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Teks -- Deuteronomy 32:1-52 (NET)

Tampilkan Strong
Konteks
Invocation of Witnesses
32:1 Listen, O heavens, and I will speak; hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. 32:2 My teaching will drop like the rain, my sayings will drip like the dew, as rain drops upon the grass, and showers upon new growth. 32:3 For I will proclaim the name of the Lord; you must acknowledge the greatness of our God. 32:4 As for the Rock, his work is perfect, for all his ways are just. He is a reliable God who is never unjust, he is fair and upright. 32:5 His people have been unfaithful to him; they have not acted like his children– this is their sin. They are a perverse and deceitful generation. 32:6 Is this how you repay the Lord, you foolish, unwise people? Is he not your father, your creator? He has made you and established you. 32:7 Remember the ancient days; bear in mind the years of past generations. Ask your father and he will inform you, your elders, and they will tell you. 32:8 When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he divided up humankind, he set the boundaries of the peoples, according to the number of the heavenly assembly. 32:9 For the Lord’s allotment is his people, Jacob is his special possession. 32:10 The Lord found him in a desolate land, in an empty wasteland where animals howl. He continually guarded him and taught him; he continually protected him like the pupil of his eye. 32:11 Like an eagle that stirs up its nest, that hovers over its young, so the Lord spread out his wings and took him, he lifted him up on his pinions. 32:12 The Lord alone was guiding him, no foreign god was with him. 32:13 He enabled him to travel over the high terrain of the land, and he ate of the produce of the fields. He provided honey for him from the cliffs, and olive oil from the hardest of rocks, 32:14 butter from the herd and milk from the flock, along with the fat of lambs, rams and goats of Bashan, along with the best of the kernels of wheat; and from the juice of grapes you drank wine.
Israel’s Rebellion
32:15 But Jeshurun became fat and kicked, you got fat, thick, and stuffed! Then he deserted the God who made him, and treated the Rock who saved him with contempt. 32:16 They made him jealous with other gods, they enraged him with abhorrent idols. 32:17 They sacrificed to demons, not God, to gods they had not known; to new gods who had recently come along, gods your ancestors had not known about. 32:18 You have forgotten the Rock who fathered you, and put out of mind the God who gave you birth.
A Word of Judgment
32:19 But the Lord took note and despised them because his sons and daughters enraged him. 32:20 He said, “I will reject them, I will see what will happen to them; for they are a perverse generation, children who show no loyalty. 32:21 They have made me jealous with false gods, enraging me with their worthless gods; so I will make them jealous with a people they do not recognize, with a nation slow to learn I will enrage them. 32:22 For a fire has been kindled by my anger, and it burns to lowest Sheol; it consumes the earth and its produce, and ignites the foundations of the mountains. 32:23 I will increase their disasters, I will use up my arrows on them. 32:24 They will be starved by famine, eaten by plague, and bitterly stung; I will send the teeth of wild animals against them, along with the poison of creatures that crawl in the dust. 32:25 The sword will make people childless outside, and terror will do so inside; they will destroy both the young man and the virgin, the infant and the gray-haired man.
The Weakness of Other Gods
32:26 “I said, ‘I want to cut them in pieces. I want to make people forget they ever existed. 32:27 But I fear the reaction of their enemies, for their adversaries would misunderstand and say, “Our power is great, and the Lord has not done all this!”’ 32:28 They are a nation devoid of wisdom, and there is no understanding among them. 32:29 I wish that they were wise and could understand this, and that they could comprehend what will happen to them.” 32:30 How can one man chase a thousand of them, and two pursue ten thousand; unless their Rock had delivered them up, and the Lord had handed them over? 32:31 For our enemies’ rock is not like our Rock, as even our enemies concede. 32:32 For their vine is from the stock of Sodom, and from the fields of Gomorrah. Their grapes contain venom, their clusters of grapes are bitter. 32:33 Their wine is snakes’ poison, the deadly venom of cobras. 32:34 “Is this not stored up with me?” says the Lord, “Is it not sealed up in my storehouses? 32:35 I will get revenge and pay them back at the time their foot slips; for the day of their disaster is near, and the impending judgment is rushing upon them!” 32:36 The Lord will judge his people, and will change his plans concerning his servants; when he sees that their power has disappeared, and that no one is left, whether confined or set free. 32:37 He will say, “Where are their gods, the rock in whom they sought security, 32:38 who ate the best of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink offerings? Let them rise and help you; let them be your refuge!
The Vindication of the Lord
32:39 “See now that I, indeed I, am he!” says the Lord, “and there is no other god besides me. I kill and give life, I smash and I heal, and none can resist my power. 32:40 For I raise up my hand to heaven, and say, ‘As surely as I live forever, 32:41 I will sharpen my lightning-like sword, and my hand will grasp hold of the weapon of judgment; I will execute vengeance on my foes, and repay those who hate me! 32:42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood, and my sword will devour flesh– the blood of the slaughtered and captured, the chief of the enemy’s leaders!’” 32:43 Cry out, O nations, with his people, for he will avenge his servants’ blood; he will take vengeance against his enemies, and make atonement for his land and people.
Narrative Interlude
32:44 Then Moses went with Joshua son of Nun and recited all the words of this song to the people. 32:45 When Moses finished reciting all these words to all Israel 32:46 he said to them, “Keep in mind all the words I am solemnly proclaiming to you today; you must command your children to observe carefully all the words of this law. 32:47 For this is no idle word for you– it is your life! By this word you will live a long time in the land you are about to cross the Jordan to possess.”
Instructions about Moses’ Death
32:48 Then the Lord said to Moses that same day, 32:49 “Go up to this Abarim hill country, to Mount Nebo (which is in the land of Moab opposite Jericho) and look at the land of Canaan that I am giving to the Israelites as a possession. 32:50 You will die on the mountain that you ascend and join your deceased ancestors, just as Aaron your brother died on Mount Hor and joined his deceased ancestors, 32:51 for both of you rebelled against me among the Israelites at the waters of Meribah Kadesh in the desert of Zin when you did not show me proper respect among the Israelites. 32:52 You will see the land before you, but you will not enter the land that I am giving to the Israelites.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Abarim a place where the Israelites made an encampment during the Exodus
 · Bashan a region east of Lake Galilee between Mt. Hermon and Wadi Yarmuk
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Gomorrah an ancient city known for its sin whose ruins are said to be visible from the Masada,a town destroyed with Sodom by burning sulphur
 · Hor a mountain on border of Edom),a mountain (on the North border of Israel)
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Jericho a town five miles west of the Jordan and 15 miles northeast of Jerusalem,a town of Benjamin 11 km NW of the mouth of the Jordan River
 · Jeshurun a nickname for the nation of Israel meaning "upright one" (ZD)
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · Meribath-Kadesh a place at Kadesh-Barnea where Moses struck the rock for water
 · Meribath-kadesh a place at Kadesh-Barnea where Moses struck the rock for water
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Nebo a town in Moab (on the east side of the Jordan),a mountain in Reuben, 15 km east of the mouth of the Jordan River,a town in Judah (IBD).,the Babylonian deity Nabu, son of Bel (Marduk),the forefather of some men who put away their heathen wives
 · Nun son of Elishama; father of Joshua (Ephraim), Moses' aide
 · Sheol the place of the dead
 · Sodom an ancient town somewhere in the region of the Dead Sea that God destroyed with burning sulphur,a town 25 km south of Gomorrah and Masada
 · Zin a wilderness area


Topik/Tema Kamus: Moses | DEUTERONOMY | Death | Moab | Religion | POETRY, HEBREW | TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | Songs | Poetry | ADAM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Song | Instruction | Psalms | Judgments | God | Backsliders | Idolatry | GOD, NAMES OF | Rock | Quotations and Allusions | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Deu 32:1 - O heavens, O earth You lifeless and senseless creatures, which he calls upon partly to accuse the stupidity of Israel, that were more dull of hearing than these: and par...

You lifeless and senseless creatures, which he calls upon partly to accuse the stupidity of Israel, that were more dull of hearing than these: and partly as witnesses of the truth of his sayings and the justice of God's proceedings against them.

Wesley: Deu 32:2 - As the rain Look what effect rain and dew have upon herbs and grass which they make fresh and fragrant and growing, the same effect may my discourse have upon you...

Look what effect rain and dew have upon herbs and grass which they make fresh and fragrant and growing, the same effect may my discourse have upon your hearts, that is, to make them soft and pliable and fruitful.

Wesley: Deu 32:3 - The name of the Lord His glorious excellencies and righteous actions, by which he hath made himself known as a man is known by his name, and by which it will appear both t...

His glorious excellencies and righteous actions, by which he hath made himself known as a man is known by his name, and by which it will appear both that there is no blame to be laid upon him whatsoever befals you, and that it is gross madness to forsake such a God for dumb idols.

Wesley: Deu 32:3 - Ascribe ye As I am about to publish the majesty and glory of God, so do you also acknowledge it.

As I am about to publish the majesty and glory of God, so do you also acknowledge it.

Wesley: Deu 32:4 - A rock As for the stability of his nature, and invincibleness of his power, so also for his fixedness and immutability in his counsels and promises and ways;...

As for the stability of his nature, and invincibleness of his power, so also for his fixedness and immutability in his counsels and promises and ways; so that is there shall be a sad change in your affairs, remember that this proceeds from yourselves and from the change of your ways towards God, and not from God, in whom there is no variableness or shadow of change, Jam 1:17.

Wesley: Deu 32:4 - His work All his works and actions are unblameable, perfect, wise and righteous.

All his works and actions are unblameable, perfect, wise and righteous.

Wesley: Deu 32:4 - His ways All his administrations in the world and particularly with you are managed with wisdom and justice.

All his administrations in the world and particularly with you are managed with wisdom and justice.

Wesley: Deu 32:4 - A God of truth Constant to his promises: you cannot accuse him of any unfaithfulness to this day.

Constant to his promises: you cannot accuse him of any unfaithfulness to this day.

Wesley: Deu 32:5 - They The Israelites.

The Israelites.

Wesley: Deu 32:5 - Their spot The wickedness with which they are stained, is not of his children - Plainly shews they are not his children, but the devil's. God's children have no ...

The wickedness with which they are stained, is not of his children - Plainly shews they are not his children, but the devil's. God's children have no such spot. Indeed this text does not affirm, they have any spot at all.

Wesley: Deu 32:5 - Perverse Froward and untractable: Crooked - Irregular and disorderly.

Froward and untractable: Crooked - Irregular and disorderly.

Wesley: Deu 32:6 - O foolish people and unwise! Fools and double fools! Fools indeed, to disoblige one, on whom you so entirely depend! Who hath bewitched you! To forsake your own mercies for lying ...

Fools and double fools! Fools indeed, to disoblige one, on whom you so entirely depend! Who hath bewitched you! To forsake your own mercies for lying vanities! Bought thee - That hath redeemed thee from Egyptian bondage.

Wesley: Deu 32:6 - Made thee Not only in a general by creation, but in a peculiar manner by making thee his peculiar people.

Not only in a general by creation, but in a peculiar manner by making thee his peculiar people.

Wesley: Deu 32:6 - Established That is, renewed and confirmed his favour to thee, and not taken it away, which thou hast often provoked him to do.

That is, renewed and confirmed his favour to thee, and not taken it away, which thou hast often provoked him to do.

Wesley: Deu 32:7 - The days of old The events of ancient days or former ages, and thou wilt find that I had a respect unto thee not only in Abraham's time, but long before it.

The events of ancient days or former ages, and thou wilt find that I had a respect unto thee not only in Abraham's time, but long before it.

Wesley: Deu 32:8 - Their inheritance When God by his providence allotted the several parts of the world to several people, which was done Gen. 10:1-32, Gen 11:1-9.

When God by his providence allotted the several parts of the world to several people, which was done Gen. 10:1-32, Gen 11:1-9.

Wesley: Deu 32:8 - When he separated Divided them in their languages and habitations according to their families.

Divided them in their languages and habitations according to their families.

Wesley: Deu 32:8 - He set the bounds That is, he disposed of the several lands and limits of the people so as to reserve a sufficient place for the great numbers of the people of Israel. ...

That is, he disposed of the several lands and limits of the people so as to reserve a sufficient place for the great numbers of the people of Israel. And therefore he so guided the hearts of several people, that the posterity of Canaan, which was accursed of God, and devoted to ruin, should be seated in that country which God intended for the children of Israel, that so when their iniquities were ripe, they might be rooted out, and the Israelites come in their stead.

Wesley: Deu 32:9 - His people It is no wonder God had so great a regard to this people, for he chose them out of all mankind to be his peculiar portion.

It is no wonder God had so great a regard to this people, for he chose them out of all mankind to be his peculiar portion.

Wesley: Deu 32:10 - He found him Not by chance, but as it were looking out and seeking for him. He did indeed manifest himself to him in Egypt, but it was in the wilderness at Sinai, ...

Not by chance, but as it were looking out and seeking for him. He did indeed manifest himself to him in Egypt, but it was in the wilderness at Sinai, God found him in an eminent manner, and revealed his will to him, and entered into covenant with him, and imparted himself and his grace and blessing to him. By this word he also signifies both their lost condition in themselves, and that their recovery was not from themselves, but only from God who sought and found them out by his grace.

Wesley: Deu 32:10 - In the waste howling wilderness In a place destitute of all the necessaries and comforts of life, which also was a type of that desolate and comfortless condition in which all men ar...

In a place destitute of all the necessaries and comforts of life, which also was a type of that desolate and comfortless condition in which all men are before the grace of God finds them out; where instead of the voices of men, is nothing heard but the howlings and yellings of ravenous birds and beasts.

Wesley: Deu 32:10 - He led them He conducted them frons place to place by his cloudy pillar and providence. Or, he compassed him about, by his provident care, watching over him and p...

He conducted them frons place to place by his cloudy pillar and providence. Or, he compassed him about, by his provident care, watching over him and preserving him on every side.

Wesley: Deu 32:10 - As the apple of his eye As men use to keep the apple of their eye, that is, with singular care and diligence, this being as a most tender, so a most useful part.

As men use to keep the apple of their eye, that is, with singular care and diligence, this being as a most tender, so a most useful part.

Wesley: Deu 32:11 - Her nest Her young ones in the nest; which she by her cry and motion provoketh to fly.

Her young ones in the nest; which she by her cry and motion provoketh to fly.

Wesley: Deu 32:11 - Her wings As preparing herself to fly.

As preparing herself to fly.

Wesley: Deu 32:11 - On her wings Or, as on her wings, that is, gently, and tenderly and safely too, as if she carried them not in her claws for fear of hurting them, but upon her wing...

Or, as on her wings, that is, gently, and tenderly and safely too, as if she carried them not in her claws for fear of hurting them, but upon her wings. Some say, the eagle doth usually carry her young ones upon her wings.

Wesley: Deu 32:12 - Did lead them When they were shut up in Egypt as in their nest whence they durst not venture to fly nor stir, he taught and encouraged and enabled them to fly out f...

When they were shut up in Egypt as in their nest whence they durst not venture to fly nor stir, he taught and encouraged and enabled them to fly out from that bondage, he dealt tenderly with them, bearing with their infirmities, keeping them from all harms.

Wesley: Deu 32:12 - With him To assist him at that work or to deliver them. The more unworthy they in giving to idols a share in that worship which they owe to God only.

To assist him at that work or to deliver them. The more unworthy they in giving to idols a share in that worship which they owe to God only.

Wesley: Deu 32:13 - The high places To conquer their strongest holds, which often are in the mountains, and their cities fenced with walls of greatest height and strength. To ride upon, ...

To conquer their strongest holds, which often are in the mountains, and their cities fenced with walls of greatest height and strength. To ride upon, in scripture phrase, is to subdue or conquer.

Wesley: Deu 32:13 - Out of the rock This being a land flowing with honey, where the bees made honey in the holes of rocks, or in the trees that grew upon or among the rocks.

This being a land flowing with honey, where the bees made honey in the holes of rocks, or in the trees that grew upon or among the rocks.

Wesley: Deu 32:13 - Out of the flinty rocks The olive - trees grow and bear most fruit in rocky or hilly places.

The olive - trees grow and bear most fruit in rocky or hilly places.

Wesley: Deu 32:14 - Fat of lambs For though the fat wherewith the inward parts were covered was not to be eaten by them, but offered to God, yet that fat which was mixed with the fles...

For though the fat wherewith the inward parts were covered was not to be eaten by them, but offered to God, yet that fat which was mixed with the flesh they might eat, as the Jewish doctors note.

Wesley: Deu 32:14 - Basham A place famous for excellent cattle.

A place famous for excellent cattle.

Wesley: Deu 32:14 - Fat of kidneys of wheat With the finest of the grains of wheat; compared to kidneys for their shape and largeness.

With the finest of the grains of wheat; compared to kidneys for their shape and largeness.

Wesley: Deu 32:15 - Jeshurun Israel whom he calls right or upright, (as the word signifies) partly by way of instruction to mind them what they professed and ought to be; and part...

Israel whom he calls right or upright, (as the word signifies) partly by way of instruction to mind them what they professed and ought to be; and partly by way of exprobration, to shew them what a shame it was to degenerate so much from their name and profession.

Wesley: Deu 32:15 - Kicked As well fed cattle use to do: he grew insolent and rebellious against God and against his word and spirit.

As well fed cattle use to do: he grew insolent and rebellious against God and against his word and spirit.

Wesley: Deu 32:16 - To jealousy To anger and fury, for jealousy is the rage of a man. And withall it implies the ground of his anger, their falseness to God whom they had accepted as...

To anger and fury, for jealousy is the rage of a man. And withall it implies the ground of his anger, their falseness to God whom they had accepted as their husband, and their spiritual whoredom with other gods.

Wesley: Deu 32:17 - Unto devils Unto idols, which the devils brought into the world in opposition to God, in and by which the devils often manifested themselves to men, and gave them...

Unto idols, which the devils brought into the world in opposition to God, in and by which the devils often manifested themselves to men, and gave them answers, and received their worship. The Gentiles pretended to worship God in those idols, and the devils which inspired them, deluded the nations with pretences that they were a sort of lower gods. Moses takes off this mark, and shews the Israelites that these pretended gods were really devils, and therefore that it was the height of madness to honour or worship them.

Wesley: Deu 32:17 - Not to God For God utterly rejected those sacrifices which they offered to him together with idols.

For God utterly rejected those sacrifices which they offered to him together with idols.

Wesley: Deu 32:17 - They knew not Or, who never knew them, that is, never shewed any kindness to them, or did them any good: New gods - Not simply or absolutely, for some of these had ...

Or, who never knew them, that is, never shewed any kindness to them, or did them any good: New gods - Not simply or absolutely, for some of these had been worshipped for many generations, but comparatively to the true God, who is the ancient of days, Deu 7:9, and who was worshipped from the beginning of the world.

Wesley: Deu 32:17 - Feared not Served not, worshipped not.

Served not, worshipped not.

Wesley: Deu 32:18 - Of the rock Of God, one of whose titles this is, or of Christ, who is called the rock, 1Co 10:4, whom the Israelites tempted.

Of God, one of whose titles this is, or of Christ, who is called the rock, 1Co 10:4, whom the Israelites tempted.

Wesley: Deu 32:19 - His sons and daughters Such they were by calling and profession.

Such they were by calling and profession.

Wesley: Deu 32:20 - I will see I will make them and others see, what the fruit of such actions shall be.

I will make them and others see, what the fruit of such actions shall be.

Wesley: Deu 32:20 - No faith No fidelity: perfidious, that have broken their covenant so solemnly made with me.

No fidelity: perfidious, that have broken their covenant so solemnly made with me.

Wesley: Deu 32:21 - I will move them to jealousy with those that are not a people With the Heathen nations, who are none of my people, who scarce deserve the name of a people, as being without the knowledge and fear of God, which is...

With the Heathen nations, who are none of my people, who scarce deserve the name of a people, as being without the knowledge and fear of God, which is the foundation of all true policy and government, and many of them destitute of all government, laws and order. And yet these people I will take in your stead, receive them and reject you; which, when it came to pass how desperately did it provoke the Jews to jealousy? A foolish nation - So the Gentiles were both in the opinion of the Jews and in truth and reality, notwithstanding all their pretences to wisdom, there being nothing more foolish or brutish than the worship of idols.

Wesley: Deu 32:22 - A fire is kindled Great and grievous judgments shall be inflicted, which often come under the name of fire. Are they proud of their plenty? It shall burn up the increas...

Great and grievous judgments shall be inflicted, which often come under the name of fire. Are they proud of their plenty? It shall burn up the increase of the earth. Are they confident of their strength? It shall destroy the very foundations of the mountains. It shall burn unto the lowest hell: it shall bring them to the very depth of misery in this world, which yet will he but a faint resemblance of their endless misery in the next.

Wesley: Deu 32:23 - Spend mine arrows Even empty my quiver, and send upon them all my plagues, which, like arrows shot by a skilful and strong hand, shall speedily reach and certainly hit ...

Even empty my quiver, and send upon them all my plagues, which, like arrows shot by a skilful and strong hand, shall speedily reach and certainly hit and mortally wound them.

Wesley: Deu 32:24 - With hunger With famine, which burns and parches the inward parts, and make the face black as a coal, Lam 4:8.

With famine, which burns and parches the inward parts, and make the face black as a coal, Lam 4:8.

Wesley: Deu 32:24 - Burning heat From fevers or carbuncles, or other inflaming distempers.

From fevers or carbuncles, or other inflaming distempers.

Wesley: Deu 32:27 - The wrath Their rage against me, as it is expressed, Isa 37:28-29, their furious reproaches against my name, as if I were cruel to my people or unable to delive...

Their rage against me, as it is expressed, Isa 37:28-29, their furious reproaches against my name, as if I were cruel to my people or unable to deliver them. The fear hereof is ascribed to God after the manner of men.

Wesley: Deu 32:27 - Strangely Insolenty and arrogantly above what they used to do.

Insolenty and arrogantly above what they used to do.

Wesley: Deu 32:28 - Void of counsel Their enemies are foolish people, and therefore make so false and foolish a judgment upon things.

Their enemies are foolish people, and therefore make so false and foolish a judgment upon things.

Wesley: Deu 32:29 - They Israel.

Israel.

Wesley: Deu 32:29 - Latter end What their end will be, and that tho' God spare them long, yet at last judgment will certainly overtake them.

What their end will be, and that tho' God spare them long, yet at last judgment will certainly overtake them.

Wesley: Deu 32:30 - One Israelite.

Israelite.

Wesley: Deu 32:30 - Their rock Their God, who was their refuge and defence.

Their God, who was their refuge and defence.

Wesley: Deu 32:30 - Sold them Namely, for bond - slaves, had given themselves up into their enemies hands.

Namely, for bond - slaves, had given themselves up into their enemies hands.

Wesley: Deu 32:30 - Shut them up As it were in the net which their enemies had laid for them.

As it were in the net which their enemies had laid for them.

Wesley: Deu 32:31 - Being judges Who by their dear bought experience have been forced to acknowledge that our God was far stronger than they and their false gods together.

Who by their dear bought experience have been forced to acknowledge that our God was far stronger than they and their false gods together.

Wesley: Deu 32:32 - For As if he had said, This is the reason why their rock hath shut them up.

As if he had said, This is the reason why their rock hath shut them up.

Wesley: Deu 32:32 - Their vine is of the vine of Sodom The people of Israel, which I planted as a choice vine, are now degenerated and become like the vine of Sodom, their principles and practices are all ...

The people of Israel, which I planted as a choice vine, are now degenerated and become like the vine of Sodom, their principles and practices are all corrupt and abominable.

Wesley: Deu 32:32 - Bitter Their fruits are loathsome to me, mischievous to others, and at last will be pernicious to themselves.

Their fruits are loathsome to me, mischievous to others, and at last will be pernicious to themselves.

Wesley: Deu 32:34 - This All their wickedness mentioned before. My long suffering towards them may make them think I have forgotten their sins, but I remember them punctually,...

All their wickedness mentioned before. My long suffering towards them may make them think I have forgotten their sins, but I remember them punctually, they are sealed up as in a bag, Job 14:17, and as men seal up their treasures.

Wesley: Deu 32:35 - Their feet shall slide They who now think they stand fast and unmoveable, shall fall into utter destruction.

They who now think they stand fast and unmoveable, shall fall into utter destruction.

Wesley: Deu 32:35 - In due time Though not so soon as some may expect, yet in that time when it shall be most proper, when they have filled up the measure of their sins.

Though not so soon as some may expect, yet in that time when it shall be most proper, when they have filled up the measure of their sins.

Wesley: Deu 32:35 - At hand Heb. is near. So the scripture often speaks of those things which are at many hundred years distance, to signify, that though they may be afar off as ...

Heb. is near. So the scripture often speaks of those things which are at many hundred years distance, to signify, that though they may be afar off as to our measures of time, yet in God's account they are near, they are as near as may be, when the measure of their sins is once full, the judgment shall not be deferred.

Wesley: Deu 32:36 - For Or, nevertheless, having spoken of the dreadful calamity which would come upon his people, he now turns his discourse into a more comfortable strain, ...

Or, nevertheless, having spoken of the dreadful calamity which would come upon his people, he now turns his discourse into a more comfortable strain, and begins to shew that after God had sorely chastised his people, he would have mercy upon them and turn their captivity.

Wesley: Deu 32:36 - Judge his people Shall plead their cause, shall protect and deliver them.

Shall plead their cause, shall protect and deliver them.

Wesley: Deu 32:36 - Repent Of the evils he hath brought upon them.

Of the evils he hath brought upon them.

Wesley: Deu 32:36 - None shut up Either in their strong cities or castles or other hiding places, or in the enemies hands or prisons, whence there might be some hope or possibility of...

Either in their strong cities or castles or other hiding places, or in the enemies hands or prisons, whence there might be some hope or possibility of redemption; and none left, as the poor and contemptible people are neglected and usually left by the conquerors in the conquered land, but all seem to be cut off and destroyed.

Wesley: Deu 32:37 - He shall say The Lord, before he deliver his people, will first convince them of their former folly in forsaking him and following idols.

The Lord, before he deliver his people, will first convince them of their former folly in forsaking him and following idols.

Wesley: Deu 32:38 - Which did eat That is, to whom you offered sacrifices and oblations after the manner of the Gentiles.

That is, to whom you offered sacrifices and oblations after the manner of the Gentiles.

Wesley: Deu 32:38 - Help you If they can.

If they can.

Wesley: Deu 32:39 - See now Learn by your own sad experience what vain and impotent things idols are.

Learn by your own sad experience what vain and impotent things idols are.

Wesley: Deu 32:39 - I am he The only true, omnipotent and irresistible God.

The only true, omnipotent and irresistible God.

Wesley: Deu 32:40 - I lift up my hand I solemnly swear, that I will do what here follows.

I solemnly swear, that I will do what here follows.

Wesley: Deu 32:40 - I live As sure as I live.

As sure as I live.

Wesley: Deu 32:41 - If I whet my sword If once I begin to prepare for war and for the execution of my sentence.

If once I begin to prepare for war and for the execution of my sentence.

Wesley: Deu 32:41 - Judgment Of the instruments of judgment, of the weapons of war. A metaphor from warriors, that take their weapons into their hand, when they intend to fight.

Of the instruments of judgment, of the weapons of war. A metaphor from warriors, that take their weapons into their hand, when they intend to fight.

Wesley: Deu 32:42 - Captives Whom my sword hath sorely wounded, though not utterly killed.

Whom my sword hath sorely wounded, though not utterly killed.

Wesley: Deu 32:42 - From the beginning When once I begin to revenge myself and my people upon mine and their enemies, I will go on and make a full end.

When once I begin to revenge myself and my people upon mine and their enemies, I will go on and make a full end.

Wesley: Deu 32:43 - Rejoice He calls upon the nations to rejoice and bless God for his favours, and especially for the last wonderful deliverance which shall be given to the Jews...

He calls upon the nations to rejoice and bless God for his favours, and especially for the last wonderful deliverance which shall be given to the Jews, when they shall be converted to the gospel in the last days; which they have all reason to do, because of that singular advantage which all nations will have at that time and upon that occasion.

Wesley: Deu 32:44 - He and Hoshea Or Joshua. Probably Moses spoke it to as many as could hear him, while Joshua in another assembly at the same time delivered it to as many as his voic...

Or Joshua. Probably Moses spoke it to as many as could hear him, while Joshua in another assembly at the same time delivered it to as many as his voice would reach. Thus Joshua, as well as Moses, would be a witness against them, if ever they forsook God.

Wesley: Deu 32:47 - Not vain It is not an unprofitable or contemptible work I advise you to, but well worthy of your most serious care.

It is not an unprofitable or contemptible work I advise you to, but well worthy of your most serious care.

Wesley: Deu 32:48 - That self same day - Now he had finished his work, why should he desire to live a day longer? He had indeed formerly desired and prayed, that he might go over J...

same day - Now he had finished his work, why should he desire to live a day longer? He had indeed formerly desired and prayed, that he might go over Jordan: but now he is entirely satisfied, and saith no more of that matter.

Wesley: Deu 32:49 - Nebo A ridge or top of the mountains of Abarim.

A ridge or top of the mountains of Abarim.

Wesley: Deu 32:51 - Because ye trespassed God reminds him of the sin he had committed long before. It is good for the holiest of men to die repenting, even of their early sins.

God reminds him of the sin he had committed long before. It is good for the holiest of men to die repenting, even of their early sins.

Wesley: Deu 32:52 - Yet thou shalt see the land And see it as the earnest of that better country, which is only seen with the eye of faith. What is death to him who has a believing prospect and a st...

And see it as the earnest of that better country, which is only seen with the eye of faith. What is death to him who has a believing prospect and a steadfast hope of eternal life?

JFB: Deu 32:1 - Give ear, O ye heavens; . . . hear, O earth The magnificence of the exordium, the grandeur of the theme, the frequent and sudden transitions, the elevated strain of the sentiments and language, ...

The magnificence of the exordium, the grandeur of the theme, the frequent and sudden transitions, the elevated strain of the sentiments and language, entitle this song to be ranked amongst the noblest specimens of poetry to be found in the Scriptures.

JFB: Deu 32:2-3 - My doctrine shall drop, &c. The language may justly be taken as uttered in the form of a wish or prayer, and the comparison of wholesome instruction to the pure, gentle, and insi...

The language may justly be taken as uttered in the form of a wish or prayer, and the comparison of wholesome instruction to the pure, gentle, and insinuating influence of rain or dew, is frequently made by the sacred writers (Isa 5:6; Isa 55:10-11).

JFB: Deu 32:4 - He is the Rock A word expressive of power and stability. The application of it in this passage is to declare that God had been true to His covenant with their father...

A word expressive of power and stability. The application of it in this passage is to declare that God had been true to His covenant with their fathers and them. Nothing that He had promised had failed; so that if their national experience had been painfully checkered by severe and protracted trials, notwithstanding the brightest promises, that result was traceable to their own undutiful and perverse conduct; not to any vacillation or unfaithfulness on the part of God (Jam 1:17), whose procedure was marked by justice and judgment, whether they had been exalted to prosperity or plunged into the depths of affliction.

JFB: Deu 32:5 - They have corrupted themselves That is, the Israelites by their frequent lapses and their inveterate attachment to idolatry.

That is, the Israelites by their frequent lapses and their inveterate attachment to idolatry.

JFB: Deu 32:5 - their spot is not the spot of his children This is an allusion to the marks which idolaters inscribe on their foreheads or their arms with paint or other substances, in various colors and forms...

This is an allusion to the marks which idolaters inscribe on their foreheads or their arms with paint or other substances, in various colors and forms--straight, oval, or circular, according to the favorite idol of their worship.

JFB: Deu 32:6 - is not he thy father that hath bought thee Or emancipated thee from Egyptian bondage.

Or emancipated thee from Egyptian bondage.

JFB: Deu 32:6 - and made thee Advanced the nation to unprecedented and peculiar privileges.

Advanced the nation to unprecedented and peculiar privileges.

JFB: Deu 32:8-9 - When the most High divided to the nations their inheritance In the division of the earth, which Noah is believed to have made by divine direction (Gen 10:5; Deu 2:5-9; Act 17:26-27), Palestine was reserved by t...

In the division of the earth, which Noah is believed to have made by divine direction (Gen 10:5; Deu 2:5-9; Act 17:26-27), Palestine was reserved by the wisdom and goodness of Heaven for the possession of His peculiar people and the display of the most stupendous wonders. The theater was small, but admirably suited for the convenient observation of the human race--at the junction of the two great continents of Asia and Africa, and almost within sight of Europe. From this spot as from a common center the report of God's wonderful works, the glad tidings of salvation through the obedience and sufferings of His own eternal Son, might be rapidly and easily wafted to every part of the globe.

JFB: Deu 32:8-9 - he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel Another rendering, which has received the sanction of eminent scholars, has been proposed as follows: "When the Most High divided to the nations their...

Another rendering, which has received the sanction of eminent scholars, has been proposed as follows: "When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of Adam and set the bounds of every people, the children of Israel were few in numbers, when the Lord chose that people and made Jacob His inheritance" (compare Deu 30:5; Gen 34:30; Psa 105:9-12).

JFB: Deu 32:10 - found him in a desert land Took him into a covenant relation at Sinai, or rather "sustained," "provided for him" in a desert land.

Took him into a covenant relation at Sinai, or rather "sustained," "provided for him" in a desert land.

JFB: Deu 32:10 - a waste howling wilderness A common Oriental expression for a desert infested by wild beasts.

A common Oriental expression for a desert infested by wild beasts.

JFB: Deu 32:11 - As an eagle . . . fluttereth over her young This beautiful and expressive metaphor is founded on the extraordinary care and attachment which the female eagle cherishes for her young. When her ne...

This beautiful and expressive metaphor is founded on the extraordinary care and attachment which the female eagle cherishes for her young. When her newly fledged progeny are sufficiently advanced to soar in their native element, she, in their first attempts at flying, supports them on the tip of her wing, encouraging, directing, and aiding their feeble efforts to longer and sublimer flights. So did God take the most tender and powerful care of His chosen people; He carried them out of Egypt and led them through all the horrors of the wilderness to the promised inheritance.

JFB: Deu 32:13-14 - He made him ride on the high places, &c. All these expressions seem to have peculiar reference to their home in the trans-jordanic territory, that being the extent of Palestine that they had ...

All these expressions seem to have peculiar reference to their home in the trans-jordanic territory, that being the extent of Palestine that they had seen at the time when Moses is represented as uttering these words. "The high places" and "the fields" are specially applicable to the tablelands of Gilead as are the allusions to the herds and flocks, the honey of the wild bees which hive in the crevices of the rocks, the oil from the olive as it grew singly or in small clumps on the tops of hills where scarcely anything else would grow, the finest wheat (Psa 81:16; Psa 147:14), and the prolific vintage.

JFB: Deu 32:15 - But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked This is a poetical name for Israel. The metaphor here used is derived from a pampered animal, which, instead of being tame and gentle, becomes mischie...

This is a poetical name for Israel. The metaphor here used is derived from a pampered animal, which, instead of being tame and gentle, becomes mischievous and vicious, in consequence of good living and kind treatment. So did the Israelites conduct themselves by their various acts of rebellion, murmuring, and idolatrous apostasy.

JFB: Deu 32:17 - They sacrificed unto devils (See on Lev 17:7).

(See on Lev 17:7).

JFB: Deu 32:21 - those which are not a people That is, not favored with such great and peculiar privileges as the Israelites (or, rather poor, despised heathens). The language points to the future...

That is, not favored with such great and peculiar privileges as the Israelites (or, rather poor, despised heathens). The language points to the future calling of the Gentiles.

JFB: Deu 32:23 - I will spend mine arrows upon them War, famine, pestilence (Psa 77:17) are called in Scripture the arrows of the Almighty.

War, famine, pestilence (Psa 77:17) are called in Scripture the arrows of the Almighty.

JFB: Deu 32:29 - Oh, . . . that they would consider their latter end The terrible judgments, which, in the event of their continued and incorrigible disobedience, would impart so awful a character to the close of their ...

The terrible judgments, which, in the event of their continued and incorrigible disobedience, would impart so awful a character to the close of their national history.

JFB: Deu 32:32 - vine of Sodom . . . grapes of gall This fruit, which the Arabs call "Lot's Sea Orange," is of a bright yellow color and grows in clusters of three or four. When mellow, it is tempting i...

This fruit, which the Arabs call "Lot's Sea Orange," is of a bright yellow color and grows in clusters of three or four. When mellow, it is tempting in appearance, but on being struck, explodes like a puffball, consisting of skin and fiber only.

JFB: Deu 32:44-47 - Moses . . . spake all the words of this song in the ears, &c. It has been beautifully styled "the Song of the Dying Swan" [LOWTH]. It was designed to be a national anthem, which it should be the duty and care of ...

It has been beautifully styled "the Song of the Dying Swan" [LOWTH]. It was designed to be a national anthem, which it should be the duty and care of magistrates to make well known by frequent repetition, to animate the people to right sentiments towards a steadfast adherence to His service.

JFB: Deu 32:48-51 - Get thee up . . . and die . . . Because ye trespassed . . . at Meribah (See on Num 20:13).

(See on Num 20:13).

JFB: Deu 32:52 - thou shalt see the land, but thou shalt not go thither (Num 27:12). Notwithstanding so severe a disappointment, not a murmur of complaint escapes his lips. He is not only resigned but acquiescing; and in ...

(Num 27:12). Notwithstanding so severe a disappointment, not a murmur of complaint escapes his lips. He is not only resigned but acquiescing; and in the near prospect of his death, he pours forth the feelings of his devout heart in sublime strains and eloquent blessings.

Clarke: Deu 32:1 - On the inimitable excellence of this ode much has been written by commentators, critics, and poets On the inimitable excellence of this ode much has been written by commentators, critics, and poets - and it is allowed by the best judges to contain...

On the inimitable excellence of this ode much has been written by commentators, critics, and poets - and it is allowed by the best judges to contain a specimen of almost every species of excellence in composition. It is so thoroughly poetic that even the dull Jews themselves found they could not write it in the prose form; and hence it is distinguished as poetry in every Hebrew Bible by being written in its own hemistichs or short half lines, which is the general form of the Hebrew poetry; and were it translated in the same way it would be more easily understood. The song itself has suffered both by transcribers and translators, the former having mistaken some letters in different places, and made wrong combinations of them in others. As to the translators, most of them have followed their own fancy, from good Mr. Ainsworth, who ruined it by the most inanimate rhyming version, to certain latter poets, who have cast it unhallowedly into a European mould. See the observations at the end of the chapter, Deu 32:52

Clarke: Deu 32:1 - Give ear, O ye heavens Give ear, O ye heavens - Let angels and men hear, and let this testimony of God be registered both in heaven and earth. Heaven and earth are appeale...

Give ear, O ye heavens - Let angels and men hear, and let this testimony of God be registered both in heaven and earth. Heaven and earth are appealed to as permanent witnesses.

Clarke: Deu 32:2 - My doctrine My doctrine - לקחי likchi , from לקח lakach , to take, carry away; to attract or gain over the heart by eloquence or persuasive speech Henc...

My doctrine - לקחי likchi , from לקח lakach , to take, carry away; to attract or gain over the heart by eloquence or persuasive speech

Hence the Septuagint translate the word αποφθεγμα, an apophthegm, a sententious and weighty saying, for the regulation of the moral conduct such, properly, are the sayings in this inimitable ode

Clarke: Deu 32:2 - Shall drop as the rain Shall drop as the rain - It shall come drop by drop as the shower, beginning slowly and distinctly, but increasing more and more till the plenitude ...

Shall drop as the rain - It shall come drop by drop as the shower, beginning slowly and distinctly, but increasing more and more till the plenitude of righteousness is poured down, and the whole canon of Divine revelation completed

Clarke: Deu 32:2 - My speech shall distil as the dew My speech shall distil as the dew - אמרתי imrathi ; my familiar, friendly, and affectionate speeches shall descend gently and softly, on the ...

My speech shall distil as the dew - אמרתי imrathi ; my familiar, friendly, and affectionate speeches shall descend gently and softly, on the ear and the heart, as the dew, moistening and refreshing all around. In hot regions dew is often a substitute for rain, without it there could be no fertility, especially in those places where rain seldom falls. And in such places only can the metaphor here used be felt in its perfection. Homer uses a similar figure when speaking of the eloquence of Ulysses; he says, Il. iii., ver. 221: -

Αλλ ὁτε δη ῥοπα τε μεγαλην εκ στηθεος ἱει,

Και επεα νιφαδεσσιν εοικοτα χειμεριῃσιν -

"But when he speaks what elocution flows

Soft as the fleeces of descending snows.

On the manner in which dew is produced, philosophers are not yet agreed. It was long supposed to descend, and to differ only from rain as less from more; but the experiments of a French chemist seemed to prove that dew ascended in light thin vapours, and that, meeting with a colder region of the air, it became condensed and fell down upon the earth. Other recent experiments, though they have not entirely invalidated the former, have rendered the doctrine of the ascent of dew doubtful. Though we know nothing certain as to the manner of its production, yet we know that the thing exists, and that it is essentially useful. So much we know of the sayings of our God, and the blessed effects produced by them: God hath spoken, and the entering in of his words gives light and life. See the note on Gen 2:6

Clarke: Deu 32:2 - As the small rain As the small rain - שעירם seirim , from שער saar , to be rough or tempestuous; sweeping showers, accompanied with a strong gale of wind

As the small rain - שעירם seirim , from שער saar , to be rough or tempestuous; sweeping showers, accompanied with a strong gale of wind

Clarke: Deu 32:2 - And as the showers And as the showers - רביבים rebibim , from רבה rabah to multiply, to increase greatly; shower after shower, or rather a continual rain,...

And as the showers - רביבים rebibim , from רבה rabah to multiply, to increase greatly; shower after shower, or rather a continual rain, whose drops are multiplied beyond calculation, upon the earth; alluding perhaps to the rainy seasons in the East, or to those early and latter rains so essentially necessary for the vegetation and perfection of the grain

No doubt these various expressions point out that great variety in the word or revelation of God whereby it is suited to every place, occasion, person, and state; being "profitable for doctrine, reproof, and edification in righteousness."Hence the apostle says that God, at sundry times and in divers manners, spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, and in these last times has spoken unto us by his Son; Heb 1:1, Heb 1:2. By every prophet, evangelist, and apostle, God speaks a particular language; all is his doctrine, his great system of instruction, for the information and salvation of the souls of men. But some portions are like the sweeping showers, in which the tempest of God’ s wrath appears against sinners. Others are like the incessant showers of gentle rain, preparing the soil for the germination of the grain, and causing it to take root. And others still are like the dew, mildly and gently insinuating convictions, persuasions, reproofs, and consolations. The preacher of righteousness who wishes to handle this word profitably, must attend closely to those distinctions, that he may rightly divide the word of truth, and give each of his hearers his portion of the bread of life in due season.

Clarke: Deu 32:4 - He is the Rock He is the Rock - The word צור tsur is rendered Creator by some eminent critics; and khalyk is the reading in the Arabic Version. Rab. Moses ...

He is the Rock - The word צור tsur is rendered Creator by some eminent critics; and khalyk is the reading in the Arabic Version. Rab. Moses ben Maimon, in his valuable work, Moreh Nebochim, observes that the word צור tsur , which is ordinarily translated rock, signifies origin, fountain, first cause, etc., and in this way it should be translated here: "He is the first principle, his work is perfect."As he is the cause of all things, he must be infinitely perfect; and consequently all his works must be perfect in their respective kinds. As is the cause, so must the effect be. Some think the word rock gives a very good sense: for, as in those lands, rocks were the ordinary places of defense and security, God may be metaphorically represented thus, to signify his protection of his followers. I prefer the opinion of Maimon.

Clarke: Deu 32:5 - Their spot is not the spot of his children Their spot is not the spot of his children - This verse is variously translated and variously understood. They are corrupted, not his, children of p...

Their spot is not the spot of his children - This verse is variously translated and variously understood. They are corrupted, not his, children of pollution - Kennicott. They are corrupt, they are not his children, they are blotted - Houbigant. This is according to the Samaritan. The interpretation commonly given to these words is as unfounded as it is exceptionable: "God’ s children have their spots, i. e., their sins, but sin in them is not like sin in others; in others sin is exceedingly sinful, but God does not see the sins of his children as he sees the sins of his enemies,"etc. Unfortunately for this bad doctrine, there is no foundation for it in the sacred text, which, though very obscure, may be thus translated: He (Israel) hath corrupted himself. They (the Israelites) are not his children: they are spotted. Coverdale renders the whole passage thus: "The froward and overthwart generation have marred themselves to himward, and are not his children because of their deformity."This is the sense of the verse. Let it be observed that the word spot, which is repeated in our translation, occurs but once in the original, and the marginal reading is greatly to be preferred: He hath corrupted to himself, that they are not his children; that is their blot. And because they had the blot of sin on them, because they were spotted with iniquity and marked idolaters, therefore God renounces them. There may be here an allusion to the marks which the worshippers of particular idols had on different parts of their bodies, especially on their foreheads; and as idolatry is the crime with which they are here charged, the spot or mark mentioned may refer to the mark or stigma of their idol. The different sects of idolaters in the East are distinguished by their sectarian marks, the stigma of their respective idols. These sectarian marks, particularly on the forehead, amount to nearly one hundred among the Hindoos, and especially among the two sects, the worshippers of Seeva, and the worshippers of Vishnoo. In many cases these marks are renewed daily, for they account it irreligious to perform any sacred rite to their god without his mark on the forehead; the marks are generally horizontal and perpendicular lines, crescents, circles, leaves, eyes, etc., in red, black, white, and yellow. This very custom is referred to in Rev 20:4, where the beast gives his mark to his followers, and it is very likely that Moses refers to such a custom among the idolatrous of his own day. This removes all the difficulty of the text. God’ s children have no sinful spots, because Christ saves them from their sins; and their motto or mark is, Holiness to the Lord.

Clarke: Deu 32:8 - When the Most High divided to the nations, etc. When the Most High divided to the nations, etc. - Deu 32:8 and Deu 32:9, says Dr. Kennicott, give us express authority for believing that the earth ...

When the Most High divided to the nations, etc. - Deu 32:8 and Deu 32:9, says Dr. Kennicott, give us express authority for believing that the earth was very early divided in consequence of a Divine command, and probably by lot, (see Act 17:26); and as Africa is called the land of Ham, (Psa 78:51; Psa 105:23, Psa 105:27; Psa 106:22), probably that country fell to him and to his descendants, at the same time that Europe fell to Japheth, and Asia to Shem, with a particular reserve of Palestine to be the Lord’ s portion, for some one peculiar people. And this separation of mankind into three bodies, called the general migration, was commanded to Noah, and by him to his sons, so as to take place in the days of Peleg, about two hundred years afterwards. This general migration was prior to the partial dispersion from Babel by about five hundred years

Clarke: Deu 32:8 - He set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel He set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel - The Septuagint is very curious, Εστησεν ὁρια εθ...

He set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel - The Septuagint is very curious, Εστησεν ὁρια εθνων κατα αριθμον αγγελων του Θεου . "He established the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God."The meaning of the passage seems to be, that when God divided the earth among mankind, he reserved twelve lots, according to the number of the sons of Jacob, which he was now about to give to their descendants, according to his promise.

Clarke: Deu 32:9 - The Lord’ s portion is his people The Lord’ s portion is his people - What an astonishing saying! As holy souls take God for their portion, so God takes them for his portion. He...

The Lord’ s portion is his people - What an astonishing saying! As holy souls take God for their portion, so God takes them for his portion. He represents himself as happy in his followers; and they are infinitely happy in, and satisfied with, God as their portion. This is what is implied in being a saint. He who is seeking for an earthly portion, has little commerce with the Most High.

Clarke: Deu 32:10 - He - the Lord, found him He - the Lord, found him - Jacob, in his descendants, in a desert land - the wilderness. He led him about forty years in this wilderness, Deu 8:2, o...

He - the Lord, found him - Jacob, in his descendants, in a desert land - the wilderness. He led him about forty years in this wilderness, Deu 8:2, or יסבבנהו yesobebenhu , he compassed him about, i. e., God defended them on all hands, and in all places. He instructed him - taught them that astonishing law through which we have now almost passed, giving them statutes and judgments which, for depth of wisdom, and correct political adaptation to times, places, and circumstances, are so wondrously constructed, as essentially to secure the comfort, peace, and happiness of the individual, and the prosperity and permanency of the moral system. Laws so excellent that they have met with the approbation of the wise and good in all countries, and formed the basis of the political institutions of all the civilized nations in the universe

Notwithstanding the above gives the passage a good sense, yet probably the whole verse should be considered more literally. It is certain that in the same country travelers are often obliged to go about in order to find proper passes between the mountains, and the following extracts from Mr. Harmer well illustrate this point

"Irwin farther describes the mountains of the desert of Thebais (Upper Egypt) as sometimes so steep and dangerous as to induce even very bold and hardy travelers to avoid them by taking a large circuit; and that for want of proper knowledge of the way, such a wrong path may be taken as may on a sudden bring them into the greatest dangers, while at other times a dreary waste may extend itself so prodigiously as to make it difficult, without assistance, to find the way to a proper outlet. All which show us the meaning of those words of the song of Moses, Deu 32:10 : He led him about, he instructed him, he kept him as the apple of his eye

"Jehovah certainly instructed Israel in religion by delivering to him his law in this wilderness; but it is not, I presume, of this kind of teaching Moses speaks, as Bishop Patrick supposes, but God’ s instructing Israel how to avoid the dangers of the journey, by leading the people about this and that dangerous, precipitous hill, directing them to proper passes through the mountains, and guiding them through the intricacies of that difficult journey which might, and probably would, have confounded the most consummate Arab guides. They that could have safely enough conducted a small caravan of travelers through this desert, might have been very unequal to the task of directing such an enormous multitude, encumbered with cattle, women, children, and utensils. The passages of Irwin, that establish the observation I have been making, follow here: ‘ At half past eleven we resumed our march, and soon came to the foot of a prodigious hill, which we unexpectedly found we were to ascend. It was perpendicular, like the one we had passed some hours before; but what rendered the access more difficult, the path which we were to tread was nearly right up and down. The captain of the robbers seeing the obstacles we had to overcome, wisely sent all his camels round the mountain where he knew there was a defile, and only accompanied us with the beast he rode. We luckily met with no accident in climbing this height.’ p. 325. They afterwards descended, he tells us, into a valley, by a passage easy enough, and stopping to dine at half past five o’ clock, they were joined by the Arabs, who had made an astonishing march to overtake them, p. 326. ‘ We soon quitted the dale, and ascended the high ground by the side of a mountain that overlooks it in this part. The path was narrow and perpendicular, and much resembled a ladder. To make it worse, we preceded the robbers, and an ignorant guide among our people led us astray. Here we found ourselves in a pretty situation: we had kept the lower road on the side of the hill, instead of that towards the summit, until we could proceed no farther; we were now obliged to gain the heights, in order to recover the road, in performing which we drove our poor camels up such steeps that we had the greatest difficulty to climb after them. We were under the necessity of leaving them to themselves, as the danger of leading them through places where the least false step would have precipitated both man and beast to the unfathomable abyss below, was too critical to hazard. We hit at length upon the proper path, and were glad to find ourselves in the road of our unerring guides the robbers, after having won every foot of the ground with real peril and fatigue.’ p. 324. Again: ‘ Our road after leaving the valley lay over level ground. As it would be next to an impossibility to find the way over these stony flats, where the heavy foot of a camel leaves no impression, the different bands of robbers have heaped up stones at unequal distances for their direction through this desert. We have derived great assistance from the robbers in this respect, who are our guides when the marks either fail, or are unintelligible to us.’ The predatory Arabs were more successful guides to Mr. Irwin and his companions, than those he brought with him from Ghinnah; but the march of Israel through deserts of the like nature, was through such an extent and variety of country, and in such circumstances as to multitudes and incumbrances, as to make Divine interposition necessary. The openings through the rocks seem to have been prepared by Him to whom all things from the beginning of the world were foreknown, with great wisdom and goodness, to enable them to accomplish this stupendous march."See Harmer’ s Observat., vol. iv. p. 125

He kept him as the apple of his eye - Nothing can exceed the force and delicacy of this expression. As deeply concerned and as carefully attentive as man can be for the safety of his eyesight, so was God for the protection and welfare of this people. How amazing this condescension!

Clarke: Deu 32:11 - As an eagle stirreth up her nest As an eagle stirreth up her nest - Flutters over her brood to excite them to fly; or, as some think, disturbs her nest to oblige the young ones to l...

As an eagle stirreth up her nest - Flutters over her brood to excite them to fly; or, as some think, disturbs her nest to oblige the young ones to leave it; so God by his plagues in Egypt obliged the Israelites, otherwise very reluctant, to leave a place which he appeared by his judgments to have devoted to destruction

Clarke: Deu 32:11 - Fluttereth over her young Fluttereth over her young - ירחף yeracheph , broodeth over them, communicating to them a portion of her own vital warmth: so did God, by the in...

Fluttereth over her young - ירחף yeracheph , broodeth over them, communicating to them a portion of her own vital warmth: so did God, by the influences of his Spirit, enlighten, encourage, and strengthen their minds. It is the same word which is used in Gen 1:2

Clarke: Deu 32:11 - Spreadeth abroad her wings, etc. Spreadeth abroad her wings, etc. - In order, not only to teach them how to fly, but to bear them when weary. For to this fact there seems an allusio...

Spreadeth abroad her wings, etc. - In order, not only to teach them how to fly, but to bear them when weary. For to this fact there seems an allusion, it having been generally believed that the eagle, through extraordinary affection for her young, takes them upon her back when they are weary of flying, so that the archers cannot injure them but by piercing the body of the mother. The same figure is used Exo 19:4 (note); in the note. The נשר nesher , which we translate eagle, is supposed by Mr. Bruce to mean the rachama, a bird remarkable for its affection to its young, which it is known actually to bear on its back when they are weary.

Clarke: Deu 32:12 - So the Lord alone did lead him So the Lord alone did lead him - By his power, and by his only, were they brought out of Egypt, and supported in the wilderness

So the Lord alone did lead him - By his power, and by his only, were they brought out of Egypt, and supported in the wilderness

Clarke: Deu 32:12 - And there was no strange god And there was no strange god - They had help from no other quarter. The Egyptian idols were not able to save their own votaries; but God not only sa...

And there was no strange god - They had help from no other quarter. The Egyptian idols were not able to save their own votaries; but God not only saved his people, but destroyed the Egyptians.

Clarke: Deu 32:13 - He made him ride He made him ride - ירכבהו yarkibehu , he will cause him to ride. All the verbs here are in the future tense, because this is a prophecy of th...

He made him ride - ירכבהו yarkibehu , he will cause him to ride. All the verbs here are in the future tense, because this is a prophecy of the prosperity they should possess in the promised land. The Israelites were to ride - exult, on the high places, the mountains and hills of their land, in which they are promised the highest degrees of prosperity; as even the rocky part of the country should be rendered fertile by the peculiar benediction of God

Clarke: Deu 32:13 - Suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock Suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock - This promise states that even the most barren places in the country should yield an abu...

Suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock - This promise states that even the most barren places in the country should yield an abundance of aromatic flowers, from which the bees should collect honey in abundance; and even the tops of the rocks afford sufficient support for olive trees, from the fruit of which they should extract oil in abundance: and all this should be occasioned by the peculiar blessing of God upon the land.

Clarke: Deu 32:14 - Fat of kidneys of wheat Fat of kidneys of wheat - Almost every person knows that the kidney is enveloped in a coat of the purest fat in the body of the animal, for which se...

Fat of kidneys of wheat - Almost every person knows that the kidney is enveloped in a coat of the purest fat in the body of the animal, for which several anatomical reasons might be given. As the kidney itself is to the abundantly surrounding fat, so is the germ of the grain to the lobes or farinaceous parts. The expression here may be considered as a very strong and peculiarly happy figure to point out the finest wheat, containing the healthiest and most vigorous germ, growing in a very large and nutritive grain; and consequently the whole figure points out to us a species of wheat, equally excellent both for seed and bread. This beautiful metaphor seems to have escaped the notice of every commentator

Clarke: Deu 32:14 - Pure blood of the grape Pure blood of the grape - Red wine, or the pure juice of whatever color, expressed from the grapes, without any adulteration or mixture with water: ...

Pure blood of the grape - Red wine, or the pure juice of whatever color, expressed from the grapes, without any adulteration or mixture with water: blood here is synonymous with juice. This intimates that their vines should be of the best kind, and their wine in abundance, and of the most delicious flavour.

Clarke: Deu 32:15 - Jeshurun Jeshurun - ישרון the upright. This appellative is here put for Israel, and as it comes from ישר yashar , he was right, straight, may be i...

Jeshurun - ישרון the upright. This appellative is here put for Israel, and as it comes from ישר yashar , he was right, straight, may be intended to show that the people who once not only promised fair, but were really upright, walking in the paths of righteousness, should, in the time signified by the prophet, not only revolt from God, but actually fight against him; like a full fed horse, who not only will not bear the harness, but breaks away from his master, and endeavors to kick him as he struggles to get loose. All this is spoken prophetically, and is intended as a warning, that the evil might not take place. For were the transgression unavoidable, it must be the effect of some necessitating cause, which would destroy the turpitude of the action, as it referred to Israel; for if the evil were absolutely unavoidable, no blame could attach to the unfortunate agent, who could only consider himself the miserable instrument of a dire necessity. See a case in point, 1Sa 23:11-12 (note), where the prediction appears in the most absolute form, and yet the evil was prevented by the person receiving the prediction as a warning. The case is the following: -

The Philistines attacked Keilah and robbed the threshing-floors; David, being informed of it, asked counsel of God whether he should go and relieve it; he is ordered to go, and is assured of success; he goes, routs the Philistines, and delivers Keilah. Saul, hearing that David was in Keilah, determines to besiege the place. David, finding that Saul meditated his destruction, asked counsel of the Lord, thus: "O Lord God of Israel, thy servant hath certainly heard that Saul seeketh to come to Keilah, to destroy the city for my sake. Will the men of Keilah deliver me up into his hand? Will Saul come down, as thy servant hath heard? And the Lord said, He will come down. Then said David, Will the men of Keilah deliver me and my men into the hand of Saul? And the Lord said, They will deliver thee up. Then David and his men (about six hundred) arose and departed out of Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go: and it was told Saul that David was escaped from Keilah, and he forbore to go forth."Here was the most positive prediction that Saul would come to Keilah, and that the men of Keilah would deliver David into his hands; yet neither of these events took place, because David departed from Keilah. But had he continued there, Saul would have come down, and the men of Keilah would have betrayed their deliverer. Thus the prediction was totally conditional; and so were all these prophecies relative to the apostasy of Israel. They were only fulfilled in those who did not receive them as warnings. See Jer 18:8-10

Clarke: Deu 32:15 - The Rock of his salvation The Rock of his salvation - He ceased to depend on the fountain whence his salvation issued; and thinking highly of himself, he lightly esteemed his...

The Rock of his salvation - He ceased to depend on the fountain whence his salvation issued; and thinking highly of himself, he lightly esteemed his God; and having ceased to depend on him, his fall became inevitable. The figure is admirably well supported through the whole verse. We see, first, a miserable, lean steed, taken under the care and into the keeping of a master who provides him with an abundance of provender. We see, secondly, this horse waxing fat under this keeping. We see him, thirdly, breaking away from his master, leaving his rich pasturage, and running to the wilderness, unwilling to bear the yoke or harness, or to make any returns for his master’ s care and attention. We see, fourthly, whence this conduct proceeds - from a want of consciousness that his strength depends upon his master’ s care and keeping; and a lack of consideration that leanness and wretchedness must be the consequence of his leaving his master’ s service, and running off from his master’ s pasturage. How easy to apply all these points to the case of the Israelites! and how illustrative of their former and latter state! And how powerfully do they apply to the case of many called Christians, who, having increased in riches, forget that God from whose hand alone those mercies flowed!

Clarke: Deu 32:17 - They sacrificed unto devils They sacrificed unto devils - The original word שדים shedim has been variously understood. The Syriac, Chaldee, Targums of Jerusalem and Jona...

They sacrificed unto devils - The original word שדים shedim has been variously understood. The Syriac, Chaldee, Targums of Jerusalem and Jonathan, and the Samaritan, retain the original word: the Vulgate, Septuagint, Arabic, Persic, Coptic, and Anglo-Saxon, have devils or demons. The Septuagint has εθυσαν δαιμονιοις, they sacrificed to demons: the Vulgate copies the Septuagint: the Arabic has sheeateen , the plural of Sheetan , Satan, by which the rebellious angels appear to be intended, as the word comes from the root shatana , he was obstinate, proud, refractory, went far away. And it is likely that these fallen spirits, having utterly lost the empire at which they aimed, got themselves worshipped under various forms and names in different places. The Anglo-Saxon has devils

Clarke: Deu 32:17 - New gods that came newly up New gods that came newly up - מקרב באו mikkarob bau , "which came up from their neighbors;"viz., the Moabites and Amorites, whose gods they ...

New gods that came newly up - מקרב באו mikkarob bau , "which came up from their neighbors;"viz., the Moabites and Amorites, whose gods they received and worshipped on their way through the wilderness, and often afterwards.

Clarke: Deu 32:18 - Of the Rock that begat thee Of the Rock that begat thee - צור tsur , the first cause, the fountain of thy being. See the note on Deu 32:4.

Of the Rock that begat thee - צור tsur , the first cause, the fountain of thy being. See the note on Deu 32:4.

Clarke: Deu 32:19 - When the Lord saw it, etc. When the Lord saw it, etc. - More literally, And the Lord saw it, and through indignation he reprobated his sons and his daughters. That is, When th...

When the Lord saw it, etc. - More literally, And the Lord saw it, and through indignation he reprobated his sons and his daughters. That is, When the Lord shall see such conduct, he shall be justly incensed, and so reject and deliver up to captivity his sons and daughters.

Clarke: Deu 32:20 - Children in whom is no faith Children in whom is no faith - לא אמן בם lo emon bam , "There is no steadfastness in them,"they can never be depended on. They are fickle, b...

Children in whom is no faith - לא אמן בם lo emon bam , "There is no steadfastness in them,"they can never be depended on. They are fickle, because they are faithless.

Clarke: Deu 32:21 - They have moved me to jealousy They have moved me to jealousy - This verse contains a very pointed promise of the calling of the Gentiles, in consequence of the rejection of the J...

They have moved me to jealousy - This verse contains a very pointed promise of the calling of the Gentiles, in consequence of the rejection of the Jews, threatened Deu 32:19; and to this great event it is applied by St. Paul, Rom 10:19.

Clarke: Deu 32:22 - The lowest hell The lowest hell - שאול תחתית sheol tachtith , the very deepest destruction; a total extermination, so that the earth - their land, and its...

The lowest hell - שאול תחתית sheol tachtith , the very deepest destruction; a total extermination, so that the earth - their land, and its increase, and all their property, should be seized; and the foundations of their mountains - their strongest fortresses, should be razed to the ground. All this was fulfilled in a most remarkable manner in the last destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, so that of the fortifications of that city not one stone was left on another. See the notes on Matthew 24 (note).

Clarke: Deu 32:23 - I will spend mine arrows upon them I will spend mine arrows upon them - The judgments of God in general are termed the arrows of God, Job 6:4; Psa 38:2, Psa 38:3; Psa 91:5; see also E...

I will spend mine arrows upon them - The judgments of God in general are termed the arrows of God, Job 6:4; Psa 38:2, Psa 38:3; Psa 91:5; see also Eze 5:16; Jer 50:14; 2Sa 22:14, 2Sa 22:15. In this and the following verses, to the 28th inclusive, (Deu 32:23-28), God threatens this people with every species of calamity that could possibly fall upon man. How strange it is that, having this law continually in their hands, they should not discern those threatened judgments, and cleave to the Lord that they might be averted

It was customary among the heathens to represent any judgment from their gods under the notion of arrows, especially a pestilence; and one of their greatest deities, Apollo, is ever represented as bearing a bow and quiver full of deadly arrows; so Homer, Il. i., ver. 43, where he represents him, in answer to the prayer of his priest Chryses, coming to smite the Greeks with the pestilence: -

Ὡς εφατ ευχομενος· του δ εκλυε Φοιβος Απολλων·

Βη δε κατ Ουλυμποιο καρηνων χωομενος κηρ,

Τοξ ωμοισιν εχων αμφηρεφεα τε φαρετρην. -

Ἑζετ επειτ απανευθε νεων· μετα δ ιον ἑηκε·

Δεινη δε κλαγγη γενετ αργυρεοιο βιοιο. κ. τ. λ.

"Thus Chryses pray’ d; the favoring power attends

And from Olympus’ lofty tops descends

Bent was his bow the Grecian hearts to wound

Fierce as he moved, his silver shafts resound; -

The fleet in view, he twang’ d his deadly’ bow

And hissing fly the feather’ d fates below

On mules and dogs the infection first began

And last the vengeful arrows fix’ d in man.

How frequently the same figure is employed in the sacred writings, every careful reader knows; and quotations need not be multiplied.

Clarke: Deu 32:24 - They shall be burnt with hunger They shall be burnt with hunger - Their land shall be cursed, and famine shall prevail. This is one of the arrows

They shall be burnt with hunger - Their land shall be cursed, and famine shall prevail. This is one of the arrows

Clarke: Deu 32:24 - Burning heat Burning heat - No showers to cool the atmosphere; or rather boils, blains, and pestilential fevers; this was a second

Burning heat - No showers to cool the atmosphere; or rather boils, blains, and pestilential fevers; this was a second

Clarke: Deu 32:24 - Bitter destruction Bitter destruction - The plague; this was a third

Bitter destruction - The plague; this was a third

Clarke: Deu 32:24 - Teeth of beasts - with the poison of serpents Teeth of beasts - with the poison of serpents - The beast of the field should multiply upon and destroy them; this was a fourth: and poisonous serpe...

Teeth of beasts - with the poison of serpents - The beast of the field should multiply upon and destroy them; this was a fourth: and poisonous serpents, infesting all their steps, and whose mortal bite should produce the utmost anguish, were to be a fifth arrow. Added to all these, the sword of their enemies - terror among themselves, Deu 32:25, and captivity were to complete their ruin, and thus the arrows of God were to be spent upon them. There is a beautiful saying in the Toozuki Teemour, which will serve to illustrate this point, while it exhibits one of the finest metaphors that occurs in any writer, the sacred writers excepted

"It was once demanded of the fourth Khaleefeh, (Aaly), on whom be the mercy of the Creator, ‘ If the canopy of heaven were a Bow; and if the earth were the cord thereof; and if calamities were Arrows; if mankind were the mark for those arrows; and if Almighty God, the tremendous and the glorious, were the unerring Archer; to whom could the sons of Adam flee for protection?’ The Khaleefeh answered, saying, ‘ The sons of Adam must flee unto the Lord.’ "

Clarke: Deu 32:27 - Were it not that I feared the wrath of the enemy Were it not that I feared the wrath of the enemy - Houbigant and others contend that wrath here refers not to the enemy, but to God; and that the pa...

Were it not that I feared the wrath of the enemy - Houbigant and others contend that wrath here refers not to the enemy, but to God; and that the passage should be thus translated: "Indignation for the adversary deters me, lest their enemies should be alienated, and say, The strength of our hands, and not of the Lord’ s, hath done this."Had not God punished them in such a way as proved that his hand and not the hand of man had done it, the heathens would have boasted of their prowess, and Jehovah would have been blasphemed, as not being able to protect his worshippers, or to punish their infidelities. Titus, when he took Jerusalem, was so struck with the strength of the place, that he acknowledged that if God had not delivered it into his hands, the Roman armies never could have taken it.

Clarke: Deu 32:29 - That they would consider their latter end! That they would consider their latter end! - אחריתם archaritham , properly, their latter times - the glorious days of the Messiah, who, accor...

That they would consider their latter end! - אחריתם archaritham , properly, their latter times - the glorious days of the Messiah, who, according to the flesh, should spring up among them. Should they carefully consider this subject, and receive the promised Savior, they would consequently act as persons under infinite obligations to God; his strength would be their shield, and then: -

Clarke: Deu 32:30 - How should one chase a thousand How should one chase a thousand - If therefore they had not forgotten their Rock, God their author and defense, it could not possibly have come to p...

How should one chase a thousand - If therefore they had not forgotten their Rock, God their author and defense, it could not possibly have come to pass that a thousand of them should flee before one of their enemies.

Clarke: Deu 32:31 - For their rock For their rock - The gods and pretended protectors of the Romans

For their rock - The gods and pretended protectors of the Romans

Clarke: Deu 32:31 - Is not as our Rock Is not as our Rock - Have neither power nor influence like our God

Is not as our Rock - Have neither power nor influence like our God

Clarke: Deu 32:31 - Our enemies themselves being judges Our enemies themselves being judges - For they often acknowledged the irresistible power of that God who fought for Israel. See Exo 14:25; Num 23:8-...

Our enemies themselves being judges - For they often acknowledged the irresistible power of that God who fought for Israel. See Exo 14:25; Num 23:8-12, Num 23:19-21; 1Sa 4:8

There is a passage in Virgil, Eclog. iv., ver. 58, very similar to this saying of Moses: -

Pan Deus Arcadia mecum si judice certet

Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se judice victum

"Should the god Pan contend with me,"(in singin

the praises of the future hero, the deliverer

prophesied of in the Sibylline books), "were eve

Arcadia judge, Pan would acknowledge himself to b

vanquished, Arcadia herself being judge."

Clarke: Deu 32:32 - For their vine is of the vine of Sodom For their vine is of the vine of Sodom - The Jews are as wicked and rebellious as the Sodomites; for by the vine the inhabitants of the land are sig...

For their vine is of the vine of Sodom - The Jews are as wicked and rebellious as the Sodomites; for by the vine the inhabitants of the land are signified; see Isa 5:2, Isa 5:7

Clarke: Deu 32:32 - Their grapes Their grapes - Their actions, are gall and worm-wood-producing nothing but mischief and misery to themselves and others

Their grapes - Their actions, are gall and worm-wood-producing nothing but mischief and misery to themselves and others

Clarke: Deu 32:32 - Their clusters are bitter Their clusters are bitter - Their united exertions, as well as their individual acts, are sin, and only sin, continually. That by vine is meant the ...

Their clusters are bitter - Their united exertions, as well as their individual acts, are sin, and only sin, continually. That by vine is meant the people, and by grapes their moral conduct, is evident from Isa 5:1-7. It is very likely that the grapes produced about the lake Asphaltites, where Sodom and Gomorrah formerly stood, were not only of an acrid, disagreeable taste, but of a deleterious quality; and to this, it is probable, Moses here alludes.

Clarke: Deu 32:33 - Their wine Their wine - Their system of doctrines and teaching, is the poison of dragons, etc., fatal and destructive to all them who follow it.

Their wine - Their system of doctrines and teaching, is the poison of dragons, etc., fatal and destructive to all them who follow it.

Clarke: Deu 32:34 - Sealed up among my treasures? Sealed up among my treasures? - Deeds or engagements by which persons were bound at a specified time to fulfill certain conditions, were sealed and ...

Sealed up among my treasures? - Deeds or engagements by which persons were bound at a specified time to fulfill certain conditions, were sealed and laid up in places of safety; so here God’ s justice is pledged to avenge the quarrel of his broken covenant on the disobedient Jews, but the time and manner were sealed in his treasures, and known only to himself. Hence it is said: -

Clarke: Deu 32:35 - Their foot shall slide in due time, etc. Their foot shall slide in due time, etc. - But Calmet thinks that this verse is spoken against the Canaanites, the enemies of the Jewish people.

Their foot shall slide in due time, etc. - But Calmet thinks that this verse is spoken against the Canaanites, the enemies of the Jewish people.

Clarke: Deu 32:36 - The Lord shall judge his people The Lord shall judge his people - He has an absolute right over them as their Creator, and authority to punish them for their rebellions as their So...

The Lord shall judge his people - He has an absolute right over them as their Creator, and authority to punish them for their rebellions as their Sovereign; yet he will repent himself - he will change his manner of conduct towards them, when he seeth that their power is gone - when they are entirely subjugated by their adversaries, so that their political power is entirely destroyed; and there is none shut up or left - not one strong place untaken, and not one family left, all being carried into captivity, or scattered into strange lands. Or, he will do justice to his people, and avenge them of their adversaries; see Deu 32:35.

Clarke: Deu 32:37 - He shall say He shall say - He shall begin to expostulate with them, to awaken them to a due sense of their ingratitude and rebellion. This may refer to the prea...

He shall say - He shall begin to expostulate with them, to awaken them to a due sense of their ingratitude and rebellion. This may refer to the preaching of the Gospel to them in the latter days.

Clarke: Deu 32:39 - See now that I-am he See now that I-am he - Be convinced that God alone can save, and God alone can destroy, and that your idols can neither hurt nor help you

See now that I-am he - Be convinced that God alone can save, and God alone can destroy, and that your idols can neither hurt nor help you

Clarke: Deu 32:39 - I kill, and I make alive, etc. I kill, and I make alive, etc. - My mercy is as great as my justice, for I am as ready to save the penitent as I was to punish the rebellious.

I kill, and I make alive, etc. - My mercy is as great as my justice, for I am as ready to save the penitent as I was to punish the rebellious.

Clarke: Deu 32:40 - For I lift up my hand to heaven For I lift up my hand to heaven - See concerning oaths and appeals to God in the note on Deu 6:13 (note).

For I lift up my hand to heaven - See concerning oaths and appeals to God in the note on Deu 6:13 (note).

Clarke: Deu 32:42 - From the beginning of revenges From the beginning of revenges - The word פרעות paroth , rendered revenges, a sense in which it never appears to be taken, has rendered this p...

From the beginning of revenges - The word פרעות paroth , rendered revenges, a sense in which it never appears to be taken, has rendered this place very perplexed and obscure. Mr. Parkhurst has rendered the whole passage thus: -

I will make my arrows drunk with blood

And my sword shall devour flesh

With the blood of the slain and captiv

From the hairy head of the enemy

Probably מראש פרעות merosh paroth may be more properly translated, from the naked head - the enemy shall have nothing to shield him from my vengeance; the crown of dignity shall fall off, and even the helmet be no protection against the sword and arrows of the Lord.

Clarke: Deu 32:43 - Rejoice, O ye nations Rejoice, O ye nations - Ye Gentiles, for the casting off of the Jews shall be the means of your ingathering with his people, for they shall not be u...

Rejoice, O ye nations - Ye Gentiles, for the casting off of the Jews shall be the means of your ingathering with his people, for they shall not be utterly cast off. (See Rom 15:9, for in this way the apostle applies it). But how shall the Gentiles be called, and the Jews have their iniquity purged? He will be merciful unto his land and to his people, וכפר vechipper , he shall cause an atonement to be made for his land and people; i. e., Jesus Christ, the long promised Messiah, shall be crucified for Jews and Gentiles, and the way to the holiest be made plain by his blood

The people have long been making atonements for themselves, but to none effect, for their atonements were but signs, and not the thing signified, for the body is Christ; now the Lord himself makes an atonement, for the Lamb of God alone taketh away the sin of the world. This is a very proper and encouraging conclusion to the awfully important matter of this poem

Israel shall be long scattered, peeled, and punished, but they shall have mercy in the latter times; they also shall rejoice with the Gentiles, in the common salvation purchased by the blood of the Savior of all mankind.

Clarke: Deu 32:44 - And Moses came And Moses came - Probably from the tabernacle, where God had given him this prophetic ode, and he rehearsed it in the ears of the people.

And Moses came - Probably from the tabernacle, where God had given him this prophetic ode, and he rehearsed it in the ears of the people.

Clarke: Deu 32:46 - Set your hearts unto all the words Set your hearts unto all the words - Another proof that all these awful denunciations of Divine wrath, though delivered in an absolute form, were on...

Set your hearts unto all the words - Another proof that all these awful denunciations of Divine wrath, though delivered in an absolute form, were only declaratory of what God would do If they rebelled against him.

Clarke: Deu 32:47 - Through this thing ye shall prolong your days Through this thing ye shall prolong your days - Instead of being cut off, as God here threatens, ye shall be preserved and rendered prosperous in th...

Through this thing ye shall prolong your days - Instead of being cut off, as God here threatens, ye shall be preserved and rendered prosperous in the land which, when they passed over Jordan, they should possess.

Clarke: Deu 32:49 - Get thee up into this mountain Abarim Get thee up into this mountain Abarim - The mount of the passages, i. e., of the Israelites when they entered into the promised land. See the notes ...

Get thee up into this mountain Abarim - The mount of the passages, i. e., of the Israelites when they entered into the promised land. See the notes on Num 27:12.

Clarke: Deu 32:50 - And die in the mount - as Aaron And die in the mount - as Aaron - Some have supposed that Moses was translated; but if so, then Aaron was translated, for what is said of the death ...

And die in the mount - as Aaron - Some have supposed that Moses was translated; but if so, then Aaron was translated, for what is said of the death of the one is said of the death of the other.

Clarke: Deu 32:51 - Ye trespassed against me - at the waters of Meribah Ye trespassed against me - at the waters of Meribah - See the note on Num 20:12.

Ye trespassed against me - at the waters of Meribah - See the note on Num 20:12.

Clarke: Deu 32:52 - Thou shalt see the land before thee Thou shalt see the land before thee - See Num 27:12, etc. How glorious to depart out of this life with God in his heart and heaven in his eye! his w...

Thou shalt see the land before thee - See Num 27:12, etc. How glorious to depart out of this life with God in his heart and heaven in his eye! his work, his great, unparalleled usefulness, ending only with his life. The serious reader will surely join in the following pious ejaculation of the late Rev. Charles Wesley, one of the best Christian poets of the last century: -

"O that without a lingering groa

I may the welcome word receive

My body with my charge lay down

And cease at once to work and live!

It would require a dissertation expressly formed for the purpose to point out the general merit and extraordinary beauties of this very sublime ode. To enter into such particulars can scarcely comport with the nature of the present work. Drs. Lowth, Kennicott, and Durell, have done much in this way; and to their respective works the critical reader is referred. A very considerable extract from what they have written on this chapter may be found in Dr. Dodd’ s notes. In writing this ode the design of Moses was

1.    To set forth the Majesty of God; to give that generation and all successive ones a proper view of the glorious perfections of the object of their worship. He therefore shows that from his holiness and purity he must be displeased with sin; from his justice and righteousness he must punish it; and from the goodness and infinite benevolence of his nature he is ever disposed to help the weak, instruct the ignorant, and show mercy to the wretched, sinful sons and daughters of men

2.    To show the duty and interest of his people. To have such a Being for their friend is to have all possible happiness, both spiritual and temporal, secured; to have him for their enemy is to be exposed to inevitable destruction and ruin

3.    To warn them against irreligion and apostasy; to show the possibility of departing from God, and the miseries that would overwhelm them and their posterity should they be found walking in opposition to the laws of their Creator

4.    To give a proper and impressive view of the providence of God, by referring to the history of his gracious dealings with them and their ancestors; the minute attention he paid to all their wants, the wonderful manner in which he led, fed, clothed, protected, and saved them, in all their travels and in all perils

5.    To leave on record an everlasting testimony against them, should they ever cast off his fear and pollute his worship, which should serve at once as a warning to the world, and a vindication of his justice, when the judgments he had threatened were found to be poured out upon them; for he who loved them so long and so intensely could not become their enemy but in consequence of the greatest and most unprincipled provocations

6.    To show the shocking and unprecedented ingratitude which induced a people so highly favored, and so wondrously protected and loved, to sin against their God; and how reasonable and just it was, for the vindication of his holiness, that God should pour out upon them such judgments as he had never inflicted on any other people, and so mark their disobedience and ingratitude with fresh marks of his displeasure, that the punishment should bear some proportion to the guilt, and that their preservation as a distinct people might afford a feeling proof both of the providence and justice of God

7.    To show the glory of the latter days in the re-election of the long reprobated Jewish nation, and the final diffusion of his grace and goodness over the earth by means of the Gospel of Christ

And all this is done with such strength and elegance of diction, with such appropriate, energetic, and impressive figures and metaphors, and in such a powerful torrent of that soul-penetrating, pure poetic spirit that comes glowing from the bosom of God, that the reader is alternately elated or depressed, filled with compunction or confidence, with despair or hope, according to the quick transitions of the inimitable writer to the different topics which form the subject of this incomparable and wondrously varied ode. May that Spirit by which it was dictated give it its fullest, most durable, and most effectual impression upon the mind of every reader!

Calvin: Deu 32:1 - Give ear, O ye heavens 1.Give ear, O ye heavens Moses commences in a strain of magnificence, lest the people should disdain this song with their usual pride, or even reject...

1.Give ear, O ye heavens Moses commences in a strain of magnificence, lest the people should disdain this song with their usual pride, or even reject it altogether, being exasperated by its severe censures and reproaches. For we well know how the world naturally longs to be flattered, and that no strain can be gratifying to it unless it tickles and soothes the ear with praise. But Moses here not only inveighs bitterly against the vices of the people, but with the utmost possible vehemence stigmatizes their perverse nature, their utterly corrupt morals, their obstinate ingratitude, and incorrigible contumacy. Moreover, he desired that these accusations, whereby he rendered their name detestable, should daily echo from their tongues; and thus they became still more offensive. It was, therefore, requisite that their impatience should be bridled, as it were, in order that they might patiently and humbly receive these just reproofs, however severe they might be. If, therefore, they should repudiate this song, or should turn a deaf ear to it, he declares at the outset that heaven and earth would be witnesses of their prodigious obtuseness; nay, he turns and addresses himself to heaven and earth, and thus signifies that it was worthy of the attention of all creatures, even although they were without intelligence or feeling. For it is a hyperbolical mode of expression, when he assigns the faculty of hearing, and being instructed, to the senseless elements; just as Isaiah, when he would intimate that he found none to give heed to him amongst the whole people, in like manner appeals to the heavens and the earth, and even summons them to bear witness to the prodigious iniquity, that there should be less of intelligence amongst the whole people than in oxen and asses. (Isa 1:2.) For it is but a meager exposition, which some give of these words, that they are used, by metonymy, for angels and men. 247

Calvin: Deu 32:2 - My doctrine shall drop as the rain 2.My doctrine shall drop as the rain Some, as I think improperly, here resolve the future tense into the optative mood, 248 for in this splendid eulo...

2.My doctrine shall drop as the rain Some, as I think improperly, here resolve the future tense into the optative mood, 248 for in this splendid eulogium he rather celebrates, in order to commend his doctrine, the fruitfulness 249 which is actually imparted to it by the Holy Spirit, than asks for it to be given to him; and my readers must at once perceive that such a request would have been by no means seasonable. He therefore compares his speech to rain or dew, as if he had said that, if only the people were like the soil in a state of softness and preparation, he would deliver doctrine to them which would irrigate them unto abundant fruitfulness.

Although this expression refers especially, and κατ ᾿ ἐξοχὴν to the Song, still its force and propriety extends to all divine teaching; for God never speaks except to render men fruitful in good works, just as, by instilling succulency and vigor into the earth by means of rain, He makes it fertile for the production of fruit. But, like the rocks and stones, which imbibe no moisture from the most abundant rains, so many are hindered by their own perversity from being fertilized by spiritual irrigation. Wherefore Moses indirectly throws the blame upon the Israelites, if the doctrine of this Song should drop upon them in vain.

Calvin: Deu 32:3 - Because I will publish the name of the Lord 3.Because I will publish the name of the Lord He signifies by these words that, if there were any spark of piety in the Israelites, it must be manife...

3.Because I will publish the name of the Lord He signifies by these words that, if there were any spark of piety in the Israelites, it must be manifested by their welcoming this address, wherein the majesty of God shines forth. The first clause of the verse, therefore, stands last in order, since it is an assignment of a reason for the other. For when he exhorts them that they should ascribe to God the glory He deserves, he inculcates upon them obedience and attention, as if he had said that, unless they reverently submit themselves to his teaching, God would be defrauded of this due honor; and this he confirms by adding as a reason that he will sincerely and faithfully publish the name of God. For the word invoke 250 is not used here as in many other passages, but is equivalent to making a profession of God. Moses, then, declares himself to be His proclaimer, in order that, under cover of His most Holy name, he may awaken attention to his words.

Calvin: Deu 32:4 - His work is perfect 4.His work is perfect Those who take these expressions generally, and without particular reference to this passage, not only obscure their meaning, b...

4.His work is perfect Those who take these expressions generally, and without particular reference to this passage, not only obscure their meaning, but also lessen the force of the doctrine they contain. Let us, then, understand that the perfection of God’s works, the rectitude of His ways, etc., are contrasted with the rebellion of the people; for if there were anything 251 in God’s works imperfect and in arranged, if His mode of dealing were deficient in rectitude, if His truth were doubtful; if, in a word, there were anything wanting, then there would have been a natural excuse why the people should have sought for something better than they found in Him, since the desire of obtaining that which is best is deserving of no reprehension. Lest, then, the Israelites should offer any such pretext, Moses anticipates them. Before he begins to treat of the wicked ingratitude of the people, he lays down this principle, that they were not induced to transfer their affections elsewhere by any deficiency in God. The general statement is indeed true in itself, and may be applied to various purposes; but we must consider what the object of Moses here is, namely, to remove from the people every pretext for their impious and perfidious rebellion, and this in order that their amazing folly may be more apparent, when they forsake the fountain of living waters, and hew them out cisterns with holes in them, as God himself complains in Jer 2:13. We perceive therefore, that every honorable distinction which is here attributed to God, brands the people with a corresponding mark of ignominy, in that they had knowingly and voluntarily deprived themselves of the plenitude of all good things, which might have been enjoyed by them had they not alienated themselves from God.

God’s work is spoken of, not only with reference to the creation of the world, but to the whole course of His providence; as if it were said that nothing could be discovered in God’s works which could be found fault with.

Now this perfection is not perceptible in every individual thing, for even vermin are God’s creatures; and amongst men some are blind, some lame, some deaf, and others mutilated in one of their members; and many fruits also never arrive at maturity. Yet we plainly see that it is foolish and misplaced to bring forward such questions as these as objections to the perfection of God, here celebrated by Moses, inasmuch as the very defects and blemishes of our bodies tend to this object, that God’s glory may be made manifest. (Joh 9:3.)

The next statement, that all his ways are right, 252 conveys a similar truth; for it is well known that the word משפט , mishphat, is used for rectitude, and works and ways are synonymous.

The latter part of the verse is a confirmation of the former part, since Moses signifies in both that all who censure God may be clearly convicted of petulant impiety, since supreme justice shines forth in all His acts.

The words I have rendered, “God is truth,” others construe with the genitive case, “a God of truth.” Either is true, and agreeable to the usage of Scripture; but the apposition is more emphatic, which declares that God is not only true, but the Truth itself. At any rate, this applies to the persons who pay entire allegiance to the word of God, for their expectations shall never be frustrated. Thus the people are indirectly reproved for their unbelief, in that they deserted God, whose faithfulness was not only tried and proved, but who is the very fountain of truth.

Although what follows, that there is no iniquity in God, seems to some to have but little force, it is nevertheless of great importance; for we well know how often men are so absurd in their subterfuges, as in a manner to arraign God instead of themselves; and although they do not dare to accuse Him openly, still they do not hesitate to acquit themselves, and thus to cast direct obloquy upon Him. Elsewhere, therefore, God inquires by His Prophet, “what iniquity the people had found in Him?” (Jer 2:5,) and in another place expostulates with them, because He was loaded with their hatred and abuse, as if He dealt unjustly with such sinners. (Eze 18:2.) When, therefore, He vindicates Himself from such calumnies, it follows that no blame attaches itself to Him, but that the wickedness of those who turn away from Him is abundantly condemned.

Calvin: Deu 32:5 - They have corrupted themselves 5.They have corrupted themselves Moses now inveighs unhesitatingly against the perfidy of the people, and gives loose to the most unmeasured upbraidi...

5.They have corrupted themselves Moses now inveighs unhesitatingly against the perfidy of the people, and gives loose to the most unmeasured upbraidings; for if God be just and true, then it was plain enough that the Israelites were a depraved and perverse nation. This perverse nation, he says, has corrupted itself towards Him, namely Him, whom he has just lauded for His perfect justice and faithfulness; and he accuses them of having basely prostituted to every sort of sin the chastity which they had promised to God. There is no doubt but that they were sorely wounded by these epithets, and would have been transported with rage, had they not seen that God’s incomparable servant, when he had now been called upon to die by God’s command, spoke as it were from heaven. The voice, therefore, of the dying man restrained their pride, so that they did not now dare to oppose him as a mortal; and afterwards, when the condemnation had been assented to by public authority, and by general accord, they were less at liberty to vent their madness against it. He introduces, by way of anticipation, the statement that they were not His children; for else they might obviously have made the objection that the sacred race of Abraham, which God had adopted, should be dealt with less reproachfully. Moses, therefore, declares that they are not children, because they are a perverse nation. For although their adoption always stood firm, still its efficacy was restricted to the elect part of them, so that God, without breaking His covenant, might reject the general body. But to explain the matter more clearly, it must be borne in mind that the Spirit, on different grounds, at one time assigns the name of God’s children to hypocrites, at another takes it away; for sometimes it is an aggravation of their criminality, when they are called the children of Abraham and Jacob as well as of God, an instance of which will soon occur. Here, however, in order that they may cease to glory without cause, they are said not to be children, because they are degenerate, and therefore disinherited by God, so as no longer to retain their honorable position. In this sense Moses declares that they are not children, as having cast off God from being their Father. It is added this was done with their spot (or disgrace; 253) unless it be thought preferable to take it that. they were corrupted by their spots, or by their sins, to which I willingly assent; although I do not reject the other sense, namely, that their alienation from God had rendered them ignominious, or that they had contracted the stain of disgrace by their faithlessness.

Calvin: Deu 32:6 - Do ye thus requite the Lord 6.Do ye thus requite the Lord In order to expose the ingratitude of the people to greater infamy, he now begins to commemorate the benefits whereby G...

6.Do ye thus requite the Lord In order to expose the ingratitude of the people to greater infamy, he now begins to commemorate the benefits whereby God had laid them under obligation to Himself: for the more liberally God deals with us, the more earnest ought to be the piety awakened in our hearts; nay, His goodness, as soon as we have tasted of it, ought to draw us at once to Him. Now God, although he has been always bountiful towards the whole human race, had, in a peculiar manner showered down an immense abundance of His bounty upon that people; this, then, Moses alleges, and shows how basely ungrateful they had been. He first expostulates with them interrogatively, asking them whether this was a fitting return for God’s especial blessings; and then proceeds to enumerate them. He inquires of them, then, whether God was not their father, from the time when He had honored them with the distinction of His adoption: and under this single head he comprehends many things, because from this source proceeded whatever blessings God had conferred upon them. Not, however, to examine every point with the accuracy it deserves, what more binding obligation could be imagined than that God should have chosen one nation for Himself out of the whole world, whose father He should be by special privilege? For, although all human beings, since they were created in the image of God, are sometimes called His children, still to be accounted His children was the special privilege of the sons of Abraham. And, in order to prove that this was not a natural, but an acquired dignity, Moses immediately afterwards explains in what way God was their Father: viz., that he purchased, made, and prepared them. The foundation and origin, then, was the gratuitous good pleasure of God, when He took them to be His own peculiar people. Elsewhere, indeed, His second purchase of them is mentioned, when He redeemed them from Egypt; here, however, Moses goes back farther, viz., to the covenant made with Abraham, whereby they were separated from other nations, as will presently more clearly appear. I reject, as not in harmony with the context, the translation which some give of the word, קנה , kanah, i.e., to possess. 254

In the same sense it is added, that they were made by God: which does not. refer to the general creation, but only to the privilege of adoption, whereby they became God’s new work, and in which another form was imparted to them; in which sense also He is called their framer, or Maker. Elsewhere, also, when the Prophet says,

“Know ye that the Lord he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves,” (Psa 100:3,)

he undoubtedly magnifies that special prerogative, whereby God had distinguished the sons of Abraham above all other races. For, since the fall of Adam had brought disgrace upon all his posterity, God restores those, whom He separates as His own, so that their condition may be better than that of all other nations. At the same time it must be remarked, that this grace of renewal is effaced in many who have afterwards profaned it. Consequently the Church is called God’s work and creation, in two senses, i.e., generally with respect to its outward calling, and specially with respect to spiritual regeneration, as far as regards the elect; for the covenant of grace is common to hypocrites and true believers. On this ground all whom God gathers into His Church, are indiscriminately said to be renewed and regenerated: but the internal renovation belongs to believers only; whom Paul, therefore, calls God’s “workmanship, created unto good works, which God hath prepared,” etc. (Eph 2:10.) The same is the tendency of the third word, which may, however, be taken for to “establish;” 255 although I have preferred to follow the more received sense, viz, that God had prepared His people, as the artificer fashions and fits his work.

Calvin: Deu 32:7 - Remember the days of old 7.Remember the days of old This is an explanation of the preceding verse, for Moses again shows how God had acquired this people, viz., because he ha...

7.Remember the days of old This is an explanation of the preceding verse, for Moses again shows how God had acquired this people, viz., because he had chosen to separate them from other nations according to His own good pleasure. But, since the Israelites might be inflated by their present superiority, they are reminded of their origin, and Moses commands them not to consider what they now are, but also from whence they had been taken, and with this view he says, Remember the old times; ask the elders, etc. For we know how men, when they do not reflect that whatever they have, proceeded from God, and is held, as it were, at will, are blinded by their dignity, so as not only to despise others, but also to exalt themselves against, the Author of all good things. Moses, in order to subdue this arrogance, says that all peoples were alike under the hand and power of God, and thus that their diversity was not in their original nature, but derived from elsewhere, i.e., from God’s free choice. In the word בהנחל , behanchel, there is some ambiguity: for some translate it, When the Most High divided the earth to the nations; and, though I do not reject this, still I have preferred the meaning more in accordance with the context; 256 for Moses says the same thing twice over, and the second clause is the explanation of the first. He says, therefore, that God distributed the nations, as an inheritance is divided; and then this is more clearly repeated, when he mentions the separation of the sons of Adam. When, in the latter part of the verse, it is said, that He set bounds to the nations according to the number of the children of Israel, it is commonly explained that He set bounds to the nations in such sort, that the habitation of the sons of Abraham was secured to them. Some of the Hebrews take it in a more restricted sense, viz., that in the distribution of the world, so much was given to the seven nations of Canaan as should be sufficient for the children of Israel. In my opinion, however, his meaning is, that in the whole arrangement of the world, the object which God had in view was to provide for His elect people: for, although His bounty extended to all, still He had such regard for His own, that, chiefly on their account, His care also extended to others. The word number is expressly employed; as if Moses had said, that, however small a portion of the human race the posterity, of Abraham might be, nevertheless that number was before God’s eyes, when He ordered the state of the whole world; unless it be preferred to take the word מספר , misphar, 257 for a ratio; but it will not be unsuitable to the passage to understand it that this small body was so precious to God, that he arranged the whole distribution of the world with a view to their welfare. Some refer it to the calling of the Gentiles, as if Moses had said that the empire of the whole world was destined to the seed of Abraham, because it was to be propagated through all the regions of the world; but this is altogether erroneous, for nothing is here indicated but the distinction, formerly conferred upon one nation. 258

Calvin: Deu 32:9 - For the Lord’s portion is his people 9.For the Lord’s portion is his people This is the main point, that God was moved by nothing but His own good pleasure to make so much of this peop...

9.For the Lord’s portion is his people This is the main point, that God was moved by nothing but His own good pleasure to make so much of this people, who had been derived from a common origin with all others: for when he says, that Jacob was the portion of Jehovah, and the lot of His inheritance, he does not mean that there was anything better in them than in others, but he assigns the reason why God preferred this one nation to the rest of mankind; viz., because He took it to Himself as His hereditary portion, which dignity depends upon His gratuitous election.

Calvin: Deu 32:10 - He found him in a desert land 10.He found him in a desert land If the intention of Moses had been to record all the instances of God’s paternal kindness towards the people, he m...

10.He found him in a desert land If the intention of Moses had been to record all the instances of God’s paternal kindness towards the people, he must have commenced from the time of Abraham; like the prophet who, when presenting a complete narrative in the Psalm, begins from that original covenant, which God had made with the fathers, (Psa 105:8;) and also introduces the benefits which He had conferred upon them, when they were but few in number, and strangers in the land, when they went from one nation to another, yet he suffered no man to do them wrong, and reproved kings for their sakes. (Psa 105:14.) But Moses, studying brevity, deemed it sufficient to bring forward a more recent and more notorious blessing; nay, he omits the early part of their deliverance, and only makes mention of the desert, he says, then, that God found them in the desert; not because He then first began to take pity upon them, since they had been previously rescued from the tyranny of Pharaoh by His marvelous power, and had passed the Red Sea dry-shod, but because it was profitable for them to have set before their eyes how they had been extricated from the deep abyss of death, in order that they might more readily acknowledge this to have been, as it were, the beginning of their life. For what was that waste and barren desert, in which not a crumb of bread, nor a drop of water was to be found, but a grave to swallow up a thousand lives? and, therefore, it is further called “the devastation of horror.” 259 The suae is, that it was a kind of type of resurrection, not from one death only, but from innumerable deaths, that the people should have escaped from it in safety. That they should have done so, even had their march through it been straight and speedy, could not have been the case without a miracle; but, inasmuch as they wandered therein for forty years, our minds can hardly comprehend a hundredth part of the miracles (which followed one upon the other. 260) Thus the word “led about,” is not superfluous, for God’s power was far more conspicuous than as if they had flown swiftly through the air. I apply the same meaning to what follows, “he instructed him;” for some, in my opinion improperly, refer it to the Law, 261 whereas it rather relates to the teaching of experience. For there was manifold, and no ordinary instruction in all these acts of bounty and punishment, wherein God, as it were, put forth His hand, and manifested His glory.

Two similitudes follow, to express God’s love, mingled with solicitude more than paternal. First, he says, that God no less anxiously protected them from all injury and annoyance than every one is wont to protect the pupil of his eye, which is the most tender part of the body, and against the injury of which the greatest precautions are taken. And David also, when requesting that he may be kept safe under the special guardianship of God, uses the same expression. (Psa 17:8.) Secondly, God compares Himself to an eagle, which not only fosters her young ones under her outspread wings, but also indulgently, and with maternal tenderness tempts them to fly. It would be unseasonable to enter here into more subtle philosophical discussions respecting the nature of the eagle. The Jews, who are wont to trifle hazardously with things they do not understand, have invented fables respecting this passage, which have no relation to the meaning of Moses, who unquestionably spoke of the eagle as he might of any other bird. Nor can it be doubted but that Christ, when He compares Himself to a hen, desired to express the same sedulous care.

“How often (he says) would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!” (Mat 23:37.)

If, however, any should choose to apply here, what Aristotle writes respecting the eagle, I would not stand in his way: although I do not think Moses had anything in his mind, beyond what the words naturally express. And, surely that which at once occurs to us ought to be sufficient for us, viz., that we ought to be ravished with just. admiration of God’s inestimable goodness and indulgence, when He condescends so to stoop to us as to protect us with His wings, like a bird, and, hovering before us, to instruct and accustom us to follow Him: in which latter words a more than maternal anxiety to teach us is represented.

Calvin: Deu 32:12 - So the Lord alone did lead hive 12.So the Lord alone did lead hive This is spoken by anticipation, in order to take away every pretext from the Israelites, provided they should seek...

12.So the Lord alone did lead hive This is spoken by anticipation, in order to take away every pretext from the Israelites, provided they should seek, according to their custom, to mingle their superstitions with the pure service of God. For, when they were bringing in, from all quarters, gods of various nations, this was the excuse they commonly made, that God was not thus despoiled of His due honor: and hence it came to pass, that they permitted themselves to heap together a multitude of false gods, whom they worshipped as their patrons. But Moses anticipates them, and declares that God, as having no need of external aid, had not associated with Himself any strange gods in His preservation of the people. Hence it follows, that whatever gods the people introduced, they transferred to them the honor due to the one true God. Let us then learn from this passage, that, unless God be served without a rival, religion is altogether perverted by the impious admixture.

Calvin: Deu 32:13 - He made him ride on the high places 13.He made him ride on the high places Theirs is but a frivolous imagination, who suppose that Judea was so called as being the navel or center of th...

13.He made him ride on the high places Theirs is but a frivolous imagination, who suppose that Judea was so called as being the navel or center of the earth; 262 it is more likely that it was called high in reference to Egypt; and, indeed, it is by no means an unusual expression, that those who go into Egypt, are said to go down, and those who come into Judea to come up. Still I am rather disposed Lo think that by height he denotes its excellency; inasmuch as that land, on account of its illustrious endowments, was, as it were, the most noble theater in the world.

Moses celebrates its fertility, when he says that the people sucked honey from the rock and oil from the stones: for he means to indicate, that no part of it was unproductive, since they gathered honey from the rocks, and upon them also the olive grew. The same is the intention of the other figures, that they ate “butter of kine, and milk of sheep;” by which he signifies that the land was full of rich pastures. By “fat of lambs,” he undoubtedly means the plumpness of their flesh, because it was not lawful to eat their actual fat; but it is not unusual to denote by this word any kind of richness, as soon afterwards he calls the best meal or flour, from which the more delicate kind of bread was made, “the fat of wheat.” With respect to the wine, he magnifies God’s liberality by the use of a poetic figure, when he says they drank of the blood of the grape. There is no doubt but that he alludes to its color; yet he takes occasion to extol more highly the beneficence of God, by intimating that, when the juice of the grapes is expressed, it is just as if their blood flowed forth for the nutriment of men. Since, then, the metaphor is taken from the redness of wine, I have not hesitated to translate the epithet חמר , chamer, at the end of the verse, red. 263 From many passages it appears to have been very delicious; and in Isa 27:2 the word חמר , chamer, is used for a vine of great preciousness and of exquisite flavor. Those who render it pure, have rather taken into consideration the fact, than the signification of the word.

Calvin: Deu 32:15 - But Jeshurun 15.But Jeshurun 264 waxed fat. Moses here severely censures the ingratitude of the people, because when filled with delicacies, they began to wax w...

15.But Jeshurun 264 waxed fat. Moses here severely censures the ingratitude of the people, because when filled with delicacies, they began to wax wanton against God; for, according to the vulgar proverb, satiety breeds violence; but this arises from men’s detestable depravity, who ought rather to be inclined to humility and gentleness by the loving-kindness of God, since the more abundantly He supplies us with food, the more does He invite us to show forth the affection that becomes children, inasmuch as He thus more closely and familiarly declares Himself to be our Father. Intolerable, then, is the impiety of profane persons, who increase in insolence against Him, when they have gorged themselves with an abundance of all good things. They are here compared to restive horses, which, if they are well fed, without exercise, kick under their rider, and are rendered almost intractable. By using the word “upright” for Israel, he ironically taunts them with having departed from rectitude, and, reminding them of the high dignity conferred upon them, more severely reproves their sin of unfaithfulness. For elsewhere 265 Israel is honored with the same title without any evil imputation in respect to their calling; but here Moses reproachfully shows them how far they had departed from the pursuit of that piety, to the cultivation of which they had been called.

Calvin: Deu 32:16 - They provoked him to jealousy 16.They provoked him to jealousy It is only figuratively that jealousy is attributed to God, who is free from all passions; but, since men never suff...

16.They provoked him to jealousy It is only figuratively that jealousy is attributed to God, who is free from all passions; but, since men never sufficiently reflect how great pollution they contract by their idolatries, it is necessary that the grossness of the sin should be expressed in such terms as this, implying that men do no less injury to God, when they transfer to others the honor due to Him, and that the offense is no lighter than as if a licentious woman should provoke her husband’s mind to jealousy, and inflict a wound upon him by running after adulterers. This jealousy has reference to the sacred and spiritual marriage, whereby God had bound His people to Himself. The suae is, that the Israelites were as insulting to God by their superstitions as if they had designedly provoked Him.

In the next verse an amplification follows, viz., that they had transferred to devils the worship due to God alone. By the general consent of all nations God ought to be worshipped by sacrifices; for, although the Gentiles invented for themselves divers gods, still the persuasion continued to prevail, that this service was the peculiar prerogative of Deity. Nothing, then, could be more disgraceful or detestable than to rob God of His honor, and to offer it to demons. This, indeed, would never have been admitted by the Israelites, inasmuch as they pretended that their minor gods were their advocates with the supreme and only Creator of the world, and did not hesitate to account as rendered to Him whatever they shared among their idols. Here, however, He first of all repudiates all such mixtures whereby His holy name is unworthily profaned, and suffers Himself not to be associated with idols; and, secondly, by whatever titles they may dignify their idols, He declares all false gods to be demons. Hence it follows that the sacrifices made to them are infected with sacrilege. Both of these points are worthy of careful remark, viz., that God abominates all corruptions of His service; and also, that whatever names the world may invent for its gods, they are so many masks, under which the devil hides himself for the deception of the simple.

Furthermore, Moses reproves the folly of the Israelites in having promiscuously devoted themselves to unknown gods; just as an adulterous woman might prostitute herself indiscriminately to all comers. When he says that they came from near, 266 it has reference to time, and is equivalent to saying that they had lately sprung up. Thirdly, it is said, that these gods were not honored by their fathers; for thus their perverse love of novelty is proved against them, inasmuch as they had not been even led by imitation of their fathers, but in their restless innovation had procured for themselves new and unwonted gods. Not that the law of piety is founded on antiquity alone, as if it were sufficient to follow the customs handed down by our ancestors; for thus any of the religions of the Gentiles might be proved true, but because the genuine and faithful tradition of their fathers would be the sure and approved rule for the worship of God. For Moses assumes a higher principle, viz., that their fathers were truly and most unmistakably instructed who was the one and only God, in whom alone they ought to trust. Yet a distinction is here to be drawn between these holy fathers and the reprobate; for the imitation of their fathers, which here seems to be deemed praiseworthy, is elsewhere severely condemned, because the Jews were carried away, without discrimination, after the bad examples of their fathers. Moses, therefore, here refers to no other fathers than those who were in a position to hand down what they had learned from God Himself. The word fear often comprises, by synecdoche, the whole service of God, and sometimes is applied to outward ceremonies: the word שער , sagnar however, is here used, which means properly to stand in awe of, or to dread; 267 but still in the same sense.

Calvin: Deu 32:18 - Of the Rock 18.Of the Rock 268 that begat thee. He again aggravates the criminality of the people by referring to their ingratitude, inasmuch as they did not f...

18.Of the Rock 268 that begat thee. He again aggravates the criminality of the people by referring to their ingratitude, inasmuch as they did not fall through ignorance, but willfully stifled that knowledge of God, which ought to have shone brightly in all their hearts: for this is the effect of the reproach, that they were unmindful of their Rock: as much as to say, that they would never have given themselves up to their impious superstitions, unless they had cast into voluntary oblivion that God whom, by the most conspicuous proofs, they had experimentally found to be the foundation and support of their salvation.

Calvin: Deu 32:19 - And when the Lord saw it 19.And when the Lord saw it The seeing of God, which is mentioned here, has reference to His forbearance in judgment: as if it were said, that He d...

19.And when the Lord saw it The seeing of God, which is mentioned here, has reference to His forbearance in judgment: as if it were said, that He does not act hastily, and is not alienated from His children, without having duly weighed their case; in the same way as it is said elsewhere: “Because the cry of Sodom is great, I will go down now and see whether” it is so, and “I will know.” (Gen 18:20) Assuredly God has no need to make any examination, since nothing escapes His eyes, however hidden it may be; but this going down and inquiring is contrasted with preposterous haste. Thus in this passage Moses shows that God was wroth, when he saw His sons and His daughters drawn away so faithlessly after their idols. Again, when he calls them God’s children, he does not judge them to be so on account of their merits, but in reference to God’s adoption, which, although it was canceled as regarded themselves, still had the effect of aggravating the guilt of their ingratitude. And for the same reason that he had just. said that God saw them, Moses introduces Him deliberating, as it were, that the time for punishing them might be perceived to be fully come. But we must notice the degrees; for God does not at once break forth into extreme severity, but is said to hide His face, that He might secretly consider what they would do: since this is a middle course between the manifest exhibition of His grace and favor, and the tokens of His wrath. God is, indeed, elsewhere said, in many passages, to hide His face, when He rejects men’s prayers, and withdraws His aid; but here He assumes the character of a man who, when he sees that he produces no effect by acting, 269 goes aside to some place, from whence he may quietly contemplate the result, And thus God’s weariness of them is expressed; for when He at length saw that His efforts to control them were thrown away, He abandoned the care of them. It is a false inference, which some draw from hence, that men, when forsaken by God, recover themselves by the exercise of their own free-will; as if God sat calmly and inactively in a watch-tower expecting what they may do; inasmuch as this hiding of Himself has reference only to the outward manifestation of His grace. In a word, it is a similitude taken from the conduct of men, whereby God signifies that He is overcome with weariness, and will no more be the leader and guardian of the people, until it shall effectually appear that they are altogether intractable. And this is gathered from the reason, which is presently added, wherein He censures their forward nature and want of faith, as much as to say, that, after long trial, nothing remained for Him but to abandon them.

Calvin: Deu 32:21 - They have moved me to jealousy 21.They have moved me to jealousy He now proceeds further, viz., that God, after having withdrawn Himself for a time, would, at length be the open en...

21.They have moved me to jealousy He now proceeds further, viz., that God, after having withdrawn Himself for a time, would, at length be the open enemy of the people, so as to repay them in kind. And he points out the mode of this retaliation, that as they had insultingly brought into antagonism with God empty phantoms and vanities, so on His part, He would exalt against them barbarous and worthless nations. This similitude is also taken from jealous husbands, who, when they perceive themselves to be despised by their adulterous wives, avenge themselves by their own amours. Why God should attribute to Himself the feeling of jealousy has been explained under the Second Commandment; Moses now only shows that it would be a most equitable mode of revenge, that God should insult, by means of despised and ignoble nations, those apostates, who had made to themselves idols in disparagement of Him.

The fulfillment of this sentence was manifested from time to time, when they were tyrannically oppressed by the neighboring nations. It is true, indeed, that the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the Chaldeans were included among those people of nought and foolish nations, although they were preeminent in power and wealth, and famous for other splendid endowments; but it is no matter of surprise that, in comparison with that dignity which God had conferred upon the Israelites, all other nations should be accounted but refuse. The suae is, that God’s vengeance was ready whereby He would punish the vanities of His people, inasmuch as He could create out of nothing the enemies by whom they should be reduced to nothing. There is much elegance in the allusion of Paul, in which he extends this sentence further, inasmuch as, when God introduced the Gentiles into His Church, He stirred up the Jews to jealousy, in order that they might be led to repentance by a sense of their ignominy. Surely the calling of the Gentiles was exactly as if He created shadows, whom he might prefer to His reprobate people. (Rom 10:19.)

Calvin: Deu 32:22 - For a fire is kindled in mine anger 22.For a fire is kindled in mine anger He confirms what went before, but more generally; for He compares His anger to a burning fire, which should p...

22.For a fire is kindled in mine anger He confirms what went before, but more generally; for He compares His anger to a burning fire, which should penetrate to the deepest abysses, and should utterly consume their land, so as not to spare the very roots of the mountains. This metaphor is, indeed, of frequent occurrence; but here more is expressed by it than in other passages. In the same sense also it is presently added, that God would spend all his scourges and arrows upon them; since, when His implacable anger is once aroused, there are no bounds to His severity. The verb אספה aspheh, may, however, also be taken for to heap, or to superadd; 270 but I willingly follow the more received interpretation, viz., that God will not omit anything to destroy them, as if He would apply to this purpose all weapons which were at hand.

Calvin: Deu 32:24 - They shall be burnt with hunger 24.They shall be burnt with hunger He now descends to some particular modes of punishment, not, indeed, to enumerate them all, but only to adduce suc...

24.They shall be burnt with hunger He now descends to some particular modes of punishment, not, indeed, to enumerate them all, but only to adduce such specimens of them as to inspire the people with greater terror, inasmuch as mere generalities would not have sufficiently affected them. He mentions three especial scourges, pestilence, famine, and the sword, on which the prophets constantly dilate, when their object was to apply the Law to the actual use of the people, from whence it arose that they familiarly employ many of the expressions used by Moses. He introduces indeed other punishments, which the prophets also mention; but the sum of what he says is this, that the Israelites should feel that God was armed with all the punishments which were only too well known by experience, and by them would utterly destroy them.

First., he says, that they should be dried up, or rather roasted with hunger. 271 Instead of pestilence he uses the words burning (uredinem,) and bitter destruction: and before he speaks of the sword, declares that He would send forth beasts and serpents, so that on the one hand, open violence should assail them, and, on the other, secret wiles. Amos has also imitated this figure:

“The day of the Lord (he says) is darkness and not light: as if a man did flee from a lion and a bear met him; or went into the house, and leaned his hand on the wall, and a serpent bit him.”
(Amo 5:18.)

To war, and the cruelty of enemies he adds another evil, viz., terror: and this is, indeed, an aggravation worse than death itself, when we tremble within with terror, for it would be better to be slain ten times over bravely fighting in battle, than to be consumed with constant fear, as by a lingering death. 272

Let us learn, then, from this passage, that, whatever perils surround us, and whatever adversities, they are God’s weapons, and that they do not occur by chance to this or that person, but are directed by His hand. Thus it is the case that He not; only stirs up enemies against us, but fierce and noisome beasts also; that He shuts up the heaven and the earth; that He infects the atmosphere with deadly disease; that, in a word, he draws forth from all the elements manifold means of destruction.

But if it be the fact, that the godly are involved in similar punishments, since they suffer from hunger and want, and are not exempt from any evil; for even Paul acknowledges that he had himself experienced what God here denounces against those that wickedly despise Him, for he says that he was troubled without with fightings, and within with fears, (2Co 7:5;) we must bear in mind that all adversities are in themselves signs of God’s wrath, since they derive their origin from sin; but that through God’s marvelous provision it comes to pass, that to believers they are exercises of their faith and proofs of their patience. Hence we often see God’s children afflicted in common with the ungodly, but to a different end; though nevertheless all adversities are proofs of God’s wrath against the reprobate. On this point I have spoken at greater length in treating of the curses of the Law.

Calvin: Deu 32:26 - I said, I would scatter them 26.I said, I would scatter them God again represents Himself in the character of a man, as if He were meditating opposite determinations, and restrai...

26.I said, I would scatter them God again represents Himself in the character of a man, as if He were meditating opposite determinations, and restrained His vehemence in consideration of the impediments He encountered. What it amounts to, however, is this, that God suspended His final judgment upon them for no other reason but because He had regard to His own glory, which would else have been subjected to the taunts of the Gentiles. Hence the Jews were reminded that, whereas they had deserved certain destruction, they were preserved on no other grounds but because God was unwilling to give the reins to the insolence of the Gentiles. The expression wrath, is here used for arrogant boasting, because in their prosperity ungodly and profane men burst forth into cruelty; unless it be preferred to render it simply irritation, 273 in which sense it is used in 2Kg 23:0 Immediately afterwards it is explained, “lest the adversaries should behave themselves strangely.” נכר , nacar, signifies sometimes to be strange, sometimes to put on a different face, sometimes to acknowledge. Thus I do not doubt but that Moses meant to express the arrogance of those who in a manner transform themselves that they may dazzle the eyes of the simple by their pomp and empty exaltation. If any approve of a different sense, i.e., lest they should separate themselves from God, and arrogate to themselves what belongs to Him alone, I make no objection: and this, indeed, seems to agree with what follows, 274 “Our high hand, and not the Lord, has done this:” for when men indulge in such unbridled license, they go so far astray as to have nothing in common with God. Thus the judgment of God, which should have been conspicuous in these punishments, would have been put out of sight, when the enemies appropriated to themselves the glory of the people’s destruction. Nevertheless the ungodly did not cease to pride themselves on their victories, (as God complains by Isaiah, and Habakkuk confirms;) 275 although their insolence was in some measure repressed, as long as there were some remnants of the elect people preserved. 276

It is only figuratively that God says, he feared this insolence, which He might have easily remedied and restrained: but I have already stated, that He speaks after the manner of men, to show the Israelites that they escaped rather on account of their enemies, than by their own merits. The question, however, arises, how such a consultation as this could have taken place after God had determined to consume them with the fire of His wrath; 277 I reply, that the consump tion there indicated was not such as totally to annihilate the nation, so that no ruins should remain as witnesses of their former state; whereas He now speaks of the destruction, which should altogether blot out the name of the nation, as if it had never been chosen by God.

Calvin: Deu 32:28 - For they are a nation void of counsel 28.For they are a nation void of counsel The cause is assigned why God had almost blotted out altogether the memory of the people, viz., because thei...

28.For they are a nation void of counsel The cause is assigned why God had almost blotted out altogether the memory of the people, viz., because their faculty was incurable: for He does not merely indicate that their conduct was rash and inconsiderate, because they lacked reason mid discretion: but that they could be by no means brought to their senses, and, in fact, that not one drop of sagacity existed in them. The proof of this immediately follows, viz., that the tokens of God’s wrath were too clearly set before their eyes to escape their notice, unless they were utterly blind and stupid. The word לו , lu, which they render, “Would that” 278 ( utinam,) denotes commiseration rather than desire; and therefore it may be properly translated, “Oh, if they understood,” etc.

By the expression, “latter, ” their exceeding stupidity is censured: since not even by many and long experiences were they aroused to reflect on the causes of their calamities; whereas length of time extorts some sense at last from the very dullest, and almost idiotic persons. It was, therefore, a sign of desperate stupidity that they were still without understanding after so many years; as if by experience itself they had grown callous, when they ought to have shaken off their lethargy, and to have bestirred themselves to earnest inquiry. Justly, then, does Moses reproach them with not having considered even at the latter end; for not once only, nor in a single year, but by constant inflictions of punishment during a long series of years, had they been instructed without profit.

Calvin: Deu 32:30 - How should one chase a thousand 30.How should one chase a thousand Of all the many tokens of God’s wrath, he selects one which was peculiarly striking; for as long as God was on t...

30.How should one chase a thousand Of all the many tokens of God’s wrath, he selects one which was peculiarly striking; for as long as God was on their side, they had put to flight mighty armies, nor had they been supported by any multitude of forces. Now, when, though in great numbers, they are conquered by a few, this change plainly shows that they are deprived of God’s aid, especially when a thousand, who were wont before, with a little band, to rout the greatest armies, gave way before ten men. Moses, therefore, condemns the stupidity of the people, in that it does not occur to their minds that they are rejected by God, when they are so easily overcome by a few enemies, whom they far exceed in numbers. Moses, however, goes still further, and says, that they were sold and betrayed; 279 inasmuch as God, having so often found them to be unworthy of His aid, not only deserted them, but made them subject to heathen nations, and, as it were, sold them to be their slaves. This threat is often repeated by the prophets: and Isaiah, desiring to awake in them a hope of deliverance, tells them that God would redeem the people whom He had sold. 280 But, in case any should object that it was no matter of wonder, if the uncertain chance of war should confer on others the victory which often, as a profane poet says,

“Hovers between the two on doubtful wings,” 281

Moses anticipates the objection by declaring that, unless the people should be deprived of God’s aid, they could not be otherwise than successful. A comparison is therefore instituted between the true God and false gods: as though Moses had said that, where the God of hosts presides, the issue of war can never be doubtful. Hence it follows, that God’s elect and peculiar people are exempted from the ordinary condition of nations, except in so far as it deserves to be rejected on the score of its ingratitude. He calls the unbelievers themselves to be the arbiters and witnesses of this, inasmuch as they had often experienced the formidable power of God, and knew assuredly that the God of Israel was unlike their idols. It is, then, just as if he had said, that this was conspicuous even to the blind, or were to cite as witnesses those who are blessed with no light from on high. In thus inviting unbelievers to be judges, it is not as if he supposed that they would pronounce what was true, and thoroughly understood by them, but because they must needs be convinced by experience: for, if any one had asked the heathen whether the supreme government and power of heaven and earth were in the hands of the One God of Israel, they never would have confessed that their idols were mere vanity. Still, however malignantly they might detract from God’s glory, Moses does not hesitate to boast, even themselves being judges, that God had magnificently exerted His unconquered might; although he refers rather to the experience of facts themselves, than to their feelings. Other commentators extract a different meaning, viz., that although unbelievers might be victorious, still God remained unaffected by it: neither was his arm broken, because he permitted them to afflict the apostate Israelites: 282 the former exposition, however, is the more appropriate one.

Calvin: Deu 32:32 - For their vine is of the vine of Sodom 32.For their vine is of the vine of Sodom I think it was far from the intention of Moses, as some make it to be, to refer to the punishment which the...

32.For their vine is of the vine of Sodom I think it was far from the intention of Moses, as some make it to be, to refer to the punishment which the Israelites deserved; but that he rather inveighs against their corrupted morals, and obstinate disposition. But metaphorically he calls them an offshoot from the vine of Sodom and Gomorrah, inasmuch as they resemble in their nature both those nations, as much as if they had sprung from them, just as grafts of the vine produce fruits similar to the stocks from which they are taken. God complains by Isaiah that, when he looked for good and sweet grapes from His vineyard, it brought forth wild grapes. (Isa 5:2.) And also by Jeremiah that, when He had planted a trustworthy and genuine seed, it was turned into the branches of a strange vine, (Jer 2:22;) but Moses goes further here, that the people was not merely a degenerate vine, bun poisonous, and producing nothing but what was deadly; and therefore he adds, not only that their clusters were bitter, but that their wine was the poison of dragons and asps; whereby he signifies that nothing worse or more abominable than that nation could be imagined.

Calvin: Deu 32:34 - Is not this laid up in store with me? 34.Is not this laid up in store with me? Although some explain this verse as relating to their punishments, as if God asserted that various kinds of ...

34.Is not this laid up in store with me? Although some explain this verse as relating to their punishments, as if God asserted that various kinds of them were laid up with Him, which He could produce whenever He pleased, it is more correct to understand it of their crimes. We are well aware that the ungodly, when God stays His severity, promise themselves impunity, as if His forbearance were a kind of connivance. Unless, therefore, He straightway lifts up His hand to chastise them, they imagine that all recollection of their crimes has vanished from before Him; and consequently the prophets often remind hypocrites of the day of visitation, in order that they may not suppose that they have gained anything by the delay. For this reason Jeremiah says that

“the sin of Judah is written with an iron pen
and with the point of a diamond,” (Jer 17:1.)

Moses employs a different figure, that, although God may not appear as an immediate avenger, still their sins are stored up in his treasures, and will be brought to light by Him at the fitting season. Hence we gather the profitable lesson, that although God may make as though He saw not (dissimulet) for a time, still He does not forget the iniquities, the memory of which wretched men foolishly imagine to be blotted out, unless they are pursued by God’s immediate vengeance.

Calvin: Deu 32:35 - To me belongeth vengeance 35.To me belongeth vengeance This passage is quoted to different purposes by Paul, and by the author 283 of the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Rom 12:19; H...

35.To me belongeth vengeance This passage is quoted to different purposes by Paul, and by the author 283 of the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Rom 12:19; Heb 10:30;) for Paul, with a view of persuading believers to bear injuries patiently, admonishes them to “give place unto wrath,” inasmuch as God declares vengeance to be His; but the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, proclaiming that God will be the avenger of impiety, confirms his declaration by this testimony. Hence it is that part of the commentators suppose that punishment is here denounced against heathen nations because they have cruelly afflicted God’s elect people. And, indeed, this appears to be the meaning of Paul’s words, that injuries should be patiently endured, since God claims for Himself the office of Avenger; but there is nothing to prevent the same statement from being accommodated to different uses, and therefore Paul did not irrelevantly confirm his exhortation by this saying of Moses, although it literally refers to the internal chastisements of the Church. Besides, the apostles are not in the habit of quoting every word from the testimonies which they adduce, but briefly remind their readers to examine more closely the passages quoted. But, since God here joins the two things together, that He will punish the sins of His people, and at the same time be the avenger of their oppressions, there will be nothing absurd in saying that Paul, as it were, points his finger at this passage; 284 still, the simple explanation will be, that the general declaration is accommodated to a special case, in order that believers should bear their injuries patiently, and leave to God the office which He pronounces to appertain to Himself. In my judgment, indeed, these words are connected with the preceding verse; for God pertinently confirms His statement, that he takes account of the number of men’s sins, and has them stored among His treasures, by adding that the power and office of judging rests with Himself; inasmuch as these two things are contrary to each other, that He should be cognizant of whatever is done unrighteously and amiss, and still leave it unpunished. Not that it is opposed to God’s justice to pardon sinners when they repent, but because this principle always continues firm, that God is the judge of the world, for the punishment of all iniquities. Thus the confidence of hypocrites is destroyed, who flatter themselves with the hope of impunity, unless they are overtaken by immediate punishment.

The clause which follows some interpreters pervert by supplying the relative, “in the time in which their foot shall slide;” whereas Moses simply concludes that they will fall in their due time, or that, although they may think they stand, their ruin or fall was not far off; and this is further confirmed by what he adds, viz., that their day of calamity was at hand. This statement, as I have before said, often occurs in the Prophets, that there is with God a fit time, 285 in which to punish the sins which He has appeared to overlook, and therefore His long-suffering detracts nothing from the judgment which He delays. In this doctrine there is a twofold moral; first, that those whom God spares for a time, should not give way to self-indulgence; and, secondly, that the prosperity of the wicked should not disturb the minds of believers, but that they should allow God to decide the time and the place of executing vengeance. Inasmuch, however, as God’s delay renders hypocrites secure, so that they lull themselves to sleep in their vices, and, although they hear that they will have to render account of them, thoughtlessly indulge themselves during 286 their period of enjoyment, Moses declares that the day is near, and makes haste; for, if God does not openly alarm them, and reduce them to straits, they exult in their immunity. Hence those blasphemous sayings recorded by Isaiah, (Isa 5:19,) “Let him make speed, and hasten his work that we may see it; and let the counsel of the Holy One draw nigh and come, that we may know it! “Meanwhile we must bear in mind the words of Habakkuk, (Hab 2:3,) “Though the prophecy tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, it will not tarry.”

Calvin: Deu 32:36 - For the Lord shall judge his people 36.For the Lord shall judge his people Some connect this sentence with what precedes it, and thus take the word judge for to punish, and the Apos...

36.For the Lord shall judge his people Some connect this sentence with what precedes it, and thus take the word judge for to punish, and the Apostle in the Epistle to the Hebrews, seems to support their opinion, inasmuch as he proves by this testimony how fearful a thing it is “to fall into the hands of the living God.” (Hebrews10:30, 31.) But there is no reason why the Apostle should not have accommodated to a different purpose what was set forth by Moses for the consolation of the godly, in order that believers might be the more heedful, the nearer they saw God to show Himself as the Judge of His Church; unless it be perhaps preferred to construe the words of Moses thus: Although God should judge His people, yet at length He will be propitiated, or touched with repentance, so as to temper the vehemence of His anger. Whichever way we understand them will be of little difference in the main; for, after Moses has threatened the despisers of God, and the apostates, who desire to be accounted members of His household the Church, he now turns to the strangers and denounces against them that the cruelty which they have exercised towards the Israelites shall not be unpunished, because God will at length be mindful of His covenant, and will pardon His elect people. If you take the word judge for to govern, or to undertake their cause, the particle for must be rendered adversatively, as though it were said nevertheless or but; if we prefer the other sense, it will be equivalent to although, or even though. Doubtless the object of Moses is to encourage the hopes of the pious, who have profited by God’s chastisement, by showing that He will mitigate His severity towards His elect people, and in His wrath will remember mercy. (Hab 3:2.) Thus, then, Moses here teaches the same thing which God afterwards more clearly unfolded to David:

“If thy children forsake my law,... I will visit their transgressions with the rod of man,... nevertheless my loving-kindness will I not take away from them,” etc. 287 (Psa 89:30; 2Sa 7:14, 15.)

For nothing is more fitted to sustain us in afflictions than when God promises that there shall be some limit to them, so that He will not utterly destroy those whom He has chosen. Whenever, therefore, the ills which we suffer tempt us to despair, let this lesson recur to our minds, that the punishments, wherewith God chastises His children, are temporary, since His promise will never fail that “his anger endureth but a moment,” (Psa 30:5,) whilst the flow of His mercy is continual. Hence, too, that lesson which is especially directed to the Church: 288

“For a moment I afflicted thee, but I will pursue my mercies towards thee for ever.” (Isa 54:8.)

He here calls them His servants, not because they had deserved His pardon by their obedience, but because He condescends to acknowledge them as His own; for this honor has reference to His gratuitous election; as when David says, “I am thy servant, and the son of thine handmaid,” (Psa 116:16,) he assuredly arrogates nothing peculiar to himself; but only boasts that he from the womb had been of God’s family, just as slaves are born in the house of their masters. At the same time we must observe that, whenever God declares that He will be merciful to His servants, he only refers to those who heartily seek for reconciliation, and not to the reprobate, who are carried away to destruction by their desperate obstinacy. In short, to the end that God should repent of His severity, repentance is required on the part of sinners; as he teaches elsewhere:

“Turn ye unto me,... and I will turn unto you.”
(Zec 1:3.)

Instead of shall repent, some translate the word, shall console himself. 289 Jerome, regarding the drift of the passage rather than the meaning of the word, translates it shall have mercy.

We must, however, remark the time which God prefixes for the exertion of His grace, viz., when all their power (virtus) shall have departed from them, and all shall be reduced to almost entire destruction; for the word hand is used for vigor; 290 as though it were said that God would be by no means content with a light chastisement, and consequently would not be appeased until they should have come to extremities. This circumstance is well worthy of notice, so flint our hopes may not fail us even in the most severe afflictions of the Church; but that we may be assured that although all may be in the worst state possible, still the due season of reparation will come even yet.

That none should remain behind, or shut up or left, is almost a proverbial phrase in Hebrew; as when it is said, (1Kg 14:10,) “I will cut off from Jeroboam,... him that is shut up and left in Israel,” i.e., as well in the city as in the country, or at home as abroad. And this is again repeated respecting the posterity of Ahab. ( Ibid. 21:21.) And hence it is plain that they are mistaken 291 who explain this as referring to riches shut up in treasure-houses, and cattle dispersed through the fields. And this will be still more apparent from another passage in which the Prophet unquestionably referred to this, “The Lord saw the affliction of Israel, that it was very bitter; for there was not any shut up, nor any left,” and inasmuch as He had not determined to blot out His people,” he saved them by the hand of Jeroboam;” as much as to say, that God, as He had promised, had pity upon His people in their extreme destitution. (2Kg 14:26.)

Calvin: Deu 32:37 - And he shall say, Where are their gods? 37.And he shall say, Where are their gods? Commentators are here at issue, for some continue the paragraph, as if Moses were reporting the boastings ...

37.And he shall say, Where are their gods? Commentators are here at issue, for some continue the paragraph, as if Moses were reporting the boastings and insults of their enemies in the afflicted state of the Church; whilst others consider it to be a pious exultation, wherein the faithful will celebrate the deliverance of the Church. If we suppose the enemies to be here speaking, it will be inconsistent that the word “gods” should be used in the plural number: besides, what follows will proceed from their mistake and ignorance, that the Israelites “did eat the fat,” which was not lawful for them even in their common food, and much less in the sacrifices wherein the fat was burnt. The other exposition, however, is that which I rather approve of, viz., that when the tables were turned, and God should have shown Himself as the avenger of the unbelievers cruel injustice, — God’s children would be at liberty to upbraid them. The word “he shall say,” 292 is used indefinitely for “It shall be said by any or all of God’s children.” Just, then, as unbelievers, when they see the saints afflicted, impudently ridicule their faith, so on the other side Moses, when God comes to the help of His Church, introduces the saints derisively inquiring, where are the gods of the Gentiles, and where are all their patrons? since all of them, as is well known, had their tutelary gods. Thus their impure and spurious sacrifices are satirized in which they ate the fat, and drank the libations of wine. In short, Moses intimates that, when God succors His people, their mouth is opened to sing the song of triumph to the glory of the true God, and to upbraid unbelievers with the false confidence whereby they are deceived.

Calvin: Deu 32:39 - See now that 1, even I, am he 39.See now that 1, even I, am he Those who attribute the preceding verses to the unbelievers, now introduce God speaking, as it were, abruptly, and a...

39.See now that 1, even I, am he Those who attribute the preceding verses to the unbelievers, now introduce God speaking, as it were, abruptly, and asserting His glory, in rebuke of their blasphemies. But it is rather a confirmation of that holy boasting which He has just dictated to the believers, when God not only bids His people lift up their voices against the idols, but Himself comes forward to condemn the senselessness of the Gentiles; although the context clearly shows that He addresses Himself to the faithful, After, therefore, He has exhorted His people to despise the idols, He now adds that He supplies them with ample grounds of confidence in Himself. For when He bids them “look,” He signifies that no obscure manifestation of His power is before their eyes, if they will only pay attention to it. The repetition of the pronoun I is emphatic, both to arouse the people from their sluggishness, and to keep their minds steadfast, lest they should waver as if in doubt. For we know that men’s minds can hardly be drawn to the true knowledge of God, because they wind about by circuitous courses, so as not to direct themselves straight to Him. And again, when they do apprehend God, we are aware how easily they are drawn away from Him; since the vicissitudes of things becloud them, so that they wander hither and thither in uncertainly. For this reason, when God has overthrown all fictitious deities, He declares that He always remains the same, whether he kills or makes alive, so that in the thick darkness of affliction believers may not cease to look to Him. Let us learn from this passage that God is defrauded of His right, unless He alone is preeminent, all idols being reduced to nothing; and also that our faith is then truly fixed in Him, and has firm roots, if, amidst the various changes which occur, it does not stagger or waver, but surmounts such obstacles, so as not to cease to hope in Him even when He seems to “slay” us, as Job says, (Job 13:15.) And surely nothing is more unreasonable than that our faith should look round upon all events so as to depend upon them; since God would have His promises to quicken us in death itself. The close of the verse may fitly be referred to their enemies, inasmuch as God declares that none can deliver them out of His hand.

Calvin: Deu 32:40 - For // To lift up the hand 40.For 293 I lift up my, hand to heaven. Others render it, “When I shall have lifted up my hand,” and read it connectedly with the foregoing ve...

40.For 293 I lift up my, hand to heaven. Others render it, “When I shall have lifted up my hand,” and read it connectedly with the foregoing verse, that God’s power in destroying and preserving will be manifest, if He raises up His hand to heaven. I do not doubt, however, but that it is the beginning of a new sentence, and that God thus commences, in order to affirm more strongly what He immediately adds respecting the future destruction of their enemies. If, however, any prefer the adverb of time “when,” I have no great objection to offer, provided these clauses are connected, “As soon as I shall have lifted up my hand to heaven, I will put to confusion the enemies of my Church.”

To lift up the hand is explained in two ways; for some suppose it to be a manifestation of power, as men are wont, by the uplifting of their hand, to glow, when they are confident in their strength, and despise their enemies. Others, however, more correctly state it to be a form of adjuration God, who is exalted above all heavens, cannot, indeed, be literally said to lift His hand; but it is no new thing for Him to borrow modes of expression taken from men’s common habits and customs, especially when He suddenly rises again to sublimity, after having appeared for a while to sink below the level of His greatness. Certainly the words which follow contain in them an oath, “I live for ever;” and hence it is probable 294 that the elevation of His hand was expressive of His taking the oath.

God swears by His life in a very different sense from men. Sometimes, indeed, He adopts our common modes of speaking, as when He is said to swear by His soul; but here, “I live,” is tantamount to His swearing by Himself, or by His eternal essence.

Calvin: Deu 32:41 - If I whet my glittering sword 41.If I whet my glittering sword The conditional particle does not leave the matter doubtful, or in suspense, but must be resolved into an adverb of ...

41.If I whet my glittering sword The conditional particle does not leave the matter doubtful, or in suspense, but must be resolved into an adverb of time; as though He had said, As soon as He should take up arms, the destruction of the enemies would be certain; not indeed that God wants arms for the overthrow of His enemies; just as when He adds directly afterwards, “When my hand shall have taken hold of judgment,” He does not mean that it ever is taken away from Him, or escapes Him, but He thus designates its present and manifest operation. 295 Since, therefore, God, when He spares His enemies, seems, as it were, to have thrown aside His weapons, and to be at rest, having ceased to execute the office of judge, He declares that His arms shall be ready wherewith to destroy His enemies; and again, that then He will once more take upon Him the judgment which He had seemed to lay aside; in which words He indirectly animadverts upon the foolish security of those who conceive that His power is annihilated, unless He openly exerts it, and that the judgment which He postpones is altogether extinct.

Calvin: Deu 32:42 - I will make my arrows drunk with blood 42.I will make my arrows drunk with blood In these words He describes a horrible massacre, as though He had said, There shall be no end to my vengean...

42.I will make my arrows drunk with blood In these words He describes a horrible massacre, as though He had said, There shall be no end to my vengeance, until the earth shall be full of blood and corpses. Elsewhere 296 also, God’s sword is said to be “drunk with blood,” as here His arrows, when His wrath proceeds to inflict great acts of carnage; and in the same sense it is here said to “devour flesh.”

The second מדם , midam, some render, “on account of the blood;” and I admit that מ , mem, is sometimes the causalparticle. They understand it, then, that this would be the just recompense of their cruelty, when the wicked, who had slain the Israelites, or led them away captive, should be cut off by God. But I do not see why the same word should be expounded in two different senses; and I have no doubt but that it is a repetition of the same thing, that God will make His “arrows drunk with blood;” 297 but He says, “the blood both of the slain and of the captives,” since, when an army is put to the sword, some fall in the battle itself, whilst others, maimed and wounded, make an effort to escape.

The conclusion of the verse is twisted into various senses; some expound the word “head” by change of number, “heads,” as though it were said, “I will cut off the heads of the enemies;” it would, however, be more plausible to apply it metaphorically to the leaders. But others translate it more correctly, “the beginning,” not, indeed, with reference to time, but as though it were said, the flower, or best of the multitude, according to the common phrase, “from the first to the last.” My interpretation of “the revenges of the enemy” is, not those which God will inflict upon His enemies, but such as are capital, or deadly, as though He had said that He would deal as an enemy with the wicked, so that there should be no place for mercy. 298

Calvin: Deu 32:43 - Rejoice, O ye nations, with his people 43.Rejoice, O ye nations, with his people The appositive reading, which some prefer, “Praise him, O nations, His people,” supplying the word “G...

43.Rejoice, O ye nations, with his people The appositive reading, which some prefer, “Praise him, O nations, His people,” supplying the word “God,” is constrained. For there is no incongruity in the notion that the Gentiles should celebrate the benefits which God has conferred upon His people; at any rate, it is more simple to take it thus, that so conspicuous was the favor of God towards the Israelites, that the knowledge and favor of it should diffuse itself far and wide, and be renowned even among the Gentiles. For Scripture thus magnifies some of the more memorable exertions of God’s power, especially when reference is made to the redemption of the elect people, and commands His praise to be proclaimed among the nations, since it would be by no means fitting that it should be confined within the narrow limits of Judea. A question, however, occurs, because Paul seems to quote this passage differently; for he says, “Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people,” (Rom 15:10;) and undoubtedly the word נקם , nakam, which Moses uses, also signifies to rejoice. 299 If we admit that Paul took this sentence from Moses, the same Spirit, who spoke both by Moses and Paul, is the best interpreter of His own words; nor will it be inconsistent that the Gentiles should rejoice at the felicity of God’s people. But it may have been the case that Paul did not take this testimony from any particular place, but from the general teaching of Scripture. At any rate, the dignity of the people is celebrated on the ground that God esteems their blood precious, and will deem their persecutors His own adversaries.

The word כפר , capbar, at the end of the verse, some render to expiate, others, to be propitious, which is the rendering I have preferred, although I do not reject the former meaning. The verb כפר , caphar, signifies that an expiation is made with sacrifice to appease God; and it is probable that Moses alludes to the legal mode of reconciliation; nevertheless, in my judgment, he means that God will restore His land and people to His favor.

Calvin: Deu 32:44 - And Moses came and spake Deu 32:44.And Moses came and spake It is not without reason that Moses again records that he repeated this Song before the people; because it thence a...

Deu 32:44.And Moses came and spake It is not without reason that Moses again records that he repeated this Song before the people; because it thence appears how far from all ambition he was, in that he did not fear, at the very close of his life, to irritate all their minds, so as to render the memory of his name hateful; and besides, his authority was sanctioned by the silence and submissiveness of the people, when they suffered themselves to be thus severely dealt with. For, such was their general refractoriness, that they never would have listened to him, had not the secret inspiration of the Spirit interposed to subdue them.

He associates with himself Joshua, whom he undoubtedly desired to furnish with equal authority, and, what is worthy of observation, he bids them be attentive to the threatenings and reprehensions, in order to obtain reverence for the law. For we often see that bare doctrine is cold and nerveless, unless the sluggishness, which as it were stifles men’s minds, is sharply stimulated; lest, then, the teaching of the Law should be despised or forgotten, or, from being but languidly received, should gradually be obliterated from their minds, he as it were spurs them up by the vehemence of this Song, and commands that their posterity should be instructed in it, in order that their attention may be aroused by its menaces. In the next verse (47) he recommends to them zeal in the observance of the Law on the score of its profitableness; for translators render it improperly, as it seems to me, “Lest it should be an empty word to you,” or, “It is not an empty word, such as you should despise.” Jerome’s translation is better — “The precepts are not given you in vain;” for Moses simply intimates that the Law was not given in vain, so as to end in fruitlessness; and consequently they were to beware lest they should frustrate God’s purpose, who desired to do them good. רק , rek, therefore, is used as the converse of “fruitful,” as more clearly appears from the confirmation immediately added, that they “might prolong their days in the promised land.” The Law, then, is said not to be vain, because it is fruitful unto salvation. In what way it is also deadly, and has no inherent efficacy, I have already shown. 300 It is indeed true that the Law, as being the sure rule of righteousness, does not deceptively promise salvation to men; but, since there is no one who actually performs what God requires, through the accidental guilt of men, life is turned into death; but, when all are plunged beneath the curse, a new remedy supervenes, and by God’s gratuitous pardon they are so reconciled to Him, as that their obedience, such as it is, becomes acceptable.

Calvin: Deu 32:48 - And the Lord spake unto Moses 48.And the Lord spake unto Moses We infer that this is not recorded in its regular order, because it is certain that Moses was warned of his approach...

48.And the Lord spake unto Moses We infer that this is not recorded in its regular order, because it is certain that Moses was warned of his approaching death before the Song was composed; and this the second passage, which I have here appended, expressly confirms; for he says that, before he substituted Joshua for himself, the place was pointed out to him in which he was to die. It is, however, by no means unusual for the order of narration to be inverted.

We may here perceive a singular specimen of faith and obedience. All naturally fly from death, so that no one hastens towards it of his own accord. He would never, therefore, have voluntarily entered the tomb, unless relying on the hope of a better life. We have already seen a similar instance in the case of Aaron: although the resurrection was not then so clearly revealed as it now is by the Gospel, nor had Christ appeared, who is the first-fruits of them that rise again. Wherefore, though our carnal sense may be averse from death, let our faith prevail to overcome all its terrors: even as Paul teaches that God’s children, although they desire not “to be unclothed,” still long to be “clothed upon, that mortality may be swallowed up of life.” (2Co 5:4.) This, however, was remarkable obedience, to prepare himself no less willingly for death than as if he had been invited to some joyful banquet. Thus it is plain that these holy men had so consecrated themselves to God, that they were ready to live or to die, according to His pleasure.

Mount Abarim seems to have obtained its name from its angles or sides, because it was divided 301 into many hills; as it is called also Nebo in this place, and elsewhere by divers other names. Others think it is named from a passage; but the other opinion is more probable, since it is called in the plural number Abarim, that is, heights, or summits, or interstices, which were situated on opposite heights.

Although we shall presently see that there was another reason why God desired to withdraw His servant from the sight of men, still we must take notice of the consolation, which is here referred to, that the pain of his death was alleviated by the permission to behold the land of Canaan. For this reason he is commanded to get up into the top of the mountain; for, although he would have been satisfied with the mere promise of God, even had he been deprived of this blessing, still it had no slight additional effect in enabling him more cheerfully to leave the people on the threshold of their inheritance. For faith does not altogether deprive God’s children of human feelings; but our heavenly Father in His indulgence has compassion on their infirmity. Thus, as it was a cause of sorrow to Moses to be withheld from entering the land, he was supported by a seasonable remedy, that he might not be hindered in his course by this impediment.

Calvin: Deu 32:51 - Because ye trespassed against me 51.Because ye trespassed against me We perceive from his punishment how necessary to Moses was such a token of favor. 302 For death in itself would n...

51.Because ye trespassed against me We perceive from his punishment how necessary to Moses was such a token of favor. 302 For death in itself would not have been so bitter, but the cause, which is again alleged, grievously wounded the mind of the holy man, in that he saw himself to be excluded in God’s just vengeance from the common inheritance on account of his own guilt, which is more afflictive to the pious than a hundred, nay, innumerable deaths. Hence those mournful complaints of David and Hezekiah, and others elsewhere, when their life is taken from them by all angry God:

“the grave cannot praise thee, death cannot celebrate thee: they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth.” (Isa 38:18; Psa 6:5; Psa 115:17.)

Surely it was not so formidable a thing for them to die, but that they would have calmly and cheerfully departed from the world when their time came; but what they deprecated was the awful judgment of God, at the thoughts of which they were alarmed. The same grief might have overwhelmed the mind of Moses, had it not been alleviated.

But since none, however eminent, have been altogether exempt from temporal punishments, let us learn to bear them patiently. God did not spare Moses; what wonder if our condition is no better than his? Moreover, in the opinion of men it was a trifling offense, for the sake of which he was so severely chastised; for, carried away by indignation, he had been so irritated against the people that he had attributed less power to God that was due to Him. Now, those errors, into which we fall through thoughtless impetuosity, are more easily pardoned; but hence it is manifest; how precious to God is His glory, when He does not suffer it to be obscured with impunity even by inadvertence. At the same time, also, we are taught that nothing is more irrational than to assume to ourselves the judgment respecting sins, and to weigh them in our own balance, when God is their only legitimate assessor.

But, although He declares that Moses and Aaron revolted, and were rebellious “to His mouth,” 303 still, lest it should be thought that they studiously refused credence to God’s word, a kind of qualification is added, viz., that they did not sanctify God in the midst, or before the eyes, of the children of Israel. Hence it. is plain that they were only condemned for the excessive violence of their passion, whereby they did not uphold God’s glory before the people with sufficient energy.

As to the rest, it may be looked for under Num 20:0.

Defender: Deu 32:8 - sons of Adam As Moses began his final song, he reminded his people that there had been "many generations" before them. Yet he told them they had been in God's plan...

As Moses began his final song, he reminded his people that there had been "many generations" before them. Yet he told them they had been in God's plan from the beginning, even making reference to the primeval father, Adam. The different nations had received their inheritance and boundaries after the flood and after Babel, as recorded in Genesis 10, the "Table of Nations." It is noteworthy that there are seventy nations listed in "the Table" where it says that "by these [families of the three sons of Noah] were the nations divided in the earth after the flood" (Gen 10:32). These seventy did not include Israel, for this was before the days of Abraham. Nevertheless, just as there were seventy people in the original nation of Israel as they entered Egypt with Jacob (Gen 46:27), so God, in His prescience, had ordained "bounds" for seventy original nations in the world after the flood. Although the number of Israelites had multiplied by a factor of 30,000 or more in the 400 or so years in Egypt, the number "seventy" has been associated with Israel in many ways ever since (seventy elders, seventy in the Sanhedrin, seventy Septuagint translators, seventy weeks of Daniel, seventy years captivity, etc.). The number of nations in the world, on the other hand, has only slightly more than doubled in the 4000 or so years since Babel."

TSK: Deu 32:1 - -- Deu 4:26, Deu 30:19, Deu 31:28; Psa 49:1; Isa 1:2; Jer 2:12, Jer 6:19, Jer 22:29

TSK: Deu 32:2 - drop // as the showers drop : 2Sa 23:4; Job 29:22, Job 29:23; Psa 72:6; Isa 55:10, Isa 55:11; Hos 6:4, Hos 14:5; 1Co 3:6-8; Heb 6:7 as the showers : Mic 5:7; Zec 10:1

TSK: Deu 32:3 - Because // ascribe Because : Exo 3:13-16, Exo 6:3, Exo 20:24, Exo 34:5-7; Psa 29:1, Psa 29:2, Psa 89:16-18, Psa 105:1-5; Psa 145:1-10; Jer 10:6, Jer 23:6; Mat 1:23; Joh ...

TSK: Deu 32:4 - the Rock // his work // all his // a God // without the Rock : Deu 32:18, Deu 32:30, Deu 32:31; 1Sa 2:2; 2Sa 22:2, 2Sa 22:3, 2Sa 22:32, 2Sa 22:47, 2Sa 23:3; Psa 18:2, Psa 18:31, Psa 18:46, Psa 61:2-4; P...

TSK: Deu 32:5 - They have corrupted themselves // their spot // a perverse They have corrupted themselves : Heb. He hath corrupted to himself, Deu 4:16, Deu 31:29; Gen 6:12; Exo 32:7; Jdg 2:19; Isa 1:4; Hos 9:9; Zep 3:7; 2Co ...

They have corrupted themselves : Heb. He hath corrupted to himself, Deu 4:16, Deu 31:29; Gen 6:12; Exo 32:7; Jdg 2:19; Isa 1:4; Hos 9:9; Zep 3:7; 2Co 11:3

their spot : etc. or, that they are not his children, that is their blot, Joh 8:41

a perverse : Deu 9:24; Psa 78:8; Isa 1:4; Mat 3:7, Mat 16:4, Mat 17:17; Luk 9:41; Act 7:51; Phi 2:15

TSK: Deu 32:6 - requite // O foolish // thy father // hath bought // made thee requite : Deu 32:18; Isa 1:2; 2Co 5:14, 2Co 5:15; Tit 2:11-14 O foolish : Psa 74:18; Jer 4:22, Jer 5:21; Gal 3:1-3 thy father : Exo 4:22; Isa 63:16; L...

TSK: Deu 32:7 - Remember // many generations // ask Remember : Psa 44:1, Psa 77:5, Psa 119:52; Isa 63:11 many generations : Heb. generation and generation, Psa 10:6, Psa 77:8 *marg. ask : Deu 4:32; Exo ...

Remember : Psa 44:1, Psa 77:5, Psa 119:52; Isa 63:11

many generations : Heb. generation and generation, Psa 10:6, Psa 77:8 *marg.

ask : Deu 4:32; Exo 13:14; Jdg 6:13; Job 8:8-10; Psa 44:1, Psa 77:5, Psa 77:6, Psa 77:11, Psa 77:12; Psa 78:3, Psa 78:4; Isa 46:9

TSK: Deu 32:8 - Most // divided // he set Most : Num 24:16; Psa 7:17, Psa 50:14, Psa 82:6, Psa 91:1, Psa 92:8; Isa 14:14; Dan 4:17, Dan 5:18; Act 7:48 divided : Gen 10:25, Gen 11:9; Psa 115:16...

TSK: Deu 32:9 - the Lord’ s // lot the Lord’ s : Deu 26:18, Deu 26:19; Exo 15:16, Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; 1Sa 10:1; Psa 78:71, Psa 135:4; Isa 43:21; Jer 10:16, Jer 51:19; Eph 1:18; 1Pe...

TSK: Deu 32:10 - found // led him // he instructed // he kept found : Deu 8:15, Deu 8:16; Neh 9:19-21; Psa 107:4, Psa 107:5; Son 8:5; Jer 2:6; Hos 13:5 led him : or, compassed him he instructed : Deu 4:36; Neh 9:...

TSK: Deu 32:11 - -- Exo 19:4; Isa 31:5, Isa 40:31, Isa 46:4, Isa 63:9; Heb 11:3; Rev 12:4

TSK: Deu 32:12 - the Lord // no strange the Lord : Deu 1:31; Neh 9:12; Psa 27:11, Psa 78:14, Psa 78:52, Psa 78:53, Psa 80:1, Psa 136:16; Isa 46:4; Isa 63:9-13 no strange : Isa 43:11, Isa 43:...

TSK: Deu 32:13 - ride // honey ride : Deu 33:26, Deu 33:29; Isa 58:14; Eze 36:2 honey : Job 29:6; Psa 81:16; Isa 48:21; Eze 21:17

TSK: Deu 32:14 - Butter // of Bashan // the fat // blood Butter : Gen 18:8; Jdg 5:25; 2Sa 17:29; Job 20:17; Isa 7:15, Isa 7:22 of Bashan : Psa 22:12; Eze 39:18; Amo 4:1; Mic 7:14 the fat : Psa 81:16, Psa 147...

TSK: Deu 32:15 - Jeshurun // kicked // waxen fat // then he // the Rock Jeshurun : Deu 33:5, Deu 33:26; Isa 44:2 kicked : 1Sa 2:29; Act 9:5 waxen fat : Deu 31:20; Job 15:27; Psa 17:10, Psa 73:7, Psa 119:70; Isa 6:10; Act 2...

TSK: Deu 32:16 - provoked // abominations provoked : Deu 5:9; 1Ki 14:22; Nah 1:1, Nah 1:2; 1Co 10:22 abominations : Deu 7:25; Lev 18:27; 2Ki 23:13

TSK: Deu 32:17 - sacrificed // not to God // to God // to new gods sacrificed : Lev 17:7; Psa 106:37, Psa 106:38; 1Co 10:20; 1Ti 4:1; Rev 9:20 not to God : or, which were not God, Deu 32:21; Jer 10:15; 1Co 8:4, 1Co 10...

sacrificed : Lev 17:7; Psa 106:37, Psa 106:38; 1Co 10:20; 1Ti 4:1; Rev 9:20

not to God : or, which were not God, Deu 32:21; Jer 10:15; 1Co 8:4, 1Co 10:19

to God : Deu 28:64; Isa 44:8

to new gods : Jdg 5:8

TSK: Deu 32:18 - the Rock // forgotten the Rock : Deu 32:4, Deu 32:15; Isa 17:10 forgotten : Deu 6:12, Deu 8:11, Deu 8:14, Deu 8:19; Psa 9:17, Psa 44:20-22, Psa 106:21; Isa 17:10, Isa 22:10...

TSK: Deu 32:19 - And when // abhorred them // of his sons And when : Lev 26:11; Jdg 2:14; Psa 5:4, Psa 10:3, Psa 78:59, Psa 106:40; Amo 3:2, Amo 3:3; Zec 11:8; Rev 3:16 abhorred them : or, despised, Lam 2:6 o...

And when : Lev 26:11; Jdg 2:14; Psa 5:4, Psa 10:3, Psa 78:59, Psa 106:40; Amo 3:2, Amo 3:3; Zec 11:8; Rev 3:16

abhorred them : or, despised, Lam 2:6

of his sons : Psa 82:6, Psa 82:7; Isa 1:2; Jer 11:15

TSK: Deu 32:20 - I will hide // a very // children I will hide : Deu 31:17, Deu 31:18; Job 13:24, Job 34:29; Isa 64:7; Jer 18:17; Hos 9:12 a very : Deu 32:5; Isa 65:2-5; Mat 11:16, Mat 11:17; Luk 7:31,...

TSK: Deu 32:21 - moved me // with their vanities // I will moved me : Deu 32:16; Psa 78:58 with their vanities : 1Sa 12:21; 1Ki 16:13, 1Ki 16:26; Psa 31:6; Jer 8:19, Jer 10:8, Jer 14:22; Jon 2:8; Act 11:15 I w...

TSK: Deu 32:22 - For a fire // shall burn // lowest // shall consume // foundations For a fire : Deu 29:20; Num 16:35; Psa 21:9, Psa 83:14, Psa 97:3; Isa 66:15, Isa 66:16; Jer 4:4, Jer 15:14; Jer 17:4; Lam 2:3, Lam 4:11; Eze 36:5; Nah...

TSK: Deu 32:23 - heap mischiefs // spend heap mischiefs : Deu 28:15; Lev 26:18, Lev 26:24; Isa 24:17, Isa 24:18, Isa 26:15; Jer 15:2, Jer 15:3; Eze 14:21; Mat 24:7, Mat 24:8 spend : Psa 7:12,...

TSK: Deu 32:24 - burnt // burning heat // the teeth // serpents burnt : Deu 28:53; Jer 14:18; Lam 4:4-9, Lam 5:10 burning heat : Heb. burning coals, Psa 18:12-14, Psa 120:4; Hab 3:5 the teeth : Lev 26:22; Jer 15:3,...

TSK: Deu 32:25 - sword // within // destroy sword : Lev 26:36, Lev 26:37; Isa 30:16; Jer 9:21; Lam 1:20; Eze 7:15; 2Co 7:5 within : Heb. from the chambers destroy : Heb. bereave, the young. Lam ...

sword : Lev 26:36, Lev 26:37; Isa 30:16; Jer 9:21; Lam 1:20; Eze 7:15; 2Co 7:5

within : Heb. from the chambers

destroy : Heb. bereave, the young. Lam 2:19-22, Lam 4:4

TSK: Deu 32:26 - -- Deu 28:25, Deu 28:37, Deu 28:64; Lev 26:33, Lev 26:38; Isa 63:16; Luk 21:24

TSK: Deu 32:27 - lest their // they should // Our hand lest their : 1Sa 12:22; Isa 37:28, Isa 37:29, Isa 37:35, Isa 47:7; Jer 19:4; Lam 1:9; Eze 20:13, Eze 20:14; Eze 20:20-22; Zec 1:14, Zec 1:15 they shou...

lest their : 1Sa 12:22; Isa 37:28, Isa 37:29, Isa 37:35, Isa 47:7; Jer 19:4; Lam 1:9; Eze 20:13, Eze 20:14; Eze 20:20-22; Zec 1:14, Zec 1:15

they should : Exo 32:12; Num 14:15, Num 14:16; Jos 7:9; Psa 115:1, Psa 115:2, Psa 140:8; Isa 10:8-15; Isa 37:10, Isa 37:12-23; Dan 4:30-37

Our hand : etc. or, Our high hand and not the Lord hath done all this

TSK: Deu 32:28 - -- Deu 32:6; Job 28:28; Psa 81:12; Pro 1:7; Isa 27:11, Isa 29:14; Jer 4:22, Jer 8:9; Hos 4:6; Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15; Rom 11:25; 1Co 3:19

TSK: Deu 32:29 - O that // they would O that : Deu 5:29; Psa 81:13, Psa 107:15, Psa 107:43; Isa 48:18, Isa 48:19; Hos 14:9; Luk 19:41, Luk 19:42 they would : Isa 10:3, Isa 47:7; Jer 5:31, ...

TSK: Deu 32:30 - one chase // sold them // shut them one chase : Lev 26:8; Jos 23:10; Jdg 7:22, Jdg 7:23; 1Sa 14:15-17; 2Ch 24:24; Isa 30:17 sold them : Jdg 2:14, Jdg 3:8; Psa 44:12; Isa 50:1, Isa 52:3; ...

TSK: Deu 32:31 - -- Exo 14:25; Num 23:8, Num 23:23; 1Sa 2:2, 1Sa 4:8; Ezr 1:3, Ezr 6:9-12, Ezr 7:20, Ezr 7:21; Jer 40:3; Dan 2:47, Dan 3:29, Dan 6:26, Dan 6:27

TSK: Deu 32:32 - of the vine of Sodom // their grapes of the vine of Sodom : or, worse than the vine of Sodom, etc. Isa 1:10; Jer 2:21; Lam 4:6; Eze 16:45-51; Mat 11:24 their grapes : Deu 29:18; Isa 5:4; ...

of the vine of Sodom : or, worse than the vine of Sodom, etc. Isa 1:10; Jer 2:21; Lam 4:6; Eze 16:45-51; Mat 11:24

their grapes : Deu 29:18; Isa 5:4; Heb 12:15

TSK: Deu 32:33 - the poison the poison : Job 20:14-16; Psa 58:4, Psa 140:3; Jer 8:14 *marg. Rom 3:13

TSK: Deu 32:34 - -- Job 14:17; Jer 2:22; Hos 13:12; Rom 2:5; 1Co 4:5; Rev 20:12, Rev 20:13

TSK: Deu 32:35 - To me // their foot // for the day // the things To me : Deu 32:43; Psa 94:1; Nah 1:2, Nah 1:6; Rom 12:19, Rom 13:4; Heb 10:30 their foot : Psa 73:17-19; Pro 4:19; Isa 8:15; Jer 6:21, Jer 13:16; 1Pe ...

TSK: Deu 32:36 - For the // repent // power // none For the : Psa 7:8, Psa 50:4, Psa 96:13, Psa 135:14 repent : Jdg 2:18, Jdg 10:15, Jdg 10:16; Psa 90:13, Psa 106:45; Jer 31:20; Joe 2:14; Amo 7:3, Amo 7...

TSK: Deu 32:37 - -- Jdg 10:14; 2Ki 3:13; Jer 2:28

TSK: Deu 32:38 - eat the fat // let them // your protection eat the fat : Lev 21:21; Psa 50:13; Eze 16:18, Eze 16:19; Hos 2:8; Zep 2:11 let them : Jdg 10:14 your protection : Heb. an hiding for you

eat the fat : Lev 21:21; Psa 50:13; Eze 16:18, Eze 16:19; Hos 2:8; Zep 2:11

let them : Jdg 10:14

your protection : Heb. an hiding for you

TSK: Deu 32:39 - even I // no god // I kill // neither even I : Psa 102:27; Isa 41:4, Isa 45:5, Isa 45:18, Isa 45:22, Isa 46:4, Isa 48:12; Heb 1:12; Rev 1:11, Rev 2:8 no god : Deu 4:35; Isa 45:5, Isa 45:18...

TSK: Deu 32:40 - -- Gen 14:22; Exo 6:8; Num 14:28-30; Jer 4:2; Heb 6:17, Heb 6:18; Rev 10:5, Rev 10:6

TSK: Deu 32:41 - whet // I will // them that hate whet : Psa 7:12; Isa 27:1, Isa 34:5, Isa 34:6, Isa 66:16; Eze 21:9-15, Eze 21:20; Zep 2:12 I will : Deu 32:35; Isa 1:24, Isa 59:18, Isa 66:6; Mar 1:2 ...

TSK: Deu 32:42 - make mine // revenges make mine : Deu 32:23; Psa 45:5, Psa 68:23; Isa 34:6-8; Jer 16:10; Eze 35:6-8, Eze 38:21, Eze 38:22 revenges : The word parôth , rendered revenges...

make mine : Deu 32:23; Psa 45:5, Psa 68:23; Isa 34:6-8; Jer 16:10; Eze 35:6-8, Eze 38:21, Eze 38:22

revenges : The word parôth , rendered revenges, a sense in which it never seems to be used, has rendered this passage very obscure. As the word paira signifies the hair of the head, both in Hebrew and Arabic, Mr. Parkhurst and others render mairosh parôth , ""from the hairy head;""but to have this sense, the words should rather have been mipparôth rosh , according the Hebrew idiom. The word farôu , in Arabic, however, also denotes a prince or chief; and the words may be literally rendered, with the LXX, απο κεφαλης αρχοντων εχθρων , ""from the head of the chiefs of the enemies.""The hyperbaton, or transposition of words from their grammatical order, is very observable in this verse; the third member forming a continuation of the first, and the fourth of the second. Job 13:24; Jer 30:14; Lam 2:5

TSK: Deu 32:43 - Rejoice // avenge // render // will be Rejoice : or, Praise his people, ye nations; or, Sing ye, O ye nations. Gen 12:3; 1Ki 8:43; Psa 22:27; Isa 11:10, Isa 19:23, Isa 19:25; Luk 2:10, Luk ...

TSK: Deu 32:44 - spake // Hoshea spake : Deu 31:22, Deu 31:30 Hoshea : or, Joshua, Num 13:8, Num 13:16

spake : Deu 31:22, Deu 31:30

Hoshea : or, Joshua, Num 13:8, Num 13:16

TSK: Deu 32:46 - -- Deu 6:6, Deu 6:7, Deu 11:18; 1Ch 22:19; Pro 3:1-4; Eze 40:4; Luk 9:44; Heb 2:1

TSK: Deu 32:47 - -- Deu 30:19; Lev 18:5; Pro 3:1, Pro 3:2, Pro 3:18, Pro 3:22, Pro 4:22; Isa 45:19; Mat 6:33; Rom 10:5, Rom 10:6; 1Ti 4:8, 1Ti 6:6-8; 1Pe 3:10-12; 2Pe 1:3...

TSK: Deu 32:48 - -- am 2553, bc 1451, An, Ex, Is, 40, Adar, Num 27:12, Num 27:13

am 2553, bc 1451, An, Ex, Is, 40, Adar, Num 27:12, Num 27:13

TSK: Deu 32:49 - mountain // and behold mountain : Deu 34:1; Num 33:47, Num 33:48 and behold : Deu 34:2-5; Isa 33:17; 2Co 5:1

mountain : Deu 34:1; Num 33:47, Num 33:48

and behold : Deu 34:2-5; Isa 33:17; 2Co 5:1

TSK: Deu 32:50 - be gathered // as Aaron be gathered : Gen 15:15, Gen 25:8, Gen 25:17, Gen 49:33; Dan 12:13 as Aaron : Num 20:24-29, Num 33:38

TSK: Deu 32:51 - ye trespassed // Meribah-Kadesh // because ye ye trespassed : Deu 3:23-27; Num 20:11, Num 20:12, Num 20:24, Num 27:14 Meribah-Kadesh : or, strife at Kadesh, Num 20:13, Num 20:14 because ye : Lev 1...

ye trespassed : Deu 3:23-27; Num 20:11, Num 20:12, Num 20:24, Num 27:14

Meribah-Kadesh : or, strife at Kadesh, Num 20:13, Num 20:14

because ye : Lev 10:3; 1Ki 13:21-26; Isa 8:13; 1Pe 4:17

TSK: Deu 32:52 - -- Deu 32:49, Deu 34:1-4; Num 27:12; Heb 11:13, Heb 11:39

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Deu 32:1 - O ye heavens, and, O earth O ye heavens, and, O earth: either, 1. Angels and men; or, 2. You lifeless and senseless creatures, heaven and earth, which he calls upon partly t...

O ye heavens, and, O earth: either,

1. Angels and men; or,

2. You lifeless and senseless creatures, heaven and earth, which he calls upon partly to accuse the stupidity of Israel, that were more dull of hearing than these; and partly as witnesses of the truth of his sayings, and the justice of God’ s proceedings against them.

Poole: Deu 32:2 - -- Look what effect rain and dew have upon herbs and grass, which they make fresh and fragrant and growing, the same effect I may justly expect and hop...

Look what effect rain and dew have upon herbs and grass, which they make fresh and fragrant and growing, the same effect I may justly expect and hope that my discourse will have upon your hearts, i.e. to make them soft and pliable and fruitful. Or this may be a prayer, Let my doctrine drop , &c. Oh that it might do so, that my discourse might not be lost upon you, but be profitable to you! the future tense of the indicative mood being put for the imperative mood, as is usual.

Poole: Deu 32:3 - The name of the Lord The name of the Lord i.e. his glorious excellencies and righteous and worthy actions, by which he hath made himself known, as a man is known by his n...

The name of the Lord i.e. his glorious excellencies and righteous and worthy actions, by which he hath made himself known, as a man is known by his name, and by which it will appear both that there is no blame to be laid upon him, whatsoever befalls you, and that it is gross madness to forsake such a God for dumb idols and mere vanities.

As I am about to publish the great power and majesty and glory of God, so do you also own and acknowledge it, as you have reason to do; or, do you attend to the words which God hath commanded me to speak to you in his name with that diligence, reverence, and godly fear which the presence of so great and glorious a Majesty calls for.

Poole: Deu 32:4 - The rock // His work is perfect // All his ways are judgment // A God of truth The rock or, a rock , as for the stability and everlastingness of his nature, and invincibleness of his power, so also for his fixedness and immutab...

The rock or, a rock , as for the stability and everlastingness of his nature, and invincibleness of his power, so also for his fixedness and immutability in his counsels and promises and ways; so that if there shall be a sad change in your affairs from a high and prosperous to a calamitous and deplorable condition, as there will be, remember that this proceeds from yourselves, and from the change of your ways and carriages towards God, and not from God, in whom there is no variableness nor shadow of change , Jam 1:17 .

His work is perfect all his works and actions are unblamable, as being perfect, wise, and righteous, as it follows.

All his ways are judgment all his administrations in the world, and particularly all his dealings with you, are managed with judgment and justice.

A God of truth constant to his promises: you cannot accuse him of any levity or unfaithfulness towards you to this day.

Poole: Deu 32:5 - They // Corrupted themselves // Their spot is not the spot of his children // They are a perverse and crooked generation // perverse // and crooked They i.e. the Israelites, as the following words manifest. Corrupted themselves: this phrase sometimes in Scripture notes sin, and sometimes destru...

They i.e. the Israelites, as the following words manifest.

Corrupted themselves: this phrase sometimes in Scripture notes sin, and sometimes destruction. And so the sense may be either,

1. Their wickedness is not from God, but from themselves, and their own choice; they have wilfully and industriously depraved themselves, and sold themselves to sin. Or rather,

2. Their destruction is not from God. who is just and true , &c., as was now said, but wholly and solely from themselves, and from their own wickedness, as it here follows.

Their spot is not the spot of his children i.e. their blemishes or sins are not committed through ignorance, or frailty, or surprisal, as good men sometimes sin, but they proceed from design and deliberation, are accompanied with malice, and wilfulness, and contempt, and followed with obstinacy, impenitency, and incorrigibleness. So that they carry themselves not like my children and people, as they seem to be and profess to be, but like mine enemies.

They are a perverse and crooked generation not only some few of them, but the whole body or generation of them, are

perverse i.e. froward and untractable,

and crooked i.e. irregular and disorderly, not agreeing with the straight and righteous nature of God and of his law. Compare Isa 42:16 .

Poole: Deu 32:6 - Hath bought thee // Made thee // Established thee Hath bought thee that hath redeemed and rescued thee from Egyptian bondage. Made thee i.e. advanced thee, as that word is used, 1Sa 12:6 Est 6:6 Ps...

Hath bought thee that hath redeemed and rescued thee from Egyptian bondage.

Made thee i.e. advanced thee, as that word is used, 1Sa 12:6 Est 6:6 Psa 95:6 149:2 Isa 43:7 . Made thee , not only in a general and common way, by creation or production; but in a peculiar manner, by adoption, or making thee his peculiar people and children.

Established thee i.e. renewed and confirmed his grace and favour to thee, and not taken it away from thee, which thou hast oft provoked him to do.

Poole: Deu 32:7 - The days of old The days of old i.e. the history and events of ancient days or former ages, and thou wilt find that I had a respect unto thee, not only in Abraham...

The days of old i.e. the history and events of ancient days or former ages, and thou wilt find that I had a respect unto thee, not only in Abraham’ s time, but long before it. Compare Jer 2:20 .

Poole: Deu 32:8 - Separated the sons of Adam // He set the bounds of the people When God by his providence did allot the several parts of the world to several people, which was done Ge 10 Ge 11 . See Deu 2:5,9 Am 9:7 Act 17:26,2...

When God by his providence did allot the several parts of the world to several people, which was done Ge 10 Ge 11 . See Deu 2:5,9 Am 9:7 Act 17:26,27 .

Separated the sons of Adam i.e. divided them in their languages and habitations according to their families.

He set the bounds of the people i.e. he disposed of the several lands and limits of the people, so as he did reserve a convenient and sufficient place for the great numbers of the people of Israel, whom he designed to make as numerous as the stars of heaven. And therefore he so guided the hearts of several people, that the posterity of Canaan, which was accursed of God, Gen 9:25-27 , and devoted to ruin, should be seated in that country which God intended for the children of Israel, that so when their iniquities were ripe, and God’ s time came, they might be rooted out, and the Israelites might come in their stead.

Poole: Deu 32:9 - -- It is no wonder God had so great a regard to this people, for he chose them out of all mankind to be his peculiar portion and treasure.

It is no wonder God had so great a regard to this people, for he chose them out of all mankind to be his peculiar portion and treasure.

Poole: Deu 32:10 - He found him // In a desert land // In the waste howling wilderness // He led him about // he compassed him about // As the apple of his eye He found him not by chance but as it were looking out and seeking for him, He met with him there. He did indeed manifest himself to him in Egypt, but...

He found him not by chance but as it were looking out and seeking for him, He met with him there. He did indeed manifest himself to him in Egypt, but it was in the wilderness at Sinai; where he found God, and God found him in an eminent manner, and revealed his mind and will to him, and entered into covenant with him, and imparted himself and his grace and blessing to him, that being the place appointed in Egypt for God and Israel to meet together, Exo 3:12 . By this word he also signifies both their lost condition in themselves, and that their recovery was not from themselves, but only from God, who sought and found them out by his grace.

In a desert land in a place destitute of all the necessaries and comforts of life, which also was a type of that desolate and comfortless condition in which all men are before the grace of God finds them out. See Son 3:6 8:5 Eze 16:1 Hos 9:10 13:9 .

In the waste howling wilderness where instead of the voices of men, is nothing heard but the howlings, and yellings, and screeches of ravenous birds and beasts. See Isa 43:20 Mic 1:8 .

He led him about he conducted them from place to place by his cloudy pillar and providence. See Exo 13:18 , &c. Or,

he compassed him about by his provident care over him, watching over him and preserving him on every side. Compare Psa 32:7 .

As the apple of his eye as men use to keep the apple of their eye, i.e. with singular care and diligence, this being, as a most tender, so a most useful part. Compare Psa 17:8 Pro 7:2 Zec 2:8 .

Poole: Deu 32:11 - Her nest // Spreadeth abroad her wings // On her wings Her nest i.e. her young ones in the nest, by a common metonymy; which she by her cry and motion provoketh to fly by her example. Spreadeth abroad he...

Her nest i.e. her young ones in the nest, by a common metonymy; which she by her cry and motion provoketh to fly by her example.

Spreadeth abroad her wings as preparing herself to fly.

On her wings or, as on her wings , i.e. gently, and tenderly, and safely too, as if she carried them not in her claws for fear of hurting them, but upon her wings. So it is only an ellipsis of the particle as , which is frequent, as hath been showed. Though some say the eagle doth usually carry her young ones upon her wings.

Poole: Deu 32:12 - No strange god with him i.e. When they were shut up in Egypt, as in their nest, whence they durst not venture to fly nor stir, he taught, and encouraged, and enabled them t...

i.e. When they were shut up in Egypt, as in their nest, whence they durst not venture to fly nor stir, he taught, and encouraged, and enabled them to fly out and flee themselves from that bondage, and brought them into a state of liberty and safety; he dealt tenderly with them, bearing with their infirmities, keeping them from all harms.

No strange god with him to wit, to assist him at that work, or to deliver them. The more unworthy they in giving to idols a share in that worship and service which they owe to God only.

Poole: Deu 32:13 - On the high places of the earth // To suck honey out of the rock // Oil out of the flinty rock On the high places of the earth i.e. to conquer their strongest holds, which ofttimes are in the mountains, and their cities fenced with walls of gre...

On the high places of the earth i.e. to conquer their strongest holds, which ofttimes are in the mountains, and their cities fenced with walls of greatest height and strength, Deu 1:28 2:36 33:29 Isa 58:14 . To ride upon in Scripture phrase is to subdue or conquer, as Psa 45:4 66:12 Rev 6:2 19:11,14 .

To suck honey out of the rock this being a land flowing with honey, Exo 3:8,17 , where the bees made honey even in woods, as 1Sa 14 , or in the holes of rocks, or in the trees that grew upon or among rocks.

Oil out of the flinty rock: the olive trees grow and fructify most in rocky or hilly places.

Poole: Deu 32:14 - With fat of lambs // Bashan // With the fat of kidneys of wheat // The pure blood of the grape With fat of lambs for though the fat wherewith the inward parts were covered was not to be eaten by them, but offered to God, Lev 3:9,10 , yet that f...

With fat of lambs for though the fat wherewith the inward parts were covered was not to be eaten by them, but offered to God, Lev 3:9,10 , yet that fat which was fast joined to and mixed with the flesh they might eat, as the Jewish doctors note.

Bashan a place famous for excellent cattle, Num 32:4,33 .

With the fat of kidneys of wheat i.e. with the finest of the grains or kernels of wheat, compared to kidneys for their shape, and plumpness, and largeness. Compare Psa 81:16 147:14 .

The pure blood of the grape wine not mixed with water, but pure as it comes from the grape, which was of a red or bloody colour. See Psa 75:8 Isa 27:2 .

Poole: Deu 32:15 - Joshurun // Waxed fat, and kicked // Thou art covered with fatness Joshurun i.e. Israel, as is agreed by Christian and Jewish interpreters, whom he calls right , or upright , or righteous, (as the word signifies,) ...

Joshurun i.e. Israel, as is agreed by Christian and Jewish interpreters, whom he calls right , or upright , or righteous, (as the word signifies,) not that they were so indeed, but partly by way of instruction, to mind them what they professed, and promised, and ought to be; and partly by way of exprobration, to show them how unlike they were to the people of God, which they pretended to be, and what a shame it was to them to degenerate so much from their their name and profession.

Waxed fat, and kicked as well-fed and wanton cattle used to do; he grew insolent and rebellious against God, and against his word and Spirit.

Thou art covered with fatness which is here rightly understood and supplied, by comparing this place with Job 15:27 Psa 17:10 .

Poole: Deu 32:16 - To jealousy To jealousy i.e. to anger and fury, for jealousy is the rage of a man Pro 6:31 . And withal it implies the ground of his anger, to wit, their falsen...

To jealousy i.e. to anger and fury,

for jealousy is the rage of a man Pro 6:31 . And withal it implies the ground of his anger, to wit, their falseness to God, whom they had owned and accepted as their Husband, and their spiritual whoredom with other gods.

Poole: Deu 32:17 - Unto devils // Not to God // Whom they knew not // That came newly up // Whom your fathers feared not Unto devils i.e. unto idols, which the devils brought into the world in opposition to God, in and by which the devils ofttimes manifested themselves ...

Unto devils i.e. unto idols, which the devils brought into the world in opposition to God, in and by which the devils ofttimes manifested themselves unto men, and gave them answers, and received their worship. Compare 1Co 10:20 . The Gentiles pretended to worship God in those idols, and the devils which inspired them deluded the nations with false pretences that they were a sort of lower gods. Moses therefore takes off this mask, and shows the Israelites that these pretended gods were really devils, those great enemies of mankind, and therefore that it was the height of madness to honour or worship them.

Not to God: this he saith, either because though at first they joined God and idols together in worship, yet at last they quite forsook God, and adhered to idols only; or because God utterly rejected those sacrifices which they offered to him together with idols, and took them for no sacrifices. See 1Co 10:21 .

Whom they knew not or, who never knew them , i.e. never showed any kindness to them, or did them any good; for so words of knowledge are oft used, as Psa 1:6 Hos 13:5 .

That came newly up not simply or absolutely, for some of these gods had been worshipped for many generations, and had a fair pretence of long antiquity, but comparatively to the true God, who is the Ancient of days , Dan 7:9 , and who was worshipped from the beginning of the world. To this original and first antiquity Moses recalls them; as also our Saviour doth recall the Jews to the first institution, Mat 19:8 . And therefore we may safely follow both their patterns in despising all pretences of antiquity, which are contrary to God’ s first institutions contained (as all confess) in the Holy Scriptures.

Whom your fathers feared not i.e. served not, worshipped not, but justly despised and abhorred them.

Poole: Deu 32:18 - Of the Rock // That begat thee Of the Rock i.e. of God, one of whose titles this is, above, Deu 32:4 Isa 44:8 ; or of Christ, who is called the Rock , 1Co 10:4 , whom the Israelit...

Of the Rock i.e. of God, one of whose titles this is, above, Deu 32:4 Isa 44:8 ; or of Christ, who is called the Rock , 1Co 10:4 , whom the Israelites are said to have tempted, there, Deu 32:9 .

That begat thee i.e. who hath adopted you to be his people, and hath showed as much care and kindness to you as if he had begotten you.

Poole: Deu 32:19 - daughters Because of their sins, whereby they provoked him to anger. Or, by reason of his great and just anger against them he abhorred , or reprobated ...

Because of their sins, whereby they provoked him to anger. Or, by reason of his great and just anger against them he abhorred , or reprobated , or cast off his sons and his

daughters for such they were by calling and profession, but not in truth and reality, Deu 32:5 .

Poole: Deu 32:20 - I will see what their end shall be // I will see I will see what their end shall be I will see and observe what will be the issue of all this, what will become of them at last; but this God doth not...

I will see what their end shall be I will see and observe what will be the issue of all this, what will become of them at last; but this God doth not see only by way of speculation, but practically, i.e. considers with himself what he shall do with them, and how he shall punish them, and sees what he wills or purposes to do. A speech after the manner of men. Or

I will see is put for I will make them and others to see , what the fruit of such actions shall be. Hebrew verbs in cal do ofttimes take the signification of hiphil . In whom there is no faith ; perfidious, that have broken their covenant so solemnly made with me.

Poole: Deu 32:21 - With those which are not a people // A foolish nation With those which are not a people i.e. with the Gentile or heathenish nations, who are none of my people, who scarce deserve the name of a people, as...

With those which are not a people i.e. with the Gentile or heathenish nations, who are none of my people, who scarce deserve the name of a people, as being without yoke, without the knowledge and fear of God, which is the foundation of all true policy and government, and without righteous and necessary laws; and many of them are destitute of all government, and laws, and order, barbarous and rude, and savage, and brutish in their manners. And yet these people I will prefer before you, and take in your stead; receive them, and reject you; which, when it came to pass, how desperately it provoked the Jews to jealousy, may be gathered from Mat 21:43 Act 11:2,3 22:21-23 1Th 2:15,16 .

A foolish nation so the Gentiles were both in the opinion of the Jews, and in truth and reality, notwithstanding all their pretences to wisdom, Rom 1:22 , there being nothing more foolish or brutish than the worship of idols. See Jer 10:8 1Co 12:2 .

Poole: Deu 32:22 - A fire is kindled // Unto the lowest hell A fire is kindled i.e. great and grievous judgments shall be inflicted, which oft come under the name of fire , &c. See Deu 4:24 Eze 30:8 Amo 2:2,5 ...

A fire is kindled i.e. great and grievous judgments shall be inflicted, which oft come under the name of fire , &c. See Deu 4:24 Eze 30:8 Amo 2:2,5 .

Unto the lowest hell or, unto hell , or the graves beneath . The sense is, it shall not only burn up all the corn and fruits and buildings which appear above ground, but it shall reach to the inwards and depths of the earth, and burn up the very roots and hopes of future increase.

Poole: Deu 32:23 - -- i.e. Even empty my quiver, and send upon them all my plagues, which, like arrows shot by a skilful and strong hand, shall speedily reach, and certai...

i.e. Even empty my quiver, and send upon them all my plagues, which, like arrows shot by a skilful and strong hand, shall speedily reach, and certainly hit, and mortally wound them. Compare Zec 9:14 .

Poole: Deu 32:24 - With hunger // With burning heat // Serpents of the dust With hunger with famine, which burneth and parcheth the inward parts, and makes the face black as a coal, Lam 4:8 . With burning heat from fevers o...

With hunger with famine, which burneth and parcheth the inward parts, and makes the face black as a coal, Lam 4:8 .

With burning heat from fevers or carbuncles or other inflaming distempers.

Serpents of the dust who feed upon the dust, Gen 3:14 , and lurk in it, that they may surprise unwary passengers, Gen 49:17 .

Poole: Deu 32:27 - The wrath of the enemy // Strangely // make themselves strangers The wrath of the enemy i.e. their rage against me, as it is expressed Isa 37:28,29 ; their insolent and furious reproaches against my name, as if I w...

The wrath of the enemy i.e. their rage against me, as it is expressed Isa 37:28,29 ; their insolent and furious reproaches against my name, as if I were unnatural and cruel to my people, or unable to deliver them. Compare Exo 32:12 Num 14:13 Deu 9:28 Jos 7:9 . The fear hereof is ascribed to God after the manner of men.

Strangely i.e. insolently and arrogantly, above what they used to do. Or,

make themselves strangers i.e. either really not acknowledge, or pretend they did not know, that which I had publicly declared, and they either did or easily might have known, to wit, that this judgment was inflicted upon them by my hand for their sins.

Poole: Deu 32:28 - They // Void of counsel They either, 1. The enemies last mentioned, who are foolish people, and therefore make so false and foolish a judgment upon things. Or rather, 2. T...

They either,

1. The enemies last mentioned, who are foolish people, and therefore make so false and foolish a judgment upon things. Or rather,

2. The Israelites themselves, of whom he speaks both in the foregoing Deu 32:26 , and in the whole foregoing chapter, and in the next verse Deu 32:29 , and afterwards.

Void of counsel that have not wisdom to direct themselves, nor discretion to desire and receive counsel from others, but rashly and madly go on in those courses which will certainly ruin them.

Poole: Deu 32:29 - -- What their end will be; and that although God spare them long, yet at last judgment will certainly overtake them.

What their end will be; and that although God spare them long, yet at last judgment will certainly overtake them.

Poole: Deu 32:30 - How should one chase a thousand? // one // Their Rock // Shut them up How should one chase a thousand? whence should this miraculous change come, that whereas God had promised that five Israelites should chase an hun...

How should one chase a thousand? whence should this miraculous change come, that whereas God had promised that five Israelites should chase an hundred of their enemies, &c., Deu 26:8 , now, on the contrary,

one enemy

should chase a thousand Israelites?

Their Rock i.e. their God, as before, Deu 32:4,18 , who was their only refuge and defence; had sold them, to wit, for bond-slaves, had quitted his right and relation to them, and given them up into their enemies’ hands.

Shut them up as it were, in the net which their enemies had laid for them.

Poole: Deu 32:31 - -- Who by their dear-bought experience have been forced to acknowledge that our God was far stronger than they and their false gods together. See Exo 1...

Who by their dear-bought experience have been forced to acknowledge that our God was far stronger than they and their false gods together. See Exo 14:25 Nu 23 1Sa 4:8 Jer 40:3 .

Poole: Deu 32:32 - For // Their clusters are bitter For or but ; for these words seem to contain an answer to that question, Deu 32:30 , How should , &c. To this he answers, 1. Negatively; It was no...

For or but ; for these words seem to contain an answer to that question, Deu 32:30 , How should , &c. To this he answers,

1. Negatively; It was not from impotency in God, for if he had not forsaken and delivered them up, they could not have been so easily chased.

2. Positively; But, saith he, the true reason was this, their vine , &c. Of the vine of Sodom : The people of Israel, which I planted and brought up as a choice vine, are now degenerated and become like the vine of Sodom; their principles and practices are all corrupt and abominable. Compare Isa 1:10 .

Their clusters are bitter their fruits or actions are most loathsome to me, malicious and mischievous to others, and at last will be pernicious to themselves.

Poole: Deu 32:33 - The poison of dragons // The cruel venom of asps The poison of dragons for although some write that the dragons of Greece have no poison in them, yet that the African and Arabian dragons, of which M...

The poison of dragons for although some write that the dragons of Greece have no poison in them, yet that the African and Arabian dragons, of which Moses here writes, have poison in them, is confessed by ancient heathen authors.

The cruel venom of asps whose poison kills certainly and speedily, as Aristotle and others write.

Poole: Deu 32:34 - -- i.e. All their wickedness mentioned before. My longsuffering towards them may make them and others think that I have forgotten their sins, but I rem...

i.e. All their wickedness mentioned before. My longsuffering towards them may make them and others think that I have forgotten their sins, but I remember them punctually, they are sealed up as in a bag, Job 14:17 , and as men seal up their treasures that nothing be lost; and I shall bring them to their remembrance also.

Poole: Deu 32:35 - In due time // Is at hand It is my office to punish sin, and therefore as I know their sins, so I will assuredly punish them. Their feet shall slide ; they who now think the...

It is my office to punish sin, and therefore as I know their sins, so I will assuredly punish them. Their feet shall slide ; they who now think they stand fast and unmovable, they shall fall into utter destruction.

In due time though not so soon as some may expect it, yet in that time when it shall be most proper and seasonable, when they have filled up the measure of their sins. This due time may be the same with that fulness of time , Gal 4:4 , when Christ came into the world, whom this people by wicked hands crucified and slew, Act 2:23 , for which wrath came upon them to the uttermost , 1Th 2:15,16 .

Is at hand Heb. is near . So the Scripture oft speaks of those things which are at many hundred years’ distance, to meet with objections arising in men’ s minds from the delays of them, and to signify, that though they may be afar off as to our measures of time and expectation of the things, yet in God’ s account they are near, they are as near as may be; as soon as ever the fit and the full time is come, they come instantly, they are nearer than sinners would have them; when the measure of their sins is once full, the judgment shall not be deferred.

Poole: Deu 32:36 - For // Shall judge his people // Repent himself for his servants // None shut up, or left For or, nevertheless , or, but yet , as the particle chi is sometimes used, as Job 5:7 Isa 9:1 49:25 . Having spoken of the dreadful calamity whi...

For or, nevertheless , or, but yet , as the particle chi is sometimes used, as Job 5:7 Isa 9:1 49:25 . Having spoken of the dreadful calamity which would come upon his people, he now turns his discourse into a more comfortable strain, according to the usual method of the prophets, and here begins to show that after God had humbled and sorely chastised his people, yet at last he would have mercy upon them, and turn their captivity, as it here follows.

Shall judge his people i.e. shall plead their cause, shall protect and deliver them, as that phrase is oft used. See Psa 7:8 10:18 Isa 1:17 11:4 Jer 5:28 22:16 .

Repent himself for his servants i.e. repent of the evils he hath brought upon them, will change his course and carriage towards them.

None shut up, or left: none shut up, either in their strong cities or castles, or other hiding-places, or in the enemy’ s hands or prisons, whence there might be some hope or possibility of redemption; and none left , as the poor and contemptible people are neglected and usually left by the conquerors in the conquered land, as 2Ki 25:12 , but all seem to be cut off; and the people quite destroyed. So this phrase is used 1Ki 14:10 21:21 2Ki 9:8 14:26 .

Poole: Deu 32:37 - He shall say He shall say: the Lord, before he deliver his people, will first convince them of their former folly in forsaking him and following idols; he will fi...

He shall say: the Lord, before he deliver his people, will first convince them of their former folly in forsaking him and following idols; he will find an occasion from that miserable and hopeless condition into which their idols have brought them, to upbraid them with it.

Poole: Deu 32:38 - Let them help you i.e. To whom you offered sacrifices and oblations after the manner of the Gentiles. See Exo 34:13 Psa 106:28 1Co 10:20 . Let them help you if they...

i.e. To whom you offered sacrifices and oblations after the manner of the Gentiles. See Exo 34:13 Psa 106:28 1Co 10:20 .

Let them help you if they can do it. Compare Jud 10:14 Jer 2:28 .

Poole: Deu 32:39 - See now // I am he See now learn now by your own sad experience what vain and impotent things idols are, and what a silly thing it was in you to put your trust in them,...

See now learn now by your own sad experience what vain and impotent things idols are, and what a silly thing it was in you to put your trust in them, as they did Deu 32:37 .

I am he i.e. the only true, and omnipotent, and irresistible God, as it here follows.

Poole: Deu 32:40 - I lift up my hand to heaven // I live for ever I lift up my hand to heaven i.e. I solemnly swear that I will do what here follows, that as I will deliver my people, so I will fully avenge myself u...

I lift up my hand to heaven i.e. I solemnly swear that I will do what here follows, that as I will deliver my people, so I will fully avenge myself upon all mine enemies, whom I have used as rods to scourge my people.

I live for ever i.e. As sure as I live. Compare Jer 4:2 Heb 6:13 Rev 10:5,6 .

Poole: Deu 32:41 - Take hold on judgment If once I begin to prepare for war, and for the execution of my sentence. Take hold on judgment i.e. of the instruments of judgment, of the weapon...

If once I begin to prepare for war, and for the execution of my sentence.

Take hold on judgment i.e. of the instruments of judgment, of the weapons of war. A metaphor from warriors that take their weapons into their hand when they intend to fight.

Poole: Deu 32:42 - Of the captives // From the beginning of revenges upon the enemy Of the captives whom my sword hath sorely wounded, though not utterly killed. From the beginning of revenges upon the enemy i.e. when once I begin ...

Of the captives whom my sword hath sorely wounded, though not utterly killed.

From the beginning of revenges upon the enemy i.e. when once I begin to revenge myself and my people upon mine and their enemies, I will go on and make a full end. Or, with the head , or with the blood of the head , i.e. of the chief or chiefs, of the revenges of the enemy, i. e. of the revengeful or malicious enemy of God and of his people. The noun substantive is oft put for the adjective; as Gen 17:5 , a multitude of nations is put for many nations , Rom 4:17 Gen 45:22 , changes of raiment , i.e. changeable raiment; and Psa 99:4 , the king’ s strength , i.e. the strong and mighty king; and so here, the revenges of the enemy , i.e. the revengeful enemy. And by the head may be here understood either the devil, or the beads and rulers of those empires which were enemies to God’ s people. Or, of the head shall be the revenges upon the enemies , i.e. I will take vengeance upon all mine enemies, yea, upon the head or heads of them.

Poole: Deu 32:43 - With his people With his people This translation is justified by St. Paul, Rom 15:10 , the particle with being oft understood, as Lev 26:42 . He calls upon the nat...

With his people This translation is justified by St. Paul, Rom 15:10 , the particle with being oft understood, as Lev 26:42 . He calls upon the nations to rejoice and bless God for his favours, and especially for the last wonderful deliverance which shall be given to the Jews when they shall be converted unto the gospel in the last days, which they have all reason to do, not only kern that duty of sympathy which they owe to all people, and especially to God’ s ancient people, whereby they are to rejoice with them that rejoice , but because of that singular advantage and happiness which all nations will have at that time, and upon that occasion. Or, Rejoice, O ye Gentiles, his people ; i.e. O you Gentiles, who once were not God’ s people, but now are his people, do you rejoice for God’ s mercies to the Jews his ancient people, bless God for their conversion and salvation.

Poole: Deu 32:44 - Hoshea Hoshea or Joshua , who is here joined with Moses in this action, because though Moses only spake the words, yet Joshua consented to them; and, it ma...

Hoshea or Joshua , who is here joined with Moses in this action, because though Moses only spake the words, yet Joshua consented to them; and, it may be, afterwards repeated them; this being not a song to be sung once for all, but a standing monument, which was written and kept for future use, Deu 31:22 , &c., and to be repeated again and again upon solemn occasions, which Joshua and other magistrates were to take care of.

Poole: Deu 32:47 - -- It is not an unprofitable or contemptible work I advise you to, but well worthy of your most serious care, oft to remember and diligently to conside...

It is not an unprofitable or contemptible work I advise you to, but well worthy of your most serious care, oft to remember and diligently to consider it.

Poole: Deu 32:49 - Nebo Nebo was a ridge or top of the mountains of Abarim. See Poole "Num 27:12" ; See Poole "Deu 3:27" .

Nebo was a ridge or top of the mountains of Abarim. See Poole "Num 27:12" ; See Poole "Deu 3:27" .

PBC: Deu 32:10 - -- Philpot: THE EAGLE AND HER YOUNG

Philpot: THE EAGLE AND HER YOUNG

PBC: Deu 32:12 - -- PB: Ps 78:17 PBtop: THE DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT A Brief Study

PB: Ps 78:17

PBtop: THE DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT A Brief Study

Haydock: Deu 32:1 - Men // Where are they? Men. Hebrew, "I said I will disperse or exterminate them." Samaritan, "my fury shall consume them." We may translate, "I had resolved to destroy...

Men. Hebrew, "I said I will disperse or exterminate them." Samaritan, "my fury shall consume them." We may translate, "I had resolved to destroy them; (Ver. 27.) But," &c., (Calmet) or Protestants, "I said I would scatter them into corners, and would....were it not that I feared the wrath of the enemy," &c. ---

Where are they? in the mouth of God, shews an utter destruction, so that no vestiges of them remain. Their memory is perished. (Haydock) ---

God sometimes defers punishing the sinner for just reasons. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:1 - Speak Speak. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Heaven attend, and I will speak." (Haydock) --- Never was there an exordium more pompous, or better adapted to the ...

Speak. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Heaven attend, and I will speak." (Haydock) ---

Never was there an exordium more pompous, or better adapted to the subject. Moses calls those who never die to witness what he asserts, as if to insinuate that these truths ought never to be forgotten. See Numbers iv. 6. Virgil (Æneid xii.) imitates this style, Esto nunc sol testis & hæc mihi terra precanti, (Calmet) which puts inthe moth of Æneas, to whom Latinus replies, Hæc eadem Ænea, terram, mare, sidera juro.

Haydock: Deu 32:2 - Gather // Drops Gather, as rain does from vapours; (Menochius) so let the sum of what I have taught you be collected into this short canticle, and penetrate your hea...

Gather, as rain does from vapours; (Menochius) so let the sum of what I have taught you be collected into this short canticle, and penetrate your hearts. (Haydock) ---

Chaldean, "may my discourse be as delightful as the rain." Septuagint, "may my apophthegm (or sententious discourse, Calmet) be expected with earnestness, like rain," when the soil is thirsty. (Haydock) ---

Preachers are compared to clouds, and their speech to rain, Isaias lx. 8., and Ecclesiasticus xxxix. 4. ---

Drops. Some explain this and the former term in the original, of "a stormy and vehement shower," while others attach this idea only to the last part of the sentence. (Calmet) ---

The lawgiver wishes to engage the hearts of his audience by mildness, though he is forced also to thunder, in order to rouse their attention, ver. 15. (Haydock) ---

Sound doctrine produces much fruit in good dispositions, as rain causeth the seed to push forth which has been sown in an excellent soil. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:3 - Invoke // Magnificence Invoke, or praise. (Vatable) --- Magnificence; admire and fear this greatness. (Calmet) --- The first duty of men is to praise God, the next to ...

Invoke, or praise. (Vatable) ---

Magnificence; admire and fear this greatness. (Calmet) ---

The first duty of men is to praise God, the next to confess their sins, ver. 5. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:4 - Right Right. You cannot complain of having been first abandoned by God. All his works and proceedings are entitled to praise. Hebrew, "This rock, ( hats...

Right. You cannot complain of having been first abandoned by God. All his works and proceedings are entitled to praise. Hebrew, "This rock, ( hatsur ) his works are perfect." (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "God, his works are true." (Haydock) ---

God is often styled a rock, to denote this strength, ver. 18., and Psalm lxii. 8.

Haydock: Deu 32:5 - Filth Filth, or idolatry. The fidelity of God is contrasted with the infidelity of his people, who deserve not to be called his children. The Septuagint,...

Filth, or idolatry. The fidelity of God is contrasted with the infidelity of his people, who deserve not to be called his children. The Septuagint, Chaldean, Syriac, and Arabic, seem to have read in a different manner from what the Hebrew does at present. (Calmet) ---

As it stands it is quite unintelligible: Corrupit, non filii ejus, macula eorum. Two letters have been carelessly inserted, and la has been placed after lu, contrary to the Samaritan text, which is perfectly clear: "They are corrupted, they are not his, but filii maculæ, children defiled." (Houbigant, prol. 75.) ---

Capellus (p. 288,) condemns the Septuagint as he follows a wrong punctuation, and translates, "they did not sin against him, reprehensible children;" whereas, it more properly signifies, "they sinned, not his, but children deserving reprehension, ( or children of blame, they did not belong or stick close to him) being a crooked and perverse generation." (Haydock) ---

Their wickedness cannot be attributed to God. He is no less powerful and holy, though they have given themselves up to the service of idols. (St. Augustine, q. 55.) (Calmet) ---

He had given them all necessary instructions and assistance; so that, finding them always prone to evil, the more favours he heaped upon them, he was on the point of exterminating all the guilty at once, ver. 26. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:6 - Possessed thee Possessed thee, as his peculiar inheritance. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "has purchased thee, made thee, and established thee." (Calmet) --- The Sept...

Possessed thee, as his peculiar inheritance. (Menochius) ---

Hebrew, "has purchased thee, made thee, and established thee." (Calmet) ---

The Septuagint render this last word like the Vulgate as they seem to have read, ibnoc. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 32:8 - Israel Israel. He suffered the people of Chanaan to occupy as much land as would be requisite for the Israelites. Septuagint, "according to the number of ...

Israel. He suffered the people of Chanaan to occupy as much land as would be requisite for the Israelites. Septuagint, "according to the number of the angels of God." Hence many of the ancients gathered that there were seventy angel guardians of provinces, and as many languages; while others did not pretend to determine the exact number. But the version which they have followed, is in opposition to all the rest. (Calmet) ---

They have also disputed, on this occasion, whether the elect will be equal in number to the good angels, as St. Gregory thinks; (hom. 34, in Luke xv.) or they will only fill up the places of those who have fallen. See Mag. Sent. ii. 9. Abenezra observes, that interpreters understand this text as alluding to the dispersion of nations, (Genesis xi.,) when God decreed that the land of the seven nations should belong to and be sufficient for the Israelites. (Amama) (Haydock) ---

The Hebrew may be rendered, "He fixed the limits of each people. At that time the children of Israel were few in number, (Ver. 9) when the Lord chose his people," &c. Long after the division of the earth, (which the Lord had ordered, Acts xvii. 26,) the Israelites were very few in number, as Jacob observes, Genesis xxxiv. 30. See chap. xxvi. 5., and Psalm civ. 9, 12. (Calmet) ---

But this explication does not satisfy Houbigant, (p. 76, Prol.) no more than that of Le Clerc. He is convinced that a word has been transposed, and another left out, as the Samaritan copy has Israel twice, and he would therefore translate, "He divided his people according to the number of the sons of Israel." In his eternal decrees, He allotted twelve portions of land in Chanaan to the descendants of Jacob, and these Josue was ordered to mark out for them. See Josue iv. 5. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:9 - Lot Lot. Hebrew literally, "the cord," in allusion to the ancient method of dividing lands with a cord. Herodotus (ii. 6,) observes, that the length of...

Lot. Hebrew literally, "the cord," in allusion to the ancient method of dividing lands with a cord. Herodotus (ii. 6,) observes, that the length of one, in the Upper Egypt, was 60 stadia, or 7700 paces, while it was only half as much in the Lower Egypt.

Haydock: Deu 32:10 - He found // Eye He found. Septuagint and Chaldean, "he gave him what was sufficient, in the desert land." God made a choice of a nation destitute of every thing, t...

He found. Septuagint and Chaldean, "he gave him what was sufficient, in the desert land." God made a choice of a nation destitute of every thing, that they might confess with gratitude that they had received all from him. (Calmet) ---

"Taught him" both by "instructions," and by various "chastisements." Septuagint, epaideusen. (Haydock) ---

The space of forty years was necessary (Calmet) to eradicate the propensity to evil, and the corrupt manners of the Hebrews, who were therefore conducted through a wilderness, where they might not be contaminated by the company of other nations, (Haydock) but might have leisure to meditate on the law of God. (Calmet) ---

Eye, with the utmost care. (Menochius) ---

He protected those whom he had chosen ou of pure mercy. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:11 - Shoulders Shoulders, as (Exodus xix. 4,) upon the wings of eagles. It is said that the eagle hovers over the nest, to encourage her young ones to fly, and w...

Shoulders, as (Exodus xix. 4,) upon the wings of eagles. It is said that the eagle hovers over the nest, to encourage her young ones to fly, and when she sees them exhausted, she takes them upon her back. This similitude shews the extreme affection of God towards his people. Hebrew and Chaldean may also be, "as an eagle makes (Calmet; or stirs up) her nest, hatches her young, spreads her wings over them, and bears them upon her wings, so the Lord alone was his leader." (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:12 - With him With him, to stand up in their defence, though the Israelites adored but too many others in the desert.

With him, to stand up in their defence, though the Israelites adored but too many others in the desert.

Haydock: Deu 32:13 - High land // Stone High land, in a place of safety, both against the enemy, and the inundations of water. The Nile renders Egypt like one continued sea for about 80 da...

High land, in a place of safety, both against the enemy, and the inundations of water. The Nile renders Egypt like one continued sea for about 80 days, in the summer season. (Calmet) ---

God had already begun to put the Israelites in possession of the fertile countries east of the Jordan, where there were several high mountains. (Haydock) ---

But when this canticle should be recited, in after ages, they would also enjoy the other regions, which had been promised unto them, on the west. Moses speaks, like a prophet, of things to come, as if they were already past. (Menochius) ---

Stone. Bees make honey in such places, and olive trees flourish on the side of a hill. Vestiges still remain of the industry with which the Jews have formerly cultivated their territory, supporting the earth with walls (Calmet) when it was in danger of falling down, or of becoming barren, for want of moisture. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:14 - Butter // Basan // Wheat // Grape Butter, or "cream," as the former article was probably not yet discovered, Genesis xviii. 8. (Calmet) --- The proofs of this assertion, from the or...

Butter, or "cream," as the former article was probably not yet discovered, Genesis xviii. 8. (Calmet) ---

The proofs of this assertion, from the original, chemath, and from the Scripture, frequently representing butter as a liquid, seem not, however, very solid. See Judges v. 25., and Proverbs xxx. 33. The Septuagint have literally, "the butter of oxen," but the latter name includes all of the species. (Haydock) ---

Basan. The Septuagint have, "the young of bulls and of he-goats;" though they generally translate "fat sheep." See St. Jerome in Isaias liii. ---

Wheat. Hebrew, "fat of the kidneys of wheat." ---

Grape. See Genesis xlix. 11. Androcides wrote to Alexander, who loved wine too much, "when thou art about to drink wine, remember, O king, that thou art drinking the blood of the earth." (Pliny, [Natural History?] xiv. 15.)

Haydock: Deu 32:15 - -- Beloved. Hebrew yeshurun, is supposed to be a diminutive of Israel, chap. xxxii. 5., and 26. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Jeshurun waxed fat, and k...

Beloved. Hebrew yeshurun, is supposed to be a diminutive of Israel, chap. xxxii. 5., and 26. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked; thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness; then he forsook God, which made him, and lightly esteemed the rock of his salvation." This sudden change of persons is not found in the Septuagint. "And Jacob eat, and was filled, and the beloved kicked; he grew fat, thick, and broad, and he abandoned God....and revolted from God his Saviour." (Haydock) ---

Temporal prosperity occasioned the revolt of the Jews against their benefactor. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:17 - Devils // Knew not // Come up Devils. Hebrew, "to the destroyers, or to those of the fields." See Leviticus xvii. 7., and Baruch iv. 7, 35. (Calmet) --- Knew not. Septuagi...

Devils. Hebrew, "to the destroyers, or to those of the fields." See Leviticus xvii. 7., and Baruch iv. 7, 35. (Calmet) ---

Knew not. Septuagint, "revered not." (Haydock) ---

Hebrew may be, "who knew them not," who had bestowed nothing upon them, chap. xxix. 26. ---

Come up. Hebrew, "of the neighbourhood;" gods whose origin they knew, (Calmet) as well as the people who had given them that title; (Haydock) gods of human invention. (Menochius) ---

Novelty allureth to the worship of idols and to heresy. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:18 - Created Created. Septuagint, "gave thee food." Hebrew, "of the rock that begat thee, thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee, (Haydock)...

Created. Septuagint, "gave thee food." Hebrew, "of the rock that begat thee, thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee, (Haydock) or praises thee," the source of thy felicity. (Calmet) ---

Calvin (Institutes i. 11. 9,) to insinuate that Catholics adore pictures, as the Israelites did the golden calf, pretends that they could not have forgotten that God delivered them out of Egypt. Thus he contradicts the Scriptures! (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:19 - Daughters Daughters. The women of Israel, who were not less addicted to idolatry than the men. (Haydock)

Daughters. The women of Israel, who were not less addicted to idolatry than the men. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:20 - From them // Consider // I will laugh at your destruction From them. The Jews themselves acknowledged, in the siege of Jerusalem, that God had abandoned and given up to destruction his once beloved people. ...

From them. The Jews themselves acknowledged, in the siege of Jerusalem, that God had abandoned and given up to destruction his once beloved people. (Josephus, Jewish Wars vii. 8.) (Calmet) ---

Consider, or look on their utter ruin with indifference, or rather with complacency. (Haydock) ---

I will laugh at your destruction, Proverbs i. 16. (Calmet) ---

God loves without seeing any preceding merit in his creatures, but he never abandons them till they have first proved unfaithful. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:21 - Vanities // Nation Vanities. Septuagint, "idols." (Haydock) --- Nation. The Gentiles were of this description, when they were called to the true faith. This excit...

Vanities. Septuagint, "idols." (Haydock) ---

Nation. The Gentiles were of this description, when they were called to the true faith. This excited the indignation of the Jews, as they would neither enter heaven themselves, nor suffer others to obtain that happiness, Romans i. 19. (Theodoret, q. 41.) "An association bound together by law, constitutes a nation. A multitude which has no laws, or bad ones, is unworthy of the name." (Grotius) ---

The Jews looked upon all others with sovereign contempt. (Calmet) ---

Now, in their turn, they are despised. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:22 - A fire A fire. He alludes to the destruction of Sodom, (Calmet) which may be considered as a figure of that which will overtake the whole world at the last...

A fire. He alludes to the destruction of Sodom, (Calmet) which may be considered as a figure of that which will overtake the whole world at the last day, and excruciate both the souls and the bodies of the reprobate in the flames of hell. (Haydock) ---

Fire also denotes war, the horrors of which overwhelmed the Jews both at the first and the last sieges of Jerusalem. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 32:23 - Arrows Arrows. Pestilence, famine, war, sickness, and death, are termed the arrows of God.

Arrows. Pestilence, famine, war, sickness, and death, are termed the arrows of God.

Haydock: Deu 32:24 - Birds // Bite // Beasts // Fury Birds. This refers in a particular manner to those who are deprived of sepulture, and hung on a gibbet, chap. xxvii. 26. Josephus (Jewish Wars vi. ...

Birds. This refers in a particular manner to those who are deprived of sepulture, and hung on a gibbet, chap. xxvii. 26. Josephus (Jewish Wars vi. 12,) informs us, that the multitude of Jews who were to be crucified, was so great, that sufficient wood could not be procured to make crosses for them, nor was there place for them to stand. Hebrew, "they shall be burnt with hunger, and devoured with burning heat;" (Haydock) or with the disease called the carbuncle. (Calmet) ---

But the Septuagint and Chaldean explain it of "birds." (Haydock) ---

Bite. Septuagint, "with a painful contraction of the nerves." Chaldean, "infested with evil spirits." ---

Beasts. Thus God forced the people of Samaria to obey his law, 4 Kings xvii. 25. ---

Fury, "venom." (Pagnin) (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 32:27 - Wrath // Mighty Wrath. The enemies of the Israelites wished nothing more than their destruction. If therefore God had gratified this desire, by punishing his peopl...

Wrath. The enemies of the Israelites wished nothing more than their destruction. If therefore God had gratified this desire, by punishing his people as they deserved, the enemy would have presently insinuated that He had not been able to drive them out, or that (Haydock) he was fickle, &c. ---

Mighty. ( excelsa; ) "lifted up." This expression shews the pride and insolence of those who make use of it, as if they despised God and all his laws. Procopius mentions this wicked inscription, to be still seen at Rome, "I lift up my hands to (or against) God, who destroyed me, though innocent, in the 20th year of my age." Pos. Procius, (Calmet) who seems to have been a woman, quæ vixi, &c. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:28 - Wisdom Wisdom. Interpreters generally explain this and the eight following verses, of those nations whom God employed to scourge his people, though some un...

Wisdom. Interpreters generally explain this and the eight following verses, of those nations whom God employed to scourge his people, though some understand it all of the Israelites. (Calmet) ---

The words may be applied to all who transgress the law of God, as this is a sure mark of folly and impiety, and the Lord earnestly wishes that all should be converted, ver. 29. True wisdom reflects on the past, present, and future, (Worthington) in order to make provision for the last great conflict. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:30 - Thousand Thousand. In the battles which the Israelites had fought, the hand of God had appeared so visibly in their defence, giving them the victory over nat...

Thousand. In the battles which the Israelites had fought, the hand of God had appeared so visibly in their defence, giving them the victory over nations much more numerous, (Calmet) that all must confess their defeat must be in punishment of some former transgression, and that it is not the mighty hand of the enemy, but God himself, who chastises his people, as he had foretold, chap. xxviii. 7, 25, 49. (Haydock) ---

Of this the neighbouring nations were convinced, as Achior declared to the Holofernes, Judith v. 17. When the Hebrews neglected the law of God they were oppressed, and their conversion was presently rewarded with liberty, (Calmet) and a profusion of blessings.

Haydock: Deu 32:31 - Judges // Video meliora proboque---Deteriora sequor Judges. The Egyptians, Amalecites, &c., had witnessed the miracles which God had now wrought for 40 years' time, in favour of his people. (Haydock)...

Judges. The Egyptians, Amalecites, &c., had witnessed the miracles which God had now wrought for 40 years' time, in favour of his people. (Haydock) ---

They knew also how the Israelites had been punished for their sins. (Menochius) ---

Though they followed a false religion themselves, they could discern the beauty of the true one. (Worthington) ---

Video meliora proboque---Deteriora sequor. (Ovid)

Haydock: Deu 32:32 - Bitter Bitter. The enemies of Israel, were of an accursed progeny. (Haydock) --- They imitated the vices of those wicked cities. Moses cautioned his peo...

Bitter. The enemies of Israel, were of an accursed progeny. (Haydock) ---

They imitated the vices of those wicked cities. Moses cautioned his people to beware of the root of bitterness, chap. xxix. 18. (Calmet) ---

If they should neglect the admonition, and become like the Chanaanites, they knew what they had to expect. (Haydock) ---

Their works being hateful to the Lord, (Menochius) he would surely punish them. The fruits which grow near the lake of Sodom, though sometimes fair to the eye, (Haydock) are full of dust, "black and empty, they fall to ashes," in cinerem vanescunt. (Tacitus v.; Josephus, Jewish Wars v. 5.) Growing on a bituminous soil, they could not but have a disagreeable taste. (Calmet) ---

The authors of the Universal History call in question what the ancients have reported concerning the fruits of Sodom. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:34 - Treasures Treasures. Whether we refer to the preceding remarks to the faithless Israelites, whose corruption was less pardonable, as they had received so many...

Treasures. Whether we refer to the preceding remarks to the faithless Israelites, whose corruption was less pardonable, as they had received so many favours from above, or to their proud and cruel enemies, who exceeded the bounds of moderation in their wars, God keeps an exact account of all, and will shortly punish both according to their deserts. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:35 - Time // That Time. Men are eager to punish their enemies, for fear lest they should escape. But God defers his chastisements frequently in this world, designing...

Time. Men are eager to punish their enemies, for fear lest they should escape. But God defers his chastisements frequently in this world, designing to make his enemies feel the weight of his indignation for all eternity. How consoling it is for the just, to think they have God for an avenger! "If thou, says Tertullian, remit the injury, which thou hast received, into his hands, he is the avenger....How much ought patience to endure, in order to make God a debtor." Adeo satisidoneus patientiæ sequester Deus. ---

That. Septuagint, "when" (Calmet) they shall fall and come to ruin. (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 32:36 - People // Servants People who have been guilty, that he may spare them, when they repent. (Menochius) --- "He will give judgment in favour of his people," &c. (Houbi...

People who have been guilty, that he may spare them, when they repent. (Menochius) ---

"He will give judgment in favour of his people," &c. (Houbigant) ---

Servants. He will not involve the innocent in the ruin of the rebellious. (Menochius) ---

But, at the same time, he will have them to be convinced that their salvation came not from themselves. He will assist them when all human aid has proved abortive, (Haydock) and when they are reduced to the utmost distress. See Isaias xxxv. 3., and 3 Kings xxi. 21. Those who may have thought themselves secure in their sins, will not escape punishment. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:38 - Wine Wine. Hence the Jews abhor the wine of Christians, whom they consider as the greatest enemies of God. The pagans were accustomed to make libations ...

Wine. Hence the Jews abhor the wine of Christians, whom they consider as the greatest enemies of God. The pagans were accustomed to make libations to their idols, even in their ordinary repasts. (Calmet) ---

The fat was always sacred to God, Leviticus iii. 17. (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 32:40 - For ever For ever. God can swear by no one greater than himself, Hebrews vi. 13.

For ever. God can swear by no one greater than himself, Hebrews vi. 13.

Haydock: Deu 32:41 - Lightning Lightning, equally terrible and penetrating: fulminis acta modo. (Virgil, Æneid ix.) (Calmet) --- Judgment, to punish with rigour my declared e...

Lightning, equally terrible and penetrating: fulminis acta modo. (Virgil, Æneid ix.) (Calmet) ---

Judgment, to punish with rigour my declared enemies. (Haydock) ---

These verses seem to regard the idolatrous nations, (Menochius) though God will not fail to punish the guilty, wherever they may be found. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 32:42 - Enemies Enemies. I will tear the crown from off their head. Chaldean, I will destroy the king, as well as the meanest captives. Protestants, "from the begi...

Enemies. I will tear the crown from off their head. Chaldean, I will destroy the king, as well as the meanest captives. Protestants, "from the beginning of revenges upon the enemy." At the very first I will completely destroy them. (Haydock) ---

I will punish them for the slaughter and captivity of my people, whom they have shaved, as a mark of their servile condition. (Menochius) ---

Their bare head, or vain counsels, will be detected and punished. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:43 - People People. Though God afflicted the Israelites for a time, he was always disposed to receive them to his favour again upon their repentance; and he wil...

People. Though God afflicted the Israelites for a time, he was always disposed to receive them to his favour again upon their repentance; and he will even receive them into his Church before the day of judgment, Romans xi. 25. (Calmet) ---

This decided predilection for them, would naturally induce other nations to praise them. Grabe's Septuagint reads, "Rejoice ye heavens with him, and let all the sons of God adore him, and let all the angels of God strengthen them, because He revengeth the blood of his sons; and he will continue to do so, and he will punish his enemies, and will render to those who hate him; and the Lord will purify the land of his people." (Haydock) ---

In some editions, after Let all the angels of God adore him, (cited [in] Hebrews i. 6.; Cappel.) they read, Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people, which St. Paul quotes, Romans xv. 10; and then they add, "And Moses wrote this canticle on that day, and he taught it to the children of Israel; (Calmet) (Ver. 44.) and Moses came forth to the people, and spoke all the words of this law, in the ears of the people, he and Jesus, the son of Nave," by which name they designate Josue, the son of Nun. (Haydock) ---

He assisted Moses in singing the canticle, as his colleague in office, to whom the obligation of withdrawing the people from idolatry would henceforth devolve. (Menochius) ---

God always preserved some of the Jews from the general corruption, till the time of the Messias. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 32:47 - Live Live. Hebrew, "it is your life." They were to cherish the law as their own lives; for their prosperity and length of days depended on their observa...

Live. Hebrew, "it is your life." They were to cherish the law as their own lives; for their prosperity and length of days depended on their observance of it.

Haydock: Deu 32:49 - Passages Passages. The author of the Vulgate has given this explication of Abarim. (Calmet)

Passages. The author of the Vulgate has given this explication of Abarim. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 32:51 - Cades Cades. Hebrew, "at the waters of Meriba-Cadesh," &c.

Cades. Hebrew, "at the waters of Meriba-Cadesh," &c.

Haydock: Deu 32:52 - Into it Into it. By repeating this reproach and judgment God excited in his servant the most lively sentiments of repentance for his fault, Numbers xx. (Ha...

Into it. By repeating this reproach and judgment God excited in his servant the most lively sentiments of repentance for his fault, Numbers xx. (Haydock) ---

Aaron had been deprived of the sight of this delightful country. If they had been labouring for its acquisition alone, the reflection must have been very cutting. But they had a better country in view, though they had greatly desired to enter into that land which was to be ennobled and purified by the birth and blood of the Son of God. (Haydock) ---

Having received the order from God in the evening, after Moses had taught his canticle to the people, he immediately set his house in order, and on the following morning he gave his last blessing to the tribes of Israel, and was attended by the chief to the foot of the mountain. (Salien)

Gill: Deu 32:1 - Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth // the words of my mouth. Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. This song is prefaced and introduced in a very grand and pompou...

Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth,

the words of my mouth. This song is prefaced and introduced in a very grand and pompous manner, calling on the heavens and earth to give attention; by which they themselves may be meant, by a "prosopopaeia", a figure frequently used in Scripture, when things of great moment and importance are spoken of; and these are called upon to hearken, either to rebuke the stupidity and inattention of men, or to show that these would shed or withhold their influences, their good things, according to the obedience or disobedience of Israel; or because these are durable and lasting, and so would ever be witnesses for God and against his people: Gaon, as Aben Ezra observes, by the heavens understands the angels, and by the earth the men of the earth, the inhabitants of both worlds, which is not amiss: and by these words of Moses are meant the words of the song, referred to in Deu 31:29; here called his words, not because they were of him, but because they were put into his mouth, and about to be expressed by him, not in his own name, but in the name of the Lord; and not as the words of the law, which came by him, but as the words and doctrines of the Gospel concerning Christ, of whom Moses here writes; whose character he gives, and whose person and office he vindicates against the Jews, whom he accuses and brings a charge of ingratitude against for rejecting him, to which our Lord seems to refer, Joh 5:45; the prophecies of their rejection, the calling of the Gentiles, the destruction of the Jews by the Romans, and the miseries they should undergo, and yet should not be wholly extirpated out of the world, but continue a people, who in the latter days would be converted, return to their own land, and their enemies be destroyed; which are some of the principal things in this song, and which make it worthy of attention and observation.

Gill: Deu 32:2 - My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew // as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew,.... Which some, as Aben Ezra, take to be a prayer or wish, that the doctrine sp...

My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew,.... Which some, as Aben Ezra, take to be a prayer or wish, that the doctrine spoken by him might fall upon men like rain and dew on the earth, penetrate into their hearts, and influence them, and produce good effects there; but the words rather seem to be a prophecy of what would be: and by his "doctrine" and "speech", which signify the same thing, is meant, not his law, which was fiery, this cooling, like rain and dew; that was like a storm, this as a gentle rain; that was terrible, this desirable; that was distressing, this refreshing, this no other than the Gospel, the speech of God, the doctrine of Christ, the doctrine of grace, and mercy through him, and of life and salvation by him: it has its name from a word, which signifies to "receive" f; for it was received from God by Moses, and by the prophets after him, by Christ himself, as Mediator, and by the apostles from him, and is worthy of the acceptation of all: this is comparable to "rain", because, like that, it comes from heaven, is the gift of God, tarries not for man, but comes without any desert of man, and often without his desire; falls by divine direction in places and on persons, as the Lord's will and pleasure is, and that in great plenty, with a fulness of spiritual blessings, and precious promises; and for its effects, it cools the conscience, filled with fiery wrath and indignation, moistens and softens the hard heart, like the dry and parched earth, refreshes and revives the drooping spirit, and makes barren souls fruitful in grace and good works: and it is like "dew", which also is from heaven, and of God, fell in the night of the world; and as that falls in a temperate air, so this, when the stormy dispensation of the law was over; and though but a small thing in the eyes of the world, is of great influence, the power of God unto salvation, very grateful and delightful, and of great moment and importance; hereby the love and favour of God is diffused, the blessings of grace dispensed, the heavenly manna communicated, and the Spirit and his graces received: and this, like rain and dew, "drops" and "distils" silently, not in a noisy manner as the law; insensibly, falling on persons at an unawares, in great abundance, like the drops of rain and dew; and effectually, working in all that believe: dew was a symbol of doctrine with the Egyptians g: this is further illustrated:

as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass: the first of those words for "rain", according to Jarchi, has the signification of a stormy wind, but that seems to contradict the gentle dropping and distilling of it; rather it signifies "hairs" h, and denotes, as our version, the smallness of the rain, being as small, thin, and light as hairs; and the latter word i has the signification of millions and thousands, there being such vast, numbers as those in a shower of rain: the "tender herb" and "grass" may denote the multitude of persons to whom the Gospel would come, and be made useful; and may describe sensible sinners, tender consciences, such as are weak in themselves, with whom it is the day of small things, are newborn babes, little children; who are just springing up in grace, as among the grass, and as willows by the water courses: now all this is said by Moses, to recommend his doctrine, as well as what follows.

Gill: Deu 32:3 - Because I will publish the name of the Lord // ascribe ye greatness unto our God Because I will publish the name of the Lord,.... Not call on his name, as some, nor call to the heaven and earth in his name, as others, but proclaim ...

Because I will publish the name of the Lord,.... Not call on his name, as some, nor call to the heaven and earth in his name, as others, but proclaim his name, even the same that was proclaimed before Moses, Exo 34:6; and this is to be understood, not of Jehovah the Father, nor of Jehovah the Spirit, but of Jehovah the Son, the rock whose work is perfect, and the rock of salvation, Deu 32:4; and not of any particular name of his, unless any of those mentioned can be thought to be intended; rather his perfections and attributes, or his Gospel, called his name, Act 9:15; though his name may signify no other than himself, who is the sum and substance of the Gospel, and who, in his person, office, grace, and salvation, is to be published and proclaimed, openly and publicly, constantly and faithfully, and his name only; for there is no other under heaven whereby man can be saved:

ascribe ye greatness unto our God; to Christ, the rock of salvation, who is truly God, our God, God in our nature, God manifest in the flesh, and who is the great God, and our Saviour, and therefore greatness is to be ascribed to him: he is great in his person and perfections; his works are great, those of creation and providence, and particularly of redemption and salvation; he is great in his offices, a great Saviour, a great High priest, a great Prophet, a great King, and the great Shepherd of the sheep: those that are called upon to give greatness to him, which is his due, are the heavens and the earth, Deu 32:1; and both have, literally and figuratively considered, bore a testimony to his greatness; the heavens, at his birth a wonderful star appeared, directing the wise men to him; at his death the sun was darkened; at his ascension the heavens were opened and received him, and still retain him; even God in heaven, by a voice from thence, bore witness of him as his beloved Son, in whom he was well pleased; also by raising him from the dead, declaring him to be the Son of God with power, and by exalting him at his right hand as a Saviour, and by the effusion of the Spirit on his apostles, to preach and spread his Gospel; the angels in heaven ascribed greatness to him, by their worship of him when he came into the world, by the declaration they made of him at his incarnation, and by the testimony they bore to his resurrection, and by their subjection to him in all things: the church below, sometimes called heaven, in the book of the Revelation, ascribe all honour, glory, and greatness to him: the earth, the whole terraqueous globe, in it have been displayed the greatness of Christ, the power and glory of his divinity; in the sea by becoming a calm at his word of command, in the rocks by being rent at his death, and will be in both by delivering up the dead in them, at the last day: the inhabitants of the earth, especially the redeemed from among men, ascribe greatness to him, by attributing daily to him all the perfections of the Godhead, and the glory of their salvation: Aben Ezra says, Moses refers to the heavens and the earth, or respects them, and compares with this Psa 19:1.

Gill: Deu 32:4 - He is the rock // his work is perfect // for all his ways are judgment // a God of truth // and without iniquity // just and right is he He is the rock,.... That is, Jehovah is the rock, whose name Moses proposed to publish; and our God, to whom the heavens and the earth are called upo...

He is the rock,.... That is, Jehovah is the rock, whose name Moses proposed to publish; and our God, to whom the heavens and the earth are called upon to ascribe greatness, even Christ the rock of salvation: here begins the song; the first word in it is very emphatic; it has a letter in it larger than usual, to denote the greatness of this Person, and to make it observable; he is "this" or "that rock" k, by way of eminence, that rock and stone of Israel, Jacob prophesied of, which was typified by the rock Moses had smitten in the wilderness, and which, no doubt, he knew, as the Apostle Paul did, that it was a type of Christ, and had taught the Israelites so to understand it; and therefore this epithet of a divine Person would not seem strange to them, and yet is that rock the unbelieving Jews would and did stumble at, and the rock of salvation they lightly esteemed and rejected; the rock of refuge for sensible sinners to flee unto for shelter and safety from the wrath and justice of God, and from every enemy; the rock the church of God and every believer are built upon, and in which they dwell; and who is the rock of ages that will endure forever, as the Saviour of his people, and the foundation of their faith and hope:

his work is perfect; not so much the work of creation or of providence, which are both the works of Christ, but that of redemption and salvation, in which there is not only a display of all the divine perfections, but is complete in all its parts; the law is perfectly fulfilled, justice is fully satisfied, a perfect righteousness is wrought out, a complete pardon is procured, perfect peace is made, full atonement of sins obtained, and the whole work is finished; and is so perfect that nothing is wanting in it, or can be added to it, nor can it be unravelled or undone again: likewise the work of building the church on this rock is carrying on, and will be perfected when all the elect of God, all given to Christ and redeemed by his blood, shall be called by grace and gathered in; when the last of the chosen ones, and redeemed of the Lamb, is brought in and laid in the building; when Christ shall deliver up the kingdom to the Father complete, and God shall be all in all, and his church and people will be in a perfect state to all eternity:

for all his ways are judgment; his ways, which he himself has taken and walked in; his ways of providence are according to the best judgment and highest wisdom, and according to the strictest justice and equity; his ways of grace towards the salvation of his people, and the building up his church on himself, the rock; all the methods he took in eternity and time were all formed according to the counsel of God, and planned with the greatest wisdom, founded in his righteous nature, and according to covenant compact with his Father, and entered into in the most honourable manner; and in which he brought about the salvation of his people, in perfect consistence with the justice and holiness of God, and to the honour of them and his holy law: and he has executed all his offices of prophet, priest, and King, in the most just and righteous manner: the ways which he has prescribed his people to walk in, and in which he leads them, are ways of truth, righteousness, and holiness; such are all his ordinances and commandments:

a God of truth; so Christ is called; see Gill on Isa 65:16; or the true God, which also is his name, 1Jo 5:20; and is so called in opposition to fictitious deities, and such who are only so by name or office, but not by nature; whereas he is truly and properly God, as appears from his names and nature, from his perfections, works, and worship, ascribed to him: or "God the truth" l, for he is "the truth", Joh 14:6; the truth of all types, promises, and prophecies, which all have their accomplishment in him; the sum and substance of all truths and doctrines, from whom they all come, and in whom they all centre: or "the God of faith" or "faithfulness" m; the object of faith, and the author and finisher of it; and who is faithful, as the God-man and Mediator, to him that appointed him, being intrusted with all the elect of God, with all promises and blessings of grace for them, with the fulness of grace to communicate unto them, with the glory of God in their salvation, and with their future and final happiness; and is faithful in the discharge of his offices of prophet, priest, and King:

and without iniquity; in his nature, in his heart, in his lips, and in his life; nor was ever any committed by him:

just and right is he; just, both as a divine Person, and as man and Mediator; a lover and doer of righteousness, a worker out of righteousness for his people, and the justifier of them by it; just and righteous, as the, servant of God, as King of saints, and Judge of the whole world; "right" or "upright", which is the character of a divine Person, agrees with Christ, and may denote his sincerity, uprightness, and faithfulness.

Gill: Deu 32:5 - They have corrupted themselves // their spot is not the spot of his children // they are a perverse and crooked generation They have corrupted themselves,.... This and what follows may seem to be the characters of the enemies of Christ, who lightly esteemed and rejected hi...

They have corrupted themselves,.... This and what follows may seem to be the characters of the enemies of Christ, who lightly esteemed and rejected him, set in a contrast with him; who were not only corrupt by nature, as all men are, but were men of corrupt minds in their tenets and principles; who corrupted the word of God by their traditions, in the times of Christ; and were men of corrupt practices themselves, and corrupters of others:

their spot is not the spot of his children; of the children of the divine Person before described; Christ the rock has "children" given him by his Father, in whose adoption he has a concern, and by whose Spirit they are regenerated: these have their "spots"; by which are meant sins, and by those men are stained and polluted; so called in allusion to the spots of animals, as leopards; or to spots in faces and garments, through dirt and the like: by nature they are as others, and while in an unregenerate estate, and indeed after conversion; though they are washed from their sins by the blood of Christ, and are justified by his righteousness, and so without spot, yet in themselves they are not without spots or sins, as their confessions and complaints, and all experience testify: but the spots or sins of wicked men are not like theirs; the children of Christ sin through infirmity of the flesh, and the force of temptation, but wicked men through the malignity of their hearts, willingly and purposely; what good men do of this kind they hate, but what Christless and graceless sinners do they love; saints do not continue in sin, but ungodly men do, and proceed to more ungodliness, and wax worse and worse; gracious souls when they sin, are sorry for it, repent of it, are melted for it, and take shame to themselves on account of it; but unconverted men repent not of their wickedness, are hardened in it, and glory of it; see the character of the Jews in Christ's time, to which this song refers, Joh 8:44; though these clauses may be rendered to another sense, more agreeably to the context, and to the Hebrew accents, as they are by some; "is there any corruption in him? no" n, that is, is there any corruption in the illustrious Person before described, as without iniquity, just, and right? no, none at all in his nature, divine or human; not in his divine nature, being the incorruptible God; nor in his human nature, which is entirely free from that corruption by sin, common to all that des, tend from Adam by natural generation, he being conceived under the power of the Holy Ghost; nor any in his life and conversation, being perfectly agreeable to the pure and holy law of God; nor any in his doctrines, however they may be charged by ignorant and malicious men, a proof of which follows: or "his children are their spot" o; so the clause may be rendered; the spots of the Jewish nation, the most wicked and vilest among them, became his children; not only the lowest and meanest of them, as to civil and worldly things, but the more ignorant and the more wicked, even publicans and harlots; these, and not the righteous, he came to call and save, and did receive; these were regenerated by his grace, and they believed in him; and to them gave he power to become his children: but then did they remain the wicked persons they had been? no, they were made new creatures, they were internally sanctified, and lived holy lives and conversations; a clear proof this, that there was no corruption in Christ, nor in his doctrine, and that he neither by his tenets nor example encouraged sin, but all the reverse; Wisdom is justified of her children, Mat 11:19; but then the rest, and the far greater part of the Jewish nation, in his time, have their character truly drawn, as follows:

they are a perverse and crooked generation; men of perverse and crooked natures, tempers, dispositions, ways, and works; who walked contrary to the will and law of God, and were indeed contrary to all men, 1Th 2:15; this is the very character that is given of them, Mat 17:17.

Gill: Deu 32:6 - Do you thus requite the Lord, O foolish people and unwise // is not he thy Father, that hath bought thee? hath he not made thee // and established thee Do you thus requite the Lord, O foolish people and unwise,.... This is also a proper character of the Jews in the times of Christ, who are often by hi...

Do you thus requite the Lord, O foolish people and unwise,.... This is also a proper character of the Jews in the times of Christ, who are often by him called "fools", Mat 23:17; being very ignorant of the Scriptures, and of the prophecies in them respecting him, setting up their own traditions on a level with the word of God, or above it; they were ignorant of the law of God, and the meaning of it; of the righteousness of God, of the righteousness of his nature, and of what the law required, as well as of the righteousness of Christ, and of him as a spiritual Redeemer, and of salvation by him; and a most egregious instance of their folly, and of want of wisdom, was their ingratitude to him, in disesteeming and rejecting him; which is what is here referred to and meant by ill-requiting him, though not expressed till Deu 32:15; and a most sad requital of him it was indeed, that he should come to them, his own, in so kind and gracious a manner, and yet be rejected by them; that he should become man, and yet for that reason be charged with blasphemy, for making himself God; horrid ingratitude, to infer the one from the other! and because he appeared as a servant, disowned him as the Son of God; and because he came in the likeness of sinful flesh to take away sin, they traduced him as a sinner:

is not he thy Father, that hath bought thee? hath he not made thee,

and established thee? Moses, in order to aggravate this their ingratitude, rehearses the various instances of divine goodness to them, from the beginning of them as nation; it was the Lord that was the founder of them as a nation, whose Son, when sent unto them, was rejected by them; it was he that bought them, or redeemed them from Egyptian bondage, that made or formed them into a body politic, or civil commonwealth, that established and settled them in the land of Canaan: this is expressed in general terms; particular instances of the goodness of God to them are after enumerated: or if this is to be understood of Christ himself, who was rejected by them, it is true of some among them, in a spiritual and evangelic sense, and so, by a figure, the whole is put for a part, as sometimes the part is for the whole: Christ, the everlasting Father of the world to come, had many children in the Jewish nation, for whose sake he became incarnate, and whom he came to seek and to save; and whom he "bought" with his precious blood, and whom, by his Spirit and grace, he "made" new creatures, the children of God, kings and priests unto God; and "established" them in the faith of him, and upon him, the sure foundation; or whom he fashioned, beautified, and adorned with his righteousness, and with the graces of his Spirit.

Gill: Deu 32:7 - Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations // ask thy father, and he will show thee // thy elders, and they will tell thee Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations,.... That went before the times of Christ, and the Jews' rejection of him, and observ...

Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations,.... That went before the times of Christ, and the Jews' rejection of him, and observe the instances of divine goodness to them; as in the time of the Maccabees, whom God raised up as deliverers of them, when oppressed by the Syrians and others; and in the time of the Babylonish captivity, how they were delivered out of it; in the times of David and Solomon, when they enjoyed great prosperity; and in the times of the judges, by whom they were often saved out of the hands of their enemies; and in the times of Moses and Joshua, how they were led, by the one out of Egypt and through the wilderness, and by the other into the land of Canaan; and thus might they be led on higher, to the provision and reservation of the good land for them in the times of Noah and his sons, which they are referred to in Deu 32:8, and in all these times, days, years, and generations, they might consider what notices were given of the Messiah, the rock of salvation, rejected by them; not only by the prophets since the captivity of Babylon and in it; but before it by Isaiah and others, and before them by David, and Solomon his son, by Moses and by all the prophets, from the beginning of the world; all which would serve to aggravate their sin in refusing him: Jarchi's note on the passage is,""remember"--"consider"--to know what is to come; for it is in his hand (or power) to do you good, and cause you to inherit the days of the Messiah, and the world to come:"

ask thy father, and he will show thee; either their immediate parents, father for fathers, or such as were their seniors, or rather Abraham, their father, is meant; whom they might inquire of, not by personal application to him, but by consulting the writings of Moses, and observe what is there related of him; how he was called out of Chaldea to go into the land of Canaan, his seed was after to inherit; and how he had an express grant of that land to his posterity, and where they might be shown and see the prophecy delivered to him of their being in Egypt, and coming out from thence; and what he knew of the Messiah, whose day he saw, and rejoiced at, now rejected by them his offspring:

thy elders, and they will tell thee; not their present elders who rejected the Messiah, but those in ages past; the elders of Israel, who saw the glory of the God of Israel, and were present at the covenant made at Horeb, Exo 24:9; or rather the sons of Noah, by whom the earth was divided, to which Deu 32:8 refers; or the ancient writers, the writers of the Scriptures: Jarchi, by "father", understands the prophets, and by "elders", the wise men: the Targum of Jonathan is,"read in the books of the law and they will teach you, and in the books of the prophets and they will tell you.''

Gill: Deu 32:8 - When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance // when he separated the sons of Adam // he set the bounds of the people // according to the number of the children of Israel When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance,.... In the times of Noah and his sons, in the days of Peleg, who had his name (that is "D...

When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance,.... In the times of Noah and his sons, in the days of Peleg, who had his name (that is "Division") from thence, Gen 10:25; "the Most High" is a well known and proper, epithet of God; the dividing of the earth to the several nations of it, and giving to everyone their part and portion to possess and inherit, was the work of God; for though it was done by the sons of Noah, yet by the order, appointment, and direction of the Most High, who rules in heaven and in earth, Gen 10:32; men might not and did not take what they pleased, or seize on as much as they could, but each had their parcel allotted and portioned out to them, by the Lord himself; so the Targum of Jonathan."when by lot the Most High divided the world to the people that sprung from the sons of Noah:"

when he separated the sons of Adam; one from another; distinguished by the persons from whom they descended, by the tribes and nations to which they belonged, and by the countries they inhabited; for though they descended from Noah and his sons, they were the sons of Adam, the first man: or rather "the children of men", as the wicked of that generation were called, in distinction from the sons of God, or his people and worshippers; and may have respect to the separation of them at Babel, where their languages were confounded, and they were scattered about, and some went into one part of the world, and some into another, according to the appointment and direction of divine Providence; so the builders of Babel are called, and this was what befell them, Gen 11:5; which sense the above Targum confirms,"when he separated the writings, the languages of the children of men in the generation of the division:''

he set the bounds of the people; or nations, the seven nations of the land of Canaan; he pitched upon and fixed the land they should inherit, and settled the bounds of it, how far it should reach, east, west, north and south:

according to the number of the children of Israel: the sense is, that such a country was measured out and bounded, as would be sufficient to hold the twelve tribes of Israel, when numerous, and their time was come to inhabit it; and which, in the mean while was put into the hands of Canaan and his eleven sons to possess; not as their proper inheritance, but as tenants at will, until the proper heirs existed, and were at an age, and of a sufficient number to inherit; in which may be observed the wise disposition of divine Providence, to put it into the hands of a people cursed of God, so that to take it from them at any time could not have the appearance of any injustice in it; and their enjoying it so long as they did was a mercy to them, for so long they had a reprieve: now here was an early instance of the goodness of God to Israel, that he should make such an early provision of the land flowing with milk and honey for them, even before they were in being, yea, before their ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, existed; as early as the days of Noah; and yet, ungrateful as they were despised and set at nought his Son, the rock of salvation, when sent unto them: thus the heavenly inheritance, typified by the land of Canaan, was not only promised, but prepared, provided, secured, and reserved for the spiritual Israel of God, before the foundation of the world, from all eternity, and which is appointed according to their number; there is room enough in it for them all, though they are many; in it are many mansions for the many sons to be brought to glory.

Gill: Deu 32:9 - For the Lord's portion is his people, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. For the Lord's portion is his people, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. This is the reason why the Lord so early provided a portion or inheritanc...

For the Lord's portion is his people, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. This is the reason why the Lord so early provided a portion or inheritance for the children of Israel in the land of Canaan; because they were his part, his portion, his inheritance, which he chose by lot for himself, or allotted to himself; whom he chose to be his special and peculiar people; for though all the world is his, he only reserved a part for himself, which he separated from all the rest, and considers as his portion and inheritance, see Psa 33:12; thus the spiritual Israel of God, as they are his people, whom he has chosen, taken into covenant, given to Christ, and are redeemed and saved by him; they are his part or portion, separated by distinguishing grace from the rest of the world; and are the inheritance of Christ, who is appointed heir of all things, and is an unalienable inheritance; and is obtained by lot, or rather is measured out by a rod or line; by the line of electing grace, by which the church and people of God are circumscribed, marked out, and distinguished from others; and by the line and rule of the sacred Scriptures, which are the measure and standard of faith and practice, of worship and discipline to them.

Gill: Deu 32:10 - He found him in a desert land, and in the waste howling wilderness // he led him about // he instructed him // he kept him as the apple of his eye He found him in a desert land, and in the waste howling wilderness,.... In Deu 32:10 instances are given of the goodness of God to the people of Israe...

He found him in a desert land, and in the waste howling wilderness,.... In Deu 32:10 instances are given of the goodness of God to the people of Israel, when in the wilderness; by which is meant, either "the wilderness of the land of Egypt", as it is called, Eze 20:36; where they were in a most miserable and forlorn condition, in which the Lord found them, and out of which he brought them; or rather the desert of Arabia, a waste place, where no provisions could be had; a howling wilderness, through the blowing of the winds, the cries of wild creatures, as dragons, owls, ostriches, and the like, as the Targum of Jonathan, Jarchi, and Aben Ezra, and the howling of passengers lost, or for want of provisions; here the Lord found them, and they were as acceptable to him as grapes to a traveller in a wilderness; see Gill on Hos 9:10, this is an emblem of the world, in which the spiritual Israel are, when called by grace out of it; or of an unregenerate state, in which they are found, and out of which they are brought: the phrase sometimes signifies sufficing, or finding with everything sufficient; see Num 11:22; so Onkelos renders it here; which is true of the Lord's dealing with this people; he supplied them with manna, the corn of heaven, angels' food, and with water out of the rock, and flesh to eat in fulness, yea, with raiment as well as food; with everything convenient for them: so the Lord does for his spiritual Israel, feeding them with his word and ordinances, clothing them with the righteousness of his Son, giving them fresh supplies of grace, and withholding no good thing from them; so that they have enough, having all things richly to enjoy:

he led him about; when he brought the people of Israel out of Egypt, he did not lead them the nearest way to the land of Canaan, through the the land of the Philistines, but he led them about the way of the wilderness of the Red sea; and when they were come to the borders of the land, because of their murmurings, and disobedience, they were ordered back into the wilderness again; nor were they suffered to go through the land of Edom when on the confines of it, which would have been a shorter way; but they were obliged to go round that land, which was very discouraging to them, see Exo 13:17; and thus the Lord, though he could if he would, bring his people at once to heaven; he could sanctify them at once, as well as justify them; he could take them the moment he regenerates them into his kingdom, as the thief on the cross; yet this is not his usual way: though he calls them out from among the men of the world, he continues them in it, having something for them to do or suffer for his name's sake; he indeed leads them soon into the right and plain way of salvation, and not in a roundabout way of duties; yet he leads them in many roundabout ways in Providence, which are all right, though sometimes rough; they seem at times to be near to heaven, and then they are turned into the world again; nay, the Apostle Paul was in heaven, and yet sent into the wilderness of the Gentiles again, for the good of souls and the interest of a Redeemer; however, they all at last come safe to heaven and happiness: the words may be rendered, "he surrounded" or "compassed him about" p, and the rather, since leading them about seems to be by way of resentment or punishment, whereas Moses is enumerating instances of goodness and kindness, as this was one; he covered them with the clouds of glory, so the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem, Jarchi and Aben Ezra: he protected them with his power and providence, and preserved them from serpents and scorpions, and the wild beasts of the wilderness, as well as from all their enemies: and the Lord surrounds his spiritual Israel with angels, who encamp about them; with himself, who is a wall of fire round about them; with his power, in which they are kept as in a garrison; and with his love, which encompasses them as a shield:

he instructed him; he taught him the law, as the Targum of Jonathan; so Jarchi and Aben Ezra; or the decalogue, as the Jerusalem Targum; he instructed him in the knowledge of the true God and his worship; in the knowledge of the Messiah, and of his righteousness, and salvation by him; for he instructed him by his good Spirit, Neh 9:20; so the Lord instructs his spiritual Israel, by his Spirit, his ministers, his word and ordinances, in the knowledge of themselves, and of himself in Christ, and of Christ and the way of life by him; and this being joined with the Lord's leading about his people, may suggest that he instructs them by adverse dispensations of Providence: the word q signifies causing to understand; and God only can teach and instruct in such sense as to give men an understanding of the things they are taught and instructed in:

he kept him as the apple of his eye; in the most careful and tender manner: the apple of the eye is an aperture in it, which lets in rays of light into the "retina" or chamber where the images of things are formed; this is wonderfully guarded in nature, for, besides the orbit of the eye, which is strong and bony, and the eyelids, which in sleep are closed, to prevent anything falling into the eye to disturb it; and the eyebrows, which are fringed with hair to break off the rays of light, which sometimes would be too strong for it; besides all these, there are no less than six tunics or coats to keep and preserve it: and in like manner did the Lord keep and guard Israel, while passing through the wilderness, from fiery serpents, scorpions, and the nations, that none might hurt, as Jarchi; and especially thus he keeps his spiritual Israel, who are parts of himself, one with him, near and dear to him; and about whom he sets guard upon guard, employs all his perfections to secure them, and constantly watches over them night and day, and keeps them from all evil and every enemy, and preserves them safe to his kingdom and glory.

Gill: Deu 32:11 - As an eagle stirreth up her nest // fluttereth over her young // spreadeth abroad her wings taketh them, beareth them on her wings As an eagle stirreth up her nest,.... Her young ones in it, to get them out of it: Jarchi says the eagle is merciful to its young, and does not go int...

As an eagle stirreth up her nest,.... Her young ones in it, to get them out of it: Jarchi says the eagle is merciful to its young, and does not go into its nest suddenly, but first makes a noise, and disturbs them with her wings, striking them against a tree or its branches, that so they being awakened may be fitter to receive her: with respect to literal Israel, Egypt was their nest, where they were who were then in their infant state, lay like young birds in a nest; and though it was a filthy one and where they were confined, yet they seemed sometimes as if they did not care to come out of it; until the Lord made use of means to get them out, by the ministry of Moses and Aaron, by suffering their taskmasters to make their bondage heavier, and by judgments inflicted on the Egyptians, which made them urgent upon them to depart: with respect to spiritual Israel, their nest is a state of unregeneracy, in which they are at ease, and do not care to be awakened and stirred out of it; but the Lord, in love to them, awakens them, stirs them up, and gets them out, by sending his ministers to arouse them, by letting in the law into their consciences, which works a sense of wrath, by convincing them by his Spirit of their sin and danger, opening their eyes to see their wretched and miserable estate and condition, and by exerting his almighty power, plucking them as brands out of the burning:

fluttereth over her young; by that means to get them out of the nest, and teach them to fly, as well as to preserve them from the attempts of any to take them away; for though some writers represent the eagle as hardhearted to its young, casting them out of the nest, when they are taken care of by the offifrage; yet this is to be understood of it when tired with nursing, and when its young are capable of taking care of themselves; or of some sort of eagles; for Aelianus r testifies, that of all animals the eagle is most affectionate to its young, and most studiously careful of them; when it sees anyone coming to them, it will not suffer them to go away unpunished, but will beat them with its wings and tear them with its nails: Jarchi thinks this phrase is expressive of the manner of its incubation on its young; it does not, he says, lie heavy upon them, but lifts up herself, and touches them as if she did not touch them; but it rather signifies the motion she makes with her wings to get her young, when fledged, out of the nest, and to teach them to make use of their wings, as she does; and we are told that young eagles, when their wings are weak, will fly about their dams and learn of them to fly s; and hence it is that young eagles while they are eating flutter their wings, that motion being so natural to them, and seeing their dams do so likewise t: this passage seems to contradict a notion that has obtained with some, that an eagle only breeds one at a time; the philosopher says u, the eagle lays three eggs and casts out two of them; according to the verse of Musaeus, it lays three, casts out two, and brings up one; and so, he says, it commonly is the case: but sometimes three young ones are seen together; and the black eagles are more kind to their young, and careful in the nourishment of them; and the same says Pliny w; yea we are told, that sometimes seven are seen in a nest x:

spreadeth abroad her wings taketh them, beareth them on her wings; that is, spreads forth her wings when she flutters over her young to instruct them; or she does this in order to take up her young and carry them on them: it is said that eagles fly round their nest, and vary the flights for the instruction of their young; and afterwards taking them on their backs, they soar with them aloft, in order to try their strength, shaking them off into the air: and if they perceive them too weak to sustain themselves, they with surprising dexterity fly under them again, and receive them on their wings to prevent their fall y; See Gill on Exo 19:4; thus the Lord, comparable to this creature for his affection to the people of Israel, his care of them, and his strength to bear and carry them, did bear them as on eagles' wings, and carried and saved them all the days of old; even Christ, the Angel of Jehovah's presence, the rock of salvation they rejected, see Exo 19:4; and all this in a spiritual and evangelic sense may be expressive of the gracious dealings of God with his spiritual Israel; teaching and enabling them to mount up with wings as eagles, to soar aloft in the exercise of faith, hope, and love, entering thereby within the vail into the holiest of all, and living in the constant and comfortable expectation of heaven and happiness; and of the Lord's taking his people up from the low estate in which they are, and raising them up to near communion with himself, bearing them on his heart, in his hands, and on his arm, supporting them under all their afflictions, and carrying them, through all their troubles and difficulties, safe to eternal glory and happiness.

Gill: Deu 32:12 - So the Lord alone did lead him // and there was no strange god with him So the Lord alone did lead him,.... Out of Egypt, through the wilderness, to the land of Canaan, going before them in a pillar of fire and cloud; tho...

So the Lord alone did lead him,.... Out of Egypt, through the wilderness, to the land of Canaan, going before them in a pillar of fire and cloud; though this is not to be understood to the exclusion of the ministry of Moses and Aaron, by whom he led them, Psa 77:20; it may be interpreted of the people being alone in the wilderness when led:

and there was no strange god with him; with Israel; so Aben Ezra, no idolatry among them then; to which sense are the Targums of Jerusalem and Jonathan; but it may rather signify that the Lord alone was the leader of his people, and he had no assistant in that work, and therefore all the glory should be given to him: he is the leader of his people, in a spiritual sense, out of a state of unregeneracy, which is a state of darkness and bondage; out of the ways of sin, and from the pastures of their own righteousness, into an open state of grace, which is a state of light and liberty; in Christ the way, and in the paths of faith, truth, holiness, and righteousness, unto the heavenly glory, typified by the land of Canaan, the blessings of which are next described: the Jews say z, this will be in the days of the King Messiah; when there will be no abominable thing in Israel, the Lord alone shall lead him.

Gill: Deu 32:13 - He made him to ride on the high places of the earth // that he might eat the increase of the fields // and he made him to suck honey out of the rock // and oil out of the flinty rock He made him to ride on the high places of the earth,.... Or land, the land of Canaan; by which are meant the towers, castles, and fortified places in ...

He made him to ride on the high places of the earth,.... Or land, the land of Canaan; by which are meant the towers, castles, and fortified places in it, some of which might be built on hills and mountains; and being made to ride on them may denote the delivery of them into their hands, their conquests and possession of them, and triumph in them; see Isa 58:14; so the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases, it,"made him to dwell in the towers of the land of Israel,''those high walled and strongly fenced cities which they dreaded; this may be an emblem of the conquest believers have of their spiritual enemies, sin. Satan, and the world, in and through Christ; of their safety and triumph in him; of their high and elevated frames of soul, when they have got above the world and the things of it; this will be the case of spiritual Israel in every sense in the latter day, when the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established on the top of the mountains:

that he might eat the increase of the fields: the produce of them, particularly corn for bread, and which the Israelites ate of as soon as they came into the land of Canaan, Jos 5:11; an emblem of the Gospel, and the truths of it, which are salutary, nourishing, strengthening, reviving, and cheering, and of Christ the bread of life, which believers by faith eat of, and feed upon and live:

and he made him to suck honey out of the rock; not water out of the rock, as sweet to them as honey, that they had in the wilderness; but either the honey of bees that made their nests in rocks, as a swarm of them did in the carcass of a lion; and so in like manner as honey came out of the lion, it may be said to be sucked out of the rock: so Homer a speaks of swarms of bees out of a hollow rock: or this was the honey of palm trees, as Aben Ezra observes, some say, which might grow on rocks; see Gill on Deu 8:8; and this is favoured by the Targum of Jonathan, which paraphrases the words,"honey from those fruits which grow on the rocks,''unless it means honey gathered by bees from such fruits; the rock may typify Christ, and the honey out of it the Gospel, which is from him and concerning him; comparable to honey for the manner of its production and gathering, by the laborious ministers of the word; for its nourishment, and especially for its sweetness, its precious promises, and pleasant doctrines:

and oil out of the flinty rock; that is, oil out of the olives, which grow on rocks, and these delight to grow on hills and mountains; hence we read of the mount of Olives, see Job 29:6; and so the Targum of Jonathan,"and oil out of the olives and suckers which grow on the strong rocks;''this may signify the Spirit and his graces, the unction which comes from Christ the Holy One, and the blessings of grace had from him, and the Gospel and its truths; which are cheering and refreshing, mollifying and healing, feeding and fattening, pure and unmixed, and useful for light, as oil is.

Gill: Deu 32:14 - Butter of kine // and milk of sheep // with fat of lambs // and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats // with the fat of kidneys of wheat // and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape Butter of kine,.... Made of milk, which kine or cows give; Jarchi says, this is the fat that is gathered on the top of milk, he means cream, and which...

Butter of kine,.... Made of milk, which kine or cows give; Jarchi says, this is the fat that is gathered on the top of milk, he means cream, and which indeed was the butter of the ancients, and is here meant:

and milk of sheep: which they give, though not in such plenty as the kine, yet what is very wholesome and nourishing: the philosopher b observes, that sheep give more milk in proportion to the size of their bodies than cows: and Pliny c says their milk is sweeter and more nourishing, and the butter made of it is the fattest:

with fat of lambs; or fat lambs, rich and delicious food:

and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats; a fruitful country abounding with pasturage, where rams and goats of the best sort were and the breed of them was coveted and had in the land of Canaan; the kine of Bashan are mentioned elsewhere, Psa 22:12,

with the fat of kidneys of wheat: that is, the best wheat, the grains are plump and full; and Aben Ezra observes, that a grain of wheat has some likeness to a kidney, see Psa 81:16,

and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape; wine which comes from the grape, red wine, pure and unmixed, see Gen 40:11; the land of Canaan was a land of vines, and abounded with good wine, Deu 8:8; which the Israelites, when they came into it, drank of in common, who had only drank water in the wilderness, and had but little flesh, and lived on manna, and now abounded with plenty of all good things; all which are observed as instances of divine goodness, and to aggravate their ingratitude in rejecting the Messiah, they then enjoying all these good things, the land being alike fertile and affluent then, as appears from Isa 7:14; Jarchi applies this fruitfulness to the times of Solomon, as the butter of kine, and the kidneys of wheat, 1Ki 4:22; and fat of lambs, and the blood of the grape, to the times of the ten tribes, Amo 6:4; but this was the constant fertility of the land, and lasted to the times of the Messiah: now all these may be expressive of the blessings of grace, and the spiritual food of the Gospel: Ainsworth very prettily remarks, that here is both food for babes and for grown persons, butter and milk for the one, and meat for the other, and drink for them both: the plain truths of the Gospel are like butter, soft and easy to be taken in, and like milk, easy of digestion, cooling, nourishing, sweet, and pleasant; the more sublime truths of the Gospel are meat for strong men, signified by the flesh of fat lambs, rams, and goats; which all being used in sacrifices were typical of Christ; as also the finest of wheat is an emblem of him the bread of life, on whom the weakest believer lives by faith; and the drink for both, the wine the blood of the grape, may signify the love of Christ, the Gospel and the truths of it, and the blessings of grace, which come through the everlasting covenant.

Gill: Deu 32:15 - But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked // thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness // then he forsook God which made him // and lightly esteemed the rock of his salvation But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked,.... This is undoubtedly a name of the people of Israel; it is to be met with only in three places more, in Deu 33:...

But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked,.... This is undoubtedly a name of the people of Israel; it is to be met with only in three places more, in Deu 33:5; it is generally thought to come from a word d which signifies upright and righteous, such these people ought to have been, and some among them were; and they generally professed themselves, and outwardly appeared to be upright, just, and righteous persons, and were desirous of being reckoned so; which was their character in the times of Christ, when they rejected him: others derive it from a word e which signifies to behold, to see, and so describes them as seeing ones; and such they had been in the times of Moses, saw extraordinary sights and wonders in Egypt, the great salvation at the Red sea, the Lord going before them in a pillar of cloud and life; the manna every day falling about their tents; twice rocks smitten, and waters flowing from them, and had often very uncommon sights of the glory of God: and in the times of Christ, to which this song refers, they saw him in the flesh, preaching in their synagogues, doing miracles, riding on an ass to Jerusalem, according to one of their prophecies, and expiring on the cross, and yet rejected him. They are said to "wax fat", enjoy great outward prosperity, to abound in temporal good things, as they also did in spiritual, privileges; enjoying, or they might have enjoyed, such a ministry of the word, as never was before or since, the ministry of John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ, of Christ himself, and of his apostles, yet they "kicked"; which may denote their disobedience to the laws of God, moral and ceremonial, see 1Sa 2:29; and particularly the introduction of idolatry among them, which was kicking against God, and his worship; first among the ten tribes, in the times of Jeroboam, and among the two tribes, more especially in the times of Manasseh; and this kicking was particularly verified in Judas's lifting up his heel against Christ, and betraying him; which was not merely the sin of him only, but what the whole body of the people were involved in, see Psa 41:9,

thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness; which is repeated and expressed by different words, both for the certainty of it, and to denote their great affluence of good things, and so the more to aggravate their impiety and ingratitude, next observed:

then he forsook God which made him; the worship of God, as the Targum of Jonathan, giving into idolatry in times past; and the written word of God, by giving heed to the traditions of the elders, to the making void and of none effect the word of God; or Christ, the essential Word of God; so the Targum of Jonathan,"and left the Word of God, who created them;''that Word of God which was in the beginning of all things, and by whom all things were made, and they also; who in the fulness of time was made flesh, and dwelt among men, Joh 1:1,

and lightly esteemed the rock of his salvation; the same divine Person, described in Deu 32:4; and there called "the Rock"; see Gill on Deu 32:4; here "the rock of salvation"; because salvation flows from him: he is the author of it, and it is to be had of him, and no other; and this epithet shows not only his ability and strength to effect it, but the security of it in him, which being wrought out is an everlasting one. He is said to be the rock of "his" salvation, Jeshurun or Israel, he being of the Jews, raised up among them, and sent unto them, and was the Saviour of some of them actually, even of the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and on account of his salvation deserving of universal esteem. But the Jews "lightly esteemed" him, had no value for him, set this rock and stone at nought; he was refused and rejected by the builders, who is now the head of the corner; they despised him, mocked at him, and treated him with the utmost contempt and disdain, yea, with abhorrence; all which, and more, is signified by the word here used: they traduced him as a vile and wicked person, and charged and, treated him as such, so some render the word f; and, as others g, they made a dead carcass of him, they crucified and slew him; this is the crime of ingratitude hinted at in Deu 32:6; and all between is an enumeration of instances of divine goodness to this people, mentioned with a view to aggravate this unheard of sin.

Gill: Deu 32:16 - They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods // with abominations provoked they him to anger They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods,.... Or "with others" h; the word "gods" is not in the text, nor were the Jews guilty of worshipping ...

They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods,.... Or "with others" h; the word "gods" is not in the text, nor were the Jews guilty of worshipping strange gods or idols in the times of Christ, nor had they been from the time of their coming out of the Babylonish captivity; but the word, as Cocceius observes, is used for "another", as in Job 19:27; and signifies other saviours, other messiahs, whom the Jews set up when they rejected Christ, the rock of salvation; and it is observable, that before the coming of Christ, they never attempted to set up any; but, after they had rejected him, were ready to embrace everyone that offered, of which one, called Bar Cochab, the son of a star, in allusion to Num 24:17; is a flagrant instance; and whom, when they found themselves deceived, they called Bar Cozba, the son of a lie, or a lying fellow; to whom our Lord may be thought to have respect, Joh 5:43; and where he expressly calls him another. Now, not only to reject Jesus, the true Messiah, but to set up others in his room, false Christs, was highly provoking to God, who is a jealous God, and will not give his glory to another:

with abominations provoked they him to anger; by advancing the traditions of the elders to an equality with, and above the word of God; and by continuing sacrifices, after the great sacrifice was offered up, when they ought to have ceased; for, by continuing them, it was saying Christ was not come in the flesh, nor his sacrifice offered up; it was trampling under foot the Son of God, and treating his blood and sacrifice with contempt; which must be an abomination to God, and highly provoking of his anger, when that sacrifice was of a sweet smelling savour to him; and especially what was abominable to him, and grievously provoked him to anger and wrath, was their setting up the idol of their own righteousness, refusing to submit to the righteousness of Christ, Rom 10:3; and indeed, whenever anything is set up in competition with him, or in opposition to him, be it what it will, it must be an abomination to God; because it opposes his purposes and resolutions of saving men by Christ alone, reflects on his wisdom in the scheme of salvation, flies in the face of his love, grace, and mercy, makes the death of Christ of none effect, advances pride in the creature, gives God the lie, who says there is no other Saviour, and is a total slight and neglect of his Gospel; all which must be abominable, and dreadfully provoking to him; see Isa 65:5;

Gill: Deu 32:17 - They sacrificed to devils, not to God // to gods whom they knew not, to gods that came newly up // whom your fathers feared not They sacrificed to devils, not to God,.... Their sacrifices being continued, when it was the will of God they should cease, were reckoned by him not a...

They sacrificed to devils, not to God,.... Their sacrifices being continued, when it was the will of God they should cease, were reckoned by him not as, offered to him, but to demons, and to such that were not God; they being therein under the instigation of Satan, and doing his lusts, Joh 8:44; just as Pagans and Papists, worshipping idols under the influence and direction of Satan, are said to worship devils, and sacrifice to them, 1Co 10:20; and indeed setting up their own righteousness was sacrificing to their own net, and burning incense to their own drag, to an idol, and not to God: to which may be added, that whereas they trampled under foot the Son of God, and did despite to the Spirit of grace, by which Christ cast out devils, and offered himself without spot, they excluded two of the divine Persons in the Deity, and so worshipped not the true God, Father, Son, and Spirit:

to gods whom they knew not, to gods that came newly up; such as angels, into the worship of which they fell, as their writings testify i, and to which the apostle seems to have respect, Col 2:18,

whom your fathers feared not; paid no regard unto, put no trust or confidence in; or, as the Targum of Jonathan,"with whom your fathers had nothing to do:''as they had not with the idol of man's righteousness, but wholly looked unto and trusted in the grace and righteousness of Christ, and expected salvation alone by him: the Gospel of righteousness and salvation by Christ was preached to our first parents in Eden's garden, which they embraced and believed in; Noah was an heir and preacher of the righteousness of faith, that is, of the righteousness of Christ, received by faith; that righteousness, which was what Abraham believed in, was imputed to him for his justifying righteousness; and Jacob waited for the Messiah, the salvation of God; in short all the Old Testament saints were saved by the grace of Christ, as we are; the idols, the works of men's own righteousness, are new deities they paid no deference to, placed no confidence in.

Gill: Deu 32:18 - Of the rock that begat thee thou art unmindful // and hast forgotten God that formed thee Of the rock that begat thee thou art unmindful,.... The same with the rock of salvation, Deu 32:15; repeated and expressed in different words, that t...

Of the rock that begat thee thou art unmindful,.... The same with the rock of salvation, Deu 32:15; repeated and expressed in different words, that their wretched ingratitude might be taken notice of and observed: begetting is ascribed to this rock, as regeneration is to Christ, 1Jo 2:29; and was true of some among the Jews: some choose to render the words, "the rock of thy kindred" k; being a near kinsman, a brother through his incarnation, which aggravated their unmindfulness of him:

and hast forgotten God that formed thee: for the rock they were unmindful of and forgot is the true God and eternal life, the essential Word of God, as both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem interpret it; him the Jewish nation forgot; they forgot the characters given of him in the promises and prophecies of the Old Testament; and therefore they knew him not when he came and fulfilled the voices of the prophets they were ignorant of in condemning him: hence they were unmindful of his person, his offices, his works, his benefits, and the great salvation by him; as indeed too many are that call themselves Christians: some observe that the word here used signifies bringing forth children with pain, and so way respect the bitter sorrows and sufferings of Christ, sometimes expressed by a word l which signifies the pains of women in childbirth, Act 2:24; and called the travail of his soul, Isa 53:11; and so a further aggravation of their ingratitude, that they should forget him that suffered so much, at least on account of some of them; for, those he endured to bring forth children unto God, or to gather together the children of God, scattered abroad both in Judea and in the whole world, Joh 11:51.

Gill: Deu 32:19 - And when the Lord saw it // he abhorred them // because of the provoking of his sons, and of his daughters And when the Lord saw it,.... The disregard of the Jews to Christ, their forgetfulness of him, their disesteem and rejection of him; their continuanc...

And when the Lord saw it,.... The disregard of the Jews to Christ, their forgetfulness of him, their disesteem and rejection of him; their continuance of sacrifices, when the great sacrifice was offered up; their setting up other messiahs and saviours, and the idol of their own righteousness, in opposition to the righteousness of Christ; all which not only as the omniscient God he saw, but took notice of, and considered, and did not at once pass judgment on them, at least did not immediately execute it, but waited some time to see how they would afterwards behave; for it was thirty years or more after the crucifixion of Christ that the utter destruction of the Jews came upon them:

he abhorred them; in his heart, despised them, and at last rejected them with contempt and abhorrence, very righteously and in just retaliation, see Zec 11:8; as for what before observed, so for what follows:

because of the provoking of his sons, and of his daughters; which is not to be understood of the Lord being provoked to wrath by the sins of those who called themselves or were called his sons and daughters; for these are such who were truly his sons and daughters, and different from those in Deu 32:20, said to be "children in whom is no faith": these are no other than the disciples and followers of Christ, that believed in him, both men and women, and so the children of God, his sons and his daughters by special grace; and the "provoking" of them is the wrath of the enemy against them, as the same word is used and rendered in Deu 32:27; and should be here, "because of wrath", or "indignation against his sons and his daughters" m; meaning the affliction, distress, and persecution of them, through the wrath of the unbelieving Jews; for after the death of Christ they persecuted his apostles, they beat them and cast them into prison, and put some to death; a persecution was raised against the church at Jerusalem, in which Saul was concerned, who breathed out threatenings and slaughters against the disciples of the Lord, and haled men and women, the sons and daughters of God, and committed them to prison, and persecuted them to strange cities, and gave his voice to put them to death; and in the Gentile world, when the Gospel was carried there, the Jews stirred up the Gentiles everywhere against the followers of Christ, to harass and distress them; and this the Lord saw, and he abhorred them for it, and rejected them.

Gill: Deu 32:20 - And he said, I will hide my face from them // I will see what their end shall be // for they are a very froward generation // children in whom is no faith And he said, I will hide my face from them,.... Now the Lord proceeds to pass sentence on the Jews for their ill treatment of his Son, and of his foll...

And he said, I will hide my face from them,.... Now the Lord proceeds to pass sentence on the Jews for their ill treatment of his Son, and of his followers; which respects judgments that should come upon them, both spiritual and temporal, or corporeal; the former lies in Deu 32:20, and the latter in Deu 32:22; and this the Lord said in his own heart and mind, decreed and determined it within himself, and declared it in his word by his prophets, as here and in other places: and this first part of the sentence denotes the withdrawing of the gracious presence of God, and the manifestation of his favour, from the people of the Jews, his dislike and contempt of them, having taken out from among them the remnant according to the election of grace, the disciples and followers of Christ; and the removal of the Gospel, and the ordinances of it, from them, the means of light and knowledge, joy and comfort, and the giving of them up to blindness and hardness of heart, which continues to this day; they have a vail of darkness and ignorance upon their hearts while reading the books of the Old Testament, which will be done away when they turn to the Lord, and not before; likewise this was fulfilled when all the symbols of the divine Presence were removed, when the temple was destroyed, and all things in it, or carried away; and this house, which was formerly the house of God, and where he dwelt, was left desolate by him; and it is remarkable, that a little before the destruction of Jerusalem, a voice was heard in the temple, "let us go hence", as Josephus relates z:

I will see what their end shall be: their destruction, called in the New Testament "the end of the world"; the end of the Jewish church state and commonwealth: this the Lord said, not as ignorant what it should be, or when it would be; but the sense is, either that he would cause them and others to see it, when he should bring wrath upon them to the uttermost; or that he would look upon it with pleasure and delight, which would be an aggravation of their punishment, Pro 1:26,

for they are a very froward generation; men of perverse spirits, of a contrary and contradictory temper and disposition, who pleased not God, and were contrary to all men; as well as contradicted and blasphemed the Gospel of Christ, were men of distorted principles in religion, implicated and inconsistent, they wresting the Scriptures to their own destruction; and were obstinate, stubborn, and inflexible in their notions and practices, and that to the last, which was their ruin:

children in whom is no faith; for though they had faith in one God, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament as the word of God, in the law of Moses, and in a future state, the resurrection of the dead, and judgment to come; especially the Pharisees, the greater part of the Jews; yet though they were the children of Abraham, and would be thought to be the children of God, they had no faith in Jesus, the true Messiah; him they disbelieved and rejected; and as their fathers could not enter into the land of Canaan, whose carcasses fell in the wilderness, because of unbelief; so these were cast out of the land, and from the Lord, because of their unbelief in the rejection of the Messiah. Aben Ezra observes, that it may be interpreted there is no men of faithfulness, or no faithful men among them, as in Psa 12:1; they were a faithless generation, covenant breakers, broke their covenant with God, and therefore he rejected them.

Gill: Deu 32:21 - They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God // they have provoked me to anger with their vanities // and I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people // I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God,.... With a false messiah; for after the death of Jesus, the true Messiah, God as well as m...

They have moved me to jealousy with that which is not God,.... With a false messiah; for after the death of Jesus, the true Messiah, God as well as man, many false Christs arose, as he predicted, and were received for a time, who were mere men, and deceivers; and their now vainly expected messiah, or whom they look for, according to their own sense of him, is no other than a mere creature, and not God: or with the idol of their own righteousness; which, as an idol is nothing in the world, that is, nothing in the business of justification, and put in the room of Christ highly provokes the Lord to jealousy:

they have provoked me to anger with their vanities; such were their false Christs they in vain trusted in, and such the idol of their own righteousness they set up, but could not make to stand; and such were the traditions of their elders; they put upon an equality with, or above the word of God; all which stirred up the wrath and anger of God against them:

and I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people: this is not to be understood of any particular nation, but of the Gentiles in general, and of God's elect among them, and of the calling of them; which would be provoking to the Jews, as the Apostle Paul has taught us to understand it, Rom 10:19. These were not the people of God, or not my people, as he says Rom 9:25; In some sense indeed they were his people, being chosen by him, and taken into covenant with him; for he is God not of the Jews only, but of the Gentiles also; and those were given to Christ as his people, and are his other sheep which were not of the Jewish fold; and who were redeemed by him to be a peculiar people out of every kindred, tongue, people, and nation, all which was before their calling: yet, in another sense they were not his people; they were without any spiritual privileges, the word and ordinances, without the knowledge of God and Christ, without communion with them; they were not a people near unto the Lord, he had not laid hold on and formed them for himself in regeneration and conversion; they were not reckoned the people of God, nor called so, and especially by the Jews, who accounted themselves to be the only people of God; see Eph 2:11,

I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation; either the Romans in particular are meant, so called because of their gross idolatry, to which they were addicted, who otherwise in their political affairs were a wise and understanding people; to these Judea became a province, and were subject to tribute; and by the exactions of the Romans, and their ill usage of them, they were provoked to rise against them, which issued in their ruin: or rather the Gentiles in general, who might be called foolish because of their superstition and idolatry, ignorance, and blindness in religious matters, and especially were so in the account of the Jews; and the elect of God among them in particular, who in their state of unregeneracy were foolish, as all unregenerate men are; both their principles and practices were foolish, and they were the foolish things of the Gentile world that God chose and called: and the calling of them was exceedingly provoking to the Jews; which was as if a man, moved to jealousy by the behaviour of his wife, should strip her of her ornaments and jewels, and reject her as his wife; and take another before her eyes of mean estate, and marry her, and put her ornaments on her, to which the allusion is; for the Lord, being moved to jealousy by the conduct of the Jewish nation towards him, rejected them from being his people, and stripped them of all their privileges, civil and religious, and took the Gentiles in the room of them, and so in just retaliation moved them to jealousy and wrath. It was displeasing to the carnal Jews to hear of the prophecies of the calling of the Gentiles, Rom 10:20; and the first display of grace to them was resented even by believing Jews themselves at first, Act 11:2. The anger of the Scribes and Pharisees on this account is thought by some to be hinted at in the parable of the two sons, Luk 15:27. The Jews were offended with Christ for eating with publicans, the Roman tax gatherers, and were greatly displeased when he told them the kingdom of God would be taken from them, and given to another nation, Mat 9:10 Mat 21:43. Their rage and envy were very great when the Gospel was first preached to the Gentiles, Act 13:41; and there is such an extraordinary instance of their spite and malice to the Gentiles, and of their jealousy and anger they were moved unto, as is not to be paralleled, 1Th 2:15.

Gill: Deu 32:22 - For a fire is kindled in mine anger // and shall burn unto the lowest hell // and shall consume the earth with her increase // and set on fire the foundations of the mountains For a fire is kindled in mine anger,.... Here begins the account of temporal and corporeal judgments inflicted on the Jews for their disbelief and rej...

For a fire is kindled in mine anger,.... Here begins the account of temporal and corporeal judgments inflicted on the Jews for their disbelief and rejection of the Messiah, their contempt of his Gospel, and ill treatment of his followers; and this here respects the destruction of the land of Judea in general, and the burning of the city and temple of Jerusalem in particular, as the effect of the wrath and anger of God like fire kindled against them:

and shall burn unto the lowest hell; which denotes an entire destruction, like that of the burning of Sodom and Gomorrah with fire and brimstone from heaven; which issued in a sulphurous lake, and which sulphureous matter sunk to the bottom of the Dead Sea; and to that destruction is this of the land of Judea compared, Deu 29:23,

and shall consume the earth with her increase: the land of Judea, with the cities and towns in it, and buildings on it, and the fruits of the earth; which were either gathered into their barns and storehouses, or were growing in their fields, and vineyards, and oliveyards; all were destroyed and consumed at or before the destruction of Jerusalem, or quickly after it:

and set on fire the foundations of the mountains; the city of Jerusalem, as Jarchi himself interprets it, whose foundations were by the mountains, according to Psa 125:2; and the temple of Jerusalem particularly was built on Mount Moriah, and that as well as the city was utterly consumed by fire: and it is remarkable that when Julian the apostate attempted to rebuild it, as is related even by an Heathen historian a, that flames of fire burst out from the foundations, and burnt the workmen; so that he was obliged to desist from his rash undertaking.

Gill: Deu 32:23 - I will heap mischief upon them // I will spewed mine arrows upon them I will heap mischief upon them,.... One calamity upon another, which are after particularly mentioned: I will spewed mine arrows upon them; God is ...

I will heap mischief upon them,.... One calamity upon another, which are after particularly mentioned:

I will spewed mine arrows upon them; God is here represented as an enemy to the Jews, as having bent his bow against them like an enemy, Lam 2:4; and as having a quiver, and that full of arrows, and as determined to draw out and spend everyone of them, in taking vengeance upon them; which arrows are his four sore judgments mentioned Eze 14:21; and expressed in Deu 32:24.

Gill: Deu 32:24 - They shall be burnt with hunger // and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction // I will also send the teeth, of beasts upon them, with the poison of serpents of the dust They shall be burnt with hunger,.... This is the arrow of famine, Eze 5:16; the force of which is such that it makes the skin black as if burnt, Lam ...

They shall be burnt with hunger,.... This is the arrow of famine, Eze 5:16; the force of which is such that it makes the skin black as if burnt, Lam 5:10; Onkelos paraphrases it,"inflated or swelled with famine,''which is a phrase Josephus b makes use of in describing the famine at the siege of Jerusalem. Jarchi observes, that one of their writers c interprets the words "hairs of hunger", because he says that a man that is famishing and pining, his hair grows, and he becomes hairy: this judgment was notorious among the Jews, at the siege of Jerusalem, and was very sore and dreadful: See Gill on Deu 28:53,

and devoured with burning heat, and with bitter destruction; with burning fevers, pestilential ones, with the plague, the arrow of the Lord that flies by day, the pestilence that walks in darkness, and the destruction that wastes at noonday, Psa 91:5; and which also raged at the siege of Jerusalem, arising from the stench of dead bodies, which lay in all parts of the city, and is one of the signs of the destruction of it given by our Lord, Mat 24:7,

I will also send the teeth, of beasts upon them, with the poison of serpents of the dust; another of the arrows in the quiver of the Lord of hosts, or of his four judgments, and which he used to threaten the people of the Jews with in case of disobedience, Lev 26:22. And such of the Jews who fled to deserts, and caves and dens of the earth, for shelter, could not escape falling into the hands of wild beasts, and of meeting with poisonous serpents that go upon their bellies, and feed on the dust of the earth; and besides, when Titus had taken Jerusalem, he disposed of his captives some one way and some another; and, among the rest, many were cast to the wild beasts in the theatre, as Josephus relates d; add to this, that both Rome Pagan, and Roman Papal, are called beasts, Rev 13:1; into both whose hands the Jews fell, and from whom they have suffered much; with which in part agrees the Targum of Jerusalem,

"the teeth of the four monarchies, which are like to wild beasts, I will send upon them;''and particularly the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"and the Greeks, who bite with their teeth like wild beasts, I will send upon them;''but it would have been much better to have interpreted it of the Romans.

Gill: Deu 32:25 - The sword without // and terror within // shall destroy both the young man and the virgin, the suckling also // with the man of gray hairs The sword without,.... Either without the city, the sword of the Roman army besieging it, which destroyed all that came out or attempted to go in; or ...

The sword without,.... Either without the city, the sword of the Roman army besieging it, which destroyed all that came out or attempted to go in; or in the streets of the city, the sword of the seditious, which destroyed multitudes among themselves:

and terror within; within the city, on account of the sword of the Romans, and the close siege they made of it; and on account of the famine and pestilence which raged in it, and the cruelty of the seditious persons among themselves; all these filled the people with horror and terror in their houses; and even in their bedchambers, as the word signifies, they were not free from terror; yea, from the temple, and inward parts, and chambers of that, which may be referred to, terror came, that being in the hands of the seditious; they sallied out from thence, and ravaged the city, and filled all places with the dread of them; and many, no doubt, through fear died, as well as by the sword and other judgments; which it is threatened

shall destroy both the young man and the virgin, the suckling also,

with the man of gray hairs; none of any age or sex were spared, even those unarmed; not the young man, for his strength and promising usefulness; nor the virgin for her beauty and comeliness; nor the suckling for its innocence and tenderness; nor the aged man through any reverence of his gray hairs, or on account of the infirmities of old age, but all would be destroyed; and never was such a carnage made at the siege of anyone city in the world before or since; no less than 1,100,000 persons perished in it, as Josephus relates e.