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Teks -- 1 Samuel 25:1-44 (NET)

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Konteks
The Death of Samuel
25:1 Samuel died, and all Israel assembled and mourned him. They buried him at his home in Ramah. Then David left and went down to the desert of Paran.
David Marries Abigail the Widow of Nabal
25:2 There was a man in Maon whose business was in Carmel. This man was very wealthy; he owned three thousand sheep and a thousand goats. At that time he was shearing his sheep in Carmel. 25:3 The man’s name was Nabal, and his wife’s name was Abigail. She was both wise and beautiful, but the man was harsh and his deeds were evil. He was a Calebite. 25:4 When David heard in the desert that Nabal was shearing his sheep, 25:5 he sent ten servants, saying to them, “Go up to Carmel to see Nabal and give him greetings in my name. 25:6 Then you will say to my brother, “Peace to you and your house! Peace to all that is yours! 25:7 Now I hear that they are shearing sheep for you. When your shepherds were with us, we neither insulted them nor harmed them the whole time they were in Carmel. 25:8 Ask your own servants; they can tell you! May my servants find favor in your sight, for we have come at the time of a holiday. Please provide us– your servants and your son David– with whatever you can spare.” 25:9 So David’s servants went and spoke all these words to Nabal in David’s name. Then they paused. 25:10 But Nabal responded to David’s servants, “Who is David, and who is this son of Jesse? This is a time when many servants are breaking away from their masters! 25:11 Should I take my bread and my water and my meat that I have slaughtered for my shearers and give them to these men? I don’t even know where they came from!” 25:12 So David’s servants went on their way. When they had returned, they came and told David all these things. 25:13 Then David instructed his men, “Each of you strap on your sword!” So each one strapped on his sword, and David also strapped on his sword. About four hundred men followed David up, while two hundred stayed behind with the equipment. 25:14 But one of the servants told Nabal’s wife Abigail, “David sent messengers from the desert to greet our lord, but he screamed at them. 25:15 These men were very good to us. They did not insult us, nor did we sustain any loss during the entire time we were together in the field. 25:16 Both night and day they were a protective wall for us the entire time we were with them, while we were tending our flocks. 25:17 Now be aware of this, and see what you can do. For disaster has been planned for our lord and his entire household. He is such a wicked person that no one tells him anything!” 25:18 So Abigail quickly took two hundred loaves of bread, two containers of wine, five prepared sheep, five seahs of roasted grain, a hundred bunches of raisins, and two hundred lumps of pressed figs. She loaded them on donkeys 25:19 and said to her servants, “Go on ahead of me. I will come after you.” But she did not tell her husband Nabal. 25:20 Riding on her donkey, she went down under cover of the mountain. David and his men were coming down to meet her, and she encountered them. 25:21 Now David had been thinking, “In vain I guarded everything that belonged to this man in the desert. I didn’t take anything from him. But he has repaid my good with evil. 25:22 God will severely punish David, if I leave alive until morning even one male from all those who belong to him!” 25:23 When Abigail saw David, she got down quickly from the donkey, threw herself down before David, and bowed to the ground. 25:24 Falling at his feet, she said, “My lord, I accept all the guilt! But please let your female servant speak with my lord! Please listen to the words of your servant! 25:25 My lord should not pay attention to this wicked man Nabal. He simply lives up to his name! His name means ‘fool,’ and he is indeed foolish! But I, your servant, did not see the servants my lord sent. 25:26 “Now, my lord, as surely as the Lord lives and as surely as you live, it is the Lord who has kept you from shedding blood and taking matters into your own hands. Now may your enemies and those who seek to harm my lord be like Nabal. 25:27 Now let this present that your servant has brought to my lord be given to the servants who follow my lord. 25:28 Please forgive the sin of your servant, for the Lord will certainly establish the house of my lord, because my lord fights the battles of the Lord. May no evil be found in you all your days! 25:29 When someone sets out to chase you and to take your life, the life of my lord will be wrapped securely in the bag of the living by the Lord your God. But he will sling away the lives of your enemies from the sling’s pocket! 25:30 The Lord will do for my lord everything that he promised you, and he will make you a leader over Israel. 25:31 Your conscience will not be overwhelmed with guilt for having poured out innocent blood and for having taken matters into your own hands. When the Lord has granted my lord success, please remember your servant.” 25:32 Then David said to Abigail, “Praised be the Lord, the God of Israel, who has sent you this day to meet me! 25:33 Praised be your good judgment! May you yourself be rewarded for having prevented me this day from shedding blood and taking matters into my own hands! 25:34 Otherwise, as surely as the Lord, the God of Israel, lives– he who has prevented me from harming you– if you had not come so quickly to meet me, by morning’s light not even one male belonging to Nabal would have remained alive!” 25:35 Then David took from her hand what she had brought to him. He said to her, “Go back to your home in peace. Be assured that I have listened to you and responded favorably.” 25:36 When Abigail went back to Nabal, he was holding a banquet in his house like that of the king. Nabal was having a good time and was very intoxicated. She told him absolutely nothing until morning’s light. 25:37 In the morning, when Nabal was sober, his wife told him about these matters. He had a stroke and was paralyzed. 25:38 After about ten days the Lord struck Nabal down and he died. 25:39 When David heard that Nabal had died, he said, “Praised be the Lord who has vindicated me and avenged the insult that I suffered from Nabal! The Lord has kept his servant from doing evil, and he has repaid Nabal for his evil deeds.” Then David sent word to Abigail and asked her to become his wife. 25:40 So the servants of David went to Abigail at Carmel and said to her, “David has sent us to you to bring you back to be his wife.” 25:41 She arose, bowed her face toward the ground, and said, “Your female servant, like a lowly servant, will wash the feet of the servants of my lord.” 25:42 Then Abigail quickly went and mounted her donkey, with five of her female servants accompanying her. She followed David’s messengers and became his wife. 25:43 David had also married Ahinoam from Jezreel; the two of them became his wives. 25:44 (Now Saul had given his daughter Michal, David’s wife, to Paltiel son of Laish, who was from Gallim.)
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abigail the widow of Nabal; wife of David,daughter of Jesse; sister of King David; wife of Ithra/Jether
 · Ahinoam a woman; Saul's wife, daughter of Ahimaaz,a woman; David's wife from Jezreel
 · Calebite a member of the clan of Caleb
 · Carmel a woman resident of the town of Carmel
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Gallim a town of Benjamin whose exact location is unknown (ZD)
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jesse a son of Obed; the father of David the king and ancestor of Jesus,son of Obed of Judah; father of David
 · Jezreel a resident of the town or region of Jezreel
 · Laish a town taken over by Danites 40 km north of Lake Galilee & 25 km SW of Mt. Hermon,father of Palti of Gallim to whom Saul gave Michal, David's wife
 · Maon a town of Judah; modern Tell Ma'in 15 km south of Hebron (OS).,son of Shammai of Judah
 · Michal daughter of Saul; wife of David
 · Nabal a man who was a rich descendant of Caleb in David's time
 · Palti son of Raphu of Benjamin; a spy sent by Moses,son of Laish of Gallim
 · Paran a wilderness of East central Sinai peninsula (IBD)
 · Ramah a town 8 km north of Jerusalem,a town of Simeon,a town of Benjamin 9 km north of Jerusalem and 8 km south of Bethel (OS),a town on the border of Asher (OS),a town of Ephraim 10 km SE of Aphek, and 25 km east of Joppa,a town in Gilead 50-60 km east of Beth-Shan
 · Samuel son of Ammihud; Moses' land distribution deputy for Simeon,son of Tola son of Issachar
 · Saul the sixth king of Edom,son of Simeon and a Canaanite woman,son of Uzziah of Kohath son of Levi


Topik/Tema Kamus: David | Nabal | Abigail | Carmel | ARMY | ZEBAH AND ZALMUNNA | SAMUEL, BOOKS OF | RACAL | Decision | Wife | Sheep | Tact | Fig | Prudence | Intercession | Presents | ABIGAIL; ABIGAL | Ahinoam | Diplomacy | Inhospitableness | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 25:1 - Lamented him Those have hard hearts, that can bury their faithful ministers with dry eyes, and are not sensible of the loss of them who have prayed for them, and t...

Those have hard hearts, that can bury their faithful ministers with dry eyes, and are not sensible of the loss of them who have prayed for them, and taught them the way of the Lord.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:2 - Carmel In some part of this wilderness Israel wandered, when they came out of Egypt. The place would bring to mind God's care concerning them, which David mi...

In some part of this wilderness Israel wandered, when they came out of Egypt. The place would bring to mind God's care concerning them, which David might now improve for his own encouragement.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:3 - Abigail That is, the joy of his father: yet he could not promise himself much joy of her, when he married her to such an husband: it seems, in inquiring, (no ...

That is, the joy of his father: yet he could not promise himself much joy of her, when he married her to such an husband: it seems, in inquiring, (no unfrequent thing) more after his wealth, than after his wisdom.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:3 - Caleb This is added to aggravate his crime, that he was a degenerate branch of that noble stock of Caleb, and consequently of the tribe of Judah, as David w...

This is added to aggravate his crime, that he was a degenerate branch of that noble stock of Caleb, and consequently of the tribe of Judah, as David was.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:4 - Shear sheep Which times were celebrated with feasting.

Which times were celebrated with feasting.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:6 - Prosperity By this expression David both congratulates Nabal's felicity, and tacitly minds him of the distress in which he and his men were.

By this expression David both congratulates Nabal's felicity, and tacitly minds him of the distress in which he and his men were.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:7 - We hurt not This considering the licentiousness of soldiers, and the necessities David and his men were exposed to, was no small favour, which Nabal was bound bot...

This considering the licentiousness of soldiers, and the necessities David and his men were exposed to, was no small favour, which Nabal was bound both in justice, and gratitude, and prudence to requite.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:8 - A good day That is, in a day of feasting and rejoicing; when men are most chearful and liberal; when thou mayst relieve us out of thy abundance without damage to...

That is, in a day of feasting and rejoicing; when men are most chearful and liberal; when thou mayst relieve us out of thy abundance without damage to thyself; when thou art receiving the mercies of God, and therefore obliged to pity and relieve distressed and indigent persons.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:17 - Can not speak But he flies into a passion.

But he flies into a passion.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:18 - Abigail took, &c. _This she did without his leave, because it was a case of apparent necessity, for the preservation of herself, and husband, and all the family from im...

_This she did without his leave, because it was a case of apparent necessity, for the preservation of herself, and husband, and all the family from imminent ruin. And surely, that necessity which dispenseth with God's positive commands, might dispense with the husband's right, in this case.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:18 - Bottles Casks or rundlets.

Casks or rundlets.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:22 - Enemies of David That is, unto David himself. But because it might seem ominous to curse himself, therefore instead of David, he mentions David's enemies. But is this ...

That is, unto David himself. But because it might seem ominous to curse himself, therefore instead of David, he mentions David's enemies. But is this the voice of David? Can he speak so unadvisedly with his lips? Has he been so long in the school of affliction, and learned no more patience therein? Lord, what is man? And what need have we to pray, lead us not into temptation.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:24 - And said, &c. _Impute Nabal's sin to me, and if thou pleasest, punish it in me, who here offer myself as a sacrifice to thy just indignation. This whole speech of A...

_Impute Nabal's sin to me, and if thou pleasest, punish it in me, who here offer myself as a sacrifice to thy just indignation. This whole speech of Abigail shews great wisdom, by an absolute submitting to mercy, without any pretence of justification, of what was done, (but rather with aggravation of it) she endeavours to work upon David's generosity, to pardon it. And there is hardly any head of argument, whence the greatest orator might argue in this case, which she doth not manage to the best advantage.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:25 - Nabal is his name Nabal signifies a fool.

Nabal signifies a fool.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:26 - As Nabal Let them be as contemptible as Nabal is, and will be for this odious action; let them be as unable to do thee any hurt as he is; let them be forced to...

Let them be as contemptible as Nabal is, and will be for this odious action; let them be as unable to do thee any hurt as he is; let them be forced to yield to thee, and implore thy pardon, as Nabal now doth by my mouth: let the vengeance thou didst design upon Nabal and his family fall upon their heads, who, by their inveterate malice against thee, do more deserve it than this fool for this miscarriage; and much more than all the rest of our family, who, as they are none of thine enemies, so they were in way guilty of this wicked action. And therefore spare these, and execute thy vengeance upon more proper objects.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:27 - Blessing So a gift or present is called here, and elsewhere; not only because the matter of it comes from God's blessing; but also because it is given with a b...

So a gift or present is called here, and elsewhere; not only because the matter of it comes from God's blessing; but also because it is given with a blessing, or with a good will.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:27 - Unto the young men As being unworthy of thine acceptance or use.

As being unworthy of thine acceptance or use.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:28 - The trespass That is, which I have taken upon myself, and which, if it be punished, the punishment will reach to me.

That is, which I have taken upon myself, and which, if it be punished, the punishment will reach to me.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:28 - Sure house Will give the kingdom to thee, and to thy house for ever, as he hath promised thee. And therefore let God's kindness to thee, make thee gentle and mer...

Will give the kingdom to thee, and to thy house for ever, as he hath promised thee. And therefore let God's kindness to thee, make thee gentle and merciful to others; do not sully thy approaching glory with the stain of innocent blood; but consider, that it is the glory of a king, to profit by offences: and that it will be thy loss to cut off such as will shortly be thy subjects.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:28 - The battles For the Lord, and for the people of the Lord against their enemies; especially, the Philistines. And as this is thy proper work, and therein thou maye...

For the Lord, and for the people of the Lord against their enemies; especially, the Philistines. And as this is thy proper work, and therein thou mayest expect God's blessing; so it is not thy work to draw thy sword in thy own private quarrel against any of the people of the Lord; and God will not bless thee in it.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:28 - Evil hath not, &c. Though thou hast been charged with many crimes by Saul and others; yet thy innocency is evident to all men: do not therefore by this cruel act, justif...

Though thou hast been charged with many crimes by Saul and others; yet thy innocency is evident to all men: do not therefore by this cruel act, justify thine enemies reproaches, or blemish thy great and just reputation.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:29 - A man Saul though no way injured.

Saul though no way injured.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:29 - Thy soul To take away thy life.

To take away thy life.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:29 - Bundle of life Or, in the bundle: that is, in the society, or congregation of the living; out of which, men are taken, and cut off by death. The phrase is taken from...

Or, in the bundle: that is, in the society, or congregation of the living; out of which, men are taken, and cut off by death. The phrase is taken from the common usage of men, who bind those things in bundles, which they are afraid to lose. The meaning is, God will preserve thy life; and therefore it becomes not thee, unnecessarily to take away the lives of any; especially of the people of thy God.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:29 - With the Lord That is, in the custody of God, who by his watchful providence, preserves this bundle, and all that are in it; and thee in a particular manner, as bei...

That is, in the custody of God, who by his watchful providence, preserves this bundle, and all that are in it; and thee in a particular manner, as being thy God in a particular way, and special covenant. The Jews understand this. not only of the present life, but of that which is to come, even the happiness of departed souls, and therefore use it commonly, as an inscription on their grave - stones. "Here we have laid the body, trusting the soul is bound up in the bundle of life with the Lord." Sling out - God himself will cut them off suddenly, violently, and irresistibly; and cast them far away; both from his presence, and from thy neighbourhood, and from all capacity of doing thee hurt.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:31 - No grief The mind and conscience will be free from all the torment which such an action would cause in thee. By which, she intimates, what a blemish this would...

The mind and conscience will be free from all the torment which such an action would cause in thee. By which, she intimates, what a blemish this would be to his glory, what a disturbance to his peace, if he proceeded to execute his purpose: and withal implies, how comfortable it would be to him to remember, that he had for conscience to God, restrained his passions.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:31 - Causeless Which she signifies would be done if he should go on. For though Nabal had been guilty of abominable rudeness, and ingratitude; yet he had done nothin...

Which she signifies would be done if he should go on. For though Nabal had been guilty of abominable rudeness, and ingratitude; yet he had done nothing worthy of death, by the laws of God or of man. And whatsoever he had done, the rest of his family were innocent.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:31 - Avenged Which is directly contrary to God's law, Lev 19:18; Deu 32:35.

Which is directly contrary to God's law, Lev 19:18; Deu 32:35.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:31 - Then When God shall make thee king, let me find grace in thy sight.

When God shall make thee king, let me find grace in thy sight.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:32 - The Lord Who by his gracious providence so disposed matters, that thou shouldst come to me: He rightly begins at the fountain of his deliverance; and then proc...

Who by his gracious providence so disposed matters, that thou shouldst come to me: He rightly begins at the fountain of his deliverance; and then proceeds to the instruments.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:33 - From coming, &c. _Which I had sworn to do. Hereby it plainly appears, that oaths whereby men bind themselves to any sin, are null and void: and as it was a sin to make...

_Which I had sworn to do. Hereby it plainly appears, that oaths whereby men bind themselves to any sin, are null and void: and as it was a sin to make them; so it is adding sin to sin to perform them.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:35 - Accepted That is, shewed my acceptance of thy person, by my grant of thy request.

That is, shewed my acceptance of thy person, by my grant of thy request.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:36 - A feast As the manner was upon those solemn occasions. Sordid covetousness, and vain prodigality were met together in him.

As the manner was upon those solemn occasions. Sordid covetousness, and vain prodigality were met together in him.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:36 - Told nothing As he was then incapable of admonition, his reason and conscience being both asleep.

As he was then incapable of admonition, his reason and conscience being both asleep.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:37 - His heart died He fainted away through the fear and horror of so great a mischief though it was past. As one, who having in the night galloped over a narrow plank, l...

He fainted away through the fear and horror of so great a mischief though it was past. As one, who having in the night galloped over a narrow plank, laid upon a broken bridge, over a deep river; when in the morning he came to review it, was struck dead with the horror of the danger he had been in.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:38 - Smote God either inflicted some other stroke upon him, or increased his grief and fear to such an height, as killed him.

God either inflicted some other stroke upon him, or increased his grief and fear to such an height, as killed him.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:39 - Blessed, &c. _This was another instance of human infirmity in David.

_This was another instance of human infirmity in David.

Wesley: 1Sa 25:39 - David sent But this doubtless was not done immediately after Nabal's death, but some time after it; though such circumstances be commonly omitted in the sacred h...

But this doubtless was not done immediately after Nabal's death, but some time after it; though such circumstances be commonly omitted in the sacred history; which gives only the heads, and most important passages of things.

JFB: 1Sa 25:1 - Samuel died After a long life of piety and public usefulness, he left behind him a reputation which ranks him among the greatest of Scripture worthies.

After a long life of piety and public usefulness, he left behind him a reputation which ranks him among the greatest of Scripture worthies.

JFB: 1Sa 25:1 - buried him in his house at Ramah That is, his own mausoleum. The Hebrews took as great care to provide sepulchers anciently as people do in the East still, where every respectable fam...

That is, his own mausoleum. The Hebrews took as great care to provide sepulchers anciently as people do in the East still, where every respectable family has its own house of the dead. Often this is in a little detached garden, containing a small stone building (where there is no rock), resembling a house, which is called the sepulcher of the family--it has neither door nor window.

JFB: 1Sa 25:1 - David arose, and went down to the wilderness of Paran This removal had probably no connection with the prophet's death; but was probably occasioned by the necessity of seeking provision for his numerous f...

This removal had probably no connection with the prophet's death; but was probably occasioned by the necessity of seeking provision for his numerous followers.

JFB: 1Sa 25:1 - the wilderness of Paran Stretching from Sinai to the borders of Palestine in the southern territories of Judea. Like other wildernesses, it presented large tracts of natural ...

Stretching from Sinai to the borders of Palestine in the southern territories of Judea. Like other wildernesses, it presented large tracts of natural pasture, to which the people sent their cattle at the grazing season, but where they were liable to constant and heavy depredations by prowling Arabs. David and his men earned their subsistence by making reprisals on the cattle of these freebooting Ishmaelites; and, frequently for their useful services, they obtained voluntary tokens of acknowledgment from the peaceful inhabitants.

JFB: 1Sa 25:2 - in Carmel Now Kurmul. The district takes its name from this town, now a mass of ruins; and about a mile from it is Tell Main, the hillock on which stood ancient...

Now Kurmul. The district takes its name from this town, now a mass of ruins; and about a mile from it is Tell Main, the hillock on which stood ancient Maon.

JFB: 1Sa 25:2 - the man was very great His property consisted in cattle, and he was considered wealthy, according to the ideas of that age.

His property consisted in cattle, and he was considered wealthy, according to the ideas of that age.

JFB: 1Sa 25:3 - he was of the house of Caleb Of course, of the same tribe with David himself; but many versions consider Caleb ("dog") not as a proper, but a common noun, and render it, "he was s...

Of course, of the same tribe with David himself; but many versions consider Caleb ("dog") not as a proper, but a common noun, and render it, "he was snappish as a dog."

JFB: 1Sa 25:4-9 - Nabal did shear his sheep, and David sent out ten young men, &c. David and his men lurked in these deserts, associating with the herdsmen and shepherds of Nabal and others and doing them good offices, probably in re...

David and his men lurked in these deserts, associating with the herdsmen and shepherds of Nabal and others and doing them good offices, probably in return for information and supplies obtained through them. Hence when Nabal held his annual sheep-shearing in Carmel, David felt himself entitled to share in the festival and sent a message, recounting his own services and asking for a present. "In all these particulars we were deeply struck with the truth and strength of the biblical description of manners and customs almost identically the same as they exist at the present day. On such a festive occasion, near a town or village, even in our own time, an Arab sheik of the neighboring desert would hardly fail to put in a word either in person or by message; and his message, both in form and substance, would be only a transcript of that of David" [ROBINSON].

JFB: 1Sa 25:10-12 - Nabal answered David's servants, . . . Who is David? &c. Nabal's answer seems to indicate that the country was at the time in a loose and disorderly state. David's own good conduct, however, as well as the i...

Nabal's answer seems to indicate that the country was at the time in a loose and disorderly state. David's own good conduct, however, as well as the important services rendered by him and his men, were readily attested by Nabal's servants. The preparations of David to chastise his insolent language and ungrateful requital are exactly what would be done in the present day by Arab chiefs, who protect the cattle of the large and wealthy sheep masters from the attacks of the marauding border tribes or wild beasts. Their protection creates a claim for some kind of tribute, in the shape of supplies of food and necessaries, which is usually given with great good will and gratitude; but when withheld, is enforced as a right. Nabal's refusal, therefore, was a violation of the established usages of the place.

JFB: 1Sa 25:13 - two hundred abode by the stuff This addition to his followers was made after his return into Judah (see 1Sa 22:2).

This addition to his followers was made after his return into Judah (see 1Sa 22:2).

JFB: 1Sa 25:14-18 - Then Abigail made haste The prudence and address of Nabal's wife were the means of saving him and family from utter destruction. She acknowledged the demand of her formidable...

The prudence and address of Nabal's wife were the means of saving him and family from utter destruction. She acknowledged the demand of her formidable neighbors; but justly considering, that to atone for the insolence of her husband, a greater degree of liberality had become necessary, she collected a large amount of food, accompanying it with the most valued products of the country.

JFB: 1Sa 25:14-18 - bottles Goatskins, capable of holding a great quantity.

Goatskins, capable of holding a great quantity.

JFB: 1Sa 25:14-18 - parched corn It was customary to eat parched corn when it was fully grown, but not ripe.

It was customary to eat parched corn when it was fully grown, but not ripe.

JFB: 1Sa 25:19 - she said unto her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you People in the East always try to produce an effect by their presents, loading on several beasts what might be easily carried by one, and bringing them...

People in the East always try to produce an effect by their presents, loading on several beasts what might be easily carried by one, and bringing them forward, article by article, in succession. Abigail not only sent her servants in this way, but resolved to go in person, following her present, as is commonly done, to watch the impression which her munificence would produce.

JFB: 1Sa 25:23 - she hasted, and lighted off the ass, and fell before David on her face Dismounting in presence of a superior is the highest token of respect that can be given; and it is still an essential act of homage to the great. Acco...

Dismounting in presence of a superior is the highest token of respect that can be given; and it is still an essential act of homage to the great. Accompanying this act of courtesy with the lowest form of prostration, she not only by her attitude, but her language, made the fullest amends for the disrespect shown by her husband, as well as paid the fullest tribute of respect to the character and claims of David.

JFB: 1Sa 25:25 - Nabal Signifying fool, gave pertinence to his wife's remark.

Signifying fool, gave pertinence to his wife's remark.

JFB: 1Sa 25:26 - let thine enemies . . . be as Nabal Be as foolish and contemptible as he.

Be as foolish and contemptible as he.

JFB: 1Sa 25:29 - the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord thy God An Orientalism, expressing the perfect security of David's life from all the assaults of his enemies, under the protecting shield of Providence, who h...

An Orientalism, expressing the perfect security of David's life from all the assaults of his enemies, under the protecting shield of Providence, who had destined him for high things.

JFB: 1Sa 25:32-35 - David said to Abigail, Blessed be the Lord Transported by passion and blinded by revenge, he was on the eve of perpetrating a great injury. Doubtless, the timely appearance and prudent address ...

Transported by passion and blinded by revenge, he was on the eve of perpetrating a great injury. Doubtless, the timely appearance and prudent address of Abigail were greatly instrumental in changing his purpose. At all events, it was the means of opening his eyes to the moral character of the course on which he had been impetuously rushing; and in accepting her present, he speaks with lively satisfaction as well as gratitude to Abigail, for having relieved him from bloodshed.

JFB: 1Sa 25:36 - he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king The sheep-shearing season was always a very joyous occasion. Masters usually entertained their shepherds; and even Nabal, though of a most niggardly d...

The sheep-shearing season was always a very joyous occasion. Masters usually entertained their shepherds; and even Nabal, though of a most niggardly disposition, prepared festivities on a scale of sumptuous liberality. The modern Arabs celebrate the season with similar hilarity.

JFB: 1Sa 25:37-38 - in the morning . . . his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him He probably fainted from horror at the perilous situation in which he had unconsciously placed himself; and such a shock had been given him by the fri...

He probably fainted from horror at the perilous situation in which he had unconsciously placed himself; and such a shock had been given him by the fright to his whole system, that he rapidly pined and died.

JFB: 1Sa 25:39-42 - the Lord hath returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head If this was an expression of pleasure, and David's vindictive feelings were gratified by the intelligence of Nabal's death, it was an instance of huma...

If this was an expression of pleasure, and David's vindictive feelings were gratified by the intelligence of Nabal's death, it was an instance of human infirmity which we may lament; but perhaps he referred to the unmerited reproach (1Sa 25:10-11), and the contempt of God implied in it.

JFB: 1Sa 25:39-42 - David sent and communed with Abigail, to take her to wife This unceremonious proceeding was quite in the style of Eastern monarchs, who no sooner take a fancy for a lady than they despatch a messenger to inti...

This unceremonious proceeding was quite in the style of Eastern monarchs, who no sooner take a fancy for a lady than they despatch a messenger to intimate their royal wishes that she should henceforth reside in the palace; and her duty is implicitly to obey. David's conduct shows that the manners of the Eastern nations were already imitated by the great men in Israel; and that the morality of the times which God permitted, gave its sanction to the practice of polygamy. His marriage with Abigail brought him a rich estate.

JFB: 1Sa 25:44 - Michal By the unchallengeable will of her father, she who was David's wife was given to another. But she returned and sustained the character of his wife whe...

By the unchallengeable will of her father, she who was David's wife was given to another. But she returned and sustained the character of his wife when he ascended the throne.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:1 - And Samuel died And Samuel died - Samuel lived, as is supposed, about ninety-eight years; was in the government of Israel before Saul from sixteen to twenty years; ...

And Samuel died - Samuel lived, as is supposed, about ninety-eight years; was in the government of Israel before Saul from sixteen to twenty years; and ceased to live, according to the Jews, about four months before the death of Saul; but according to Calmet and others, two years. But all this is very uncertain; how long he died before Saul, cannot be ascertained. For some account of his character, see the end of the chapter, 1Sa 25:44 (note)

Clarke: 1Sa 25:1 - Buried him in his house Buried him in his house - Probably this means, not his dwelling-house, but the house or tomb he had made for his sepulture; and thus the Syriac and ...

Buried him in his house - Probably this means, not his dwelling-house, but the house or tomb he had made for his sepulture; and thus the Syriac and Arabic seem to have understood it

Clarke: 1Sa 25:1 - David - went down to the wilderness of Paran David - went down to the wilderness of Paran - This was either on the confines of Judea, or in Arabia Petraea, between the mountains of Judah and Mo...

David - went down to the wilderness of Paran - This was either on the confines of Judea, or in Arabia Petraea, between the mountains of Judah and Mount Sinai; it is evident from the history that it was not far from Carmel, on the south confines of Judah.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:3 - The name of the man was Nabal The name of the man was Nabal - The word נבל nabal signifies to be foolish, base, or villanous; and hence the Latin word nebulo , knave, is su...

The name of the man was Nabal - The word נבל nabal signifies to be foolish, base, or villanous; and hence the Latin word nebulo , knave, is supposed to be derived

Clarke: 1Sa 25:3 - The name of his wife Abigail The name of his wife Abigail - The joy or exultation of my father. A woman of sense and beauty, married to the boor mentioned above, probably becaus...

The name of his wife Abigail - The joy or exultation of my father. A woman of sense and beauty, married to the boor mentioned above, probably because he was rich. Many women have been thus sacrificed

Clarke: 1Sa 25:3 - Of the house of Caleb Of the house of Caleb - והוא כלבי vehu Chalibbi , "he was a Calebite."But as the word caleb signifies a dog, the Septuagint have understo...

Of the house of Caleb - והוא כלבי vehu Chalibbi , "he was a Calebite."But as the word caleb signifies a dog, the Septuagint have understood it as implying a man of a canine disposition, and translate it thus, και ὁ ανθρωπος κυνικος, he was a doggish man. It is understood in the same way by the Syriac and Arabic.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:6 - Peace be both to thee Peace be both to thee - This is the ancient form of sending greetings to a friend: Peace to Thee, peace to thy Household, and peace to all that Thou...

Peace be both to thee - This is the ancient form of sending greetings to a friend: Peace to Thee, peace to thy Household, and peace to all that Thou Hast. That is, May both thyself, thy family, and all that pertain unto thee, be in continual prosperity

Perhaps David, by this salutation, wished Nabal to understand that he had acted so towards him and his property that nothing had been destroyed, and that all had been protected; see 1Sa 25:15-17.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:7 - Thy shepherds which were with us, we hurt them not Thy shepherds which were with us, we hurt them not - It is most evident that David had a claim upon Nabal, for very essential services performed to ...

Thy shepherds which were with us, we hurt them not - It is most evident that David had a claim upon Nabal, for very essential services performed to his herdmen at Carmel. He not only did them no hurt, and took none of their flocks for the supply of his necessities, but he protected them from the rapacity of others; they were a Wall unto us, said Nabal’ s servants, both by night and day. In those times, and to the present day, wandering hordes of Arabs, under their several chiefs, think they have a right to exact contributions of provisions, etc., wherever they come; David had done nothing of this kind, but protected them against those who would.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:8 - Whatsoever cometh to thine hand Whatsoever cometh to thine hand - As thou art making a great feast for thy servants, and I and my men, as having essentially served thee, would natu...

Whatsoever cometh to thine hand - As thou art making a great feast for thy servants, and I and my men, as having essentially served thee, would naturally come in for a share were we present; send a portion by my ten young men, for me and my men, that we also may rejoice with you. Certainly this was a very reasonable and a very modest request. This mode of address is not unfrequent among the Hindoos: "O father, fill the belly of thy son; he is in distress."

Clarke: 1Sa 25:10 - Who is David? Who is David? - Nabal’ s answer shows the surliness of his disposition. It was unjust to refuse so reasonable a request; and the manner of the ...

Who is David? - Nabal’ s answer shows the surliness of his disposition. It was unjust to refuse so reasonable a request; and the manner of the refusal was highly insulting. It is true what his own servants said of him, He is such a son of Belial that one cannot speak to him, 1Sa 25:17.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:18 - Took two hundred loaves Took two hundred loaves - The Eastern bread is ordinarily both thin and small; and answers to our cakes

Took two hundred loaves - The Eastern bread is ordinarily both thin and small; and answers to our cakes

Clarke: 1Sa 25:18 - Two bottles of wine Two bottles of wine - That is, two goat-skins full. The hide is pulled off the animal without ripping up; the places where the legs, etc., were are ...

Two bottles of wine - That is, two goat-skins full. The hide is pulled off the animal without ripping up; the places where the legs, etc., were are sewed up, and then the skin appears one large bag. This is properly the Scripture and Eastern bottle. There is one such before me

Clarke: 1Sa 25:18 - Five sheep Five sheep - Not one sheep to one hundred men

Five sheep - Not one sheep to one hundred men

Clarke: 1Sa 25:18 - Clusters of raisins Clusters of raisins - Raisins dried in the sun

Clusters of raisins - Raisins dried in the sun

Clarke: 1Sa 25:18 - Cakes of figs Cakes of figs - Figs cured, and then pressed together. We receive the former in jars, and the latter in small barrels; and both articles answer the ...

Cakes of figs - Figs cured, and then pressed together. We receive the former in jars, and the latter in small barrels; and both articles answer the description here given

Now all this provision was a matter of little worth, and, had it been granted in the first instance, it would have perfectly satisfied David, and secured the good offices of him and his men. Abigail showed both her wisdom and prudence in making this provision. Out of three thousand sheep Nabal could not have missed five; and as this claim was made only in the time of sheep-shearing, it could not have been made more than once in the year: and it certainly was a small price for such important services.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:20 - She came down - and David - came down She came down - and David - came down - David was coming down Mount Paran; Abigail was coming down from Carmel. - Calmet.

She came down - and David - came down - David was coming down Mount Paran; Abigail was coming down from Carmel. - Calmet.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:22 - So and more also do God So and more also do God - Nothing can justify this part of David’ s conduct. Whatever his provocation might have been, he had suffered, properl...

So and more also do God - Nothing can justify this part of David’ s conduct. Whatever his provocation might have been, he had suffered, properly speaking, no wrongs; and his resolution to cut off a whole innocent family, because Nabal had acted ungenerously towards him, was abominable and cruel, not to say diabolic. He who attempts to vindicate this conduct of David is, at least constructively, a foe to God and truth. David himself condemns this most rash and unwarrantable conduct, and thanks God for having prevented him from doing this evil, 1Sa 25:32, etc

Clarke: 1Sa 25:22 - Any that pisseth against the wall Any that pisseth against the wall - This expression certainly means either men or dogs, and should be thus translated, if I leave, any male; and thi...

Any that pisseth against the wall - This expression certainly means either men or dogs, and should be thus translated, if I leave, any male; and this will answer both to men and dogs, and the offensive mode of expression be avoided. I will not enter farther into the subject: Bochart and Calmet have done enough, and more than enough; and in the plainest language too.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:28 - And evil hath not been found in thee And evil hath not been found in thee - Thou hast not committed any act of this kind hitherto.

And evil hath not been found in thee - Thou hast not committed any act of this kind hitherto.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:29 - Shall be bound in the bundle of life Shall be bound in the bundle of life - Thy life shall be precious in the sight of the Lord: it shall be found in the bundle of life; it shall be sup...

Shall be bound in the bundle of life - Thy life shall be precious in the sight of the Lord: it shall be found in the bundle of life; it shall be supported by Him who is the Spring and Fountain of life, and ever be found united to those who are most favored by the Almighty

Clarke: 1Sa 25:29 - Them shall he sling out Them shall he sling out - Far from being bound and kept together in union with the Fountain of life, he will cast them off from himself as a stone i...

Them shall he sling out - Far from being bound and kept together in union with the Fountain of life, he will cast them off from himself as a stone is cast out from a sling. This betokens both force and violence.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:37 - His heart died within him, and he became as a stone His heart died within him, and he became as a stone - He was thunderstruck, and was so terrified at the apprehension of what he had escaped, that th...

His heart died within him, and he became as a stone - He was thunderstruck, and was so terrified at the apprehension of what he had escaped, that the fear overcame his mind, he became insensible to all things around him, probably refused all kinds of nourishment, and died in ten days.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:39 - To take her to him to wife To take her to him to wife - It is likely that he had heard before this that Saul, to cut off all his pretensions to the throne, had married Michal ...

To take her to him to wife - It is likely that he had heard before this that Saul, to cut off all his pretensions to the throne, had married Michal to Phalti; and this justified David in taking Abigail or any other woman; and, according to the then custom, it was not unlawful for David to take several wives. By his marriage with Abigail, it is probable he became possessed of all Nabal’ s property in Carmel and Maon.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:43 - David also took Ahinoam David also took Ahinoam - Many think that this was his wife before he took Abigail; she is always mentioned first in the list of his wives, and she ...

David also took Ahinoam - Many think that this was his wife before he took Abigail; she is always mentioned first in the list of his wives, and she was the mother of his eldest son Ammon

Clarke: 1Sa 25:43 - Of Jezreel Of Jezreel - There were two places of this name; one in the tribe of Issachar, the other in the tribe of Judah.

Of Jezreel - There were two places of this name; one in the tribe of Issachar, the other in the tribe of Judah.

Clarke: 1Sa 25:44 - Phalti Phalti - Called also Phaltiel, 2Sa 3:16

Phalti - Called also Phaltiel, 2Sa 3:16

Clarke: 1Sa 25:44 - Of Gallim Of Gallim - Probably a city or town in the tribe of Benjamin; see Isa 10:30. It is likely therefore that Saul chose this man because he was of his o...

Of Gallim - Probably a city or town in the tribe of Benjamin; see Isa 10:30. It is likely therefore that Saul chose this man because he was of his own tribe

In this chapter we have the account of the death of Samuel, who from his infancy had been devoted to God and the service of his people. He was born at a time in which religion was at a very low ebb in Israel, as there were but very few prophets, and no open vision - scarcely any revelation from God. Those who might be called prophets had no regular ministry of God’ s word; they were extraordinary messengers sent for a particular purpose, and not continued in the work any longer than the time necessary to deliver their extraordinary message

Samuel is supposed to have been the first who established academies or schools for prophets, at least we do not hear of them before his time; and it is granted that they continued till the Babylonish captivity. This was a wise institution, and no doubt contributed much to the maintenance of pure religion, and the prevention of idolatry among that people

Samuel reformed many abuses in the Jewish state, and raised it to a pitch of political consequence to which it had been long a stranger. He was very zealous for the honor of God, and supported the rights of pure religion, of the king, and of the people, against all encroachments. He was chief magistrate in Israel before the appointment of a king, and afterwards he acted as prime minister to Saul, though without being chosen or formally appointed to that station. Indeed, he seems on the whole to have been the civil and ecclesiastical governor, Saul being little more than general of the Israelitish forces

In his office of minister in the state, he gave the brightest example of zeal, diligence, inflexible integrity, and uncorruptedness. He reproved both the people and the king for their transgressions, with a boldness which nothing but his sense of the Divine authority could inspire, and yet he tempered it with a sweetness which showed the interest he felt in their welfare, and the deep and distressing concern he felt for their back-slidings and infidelities

He was incorrupt; he received no man’ s bribe; he had no pension from the state; he enriched none of his relatives from the public purse; left no private debts to be discharged by his country. He was among the Hebrews what Aristides is said to have been among the Greeks, so poor at his death, though a minister of state, that he did not leave property enough to bury him. Justice was by him duly and impartially administered, and oppression and wrong had no existence

If there ever was a heaven-born minister, it was Samuel; in whose public and private conduct there was no blemish, and whose parallel cannot be found in the ancient or modern history of any country in the universe

Let ministers of state who have sought for nothing but their own glory, and have increased the public burdens by their improvident expenditure; who have endeavored, by their wordy representations, to dazzle and elude the people, and impose false grandeur in the place of true greatness and solid prosperity; who have oppressed the many, and enriched the worthless few; fall down at the feet of This heaven-born man, and learn, from this immaculate judge of Israel, what a faithful servant to his king, and an incorruptible minister of state, means, and in retiring from their high station, or in going to appear before the judgment-seat of God, see whether, in the presence of their king, and in the face of the thousands of their people, they can boldly say, "Behold, here am I! Witness against me before the Lord and before his anointed. Whose ox have I taken? Whose ass have I seized? Whom have I defrauded? Whom have I oppressed, by the imposition of heavy taxes for the support of needless expenses, and the payment of venal men? Or of whose hand have I taken any bribe to blind my eyes? Scrutinize my conduct, examine the state of my family, compare their present circumstances with what they were previously to my administration, and see if you can find aught in my hands."See 1Sa 12:1, etc

O, how seldom in the annals of the world, from the assembled heads of the great body politic, can the departing prime minister hear, "Thou hast not defrauded us, thou hast not oppressed us; neither hast thou taken aught of any man’ s hand!"This voice call be heard from Gilgal; but of what other minister can this be spoken but of Samuel the seer, who was the gift of God’ s mercy to the people of Israel; whose memory was too precious to be intrusted to public monuments, but stands, and alas; almost unique in the Book of God? Of Daniel, and his administration, I shall have occasion to speak elsewhere

A prime minister, deeply devoted to God and faithful to his king and to his country, is so rare a character in the world, that when he does occur, he should be held up to public admiration. But I have no parallel for Samuel. See the notes on 1 Samuel 12:1-25 (note) and on 1Sa 24:6 (note).

Defender: 1Sa 25:22 - pisseth against the wall This expression here and in 1Sa 15:34 was evidently in David's day a depreciating way of referring to males, and was not necessarily considered a vulg...

This expression here and in 1Sa 15:34 was evidently in David's day a depreciating way of referring to males, and was not necessarily considered a vulgarity, as it would be today. Neither was it considered vulgar in the Elizabethan Age when the King James translation (always faithful to the original in so far as possible) was produced. In any case, it accurately reports David's angry threat. It is also possible that the threat was one implying forcible castration instead of murder, in order to cut off Nabal's possible seed and heirs."

Defender: 1Sa 25:38 - the Lord smote Nabal David learned an important lesson through Abigail's willingness to humble herself and apologize for her husband's churlishness - a lesson even more im...

David learned an important lesson through Abigail's willingness to humble herself and apologize for her husband's churlishness - a lesson even more important for Christian believers today. "Avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord" (Rom 12:19; Deu 32:35)."

Defender: 1Sa 25:42 - became his wife Abigail's wise and gracious actions not only saved the lives of many people, but demonstrated that she was, indeed, fit to be a future queen."

Abigail's wise and gracious actions not only saved the lives of many people, but demonstrated that she was, indeed, fit to be a future queen."

Defender: 1Sa 25:44 - Michal his daughter This further insulting action on Saul's part was later redressed by David when he required Michal to be returned to him (2Sa 3:14-16)."

This further insulting action on Saul's part was later redressed by David when he required Michal to be returned to him (2Sa 3:14-16)."

TSK: 1Sa 25:1 - Samuel // lamented // in his house // the wilderness am 2944, bc 1060, An, Ex, Is 431 Samuel : 1Sa 28:3 lamented : Gen 50:11; Num 20:29; Deu 34:8; Act 8:2 in his house : 1Sa 7:17; 1Ki 2:34; 2Ch 33:20; Is...

am 2944, bc 1060, An, Ex, Is 431

Samuel : 1Sa 28:3

lamented : Gen 50:11; Num 20:29; Deu 34:8; Act 8:2

in his house : 1Sa 7:17; 1Ki 2:34; 2Ch 33:20; Isa 14:18

the wilderness : Gen 14:6, Gen 21:21; Num 10:12, Num 12:16, Num 13:3, Num 13:26; Psa 120:5

TSK: 1Sa 25:2 - Maon // possessions were // Carmel // man // three thousand // shearing // Carmel Maon : 1Sa 23:24 possessions were : or, business was Carmel : Not the famous mount Carmel, in the north of Canaan, and in the tribe of Asher; but a ci...

Maon : 1Sa 23:24

possessions were : or, business was

Carmel : Not the famous mount Carmel, in the north of Canaan, and in the tribe of Asher; but a city, on a mountain of the same name, in the south of Judah, which seems to have given name to the surrounding territory. Eusebius and Jerome inform us, that there was in their time a town called Carmelia, ten miles east from Hebron, where the Romans kept a garrison, whose position well agrees with this Carmel.

man : Gen 26:13; 2Sa 19:32; Psa 17:14, Psa 73:3-7; Luk 16:19-25

three thousand : Gen 13:2; Job 1:3, Job 42:12

shearing : This was a very ancient custom, and appears to have been always attended with festivity. The ancient Romans, however, used to pluck off the wool from the sheep’ s backs; and hence a fleece was called vellus , a vellendo , from plucking it off. Pliny says, that in his time sheep were not shorn every where, but in some places the wool was still plucked off. Gen 38:13; 2Sa 13:23, 2Sa 13:24

Carmel : 1Sa 30:5; Jos 15:55

TSK: 1Sa 25:3 - good // was churlish // and he was good : Pro 14:1, Pro 31:26, Pro 31:30, Pro 31:31 was churlish : 1Sa 25:10, 1Sa 25:11, 1Sa 25:17; Psa 10:3; Isa 32:5-7 and he was : Wehoo calibbee ,...

good : Pro 14:1, Pro 31:26, Pro 31:30, Pro 31:31

was churlish : 1Sa 25:10, 1Sa 25:11, 1Sa 25:17; Psa 10:3; Isa 32:5-7

and he was : Wehoo calibbee , literally, ""and he was a Calebite;""but as the word cailev signifies a dog, the Septuagint has understood it as implying a man of canine disposition, and translated it, και ανθρωπος κυνικος , ""and he was a doggish man.""It is understood in the same way by the Syriac and Arabic.

TSK: 1Sa 25:4 - did shear did shear : Gen 38:13; 2Sa 13:23

did shear : Gen 38:13; 2Sa 13:23

TSK: 1Sa 25:5 - greet him greet him : etc. Heb. ask him in my name of peace, 1Sa 17:22; Gen 43:23

greet him : etc. Heb. ask him in my name of peace, 1Sa 17:22; Gen 43:23

TSK: 1Sa 25:6 - liveth // Peace be both liveth : 1Th 3:8; 1Ti 5:6 Peace be both : 2Sa 18:28 *marg. 1Ch 12:18; Psa 122:7; Mat 10:12, Mat 10:13; Luk 10:5; Joh 14:27; 2Th 3:16

TSK: 1Sa 25:7 - thy shepherds // we hurt thy shepherds : In those times, and at the present day, wandering Arabs, under their several chiefs, think that they have a right to exact contributio...

thy shepherds : In those times, and at the present day, wandering Arabs, under their several chiefs, think that they have a right to exact contributions of provisions, etc., wherever they come. But David, though he lived in the wilderness like the Arab emirs, had not adopted their mannerscaps1 . ocaps0 ne of them, at the head of 600 men, would have demanded, from time to time, some provision or present from Nabal’ s servants, for permitting them to feed at quiet; and would have driven them away from the watering place upon any dislike. David had done nothing of this kind; but had protected them against those who would.

we hurt : Heb. we shamed, 1Sa 25:15, 1Sa 25:16, 1Sa 25:21, 1Sa 22:2; Isa 11:6-9; Luk 3:14; Phi 2:15, Phi 4:8

TSK: 1Sa 25:8 - a good day // thy son a good day : Neh 8:10-12; Est 9:19; Ecc 11:2; Luk 11:41, Luk 14:12-14 thy son : 1Sa 3:6, 1Sa 24:11

TSK: 1Sa 25:9 - ceased ceased : Heb. rested, or, became quiet, Gen 8:4; 2Ki 2:15; 2Ch 14:7

ceased : Heb. rested, or, became quiet, Gen 8:4; 2Ki 2:15; 2Ch 14:7

TSK: 1Sa 25:10 - Who is David // there be Who is David : 1Sa 20:30, 1Sa 22:7, 1Sa 22:8; Exo 5:2; Jdg 9:28; 2Sa 20:1; 1Ki 12:16; Psa 73:7, Psa 73:8; Psa 123:3, Psa 123:4; Isa 32:5, Isa 32:7 the...

TSK: 1Sa 25:11 - Shall I then // flesh // give it // whom Shall I then : 1Sa 25:3, 1Sa 24:13; Deu 8:17; Jdg 8:6; Job 31:17; Psa 73:7, Psa 73:8; 1Pe 4:9 flesh : Heb. slaughter give it : Ecc 11:1, Ecc 11:2; Gal...

TSK: 1Sa 25:12 - came came : 2Sa 24:13; Isa 36:21, Isa 36:22; Heb 13:17

TSK: 1Sa 25:13 - Gird ye // David also // two hundred Gird ye : Jos 9:14; Pro 14:29, Pro 16:32, Pro 19:2, Pro 19:11, Pro 25:8; Jam 1:19, Jam 1:20 David also : 1Sa 24:5, 1Sa 24:6; Rom 12:19-21 two hundred ...

TSK: 1Sa 25:14 - railed on them railed on them : Heb. flew upon them, Mar 15:29

railed on them : Heb. flew upon them, Mar 15:29

TSK: 1Sa 25:15 - very good // hurt very good : 1Sa 25:7, 1Sa 25:21; Phi 2:15 hurt : Heb. shamed

very good : 1Sa 25:7, 1Sa 25:21; Phi 2:15

hurt : Heb. shamed

TSK: 1Sa 25:16 - a wall a wall : Exo 14:22; Job 1:10; Jer 15:20; Zec 2:5

TSK: 1Sa 25:17 - evil // a son of Belial // that a man evil : 1Sa 20:7, 1Sa 20:9, 1Sa 20:33; 2Ch 25:16; Est 7:7 a son of Belial : 1Sa 25:25, 1Sa 2:12; Deu 13:13; Jdg 19:22; 2Sa 23:6, 2Sa 23:7; 1Ki 21:10, 1...

TSK: 1Sa 25:18 - made haste // took two // two bottles // five sheep // clusters // cakes of figs made haste : 1Sa 25:34; Num 16:46-48; Pro 6:4, Pro 6:5; Mat 5:25 took two : The Eastern bread is generally both thin and small; and answers to our cak...

made haste : 1Sa 25:34; Num 16:46-48; Pro 6:4, Pro 6:5; Mat 5:25

took two : The Eastern bread is generally both thin and small; and answers to our cakes. Gen 32:13-20, Gen 43:11-14; 2Sa 17:28, 2Sa 17:29; Pro 18:16, Pro 21:14

two bottles : That is, two goatskins’ full.

five sheep : Not one sheep to one hundred men.

clusters : Heb. lumps, Raisins dried in the sun, 2Sa 16:1

cakes of figs : Figs cured and then pressed together. Now all this provision was a matter of little worth; and had it been granted in the first instance, it would have perfectly satisfied David, and secured his good offices.

TSK: 1Sa 25:19 - Go // But Go : Gen 32:16, Gen 32:20 But : Pro 31:11, Pro 31:12, Pro 31:27

TSK: 1Sa 25:20 - rode // she came down rode : 2Ki 4:24 she came down : David was coming down mount Paran; Abigail was coming down from Carmel.

rode : 2Ki 4:24

she came down : David was coming down mount Paran; Abigail was coming down from Carmel.

TSK: 1Sa 25:21 - Surely // he hath requited Surely : 1Sa 25:13; Job 30:8; Psa 37:8; Eph 4:26, Eph 4:31; 1Th 5:15; 1Pe 2:21-23, 1Pe 3:9 he hath requited : Gen 44:4; Psa 35:12, Psa 38:20, Psa 109:...

TSK: 1Sa 25:22 - So and more // if I leave // any that pisseth So and more : Nothing can justify this conduct of David, which was rash, unjust, and cruel in the extreme. David himself condemns it, and thanks God ...

So and more : Nothing can justify this conduct of David, which was rash, unjust, and cruel in the extreme. David himself condemns it, and thanks God for being prevented from executing this evil (1Sa 25:32-34). 1Sa 3:17, 1Sa 14:44, 1Sa 20:13, 1Sa 20:16; Rth 1:17

if I leave : 1Sa 25:34

any that pisseth : etc. This seems to have been a proverbial expression among the Israelites; and may with the utmost propriety be read ""any male.""1Ki 14:10, 1Ki 16:11, 1Ki 21:21; 2Ki 9:8

TSK: 1Sa 25:23 - lighted // fell lighted : Jos 15:18; Jdg 1:14 fell : 1Sa 20:41, 1Sa 24:8

lighted : Jos 15:18; Jdg 1:14

fell : 1Sa 20:41, 1Sa 24:8

TSK: 1Sa 25:24 - fell // Upon // let thine // audience fell : 2Ki 4:37; Est 8:3; Mat 18:29 Upon : 1Sa 25:28; Gen 44:33, Gen 44:34; 2Sa 14:9; Phm 1:18, Phm 1:19 let thine : Gen 44:18; 2Sa 14:12 audience : H...

fell : 2Ki 4:37; Est 8:3; Mat 18:29

Upon : 1Sa 25:28; Gen 44:33, Gen 44:34; 2Sa 14:9; Phm 1:18, Phm 1:19

let thine : Gen 44:18; 2Sa 14:12

audience : Heb. ears

TSK: 1Sa 25:25 - regard // man of Belial // Nabal regard : Heb. lay it to his heart, 2Sa 13:33; Isa 42:25; Mal 2:2 man of Belial : 1Sa 25:17, 1Sa 25:26 Nabal : that is, fool

regard : Heb. lay it to his heart, 2Sa 13:33; Isa 42:25; Mal 2:2

man of Belial : 1Sa 25:17, 1Sa 25:26

Nabal : that is, fool

TSK: 1Sa 25:26 - as the Lord liveth // and as thy // the Lord hath // from // avenging thyself // now let as the Lord liveth : 1Sa 25:34, 1Sa 22:3; 2Ki 2:2, 2Ki 4:6 and as thy : 1Sa 1:26 the Lord hath : 1Sa 25:33; Gen 20:6 from : Rom 12:19, Rom 12:20 aveng...

as the Lord liveth : 1Sa 25:34, 1Sa 22:3; 2Ki 2:2, 2Ki 4:6

and as thy : 1Sa 1:26

the Lord hath : 1Sa 25:33; Gen 20:6

from : Rom 12:19, Rom 12:20

avenging thyself : Heb. saving thyself, Psa 18:47, Psa 18:48, Psa 44:3

now let : 2Sa 18:32; Jer 29:22; Dan 4:19

TSK: 1Sa 25:27 - blessing // follow blessing : or, present, 1Sa 30:26; Gen 33:11; 2Ki 5:15; 2Co 9:5 follow : Heb. walk at the feet of, 1Sa 25:42 *marg. Jdg 4:10; 2Sa 16:2

blessing : or, present, 1Sa 30:26; Gen 33:11; 2Ki 5:15; 2Co 9:5

follow : Heb. walk at the feet of, 1Sa 25:42 *marg. Jdg 4:10; 2Sa 16:2

TSK: 1Sa 25:28 - forgive // the Lord // fighteth // evil hath forgive : 1Sa 25:24 the Lord : 1Sa 15:28; 2Sa 7:11, 2Sa 7:16, 2Sa 7:27; 1Ki 9:5; 1Ch 17:10, 1Ch 17:25; Psa 89:29 fighteth : 1Sa 17:47, 1Sa 18:17; 2Sa ...

TSK: 1Sa 25:29 - bound // with the Lord // sling out // as out of the middle of a sling bound : The metaphors in this verse are derived from the consideration, that things of value are collected together, and often tied up in bundles, lik...

bound : The metaphors in this verse are derived from the consideration, that things of value are collected together, and often tied up in bundles, like sheaves of corn, to prevent their being scattered and lost, and that whatever is put into a sling is not intended to be preserved, but to be thrown away. 1Sa 2:9; Gen 15:1; Deu 33:29; Psa 66:9, Psa 116:15; Mal 3:17; Mat 10:29, Mat 10:30

with the Lord : Joh 10:27-30, Joh 14:19, Joh 17:21, Joh 17:23; Col 3:3, Col 3:4; 1Pe 1:5

sling out : Jer 10:18

as out of the middle of a sling : Heb. in the midst of the bow of a sling

TSK: 1Sa 25:30 - according according : 1Sa 13:14, 1Sa 15:28, 1Sa 23:17; Psa 89:20

TSK: 1Sa 25:31 - grief // avenged // remember grief : Heb. staggering, or, stumbling, Pro 5:12, Pro 5:13; Rom 14:21; 2Co 1:12 avenged : 1Sa 25:33, 1Sa 24:15, 1Sa 26:23; 2Sa 22:48; Psa 94:1; Rom 12...

grief : Heb. staggering, or, stumbling, Pro 5:12, Pro 5:13; Rom 14:21; 2Co 1:12

avenged : 1Sa 25:33, 1Sa 24:15, 1Sa 26:23; 2Sa 22:48; Psa 94:1; Rom 12:19

remember : 1Sa 25:40; Gen 40:14; Luk 23:42

TSK: 1Sa 25:32 - -- David overlooks the rich and seasonable present of Abigail, though pressed with hunger and wearied with travel; but her advice, which disarmed his rag...

David overlooks the rich and seasonable present of Abigail, though pressed with hunger and wearied with travel; but her advice, which disarmed his rage, and calmed his revenge, draws forth these high and affectionate gratulations. These were his joyful and glorious trophies; not over his enemies, but over himself.

Gen 24:27; Exo 18:10; Ezr 7:27; Psa 41:12, Psa 41:13, Psa 72:18; Luk 1:68; 2Co 8:16

TSK: 1Sa 25:33 - blessed // which hast // avenging blessed : Psa 141:5; Pro 9:9, Pro 17:10, Pro 25:12, Pro 27:21, Pro 28:23 which hast : 1Sa 25:26 avenging : 1Sa 25:26, 1Sa 25:31, 1Sa 24:19, 1Sa 26:9, ...

TSK: 1Sa 25:34 - kept me back // hasted // there had kept me back : 1Sa 25:26 hasted : 1Sa 25:18, 1Sa 11:11; Jos 10:6, Jos 10:9 there had : 1Sa 25:22

kept me back : 1Sa 25:26

hasted : 1Sa 25:18, 1Sa 11:11; Jos 10:6, Jos 10:9

there had : 1Sa 25:22

TSK: 1Sa 25:35 - Go up // accepted Go up : 1Sa 20:42; 2Sa 15:9; 2Ki 5:19; Luk 7:50, Luk 8:48 accepted : Gen 19:21; Job 34:19

TSK: 1Sa 25:36 - a feast // merry // she told him a feast : 2Sa 13:23; Est 1:3-7; Luk 14:12 merry : 2Sa 13:28; 1Ki 20:16; Pro 20:1, Pro 23:29-35; Ecc 2:2, Ecc 2:3, Ecc 10:19; Isa 28:3, Isa 28:7, Isa 2...

TSK: 1Sa 25:37 - had told him // his heart had told him : 1Sa 25:22, 1Sa 25:34 his heart : Deu 28:28; Job 15:21, Job 15:22; Pro 23:29-35

had told him : 1Sa 25:22, 1Sa 25:34

his heart : Deu 28:28; Job 15:21, Job 15:22; Pro 23:29-35

TSK: 1Sa 25:38 - the Lord the Lord : 1Sa 25:33, 1Sa 6:9; Exo 12:29; 2Ki 15:5, 2Ki 19:35; 2Ch 10:15; Act 12:23

TSK: 1Sa 25:39 - Blessed // pleaded // kept his servant // hath returned // to take her Blessed : 1Sa 25:32; Jdg 5:2; 2Sa 22:47-49; Psa 58:10, Psa 58:11; Rev 19:1-4 pleaded : Pro 22:23; Lam 3:58-60; Mic 7:9 kept his servant : 1Sa 25:26, 1...

Blessed : 1Sa 25:32; Jdg 5:2; 2Sa 22:47-49; Psa 58:10, Psa 58:11; Rev 19:1-4

pleaded : Pro 22:23; Lam 3:58-60; Mic 7:9

kept his servant : 1Sa 25:26, 1Sa 25:34; Hos 2:6, Hos 2:7; 2Co 13:7; 1Th 5:23; 2Ti 4:18

hath returned : 2Sa 3:28, 2Sa 3:29; 1Ki 2:44; Est 7:10; Psa 7:16

to take her : It is probable that David had heard that Saul, to cut off his pretensions to the throne, had married Michal to Phalti; and this justified him in taking Abigail, it not being then unlawful for a man to have several wives. This conduct of David’ s corresponds with the manner in which the Oriental princes generally form their matrimonial alliances. ""The king of Abyssinia,""says Mr. Bruce, ""sends an officer to the house where the lady lives, who announces to her that it is the king’ s pleasure she should remove instantly to the palace. She then dresses herself in the best manner, and immediately obeys. Thenceforward he assigns her an apartment in the palace, and gives her a house elsewhere in any part she chooses.""Pro 18:22, Pro 19:14, Pro 31:10, Pro 31:30

TSK: 1Sa 25:40 - David sent David sent : Gen 24:37, Gen 24:38, Gen 24:51

David sent : Gen 24:37, Gen 24:38, Gen 24:51

TSK: 1Sa 25:41 - thine // to wash thine : Rth 2:10, Rth 2:13; Pro 15:33, Pro 18:12 to wash : Gen 18:4; Joh 13:3-5; 1Ti 5:10

TSK: 1Sa 25:42 - Abigail // after her Abigail : Gen 24:61-67; Psa 45:10, Psa 45:11 after her : Heb. at her feet, 1Sa 25:27

Abigail : Gen 24:61-67; Psa 45:10, Psa 45:11

after her : Heb. at her feet, 1Sa 25:27

TSK: 1Sa 25:43 - Jezreel // both // his wives Jezreel : Jos 15:56; 2Sa 3:2 both : Gen 2:24; Mat 19:5, Mat 19:8 his wives : 1Sa 27:3, 1Sa 30:5; 2Sa 5:13-16

TSK: 1Sa 25:44 - But Saul // Michal // Phalti // Gallim But Saul : Rather, ""For Saul,""etc., as the particle ו , wav , frequently signifies; this being the cause why David took another wife. Michal : 1...

But Saul : Rather, ""For Saul,""etc., as the particle ו , wav , frequently signifies; this being the cause why David took another wife.

Michal : 1Sa 18:20, 1Sa 18:27

Phalti : 2Sa 3:14, 2Sa 3:14, Phaltiel

Gallim : This town appears to have been situated in the tribe of Benjamin, as it is mentioned in Isa 10:30, with Michmash, Geba, etc.

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Sa 25:2 - Maon // Carmel Maon a place in or near to the wilderness of Paran. See 1Sa 23:24 . Carmel not that Carmel in Issachar, of which see 1Sa 15:12 1Ki 18:19 ; but anot...

Maon a place in or near to the wilderness of Paran. See 1Sa 23:24 .

Carmel not that Carmel in Issachar, of which see 1Sa 15:12 1Ki 18:19 ; but another in the tribe of Judah, near unto Maon, as appears from Jos 15:55 .

Poole: 1Sa 25:3 - -- This is added to aggravate his crime, that he was a degenerate branch of that noble stock of Caleb, and consequently of the tribe of Judah, as David...

This is added to aggravate his crime, that he was a degenerate branch of that noble stock of Caleb, and consequently of the tribe of Judah, as David was.

Poole: 1Sa 25:4 - -- Which times were celebrated with feasting and jollity. See 2Sa 13:23,24 .

Which times were celebrated with feasting and jollity. See 2Sa 13:23,24 .

Poole: 1Sa 25:6 - To him that liveth in prosperity // To thine house // Unto all that thou hast To him that liveth in prosperity Heb. to him that liveth. Life is oft put for a prosperous and happy life, as in that prayer, Let the king live , 1S...

To him that liveth in prosperity Heb. to him that liveth. Life is oft put for a prosperous and happy life, as in that prayer, Let the king live , 1Sa 10:24 1Ki 1:25 , and in other passages of Scripture, and other authors; for an afflicted and calamitous life is unworthy of the name of life, and is esteemed a kind of death, and oft so called, as 2Co 1:10 11:23 . By this expression David both congratulates Nabal’ s felicity, and tacitly minds him of the penury and distress in which David and his men now were.

To thine house i.e. to all thy family.

Unto all that thou hast to all thy goods. So David’ s prayer is very comprehensive, reaching to his soul, and body, and wife, and children, and servants, and all his estate.

Poole: 1Sa 25:7 - -- Which, considering the licentiousness of soldiers, and the necessities which David and his men were oft exposed to, was no small favour and privileg...

Which, considering the licentiousness of soldiers, and the necessities which David and his men were oft exposed to, was no small favour and privilege, which Nabal was bound both ill justice, and gratitude, and prudence to requite.

Poole: 1Sa 25:8 - In a good day // Unto thy servants // To thy son In a good day i.e. in a day of feasting and rejoicing; when men are most cheerful and liberal; when thou mayst relieve us out of thy abundance withou...

In a good day i.e. in a day of feasting and rejoicing; when men are most cheerful and liberal; when thou mayst relieve us out of thy abundance without damage to thyself; when thou art receiving the mercies of God, and therefore obliged to pity and relieve distressed and indigent persons, Deu 12:12 14:26,29 15:7 .

Unto thy servants to us who have been and still are ready to serve and guard thee and thine. Or the word servants may be only used as a word of respect, frequently used in Scripture, where inferiors speak to superiors, especially when they be suppliants, and beg some favour.

To thy son so he calls himself, to show that respect and affection which he bore to Nabal, as being elder and wealthier than himself, and of the same tribe with himself, and a branch of so worthy a family as Nabal’ s was.

Poole: 1Sa 25:10 - Who is David? // There be many servants now a days that break away Who is David? what relation or obligation have I to David? There be many servants now a days that break away hereby he taxeth both David, as one re...

Who is David? what relation or obligation have I to David?

There be many servants now a days that break away hereby he taxeth both David, as one revolted from and risen up against Saul his lord and master; and his soldiers as runagates from their masters and creditors, &c. See 1Sa 22:2 .

Poole: 1Sa 25:11 - My water My water he speaketh thus, either because in those hot and dry parts water was scarce and precious; or water is here put for any kind of drink, as ...

My water he speaketh thus, either because in those hot and dry parts water was scarce and precious; or water is here put for any kind of drink, as bread is oft taken for all sorts of meat.

Poole: 1Sa 25:13 - Gird ye on every man his sword Gird ye on every man his sword having resolved and sworn to revenge himself of Nabal, as is expressed, 1Sa 25:21,22 . By the stuff See 1Sa 17:22 30:...

Gird ye on every man his sword having resolved and sworn to revenge himself of Nabal, as is expressed, 1Sa 25:21,22 . By the stuff See 1Sa 17:22 30:24 .

Poole: 1Sa 25:14 - -- One of the young men told Abigail; wisely considering the mischievous effects likely to follow so churlish a message.

One of the young men told Abigail; wisely considering the mischievous effects likely to follow so churlish a message.

Poole: 1Sa 25:16 - A wall A wall i.e. a defence against wild beasts, and robbers, and enemies.

A wall i.e. a defence against wild beasts, and robbers, and enemies.

Poole: 1Sa 25:17 - Evil is determined against our master // A man cannot speak to him Evil is determined against our master which it was easy to guess; either from some threatening expressions which David’ s men used; or from the ...

Evil is determined against our master which it was easy to guess; either from some threatening expressions which David’ s men used; or from the consideration of David’ s great power, and that rage which so high a provocation was likely to produce in military persons.

A man cannot speak to him to wit, without hazard to himself, and therefore I acquaint thee rather than him with this matter.

Poole: 1Sa 25:18 - Abigail took two hundred loaves Abigail took two hundred loaves which she did without his leave, and against his mind, because it was a case of apparent necessity, for the preservat...

Abigail took two hundred loaves which she did without his leave, and against his mind, because it was a case of apparent necessity, for the preservation of herself, and husband, and all the family from imminent ruin. And surely that real and urgent necessity which dispenseth with God’ s positive commands, might well dispense with the husband’ s right in this case.

Poole: 1Sa 25:19 - I come after you I come after you for she knew she could quickly over take them.

I come after you for she knew she could quickly over take them.

Poole: 1Sa 25:20 - By the covert of the hill By the covert of the hill in the lower part and under the shadow of the hill, or of the trees that grew upon it; so that David did not see her till s...

By the covert of the hill in the lower part and under the shadow of the hill, or of the trees that grew upon it; so that David did not see her till she met him. David and his men came down, to wit, from another opposite hill.

Poole: 1Sa 25:21 - This fellow David had said; either in his journey, or as soon as he heard that reproachful answer. This fellow whom he thought unworthy to be named, for his b...

David had said; either in his journey, or as soon as he heard that reproachful answer.

This fellow whom he thought unworthy to be named, for his barbarous ingratitude and churlishness.

Poole: 1Sa 25:22 - Unto the enemies of David // So and more also let God do for // Any that pisseth against the wall // Quest // Answ Unto the enemies of David i. e. Unto David himself. But because it might seem ominous and unnatural to curse himself, therefore by a figure called e...

Unto the enemies of David i. e. Unto David himself. But because it might seem ominous and unnatural to curse himself, therefore by a figure called euphemismus , instead of David, he mentions David’ s enemies. See 1Sa 20:16 . The words may be thus rendered:

So and more also let God do for (the Hebrew lamed being very oft so used) the enemies of David, i.e. let God work for them, and give them as much prosperity and success as Nabal hath hitherto had. Or, let God utterly destroy their enemies; and especially myself, the chief of them, if I do not destroy this man.

Any that pisseth against the wall i.e. any of the males, for they only do so; and of them this phrase is manifestly understood, 1Ki 14:10 21:21 2Ki 9:8 ; and men not wholly barbarous have generally spared women in such cases.

Quest. Why then was Abigail so much concerned and afraid?

Answ Partly from humanity, and the horror of so general and dreadful a slaughter of her family and nearest relations; and partly because when the sword was once drawn, she knew not where it would rest, nor whether she should escape; for she knew nothing of this limitation of David’ s threatening till she came to him.

Poole: 1Sa 25:23 - -- Not only in token of deep reverence, but as a most humble supplicant, as 2Ki 4:27 .

Not only in token of deep reverence, but as a most humble supplicant, as 2Ki 4:27 .

Poole: 1Sa 25:24 - Upon me let this iniquity be Upon me let this iniquity be impute Nabal’ s sin to me, and, if thou pleasest, punish it in me, who here offer myself as a sacrifice to thy just...

Upon me let this iniquity be impute Nabal’ s sin to me, and, if thou pleasest, punish it in me, who here offer myself as a sacrifice to thy just indignation. This whole speech of Abigail is done with great artifice; and she doth here, by an absolute submitting to mercy, without any pretence of justification of what was done, (but rather with aggravation of it,) endeavour to work upon David’ s generosity and good nature to pardon it; and, with great art, first would divert the punishment from her husband to herself, because she had then much more to say why David should spare her than why he should spare Nabal. And there was hardly any head of argument, whence the greatest orator might argue in this case, which she doth not manage to the best advantage, and most plausible insinuations for such an exigent.

Poole: 1Sa 25:25 - Man of Belial // Folly is with him // Thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord Let not my lord regard this man; his person and words deserve thy contempt, but not thy regard. Man of Belial for such he hath showed himself to b...

Let not my lord regard this man; his person and words deserve thy contempt, but not thy regard.

Man of Belial for such he hath showed himself to be by this wicked and abominable carriage towards thee.

Folly is with him his noted folly and stupidity is a more proper object for thy pity than anger. His sordid answer to thy servants did not proceed from any ill design, or deep malice, but from brutish sottishhess, and want of the understanding of a man in him. It may be thought a great crime, that she traduceth her husband in this manner; but this may be said for her, that she told them nothing but what they all knew concerning him, and that she only seemed to take away that which he never had indeed, to wit, his good name, that she might preserve that which he had, and which was more dear and important to him, even his life and soul.

Thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord though I freely submit myself to the punishment in my husband’ s stead, yet I was innocent of the crime.

Poole: 1Sa 25:26 - Seeing the Lord hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood // Be as Nabal Seeing the Lord hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood seeing God hath so ordered this business by his wise and wonderful providence, that I ...

Seeing the Lord hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood seeing God hath so ordered this business by his wise and wonderful providence, that I should accidentally and unexpectedly come to the knowledge of my husband’ s vile and sordid carriage; and that I should come to meet thee, and find thee so gracious, as to give a favourable audience; and all this, that hereby he might withhold thee from the sin of blood-guiltiness.

Be as Nabal let them be as contemptible and hateful as Nabal is and will be for this odious action; let them be as unable to do thee any hurt as he is; let them be forced to yield to thee, and implore thy pardon and favour, as Nabal now doth by my mouth; let the vengeance thou didst design upon Nabal and his family fall upon their heads, who by their constant and inveterate malice against thee, do more deserve it than this silly fool for this one miscarriage; and much more than all the rest of our family, who, as they are none of thine enemies, nor such as seek time evil, so they were no way guilty of this wicked action. And therefore spare these, and execute thy vengeance upon more proper objects.

Poole: 1Sa 25:27 - This blessing // Let it even be given unto the young men This blessing so a gift or present is called here, and Gen 33:11 , and elsewhere; not only because the matter of it comes from God’ s blessing, ...

This blessing so a gift or present is called here, and Gen 33:11 , and elsewhere; not only because the matter of it comes from God’ s blessing, but also because it is given with a blessing, or with a good will.

Let it even be given unto the young men as being unworthy of thine acceptance or use.

Poole: 1Sa 25:28 - The trespass of thine handmaid // Will certainly make my lord a sure house // The battles of the Lord // Evil hath not been found in thee all thy days The trespass of thine handmaid i.e. which I have taken upon myself, 1Sa 25:21 , and which, if it be not pardoned, but punished, the punishment will r...

The trespass of thine handmaid i.e. which I have taken upon myself, 1Sa 25:21 , and which, if it be not pardoned, but punished, the punishment will reach to me.

Will certainly make my lord a sure house i.e. will give the kingdom to thee, and to thy house for ever, as he hath promised thee. And therefore let God’ s great kindness to thee make thee gentle and merciful to others; do not sully thy approaching glory with the stain of innocent blood; but consider that it is the glory of a king (which thou art by God’ s appointment, and shall ere long actually be) to pass by offences, and that it will be thy loss to cut off such as will shortly be thy subjects.

The battles of the Lord i.e. for the Lord, and for the people of the Lord, against their enemies, especially the Philistines. And as that this is thy proper work, and therein thou mayst expect God’ s blessing and help; so it is not thy work to draw thy sword in thy own private quarrel against any of the people of the Lord, and God will not bless thee in it.

Evil hath not been found in thee all thy days though thou hast been oft aspersed, and charged with many critics, by Saul and others; yet thy innocency hath been and is evident to all men: do not therefore now by this cruel act of vengeance justify thine enemies’ reproaches, nor blemish thy great and just reputation.

Poole: 1Sa 25:29 - A man // To seek thy soul // the living // With the Lord thy God // Them shall he sling out A man to wit, Saul, though no way injured nor justly provoked by thee. To seek thy soul i. e. to take away thy life. In the bundle of life, or, in ...

A man to wit, Saul, though no way injured nor justly provoked by thee.

To seek thy soul i. e. to take away thy life. In the bundle of life, or, in the bundle, i.e. in the society or congregation of

the living out of which men are taken and cut off by death. The phrase is taken from the common usage of men, who bind those things in bundles which they are afraid to lose, because things that are solitary and unbound are soon lost. The meaning of the place is, God will preserve thy life; and therefore it becomes not thee unjustly and unnecessarily to take away the lives of any, especially the people of thy God and Saviour.

With the Lord thy God i.e. in the hand and custody of God, who, by his watchful providence, preserves this bundle, and all that are in it; and time in a particular and singular manner, as being thy God in a peculiar way and special covenant. God himself will hide and keep thee in the secret of his presence, Psa 31:20 , where no hand of violence can reach thee. And therefore all the attempts of Saul or others against thee are vain and ridiculous. For who can destroy whom God will keep?

Them shall he sling out as out of the middle of a sling; God himself will cut them off suddenly, violently, and irresistibly; and cast them far away, both from his presence, and from thy neighbourhood, and from all capacity of doing thee any hurt.

Poole: 1Sa 25:31 - Nor offence of heart unto my lord // That thou hast shed blood causeless // That my lord hath avenged himself // When the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember thine handmaid Nor offence of heart unto my lord thy mind and conscience will be free from all the torment which the guilt and shame of such an action would cause i...

Nor offence of heart unto my lord thy mind and conscience will be free from all the torment which the guilt and shame of such an action would cause in thee. By which, she cunningly insinuates what a blemish this would be to his glory, what a disturbance to his peace and felicity, if he proceeded to execute his purpose; and withal implies how sweet and comfortable it would be to him to remember, that he had for conscience to God denied himself, and restrained his passions.

That thou hast shed blood causeless which she signifies would be done if he should go on. For though Nabal had been guilty of abominable rudeness, uncharitableness, and ingratitude; yet he had done nothing worthy of death, by the laws of God or of man. And whatsoever he had done, the rest of his family were innocent.

That my lord hath avenged himself which is directly contrary to God’ s law, Lev 19:18 Deu 32:35 , compared with Rom 12:19 .

When the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember thine handmaid when God shall make thee king, and I shall have occasion to apply myself to time for justice or relief, let me find grace in thy sight, and so let me do at this time. Or, and the Lord will bless my lord , and recompense thee for this mortification of thy passion, and thou wilt remember thine hand-maid , i.e. thou wilt remember my counsel with satisfaction to thyself; and thankfulness to me.

Poole: 1Sa 25:32 - -- Which by his gracious and singular providence so disposed matters that thou shouldst, come to rule. He rightly begins at the fountain of this delive...

Which by his gracious and singular providence so disposed matters that thou shouldst, come to rule. He rightly begins at the fountain of this deliverance, which was God; and then proceeds to the instruments.

Poole: 1Sa 25:33 - Blessed be thy advice // From coming to shed blood Blessed be thy advice and blessed be thou, i.e. the Lord bless and recompense thee for this thy good advice. From coming to shed blood which I had ...

Blessed be thy advice and blessed be thou, i.e. the Lord bless and recompense thee for this thy good advice.

From coming to shed blood which I had sworn to do. Hereby it plainly appears that oaths whereby men bind themselves to any sin are null and void; and as it was a sin to make them, so it is adding sin to sin to perform them.

Poole: 1Sa 25:34 - Hath kept me back from hurting thee Hath kept me back from hurting thee not that he intended to kill her, but the males only; as was noted in 1Sa 25:22 . But their destruction was a dre...

Hath kept me back from hurting thee not that he intended to kill her, but the males only; as was noted in 1Sa 25:22 . But their destruction was a dreadful affliction and damage to her.

Poole: 1Sa 25:35 - -- i.e. Showed my acceptance of thy person, by my grant of thy request: see Gen 19:21 .

i.e. Showed my acceptance of thy person, by my grant of thy request: see Gen 19:21 .

Poole: 1Sa 25:36 - Like the feast of a king // She told him nothing Like the feast of a king as the manner was upon those solemn occasions. Sordid covetousness and vain prodigality were met together in him. She told ...

Like the feast of a king as the manner was upon those solemn occasions. Sordid covetousness and vain prodigality were met together in him.

She told him nothing he being then incapable of admonition, his reason and conscience being both asleep.

Poole: 1Sa 25:37 - -- He was oppressed with grief, and fainted away through the fear and horror of so great a mischief, though it was past. As one who, having in the nigh...

He was oppressed with grief, and fainted away through the fear and horror of so great a mischief, though it was past. As one who, having in the night galloped over a narrow plank, laid upon a broken bridge, over a deep river, when in the morning he came to review it, was struck dead with. the horror of the danger he was in.

Poole: 1Sa 25:38 - -- God either inflicted some other stroke or disease upon him, or increased his grief and fear to such a height as killed him.

God either inflicted some other stroke or disease upon him, or increased his grief and fear to such a height as killed him.

Poole: 1Sa 25:39 - Answ // Hath kept his servant from evil // David sent How could David rejoice at the death of his enemy? Answ Although it may be said that he rejoiced not in Nabal’ s death as such, but only in t...

How could David rejoice at the death of his enemy?

Answ Although it may be said that he rejoiced not in Nabal’ s death as such, but only in the declaration of God’ s justice in punishing so great a wickedness; which was an honour to God, and a document, and therefore a benefit to mankind, and so a public good, and cause of joy; yet the matter is not weighty, if we confess that this was another instance of human infirmity in David, and that it is not proposed for our imitation, but for our caution. Yet it may be further said, that this was not purely an act of private revenge, because David was a public person, and anointed king; and therefore Nabal’ s reproach cast upon David above, 1Sa 25:10,11 , was a contempt of God, and of his ordinance and appointment; which was vindicated by this remarkable judgment.

Hath kept his servant from evil i.e. from the sin of bloodshed and self-revenge, 1Sa 25:33 .

David sent to wit, messengers; which he thought fitter than to go himself; partly because if he had met with a repulse, it had been less ignominious; and partly because he would leave her to her freedom and choice, and would not so much as seem to take her by violence. But this doubtless was not done immediately after Nabal’ s death, but in some convenient space of time after it; though such circumstances be commonly omitted in the sacred history, which gives only the threads and most important passages of things.

Poole: 1Sa 25:41 - -- She showed this reverence, and spake thus to them, as representing David’ s person.

She showed this reverence, and spake thus to them, as representing David’ s person.

Poole: 1Sa 25:42 - She went after the messengers She went after the messengers not immediately, but some convenient time after they were gone. She considered not David’ s present straits and pe...

She went after the messengers not immediately, but some convenient time after they were gone. She considered not David’ s present straits and penury, which site thought her plentiful estate might supply; nor his danger from Saul; but by a true and strong faith rested upon God’ s promise made to David, not doubting but God would perform it.

Poole: 1Sa 25:44 - But But or for , as the Hebrew vau is ofttimes used. For this seems to be added as a reason why David took other wives, because Saul had given his for...

But or for , as the Hebrew vau is ofttimes used. For this seems to be added as a reason why David took other wives, because Saul had given his former wife to another man, that he might as far as he could extinguish all relation and kindred to him, whom he hated; and withal, cut off his hopes and pretence to the crown upon that account.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:1 - Samuel died // All Israel // House Samuel died. The Rabbins say four months before Saul. (Seder, olam 13.) (Tirinus) --- Others believe about two years; and suppose that he was 98 ...

Samuel died. The Rabbins say four months before Saul. (Seder, olam 13.) (Tirinus) ---

Others believe about two years; and suppose that he was 98 years old, twenty of which he had been judge: (Calmet) Salien says 38, and that he lived seventy-seven years. (Menochius) ---

On all these points the learned are divided, chap. vii. 15. They are more unanimous in praising (Haydock) the conduct of this most holy statesman. Grotius compares him with Aristides. (Calmet) ---

But he Holy Ghost gives Samuel a far more glorious character, Ecclesiasticus xlvi. 16., &c. (Haydock) ---

Both he and his mother are figures of the two testaments. Anna becomes fruitful ---

Samuel is substituted in the place of Heli. The sterility of Anna represents the incapacity of the Synagogue, to produce living and virtuous children. She bears Samuel, the figure of Jesus Christ, who reunites in his person the royal and the sacerdotal dignity. But under another point of view, Samuel, how perfect soever, must give place to the more perfect David, the glorious type of Jesus Christ, and thus the Synagogue, notwithstanding all her prerogatives, must yield to the Church. See St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] xvii. 1, 4. Many of the ancients have looked upon Samuel as the high priest: but the generality have acknowledged that he was only a Levite, (Calmet) or an extraordinary priest, like Moses. (Haydock) ---

All Israel, or many from every tribe, assembled to attend his funeral; (Tirinus) and all mourned for him, as they had done for Moses and Aaron. (Salien) ---

House, or among his kindred, (Tirinus) in a place which he had chosen for his tomb. This is called the house of the wicked for ever; but the just raise their hopes much higher, and await a more splendid palace above, and a glorious resurrection. (Haydock) ---

The would not bury Samuel in his dwelling-house, as it could not then be entered without incurring an uncleanness. (Calmet) ---

His bones were translated with great respect to Constantinople, and a noble mausoleum was built for them by the emperor Justinian. (Procopius v.; St. Jerome, contra Vigil.) (Tirinus)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:2 - Maon // Possessions Maon. Vatican Septuagint has the same word in the preceding verse, instead of Pharan. (Haydock) --- Possessions. Hebrew, "work." Cattle then fo...

Maon. Vatican Septuagint has the same word in the preceding verse, instead of Pharan. (Haydock) ---

Possessions. Hebrew, "work." Cattle then formed the chief source of riches. Carmel and Maon were not far from Pharan, in Arabia. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:3 - Caleb Caleb, the famous companion of Josue. His name means, "a dog;" whence the Septuagint, "he was a Cynic." Josephus, "he followed the manners of the Cy...

Caleb, the famous companion of Josue. His name means, "a dog;" whence the Septuagint, "he was a Cynic." Josephus, "he followed the manners of the Cynics," who were remarkable for their impudence, like dogs. Caleb was of the same tribe as David, and ought to have been more favourable to him on that account, ver. 6. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:7 - Molested them Molested them. This deserved some acknowledgment, as they might have done it with impunity. But David had also been of service to Nabal's men, as o...

Molested them. This deserved some acknowledgment, as they might have done it with impunity. But David had also been of service to Nabal's men, as one of them told Abigail, ver. 16---21.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:8 - Good day Good day, set aside for rejoicing, w hen the sheep were shorn, 2 Kings xiii. 24.

Good day, set aside for rejoicing, w hen the sheep were shorn, 2 Kings xiii. 24.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:10 - Masters Masters. As if he had said, you and David are but fugitive slaves. (Calmet) --- He might also insinuate, that David encouraged such practices, cha...

Masters. As if he had said, you and David are but fugitive slaves. (Calmet) ---

He might also insinuate, that David encouraged such practices, chap. xxii. 2. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:11 - Water // Cattle Water, under which name all sorts of drinks are included. Nabal had plenty of wine, and was much intoxicated, ver. 36. Septuagint translate, "wine....

Water, under which name all sorts of drinks are included. Nabal had plenty of wine, and was much intoxicated, ver. 36. Septuagint translate, "wine." Syriac and Arabic, "drink." ---

Cattle. Hebrew, "victims," which is a term used both for sacred and profane feasts.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:14 - Rejected them Rejected them. Hebrew, "flew against them." Chaldean, "saw them with disgust."

Rejected them. Hebrew, "flew against them." Chaldean, "saw them with disgust."

Haydock: 1Sa 25:17 - Determined Determined, and as if it had already taken place, chap. xx. 7.

Determined, and as if it had already taken place, chap. xx. 7.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:18 - Raisins // Cakes Raisins. Hebrew tsimmukim, "dried raisins," or clusters of an extraordinary size. Roger speaks of some gathered in the vale of Sorec, which weigh...

Raisins. Hebrew tsimmukim, "dried raisins," or clusters of an extraordinary size. Roger speaks of some gathered in the vale of Sorec, which weighed 25½ pounds. (the year of the Lord 1634.) Septuagint, "a gomer of dry raisins." Syriac and Arabic, "a hundred cheeses." ---

Cakes. Chaldean, "pounds." Hebrew is imperfect, two hundred....of figs. We must supply (Calmet) cakes, with the Protestants, &c., or pounds, with the Chaldean, (Haydock) as each of the cakes perhaps weighed so much. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:19 - Nabal Nabal. Knowing his churlish temper, and that he was drunk at this time, (ver. 36.; Haydock) she might be well excused from the ordinary laws which f...

Nabal. Knowing his churlish temper, and that he was drunk at this time, (ver. 36.; Haydock) she might be well excused from the ordinary laws which forbid a wife to dispose of her husband's property, without his consent. The emergency left no time for consultation. She gave a part to save the whole. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:20 - Foot Foot. Hebrew, "in the obscurity," or road covered with trees. Septuagint, "in the shade." Chaldean, "on the side." David was descending from the ...

Foot. Hebrew, "in the obscurity," or road covered with trees. Septuagint, "in the shade." Chaldean, "on the side." David was descending from the mountains of Pharan, at the same time.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:22 - The enemies // Leave // All The enemies, is left out in some editions of the Septuagint. But David wishes all evils to himself, though, to avoid the ominous expression, he spec...

The enemies, is left out in some editions of the Septuagint. But David wishes all evils to himself, though, to avoid the ominous expression, he specifies his enemies, if he do not punish Nabal. ---

Leave. David certainly sinned in his designs against Nabal and his family, as he himself was afterwards sensible, when he blessed God for hindering him from executing the revenge he had proposed. (Challoner) ---

All. Chaldean, "any one who is come to the use of reason." Syriac and Arabic, "the least thing hanging upon the wall." I will destroy the guilty, and plunder all the valuable effects. (Calmet) ---

But the Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., agree with the Vulgate and the meaning is, either that every man, or that every dog, and even the meanest things, should be enveloped in the general ruin. (Haydock) ---

The manners of men vary, but those of dogs are always the same. Hence, it is more generally supposed that this expression (Calmet) denotes that even dogs shall be exterminated, and consequently other things for which Nabal would have a greater affection. (Haydock) ---

Aurelian being irritated against the inhabitants of Thiane, swore, "I will not leave a dog in this town;" which all people explained as if he meant to leave nothing alive in it. But being afterwards moved with compassion at the distress of the people, he executed his threat literally, and killed all the dogs. (Vopisc.) See 3 Kings xiv. 10., and xv. 29., and xxi. 21., and 4 Kings v. 6. (Bochart, Anim. ii. 55.; Delrio, adag. 184.) (Calmet) ---

The unhappy Geddes translates, "a dog," to avoid the indelicate allusion. It would have been well if he had allowed himself no greater liberties! (Haydock) ---

The Hebrew mashtin, may denote a shepherd's or a mastiff dog. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:24 - Iniquity Iniquity, or the punishment of this fault, ver. 28. (Calmet) --- She wishes to divest the mind of David from the consideration of her husband's inc...

Iniquity, or the punishment of this fault, ver. 28. (Calmet) ---

She wishes to divest the mind of David from the consideration of her husband's incivility; and, after condemning it herself, insinuates that it would be unbecoming for a great king to mind so insignificant an enemy, ver. 28. (Haydock) ---

Thus the emperor Adrian, and Louis XII, would not resent the affronts which they had received before they were raised to that high dignity. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:25 - The king // Name The king, is not in Hebrew, Septuagint, &c. David's title was not yet publicly acknowledged. (Calmet) ---But Abigail plainly alludes to it, ver. 28...

The king, is not in Hebrew, Septuagint, &c. David's title was not yet publicly acknowledged. (Calmet) ---But Abigail plainly alludes to it, ver. 28. (Haydock) ---

Name. Nabal, in Hebrew, signifies a fool. (Calmet) ---

Thus she extenuates his fault, by attributing it to a deficiency in understanding.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:26 - To thee // As Nabal To thee. She felicitates David on not having put his design in execution. (Calmet) --- Theodoret thinks he might lawfully have done it; but others...

To thee. She felicitates David on not having put his design in execution. (Calmet) ---

Theodoret thinks he might lawfully have done it; but others believe that the fault bore no proportion with the intended punishment. (Tirinus) ---

As Nabal, devoid of sense. Abigail displays the eloquence of nature. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:27 - Blessing Blessing, or present. (Menochius) See 2 Corinthians ix. 5. (Calmet)

Blessing, or present. (Menochius) See 2 Corinthians ix. 5. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:28 - House // Lord // Evil House. Thy family shall long continue in the enjoyment of the royal power. Chaldean, "an established kingdom." (Haydock) --- Lord, as his genera...

House. Thy family shall long continue in the enjoyment of the royal power. Chaldean, "an established kingdom." (Haydock) ---

Lord, as his general. ---

Evil. Do no manner of injustice. Hebrew, "and evil hast not been found," &c. Hitherto thy life has been irreproachable. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:29 - Bundle // Of the living Bundle. Such things are more secure than those which are loose. (Worthington) --- Of the living, or predestinate, over whom Providence watches in...

Bundle. Such things are more secure than those which are loose. (Worthington) ---

Of the living, or predestinate, over whom Providence watches in a particular manner. She seems to allude to the method of carrying pieces of silver in bundles, Proverbs vii. 20. Chaldean, "the soul of my lord shall be in the treasury of the lives of the age, before the Lord God." (Calmet) ---

It shall be preserved for length of days, like something most precious, (Haydock) while the wicked shall be in continual danger and anxiety, like a stone in a sling, Zacharias ix. 15. By substituting c for b in Hebrew, the sense may be still more striking: "the soul of my lord shall be preserved like a living (precious, serviceable,) stone. But the soul of thy enemies shall be whirled in a sling." The Hebrews had a great esteem for slingers, so that this comparison would be sufficiently noble. A living stone is often mentioned both is sacred and in profane authors, 1 Peter ii. 4. (Virgil, Æneid i. 171.) Vivoque sedilia saxo.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:30 - Israel Israel, a thing which all expected, and even Saul himself, chap. xxiv. 21.

Israel, a thing which all expected, and even Saul himself, chap. xxiv. 21.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:31 - Scruple // Innocent // Handmaid Scruple. Hebrew, "scandal," or sin, for David might defend himself, but ought not to attack or take revenge, like a king. (Grotius) --- Innocent. ...

Scruple. Hebrew, "scandal," or sin, for David might defend himself, but ought not to attack or take revenge, like a king. (Grotius) ---

Innocent. Many of Nabal's family were such, and even his fault did not deserve death. Hebrew, "shed blood without cause." (Calmet) ---

Handmaid, who has suggested this good advice. (Menochius) ---

David was so much pleased with her prudence and beauty, that he afterwards married her.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:32 - Speech Speech. Hebrew, "advice, or wisdom." Septuagint, "conduct." (Calmet)

Speech. Hebrew, "advice, or wisdom." Septuagint, "conduct." (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:35 - Face Face. I have been pleased with thy coming, and granted thy request. (Haydock) --- David had sworn with too much haste. (Calmet) --- "It is somet...

Face. I have been pleased with thy coming, and granted thy request. (Haydock) ---

David had sworn with too much haste. (Calmet) ---

"It is sometimes wrong to perform what has been promised, and to keep an oath." (St. Ambrose, Off. i. C. ultra[last chapter])

Haydock: 1Sa 25:36 - Morning Morning. Admirable pattern of discretion, and how reprimands may be made with advantage. (Calmet) --- A medicine given at an improper time often d...

Morning. Admirable pattern of discretion, and how reprimands may be made with advantage. (Calmet) ---

A medicine given at an improper time often does harm. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xvii. 27.) When a person said to Cleostratus, "Are you not ashamed to get drunk?" he replied, "Are you not ashamed to rebuke a drunken man?"

Haydock: 1Sa 25:37 - Stone Stone. Stupified at the thought of the imminent danger to which he had foolishly exposed himself. So the poets represent Niobe as metamorphosed int...

Stone. Stupified at the thought of the imminent danger to which he had foolishly exposed himself. So the poets represent Niobe as metamorphosed into a stone, at the hearing of her children's death. (Tirinus) ---

Josephus intimates that Nabal was killed by the malignant influence of the stars, sideratus. (Antiquities, vi. 14.) Thus, says he, David "learnt that no wicked person can escape the vengeance of God, and that Providence does not neglect human affairs, and abandon them to chance."

Haydock: 1Sa 25:39 - Blessed be Blessed be, &c. David praises God on this occasion, not out of joy for the death of Nabal, (which would have argued a rancour of heart) but because ...

Blessed be, &c. David praises God on this occasion, not out of joy for the death of Nabal, (which would have argued a rancour of heart) but because he saw that God had so visibly taken his cause in hand, in punishing the injury done to him; whilst, by a merciful providence, he kept him from revenging himself. (Challoner) (Psalm lvii. 10.)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:41 - Thy servant Thy servant. She speaks to David's representatives, as if he had been present. (Haydock) --- The marriage was proposed probably a month or two aft...

Thy servant. She speaks to David's representatives, as if he had been present. (Haydock) ---

The marriage was proposed probably a month or two after the death of Nabal; and Abigail followed the messengers, in a short time. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 25:43 - Took // Jezrahel Took, or "had taken before," according to Josephus. Hence she is placed first, (Calmet) as the mother of David's first-born, Amnon, 2 Kings iii. 2. ...

Took, or "had taken before," according to Josephus. Hence she is placed first, (Calmet) as the mother of David's first-born, Amnon, 2 Kings iii. 2. (Menochius) ---

Michol, whom he married first, had no children. (Haydock) ---

Jezrahel, a city of Juda. (Menochius) (Josue xv. 56.) ---

There was another more famous place of this name is Issachar.

Haydock: 1Sa 25:44 - Phalti // Gallim Phalti, or Phaltiel, 2 Kings iii. 15. Saul violated all laws by so doing, and David took her back when he came to the throne, which he could not hav...

Phalti, or Phaltiel, 2 Kings iii. 15. Saul violated all laws by so doing, and David took her back when he came to the throne, which he could not have done if he had given her a bill of divorce, Deuteronomy xxiv. 4. (Calmet) ---

Michol was not blameless in living thus with another man. (Menochius) ---

The Rabbins say that a sword hindered Phalti from approaching her. (Horn in Sulp.) ---

Gallim, a city of Benjamin, Isaias x. 30. (Calmet)

Gill: 1Sa 25:1 - And Samuel died // and all the Israelites were gathered together, and lamented him // and buried him in his house at Ramah // and David arose and went down to the wilderness of Paran And Samuel died,.... In the interval, when Saul and David were parted, and before they saw each other again; according to the Jewish chronology g, Sam...

And Samuel died,.... In the interval, when Saul and David were parted, and before they saw each other again; according to the Jewish chronology g, Samuel died four months before Saul; but other Jewish writers say h he died seven months before; Abarbinel thinks it was a year or two before; which is most likely and indeed certain, since David was in the country of the Philistines after this a full year and four months, if the true sense of the phrase is expressed in 1Sa 27:7; and Saul was not then dead; and so another Jewish chronologer i says, that Saul died two years after Samuel, to which agrees Clemens of Alexandria k; and according to the Jews l, he died the twentieth of Ijar, for which a fast was kept on that day:

and all the Israelites were gathered together, and lamented him; his death being a public loss, not only to the college of the prophets, over which he presided, but to the whole nation; and they had reason to lament his death, when they called to mind, the many good offices he had done them from his youth upwards; and when the government was in his hands, which was administered in the most prudent and faithful manner; and after that they had his wise counsel and advice, his good wishes and prayers for them; and the rather they had reason to lament him, since Saul their king proved so bad as he did, and at this time a difference was subsisting between David and him:

and buried him in his house at Ramah; where he lived and died; not that he was buried in his house, properly so called, or within the walls of that building wherein he dwelt; though the Greeks m and Romans n used to bury in their own dwelling houses; hence sprung the idolatrous worship of the Lares, or household gods; but not the Hebrews, which their laws about uncleanness by graves would not admit of, see Num 19:15; but the meaning is, that they buried him in the place where his house was, as Ben Gersom interprets it, at Ramah, in some field or garden belonging to it. The author of the Cippi Hebraici says o, that here his father Elkanah, and his mother Hannah, and her two sons, were buried in a vault shut up, with, monuments over it; and here, some say p, Samuel's bones remained, until removed by Arcadius the emperor into Thrace; Benjamin of Tudela reports q, that when the Christians took Ramlah, which is Ramah, from the Mahometans, they found the grave of Samuel at Ramah by a synagogue of the Jews, and they took him out of the grave, and carried him to Shiloh, and there built a large temple, which is called the Samuel of Shiloh to this day:

and David arose and went down to the wilderness of Paran; on hearing of the death of Samuel, there to indulge his mourning for him; or rather that he might be in greater safety from Saul, being further off, this wilderness lying on the south of the tribe of Judah, and inhabited by Arabs, and these called Kedarenes; and now it was that he dwelt in the tents of Kedar, Psa 120:5.

Gill: 1Sa 25:2 - And there was a man in Maon // whose possessions were in Carmel // and the man was very great // and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats // and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel And there was a man in Maon,.... A city of the tribe of Judah, from whence the wilderness had its name before mentioned; of which place, see Jos 15:5...

And there was a man in Maon,.... A city of the tribe of Judah, from whence the wilderness had its name before mentioned; of which place, see Jos 15:55; though Ben Gersom takes it to signify a dwelling place; and that this is observed to show, that he did not dwell in a city, but had his habitation where his business lay, which was in Carmel, where his fields, gardens, and vineyards were: wherefore it follows:

whose possessions were in Carmel; not Carmel in the tribe of Issachar, but in the tribe of Judah, not far from Maon, and are mentioned together; see Gill on Jos 15:55; his cattle were there, his sheep particularly, for they are afterwards said to be shorn there; or "his work" r; his agriculture, his farming, where he was employed, or employed others in sowing seed, and planting trees:

and the man was very great; in worldly substance, though not in natural wisdom and knowledge, and especially in true religion and piety:

and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats; so the substance of men in those times was generally described by the cattle they had, whether of the herd or flock, in which it chiefly lay:

and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel; which was the custom in Judea and Syria, and was a very ancient one, as early as the times of Judah, yea, of Laban, see Gen 31:19; though the old Romans used to pluck off the wool from the sheep's backs; hence a fleece of wool was called "vellus a vellendo", from the plucking it off; and Pliny says s, in his time, that sheep were not shorn everywhere, but in some places the custom of plucking off the wool continued; and who elsewhere observes t, that the time of shearing was in June or July, or thereabouts; at which times a feast was made, and it is for the sake of that this is observed.

Gill: 1Sa 25:3 - Now the name of the man was Nabal // and the name of his wife Abigail // and she was a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance // but the man was churlish and evil in his doings // and he was of the house of Caleb Now the name of the man was Nabal,.... Which signifies a "fool"; one would think his parents should not give him this name, though it is a name prope...

Now the name of the man was Nabal,.... Which signifies a "fool"; one would think his parents should not give him this name, though it is a name proper enough to men in common; and Kimchi thinks this was a nickname, which men gave him agreeably to his genius and conduct, and which is not improbable:

and the name of his wife Abigail; which signifies "my father's joy", he delighting in her for her wit and beauty, as follows:

and she was a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance; she was not only of a good understanding in things natural, civil, and domestic, but in things spiritual, as her speech to David shows, and which, with her external form, completed her character, and greatly recommended her; which is the character Aelianus u gives of Aspasia, wise and fair:

but the man was churlish and evil in his doings; morose and ill natured in the temper and disposition of his mind, and wicked in his conversation, and fraudulent and oppressive in his dealings with men:

and he was of the house of Caleb; or he was a Calebite w, a descendant of that great and good man Caleb the son of Jephunneh; which was an aggravation of his wickedness, that he should be the degenerate plant of such a noble vine: some interpret it, he was as his heart, as his heart was bad, so was he; some men, their outside is better than their inside; but this man was no hypocrite, he was as bad outwardly as he was inwardly: the word "Caleb" sometimes signifies a dog; hence the Septuagint version renders it, a doggish man, a cynic; and to the same purpose are the Syriac and Arabic versions; and so some Jewish writers interpret it; but the Targum, Jarchi, and Kimchi, supply it as we do, that he was of the house or family of Caleb, and so of the tribe of Judah, as David was.

Gill: 1Sa 25:4 - And David heard in the wilderness // that Nabal did shear his sheep And David heard in the wilderness,.... In the wilderness of Paran, where he was, and a wilderness it was to him, being in want of food, as the followi...

And David heard in the wilderness,.... In the wilderness of Paran, where he was, and a wilderness it was to him, being in want of food, as the following relation shows:

that Nabal did shear his sheep; when there was generally good living, and so a proper person, and a proper time, for David to apply for the relief of his wants.

Gill: 1Sa 25:5 - And David sent out ten young men // and David said, unto the young men, get ye up to Carmel // and go to Nabal, and greet him in my name And David sent out ten young men,.... Such persons, and such a number of them, he sent to show honour and reverence to Nabal: and David said, unto ...

And David sent out ten young men,.... Such persons, and such a number of them, he sent to show honour and reverence to Nabal:

and David said, unto the young men, get ye up to Carmel; which lay higher than the wilderness, in which he was:

and go to Nabal, and greet him in my name; ask him of his peace and welfare, as the Targum; wish all health and happiness in my name, present my service and best respects to him.

Gill: 1Sa 25:6 - And thus shall ye say to him that liveth in prosperity // peace be both to thee, and peace be to thine house, and peace be unto all that thou hast And thus shall ye say to him that liveth in prosperity,.... That lives, while others, as David and his men, might be rather said to starve than live;...

And thus shall ye say to him that liveth in prosperity,.... That lives, while others, as David and his men, might be rather said to starve than live; they lived in great meanness, but he in great abundance, and therefore in a capacity to give to others, and particularly to relieve them: or the sense is, they should say to him, "thus" shall it be, or may it be "for life": for the time of life, for the year to come; at this time next year, at next sheep shearing, mayest thou be in as great prosperity then as now, and even all the days of thy life:

peace be both to thee, and peace be to thine house, and peace be unto all that thou hast; that is, all prosperity to thy person in soul and body, to thy family, wife, children and servants, and let the same attend thy estate, cattle, farms, fields, vineyards, and all that belong to thee; and wish for a blessing on him, and his, and all that were his, or he had; a more extensive one could not well be made.

Gill: 1Sa 25:7 - And now I have heard that thou hast shearers // now thy shepherds which were with us // we hurt them not // neither was there ought missing unto them // all the while they were in Carmel And now I have heard that thou hast shearers,.... Men employed in shearing his sheep, which was a time of feasting and gladness, and therefore David s...

And now I have heard that thou hast shearers,.... Men employed in shearing his sheep, which was a time of feasting and gladness, and therefore David sent his young men to him at this time with his compliments upon it; and in order to obtain what he intended by this message to him, he observes the favours he and his men had done to his servants, and the advantages which they had received from them:

now thy shepherds which were with us; feeding their sheep near the wilderness of Paran, which was not far from Carmel and Maon:

we hurt them not; by taking any of their sheep and lambs from them, or by abusing, beating them, or giving them ill language; or "did not put them to shame" x, by denying them anything they asked of them, which was in their power to grant, nor mocked and scoffed at them, and jeered them on account of their occupation:

neither was there ought missing unto them; they did not steal a sheep or lamb from them, as was common for soldiers to do; nor did they suffer any of the Arabs, that dwelt in the wilderness of Paran, to rob them, who lived upon plunder, or any of the wild beasts to hurt them, as much as in them lay; so careful were they of them, and were a wall unto them by night and day, as Nabal's servants owned, 1Sa 25:16; and this was the case:

all the while they were in Carmel; or in the fields, 1Sa 25:15; which were joining to the wilderness of Paran.

Gill: 1Sa 25:8 - Ask thy young men, and they will show thee // wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes // for we are come in a good day // give, I pray thee, whatsoever cometh to thine hand unto thy servants // and to thy son David Ask thy young men, and they will show thee,.... The shepherds before mentioned, who kept their flocks hard by them: wherefore let the young men fin...

Ask thy young men, and they will show thee,.... The shepherds before mentioned, who kept their flocks hard by them:

wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes; the ten young men David sent to Nabal:

for we are come in a good day; a day in which Nabal made a feast for his shearers, as was usual then, and still is, see 2Sa 13:23; and at such times as persons are generally cheerful and merry, so free and liberal, and as there were plenty of provisions, not only enough for the guests and shearers, but to spare, and there was no need for an increase of expense, it might upon the whole be concluded it was a proper time for David to apply for accommodations for himself and his men:

give, I pray thee, whatsoever cometh to thine hand unto thy servants,

and to thy son David; he did not request anything extraordinary of him, or to put him to any expense, but what was at hand, and he could spare, he prayed him to deliver to the young men he sent, for their use, and the use of other his servants, and particularly David, who styled himself his son, being of the same tribe with Nabal, and Nabal his senior.

Gill: 1Sa 25:9 - And when David's young men came // they spake to Nabal according to all those words in the name of David // and ceased And when David's young men came,.... To Carmel: they spake to Nabal according to all those words in the name of David; they delivered their message...

And when David's young men came,.... To Carmel:

they spake to Nabal according to all those words in the name of David; they delivered their message punctually and exactly, in the very words, or however according to the purport of them, in David's name, as he enjoined them:

and ceased: from speaking, waiting for Nabal's answer; or "they rested" y, from the fatigues of their journey; which they did not until they had delivered their message to Nabal, and then they took the liberty to sit down and rest themselves; but the former sense seems best, and is preferred by Maimonides z.

Gill: 1Sa 25:10 - And Nabal answered David's servants, and said // who is David? and who is the son of Jesse // there be many servants nowadays that break away every man from his master And Nabal answered David's servants, and said,.... In a very haughty manner, in great wrath, just as churlish covetous persons do, when they do not ca...

And Nabal answered David's servants, and said,.... In a very haughty manner, in great wrath, just as churlish covetous persons do, when they do not care to give what is asked of them:

who is David? and who is the son of Jesse; his two questions, which relate to the same person, do not well agree together, since by both he would suggest as if he knew not the person they came from, and whose name they made use of: had he stopped at the first question, it might have gone so, but his second question betrays him, and plainly shows he did know him, though he speaks with contempt of him, calling him "the son of Jesse", as Saul often did, 1Sa 20:27. Abarbinel, of all interpreters, is of opinion only, that Nabal did not say this disrespectfully of David, and to his dishonour; he knew he was the Lord's anointed, and the king's son-in-law; but the sense, according to him, is, "who is David? and who is the son of Jesse?" are they not one man? but though he is the son of Jesse, and prides himself saying, I shall be king, I should not regard that, but would send him corn, and bread, and food, as much as is needful for his own use; but what can I do when there are so many servants? for they are six hundred of them, and they are too many to relieve:

there be many servants nowadays that break away every man from his master; which words also the same writer thinks have no reference to David, only to his men; but they seem plainly to strike at David himself, and suggest that he had revolted from and rebelled against Saul his master, as well as received and protected fugitives and renegades, such as fled from their masters and from their creditors; see 1Sa 22:2.

Gill: 1Sa 25:11 - Shall I then take my bread, and my water // and my flesh which I have killed for my shearers // and give it unto men whom I know not whence they be Shall I then take my bread, and my water,.... Which include all food and liquors, everything eatable and drinkable; and "water" may be particularly me...

Shall I then take my bread, and my water,.... Which include all food and liquors, everything eatable and drinkable; and "water" may be particularly mentioned, because very scarce in the wilderness, and so precious; though the Septuagint version has "wine" instead of "water":

and my flesh which I have killed for my shearers; whether oxen, or sheep, or lambs, as there might be of each sort, for an entertainment made on such an occasion:

and give it unto men whom I know not whence they be? which is another argument Abarbinel makes use of that he meant not David, but his men only, because he did not know who and from whence they were.

Gill: 1Sa 25:12 - So David's young men turned their way // and went again // and came and told him all these sayings So David's young men turned their way,.... Their backs on him, without making any reply; and though they did not return railing for railing, they trea...

So David's young men turned their way,.... Their backs on him, without making any reply; and though they did not return railing for railing, they treated him with silent contempt; and though they did not offer to do any injury to his person, nor to take anything away by force, yet they were determined to report this usage to David, who they doubted not would avenge the affront put on him and them:

and went again; to the wilderness from whence they came:

and came and told him all these sayings; rude and reproachful ones, just as they were delivered.

Gill: 1Sa 25:13 - And David said unto his men // gird you on every man his sword // and they girded on every man his sword // and David also girded on his sword // and there went up after David about four hundred men // and two hundred abode by the stuff And David said unto his men,.... Provoked to the last degree to have such a rude churlish answer returned to such a civil and humble message as he had...

And David said unto his men,.... Provoked to the last degree to have such a rude churlish answer returned to such a civil and humble message as he had sent:

gird you on every man his sword; and prepare to march and chastise Nabal for his insolence:

and they girded on every man his sword; in obedience to David, and in vindication of his honour and their own:

and David also girded on his sword; in order to march at the head of them, fired with indignation at the affront given him:

and there went up after David about four hundred men; out of the six hundred he had with him, 1Sa 23:13,

and two hundred abode by the stuff; the baggage in their camp; the Targum is, they"were left to watch the vessels;''the things necessary for their use, for the dressing of their food, their bedding, &c.

Gill: 1Sa 25:14 - But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal's wife // saying, David sent messengers out of the wilderness to salute our master // and he railed on them But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal's wife,.... Not one of David's young men, as what follows shows, but one of Nabal's young men or servants...

But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal's wife,.... Not one of David's young men, as what follows shows, but one of Nabal's young men or servants, one of those David directs him to for the truth of what he said, 1Sa 25:8; this was one of those that had been employed in feeding sheep in the wilderness, where David was, and knew him, but was now at Carmel, and was present when David's messengers came to Nabal, and was privy to what passed:

saying, David sent messengers out of the wilderness to salute our master; in a very kind and handsome manner, to ask of his peace and welfare, and to wish him all happiness and prosperity; or "masters" y master and mistress, including both Nabal and Abigail:

and he railed on them; gave them very abusive language, represented David and his men as a parcel of scoundrels, fugitives, and runaway servants, 1Sa 25:10; or "he flew at them" z; or "upon" them, in great wrath and fury, calling them hard names, bidding them begone about their business; the allusion is to a ravenous bird, which will fly at persons when it apprehends its young in any danger.

Gill: 1Sa 25:15 - But the men were very good unto us // and we were not hurt // neither missed we anything // as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields But the men were very good unto us,.... Very kind and civil, yea, very useful and serviceable, even all the messengers David sent and Nabal railed on...

But the men were very good unto us,.... Very kind and civil, yea, very useful and serviceable, even all the messengers David sent and Nabal railed on, yea, all David's men, and therefore deserved better treatment than they met with from Nabal:

and we were not hurt; neither by them nor others:

neither missed we anything: of our flocks, or anything belonging to us; they neither robbed us themselves, nor suffered others to rob us:

as long as we were conversant with them, when we were in the fields; feeding the sheep by them: thus he confirms everything that David said of himself and his men; see Gill on 1Sa 25:7, and says even more of them to their commendation, as follows.

Gill: 1Sa 25:16 - They were a wall unto us both by night and day // all the while we were with them keeping the sheep They were a wall unto us both by night and day,.... Protecting and defending them against the Philistines, who, as they robbed the threshing floors of...

They were a wall unto us both by night and day,.... Protecting and defending them against the Philistines, who, as they robbed the threshing floors of Keilah, would have plundered the flocks of Nabal; or it may be rather against the incursions of the Arabs in the wilderness of Paran, the posterity of Ishmael, who lived by plunder, and against the wild beasts of the desert, who otherwise would have carried off many of their sheep and lambs, by night or by day:

all the while we were with them keeping the sheep; all which showed how reasonable it was that Nabal should have used them well, and given them a portion of his entertainment at his sheep shearing; for had it not been for them, he would not have had so many sheep to shear as he had.

Gill: 1Sa 25:17 - Now therefore know and consider what thou wilt do // for evil is determined against our master, and against all his household // for he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him Now therefore know and consider what thou wilt do,.... For the preservation of her family: for evil is determined against our master, and against a...

Now therefore know and consider what thou wilt do,.... For the preservation of her family:

for evil is determined against our master, and against all his household; which he concluded, either from something that dropped from David's messengers, as they turned away from Nabal; or from the martial spirit of David himself, who would never put up such an affront and indignity cast upon him; or from some intelligence he had of David's arming his men, and marching to take vengeance:

for he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him; meaning Nabal, who was such a worthless, passionate, and ill natured man, such a lawless and imperious one, that he would not suffer a man to speak to him about anything; and it was to no purpose to attempt it, which was a reason this servant did not choose to speak to him about this affair, but to Abigail; and suggests, that it would signify nothing for her to speak to him about it, but it would be most advisable for her to consider with herself what was to be done immediately, without consulting him: the words may be rendered, "for he is a son of Belial that speaks unto him" a; or when "he speaks unto him", or it is told him; meaning not the servant that reported to David what Nabal said; for Abarbinel observes there were ten of them, and therefore it could not be said of them, he is a son of Belial; but rather David himself, as he and Kimchi observe it may be interpreted of; that though he was so good and upright a man, yet when it should be told him how Nabal had treated him, he would be so provoked at it, that he would become and act like a son of Belial; storm and rage, and vow destruction to Nabal and his family, and come out with his whole army to destroy them; but the first sense is best.

Gill: 1Sa 25:18 - Then Abigail made haste // and took two hundred loaves // and two bottles of wine // and five sheep ready dressed // and five measures of parched corn // and an hundred clusters of raisins // and two hundred cakes of figs // and laid them on asses Then Abigail made haste,.... As the case required, her family being in imminent danger: and took two hundred loaves; of bread; of what size or weig...

Then Abigail made haste,.... As the case required, her family being in imminent danger:

and took two hundred loaves; of bread; of what size or weight they were is not said; though it may be reasonably concluded they were pretty large, since they are not called cakes, but loaves, and since they were to be a present to David and his men, who were numerous:

and two bottles of wine; not such as ours are, which would have borne no proportion to the rest of the provision; but these were leathern bags which held a large quantity, in which they put and carried wine in those times and countries; the Septuagint version is, two vessels or casks of wine:

and five sheep ready dressed; killed and dressed by the butcher, or made ready by the cook, boiled or roasted; the word which the Targum uses, according to the interpretation of Jarchi, from one of their Rabbins, signifies such as were stuffed with small pieces of meat, and eggs in them, or, as it should seem, made into pastries:

and five measures of parched corn; or five seahs, a measure which held, according to Bishop Cumberland b, two wine gallons, four bottles, and a little more; of this parched corn; see Gill on 1Sa 17:17; where mention is made of an ephah of it; and the Septuagint version has the same measure here, and calls them five ephahs of flour:

and an hundred clusters of raisins; or dried grapes, as the Targum; the Septuagint is, one omer of them, which was the tenth part of an ephah:

and two hundred cakes of figs; which were dried, and pressed, and made into lumps, and she took two hundred of these; or, as the Targum, two hundred pound weight of them:

and laid them on asses; one not being sufficient to carry all this provision.

Gill: 1Sa 25:19 - And she said to her servants, go on before me // behold, I come after you // but she told not her husband Nabal And she said to her servants, go on before me,.... With the present, the sight of which she wisely considered would in a great measure pacify David, a...

And she said to her servants, go on before me,.... With the present, the sight of which she wisely considered would in a great measure pacify David, and prepare him to hear patiently what she had to say to him:

behold, I come after you; signifying it would not be long before she came up to them, and overtook them:

but she told not her husband Nabal; neither the danger he and his family were in through his conduct, nor the preparations she had made to prevent it; knowing his perverse and obstinate disposition, that it would take up too much time to reason with him, and persuade him, and bring him into proper measures; and which may be observed to excuse the conduct of Abigail in doing what she did, and taking and disposing of her husband's gods, without his knowledge and leave; the case required haste, and it was done to preserve him and his family from imminent ruin; and besides, he might not be in a fit condition to be spoken to, being drunk with passion, or with wine, or both, see 1Sa 25:36; and no doubt she was directed by the Spirit of God to do what she did; and this being an extraordinary case, is not to be drawn into an example.

Gill: 1Sa 25:20 - And it was so, as she rode on the ass // that she came down, by the covert of the hill // and, behold, David and his men came down against her // and she met them And it was so, as she rode on the ass,.... After her servants: that she came down, by the covert of the hill; by the side of it, which was covered...

And it was so, as she rode on the ass,.... After her servants:

that she came down, by the covert of the hill; by the side of it, which was covered with bushes, and she rode among them, in a way that led through them, and so was not seen by David and his men; or by the shadow of the hill, toward the bottom of it, where by reason of that, and the opposite hill, it was darkish, and they could not see each other:

and, behold, David and his men came down against her; came down a hill opposite to that she came down:

and she met them; in the valley between two hills.

Gill: 1Sa 25:21 - Now David had said // surely in vain have I kept all that this fellow hath in the wilderness // so that nothing was missed of all that pertained unto him // and he hath requited me evil for good Now David had said,.... When the messengers returned and told him how they had been used by Nabal; or he "said" c, or was saying within himself, or to...

Now David had said,.... When the messengers returned and told him how they had been used by Nabal; or he "said" c, or was saying within himself, or to his men, what follows, just as Abigail met him:

surely in vain have I kept all that this fellow hath in the wilderness; which shows that lie was in a violent passion, and had Nabal in the utmost contempt and indignation, in that he mentions not his name, only says "this", this man or follow; leaving a blank to be filled up with the most ignominious name and character that could be thought of; and repents that he had taken so much care of his flocks when they were feeding by him in the wilderness:

so that nothing was missed of all that pertained unto him; and seems to have wished he had suffered his flocks to have been robbed by the Arabs, or worried by wild beasts, since he had been such an ungrateful wretch to him:

and he hath requited me evil for good; he had requited evil to him by denying to send him any of his provisions, and by abusing him and his men with opprobrious language; and this was done in return for the good deeds he had done in protecting his servants and his flocks in the wilderness, and for the good words and respectful message he had sent unto him.

Gill: 1Sa 25:22 - So and more also do God unto the enemies of David // if I leave of all that pertain to him, by the morning light, any that pisseth against the wall So and more also do God unto the enemies of David,.... Give them as much health and prosperity, as much wealth and riches, as Nabal has, and much more...

So and more also do God unto the enemies of David,.... Give them as much health and prosperity, as much wealth and riches, as Nabal has, and much more:

if I leave of all that pertain to him, by the morning light, any that pisseth against the wall; which is generally understood of a dog, that he, would not leave him so much as a dog: but it is better, with Ben Gersom, to interpret it of the males in his house, himself, his sons, and servants; and so the Targum paraphrases it of reasonable creatures, of such"that know knowledge,''or are knowing and understanding creatures; it seems to have been towards the evening; of the day when David was marching towards Nabal's house, designing to fall upon him and his, amidst their jollity that night, and cut them all off before morning. This must be imputed to the sudden and violent passion David was thrown into when off his guard, through the necessity he was in, the disappointment he met with, and the opprobrious language he was treated with; but in this his conduct was not as it used to be, and as it was towards Saul his enemy. Nor is his rage and passion to be vindicated, or the rash vow he made to destroy Nabal and his family; his crime, though great, yet not to be published with death; his ingratitude and insolence deserved resentment, but were not capital crimes worthy of death, and especially of the destruction of his whole family; the Jews indeed make him to be guilty of treason, in that he knew that David was anointed king, and yet both abused him, and disobeyed his commands, and therefore being guilty of overt acts of treason, he and his were deserving of death; but David was not yet king.

Gill: 1Sa 25:23 - And when Abigail saw David // she hasted, and alighted off the ass // and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground And when Abigail saw David,.... Whom she either knew personally, or rather supposed who he was by the number of men that followed him: she hasted, ...

And when Abigail saw David,.... Whom she either knew personally, or rather supposed who he was by the number of men that followed him:

she hasted, and alighted off the ass; on which she rode:

and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground; in respect to, and reverence of, so great a person as David was.

Gill: 1Sa 25:24 - And fell at his feet // and said, upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be // and let thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thine audience and hear the words of thine handmaid And fell at his feet,.... As an humble supplicant, having a favour to ask of him; it is very probable David was on foot: and said, upon me, my lord...

And fell at his feet,.... As an humble supplicant, having a favour to ask of him; it is very probable David was on foot:

and said, upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be; which her husband had been guilty of; she desires it might be transferred from him to her, and be reckoned as if done by her; she would have it imputed to herself, and all the blame lie upon her, and the punishment for it be inflicted on her; for iniquity may be put for the punishment of iniquity: this was very artfully said, as well as expressed great affection for her husband, and care of his life; for she knew, if she could get the fault removed from him to her, she would be able to vindicate herself, and her innocence would soon appear; nor would this strong affection for her husband fail of answering some good purpose, as she full well knew:

and let thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thine audience and hear the words of thine handmaid: as it was but reasonable she should be heard, since she stood now as the criminal, taking all the blame of her husband's conduct on herself.

Gill: 1Sa 25:25 - Let not my lord, I pray thee, regard this man of Belial // even Nabal // for as his name is, so is he // Nabal is his name // and folly // is with him // but I thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send Let not my lord, I pray thee, regard this man of Belial, even Nabal,.... He is a worthless man, it must be owned, a weak foolish man, rather to be...

Let not my lord, I pray thee, regard this man of Belial,

even Nabal,.... He is a worthless man, it must be owned, a weak foolish man, rather to be despised than regarded by him; what either he says or does is unworthy of the notice of any, and much less of so great a person as David was:

for as his name is, so is he; his natural disposition, genius, and conduct, agree with his name; when anyone knows his name, he may judge what is to be expected from him:

Nabal is his name: which signifies a fool:

and folly, in Hebrew, "Nebalah":

is with him; attends all, his words and actions. This character of her husband, though no doubt a just one, yet it would not have been right in her to have given it, whose folly she should rather have concealed, but that it was his well known character; and she observes it not to reproach him with it, but to excuse his sin, his rudeness and ingratitude and preserve his life; and suggests that what he had done was not to be imputed to malice in his heart, but to his stupidity and folly, and so not to be regarded, and was not a peculiar single action of his, but what he was daily more or less guilty of; his folly was with him wherever he went and appeared in everything he said or did, and therefore to be overlooked and despised:

but I thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send: as she had taken the blame upon herself, now she answers for herself, and pleads ignorance of his messengers, and their message; she had not so much as seen them with her eyes, and much less heard their message when reported; had she, she would have taken care, she intimates, that it should have been attended to; having so much interest in her husband, that she could have prevailed on him to have used them with civility, and granted their request.

Gill: 1Sa 25:26 - Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord liveth, and as thy soul liveth // seeing the Lord hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thine own hand // now let thine enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord liveth, and as thy soul liveth,.... Which is an oath, and respects either what goes before, that she never saw t...

Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord liveth, and as thy soul liveth,.... Which is an oath, and respects either what goes before, that she never saw the young men that were sent to Nabal, or to what follows, the providence of God in preventing David from shedding blood, which she was sure of by an impulse on her own mind, and by observing a change in David's countenance:

seeing the Lord hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thine own hand; she does not impute this to her prudence, and the provision she made to appease David, and prevent him from shedding the blood he intended, and taking the vengeance he had resolved on; but to the Lord, and the interposition of his providence, which she knew would have its weight on the mind of so good a man as David was; who upon reflection would be thankful that he had been prevented from shedding innocent blood, as the Targum calls it:

now let thine enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal; meaning Saul and those with him, wishing they might be as inconsiderable as Nabal; as unable, as weak, and impotent as he to do him any hurt, and as short lived, and cut off by the hand God, as he would be; for, according to Jarchi, she prophesied under the direction of the Holy Spirit. It may be observed that in 1Sa 25:24, she frequently gives David the title of "my lord", in reverence of him, and to atone for the rudeness and insolence of her husband, in speaking of him as a runaway servant, 1Sa 25:10.

Gill: 1Sa 25:27 - And now this blessing, which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord // let it even be given unto the young men that follow my lord And now this blessing, which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord,.... The present, consisting of the things mentioned in 1Sa 25:18; which came as...

And now this blessing, which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord,.... The present, consisting of the things mentioned in 1Sa 25:18; which came as a blessing from God, and with good will from her:

let it even be given unto the young men that follow my lord; the servants of David: in the original it is, "that walk at the feet of my lord": and which the Targum paraphrases, "who minister before my lord"; and so Abigail's damsels are called "pedissequae", or "that walked at her feet", 1Sa 25:42; and with the Romans, in later times, servants were called a "pedibus" and "pedissequi" d. This also is very artfully said, as if the present was not good enough for David, and worthy of his acceptance; might be agreeable to his men, and of service to them.

Gill: 1Sa 25:28 - I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thine handmaid // for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house // because my lord fighteth the battles of the Lord // and evil hath not been found in thee all thy days I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thine handmaid,.... The trespasses, as the Targum, either the sin of her husband, she had taken upon herself, or ...

I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thine handmaid,.... The trespasses, as the Targum, either the sin of her husband, she had taken upon herself, or her boldness in troubling him with her petitions and solicitations, and even with the present she had brought:

for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; or a firm kingdom, as the Targum; would raise him to the kingdom of Israel, and establish it in his posterity, that it should not be taken from him, as it would be from Saul:

because my lord fighteth the battles of the Lord; the battles of the people of the Lord, as the Targum, of the people of Israel against the Philistines; which he had often done with success, the Lord being with him, and prospering him and therefore would firmly settle him on the throne, and continue the kingdom in his posterity:

and evil hath not been found in thee all thy days; no unjust action had been committed by him against his king and country, however he had been reproached and calumniated; and she hoped that therefore none would be done by him now to stain so fair a character.

Gill: 1Sa 25:29 - Yet a man is risen to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul // but the soul of my lord shall be bound up in the bundle of life with the Lord thy God // and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the middle of a sling Yet a man is risen to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul,.... His life, to take it away, meaning Saul, whom she chose not to name, because he was king:...

Yet a man is risen to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul,.... His life, to take it away, meaning Saul, whom she chose not to name, because he was king:

but the soul of my lord shall be bound up in the bundle of life with the Lord thy God; should be dear unto the Lord, precious in his esteem, and be carefully preserved by him, among other his chosen ones, and should be safe with him, in his hands, and under his care and keeping; the Jews refer this to eternal life in the world to come, and the safety and security of his soul hereafter; so the Targum,"the soul of my lord shall be treasured up in the treasury of eternal life, before the Lord thy God:''hence they speak of the souls of the righteous being laid up under the throne of glory e, in proof of which they produce this text; and so Maimonides f understands it of what should be after death, see Rev 6:9,

and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the middle of a sling; that is, remove them swiftly and suddenly, and with force, out of the world, as a stone is slung out of the middle of a sling; see Jer 10:18.

Gill: 1Sa 25:30 - And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he hath spoken concerning thee // and shall have appointed thee ruler over Israel And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he hath spoken concerning thee,.... Performed his p...

And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he hath spoken concerning thee,.... Performed his promise, especially with respect to his kingdom, as follows:

and shall have appointed thee ruler over Israel; that is, actually raised him to be, and settled him as king upon the throne of Israel; for he was both appointed and anointed already; and this Abigail knew, and was now well known in Israel, and the common talk of the people.

Gill: 1Sa 25:31 - This shall be no grief unto thee, nor offence of heart unto my lord // either that thou hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath avenged himself // but when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord // then remember thine handmaid This shall be no grief unto thee, nor offence of heart unto my lord,.... It would give him no trouble, nor distress of mind, or sit uneasy on his cons...

This shall be no grief unto thee, nor offence of heart unto my lord,.... It would give him no trouble, nor distress of mind, or sit uneasy on his conscience:

either that thou hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath avenged himself; which she suggests it might do, if he had shed the blood of Nabal's family, his children and servants, who were no ways concerned with him in his rudeness and ingratitude; or had avenged himself on him for the same, by taking away his life, which such crimes, however great and aggravated, did not deserve; but, on the contrary, it would be a satisfaction and pleasure to him to reflect upon it, that he had passed over such an offence, and shed no blood on account of it:

but when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord; by delivering him out of the hands of all his enemies, and have raised him to, and settled him on the throne of Israel, of which she made no doubt:

then remember thine handmaid; the advice she gave not to shed blood, and take vengeance, for which he would then be thankful, and gratefully remember: some, as Ben Gersom, think she said this under a spirit of prophecy, that Nabal should die quickly, and she should be David's wife; but rather her meaning is, that when he should be king, and she should apply to him on any account, to have justice done her, and to be assisted and relieved when oppressed, that he would then remember her, and show her favour.

Gill: 1Sa 25:32 - And David said to Abigail // blessed be the Lord God of Israel, which sent thee this day to meet me And David said to Abigail,.... Having heard her out, and being overcome with her rhetoric and powerful arguments: blessed be the Lord God of Israe...

And David said to Abigail,.... Having heard her out, and being overcome with her rhetoric and powerful arguments:

blessed be the Lord God of Israel, which sent thee this day to meet me; who put it into her heart to come out and meet him, and endeavour to avert him from his bad design, which his heart was set upon; he saw plainly the hand of God in it, and in the first place acknowledges the goodness of divine Providence, in directing her to take the step she did.

Gill: 1Sa 25:33 - And blessed be thy advice // and blessed be thou which hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood // and from avenging myself with mine own hand And blessed be thy advice,.... Thanks be to God, and to thee for it, being wise, good, and seasonable; or "thy taste" g, thy good sense, knowledge, a...

And blessed be thy advice,.... Thanks be to God, and to thee for it, being wise, good, and seasonable; or "thy taste" g, thy good sense, knowledge, as the Targum, discretion, prudence, and understanding:

and blessed be thou which hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood; he came out with a full resolution to shed the blood of Nabal, and of all the males in his house, but was stopped by Abigail; who by her arguments so prevailed upon him as to cause him to desist from his design, and thankful he was to God for it; for though he had vowed he would destroy Nabal and his family, yet being a rash sinful vow, he saw it was better to break it than to keep it:

and from avenging myself with mine own hand; which to do would have been sinful, vengeance only belonging to God; and now he leaves it to him, and is very thankful that he was prevented doing it himself.

Gill: 1Sa 25:34 - For in very deed, as the Lord God of Israel liveth // which hath kept me back from hurting thee // except thou hadst hasted, and come to meet me // surely there had not been left unto Nabal, by the morning light, any that pisseth against the wall For in very deed, as the Lord God of Israel liveth,.... An oath for the confirmation of what he was about to say: which hath kept me back from hur...

For in very deed, as the Lord God of Israel liveth,.... An oath for the confirmation of what he was about to say:

which hath kept me back from hurting thee: from doing any ill to her family, as he intended, though not to her person, his resolution being only to slay the males; but that would have been an hurt, an evil, an affliction to Abigail, from which the Lord in his providence restrained him, and that through her good advice:

except thou hadst hasted, and come to meet me: if she had not made quick dispatch in preparing her present, or had stayed to persuade her husband into her measures; if she had delayed a little longer, David would have been at Nabal's house, executing his vengeance on him and his:

surely there had not been left unto Nabal, by the morning light, any that pisseth against the wall: See Gill on 1Sa 25:22.

Gill: 1Sa 25:35 - So David received of her hand that which she had brought him // and said to her, go up in peace to thine house // see, I have hearkened to thy voice // and have accepted thy person So David received of her hand that which she had brought him,.... Her present, 1Sa 25:18; and which he kindly took for his own use, as well as for hi...

So David received of her hand that which she had brought him,.... Her present, 1Sa 25:18; and which he kindly took for his own use, as well as for his men; for it was a present for a prince:

and said to her, go up in peace to thine house; in peace of mind, having her request granted, and nothing to fear from David and his men, and so might return home with the greatest safety in her own person, with those that were with her, and be under no apprehensions of danger and destruction to Nabal and his family:

see, I have hearkened to thy voice; to her arguments and reasonings, which were powerful; to her petitions, which were granted; and to her good counsel and advice, which he took:

and have accepted thy person: done as she desired, forgave the offence, and so lifted her up, as the word signifies, and made her countenance cheerful; received her present kindly, and took well all she said and did; and promised to grant her, for the future, anything that lay in his power, whenever she should apply to him, see Job 42:8.

Gill: 1Sa 25:36 - And Abigail came to Nabal // and, behold, he held a feast in his house like the feast of a king // and Nabal's heart was merry within him, for he was very drunken // wherefore she told him nothing less or more until the morning light And Abigail came to Nabal,.... Having sped with David, and taken her leave of him, she returned home to her husband Nabal: and, behold, he held a f...

And Abigail came to Nabal,.... Having sped with David, and taken her leave of him, she returned home to her husband Nabal:

and, behold, he held a feast in his house like the feast of a king; both for the number of dishes on his table and of guests at it though only on the account of sheep shearing; but very probably there were others that were invited to this entertainment besides the shearers; covetous men are generally very profuse when they make feasts:

and Nabal's heart was merry within him, for he was very drunken: which was a very ill example for the master of the feast to set, and was one instance among others of his folly, and of his conduct answering to his name:

wherefore she told him nothing less or more until the morning light; where she had been, and what she had been about, the danger that he and the whole family were in through his rude and churlish behaviour towards David and his men, and how she had prevented it by a timely application to David, meeting him when in full march, and in a great passion, and with a firm resolution to destroy him and his; but finding Nabal in such a condition, bereaved of his reason, and incapable of attending to what she should say, said not one word about it till the next morning.

Gill: 1Sa 25:37 - But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal // and his wife had told him these things // that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal,.... When he had slept, and was become sober, and so capable of attending to a...

But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal,.... When he had slept, and was become sober, and so capable of attending to and understanding what might be related to him:

and his wife had told him these things; recorded in this chapter, before observed:

that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone; he swooned away, became as cold as a stone, and remained as senseless, spoke not a word, but lay in a stupor; the Jewish writers generally say this was occasioned by the distress and uneasiness the present his wife carried to David gave him; but it is more likely the sense of the danger that was impressed upon his mind, which he had been exposed to through his carriage to David and his men; who, he feared, notwithstanding all his wife said would return and take vengeance on him.

Gill: 1Sa 25:38 - And it came to pass, about ten days after // that the Lord smote Nabal, that he died And it came to pass, about ten days after,.... After he had lain in this stupid and senseless manner for ten days: that the Lord smote Nabal, that...

And it came to pass, about ten days after,.... After he had lain in this stupid and senseless manner for ten days:

that the Lord smote Nabal, that he died; with some disease or increased the grief of his heart, and the fears of his mind that he died therewith.

Gill: 1Sa 25:39 - And when David heard that Nabal was dead // he said, blessed be the Lord, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Nabal // and hath kept his servant from evil // for the Lord hath returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head // and David sent and communed with Abigail // to take her to him to wife And when David heard that Nabal was dead,.... As he soon might, Maon and Carmel not being far from the wilderness where David was: he said, blessed...

And when David heard that Nabal was dead,.... As he soon might, Maon and Carmel not being far from the wilderness where David was:

he said, blessed be the Lord, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Nabal; not that he rejoiced at the death of Nabal, simply considered, or from a private spirit of revenge; but because of the glory of divine justice, which he had shown to him in vindicating him from the reproach Nabal had cast upon him, and particularly was thankful for what follows:

and hath kept his servant from evil; from slaying Nabal with his own hand, and doing hurt to his family:

for the Lord hath returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head; and upon no other, none of his family suffered but himself, and which was another cause of thankfulness to David; had he been suffered to have done as he in his wrath determined, not only Nabal, but all the males in his house, had been cut off; but now, through the righteous judgment of God, only Nabal suffered, and not any of his family:

and David sent and communed with Abigail; by his messengers to her; or "concerning" her h, about marrying her:

to take her to him to wife; for being both a beautiful and wise woman, he thought her a proper person to be his wife; which she might lawfully become, Nabal being dead, and Michal, David's wife, being taken from him, and given to another man, with whom she lived in adultery; or as divorced by David, as the Jews say, David by the law of God was free from her. These messengers were sent by David at a convenient time, at a proper distance from the death of Nabal; and he chose rather to send messengers than to go himself, lest being denied he should be put to shame, she being a rich widow, and he a poor persecuted man, and that her answer might be entirely free and unawed by him, and that it might appear that she was not taken to him by force; and besides, such a method has been always reckoned most honourable with great personages.

Gill: 1Sa 25:40 - And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel // they spake unto her // saying, David sent us unto thee, to take thee to him to wife And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel,.... For though Nabal lived in Maon, yet having possessions in Camel, he had no doubt an...

And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel,.... For though Nabal lived in Maon, yet having possessions in Camel, he had no doubt an house there also; and here Abigail was, and perhaps chose to be after his death, rather than at Maon:

they spake unto her; delivered the message to her they were sent with by David:

saying, David sent us unto thee, to take thee to him to wife; that is, to treat with her about his marriage to her, to propose it to her, and, if they could prevail upon her, to bring her with them, that David might espouse her.

Gill: 1Sa 25:41 - And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth // and said // behold, let thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth,.... As she did before David, 1Sa 25:23; and did as she would have done had he been present...

And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth,.... As she did before David, 1Sa 25:23; and did as she would have done had he been present, considering his messengers as representing him and therefore showed the same respect and reverence and did the same honour, as if he had been there in person:

and said; expressed herself in such language as if David had been before her:

behold, let thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord; which she said through her great humility, this being one of the meanest services she could be put to; intimating, that she was so far from being worthy to be the wife of such a man that she was only fit and it would be honour enough to her to perform the meanest services to those that waited upon him; or her sense is that it would be enough for her to be the wife of one of David's servants, and not his; it being the business of a wife, as Ben Gersom observes to wash the feet of her husband.

Gill: 1Sa 25:42 - And Abigail hasted and arose // rode upon an ass, with five damsels of hers that went after her // and she went after the messengers of David // and became his wife And Abigail hasted and arose,.... She had no objection nor hesitation in her mind about marrying David but at once consented, and immediately prepared...

And Abigail hasted and arose,.... She had no objection nor hesitation in her mind about marrying David but at once consented, and immediately prepared for her journey, having as high an opinion, and as great an esteem of David, as he of her; and though she was rich and he peer this was no obstacle in the way, she knew and believed he would be king of Israel, 1Sa 25:30; and though he could not support her, she had enough to support herself, and supply him, till he came to the throne: and

rode upon an ass, with five damsels of hers that went after her; whom she took with her, partly to wait upon her, and partly for her honour, and the honour of David, whom she was going to marry:

and she went after the messengers of David: not following them directly, but some time after they were gone; partly for the sake of decency, and partly that they going before might acquaint David with the success of their message, and he might prepare to receive Abigail when she came:

and became his wife; he espoused and married her according to the custom of the times.

Gill: 1Sa 25:43 - And David also took Ahinoam of Jezreel // and they were also both of them his wives And David also took Ahinoam of Jezreel,.... A city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:56; that is, he took her to wife, and as it seems before Abigail beca...

And David also took Ahinoam of Jezreel,.... A city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:56; that is, he took her to wife, and as it seems before Abigail became his wife; see 2Sa 3:2,

and they were also both of them his wives; polygamy, though not agreeably to the law of nature, nor the law of God, was a custom which prevailed in those times, which good men gave into, though not to be commended for it.

Gill: 1Sa 25:44 - But Saul had given Michal his daughter, David's wife, to Phalti the son of Laish // which was of Gallim But Saul had given Michal his daughter, David's wife, to Phalti the son of Laish,.... Or "for Saul", &c. i; which is a reason for his marrying again, ...

But Saul had given Michal his daughter, David's wife, to Phalti the son of Laish,.... Or "for Saul", &c. i; which is a reason for his marrying again, but no reason for marrying more wives than one. Michal was his first wife, and they lived lovingly together, until David was obliged to flee from Saul, and then he gave her to another; partly to vex David, and partly if he could to break the relation between him and David, that he might not be thought to be his son in law, and he to persecute one in such a relation to him; and that this might not give David any show of claim, or be the means of his rising to the throne. This Phalti, to whom he gave her, is called Phaltiel, 2Sa 3:15,

which was of Gallim; which very probably was a city in the tribe of Benjamin, since it is mentioned with several cities of that tribe, and as near Gibeah of Saul, Isa 10:29.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:1 The LXX reads “Maon” here instead of “Paran,” perhaps because the following account of Nabal is said to be in Maon (v. 2). Thi...

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:2 Heb “great.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:3 Heb “good of insight”; KJV “of good understanding”; NAB, NIV, TEV “intelligent”; NRSV “clever.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:5 Heb “and inquire concerning him in my name in regard to peace.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:6 The text is difficult here. The MT and most of the early versions support the reading לֶחָי (lekhai, “to life,R...

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:8 Heb “whatever your hand will find.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:12 Heb “him”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:14 Heb “bless.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:15 Heb “all the days we walked about with them when we were.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:17 Heb “he is a son of worthlessness.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:18 The seah was a dry measure equal to one-third of an ephah, or not quite eleven quarts.

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:21 Heb “said.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:22 Heb “one who urinates against a wall” (also in v. 34); KJV “any that pisseth against the wall.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:25 Heb “my lord’s servants, whom you sent.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:27 Heb “are walking at the feet of.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:29 Cf. KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV “bundle”; NLT “treasure pouch.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:30 Heb “appoint.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:31 Heb “and the Lord will do well for my lord.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:32 Heb “blessed” (also in vv. 33, 39).

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:33 Heb “blessed.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:35 Heb “I have lifted up your face.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:36 Heb “and she did not tell him a thing, small or large.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:37 Heb “and his heart died within him and he became a stone.” Cf. TEV, NLT “stroke”; CEV “heart attack.” For an alter...

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:39 Heb “his servant he has held back from evil, and the evil of Nabal the Lord has turned back on his head.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:41 Heb “Here is your maidservant, for a lowly servant to wash.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:42 Heb “going at her feet.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 25:43 Heb “taken.”

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:1 And Samuel died; and all the Israelites were gathered together, and lamented him, and buried him in his ( a ) house at Ramah. And David arose, and wen...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:2 And [there was] a man in ( b ) Maon, whose possessions [were] in Carmel; and the man [was] very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:6 And thus shall ye say ( c ) to him that liveth [in prosperity], Peace [be] both to thee, and peace [be] to thine house, and peace [be] unto all that t...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:8 Ask thy young men, and they will shew thee. Wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes: for we come in a good day: give, I pray thee, whats...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:10 And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who [is] David? and who [is] the ( e ) son of Jesse? there be many servants now a days that break away ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:15 But the men [were] very good ( f ) unto us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them, when we were i...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:19 And she said unto her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you. But she told not her ( g ) husband Nabal. ( g ) Because she knew his crook...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:22 So and more also do God unto the enemies of David, if I leave of all that [pertain] to him by the morning light any that ( h ) pisseth against the wal...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:26 Now therefore, my lord, [as] the LORD liveth, and [as] thy soul liveth, seeing the LORD hath withholden thee from coming to [shed] blood, and from ave...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:28 I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thine handmaid: for the LORD will certainly make my lord a ( k ) sure house; because my lord fighteth the battles...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:29 Yet ( l ) a man is risen to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: but the soul of my lord shall be bound in the ( m ) bundle of life with the LORD thy Go...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:31 That this shall be no grief unto thee, nor offence of heart unto my lord, either that thou hast shed blood causeless, or that my lord hath ( n ) aveng...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:33 And blessed [be] thy advice, and blessed [be] thou, which hast kept me this day from coming to [shed] blood, ( o ) and from avenging myself with mine ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:34 For in very deed, [as] the LORD God of Israel liveth, ( p ) which hath kept me back from hurting thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, s...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:36 And Abigail came to Nabal; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Nabal's heart [was] merry within him, for he [was]...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:37 But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and h...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 25:39 And when David heard that Nabal was dead, he said, Blessed [be] the LORD, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Nabal, and hath ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 1Sa 25:1 - --All Israel lamented Samuel, and they had reason. He prayed daily for them. Those have hard hearts, who can bury faithful ministers without grief; who ...

MHCC: 1Sa 25:2-11 - --We should not have heard of Nabal, if nothing had passed between him and David. Observe his name, Nabal, " A fool;" so it signifies. Riches make men ...

MHCC: 1Sa 25:12-17 - --God is kind to the evil and unthankful, and why may not we be so? David determined to destroy Nabal, and all that belonged to him. Is this thy voice, ...

MHCC: 1Sa 25:18-31 - --By a present Abigail atoned for Nabal's denial of David's request. Her behaviour was very submissive. Yielding pacifies great offences. She puts herse...

MHCC: 1Sa 25:32-39 - --David gives God thanks for sending him this happy check in a sinful way. Whoever meet us with counsel, direction, comfort, caution, or seasonable repr...

MHCC: 1Sa 25:39-44 - --Abigail believed that David would be king over Israel, and greatly esteemed his pious and excellent character. She deemed his proposal of marriage hon...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 25:1 - -- We have here a short account of Samuel's death and burial. 1. Though he was a great man, and one that was admirably well qualified for public servic...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 25:2-11 - -- Here begins the story of Nabal. I. A short account of him, who and what he was (1Sa 25:2, 1Sa 25:3), a man wee should never have heard of if there h...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 25:12-17 - -- Here is, I. The report made to David of the abuse Nabal had given to his messengers (1Sa 25:12): They turned their way. They showed their displeas...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 25:18-31 - -- We have here an account of Abigail's prudent management for the preserving of her husband and family from the destruction that was just coming upon ...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 25:32-35 - -- As an ear-ring of gold, and an ornament of fine gold, so is a wise reprover upon an obedient ear, Pro 25:12. Abigail was a wise reprover of David'...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 25:36-44 - -- We are now to attend Nabal's funeral and Abigail's wedding. I. Nabal's funeral. The apostle speaks of some that were twice dead, Jud 1:12. We have...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 25:1 - -- The death of Samuel is inserted here, because it occurred at that time. Thefact that all Israel assembled together to his burial, and lamented him,...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 25:2-44 - -- The following history of Nabal's folly, and of the wise and generousbehaviour of his pious and intelligent wife Abigail towards David, showshow Jeh...

Constable: 1Sa 16:1--31:13 - --IV. SAUL AND DAVID 1 Sam. 16--31 The basic theme in Samuel, that blessing, and in particular fertility of all ki...

Constable: 1Sa 21:1--30:31 - --C. David in Exile chs. 21-30 In chapters 21-30 we see David's forces growing stronger and stronger while...

Constable: 1Sa 23:1--26:25 - --3. David's goodness to two fools ch. 24-26 ". . . chapters 24-26 form a discrete literary unit w...

Constable: 1Sa 25:1-44 - --David's sparing of Nabal's life ch. 25 "Chapter 25 is the central panel in the triptych ...

Constable: 1Sa 25:1 - --The death of Samuel 25:1 Samuel's years of being a blessing to all Israel ended ...

Constable: 1Sa 25:2-8 - --David's request of Nabal 25:2-8 Both Maon and Carmel (meaning "Garden Spot") sto...

Constable: 1Sa 25:9-13 - --Nabal's foolish response to David 25:9-13 Nabal was a political loyalist who reg...

Constable: 1Sa 25:14-17 - --A servant's appeal to Abigail 25:14-17 Nabal's servant appealed to Abigail to re...

Constable: 1Sa 25:18-22 - --Abigail's preparations for appealing to David 25:18-22 As Abimelech had done ear...

Constable: 1Sa 25:23-31 - --Abigail's appeal to David 25:23-31 Abigail's approach to David was a model of ta...

Constable: 1Sa 25:32-35 - --David's response to Abigail's appeal 25:32-35 David heard the Lord's voice behin...

Constable: 1Sa 25:36-38 - --Nabal's response to the news of Abigail's appeal 25:36-38 When she returned home...

Constable: 1Sa 25:39-43 - --David's marriage to Abigail 25:39-43 David thanked God for vindicating him and f...

Constable: 1Sa 25:44 - --David's loss of his wife 25:44 As mentioned before, this chapter opens and close...

Guzik: 1Sa 25:1-44 - David, Nabal, and Abigail 1 Samuel 25 - David, Nabal, and Abigail A. David's anger at Nabal. 1. (1) Samuel, the great prophet and judge over Israel, dies. Then Samuel died;...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL. The two were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could be called the Book o...

JFB: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) OF ELKANAH AND HIS TWO WIVES. (1Sa 1:1-8) HANNAH'S PRAYER. (1Sa 1:9-18) SAMUEL BORN. (1Sa 1:20) HANNAH'S SONG IN THANKFULNESS TO GOD. (1Sa 2:1-11) TH...

TSK: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The First Book of SAMUEL, otherwise called " The First Book of the KINGS."

TSK: 1 Samuel 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 1Sa 25:1, Samuel dies; 1Sa 25:2, David in Paran sends to Nabal; 1Sa 25:10, Provoked by Nabal’s churlishness, he minds to destroy him; 1...

Poole: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL OTHERWISE CALLED THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS. THE ARGUMENT. IT is not certainly known who was the penman of this Book, or whe...

Poole: 1 Samuel 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) SAMUEL CHAPTER 25 Samuel dieth: David goeth to the wilderness of Paran, 1Sa 25:1 . Nabal’ s riches, 1Sa 25:2 . His and his wife Abigail’ ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) In this book we have an account of Eli, and the wickedness of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement of Saul to ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (1Sa 25:1) Death of Samuel. (1Sa 25:2-11) David's request; Nabal's churlish refusal. (1Sa 25:12-17) David's intention to destroy Nabal. (1Sa 25:18-...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Samuel This book, and that which follows it, bear the name of Samuel in the title, ...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel 25 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We have here some intermission of David's troubles by Saul. Providence favoured him with a breathing time, and yet this chapter gives us instances ...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title First and Second Samuel were originally one book called the Book of...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) Outline I. Eli and Samuel chs. 1-3 A. The change from barrenness to fertility 1:1-2:10 ...

Constable: 1 Samuel 1 Samuel Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English...