign as the reason why Christ was delivered up, that it was so written, but also that it was so determined. For where Matthew and Mark quote Scripture, Luke leads us direct to the heavenly decree, saying, according to what was determined; as also in the Acts of the Apostles, he shows that Christ was delivered not only by the foreknowledge, but likewise by the fixed purpose of God, (Act 2:25) and a little afterwards, that Herod and Pilate, with other wicked men,

did those things which had been fore-ordained by the hand and purpose of God, (Act 4:27.)

Hence it is evident that it is but an ignorant subterfuge which is employed by those who betake themselves to bare foreknowledge.

It had been good for that man By this expression we are taught what a dreadful vengeance awaits the wicked, for whom it would have been better that they had never been born. And yet this life, though transitory, and full of innumerable distresses, is an invaluable gift of God. Again, we also infer from it, how detestable is their wickedness, which not only extinguishes the precious gifts of God, and turns them to their destruction, but makes it to have been better for them that they had never tasted the goodness of God. But this phrase is worthy of observation, it would have been good for that man if he had never been born; for though the condition of Judas was wretched, yet to have created hint was good in God, who, appointing the reprobate to the day of destruction, illustrates also in this way his own glory, as Solomon tells us:

The Lord hath made all things for himself; yea,
even the wicked for the day of evil, (Pro 16:4.)

The secret government of God, which provides even the schemes and works of men, is thus vindicated, as I lately noticed, from all blame and suspicion.

Calvin: Mat 26:25 - And Judas who betrayed him 25.And Judas who betrayed him Though we often see persons trembling, who are conscious of doing wrong, yet along with dread and secret torments there...

25.And Judas who betrayed him Though we often see persons trembling, who are conscious of doing wrong, yet along with dread and secret torments there is mingled such stupidity, that they boldly make a fiat denial; but in the end they gain nothing by their impudence but to expose their hidden wickedness. Thus Judas, while he is restrained by an evil conscience, cannot remain silent; so dreadfully is he tormented, and, at the same time, overwhelmed with fear and anxiety, by that internal executioner. Christ, by indirectly glancing, in his reply, at the foolish rashness of Judas, entreats him to consider the crime which he wished to conceal; but his mind, already seized with diabolical rage, could not admit such a sentiment. Let us learn from this example, that the wicked, by bold apologies, do nothing more than draw down upon themselves a more sudden judgment.

Calvin: Mat 26:26 - And while they were eating, Jesus took bread // Jesus took bread // When he had given thanks // Take, eat // This is my body Mat 26:26.And while they were eating, Jesus took bread I do not understand these words to mean that with the paschal supper was mixed this new and mor...

Mat 26:26.And while they were eating, Jesus took bread I do not understand these words to mean that with the paschal supper was mixed this new and more excellent supper, but rather that an end was then put to the former banquet. This is still more clearly expressed by Luke, when he says that, Christ gave the cup after that he had supped; for it would have been absurd that one and the same mystery should be broken off by an interval of time. And therefore I have no doubt that, in immediate succession, after having distributed the bread, he added the cup; and what Luke relates particularly respecting the cup, I regard as including also the bread. While they were eating, therefore, Christ took bread, to invite them to partake of a new supper. 190 The thanksgiving was a sort of preparation and transition to consider the mystery. Thus when the supper was ended, they tasted the sacred bread and wine; because Christ had previously aroused them from their indifference, that they might be all alive to so lofty a mystery. And, indeed, the nature of the case demands that this clear testimony of the spiritual life should be distinguished from the ancient shadow.

Jesus took bread It is uncertain if the custom which is now observed among the Jews was at that time in use: for the master of the house breaks off a portion of a common loaf, hides it under the table-cloth, and afterwards distributes a part of it to, each member of the family. But as this is a human tradition not founded on any commandment of God, we need not toil with excessive eagerness to investigate its origin; and it is possible that it may have been afterwards contrived, by a trick of Satan, for the purpose of obscuring the mystery of the Lord’s Supper. And even if this ceremony was at that time in use among the Jews, Christ followed the ordinary custom in such a manner as to draw away the minds of his followers to another object, by changing the use of the bread for a different purpose. This, at least, ought to be considered as beyond all controversy, that Christ, at this time, abolished the figures of the Law, and instituted a new Sacrament.

When he had given thanks Matthew and Mark employ the word εὐλογήσας 191 (having blessed;) but as Luke employs, instead of it, the word εὐχαριστήσας (having given thanks,) there can be no doubt as to the meaning; and as they afterwards use the word thanksgiving in reference to the cup, they expound with sufficient clearness the former term. So much the more ridiculous is the ignorance of the Papists, who express the blessing by the sign of the cross, as if Christ had practiced some kind of exorcising. But we must recollect what I lately noticed, that this thanksgiving is connected with a spiritual mystery. While it is true that believers are commanded to give thanks to God, because he supports them in this fading life, Christ did not merely refer to ordinary eating, but directed his view to the holy action, in order to thank God for the eternal salvation of the human race. For if the food which descends into the belly ought to persuade and arouse us to praise the fatherly kindness of God, how much more powerfully does it excite and even inflame, us to this act of piety, when he feeds our souls spiritually?

Take, eat That I may not be too tedious, I shall only explain briefly what is the nature of our Lord’s institution, and what it contains; and, next, what is its end and us so far as it may be learned from the Evangelists. And, first of all, it strikes us, that Christ instituted a supper, which the disciples partake in company with each other. Hence it follows, that it is a diabolical invention, that a man, separating himself from the rest of the company, eats his supper apart. For what two things could be more inconsistent than that the bread should be distributed among them all, and that a single individual should swallow it alone? Although then the Papists boast, that in their masses they have the substance of the Lord’s Supper, yet it is evident from the nature of the case, that whenever they celebrate private masses, they are so many trophies erected by the devil for burying the Lord’s Supper.

The same words teach us what sort of sacrifice it is that Christ recommends to us in the Supper. He bids his disciples take; and therefore it is himself alone that offers. What the Papists contrive, as to Christ’s offering himself in the Supper, proceeded from an opposite author. And certainly it is a strange inversion, (ἀναστροφὴ,) when a mortal man, who is commanded to take the body of Christ, claims the office of offering it; and thus a priest, who has been appointed by himself, sacrifices to God his own Son. I do not at present inquire with how many acts of sacrilege their pretended offering abounds. It is sufficient for my purpose, that it is so far from approaching to Christ’s institution, that it is directly opposed to it.

This is my body As to the opinion entertained by some, that by those words the bread was consecrated, so as to become the symbol of the flesh of Christ, I do not find fault with it, provided that the word consecrated be understood aright, and in a proper sense. So then, the bread, which had been appointed for the nourishment of the body, is chosen and sanctified by Christ to a different use, so as to begin to be spiritual food. And this is the conversion 192 which is spoken of by the ancient doctors 193 of the Church. But we must at the same time hold, that bread is not consecrated by whispering and breathing, but by the clear doctrine of faith. And certainly it is a piece of magic and sorcery, when the consecration is addressed to the dead element; for the bread is made not to itself, but to us, a symbol of the body of Christ. In short, consecration is nothing else than a solemn testimony, by which the Lord appoints to us for a spiritual use an earthly and corruptible sign; which cannot take place, unless his command and promise are distinctly heard for the edification of faith; from which again it is evident, that the low whispering and breathing of the Papists are a wicked profanation of the mystery. Now if Christ consecrates the bread, when he declares to us that it is his body, we must not suppose that there is any change of the substance, but must only believe that it is applied to a new purpose. And if the world had not been long ago so bewitched by the subtlety of the devil, that, when the monster of transubstantiation had once been introduced, it will not now admit any light of true interpretation on these words, it would be superfluous to spend any more time in investigating their meaning.

Christ declares that the bread is his body. These words relate to a sacrament; and it must be acknowledged, that a sacrament consists of a visible sign, with which is connected the thing signified, which is the reality of it. It must be well known, on the other hand, that the name of the thing signified is transferred to the sign; and therefore, no person who is tolerably well acquainted with Scripture will deny that a sacramental mode of expression ought to be taken metonymically. 194 I pass by general figures, which occur frequently in Scripture, and only say this: whenever an outward sign is said to be that which it represents, it is universally agreed to be an instance of metonymy. If baptism be called the laver of regeneration, (Titus in. 5;) if the rock, from which water flowed to the Fathers in the wilderness, be called Christ, (1Co 10:4;) if a dove be called the Holy Spirit, (Joh 1:32;) no man will question but the signs receive the name of the things which they represent. How comes it, then, that persons who profess to entertain a veneration for the words of the Lord will not permit us to apply to the Lord’s Supper what is common to all the sacraments?

They are delighted with the plain and literal sense. Why then shall not the same rule apply to all the sacraments? Certainly, if they do not admit that the Rock was actually Christ, the calumny with which they load us is mere affectation. If we explain that the bread is called his body, because it is the symbol of his body, they allege that the whole doctrine of Scripture is overturned. For this principle of language has not been recently forged by us, but has been handed down by Augustine on the authority of the ancients, and embraced by all, that the names of spiritual things are improperly ascribed to signs, and that all the passages of Scripture, in which the sacraments are mentioned, ought to be explained in this manner. When we bring forward a principle which has been universally admitted, what purpose does it serve to raise a loud clamor, as if it were something new and strange? But let obstinate people cry out as they please, all men of sound judgment and modesty will admit, that in these words of Christ there is a sacramental form of expression. Hence it follows, that the bread is called his body, because it is a symbol of the body of Christ.

Now there are two classes of men that rise up against us. The Papists, deceived by their transubstantiation, maintain that what we see is not bread, because it is only the appearance that remains without the reality. But their absurd fancy is refuted by Paul, who asserts that

the bread which we break is the communion of the body of Christ,
(1Co 10:16.)

Besides, their notion is at variance with the very nature of a sacrament, which will not possess all that is essential to it, if there be not a true outward symbol. For whence shall we learn that our souls feed on the flesh of Christ, if what is placed before our eyes be not bread, but an empty form? Besides, what will they say about the other symbol? For Christ does not say, This is my blood, but, this cup is the new testament in my blood. According to their view, therefore, not only the wine, but also the materials of which the cup is composed, must be transubstantiated into blood. Again, the words related by Matthew — I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine — plainly show that what he delivered to the disciples to drink was wine; so that in every way the ignorance of the Papists is fully exposed.

But there are others who reject the figure, and, like madmen, unsay what they had just said. According to them, bread is truly and properly body; for they disapprove of transubstantiation, as wholly devoid of reason and plausibility. But when the question is put to them, if Christ be bread and wine, they reply that the bread is called body, because under it and along with it the body is received in the Lord’s Supper. But from this reply it may be readily concluded, that the word body is improperly applied to the bread, which is a sign of it. And since those men have constantly in their mouth, that Christ spoke thus in reference to a sacramental union, it is strange that they do not consider what they say. For what is the nature of a sacramental union between a thing and its sign? Is it not because the Lord, by the secret power of his Spirit, fulfills what he promises? So then those later instructions about the letter are not less absurd than the Papists.

Hitherto I have pointed out the simple exposition of the words of our Lord. But now I must add, that it is not an empty or unmeaning sign which is held out to us, but those who receive this promise by faith are actually made partakers of his flesh and blood. For in vain would the Lord command his people to eat bread, declaring that it is his body, if the effect were not truly added to the figure. Nor must it be supposed that we dispute this point, whether it is in reality, or only by signification, that Christ presents himself to be enjoyed by us in the Lord’s Supper; for, though we perceive nothing in it but bread, yet he does not disappoint or mock us, when he undertakes to nourish our souls by his flesh. The true eating of the flesh of Christ, therefore, is not only pointed out by the sign, but is likewise exhibited in reality.

But there are three mistakes against which it is here necessary to be on our guard; first, not to confound the spiritual blessing with the sign; secondly, not to seek Christ on earth, or under earthly elements; thirdly, not to imagine any other kind of eating than that which draws into us the life of Christ by the secret power of the Spirit, and which we obtain by faith alone. First, as I have said, let us always keep in view the distinction between the sign and the thing signified, if we do not wish to overturn every thing; for otherwise we shall derive no advantage from the sacrament, if it do not, according to the measure of our small capacity, lead us from the contemplation of the earthly element to the heavenly mystery. And therefore, whoever will not distinguish the body of Christ from the bread, and the blood from the wine, will never understand what is meant by the Lord’s Supper, or for what purpose believers use these symbols.

Secondly, we must attend to the proper method of seeking Christ; that is, our minds must not be fixed on the earth, but must ascend upwards to the heavenly glory in which he dwells. For the body of Christ did not, by clothing itself with an incorruptible life, lay aside its own nature; and hence it follows that it is finite. 195 But he has now ascended above the heavens, that no gross imagination may keep us occupied with earthly things. And certainly, if this mystery is heavenly, nothing could be more unreasonable than to draw down Christ to the earth, when, on the contrary, he calls us upwards to himself.

The last point which, I said, claimed our attention, is the kind of eating. We must not dream that his substance passes, in a natural manner, into our souls; but we cat his flesh, when, by means of it, we receive life. For we must attend to the analogy or resemblance between bread and flesh, which teaches us, that our souls feed on Christ’s own flesh in precisely the same manner as bread imparts vigor to our bodies. The flesh of Christ, therefore, is spiritual nourishment, because it gives life to us. Now it gives life, because the Holy Spirit pours into us the life which dwells in it. And though the act of eating the flesh of Christ is different from believing on him, yet we ought to know that it is impossible to feed on Christ in any other way than by faith, because the eating itself is a consequence of faith.

Calvin: Mat 26:27 - Drink you all of it Mat 26:27.Drink you all of it As it was the design of Christ to keep our faith wholly fixed on himself, that we may not seek any thing apart from him,...

Mat 26:27.Drink you all of it As it was the design of Christ to keep our faith wholly fixed on himself, that we may not seek any thing apart from him, he employed two symbols to show that our life is shut up in him. This body needs to be nourished and supported by meat and drink. Christ, in order to show that he alone is able to discharge perfectly all that is necessary for salvation, says that he supplies the place of meat and drink; by which he gives an astonishing display of his condescension, in thus letting himself down to the feeble capacity of our flesh for the purpose of invigorating our faith. So much the more detestable is the insolence and sacrilege of the Pope, who has not scrupled to break asunder this sacred tie. We learn that the Son of God employed two symbols together, to testify the fullness of life which he bestows on his followers. What right had a mortal man to separate those things which God had joined together?

But it would even appear that the express reason why our Lord commanded all to drink of the cup was in order to prevent this sacrilege from entering into the Church. As to the bread, we read that he simply said, Take, eat. Why does he expressly command them all to drink, and why does Mark explicitly say that they all drank of it, if it were not to guard believers against this wicked novelty? And yet this severe prohibition has not deterred the Pope from venturing to change and violate a law established by the Lord; for he has withheld all the people from using the cup. And to prove that his rage has reason on its side, he alleges that one of the kinds is sufficient, because the flesh includes the blood by concomitancy. 196 On the same pretext they would be at liberty to set aside the whole of the sacrament, because Christ might equally well make us partakers of himself without any external aid. But those childish cavils yield no support to their impiety; for nothing can be more absurd than that believers should, of their own accord, part with the aids which the Lord has given, or allow themselves to be deprived of them; and, therefore, nothing can be more intolerable than this wicked mangling of the mystery.

Calvin: Mat 26:29 - But I tell you // Till that day when I shall drink it new with you 29.But I tell you This sentence is put by Matthew and Mark immediately after the Holy Supper, when Christ had given the symbol of his blood in the ...

29.But I tell you This sentence is put by Matthew and Mark immediately after the Holy Supper, when Christ had given the symbol of his blood in the cup; from which some infer that Luke relates here the same thing which we shall find him repeating shortly afterwards. But this difficulty is easily obviated, because it is of little importance in itself at what precise moment Christ said this. All that the Evangelists intend to state by it is, that the disciples were warned both of their Master’s approaching death, and of the new and heavenly life: for the more nearly the hour of his death approached, there was the greater necessity for them to be confirmed, that they might not altogether fall away. Again, as he intended to place his death before their eyes in the Holy Supper, as in a mirror, it was not without reason that he again declared that he was now leaving the world. But as this intelligence was full of sadness, a consolation is immediately added, that they have no occasion for shrinking from the thought of his death, which will be followed by a better life. As if he had said: “It is true, indeed, that I am now hastening to my death, but it is in order that I may pass from it to a blessed immortality, not to live alone without you in the kingdom of God, but to have you associated with me in the same life.” Thus we see how Christ leads his disciples by the hand to the cross, and thence raises them to. the hope of the resurrection. And as it was necessary that they should be directed to the cross of Christ, that by that ladder they might ascend to heaven; so now, since Christ has died and been received into heaven, we ought to be led from the contemplation of the cross to heaven, that death and the restoration of life may be found to agree.

Till that day when I shall drink it new with you It is plain from these words that he promises to them a glory which they will share with himself. The objection made by some —that meat and drink are not applicable to the kingdom of God—is frivolous; for Christ means nothing more than that his disciples will soon be deprived of his presence, and that he will not henceforth eat with them, until they enjoy together the heavenly life. As he points out their being associated in that life, which needs not the aids of meat and drink, he says that there will then be a new kind of drinking; by which term we are taught that he is speaking allegorically. Accordingly, Luke simply says, until the kingdom of God come. In short, Christ recommends to us the fruit and effect of the redemption which he procured by his death.

The opinion entertained by some—that these words were fulfilled, when Christ ate with his disciples after his resurrection is foreign to his meaning; for, since that was an intermediate condition between the course of a mortal life and the end of a heavenly life, the kingdom of God had not, at that time, been fully revealed; and therefore Christ said to Mary,

Touch me not, for I have not yet ascended to my Father,
(Joh 20:17.)

Besides, the disciples had not yet entered into the kingdom of God, so as to drink new wine with Christ, being partakers of the same glory. And when we read that Christ drank after his resurrection, though he declared that he would not do so until he had assembled his disciples in the kingdom of God, the apparent contradiction is easily removed. For it is not exactly of meat and drink that he speaks, but of the intercourse of the present life. Now we know that Christ did not at that time drink for the purpose of invigorating his body by food, or of holding intercourse with his disciples, but only to prove his resurrection—of which they were still doubtful—and thus to raise their minds on high. Let us therefore rest satisfied with the natural meaning, that our Lord promises to his disciples that, having hitherto lived with them on earth as a mortal man, he will hereafter make them his associates in a blessed and immortal life.

Calvin: Mat 26:31 - You will all be offended at me Mat 26:31.You will all be offended at me What Matthew and Mark extend to all the disciples alike is related by Luke as having been spoken to Peter onl...

Mat 26:31.You will all be offended at me What Matthew and Mark extend to all the disciples alike is related by Luke as having been spoken to Peter only. But though the statement was equally addressed to all, yet it is probable that Christ spoke to them in the person of one man, who was to be admonished more than all the rest, and who needed extraordinary consolation, that, after having denied Christ, he might not be altogether overwhelmed with despair.

Calvin: Mat 26:32 - For it is written // But after I have risen Mat 26:31.For it is written By this prediction he encourages them to rise above the offense, because God does not cease to recognize as his sheep th...

Mat 26:31.For it is written By this prediction he encourages them to rise above the offense, because God does not cease to recognize as his sheep those who are driven out and scattered in every direction for a time. After having treated of the restoration of the Church, the prophet, in order to prevent the minds of the godly from being overwhelmed with despair by the extreme distresses which were already at hand, declares, that when the government has been brought into a state of confusion, or even completely overturned, there will be a sad and miserable dispersion, but yet the grace of God will be victorious. And though almost all commentators confine the passage in Zec 13:7 to the person of Christ alone, yet I extend it farther, as meaning that a government, on which the salvation of the people depends, will no longer exist, because the shepherds will be driven from the midst of them. I have no doubt that the Lord intended to include that whole period during which, after the tyranny of Antiochus, the Church was deprived of good shepherds, and reduced to a state of desolation; for at that time God permitted the sword to commit fearful devastation, and, by slaying the shepherds, to throw the people into a state of wretched confusion. And yet this scattering did not prevent the Lord from gathering his sheep at length, by stretching out his hand towards them.

But though the prophet utters a general threatening that the Church will be deprived of shepherds, still this is justly and properly applied to Christ. For since he was the prince of all the shepherds, on whom alone the salvation of the Church depended, when he was dead, it might be thought that all hope was utterly gone. And, indeed, it was an extremity of temptation, when the Redeemer, who was the breath and life of his people, after having begun to collect the flock of God, was suddenly dragged to death. But so much the more strikingly was the grace of God displayed, when out of dispersion and death the remaining flock was again assembled in a wonderful manner.

Thus we see, that Christ quoted this passage appropriately, that the disciples might not be too much alarmed by the future dispersion, and yet that, aware of their own weakness, they might rely on their Shepherd. The meaning therefore is: “Not having yet felt your weakness, you imagine that you are sufficiently vigorous and powerful; but it will soon be apparent that the prediction of Zechariah is true, that, when the shepherd is slain, the flock will be scattered. But yet let the promise which is added exhilarate and support you, that God will stretch out his hand, to bring back to Him the scattered sheep. ” We are here taught, that there is no unity that brings salvation but that which keeps the sheep united under Christ’s crook.

32.But after I have risen He now expresses more clearly — what I lately hinted — that the disciples, struck with dread, will resemble for a short time scattered and wandering sheep, but will at length be brought back to the fold. For Christ does not simply say that he will rise again, but promises to be their leader, and takes them for his companions, as if they had never swerved from their allegiance to him; and, to impart to them greater confidence, he mentions the place where they will again meet; as if he had said, “You, who are scattered at Jerusalem, will be again assembled by me in Galilee.

Calvin: Mat 26:33 - Peter answering 33.Peter answering Though Peter uses no hypocrisy, but speaks with sincere affection, yet as a false confidence in his virtue carries him away into...

33.Peter answering Though Peter uses no hypocrisy, but speaks with sincere affection, yet as a false confidence in his virtue carries him away into foolish boasting, he is justly reproved by Christ, and shortly afterwards is severely punished for his rashness. Thus the event showed, that Peter promised more for himself than he was able to accomplish, because he had not been sufficiently careful to examine himself. Hence too we see more clearly, how stupid is the intoxication of human presumption, that, when he is again reminded of his weakness by the Son of God, and that with the solemnity of an oath, he is so far from yielding, or even from making any abatement of his foolish confidence, that he goes on to show those lofty pretensions with more fierceness than ever.

But it is asked, Had not Peter a right to hope what he promises for himself? and was he not even bound, relying on the promise of Christ, to make this promise for himself? I answer, When Christ formerly promised to his disciples the spirit of unshaken fortitude, he referred to a new state of things which followed the resurrection; and, therefore, as they were not yet endued with heavenly power, Peter, forming confident expectations from himself, goes beyond the limits of faith. He erred in two respects. First, by anticipating the time he made a rash engagement, and did not rely on the promise of the Lord. Secondly, shutting his eyes on his own weakness, and under the influence of thoughtlessness rather than of courage, he undertook more than the case, warranted.

This claims our attention, that every man, remembering his own weakness, may earnestly resort to the assistance of the Holy Spirit; and next, that no man may venture to take more upon himself than what the Lord promises. Believers ought, indeed, to be prepared for the contest in such a manner that, entertaining no doubt or uncertainty about the result and the victory, they may resist fear; for trembling and excessive anxiety are marks of distrust. But, on the other hand, they ought to guard against that stupidity which shakes off all anxiety, and fills their minds with pride, and extinguishes the desire to pray. This middle course between two faulty extremes 199 is very beautifully expressed by Paul, when he enjoins us to

work out our salvation with fear and trembling, because it is God that worketh in us to will and perform,
(Phi 2:12.)

For, on the one hand, having humbled us, he entreats us to seek supplies elsewhere; and, on the other hand, lest anxiety should induce sloth, he exhorts us to strenuous exertions. And, therefore, whenever any temptation is presented to us, let us first remember our weakness, that, being entirely thrown down, we may learn to seek elsewhere what we need; and, next, let us remember the grace which is promised, that it may free us from doubt. For those who, forgetting their weakness, and not calling on God, feel assured that they are strong, act entirely like drunken soldiers, who throw themselves rashly into the field, but, as soon as the effects of strong drink are worn off, think of nothing else than flight.

It is wonderful that the other disciples, after Peter had been reproved, still break out into the same rashness; and hence it is evident how little they knew themselves. We are taught by this example, that we ought to attempt nothing, except so far as God stretches out his hand; for nothing is more fading or transitory than inconsiderate zeal. The disciples perceive that nothing is more base or unreasonable than to forsake their Master; and, therefore, they justly detest so infamous an action: but, having no reliance on the promise, and neglecting prayer, they advance with inconsiderate haste to boast of a constancy which they did not possess.

Calvin: Mat 26:36 - Then Jesus cometh with them // Sit here Mat 26:36.Then Jesus cometh with them Luke mentions the mountain of Olives only. Mark and Matthew add a more minute description of the place. But Lu...

Mat 26:36.Then Jesus cometh with them Luke mentions the mountain of Olives only. Mark and Matthew add a more minute description of the place. But Luke expresses what is still more to the purpose, that Christ came there according to his custom. Hence we infer, that he did not seek retirement for the purpose of concealing himself, but, as if he had made an assignation with his enemies, he presented himself to death. On this account John says (Joh 18:2) that the place was known to the traitor, because Jesus was wont to come there frequently. In this passage, therefore, his obedience is again described to us, because he could not have appeased the Father but by a voluntary death.

Sit here By leaving the disciples at a distance, he spares their weakness; as if a man, perceiving that he would soon be in extreme danger in battle, were to leave his wife and children in a situation of safety. But though he intended to place them all beyond arrow-shot, yet he took three of them who accompanied him more closely than the rest, and these were the flower and choice, in which there was greater rigor. And yet he did not take them, as if he believed that they would be able to sustain the attack, but that they might afford a proof of the defect which was common to them all.

Calvin: Mat 26:37 - He began to be affected with grief 37.He began to be affected with grief We have seen that our Lord formerly contended with the fear of death; but as he now fights face to face with te...

37.He began to be affected with grief We have seen that our Lord formerly contended with the fear of death; but as he now fights face to face with temptation, such an attack is called the beginning of grief and sorrow. Hence we infer that the true test of virtue is only to be found when the contest begins; for then the weakness of the flesh, which was formerly concealed, shows itself, and the secret feelings are abundantly displayed. Thus, though God had already tried his Son by certain preparatory exercises, he now wounds him more sharply by a nearer prospect of death, and strikes his mind with a terror to which he had not been accustomed. But as it appears to be inconsistent with the divine glory of Christ, that he was seized with trembling and sadness, many commentators have labored with toil and anxiety to find some way of evading the difficulty. But their labor has been ill-judged and of no use; for if we are ashamed that Christ should experience fear and sorrow, our redemption will perish and be lost.

Ambrose justly says: “I not only do not think that there is any need of excuse, but there is no instance in which I admire more his kindness and his majesty; for he would not have done so much for me, if he had not taken upon him my feelings. He grieved for me, who had no cause of grief for himself; and, laying aside the delights of the eternal Godhead, he experiences the affliction of my weakness. I boldly call it sorrow, because I preach the cross. For he took upon him not the appearance, but the reality, of incarnation. It was therefore necessary that he should experience grief, that he might overcome sorrow, and not shut it out; for the praise of fortitude is not bestowed on those who are rather stupefied than pained by wounds.” Thus far Ambrose.

Certainly those who imagine that the Son of God was exempt from human passions do not truly and sincerely acknowledge him to be a man. And when it is even said that the divine power of Christ rested and was concealed for a time, that by his sufferings he might discharge all that belonged to the Redeemer, this was so far from being absurd, that in no other way could the mystery of our salvation have been accomplished. For Cyril has properly said: “ That the suffering of Christ on the cross was not in every respect voluntary, but that it was voluntary on account of the will of the Father, and on account of our salvation, you may easily learn from his prayer, Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me. For the same reason that the Word of God is God, (Joh 1:1,) and is naturally life itself, (Joh 11:25,) nobody doubts that he had no dread of death; but, having been made flesh, (Joh 1:14,) he allows the flesh to feel what belongs to it, and, therefore, being truly a man, he trembles at death, when it is now at the door, and says, Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; but since it cannot be otherwise, let it be not as I will, but as thou wilt. You see how human nature, even in Christ himself, has the sufferings and fears which belong to it, but that the Word, who is united to it, raises it to a fortitude which is worthy of God.” He at length concludes: “ You perceive that it was not for the sake of the flesh that the death of Christ was voluntary, but that it was voluntary, because, on account of it, according to the will of the Father, salvation and life were bestowed on men.” Such are the views of Cyril.

Still the weakness which Christ took upon himself must be distinguished from ours, for there is a great difference. In us there is no affection unaccompanied by sin, because they all exceed due bounds and proper restraint; but when Christ was distressed by grief and fear, he did not rise against God, but continued to be regulated by the true rule of moderation. We need not wonder that, since he was innocent, and pure from every stain, the affections which flowed from him were pure and stainless; but that nothing proceeds from the corrupt nature of men which is not impure and filthy. Let us, therefore, attend to this distinction, that Christ, amidst fear and sadness, was weak without any taint of sin; but that all our affections are sinful, because they rise to an extravagant height.

The kind of feelings, by which Christ was tempted, is also worthy of notice. Matthew says that he was affected by grief and sorrow (or anxiety;)Luke says that he was seized with anguish; and Mark adds that he trembled. And whence came his sorrow and anguish, and fear, but because he felt that death had something in it more sad and more dreadful than the separation of the soul and body? And certainly he underwent death, not merely that he might depart from earth to heaven, but rather that, by taking upon himself the curse to which we were liable, he might deliver us from it. He had no horror at death, therefore, simply as a passage out of the world, but because he had before his eyes the dreadful tribunal of God, and the Judge himself armed with inconceivable vengeance; and because our sins, the load of which was laid upon him, pressed him down with their enormous weight. There is no reason to wonder, therefore, if the dreadful abyss of destruction tormented him grievously with fear and anguish.

Calvin: Mat 26:38 - My soul is sorrowful 38.My soul is sorrowful He communicates to them his sorrow, in order to arouse them to sympathy; not that he was unacquainted with their weakness, ...

38.My soul is sorrowful He communicates to them his sorrow, in order to arouse them to sympathy; not that he was unacquainted with their weakness, but in order that they might afterwards be more ashamed of their carelessness. This phrase expresses a deadly wound of grief; as if he had said, that he fainted, or was half-dead, with sorrow. Jonah (Jon 4:9) makes use of a similar phrase in replying to the Lord; I am angry even to death. I advert to this, because some of the ancient writers, in handling this passage with a misapplication of ingenuity, philosophize in this way, that the soul of Christ was not sorrowful in death but only even to death. And here again we ought to remember the cause of so great sorrow; for death in itself would not have so grievously tormented the mind of the Son of God, if he had not felt that he had to deal with the judgment of God.

Calvin: Mat 26:39 - And he went forward a little // And fell on his face // My Father, if it be possible // But yet not as I will, but as thou wilt 39.And he went forward a little We have seen in other passages, that in order to excite himself to greater earnestness of prayer, the Lord prayed in ...

39.And he went forward a little We have seen in other passages, that in order to excite himself to greater earnestness of prayer, the Lord prayed in the absence of witnesses; for when we are withdrawn from the gaze of men, we succeed better in collecting our senses, so as to attend more closely to what we are doing. It is not, indeed, necessary — nay more, it is not always proper — that we should retire to distant corners whenever we pray; but when some great necessity urges us, because the fervor of prayer is more freely indulged when we are alone, it is useful to us to pray apart. And if the Son of God did not disregard this aid, it would be the greatest madness of pride in us not to apply it for our own advantage. Add to this, that when God alone is witness, as there is nothing then to be feared from ambition, the believing soul unfolds itself with greater familiarity, and with greater simplicity pours its wishes, and groans, and anxieties, and fears, and hopes, and joys, into the bosom of God. God allows his people to make use of many little modes of speaking, when they pray alone, which, in the presence of men, would savor of ostentation.

And fell on his face By the very gesture of falling on the earth, Christ manifested his deep earnestness in prayer. For though kneeling, as our expression of respect and reverence, is commonly used in prayer, Christ, by throwing himself on the ground as a suppliant, placed himself in a pitiable attitude on account of the vehemence of his grief.

My Father, if it be possible In vain do some persons labor to show that what is here described is not a prayer, but only a complaint. For my own part, while I own that it is abrupt, I have no doubt that Christ offered a prayer. Nor is it inconsistent with this, that he asks a thing that is impossible to be granted to him; for the prayers of believers do not always flow on with uninterrupted progress to the end, do not always maintain a uniform measure, are not always arranged even in a distinct order, but, on the contrary, are involved and confused, and either oppose each other, or stop in the middle of the course; like a vessel tossed by tempests, which, though it advances towards the harbor, cannot always keep a straight and uniform course, as in a calm sea. We must remember, indeed, what I lately mentioned, that Christ had not confused emotions, like those to which we are accustomed, to withdraw his mind from pure moderation; but, so far as the pure and innocent nature of man could admit, he was struck with fear and seized with anguish, so that, amidst the violent shocks of temptation, he vacillated—as it were—from one wish to another. This is the reason why, after having prayed to be freed from death, he immediately restrains himself, and, submitting to the authority of the Father, corrects and recalls that wish which had suddenly escaped him.

But it may be asked, How did he pray that the eternal decree of the Father, of which he was not ignorant, should be revoked? or though he states a condition, if it be possible, yet it wears an aspect of absurdity to make the purpose of God changeable. We must hold it to be utterly impossible for God to revoke his decree. According to Mark, too, Christ would seem to contrast the power of God with his decree. All things, says he, are possible to thee. But it would be improper to extend the power of God so far as to lessen his truth, by making him liable to variety and change. I answer, There would be no absurdity in supposing that Christ, agreeably to the custom of the godly, leaving out of view the divine purpose, committed to the bosom of the Father his desire which troubled him. For believers, in pouring out their prayers, do not always ascend to the contemplation of the secrets of God, or deliberately inquire what is possible to be done, but are sometimes carried away hastily by the earnestness of their wishes. Thus Moses prays that he may be blotted out of the book of life, (Exo 32:33;) thus Paul wished to be made an anathema, 201 (Rom 9:3.) This, therefore, was not a premeditated prayer of Christ; but the strength and violence of grief suddenly drew this word from his mouth, to which he immediately added a correction. The same vehemence of desire took away from him the immediate recollection of the heavenly decree, so that he did not at that moment reflect, that it was on this condition, 202 that he was sent to be the Redeemer of mankind; as distressing anxiety often brings darkness over our eyes, so that we do not at once remember the whole state of the matter. In short, there is no impropriety, if in prayer we do not always direct our immediate attention to every thing, so as to preserve a distinct order. When Christ says, in the Gospel by Matthew, that all things are possible to God, he does not intend by these words to bring the power of God into conflict with unchangeable truth and firmness; but as there was no hope—which is usually the case when affairs are desperate—he throws himself on the power of God. The word (ποτήριον) cup or chalice — as we have mentioned elsewhere — denotes the providence of God, which assigns to each his measure of the cross and of affliction, just as the master of a house gives an allowance to each servant, and distributes portions among the children.

But yet not as I will, but as thou wilt We see how Christ restrains his feelings at the very outset, and quickly brings himself into a state of obedience. But here it may first be inquired, How was his will pure from all vice, while it did not agree with the will of God? For if the will of God is the only rule of what is good and right, it follows, that all the feelings which are at variance with it are vicious. I reply: Though it be true rectitude to regulate all our feelings by the good pleasure of God, yet there is a certain kind of indirect disagreement with it which is not faulty, and is not reckoned as sin; if, for example, a person desire to see the Church in a calm and flourishing condition, if he wish that the children of God were delivered from afflictions, that all superstitions were removed out of the world, and that the rage of wicked men were so restrained as to do no injury. These things, being in themselves right, may properly be desired by believers, though it may please God to order a different state of matters: for he chooses that his Son should reign among enemies; that his people should be trained under the cross; and that the triumph of faith and of the Gospel should be rendered more illustrious by the opposing machinations of Satan. We see how those prayers are holy, which appear to be contrary to the will of God; for God does not desire us to be always exact or scrupulous in inquiring what he has appointed, but allows us to ask what is desirable according to the capacity of our senses.

But the question has not yet been fully answered: for since we have just now said that all the feelings of Christ were properly regulated, how does he now correct himself? For he brings his feelings into obedience to God in such a manner as if he had exceeded what was proper. Certainly in the first prayer we do not perceive that calm moderation which I have described; for, as far as lies in his power, he refuses and shrinks from discharging the office of Mediator. I reply: When the dread of death was presented to his mind, and brought along with it such darkness, that he left out of view every thing else, and eagerly presented that prayer, there was no fault in this. Nor is it necessary to enter into any subtle controversy whether or not it was possible for him to forget our salvation. We ought to be satisfied with this single consideration, that at the time when he uttered a prayer to be delivered from death, he was not thinking of other things which would have shut the door against such a wish.

If it be objected, that the first movement, which needed to be restrained before it proceeded farther, was not so well regulated as it ought to have been, I reply: In the present corruption of our nature it is impossible to find ardor of affections accompanied by moderation, such as existed in Christ; but we ought to give such honor to the Son of God, as not to judge of him by what we find in ourselves. For in us all the affections of the flesh, when strongly excited, break out into rebellion, or, at least, have some mixture of pollution; but Christ, amidst the utmost vehemence of grief or fear, restrained himself within proper bounds. Nay more, as musical sounds, though various and differing from each other, are so far from being discordant, that they produce sweet melody and fine harmony; so in Christ there was a remarkable example of adaptation between the two wills, 203 the will of God and the will of man, so that they differed from each other without any conflict or opposition.

This passage shows plainly enough the gross folly of those ancient heretics, who were called Monothelites, 204 because they imagined that the will of Christ was but one and simple; for Christ, as he was God, willed nothing different from the Father; and therefore it follows, that his human soul had affections distinct from the secret purpose of God. But if even Christ was under the necessity of holding his will captive, in order to subject it to the government of God, though it was properly regulated, how carefully ought we to repress the violence of our feelings, which are always inconsiderate, and rash, and full of rebellion? And though the Spirit of God governs us, so that we wish nothing but what is agreeable to reason, still we owe to God such obedience as to endure patiently that our wishes should not be granted; 205 For the modesty of faith consists in permitting God to appoint differently from what we desire. Above all, when we have no certain and special promise, we ought to abide by this rule, not to ask any thing but on the condition that God shall fulfill what he has decreed; which cannot be done, unless we give up our wishes to his disposal.

It comes now to be inquired, what advantage did Christ gain by praying? The apostle, in writing to the Hebrews, says that he was heard (ἀπὸ τὢς εὐλαβείας ) on account of his fear: for so ought that passage to be explained, and not, as it is usually explained, on account of his reverence, (Heb 5:7.) That would not have been consistent, if Christ had simply feared death; for he was not delivered from it. Hence it follows, that what led him to pray to be delivered from death was the dread of a greater evil. When he saw the wrath of God exhibited to him, as he stood at the tribunal of God charged with the sins of the whole world, he unavoidably shrunk with horror from the deep abyss of death. And, therefore, though he suffered death, yet since its pains were loosed as Peter tells us, (Act 2:24,)—and he was victorious in the conflict, the Apostle justly says, that he was heard on account of his fear. Here ignorant people rise up and exclaim, that it would have been unworthy of Christ to be afraid of being swallowed up by death. But I should wish them to answer this question, What kind of fear do they suppose it to have been which drew from Christ drops of blood? (Luk 22:44) For that mortal sweat could only have proceeded from fearful and unusual horror. If any person, in the present day, were to sweat blood, and in such a quantity that the drops should fall to the ground, it would be reckoned an astonishing miracle; and if this happened to any man through fear of death, we would say that he had a cowardly and effeminate mind. Those men, therefore, who deny that Christ prayed that the Father would rescue him from the gulf of death, ascribe to him a cowardice that would be disgraceful even in an ordinary man.

If it be objected, that the fear which I am describing arises from unbelief, the answer is easy. When Christ was struck with horror at the divine curse, the feeling of the flesh affected him in such a manner, that faith still remained firm and unshaken. For such was the purity of his nature, that he felt, without being wounded by them, those temptations which pierce us with their stings. And yet those persons, by representing him not to have felt temptations, foolishly imagine that he was victorious without fighting. And, indeed, we have no right to suppose that he used any hypocrisy, when he complained of a mortal sadness in his soul; nor do the Evangelists speak falsely, when they say that he was exceedingly sorrowful, and that he trembled

Calvin: Mat 26:40 - And he came to his disciples 40.And he came to his disciples Though he was neither delivered from fear, nor freed from anxiety, yet he interrupted the ardor of prayer, and admini...

40.And he came to his disciples Though he was neither delivered from fear, nor freed from anxiety, yet he interrupted the ardor of prayer, and administered this consolation. For believers are not required to be so constant in prayer as never to cease from conversing with God; but on the contrary, following the example of Christ, they continue their prayers till they have proceeded as far as their infirmity allows, then cease for a short time, and immediately after drawing breath return to God. It would have been no slight alleviation of his grief, if his disciples had accompanied him, and taken part in it; and on the other hand, it was a bitter aggravation of his sufferings, that even they forsook him. For though he did not need the assistance of any one, yet as he had voluntarily taken upon him our infirmities, and as it was chiefly in this struggle that he intended to give a proof of that emptying of himself, of which Paul speaks, (Phi 2:7,) we need not wonder if the indifference of those whom he had selected to be his companions added a heavy and distressing burden to his grief. For his expostulation is not feigned, but, out of the true feeling of his mind, he declares that he is grieved at having been forsaken. And, indeed, he had good grounds for reproaching them with indifference, since, amidst the extremity of his anguish, they did not watch at least one hour.

Calvin: Mat 26:41 - Watch and pray // The spirit indeed is willing 41.Watch and pray As the disciples were unmoved by their Master’s danger, their attention is directed to themselves, that a conviction of their own...

41.Watch and pray As the disciples were unmoved by their Master’s danger, their attention is directed to themselves, that a conviction of their own danger may arouse them. Christ therefore threatens that, if they do not watch and pray, they may be soon overwhelmed by temptation. As if he had said, “Though you take no concern about me, do not fail, at least, to think of yourselves; for your own interests are involved in it, and if you do not take care, temptation will immediately swallow you up.” For to enter into temptation means to yield to it. 206 And let us observe, that the manner of resistance which is here enjoined is, not to draw courage from reliance on our own strength and perseverance, but, on the contrary, from a conviction of our weakness, to ask arms and strength from the Lord. Our watching, therefore, will be of no avail without prayer.

The spirit indeed is willing That he may not terrify and discourage his disciples, he gently reproves their slothfulness, and adds consolation and good ground of hope. And, first, he reminds them, that though they are earnestly desirous to do what is right, still they must contend with the weakness of the flesh, and, therefore, that prayer is never unnecessary. We see, then, that he gives them the praise of willingness, in order that their weakness may not throw them into despair, and yet urges them to prayer, because they are not sufficiently endued with the power of the Spirit. Wherefore, this admonition relates properly to believers, who, being regenerated by the Spirit of God, are desirous to do what is right, but still labor under the weakness of the flesh; for though the grace of the Spirit is vigorous in them, they are weak according to the flesh. And though the disciples alone have their weakness here pointed out to them, yet, since what Christ says of them applies equally to all, we ought to draw from it a general rule, that it is our duty to keep diligent watch by praying; for we do not yet possess the power of the Spirit in such a measure as not to fall frequently through the weakness of the flesh, unless the Lord grant his assistance to raise up and uphold us. But there is no reason why we should tremble with excessive anxiety; for an undoubted remedy is held out to us, which we will neither have nor to seek nor to seek in vain; for Christ promises that all who, being earnest in prayer, shall perseveringly oppose the slothfulness of the flesh, will be victorious.

Calvin: Mat 26:42 - Again he went away a second time 42.Again he went away a second time By these words Christ seems as if, having subdued fear, he came with greater freedom and courage to submit to the...

42.Again he went away a second time By these words Christ seems as if, having subdued fear, he came with greater freedom and courage to submit to the will of the Father; for he no longer asks to have the cup removed from him, but, leaving out this prayer, insists rather on obeying the purpose of God. But according to Mark, this progress is not described; and even when Christ returned a second time, we are told that he repeated the same prayer; and, indeed, I have no doubt, that at each of the times when he prayed, fear and horror impelled him to ask that he might be delivered from death. 207 Yet it is probable that, at the second time, he labored more to yield obedience to the Father, and that the first encounter with temptation animated him to approach death with greater confidence.Luke does not expressly relate that he prayed three several times, but only says that, when he was pressed with anguish, he prayed with greater copiousness and earnestness, as if he had continued to pray without any intermission. But we know that the Evangelists sometimes leave out circumstances, and only glance rapidly at the substance of what took place. Accordingly, when he says towards the close, that Christ came to his disciples, it is a hysteron proteton; 208 just as, in another clause, he relates that an angel from heaven appeared, before he speaks of Christ’s anguish. But the inversion of the order carries no absurdity; for, in order to inform us that the angel was not sent without a good reason, the necessity for it is afterwards stated; and thus the latter part of the narrative is, in some sort, a reason assigned for the former. Now though it is the Spirit of God alone that imparts fortitude, that does not hinder God from employing angels as his ministers. And hence we may conclude what excruciating distresses the Son of God must have endured, since it was necessary that the assistance of God should be granted to him in a visible manner.

Calvin: Mat 26:43 - And found them sleeping again 43.And found them sleeping again This drowsiness arose neither from excessive eating and drinking, nor from gross stupidity, nor even from effeminate...

43.And found them sleeping again This drowsiness arose neither from excessive eating and drinking, nor from gross stupidity, nor even from effeminate indulgence of the flesh, but rather—as Luke tells us—from immoderate sorrow. Hence we perceive more clearly how strong is the tendency of our flesh to indifference; since even dangers lead us to forgetfulness of God. Thus on every hand Satan finds suitable and ready opportunities of spreading his snares for us. For if we dread no danger, he intoxicates and drowns us in sleep; and if we experience fear and sorrow, which ought to arouse us to pray, he overwhelms our senses, so that they do not rise to God; and thus, in every respect, men fall away and forsake God, till he restores them. We must observe also this circumstance, that the disciples, after having been sharply reproved, almost at that very moment fall again asleep. Nor is this said of the whole body, but of the three whom Christ had selected to be his chief companions; and what shall we say of the greater number, when this happened to the flower of them? Now the repetition of the same words was not a vain repetition, ( βατταλογία ) which Christ formerly condemned in hypocrites, (Mat 6:7) who hope that they will obtain by idle talking what they do not ask honestly and sincerely. 209 But Christ intended to show by his example, that we must not be discouraged or grow weary in praying, if we do not immediately obtain our wishes. So then, it is not a superfluous repetition of the words, if a repulse which we have experienced is so far from extinguishing the ardor of prayer, that we ask a third and fourth time what God appears to have denied.

Calvin: Mat 26:45 - Sleep on now, and take your rest Mat 26:45.Sleep on now, and take your rest It is plain enough, that Christ now speaks ironically, but we must, at the same time, attend to the object ...

Mat 26:45.Sleep on now, and take your rest It is plain enough, that Christ now speaks ironically, but we must, at the same time, attend to the object of the irony. For Christ, having gained nothing by warning his disciples, not only gives an indirect reproof of their indifference, but threatens, that how indolent so ever they may choose to be, no longer delay will be allowed them. The meaning therefore is, “Having hitherto wasted my words on you, I shall now come to exhort you; but whatever permission I may give you to sleep, the enemies will not allow it to you, but will compel you to watch against your will.” In Mark, it is accordingly added, It is enough; as if he had said, that there is no more time for sleeping. And this is the way in which the Lord usually chastises the indolence of men, that those who wax deaf to words may at length be compelled, by their sufferings, to arouse themselves. Let us, therefore, learn to give immediate attention to the words of the Lord, lest what he wishes to draw from us voluntarily may be too late forced from us by necessity.

Calvin: Mat 26:46 - Arise, let us go 46.Arise, let us go By these words he declares that, after having prayed, he was furnished with new arms. He had formerly, indeed, been sufficiently ...

46.Arise, let us go By these words he declares that, after having prayed, he was furnished with new arms. He had formerly, indeed, been sufficiently voluntary as to dying; but, when he came to the point, he had a hard struggle with the weakness of the flesh, so that he would willingly have withdrawn from dying, provided that he had been permitted to do so with the good-will of his Father. He, therefore, obtained by prayers and tears (Heb 5:7) new strength from heaven; not that he ever hesitated through want of strength, but because under the weakness of the flesh, which he had voluntarily undertaken, he wished to labor anxiously, and with painful and difficult exertion, to gain a victory for us in his own person. But now, when the trembling is allayed, and the fear is subdued, that he may again present a voluntary sacrifice to the Father, he not only does not retire or conceal himself, but cheerfully advances to death.

Calvin: Mat 26:47 - While he was still speaking 47.While he was still speaking The Evangelists are careful to state that our Lord foresaw what happened; from which it might be inferred, that he was...

47.While he was still speaking The Evangelists are careful to state that our Lord foresaw what happened; from which it might be inferred, that he was not dragged to death by external violence, except so far as wicked men carried into execution the secret purpose of God. Although, therefore, a melancholy and frightful spectacle was exhibited to the disciples, yet they received, at the same time, grounds of confidence to confirm them, since the event itself showed that nothing occurred by chance; and since Christ’s prediction directed them to contemplate the glory of his divinity. The circumstance of an armed multitude having been sent by the chief priests, and of a captain and band having been obtained by request from Pilate, makes it evident, that an evil conscience wounded and tormented them, so that they did every thing in a state of terror. For what need was there for so great a force to take Christ, who, they were aware, was not provided with any defensive arms? The reason for such careful preparation was, that the divine power of Christ, which they had been compelled to feel by numerous proofs, inwardly tormented them; but, on the other hand, it is a display of amazing rage, that, relying on the power of arms, they do not hesitate to rise up against God.

Calvin: Mat 26:48 - Now he who betrayed him 48.Now he who betrayed him I have no doubt that Judas was restrained, either by reverence for our Lord, or by shame for his crime, from venturing ope...

48.Now he who betrayed him I have no doubt that Judas was restrained, either by reverence for our Lord, or by shame for his crime, from venturing openly to avow himself as one of the enemies; and the warning which, Mark tells us, he gave the soldiers — to lead the away cautiously, was given, I conjecture, for this reason, that he recollected the numerous-proofs by which Christ had formerly attested his divine power. But it was, at the same time, astonishing madness, either to attempt to conceal himself by frivolous hypocrisy, when he came into the presence of the Son of God, or to oppose the tricks and dexterity of men to his boundless power.

Calvin: Mat 26:49 - Hail, Rabbi 49.Hail, Rabbi I have no doubt that Judas, as if trembling for his Master’s danger, pretended by these words to have some feeling of compassion; an...

49.Hail, Rabbi I have no doubt that Judas, as if trembling for his Master’s danger, pretended by these words to have some feeling of compassion; and, accordingly, in Mark a pathetic repetition is expressed, 213 Rabbi, Rabbi. For though he was impressed with the majesty of Christ, still the devil so fascinated his mind, that he felt assured that his treachery was concealed by a kiss, and by soothing words. This salutation, or exclamation, therefore, was a pretense of compassion. I offer the same opinion about the kiss; for though it was a very common practice among the Jews to welcome friends with a kiss, yet as Judas had left Christ but a little before, he seems now — as if he had become suddenly alarmed at his danger — to give the last kiss to his Master. Thus he excels the rest in the appearance of affection, when he appears to be deeply grieved at being separated from his Master; but how little he gained by his deception is evident from Christ’s reply.

Calvin: Mat 26:50 - Friend, for what purpose comest thou? 50.Friend, for what purpose comest thou? Luke expresses it more fully: Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? except that there is great...

50.Friend, for what purpose comest thou? Luke expresses it more fully: Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? except that there is greater force in this reproof, that the benevolence of his Master, and the very high honor conferred on him, are wickedly abused for the purpose of the basest treachery. For Christ does not employ an ironical address when he calls him friend, but charges him with ingratitude, that, from being an intimate friend, who sat at his table, he had become a traitor, as had been predicted in the psalm: If a stranger had done this, I could have endured it; but now my private and familiar friend, with whom I took food pleasantly, who accompanied me to the temple of the Lord, hath prepared snares against me. 214 This shows clearly—what I hinted a little ago—that, whatever may be the artifices by which hypocrites conceal themselves, and whatever may be the pretenses which they hold out, when they come into the presence of the Lord, their crimes become manifest; and it even becomes the ground of a severer sentence against them, that, having been admitted into the bosom of Christ, they treacherously rise up against him. For the word friend, as we have stated, contains within itself a sharp sting.

Let us know that this evil, which Christ once sustained in his own person, is an evil to which the Church will always be exposed—that of cherishing traitors in her bosom; and, therefore, it was said a little before, The traitor approached, who was one of the twelve, that we may not be immediately distressed by such instances; for the Lord intends to try our faith in both ways, when, without, Satan opposes us and the Church by open enemies, and, within, he attempts secret destruction by means of hypocrites. We are taught, at the same time, that we who are his disciples ought to worship God with sincerity; for the apostasies, which we see every day, excite us to fear, and to the cultivation of true godliness, as Paul says,

Let every one that calleth on the name of God depart from iniquity,
(2Ti 2:19.)

We are all commanded to kiss the Son of God, (Psa 2:12;) and we ought, therefore, to see that no one give him a traitor’s kiss, otherwise it will cost us dear to have been elevated to so great an honor.

Calvin: Mat 26:51 - And, lo, one of those who were with Jesus Mat 26:51.And, lo, one of those who were with Jesus Luke says, that all the disciples made an agreement together to fight for their Master. Hence it i...

Mat 26:51.And, lo, one of those who were with Jesus Luke says, that all the disciples made an agreement together to fight for their Master. Hence it is again evident, that we are much more courageous and ready for fighting than for bearing the cross; and, therefore, we ought always to deliberate wisely what the Lord commands, and what he requires from every one of us, lest the fervor of our zeal exceed the bounds of reason and moderation. When the disciples asked Christ, Shall we strike with the sword? they did so, not with the intention of obeying his injunction; but by these words they declared that they were prepared and ready to repel the violence of enemies. And, indeed, Peter did not wait till he was commanded or permitted to strike, but inconsiderately proceeded to unlawful violence. It appears, at first view, to be praiseworthy valor in the disciples, that, forgetting their own weakness, though they are unable to make resistance, they do not hesitate to present their bodies before their Master, and to encounter certain death; for they choose rather to perish with the Lord than to survive and look on while he is oppressed. But as they improperly attempt more than the calling of God commands or permits, their rashness is justly condemned; and therefore let us learn, that in order that our obedience may be acceptable to the Lord, we must depend on his will, so that no man shall move a finger, except so far as God commands. One reason ought, above all, to lead us to be zealous in cultivating this modesty; which is, that instead of a proper and well-regulated zeal, confused irregularity for the most part reigns in us.

Peter’s name is not mentioned here by the Evangelists; but John (Joh 18:10) assures us—and from what occurs shortly afterwards in the narrative it is evident — that it was Peter who is here described, though the name is suppressed. Yet Luke enables us easily to infer that there were others also who took part in the same outrage; for Christ does not speak to one person only, but says to all alike, Permit 217 it to be thus far.

Calvin: Mat 26:52 - Put thy sword again into its place 52.Put thy sword again into its place By these words, Christ confirms the precept of the Law, which forbids private individuals to use the sword. And...

52.Put thy sword again into its place By these words, Christ confirms the precept of the Law, which forbids private individuals to use the sword. And above all, we ought to attend to the threatening of punishment which is immediately added; for men did not, at their own pleasure, appoint this punishment for avenging their own blood; but God himself, by severely prohibiting murder, has declared how dearly he loves mankind. First, then, he does not choose to be defended by force and violence, because God in the Law forbade men to strike. This is a general reason; and he immediately descends to a special reason.

But here a question arises. Is it never lawful to use violence in repelling unjust violence? For though Peter had to deal with wicked and base robbers, still he is condemned for having drawn his sword. If, in such a case of moderate defense, an exception was not allowed, Christ appears to tie up the hands of all. Though we have treated this question more copiously 218 under Mat 5:39, yet I shall now state my opinion again in a few words. First, we must make a distinction between a civil court and the court of conscience; 219 for if any man resist a robber, 220 he will not be liable to public punishment, because the laws arm him against one who is the common enemy of mankind. Thus, in every case when defense is made against unjust violence, the punishment which God enjoins earthly judges to carry into execution ceases. And yet it is not the mere goodness of the cause that acquits the conscience from guilt, unless there be also pure affection. So then, in order that a man may properly and lawfully defend himself, he must first lay aside excessive wrath, and hatred, and desire of revenge, and all irregular sallies of passion, that nothing tempestuous may mingle with the defense. As this is of rare occurrence, or rather, as it scarcely ever happens, Christ properly reminds his people of the general rule, that they should entirely abstain from using the sword.

But there are fanatics who have foolishly misapplied this passage, so as to wrest the sword out of the hands of judges. They contend that it is unlawful to strike with the sword. This I acknowledge to be true, for no man is at liberty to take the sword at his own pleasure, so as to commit murder; but I deny that magistrates—who are God’s ministers, and by whom he executes his judgments—ought to be viewed as belonging to the ordinary rank. And not only so, but by these words of Christ, this very power is expressly ascribed to them: for when he declares that murderers must be put to death, it follows, that the sword is put into the hands of judges, that they may take vengeance for unjust murders. It will sometimes happen, indeed, that men addicted to the shedding of blood are punished by other means; but this is the ordinary way in which the Lord determined that the fierce cruelty of wicked men should be restrained from rioting with impunity. Certain doctors of what is called Canon Law have ventured to proceed to such a pitch of impudence as to teach, that the sword was not taken from Peter, but he was commanded to keep it sheathed until the time came for drawing it; and hence we perceive how grossly and shamefully those dogs have sported with the word of God.

Calvin: Mat 26:53 - Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father? 53.Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father? Now follows that special reason which I mentioned a little ago; for Christ reminds them, that h...

53.Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father? Now follows that special reason which I mentioned a little ago; for Christ reminds them, that he would have at his command a better and more legitimate kind of defense, were it not that he must obey the decree of the Father. The substance of what he says is this. “As he has been appointed by the eternal purpose of God to be a sacrifice, and as this has been declared by the predictions of Scripture, he must not fight against it.” Thus Peter’s rashness is condemned on another ground, that he not only endeavors to overturn a heavenly decree, but also to obstruct the path of the redemption of mankind. Not only did Peter draw his sword unlawfully, but the disciples were foolish and mad; for—though they were few in number, and feeble—they attempted to make some resistance to a band of soldiers and a very great multitude. On this account, the Lord, in order to make their folly more manifest, employs this comparison. “If he wished to have a guard to defend his life, he would immediately obtain not eleven angels, but a large and invincible army, and since he does not implore that angels may be sent to assist him, much less would he resort to ill-considered means, from which no advantage was to be expected; for the utmost that could be effected by the disciples would be of no more service than if a few rooks were to make a noise.”

But here some commentators labor to no purpose in inquiring how Christ could have obtained a commission of angels from his Father, by whose decree it was that he had to suffer death. For the two things are inconsistent: that he exposed his Son to death naked and defenseless, because it was necessary that it should be so, and because it had been appointed; and yet, that he might have been prevailed on by prayer to send him relief. But Christ speaks conditionally, that he has a far better method of defending his life, were it not that the will of the Father was opposed to it. This takes away all contradiction, for Christ refrained from presenting such a request to his Father, because he knew that it was contrary to his decree. Yet from this we draw a useful doctrine, that those who resort to unlawful means on the plea of necessity pour dishonor on God. If a man is destitute of lawful aid and support, he runs headlong to wicked schemes and sinful undertakings; and the reason is, that few look for the secret protection of God, which alone ought to be sufficient to set our minds at rest. Are we threatened with danger? Because no remedy can be discovered according to the flesh, we make this or the other contrivance, as if there were no angels in heaven, who — Scripture frequently tells us — are placed as guardians for our salvation, (Heb 1:14.) In this way we deprive ourselves of their assistance; for all who are impelled, by their restlessness and excessive anxiety, to stretch out their hands to forbidden remedies for evils, do unquestionably renounce the providence of God.

Calvin: Mat 26:54 - How then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled? 54.How then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled? By this expression Christ means, that he ought not to attempt any method of escaping death, to which h...

54.How then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled? By this expression Christ means, that he ought not to attempt any method of escaping death, to which he knew that he was called by the Father. For himself, indeed, he had no need of the Scriptures to inform him that God had appointed that he should die at that time; but because mortals do not know what God has determined to do until it be revealed by his word, Christ, with a view to his disciples, properly refers to the testimony which God gave of his will. We know that whatever affliction happens to us, it is inflicted by God himself; but since we are uncertain as to the result, when we seek remedies which he allows, we do not rise against his government; but when his will has been ascertained, nothing more remains for us than to acquiesce. Though in this passage Christ teaches nothing more than that he ought patiently to suffer death, because the Scriptures have declared that it must be so, yet the use of this doctrine is evidently more extensive, namely, that Scripture is a sufficient bridle for subduing the rebellion of the flesh; because God points out to us what is his. will for the very purpose of keeping us in subjection to his will. Accordingly, Paul ascribes to Scripture this office, that it trains us to patience, (Rom 15:4,) and supplies us with all the comfort that we need in adversity. His reproof of the disciples, as given by Luke, is more brief, Permit them to do thus far; but still he severely condemns their presumption, in having gone so far as to perform an unlawful action, though at the same time he holds out a hope of pardon, if they suppress their improper zeal, and proceed no farther.

Calvin: Mat 26:55 - Are you come out, as against a robber? Mat 26:55.Are you come out, as against a robber? By these words Christ expostulates with his enemies for having intended to bring odium upon him, by c...

Mat 26:55.Are you come out, as against a robber? By these words Christ expostulates with his enemies for having intended to bring odium upon him, by coming provided with a great body of soldiers; for the meaning is this, “What necessity was there for making such a display of arms against me, as if your object had been to overcome some robber? But I have always lived peaceably amongst you, and without using arms; and when I was teaching in the temple, you might easily have seized me without any military force.” Yet, while he complains of their malice in violently rushing upon him, as if he were a seditious man, he again wounds their evil conscience by reminding them, that though they had a traitor for their leader, they approached him with trembling, and with many marks of distrust.

Calvin: Mat 26:56 - Now all this was done 56.Now all this was done The other two Evangelists express it somewhat differently; for what Matthew relates in his own person, Mark appears to attri...

56.Now all this was done The other two Evangelists express it somewhat differently; for what Matthew relates in his own person, Mark appears to attribute to Christ.Luke employs even different words: this is your hour, and the power of darkness. But the design of the Holy Spirit is, beyond all doubt, that whatever may be the contrivances of wicked men, nothing whatever has been done but by the will and providence of God; for as he had said a little before, God has testified nothing by the prophets but what he had determined with himself, (Luk 22:3.) First, therefore, we are here informed, that whatever may be the unbridled rage by which Satan and all ungodly men are actuated, still the hand of God always prevails, so as to draw them reluctantly wherever he pleases. Secondly, we are informed, that though wicked men fulfill what was predicted in the Scriptures; yet, since God does not employ them as his lawful ministers, but directs them, by a secret movement, to that which was farthest from their wish, they are not excusable; and that, while God makes a righteous use of their malice, blame still attaches to them. At the same time, let us observe that Christ said this in order to remove the offense, which would otherwise have greatly disturbed weak minds, when they saw him so reproached and outraged.

Still Christ intended not only to promote the advantage of his disciples, but also to repress the pride of his adversaries, that they might not triumph as if they had achieved victory. For this reason, in Luke’s narrative he says, this is your hour; by which he means that the Lord grants them this liberty for a short time. The power of darkness denotes the power of the devil, and this term had also a strong tendency to abase their glory; for though they exalt themselves ever so much, Christ shows that they are still nothing more than the slaves of the devil. While all things are mingled in confusion, and while the devil, by spreading darkness abroad, appears to overturn the whole order of the world, let us know that the providence of God shines above in heaven, to bring at length to order what is confused; and let us, therefore, learn to raise the eyes of faith to that calm sky. Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled. Hence we may again infer how much more ready they were to fight rashly than to follow their Master.

Calvin: Mat 26:57 - NO PHRASE Luke follows a different order from Matthew and Mark in the narrative; but when we come to the proper place, we will endeavor to reconcile the points...

Luke follows a different order from Matthew and Mark in the narrative; but when we come to the proper place, we will endeavor to reconcile the points in which they differ. It will be proper, in the meantime, to glance briefly at those things which claim our attention in the words of Matthew and Mark. First, in order to remove the offense of the cross, we ought to consider the advantage which we have derived from Christ’s emptying of himself, (Phi 2:7;) for thus will the inestimable goodness of God, and the efficacy of his grace, be found to remove by its brightness every thing in it that was disagreeable or shameful. According to the flesh, it was disgraceful that the Son of God should be seized, bound, and made a prisoner; but when we reflect that by his chains we are loosed from the tyranny of the devil, and from the condemnation in which we were involved before God, not only is the stumbling-block, on which our faith might have struck, removed out of the way, but in place of it there comes an admiration of the boundless grace of God, who set so high a value on our deliverance, as to give up his only-begotten Son to be bound by wicked men. This will also be a pledge of the astonishing love of Christ towards us, that he spared not himself, but willingly submitted to wear fetters on his flesh, that our souls might be freed from fetters of a far worse description.

Mat 26:57. But they who had seized Jesus led him to Caiaphas. Though the Jews had been deprived of what is called, the higher jurisdiction, there still lingered among them some vestiges of that judicial authority which the Law confers on the high priest, (Deu 1:8;) so that, while they had lost the absolute authority, 223 they retained the power of administering moderate correction. This is the reason why Christ is brought before the high priest to be interrogated; not that a final sentence may be pronounced on him by theft tribunal, but that the priests may afterwards present him before the governor, under the aggravating influence of their decision. 224 Caiaphas the high priest was also named Joseph, and this man—as we are told by the historian Josephus—was appointed to be high priest by Valerius Gratus, governor of Judea, when Simon, the son of Camithus, was deposed from that office. 225 The Evangelists give his surname only, 226 perhaps because he was more generally named, and better known, by it.

Matthew says that the priests assembled in the house of Caiaphas; and that they were already assembled at midnight, before Christ was brought, but because the place of meeting had been appointed, that, as soon as the information reached them, they might meet hastily at an early hour in the morning; though we have lately seen that some who belonged to the order of the priesthood went out by night, along with the soldiers, to seize Christ. But we have frequently seen, in other passages, that the Evangelists were not very exact in adhering to the order of time. In this passage, certainly, they had no other object in view than to show that the Son of God was oppressed by a wicked conspiracy of the whole council. And here a frightful and hideous spectacle is placed before our eyes; for nowhere else than at Jerusalem was there at that time either a temple of God, or lawful worship, or the face of a Church. The high priest was a figure of the only Mediator between God and men; those who sat along with him in the council represented the whole Church of God; and yet all of them unite in conspiring to extinguish the only hope Of salvation. But as it had been declared by prediction of David, that

the stone which the builders rejected would nevertheless become the head-stone of the corner, (Psa 118:22;)

and as Isaiah had foretold that

the God of armies would be to the whole people of Israel a stone of stumbling, on which they would dash themselves,
(Isa 8:14)

the Lord wisely made provision that such wickedness of men should not perplex believing souls.

Calvin: Mat 26:59 - Sought false witness 59.Sought false witness By these words the Evangelists remark, that nothing was farther from the design of the priests than to inquire into the cause...

59.Sought false witness By these words the Evangelists remark, that nothing was farther from the design of the priests than to inquire into the cause, so that, when the matter was thoroughly understood, they might decide what was proper. For they had previously resolved to put Christ to death, and now they only seek a pretense for oppressing him. Now it is impossible that equity can have any place where an examination of the cause is not the first step. In seeking false witnesses, their treacherous cruelty is manifested; and when, after being disappointed of their expectation, they still do not desist, this affords a still more striking display of their blinded obstinacy. Thus, amidst the darkness of their rage, the innocence of the Son of God shone so brightly, that the devils themselves might know that he died innocent.

Calvin: Mat 26:60 - NO PHRASE It ought to be observed, also, that the appellation of false witnesses is applied not to those who contrive a lie which had no foundation, but to t...

It ought to be observed, also, that the appellation of false witnesses is applied not to those who contrive a lie which had no foundation, but to those who calumniously pervert what was justly said, and turn it into a crime; an instance of which is here expressly related as to the destruction and rebuilding of the temple. Christ had indeed said, that when

the temple of his body was destroyed,
he would raise it up within three days, (Joh 2:19.)

The false witnesses do not now resort to some new contrivance, but they put a wrong interpretation on his words, as if he boasted that he would practice some juggling in building the temple. Now as the calumny was trivial and worthless, we may readily infer from it how greatly the priests and scribes were blinded by their fury, since, without any pretext, they demand that Christ shall be put to death.

Calvin: Mat 26:62 - And the high priest, rising up Mat 26:62.And the high priest, rising up It is certain that Christ was silent when false witnesses pressed hard upon him, not only because they di...

Mat 26:62.And the high priest, rising up It is certain that Christ was silent when false witnesses pressed hard upon him, not only because they did not deserve a reply, but because he did not seek to be now acquitted, knowing that his hour was come. But Caiaphas triumphs over him on account of his silence, as if he was struck dumb by being vanquished; which is usually the case with men who are conscious of having done wrong. But it is an instance of extreme wickedness that he insinuates that Christ is not free from blame, because witnesses speak against him. The question, What is it that those men testify against thee? amounts to this: “How comes it that those men oppose thee, but because they are urged by conscientious views? For they would not have appeared against thee without a good reason.” As if he did not know that those witnesses had been procured by fraud: but this is the way in which wicked men, when they find themselves in the possession of authority and power, throw off sham and indulge in arrogance. Christ was again silent, not only because the objection was frivolous, but because, having been appointed to be a sacrifice, he had thrown aside all anxiety about defending himself.

Calvin: Mat 26:63 - I === adjure thee by the living God. The high priest thought that this alone was a crime sufficient to condemn Christ, if he professed that he was the Christ. But since they all boasted of expecting redemption from Christ, he ought first to have inquired if such was the fact. That there would be a Christ, by whose hands the people were to be delivered, they would not have ventured to deny. Jesus came publicly forward, bearing the title of the Christ. Why do they not consider the fact itself? Why do they not examine the signs, by means of which a correct decision might have been formed? But, having already determined to put Christ to death, they are satisfied with this pretense of sacrilege, that he claimed for himself the glory of Divinity. And yet Caiaphas examines the matter on oath, as if he had been prepared to yield as soon as it was fully ascertained; but all the while his whole mind is filled with a malicious hatred and contempt of Christ, and is so blinded by pride and ambition, that he takes for granted, that as soon as the fact has been ascertained, without inquiring whether it is right or wrong, he will have just grounds for condemning him.

===If thou art the Christ, the Son of God 63.I === adjure thee by the living God. The high priest thought that this alone was a crime sufficient to condemn Christ, if he professed that he wa...

63.I === adjure thee by the living God. The high priest thought that this alone was a crime sufficient to condemn Christ, if he professed that he was the Christ. But since they all boasted of expecting redemption from Christ, he ought first to have inquired if such was the fact. That there would be a Christ, by whose hands the people were to be delivered, they would not have ventured to deny. Jesus came publicly forward, bearing the title of the Christ. Why do they not consider the fact itself? Why do they not examine the signs, by means of which a correct decision might have been formed? But, having already determined to put Christ to death, they are satisfied with this pretense of sacrilege, that he claimed for himself the glory of Divinity. And yet Caiaphas examines the matter on oath, as if he had been prepared to yield as soon as it was fully ascertained; but all the while his whole mind is filled with a malicious hatred and contempt of Christ, and is so blinded by pride and ambition, that he takes for granted, that as soon as the fact has been ascertained, without inquiring whether it is right or wrong, he will have just grounds for condemning him.

===If thou art the Christ, the Son of God From the words of Caiaphas we may infer, that it was at that time common among the Jews to bestow on the Messiah the title of the Son of God; for this form of interrogation could not have originated in any other way than from the ordinary custom; and, indeed, they had learned from the predictions of Scripture that he was not less the Son of God than the Son of David. It appears, too, that Caiaphas employed this epithet, with the view either of terrifying Christ, or of exciting a prejudice against him; as if he had said, “See where you are going; for you cannot call yourself the Christ, without claiming, at the same time, the appellation of Son of God, with which Scripture honors him.” Such is also his reason for using the word Blessed, which Mark gives instead of God; for this pretended reverence 232 for God was intended to bring a heavier charge against Christ than that of profaning the holy name of God.

Calvin: Mat 26:64 - Thou hast said it // Sitting at the right hand of power 64.Thou hast said it Luke inserts another reply, by which Christ reproves the malice of the priests, in not inquiring with a desire to know. If I te...

64.Thou hast said it Luke inserts another reply, by which Christ reproves the malice of the priests, in not inquiring with a desire to know. If I tell you, says he, you will not believe: by which words he means, that though he were to prove to them a hundred times that he was the Christ, it would be of no avail with obstinate men. For they had not only heard, but had beheld with their eyes miracles, which, though Christ had been silent, would have confirmed his heavenly and divine power, and would even have cried aloud, that he was the promised Redeemer.

He next adds a confession, which, though it is related in many words by Matthew, does not convey a different meaning. Jesus affirms that he is the Christ, not for the purpose of avoiding death, but rather of inflaming the rage of his enemies against him. Though at that time he was exposed to contempt, and almost annihilated, by his mean garb, he announces, that at the proper time he will at length come with royal majesty, that they may tremble before the Judge, whom they now refuse to acknowledge as the Author of salvation. The meaning therefore is, that they are widely mistaken, if from his present appearance they form a judgment of what he is; because it is necessary that he should be humbled, and almost reduced to nothing, before he appear adorned with the emblems of his royal power, and with magnificent splendor. For by this word hereafter he distinguishes between his first and second coming.

We may draw from this a useful doctrine, which is still more extensive. For how comes it that wicked men are so much at their ease? How comes it that they are so insolent in rebellion, but because they do not set a high value on the crucified Jesus? It is therefore necessary to remind them of a dreadful judgment, which, with all their stupidity, they will not be able to avoid. And though they ridicule as a fable what is said about the future coming of Christ, still it is not in vain that the Judge summons them to his tribunal and orders them to be summoned by the preaching of the Gospel, that they may be rendered the more inexcusable. But this announcement is fitted to be of very great use even to believers, that they may now with the eyes of hope look for Christ sitting at the right hand of the father, and patiently wait till he comes, and may likewise believe that the rage of wicked men against him, while absent, will not be without its consequences; for they will be compelled to behold him on high coming from heaven, whom now they not only despise, but even trample upon in their pride.

Sitting at the right hand of power The metaphor contained in the term right hand must be well known, for it frequently occurs in Scripture. Christ then sits at the right hand of the Father, because he is his deputy; and it is called the right hand or power, a, because it is only through the agency of his Son that God now displays his power, and will execute judgment at the last day.

Calvin: Mat 26:65 - Then the high priest rent his garments // Then they spat in his face 65.Then the high priest rent his garments By this we see how little advantage was derived by wicked men from the miracles by which Christ had proved ...

65.Then the high priest rent his garments By this we see how little advantage was derived by wicked men from the miracles by which Christ had proved his Divinity. But we need not wonder, that under the mean garb of a servant, the Son of God was despised by those who were unmoved by any anxiety about the promised salvation. For if they had not entirely laid aside every pious feeling, their deplorable condition ought to have led them to look anxiously for the Redeemer; but when they now, without making any inquiry, reject him when offered to them, do they not as far as lies in their power, destroy all the promises of God? The high priest first pronounces Christ to be a blasphemer, to which the others afterwards assent. The rending of the clothes plainly shows how boldly and wickedly those who profanely despise God make false pretensions of zeal. It would indeed have been praiseworthy in the high priest, if he heard the name of God shamefully profaned, not only to feel inward resentment and excruciating pain, but to make an open display of his detestation; but while he refused to make inquiry, he contrived an unfounded charge of blasphemy. And yet, this treacherous hypocrite, while he assumed a character which did not belong to him, taught the servants of God with what severity of displeasure they ought to regard blasphemies, and condemned by his example the shameful cowardice of those who are no more affected by an outrage on religion, than if they heard buffoons uttering their silly jokes.

Then they spat in his face Either Luke has inverted the order of the narrative, or our Lord twice endured this highly contemptuous treatment. The latter supposition appears to me to be probable. And yet, I have no doubt that the servants were emboldened to spit on Christ, and to strike him with greater insolence, after they had seen that the council, so far as their decision had influence, condemned him to death. The object of all these expressions of contempt was, to show that nothing was more unlikely than that he should be a prince of prophets, who, in consequence of being blindfolded, 233 was not able even to ward off blows. But this insolence was turned by the providence of God to a very different purpose; for the face of Christ, dishonored by spitting and blows, has restored to us that image which had been disfigured, and almost effaced, by sin.

Calvin: Mat 26:69 - A maid came to him Mat 26:69.A maid came to him Here we see that there is no necessity for a severe contest, or for many forces or implements of war, to overpower a man;...

Mat 26:69.A maid came to him Here we see that there is no necessity for a severe contest, or for many forces or implements of war, to overpower a man; for any man, who is not supported by the hand of God, will instantly fall by a slight gale or the rustling of a falling leaf. Peter undoubtedly was not less courageous than any of us, and he had already given no ordinary proof of his valor, though it was exercised in a rash and improper manner; and yet he does not wait until he is dragged before the tribunal of the high priest, or until his enemies attempt to put him to death by violence, but, terrified by a woman’s voice, immediately denies his Master. And yet but lately he thought himself a valiant soldier even to death. Let us therefore remember that our strength is so far from being sufficient to resist powerful attacks, that it will give way, when there is the mere shadow of a battle. But in this way God gives us the just reward of our treachery, when he disarms and strips us of all power, so that, when we have thrown off the fear of him, we tremble for a mere nothing. For if a deep fear of God had dwelt in Peter’s heart, it would have been an invincible fortress; but now, naked and defenseless, he trembles while he is still far from danger.

Calvin: Mat 26:70 - But he denied before them all // I know not what thou sayest 70.But he denied before them all This circumstance aggravates the criminality of Peter, that, in denying his Master, he did not even dread a multitud...

70.But he denied before them all This circumstance aggravates the criminality of Peter, that, in denying his Master, he did not even dread a multitude of witnesses. 236 And the Spirit intended expressly to state this, that even the presence of men may excite us to hold fast the confession of faith. For if we deny Christ before the weak, they are shaken by our example, and give way; and thus we destroy as many souls as we can; but if, in presence of those who wickedly despise God and oppose the Gospel, we withhold from Christ the testimony which is due to him, we expose his sacred name to the ridicule of all. In short, as a bold and open confession edifies all the godly, 237 and puts unbelievers to shame, so apostasy draws along with it the public ruin of faith in the Church, and the reproach of sound doctrine. The more eminent a man is, therefore, he ought to be the more careful to be on his guard; for his elevation makes it impossible for him to fall from it without doing greater harm.

I know not what thou sayest The form of denial, which is here set down, shows sufficiently that the wretched sophists, who endeavor to escape by ambiguous expressions, which they turn to a. variety of meanings, when they are called to give an account of their faith, gain nothing by their dexterity in fraud. Peter does not absolutely deny the whole doctrine of the Gospel; he only denies that he knew the man; but, because in the person of Christ he indirectly buries the light of the promised redemption, he is charged with base and shameful treachery. But lately he had heard from the mouth of the Lord, that the confession of faith is a sacrifice acceptable to God; and therefore a mode of denying, which withholds from God his lawful worship, and from Christ the honor that is due to him, admits of no excuse. Let us therefore hold:, that as soon as we depart from a plain and candid profession of Christ, we deprive him of the testimony to which he has a lawful claim.

Calvin: Mat 26:71 - Another maid saw him 71.Another maid saw him From the words of Mark we are rather led to conjecture that it was the same maid; at least he doesn’t state that it was a...

71.Another maid saw him From the words of Mark we are rather led to conjecture that it was the same maid; at least he doesn’t state that it was a different maid from the former one. But there is no contradiction here; for it is probable that the statement which proceeded from one maid, flew from the lips of one to those of another, so that the first maid pointed him out to many persons and at several times, and others joined her in asserting that he was the person, and in spreading the discovery of him more widely. John even relates (Joh 18:25) that, at the second time, the question was put to Peter, not by a maid, but by a multitude of men; from which it is evident that the word, which had been pronounced by the maid, was caught by the men standing by, who attacked Peter.

There is another difference between Mark and the other three Evangelists; for he mentions that the cock crew twice, while they say that the cock crew not until after Peter had thrice denied our Lord. But this difficulty is easily obviated; for Mark says nothing that is inconsistent with the narrative of the other Evangelists, but explains more fully what they pass by in silence. Indeed, I have no doubt that, when Christ said to Peter, before the cock crow, he meant the cock-crowing, 238 which includes many crowings; for cocks do not merely crow once, but repeat their crowings many times; and yet all the crowings of a single watch are called but one cock-crowing. So then, Matthew, Luke, and John, say that Peter thrice denied our Lord before the cock-crowing was ended. Mark states more distinctly one circumstance, that within a short space of time Peter was brought even to the third denial, and that, though he had been warned by the first crowing, he did not repent. None of us will say that profane historians are inconsistent with each other, when some one of them relates what the others have not touched; and, therefore, though Mark’s narrative is different, still it does not contradict the others.

Calvin: Mat 26:72 - And the second time he denied with an oath 72.And the second time he denied with an oath It deserves attention, that Peter, after finding that he could not escape by a simple denial, doubles h...

72.And the second time he denied with an oath It deserves attention, that Peter, after finding that he could not escape by a simple denial, doubles his crime by adding an oath; and a little after, when he is still more vehemently pressed, he proceeds even to cursing. Hence we infer that a sinner, after having once fallen, is always hurried on from bad to worse; so that those who begin with ordinary offenses afterwards rush headlong into the basest crimes, from which at first they would have recoiled with horror. And this is the just vengeance of God, after we have deprived ourselves of the assistance of the Holy Spirit, to allow Satan a violent exercise of power over us, that, having subdued and made us his slaves, he may drive us wherever he pleases. But this happens chiefly in a denial of the faith; for when a man, through fear of the cross, has turned aside from a pure profession of the gospel, if he perceive that his enemies are not yet satisfied, will proceed farther, and what he had not ventured fully to acknowledge he denies flatly with an oath, and without any ambiguity of words.

We ought also to observe, that almost in a single moment Peter thrice gave way; for this shows how unsteady we are, and how liable to fall, whenever Satan drives us. Certainly we shall never cease to fall, if the Lord do not stretch out his hand to uphold us. When the rigor of the grace of Christ was extinguished in Peter, whoever might afterwards meet hit and interrogate him about Christ, he would have been ready to deny a hundred or a thousand times. Although, then, it was very base in him to fall thrice, yet the Lord spared him by restraining the tongues of enemies from making additional attacks upon him. Thus, also, it is every day necessary for the Lord to bridle Satan, lest he overwhelm us with innumerable temptations; for though he does not cease to employ many instruments in assailing us, were it not that the Lord, paying regard to our weakness, restrains the violence of his rage, we would have to contend against a prodigious amount of temptations. In this respect, therefore, we ought to praise the mercy of the Lord, who does not permit our enemy to make advances against us, almost the hundredth part of what he would desire.

Calvin: Mat 26:74 - Then he began to curse and to swear 74.Then he began to curse and to swear In this third denial, Peter’s unfaithfulness to his Master reached its utmost height. Not satisfied with sw...

74.Then he began to curse and to swear In this third denial, Peter’s unfaithfulness to his Master reached its utmost height. Not satisfied with swearing, he breaks out into cursing, by which he abandons his body and soul to destruction; for he prays that the curse of God may fall upon him, if he knows Christ. It is as much as if he had said, May I perish miserably, if I have any thing in common with the salvation of God! So much the more ought we to admire the goodness of Christ, who rescued his disciple from such fatal ruin, and healed him. Now this passage shows, that when a man falling through weakness of the flesh, denies the truth though he knows it, this does not amount to “blasphemy against the Holy Spirit” (Mat 12:31.) Peter had unquestionably heard from the mouth of the Lord how detestable treachery it is to deny him before men; and what dreadful vengeance, before God and before his angels, (Mat 10:39 Luk 12:9) awaits those who, through a cowardly dread of the cross, abandon the confession of faith; and not without reason had he, a little before, preferred death and every kind of torment to denying Christ. Now, therefore, he throws himself down knowingly, and after previous warning; but afterwards he obtains pardon; from which it follows that he sinned through weakness and not through incurable malice. For he would willingly have rendered to Christ the duties of friendship which he owed him, had not fear extinguished the sparks of proper affection.

Calvin: Mat 26:75 - And Peter remembered the word of Jesus // And he went out and wept bitterly 75.And Peter remembered the word of Jesus To the voice of the cock, Luke informs us, there was also added the look of Christ; for previously — ...

75.And Peter remembered the word of Jesus To the voice of the cock, Luke informs us, there was also added the look of Christ; for previously — as we learn from Mark — he had paid no attention to the cock when crowing. He must, therefore, have received the look from Christ, in order that he might come to himself. We all have experience of the same thing in ourselves; for which of us does not pass by with indifference and with deaf ears — I do not say the varied and numerous songs of birds which however, excite us to glorify God — but even the voice of God, which is heard clearly and distinctly in the doctrine of the Law and of the Gospel? Nor is it for a single day only that our minds are held by such brutal stupidity, but it is perpetual until he who alone turns the hearts of men deigns to look upon us. It is proper to observe, however that this was no ordinary look, for he had formerly looked at Judas who, after all, became no better by it. But in looking at Peter, he added to his eyes the secret efficacy of the Spirit, and thus by the rays of his grace, penetrated into his heart. Let us therefore know, that whenever any one has fallen, his repentance will never begin, until the Lord has looked at him.

And he went out and wept bitterly It is probable that Peter went out through fear, for he did not venture to weep in presence of witnesses; and here he gave another proof of his weakness. Hence we infer that he did not deserve pardon by satisfaction, but that he obtained it by the fatherly kindness of God. And by this example we are taught that we ought to entertain confident hope, though our repentance be lame; for God does not despise even weak repentance, provided that it be sincere. Yet Peter’s tears, which he shed in secret, testified before God and the angels that his repentance was true; for, having withdrawn from the eyes of men, he places before him God and the angels; and, therefore, those tears flow from the deep feelings of his heart. This deserves our attention; for we see many who shed tears purposely, so long as they are beheld by others, but who have no sooner retired than they have dry eyes. Now there is no room to doubt that tears, which do not flow on account of the judgment of God, are often drawn forth by ambition and hypocrisy.

But it may be asked, Is weeping requisite in true repentance? I reply, Believers often with dry eyes groan before the Lord without hypocrisy, and confess their fault to obtain pardon; but in more aggravated offenses they must be in no ordinary degree stupid and hardened, whose hearts are not pained by grief and sorrow, and who do not feel ashamed even so far as to shed tears. And, therefore Scripture, after having convicted men of their crimes, exhorts them to sackcloth and ashes, (