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Teks -- Luke 11:1-54 (NET)

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Konteks
Instructions on Prayer
11:1 Now Jesus was praying in a certain place. When he stopped, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, just as John taught his disciples.” 11:2 So he said to them, “When you pray, say: Father, may your name be honored; may your kingdom come. 11:3 Give us each day our daily bread, 11:4 and forgive us our sins, for we also forgive everyone who sins against us. And do not lead us into temptation.” 11:5 Then he said to them, “Suppose one of you has a friend, and you go to him at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, 11:6 because a friend of mine has stopped here while on a journey, and I have nothing to set before him.’ 11:7 Then he will reply reply from inside, ‘Do not bother bother me. The door is already shut, and my children and I are in bed. I cannot cannot get up and give you anything.’ 11:8 I tell you, even though the man inside will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, yet because of the first man’s sheer persistence he will get up and give him whatever he needs. 11:9 “So I tell you: Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door will be opened for you. 11:10 For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened. 11:11 What father among you, if your son asks for a fish, will give him a snake instead of a fish? 11:12 Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 11:13 If you then, although you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!”
Jesus and Beelzebul
11:14 Now he was casting out a demon that was mute. When the demon had gone out, the man who had been mute began to speak, and the crowds were amazed. 11:15 But some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul, the ruler of demons, he casts out demons.” 11:16 Others, to test him, began asking for a sign from heaven. 11:17 But Jesus, realizing their thoughts, said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, and a divided household falls. 11:18 So if Satan too is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? I ask you this because you claim that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 11:19 Now if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. 11:20 But if I cast out demons by the finger of God, then the kingdom of God has already overtaken you. 11:21 When a strong man, fully armed, guards his own palace, his possessions are safe. 11:22 But when a stronger man attacks and conquers him, he takes away the first man’s armor on which the man relied and divides up his plunder. 11:23 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.
Response to Jesus’ Work
11:24 “When an unclean spirit goes out of a person, it passes through waterless places looking for rest but not finding any. Then it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’ 11:25 When it returns, it finds the house swept clean and put in order. 11:26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so the last state of that person is worse than the first.” 11:27 As he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!” 11:28 But he replied, “Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it!”
The Sign of Jonah
11:29 As the crowds were increasing, Jesus began to say, “This generation is a wicked generation; it looks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah. 11:30 For just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh, so the Son of Man will be a sign to this generation. 11:31 The queen of the South will rise up at the judgment with the people of this generation and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon– and now, something greater than Solomon is here! 11:32 The people of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them– and now, something greater than Jonah is here!
Internal Light
11:33 “No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a hidden place or under a basket, but on a lampstand, so that those who come in can see the light. 11:34 Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy, your whole body is full of light, but when it is diseased, your body is full of darkness. 11:35 Therefore see to it that the light in you is not darkness. 11:36 If then your whole body is full of light, with no part in the dark, it will be as full of light as when the light of a lamp shines on you.”
Rebuking the Pharisees and Experts in the Law
11:37 As he spoke, a Pharisee invited Jesus to have a meal with him, so he went in and took his place at the table. 11:38 The Pharisee was astonished when he saw that Jesus did not first wash his hands before the meal. 11:39 But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness. 11:40 You fools! Didn’t the one who made the outside make the inside as well? 11:41 But give from your heart to those in need, and then everything will be clean for you. 11:42 “But woe to you Pharisees! You give a tenth of your mint, rue, and every herb, yet you neglect justice and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others. 11:43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats in the synagogues and elaborate greetings in the marketplaces! 11:44 Woe to you! You are like unmarked graves, and people walk over them without realizing it!” 11:45 One of the experts in religious law answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult us too.” 11:46 But Jesus replied, “Woe to you experts in religious law as well! You load people down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch the burdens with even one of your fingers! 11:47 Woe to you! You build the tombs of the prophets whom your ancestors killed. 11:48 So you testify that you approve of the deeds of your ancestors, because they killed the prophets and you build their tombs! 11:49 For this reason also the wisdom of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 11:50 so that this generation may be held accountable for the blood of all the prophets that has been shed since the beginning of the world, 11:51 from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who was killed between the altar and the sanctuary. Yes, I tell you, it will be charged against this generation. 11:52 Woe to you experts in religious law! You have taken away the key to knowledge! You did not go in yourselves, and you hindered those who were going in.” 11:53 When he went out from there, the experts in the law and the Pharisees began to oppose him bitterly, and to ask him hostile questions about many things, 11:54 plotting against him, to catch him in something he might say.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abel the second son of Adam and Eve; the brother of Cain,an English name representing two different Hebrew names,as representing the Hebrew name 'Hebel' or 'Habel',the second son of Adam,as representing the Hebrew name 'Abel',a town in northern Israel near Dan (OS)
 · Beelzebul the prince of demons
 · John a son of Zebedee; younger brother of James; the beloved disciple of Christ,a relative of Annas the high priest,a son of Mary the sister of Barnabas, and surnamed Mark,the father of Simon Peter
 · Jonah a son of Amittai; the prophet God sent to Nineveh,the prophet who was swallowed by the great fish; son of Amittai
 · Nineveh a town located on the left bank of the Tigris River in northeastern Mesopotamia (Iraq).,the capital city of Assyria
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Satan a person, male (evil angelic),an angel that has rebelled against God
 · Solomon the tenth son of David; the father of Rehoboam; an ancestor of Jesus; the third king of Israel.,son of David and Bath-Sheba; successor of King David
 · Zechariah the father of John the baptist,a son of Berekiah, a righteous man who was killed by the Jewish authorities,son and successor of King Jeroboam,father of Abi, the mother of King Hezekiah,a leader of the tribe of Reuben,son of Meshelemiah; a door keeper for the tent of meeting,son of Jeiel and Maacah of Gibeon,a Levite gate keeper and harpist in David's time,a priest and trumpeter in David's time,son of Isshiah (Uzziel Kohath Levi),son of Hosah; a pre-exile Levite gatekeeper,a man of Manasseh in Gilead in Saul and David's time,a prince whom Jehoshaphat sent to teach the law around Judah,son of Benaiah (Asaph Levi),son of King Jehoshaphat,son of Jehoiada the priest; a prophet,a man who influenced King Uzziah for good,a Levite (Asaph) who helped Hezekiah cleanse the temple,a Levite (Kohath) who helped King Josiah restore the temple,a chief officer of the house of God in Josiah's time,son of Berechiah; a priest; writer of the book of Zechariah,leader among the Parosh clansmen who returned from exile,son of Bebai; leader among Bebai clansmen returned from exile,a lay man of the Elam Clan who put away his heathen wife,a man who stood with Ezra when he read the law to the assembly,son of Amariah of Judah,a descendant of Shelah,son of Pashhur; a priest whose descendants returned from exile,son of Jonathan (Asaph Levi),son of Jeberechiah; a witness to Isaiah's prophesy


Topik/Tema Kamus: LUKE, THE GOSPEL OF | JESUS CHRIST, 4C1 | DECLARATION; DECLARE | Jesus, The Christ | JESUS CHRIST, 4E1 | JESUS CHRIST, 4D | Pharisees | Prayer | Self-righteousness | Reproof | Satire | Teachers | Hypocrisy | Lawyer | PRAYERS OF CHRIST | Jonah | Minister | DISCREPANCIES, BIBLICAL | Backsliders | Beelzebub | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Lightfoot , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Luk 11:1 - As he was praying in a certain place As he was praying in a certain place ( en tōi einai auton en topōi tini proseuchomenon ). Characteristically Lukan idiom: en with articular per...

As he was praying in a certain place ( en tōi einai auton en topōi tini proseuchomenon ).

Characteristically Lukan idiom: en with articular periphrastic infinitive (einai proseuchomenon ) with accusative of general reference (auton ).

Robertson: Luk 11:1 - That. That. Not in the Greek, asyndeton (kai egeneto eipen ).

That.

Not in the Greek, asyndeton (kai egeneto eipen ).

Robertson: Luk 11:1 - When he ceased When he ceased ( hōs epausato ). Supply proseuchomenos (praying), complementary or supplementary participle.

When he ceased ( hōs epausato ).

Supply proseuchomenos (praying), complementary or supplementary participle.

Robertson: Luk 11:1 - Teach us Teach us ( didaxon hēmas ). Jesus had taught them by precept (Mat 6:7-15) and example (Luk 9:29). Somehow the example of Jesus on this occasion sti...

Teach us ( didaxon hēmas ).

Jesus had taught them by precept (Mat 6:7-15) and example (Luk 9:29). Somehow the example of Jesus on this occasion stirred them to fresh interest in the subject and to revival of interest in John’ s teachings (Luk 5:33). So Jesus gave them the substance of the Model Prayer in Matthew, but in shorter form. Some of the MSS. have one or all of the phrases in Matthew, but the oldest documents have it in the simplest form. See notes on Mat 6:7-15 for discussion of these details (Father, hallowed, kingdom, daily bread, forgiveness, bringing us into temptation). In Mat 6:11 "give"is dos (second aorist active imperative second singular, a single act) while here Luk 11:3 "give"is didou (present active imperative, both from didōmi ) and means, "keep on giving."So in Luk 11:4 we have "For we ourselves also forgive"(kai gar autoi aphiomen ), present active indicative of the late verb aphiō while Mat 6:12 has "as we also forgave"(hōs kai hēmeis aphēkamen ), first aorist (k aorist) active of aphiēmi . So also where Mat 6:12 has "debts"(ta opheilēmata ) Luk 11:4 has "sins"(tas hamartias ). But the spirit of each prayer is the same. There is no evidence that Jesus meant either form to be a ritual. In both Mat 6:13; Luk 11:4 mē eisenegkēis occurs (second aorist subjunctive with mē in prohibition, ingressive aorist). "Bring us not"is a better translation than "lead us not."There is no such thing as God enticing one to sin (Jam 1:13). Jesus urges us to pray not to be tempted as in Luk 22:40 in Gethsemane.

Robertson: Luk 11:5 - At midnight At midnight ( mesonuktiou ). Genitive of time.

At midnight ( mesonuktiou ).

Genitive of time.

Robertson: Luk 11:5 - And say to him And say to him ( kai eipēi autōi ). This is the deliberative subjunctive, but it is preceded by two future indicatives that are deliberative also...

And say to him ( kai eipēi autōi ).

This is the deliberative subjunctive, but it is preceded by two future indicatives that are deliberative also (hexei , poreusetai ).

Robertson: Luk 11:5 - Lend me Lend me ( chrēson moi ). First aorist active imperative second singular. Lend me now. From kichrēmi , an old verb, to lend as a matter of friend...

Lend me ( chrēson moi ).

First aorist active imperative second singular. Lend me now. From kichrēmi , an old verb, to lend as a matter of friendly interest as opposed to daneizō , to lend on interest as a business. Only here in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 11:6 - To set before him To set before him ( ho parathēsō autōi ).

To set before him ( ho parathēsō autōi ).

Robertson: Luk 11:6 - Which I shall place beside him. Which I shall place beside him. Future active of paratithēmi . See Luk 9:16 for this same verb.

Which I shall place beside him.

Future active of paratithēmi . See Luk 9:16 for this same verb.

Robertson: Luk 11:7 - And he And he ( kakeinos ). Emphatic.

And he ( kakeinos ).

Emphatic.

Robertson: Luk 11:7 - Shall say Shall say ( eipēi ). Still the aorist active deliberative subjunctive as in Luk 11:5 (the same long and somewhat involved sentence).

Shall say ( eipēi ).

Still the aorist active deliberative subjunctive as in Luk 11:5 (the same long and somewhat involved sentence).

Robertson: Luk 11:7 - Trouble me not Trouble me not ( mē moi kopous pareche ). Mē and the present imperative active. Literally, "Stop furnishing troubles to me."On this use of kopo...

Trouble me not ( mē moi kopous pareche ).

Mē and the present imperative active. Literally, "Stop furnishing troubles to me."On this use of kopous parechō see also Mat 26:10; Mar 14:6; Gal 6:17 and the singular kopon , Luk 18:5.

Robertson: Luk 11:7 - The door is now shut The door is now shut ( ēdē hē thura kekleistai ). Perfect passive indicative, shut to stay shut. Oriental locks are not easy to unlock. From kl...

The door is now shut ( ēdē hē thura kekleistai ).

Perfect passive indicative, shut to stay shut. Oriental locks are not easy to unlock. From kleiō , common verb.

Robertson: Luk 11:7 - In bed In bed ( eis ten koitēn ). Note use of eis in sense of en . Often a whole family would sleep in the same room.

In bed ( eis ten koitēn ).

Note use of eis in sense of en . Often a whole family would sleep in the same room.

Robertson: Luk 11:7 - I cannot I cannot ( ou dunamai ). That is, I am not willing.

I cannot ( ou dunamai ).

That is, I am not willing.

Robertson: Luk 11:8 - Though Though ( ei kai ). Kai ei would be "Even if,"a different idea.

Though ( ei kai ).

Kai ei would be "Even if,"a different idea.

Robertson: Luk 11:8 - Because he is his friend Because he is his friend ( dia to einai philon autou ). Dia and the accusative articular infinitive with accusative of general reference, a causal ...

Because he is his friend ( dia to einai philon autou ).

Dia and the accusative articular infinitive with accusative of general reference, a causal clause= "because of the being a friend of his."

Robertson: Luk 11:8 - Yet because of his importunity Yet because of his importunity ( dia ge tēn anaidian autou ). From anaidēs , shameless, and that from a privative and aidōs , shame, shameles...

Yet because of his importunity ( dia ge tēn anaidian autou ).

From anaidēs , shameless, and that from a privative and aidōs , shame, shamelessness, impudence. An old word, but here alone in the N.T. Examples in the papyri. The use of ge here, one of the intensive particles, is to be noted. It sharpens the contrast to "though"by "yet."As examples of importunate prayer Vincent notes Abraham in behalf of Sodom (Gen 18:23-33) and the Syro-Phoenician woman in behalf of her daughter (Mat 15:22-28).

Robertson: Luk 11:9 - Shall be opened Shall be opened ( anoigēsetai ). Second future passive third singular of anoignumi and the later anoigō .

Shall be opened ( anoigēsetai ).

Second future passive third singular of anoignumi and the later anoigō .

Robertson: Luk 11:11 - Of which of you that is a father Of which of you that is a father ( tina de ex humōn ton patera ). There is a decided anacoluthon here. The MSS. differ a great deal. The text of We...

Of which of you that is a father ( tina de ex humōn ton patera ).

There is a decided anacoluthon here. The MSS. differ a great deal. The text of Westcott and Hort makes ton patera (the father) in apposition with tina (of whom) and in the accusative the object of aitēsei (shall ask) which has also another accusative (both person and thing) "a loaf."So far so good. But the rest of the sentence is, will ye give him a stone? (mē lithon epidōsei autōi̱ ). Mē shows that the answer No is expected, but the trouble is that the interrogative tina in the first clause is in the accusative the object of aitēsei while here the same man (he) is the subject of epidōsei . It is a very awkward piece of Greek and yet it is intelligible. Some of the old MSS. do not have the part about "loaf"and "stone,"but only the two remaining parts about "fish"and "serpent,""egg"and "scorpion."The same difficult construction is carried over into these questions also.

Robertson: Luk 11:13 - Know how to give Know how to give ( oidate didonai ). See Mat 7:11 for this same saying. Only here Jesus adds the Holy Spirit (pneuma hagion ) as the great gift (the...

Know how to give ( oidate didonai ).

See Mat 7:11 for this same saying. Only here Jesus adds the Holy Spirit (pneuma hagion ) as the great gift (the summum bonum ) that the Father is ready to bestow. Jesus is fond of "how much more"(posōi māllon , by how much more, instrumental case).

Robertson: Luk 11:14 - When When ( tou daimoniou exelthontos ). Genitive absolute ana asyndeton between kai egeneto and elalēsen as often in Luke (no hoti or kai ).

When ( tou daimoniou exelthontos ).

Genitive absolute ana asyndeton between kai egeneto and elalēsen as often in Luke (no hoti or kai ).

Robertson: Luk 11:15 - Dumb Dumb ( kōphon ). See note on Mat 9:32.

Dumb ( kōphon ).

See note on Mat 9:32.

Robertson: Luk 11:15 - By Beelzebub By Beelzebub ( en Beezeboul ). Blasphemous accusation here in Judea as in Galilee (Mar 3:22; Mat 12:24, Mat 12:27). See notes on Matthew for discussi...

By Beelzebub ( en Beezeboul ).

Blasphemous accusation here in Judea as in Galilee (Mar 3:22; Mat 12:24, Mat 12:27). See notes on Matthew for discussion of the form of this name and the various items in the sin against the Holy Spirit involved in the charge. It was useless to deny the fact of the miracles. So they were explained as wrought by Satan himself, a most absurd explanation.

Robertson: Luk 11:16 - Tempting him Tempting him ( peirazontes ). These "others"(heteroi ) apparently realized the futility of the charge of being in league with Beelzebub. Hence they ...

Tempting him ( peirazontes ).

These "others"(heteroi ) apparently realized the futility of the charge of being in league with Beelzebub. Hence they put up to Jesus the demand for "a sign from heaven"just as had been done in Galilee (Mat 12:38). By "sign"(sēmeion ) they meant a great spectacular display of heavenly power such as they expected the Messiah to give and such as the devil suggested to Jesus on the pinnacle of the temple.

Robertson: Luk 11:16 - Sought Sought ( ezētoun ). Imperfect active, kept on seeking.

Sought ( ezētoun ).

Imperfect active, kept on seeking.

Robertson: Luk 11:17 - But he But he ( autos de ). In contrast with them.

But he ( autos de ).

In contrast with them.

Robertson: Luk 11:17 - Knowing their thoughts Knowing their thoughts ( eidōs autōn ta dianoēmata ). From dianoeō , to think through or distinguish. This substantive is common in Plato, bu...

Knowing their thoughts ( eidōs autōn ta dianoēmata ).

From dianoeō , to think through or distinguish. This substantive is common in Plato, but occurs nowhere else in the N.T. It means intent, purpose. Jesus knew that they were trying to tempt him.

Robertson: Luk 11:17 - And a house divided against a house falleth And a house divided against a house falleth ( kai oikos epi oikon piptei ). It is not certain that diameristheisa (divided) is to be repeated here ...

And a house divided against a house falleth ( kai oikos epi oikon piptei ).

It is not certain that diameristheisa (divided) is to be repeated here as in Mat 12:25; Mar 3:25. It may mean, and house falls upon house , "one tumbling house knocking down its neighbour, a graphic picture of what happens when a kingdom is divided against itself"(Bruce).

Robertson: Luk 11:18 - Because ye say Because ye say ( hoti legete ). Jesus here repeats in indirect discourse (accusative and infinitive) the charge made against him in Luk 11:15. The co...

Because ye say ( hoti legete ).

Jesus here repeats in indirect discourse (accusative and infinitive) the charge made against him in Luk 11:15. The condition is of the first class, determined as fulfilled.

Robertson: Luk 11:19 - And if I by Beelzebub And if I by Beelzebub ( ei de egō en Beezeboul ). Also a condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. A Greek condition deals only with t...

And if I by Beelzebub ( ei de egō en Beezeboul ).

Also a condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. A Greek condition deals only with the statement , not with the actual facts. For sake of argument, Jesus here assumes that he casts out demons by Beelzebub. The conclusion is a reductio ad absurdum . The Jewish exorcists practiced incantations against demons (Act 19:13).

Robertson: Luk 11:20 - By the finger of God By the finger of God ( en daktulōi theou ). In distinction from the Jewish exorcists. Mat 12:28 has "by the Spirit of God."

By the finger of God ( en daktulōi theou ).

In distinction from the Jewish exorcists. Mat 12:28 has "by the Spirit of God."

Robertson: Luk 11:20 - Then is come Then is come ( ara ephthasen ). Phthanō in late Greek comes to mean simply to come, not to come before. The aorist indicative tense here is timel...

Then is come ( ara ephthasen ).

Phthanō in late Greek comes to mean simply to come, not to come before. The aorist indicative tense here is timeless. Note ara (accordingly) in the conclusion (apodosis ).

Robertson: Luk 11:21 - Fully armed Fully armed ( kathōplismenos ). Perfect passive participle of kathoplizō , an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Note perfective use of kata i...

Fully armed ( kathōplismenos ).

Perfect passive participle of kathoplizō , an old verb, but here only in the N.T. Note perfective use of kata in composition with hoplizō , to arm (from hopla , arms). Note indefinite temporal clause (hotan and present subjunctive phulassēi ).

Robertson: Luk 11:21 - His own court His own court ( tēn heautou aulēn ). His own homestead. Mar 3:27; Mat 12:29 has "house"(oikian ). Aulē is used in the N.T. in various senses...

His own court ( tēn heautou aulēn ).

His own homestead. Mar 3:27; Mat 12:29 has "house"(oikian ). Aulē is used in the N.T. in various senses (the court in front of the house, the court around which the house is built, then the house as a whole).

Robertson: Luk 11:21 - His goods His goods ( ta huparchonta autou ). "His belongings."Neuter plural present active participle of huparchō used as substantive with genitive.

His goods ( ta huparchonta autou ).

"His belongings."Neuter plural present active participle of huparchō used as substantive with genitive.

Robertson: Luk 11:22 - But when But when ( epan de ). Note hotan in Luk 11:21.

But when ( epan de ).

Note hotan in Luk 11:21.

Robertson: Luk 11:22 - Stronger than he Stronger than he ( ischuroteros autou ). Comparative of ischuros followed by the ablative.

Stronger than he ( ischuroteros autou ).

Comparative of ischuros followed by the ablative.

Robertson: Luk 11:22 - Come upon him and overcome him Come upon him and overcome him ( epelthōn nikēsēi auton ). Second aorist active participle of eperchomai and first aorist active subjunctive ...

Come upon him and overcome him ( epelthōn nikēsēi auton ).

Second aorist active participle of eperchomai and first aorist active subjunctive of nikaō . Aorist tense here because a single onset while in Luk 11:22 the guarding (phulassēi , present active subjunctive) is continuous.

Robertson: Luk 11:22 - His whole armour His whole armour ( tēn panoplian autou ). An old and common word for all the soldier’ s outfit (shield, sword, lance, helmet, greaves, breastp...

His whole armour ( tēn panoplian autou ).

An old and common word for all the soldier’ s outfit (shield, sword, lance, helmet, greaves, breastplate). Tyndale renders it "his harness."In the N.T. only here and Eph 6:11, Eph 6:13 where the items are given.

Robertson: Luk 11:22 - Wherein he trusted Wherein he trusted ( eph' hēi epepoithei ). Second past perfect active of peithō , to persuade. The second perfect pepoitha is intransitive, to...

Wherein he trusted ( eph' hēi epepoithei ).

Second past perfect active of peithō , to persuade. The second perfect pepoitha is intransitive, to trust. Old and common verb. He trusted his weapons which had been so efficacious.

Robertson: Luk 11:22 - His spoils His spoils ( ta skula autou ). It is not clear to what this figure refers. Strong as Satan is Jesus is stronger and wins victories over him as he was...

His spoils ( ta skula autou ).

It is not clear to what this figure refers. Strong as Satan is Jesus is stronger and wins victories over him as he was doing then. In Col 2:15 Christ is pictured as triumphing openly over the powers of evil by the Cross.

Robertson: Luk 11:23 - He that is not with me He that is not with me ( ho mē ōn met' emou ). This verse is just like Mat 12:30.

He that is not with me ( ho mē ōn met' emou ).

This verse is just like Mat 12:30.

Robertson: Luk 11:24 - And finding none And finding none ( kai mē heuriskon ). Here Mat 12:43 has kai ouch heuriskei (present active indicative instead of present active participle). Lu...

And finding none ( kai mē heuriskon ).

Here Mat 12:43 has kai ouch heuriskei (present active indicative instead of present active participle). Luk 11:24-26 is almost verbatim like Mat 12:43-45, which see. Instead of just "taketh"(paralambanei ) in Luk 11:26, Matthew has "taketh with himself"(paralambanei meth' heautou ). And Luke omits: "Even so shall it be also unto this evil generation"of Mat 12:45.

Robertson: Luk 11:24 - Than the first Than the first ( tōn prōtōn ). Ablative case after the comparative cheirona . The seven demons brought back remind one of the seven that afflic...

Than the first ( tōn prōtōn ).

Ablative case after the comparative cheirona . The seven demons brought back remind one of the seven that afflicted Mary Magdalene (Luk 8:2).

Robertson: Luk 11:27 - As he said these things As he said these things ( en tōi legein auton ). Luke’ s common idiom, en with articular infinitive. Luk 11:27, Luk 11:28 are peculiar to Lu...

As he said these things ( en tōi legein auton ).

Luke’ s common idiom, en with articular infinitive. Luk 11:27, Luk 11:28 are peculiar to Luke. His Gospel in a special sense is the Gospel of Woman. This woman "speaks well, but womanly"(Bengel). Her beatitude (makaria ) reminds us of Elisabeth’ s words (Luk 1:42, eulogēmenē ). She is fulfilling Mary’ s own prophecy in Luk 1:48 (makariousin me , shall call me happy).

Robertson: Luk 11:28 - But he said But he said ( autos de eipen ). Jesus in contrast turns attention to others and gives them a beatitude (makarioi ). "The originality of Christ’...

But he said ( autos de eipen ).

Jesus in contrast turns attention to others and gives them a beatitude (makarioi ). "The originality of Christ’ s reply guarantees its historical character. Such a comment is beyond the reach of an inventor"(Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 11:29 - Were gathering together unto him Were gathering together unto him ( epathroizomenōn ). Genitive absolute present middle participle of epathroizō , a rare verb, Plutarch and here ...

Were gathering together unto him ( epathroizomenōn ).

Genitive absolute present middle participle of epathroizō , a rare verb, Plutarch and here only in the N.T., from epi and athroizō (a common enough verb). It means to throng together (athroos , in throngs). Vivid picture of the crowds around Jesus.

Robertson: Luk 11:29 - But the sign of Jonah But the sign of Jonah ( ei mē to sēmeion Iōnā ). Luke does not give here the burial and resurrection of Jesus of which Jonah’ s experien...

But the sign of Jonah ( ei mē to sēmeion Iōnā ).

Luke does not give here the burial and resurrection of Jesus of which Jonah’ s experience in the big fish was a type (Mat 12:39), but that is really implied (Plummer argues) by the use here of "shall be given"(dothēsetai ) and "shall be"(estai ), for the resurrection of Jesus is still future. The preaching of Jesus ought to have been sign enough as in the case of Jonah, but the resurrection will be given. Luke’ s report is much briefer and omits what is in Mat 12:41.

Robertson: Luk 11:31 - With the men of this generation With the men of this generation ( meta tōn andrōn tēs geneās tautēs ). Here Mat 12:42 has simply "with this generation,"which see.

With the men of this generation ( meta tōn andrōn tēs geneās tautēs ).

Here Mat 12:42 has simply "with this generation,"which see.

Robertson: Luk 11:32 - At the preaching of Jonah At the preaching of Jonah ( eis to kērugma Iōna ). Note this use of eis as in Mat 10:41; Mat 12:41. Luke inserts the words about the Queen of t...

At the preaching of Jonah ( eis to kērugma Iōna ).

Note this use of eis as in Mat 10:41; Mat 12:41. Luke inserts the words about the Queen of the South (Luk 11:31) in between the discussion of Jonah (Luk 11:29., Luk 11:32). Both Solomōnos (Luk 11:31) and Iōnā (Luk 11:32) are in the ablative case after the comparative pleion (more, something more ).

Robertson: Luk 11:33 - In a cellar In a cellar ( eis kruptēn ). A crypt (same word) or hidden place from kruptō , to hide. Late and rare word and here only in the N.T. These other ...

In a cellar ( eis kruptēn ).

A crypt (same word) or hidden place from kruptō , to hide. Late and rare word and here only in the N.T. These other words (lamp, luchnon , bushel, modion , stand, luchnian ) have all been discussed previously (see note on Mat 5:15).

Robertson: Luk 11:34 - -- @@Luk 11:34 is like Mat 6:22., which see notes for details.

@@Luk 11:34 is like Mat 6:22., which see notes for details.

Robertson: Luk 11:35 - Whether not Whether not ( mē ). This use of mē in an indirect question is good Greek (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1045). It is a pitiful situation if the very...

Whether not ( mē ).

This use of mē in an indirect question is good Greek (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1045). It is a pitiful situation if the very light is darkness. This happens when the eye of the soul is too diseased to see the light of Christ.

Robertson: Luk 11:36 - With its bright shining With its bright shining ( tēi astrapēi ). Instrumental case, as if by a flash of lightning the light is revealed in him. See note on Luk 10:18.

With its bright shining ( tēi astrapēi ).

Instrumental case, as if by a flash of lightning the light is revealed in him. See note on Luk 10:18.

Robertson: Luk 11:37 - Now as he spake Now as he spake ( en de tōi lalēsai ). Luke’ s common idiom, en with the articular infinitive (aorist active infinitive) but it does not m...

Now as he spake ( en de tōi lalēsai ).

Luke’ s common idiom, en with the articular infinitive (aorist active infinitive) but it does not mean "after he had spoken"as Plummer argues, but simply "in the speaking,"no time in the aorist infinitive. See note on Luk 3:21 for similar use of aorist infinitive with en .

Robertson: Luk 11:37 - Asketh Asketh ( erōtāi ). Present active indicative, dramatic present. Request, not question.

Asketh ( erōtāi ).

Present active indicative, dramatic present. Request, not question.

Robertson: Luk 11:37 - To dine To dine ( hopōs aristēsēi ). Note hopōs rather than the common hina . Aorist active subjunctive rather than present, for a single meal. The...

To dine ( hopōs aristēsēi ).

Note hopōs rather than the common hina . Aorist active subjunctive rather than present, for a single meal. The verb is from ariston (breakfast). See distinction between ariston and deipnon (dinner or supper) in Luk 14:12. It is the morning meal (breakfast or lunch) after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue (Mat 22:4), not the very early meal called akratisma . The verb is, however, used for the early meal on the seashore in Joh 21:12, Joh 21:15.

Robertson: Luk 11:37 - With him With him ( par' autōi ). By his side.

With him ( par' autōi ).

By his side.

Robertson: Luk 11:37 - Sat down to meat Sat down to meat ( anepesen ). Second aorist active indicative of anapiptō , old verb, to recline, to fall back on the sofa or lounge. No word here...

Sat down to meat ( anepesen ).

Second aorist active indicative of anapiptō , old verb, to recline, to fall back on the sofa or lounge. No word here for "to meat."

Robertson: Luk 11:38 - That he had not first washed before dinner That he had not first washed before dinner ( hoti ou prōton ebaptisthē pro tou aristou ). The verb is first aorist passive indicative of baptizo...

That he had not first washed before dinner ( hoti ou prōton ebaptisthē pro tou aristou ).

The verb is first aorist passive indicative of baptizō , to dip or to immerse. Here it is applied to the hands. It was the Jewish custom to dip the hands in water before eating and often between courses for ceremonial purification. In Galilee the Pharisees and scribes had sharply criticized the disciples for eating with unwashed hands (Mark 7:1-23; Matthew 15:1-20) when Jesus had defended their liberty and had opposed making a necessity of such a custom (tradition) in opposition to the command of God. Apparently Jesus on this occasion had himself reclined at the breakfast (not dinner) without this ceremonial dipping of the hands in water. The Greek has "first before"(prōton pro ), a tautology not preserved in the translation.

Robertson: Luk 11:39 - The Lord The Lord ( ho kurios ). The Lord Jesus plainly and in the narrative portion of Luke.

The Lord ( ho kurios ).

The Lord Jesus plainly and in the narrative portion of Luke.

Robertson: Luk 11:39 - Now Now ( nun ). Probably refers to him. You Pharisees do now what was formerly done.

Now ( nun ).

Probably refers to him. You Pharisees do now what was formerly done.

Robertson: Luk 11:39 - The platter The platter ( tou pinakos ). The dish. Old word, rendered "the charger"in Mat 14:8. Another word for "platter"(paropsis ) in Mat 23:25 means "side-d...

The platter ( tou pinakos ).

The dish. Old word, rendered "the charger"in Mat 14:8. Another word for "platter"(paropsis ) in Mat 23:25 means "side-dish."

Robertson: Luk 11:39 - But your inward part But your inward part ( to de esōthen humōn ). The part within you (Pharisees). They keep the external regulations, but their hearts are full of p...

But your inward part ( to de esōthen humōn ).

The part within you (Pharisees). They keep the external regulations, but their hearts are full of plunder (harpagēs , from harpazō , to seize) and wickedness (ponērias , from ponēros , evil man). See note on Mat 23:25 for a like indictment of the Pharisees for care for the outside of the cup but neglect of what is on the inside. Both inside and outside should be clean, but the inside first.

Robertson: Luk 11:40 - Howbeit Howbeit ( plēn ). See note on Luk 6:24. Instead of devoting so much attention to the outside.

Howbeit ( plēn ).

See note on Luk 6:24. Instead of devoting so much attention to the outside.

Robertson: Luk 11:40 - Those things which are within Those things which are within ( ta enonta ). Articular neuter plural participle from eneimi , to be in, common verb. This precise phrase only here in...

Those things which are within ( ta enonta ).

Articular neuter plural participle from eneimi , to be in, common verb. This precise phrase only here in the N.T. though in the papyri, and it is not clear what it means. Probably, give as alms the things within the dishes, that is have inward righteousness with a brotherly spirit and the outward becomes "clean"(kathara ). Properly understood, this is not irony and is not Ebionism, but good Christianity (Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 11:42 - Tithe Tithe ( apodekatoute ). Late verb for the more common dekateuō . So in Mat 23:23. Take a tenth off (apo -). Rue (pēganon ). Botanical term in l...

Tithe ( apodekatoute ).

Late verb for the more common dekateuō . So in Mat 23:23. Take a tenth off (apo -). Rue (pēganon ). Botanical term in late writers from pēgnumi , to make fast because of its thick leaves. Here Mat 23:23 has "anise."

Robertson: Luk 11:42 - Every herb Every herb ( pān lachanon ). General term as in Mar 4:32. Matthew has "cummin."

Every herb ( pān lachanon ).

General term as in Mar 4:32. Matthew has "cummin."

Robertson: Luk 11:42 - Pass by Pass by ( parerchesthe ). Present middle indicative of parerchomai , common verb, to go by or beside. Mat 23:23 has "ye have left undone"(aphēkate ...

Pass by ( parerchesthe ).

Present middle indicative of parerchomai , common verb, to go by or beside. Mat 23:23 has "ye have left undone"(aphēkate ). Luke here has "love"(agapēn ), not in Matthew.

Robertson: Luk 11:42 - Ought Ought ( edei ). As in Matthew. Imperfect of a present obligation, not lived up to just like our "ought"(owed , not paid). Pareinai , as in Matthew, t...

Ought ( edei ).

As in Matthew. Imperfect of a present obligation, not lived up to just like our "ought"(owed , not paid). Pareinai , as in Matthew, the second aorist active infinitive of aphiēmi . to leave off. Common verb. Luke does not have the remark about straining out the gnat and swallowing the camel (Mat 23:34). It is plain that the terrible exposure of the scribes and Pharisees in Matthew 23 in the temple was simply the culmination of previous conflicts such as this one.

Robertson: Luk 11:43 - The chief seats in the synagogues The chief seats in the synagogues ( tēn prōtokathedrian en tais sunagōgais ). Singular here, plural in Mat 23:6. This semi-circular bench faced...

The chief seats in the synagogues ( tēn prōtokathedrian en tais sunagōgais ).

Singular here, plural in Mat 23:6. This semi-circular bench faced the congregation. Mat 23:6 has also the chief place at feasts given by Luke also in that discourse (Luk 20:46) as well as in Luk 14:7, a marked characteristic of the Pharisees.

Robertson: Luk 11:44 - The tombs which appear not The tombs which appear not ( ta mnēneia ta adēla ). These hidden graves would give ceremonial defilement for seven days (Num 19:16). Hence they w...

The tombs which appear not ( ta mnēneia ta adēla ).

These hidden graves would give ceremonial defilement for seven days (Num 19:16). Hence they were usually whitewashed as a warning. So in Mat 23:27 the Pharisees are called "whited sepulchres."Men do not know how rotten they are. The word adēlos (a privative and dēlos , apparent or plain) occurs in the N.T. only here and 1Co 14:8, though an old and common word.

Robertson: Luk 11:44 - Here men walking around Here men walking around ( peripatountes ) walk over the tombs without knowing it. These three woes cut to the quick and evidently made the Pharisees ...

Here men walking around ( peripatountes )

walk over the tombs without knowing it. These three woes cut to the quick and evidently made the Pharisees wince.

Robertson: Luk 11:45 - Thou reproachest us also Thou reproachest us also ( kai hēmās hubrizeis ). Because the lawyers (scribes) were usually Pharisees. The verb hubrizō is an old one and co...

Thou reproachest us also ( kai hēmās hubrizeis ).

Because the lawyers (scribes) were usually Pharisees. The verb hubrizō is an old one and common for outrageous treatment, a positive insult (so Luk 18:32; Mat 22:6; Acts 14;5; 1Th 2:2). So Jesus proceeds to give the lawyers three woes as he had done to the Pharisees.

Robertson: Luk 11:46 - Grievous to be borne Grievous to be borne ( dusbastakta ). A late word in lxx and Plutarch (dus and bastazō ). Here alone in text of Westcott and Hort who reject it ...

Grievous to be borne ( dusbastakta ).

A late word in lxx and Plutarch (dus and bastazō ). Here alone in text of Westcott and Hort who reject it in Mat 23:4 where we have "heavy burdens"(phortia barea ). In Gal 6:2 we have barē with a distinction drawn. Here we have phortizete (here only in the N.T. and Mat 11:28) for "lade,"phortia as cognate accusative and then phortiois (dative after ou prospsauete , touch not). It is a fierce indictment of scribes (lawyers) for their pettifogging interpretations of the written law in their oral teaching (later written down as Mishna and then as Gemarah ), a terrible load which these lawyers did not pretend to carry themselves, not even "with one of their fingers"to "touch"(prospsauō , old verb but only here in the N.T.), touch with the view to remove. Mat 23:4 has kinēsai , to move. A physician would understand the meaning of prospauō for feeling gently a sore spot or the pulse.

Robertson: Luk 11:48 - Consent Consent ( suneudokeite ). Double compound (sun , eu , dokeō ), to think well along with others, to give full approval. A late verb, several times ...

Consent ( suneudokeite ).

Double compound (sun , eu , dokeō ), to think well along with others, to give full approval. A late verb, several times in the N.T., in Act 8:1 of Saul’ s consenting to and agreeing to Stephen’ s death. It is a somewhat subtle, but just, argument made here. Outwardly the lawyers build tombs for the prophets whom their fathers (forefathers) killed as if they disapproved what their fathers did. But in reality they neglect and oppose what the prophets teach just as their fathers did. So they are "witnesses"(martures ) against themselves (Mat 23:31).

Robertson: Luk 11:49 - The wisdom of God The wisdom of God ( hē sophia tou theou ). In Mat 23:34 Jesus uses "I send"(egō apostellō ) without this phrase "the wisdom of God."There is n...

The wisdom of God ( hē sophia tou theou ).

In Mat 23:34 Jesus uses "I send"(egō apostellō ) without this phrase "the wisdom of God."There is no book to which it can refer. Jesus is the wisdom of God as Paul shows (1Co 1:30), but it is hardly likely that he so describes himself here. Probably he means that God in his wisdom said, but even so "Jesus here speaks with confident knowledge of the Divine counsels"(Plummer). See Luk 10:22; Luk 15:7, Luk 15:10. Here the future tense occurs, "I will send"(apostelō ).

Robertson: Luk 11:49 - Some of them Some of them ( ex autōn ). No "some"(tinas ) in the Greek, but understood. They will act as their fathers did. They will kill and persecute.

Some of them ( ex autōn ).

No "some"(tinas ) in the Greek, but understood. They will act as their fathers did. They will kill and persecute.

Robertson: Luk 11:50 - That ... may be required That ... may be required ( hina ... ekzētēthēi ). Divinely ordered sequence, first aorist passive subjunctive of ekzēteō , a late and r...

That ... may be required ( hina ... ekzētēthēi ).

Divinely ordered sequence, first aorist passive subjunctive of ekzēteō , a late and rare verb outside of lxx and N.T., requiring as a debt the blood of the prophets.

Robertson: Luk 11:50 - Which was shed Which was shed ( to ekkechumenon ). Perfect passive participle of ekcheō and ekchunnō (an Aeolic form appearing in the margin of Westcott and...

Which was shed ( to ekkechumenon ).

Perfect passive participle of ekcheō and ekchunnō (an Aeolic form appearing in the margin of Westcott and Hort here, ekchunnomenon , present passive participle). If the present passive is accepted, it means the blood which is perpetually shed from time to time.

Robertson: Luk 11:50 - From the foundation of the world From the foundation of the world ( apo katabolēs kosmou ). See also Mat 25:34; Joh 17:24; Eph 1:4, etc. It is a bold metaphor for the purpose of Go...

From the foundation of the world ( apo katabolēs kosmou ).

See also Mat 25:34; Joh 17:24; Eph 1:4, etc. It is a bold metaphor for the purpose of God.

Robertson: Luk 11:51 - From the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah From the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah ( apo haimatos Abel heōs haimatos Zachariou ). The blood of Abel is the first shed in the Old Test...

From the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah ( apo haimatos Abel heōs haimatos Zachariou ).

The blood of Abel is the first shed in the Old Testament (Gen 4:10), that of Zacharias the last in the O.T. canon which ended with Chronicles (2Ch 24:22). Chronologically the murder of Uriah by Jehoiakim was later (Jer 26:23), but this climax is from Genesis to II Chronicles (the last book in the canon). See note on Mat 23:35 for discussion of Zachariah as "the son of Barachiah"rather than "the son of Jehoiada."

Robertson: Luk 11:51 - Between the altar and the sanctuary Between the altar and the sanctuary ( metaxu tou thusiastēriou kai tou oikou ). Literally, between the altar and the house (Mat 23:35 has temple, n...

Between the altar and the sanctuary ( metaxu tou thusiastēriou kai tou oikou ).

Literally, between the altar and the house (Mat 23:35 has temple, naou ).

Robertson: Luk 11:52 - Ye took away the key of knowledge Ye took away the key of knowledge ( ērate tēn kleida tēs gnōseōs ). First aorist active indicative of airō , common verb. But this is a f...

Ye took away the key of knowledge ( ērate tēn kleida tēs gnōseōs ).

First aorist active indicative of airō , common verb. But this is a flat charge of obscurantism on the part of these scribes (lawyers), the teachers (rabbis) of the people. They themselves (autoi ) refused to go into the house of knowledge (beautiful figure) and learn. They then locked the door and hid the key to the house of knowledge and hindered (ekōlusate , effective aorist active) those who were trying to enter (tous eiserchomenous , present participle, conative action). It is the most pitiful picture imaginable of blind ecclesiastics trying to keep others as blind as they were, blind leaders of the blind, both falling into the pit.

Robertson: Luk 11:53 - From thence From thence ( k'akeithen ). Out of the Pharisee’ s house. What became of the breakfast we are not told, but the rage of both Pharisees and lawye...

From thence ( k'akeithen ).

Out of the Pharisee’ s house. What became of the breakfast we are not told, but the rage of both Pharisees and lawyers knew no bounds.

Robertson: Luk 11:53 - To press upon him To press upon him ( enechein ). An old Greek verb to hold in, to be enraged at, to have it in for one. It is the same verb used of the relentless hat...

To press upon him ( enechein ).

An old Greek verb to hold in, to be enraged at, to have it in for one. It is the same verb used of the relentless hatred of Herodias for John the Baptist (Mar 6:19).

Robertson: Luk 11:53 - To provoke him to speak To provoke him to speak ( apostomatizein ). From apo and stoma (mouth). Plato uses it of repeating to a pupil for him to recite from memory, then...

To provoke him to speak ( apostomatizein ).

From apo and stoma (mouth). Plato uses it of repeating to a pupil for him to recite from memory, then to recite by heart (Plutarch). Here (alone in the N.T.) the verb means to ply with questions, to entice to answers, to catechize.

Robertson: Luk 11:53 - Of many things Of many things ( peri pleionōn ). "Concerning more (comparative) things."They were stung to the quick by these woes which laid bare their hollow hy...

Of many things ( peri pleionōn ).

"Concerning more (comparative) things."They were stung to the quick by these woes which laid bare their hollow hypocrisy.

Robertson: Luk 11:54 - Laying wait for him Laying wait for him ( enedreuontes auton ). An old verb from en and hedra , a seat, so to lie in ambush for one. Here only and Act 23:21 in the N.T...

Laying wait for him ( enedreuontes auton ).

An old verb from en and hedra , a seat, so to lie in ambush for one. Here only and Act 23:21 in the N.T. Vivid picture of the anger of these rabbis who were treating Jesus as if he were a beast of prey.

Robertson: Luk 11:54 - To catch something out of his mouth To catch something out of his mouth ( thēreusai to ek tou stomatos autou ). An old Greek verb, though here only in the N.T., from thēra (cf. Ro...

To catch something out of his mouth ( thēreusai to ek tou stomatos autou ).

An old Greek verb, though here only in the N.T., from thēra (cf. Rom 11:9), to ensnare, to catch in hunting, to hunt. These graphic words from the chase show the rage of the rabbis toward Jesus. Luke gives more details here than in Luk 20:45-47; Mat 23:1-7, but there is no reason at all why Jesus should not have had this conflict at the Pharisee’ s breakfast before that in the temple in the great Tuesday debate.

Vincent: Luk 11:3 - Daily bread Daily bread ( τὸν ἄρτον τὸν ἐπιούσιον ) Great differences of opinion exist among commentators as to the strict me...

Daily bread ( τὸν ἄρτον τὸν ἐπιούσιον )

Great differences of opinion exist among commentators as to the strict meaning of the word rendered daily. The principal explanations are the following:

1. From ἐπιέναι , to come on. Hence,

a. The coming, or to-morrow's bread.

b. Daily: regarding the days in their future succession.

c. Continual.

d. Yet to come, applied to Christ, the Bread of life, who is to come hereafter.

2. From ἐπί and οὐσία , being. Hence,

a. For our sustenance (physical), and so necessary .

b. For our essential life (spiritual).

c. Above all being , hence pre-eminent, excellent .

d. Abundant .

It would be profitless to the English reader to go into the discussion. A scholar is quoted as saying that the term is " the rack of theologians and grammarians." A satisfactory discussion must assume the reader's knowledge of Greek. Those who are interested in the question will find it treated by Tholuck (" Sermon on the Mount" ), and also very exhaustively by Bishop Lightfoot (" On a Fresh Revision of the New Testament" ). The latter adopts the derivation from ἐπιέναι , to come on, and concludes by saying, " the familiar rendering, daily, which has prevailed uninterruptedly in the Western Church from the beginning, is a fairly adequate representation of the original; nor, indeed, does the English language furnish any one word which would answer the purpose so well." The rendering in the margin of Rev. is, our bread for the coming day. It is objected to this that it contradicts the Lord's precept in Mat 6:34 :, not to be anxious for the morrow. But the word does not necessarily mean the morrow. " If the prayer were said in the evening, no doubt it would mean the following day; but supposing it to be used before dawn, it would designate the day then breaking" (the coming day). " And further, if the command not to be anxious is tantamount to a prohibition against prayer for the object about which we are forbidden to be anxious, then not only must we not pray for to-morrow's food, but we must not pray for food at all; since the Lord bids us (Mat 6:25) not to be anxious for our life " (Lightfoot, condensed).

Vincent: Luk 11:4 - Forgive Forgive See on Luk 3:3; and Jam 5:15.

Forgive

See on Luk 3:3; and Jam 5:15.

Vincent: Luk 11:4 - Sins Sins ( ἁμαρτίας ) See on Mat 1:21. Compare debts, Mat 6:12.

Sins ( ἁμαρτίας )

See on Mat 1:21. Compare debts, Mat 6:12.

Vincent: Luk 11:4 - That is indebted That is indebted Matthew's debts appears here.

That is indebted

Matthew's debts appears here.

Vincent: Luk 11:4 - Lead Lead ( εἰσενέγκῃς ) Rev. gives " bring us not," which, besides being a more accurate rendering of the word (εἰς , into ,...

Lead ( εἰσενέγκῃς )

Rev. gives " bring us not," which, besides being a more accurate rendering of the word (εἰς , into , φέρω , to bear or bring ) , avoids the invidious hint of seducing or enticing which attaches to lead. James tells us that God does not tempt any man (Jam 1:13); but the circumstances of a man's life often, indeed always, involve possibilities of temptation. A caution is written even over the door of God's own house (Ecc 5:1). God also sends trials to prove and chasten us; but something may change the salutary power of trial into the corrupting power of evil solicitation; and that something, as James tells us (Jam 1:14), is our own evil desire. God tempteth no man; but " every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed." We pray, therefore, " suffer us not to be drawn away by our own lusts: keep us out of the power of our own evil hearts. Thou knowest our frame, and rememberest that we are dust. Remember our weakness. What thou imposest we would not shun. What thou dost not impose, keep us from seeking. Forbid that our evil desire should convert our temptable condition into actual temptation. Keep us out of situations in which, so far as we can judge, it would be beyond our present strength to keep from sinning." It is not a coward's prayer. No man is a coward for being afraid of his own heart. It marks the highest quality of courage to know what to be afraid of and to fear it. To pray that God will not bring us within the possibility of temptation, would be to ignore our manhood, or to pray to be taken out of the world. But we may pray, and will surely pray, the more keenly conscious we become of the weakness of our nature, that God will not suffer the trials of life to become temptations to evil.

Vincent: Luk 11:4 - Temptation Temptation See on Mat 6:13.

Temptation

See on Mat 6:13.

Vincent: Luk 11:5 - Set before Set before See on Luk 9:16.

Set before

See on Luk 9:16.

Vincent: Luk 11:7 - My children are with me in bed My children are with me in bed " A whole family - parents, children, and servants - sleep in the same room" (Thomson," Land and Book" ). Tynd.,...

My children are with me in bed

" A whole family - parents, children, and servants - sleep in the same room" (Thomson," Land and Book" ). Tynd., my servants are with me in the chamber.

Vincent: Luk 11:8 - Importunity Importunity ( ἀναίδειαν ) Only here in New Testament. A very striking word to describe persistence. Lit., shamelessn ess. As relate...

Importunity ( ἀναίδειαν )

Only here in New Testament. A very striking word to describe persistence. Lit., shamelessn ess. As related to prayer, it is illustrated in the case of Abraham's intercession for Sodom (Gen 18:23-33); and of the Syro-Phoenician woman (Mat 15:22-28).

Vincent: Luk 11:9 - Ask Ask ( αἰτεῖτε ) The word for the asking of an inferior (Act 12:20; Act 3:2); and hence of man from God (Mat 7:7; Jam 1:5). Christ neve...

Ask ( αἰτεῖτε )

The word for the asking of an inferior (Act 12:20; Act 3:2); and hence of man from God (Mat 7:7; Jam 1:5). Christ never uses the word of his own asking from the Father, but always ἐρωτῶ , as asking on equal terms. Martha shows her low conception of his person when she uses the term of his asking God (Joh 11:22).

Vincent: Luk 11:9 - Ask, seek, knock Ask, seek, knock " The three repetitions of the command are more than mere repetitions; since to seek is more than to ask, and to knock than to s...

Ask, seek, knock

" The three repetitions of the command are more than mere repetitions; since to seek is more than to ask, and to knock than to seek" (Trench, " Parables" ).

Vincent: Luk 11:11 - Of any of you Of any of you ( τίνα ) The A. V. renders as though the pronoun were indefinite; but it is interrogative and commences the sentence. Rev., t...

Of any of you ( τίνα )

The A. V. renders as though the pronoun were indefinite; but it is interrogative and commences the sentence. Rev., therefore, rightly, of which of you that is a father, etc.

Vincent: Luk 11:13 - Being Being ( ὑπάρχοντες ) See on Jam 2:15.

Being ( ὑπάρχοντες )

See on Jam 2:15.

Vincent: Luk 11:13 - Heavenly Father Heavenly Father Lit., the Father, he who is from Heaven,

Heavenly Father

Lit., the Father, he who is from Heaven,

Vincent: Luk 11:14 - Dumb Dumb ( κωφόν ) See on Mat 9:32.

Dumb ( κωφόν )

See on Mat 9:32.

Vincent: Luk 11:15 - Beelzebub Beelzebub See on Mat 10:25.

Beelzebub

See on Mat 10:25.

Vincent: Luk 11:16 - Tempting Tempting See on temptation, Mat 6:13.

Tempting

See on temptation, Mat 6:13.

Vincent: Luk 11:16 - Sign Sign See on Mat 11:20.

Sign

See on Mat 11:20.

Vincent: Luk 11:17 - Thoughts Thoughts ( διανοήματα ) Only here in New Testament. Primarily with a sense of intent, purpose.

Thoughts ( διανοήματα )

Only here in New Testament. Primarily with a sense of intent, purpose.

Vincent: Luk 11:17 - A house divided against itself falleth A house divided against itself falleth ( οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει ) Some make this an enlargement on the previous ...

A house divided against itself falleth ( οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει )

Some make this an enlargement on the previous sentence - a more detailed description of the generals brought to desolation, and render house falleth upon house. So Rev., margin. It might be taken metaphorically: the divided kingdom is brought to desolation, and its families and households in their party strifes are brought to ruin. Wyc., and an house shall fall on an house. Tynd., one house shalt fall upon another.

Vincent: Luk 11:17 - Thoughts Thoughts ( διανοήματα ) Only here in New Testament. Primarily with a sense of intent, purpose.

Thoughts ( διανοήματα )

Only here in New Testament. Primarily with a sense of intent, purpose.

Vincent: Luk 11:17 - A house divided against itself falleth A house divided against itself falleth ( οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει ) Some make this an enlargement on the previous ...

A house divided against itself falleth ( οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει )

Some make this an enlargement on the previous sentence - a more detailed description of the generals brought to desolation, and render house falleth upon house. So Rev., margin. It might be taken metaphorically: the divided kingdom is brought to desolation, and its families and households in their party strifes are brought to ruin. Wyc., and an house shall fall on an house. Tynd., one house shalt fall upon another.

Vincent: Luk 11:18 - Satan Satan See on Luk 10:18.

Satan

See on Luk 10:18.

Vincent: Luk 11:18 - Be divided Be divided See on Mat 12:26.

Be divided

See on Mat 12:26.

Vincent: Luk 11:18 - Satan Satan See on Luk 10:18.

Satan

See on Luk 10:18.

Vincent: Luk 11:18 - Be divided Be divided See on Mat 12:26.

Be divided

See on Mat 12:26.

Vincent: Luk 11:20 - Is come upon you Is come upon you See on Mat 12:28.

Is come upon you

See on Mat 12:28.

Vincent: Luk 11:20 - Is come upon you Is come upon you See on Mat 12:28.

Is come upon you

See on Mat 12:28.

Vincent: Luk 11:21 - A strong man A strong man ( ὁ ἰσχυρὸς ) It has the article: the strong man. So Rev. See on Mat 12:29.

A strong man ( ὁ ἰσχυρὸς )

It has the article: the strong man. So Rev. See on Mat 12:29.

Vincent: Luk 11:21 - Armed Armed ( καθωπλισμένος ) Fully armed: down (κατά ) from head to heel.

Armed ( καθωπλισμένος )

Fully armed: down (κατά ) from head to heel.

Vincent: Luk 11:21 - His palace His palace ( ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν ) Lit., his own. Ἀυλή is strictly the open court in front of a house: later, the court r...

His palace ( ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν )

Lit., his own. Ἀυλή is strictly the open court in front of a house: later, the court round which the house is built, and so applied to the house generally, as our door or roof . Rev., court; for there, in the open space, commanding the doors, he would mount guard.

Vincent: Luk 11:21 - A strong man A strong man ( ὁ ἰσχυρὸς ) It has the article: the strong man. So Rev. See on Mat 12:29.

A strong man ( ὁ ἰσχυρὸς )

It has the article: the strong man. So Rev. See on Mat 12:29.

Vincent: Luk 11:21 - Armed Armed ( καθωπλισμένος ) Fully armed: down (κατά ) from head to heel.

Armed ( καθωπλισμένος )

Fully armed: down (κατά ) from head to heel.

Vincent: Luk 11:21 - His palace His palace ( ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν ) Lit., his own. Ἀυλή is strictly the open court in front of a house: later, the court r...

His palace ( ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν )

Lit., his own. Ἀυλή is strictly the open court in front of a house: later, the court round which the house is built, and so applied to the house generally, as our door or roof . Rev., court; for there, in the open space, commanding the doors, he would mount guard.

Vincent: Luk 11:22 - A stronger A stronger Also with the article: the stronger.

A stronger

Also with the article: the stronger.

Vincent: Luk 11:22 - All his armor All his armor ( τὴν πανοπλίαν ) Wrong; for the armor is regarded as a whole - the panoply - which is a transcript of this word....

All his armor ( τὴν πανοπλίαν )

Wrong; for the armor is regarded as a whole - the panoply - which is a transcript of this word. Rightly, Rev., his whole armor. Tynd., his harness.

Vincent: Luk 11:22 - Spoils Spoils ( τὰ σκῦλα ) See on Mar 5:35. Compare on goods, Mat 12:29.

Spoils ( τὰ σκῦλα )

See on Mar 5:35. Compare on goods, Mat 12:29.

Vincent: Luk 11:22 - A stronger A stronger Also with the article: the stronger.

A stronger

Also with the article: the stronger.

Vincent: Luk 11:22 - All his armor All his armor ( τὴν πανοπλίαν ) Wrong; for the armor is regarded as a whole - the panoply - which is a transcript of this word....

All his armor ( τὴν πανοπλίαν )

Wrong; for the armor is regarded as a whole - the panoply - which is a transcript of this word. Rightly, Rev., his whole armor. Tynd., his harness.

Vincent: Luk 11:22 - Spoils Spoils ( τὰ σκῦλα ) See on Mar 5:35. Compare on goods, Mat 12:29.

Spoils ( τὰ σκῦλα )

See on Mar 5:35. Compare on goods, Mat 12:29.

Vincent: Luk 11:24 - Dry places Dry places ( ἀνύδρων τόπων ) Rev., more literally, waterl ess. The haunts of evil spirits (Isa 13:21, Isa 13:22; Isa 34:14). B...

Dry places ( ἀνύδρων τόπων )

Rev., more literally, waterl ess. The haunts of evil spirits (Isa 13:21, Isa 13:22; Isa 34:14). By satyrs in these two passages are meant goblins shaped like goats, which were sacrificed to by some of the Israelites (Lev 17:7; 2Ch 11:15); a remnant of the Egyptian worship of Mendes or Pan, who, under the figure of a goat, was worshipped by the Egyptians as the fertilizing principle in nature. In Isa 34:14, it is said " the screech-owl shall rest there." This is rendered in margin of A. V. and in the Rev., Old Testament, the night-monster (Hebrew, Lilith ) ; and by Cheyne (Isaiah) night-fairy. The reference is to a popular superstition that Lilith , Adam's first wife, forsook him and became a demon which murdered young children and haunted desert places.

Vincent: Luk 11:24 - Rest Rest See on Mat 11:28.

Rest

See on Mat 11:28.

Vincent: Luk 11:26 - Taketh to him Taketh to him ( παραλαμβάνει ) See on Mat 4:5.

Taketh to him ( παραλαμβάνει )

See on Mat 4:5.

Vincent: Luk 11:26 - Seven Seven Emphatic: " taketh spirits, seven of them."

Seven

Emphatic: " taketh spirits, seven of them."

Vincent: Luk 11:26 - More wicked More wicked See on Luk 3:19; and Mar 7:21.

More wicked

See on Luk 3:19; and Mar 7:21.

Vincent: Luk 11:26 - Dwell Dwell ( κατοικεῖ ) Settle down (κατά ) to make their dwelling (οἶκος ) there.

Dwell ( κατοικεῖ )

Settle down (κατά ) to make their dwelling (οἶκος ) there.

Vincent: Luk 11:27 - Blessed Blessed, etc " She speaks well, but womanly" (Bengel).

Blessed, etc

" She speaks well, but womanly" (Bengel).

Vincent: Luk 11:29 - Were gathered thick together Were gathered thick together ( ἐπαθροιζομένων ) The present participle; and therefore, as Rev., were gathering together unto h...

Were gathered thick together ( ἐπαθροιζομένων )

The present participle; and therefore, as Rev., were gathering together unto him, or upon him (ἐπιί ). Only here in New Testament.

Vincent: Luk 11:29 - Evil Evil See on adulterous. Mat 12:39.

Evil

See on adulterous. Mat 12:39.

Vincent: Luk 11:30 - A sign to the Ninevites A sign to the Ninevites Compare Mat 12:40.

A sign to the Ninevites

Compare Mat 12:40.

Vincent: Luk 11:31 - Shall rise up Shall rise up ( ἐγερθήσεται ) From the dead.

Shall rise up ( ἐγερθήσεται )

From the dead.

Vincent: Luk 11:31 - A greater A greater ( πλεῖον ) Lit., something more. See on Mat 12:6. Wyc., here is more than Solomon.

A greater ( πλεῖον )

Lit., something more. See on Mat 12:6. Wyc., here is more than Solomon.

Vincent: Luk 11:32 - Shall rise up Shall rise up ( ἀναστήσονται ) This verb is also used of rising from the dead, and that is implied here; but the meaning is, sha...

Shall rise up ( ἀναστήσονται )

This verb is also used of rising from the dead, and that is implied here; but the meaning is, shall appear as witness. Hence Rev., stand up . See on Mat 12:41.

Vincent: Luk 11:32 - Preaching Preaching ( κήρυγμα ) The proclamation. See on 2Pe 2:5.

Preaching ( κήρυγμα )

The proclamation. See on 2Pe 2:5.

Vincent: Luk 11:33 - Candle Candle Properly, lamp .

Candle

Properly, lamp .

Vincent: Luk 11:33 - Secret place Secret place ( κρυπτὴν ) Rather, a cellar or crypt, which latter is the Greek word transcribed.

Secret place ( κρυπτὴν )

Rather, a cellar or crypt, which latter is the Greek word transcribed.

Vincent: Luk 11:33 - The bushel The bushel See on Mat 5:15.

The bushel

See on Mat 5:15.

Vincent: Luk 11:33 - Candlestick Candlestick Properly stand . See on Mat 5:15.

Candlestick

Properly stand . See on Mat 5:15.

Vincent: Luk 11:33 - Which enter in Which enter in ( εἰσπορευόμενοι ) Better with the continuous force of the present participle, axe entering m from time to tim...

Which enter in ( εἰσπορευόμενοι )

Better with the continuous force of the present participle, axe entering m from time to time.

Vincent: Luk 11:33 - Light Light ( φέγγος ) The word occurs in only two other places: Mat 24:29; Mar 13:24, on which see notes.

Light ( φέγγος )

The word occurs in only two other places: Mat 24:29; Mar 13:24, on which see notes.

Vincent: Luk 11:34 - Single - full of light Single - full of light See on Mat 6:22.

Single - full of light

See on Mat 6:22.

Vincent: Luk 11:35 - The light that is in thee The light that is in thee Lit., the light, that, namely, which is in thee; thus emphasizing the inward light. See on Mat 6:23.

The light that is in thee

Lit., the light, that, namely, which is in thee; thus emphasizing the inward light. See on Mat 6:23.

Vincent: Luk 11:36 - The bright shining of a candle The bright shining of a candle ( ὁ λύχνος τῇ ἀστραπῇ ) More correctly, as Rev., the lamp with its bright shining. ...

The bright shining of a candle ( ὁ λύχνος τῇ ἀστραπῇ )

More correctly, as Rev., the lamp with its bright shining. Ἀστραπή means lightning: see Luk 10:18; and that is the usual meaning in classical Greek, though it occurs, rarely, of the light of a lamp. It is used here to emphasize the idea of moral illumination.

Vincent: Luk 11:37 - Besought Besought ( ἐρωτᾷ ) Too strong. Better, as Rev., asketh . The present tense.

Besought ( ἐρωτᾷ )

Too strong. Better, as Rev., asketh . The present tense.

Vincent: Luk 11:37 - Dine Dine ( ἀριστήσῃ ) See on dinner, Mat 22:4. The morning meal, immediately after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue.

Dine ( ἀριστήσῃ )

See on dinner, Mat 22:4. The morning meal, immediately after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue.

Vincent: Luk 11:38 - Washed Washed ( ἐβαπτίσθη ) See on Mar 7:4.

Washed ( ἐβαπτίσθη )

See on Mar 7:4.

Vincent: Luk 11:39 - Platter Platter ( πίνακος ) The word rendered charger in Mat 14:8, on which see note. Compare, also, παροψίς , platter, Mat 23:25.

Platter ( πίνακος )

The word rendered charger in Mat 14:8, on which see note. Compare, also, παροψίς , platter, Mat 23:25.

Vincent: Luk 11:41 - Such things as ye have Such things as ye have ( τὰ ἐνόντα ) Only here in New Testament. Commentators differ as to the meaning, but generally reject that o...

Such things as ye have ( τὰ ἐνόντα )

Only here in New Testament. Commentators differ as to the meaning, but generally reject that of the A. V. Rev., those things which are within. The meaning is, give alms of the contents of the cups and platters. Jesus is insisting upon inward righteousness as against pharisaic externalism, and says: " Your virtue consists in washing the outside, and making a respectable appearance. Cultivate rather the loving, brotherly spirit of inward righteousness, which will prompt you to give of the food which the vessels contain (that which is within) to your suffering brother." " Do you think it is enough to wash your hands before eating? There is a surer means. Let some poor man partake of your meats and wines" (Godet). So Bengel, Meyer, Alford. Compare Mat 9:13; Hos 6:6. Wyc., That thing that is over (i.e., remaining in the dishes) give ye alms.

Vincent: Luk 11:42 - Ye tithe Ye tithe ( ἀποδεκατοῦτε ) Tithe is tenth. See on Mat 23:23.

Ye tithe ( ἀποδεκατοῦτε )

Tithe is tenth. See on Mat 23:23.

Vincent: Luk 11:42 - Rue Rue ( τήγανον ) Probably from πήγνυμι , to make fast; because of its thick, fleshy leaves. Matthew has anise . See on Mat 23:...

Rue ( τήγανον )

Probably from πήγνυμι , to make fast; because of its thick, fleshy leaves. Matthew has anise . See on Mat 23:23.

Vincent: Luk 11:42 - Herb Herb ( λάχανον ) See on Mar 4:32. Wyc. has wort, originally the general term for a plant. Hence colewort, liverwort, and similar wor...

Herb ( λάχανον )

See on Mar 4:32. Wyc. has wort, originally the general term for a plant. Hence colewort, liverwort, and similar words. Compare the German wurz , root or herb .

Vincent: Luk 11:43 - Pharisees Pharisees ( τοῖς Φαρισαίοις ) Luke's form of expression differs from that of Matthew, who says, " ye Pharisees; while Luke ...

Pharisees ( τοῖς Φαρισαίοις )

Luke's form of expression differs from that of Matthew, who says, " ye Pharisees; while Luke has " woe unto you, the Pharisees," marking them by the article as a well-known religious body.

Vincent: Luk 11:44 - Tombs which appear not Tombs which appear not ( τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα ) Lit., the tombs, the unseen ones. The word ἄδηλος , unappar...

Tombs which appear not ( τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα )

Lit., the tombs, the unseen ones. The word ἄδηλος , unapparent, occurs only here and 1Co 14:8, of the trumpet giving an uncertain sound.

Vincent: Luk 11:44 - That walk over That walk over ( περιπατοῦντες ) The participle, and without the article; and therefore better, as they walk; walk about (πε...

That walk over ( περιπατοῦντες )

The participle, and without the article; and therefore better, as they walk; walk about (περί ) on their daily business. In Matthew the sepulchres are whitened, that men may see them and avoid ceremonial defilement. Here they are not seen, and men walking on them are unconsciously defiled. See on Mat 23:27.

Vincent: Luk 11:45 - Reproachest Reproachest ( ὑβρίζεις ) The lawyer converts Jesus' reproach (see Mar 16:14, upbraided ) into an insult; the word meaning to ou...

Reproachest ( ὑβρίζεις )

The lawyer converts Jesus' reproach (see Mar 16:14, upbraided ) into an insult; the word meaning to outrage or affront.

Vincent: Luk 11:45 - Us also Us also ( καὶ ἡμᾶς ) Or perhaps better, even us , the learned.

Us also ( καὶ ἡμᾶς )

Or perhaps better, even us , the learned.

Vincent: Luk 11:46 - Also Also ( καὶ ) Emphatic. " Even or also unto you lawyers, woe." Note the article as in the address to the Pharisees (Luk 11:43): You, th...

Also ( καὶ )

Emphatic. " Even or also unto you lawyers, woe." Note the article as in the address to the Pharisees (Luk 11:43): You, the lawyers.

Vincent: Luk 11:46 - Ye lade Ye lade Compare heavy laden , Mat 11:28.

Ye lade

Compare heavy laden , Mat 11:28.

Vincent: Luk 11:46 - Grievous to be borne Grievous to be borne ( δυσβάστακτα ) Only here and Mat 23:4.

Grievous to be borne ( δυσβάστακτα )

Only here and Mat 23:4.

Vincent: Luk 11:46 - Touch Touch ( προσψαύετε ) Only here in New Testament. A technical term in medicine for feeling gently a sore part of the body, or the puls...

Touch ( προσψαύετε )

Only here in New Testament. A technical term in medicine for feeling gently a sore part of the body, or the pulse. Mat 23:4, has κινῆσαι , move.

Vincent: Luk 11:47 - Ye build Ye build Or are building, carrying on the work now. See on Mat 23:29.

Ye build

Or are building, carrying on the work now. See on Mat 23:29.

Vincent: Luk 11:47 - Tombs of the prophets Tombs of the prophets See on Mat 23:29.

Tombs of the prophets

See on Mat 23:29.

Vincent: Luk 11:48 - Ye bear witness that ye allow Ye bear witness that ye allow ( μάρτυρές ἐστε και συνεὐδοκεῖτε ) Rev., more correctly, ye are witnesses and...

Ye bear witness that ye allow ( μάρτυρές ἐστε και συνεὐδοκεῖτε )

Rev., more correctly, ye are witnesses and con sent. The compound verb means " give your full approval." Ye think (δοκεῖτε ) ; favorably (εὖ ); along with them (σύν ).

Vincent: Luk 11:51 - The altar and the temple The altar and the temple Oἴκου , temple, lit., house , is equivalent to ναοῦ , sanctuary (Rev.), in Mat 23:35. The altar is the ...

The altar and the temple

Oἴκου , temple, lit., house , is equivalent to ναοῦ , sanctuary (Rev.), in Mat 23:35. The altar is the altar of burnt-offering. See on Mat 4:5; and compare 2Ch 24:18-21.

Vincent: Luk 11:53 - To urge him vehemently To urge him vehemently ( δεινῶς ἐνέχειν ) See on Mar 6:19.

To urge him vehemently ( δεινῶς ἐνέχειν )

See on Mar 6:19.

Vincent: Luk 11:53 - Provoke to speak Provoke to speak ( ἀποστοματίζειν ) Only here in New Testament. From ἀπό , from, and στόμα , the mouth. Origin...

Provoke to speak ( ἀποστοματίζειν )

Only here in New Testament. From ἀπό , from, and στόμα , the mouth. Originally to dictate to a pupil what he is to learn by heart. Thus Plato:" When the grammar-master dictated (ἀποστοματίζοι ) to you" (" Euthydemus," 276). Hence to catechize, with the idea of putting words into Christ's mouth, and making him say what they wanted him to say.

Vincent: Luk 11:54 - Lying in wait - to catch Lying in wait - to catch ( ἐνεδρεύοντες - θηρεῦσαι ) Met aphors from hunting.

Lying in wait - to catch ( ἐνεδρεύοντες - θηρεῦσαι )

Met aphors from hunting.

Wesley: Luk 11:1 - Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples The Jewish masters used to give their followers some short form of prayer, as a peculiar badge of their relation to them. This it is probable John the...

The Jewish masters used to give their followers some short form of prayer, as a peculiar badge of their relation to them. This it is probable John the Baptist had done. And in this sense it seems to be that the disciples now asked Jesus, to teach them to pray. Accordingly he here repeats that form, which he had before given them in his sermon on the mount, and likewise enlarges on the same head, though still speaking the same things in substance. And this prayer uttered from the heart, and in its true and full meaning, is indeed the badge of a real Christian: for is not he such whose first and most ardent desire is the glory of God, and the happiness of man by the coming of his kingdom? Who asks for no more of this world than his daily bread, longing meantime for the bread that came down from heaven? And whose only desires for himself are forgiveness of sins, (as he heartily forgives others,) and sanctification.

Wesley: Luk 11:2 - When ye pray, say And what he said to them is undoubtedly said to us also. We are therefore here directed, not only to imitate this in all our prayers, but to use this ...

And what he said to them is undoubtedly said to us also. We are therefore here directed, not only to imitate this in all our prayers, but to use this very form of prayer. Mat 6:9.

Wesley: Luk 11:4 - Forgive us; for we forgive them Not once, but continually. This does not denote the meritorious cause of our pardon; but the removal of that hinderance which otherwise would render i...

Not once, but continually. This does not denote the meritorious cause of our pardon; but the removal of that hinderance which otherwise would render it impossible.

Wesley: Luk 11:5 - At midnight The most unseasonable time: but no time is unseasonable with God, either for hearing or answering prayer.

The most unseasonable time: but no time is unseasonable with God, either for hearing or answering prayer.

Wesley: Luk 11:9 - -- Mat 7:7.

Wesley: Luk 11:13 - How much more shall your heavenly Father How beautiful is the gradation! A friend: a father: God! Give the Holy Spirit - The best of gifts, and that which includes every good gift.

How beautiful is the gradation! A friend: a father: God! Give the Holy Spirit - The best of gifts, and that which includes every good gift.

Wesley: Luk 11:14 - It was dumb That is, it made the man so. Mat 12:22.

That is, it made the man so. Mat 12:22.

Wesley: Luk 11:15 - But some said, He casteth out devils by Beelzebub These he answers, Luk 11:17. Others, to try whether it were so or no, sought a sign from heaven. These he reproves in Luk 11:29 and following verses. ...

These he answers, Luk 11:17. Others, to try whether it were so or no, sought a sign from heaven. These he reproves in Luk 11:29 and following verses. Beelzebub signifies the lord of flies, a title which the heathens gave to Jupiter, whom they accounted the chief of their gods, and yet supposed him to be employed in driving away flies from their temple and sacrifices. The Philistines worshipped a deity under this name, as the god of Ekron: from hence the Jews took the name, and applied it to the chief of the devils. Mar 3:22.

Wesley: Luk 11:16 - -- Mat 12:38.

Wesley: Luk 11:17 - A house That is, a family.

That is, a family.

Wesley: Luk 11:20 - If I cast out devils by the finger of God That is, by a power manifestly Divine. Perhaps the expression intimates farther, that it was done without any labour: then the kingdom of God is come ...

That is, by a power manifestly Divine. Perhaps the expression intimates farther, that it was done without any labour: then the kingdom of God is come upon you - Unawares, unexpected: so the Greek word implies.

Wesley: Luk 11:21 - The strong one armed The devil, strong in himself, and armed with the pride, obstinacy, and security of him in whom he dwells.

The devil, strong in himself, and armed with the pride, obstinacy, and security of him in whom he dwells.

Wesley: Luk 11:26 - The last state of that man becometh worse than the first Whoever reads the sad account Josephus gives of the temple and conduct of the Jews, after the ascension of Christ and before their final destruction b...

Whoever reads the sad account Josephus gives of the temple and conduct of the Jews, after the ascension of Christ and before their final destruction by the Romans, must acknowledge that no emblem could have been more proper to describe them. Their characters were the vilest that can be conceived, and they pressed on to their own ruin, as if they had been possessed by legions of devils, and wrought up to the last degree of madness. But this also is fulfilled in all who totally and finally apostatize from true faith.

Wesley: Luk 11:27 - Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked! How natural was the thought for a woman! And how gently does our Lord reprove her!

How natural was the thought for a woman! And how gently does our Lord reprove her!

Wesley: Luk 11:28 - Yea, rather blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it For if even she that bare him had not done this, she would have forfeited all her blessedness.

For if even she that bare him had not done this, she would have forfeited all her blessedness.

Wesley: Luk 11:29 - It seeketh The original word implies seeking more, or over and above what one has already.

The original word implies seeking more, or over and above what one has already.

Wesley: Luk 11:32 - They repented at the preaching of Jonah But it was only for a season. Afterward they relapsed into wickedness, till (after about forty years) they were destroyed. It is remarkable, that in t...

But it was only for a season. Afterward they relapsed into wickedness, till (after about forty years) they were destroyed. It is remarkable, that in this also the comparison held. God reprieved the Jews for about forty years; but they still advanced in wickedness, till having filled up their measure, they were destroyed with an utter destruction.

Wesley: Luk 11:33 - -- The meaning is, God gives you this Gospel light, that you may repent. Let your eye be singly fixed on him, aim only at pleasing God; and while you do ...

The meaning is, God gives you this Gospel light, that you may repent. Let your eye be singly fixed on him, aim only at pleasing God; and while you do this, your whole soul will be full of wisdom, holiness, and happiness. Mat 5:15; Mar 4:21; Luk 8:16.

Wesley: Luk 11:34 - But when thine eye is evil When thou aimest at any thing else, thou wilt be full of folly, sin, and misery. On the contrary, Mat 6:22.

When thou aimest at any thing else, thou wilt be full of folly, sin, and misery. On the contrary, Mat 6:22.

Wesley: Luk 11:36 - If thy whole body be full of light If thou art filled with holy wisdom, having no part dark, giving way to no sin or folly, then that heavenly principle will, like the clear flame of a ...

If thou art filled with holy wisdom, having no part dark, giving way to no sin or folly, then that heavenly principle will, like the clear flame of a lamp in a room that was dark before, shed its light into all thy powers and faculties.

Wesley: Luk 11:39 - Now ye Pharisees Probably many of them were present at the Pharisee's house. Mat 23:25.

Probably many of them were present at the Pharisee's house. Mat 23:25.

Wesley: Luk 11:41 - Give what is in them The vessels which ye clean, in alms, and all things are clean to you. As if he had said, By acts directly contrary to rapine and wickedness, show that...

The vessels which ye clean, in alms, and all things are clean to you. As if he had said, By acts directly contrary to rapine and wickedness, show that your hearts are cleansed, and these outward washings are needless.

Wesley: Luk 11:42 - Wo to you That is, miserable are you. In the same manner is the phrase to be understood throughout the chapter.

That is, miserable are you. In the same manner is the phrase to be understood throughout the chapter.

Wesley: Luk 11:44 - For ye are as graves which appear not Probably in speaking this our Lord fixed his eyes on the scribes. As graves which appear not, being overgrown with grass, so that men are not aware, t...

Probably in speaking this our Lord fixed his eyes on the scribes. As graves which appear not, being overgrown with grass, so that men are not aware, till they stumble upon them, and either hurt themselves, or at least are defiled by touching them. On another occasion Christ compared them to whited sepulchres, fair without, but foul within; Mat 23:27.

Wesley: Luk 11:45 - One of the lawyers That is scribes; expounders of the law.

That is scribes; expounders of the law.

Wesley: Luk 11:48 - Whom they killed, ye build their sepulchres Just like them pretending great reverence for the ancient prophets, while ye destroy those whom God sends to yourselves. Ye therefore bear witness by ...

Just like them pretending great reverence for the ancient prophets, while ye destroy those whom God sends to yourselves. Ye therefore bear witness by this deep hypocrisy that ye are of the very same spirit with them.

Wesley: Luk 11:49 - The wisdom of God, agreeably to this, hath said In many places of Scripture, though not in these very words, I will send them prophets - Chiefly under the Old Testament: and apostles - Under the New...

In many places of Scripture, though not in these very words, I will send them prophets - Chiefly under the Old Testament: and apostles - Under the New. Mat 23:34.

Wesley: Luk 11:50 - The blood of all shall be required of this generation That is, shall be visibly and terribly punished upon it.

That is, shall be visibly and terribly punished upon it.

Wesley: Luk 11:51 - -- And so it was within forty years, in a most astonishing manner, by the dreadful destruction of the temple, the city, and the whole nation.

And so it was within forty years, in a most astonishing manner, by the dreadful destruction of the temple, the city, and the whole nation.

Wesley: Luk 11:51 - Between the temple and the altar In the court of the temple.

In the court of the temple.

Wesley: Luk 11:52 - Ye have taken away the key of knowledge Ye have obscured and destroyed the knowledge of the Messiah, which is the key of both the present and the future kingdom of heaven; the kingdom of gra...

Ye have obscured and destroyed the knowledge of the Messiah, which is the key of both the present and the future kingdom of heaven; the kingdom of grace and glory.

Wesley: Luk 11:52 - Ye have not entered in Into the present kingdom of heaven.

Into the present kingdom of heaven.

JFB: Luk 11:1 - one, &c. Struck with either the matter or the manner of our Lord's prayers.

Struck with either the matter or the manner of our Lord's prayers.

JFB: Luk 11:1 - as John, &c. From this reference to John, it is possible that disciple had not heard the Sermon on the Mount. Nothing of John's inner teaching (to his own disciple...

From this reference to John, it is possible that disciple had not heard the Sermon on the Mount. Nothing of John's inner teaching (to his own disciples) has been preserved to us, but we may be sure he never taught his disciples to say, "Our Father."

JFB: Luk 11:2-4 - -- (See on Mat 6:9-13).

(See on Mat 6:9-13).

JFB: Luk 11:3 - day by day, &c. An extension of the petition in Matthew for "this day's" supply, to every successive day's necessities. The closing doxology, wanting here, is wanting...

An extension of the petition in Matthew for "this day's" supply, to every successive day's necessities. The closing doxology, wanting here, is wanting also in all the best and most ancient copies of Matthew's Gospel. Perhaps our Lord purposely left that part open: and as the grand Jewish doxologies were ever resounding, and passed immediately and naturally, in all their hallowed familiarity into the Christian Church, probably this prayer was never used in the Christian assemblies but in its present form, as we find it in Matthew, while in Luke it has been allowed to stand as originally uttered.

JFB: Luk 11:5-8 - at midnight . . . for a friend is come The heat in warm countries makes evening preferable to-day for travelling; but "midnight" is everywhere a most unseasonable hour of call, and for that...

The heat in warm countries makes evening preferable to-day for travelling; but "midnight" is everywhere a most unseasonable hour of call, and for that very reason it is here selected.

JFB: Luk 11:7 - Trouble me not The trouble making him insensible both to the urgency of the case and the claims of friendship.

The trouble making him insensible both to the urgency of the case and the claims of friendship.

JFB: Luk 11:7 - I cannot Without exertion which he would not make.

Without exertion which he would not make.

JFB: Luk 11:8 - importunity The word is a strong one--"shamelessness"; persisting in the face of all that seemed reasonable, and refusing to take a denial.

The word is a strong one--"shamelessness"; persisting in the face of all that seemed reasonable, and refusing to take a denial.

JFB: Luk 11:8 - as many, &c. His reluctance once overcome, all the claims of friendship and necessity are felt to the full. The sense is obvious: If the churlish and self-indulgen...

His reluctance once overcome, all the claims of friendship and necessity are felt to the full. The sense is obvious: If the churlish and self-indulgent--deaf both to friendship and necessity--can after a positive refusal, be won over, by sheer persistency, to do all that is needed, how much more may the same determined perseverance in prayer be expected to prevail with Him whose very nature is "rich unto all that call upon Him" (Rom 10:12).

JFB: Luk 11:9-13 - -- (See on Mat 7:7-11.)

(See on Mat 7:7-11.)

JFB: Luk 11:13 - the Holy Spirit In Matthew (Mat 7:11), "good gifts"; the former, the Gift of gifts descending on the Church through Christ, and comprehending the latter.

In Matthew (Mat 7:11), "good gifts"; the former, the Gift of gifts descending on the Church through Christ, and comprehending the latter.

JFB: Luk 11:14 - dumb Blind also (Mat 12:22).

Blind also (Mat 12:22).

JFB: Luk 11:20 - the finger of God "the Spirit of God" (Mat 12:28); the former figuratively denoting the power of God, the latter the living Personal Agent in every exercise of it.

"the Spirit of God" (Mat 12:28); the former figuratively denoting the power of God, the latter the living Personal Agent in every exercise of it.

JFB: Luk 11:21-22 - strong man Meaning Satan.

Meaning Satan.

JFB: Luk 11:21-22 - armed Pointing to all the subtle and varied methods by which he wields his dark power over men.

Pointing to all the subtle and varied methods by which he wields his dark power over men.

JFB: Luk 11:21-22 - keepeth "guardeth."

"guardeth."

JFB: Luk 11:21-22 - his palace Man whether viewed more largely or in individual souls--how significant of what men are to Satan!

Man whether viewed more largely or in individual souls--how significant of what men are to Satan!

JFB: Luk 11:21-22 - in peace Undisturbed, secure in his possession.

Undisturbed, secure in his possession.

JFB: Luk 11:22 - a stronger than he Christ: Glorious title, in relation to Satan!

Christ: Glorious title, in relation to Satan!

JFB: Luk 11:22 - come upon him and overcome him Sublimely expressing the Redeemer's approach, as the Seed of the woman, to bruise the Serpent's head.

Sublimely expressing the Redeemer's approach, as the Seed of the woman, to bruise the Serpent's head.

JFB: Luk 11:22 - taketh from him all his armour "his panoply," "his complete armor." Vain would be the victory, were not the means of regaining his lost power wrested from him. It is this that compl...

"his panoply," "his complete armor." Vain would be the victory, were not the means of regaining his lost power wrested from him. It is this that completes the triumph and ensures the final overthrow of his kingdom. The parable that immediately follows (Luk 11:24-26) is just the reverse of this. (See on Mat 12:43-45.) In the one case, Satan is dislodged by Christ, and so finds, in all future assaults, the house preoccupied; in the other, he merely goes out and comes in again, finding the house "EMPTY" (Mat 12:44) of any rival, and all ready to welcome him back. This explains the important saying that comes in between the two parables (Luk 11:23). Neutrality in religion there is none. The absence of positive attachment to Christ involves hostility to Him.

JFB: Luk 11:23 - gathereth . . . scattereth Referring probably to gleaners. The meaning seems to be, Whatever in religion is disconnected from Christ comes to nothing.

Referring probably to gleaners. The meaning seems to be, Whatever in religion is disconnected from Christ comes to nothing.

JFB: Luk 11:27-28 - as he spake these things, a . . . woman of the company Of the multitude, the crowd. A charming little incident and profoundly instructive. With true womanly feeling, she envies the mother of such a wonderf...

Of the multitude, the crowd. A charming little incident and profoundly instructive. With true womanly feeling, she envies the mother of such a wonderful Teacher. Well, and higher and better than she had said as much before her (Luk 1:28, Luk 1:42); and our Lord is far from condemning it. He only holds up--as "blessed rather"--the hearers and keepers of God's word; in other words, the humblest real saint of God. (See on Mat 12:49-50.) How utterly alien is this sentiment from the teaching of the Church of Rome, which would excommunicate any one of its members who dared to talk in the spirit of this glorious saying! (Also see on Mat 12:43.)

JFB: Luk 11:29-32 - -- (See on Mat 12:39-42.)

(See on Mat 12:39-42.)

JFB: Luk 11:33-36 - -- (See on Mat 5:14-16; Mat 6:22-23.) But Luk 11:36 here is peculiarly vivid, expressing what pure, beautiful, broad perceptions the clarity of the inwar...

(See on Mat 5:14-16; Mat 6:22-23.) But Luk 11:36 here is peculiarly vivid, expressing what pure, beautiful, broad perceptions the clarity of the inward eye imparts.

JFB: Luk 11:38 - marvelled, &c. (See Mar 7:2-4).

(See Mar 7:2-4).

JFB: Luk 11:39-41 - cup and platter Remarkable example of our Lord's way of drawing the most striking illustrations of great truths from the most familiar objects and incidents of life.

Remarkable example of our Lord's way of drawing the most striking illustrations of great truths from the most familiar objects and incidents of life.

JFB: Luk 11:39-41 - ravening Rapacity.

Rapacity.

JFB: Luk 11:40 - that which is without, &c. That is, He to whom belongs the outer life, and right to demand its subjection to Himself--is the inner man less His?

That is, He to whom belongs the outer life, and right to demand its subjection to Himself--is the inner man less His?

JFB: Luk 11:41 - give alms . . . and . . . all . . . clean A principle of immense value. As the greed of these hypocrites was one of the most prominent features of their character (Luk 16:14; Mat 23:14), our L...

A principle of immense value. As the greed of these hypocrites was one of the most prominent features of their character (Luk 16:14; Mat 23:14), our Lord bids them exemplify the opposite character, and then their outside, ruled by this, would be beautiful in the eye of God, and their meals would be eaten with clean hands, though never so fouled with the business of this worky world. (See Ecc 9:7).

JFB: Luk 11:42 - mint . . . rue, &c. Rounding on Lev 27:30, which they interpreted rigidly. Our Lord purposely names the most trifling products of the earth, as examples of what they punc...

Rounding on Lev 27:30, which they interpreted rigidly. Our Lord purposely names the most trifling products of the earth, as examples of what they punctiliously exacted the tenth of.

JFB: Luk 11:42 - judgment and the love of God In Mat 23:25, "judgment, mercy, and faith." The reference is to Mic 6:6-8, whose third element of all acceptable religion, "walking humbly with God," ...

In Mat 23:25, "judgment, mercy, and faith." The reference is to Mic 6:6-8, whose third element of all acceptable religion, "walking humbly with God," comprehends both "love" and "faith." (See on Mar 12:29; Mar 12:32-33). The same tendency to merge greater duties in less besets us still, but it is the characteristic of hypocrites.

JFB: Luk 11:42 - these ought ye, &c. There is no need for one set of duties to jostle out another; but of the greater, our Lord says, "Ye ought to have done" them; of the lesser, only "ye...

There is no need for one set of duties to jostle out another; but of the greater, our Lord says, "Ye ought to have done" them; of the lesser, only "ye ought not to leave them undone."

JFB: Luk 11:43 - uppermost seats (See on Luk 14:7-11).

(See on Luk 14:7-11).

JFB: Luk 11:43 - greetings (See on Mat 23:7-10).

(See on Mat 23:7-10).

JFB: Luk 11:44 - appear not, &c. As one might unconsciously walk over a grave concealed from view, and thus contract ceremonial defilement, so the plausible exterior of the Pharisees ...

As one might unconsciously walk over a grave concealed from view, and thus contract ceremonial defilement, so the plausible exterior of the Pharisees kept people from perceiving the pollution they contracted from coming in contact with such corrupt characters. (See Psa 5:9; Rom 3:13; a different illustration from Mat 23:27).

JFB: Luk 11:46 - burdens grievous, &c. Referring not so much to the irksomeness of the legal rites (though they were irksome, Act 15:10), as to the heartless rigor with which they were enfo...

Referring not so much to the irksomeness of the legal rites (though they were irksome, Act 15:10), as to the heartless rigor with which they were enforced, and by men of shameless inconsistency.

JFB: Luk 11:47-48 - ye build, &c. Out of pretended respect and honor, they repaired and beautified the sepulchres of the prophets, and with whining hypocrisy said, "If we had been in t...

Out of pretended respect and honor, they repaired and beautified the sepulchres of the prophets, and with whining hypocrisy said, "If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets," while all the time they "were witnesses to themselves that they were the children of them that killed the prophets" (Mat 23:29-30); convicting themselves daily of as exact a resemblance in spirit and character to the very classes over whose deeds they pretended to mourn, as child to parent.

JFB: Luk 11:49-51 - said the wisdom, &c. A remarkable variation of the words in Mat 23:34, "Behold I SEND." As there seems plainly an allusion to ancient warnings of what God would do with so...

A remarkable variation of the words in Mat 23:34, "Behold I SEND." As there seems plainly an allusion to ancient warnings of what God would do with so incorrigible a people, so here Christ, stepping majestically into the place of God, so to speak, says, "Now I am going to carry all that out." Could this be other than the Lord of Israel in the flesh?

JFB: Luk 11:50 - all . . . required of this generation As it was only in the last generation of them that "the iniquity of the Amorites was full" (Gen 15:16), and then the abominations of ages were at once...

As it was only in the last generation of them that "the iniquity of the Amorites was full" (Gen 15:16), and then the abominations of ages were at once completely and awfully avenged, so the iniquity of Israel was allowed to accumulate from age to age till in that generation it came to the full, and the whole collected vengeance of Heaven broke at once over its devoted head. In the first French Revolution the same awful principle was exemplified, and Christendom has not done with it yet.

JFB: Luk 11:50 - prophets In the New Testament sense (Mat 23:34; see 1Co 12:28).

In the New Testament sense (Mat 23:34; see 1Co 12:28).

JFB: Luk 11:51 - blood of Zacharias Probably the allusion is not to any recent murder, but to 2Ch 24:20-22, as the last recorded and most suitable case for illustration. And as Zacharias...

Probably the allusion is not to any recent murder, but to 2Ch 24:20-22, as the last recorded and most suitable case for illustration. And as Zacharias' last words were, "The Lord require it," so they are warned that "of that generation it should be required."

JFB: Luk 11:52 - key of knowledge Not the key to open knowledge, but knowledge, the only key to open heaven. In Mat 23:13, they are accused of shutting heaven; here of taking away the ...

Not the key to open knowledge, but knowledge, the only key to open heaven. In Mat 23:13, they are accused of shutting heaven; here of taking away the key, which was worse. A right knowledge of God's Word is eternal life (Joh 17:3); but this they took away from the people, substituting for it their wretched traditions.

JFB: Luk 11:53-54 - Exceedingly vivid and affecting. They were stung to the quick And can we wonder?--yet had not materials for the charge they were preparing against Him.

And can we wonder?--yet had not materials for the charge they were preparing against Him.

JFB: Luk 11:53-54 - provoke him, &c. "to harass Him with questions."

"to harass Him with questions."

Clarke: Luk 11:1-5 - Teach us to pray Teach us to pray - See the nature of prayer, with an ample explanation of the different parts of the Lord’ s Prayer, treated of in Mat 6:5-16 (...

Teach us to pray - See the nature of prayer, with an ample explanation of the different parts of the Lord’ s Prayer, treated of in Mat 6:5-16 (note). The prayer related here by Luke is not precisely the same as that mentioned by Matthew; and indeed it is not likely that it was given at the same time. That in Matthew seems to have been given after the second passover; and this in Luke was given probably after the third passover, between the feasts of tabernacles, and the dedication. It is thus that Bishop Newcome places them in his Greek Harmony of the Gospels

There are many variations in the MSS. in this prayer; but they seem to have proceeded principally from the desire of rendering this similar to that in Matthew. Attempts of this nature have given birth to multitudes of the various readings in the MSS. of the New Testament. It should be remarked, also, that there is no vestige of the doxology found in Matthew, in any copy of St. Luke’ s Gospel.

Clarke: Luk 11:4 - Lead us not into temptation, etc. Lead us not into temptation, etc. - Dr. Lightfoot believes that this petition is intended against the visible apparitions of the devil, and his actu...

Lead us not into temptation, etc. - Dr. Lightfoot believes that this petition is intended against the visible apparitions of the devil, and his actual obsessions; he thinks that the meaning is too much softened by our translation. Deliver us from evil, is certainly a very inadequate rendering of ῥυσαι ἡμας απο του πονηρου ; literally, Deliver us from the wicked one.

Clarke: Luk 11:6 - In his journey is come In his journey is come - Or, perhaps more literally, A friend of mine is come to me out of his way, εξ ὁδου, which renders the case more ur...

In his journey is come - Or, perhaps more literally, A friend of mine is come to me out of his way, εξ ὁδου, which renders the case more urgent - a friend of mine, benighted, belated, and who has lost his way, is come unto me. This was a strong reason why he should have prompt relief.

Clarke: Luk 11:7 - My children are with me in bed My children are with me in bed - Or, I and my children are in bed; this is Bishop Pearce’ s translation, and seems to some preferable to the co...

My children are with me in bed - Or, I and my children are in bed; this is Bishop Pearce’ s translation, and seems to some preferable to the common one. See a like form of speech in 1Co 16:11, and in Eph 3:18. However, we may conceive that he had his little children, τα παιδια, in bed with him; and this heightened the difficulty of yielding to his neighbor’ s request

But if he persevere knocking. ( At si ille perseveraverit pulsans ). This sentence is added to the beginning of Luk 11:8, by the Armenian, Vulgate, four copies of the Itala, Ambrose, Augustin, and Bede. On these authorities (as I find it in no Greek MS). I cannot insert it as a part of the original text; but it is necessarily implied; for, as Bishop Pearce justly observes, unless the man in the parable be represented as continuing to solicit his friend, he could not possibly be said to use importunity: once only to ask is not to be importunate.

Clarke: Luk 11:9 - And (or, therefore) I say unto you, Ask And (or, therefore) I say unto you, Ask - Be importunate with God, not so much to prevail on him to save you, as to get yourselves brought into a pr...

And (or, therefore) I say unto you, Ask - Be importunate with God, not so much to prevail on him to save you, as to get yourselves brought into a proper disposition to receive that mercy which he is ever disposed to give. He who is not importunate for the salvation of his soul does not feel the need of being saved; and were God to communicate his mercy to such they could not be expected to be grateful for it, as favors are only prized and esteemed in proportion to the sense men have of their necessity and importance. See this subject explained Mat 7:7, Mat 7:8 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:12 - Offer him a scorpion? Offer him a scorpion? - Σκορπιον . The Greek etymologists derive the name from σκορπιζειν τον ιον, scattering the poison. ...

Offer him a scorpion? - Σκορπιον . The Greek etymologists derive the name from σκορπιζειν τον ιον, scattering the poison. But is there any similitude between a scorpion and an egg, that the one might be given and taken in place of the other? We know there is the utmost similitude between some fish, especially those of the eel kind, and serpents: and that there are stones exactly similar to bread in their appearance; from which we may conjecture that our Lord intended to convey the same idea of similitude between an egg and a scorpion. Perhaps the word scorpion here may be used for any kind of serpent that proceeds from an egg, or the word egg may be understood: the common snake is oviparous; it brings forth a number of eggs, out of which the young ones are hatched. If he asks an egg, will he, for one that might nourish him, give him that of a serpent. But Bochart states, that the body of a scorpion is like to an egg, especially if it be a white scorpion; which sort Nicander, Aelian, Avicenna, and others, maintain to be the first species. Nor do scorpions differ much in size from an egg in Judea, if we may credit what the monks of Messua say, that there are about Jerusalem, and through all Syria, great scorpions, etc. Hieroz. l. iv. cap. xxix. col. 641, edit. 1692. To this it may be said, there may be such a similitude, between a white scorpion and an egg, if the legs and tail of the former be taken away; but how there can be a resemblance any other way, I know not. It is, however, a fact, that the alligator and crocodile come from eggs; two of those lie now before me, scarcely so large as the egg of the goose, longer, but not so thick. Now, suppose reference be made to one such egg, in which the young crocodile is hatched, and is ready to burst from its enclosure, would any father give such an egg to a hungry child? No. If the child asked an egg, he would not, instead of a proper one, give him that of the crocodile or the alligator, in which the young serpent was hatched, and from which it was just ready to be separated.

Clarke: Luk 11:13 - The Holy Spirit The Holy Spirit - Or, as several MSS. have it, πνευμα αγαθον, the good spirit. See on Mat 7:11 (note).

The Holy Spirit - Or, as several MSS. have it, πνευμα αγαθον, the good spirit. See on Mat 7:11 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:14 - Casting out a devil Casting out a devil - See on Mat 12:22 (note).

Casting out a devil - See on Mat 12:22 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:19 - Beelzebub Beelzebub - See on Mat 10:25 (note).

Beelzebub - See on Mat 10:25 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:20 - Finger of God Finger of God - See on Exo 8:19 (note).

Finger of God - See on Exo 8:19 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:24 - When the unclean spirit When the unclean spirit - See on Mat 12:43 (note).

When the unclean spirit - See on Mat 12:43 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:27 - A certain woman - lifted up her voice, and said A certain woman - lifted up her voice, and said - It was very natural for a woman, who was probably a mother, to exclaim thus. She thought that the ...

A certain woman - lifted up her voice, and said - It was very natural for a woman, who was probably a mother, to exclaim thus. She thought that the happiness of the woman who was mother to such a son was great indeed; but our blessed Lord shows her that even the holy virgin could not be benefited by her merely being the mother of his human nature, and that they only were happy who carried Christ in their hearts. True happiness is found in hearing the glad tidings of salvation by Christ Jesus, and keeping them in a holy heart, and practising them in an unblamable life.

Clarke: Luk 11:29 - This is an evil generation This is an evil generation - Or, This is a wicked race of men. See on Mat 12:38-42 (note).

This is an evil generation - Or, This is a wicked race of men. See on Mat 12:38-42 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:31 - The queen of the south, etc. The queen of the south, etc. - Perhaps it would be better to translate, A queen of the south, and the men of this race, shall rise up in judgment, e...

The queen of the south, etc. - Perhaps it would be better to translate, A queen of the south, and the men of this race, shall rise up in judgment, etc. See the note on Luk 11:7. The 32d verse may be read in the same way.

Clarke: Luk 11:33 - No man, when he hath lighted, etc. No man, when he hath lighted, etc. - See on Mat 5:15 (note). Our Lord intimates, that if he worked a miracle among such an obstinate people, who wer...

No man, when he hath lighted, etc. - See on Mat 5:15 (note). Our Lord intimates, that if he worked a miracle among such an obstinate people, who were determined to disbelieve every evidence of his Messiahship, he should act as a man who lighted a candle and then covered it with a bushel, which must prevent the accomplishment of the end for which it was lighted. See also on Mar 4:21 (note), etc.

Clarke: Luk 11:34 - The light of the body is the eye The light of the body is the eye - Or, the eye is the lamp of the body. See on Mat 6:22 (note), etc The 35th and 36th verses are wanting in some MSS...

The light of the body is the eye - Or, the eye is the lamp of the body. See on Mat 6:22 (note), etc

The 35th and 36th verses are wanting in some MSS., and are variously read in others.

Clarke: Luk 11:36 - The whole shall be full of light The whole shall be full of light - Or, altogether enlightened; i.e. when the eye is perfect, it enlightens the whole body. Every object within the r...

The whole shall be full of light - Or, altogether enlightened; i.e. when the eye is perfect, it enlightens the whole body. Every object within the reach of the eye is as completely seen as if there was an eye in every part. So the eye is to every part of the body what the lamp is to every part of the house

When the light of Christ dwells fully in the heart, it extends its influence to every thought, word, and action; and directs its possessor how he is to act in all places and circumstances. It is of the utmost importance to have the soul properly influenced by the wisdom that comes from above. The doctrine that is contrary to the Gospel may say, Ignorance is the mother of devotion; but Christ shows that there can be no devotion without heavenly light. Ignorance is the mother of superstition; but with this the heavenly light has nothing to do.

Clarke: Luk 11:37 - To dine To dine - Ὁπως αριϚηση . The word αριστειν dignifies the first eating of the day. The Jews made but two meals in the day; th...

To dine - Ὁπως αριϚηση . The word αριστειν dignifies the first eating of the day. The Jews made but two meals in the day; their αριστον may be called their breakfast or their dinner, because it was both, and was but a slight meal. Their chief meal was their δειπνον or supper, after the heat of the day was over; and the same was the principal meal among the Greeks and Romans. Josephus, in his Life, says, sect. 54, that the legal hour of the αριστον, on the Sabbath, was the sixth hour, or at twelve o’ clock at noon, as we call it. What the hour was on the other days of the week, he does not say; but probably it was much the same. Bishop Pearce.

Clarke: Luk 11:38 - First washed First washed - See on Mar 7:2-4 (note).

First washed - See on Mar 7:2-4 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:39 - Ye - make clean the outside Ye - make clean the outside - See on Mat 23:25 (note).

Ye - make clean the outside - See on Mat 23:25 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:40 - Did not he that made that which is without Did not he that made that which is without - Did not the maker of the dish form it so, both outwardly and inwardly, as to answer the purpose for whi...

Did not he that made that which is without - Did not the maker of the dish form it so, both outwardly and inwardly, as to answer the purpose for which it was made? And can it answer this purpose without being clean in the inside as well as on the outside? God has made you such, both as to your bodies and souls, as he intended should show forth his praise; but can you think that the purpose of God can be accomplished by you while you only attend to external legal purifications, your hearts being full of rapine and wickedness? How unthinking are you to imagine that God can be pleased with this outward purification, when all within is unholy!

Clarke: Luk 11:41 - Give alms of such things as ye have Give alms of such things as ye have - Meaning either what was within the dishes spoken of before; or what was within their houses or power: or what ...

Give alms of such things as ye have - Meaning either what was within the dishes spoken of before; or what was within their houses or power: or what they had at hand, for so τα ενοντα is used by the purest Greek writers. Cease from rapine: far from spoiling the poor by wicked exactions, rather give them alms of every thing you possess; and when a part of every thing you have is sincerely consecrated to God for the use of the poor, then all that remains will be clean unto you; you will have the blessing of God in your basket and store, and every thing will be sanctified to you. These verses are very difficult, and are variously translated and interpreted by critics and divines. I have given what I believe to be our Lord’ s meaning, in the preceding paraphrase. For a description of the rapine, etc., of the Pharisees, see on Mat 23:25 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:42 - Ye tithe mint and rue Ye tithe mint and rue - See on Mat 23:23 (note).

Ye tithe mint and rue - See on Mat 23:23 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:43 - Ye love the uppermost seats Ye love the uppermost seats - Every one of them affected to be a ruler in the synagogues. See on Mat 23:5 (note).

Ye love the uppermost seats - Every one of them affected to be a ruler in the synagogues. See on Mat 23:5 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:44 - Ye are as graves which appear not Ye are as graves which appear not - In Mat 23:27, our Lord tells them that they exactly resembled white-washed tombs: they had no fairness but on th...

Ye are as graves which appear not - In Mat 23:27, our Lord tells them that they exactly resembled white-washed tombs: they had no fairness but on the outside: (see the note there) but here he says they are like hidden tombs, graves which were not distinguished by any outward decorations, and were not elevated above the ground, so that those who walked over them did not consider what corruption was within; so they, under the veil of hypocrisy, covered their iniquities, so that those who had any intercourse or connection with them did not perceive what accomplished knaves they had to do with.

Clarke: Luk 11:45 - Thou reproachest us Thou reproachest us - He alone who searches the heart could unmask these hypocrites; and he did it so effectually that their own consciences acknowl...

Thou reproachest us - He alone who searches the heart could unmask these hypocrites; and he did it so effectually that their own consciences acknowledged the guilt, and re-echoed their own reproach.

Clarke: Luk 11:46 - Ye lade men with burdens Ye lade men with burdens - By insisting on the observance of the traditions of the elders, to which it appears, by the way, they paid no great atten...

Ye lade men with burdens - By insisting on the observance of the traditions of the elders, to which it appears, by the way, they paid no great attention themselves. See on Mat 23:4 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:47 - Ye build the sepulchres Ye build the sepulchres - That is, ye rebuild and beautify them. See on Mat 23:29 (note).

Ye build the sepulchres - That is, ye rebuild and beautify them. See on Mat 23:29 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:48 - Truly ye bear witness Truly ye bear witness - Ye acknowledge that those of old who killed the prophets were your fathers, and ye are about to show, by your conduct toward...

Truly ye bear witness - Ye acknowledge that those of old who killed the prophets were your fathers, and ye are about to show, by your conduct towards me and my apostles, that ye are not degenerated, that ye are as capable of murdering a prophet now, as they were of old.

Clarke: Luk 11:49 - The wisdom of God The wisdom of God - These seem to be Luke’ s words, and to mean that Jesus, the wisdom of God, (as he is called, 1Co 1:24), added the words whi...

The wisdom of God - These seem to be Luke’ s words, and to mean that Jesus, the wisdom of God, (as he is called, 1Co 1:24), added the words which follow here, on that occasion: and this interpretation of the words is agreeable to that of Matthew, who makes Jesus speak in his own person: Wherefore behold, I send you prophets, etc., Mat 23:34. See the note there, and see Bishop Pearce.

Clarke: Luk 11:50 - That the blood That the blood - That the particle ινα may be translated so that, pointing out the event only, not the design or intention, Bishop Pearce has w...

That the blood - That the particle ινα may be translated so that, pointing out the event only, not the design or intention, Bishop Pearce has well shown in his note on this place, where he refers to a like use of the word in Luk 9:45; Luk 14:10; Joh 10:17; Rom 5:20; Rom 11:11; 1Co 1:15, 1Co 1:31, etc.

Clarke: Luk 11:51 - From the blood of Abel From the blood of Abel - See this subject explained at large on Mat 23:34 (note)

From the blood of Abel - See this subject explained at large on Mat 23:34 (note)

Clarke: Luk 11:51 - Required Required - Εκζητηθησεται may be translated either by the word visited or revenged, and the latter word evidently conveys the meaning ...

Required - Εκζητηθησεται may be translated either by the word visited or revenged, and the latter word evidently conveys the meaning of our Lord. They are here represented as having this blood among them; and it is intimated that God will come by and by to require it, and to inquire how it was shed, and to punish those who shed it.

Clarke: Luk 11:52 - Ye have taken away the key of knowledge Ye have taken away the key of knowledge - By your traditions ye have taken away the true method of interpreting the prophecies: ye have given a wron...

Ye have taken away the key of knowledge - By your traditions ye have taken away the true method of interpreting the prophecies: ye have given a wrong meaning to those scriptures which speak of the kingdom of the Messiah, and the people are thereby hindered from entering into it. See on Mat 23:13 (note).

Clarke: Luk 11:53 - Began to urge him vehemently Began to urge him vehemently - Δεινως ενεχειν, They began to be furious. They found themselves completely unmasked in the presence of ...

Began to urge him vehemently - Δεινως ενεχειν, They began to be furious. They found themselves completely unmasked in the presence of a vast concourse of people. See Luk 12:1, (for we can not suppose that all this conversation passed while Christ was at meat in the Pharisee’ s house, as Matthew, Mat 23:25, shows that these words were spoken on another occasion). They therefore questioned him on a variety of points, and hoped, by the multitude and impertinence of their questions, to puzzle or irritate him, so as to induce him to speak rashly, (for this is the import of the word αποϚοματιζειν ), that they might find some subject of accusation against him. See Wetstein and Kypke

A Minister of the Gospel of God should, above all men, be continent of his tongue; his enemies, in certain cases, will crowd question upon question, in order so to puzzle and confound him that he may speak unadvisedly with his lips, and thus prejudice the truth he was laboring to promote and defend. The following is a good prayer, which all who are called to defend or proclaim the truths of the Gospel may confidently offer to their God. "Let thy wisdom and light, O Lord, disperse their artifice and my darkness! Cast the bright beams of thy light upon those who have to defend themselves against subtle and deceitful men! Raise and animate their hearts, that they may not be wanting to the cause of truth. Guide their tongue, that they may not be deficient in prudence, nor expose thy truth by any indiscretions or unseasonable transports of zeal. Let meekness, gentleness, and longsuffering influence and direct their hearts; and may they ever feel the full weight of that truth: The wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God!"The following advice of one of the ancients is good: Στηθι ἑδαιος ὡς ακμων τυπτομενος, καλου γαρ αθλητου δερεσθαι και νικᾳν . "Stand thou firm as a beaten anvil: for it is the part of a good soldier to be flayed alive, and yet conquer."

Calvin: Luk 11:1 - NO PHRASE It is uncertain whether this form was once only or twice delivered by Christ to his disciples. 429 Some think that the latter is more probable; becau...

It is uncertain whether this form was once only or twice delivered by Christ to his disciples. 429 Some think that the latter is more probable; because Luke says that he was requested to do it, while Matthew represents him as teaching it of his own accord. But as we have said, that Matthew collects all the leading points of doctrine, in order that the whole amount of them may be more clearly perceived by the readers when they are placed in close succession, it is possible that Matthew may have omitted to mention the occasion which is related by Luke. On this subject, however, I am unwilling to debate with any person.

Luk 11:1 As John also taught his diciples. John delivered to his disciples a particular form of prayer; and he did so, in my opinion, because the time required it. The state of affairs among the Jews was, at that time, exceedingly corrupted. Every thing connected with religion had so miserably fallen, that we need not be surprised to find few among them, by whom prayer was offered in a proper manner. 430 Besides, it was proper, that the minds of believers should be excited, by prayer, to hope and desire the promised redemption, which was at hand. John might, therefore, have collected, out of various passages of Scripture, a certain prayer adapted to the time, and approaching more nearly to the spiritual kingdom of Christ, which had already begun to be revealed.

Calvin: Luk 11:5 - Which of you shall have a friend, Luke Luk 11:5.Which of you shall have a friend, Luke adds this comparison, which is not mentioned by Matthew. The general instruction conveyed by it is thi...

Luk 11:5.Which of you shall have a friend, Luke adds this comparison, which is not mentioned by Matthew. The general instruction conveyed by it is this: Believers ought not to be discouraged, if they do not immediately obtain their desires, or if they find them difficult to be obtained: for if, among men, importunity of asking extorts what a person would not willingly do, we have no reason to doubt that God will listen to us, if we persevere constantly in prayer, and if our minds do not slacken through difficulty or delay.

Calvin: Luk 11:16 - And others tempting sought from him a sign Luk 11:16.And others tempting sought from him a sign Something similar to this is afterwards related by Matthew, (Mat 16:4,) and by Mark, (Mar 8:11.) ...

Luk 11:16.And others tempting sought from him a sign Something similar to this is afterwards related by Matthew, (Mat 16:4,) and by Mark, (Mar 8:11.) Hence it is evident, that Christ repeatedly attacked them on this subject, so that there was no end to the wickedness of those men who had once resolved 163 to oppose the truth. There can be no doubt that they ask a sign, in order to plead, as a plausible pretense for their unbelief, that Christ’s calling has not been duly attested. They do not express such submissiveness as to be prepared to yield to two or three miracles, and still less to be satisfied with a single miracle; but as I hinted a little before, they apologize for not believing the Gospel on this pretense, that Christ shows no sign of it from heaven. 164 He had already performed miracles before their eyes sufficiently numerous and manifest; but as if these were not enough for the confirmation of doctrine, they wish to have something exhibited from heaven, by which God will, as it were, make a visible appearance. They call him Master, according to custom; for such was the appellation given at that time to all scribes and expounders of the law. But they do not acknowledge him to be a prophet of God, till he produce a testimony from heaven. The meaning therefore is: “Since thou professest to be a teacher and Master, if thou desirest that we should be thy disciples, let God declare from heaven that He is the Author of thy teaching, and let Him confirm thy calling by a miracle.”

Calvin: Luk 11:27 - Blessed is the womb // Nay, rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God Luk 11:27.Blessed is the womb By this eulogium the woman intended to magnify the excellence of Christ; for she had no reference to Mary, 154 whom, per...

Luk 11:27.Blessed is the womb By this eulogium the woman intended to magnify the excellence of Christ; for she had no reference to Mary, 154 whom, perhaps, she had never seen. And yet it tends in a high degree to illustrate the glory of Christ, that she pronounces the womb that bore him to be noble and blessed. Nor was the blessing inappropriate, but in strict accordance with the manner of Scripture; for we know that offspring, and particularly when endued with distinguished virtues, is declared to be a remarkable gift of God, preferable to all others. It cannot even be denied that God conferred the highest honor on Mary, by choosing and appointing her to be the mother of his Son. And yet Christ’s reply is so far from assenting to this female voice, that it contains an indirect reproof.

Nay, rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God We see that Christ treats almost as a matter of indifference that point on which the woman had set a high value. And undoubtedly what she supposed to be Mary’s highest honor was far inferior to the other favors which she had received; for it was of vastly greater importance to be regenerated by the Spirit of God than to conceive Christ, according to the flesh, in her womb; to have Christ living spiritually within her than to suckle him with her breasts. In a word, the highest happiness and glory of the holy Virgin consisted in her being a member of his Son, so that the heavenly Father reckoned her in the number of new creatures.

In my opinion, however, it was for another reason, and with a view to another object, that Christ now corrected the saying of the woman. It was because men are commonly chargeable with neglecting even those gifts of God, on which they gaze with astonishment, and bestow the highest praise. This woman, in applauding Christ, had left out what was of the very highest consequence, that in him salvation is exhibited to all; and, therefore, it was a feeble commendation, that made no mention of his grace and power, which is extended to all. Christ justly claims for himself another kind of praise, not that his mother alone is reckoned blessed, but that he brings to us all perfect and eternal happiness. We never form a just estimate of the excellence of Christ, till we consider for what purpose he was given to us by the Father, and perceive the benefits which he has brought to us, so that we who are wretched in ourselves may become happy in him. But why does he say nothing about himself, and mention only the word of God? It is because in this way he opens to us all his treasures; for without the word he has no intercourse with us, nor we with him. Communicating himself to us by the word, he rightly and properly calls us to hear and keep it, that by faith he may become ours.

We now see the difference between Christ’s reply and the woman’s commendation; for the blessedness, which she had limited to his own relatives, is a favor which he offers freely to all. He shows that we ought to entertain no ordinary esteem for him, because he has all the treasures of life, blessedness, and glory, hidden in him, (Col 2:3,) which he dispenses by the word, that they may be communicated to those who embrace the word by faith; for God’s free adoption of us, which we obtain by faith, is the key to the kingdom of heaven. The connection between the two things must also be observed. We must first hear, and then keep; for as faith cometh by hearing, (Rom 10:17,) it is in this way that the spiritual life must be commenced. Now as the simple hearing is like a transitory looking into a mirror, 155 as James says, (1:23,) he likewise adds, the keeping of the word, which means the effectual reception of it, when it strikes its roots deep into our hearts, and yields its fruit. The forgetful hearer, whose ears alone are struck by the outward doctrine, gains no advantage. On the other hand, they who boast that they are satisfied with the secret inspiration, and on this ground disregard the outward preaching, shut themselves out from the heavenly life. What the Son of God hath joined let not men, with wicked rashness, put asunder, (Mat 19:6.) The Papists discover amazing stupidity by singing, in honor of Mary, those very words by which their superstition is expressly condemned, and who, in giving thanks, detach the woman’s saying, and leave out the correction. 156 But it was proper that such a universal stupefaction should come upon those who intentionally profane, at their pleasure, the sacred word of God.

Calvin: Luk 11:30 - As Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites Luk 11:30.As Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites He declares that he will be a sign to them, as Jonah was to the inhabitants of Nineveh. But the wor...

Luk 11:30.As Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites He declares that he will be a sign to them, as Jonah was to the inhabitants of Nineveh. But the word sign is not taken in its ordinary sense, as pointing out something, but as denoting what is widely removed from the ordinary course of nature. In this sense Jonah’s mission was miraculous, when he was brought out of the belly of the fish, as if from the grave, to call the Ninevites to repentance. Three days and three nights This is in accordance with a well-known figure of speech. 166 As the night is an appendage to the day, or rather, as the day consists of two parts, light and darkness, he expresses a day by a day and a night, and where there was half a day, he puts down a whole day.

Calvin: Luk 11:37 - NO PHRASE This narrative agrees in some respects, but not entirely, with the doctrine laid down by Matthew, (Mat 10:1,) that Christ, in order to correct the su...

This narrative agrees in some respects, but not entirely, with the doctrine laid down by Matthew, (Mat 10:1,) that Christ, in order to correct the superstition of the people, and particularly of the scribes, intentionally disregarded outward ceremonies of human invention, which the Jews were too solicitous to observe. God had prescribed in his Law certain kinds of washings, that by means of them he might train his people usefully to the consideration of true purity. The Jews, not satisfied with this moderate portion had added many other washings, and more especially, that no person should partake of food till he had been washed with the water of purification, as Mark relates more minutely, (Mar 12:3,) and as is also evident from John, (Joh 2:6.) This fault was accompanied by wicked confidence; for they cared little about the spiritual worship of God, and thought that they had perfectly discharged their duty, when the figure was substituted in the place of God. Christ is fully aware that his neglect of this ceremony will give offense, but he declines to observe it, in order to show that God sets very little value on outward cleanness, but demands the spiritual righteousness of the heart.

Calvin: Luk 11:39 - Now you Pharisees 39.Now you Pharisees Christ does not here charge the Pharisees, as in Matthew, (Mat 15:1,) and Mark, (Mar 12:2,) with serving God in an improper ma...

39.Now you Pharisees Christ does not here charge the Pharisees, as in Matthew, (Mat 15:1,) and Mark, (Mar 12:2,) with serving God in an improper manner by human inventions, and breaking the law of God for the sake of their traditions; but merely glances at their hypocrisy, in having no desire of purity except before the eyes of men, as if they had not to deal with God. Now this reproof applies to all hypocrites, even to those who believe that righteousness consists in ceremonies appointed by God. Christ includes more than if he had said, that it is in vain to serve God by the commandments of men, (Mar 7:7;) for he condemns generally the error of worshipping God by ceremonies, and not spiritually, by faith and a pure affection of the heart.

On this point the prophets had always contended earnestly with the Jews; but, as the minds of men are strongly inclined to hypocrisy, they proudly and obstinately adhered to the conviction, that God is pleased with external worship, even when it is not accompanied by faith. But in the time of Christ, they had sunk to such depth of folly, that they made religion to consist entirely in absolute trifles. Accordingly, he directs his accusation against the Pharisees, for being extremely careful to wash cups, and cherishing within their hearts the most abominable filth of cruelty and wickedness He charges them with folly on this ground, that God, who created that which is within the man, his soul, as truly as the body, cannot be satisfied with a mere external appearance. The chief reason why men are deceived is, that they do not consider that they have to deal with God, or, they transform Him according to the vanity of their senses, as if there were no difference between Him and a mortal man.

Calvin: Luk 11:41 - But out of what you have, give alms 41.But out of what you have, give alms Christ, according to his custom, withdraws the Pharisees from ceremonies to charity, declaring that it is not ...

41.But out of what you have, give alms Christ, according to his custom, withdraws the Pharisees from ceremonies to charity, declaring that it is not water, but liberality, 285 that cleanses both men and food. By these words he does not disparage the grace of God, or reject the ceremonies of the Law as vain and useless; but addresses his discourse to those who feel confident that God will be amused by mere signs. “It is the lawful use alone,” he says, “that sanctifies food. But food is rightly and properly used by those who supply from their abundance the necessities of the poor. It would therefore be better to give alms out of what you have, than to be careful about washing hands and cups, and to neglect the poor.”

The inference which the Papists draw from these words, that alms are satisfactions, by which we are cleansed from our sins, is too absurd to require a lengthened refutation. Christ does not here inform us by what price we must purchase the forgiveness of sins, but says that those persons eat their bread with cleanness, who bestow a part of it on the poor. I understand the words, τὰ ἐνόντα, to mean “the present supply,” 286 and not, as Erasmus and the old translator render them, “what remains over.” 287

The reproofs which immediately follow may be reserved, with greater propriety, for another occasion. I do not think it probable that Christ, while sitting at table, indulged in this continuous strain of invective against scribes and Pharisees, but that Luke has introduced here what was spoken at another time; for the Evangelists, as we have frequently mentioned, paid little attention to the order of dates.

Calvin: Luk 11:53 - And while he was saying these things to them Luk 11:53.And while he was saying these things to them I have formerly mentioned that the preceding sentences were not inserted by Luke in their prope...

Luk 11:53.And while he was saying these things to them I have formerly mentioned that the preceding sentences were not inserted by Luke in their proper place. For while he was relating that Christ at a dinner reproved the scribes, he introduced also the latest discourses by which, a little before his death, he reproved their wicked courses; and in like manner, the reproof which we have just now examined is inserted by Luke, in connection with a different narrative. If any one prefer to follow the opinion of those who conjecture that Christ repeated the same discourses on various occasions, I have no great objection. After pronouncing the curses which have been now explained, he concludes by saying that all the scribes became more inveterate against Christ, so that they did not cease to entrap him by ensnaring questions; which ought to be referred to the conversation held at the table, rather than to his latest discourse. But I have not thought it a matter of great importance to be very exact about the time — a matter which the Evangelist has disregarded.

Defender: Luk 11:2 - When ye pray, say This model prayer is somewhat different from that in Mat 6:9-13, especially in its omission of the final ascription: "For thine is the kingdom ...." E...

This model prayer is somewhat different from that in Mat 6:9-13, especially in its omission of the final ascription: "For thine is the kingdom ...." Evidently they were given on two different occasions, one as a component of the "Sermon on the Mount," the other directly in answer to a specific question by one of His disciples (Luk 11:1). The prayer was possibly shortened on the latter occasion because, by this time, He had adequately reminded the disciples of the model prayer previously given."

Defender: Luk 11:13 - give the Holy Spirit Under the old covenant and the Mosaic economy (or "dispensation" - same word in the Greek), the Holy Spirit only came on specific individuals for spec...

Under the old covenant and the Mosaic economy (or "dispensation" - same word in the Greek), the Holy Spirit only came on specific individuals for specific missions. God had promised, however, that the day would come when "I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh" (Joe 2:28). The period while Christ was on earth was a transition time during which a group of people was being prepared for this outpouring. John the Baptist, for example, had been "filled with the Holy Ghost" throughout his short life (Luk 1:15), and now Christ was promising the Holy Spirit to all who would sincerely ask for Him. Soon the day of Pentecost would come (Act 2:1) and all the disciples would be "filled with the Holy Ghost" (Act 2:4). In the Christian economy now, the body of every believer is a "temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God" (1Co 6:19)."

Defender: Luk 11:28 - Yea rather Jesus did not deny that "blessed is the womb that bare thee" (Luk 11:27), for indeed the angel Gabriel had said to her: "Blessed art thou among women"...

Jesus did not deny that "blessed is the womb that bare thee" (Luk 11:27), for indeed the angel Gabriel had said to her: "Blessed art thou among women" (Luk 1:28), and Elizabeth had echoed that blessing (Luk 1:42). The Lord Jesus honored and cared for His mother, but He could not encourage the incipient tendency to worship her which was evident in the exclamation of the woman in the company. The real blessedness, even of His mother, was that she did "hear the word of God, and keep it.""

Defender: Luk 11:30 - Jonas was a sign Christ, here and in Luk 11:32, confirms the historical story of Jonah and the conversion of the wicked citizens of Nineveh."

Christ, here and in Luk 11:32, confirms the historical story of Jonah and the conversion of the wicked citizens of Nineveh."

Defender: Luk 11:49 - wisdom of God "The wisdom of God" is here used as a synonym for "the Scriptures," which is surely the source of the true wisdom in all matters it addresses. The pas...

"The wisdom of God" is here used as a synonym for "the Scriptures," which is surely the source of the true wisdom in all matters it addresses. The passage paraphrased is 2Ch 36:15, 2Ch 36:16. It may be also here that Jesus is actually calling Himself "the wisdom of God," thus asserting His right to paraphrase or expand on Scripture as He will."

Defender: Luk 11:50 - foundation of the world It is important to note that the blood of God's prophets (beginning with Abel) has been shed "from the foundation of the world," not beginning four bi...

It is important to note that the blood of God's prophets (beginning with Abel) has been shed "from the foundation of the world," not beginning four billion years after the foundation of the world. This is an incidental, yet striking, confirmation that the world was created from start to finish in six literal days (Mar 10:6)."

Defender: Luk 11:51 - blood of Abel Abel, son of Adam, was thus the first prophet - that is, a man who supernaturally receives and then proclaims inspired words from God. Evidently, Abel...

Abel, son of Adam, was thus the first prophet - that is, a man who supernaturally receives and then proclaims inspired words from God. Evidently, Abel was speaking God's words to Cain, when the latter slew him in jealous wrath. The Zacharias mentioned is probably "Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest," who was stoned when he prophesied against the people under King Joash (2Ch 24:20-24). Thus, the period encompassed by the Lord's statement was the entire Old Testament period, since this Zechariah is the last prophet mentioned as having been executed for his testimony before John the Baptist. There may have been others (in Mat 23:35, Jesus called Zacharias the son of Barachias, rather than Jehoiada), but if so, their martyrdoms have not been reported in the Old Testament. Barachias is not mentioned elsewhere in Scripture. It is possible that either Barachias or Jehoiada could have been Zechariah's father, the other being the grandfather."

TSK: Luk 11:1 - that // teach that : Luk 6:12, Luk 9:18, Luk 9:28, Luk 22:39-45; Heb 5:7 teach : Psa 10:17, Psa 19:14; Rom 8:26, Rom 8:27; Jam 4:2, Jam 4:3; Jud 1:20

TSK: Luk 11:2 - When // Our // which // Hallowed // Thy kingdom // Thy will When : Ecc 5:2; Hos 14:2; Mat 6:6-8 Our : Isa 63:16; Mat 6:9-15; Rom 1:7, Rom 8:15; 1Co 1:3; 2Co 1:2; Gal 1:4; Eph 1:2; Phi 1:2, Phi 4:20; Col 1:2; 1T...

TSK: Luk 11:3 - Give // day by day Give : Exo 16:15-22; Pro 30:8; Isa 33:16; Mat 6:11, Mat 6:34; Joh 6:27-33 day by day : or, for the day

Give : Exo 16:15-22; Pro 30:8; Isa 33:16; Mat 6:11, Mat 6:34; Joh 6:27-33

day by day : or, for the day

TSK: Luk 11:4 - forgive us // for // lead // but forgive us : 1Ki 8:34, 1Ki 8:36; Psa 25:11, Psa 25:18, Psa 32:1-5, Psa 51:1-3, Psa 130:3, Psa 130:4; Isa 43:25, Isa 43:26; Dan 9:19; Hos 14:2; Mat 6:1...

TSK: Luk 11:5 - -- Luk 18:1-8

TSK: Luk 11:6 - in his journey in his journey : or, out of his way, Luk 11:6

in his journey : or, out of his way, Luk 11:6

TSK: Luk 11:7 - Trouble // the door Trouble : Luk 7:6; Gal 6:17 the door : Luk 13:25; Mat 25:10

Trouble : Luk 7:6; Gal 6:17

the door : Luk 13:25; Mat 25:10

TSK: Luk 11:8 - because of because of : Luk 18:1-8; Gen 32:26; Mat 15:22-28; Rom 15:30; 2Co 12:8; Col 2:1, Col 4:12

TSK: Luk 11:9 - I say // Ask // seek // knock I say : Luk 13:24; Mat 6:29, Mat 21:31; Mar 13:37; Rev 2:24 Ask : Psa 50:15, Psa 118:5; Jer 33:3; Mat 7:7, Mat 7:8, Mat 21:22; Mar 11:24; Joh 4:10, Jo...

TSK: Luk 11:10 - -- Luk 18:1; Psa 31:22; Lam 3:8, Lam 3:18, Lam 3:54-58; Jon 2:2-8; Jam 4:3, Jam 5:11

TSK: Luk 11:11 - a son a son : Isa 49:15; Mat 7:9

a son : Isa 49:15; Mat 7:9

TSK: Luk 11:12 - offer // a scorpion offer : Gr. give a scorpion : Luk 10:19; Eze 2:6; Rev 9:10

offer : Gr. give

a scorpion : Luk 10:19; Eze 2:6; Rev 9:10

TSK: Luk 11:13 - being // know // how // heavenly // give the being : Gen 6:5, Gen 6:6, Gen 8:21; Job 15:14-16; Psa 51:5; Joh 3:5, Joh 3:6; Rom 7:18; Tit 3:3 know : Isa 49:15; Mat 7:11; Heb 12:9, Heb 12:10 how : ...

TSK: Luk 11:14 - -- Mat 9:32, Mat 9:33, Mat 12:22, Mat 12:23; Mar 7:32-37

TSK: Luk 11:15 - He // Beelzebub He : Mat 9:34, Mat 12:24-30; Mar 3:22-30; Joh 7:20, Joh 8:48, Joh 8:52, Joh 10:20 Beelzebub : Gr. Beelzebul, and so, Luk 11:18, Luk 11:19

He : Mat 9:34, Mat 12:24-30; Mar 3:22-30; Joh 7:20, Joh 8:48, Joh 8:52, Joh 10:20

Beelzebub : Gr. Beelzebul, and so, Luk 11:18, Luk 11:19

TSK: Luk 11:16 - -- Mat 12:38, Mat 12:39, Mat 16:1-4; Mar 8:11, Mar 8:12; Joh 6:30; 1Co 1:22

TSK: Luk 11:17 - knowing // Every knowing : Mat 9:4, Mat 12:25; Mar 3:23-26; Joh 2:25; Rev 2:23 Every : 2Ch 10:16-19, 2Ch 13:16, 2Ch 13:17; Isa 9:20,Isa 9:21, Isa 19:2, Isa 19:3

TSK: Luk 11:18 - Satan // ye say Satan : Mat 12:26 ye say : Luk 11:15; Mat 12:31-34; Jam 3:5-8

TSK: Luk 11:19 - by // shall by : Luk 9:49; Mat 12:27, Mat 12:28 shall : Luk 11:31, Luk 11:32, Luk 19:22; Job 15:6; Mat 12:41, Mat 12:42; Rom 3:19

TSK: Luk 11:20 - the finger // the kingdom the finger : Exo 8:19; Mat 12:28 the kingdom : For the destruction of the kingdom of Satan plainly implies the setting up of the kingdom of God. The ...

the finger : Exo 8:19; Mat 12:28

the kingdom : For the destruction of the kingdom of Satan plainly implies the setting up of the kingdom of God. The reasoning of the Pharisees (Luk 11:17, and Mat 12:24, Mat 12:25), was not expressed, and Jesus knowing their thoughts, gave ample proof of his omniscience. This, with our Lord’ s masterly confutation of their reasonings, by a conclusion drawn from their own premises, one would have supposed might have humbled and convinced those men; but the most conclusive reasoning, and the most astonishing miracles, were lost upon a people who were obstinately determined to disbelieve every thing that was good relative to Jesus of Nazareth. Luk 10:9, Luk 10:11; Dan 2:44; Act 20:25, Act 28:23-28; 2Th 1:5

TSK: Luk 11:21 - -- Mat 12:29; Mar 3:27

TSK: Luk 11:22 - -- Gen 3:15; Isa 27:1, Isa 49:24, Isa 49:25, Isa 53:12, Isa 63:1-4; Col 2:15; 1Jo 3:8, 1Jo 4:4; Rev 20:1-3

TSK: Luk 11:23 - -- Luk 9:50; Mat 12:30; Rev 3:15, Rev 3:16

TSK: Luk 11:24 - the unclean // he walketh // dry // seeking // I will the unclean : Mat 12:43-45 he walketh : Job 1:7, Job 2:2; 1Pe 5:8 dry : Jdg 6:37-40; Psa 63:1; Isa 35:1, Isa 35:2, Isa 35:7, Isa 41:17-19, Isa 44:3; E...

TSK: Luk 11:25 - he findeth he findeth : 2Ch 24:17-22; Psa 36:3, Psa 81:11, Psa 81:12, Psa 125:5; Mat 12:44, Mat 12:45; 2Th 2:9-12; 2Pe 2:10-19; Jud 1:8-13

TSK: Luk 11:26 - more // and the more : Mat 23:15 and the : Zep 1:6; Mat 12:45; Joh 5:14; Heb 6:4-8, Heb 10:26-31; 2Pe 2:20-22; 1Jo 5:16; Jud 1:12, Jud 1:13

TSK: Luk 11:27 - Blessed Blessed : Luk 1:28, Luk 1:42, Luk 1:48

Blessed : Luk 1:28, Luk 1:42, Luk 1:48

TSK: Luk 11:28 - -- Luk 6:47, Luk 6:48, Luk 8:21; Psa 1:1-3, Psa 112:1, Psa 119:1-6, Psa 128:1; Isa 48:17, Isa 48:18; Mat 7:21-25, Mat 12:48-50; Joh 13:17; Jam 1:21-25; 1...

TSK: Luk 11:29 - when // This is // they when : Luk 12:1, Luk 14:25, Luk 14:26 This is : Luk 11:50, Luk 9:41; Isa 57:3, Isa 57:4; Mat 3:7, Mat 23:34-36; Mar 8:38; Joh 8:44; Act 7:51, Act 7:52...

TSK: Luk 11:30 - -- Luk 24:46, Luk 24:47; Jon 1:17, Jon 2:10, Jon 3:2-10; Mat 12:40-42

TSK: Luk 11:31 - queen // rise // a greater queen : 1Ki 10:1, 1Ki 10:2-13; 2Ch 9:1; Mat 12:42 rise : Isa 54:17; Jer 3:11; Rom 2:27; Heb 11:7 a greater : Luk 3:22, Luk 9:35; Isa 9:6, Isa 9:7; Col...

TSK: Luk 11:32 - men // a greater men : Jon 3:5-10 a greater : Jon 1:2, Jon 1:3, Jon 4:1-4, Jon 4:9; Heb 7:26

TSK: Luk 11:33 - when // a bushel // may see when : Luk 8:16, Luk 8:17; Mat 5:15; Mar 4:21, Mar 4:22 a bushel : Mat 5:15 may see : Mat 5:16, Mat 10:27; Joh 11:9, Joh 12:46; Phi 2:15, Phi 2:16

TSK: Luk 11:34 - light of // single // but light of : Psa 119:18; Mat 6:22, Mat 6:23; Mar 8:18; Act 26:18; Eph 1:17 single : Act 2:46; 2Co 1:12, 2Co 11:3; Eph 6:5; Col 3:22 but : Gen 19:11; 2Ki...

TSK: Luk 11:35 - -- Pro 16:25, Pro 26:12; Isa 5:20,Isa 5:21; Jer 8:8, Jer 8:9; Joh 7:48, Joh 7:49, Joh 9:39-41; Rom 1:22, Rom 2:19-23; 1Co 1:19-21, 1Co 3:18-20; Jam 3:13-...

TSK: Luk 11:36 - the whole // the bright shining of a candle the whole : Psa 119:97-105; Pro 1:5, Pro 2:1-11, Pro 4:18, Pro 4:19, Pro 6:23, Pro 20:27; Isa 8:20, Isa 42:16; Hos 6:3; Mat 13:11, Mat 13:12, Mat 13:5...

TSK: Luk 11:37 - -- Luk 7:36, Luk 14:1; 1Co 9:19-23

TSK: Luk 11:38 - he marvelled he marvelled : Mat 15:2, Mat 15:3; Mar 7:2-5; Joh 3:25

he marvelled : Mat 15:2, Mat 15:3; Mar 7:2-5; Joh 3:25

TSK: Luk 11:39 - Now // but // ravening Now : Mat 23:25; Gal 1:14; 2Ti 3:5; Tit 1:15 but : Luk 16:15; Gen 6:5; 2Ch 25:2, 2Ch 31:20,2Ch 31:21; Pro 26:25, Pro 30:12; Jer 4:14; Mat 12:33-35, Ma...

TSK: Luk 11:40 - fools // did fools : Luk 12:20, Luk 24:25; Psa 14:1, Psa 75:4, Psa 75:5, Psa 94:8; Pro 1:22, Pro 8:5; Jer 5:21; Mat 23:17; Mat 23:26; 1Co 15:36 did : Gen 1:26, Gen...

TSK: Luk 11:41 - rather // of such things as ye have // all rather : Luk 12:33, Luk 14:12-14, Luk 16:9, Luk 18:22, Luk 19:8; Deu 15:8-10; Job 13:16-20; Psa 41:1; Psa 112:9; Pro 14:31, Pro 19:17; Ecc 11:1, Ecc 1...

TSK: Luk 11:42 - woe // for // and pass // and not woe : Mat 23:13, Mat 23:23, Mat 23:27 for : Luk 18:12 and pass : Deu 10:12, Deu 10:13; 1Sa 15:22; Pro 21:3; Isa 1:10-17, Isa 58:2-6; Jer 7:2-10; Jer 7...

TSK: Luk 11:43 - for for : Luk 14:7-11, Luk 20:46; Pro 16:18; Mat 23:6; Mar 12:38, Mar 12:39; Rom 12:10; Phi 2:3; Jam 2:2-4; 3Jo 1:9

TSK: Luk 11:44 - for for : Num 19:16; Psa 5:9; Hos 9:8; Mat 23:27, Mat 23:28; Act 23:3

TSK: Luk 11:45 - thou thou : 1Ki 22:8; Jer 6:10, Jer 20:8; Amo 7:10-13; Joh 7:7, Joh 7:48, Joh 9:40

TSK: Luk 11:46 - Woe // ye yourselves Woe : Isa 10:1; Mat 23:2-4; Gal 6:13 ye yourselves : Isa 58:6

Woe : Isa 10:1; Mat 23:2-4; Gal 6:13

ye yourselves : Isa 58:6

TSK: Luk 11:47 - for for : Mat 23:29-33; Act 7:51; 1Th 2:15

TSK: Luk 11:48 - ye bear // for ye bear : Jos 24:22; Job 15:6; Psa 64:8; Eze 18:19 for : 2Ch 36:16; Mat 21:35-38; Heb 11:35-38; Jam 5:10

TSK: Luk 11:49 - the wisdom // I will // and some the wisdom : Probably by the Wisdom of God we are to understand the λογος [Strong’ s G3056], or Word of God, that is, our Lord himself; t...

the wisdom : Probably by the Wisdom of God we are to understand the λογος [Strong’ s G3056], or Word of God, that is, our Lord himself; this being a dignified and oriental mode of expression for I say, as it is in the parallel passage. Pro 1:2-6, Pro 8:1-12, Pro 9:1-3; 1Co 1:30; Col 2:3

I will : Luk 24:47; Mat 23:34; Act 1:8; Eph 4:11

and some : Luk 21:16, Luk 21:17; Mat 22:6; Joh 16:2; Act 7:57-60, Act 8:1, Act 8:3, Act 9:1, Act 9:2, Act 12:1, Act 12:2, Act 22:4, Act 22:5; Act 22:20, Act 26:10,Act 26:11; 2Co 11:24, 2Co 11:25

TSK: Luk 11:50 - the blood // may the blood : Gen 9:5, Gen 9:6; Num 35:33; 2Ki 24:4; Psa 9:12; Isa 26:21; Rev 18:20-24 may : Exo 20:5; Jer 7:29, Jer 51:56

TSK: Luk 11:51 - the blood of Abel // Zacharias // It shall the blood of Abel : Gen 4:8-11; Heb 11:4, Heb 12:24; 1Jo 3:12 Zacharias : 2Ch 24:20-22; Zec 1:1; Mat 23:35 It shall : Jer 7:28

the blood of Abel : Gen 4:8-11; Heb 11:4, Heb 12:24; 1Jo 3:12

Zacharias : 2Ch 24:20-22; Zec 1:1; Mat 23:35

It shall : Jer 7:28

TSK: Luk 11:52 - for // hindered for : Luk 19:39, Luk 19:40; Mal 2:7; Mat 23:13; Joh 7:47-52, Joh 9:24-34; Act 4:17, Act 4:18, Act 5:40 hindered : or, forbad

TSK: Luk 11:53 - to urge // to speak to urge : Psa 22:12, Psa 22:13; Isa 9:12 to speak : Luk 20:20,Luk 20:27; Jer 18:18, Jer 20:10; 1Co 13:5

TSK: Luk 11:54 - seeking seeking : Psa 37:32, Psa 37:33, Psa 56:5, Psa 56:6; Mat 22:15, Mat 22:18, Mat 22:35; Mar 12:13

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Poole: Luk 11:1 - as he was praying in a certain place // When he ceased // after this manner // Our Father which art in, heaven, &c Luk 11:1-13 Christ teacheth to pray, assuring that God will give all good things to them that ask him. Luk 11:14-26 He casteth out a devil, and rep...

Luk 11:1-13 Christ teacheth to pray, assuring that God will give

all good things to them that ask him.

Luk 11:14-26 He casteth out a devil, and reproveth the blasphemy

of the Pharisees, who ascribed the miracle to the

power of Beelzebub.

Luk 11:27,28 He showeth who are the truly blessed,

Luk 11:29-36 and the inexcusableness of not believing his gospel.

Luk 11:37-54 He reprehends the outward show of holiness in the

Pharisees, and pronounces woes against them and the

scribes and lawyers.

This seemeth to be a different time from that mentioned by Matthew, where our Saviour directed his disciples to pray; there his direction was part of his sermon on the mount. Besides, the doxology or conclusion is there left out. It is said here,

as he was praying in a certain place Christ looked upon all places as holy enough for prayer. It also looks as if at this time our Saviour was not at his more secret devotions, but with the twelve, (which were his family), praying with them.

When he ceased: this is very observable against those who pretend impulses of the Spirit, to disturb ministers in the time when they are praying and preaching; it may easily be known from what spirit such impulses are. The disciples of Christ often propounded questions to him after preaching, but never interrupting him in his work, nor before he was retired into a house. They now come to be informed about prayer, but they stay till he had first ceased. We having no account in holy writ of John’ s disciples asking him, or his teaching of them to pray, are more at a loss to determine whether our Saviour did intend that his disciples should use these words, as the phrase here seemeth to import, or only pray in this sense,

after this manner as Matthew saith; indeed nothing can be concluded from either phrase by any judicious person.

For as we read in many places in Scripture, that Christ answered and said, when it is manifest the meaning is, he spake words to that import or sense, (the evangelists reporting the words spoken with variations of expression), so when we pray we may say,

Our Father which art in, heaven, &c. though we do not use the same words and syllables.

Poole: Luk 11:2-4 - -- Ver. 2-4. See Poole on "Mat 6:9-13" . Whoso compares this prayer as it is recorded by Matthew will find the form of words differing in more things ...

Ver. 2-4. See Poole on "Mat 6:9-13" . Whoso compares this prayer as it is recorded by Matthew will find the form of words differing in more things than one; not only the doxology or conclusion is left out wholly by Luke, but for shmeron , there we have cay’ hmeran , here, for ofeilhmata Luke hath amartiav , for wv kai hmeiv afiemen toiv ofeiletiav hmwn we have here kai gar autoi afiemen panti ofeilonti hmin ; from whence plainly appears that our Saviour did not intend to oblige his disciples to the same syllabical words, but only to words of the same import, that is, to praying for the same things: yet that Christians have a liberty to use the same words is out of question, and as much out of question that they have a liberty to vary, still keeping their eyes upon the matter of this prayer, and not forgetting that when they go unto God in that holy duty.

Poole: Luk 11:4 - -- Ver. 4 See Poole on "Luk 11:2"

Ver. 4 See Poole on "Luk 11:2"

Poole: Luk 11:5-9 - -- Ver. 5-9. The plain meaning of our Saviour in this parable, is to teach us that we ought not only to pray, but to be importunate with God in prayer; ...

Ver. 5-9. The plain meaning of our Saviour in this parable, is to teach us that we ought not only to pray, but to be importunate with God in prayer; to continue in prayer, as the apostle phrases it, Col 4:2 , and to watch thereunto with all perseverance, Eph 6:18 . This in the Greek is called anaideian , impudence, which though in our language it is generally taken in an ill sense, yet here signifieth no more than a holy boldness, or pursuing our petitions notwithstanding delays or denials. For those words, Luk 11:9 , See Poole on "Mat 7:7" , where the same words are found.

Poole: Luk 11:10-13 - How much more shall he give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him! Ver. 10-13. See Poole on "Mat 7:8" and following verses to Mat 7:11 . As our Saviour’ s design in the former words appeareth to be our informa...

Ver. 10-13. See Poole on "Mat 7:8" and following verses to Mat 7:11 . As our Saviour’ s design in the former words appeareth to be our information, that thought the hand of God be full of good things proportioned to all the necessities of his creatures, yet they must not expect to have them without asking, he will for them be inquired of by the house of Israel, Eze 36:37 ; and all his promises for the collation of good things must be interpreted, with a supposition of people’ s seeking them at his hand; as also that every lazy, cold, formal praying will not obtain them at the hand of God, but the working, fervent prayer of the righteous availeth much. His design in these verses seemeth to be, to let us know, that fervent and importunate prayer will not prevail with God to give us any thing but what shall be good for us; for he knoweth that the general desire of our souls is for nothing but what is good; if we ask for things hurtful, it is but a lapse or miscarriage of our tongues, caused from the blindness and ignorance of our minds. No man knowingly will ask any thing of another that shall do him hurt; and though our children, through their want of knowledge and judgment to discern between things that are good or evil for their bodies, may ask of us, and cry unto us, for things that are hurtful, yet we, who know that they would not ask for them if they had the use of their reason, and well knew their noxious quality, considering their circumstances, will not give them to them. So our heavenly Father, though he heareth us crying for such things as he knoweth (considering our circumstances) would be mischievous and hurtful to us, yet he will not give us any thing of that nature; and so in denying the words of our lips, he yet answereth the general scope and designs of our souls, which is to have only what is good for us. But if we ask any thing which is good and wholesome for us, and profitable unto us, in the circumstances in which we are, we may be sure that God will give them to us, as we may that an earthly parent will deny nothing to his children crying, which is in his power to give, and which he knoweth to be good for them; for the nature of all good lieth in the convenience and suitableness of the thing to the wants and necessities of the person that receiveth it. And every such thing must also be according to the will of God, according to his promise, Psa 84:11 , to withhold no good thing from them that live uprightly. So as both God’ s fatherly relation, and the knowledge we have that he is a God that cannot lie nor repent, are assurances to us, that whatsoever good thing we ask we shall obtain of him, and nothing else, although we ask and cry for it. Therefore whereas Matthew saith, Mat 7:11 , How much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him! Luke saith here,

How much more shall he give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him!

Poole: Luk 11:14 - -- The devil is here called dumb, from his effect upon the demoniac, in restraining the use of his tongue.

The devil is here called dumb, from his effect upon the demoniac, in restraining the use of his tongue.

Poole: Luk 11:15-23 - -- Ver. 15-23. See Poole on "Mat 9:34" . See Poole on "Mat 12:24" , and following verses to Mat 12:30 . See Poole on "Mar 3:22" , and following verse...

Ver. 15-23. See Poole on "Mat 9:34" . See Poole on "Mat 12:24" , and following verses to Mat 12:30 . See Poole on "Mar 3:22" , and following verses to Mar 3:27 .

Poole: Luk 11:23 - -- Ver. 23 See Poole on "Mat 23:6" , See Poole on "Mat 23:7" . Their fault was not in their taking them, but in their affecting them, and in being amb...

Ver. 23 See Poole on "Mat 23:6" , See Poole on "Mat 23:7" . Their fault was not in their taking them, but in their affecting them, and in being ambitious of them. God is the God of order, and we are bound to give honour to whom honour belongs; but pride and ambition are detestable sins, especially in such as should be teachers of humility, and the vanity of all things below.

Poole: Luk 11:24-26 - -- Ver. 24-26. See Poole on "Mat 12:43" , See Poole on "Mat 12:44" and See Poole on "Mat 12:45" . From these verses we may observe, 1. That the dev...

Ver. 24-26. See Poole on "Mat 12:43" , See Poole on "Mat 12:44" and See Poole on "Mat 12:45" . From these verses we may observe,

1. That the devil may in some sort and degree be cast out of persons and places, while yet in other respects they may be his house, and he may dwell in and amongst them. Their bodies, their country, may be in great measure delivered from his power, and he may yet keep possession of their souls. This ordinarily happeneth in places where the gospel is faithfully preached; though there remain abundance of men whose lives evidence that the devil hath a too great possession of their souls, yet those places, and persons inhabiting in them, are more freed from witchcraft, and the power which the devil exercises (by God’ s permission) upon men’ s and women’ s bodies, and cattle, &c., than other more paganish and ignorant places. He may also in a sense be said to be cast out of persons that are reclaimed from vicious and debauched lives, yet are not brought home to God, only are more enlightened, and more under the power of restraining grace; yet their souls may be his house.

2. The devil, cast out in any degree, is unquiet till (if possible) he hath recovered as full a power over and possession of men and women as he ever had.

3. If he ever recovers it, their latter end is worse than their beginning, Heb 6:4 10:26 2Pe 2:20 .

Poole: Luk 11:27-28 - -- Ver. 27,28. We are very prone to bless persons from external privileges, and the favours of Divine Providence, which do not at all change or affect t...

Ver. 27,28. We are very prone to bless persons from external privileges, and the favours of Divine Providence, which do not at all change or affect the hearts of those to whom they are given; but God looketh with another eye upon persons. Christ doth not here deny his mother to have been blessed; her cousin Elisabeth (Luk 1:42 ) had pronounced her blessed amongst women, and the angel had before called her highly favoured, and told her that she had found favour with God. But our Saviour here declareth that her blessing did not so much lie in that her womb bare, and her paps gave suck to him, as in that she was one who heard and kept the word of God; for he pronounces all such as did so principally blessed. Nor must we separate what God hath put together; the blessing is not pronounced to those who barely hear the word of God, the blessed and the unblessed pariter adeunt, pariter audiunt, they may go to church together, and hear the word together, but the blessing is to those that hear the word of God, and keep it. See Jam 1:22,23 . The word to some that hear it may be a savour of death unto death. The soul that through grace is made obedient to the will of God, is a more happy soul than the virgin Mary was, considered merely as the mother of Christ, without the consideration of her faith and holiness.

Poole: Luk 11:29-32 - -- Ver. 29-32. See Poole on "Mat 12:38" , and following verses to Mat 12:42 . Matthew saith, they were the Pharisees that came to him, desiring to see ...

Ver. 29-32. See Poole on "Mat 12:38" , and following verses to Mat 12:42 . Matthew saith, they were the Pharisees that came to him, desiring to see a sign from heaven: they did the same again, Mat 16:1 . Christ was very ready to work miracles to encourage and confirm his hearers’ faith, but not to satisfy unbelievers’ curiosity. Instead therefore of showing them signs from heaven, he denounces the just judgment of God against them, for their not believing in him. See further the notes upon the aforementioned parallel texts.

Poole: Luk 11:33 - -- We met with this similitude Luk 8:16 Mat 5:15 : See Poole on "Luk 8:16" , See Poole on "Mat 5:15" . It was a kind of proverbial speech, and so app...

We met with this similitude Luk 8:16 Mat 5:15 : See Poole on "Luk 8:16" , See Poole on "Mat 5:15" . It was a kind of proverbial speech, and so applicable to divers subjects. Some think that our Saviour bringeth in these words as a reason why he would show the Pharisees no sign, viz. because he knew it would do them no good, it had been like the lighting of a candle and putting it under a bushel, which no man doth. Others think that by it he designs to give an account why he pronounced those blessed who heard the word and did it, Luk 11:28 , because practice, and giving light to others, is the end of all hearing.

Poole: Luk 11:34-36 - -- Ver. 34-36. See Poole on "Mat 6:22" , See Poole on "Mat 6:23" . Our Saviour’ s speech in these verses is plainly both elliptical (something be...

Ver. 34-36. See Poole on "Mat 6:22" , See Poole on "Mat 6:23" . Our Saviour’ s speech in these verses is plainly both elliptical (something being in itself to be understood) and also metaphorical. The sense is this, What the eye is to the body, that the soul, the mind and affections, are to the whole man. Now look, as the eye is the organ by which light is received to guide a man’ s steps, so that if that be perfect, without any mixture of ill humours, &c., the body from it takes a full and right direction how to move and act; but if that be vitiated by ill humours, the man knows not how to direct his bodily steps: so if a man’ s soul, (which answereth the bodily eye), more especially a man’ s understanding or judgment, be darkened, perverted, prejudiced, or his affections be debauched or depraved, he will not know how to move one step right in his duty; but if his understanding have a right notion of truths, and he judgeth aright concerning the things and ways of God, and his affections be not depraved, then the whole man will be in a capacity to receive the light and revelations of truth, as they shall be communicated to him, even as he who hath a perfect eye receiveth and is able to make use of the bright shining of a candle.

Poole: Luk 11:37 - -- This is the second time we meet with our Saviour at a Pharisee’ s house. He saith of himself, that he came eating and drinking , that is, al...

This is the second time we meet with our Saviour at a Pharisee’ s house. He saith of himself, that he came eating and drinking , that is, allowing himself a free, though innocent, converse with all sorts of people, that he might gain some. The Pharisees were, as to the generality of them, the most bitter, stubborn, and implacable enemies Christ had, yet he refused not to go and sit at meat with a Pharisee.

Poole: Luk 11:38 - See Poole on "Mat 15:2" Mat 15:2 , the Pharisees quarrelled with the disciples upon this account; here this Pharisee is offended at Christ himself. Mark gives us the reason o...

Mat 15:2 , the Pharisees quarrelled with the disciples upon this account; here this Pharisee is offended at Christ himself. Mark gives us the reason of it, Mar 7:3 , For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. Concerning this tradition of theirs, and the ground of it,

See Poole on "Mat 15:2" , See Poole on "Mar 7:3" . We would all be infallible, and therefore cannot allow others to differ from us in a rite, which hath no foundation in God’ s word, and wonder at those who cannot see with our eyes, nor practise according to our latitudes.

Poole: Luk 11:39-40 - -- Ver. 39,40. We have much the same, though delivered in another form, with a denunciation of a woe, See Poole on "Mat 23:25" . We must not imagine th...

Ver. 39,40. We have much the same, though delivered in another form, with a denunciation of a woe, See Poole on "Mat 23:25" . We must not imagine that our Saviour here reflects upon the cleansing of vessels in which we put our meat and drink, for undoubtedly, as to them, the Pharisees washed both the inside and the outside. And the conceit of them is amiss who think that by the inward part, Luk 11:39 , he means the meat in their dishes, which was gotten indeed by ravening, and wickedness, extortion, &c.; for it is a hard interpretation of the inward part of the platter, to say, by it is meant the meat in the platter; but neither doth our Saviour say, the inward part of the dish, but your inward part, by which he plainly means the soul. Our Saviour doth therefore certainly compare the Pharisees to dishes or platters washed or scoured only on the outside, and blames their hypocrisy in this, that they were mighty solicitous about an outside purity and cleanness, but for the inward purity of the heart and soul, they took no care at all about that; they were very scrupulous about undefiled hands, but nothing at all about having their souls and inward powers and affections undefiled. This he telleth them was most egregious folly, for God, that made the body, made the soul also, and therefore would exact a purity in the inward as well as the outward man, especially considering that he loveth truth in the inward parts.

Poole: Luk 11:41 - And, behold, all things are clean unto you plhn ta enonta dote elehmosunhn . The word enonta being a word not ordinarily used in a sense which will fit this place, hath made a great aboundin...

plhn ta enonta dote elehmosunhn . The word enonta being a word not ordinarily used in a sense which will fit this place, hath made a great abounding in their own senses amongst interpreters; some translating it, Give such things as are within for alms; others, such things as you have; others, such things as are necessary; others, such things as ye are able, as if kata were to be understood before ta enonta , according to what you have. Others, what things remain, after the serving your own necessities, and a just restitution to those whom you have wronged. Others think it is but a connexion of our Saviour’ s speech, and the sense is, Moreover there is but one thing to be done, Give alms, &c., as if it were to enon I do not see but our own translation is as good as any, and kata seems to be understood in the Greek. According to what you have, which is truly and justly your own, not theirs whom you have wronged, nor your creditors’ , nor your families’ , for their necessities; give alms of all that.

And, behold, all things are clean unto you Not, your souls are clean; though that must first be, yet our Saviour is not here directing that, or the means and methods for it; but all things are clean to you, you may lawfully and without guilt use them: Unto the pure all things are pure; but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure, Tit 1:15 . Our Saviour’ s words are a plain exhortation to repentance, that lieth in the change of our minds; and that inward change of our minds must be evidenced by the change of our actions, and particularly by a restitution in case of wrong done to any. The Pharisees were a covetous, rapacious generation, full of extortion, devouring widows’ houses, &c. Their repentance was to be evidenced by contrary works; those were works of justice and mercy. God calleth to the Israelites for the first, Isa 1:16,17 . Christ calls to the Pharisees for the latter. Such works of mercy as might evidence their hearts to be truly changed: and then, saith our Saviour, all things will be clean to you, which otherwise will not be with all your traditional superstitious washings. And needs it must be so, for no soul can repent truly without the influence and assistance of Divine grace, which God giveth not, but to those souls which are washed with the blood of Christ. So that before a soul can produce the fruits of true repentance, it must be justified by faith, and sanctified by the Spirit of holiness. Or if we understand it only of that repentance which an unjustified soul may have, yet even that may so far profit, as to have our outward things so blessed to us, that we may use them without any pollution or guilt, and have them outwardly blest to us.

Poole: Luk 11:42 - See Poole on "Mat 23:23" See Poole on "Mat 23:23" . There are two great notes of hypocrites: 1. To be more exact, in and zealous for the observation of rituals and the tradi...

See Poole on "Mat 23:23" . There are two great notes of hypocrites:

1. To be more exact, in and zealous for the observation of rituals and the traditions of men, than in and for the observation of the moral law of God.

2. In matters of morality, to be more exact and strict in and for little things, than for things more grave and weighty.

There is no commandment of God so little as we may neglect, or despise, or disobey it; but yet there is a difference in duties, and we ought to have more regard to the greater than to the lesser.

Poole: Luk 11:43 - See Poole on "Mat 23:6" See Poole on "Mat 23:6" , See Poole on "Mat 23:7" . Their fault was not in their taking them, but in their affecting them, and in being ambitious of...

See Poole on "Mat 23:6" , See Poole on "Mat 23:7" . Their fault was not in their taking them, but in their affecting them, and in being ambitious of them. God is the God of order, and we are bound to give honour to whom honour belongs; but pride and ambition are detestable sins, especially in such as should be teachers of humility, and the vanity of all things below.

Poole: Luk 11:44 - See Poole on "Mat 23:27" See Poole on "Mat 23:27" , where our Saviour compares the Pharisees to whited sepulchres: here he compares them to sepulchres, but not as there to de...

See Poole on "Mat 23:27" , where our Saviour compares the Pharisees to whited sepulchres: here he compares them to sepulchres, but not as there to denote their hypocrisy, appearing white, but having nothing within but rottenness; but upon the account of the contagion of them, and their pollution of others that were not aware of them. To understand our Saviour, we must consider the Levitical law, Num 19:16 ; where we shall find that not only he that touched a dead body, but he that touched a grave, was legally unclean for seven days. Christ here alludes to that, though he be speaking not of legal, but moral uncleanness. By reason of the law afore mentioned, the Jews took care to whiten their graves, that people might see them, and avoid that danger. To such whited sepulchres Christ compares the Pharisees, Mat 23:27 . But some graves might not be whited, or the colour washed off, so as they did not appear, and men could not be aware of them, but ran into a pollution by them. To such graves he in this place compares them. They were men that externally appeared not to be what they were. The Jews took the Pharisees’ for great saints, (the strictest sect of their religion), so strict they were in their duties to their traditions, &c.; which external severity and formal behaviour covered their extortion, and covetousness, and malice, and erroneous opinions, so as people did not suspect them of any such guilt.

Poole: Luk 11:45 - -- This lawyer was a scribe of the law, Luk 11:44 . The work of these men was to interpret the law; the Pharisees strictly observed their decrees and i...

This lawyer was a scribe of the law, Luk 11:44 . The work of these men was to interpret the law; the Pharisees strictly observed their decrees and interpretations. The lawyer therefore spake rightly in thinking our Saviour’ s words had some reflection upon men of his order, but he woefully erred both in thinking his own order was unblamable, and also in calling our Lord’ s just reproof a reproaching them. But by this he gives an occasion to him, who used rightly to divide the word of God, and to give every one their portion out of it, to let them know wherein they were faulty, as well as the Pharisees.

Poole: Luk 11:47-51 - -- Ver. 47-51. See Poole on "Mat 23:29" and following verses to Mat 23:36 . The Pharisees, like a company of wretched hypocrites, under a pretence of ...

Ver. 47-51. See Poole on "Mat 23:29" and following verses to Mat 23:36 . The Pharisees, like a company of wretched hypocrites, under a pretence of their honouring the memories of the prophets under the Old Testament, took great care to repair and to adorn their sepulchres, while in the mean time their hearts were as full of malice against the truth, and against Christ and those who came to reveal God’ s will to them, as ever were their fathers against the prophets; and, saith our Saviour, I, who am the Wisdom of God, tell you, that I shall send you apostles, and prophets, and some of them you shall kill, others you shall persecute; that all the righteous blood that hath been shed on the earth, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zacharias, may come on you; which mind being in you, the same as in your persecuting predecessors, your building and adorning the old prophets’ tombs is not (as you would have it thought) any testimony of your honour to the prophets, but rather to your fathers that killed them, a kind of trophy for the victory your fathers got over the prophets of the Lord; so as by that act you give a testimony that you own them as your fathers who killed the prophets, and glory in what they did, for if you truly honoured their memory, you would not retain the same malicious, bloody mind. It is gross hypocrisy for men to magnify the servants of God in former ages, and in the mean time to malign and persecute the servants of the same God in a present age, owning but the same truths, and living up to the same rule. See Poole on "Mat 23:29" , and following verses to Mat 23:36 , where the same things are said with larger circumstances. They truly honour martyrs, that live the same lives they did, and adhere to the same truths of God, in a testimony to which they died.

Poole: Luk 11:48 - -- Ver. 11:48. See Poole on "Luk 11:47"

Ver. 11:48. See Poole on "Luk 11:47"

Poole: Luk 11:52 - Answer Matthew saith, Mat 23:13 , for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men, &c. I take the sense of these words to be, You have taken away know...

Matthew saith, Mat 23:13 , for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men, &c. I take the sense of these words to be, You have taken away knowledge, which is the key by which men enter into the kingdom of God. Though knowledge itself be but a common gift, and men may have great measures of it, and yet perish for ever, 1Co 13:2 , yet it is the foundation of all saving grace. How shall they believe in him of whom, they have not heard? Rom 10:14 . So, how shall they obey a rule they do not know, or repent of those sins which they do not know to be so? So as those that are the hinderers of people’ s coming to the knowledge of the will of God, are the vilest instruments upon earth in hindering men’ s and women’ s salvation. The papists are highly guilty of this, in keeping their laity from the Scriptures in a language intelligible to them. But how were the scribes guilty of this? The Jews were never hindered from reading or hearing of the law; it was read in their synagogues every sabbath day. But we must know that knowledge is highly advantaged by an interpretation of the mind and will of God. But how did the scribes take away this? They preached and interpreted the law of God.

Answer. They gave not the true sense of it, but so preached that people were scarce any whit the wiser, as to the knowledge of the law of God, only they made people understand their traditions and ceremonies: their doctrines were the traditions of men. Now they occupying the places of teachers, and no better discharging their work, instead of giving, took away knowledge from them, and proved blind leaders of the blind. Whoever they are that arrogate to themselves the office of teaching, and supplying the places of teachers, and either do not make preaching, and instruction of the people under their charge, their business, or who preach in styles and methods their people understand not, or who preach other things than what they prove to be the revealed will of God, fall deeply under the condemnation of this text. See Poole on "Mat 23:13" .

Poole: Luk 11:53-54 - They urge him vehemently, and provoke him to speak of many things Ver. 53,54. Herein the vile genius of these wretched men was seen, Christ was become their enemy because he told them the truth; his reproofs in orde...

Ver. 53,54. Herein the vile genius of these wretched men was seen, Christ was become their enemy because he told them the truth; his reproofs in order to their reformation and amendment do but fill them with madness against him. Nor are wicked and malicious men at any time fair enemies.

They urge him vehemently, and provoke him to speak of many things they lie at the catch, in wait for him; hoping that in his many words, and answers to their many captious questions, they should hear something from him, upon which they might form an accusation against him to Pilate, the Roman governor, for his blood was that they thirsted after. If it were thus done to the green tree, let us not wonder if it be so done also to the dry. The hearts and practices of malicious and wicked men, in succeeding generations, do (as in a glass) answer the hearts of persons of their spirits and morals in preceding generations. Malice will never regard justice or equity.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:1 - Teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples And it came to pass, that, as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, a...

And it came to pass, that, as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.   

[Teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.] What kind of request is this, that this disciple, whoever he is, doth here make? Was he ignorant of, or had he forgot, that form of prayer which the Lord had delivered to them in his sermon upon the mount? If he had not forgot it, why then doth he require any other? Doth he mean, 'Lord, teach us to pray, for John hath taught his disciples?' or thus, 'Teach us a form and rule of prayer like that which John had taught his?' This latter is the most probable; but then it is something uncertain what kind of form that might be which the disciples of John were taught. As to this inquiry, we may consider these things:  

I. It is said of the disciples of John, They fast often, and make prayers; Luk 5:33; where, upon many accounts, I could persuade myself that prayers ought to be taken here in its most proper sense for supplications. To let other things pass, let us weigh these two:  

1. That the Jews' daily and common prayers, ordinary and occasional, consisted chiefly of benedictions and doxologies, which the title of that Talmudic tract, which treats of their prayers, sufficiently testifies, being called [Beracoth] benedictions; as also that tephillah; the general nomenclature for prayer; signifies no other than praising; i.e. benediction or doxology. To illustrate this matter, we have a passage or two not unworthy our transcribing:  

" Perhaps, a man begs for necessaries for himself, and afterward prayeth. This is that which is spoken by Solomon, when he saith, To the prayer, and to the supplication." I omit the version, because the Gemarists interpret it themselves; rinna is tephillah; and tephillah is bakkashah. Their meaning is this: The first word of Solomon's rinnah; signifies prayer (as the Gloss hath it, i.e. prayer with praise; or doxology) the latter word, tephillah; signifies petition; or supplication; Gloss, begging for things necessary.   

It cannot be denied but that they had their petitionary or supplicatory prayers; but then, the benedictory or doxological prayers were more in number, and more large and copious: especially those which were poured out occasionally or upon present emergency. Read the last chapter of the treatise I newly quoted, and judge as to this particular: read the whole treatise, and then judge of the whole matter.  

2. It may be reasonably supposed that the Baptist taught his disciples a form of prayer different from what the Jewish forms were. It stands with reason, that he that was to bring in a new doctrine, (I mean new in respect to that of the Jewish) should bring in a new way of prayer too; that is, a form of prayer that consisted more in petition and supplication than the Jewish forms had done; nay, and another sort of petitions than what those forms which were petitionary had hitherto contained. For the disciples of John had been instructed in the points of regeneration, justifying faith, particular adoption, and sanctification by the Spirit, and other doctrines of the gospel, which were altogether unknown in the schools or synagogues of the Jews. And who would imagine, therefore, that John Baptist should not teach his disciples to pray for these things?  

II. It is probable, therefore, that when this disciple requested our Saviour that he would teach his disciples as John had done, he had respect to such kind of prayers as these; because we find Christ so far condescending to him, that he delivers him a form of prayer merely petitionary, as may appear both from the whole structure of the prayer, as also in that the last close of all the doxology, "For thine is the kingdom," etc. Is here left wholly out; he took care to deliver [a form] that was merely supplicatory. This is confirmed by what follows concerning the man requesting some loaves of his neighbour, adding withal this exhortation, "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find." Which two things seem to answer those two things by which supplicatory prayer is defined; these are sheelah, asking; and bakkashah, seeking; for if there may be any difference in the meaning of these two words, I would suppose it thus, bakkashah; or seeking; may respect the things of God; so, "Seek ye first the kingdom of God," etc.: and sheelah; or asking; may respect those things which are necessary for ourselves: which texture we find very equally divided in this present form of prayer, where the three first petitions are in behalf of God's honour, and the three last in behalf of our own necessaries.  

It was in use amongst the Jews, when they fasted, to use a peculiar sort of prayer, joined with what were daily, terming it the prayer of the fast. This we have mentioned in Taanith; where it is disputed whether those that fasted for certain hours only, and not for the whole day, ought to repeat that prayer of the fast: as also, in what order and place that prayers is to be inserted amongst the daily ones. Now if it should be granted that John had taught his disciples any such form, that might be particularly adapted to their fastings, it is not very likely this disciple had any particular reference to that, because the disciples of Christ did not fast as the disciples of John did. It rather respected the whole frame of their prayers which he had instructed them in, which consisted chiefly of petitions and supplications.  

Object. But probably this disciple was not ignorant that Christ had already delivered to them a petitionary form in that Sermon of his upon the Mount: and therefore what need had he to desire, and for what reason did he importune another?  

Answer. It is likely he did know it; and as likely he did not expect the repetition of the same again: but being very intent upon what John had done for his disciples, did hope for a form more full and copious, that might more largely and particularly express what they were to ask for, according to what he had observed probably in the form that had been prescribed by John: but the divine wisdom of our Saviour knew, however, that all was sufficiently comprehended in what he had given them. And as the Jews had their short summary of those eighteen prayers epitomized, so would he have this form of his a short summary of all that we ought to ask for.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:4 - And lead us not into temptation And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.  &n...

And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.   

[And lead us not into temptation.] I am much deceived if this petition is not amongst other things, and indeed principally, and in the first place, directed against the visible apparitions of the devil, the evil one; as also his actual obsessions: by which the phrase of God's 'leading us into temptation' is very much softened.  

The doxology, 'For thine is the kingdom,' etc., is left out, because it was our Saviour's intention in this place to deliver to them a form of prayer merely petitionary; for which very same reason also, Amen is omitted too. For he shall say Amen at thy giving of thanks; and indeed they commonly ended all their prayers, even those that consisted most of petition, with thanksgiving and benediction; concluding in this manner, "Blessed be thou, O Lord, who hast thus done, or thus commanded," or the like; and then was it answered by all, Amen. This we may observe in those Psalms that conclude any portion of that book, and end with Amen; upon what subject soever the Psalmist is engaged, either throughout the whole psalm, or immediately before the bringing forth of Amen; still he never doth mention Amen without some foregoing doxology and benediction, "Blessed be the Lord God, etc., Amen and Amen." In St. Matthew, therefore, we find Amen; because there is the doxology: in St. Luke it is wanting, because the doxology is so too. You may see more of this in notes upon Matthew_6.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:15 - Through Beelzebub the chief of the devils But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub the chief of the devils.   [Through Beelzebub the chief of the devils.] I. ...

But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub the chief of the devils.   

[Through Beelzebub the chief of the devils.] I. As to this name of Beelzebub I have elsewhere discoursed, and do still assert the reading of it with the letter l in the end of it, viz. Beelzebul, against the Syriac, Persian, Vulgar, and other translations, which read it Beelzebub. The Italian, cautiously indeed, but not purely, Beelzebu; that he might not strike upon either the one or the other reading: but in the mean time I will not answer for the faithfulness and candour of the interpreter.  

II. Amongst the Jews we may observe three devils called the chief; or prince of the devils; 1. 'The angel of death'; who is called Prince of all the Satans. 2. The devil Asmodeus; of him afterward. 3. Beelzebub; in this place. Now as to vindicating the writing of it by l in the end of the word, and not b;  

III. It is a question whether there were such a thing as Beelzebub in rerum natura. Why should not the deity of the place take his farewell, when Ekron, the place of this deity, was wholly obliterated? When there was no more an idol nor oracle at Ekron, did not the demon cease to be Beelzebub any longer, although it did not cease to be a demon? Wherever, therefore, Ekron was under the second Temple, or the place where it had been under the first; you can hardly persuade me there was any idol or oracle of Beelzebub; and so not Beelzebub himself. I will not here dispute whether Achor, the Cyrenians' tutelar god against flies, hath any relation or affinity with the name of Ekron. Let it be granted that Beelzebub might change his soil upon some occasion, and remove from Ekron to Cyrene: but then how should he come to be the prince of the devils; when all his business and power was only among flies?  

It may not be improbable, perhaps, that he might be first or chief of those demons, or Baalim; that Ahab brought among the Israelites; and so Ahaziah his son, in the midst of his affliction and danger, might fly for refuge to that idol as what had been the god of his father: but what is it could move the ages following at so long distance of time from this, that they should esteem this demon Beelzebub the prince of the devils? Here I confess myself not well satisfied: but as to Beelzebul; something may be said.  

IV. I have already shewn, in notes upon Matthew_12, that the Jewish doctors (and such were these who contended with our Saviour) did give idolatrous worship the denomination of zebul; or dung; for the ignominy of the thing; and so was the nation generally taught by these Rabbins. I gave some instances for the proof of it, which I shall not here repeat, but add one more: "It is said of Joseph" [when his mistress would have tempted him to adultery], "that he came into the house to do his business. R. Judah saith, It was a day of fooling and of dunging; it was a day of theatres." Where the Gloss upon the word zebul, stercoration; saith thus: "It is a word of contempt, and so it is expounded by R. Solomon in the treatise Avodah Zarah; and Tosaphoth; viz. That fooling signifies to sacrifice [that is, to idols]; and they prove it out of Jerusalem Beracoth; where it is said, 'He that seeth a place where they dung [that is, offer sacrifice] to an idol; let him say, Whoso offereth sacrifice to strange gods, let him be accursed.' " Which words we have also alleged out of the Jerusalem Talmud.  

V. Now therefore, when idolatry was denominated zebul amongst the Jews, and indeed reckoned amongst the most grievous of sins they could be guilty of, that devil whom they supposed to preside over this piece of wickedness they named him Beelzebub; and esteemed him the prince of the devils; or (if you will pardon the expression) the most devilized of all devils.  

VI. They give the like title to the devil Asmodeus. Asmodeus the king of the devils. The devil, the prince of the spirits. Which elsewhere is expounded, the devil Asmodeus. For in both places we have this ridiculous tale: "There was a certain woman brought forth a son in the night-time, and said to her son [a child newly born you must know], 'go and light me a candle, that I may cut thy navel.' As he was going, the devil Asmodeus meeting him, said to him, 'Go and tell thy mother that if the cock had not crowed I would have killed thee,' " etc.  

The very name points at 'apostasy,' not so much that the devil was an apostate, as that this devil provoked and enticed people to apostatize: Beelzebul amongst the Gentiles, and Asmodeus amongst the Jews, the first authors of their apostasy. Whether both the name and demon were not found out by the Jews to affright the Samaritans, see the place above quoted: "When as Noah went to plant a vineyard, the demon Asmodeus met him and said, Let me partake with thee;" etc. So that it seems they suppose Asmodeus had a hand in Noah's drunkenness. " When he [that is, Solomon] sinned, Asmodeus drove him to it;" etc. They call the angel of death by the name of prince of all Satans; because he destroys all mankind by death, none excepted.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:31 - The queen of the south, etc. The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the e...

The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.   

[The queen of the south, etc.] I. I cannot but wonder what should be the meaning of that passage in Bava Bathra; Whoever saith that the queen of Sheba was a woman, doth no other than mistake. What then is the queen of Sheba? The kingdom of Sheba. Would he have the whole kingdom of the Sabeans to have come to Solomon? Perhaps what is said, that the queen of Sheba came with an exceeding great army (for so is that clause rendered by some), might seem to sound something of this nature in his ears. But if there was any kind of ambiguity in the word queen; as indeed there is none, or if interpreters doubted at all about it, as indeed none had done, the great oracle of truth hath here taught us that the queen did come to Solomon: but why doth he term her the queen of 'the south,' and not the queen of 'Sheba'?  

II. There are plausible things upon this occasion spoken concerning Sheba of the Arabians; which we have no leisure to discuss at present. I am apt rather to apprehend that our Saviour may call her the queen of the south in much a like sense as the king of Egypt is called in Daniel 'the king of the south.' The countries in that quarter of the world were very well known amongst the Jews by that title: but I question whether the Arabian Saba were so or no. Grant that some of the Arabian countries be in later ages called Aliemin; or southern parts; yet I doubt whether so called by antiquity, or in the days of our Saviour.  

Whereas it is said that the queen of the south came to hear the wisdom of Solomon, is it worth the patience of the reader to hear a little the folly of the Jews about this matter? Because it is said that she came to make a proof of his wisdom by dark sayings and hard questions, these doctors will be telling us what kind of riddles and hard questions she put to him. "She saith unto him, 'If I ask thee any thing, wilt thou answer me?' He said, 'It is the Lord that giveth wisdom.' She saith, 'What is this then? There are seven things go out and nine enter. Two mingle [or prepare] the cup, and one drinks of it.' He saith, 'There are seven days for a woman's separation, that go out; and nine months for her bringing forth, that come in. Two breasts do [mingle, or] prepare the cup, and one sucks it.' Again saith she, 'I will ask thee one thing more: What is this? A woman saith unto her son, Thy father was my father; thy grandfather was my husband; thou art my son, and I am thy sister.' To whom he answered, ' Surely they were Lot's daughters.' " There is much more of this kind, but thus much may suffice for riddles.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:33 - No man, when he hath lighted a candle, etc. No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may ...

No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light.   

[No man, when he hath lighted a candle, etc.] the coherence of this passage with what went before seems a little difficult, but the connection probably is this: there were some that had reviled him as if he had cast out devils by the prince of the devils, others that had required a sign from heaven, Luk 11:15-16. To the former of these he gives an answer, Luk 11:17-18; and, indeed, to both of them, Luk 11:19, and so on. This passage we are upon respects both, but the latter more principally: q.d. "You require a sign of me: would you have me light a candle, and put it under a bushel? would you have me work miracles, when I am assured beforehand you will not believe these miracles? Which, however of themselves they may shine like a candle lighted up, yet, in respect to you that believe them not, it is no other than a candle under a bushel, or in a secret place."

Lightfoot: Luk 11:36 - The whole shall be full of light If thy whole body therefore be full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, as when the bright shining of a candle doth ...

If thy whole body therefore be full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, as when the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light.   

[The whole shall be full of light.] This clause seems so much the same with the former, as if there were something of tautology; If thy whole body therefore be full of light; etc. Our Saviour speaketh of the eye, after the manner of the schools, where the evil eye; or the eye not single; signified the covetous, envious, and malicious mind: "Do not bring such a mind along with thee, but a candid, benign, gentle mind; then thou wilt be all bright and clear thyself, and all things will be bright and clear to thee. If you had but such a mind, O ye carping, blasphemous Jews, you would not frame so sordid and infamous a judgment of my miracles; but you would have a clear and candid opinion concerning them."

Lightfoot: Luk 11:38 - That he had not first washed before dinner And when the Pharisee saw it; he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner.   [That he had not first washed before dinner.] Ha...

And when the Pharisee saw it; he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner.   

[That he had not first washed before dinner.] Had the Pharisee himself washed before dinner; in that sense wherein washed signifies the washing of the whole body? It is hardly credible, when there was neither need, nor was it the custom, to wash the whole body before meat, but the hands only. This we have spoken largelier upon elsewhere [ Matthew_15; Mark_7]; from whence it will be necessary for us to repeat these things; that there is a washing of the hands; and there is a dipping of the hands. This clause we are upon refers to this latter. The Pharisee wonders that Christ had not washed his hands; nay, that he had not dipped them all over in the water when he was newly come from the people that were gathered thick together.  

Of how great esteem this washing their hands before meat was amongst them, besides what I have alleged elsewhere, take this one instance more: "It is storied of R. Akibah, that he was bound in prison, and R. Joshua ministered unto him as his reader. He daily brought him water by measure. One day the keeper of the prison met him, and said unto him, 'Thou hast too much water today.' He poured out half, and gave him half. When he came to R. Akibah, he told him the whole matter. R. Akibah saith unto him, 'Give me some water to wash my hands': the other saith unto him, 'There is not enough for thee to drink; and how then shouldest thou have any to wash thine hands?' To whom he, 'What shall I do in a matter wherein there is the guilt of death? It is better I should die [that is, by thirst] than that I should transgress the mind of my colleagues'": who had thus prescribed about washing of hands.  

And a little after; Samuel saith, " At that time wherein Solomon instituted the ' Erubhin' and washing of the hands; there came forth ' Bath Kol;' and said, 'My son, if thy heart be wise, even mine shall rejoice.' " Observe here, (at least if you will believe it) that Solomon was the first author of this washing of hands. "Whosoever blesseth immediately after the washing of hands, Satan doth not accuse him for that time of his repast."

Lightfoot: Luk 11:39 - Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter, etc. And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wic...

And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness.   

[Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter, etc.] this our Saviour speaks of the persons; and not of the vessels; which is plain, in that,  

I. He saith, your inward parts; etc.; so that the sense is to this purpose: You cleanse yourselves outwardly indeed by these kinds of washings; but that which is within you is full of rapine, etc.  

II. Whereas he saith, he that made that which is without; he doth not speak it of the artificer that made the cup or the platter, but of God. Else what kind of argument is this? 'He that made the cups and the platters, made both the outside and the inside of them': what then? 'Therefore do ye make yourselves clean both outside and inside too.' But if we refer it to God, then the argument holds forcibly enough: 'Did not God, that made you without, make you within too? he expects, therefore, that you should keep yourselves clean, not only as to your outside, but as to your inside too.'  

III. It is hardly probable that the Pharisees should wash the outside of the cup or platter, and not the inside too. Take but these two passages out of this kind of authors themselves: "Those dishes which any person eats out of over night, they wash them, that he may eat in them in the morning. In the morning they wash them, that he may eat in them at noon. At noon, that he may eat in them at the mincha. After the mincha, he doth not wash them again; but the cups, and jugs, and bottles, he doth wash, and so it goes throughout the whole day;" etc. I will not give myself nor reader the trouble to examine the meaning of the words: it suffices that here is mention only of washing, and that the whole vessel, not of this or that part only: and the washing of such vessels was by dipping them in water.  

"All vessels that have an outside and an inside; if the inside be defiled, the outside is also; but if the outside be defiled, the inside is not defiled." One would think this was to our purpose, and asserted the very literal sense of the words we have in hand, viz. that the cups and the platters, although they were unclean on the outside, yet in the inside they might be clean; and it was sufficient to the Pharisee, if he cleansed them on the outside only. But the vessels here mentioned (if the Gloss may be our interpreter) are such as they might use both the outside and the inside indifferently. Some of them are recited by the Gemarists, viz. sacks, wallets, nightcaps, pillowcases, etc.  

Our Saviour, therefore, does not here speak according to the letter, neither here nor in Mat 23:25; when he saith, "Ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter"; but by way of parable and similitude. 'You, while you are so very nice and officious in your external washings, you do nothing more than if you only washed the outside of the cup or dish, while there was nothing but filth and nastiness within.'

Lightfoot: Luk 11:40 - Ye fools Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make that which is within also?   [Ye fools.] A word very common to the nation. "Ra...

Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make that which is within also?   

[Ye fools.] A word very common to the nation. "Rabban Jochanan Ben Zacchai said to the Baithuseans, Ye fools; how prove you this?" "Esau said, Cain was a fool. Pharaoh said, Esau was a fool. Haman said, Pharaoh was a fool. Gog and Magog will say, They were all fools that are gone before us." Hence that common phrase, O thou most foolish thing in all the world.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:41 - But rather give alms of such things as ye have But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you.   [But rather give alms of such things as ye ...

But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you.   

[But rather give alms of such things as ye have.] This seems ironically spoken, and in derision to the opinion they had concerning alms.  

1. As to the version of the word of such things; may we not suppose it signifies not only, that which is over and above; as the Vulgar, but also all that you have; as Beza: or not only something that may have respect to the riches of this world, but something also that may have respect to the doctrines and tenets of the Pharisees. As if the meaning was this, "'Those things which are amongst you,' i.e. Which obtain commonly amongst you, are to this purpose, 'Give but alms, and all things are clean unto you.'"...  

II. However, that which is over and above; or that which you have; (for I will not be very tenacious in this) yet it is hardly probable that our Saviour utters this as his own, but rather as the words and opinion of the Pharisees. Nor do I think that he speaks these things directly, or by way of directions to them; but that he cites their tenets in mere scoff and displeasure. For indeed, this principle was the spawn of their own schools, that giving of alms had a value in it that served for atonement, justification, salvation, every thing. Hence that common term that reached so comprehensively, righteousness. And hence is it that, in those numberless places in the Holy Scriptures, where the praises of justice and righteousness are celebrated, and all the blessings of it pronounced, they apply it all to the giving of alms. Take on instance for all: "Rabh Asai saith, Alms is equivalent to all the other commandments." "R. Judah saith, Giving of alms is a great thing; for it hastens our redemption. It is written, righteousness; [i.e., giving of alms], delivers from death. Almsgiving, delivereth from sudden death, and from the judgment of hell. R. Meir saith, If any wicked man should make this objection, that if your God love the poor, why doth he not feed them? do thou make this answer; it is, that we by them might be delivered from the judgment of hell."  

I fear, indeed, that the Greek interpreters have a touch of this, when they so oftentimes render justice by giving of alms. So that the reader may judge whether our Saviour either would teach, that rapine, injustice, and unrighteousness might be cleansed by giving of alms; or that he would give them any counsel of this nature, when he knew they were sufficiently tinctured with this kind of doctrine already.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:45 - Then answered one of the lawyers Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying thou reproachest us also.   [Then answered one of the lawyers.] ...

Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying thou reproachest us also.   

[Then answered one of the lawyers.] Here seems a little difficulty, that whereas, in the foregoing verse Luk 11:44, it is said, "Woe unto you scribes and Pharisees," it is not subjoined then answered one of the scribes; but one of the lawyers; which scruple perhaps the Vulgar observing, made him leave scribes and Pharisees wholly out. Our Saviour inveighs more peculiarly, and by name, against the Pharisees, Luk 11:37; Luk 11:42-43; and at length joins the scribes with them, Luk 11:44. Hence that lawyer cavils and complains, either that he had named the scribes in terms, or that he had accused the Pharisees of nothing but what the scribes might be equally accused of. As to this very scribe, did not he wash his hands before dinner as the Pharisees did? For it is said of all the Jews, " except they wash their hands oft; eat not." Did not the scribe tithe mint and rue as well as the Pharisee? When we find that the tithing of herbs was instituted by the Rabbins. In a word, the scribes and the Pharisees go hand in hand in that discourse of our Saviour's, Matthew_23; where he blameth both the one and the other for the same things. So that it is plain enough why this man complains; but it is not so plain why he should be termed "one of the lawyers;" and not "one of the scribes."  

I. It is not very easy distinguishing betwixt the scribe and the Pharisee, unless that Pharisaism was a kind of tumour and excrescence as to superstition and austerities of religion beyond the common and stated practice of that nation, even of the scribes themselves. Whether that distinction betwixt singular; and a disciple; hints any difference as to the austerity of religion, I cannot affirm; I will only lay a passage or two in the reader's eye for him to consider.  

"The Rabbins have a tradition, Let no one say, I am a Disciple, I am not fit to be made a Singular." The Gloss hath it, "I am not fit to begin the fasts with the Singulars." And the Gemara a little after; "The Rabbins have a tradition: Every one that would make himself a Singular; let him not make himself so: but if any one would make himself a Disciple; let him." And at length; It is not lawful for a Disciple of the Wise to continue in fastings, because he diminisheth from the work of God; that is, he ceaseth from learning and teaching.  

One would here think, that it is plainly distinguished betwixt a Pharisee and any other; and yet the Gemarists, in the very same place, say thus, All the Disciples of the Wise are Singulars. At length they query, " Who is a Singular, and who is a Disciple? A Singular is he that is worthy to be preferred to be a pastor of a synagogue. A Disciple is he, who if they ask him any thing concerning a tradition in his doctrine, he hath wherewithal to answer." So that by a Disciple they mean not him that is now learning, but him who hath already learned and now teacheth; but, in other places, they apply both these to the Disciple.  

"R. Jochanan saith, Who is a Disciple of the Wise? He whom they prefer to be pastor of a synagogue: he who, if they ask him about any tradition in any place, hath wherewithal to answer." The difference between these, however confounded in this place, was this: that the Disciple could answer doubts and questions fetched out of that place or from that subject upon which he had taught or read; but the Singular; could answer all doubts raised from any place, even out of the treatise concerning marriages. That mention of the pastor and the teacher; Eph 4:11; we seem to have some shadow of it here: the Disciple is the teacher; and the Singular is the pastor of the synagogue; and perhaps if these things were observed, it might give some light into that place of the apostle.  

II. As the Disciple and the Singular are sometimes confounded, sometimes distinguished, so also is the scribe and the Pharisee. They are sometimes confounded; for many of the Pharisees were scribes: and they are sometimes distinguished; for many of them were of the common people, and not scribes. Perhaps it may not be improperly said, that there were Pharisees that were of the clergy, and Pharisees that were of the laity. He whom we have now before us was a scribe, but not a Pharisee; but it is not easy to give the reason why he is termed a lawyer and not a scribe. Here is some place for conjecture, but not for demonstration. As to conjecture, therefore, let us make a little essay in this matter.  

I. I conceive that the lawyer and teacher of the law; may be opposed to the Sadducees to whom the Pharisee is diametrically opposite; for they were contrary to them in their practice of the traditional rites as much as they could; and these again abundantly contrary to them in traditional doctrines. The Sadducees had, indeed, their scribes or their teachers, as well as any other party: and there is frequent mention of the scribes of the Sadducees. And from this antithesis, probably, is Rabban Gamaliel termed a doctor of law. For there was then an assembly of the 'sect of the Sadducees,' Luk 11:17; and when Gamaliel, who was of the other sect, made his speech amongst them, it is easy to conceive why he is there termed a doctor of law. For the same reason we may suppose the person here before us might be called one of the lawyers; and not a scribe; because there were scribes even amongst the Sadducees.  

II. I conceive, therefore, that the lawyers and teachers of the law were the traditionary doctors of the law. As to Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, the thing is without dispute: and if there were any difference between the lawyers and doctors of the law, yet as to this matter, I suppose there was none. Let us consider this following passage: "It is a tradition: R. Simeon Ben Jochai saith, He that is conversant, in the textual exposition of the law; hath a measure, which is not a measure. He that is conversant in Misna, hath a measure, from whence they receive a reward: but if he be conversant in the Talmud, there is not a greater measure than this. Always betake yourself to the Misna rather than the Talmud. But R. Jose Ben R. Bon saith, This which thou sayest, obtained before the Rabbi had mixed with it manifold traditions: but from the time that he mixed with it manifold traditions, always have recourse to the Talmud rather than to the Misna."  

Now, I pray, who is he that, according to this tradition, merits most the title of a doctor of law? He that is conversant in the exposition and interpretation of the written law; and the context of it, alas! he doth but little; and for all the oil and labour he hath spent, hath only a measure, which is not a measure. But he that is conversant in the Misna and Talmud, in the traditional doctrine or exposition of the traditional law, he bears away the bell; he hath some reward for his pains, and is dignified with the title of doctor.  

III. If there were any distinction betwixt doctors of tradition and doctors of law (which I hardly believe), we may suppose it might be this; either that the doctor of law had his school and his disciples, and the doctor of tradition had none; or that the doctor of tradition was conversant in the Misna, or the plain and literal exposition of traditions, and the doctor of law; in the Talmud, or a more profound and scholastic way of teaching.  

However, be there this distinction betwixt them, or some other, or indeed none at all, yet I presume they were both doctors of traditions, and expounders of that which they called the oral law, in opposition to the scribes, whether amongst the Jews or the Sadducees, who employed themselves in the textual exposition of the law.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:46 - And ye yourselves touch not (the burdens) with one of your fingers And he said, Woe unto you also, ye lawyers! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one ...

And he said, Woe unto you also, ye lawyers! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.   

[And ye yourselves touch not (the burdens) with one of your fingers.] That the lawyers (as we have already said) were the doctors of traditions; is a little confirmed by this, that what our Saviour reproacheth them for were merely traditionals: this particularly, that they laded men with such 'yokes of traditions,' and yet they themselves would not touch or move them with one of their fingers.  

This exposition indeed vulgarly obtains, 'You lay grievous burdens upon others, which in the meantime you indulge yourselves in, and will not undergo them by any means.' This interpretation I cannot but admit; but yet must inquire whether there be not something more included it. For whereas 'he that would prescribe light things to himself, and burdensome to others,' was commonly accounted and called a wicked cunning fellow; and whereas there is frequent mention of this or that Rabbin, who would lay this or that burden upon himself; which he would acquit others of; it may be a question, whether this exposition, so commonly received, doth indeed speak out the whole sense and meaning of these words.  

I apprehend, therefore, our Saviour might not only rebuke the remissness and indulgence they gave themselves, but further their strictness and tenaciousness about their own decrees. They made light of the commandments of God, at their own pleasure; but would never diminish the least tittle of their own. That they might remove or take away any part of the divine law, they employ both hands; but as to their own constitutions, they will not move one finger.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:49 - Therefore also said the wisdom of God Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:   [Therefo...

Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:   

[Therefore also said the wisdom of God.] This form of speaking agreeth well enough with that so much in use, the rule of judgment saith. Amongst numberless instances, take that of the Targumist; "Is it fitting that the daughters of Israel should eat the fruit of their own womb? The rule of judgment [retributive justice] answered and said, Was it also fitting to kill a priest and a prophet in the sanctuary of the Lord, as ye killed Zacharias," etc.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:51 - Unto the blood of Zacharias From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required o...

From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation.   

[Unto the blood of Zacharias.] If our Saviour had not in the evangelist St. Matthew added "the son of Barachias," no one could have doubted that it referred to any other than Zacharias the son of Jehoiada, whose slaughter is recorded 2 Chronicles_24. It is certain the Jews own no other Zacharias slain in the Temple but himself: and what they say of his slaughter, I have already taken notice upon that place in St. Matthew out of both the Talmuds. We meet with the same things in Midras Echah, and Midras Coheleth: out of which last give me leave briefly to transcribe these passages:  

"The blood of Zachary boiled up two hundred and fifty-two years, from the days of Joash to the days of Zedekiah. What did they do? They swept into it all the dust [of the court] and made a heap; yet it ceased not, but still boiled and bubbled up. The Holy Blessed God said to the blood, Behold the time is come that thou exact [that was, Let the Lord behold, and require it at your hands]. When Nebuzaradan came and inquired, what this matter was; they answered, That it was the blood of heifers, and rams, and lambs, which they had sacrificed. Afterward, when he came to understand what the matter was, he slew eighty thousand priests, and yet the blood would not stanch, but broke out and flowed as far as the tomb of Zachary. He brought together, therefore, the Sanhedrim, both the Great and Less, and slew them over that blood, and yet it did not cease," etc.  

I hardly indeed think that those that relate this matter did really believe it to have been actually so; but only would by such flowers of rhetoric and strained hyperboles, paint out the horrible guilt of the murder of Zacharias; which by how much the more horrible it was, by so much the more did it agree with the guilt of the murder of our blessed Lord.  

And however a great part of it in these relations of theirs may be mere flourish, yet by the whole framing of the thing, it must needs be observed, that the slaughter of this Zacharias was so famous and rooted in the minds of that people generally, that when our Saviour speaks of one Zacharias, slain between the Temple and the altar, it cannot be imagined that they could understand him pointing at any other than this very man. As for his father being here called Barachias, and not Jehoiada, we have spoken to that matter elsewhere.  

If any one hesitate about the changing of the name, let him say by what name he finds Jehoiada recited in that catalogue of priests set down in 1 Chronicles 6. It must be either some other name, or else we must suppose him wholly left out of that number. If by another name, you will say (supposing he be also called Barachias) he was then a man of three names. This indeed is no unusual thing with that nation for some to have more names than one: nay, if you will believe the Jewish doctors, even Moses himself had no less than ten.

Lightfoot: Luk 11:52 - Ye have taken away the key of knowledge Woe unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered. &nb...

Woe unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered.   

[Ye have taken away the key of knowledge.] Should we render it, Ye have taken the key of knowledge; (that is, to yourselves) or, Ye have taken it away; there is not much difference. They took the key of knowledge to themselves; when they arrogated to themselves only all profoundness of wisdom and learning, hereby indeed taking it away from the people, because they taught them nothing but trifling and idle stuff.   

The word for key in their language brings to mind the word which was so very much in use amongst them for one that was teaching. Instances of this were endless: there are enough of it in that long preface prefixed to that Midras Threnorum; that hath for its title, The opening of the wise; where (as indeed almost everywhere else), it is so frequently said, R. such a one 'opened'; for I cannot tell how better to render it...

PBC: Luk 11:5 - -- In some recent study on the subject of prayer I encountered a delightful surprise that I’d like to share with you. I’d also appreciate your reacti...

In some recent study on the subject of prayer I encountered a delightful surprise that I’d like to share with you. I’d also appreciate your reactions/interaction with the idea. Lu 11:1-13. The disciples ask Jesus to teach them to pray " as John also taught his disciples." We don’t have a record of John’s teaching on prayer, so we must follow Jesus’ response to the request for our instruction. I rather doubt that Jesus intended to teach them another prayer strategy. Rather it appears from the lesson that follows that Jesus gave them a powreful incentive to pray. There is something about Jesus’ Father that makes prayer inviting. I’ll skip the model prayer, though there is some challenging instruction that we overlook, almost as if an outworn cliche, in that prayer; example, why would the model prayer from Jesus include the petition, " Lead us not into temptation?" Lu 11:5-8 include a brief parable that forms the heart of Jesus’ teaching, the surprise midnight visitor. For my whole life I’ve focused my interpretation of this parable on the man who is surprised by the midnight visitor, making the lesson teach the truth (clearly taught in other lessons) of persistence and boldness in prayer. I now offer reasons that nudged me to rethink this view. Occasionally my wife teases me about my careless use of pronouns. Particularly when I’m tired, I neglect to maintain a clear antecedent pattern in my use of pronouns. Thus, as I read this lesson, I didn’t particularly notice the clarity of the pronoun clues that direct the central focus of the lesson away from the man who is knocking on the outside to the man on the inside, the man who in the representation of the parable would depict the Father and give us reason and motive to pray to Him. Here is my reconstruction of the pronouns.

1.   {Lu 11:5-6} set the stage. A guest arrives at midnight, wholly unexpected. If he has been traveling all day, or several days, and just arrived, he is tired and hungry. He has obvious needs that the host feels compelled to satisfy, but he has no groceries in the house, so he must seek them from his neighbor. As I go through verses 7 and 8, {Lu 11:7-8} tracing the antecedent to each pronoun, notice the emphasis and consistency of their identity.

2.   " He from within (no question about this one) shall answer..."

3.   " Though he (the man inside, the nextdoor neighbor) will not rise and give him" (the man who received the surprise guest).

4.   " Because he (the man on the outside knocking) is his (the man on the inside) friend." I suppose you could flip-flop these two, but the emphasis is still on the man inside the house, not on the man who is knocking.

5.   " Yet because of his (questionable identity that we typically impute to the man on the outside knocking; hold for later) importunity."

6.   " He (the man on the inside) will rise and give him (the man on the outside)."

In five of the six phrases the " he" clearly refers to the man on the inside, not to the man on the outside. If five of six phrases refer to the man on the inside, perhaps we should look at the sixth phrase again. " Importunity" is translated from a Greek word that literally means " shamelessness." Why should a man with legitimate needs wrestle with " shame" to knock on his neighbor’s door for help to meet a legitimate and pressing need? For that matter, how does " shameless" equate with the man on the inside? Then, as now, Middle Eastern culture is shame based, not guilt based as with our Western culture. We understand guilt, " the gift that keeps on giving." We don’t understand the Middle Eastern concept of shame very well. I’m not sure the two qualities are precise antitheses, but they seem to be close. In the Middle Eastern sense of shame the antithesis is honor. Shame is bad; no shame, honor or honorable conduct, is good. Shame reflects conduct that reflects badly on one’s self and on his culture. Given five of six references to the man inside the house, I’m looking for a reason to make sense of the sixth reference to the same man. Clean, consistent pronoun use distinctly nudges me in this direction. Here is my thesis for your interaction/reflection. Another trait that dominates Middle Eastern culture is hospitality. Not only the man who received the midnight guest, but the whole village’s reputation is on the line in this scenario. Will the word spread that they were inhospitable to a poor fellow who arrived in their village at midnight? The man on the inside feels compelled by honor, the opposite of shame (" no shame" ) to rise and meet his neighbor’s needs despite the lateness of the hour. He will not contribute to the " shame" of the village as an inhospitable place for tired travelers. There is another interesting nuance that suggests this thought. The man on the outside simply asked for three loaves of bread. In Middle Eastern culture he simply asked for the silverware, the utensils with which to eat the food. {1} It was common in this culture to break off pieces of bread and " sop" them in the bowl of food, the main dish, and then eat the food and the bread. How does the man on the inside in fact respond? Not only does he arise and give his neighbor bread, " he will arise and give him as many as he needeth." In other words, he will give him three loaves of bread, plus anything else that he needs to feed his surprise guest. How does this interpretation respond to the question of prayer? God, depicted in the parable as the man on the inside (He could hardly be depicted by the man on the outside who is destitute to meet a surprise need.), will not allow His name to be shamed by non-responsiveness to our prayers. (" Hallowed be thy name." God will hallow His name; we should live so as to hallow it.) What is the motive within this lesson that invites-compels-us to pray? God will not allow His name to be shamed by being callous or non-responsive to our prayers. Now that idea invites us to pray. It builds the incentive to pray on the character of God, not on our desperation or persistency, both good truths that are taught in other lessons. The very character of our God is such that we desire to pray. It is not a chore or a burden, but a delightful occasion. We ask for the utensils for life; He gives us the whole blessing of life that we truly need. He responds with more than we can " ask or think." {Eph 3:20} This interpretation then leads us logically to the next point in Jesus’ lesson. " Ask...seek...knock." God, on the inside of the door hears our petition, our asking, responds to our knock, and provides far more than we seek.

FOOTNOTES:

{1} Do you mean that in Middle Eastern culture the man only asked for the silverware? Where would he get the food? {2} Would the food come from that which is broken in pieces and put on the silverware? In other words, did he get more than he asked for? Would he not ask for the food also for it seems that silverware with no food on it would not have done the man who asked in Lu 11:5 any good? 510

{2} Since Jesus didn’t address the details of the food, we can only speculate, something better left alone. My point was simply that he asked for the utensil commonly used to eat the food, {3} often probably something of a stew in a large pot. The greater point is, without mentioning the details, that Jesus does tell us in the parable that the man on the inside not only gave the man the three loaves that he requested, but far more, as much as he needed. There was a time when I thought that God only answers our prayers with the specific items that we request. No longer. Now I believe that He consistently responds with far more than we ever imagined when we prayed. That point forms part of the character of the man on the inside and directs us to the character of our Father and God that makes prayer something to desire and to look forward to.

{3} I’m still having trouble with why the man would have asked ONLY for the utensil. Was it an UNDERSTOOD that if he asked for the utensil that he wanted some food on it? It seems in the parable that the man was specific about what he wanted. " I’m not asking for a sop my friend, I need THREE LOAVES of bread." " I’m not asking for a ‘hand-out’ either -will you LEND me three loaves of bread?" Does what I am asking make sense? 510

PBC: Luk 11:24 - -- See WebbSr: VIEWS GIVEN (2)

See WebbSr: VIEWS GIVEN (2)

Haydock: Luk 11:2 - Father, hallowed be thy name Father, hallowed be thy name, &c. See Matthew vi. In the ordinary Greek copies here are all the seven petitions, as in St. Matthew: and so they are...

Father, hallowed be thy name, &c. See Matthew vi. In the ordinary Greek copies here are all the seven petitions, as in St. Matthew: and so they are in the Protestant Testament. Yet St. Augustine in his Enchiridion, (chap. i. tom. 6, p. 240,) says there were read seven petitions in St. Matthew and only five in St. Luke. We may also take notice, that though in the Greek copies here in St. Luke are all seven petitions of the Lord's prayer, yet the doxology, for thine is the kingdom, &c. is omitted in all Greek copies, and by the Protestants; which is a new argument and proof, that the said doxology is an addition from the Greek liturgy. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 11:3 - -- In the Greek it is called epiousion; i.e. supersubstantial. This is not the bread that goeth into the body, but the bread of eternal life, that sup...

In the Greek it is called epiousion; i.e. supersubstantial. This is not the bread that goeth into the body, but the bread of eternal life, that supports the life of the soul. It is here called daily bread. Receive then daily, what will daily profit you; and continue so to live, that you may be daily in proper dispositions for receiving it. All who are under sin, have received a wound, and must seek for a cure. The cure is this heavenly and most venerable sacrament. (St. Augustine, Serm. ii. de verbo Dei.)

Haydock: Luk 11:4 - -- Christ does not teach us to pray for afflictions of the body, but always enjoins us to pray, that we may not enter into temptation. When, therefore, ...

Christ does not teach us to pray for afflictions of the body, but always enjoins us to pray, that we may not enter into temptation. When, therefore, temptation attacks us, we must beg of God grace to withstand it, that the promise in St. Matthew (chap. x.) may be fulfilled in us, he who perseveres to the end shall be saved. (Ven. Bede in Reg. Brev. 221)

Haydock: Luk 11:5 - -- This parable is not found in any one of the evangelists, except St. Luke. Our Saviour having taught his disciples the aforesaid form of prayer, now s...

This parable is not found in any one of the evangelists, except St. Luke. Our Saviour having taught his disciples the aforesaid form of prayer, now shews them the utility and efficacy of prayer in general. He wishes to inculcate the necessity of perseverance in prayer. A friend comes to borrow of another friend at an unseasonable hour; his request is refused; he insists, and obtains, by his perseverance, what he could not have gained without it. Thus also the Almighty wishes to be importuned; he wishes us to pray with zeal and perseverance. this is the model we ought to follow. (Calmet) ---

God would not exhort us so earnestly to pray, unless he was ready to grant our petitions. Let us blush at our sloth: he is more ready to give than we are to receive. (St. Augustine)

Haydock: Luk 11:8 - -- After our Saviour had given his apostles this form of prayer, knowing that men would recite it with remissness and negligence, and then on account of ...

After our Saviour had given his apostles this form of prayer, knowing that men would recite it with remissness and negligence, and then on account of not being heard, would desist, he teaches here to avoid this pusillanimity in prayer; perseverance in our petitions being the most advantageous. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas)

Haydock: Luk 11:9 - -- Our petitions are frequently not immediately granted, that our earnestness and assiduity may be increased; that we may learn to esteem the gifts of Go...

Our petitions are frequently not immediately granted, that our earnestness and assiduity may be increased; that we may learn to esteem the gifts of God, and preserve them with care, for whatever we procure with labour, we preserve with care, lest by losing it we lose our labour also. (St. Basil in Con. Mon.)

Haydock: Luk 11:10 - -- How comes it to pass then, that many pray, and receive not? To this we answer, that if they approach in a proper manner, and observe the necessary co...

How comes it to pass then, that many pray, and receive not? To this we answer, that if they approach in a proper manner, and observe the necessary conditions of the petition, they will undoubtedly receive what they ask for; but if, on the contrary, they deviate from this rule, and ask not, as they ought, they will not receive; because as St. James says, you ask, and receive not, because you ask amiss. (Chap. i.) By asking for things that are prejudical to your well-being; or, if for spiritual blessings, you do not receive them, on account of your evil motives. (Origen in St. Thomas Aquinas)

Haydock: Luk 11:14 - And the multitude This possessed person is said in St. Matthew to have been also blind. Upon him, therefore, were wrought three wonders: the blind saw, the dumb spoke,...

This possessed person is said in St. Matthew to have been also blind. Upon him, therefore, were wrought three wonders: the blind saw, the dumb spoke, the possessed was delivered; which daily takes place in the persons of such as are converted to the number of true believers: the devil is expelled, and they both receive the light of faith beaming upon their eyes, and having the strings of their silent organs loosed to sound forth the praises of God. (Ven. Bede) ---

And the multitude, &c. The multitude, though devoid of learning, were constant admirers of the actions of our Lord, whilst the Scribes and Pharisees either denied them, or by a sinister interpretation, ascribed them to the power of the unclean spirit. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 11:17 - And house upon house shall fall And house upon house shall fall. He speaks of a house or family divided, which thereby shall fall to ruin. (Witham)

And house upon house shall fall. He speaks of a house or family divided, which thereby shall fall to ruin. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 11:19 - Your judges Your judges. They will condemn you of injustice, envy, and hatred against me, and blasphemy against God; because when they performed any exorcisms, ...

Your judges. They will condemn you of injustice, envy, and hatred against me, and blasphemy against God; because when they performed any exorcisms, though they appear but little more than human in their actions, yet you ascribe them to the virtue of God; but when I perform any miracle, though there always appear most evident signs of the power and virtue of God, you ascribe all to the hand and machinations of the devil. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Luk 11:24 - Man Man, &c. By this one man is meant the whole Jewish people, out of whom the unclean spirit had been driven by the law. (St. Ambrose) --- For as long...

Man, &c. By this one man is meant the whole Jewish people, out of whom the unclean spirit had been driven by the law. (St. Ambrose) ---

For as long as they were in Egypt, they lived after the manner of the Egyptians, and were the habitation of the unclean spirit; but it was expelled from them, when they slew the paschal lamb in figure of Christ, and escaped destruction by sprinkling themselves with its blood. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas) ---

But the evil spirit returned to his former habitation, the Jews, because he saw them devoid of virtue, barren, and open for his reception. And their latter state is worse than their former; for more wicked demons possessed the breasts of the Jews than before. Then they raged against the prophets only; but now they persecute the Lord himself of the prophets: therefore have they suffered much greater extremities from Vespasian and Titus, than from Egypt and Babylon; for besides being deprived of the merciful protection of Providence, which before watched over them, they are destitute of all grace, and delivered up to a more poignant misery, and a more cruel tyranny of the devil. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. xliv. on S. Matt.)

Haydock: Luk 11:26 - The last state The last state, &c. But these words are also addressed to us Christians, who may often, and with reason, fear lest the vice we think extinguished i...

The last state, &c. But these words are also addressed to us Christians, who may often, and with reason, fear lest the vice we think extinguished in us, again return and seize on our slothful and careless souls, finding them cleansed indeed from the filth of sin by the grace of baptism, but destitute of every ornamental and protective virtue. It brings with it seven other evil spirits, by which we must understand every vicious inclination. (Ven. Bede) ---

The latter state of these souls is worse than the former; because having been delivered from all former sins, and adorned with grace, if they again return to their iniquities a much more grievous punishment will be due for every subsequent crime. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. xliv. on S. Matt.)

Haydock: Luk 11:28 - Greek: Menounge Greek: Menounge, imo vero, yes indeed. Our Saviour does not here wish to deny what the woman had said, but rather to confirm it: indeed how could he...

Greek: Menounge, imo vero, yes indeed. Our Saviour does not here wish to deny what the woman had said, but rather to confirm it: indeed how could he deny, as Calvin impiously maintained, that his mother was blessed? By these words, he only wishes to tell his auditors what great advantage they might obtain by attending to his words. For the blessed Virgin, as St. Augustine says, was more happy in having our Saviour in her heart and affections, than in having conceived him in her womb. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Luk 11:29 - But the sign of Jonas But the sign of Jonas. Instead of a prodigy in the heavens or in the air, I will give you one in the bosom of the earth, more wonderful than that of...

But the sign of Jonas. Instead of a prodigy in the heavens or in the air, I will give you one in the bosom of the earth, more wonderful than that of the prophet Jonas, who came out alive from the belly of the fish, which had swallowed him. Thus I will return alive from the bosom of the earth three days after my death. (Calmet) ---

He gave them a sign, not from heaven, for they were unworthy to behold it, but from the deep; the sign of his incarnation, not of his divinity; of his passion, not of his glory. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 11:31 - Queen of the South Queen of the South shall condemn this generation, not by exercising the power of judgment against them, but by having performed an action which, when...

Queen of the South shall condemn this generation, not by exercising the power of judgment against them, but by having performed an action which, when put in competition with theirs, will be found superior to them. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 11:34 - If thy eye be single If thy eye be single. As when the eyes of the body are pure, and free from the mixture of bad humours, the whole body is lightsome; so if the eyes o...

If thy eye be single. As when the eyes of the body are pure, and free from the mixture of bad humours, the whole body is lightsome; so if the eyes of the mind, viz. reason, faith and understanding, are not infected with the pestiferous humours of envy, avarice, and other vices, the whole mind will be illuminated by the presence of the Holy Ghost. Take care, therefore, lest by giving way to these vices, the light which is in thee be turned into darkness. (Barradius)

Haydock: Luk 11:36 - The whole shall be lightsome The whole shall be lightsome. Not only all thy body, but all about thee; all thy ways and actions. (Witham)

The whole shall be lightsome. Not only all thy body, but all about thee; all thy ways and actions. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 11:38 - Washed Washed, &c. There was nothing ordained by the law concerning this washing of the hands, which the Pharisees observed before taking meat. Christ and...

Washed, &c. There was nothing ordained by the law concerning this washing of the hands, which the Pharisees observed before taking meat. Christ and his apostles washed their hands when they pleased, without looking for any mystery in such things, or making to themselves vain obligations in frivolous and indifferent things. They did not neglect what was ordained by the law in certain cases for purification; but beside that, they observed nothing more. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 11:41 - But yet that which remaineth, give alms // All things are clean unto you But yet that which remaineth, give alms. [1] The sense seems not to be of what remaineth, give alms, as some expound it; but by the Greek, the sens...

But yet that which remaineth, give alms. [1] The sense seems not to be of what remaineth, give alms, as some expound it; but by the Greek, the sense is, give alms of what you have, i.e. of your goods, according to your abilities; and as Tobias said to his son, If thou hast much, give much; if little, give a little willingly. (Tobias iv. 9.) ---

All things are clean unto you. Not that alms without other pious dispositions, will suffice to your salvation; but that other necessary virtues will be given you, by the mercies of God. (Witham) ---

These are the means I propose to you to gain that interior purity I am speaking of. But will alms suffice to expiate all sorts of crimes? Is it enough for the murderer, the homicide, &c. to give alms? Undoubtedly not. Our Saviour only compares alms-deeds with the exterior washing which the Pharisees affected. As if he had said, "It is not by the washing in common water that you will take out the stains of your souls, by the works of charity. Charity will be more efficacious to cleanse you than all the waters of the rivers and of the sea." Or, according to Euthymius, if you wish to cleanse yourselves truly, bring forth worthy fruits of penance, give up ill acquired possessions; and as for the rest, redeem you sins by alms. Thus shall all things be made clean to you, as well within as without the vase. (Calmet)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Verumtamen quod superest, date eleemosynam Greek: plen ta enonta dote eleemosunen; quæ adsunt, quæ penes vos sunt. It is not Greek: to loipon, &c.

Haydock: Luk 11:43 - Salutations in the market-place Salutations in the market-place, &c. Such as wish to be saluted, and have the first places, that they may appear great, are likened to sepulchres, w...

Salutations in the market-place, &c. Such as wish to be saluted, and have the first places, that they may appear great, are likened to sepulchres, which are covered externally with ornaments, but are filled inwardly with rottenness. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas)

Haydock: Luk 11:44 - Sepulchres that appear not // Men that walk Sepulchres that appear not. This comparison is partly different from that of Matthew xxiii. 27. For there Christ compares hypocrites to whitened s...

Sepulchres that appear not. This comparison is partly different from that of Matthew xxiii. 27. For there Christ compares hypocrites to whitened sepulchres, which may be seen and avoided; here he compares them to sepulchres covered with grass, which appear not: yet the comparison, in the main, is the same; that whether they appear or not, still under them is corruption: as the interior of the Pharisees was always full of vice and corruption. (Witham) ---

Men that walk, &c. Because they bear with them a fair outside, but are made up of nothing but corruption. (St. Ambrose)

Haydock: Luk 11:45 - Then one of the lawyers Then one of the lawyers, &c. Correction, which turns to the advantage of the meek, appears always more intolerable to the wicked. Christ denounces ...

Then one of the lawyers, &c. Correction, which turns to the advantage of the meek, appears always more intolerable to the wicked. Christ denounces woes against the Pharisees for deviating from the right path, and the doctors of the law found them equally applicable to themselves. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas) ---

How miserable is the conscience which, upon hearing the word of God, thinks itself insulted, and always hears the punishment of the reprobate rehearsed as the words of its own condemnation. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 11:47 - Woe to you who build Woe to you who build, &c. Not that the building of the monuments of the prophets was in itself blameworthy, but only the intention of these unhappy ...

Woe to you who build, &c. Not that the building of the monuments of the prophets was in itself blameworthy, but only the intention of these unhappy men, who made use of this outward shew of religion and piety, as a means