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Teks -- John 11:1-57 (NET)

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Konteks
The Death of Lazarus
11:1 Now a certain man named Lazarus was sick. He was from Bethany, the village where Mary and her sister Martha lived. 11:2 (Now it was Mary who anointed the Lord with perfumed oil and wiped his feet dry with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.) 11:3 So the sisters sent a message to Jesus, “Lord, look, the one you love is sick.” 11:4 When Jesus heard this, he said, “This sickness will not lead to death, but to God’s glory, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.” 11:5 (Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus.) 11:6 So when he heard that Lazarus was sick, he remained in the place where he was for two more days. 11:7 Then after this, he said to his disciples, “Let us go to Judea again.” 11:8 The disciples replied, “Rabbi, the Jewish leaders were just now trying to stone you to death! Are you going there again?” 11:9 Jesus replied, “Are there not twelve hours in a day? If anyone walks around in the daytime, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 11:10 But if anyone walks around at night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him.” 11:11 After he said this, he added, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep. But I am going there to awaken him.” 11:12 Then the disciples replied, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover.” 11:13 (Now Jesus had been talking about his death, but they thought he had been talking about real sleep.) 11:14 Then Jesus told them plainly, “Lazarus has died, 11:15 and I am glad for your sake that I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him.” 11:16 So Thomas (called Didymus) said to his fellow disciples, “Let us go too, so that we may die with him.”
Speaking with Martha and Mary
11:17 When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus had been in the tomb four days already. 11:18 (Now Bethany was less than two miles from Jerusalem, 11:19 so many of the Jewish people of the region had come to Martha and Mary to console them over the loss of their brother.) 11:20 So when Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went out to meet him, but Mary was sitting in the house. 11:21 Martha said to Jesus, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died. 11:22 But even now I know that whatever you ask from God, God will grant you.” 11:23 Jesus replied, “Your brother will come back to life again.” 11:24 Martha said, “I know that he will come back to life again in the resurrection at the last day.” 11:25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in me will live even if he dies, 11:26 and the one who lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?” 11:27 She replied, “Yes, Lord, I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God who comes into the world.” 11:28 And when she had said this, Martha went and called her sister Mary, saying privately, “The Teacher is here and is asking for you.” 11:29 So when Mary heard this, she got up quickly and went to him. 11:30 (Now Jesus had not yet entered the village, but was still in the place where Martha had come out to meet him.) 11:31 Then the people who were with Mary in the house consoling her saw her get up quickly and go out. They followed her, because they thought she was going to the tomb to weep there. 11:32 Now when Mary came to the place where Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet and said to him, “Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died.” 11:33 When Jesus saw her weeping, and the people who had come with her weeping, he was intensely moved in spirit and greatly distressed. 11:34 He asked, “Where have you laid him?” They replied, “Lord, come and see.” 11:35 Jesus wept. 11:36 Thus the people who had come to mourn said, “Look how much he loved him!” 11:37 But some of them said, “This is the man who caused the blind man to see! Couldn’t he have done something to keep Lazarus from dying?”
Lazarus Raised from the Dead
11:38 Jesus, intensely moved again, came to the tomb. (Now it was a cave, and a stone was placed across it.) 11:39 Jesus said, “Take away the stone.” Martha, the sister of the deceased, replied, “Lord, by this time the body will have a bad smell, because he has been buried four days.” 11:40 Jesus responded, “Didn’t I tell you that if you believe, you would see the glory of God?” 11:41 So they took away the stone. Jesus looked upward and said, “Father, I thank you that you have listened to me. 11:42 I knew that you always listen to me, but I said this for the sake of the crowd standing around here, that they may believe that you sent me.” 11:43 When he had said this, he shouted in a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out!” 11:44 The one who had died came out, his feet and hands tied up with strips of cloth, and a cloth wrapped around his face. Jesus said to them, “Unwrap him and let him go.”
The Response of the Jewish Leaders
11:45 Then many of the people, who had come with Mary and had seen the things Jesus did, believed in him. 11:46 But some of them went to the Pharisees and reported to them what Jesus had done. 11:47 So the chief priests and the Pharisees called the council together and said, “What are we doing? For this man is performing many miraculous signs. 11:48 If we allow him to go on in this way, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away our sanctuary and our nation.” 11:49 Then one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said, “You know nothing at all! 11:50 You do not realize that it is more to your advantage to have one man die for the people than for the whole nation to perish.” 11:51 (Now he did not say this on his own, but because he was high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the Jewish nation, 11:52 and not for the Jewish nation only, but to gather together into one the children of God who are scattered.) 11:53 So from that day they planned together to kill him. 11:54 Thus Jesus no longer went around publicly among the Judeans, but went away from there to the region near the wilderness, to a town called Ephraim, and stayed there with his disciples. 11:55 Now the Jewish feast of Passover was near, and many people went up to Jerusalem from the rural areas before the Passover to cleanse themselves ritually. 11:56 Thus they were looking for Jesus, and saying to one another as they stood in the temple courts, “What do you think? That he won’t come to the feast?” 11:57 (Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that anyone who knew where Jesus was should report it, so that they could arrest him.)
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Bethany a small town on the east slope of the Mount of Olives,a town located east of the Jordan river
 · Caiaphas the son-in-law of Annas; a high priest of the Jews
 · Didymus the man who was one of the twelve disciples and became Thomas the apostle
 · Ephraim the tribe of Ephraim as a whole,the northern kingdom of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Judea a region that roughly corresponded to the earlier kingdom of Judah
 · Lazarus the beggar man in the parable of the rich man,the brother of Mary and Martha from Bethany whom Jesus raised from the dead
 · Martha sister of Mary and of Lazarus of Bethany
 · Mary mother of Jesus and wife of Joseph,a woman from Magdala in Galilee,the mother of James and Joses,the wife of Cleophas,the sister of Lazarus and Martha in Bethany,the mother of John Mark who was a nephew of Barnabas,a Christian woman in Rome who helped Paul
 · Passover a Jewish religious feast. It may also refer to the lamb sacrificed and eaten at the feast.
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Rabbi a title given to teachers and others of an exalted position
 · Roman any person or thing associated with Rome, particularly a person who was a citizen of Rome.
 · Thomas a man who was one of the twelve apostles also called on three occasions,
 · Twin the man who was one of the twelve disciples and became Thomas the apostle


Topik/Tema Kamus: Lazarus | Bethany | Martha | Thomas | Mourn | JOHN, GOSPEL OF | OLIVES, MOUNT OF | Prayer | Jesus, The Christ | Miracles | Friendship | Readings, Select | Dead | Sorrow | JESUS CHRIST, 4D | Condolence | Caiaphas | Mary | JESUS CHRIST, THE ARREST AND TRIAL OF | Faith | selebihnya
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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Joh 11:1 - Was sick Was sick ( ēn asthenōn ). Periphrastic imperfect active of astheneō , old verb (from asthenēs , a privative, and sthenos , strength).

Was sick ( ēn asthenōn ).

Periphrastic imperfect active of astheneō , old verb (from asthenēs , a privative, and sthenos , strength).

Robertson: Joh 11:1 - Lazarus Lazarus ( Lazaros ). See note on Luk 16:20 for the name of another man in the parable, a shortened form of Eleazer, only other N.T. use, but in Josep...

Lazarus ( Lazaros ).

See note on Luk 16:20 for the name of another man in the parable, a shortened form of Eleazer, only other N.T. use, but in Josephus and rabbinical writings. No connexion between this Lazarus and the one in the parable.

Robertson: Joh 11:1 - Of Bethany Of Bethany ( apo Bēthanias ). Use of apo as in Joh 1:44 Philip of Bethsaida and Joh 1:45 Joseph of Nazareth. This Bethany is about two miles (Joh...

Of Bethany ( apo Bēthanias ).

Use of apo as in Joh 1:44 Philip of Bethsaida and Joh 1:45 Joseph of Nazareth. This Bethany is about two miles (Joh 11:18) east of Jerusalem on the south-east slope of Olivet and is now called El Azariyeh, from the name Lazarus. Jesus is still apparently at the other Bethany beyond Jordan (Joh 10:40). It is doubtful if a distinction is meant here by apo and ek between Bethany as the residence and some other village (ek tēs kōmēs ) as the birthplace of Lazarus and the sisters.

Robertson: Joh 11:1 - Of Mary and Martha Of Mary and Martha ( Marias kai Marthas ). Note Marthas , not Marthēs for the genitive. Elsewhere (Joh 11:19; Luk 10:38) Martha comes first as th...

Of Mary and Martha ( Marias kai Marthas ).

Note Marthas , not Marthēs for the genitive. Elsewhere (Joh 11:19; Luk 10:38) Martha comes first as the mistress and hostess. The two sisters are named for further identification of Lazarus. Martha was apparently the elder sister (Joh 11:5, Joh 11:19; Luk 10:38.). "The identification of Mary with Mary Magdalene is a mere conjecture supported by no direct evidence, and opposed to the general tenor of the Gospels"(Westcott).

Robertson: Joh 11:2 - And it was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair And it was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair ( ēn de Mariam hē aleipsasa ton kurion murōi kai ek...

And it was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair ( ēn de Mariam hē aleipsasa ton kurion murōi kai ekmaxasa tous podas autou tais thrixin autēs ).

This description is added to make plainer who Mary is "whose brother Lazarus was sick"(hēs ho adelphos Lazaros ēsthenei ). There is an evident proleptic allusion to the incident described by John in Joh 12:1-8 just after chapter 11. As John looks back from the end of the century it was all behind him, though the anointing (hē aleipsasa , first aorist active articular participle of aleiphō , old verb for which see Mar 6:13) took place after the events in chapter 11. The aorist participle is timeless and merely pictures the punctiliar act. The same remark applies to ekmaxasa , old verb ekmassō , to wipe off or away (Isa 12:3; Isa 13:5; Luk 7:38, Luk 7:44). Note the Aramaic form Mariam as usual in John, but Marias in Joh 11:1. When John wrote, it was as Jesus had foretold (Mat 26:13), for the fame of Mary of Bethany rested on the incident of the anointing of Jesus. The effort to link Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalene and then both names with the sinful woman of Luk 7:36-50 is gratuitous and to my mind grotesque and cruel to the memory of both Mary of Bethany and Mary Magdalene. Bernard may be taken as a specimen: "The conclusion is inevitable that John (or his editor) regarded Mary of Bethany as the same person who is described by Luke as hamartōlos ."This critical and artistic heresy has already been discussed in Vol. 2 on Luke’ s Gospel. Suffice it here to say that Luke introduces Mary Magdalene as an entirely new character in Joh 8:2 and that the details in Luk 7:36-50; Joh 12:1-8 have only superficial resemblances and serious disagreements. John is not here alluding to Luke’ s record, but preparing for his own in chapter 12. What earthly difficulty is there in two different women under wholly different circumstances doing a similar act for utterly different purposes?

Robertson: Joh 11:3 - Sent saying Sent saying ( apesteilan legousai ). First aorist active indicative of apostellō and present active participle. The message was delivered by the ...

Sent saying ( apesteilan legousai ).

First aorist active indicative of apostellō and present active participle. The message was delivered by the messenger.

Robertson: Joh 11:3 - Thou lovest Thou lovest ( phileis ). Phileō means to love as a friend (see philos in Joh 11:11) and so warmly, while agapaō (akin to agamai , to admire...

Thou lovest ( phileis ).

Phileō means to love as a friend (see philos in Joh 11:11) and so warmly, while agapaō (akin to agamai , to admire, and agathos , good) means high regard. Here both terms occur of the love of Jesus for Lazarus (ēgapa in Joh 11:5). Both occur of the Father’ s love for the Son (agapāi in Joh 3:35, philei in Joh 5:20). Hence the distinction is not always observed.

Robertson: Joh 11:4 - Heard it Heard it ( akousas ). The messenger delivered the message of the sisters. The reply of Jesus is for him and for the apostles.

Heard it ( akousas ).

The messenger delivered the message of the sisters. The reply of Jesus is for him and for the apostles.

Robertson: Joh 11:4 - Is not unto death Is not unto death ( ouk estin pros thanaton ). Death in the final issue, to remain dead. Lazarus did die, but he did not remain dead. See hamartia pr...

Is not unto death ( ouk estin pros thanaton ).

Death in the final issue, to remain dead. Lazarus did die, but he did not remain dead. See hamartia pros thanaton in 1Jo 5:16, "sin unto death"(final death).

Robertson: Joh 11:4 - But for the glory of God But for the glory of God ( all' huper tēs doxēs tou theou ). In behalf of God’ s glory, as the sequel shows. Cf. Joh 9:3 about the man born ...

But for the glory of God ( all' huper tēs doxēs tou theou ).

In behalf of God’ s glory, as the sequel shows. Cf. Joh 9:3 about the man born blind. The death of Lazarus will illustrate God’ s glory. In some humble sense those who suffer the loss of loved ones are entitled to some comfort from this point made by Jesus about Lazarus. In a supreme way it is true of the death of Christ which he himself calls glorification of himself and God (Joh 13:31). In Joh 7:39 John had already used doxazō of the death of Christ.

Robertson: Joh 11:4 - That the Son of God may be glorified thereby That the Son of God may be glorified thereby ( hina doxasthēi ho huios tou theou di' autēs ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist pas...

That the Son of God may be glorified thereby ( hina doxasthēi ho huios tou theou di' autēs ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of doxazō . Here Jesus calls himself "the Son of God."In Joh 8:54 Jesus had said: "It is my Father that glorifieth me."The raising of Lazarus from the tomb will bring glory to the Son of God. See Joh 17:1 for this idea in Christ’ s prayer. The raising of Lazarus will also bring to an issue his own death and all this involves the glorification of the Father (Joh 7:39; Joh 12:16; Joh 13:31; Joh 14:13). The death of Lazarus brings Jesus face to face with his own death.

Robertson: Joh 11:5 - Now Jesus loved Now Jesus loved ( ēgapa de ). Imperfect active of agapaō picturing the continued love of Jesus for this noble family where he had his home so o...

Now Jesus loved ( ēgapa de ).

Imperfect active of agapaō picturing the continued love of Jesus for this noble family where he had his home so often (Luk 10:38-42; Joh 12:1-8). The sisters expected him to come at once and to heal Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 11:6 - That he was sick That he was sick ( hoti asthenei ). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after a secondary tense (ēkousen ).

That he was sick ( hoti asthenei ).

Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after a secondary tense (ēkousen ).

Robertson: Joh 11:6 - Two days Two days ( duo hēmeras ). Accusative of extent of time.

Two days ( duo hēmeras ).

Accusative of extent of time.

Robertson: Joh 11:6 - In the place where he was In the place where he was ( en hōi ēn topōi ). Incorporation of the antecedent topōi into the relative clause, "in which place he was."It w...

In the place where he was ( en hōi ēn topōi ).

Incorporation of the antecedent topōi into the relative clause, "in which place he was."It was long enough for Lazarus to die and seemed unlike Jesus to the sisters.

Robertson: Joh 11:7 - Then after this Then after this ( epeita meta touto ). Epeita (only here in John) means thereafter (Luk 16:7) and it is made plainer by the addition of meta touto ...

Then after this ( epeita meta touto ).

Epeita (only here in John) means thereafter (Luk 16:7) and it is made plainer by the addition of meta touto (cf. Joh 2:12; Joh 11:11), meaning after the two days had elapsed.

Robertson: Joh 11:7 - Let us go into Judea again Let us go into Judea again ( Agōmen eis tēn Ioudaian palin ). Volitive (hortative) subjunctive of agō (intransitive use as in Joh 11:11, Joh...

Let us go into Judea again ( Agōmen eis tēn Ioudaian palin ).

Volitive (hortative) subjunctive of agō (intransitive use as in Joh 11:11, Joh 11:16). They had but recently escaped the rage of the Jews in Jerusalem (Joh 10:39) to this haven in Bethany beyond Jordan (Joh 10:40).

Robertson: Joh 11:8 - Were but now seeking to stone thee Were but now seeking to stone thee ( nun ezētoun se lithasai ). Conative imperfect of zēteō with reference to the event narrated in Joh 10:39...

Were but now seeking to stone thee ( nun ezētoun se lithasai ).

Conative imperfect of zēteō with reference to the event narrated in Joh 10:39 in these very words.

Robertson: Joh 11:8 - Goest thou thither again? Goest thou thither again? ( palin hupageis ekei ). Present active intransitive use of the compound hupagō , to withdraw (Joh 6:21; Joh 8:21) from t...

Goest thou thither again? ( palin hupageis ekei ).

Present active intransitive use of the compound hupagō , to withdraw (Joh 6:21; Joh 8:21) from this safe retreat (Vincent). It seemed suicidal madness to go back now.

Robertson: Joh 11:9 - In the day In the day ( tēs hēmeras ). Genitive of time, within the day, the twelve-hour day in contrast with night. The words of Jesus here illustrate what...

In the day ( tēs hēmeras ).

Genitive of time, within the day, the twelve-hour day in contrast with night. The words of Jesus here illustrate what he had said in Joh 9:4. It is not blind fatalism that Jesus proclaims, but the opposite of cowardice. He has full confidence in the Father s purpose about his "hour"which has not yet come. Jesus has courage to face his enemies again to do the Father’ s will about Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 11:9 - If a man walk in the day If a man walk in the day ( ean tis peripatēi en tēi hēmerāi ). Condition of the third class, a conceived case and it applies to Jesus who wal...

If a man walk in the day ( ean tis peripatēi en tēi hēmerāi ).

Condition of the third class, a conceived case and it applies to Jesus who walks in the full glare of noonday. See Joh 8:12 for the contrast between walking in the light and in the dark.

Robertson: Joh 11:9 - He stumbleth not He stumbleth not ( ou proskoptei ). He does not cut (or bump) against this or that obstacle, for he can see. Koptō is to cut and pros, against.

He stumbleth not ( ou proskoptei ).

He does not cut (or bump) against this or that obstacle, for he can see. Koptō is to cut and pros, against.

Robertson: Joh 11:10 - But if a man walk in the night But if a man walk in the night ( ean de tis peripatēi en tēi nukti ). Third condition again. It is spiritual darkness that Jesus here pictures, b...

But if a man walk in the night ( ean de tis peripatēi en tēi nukti ).

Third condition again. It is spiritual darkness that Jesus here pictures, but the result is the same. See the same figure in Joh 12:35 (1Jo 2:11). The ancients had poor illumination at night as indeed we did before Edison gave us electric lights. Pedestrians actually used to have little lamps fastened on the feet to light the path.

Robertson: Joh 11:10 - In him In him ( en autōi ). Spiritual darkness, the worst of all (cf. Mat 6:23; Joh 8:12). Man has the capacity for light, but is not the source of light....

In him ( en autōi ).

Spiritual darkness, the worst of all (cf. Mat 6:23; Joh 8:12). Man has the capacity for light, but is not the source of light. "By the application of this principle Christianity is distinguished from Neo-Platonism"(Westcott).

Robertson: Joh 11:11 - Is fallen asleep Is fallen asleep ( kekoimētai ). Perfect passive indicative of koimaō , old verb to put to sleep. Common as a metaphor for death like our cemeter...

Is fallen asleep ( kekoimētai ).

Perfect passive indicative of koimaō , old verb to put to sleep. Common as a metaphor for death like our cemetery.

Robertson: Joh 11:11 - I go I go ( poreuomai ). Futuristic use of the present tense as in Joh 14:2.

I go ( poreuomai ).

Futuristic use of the present tense as in Joh 14:2.

Robertson: Joh 11:11 - That I may awake him out of sleep That I may awake him out of sleep ( hina exupnisō auton ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of exupnizō , a lat...

That I may awake him out of sleep ( hina exupnisō auton ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of exupnizō , a late compound (ex ,hupnos , sleep) for the older aphupnizō , here only in the N.T. See Job 14:12 where also it occurs along with koimaomai .

Robertson: Joh 11:12 - He will recover He will recover ( sōthēsetai ). Future passive indicative of sōzō used in its original sense of being or getting well (safe and sound). Con...

He will recover ( sōthēsetai ).

Future passive indicative of sōzō used in its original sense of being or getting well (safe and sound). Conclusion of the condition of the first class (ei kekoimētai ).

Robertson: Joh 11:13 - Had spoken Had spoken ( eirēkei ). Past perfect of eipon (erō ). The disciples had misunderstood Christ’ s metaphor for death.

Had spoken ( eirēkei ).

Past perfect of eipon (erō ). The disciples had misunderstood Christ’ s metaphor for death.

Robertson: Joh 11:13 - That he spake That he spake ( hoti legei ). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense (edoxan ).

That he spake ( hoti legei ).

Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense (edoxan ).

Robertson: Joh 11:13 - Of taking rest in sleep Of taking rest in sleep ( peri tēs koimēseōs tou hupou ). Only use of koimēsis (from koimaō ) in the N.T., but it also was used of death...

Of taking rest in sleep ( peri tēs koimēseōs tou hupou ).

Only use of koimēsis (from koimaō ) in the N.T., but it also was used of death (Sirach 46:19). Hupnou (in sleep) is objective genitive of hupnos (sleep, Mat 1:24).

Robertson: Joh 11:14 - Plainly Plainly ( parrēsiāi ). Adverb (see note on Joh 7:4), without metaphor as in Joh 16:29.

Plainly ( parrēsiāi ).

Adverb (see note on Joh 7:4), without metaphor as in Joh 16:29.

Robertson: Joh 11:14 - Is dead Is dead ( apethanen ). First aorist active indicative, "died."

Is dead ( apethanen ).

First aorist active indicative, "died."

Robertson: Joh 11:15 - For your sakes For your sakes ( di' humas ). That they may witness his raising from the grave.

For your sakes ( di' humas ).

That they may witness his raising from the grave.

Robertson: Joh 11:15 - That I was not there That I was not there ( hoti ouk ēmēn ekei ). Imperfect middle ēmēn of the later Greek instead of the common active ēn in indirect disco...

That I was not there ( hoti ouk ēmēn ekei ).

Imperfect middle ēmēn of the later Greek instead of the common active ēn in indirect discourse in place of the usual present retained as in Joh 11:13.

Robertson: Joh 11:15 - To the intent ye may believe To the intent ye may believe ( hina pisteusēte ). Purpose clause with hina and the ingressive aorist active subjunctive, "that ye may come to bel...

To the intent ye may believe ( hina pisteusēte ).

Purpose clause with hina and the ingressive aorist active subjunctive, "that ye may come to believe"(more than you do). See the same use of the ingressive aorist in episteusan (Joh 2:11) where the disciples gained in belief.

Robertson: Joh 11:15 - Nevertheless let us go to him Nevertheless let us go to him ( alla agōmen pros auton ). Volitive subjunctive, repeating the proposal of Joh 11:7. He is dead, but no matter, yea ...

Nevertheless let us go to him ( alla agōmen pros auton ).

Volitive subjunctive, repeating the proposal of Joh 11:7. He is dead, but no matter, yea all the more let us go on to him.

Robertson: Joh 11:16 - Didymus Didymus ( Didumos ). The word means twin. Clearly Thomas had a twin brother or sister. Applied two other times to him (Joh 20:24; Joh 21:2). The Aram...

Didymus ( Didumos ).

The word means twin. Clearly Thomas had a twin brother or sister. Applied two other times to him (Joh 20:24; Joh 21:2). The Aramaic word for Thomas means Twin and Didymus is just the Greek equivalent of Thomas. He may even in Greek circles have been called Didymus.

Robertson: Joh 11:16 - His fellow disciples His fellow disciples ( tois sunmathētais ). Dative case and article use like "his."Only use of sunmathētes in the N.T., rare word (in Plato).

His fellow disciples ( tois sunmathētais ).

Dative case and article use like "his."Only use of sunmathētes in the N.T., rare word (in Plato).

Robertson: Joh 11:16 - Us also Us also ( kai hēmeis ). As well as Jesus, since he is bent on going.

Us also ( kai hēmeis ).

As well as Jesus, since he is bent on going.

Robertson: Joh 11:16 - That we may die with him That we may die with him ( hina apothanōmen met' autou ). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō . D...

That we may die with him ( hina apothanōmen met' autou ).

Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō . Die with Jesus, Thomas means. Lazarus is already dead and they will kill Jesus (Joh 11:8). Pessimistic courage surely.

Robertson: Joh 11:17 - Found Found ( heuren ). Second aorist active indicative of heuriskō .

Found ( heuren ).

Second aorist active indicative of heuriskō .

Robertson: Joh 11:17 - That he had been in the tomb four days already That he had been in the tomb four days already ( auton tessaras ēdē hēmeras echonta ). Literally, "him (accusative object of heuren ) having a...

That he had been in the tomb four days already ( auton tessaras ēdē hēmeras echonta ).

Literally, "him (accusative object of heuren ) having already four days in the tomb."See Joh 5:5 for the same idiom (etē echōn ) for expression of time (having 38 years). In Jewish custom burial took place on the day of death (Act 6:6, Act 6:10).

Robertson: Joh 11:18 - About fifteen furlongs off About fifteen furlongs off ( hōs apo stadiōn dekapente ). The idiom of apo with the ablative for distance is like the Latin a millibus passum ...

About fifteen furlongs off ( hōs apo stadiōn dekapente ).

The idiom of apo with the ablative for distance is like the Latin a millibus passum duobus (Caesar, Bell. Gall. ii. 7), but it (pro also, Joh 12:1) occurs already in the Doric and in the Koiné often (Moulton, Proleg ., p. 101; Robertson, Grammar , p. 110). See it again in Joh 21:8; Rev 14:20.

Robertson: Joh 11:19 - Had come Had come ( elēlutheisan ). Past perfect of erchomai . These Jews were probably not hostile to Jesus. There were seven days of solemn mourning (1Sa ...

Had come ( elēlutheisan ).

Past perfect of erchomai . These Jews were probably not hostile to Jesus. There were seven days of solemn mourning (1Sa 31:13). The presence of so many indicates the prominence of the family.

Robertson: Joh 11:19 - To Martha and Mary To Martha and Mary ( pros tēn Marthan kai Mariam ). Correct text, not the Textus Receptus pros tas peri Marthan kai Mariam (to the women about Ma...

To Martha and Mary ( pros tēn Marthan kai Mariam ).

Correct text, not the Textus Receptus pros tas peri Marthan kai Mariam (to the women about Martha and Mary).

Robertson: Joh 11:19 - To console them To console them ( hina paramuthēsōntai ). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of paramutheomai , old verb (para , besi...

To console them ( hina paramuthēsōntai ).

Purpose clause with hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of paramutheomai , old verb (para , beside, muthos , word), to put in a word beside, to offer consolation. Again in Joh 11:31. See 1Th 2:11; 1Th 5:14. See Job 2:13 for these visits of consolation, often deplorable enough, though kindly meant.

Robertson: Joh 11:20 - That Jesus was coming That Jesus was coming ( hoti Iēsous erchetai ). Present middle indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense ēkousen (fir...

That Jesus was coming ( hoti Iēsous erchetai ).

Present middle indicative retained in indirect discourse after the secondary tense ēkousen (first aorist active).

Robertson: Joh 11:20 - Went and met him Went and met him ( hupēntēsen autōi ). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of hupantaō , old compound verb, to go to meet (Mat 8:28) ...

Went and met him ( hupēntēsen autōi ).

First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of hupantaō , old compound verb, to go to meet (Mat 8:28) with the associative instrumental case autōi .

Robertson: Joh 11:20 - But Mary still sat in the house But Mary still sat in the house ( Mariam de en tōi oikōi ekathezeto ). Imperfect middle of kathezomai , old verb to sit down, graphic picture of ...

But Mary still sat in the house ( Mariam de en tōi oikōi ekathezeto ).

Imperfect middle of kathezomai , old verb to sit down, graphic picture of Mary, "while Mary was sitting in the house."Both Martha and Mary act true to form here as in Luk 10:38-42.

Robertson: Joh 11:21 - Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died ( Kurie ,ei ēs hōde ouk an apethanen ho adelphos mou ). Condition of the second class wit...

Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died ( Kurie ,ei ēs hōde ouk an apethanen ho adelphos mou ).

Condition of the second class with ei and the imperfect ēs (no aorist of eimi , to be) in the condition and an with the second aorist active indicative of apothnēskō . Mary (Joh 11:32) uses these identical words to Jesus. Clearly they had said so to each other with wistful longing if not with a bit of reproach for his delay. But they used ēs , not ēlthes or egenou . But busy, practical Martha comes to the point.

Robertson: Joh 11:22 - And even now I know And even now I know ( kai nun oida ). Rather just, "Even now I know."Alla (but) of the Textus Receptus is not genuine.

And even now I know ( kai nun oida ).

Rather just, "Even now I know."Alla (but) of the Textus Receptus is not genuine.

Robertson: Joh 11:22 - Whatsoever thou shalt ask of God Whatsoever thou shalt ask of God ( hosa an aitēsēi ton theon ). Indefinite relative (hosa , as many things as) with an and the first aorist mid...

Whatsoever thou shalt ask of God ( hosa an aitēsēi ton theon ).

Indefinite relative (hosa , as many things as) with an and the first aorist middle (indirect middle, thou thyself asking) subjunctive of aiteō . Martha uses aiteō (usual word of prayer of men to God) rather than erōtaō (usual word of Jesus praying to the Father), but in Joh 16:23 we have erōtaō used of prayer to Jesus and aiteō of prayer to God. But the distinction is not to be pressed. "As many things as thou dost ask of God."

Robertson: Joh 11:22 - God will give God will give ( dōsei soi ho theos ). Repetition of ho theos for emphasis. Martha still has courageous faith in the power of God through Jesus, a...

God will give ( dōsei soi ho theos ).

Repetition of ho theos for emphasis. Martha still has courageous faith in the power of God through Jesus, and Jesus in Joh 11:41 says practically what she has said here.

Robertson: Joh 11:23 - Thy brother will rise again Thy brother will rise again ( anastēsetai ho adelphos sou ). Future middle (intransitive) of anistēmi . The words promise Martha what she has ask...

Thy brother will rise again ( anastēsetai ho adelphos sou ).

Future middle (intransitive) of anistēmi . The words promise Martha what she has asked for, if Jesus means that.

Robertson: Joh 11:24 - In the resurrection at the last day In the resurrection at the last day ( en tēi anastasei en tēi eschatēi hēmerāi ). Did Jesus mean only that? She believed it, of course, and...

In the resurrection at the last day ( en tēi anastasei en tēi eschatēi hēmerāi ).

Did Jesus mean only that? She believed it, of course, and such comfort is often offered in case of death, but that idea did not console Martha and is not what she hinted at in Joh 11:22.

Robertson: Joh 11:25 - I am the resurrection and the life I am the resurrection and the life ( Egō eimi hē anastasis kai hē zōē ). This reply is startling enough. They are not mere doctrines about ...

I am the resurrection and the life ( Egō eimi hē anastasis kai hē zōē ).

This reply is startling enough. They are not mere doctrines about future events, but present realities in Jesus himself. "The Resurrection is one manifestation of the Life: it is involved in the Life"(Westcott). Note the article with both anastasis and zōē . Jesus had taught the future resurrection often (Joh 6:39), but here he means more, even that Lazarus is now alive.

Robertson: Joh 11:25 - Though he die Though he die ( kan apothanēi ). "Even if he die,"condition (concession) of third class with kai ean (kan ) and the second aorist active subjunc...

Though he die ( kan apothanēi ).

"Even if he die,"condition (concession) of third class with kai ean (kan ) and the second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō (physical death, he means).

Robertson: Joh 11:25 - Yet shall he live Yet shall he live ( zēsetai ). Future middle of zaō (spiritual life, of course).

Yet shall he live ( zēsetai ).

Future middle of zaō (spiritual life, of course).

Robertson: Joh 11:26 - Shall never die Shall never die ( ou mē apothanēi eis ton aiōna ). Strong double negative ou mē with second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō a...

Shall never die ( ou mē apothanēi eis ton aiōna ).

Strong double negative ou mē with second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō again (but spiritual death, this time), "shall not die for ever"(eternal death).

Robertson: Joh 11:26 - Believest thou this? Believest thou this? ( pisteueis touto ) Sudden test of Martha’ s insight and faith with all the subtle turns of thought involved.

Believest thou this? ( pisteueis touto )

Sudden test of Martha’ s insight and faith with all the subtle turns of thought involved.

Robertson: Joh 11:27 - Yea, Lord Yea, Lord ( Nai ,kurie ). Martha probably did not understand all that Jesus said and meant, but she did believe in the future resurrection, in etern...

Yea, Lord ( Nai ,kurie ).

Martha probably did not understand all that Jesus said and meant, but she did believe in the future resurrection, in eternal life for believers in Christ, in the power of Christ to raise even the dead here and now. She had heroic faith and makes now her own confession of faith in words that outrank those of Peter in Mat 16:16 because she makes hers with her brother dead now four days and with the hope that Jesus will raise him up now.

Robertson: Joh 11:27 - I have believed I have believed ( pepisteuka ). Perfect active indicative of pisteuō . It is my settled and firm faith. Peter uses this same tense in Joh 6:69.

I have believed ( pepisteuka ).

Perfect active indicative of pisteuō . It is my settled and firm faith. Peter uses this same tense in Joh 6:69.

Robertson: Joh 11:27 - That thou art the Son of God That thou art the Son of God ( hoti su ei ho Christos ho huios tou theou ). The Messiah or the Christ (Joh 1:41) was to be also "the Son of God"as th...

That thou art the Son of God ( hoti su ei ho Christos ho huios tou theou ).

The Messiah or the Christ (Joh 1:41) was to be also "the Son of God"as the Baptist said he had found Jesus to be (Joh 1:34), as Peter confessed on Hermon for the apostles (Mat 16:16), as Jesus claimed to be (Joh 11:41) and confessed on oath before Caiaphas that he was (Mat 26:63.), and as John stated that it was his purpose to prove in his Gospel (Joh 20:31). But no one said it under more trying circumstances than Martha.

Robertson: Joh 11:27 - Even he that cometh into the world Even he that cometh into the world ( ho eis ton kosmon erchomenos ). No "even"in the Greek. This was a popular way of putting the people’ s expe...

Even he that cometh into the world ( ho eis ton kosmon erchomenos ).

No "even"in the Greek. This was a popular way of putting the people’ s expectation (Joh 6:14; Mat 11:3). Jesus himself spoke of his coming into the world (Joh 9:39; Joh 16:28; Joh 8:37).

Robertson: Joh 11:28 - Called Mary Called Mary ( ephōnēsen Mariam ). First aorist active indicative of phōneō . Out of the house and away from the crowd.

Called Mary ( ephōnēsen Mariam ).

First aorist active indicative of phōneō . Out of the house and away from the crowd.

Robertson: Joh 11:28 - Secretly Secretly ( lathrāi ). Old adverb from lathros (lanthanō ). To tell her the glad news.

Secretly ( lathrāi ).

Old adverb from lathros (lanthanō ). To tell her the glad news.

Robertson: Joh 11:28 - The Master The Master ( ho didaskalos ). "The Teacher."So they loved to call him as he was (Joh 13:13).

The Master ( ho didaskalos ).

"The Teacher."So they loved to call him as he was (Joh 13:13).

Robertson: Joh 11:28 - Is here Is here ( parestin ). "Is present."

Is here ( parestin ).

"Is present."

Robertson: Joh 11:28 - Calleth thee Calleth thee ( phōnei se ). This rouses Mary.

Calleth thee ( phōnei se ).

This rouses Mary.

Robertson: Joh 11:29 - And she And she ( kai ekeinē ). Emphatic use of the demonstrative ekeinos as often in John, "And that one."

And she ( kai ekeinē ).

Emphatic use of the demonstrative ekeinos as often in John, "And that one."

Robertson: Joh 11:29 - Arose quickly Arose quickly ( ēgerthē ). First aorist (ingressive) passive of egeirō and intransitive. Naturally so on the sudden impulse of joy.

Arose quickly ( ēgerthē ).

First aorist (ingressive) passive of egeirō and intransitive. Naturally so on the sudden impulse of joy.

Robertson: Joh 11:29 - And went unto him And went unto him ( kai ērcheto pros auton ). Imperfect middle, possibly inchoative, started towards him, certainly picturing her as she was going.

And went unto him ( kai ērcheto pros auton ).

Imperfect middle, possibly inchoative, started towards him, certainly picturing her as she was going.

Robertson: Joh 11:30 - Now Jesus was not yet come into the town Now Jesus was not yet come into the town ( oupō de elēluthei ho Iēsous eis tēn kōmēn ). Explanatory parenthesis with past perfect as in J...

Now Jesus was not yet come into the town ( oupō de elēluthei ho Iēsous eis tēn kōmēn ).

Explanatory parenthesis with past perfect as in Joh 11:19. Martha had her interview while he was still coming (Joh 11:20) and left him (went off, apēlthen , Joh 11:28) to hurry to Mary with the news. Why Jesus tarried still where he had met Martha we do not know. Westcott says, "as though He would meet the sisters away from the crowd of mourners."

Robertson: Joh 11:31 - Followed her Followed her ( ēkolouthēsan autēi ). First aorist active indicative of akoloutheō with associative instrumental case (autēi ). This crow...

Followed her ( ēkolouthēsan autēi ).

First aorist active indicative of akoloutheō with associative instrumental case (autēi ). This crowd of consolers (paramuthoumenoi ) meant kindly enough, but did the one wrong thing for Mary wished to see Jesus alone. People with kind notions often so act. The secrecy of Martha (Joh 11:28) was of no avail.

Robertson: Joh 11:31 - Supposing that she was going unto the tomb Supposing that she was going unto the tomb ( doxantes hoti hupagei eis to mnēmeion ). First aorist active participle of dokeō , justifying their ...

Supposing that she was going unto the tomb ( doxantes hoti hupagei eis to mnēmeion ).

First aorist active participle of dokeō , justifying their conduct by a wrong inference. Note retention of present tense hupagei in indirect discourse after the secondary tense ēkolouthēsan .

Robertson: Joh 11:31 - To weep there To weep there ( hina klausēi ekei ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of klaiō , old verb to weep. Sometimes to...

To weep there ( hina klausēi ekei ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of klaiō , old verb to weep. Sometimes to wail or howl in oriental style of grief, but surely not that here. At any rate this supposed purpose of Mary was a real reason for this crowd not to go with her.

Robertson: Joh 11:32 - Fell down at his feet Fell down at his feet ( epesen autou pros tous podas ). Second aorist active of piptō , to fall. Note unusual position of autou . This impulsive ac...

Fell down at his feet ( epesen autou pros tous podas ).

Second aorist active of piptō , to fall. Note unusual position of autou . This impulsive act like Mary. She said precisely what Martha had said to Jesus (Joh 11:21). But she said no more, only wept (Joh 11:33).

Robertson: Joh 11:33 - When Jesus therefore saw her weeping When Jesus therefore saw her weeping ( Iēsous oun hōs eiden autēn klaiousan ). Proleptic position of "Jesus,""Jesus therefore when he saw."She ...

When Jesus therefore saw her weeping ( Iēsous oun hōs eiden autēn klaiousan ).

Proleptic position of "Jesus,""Jesus therefore when he saw."She was weeping at the feet of Jesus, not at the tomb.

Robertson: Joh 11:33 - And the Jews also weeping And the Jews also weeping ( kai tous Ioudaious klaiontas ). Mary’ s weeping was genuine, that of the Jews was partly perfunctory and professiona...

And the Jews also weeping ( kai tous Ioudaious klaiontas ).

Mary’ s weeping was genuine, that of the Jews was partly perfunctory and professional and probably actual "wailing"as the verb klaiō can mean. Klaiō is joined with alalazō in Mar 5:38, with ololuzō in Jam 5:1, with thorubeō in Mar 5:39, with pentheō in Mar 16:10. It was an incongruous combination.

Robertson: Joh 11:33 - He groaned in the spirit He groaned in the spirit ( enebrimēsato tōi pneumati ). First aorist middle indicative of embrimaomai , old verb (from en , and brimē , strengt...

He groaned in the spirit ( enebrimēsato tōi pneumati ).

First aorist middle indicative of embrimaomai , old verb (from en , and brimē , strength) to snort with anger like a horse. It occurs in the lxx (Dan 11:30) for violent displeasure. The notion of indignation is present in the other examples of the word in the N.T. (Mar 1:43; Mar 14:5; Mat 9:30). So it seems best to see that sense here and in Joh 11:38. The presence of these Jews, the grief of Mary, Christ’ s own concern, the problem of the raising of Lazarus - all greatly agitated the spirit of Jesus (locative case tōi pneumati ). He struggled for self-control.

Robertson: Joh 11:33 - Was troubled Was troubled ( etaraxen heauton ). First aorist active indicative of tarassō , old verb to disturb, to agitate, with the reflexive pronoun, "he agi...

Was troubled ( etaraxen heauton ).

First aorist active indicative of tarassō , old verb to disturb, to agitate, with the reflexive pronoun, "he agitated himself"(not passive voice, not middle). "His sympathy with the weeping sister and the wailing crowd caused this deep emotion"(Dods). Some indignation at the loud wailing would only add to the agitation of Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 11:34 - Where have ye laid him? Where have ye laid him? ( Pou tetheikate auton ). Perfect active indicative of tithēmi . A simple question for information. The only other like it ...

Where have ye laid him? ( Pou tetheikate auton ).

Perfect active indicative of tithēmi . A simple question for information. The only other like it in John is in Joh 6:6 where it is expressly stated that Jesus knew what he was going to do. So it was here, only he politely asked for direction to the tomb of Lazarus. The people invite him to come and see, the very language used by Philip to Nathanael (Joh 1:46). It was a natural and polite reply as they would show Jesus the way, but they had no idea of his purpose.

Robertson: Joh 11:35 - Jesus wept Jesus wept ( edakrusen ho Iēsous ). Ingressive first aorist active indicative of dakruō , old verb from dakru or dakruon , a tear (Act 20:19), ...

Jesus wept ( edakrusen ho Iēsous ).

Ingressive first aorist active indicative of dakruō , old verb from dakru or dakruon , a tear (Act 20:19), only here in N.T. It never means to wail, as klaiō sometimes does. "Jesus burst into tears."Klaiō is used of Jesus in Luk 19:41. See Heb 5:7 "with strong crying and tears"(meta kraugēs kai dakruōn ). Apparently this was as Jesus started towards (see Joh 11:38) the tomb. In a sense it was a reaction from the severe strain in Joh 11:33, but chiefly it was the sheer human sympathy of his heart with Martha and Mary touched with the feeling of our common weakness (Heb 4:15). Often all that we can do is to shed tears in grief too deep for words. Jesus understood and understands. This is the shortest verse in the Bible, but no verse carries more meaning in it.

Robertson: Joh 11:36 - Loved Loved ( ephilei ). As in Joh 11:3 which see. Imperfect active. Even the Jews saw that Jesus loved Lazarus.

Loved ( ephilei ).

As in Joh 11:3 which see. Imperfect active. Even the Jews saw that Jesus loved Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 11:37 - Could not this man Could not this man ( ouk edunato houtos ). Imperfect middle of dunamai . They do not say dunatai (can, present middle indicative). But clearly the ...

Could not this man ( ouk edunato houtos ).

Imperfect middle of dunamai . They do not say dunatai (can, present middle indicative). But clearly the opening of the blind man’ s eyes (chapter 9) had made a lasting impression on some of these Jews, for it was done three months ago.

Robertson: Joh 11:37 - Have caused that this man also should not die Have caused that this man also should not die ( poiēsai hina kai houtos mē apothanēi ). First aorist active infinitive of poieō with hina ,...

Have caused that this man also should not die ( poiēsai hina kai houtos mē apothanēi ).

First aorist active infinitive of poieō with hina , like the Latin facere ut (sub-final use, Robertson, Grammar , p. 985), with the second aorist active subjunctive apothanēi and negative mē . These Jews share the view expressed by Martha (Joh 11:21) and Mary (Joh 11:32) that Jesus could have prevented the death of Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 11:38 - Again groaning in himself Again groaning in himself ( palin embrimōmenos en heautōi ). Direct reference to the use of this same word (present middle participle here) in Jo...

Again groaning in himself ( palin embrimōmenos en heautōi ).

Direct reference to the use of this same word (present middle participle here) in Joh 11:33, only with en heautōi (in himself) rather than tōi pneumati (in his spirit), practically the same idea. The speculation concerning his power stirred the depths of his nature again.

Robertson: Joh 11:38 - Cometh to the tomb Cometh to the tomb ( erchetai eis to mnēmeion ). Vivid historical present.

Cometh to the tomb ( erchetai eis to mnēmeion ).

Vivid historical present.

Robertson: Joh 11:38 - A cave A cave ( spēlaion ). Old word (from speos , cavern). Cf. Mat 21:13.

A cave ( spēlaion ).

Old word (from speos , cavern). Cf. Mat 21:13.

Robertson: Joh 11:38 - Lay against it Lay against it ( epekeito ep' autōi ). Imperfect middle of epikeimai , old verb to lie upon as in Joh 21:9 and figuratively (1Co 9:16). Note repeti...

Lay against it ( epekeito ep' autōi ).

Imperfect middle of epikeimai , old verb to lie upon as in Joh 21:9 and figuratively (1Co 9:16). Note repetition of epi with locative case. The use of a cave for burial was common (Gen 23:19). Either the body was let down through a horizontal opening (hardly so here) or put in a tomb cut in the face of the rock (if so, epi can mean "against"). The stones were used to keep away wild animals from the bodies.

Robertson: Joh 11:39 - Take ye away the stone Take ye away the stone ( arate ton lithon ). First aorist active imperative of airō . They could do this much without the exercise of Christ’ ...

Take ye away the stone ( arate ton lithon ).

First aorist active imperative of airō . They could do this much without the exercise of Christ’ s divine power. It was a startling command to them.

Robertson: Joh 11:39 - By this time he stinketh By this time he stinketh ( ēdē ozei ). Present active indicative of old verb, here only in N.T. (cf. Exo 8:14). It means to give out an odour, ei...

By this time he stinketh ( ēdē ozei ).

Present active indicative of old verb, here only in N.T. (cf. Exo 8:14). It means to give out an odour, either good or bad.

Robertson: Joh 11:39 - For he hath been dead four days For he hath been dead four days ( tetartaios gar estin ). The Greek simply says, "For he is a fourth-day man."It is an old ordinal numeral from tetar...

For he hath been dead four days ( tetartaios gar estin ).

The Greek simply says, "For he is a fourth-day man."It is an old ordinal numeral from tetartos (fourth). Herodotus (ii. 89) has tetartaios genesthai of one four days dead as here. The word is only here in the N.T. The same idiom occurs in Act 28:13 with deuteraioi (second-day men). Lightfoot ( Hor. Hebr. ) quotes a Jewish tradition ( Beresh. Rabba ) to the effect that the soul hovers around the tomb for three days hoping to return to the body, but on the fourth day leaves it. But there is no suggestion here that Martha held that notion. Her protest is a natural one in spite of her strong faith in Joh 11:22-27.

Robertson: Joh 11:40 - Said I not unto thee? Said I not unto thee? ( Ouk eipon soi ). Jesus pointedly reminds Martha of his promise to raise Lazarus (Joh 11:25.).

Said I not unto thee? ( Ouk eipon soi ).

Jesus pointedly reminds Martha of his promise to raise Lazarus (Joh 11:25.).

Robertson: Joh 11:40 - That if thou believedst That if thou believedst ( hoti ean pisteusēis ). Indirect discourse with ean and the first aorist active subjunctive (condition of third class) r...

That if thou believedst ( hoti ean pisteusēis ).

Indirect discourse with ean and the first aorist active subjunctive (condition of third class) retained after the secondary tense eipon . He had not said this very phrase, ean pisteusēis , to Martha, but he did say to her: Pisteueis touto ; (Believest thou this?). He meant to test Martha as to her faith already hinted at (Joh 11:22) on this very point. Jesus had also spoken of increase of faith on the part of the disciples (Joh 11:15).

Robertson: Joh 11:40 - Thou shouldest see the glory of God Thou shouldest see the glory of God ( opsēi tēn doxan tou theou ). Future middle indicative of the old defective verb horaō retained in the c...

Thou shouldest see the glory of God ( opsēi tēn doxan tou theou ).

Future middle indicative of the old defective verb horaō retained in the conclusion of this condition in indirect discourse. Jesus means the glory of God as shown in the resurrection of Lazarus as he had already said to the disciples (Joh 11:4) and as he meant Martha to understand (Joh 11:25) and may in fact have said to her (the report of the conversation is clearly abridged). Hence Bernard’ s difficulty in seeing how Martha could understand the words of Jesus about the resurrection of Lazarus here and now seems fanciful and far-fetched.

Robertson: Joh 11:41 - So they took away the stone So they took away the stone ( ēran oun ton lithon ). First aorist active indicative of airō , but without the explanatory gloss of the Textus Rec...

So they took away the stone ( ēran oun ton lithon ).

First aorist active indicative of airō , but without the explanatory gloss of the Textus Receptus "from the place where the dead was laid"(not genuine).

Robertson: Joh 11:41 - I thank thee that thou heardest me I thank thee that thou heardest me ( eucharistō soi hoti ēkousas mou ). See Joh 6:11 for eucharisteō . Clearly Jesus had prayed to the Father c...

I thank thee that thou heardest me ( eucharistō soi hoti ēkousas mou ).

See Joh 6:11 for eucharisteō . Clearly Jesus had prayed to the Father concerning the raising of Lazarus. He has the answer before he acts. "No pomp of incantation, no wrestling in prayer even; but simple words of thanksgiving, as if already Lazarus was restored"(Dods). Jesus well knew the issues involved on this occasion. If he failed, his own claims to be the Son of God (the Messiah), would be hopelessly discredited with all. If he succeeded, the rulers would be so embittered as to compass his own death.

Robertson: Joh 11:42 - And I knew And I knew ( egō de ēidein ). Past perfect of oida used as imperfect. This confident knowledge is no new experience with Jesus. It has "always"...

And I knew ( egō de ēidein ).

Past perfect of oida used as imperfect. This confident knowledge is no new experience with Jesus. It has "always"(pantote ) been so.

Robertson: Joh 11:42 - Which standeth around Which standeth around ( ton periestōta ). Second perfect active (intransitive) articular participle of periistēmi . It was a picturesque and peri...

Which standeth around ( ton periestōta ).

Second perfect active (intransitive) articular participle of periistēmi . It was a picturesque and perilous scene.

Robertson: Joh 11:42 - That they may believe That they may believe ( hina pisteusōsin ). Purpose clause with hina and first ingressive aorist active subjunctive of pisteuō , "that they may...

That they may believe ( hina pisteusōsin ).

Purpose clause with hina and first ingressive aorist active subjunctive of pisteuō , "that they may come to believe."

Robertson: Joh 11:42 - That thou didst send me That thou didst send me ( hoti su me apesteilas ). First aorist active indicative of apostellō and note position of su me side by side. This cl...

That thou didst send me ( hoti su me apesteilas ).

First aorist active indicative of apostellō and note position of su me side by side. This claim Jesus had long ago made (Joh 5:36) and had repeatedly urged (Joh 10:25, Joh 10:38). Here was a supreme opportunity and Jesus opens his heart about it.

Robertson: Joh 11:43 - He cried with a loud voice He cried with a loud voice ( phōnēi megalēi ekraugasen ). First aorist active indicative of kraugazō , old and rare word from kraugē (Mat...

He cried with a loud voice ( phōnēi megalēi ekraugasen ).

First aorist active indicative of kraugazō , old and rare word from kraugē (Mat 25:6). See Mat 12:19. Occurs again in Joh 18:40; Joh 19:6, Joh 19:12. Only once in the lxx (Ezra 3:13) and with phōnēi megalēi (either locative or instrumental case makes sense) as here. For this "elevated (great) voice"see also Mat 24:31; Mar 15:34, Mar 15:37; Rev 1:10; Rev 21:3. The loud voice was not for the benefit of Lazarus, but for the sake of the crowd standing around that they might see that Lazarus came forth simultaneously with the command of Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 11:43 - Lazarus, come forth Lazarus, come forth ( Lazare ,deuro exō ). "Hither out."No verb, only the two adverbs, deuro here alone in John. Lazarus heard and obeyed the su...

Lazarus, come forth ( Lazare ,deuro exō ).

"Hither out."No verb, only the two adverbs, deuro here alone in John. Lazarus heard and obeyed the summons.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - He that was dead came forth He that was dead came forth ( exēlthen ho tethnēkōs ). Literally, "Came out the dead man,"(effective aorist active indicative and perfect activ...

He that was dead came forth ( exēlthen ho tethnēkōs ).

Literally, "Came out the dead man,"(effective aorist active indicative and perfect active articular participle of thnēskō ). Just as he was and at once.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - Bound hand and foot Bound hand and foot ( dedemenos tous podas kai tas cheiras ). Perfect passive participle of deō with the accusative loosely retained according to...

Bound hand and foot ( dedemenos tous podas kai tas cheiras ).

Perfect passive participle of deō with the accusative loosely retained according to the common Greek idiom (Robertson, Grammar , p. 486), but literally "as to the feet and hands"(opposite order from the English). Probably the legs were bound separately.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - With grave-clothes With grave-clothes ( keiriais ). Or "with bands."Instrumental case of this late and rare word (in Plutarch, medical papyrus in the form kēria , and...

With grave-clothes ( keiriais ).

Or "with bands."Instrumental case of this late and rare word (in Plutarch, medical papyrus in the form kēria , and Pro 7:16). Only here in N.T.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - His face His face ( hē opsis autou ). Old word, but prosōpon is usual in N.T. See Rev 1:16 for another instance.

His face ( hē opsis autou ).

Old word, but prosōpon is usual in N.T. See Rev 1:16 for another instance.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - Was bound about Was bound about ( periededeto ). Past perfect passive of perideō , old verb to bind around, only here in N.T.

Was bound about ( periededeto ).

Past perfect passive of perideō , old verb to bind around, only here in N.T.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - With a napkin With a napkin ( soudariōi ). Instrumental case of soudarion (Latin word sudarium from sudor , sweat). In N.T. here, Joh 20:7; Luk 19:20; Act...

With a napkin ( soudariōi ).

Instrumental case of soudarion (Latin word sudarium from sudor , sweat). In N.T. here, Joh 20:7; Luk 19:20; Act 19:12. Our handkerchief.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - Loose him Loose him ( lusate auton ). First aorist active imperative of luō . From the various bands.

Loose him ( lusate auton ).

First aorist active imperative of luō . From the various bands.

Robertson: Joh 11:44 - Let him go Let him go ( aphete auton hupagein ). Second aorist active imperative of aphiēmi and present active infinitive.

Let him go ( aphete auton hupagein ).

Second aorist active imperative of aphiēmi and present active infinitive.

Robertson: Joh 11:45 - Beheld that which he did Beheld that which he did ( theasamenoi ho epoiēsen ). First aorist middle participle of theaomai and first aorist active indicative of poieō ...

Beheld that which he did ( theasamenoi ho epoiēsen ).

First aorist middle participle of theaomai and first aorist active indicative of poieō in the relative (ho ) clause. They were eye-witnesses of all the details and did not depend on hearsay.

Robertson: Joh 11:45 - Believed on him Believed on him ( episteusan eis auton ). Such a result had happened before (Joh 7:31), and all the more in the presence of this tremendous miracle w...

Believed on him ( episteusan eis auton ).

Such a result had happened before (Joh 7:31), and all the more in the presence of this tremendous miracle which held many to Jesus (Joh 12:11, Joh 12:17).

Robertson: Joh 11:46 - Went away to the Pharisees Went away to the Pharisees ( apēlthon pros tous Pharisaious ). Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai . This "some"(tines ) did who were de...

Went away to the Pharisees ( apēlthon pros tous Pharisaious ).

Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai . This "some"(tines ) did who were deeply impressed and yet who did not have the courage to break away from the rabbis without consulting them. It was a crisis for the Sanhedrin.

Robertson: Joh 11:47 - Gathered a council Gathered a council ( sunēgagon sunedrion ). Second aorist active indicative of sunagō and sunedrion , the regular word for the Sanhedrin (Mat 5...

Gathered a council ( sunēgagon sunedrion ).

Second aorist active indicative of sunagō and sunedrion , the regular word for the Sanhedrin (Mat 5:22, etc.), only here in John. Here a sitting or session of the Sanhedrin. Both chief priests (Sadducees) and Pharisees (mentioned no more in John after Joh 7:47 save Joh 12:19, Joh 12:42) combine in the call (cf. Joh 7:32). From now on the chief priests (Sadducees) take the lead in the attacks on Jesus, though loyally supported by their opponents (the Pharisees).

Robertson: Joh 11:47 - And said And said ( kai elegon ). Imperfect active of legō , perhaps inchoative, "began to say."

And said ( kai elegon ).

Imperfect active of legō , perhaps inchoative, "began to say."

Robertson: Joh 11:47 - What do we? What do we? ( Ti poioumen ). Present active (linear) indicative of poieō . Literally, "What are we doing?"

What do we? ( Ti poioumen ).

Present active (linear) indicative of poieō . Literally, "What are we doing?"

Robertson: Joh 11:47 - Doeth Doeth ( poiei ). Better, "is doing"(present, linear action). He is active and we are idle. There is no mention of the raising of Lazarus as a fact, b...

Doeth ( poiei ).

Better, "is doing"(present, linear action). He is active and we are idle. There is no mention of the raising of Lazarus as a fact, but it is evidently included in the "many signs."

Robertson: Joh 11:48 - If we let him thus alone If we let him thus alone ( ean aphōmen auton houtōs ). Condition of third class with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of apiēmi . "Su...

If we let him thus alone ( ean aphōmen auton houtōs ).

Condition of third class with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of apiēmi . "Suppose we leave him thus alone."Suppose also that he keeps on raising the dead right here next door to Jerusalem!

Robertson: Joh 11:48 - All will believe on him All will believe on him ( pantes pisteusousin eis auton ). Future active of pisteuō . The inevitable conclusion, "all"(pantes ), not just "some"(t...

All will believe on him ( pantes pisteusousin eis auton ).

Future active of pisteuō . The inevitable conclusion, "all"(pantes ), not just "some"(tines ). as now.

Robertson: Joh 11:48 - And the Romans will come And the Romans will come ( kai eleusontai hoi Rōmaioi ). Another inevitable result with the future middle of erchomai . Only if the people take Jes...

And the Romans will come ( kai eleusontai hoi Rōmaioi ).

Another inevitable result with the future middle of erchomai . Only if the people take Jesus as their political Messiah (Joh 6:15) as they had once started to do. This is a curious muddle for the rulers knew that Jesus did not claim to be a political Messiah and would not be a rival to Caesar. And yet they use this fear (their own belief about the Messiah) to stir themselves to frenzy as they will use it with Pilate later.

Robertson: Joh 11:48 - And take away both our place and our nation And take away both our place and our nation ( kai arousin hēmōn kai ton topon kai to ethnos ). Future active of airō , another certain result o...

And take away both our place and our nation ( kai arousin hēmōn kai ton topon kai to ethnos ).

Future active of airō , another certain result of their inaction. Note the order here when "place"(job) is put before nation (patriotism), for all the world like modern politicians who make the fate of the country turn on their getting the jobs which they are seeking. In the course of time the Romans will come, not because of the leniency of the Sanhedrin toward Jesus, but because of the uprising against Rome led by the Zealots and they will destroy both temple and city and the Sanhedrin will lose their jobs and the nation will be scattered. Future historians will say that this fate came as punishment on the Jews for their conduct toward Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 11:49 - Caiaphas Caiaphas ( Kaiaphas ). Son-in-law of Annas and successor and high priest for 18 years (a.d. 18 to 36).

Caiaphas ( Kaiaphas ).

Son-in-law of Annas and successor and high priest for 18 years (a.d. 18 to 36).

Robertson: Joh 11:49 - That year That year ( tou eniautou ekeinou ). Genitive of time; his high-priesthood included that year (a.d. 29 or 30). So he took the lead at this meeting.

That year ( tou eniautou ekeinou ).

Genitive of time; his high-priesthood included that year (a.d. 29 or 30). So he took the lead at this meeting.

Robertson: Joh 11:49 - Ye know nothing at all Ye know nothing at all ( humeis ouk oidate ouden ). In this he is correct, for no solution of their problem had been offered.

Ye know nothing at all ( humeis ouk oidate ouden ).

In this he is correct, for no solution of their problem had been offered.

Robertson: Joh 11:50 - That it is expedient for you That it is expedient for you ( hoti sumpherei humin ). Indirect discourse with present active indicative of sumpherō used with the hina clause ...

That it is expedient for you ( hoti sumpherei humin ).

Indirect discourse with present active indicative of sumpherō used with the hina clause as subject. It means to bear together, to be profitable, with the dative case as here (humin , for you). It is to your interest and that is what they cared most for.

Robertson: Joh 11:50 - That one man die That one man die ( hina heis anthrōpos apothanēi ). Sub-final use of hina with second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō as subject ...

That one man die ( hina heis anthrōpos apothanēi ).

Sub-final use of hina with second aorist active subjunctive of apothnēskō as subject clause with sumpherei . See Joh 16:7; Joh 18:7 for the same construction.

Robertson: Joh 11:50 - For the people For the people ( huper tou laou ). Huper simply means over , but can be in behalf of as often, and in proper context the resultant idea is "instea...

For the people ( huper tou laou ).

Huper simply means over , but can be in behalf of as often, and in proper context the resultant idea is "instead of"as the succeeding clause shows and as is clearly so in Gal 3:13 of the death of Christ and naturally so in 2Co 5:14.; Rom 5:6. In the papyri huper is the usual preposition used of one who writes a letter for one unable to write.

Robertson: Joh 11:50 - And that the whole nation perish not And that the whole nation perish not ( kai mē holon to ethnos apolētai ). Continuation of the hina construction with mē and the second aori...

And that the whole nation perish not ( kai mē holon to ethnos apolētai ).

Continuation of the hina construction with mē and the second aorist subjunctive of apollumi . What Caiaphas has in mind is the giving of Jesus to death to keep the nation from perishing at the hands of the Romans. Politicians are often willing to make a sacrifice of the other fellow.

Robertson: Joh 11:51 - Not of himself Not of himself ( aph' heautou ouk ). Not wholly of himself, John means. There was more in what Caiaphas said than he understood. His language is repe...

Not of himself ( aph' heautou ouk ).

Not wholly of himself, John means. There was more in what Caiaphas said than he understood. His language is repeated in Joh 18:14.

Robertson: Joh 11:51 - Prophesied Prophesied ( eprophēteusen ). Aorist active indicative of prophēteuō . But certainly unconscious prophecy on his part and purely accidental. Ca...

Prophesied ( eprophēteusen ).

Aorist active indicative of prophēteuō . But certainly unconscious prophecy on his part and purely accidental. Caiaphas meant only what was mean and selfish.

Robertson: Joh 11:51 - That Jesus should die That Jesus should die ( hoti emellen Iēsous apothnēskein ). Imperfect active of mellō in indirect discourse instead of the usual present reta...

That Jesus should die ( hoti emellen Iēsous apothnēskein ).

Imperfect active of mellō in indirect discourse instead of the usual present retained after a secondary tense (eprophēteusen ) as sometimes occurs (see Joh 2:25).

Robertson: Joh 11:52 - But that he might also gather together into one But that he might also gather together into one ( all' hina sunagagēi eis hen ). Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctiv...

But that he might also gather together into one ( all' hina sunagagēi eis hen ).

Purpose clause with hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of sunagō . Caiaphas was thinking only of the Jewish people (laou ,ethnos , Joh 11:50). The explanation and interpretation of John here follow the lead of the words of Jesus about the other sheep and the one flock in Joh 10:16.

Robertson: Joh 11:52 - That are scattered abroad That are scattered abroad ( ta dieskorpismena ). Perfect passive articular participle of diaskorpizō , late verb (Polybius, lxx) to scatter apart, ...

That are scattered abroad ( ta dieskorpismena ).

Perfect passive articular participle of diaskorpizō , late verb (Polybius, lxx) to scatter apart, to winnow grain from chaff, only here in John. The meaning here is not the Diaspora (Jews scattered over the world), but the potential children of God in all lands and all ages that the death of Christ will gather "into one"(eis hen ). A glorious idea, but far beyond Caiaphas.

Robertson: Joh 11:53 - So from that day So from that day ( ap' ekeinēs oun tēs hēmeras ). The raising of Lazarus brought matters to a head so to speak. It was now apparently not more ...

So from that day ( ap' ekeinēs oun tēs hēmeras ).

The raising of Lazarus brought matters to a head so to speak. It was now apparently not more than a month before the end.

Robertson: Joh 11:53 - They took counsel They took counsel ( ebouleusanto ). First aorist middle indicative of bouleuō , old verb to take counsel, in the middle voice for themselves, among...

They took counsel ( ebouleusanto ).

First aorist middle indicative of bouleuō , old verb to take counsel, in the middle voice for themselves, among themselves. The Sanhedrin took the advice of Caiaphas seriously and plotted the death of Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 11:53 - That they might put him to death That they might put him to death ( hina apokteinōsin auton ). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of apokteinō . It is...

That they might put him to death ( hina apokteinōsin auton ).

Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of apokteinō . It is an old purpose (Joh 5:18; Joh 7:19; Joh 8:44, Joh 8:59; Joh 10:39; Joh 11:8) now revived with fresh energy due to the raising of Lazarus.

Robertson: Joh 11:54 - Therefore walked no more openly Therefore walked no more openly ( oun ouketi parrēsiāi periepatei ). Imperfect active of peripateō , to walk around. Jesus saw clearly that to ...

Therefore walked no more openly ( oun ouketi parrēsiāi periepatei ).

Imperfect active of peripateō , to walk around. Jesus saw clearly that to do so would bring on the end now instead of his "hour"which was to be at the passover a month ahead.

Robertson: Joh 11:54 - Into the country near to the wilderness Into the country near to the wilderness ( eis tēn chōran eggus tēs erēmou ). It was now in Jerusalem as it had become once in Galilee (Joh 7:...

Into the country near to the wilderness ( eis tēn chōran eggus tēs erēmou ).

It was now in Jerusalem as it had become once in Galilee (Joh 7:1) because of the plots of the hostile Jews. The hill country northeast of Jerusalem was thinly populated.

Robertson: Joh 11:54 - Into a city called Ephraim Into a city called Ephraim ( eis Ephraim legomenēn polin ). Polis here means no more than town or village (kōmē ). The place is not certainl...

Into a city called Ephraim ( eis Ephraim legomenēn polin ).

Polis here means no more than town or village (kōmē ). The place is not certainly known, not mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. Josephus mentions ( War , IV. ix. 9) a small fort near Bethel in the hill country and in 2Ch 13:19 Ephron is named in connexion with Bethel. Up here Jesus would at least be free for the moment from the machinations of the Sanhedrin while he faced the coming catastrophe at the passover. He is not far from the mount of temptation where the devil showed and offered him the kingdoms of the world for the bending of the knee before him. Is it mere fancy to imagine that the devil came to see Jesus again here at this juncture with a reminder of his previous offer and of the present plight of the Son of God with the religious leaders conspiring his death? At any rate Jesus has the fellowship of his disciples this time (meta tōn mathētōn ). But what were they thinking?

Robertson: Joh 11:55 - Was near Was near ( ēn eggus ). See Joh 2:13 for the same phrase. This last passover was the time of destiny for Jesus.

Was near ( ēn eggus ).

See Joh 2:13 for the same phrase. This last passover was the time of destiny for Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 11:55 - Before the passover to purify themselves Before the passover to purify themselves ( pro tou pascha hina hagnisōsin heautous ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjun...

Before the passover to purify themselves ( pro tou pascha hina hagnisōsin heautous ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of hagnizō , old verb from hagnos (pure), ceremonial purification here, of course. All this took time. These came "from the country"(ek tēs chōras ), from all over Palestine, from all parts of the world, in fact. John shifts the scene to Jerusalem just before the passover with no record of the way that Jesus came to Jerusalem from Ephraim. The Synoptic Gospels tell this last journey up through Samaria into Galilee to join the great caravan that crossed over into Perea and came down on the eastern side of the Jordan opposite Jericho and then marched up the mountain road to Bethany and Bethphage just beside Jerusalem. This story is found in Luke 17:11-19:28; Mark 10:1-52; Matt 19:1-20:34. John simply assumes the Synoptic narrative and gives the picture of things in and around Jerusalem just before the passover (Joh 11:56, Joh 11:57).

Robertson: Joh 11:56 - They sought therefore for Jesus They sought therefore for Jesus ( ezētoun oun ton Iēsoun ). Imperfect active of zēteō and common oun of which John is so fond. They were ...

They sought therefore for Jesus ( ezētoun oun ton Iēsoun ).

Imperfect active of zēteō and common oun of which John is so fond. They were seeking Jesus six months before at the feast of tabernacles (Joh 7:11), but now they really mean to kill him.

Robertson: Joh 11:56 - As they stood in the temple As they stood in the temple ( en tōi hierōi hestēkotes ). Perfect active participle (intransitive) of histēmi , a graphic picture of the vari...

As they stood in the temple ( en tōi hierōi hestēkotes ).

Perfect active participle (intransitive) of histēmi , a graphic picture of the various groups of leaders in Jerusalem and from other lands, "the knots of people in the Temple precincts"(Bernard). They had done this at the tabernacles (Joh 7:11-13), but now there is new excitement due to the recent raising of Lazarus and to the public order for the arrest of Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 11:56 - That he will not come to the feast? That he will not come to the feast? ( hoti ou mē elthēi eis tēn heortēn ). The form of the question (indirect discourse after dokeite ) assu...

That he will not come to the feast? ( hoti ou mē elthēi eis tēn heortēn ).

The form of the question (indirect discourse after dokeite ) assumes strongly that Jesus will not (ou mē , double negative with second aorist active elthēi from erchomai ) dare to come this time for the reason given in Joh 11:57.

Robertson: Joh 11:57 - The chief priests and the Pharisees The chief priests and the Pharisees ( hoi archiereis kai hoi Pharisaioi ). The Sanhedrin.

The chief priests and the Pharisees ( hoi archiereis kai hoi Pharisaioi ).

The Sanhedrin.

Robertson: Joh 11:57 - Had given commandment Had given commandment ( dedōkeisan entolas ). Past perfect active of didōmi .

Had given commandment ( dedōkeisan entolas ).

Past perfect active of didōmi .

Robertson: Joh 11:57 - That he should shew it That he should shew it ( hina mēnusēi ). Sub-final hina with first aorist active subjunctive of mēnuō , old verb to disclose, to report for...

That he should shew it ( hina mēnusēi ).

Sub-final hina with first aorist active subjunctive of mēnuō , old verb to disclose, to report formally (Act 23:30).

Robertson: Joh 11:57 - If any man knew If any man knew ( ean tis gnōi ). Third-class condition with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of ginōskō .

If any man knew ( ean tis gnōi ).

Third-class condition with ean and second aorist active subjunctive of ginōskō .

Robertson: Joh 11:57 - Where he was Where he was ( pou estin ). Indirect question with interrogative adverb and present indicative estin retained like gnōi and mēnusēi after...

Where he was ( pou estin ).

Indirect question with interrogative adverb and present indicative estin retained like gnōi and mēnusēi after the secondary tense dedōkeisan .

Robertson: Joh 11:57 - That they might take him That they might take him ( hopōs piasōsin auton ). Purpose clause with hopōs instead of hina and first aorist active subjunctive of piazō...

That they might take him ( hopōs piasōsin auton ).

Purpose clause with hopōs instead of hina and first aorist active subjunctive of piazō so often used before (Joh 7:44, etc.).

Vincent: Joh 11:1 - Now Now ( δὲ ) Marking the interruption to Jesus' retirement (Joh 10:40).

Now ( δὲ )

Marking the interruption to Jesus' retirement (Joh 10:40).

Vincent: Joh 11:1 - Lazarus Lazarus See on Luk 16:20.

Lazarus

See on Luk 16:20.

Vincent: Joh 11:2 - Anointed Anointed ( ἀλείψασα ) Three words for anointing are found in the New Testament: ἀλείφω, χρίω , and its compounds, and...

Anointed ( ἀλείψασα )

Three words for anointing are found in the New Testament: ἀλείφω, χρίω , and its compounds, and μυρίζω . The last is used but once, Mar 14:8, of anointing the Lord's body for burying. Between the two others the distinction is strictly maintained. Χρίω , which occurs five times, is used in every case but one of the anointing of the Son by the Father With the Holy Spirit (Luk 4:18; Act 4:27; Act 10:38; Heb 1:9). In the remaining instance (2Co 1:21) of enduing Christians with the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Thus the word is confined to sacred anointing. Ἁλείφω is used of all actual anointings. See Mat 6:17; Mar 6:13; Luk 7:38; Jam 5:14. The same distinction is generally maintained in the Septuagint, though with a few exceptions, as Num 3:3.

Vincent: Joh 11:3 - Thou lovest Thou lovest ( φιλεῖς ) See on Joh 5:20. " They do not say, come . He who loves needs but know" (Bengel).

Thou lovest ( φιλεῖς )

See on Joh 5:20. " They do not say, come . He who loves needs but know" (Bengel).

Vincent: Joh 11:4 - Unto death Unto death Not to have death as its final issue.

Unto death

Not to have death as its final issue.

Vincent: Joh 11:4 - For the glory For the glory ( ὑπὲρ ) Here, as elsewhere in John, in behalf of . Canon Westcott remarks: " The sickness is regarded in a triple rel...

For the glory ( ὑπὲρ )

Here, as elsewhere in John, in behalf of . Canon Westcott remarks: " The sickness is regarded in a triple relation; unto , in respect of the actual result; in behalf of , in respect of the suffering born; in order that , in respect of the divine purpose."

Vincent: Joh 11:5 - Loved Loved ( ἠγάπα ) Notice the verb here: not φιλεῖς , as Joh 11:3. See on Joh 5:20. Lazarus is not mentioned in Luk 10:38 sqq.

Loved ( ἠγάπα )

Notice the verb here: not φιλεῖς , as Joh 11:3. See on Joh 5:20. Lazarus is not mentioned in Luk 10:38 sqq.

Vincent: Joh 11:8 - Of late sought Of late sought ( νῦν ἐζήτουν ) Rev., much better, giving the true force of νῦν , now , and of the imperfect: were but ...

Of late sought ( νῦν ἐζήτουν )

Rev., much better, giving the true force of νῦν , now , and of the imperfect: were but now seeking .

Vincent: Joh 11:8 - Goest Goest ( ὑπάγεις ) Dost thou withdraw from this safe retreat? See on Joh 6:21; see on Joh 8:21.

Goest ( ὑπάγεις )

Dost thou withdraw from this safe retreat? See on Joh 6:21; see on Joh 8:21.

Vincent: Joh 11:9 - Walk Walk ( περιπατῇ ) Walk about , in the pursuit of his ordinary business. Wyc., wander .

Walk ( περιπατῇ )

Walk about , in the pursuit of his ordinary business. Wyc., wander .

Vincent: Joh 11:11 - Sleepeth Sleepeth ( κεκοίμηται ) More correctly, as Rev., hath fallen asleep . See on Act 7:60; see on 2Pe 3:4.

Sleepeth ( κεκοίμηται )

More correctly, as Rev., hath fallen asleep . See on Act 7:60; see on 2Pe 3:4.

Vincent: Joh 11:11 - Awake him out of sleep Awake him out of sleep ( ἐξυπνίσω αὐτόν ) Only here in the New Testament.

Awake him out of sleep ( ἐξυπνίσω αὐτόν )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: Joh 11:12 - Shall do well Shall do well ( σωθήσεται ) Literally, shall be saved . Rev., he will recover . Wyc., shall be safe . Tyndale's Version...

Shall do well ( σωθήσεται )

Literally, shall be saved . Rev., he will recover . Wyc., shall be safe . Tyndale's Version of the New Testament, shall he do well enough .

Vincent: Joh 11:13 - Taking rest Taking rest ( κοιμήσεως ) Akin to the verb in Joh 11:11. Wyc., the sleeping of sleep . Tyndale's Version of the New Testament, ...

Taking rest ( κοιμήσεως )

Akin to the verb in Joh 11:11. Wyc., the sleeping of sleep . Tyndale's Version of the New Testament, the natural sleep .

Vincent: Joh 11:15 - For your sakes - to the intent ye may believe For your sakes - to the intent ye may believe These two clauses, which are separated in the A.V. and Rev., are, in the Greek order, placed togeth...

For your sakes - to the intent ye may believe

These two clauses, which are separated in the A.V. and Rev., are, in the Greek order, placed together: for your sakes , to the intent ye may believe; the latter clause being explanatory of the former.

Vincent: Joh 11:15 - That I was not there That I was not there Bengel's comment is beautiful and characteristic. " It accords beautifully with divine propriety that we read of no one havi...

That I was not there

Bengel's comment is beautiful and characteristic. " It accords beautifully with divine propriety that we read of no one having died while the Prince of life was present. If you suppose that death could not, in the presence of Jesus, have assailed Lazarus, the language of the two sisters, Joh 11:21, Joh 11:32, attains loftier meaning; and the Lord's joy at His own absence is explained."

Vincent: Joh 11:15 - Unto him Unto him ( πρὸς αὐτόν ) Most touching. To him , as though he were yet living. Death has not broken the personal relation of the L...

Unto him ( πρὸς αὐτόν )

Most touching. To him , as though he were yet living. Death has not broken the personal relation of the Lord with His friend.

Vincent: Joh 11:16 - Didymus Didymus ( Δίδυμος ) Not a surname of Thomas, but the Greek equivalent of the Aramaic name, twin . See on Mar 3:18. The word occurs only...

Didymus ( Δίδυμος )

Not a surname of Thomas, but the Greek equivalent of the Aramaic name, twin . See on Mar 3:18. The word occurs only in John's Gospel.

Vincent: Joh 11:16 - Fellow-disciples Fellow-disciples ( συμμαθηταῖς ) Only here in the New Testament.

Fellow-disciples ( συμμαθηταῖς )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: Joh 11:16 - We may die We may die " He will die for the love which he has, but he will not affect the faith which he has not" (Westcott).

We may die

" He will die for the love which he has, but he will not affect the faith which he has not" (Westcott).

Vincent: Joh 11:17 - Had lain in the grave four days already Had lain in the grave four days already ( τέσσαρας ἡμέρας ἤδη ἔχοντα ἐν τῷ μνημείῳ ) Li...

Had lain in the grave four days already ( τέσσαρας ἡμέρας ἤδη ἔχοντα ἐν τῷ μνημείῳ )

Literally, found him having already four days in the tomb .

Vincent: Joh 11:18 - Fifteen furlongs Fifteen furlongs About two miles.

Fifteen furlongs

About two miles.

Vincent: Joh 11:19 - Many of the Jews came Many of the Jews came Rev., rightly, had come . The tense is the pluperfect. Lazarus' friendship with Jesus had not caused him to be regarded ...

Many of the Jews came

Rev., rightly, had come . The tense is the pluperfect. Lazarus' friendship with Jesus had not caused him to be regarded as an apostate, at whose burial every indignity would have been shown. People were even to array themselves in white, festive garments in demonstration of joy. Here, on the contrary, every token of sympathy and respect seems to have been shown.

Vincent: Joh 11:19 - To Martha and Mary To Martha and Mary ( πρὸς τὰς περὶ Μάρθαν καὶ Μαρίαν ). Literally, to those about Martha and Mar...

To Martha and Mary ( πρὸς τὰς περὶ Μάρθαν καὶ Μαρίαν ).

Literally, to those about Martha and Mary; a Greek idiom for Martha and Mary and their companions , or attendants . Compare οἱ περὶ Παῦλον , Paul and his companions (Act 13:13). Somewhat analogous is our familiar idiom when we speak of going to visit a household: I am going to Smith's or Brown's , by which we include the head of the household with its members. Westcott and Hort and Tregelles, however, read πρὸς τὴν Μάρθαν κ. Μ. , to Martha and Mary . So also the Revisers' text.

Vincent: Joh 11:20 - That Jesus was coming That Jesus was coming ( ὅτι ὁ Ιησοῦς ἔρχεται ) Literally, is coming. The exact words of the message: Jesus is ...

That Jesus was coming ( ὅτι ὁ Ιησοῦς ἔρχεται )

Literally, is coming. The exact words of the message: Jesus is coming .

Vincent: Joh 11:20 - Went and met Went and met ( ὐπήντησεν ) The verb means to go to meet .

Went and met ( ὐπήντησεν )

The verb means to go to meet .

Vincent: Joh 11:22 - Wilt ask of God Wilt ask of God ( αἰτήσῃ τὸν Θεόν ) The verb αἰτέω is used of the asking of an inferior from a superior. Ἑρ...

Wilt ask of God ( αἰτήσῃ τὸν Θεόν )

The verb αἰτέω is used of the asking of an inferior from a superior. Ἑρωτάω is to ask on equal terms, and hence is always used by Christ of His own asking from the Father, in the consciousness of His equal dignity. Hence Martha, as Trench observes, " plainly reveals her poor, unworthy conception of His person, that she recognizes in Him no more than a prophet, when she ascribes that asking (αἰτεῖσθαι ) to Him which He never ascribes to Himself" (" Synonyms" ). Bengel says: " Martha did not speak in Greek, yet John expresses her inaccurate remark, which the Lord kindly tolerated." See on Mat 15:23.

Vincent: Joh 11:24 - In the resurrection In the resurrection Wyc., the again rising .

In the resurrection

Wyc., the again rising .

Vincent: Joh 11:25 - I am the resurrection and the life I am the resurrection and the life The words I am are very significant. Martha had stated the resurrection rather as a doctrine , a cur...

I am the resurrection and the life

The words I am are very significant. Martha had stated the resurrection rather as a doctrine , a current tenet: Jesus states it as a fact , identified with His own person. He does not say, I raise the dead; I perform the resurrection, but I am the resurrection, In His own person, representing humanity, He exhibits man as immortal, but immortal only through union with Him.

Vincent: Joh 11:25 - The life The life The life is the larger and inclusive idea. Resurrection is involved in life as an incident developed by the temporary and apparent trium...

The life

The life is the larger and inclusive idea. Resurrection is involved in life as an incident developed by the temporary and apparent triumph of death. All true life is in Christ. In Him is lodged everything that is essential to life, in its origin, its maintenance, and its consummation, and all this is conveyed to the believer in his union with Him. This life is not affected by death. " Every believer is in reality and forever sheltered from death. To die with full light, in the clear certainty of the life which is in Jesus, to die only to continue to live to Him, is no longer that fact which human language designates by the name of death. It is as though Jesus had said: In me death is certain to live, and the living is certain never to die" (Godet). On ζωή , life , see on Joh 1:4.

Vincent: Joh 11:25 - He were dead He were dead ( ἀποθάνῃ ) The aorist denotes an event , not a condition . Hence, much better, Rev., though he die .

He were dead ( ἀποθάνῃ )

The aorist denotes an event , not a condition . Hence, much better, Rev., though he die .

Vincent: Joh 11:27 - I believe I believe ( πεπίστευκα ) Literally, I have believed . The perfect tense. So Rev. Martha goes back to her previous belief, which ...

I believe ( πεπίστευκα )

Literally, I have believed . The perfect tense. So Rev. Martha goes back to her previous belief, which consists in the recognition of Christ as her Lord. Whatever faith she has in this new revelation of Christ rests upon the truth that He is the Anointed, the Son of God, even He that cometh into the world.

Vincent: Joh 11:28 - The Master The Master ( ὁ διδάσκαλος ) Literally, the teacher . Westcott remarks that this title opens a glimpse into the private intercou...

The Master ( ὁ διδάσκαλος )

Literally, the teacher . Westcott remarks that this title opens a glimpse into the private intercourse of the Lord and the disciples: so they spoke of Him.

Vincent: Joh 11:28 - Is come Is come ( πάρεστιν ) Literally, is present . Rev., is here .

Is come ( πάρεστιν )

Literally, is present . Rev., is here .

Vincent: Joh 11:29 - Arose and came Arose and came ( ἠγέρθη καὶ ἤρχετο ) The aorist, arose , marks the single, instantaneous act of rising. The imperfect, ...

Arose and came ( ἠγέρθη καὶ ἤρχετο )

The aorist, arose , marks the single, instantaneous act of rising. The imperfect, was coming , the progress towards Jesus.

Vincent: Joh 11:31 - Saying Saying ( λέγοντες ) The best texts read δόξαντες , supposing . So Rev.

Saying ( λέγοντες )

The best texts read δόξαντες , supposing . So Rev.

Vincent: Joh 11:31 - She goeth She goeth ( ὑπάγει ) Withdraweth from our company. See on Joh 6:21; see on Joh 8:21.

She goeth ( ὑπάγει )

Withdraweth from our company. See on Joh 6:21; see on Joh 8:21.

Vincent: Joh 11:31 - To weep To weep ( ἵνα κλαύσῃ ) Rev., in margin, wail . The word means loud weeping. See Mat 2:18; Mar 5:38; and on Luk 6:21; Luk 7:32...

To weep ( ἵνα κλαύσῃ )

Rev., in margin, wail . The word means loud weeping. See Mat 2:18; Mar 5:38; and on Luk 6:21; Luk 7:32.

Vincent: Joh 11:33 - He groaned in the spirit He groaned in the spirit ( ἐνεβριμήσατο τῷ πνεύματι ) See on Mar 1:43. The word for groaned occurs three times ...

He groaned in the spirit ( ἐνεβριμήσατο τῷ πνεύματι )

See on Mar 1:43. The word for groaned occurs three times elsewhere: Mat 9:30; Mar 1:43; Mar 14:5. In every case it expresses a charge , or remonstrance , accompanied with a feeling of displeasure. On this passage there are two lines of interpretation, both of them assuming the meaning just stated. (1) Τῷ πνευ.ματι , the spirit , is regarded as the object of Jesus' inward charge or remonstrance. This is explained variously: as that Jesus sternly rebuked the natural shrinking of His human spirit, and summoned it to the decisive conflict with death; or that He checked its impulse to put forth His divine energy at once. (2) Takes in the spirit , as representing the sphere of feeling , as Joh 13:21; Mar 8:12; Luk 10:21. Some explain the feeling as indignation at the hypocritical mourning of the Jews, or at their unbelief and the sisters' misapprehension; others as indignation at the temporary triumph of Satan, who had the power of death.

The interpretation which explains τῷ πνεύματι as the sphere of feeling is to be preferred. Comp. Joh 11:38, in himself . The nature of the particular emotion of Jesus must remain largely a matter of conjecture. Rev. renders, in margin, was moved with indignation in the spirit .

Vincent: Joh 11:33 - Was troubled Was troubled ( ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτὸν ) Literally, troubled Himself . Probably of the outward manifestation of His strong feeli...

Was troubled ( ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτὸν )

Literally, troubled Himself . Probably of the outward manifestation of His strong feeling.

Vincent: Joh 11:35 - Wept Wept ( ἐδάκρυσεν ) A different verb from that in Joh 11:31. From δάκρυ , tear , and meaning to shed tears , to weep ...

Wept ( ἐδάκρυσεν )

A different verb from that in Joh 11:31. From δάκρυ , tear , and meaning to shed tears , to weep silently . Only here in the New Testament. Κλαίω , to weep audibly , is once used of our Lord in Luk 19:41. " The very Gospel in which the deity of Jesus is most clearly asserted, is also that which makes us best acquainted with the profoundly human side of His life" (Godet). How far such a conception of deity is removed from the pagan ideal, may be seen by even a superficial study of the classics. Homer's gods and goddesses weep and bellow when wounded, but are not touched with the feeling of human infirmity (see on Joh 3:16). " The gods," says Gladstone, " while they dispense afflictions upon earth, which are neither sweetened by love, nor elevated by a distinct disciplinary purpose, take care to keep themselves beyond all touch of grief or care."

" The gods ordain

The lot of man to suffer, while themselves

Are free from care."

" Iliad ," xxiv ., 525 .

So Diana, when appealed to by the wretched Hippolytus for sympathy, replies:

" I see thy love, but must not shed a tear."

Euripides , " Hippolytes ," 1396 .

The Roman satirist unconsciously bears witness to the profound truthfulness and beauty of this picture of the weeping Savior, in the words: " Nature confesses that she gives the tenderest of hearts to the human race by giving them tears: this is the best part of our sensations" (Juvenal, " Satire" xv., 131-133).

Vincent: Joh 11:36 - Loved Loved ( ἐφίλει ) Not the word in Joh 11:5. See on Joh 5:20, and compare Joh 20:2.

Loved ( ἐφίλει )

Not the word in Joh 11:5. See on Joh 5:20, and compare Joh 20:2.

Vincent: Joh 11:37 - Of the blind Of the blind ( τοῦτυφλοῦ ) Referring to the restoration of the blind man in ch. 9. The A.V. is too indefinite. Rev., rightly, of ...

Of the blind ( τοῦτυφλοῦ )

Referring to the restoration of the blind man in ch. 9. The A.V. is too indefinite. Rev., rightly, of him that was blind .

Vincent: Joh 11:37 - Have caused, etc Have caused, etc. This saying of the Jews may have been uttered ironically, in which case it throws light on the meaning of groaned in the ...

Have caused, etc.

This saying of the Jews may have been uttered ironically, in which case it throws light on the meaning of groaned in the spirit (Joh 11:33) and of groaning in Himself in the next verse. But the words may have been spoken sincerely.

Vincent: Joh 11:38 - Lay upon Lay upon ( ἐπέκειτο ) This would be the meaning if the tomb were a vertical pit; but if hollowed horizontally into the rock, it may m...

Lay upon ( ἐπέκειτο )

This would be the meaning if the tomb were a vertical pit; but if hollowed horizontally into the rock, it may mean lay against . The traditional tomb of Lazarus is of the former kind, being descended into by a ladder.

Vincent: Joh 11:39 - Take ye away Take ye away The stone was placed over the entrance mainly to guard against wild beasts, and could easily be removed.

Take ye away

The stone was placed over the entrance mainly to guard against wild beasts, and could easily be removed.

Vincent: Joh 11:39 - The sister of him that was dead The sister of him that was dead An apparently superfluous detail, but added in order to give point to her remonstrance at the removal of the ston...

The sister of him that was dead

An apparently superfluous detail, but added in order to give point to her remonstrance at the removal of the stone, by emphasizing the natural reluctance of a sister to have the corrupted body of her brother exposed.

Vincent: Joh 11:39 - Stinketh Stinketh ( ὄζει ) Only here in the New Testament. Not indicating an experience of her sense , which has been maintained by some ...

Stinketh ( ὄζει )

Only here in the New Testament. Not indicating an experience of her sense , which has been maintained by some expositors, and sometimes expressed in the pictorial treatment of the subject, but merely her inference from the fact that he had been dead four days.

Vincent: Joh 11:39 - He hath been dead four days He hath been dead four days ( τεταρταῖος ἐστιν ) A peculiar Greek idiom. He is a fourth-day man . So Act 28:13, afte...

He hath been dead four days ( τεταρταῖος ἐστιν )

A peculiar Greek idiom. He is a fourth-day man . So Act 28:13, after one day: literally, being second-day men , The common Jewish idea was that the soul hovered about the body until the third day, when corruption began, and it took its flight.

Vincent: Joh 11:41 - From the place where the dead was laid From the place where the dead was laid Omit.

From the place where the dead was laid

Omit.

Vincent: Joh 11:42 - The people The people ( τὸν ὄχλον ) In view of the distinction which John habitually makes between the Jews and the multitude , the u...

The people ( τὸν ὄχλον )

In view of the distinction which John habitually makes between the Jews and the multitude , the use of the latter term here is noticeable, since Jews occurs at Joh 11:19, Joh 11:31, Joh 11:36. It would seem to indicate that a miscellaneous crowd had gathered. Rev., the multitude . See on Joh 1:19.

Vincent: Joh 11:43 - Come forth Come forth ( δεῦρο ἔξω ) Literally, hither forth .

Come forth ( δεῦρο ἔξω )

Literally, hither forth .

Vincent: Joh 11:44 - Grave-clothes Grave-clothes ( κειρίαις ) Literally, swathing-bands . Only here in the New Testament. In Joh 19:40; Joh 20:5, Joh 20:7, ὀθόν...

Grave-clothes ( κειρίαις )

Literally, swathing-bands . Only here in the New Testament. In Joh 19:40; Joh 20:5, Joh 20:7, ὀθόνια , linen bands , is used.

Vincent: Joh 11:44 - A napkin A napkin ( σουδαρι.ῳ ) See on Luk 19:20. It is interesting to compare this Gospel picture of sisterly affection under the shadow of de...

A napkin ( σουδαρι.ῳ )

See on Luk 19:20.

It is interesting to compare this Gospel picture of sisterly affection under the shadow of death, with the same sentiment as exhibited in Greek tragedy, especially in Sophocles, by whom it is developed with wonderful power, both in the " Antigone" and in the " Electra."

In the former, Antigone, the consummate female figure of the Greek drama, falls a victim to her love for her dead brother. Both here, and in the " Electra," sisterly love is complicated with another and sterner sentiment: in the " Antigone" with indignant defiance of the edict which refuses burial to her brother; in the " Electra" with the long-cherished craving for vengeance. Electra longs for her absent brother Orestes, as the minister of retribution rather than as the solace of loneliness and sorrow. His supposed death is to her, therefore, chiefly the defeat of the passionate, deadly purpose of her whole life. Antigone lives for her kindred, and is sustained under her own sad fate by the hope of rejoining them in the next world. She believes in the permanence of personal existence.

" And yet I go and feed myself with hopes

That I shall meet them, by my father loved,

Dear to my mother, well-beloved of thee,

Thou darling brother" (897-900).

And again,

" Loved, I shall be with him whom I have loved

Guilty of holiest crime. More time is mine

In which to share the favor of the dead,

Than that of those who live; for I shall rest

Forever there" (73-76).

No such hope illuminates the grief of Electra.

" Ah, Orestes!

Dear brother, in thy death thou slayest me;

For thou art gone, bereaving my poor heart

Of all the little hope that yet remained

That thou wouldst come, a living minister

Of vengeance for thy father and for me" (807-812).

And again,

" If thou suggestest any hope from those

So clearly gone to Hades, then on me,

Wasting with sorrow, thou wilt trample more" (832-834).

When she is asked,

" What! shall I ever bring the dead to life?"

she replies,

" I meant not that: I am not quite so mad."

In the household of Bethany, the grief of the two sisters, unlike that of the Greek maidens, is unmixed with any other sentiment, save perhaps a tinge of a feeling bordering on reproach that Jesus had not been there to avert their calamity. Comfort from the hope of reunion with the dead is not expressed by them, and is hardly implied in their assertion of the doctrine of a future resurrection, which to them, is a general matter having little or no bearing on their personal grief. In this particular, so far as expression indicates, the advantage is on the side of the Theban maiden. Though her hope is the outgrowth of her affection rather than of her religious training - a thought which is the child of a wish - she never loses her grasp upon the expectation of rejoining her beloved dead.

But the gospel story is thrown into strongest contrast with the classical by the truth of resurrection which dominates it in the person and energy of the Lord of life. Jesus enters at once as the consolation of bereaved love, and the eternal solution of the problem of life and death. The idea which Electra sneered at as madness, is here a realized fact. Beautiful, wonderful as is the action which the drama evolves out of the conflict of sisterly love with death, the curtain falls on death as victor. Into the gospel story Jesus brings a benefaction, a lesson, and a triumph. His warm sympathy, His comforting words, His tears at His friend's tomb, are in significant contrast with the politic, timid, at times reproachful attitude of the chorus of Theban elders towards Antigone. The consummation of both dramas is unmitigated horror. Suicide solves the problem for Antigone, and Electra receives back her brother as from the dead, only to incite him to murder, and to gloat with him over the victims. It is a beautiful feature of the Gospel narrative that it seems, if we may so speak, to retire with an instinctive delicacy from the joy of that reunited household. It breaks off abruptly with the words, " Loose him, and let him go." The imagination alone follows the sisters with their brother, perchance with Christ, behind the closed door, and hears the sacred interchanges of that wonderful communing. Tennyson, with a deep and truly Christian perception, has struck its key-note.

" Her eyes are homes of silent prayer,

Nor other thought her mind admits

But, he was dead, and there he sits!

And He that brought him back is there.

Then one deep love doth supersede

All other, when her ardent gaze

Roves from the living brother's face

And rests upon the Life indeed."

" In Memoriam ."

Vincent: Joh 11:45 - The things which Jesus did The things which Jesus did The best texts omit Jesus . Some read ὃ , that which He did; others ἃ , the things which .

The things which Jesus did

The best texts omit Jesus . Some read ὃ , that which He did; others ἃ , the things which .

Vincent: Joh 11:46 - Some of them Some of them Not of the Jews who had come to Mary, but some of the Jews, some perhaps who had joined the crowd from curiosity.

Some of them

Not of the Jews who had come to Mary, but some of the Jews, some perhaps who had joined the crowd from curiosity.

Vincent: Joh 11:47 - The chief priests The chief priests Of the Sadducean party. This should be constantly kept in mind in reading both John's narrative and that of the Synoptists. The...

The chief priests

Of the Sadducean party. This should be constantly kept in mind in reading both John's narrative and that of the Synoptists. The Sadducees, represented by the chief priests, are the leaders in the more decisive measures against Christ. Throughout this Gospel the form of expression is either the chief priests alone, or the chief priests and the Pharisees. The only mention of the Pharisees in the history of the passion is Mat 27:62, where also the expression is the chief priests and Pharisees . The chief priests are the deadly enemies of Christ (Mat 26:3,Mat 26:14). Similarly, in the Acts, the opposition to the Christians is headed by the priests and Sadducees, who represent the same party. In the two instances where the Pharisees appear, they incline to favor the Christians (Act 5:34; Act 23:6).

Vincent: Joh 11:47 - A council A council ( συνέδριον ) Correctly, and not the council, which would require the article. The meaning is, they called a sitting of ...

A council ( συνέδριον )

Correctly, and not the council, which would require the article. The meaning is, they called a sitting of the Sanhedrim; probably as distinguished from a formal meeting of that body.

Vincent: Joh 11:47 - What do we? What do we? The present tense, indicating an emergency. This man is at work teaching and working miracles, and what are we doing?

What do we?

The present tense, indicating an emergency. This man is at work teaching and working miracles, and what are we doing?

Vincent: Joh 11:48 - Place and nation Place and nation ( τὸν τόπον καὶ τὸ ἔθνος ) Place , the temple and city (Act 6:13; Act 21:28; Mat 24:15). Nation ...

Place and nation ( τὸν τόπον καὶ τὸ ἔθνος )

Place , the temple and city (Act 6:13; Act 21:28; Mat 24:15). Nation , the civil organization. See on 1Pe 2:9; see on Luk 2:32. In the Sanhedrim were many devoted adherents of Rome, and the rest were well aware of the weakness of the national power.

Vincent: Joh 11:49 - Caiaphas Caiaphas A Sadducee, who held the office for eighteen years.

Caiaphas

A Sadducee, who held the office for eighteen years.

Vincent: Joh 11:49 - That year That year This has been cited to show that John is guilty of a historical error, since, according to the Mosaic law, the high priesthood was held...

That year

This has been cited to show that John is guilty of a historical error, since, according to the Mosaic law, the high priesthood was held for life. The occurrence of the phrase three times (Joh 11:49, Joh 11:51) is significant, and, so far from indicating an error, goes to connect the office of Caiaphas with his part in accomplishing the death of Christ. It devolved on the High Priest to offer every year the great sacrifice of atonement for sin; and in that year , that memorable year, it fell to Caiaphas to be the instrument of the sacrifice of Him that taketh away the sin of the world. Dante places Caiaphas and his father-in-law, Annas, far down in Hell in the Bolgia of the Hypocrites:

" to mine eyes there rushed

One crucified with three stakes on the ground.

When me he saw, he writhed himself all over,

Blowing into his beard with suspirations;

And the friar Catalan who noticed this,

Said to me: 'This transfixed one whom thou seest,

Counselled the Pharisees that it was meet

To put one man to torture for the people.

Crosswrise and naked is he on the path,

As thou perceivest; and he needs must feel,

Whoever passes, first how much he weighs;

And in like mode his father-in-law is punished

Within this moat, and the others of the council,

Which for the Jews was a malignant seed."

" Inferno ," xxiii ., 110-129 .

Dean Plumptre suggests that the punishment described by the poet seems to reproduce the thought of Isa 51:23.

Vincent: Joh 11:50 - People - nation People - nation ( τοῦ λαοῦ - τὸ ἔθνος ) The former the theocratic nation , the people of God: the latter, the b...

People - nation ( τοῦ λαοῦ - τὸ ἔθνος )

The former the theocratic nation , the people of God: the latter, the body politic . See on 1Pe 2:9.

Vincent: Joh 11:52 - Nation Nation ( ἔθνους ) John does not used the word λαός , people , which Caiaphas had just employed. The Jews were no longer a peopl...

Nation ( ἔθνους )

John does not used the word λαός , people , which Caiaphas had just employed. The Jews were no longer a people , only one of the nations of the world. He wishes to set the Gentiles over against the Jews, and this distinction was national. Moreover, John points out in this word the fact that the work of Christ was not to be for any people as specially chosen of God, but for all nations .

Vincent: Joh 11:54 - Wilderness Wilderness The wild hill-country, northeast of Jerusalem.

Wilderness

The wild hill-country, northeast of Jerusalem.

Vincent: Joh 11:54 - Ephraim Ephraim The site is uncertain. Commonly taken as Ophrah (1Sa 13:17), or Ephraim (2Ch 13:19), and identified with el-Taiyibeh , sixteen miles...

Ephraim

The site is uncertain. Commonly taken as Ophrah (1Sa 13:17), or Ephraim (2Ch 13:19), and identified with el-Taiyibeh , sixteen miles from Jerusalem, and situated on a hill which commands the Jordan valley.

Wesley: Joh 11:1 - One Lazarus It is probable, Lazarus was younger than his sisters. Bethany is named, the town of Mary and Martha, and Lazarus is mentioned after them, Joh 11:5. Ec...

It is probable, Lazarus was younger than his sisters. Bethany is named, the town of Mary and Martha, and Lazarus is mentioned after them, Joh 11:5. Ecclesiastical history informs us, that Lazarus was now thirty years old, and that he lived thirty years after Christ's ascension.

Wesley: Joh 11:2 - It was that Mary who afterward anointed, &c. She was more known than her elder sister Martha, and as such is named before her.

She was more known than her elder sister Martha, and as such is named before her.

Wesley: Joh 11:4 - This sickness is not to death, but for the glory of God The event of this sickness will not be death, in the usual sense of the word, a final separation of his soul and body; but a manifestation of the glor...

The event of this sickness will not be death, in the usual sense of the word, a final separation of his soul and body; but a manifestation of the glorious power of God.

Wesley: Joh 11:7 - Let us go into Judea From the country east of Jordan, whither he had retired some time before, when the Jews sought to stone him, Joh 10:39-40.

From the country east of Jordan, whither he had retired some time before, when the Jews sought to stone him, Joh 10:39-40.

Wesley: Joh 11:9 - Are there not twelve hours in the day? The Jews always divided the space from sunrise to sunset, were the days longer or shorter, into twelve parts: so that the hours of their day were all ...

The Jews always divided the space from sunrise to sunset, were the days longer or shorter, into twelve parts: so that the hours of their day were all the year the same in number, though much shorter in winter than in summer.

Wesley: Joh 11:9 - If any man walk in the day he stumbleth not As if he had said, So there is such a space, a determined time, which God has allotted me. During that time I stumble not, amidst all the snares that ...

As if he had said, So there is such a space, a determined time, which God has allotted me. During that time I stumble not, amidst all the snares that are laid for me.

Wesley: Joh 11:9 - Because he seeth the light of this world And so I see the light of God surrounding me.

And so I see the light of God surrounding me.

Wesley: Joh 11:10 - But if a man walk in the night If he have not light from God; if his providence does no longer protect him.

If he have not light from God; if his providence does no longer protect him.

Wesley: Joh 11:11 - Our friend Lazarus sleepeth This he spoke, just when he died.

This he spoke, just when he died.

Wesley: Joh 11:11 - Sleepeth Such is the death of good men in the language of heaven. But the disciples did not yet understand this language. And the slowness of our understanding...

Such is the death of good men in the language of heaven. But the disciples did not yet understand this language. And the slowness of our understanding makes the Scripture often descend to our barbarous manner of speaking.

Wesley: Joh 11:16 - -- Thomas in Hebrew, as Didymus in Greek, signifies a twin.

Thomas in Hebrew, as Didymus in Greek, signifies a twin.

Wesley: Joh 11:16 - With him With Jesus, whom he supposed the Jews would kill. It seems to be the language of despair.

With Jesus, whom he supposed the Jews would kill. It seems to be the language of despair.

Wesley: Joh 11:20 - Mary sat in the house Probably not hearing what was said.

Probably not hearing what was said.

Wesley: Joh 11:22 - Whatsoever thou wilt ask, God will give it thee So that she already believed he could raise him from the dead.

So that she already believed he could raise him from the dead.

Wesley: Joh 11:25 - l am the resurrection Of the dead.

Of the dead.

Wesley: Joh 11:25 - And the life Of the living. He that believeth in me, though he die, yet shall he live - In life everlasting.

Of the living. He that believeth in me, though he die, yet shall he live - In life everlasting.

Wesley: Joh 11:32 - She fell at his feet This Martha had not done. So she makes amends for her slowness in coming.

This Martha had not done. So she makes amends for her slowness in coming.

Wesley: Joh 11:33 - He groaned So he restrained his tears. So he stopped them soon after, Joh 11:38.

So he restrained his tears. So he stopped them soon after, Joh 11:38.

Wesley: Joh 11:33 - He troubled himself An expression amazingly elegant, and full of the highest propriety. For the affections of Jesus were not properly passions, but voluntary emotions, wh...

An expression amazingly elegant, and full of the highest propriety. For the affections of Jesus were not properly passions, but voluntary emotions, which were wholly in his own power. And this tender trouble which he now voluntarily sustained, was full of the highest order and reason.

Wesley: Joh 11:35 - Jesus wept Out of sympathy with those who were in tears all around him, as well as from a deep sense of the misery sin had brought upon human nature.

Out of sympathy with those who were in tears all around him, as well as from a deep sense of the misery sin had brought upon human nature.

Wesley: Joh 11:37 - Could not this person have even caused, that this man should not have died? Yet they never dreamed that he could raise him again! What a strange mixture of faith and unbelief.

Yet they never dreamed that he could raise him again! What a strange mixture of faith and unbelief.

Wesley: Joh 11:38 - It was a cave So Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their wives, except Rachel, were buried in the cave of Machpelah, Gen 49:29-31. These caves were commonly in rocks, ...

So Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their wives, except Rachel, were buried in the cave of Machpelah, Gen 49:29-31. These caves were commonly in rocks, which abounded in that country, either hollowed by nature or hewn by art. And the entrance was shut up with a great stone, which sometimes had a monumental inscription.

Wesley: Joh 11:39 - Lord, by this time he stinketh Thus did reason and faith struggle together.

Thus did reason and faith struggle together.

Wesley: Joh 11:40 - Said I not It appears by this, that Christ had said more to Martha than is before recorded.

It appears by this, that Christ had said more to Martha than is before recorded.

Wesley: Joh 11:41 - Jesus lifted up his eyes Not as if he applied to his Father for assistance. There is not the least show of this. He wrought the miracle with an air of absolute sovereignty, as...

Not as if he applied to his Father for assistance. There is not the least show of this. He wrought the miracle with an air of absolute sovereignty, as the Lord of life and death. But it was as if he had said, I thank thee, that by the disposal of thy providence, thou hast granted my desire, in this remarkable opportunity of exerting my power, and showing forth thy praise.

Wesley: Joh 11:43 - He cried with a loud voice That all who were present might hear. Lazarus, come forth - Jesus called him out of the tomb as easily as if he had been not only alive, but awake als...

That all who were present might hear. Lazarus, come forth - Jesus called him out of the tomb as easily as if he had been not only alive, but awake also.

Wesley: Joh 11:44 - And he came forth bound hand and foot with grave clothes Which were wrapt round each hand and each foot, and his face was wrapt about with a napkin - If the Jews buried as the Egyptians did, the face was not...

Which were wrapt round each hand and each foot, and his face was wrapt about with a napkin - If the Jews buried as the Egyptians did, the face was not covered with it, but it only went round the forehead, and under the chin; so that he might easily see his way.

Wesley: Joh 11:45 - Many believed on Him And so the Son of God was glorified, according to what our Lord had said, Joh 11:4.

And so the Son of God was glorified, according to what our Lord had said, Joh 11:4.

Wesley: Joh 11:46 - But some of them went to the Pharisees What a dreadful confirmation of that weighty truth, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the d...

What a dreadful confirmation of that weighty truth, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead!

Wesley: Joh 11:47 - What do we? What? Believe. Yea, but death yields to the power of Christ sooner than infidelity.

What? Believe. Yea, but death yields to the power of Christ sooner than infidelity.

Wesley: Joh 11:48 - All men will believe And receive him as the Messiah.

And receive him as the Messiah.

Wesley: Joh 11:48 - And this will give such umbrage to the Romans that they will come and subvert both our place Temple; and nation - Both our Church and state. Were they really afraid of this? Or was it a fair colour only? Certainly it was no more. For they coul...

Temple; and nation - Both our Church and state. Were they really afraid of this? Or was it a fair colour only? Certainly it was no more. For they could not but know, that he that raised the dead was able to conquer the Romans.

Wesley: Joh 11:49 - That year That memorable year, in which Christ was to die. It was the last and chief of Daniel's seventy weeks, the fortieth year before the destruction of Jeru...

That memorable year, in which Christ was to die. It was the last and chief of Daniel's seventy weeks, the fortieth year before the destruction of Jerusalem, and was celebrated for various causes, in the Jewish history. Therefore that year is so peculiarly mentioned: Caiaphas was the high priest both before and after it.

Wesley: Joh 11:49 - Ye know nothing He reproves their slow deliberations in so clear a case.

He reproves their slow deliberations in so clear a case.

Wesley: Joh 11:50 - It is expedient that one man should die for the people So God overruled his tongue, for he spake not of himself, by his own spirit only, but by the spirit of prophecy. And thus he gave unawares as clear a ...

So God overruled his tongue, for he spake not of himself, by his own spirit only, but by the spirit of prophecy. And thus he gave unawares as clear a testimony to the priestly, as Pilate did to the kingly office of Christ.

Wesley: Joh 11:52 - But that, he might gather into one Church, all the children of God that were scattered abroad - Through all ages and nations.

Church, all the children of God that were scattered abroad - Through all ages and nations.

Wesley: Joh 11:55 - Many went up to purify themselves That they might remove all hinderances to their eating the passover.

That they might remove all hinderances to their eating the passover.

JFB: Joh 11:1 - of Bethany At the east side of Mount Olivet.

At the east side of Mount Olivet.

JFB: Joh 11:1 - the town of Mary and her sister Martha Thus distinguishing it from the other Bethany, "beyond Jordan." (See on Joh 1:28; Joh 10:40).

Thus distinguishing it from the other Bethany, "beyond Jordan." (See on Joh 1:28; Joh 10:40).

JFB: Joh 11:2 - It was that Mary who anointed the Lord with ointment, &c. This, though not recorded by our Evangelist till Joh 12:3, was so well known in the teaching of all the churches, according to our Lord's prediction (...

This, though not recorded by our Evangelist till Joh 12:3, was so well known in the teaching of all the churches, according to our Lord's prediction (Mat 26:13), that it is here alluded to by anticipation, as the most natural way of identifying her; and she is first named, though the younger, as the more distinguished of the two. She "anointed THE LORD," says the Evangelist--led doubtless to the use of this term here, as he was about to exhibit Him illustriously as the Lord of Life.

JFB: Joh 11:3-5 - his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, he whom thou lovest is sick A most womanly appeal, yet how reverential, to the known affection of her Lord for the patient. (See Joh 11:5, Joh 11:11). "Those whom Christ loves ar...

A most womanly appeal, yet how reverential, to the known affection of her Lord for the patient. (See Joh 11:5, Joh 11:11). "Those whom Christ loves are no more exempt than others from their share of earthly trouble and anguish: rather are they bound over to it more surely" [TRENCH].

JFB: Joh 11:4 - When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death To result in death.

To result in death.

JFB: Joh 11:4 - but for the glory of God, that the Son of God may be glorified thereby That is, by this glory of God. (See Greek.) Remarkable language this, which from creature lips would have been intolerable. It means that the glory of...

That is, by this glory of God. (See Greek.) Remarkable language this, which from creature lips would have been intolerable. It means that the glory of GOD manifested in the resurrection of dead Lazarus would be shown to be the glory, personally and immediately, of THE SON.

JFB: Joh 11:5 - Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus What a picture!--one that in every age has attracted the admiration of the whole Christian Church. No wonder that those miserable skeptics who have ca...

What a picture!--one that in every age has attracted the admiration of the whole Christian Church. No wonder that those miserable skeptics who have carped at the ethical system of the Gospel, as not embracing private friendships in the list of its virtues, have been referred to the Saviour's peculiar regard for this family as a triumphant refutation, if such were needed.

JFB: Joh 11:6 - When he heard he was sick, he abode two days still . . . where he was At least twenty-five miles off. Beyond all doubt this was just to let things come to their worst, in order to display His glory. But how trying, meant...

At least twenty-five miles off. Beyond all doubt this was just to let things come to their worst, in order to display His glory. But how trying, meantime, to the faith of his friends, and how unlike the way in which love to a dying friend usually shows itself, on which it is plain that Mary reckoned. But the ways of divine are not as the ways of human love. Often they are the reverse. When His people are sick, in body or spirit; when their case is waxing more and more desperate every day; when all hope of recovery is about to expire--just then and therefore it is that "He abides two days still in the same place where He is." Can they still hope against hope? Often they do not; but "this is their infirmity." For it is His chosen style of acting. We have been well taught it, and should not now have the lesson to learn. From the days of Moses was it given sublimely forth as the character of His grandest interpositions, that "the Lord will judge His people and repent Himself for His servants"--when He seeth that their power is gone (Deu 32:36).

JFB: Joh 11:7-10 - Let us go into Judea again He was now in Perea, "beyond Jordan."

He was now in Perea, "beyond Jordan."

JFB: Joh 11:8 - His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought, &c. Literally, "were (just) now seeking" "to stone thee" (Joh 10:31).

Literally, "were (just) now seeking" "to stone thee" (Joh 10:31).

JFB: Joh 11:8 - goest thou thither again? To certain death, as Joh 11:16 shows they thought.

To certain death, as Joh 11:16 shows they thought.

JFB: Joh 11:9 - Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? (See on Joh 9:4). Our Lord's day had now reached its eleventh hour, and having till now "walked in the day," He would not mistime the remaining and mo...

(See on Joh 9:4). Our Lord's day had now reached its eleventh hour, and having till now "walked in the day," He would not mistime the remaining and more critical part of His work, which would be as fatal, He says, as omitting it altogether; for "if a man (so He speaks, putting Himself under the same great law of duty as all other men--if a man) walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him."

JFB: Joh 11:11-16 - Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go that I may wake him out of sleep Illustrious title! "Our friend Lazarus." To Abraham only is it accorded in the Old Testament, and not till after his death, (2Ch 20:7; Isa 41:8), to w...

Illustrious title! "Our friend Lazarus." To Abraham only is it accorded in the Old Testament, and not till after his death, (2Ch 20:7; Isa 41:8), to which our attention is called in the New Testament (Jam 2:23). When Jesus came in the flesh, His forerunner applied this name, in a certain sense, to himself (Joh 3:29); and into the same fellowship the Lord's chosen disciples are declared to have come (Joh 15:13-15). "The phrase here employed, "our friend Lazarus," means more than "he whom Thou lovest" in Joh 11:3, for it implies that Christ's affection was reciprocated by Lazarus" [LAMPE]. Our Lord had been told only that Lazarus was "sick." But the change which his two days' delay had produced is here tenderly alluded to. Doubtless, His spirit was all the while with His dying, and now dead "friend." The symbol of "sleep" for death is common to all languages, and familiar to us in the Old Testament. In the New Testament, however, a higher meaning is put into it, in relation to believers in Jesus (see on 1Th 4:14), a sense hinted at, and clearly, in Psa 17:15 [LUTHARDT]; and the "awaking out of sleep" acquires a corresponding sense far transcending bare resuscitation.

JFB: Joh 11:12 - if he sleep, he shall do well Literally, "be preserved"; that is, recover. "Why then go to Judea?"

Literally, "be preserved"; that is, recover. "Why then go to Judea?"

JFB: Joh 11:14 - Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead Says BENGEL beautifully, "Sleep is the death of the saints, in the language of heaven; but this language the disciples here understood not; incomparab...

Says BENGEL beautifully, "Sleep is the death of the saints, in the language of heaven; but this language the disciples here understood not; incomparable is the generosity of the divine manner of discoursing, but such is the slowness of men's apprehension that Scripture often has to descend to the more miserable style of human discourse; compare Mat 16:11."

JFB: Joh 11:15 - I am glad for your sakes I was not there This certainly implies that if He had been present, Lazarus would not have died; not because He could not have resisted the importunities of the siste...

This certainly implies that if He had been present, Lazarus would not have died; not because He could not have resisted the importunities of the sisters, but because, in presence of the personal Life, death could not have reached His friend [LUTHARDT]. "It is beautifully congruous to the divine decorum that in presence of the Prince of Life no one is ever said to have died" [BENGEL].

JFB: Joh 11:15 - that ye may believe This is added to explain His "gladness" at not having been present. His friend's death, as such, could not have been to Him "joyous"; the sequel shows...

This is added to explain His "gladness" at not having been present. His friend's death, as such, could not have been to Him "joyous"; the sequel shows it was "grievous"; but for them it was safe (Phi 3:1).

JFB: Joh 11:16 - Thomas, . . . called Didymus Or "the twin."

Or "the twin."

JFB: Joh 11:16 - Let us also go, that we may die with him Lovely spirit, though tinged with some sadness, such as reappears at Joh 14:5, showing the tendency of this disciple to take the dark view of things. ...

Lovely spirit, though tinged with some sadness, such as reappears at Joh 14:5, showing the tendency of this disciple to take the dark view of things. On a memorable occasion this tendency opened the door to downright, though but momentary, unbelief (Joh 20:25). Here, however, though alleged by many interpreters there is nothing of the sort. He perceives clearly how this journey to Judea will end, as respects his Master, and not only sees in it peril to themselves, as they all did, but feels as if he could not and cared not to survive his Master's sacrifice to the fury of His enemies. It was that kind of affection which, living only in the light of its Object, cannot contemplate, or has no heart for life, without it.

JFB: Joh 11:17-19 - when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days If he died on the day the tidings came of his illness--and was, according to the Jewish custom, buried the same day (see JAHN'S Archæology, and Joh 1...

If he died on the day the tidings came of his illness--and was, according to the Jewish custom, buried the same day (see JAHN'S Archæology, and Joh 11:39; Act 5:5-6, Act 5:10) --and if Jesus, after two days' further stay in Perea, set out on the day following for Bethany, some ten hours' journey, that would make out the four days; the first and last being incomplete [MEYER].

JFB: Joh 11:18 - Bethany was nigh Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs Rather less than two miles; mentioned to explain the visits of sympathy noticed in the following words, which the proximity of the two places facilita...

Rather less than two miles; mentioned to explain the visits of sympathy noticed in the following words, which the proximity of the two places facilitated.

JFB: Joh 11:19 - many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary to comfort them Thus were provided, in a most natural way, so many witnesses of the glorious miracle that was to follow, as to put the fact beyond possible question.

Thus were provided, in a most natural way, so many witnesses of the glorious miracle that was to follow, as to put the fact beyond possible question.

JFB: Joh 11:20-22 - Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him True to the energy and activity of her character, as seen in Luk 10:38-42. (See on Luk 10:38-42).

True to the energy and activity of her character, as seen in Luk 10:38-42. (See on Luk 10:38-42).

JFB: Joh 11:20-22 - but Mary sat . . . in the house Equally true to her placid character. These undesigned touches not only charmingly illustrate the minute historic fidelity of both narratives, but the...

Equally true to her placid character. These undesigned touches not only charmingly illustrate the minute historic fidelity of both narratives, but their inner harmony.

JFB: Joh 11:21 - Then said Martha . . . Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died As Mary afterwards said the same thing (Joh 11:32), it is plain they had made this very natural remark to each other, perhaps many times during these ...

As Mary afterwards said the same thing (Joh 11:32), it is plain they had made this very natural remark to each other, perhaps many times during these four sad days, and not without having their confidence in His love at times overclouded. Such trials of faith, however, are not peculiar to them.

JFB: Joh 11:22 - But I know that even now, &c. Energetic characters are usually sanguine, the rainbow of hope peering through the drenching cloud.

Energetic characters are usually sanguine, the rainbow of hope peering through the drenching cloud.

JFB: Joh 11:22 - whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee That is "even to the restoration of my dead brother to life," for that plainly is her meaning, as the sequel shows.

That is "even to the restoration of my dead brother to life," for that plainly is her meaning, as the sequel shows.

JFB: Joh 11:23-27 - Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again Purposely expressing Himself in general terms, to draw her out.

Purposely expressing Himself in general terms, to draw her out.

JFB: Joh 11:24 - Martha said, . . . I know that he shall rise again . . . at the last day "But are we never to see him in life till then?"

"But are we never to see him in life till then?"

JFB: Joh 11:25 - Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life "The whole power to restore, impart, and maintain life, resides in Me." (See on Joh 1:4; Joh 5:21). What higher claim to supreme divinity than this gr...

"The whole power to restore, impart, and maintain life, resides in Me." (See on Joh 1:4; Joh 5:21). What higher claim to supreme divinity than this grand saying can be conceived?

JFB: Joh 11:25 - he that believeth in me, though . . . dead . . . shall he live That is, The believer's death shall be swallowed up in life, and his life shall never sink into death. As death comes by sin, it is His to dissolve it...

That is, The believer's death shall be swallowed up in life, and his life shall never sink into death. As death comes by sin, it is His to dissolve it; and as life flows through His righteousness, it is His to communicate and eternally maintain it (Rom 5:21). The temporary separation of soul and body is here regarded as not even interrupting, much less impairing, the new and everlasting life imparted by Jesus to His believing people.

JFB: Joh 11:25 - Believest thou this? Canst thou take this in?

Canst thou take this in?

JFB: Joh 11:27 - Yea, . . . I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, &c. That is, And having such faith in Thee, I can believe all which that comprehends. While she had a glimmering perception that Resurrection, in every se...

That is, And having such faith in Thee, I can believe all which that comprehends. While she had a glimmering perception that Resurrection, in every sense of the word, belonged to the Messianic office and Sonship of Jesus, she means, by this way of expressing herself, to cover much that she felt her ignorance of--as no doubt belonging to Him.

JFB: Joh 11:28-32 - The Master is come and calleth for thee The narrative does not give us this interesting detail, but Martha's words do.

The narrative does not give us this interesting detail, but Martha's words do.

JFB: Joh 11:29 - As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly Affection for her Lord, assurance of His sympathy, and His hope of interposition, putting a spring into her distressed spirit.

Affection for her Lord, assurance of His sympathy, and His hope of interposition, putting a spring into her distressed spirit.

JFB: Joh 11:31 - The Jews . . . followed her . . . to the grave Thus casually were provided witnesses of the glorious miracle that followed, not prejudiced, certainly, in favor of Him who wrought it.

Thus casually were provided witnesses of the glorious miracle that followed, not prejudiced, certainly, in favor of Him who wrought it.

JFB: Joh 11:31 - to weep there According to Jewish practice, for some days after burial.

According to Jewish practice, for some days after burial.

JFB: Joh 11:31 - fell at his feet More impassioned than her sister, though her words were fewer. (See on Joh 11:21).

More impassioned than her sister, though her words were fewer. (See on Joh 11:21).

JFB: Joh 11:33-38 - When Jesus . . . saw her weeping, and the Jews . . . weeping . . . he groaned in the spirit The tears of Mary and her friends acting sympathetically upon Jesus, and drawing forth His emotions. What a vivid and beautiful outcoming of His "real...

The tears of Mary and her friends acting sympathetically upon Jesus, and drawing forth His emotions. What a vivid and beautiful outcoming of His "real" humanity! The word here rendered "groaned" does not mean "sighed" or "grieved," but rather "powerfully checked his emotion"--made a visible effort to restrain those tears which were ready to gush from His eyes.

JFB: Joh 11:33-38 - and was troubled Rather, "troubled himself" (Margin); referring probably to this visible difficulty of repressing His emotions.

Rather, "troubled himself" (Margin); referring probably to this visible difficulty of repressing His emotions.

JFB: Joh 11:34 - Where have ye laid him? . . . Lord, come and see Perhaps it was to retain composure enough to ask this question, and on receiving the answer to proceed with them to the spot, that He checked Himself.

Perhaps it was to retain composure enough to ask this question, and on receiving the answer to proceed with them to the spot, that He checked Himself.

JFB: Joh 11:35 - Jesus wept This beautifully conveys the sublime brevity of the two original words; else "shed tears" might have better conveyed the difference between the word h...

This beautifully conveys the sublime brevity of the two original words; else "shed tears" might have better conveyed the difference between the word here used and that twice employed in Joh 11:33, and there properly rendered "weeping," denoting the loud wail for the dead, while that of Jesus consisted of silent tears. Is it for nothing that the Evangelist, some sixty years after it occurred, holds up to all ages with such touching brevity the sublime spectacle of the Son of God in tears? What a seal of His perfect oneness with us in the most redeeming feature of our stricken humanity! But was there nothing in those tears beyond sorrow for human suffering and death? Could these effects move Him without suggesting the cause? Who can doubt that in His ear every feature of the scene proclaimed that stern law of the Kingdom, "The wages of sin is death" (Rom 6:23), and that this element in His visible emotion underlay all the rest?

JFB: Joh 11:36 - Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him! We thank you, O ye visitors from Jerusalem, for this spontaneous testimony to the human tenderness of the Son of God.

We thank you, O ye visitors from Jerusalem, for this spontaneous testimony to the human tenderness of the Son of God.

JFB: Joh 11:37 - And Rather, "But."

Rather, "But."

JFB: Joh 11:37 - some . . . said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that this man should not have died? The former exclamation came from the better-feeling portion of the spectators; this betokens a measure of suspicion. It hardly goes the length of atte...

The former exclamation came from the better-feeling portion of the spectators; this betokens a measure of suspicion. It hardly goes the length of attesting the miracle on the blind man; but "if (as everybody says) He did that, why could He not also have kept Lazarus alive?" As to the restoration of the dead man to life, they never so much as thought of it. But this disposition to dictate to divine power, and almost to peril our confidence in it upon its doing our bidding, is not confined to men of no faith.

JFB: Joh 11:38 - Jesus again groaning in himself That is, as at Joh 11:33, checked or repressed His rising feelings, in the former instance, of sorrow, here of righteous indignation at their unreason...

That is, as at Joh 11:33, checked or repressed His rising feelings, in the former instance, of sorrow, here of righteous indignation at their unreasonable unbelief; (compare Mar 3:5) [WEBSTER and WILKINSON]. But here, too, struggling emotion was deeper, now that His eye was about to rest on the spot where lay, in the still horrors of death, His "friend."

JFB: Joh 11:38 - a cave The cavity, natural or artificial, of a rock. This, with the number of condoling visitors from Jerusalem, and the costly ointment with which Mary afte...

The cavity, natural or artificial, of a rock. This, with the number of condoling visitors from Jerusalem, and the costly ointment with which Mary afterwards anointed Jesus at Bethany, all go to show that the family was in good circumstances.

JFB: Joh 11:39-44 - Jesus said, Take ye away the stone Spoken to the attendants of Martha and Mary; for it was a work of no little labor [GROTIUS]. According to the Talmudists, it was forbidden to open a g...

Spoken to the attendants of Martha and Mary; for it was a work of no little labor [GROTIUS]. According to the Talmudists, it was forbidden to open a grave after the stone was placed upon it. Besides other dangers, they were apprehensive of legal impurity by contact with the dead. Hence they avoided coming nearer a grave than four cubits [MAIMONIDES in LAMPE]. But He who touched the leper, and the bier of the widow of Nain's son, rises here also above these Judaic memorials of evils, every one of which He had come to roll away. Observe here what our Lord did Himself, and what He made others do. As Elijah himself repaired the altar on Carmel, arranged the wood, cut the victim, and placed the pieces on the fuel, but made the by-standers fill the surrounding trench with water, that no suspicion might arise of fire having been secretly applied to the pile (1Ki 18:30-35); so our Lord would let the most skeptical see that, without laying a hand on the stone that covered His friend, He could recall him to life. But what could be done by human hand He orders to be done, reserving only to Himself what transcended the ability of all creatures.

JFB: Joh 11:39-44 - Martha, the sister of . . . the dead And as such the proper guardian of the precious remains; the relationship being here mentioned to account for her venturing gently to remonstrate agai...

And as such the proper guardian of the precious remains; the relationship being here mentioned to account for her venturing gently to remonstrate against their exposure, in a state of decomposition, to eyes that had loved him so tenderly in life.

JFB: Joh 11:39-44 - Lord, by this time he stinketh, for he hath been dead four days (See on Joh 11:17). It is wrong to suppose from this (as LAMPE and others do) that, like the by-standers, she had not thought of his restoration to li...

(See on Joh 11:17). It is wrong to suppose from this (as LAMPE and others do) that, like the by-standers, she had not thought of his restoration to life. But the glimmerings of hope which she cherished from the first (Joh 11:22), and which had been brightened by what Jesus said to her (Joh 11:23-27), had suffered a momentary eclipse on the proposal to expose the now sightless corpse. To such fluctuations all real faith is subject in dark hours. (See, for example, the case of Job).

JFB: Joh 11:40 - Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God? He had not said those very words, but this was the scope of all that He had uttered to her about His life-giving power (Joh 11:23, Joh 11:25-26); a ge...

He had not said those very words, but this was the scope of all that He had uttered to her about His life-giving power (Joh 11:23, Joh 11:25-26); a gentle yet emphatic and most instructive rebuke: "Why doth the restoration of life, even to a decomposing corpse, seem hopeless in the presence of the Resurrection and the Life? Hast thou yet to learn that 'if thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth?'" (Mar 9:23).

JFB: Joh 11:41 - Jesus lifted up his eyes An expression marking His calm solemnity. (Compare Joh 17:1).

An expression marking His calm solemnity. (Compare Joh 17:1).

JFB: Joh 11:41 - Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me Rather, "heardest Me," referring to a specific prayer offered by Him, probably on intelligence of the case reaching Him (Joh 11:3-4); for His living a...

Rather, "heardest Me," referring to a specific prayer offered by Him, probably on intelligence of the case reaching Him (Joh 11:3-4); for His living and loving oneness with the Father was maintained and manifested in the flesh, not merely by the spontaneous and uninterrupted outgoing of Each to Each in spirit, but by specific actings of faith and exercises of prayer about each successive case as it emerged. He prayed (says LUTHARDT well) not for what He wanted, but for the manifestation of what He had; and having the bright consciousness of the answer in the felt liberty to ask it, and the assurance that it was at hand, He gives thanks for this with a grand simplicity before performing the act.

JFB: Joh 11:42 - And Rather, "Yet."

Rather, "Yet."

JFB: Joh 11:42 - I knew that thou hearest me always, but because of the people that stand by I said it, that they might believe that thou hast sent me Instead of praying now, He simply gives thanks for answer to prayer offered ere He left Perea, and adds that His doing even this, in the audience of t...

Instead of praying now, He simply gives thanks for answer to prayer offered ere He left Perea, and adds that His doing even this, in the audience of the people, was not from any doubt of the prevalency of His prayers in any case, but to show the people that He did nothing without His Father, but all by direct communication with Him.

JFB: Joh 11:43-44 - and when he had thus spoken, he cried with a loud voice On one other occasion only did He this--on the cross. His last utterance was a "loud cry" (Mat 27:50). "He shall not cry," said the prophet, nor, in H...

On one other occasion only did He this--on the cross. His last utterance was a "loud cry" (Mat 27:50). "He shall not cry," said the prophet, nor, in His ministry, did He. What a sublime contrast is this "loud cry" to the magical "whisperings" and "mutterings" of which we read in Isa 8:19; Isa 29:4 (as GROTIUS remarks)! It is second only to the grandeur of that voice which shall raise all the dead (Joh 5:28-29; 1Th 4:16).

JFB: Joh 11:44 - Jesus saith unto them, Loose him and let him go Jesus will no more do this Himself than roll away the stone. The one was the necessary preparation for resurrection, the other the necessary sequel to...

Jesus will no more do this Himself than roll away the stone. The one was the necessary preparation for resurrection, the other the necessary sequel to it. THE LIFE-GIVING ACT ALONE HE RESERVES TO HIMSELF. So in the quickening of the dead to spiritual life, human instrumentality is employed first to prepare the way, and then to turn it to account.

JFB: Joh 11:45-46 - many . . . which . . . had seen . . . believed . . . But some . . . went . . . to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done The two classes which continually reappear in the Gospel history; nor is there ever any great work of God which does not produce both. "It is remarkab...

The two classes which continually reappear in the Gospel history; nor is there ever any great work of God which does not produce both. "It is remarkable that on each of the three occasions on which our Lord raised the dead, a large number of persons was assembled. In two instances, the resurrection of the widow's son and of Lazarus, these were all witnesses of the miracle; in the third (of Jairus' daughter) they were necessarily cognizant of it. Yet this important circumstance is in each case only incidentally noticed by the historians, not put forward or appealed to as a proof of their veracity. In regard to this miracle, we observe a greater degree of preparation, both in the provident arrangement of events, and in our Lord's actions and words than in any other. The preceding miracle (cure of the man born blind) is distinguished from all others by the open and formal investigation of its facts. And both these miracles, the most public and best attested of all, are related by John, who wrote long after the other Evangelists" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Joh 11:47-54 - What do we? for this man doeth many miracles "While we trifle, 'this man,' by His 'many miracles,' will carry all before Him; the popular enthusiasm will bring on a revolution, which will precipi...

"While we trifle, 'this man,' by His 'many miracles,' will carry all before Him; the popular enthusiasm will bring on a revolution, which will precipitate the Romans upon us, and our all will go down in one common ruin." What a testimony to the reality of our Lord's miracles, and their resistless effect, from His bitterest enemies!

JFB: Joh 11:51 - Caiaphas . . . prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation He meant nothing more than that the way to prevent the apprehended ruin of the nation was to make a sacrifice of the Disturber of their peace. But in ...

He meant nothing more than that the way to prevent the apprehended ruin of the nation was to make a sacrifice of the Disturber of their peace. But in giving utterance to this suggestion of political expediency, he was so guided as to give forth a divine prediction of deep significance; and God so ordered it that it should come from the lips of the high priest for that memorable year, the recognized head of God's visible people, whose ancient office, symbolized by the Urim and Thummim, was to decide in the last resort, all vital questions as the oracle of the divine will.

JFB: Joh 11:52 - and not for that nation only, &c. These are the Evangelist's words, not Caiaphas'.

These are the Evangelist's words, not Caiaphas'.

JFB: Joh 11:53 - they took council together to put him to death Caiaphas but expressed what the party was secretly wishing, but afraid to propose.

Caiaphas but expressed what the party was secretly wishing, but afraid to propose.

JFB: Joh 11:53 - Jesus . . . walked no more openly among the Jews How could He, unless He had wished to die before His time?

How could He, unless He had wished to die before His time?

JFB: Joh 11:53 - near to the wilderness Of Judea.

Of Judea.

JFB: Joh 11:53 - a city called Ephraim Between Jerusalem and Jericho.

Between Jerusalem and Jericho.

JFB: Joh 11:55-57 - passover . . . at hand . . . many went . . . up . . . before the passover, to purify themselves From any legal uncleanness which would have disqualified them from keeping the feast. This is mentioned to introduce the graphic statement which follo...

From any legal uncleanness which would have disqualified them from keeping the feast. This is mentioned to introduce the graphic statement which follows.

JFB: Joh 11:56 - sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple Giving forth the various conjectures and speculations about the probability of His coming to the feast.

Giving forth the various conjectures and speculations about the probability of His coming to the feast.

JFB: Joh 11:56 - that he will not come The form of this question implies the opinion that He would come.

The form of this question implies the opinion that He would come.

JFB: Joh 11:57 - chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment that if any knew where he were, he should show it, that they might take him This is mentioned to account for the conjectures whether He would come, in spite of this determination to seize Him.

This is mentioned to account for the conjectures whether He would come, in spite of this determination to seize Him.

Clarke: Joh 11:1 - Lazarus, of Bethany Lazarus, of Bethany - St. John, who seldom relates any thing but what the other evangelists have omitted, does not tell us what gave rise to that fa...

Lazarus, of Bethany - St. John, who seldom relates any thing but what the other evangelists have omitted, does not tell us what gave rise to that familiar acquaintance and friendship that subsisted between our Lord and this family. It is surprising that the other evangelists have omitted so remarkable an account as this is, in which some of the finest traits in our Lord’ s character are exhibited. The conjecture of Grotius has a good deal of weight. He thinks that the other three evangelists wrote their histories during the life of Lazarus; and that they did not mention him for fear of exciting the malice of the Jews against him. And indeed we find, from Joh 12:10, that they sought to put Lazarus to death also, that our Lord might not have one monument of his power and goodness remaining in the land. Probably both Lazarus and his sisters were dead before St. John wrote. Bethany was situated at the foot of the mount of Olives, about two miles from Jerusalem. Bishop Pearce observes that "there is a large gap in John’ s history of Christ in this place. What is mentioned in the preceding chapter passed at the feast of the dedication, Joh 10:22, about the middle of our December; and this miracle of raising Lazarus from the dead seems to have been wrought but a little before the following passover, in the end of March, at which time Jesus was crucified, as may (he thinks) be gathered from verses 54 and 55 of this chapter, and from Joh 12:9."John has, therefore, according to the bishop’ s calculation, omitted to mention the several miracles which our Lord wrought for above three months after the things mentioned in the preceding chapter

Calmet says, Christ left Jerusalem the day after the dedication took place, which was the 18th of December. He event then to Bethabara, where he continued preaching and his disciples baptizing. About the middle of the following January Lazarus fell sick: Christ did not leave Bethabara till after the death of Lazarus, which happened about the 18th of the same month

Bishop Newcome supposes that our Lord might have stayed about a month at Bethabara

The harmonists and chronologists differ much in fixing dates, and ascertaining times. In cases of this nature, I believe men may innocently guess as well as they can; but they should assert nothing.

Clarke: Joh 11:2 - It was that Mary which anointed It was that Mary which anointed - There is much disagreement between learned men relative to the two anointings of our Lord, and the persons who per...

It was that Mary which anointed - There is much disagreement between learned men relative to the two anointings of our Lord, and the persons who performed these acts. The various conjectures concerning these points the reader will find in the notes on Mat 26:7, etc., but particularly at the end of that chapter. Dr. Lightfoot inquires, Why should Bethany be called the town of Martha and Mary, and not of Lazarus? And he thinks the reason is, that Martha and Mary had been well known by that anointing of our Lord, which is mentioned Luk 7:37; (see the note there); but the name of Lazarus had not been mentioned till now, there being no transaction by which he could properly be brought into view. He therefore thinks that the aorist αλειψασα, which we translate anointed, should have its full force, and be translated, who had formerly anointed; and this he thinks to have been the reason of that familiarity which subsisted between our Lord and this family; and, on this ground, they could confidently send for our Lord when Lazarus fell sick. This seems a very reasonable conjecture; and it is very likely that the familiarity arose out of the anointing

Others think that the anointing of which the evangelist speaks is that mentioned Joh 12:1, etc., and which happened about six days before the passover. St. John, therefore, is supposed to anticipate the account, because it served more particularly to designate the person of whom he was speaking.

Clarke: Joh 11:3 - He whom thou lovest is sick He whom thou lovest is sick - Nothing could be more simple, nor more modest, than this prayer: they do not say, Come and heal him: or, Command the d...

He whom thou lovest is sick - Nothing could be more simple, nor more modest, than this prayer: they do not say, Come and heal him: or, Command the disease to depart even where thou art, and it will obey thee: - they content themselves with simply stating the case, and using an indirect but a most forcible argument, to induce our Lord to show forth his power and goodness: - He is sick, and thou lovest him; therefore thou canst neither abandon him, not us.

Clarke: Joh 11:4 - This sickness is not unto death This sickness is not unto death - Not to final privation of life at this time; but a temporary death shall be now permitted, that the glory of God m...

This sickness is not unto death - Not to final privation of life at this time; but a temporary death shall be now permitted, that the glory of God may appear in the miracle of his resurrection. It is very likely that this verse contains the message which Christ sent back, by the person whom the afflicted sisters had sent to him; and this, no doubt, served much to strengthen their confidence, though their faith must have been greatly exercised by the death of their brother: for when this took place, though they buried him, yet they believed, even then, probably on the ground of this message, that Jesus might raise him from the dead. See Joh 11:22.

Clarke: Joh 11:5 - Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus - Therefore his staying two days longer in Bethabara was not through lack of affection for this ...

Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus - Therefore his staying two days longer in Bethabara was not through lack of affection for this distressed family, but merely that he might have a more favorable opportunity of proving to them how much he loved them. Christ never denies a less favor, but in order to confer a greater. God’ s delays, in answering prayers offered to him by persons in distress, are often proofs of his purpose to confer some great kindness, and they are also proofs that his wisdom finds it necessary to permit an increase of the affliction, that his goodness may be more conspicuous in its removal.

Clarke: Joh 11:8 - The Jews of late sought to stone thee The Jews of late sought to stone thee - It was but a few weeks before that they were going to stone him in the temple, on the day of the feast of th...

The Jews of late sought to stone thee - It was but a few weeks before that they were going to stone him in the temple, on the day of the feast of the dedication, Joh 10:31.

Clarke: Joh 11:9 - Are there not twelve hours in the day? Are there not twelve hours in the day? - The Jews, as well as most other nations, divided the day, from sun-rising to sun-setting, into twelve equal...

Are there not twelve hours in the day? - The Jews, as well as most other nations, divided the day, from sun-rising to sun-setting, into twelve equal parts; but these parts, or hours, were longer or shorter, according to the different seasons of the year. See the note on Joh 1:39. Our Lord alludes to the case of a traveler, who has to walk the whole day: the day points out the time of life - the night that of death. He has already used the same mode of speech, Joh 9:4 : I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh when no man can work. Here he refers to what the apostles had just said - The Jews were but just now going to stone thee. Are there not, said he, twelve hours in the day? I have not traveled these twelve hours yet - my last hour is not yet come; and the Jews, with all their malice and hatred, shall not be able to bring it a moment sooner than God has purposed. I am immortal till my work is done; and this, that I am now going to Bethany to perform, is a part of it. When all is completed, then their hour, and that of the power of darkness, shall commence. See Luk 22:53

Clarke: Joh 11:9 - If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not - A traveler should use the day to walk in, and not the night. During the day he has the sun, the light...

If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not - A traveler should use the day to walk in, and not the night. During the day he has the sun, the light of this world: he sees his way, and does not stumble: but, if he walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in it, Joh 11:10; i.e. there is no sun above the horizon. The words εν αυτῳ, Joh 11:10, refer not to the man, but to the world, the sun, its light, not being above the horizon. Life is the time to fulfill the will of God, and to prepare for glory. Jesus is the light of the world; he that walks in his Spirit, and by his direction, cannot stumble - cannot fall into sin, nor be surprised by an unexpected death. But he who walks in the night, in the darkness of his own heart, and according to the maxims of this dark world, he stumbles - falls into sin, and at last falls into hell. Reader! do not dream of walking to heaven in the night of thy death. God has given thee the warning: receive it, and begin to live to him, and for eternity.

Clarke: Joh 11:11 - Lazarus sleepeth Lazarus sleepeth - It was very common among the Jews to express death by sleep; and the expression, falling asleep - sleeping with their fathers, et...

Lazarus sleepeth - It was very common among the Jews to express death by sleep; and the expression, falling asleep - sleeping with their fathers, etc., were in great use among them. The Hebrews probably used this form of speech to signify their belief in the immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body

It is certain that our Lord received no intimation of Lazarus’ s death from any person, and that he knew it through that power by which he knows all things.

Clarke: Joh 11:12 - If he sleep, he shall do well If he sleep, he shall do well - That is, if he sleep only, etc. Though the word sleep frequently meant death, (see Act 7:60; 1Co 11:30; 1Co 15:18, 1...

If he sleep, he shall do well - That is, if he sleep only, etc. Though the word sleep frequently meant death, (see Act 7:60; 1Co 11:30; 1Co 15:18, 1Co 15:20), yet, as it was an ambiguous term, the disciples appear here to have mistaken its meaning. Because, in certain acute disorders, the composing the patient to rest was a favorable sign; therefore the words, If he sleep, he shall do well, or recover, became a proverbial forth of speech among the Jews. In most diseases, sleep is a very favorable prognostic: hence that saying of Menander: -

Ὑπνος δε πασης εϚιν ὑγιεια νοσου

Sleep is a remedy for every disease

See Grotius here. The meaning of the disciples seems to have been this: There can be no need for thee to go into Judea to awake our friend Lazarus; he will awake time enough, and his very sleep is a presage of his recovery: therefore do not hazard thy life by going.

Clarke: Joh 11:15 - I am glad for your sakes that I was not there I am glad for your sakes that I was not there - " I tell you plainly, Lazarus is dead: and I am glad I was not there - if I had been, I should have ...

I am glad for your sakes that I was not there - " I tell you plainly, Lazarus is dead: and I am glad I was not there - if I had been, I should have been prevailed on to have healed him almost as soon as he fell sick, and I should not have had so striking an occasion to manifest the glory of God to you, and to establish you in the faith."It was a miracle to discover that Lazarus was dead, as no person had come to announce it. It was a greater miracle to raise a dead man than to cure a sick man. And it was a still greater miracle, to raise one that was three or four days buried, and in whose body putrefaction might have begun to take place, than to raise one that was but newly dead. See Joh 11:39.

Clarke: Joh 11:16 - Thomas, which is called Didymus Thomas, which is called Didymus - Thomas, or תאום Thaom , was his Hebrew name, and signifies a twin - one who had a brother or a sister born wi...

Thomas, which is called Didymus - Thomas, or תאום Thaom , was his Hebrew name, and signifies a twin - one who had a brother or a sister born with him at the same time: Didymus, Διδυμος, is a literal translation of the Hebrew word into Greek. In Gen 25:24, Esau and Jacob are called תומים thomeem , twins; Septuag. διδυμα, from διδυμος, a twin - from the Anglo-Saxon, to double

Clarke: Joh 11:16 - Let us also go, that we may die with him Let us also go, that we may die with him - That is, "Seeing we cannot dissuade our Lord from going, and his death is likely to be the inevitable con...

Let us also go, that we may die with him - That is, "Seeing we cannot dissuade our Lord from going, and his death is likely to be the inevitable consequence, let us give him the fullest proof we can of our love, by going and suffering death with him."Some think Thomas spoke these words peevishly, and that they should be translated thus, Must we also go, and expose ourselves to destruction with him? which is as much as to say: "If he will obstinately go and risk his life in so imminent a danger, let us act with more prudence and caution."But I think the first sense is to be preferred. When a matter is spoken which concerns the moral character of a person, and which may be understood in a good and a bad sense, that sense which is most favorable to the person should certainly be adopted. This is taking things by the best handle, and both justice and mercy require it. The conduct of most men widely differs from this: of such an old proverb says, "They feed like the flies - pass over all a man’ s whole parts, to light upon his sores."

Clarke: Joh 11:17 - He had lain in the grave four days already He had lain in the grave four days already - Our Lord probably left Bethabara the day, or the day after, Lazarus died. He came to Bethany three days...

He had lain in the grave four days already - Our Lord probably left Bethabara the day, or the day after, Lazarus died. He came to Bethany three days after; and it appears that Lazarus had been buried about four days, and consequently that he had been put in the grave the day or day after he died. Though it was the Jewish custom to embalm their dead, yet we find, from Joh 11:39, that he had not been embalmed; and God wisely ordered this, that the miracle might appear the more striking.

Clarke: Joh 11:18 - Fifteen furlongs Fifteen furlongs - About two miles: for the Jewish miles contained about seven furlongs and a half. So Lightfoot, and the margin.

Fifteen furlongs - About two miles: for the Jewish miles contained about seven furlongs and a half. So Lightfoot, and the margin.

Clarke: Joh 11:19 - Many of the Jews came Many of the Jews came - Bethany being so nigh to Jerusalem, many of the relatives and friends of the family came, according to the Jewish custom, to...

Many of the Jews came - Bethany being so nigh to Jerusalem, many of the relatives and friends of the family came, according to the Jewish custom, to mourn with the afflicted sisters. Mourning, among the Jews, lasted about thirty days: the three first days were termed days of weeping: then followed seven of lamentation. During the three days, the mourner did no servile work; and, if any one saluted him, he did not return the salutation. During the seven days, he did no servile work, except in private - lay with his bed on the floor - did not put on his sandals - did not wash nor anoint himself - had his head covered - and neither read in the law, the Mishnah, nor the Talmud. All the thirty days he continued unshaven, wore no white or new clothes, and did not sew up the rents which he had made in his garments. See Lightfoot, and see on Joh 11:31 (note).

Clarke: Joh 11:20 - Martha - went and met him Martha - went and met him - Some suppose she was the eldest of the two sisters - she seems to have had the management of the house. See Luk 10:40

Martha - went and met him - Some suppose she was the eldest of the two sisters - she seems to have had the management of the house. See Luk 10:40

Clarke: Joh 11:20 - Mary sat still in the house Mary sat still in the house - It is likely that by this circumstance the evangelist intended to convey the idea of her sorrow and distress; because ...

Mary sat still in the house - It is likely that by this circumstance the evangelist intended to convey the idea of her sorrow and distress; because anciently afflicted persons were accustomed to put themselves in this posture, as expressive of their distress; their grief having rendered them as it were immovable. See Ezr 9:3, Ezr 9:4; Neh 1:4; Psa 137:1; Isa 47:1; Luk 1:79; and Mat 27:61.

Clarke: Joh 11:21 - If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died - Mary said the same words to him a little after, Joh 11:32, which proves that these sisters had no...

If thou hadst been here, my brother had not died - Mary said the same words to him a little after, Joh 11:32, which proves that these sisters had not a complete knowledge of the omnipotence of Christ: they thought he could cure at hand, but not at a distance; or they thought that it was because he did not know of their brother’ s indisposition that he permitted him to die. In either of these cases it plainly appears they had not a proper notion of his divinity; and indeed the following verse proves that they considered him in no other light than that of a prophet. Query - Was it not proper that Christ should, in general, as much as might be, hide the knowledge of his divinity from those with whom he ordinarily lodged? Had they known him fully, would not the reverence and awe connected with such a knowledge have overwhelmed them?

Clarke: Joh 11:22 - I know, that even now I know, that even now - She durst not ask so great a favor in direct terms; she only intimated modestly that she knew he could do it.

I know, that even now - She durst not ask so great a favor in direct terms; she only intimated modestly that she knew he could do it.

Clarke: Joh 11:23 - Thy brother shall rise again Thy brother shall rise again - That is, directly; for it was by raising him immediately from the dead that he intended to comfort her.

Thy brother shall rise again - That is, directly; for it was by raising him immediately from the dead that he intended to comfort her.

Clarke: Joh 11:24 - I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection - The doctrine of the resurrection of the dead was then commonly received; and though it was our...

I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection - The doctrine of the resurrection of the dead was then commonly received; and though it was our Lord who fully exemplified it by his own resurrection, yet the opinion was common, not only among God’ s people, but among all those who believed in the God of Israel. The Jewish writings after the captivity are full of this doctrine. See 2 Maccabees 7:9, 14, 23, 36; 12:43; 14:46; Wis. 5:1, 7, 17; 6:6, 7. See also Josephus and the Targums, passim.

Clarke: Joh 11:25 - I am the resurrection, and the life I am the resurrection, and the life - Thou sayest that thy brother shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day; but by whom shall he arise ...

I am the resurrection, and the life - Thou sayest that thy brother shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day; but by whom shall he arise if not by Me, who am the author of the resurrection, and the source of life? And is it not as easy for me to raise him now as to raise him then? Thus our blessed Lord raises her hope, animates her faith, and teaches her that he was not a mere man, but the essential principle and author of existence

Clarke: Joh 11:25 - Though he were dead Though he were dead - Every man who has believed or shall believe in me, though his believing shall not prevent him from dying a natural death, yet ...

Though he were dead - Every man who has believed or shall believe in me, though his believing shall not prevent him from dying a natural death, yet his body shall be re-animated, and he shall live with me in an eternal glory. And every one who is now dead, dead to God, dead in trespasses and sins, if he believe in me, trust on me as his sole Savior, he shall live, shall be quickened by my Spirit, and live a life of faith, working by love.

Clarke: Joh 11:26 - Shall never die Shall never die - Or, Shall not die for ever. Though he die a temporal death. he shall not continue under its power for ever; but shall have a resur...

Shall never die - Or, Shall not die for ever. Though he die a temporal death. he shall not continue under its power for ever; but shall have a resurrection to life eternal

Clarke: Joh 11:26 - Believest thou this? Believest thou this? - God has determined to work in the behalf of men only in proportion to their faith in him: it was necessary, therefore, that t...

Believest thou this? - God has determined to work in the behalf of men only in proportion to their faith in him: it was necessary, therefore, that these persons should be well instructed concerning his nature, that they might find no obstacles to their faith. These sisters had considered him only as a prophet hitherto; and it was necessary that they should now be farther instructed, that, as God was to exert himself, they might believe that God was there.

Clarke: Joh 11:27 - Yea, Lord: I believe Yea, Lord: I believe - ΠεπιϚευκα, I have believed. Either meaning that she had believed this for some time past, or that, since he began t...

Yea, Lord: I believe - ΠεπιϚευκα, I have believed. Either meaning that she had believed this for some time past, or that, since he began to teach her, her faith had been considerable increased; but verbs preter, in Greek, are often used to signify the present. Martha here acknowledges Christ for the Messiah promised to their fathers; but her faith goes no farther; and, having received some hope of her brother’ s present resurrection, she waited for no farther instruction, but ran to call her sister.

Clarke: Joh 11:28 - The Master is come The Master is come - This was the appellation which he had in the family; and from these words it appears that Christ had inquired for Mary, desirin...

The Master is come - This was the appellation which he had in the family; and from these words it appears that Christ had inquired for Mary, desiring to have her present, that he might strengthen her faith, previously to his raising her brother.

Clarke: Joh 11:30 - Jesus was not yet come into the town Jesus was not yet come into the town - As the Jewish burying places were without their cities and villages, it appears that the place where our Savi...

Jesus was not yet come into the town - As the Jewish burying places were without their cities and villages, it appears that the place where our Savior was, when Martha met him, was not far from the place where Lazarus was buried. See the note on Luk 7:12.

Clarke: Joh 11:31 - She goeth unto the grave to weep there She goeth unto the grave to weep there - It appears that it was the custom for the nearest relatives of the deceased to go at times, during the thre...

She goeth unto the grave to weep there - It appears that it was the custom for the nearest relatives of the deceased to go at times, during the three days of weeping, accompanied by their friends and neighbors, to mourn near the graves of the deceased. They supposed that the spirit hovered about the place where the body was laid for three days, to see whether it might be again permitted to enter, but, when it saw the face change, it knew that all hope was now past. It was on this ground that the seven days of lamentation succeeded the three days of weeping, because all hope was now taken away. They had traditions that, in the course of three days, persons who had died were raised again to life. See Lightfoot

Mr. Ward says: "I once saw some Mussulman women, near Calcutta, lying on the new-made grave of a relation, weeping bitterly. In this manner the Mussulman females weep and strew flowers over the graves of relations, at the expiration of four days, and forty days, after the interment."

Clarke: Joh 11:33 - He groaned in the spirit, etc. He groaned in the spirit, etc. - Here the blessed Jesus shows himself to be truly man; and a man, too, who, notwithstanding his amazing dignity and ...

He groaned in the spirit, etc. - Here the blessed Jesus shows himself to be truly man; and a man, too, who, notwithstanding his amazing dignity and excellence, did not feel it beneath him to sympathize with the distressed, and weep with those who wept. After this example of our Lord, shall we say that it is weakness, folly, and sin to weep for the loss of relatives? He who says so, and can act in a similar case to the above according to his own doctrine, is a reproach to the name of man. Such apathy never came from God: it is generally a bad scion, implanted in a nature miserably depraved, deriving its nourishment from a perverted spirit or a hardened heart; though in some cases it is the effect of an erroneous, ascetic mode of discipline

It is abolishing one of the finest traits in our Lord’ s human character to say that he wept and mourned here because of sin and its consequences. No: Jesus had humanity in its perfection, and humanity unadulterated is generous and sympathetic. A particular friend of Jesus was dead; and, as his friend, the affectionate soul of Christ was troubled, and he mingled his sacred tears with those of the afflicted relatives. Behold the man, in his deep, heart-felt trouble, and in his flowing tears! But when he says, Lazarus, come forth! behold the God! and the God too of infinite clemency, love, and power. Can such a Jesus refuse to comfort the distressed, or save the lost? Can he restrain his mercies from the penitent soul, or refuse to hear the yearnings of his own bowels? Can such a character be inattentive to the welfare of his creatures? Here is God manifested in the flesh! living in human nature, feeling for the distressed, and suffering for the lost! Reader! ask thy soul, ask thy heart, ask the bowels of thy compassions, if thou hast any, could this Jesus unconditionally reprobate from eternity any soul of man? Thou answerest, No! God repeats, No! Universal nature re-echoes, No! and the tears and blood of Jesus eternally say, No!

Clarke: Joh 11:35 - Jesus wept Jesus wept - The least verse in the Bible, yet inferior to none. Some of the ruthless ancients, improperly styled fathers of the Church, thought tha...

Jesus wept - The least verse in the Bible, yet inferior to none. Some of the ruthless ancients, improperly styled fathers of the Church, thought that weeping was a degradation of the character of Christ; and therefore, according to the testimony of Epiphanius, Anchorat. c. 13, razed out of the Gospel of St. Luke the place (Luk 19:41) where Christ is said to have wept over Jerusalem.

Clarke: Joh 11:36 - Behold how he loved him! Behold how he loved him! - And when we see him pouring out his blood and life upon the cross for mankind, we may with exultation and joy cry out, Be...

Behold how he loved him! - And when we see him pouring out his blood and life upon the cross for mankind, we may with exultation and joy cry out, Behold how he hath loved Us!

Clarke: Joh 11:37 - Could not this man, which opened the eyes, etc. Could not this man, which opened the eyes, etc. - Through the maliciousness of their hearts, these Jews considered the tears of Jesus as a proof of ...

Could not this man, which opened the eyes, etc. - Through the maliciousness of their hearts, these Jews considered the tears of Jesus as a proof of his weakness. We may suppose them to have spoken thus: "If he loved him so well, why did he not heal him? And if he could have healed him, why did he not do it, seeing he testifies so much sorrow at his death? Let none hereafter vaunt the miracle of the blind man’ s cure; if he had been capable of doing that, he would not have permitted his friend to die."Thus will men reason, or rather madden, concerning the works and providence of God; till, by his farther miracles of mercy or judgment, he converts or confounds them.

Clarke: Joh 11:38 - It was a cave, etc. It was a cave, etc. - It is likely that several of the Jewish burying-places were made in the sides of rocks; some were probably dug down like a wel...

It was a cave, etc. - It is likely that several of the Jewish burying-places were made in the sides of rocks; some were probably dug down like a well from the upper surface, and then hollowed under into niches, and a flat stone, laid down upon the top, would serve for a door. Yet, from what the evangelist says, there seems to have been something peculiar in the formation of this tomb. It might have been a natural grotto, or dug in the side of a rock or hill, and the lower part of the door level with the ground, or how could Lazarus have come forth, as he is said to have done, Joh 11:44?

Clarke: Joh 11:39 - Take ye away the stone Take ye away the stone - He desired to convince all those who were at the place, and especially those who took away the stone, that Lazarus was not ...

Take ye away the stone - He desired to convince all those who were at the place, and especially those who took away the stone, that Lazarus was not only dead, but that putrescency had already taken place, that it might not be afterwards said that Lazarus had only fallen into a lethargy; but that the greatness of the miracle might be fully evinced

Clarke: Joh 11:39 - He stinketh He stinketh - The body is in a state of putrefaction. The Greek word οζω signifies simply to smell, whether the scent be good or bad; but the c...

He stinketh - The body is in a state of putrefaction. The Greek word οζω signifies simply to smell, whether the scent be good or bad; but the circumstances of the case sufficiently show that the latter is its meaning here. Our translators might have omitted the uncouth term in the common text; but they chose literally to follow the Anglo-Saxon, and it would be now useless to attempt any change, as the common reading would perpetually recur, and cause all attempts at mending to sound even worse than that in the text

Clarke: Joh 11:39 - For he hath been dead four days For he hath been dead four days - Τεταρταιος γαρ εστι, This is the fourth day, i.e. since his interment. Christ himself was buried...

For he hath been dead four days - Τεταρταιος γαρ εστι, This is the fourth day, i.e. since his interment. Christ himself was buried on the same day on which he was crucified, see Joh 19:42, and it is likely that Lazarus was buried also on the same day on which he died. See on Joh 11:17 (note).

Clarke: Joh 11:40 - If thou wouldest believe, etc. If thou wouldest believe, etc. - So it appears that it is faith alone that interests the miraculous and saving power of God in behalf of men. Instea...

If thou wouldest believe, etc. - So it appears that it is faith alone that interests the miraculous and saving power of God in behalf of men. Instead of δοξαν, the glory, one MS. reads δυναμιν, the miraculous power.

Clarke: Joh 11:41 - Where the dead was laid Where the dead was laid - These words are wanting in BC*DL, three others; Syriac, Persic, Arabic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, Saxon, and i...

Where the dead was laid - These words are wanting in BC*DL, three others; Syriac, Persic, Arabic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, Saxon, and in all the Itala. Griesbach leaves them out of the text

Clarke: Joh 11:41 - Father, I thank thee Father, I thank thee - As it was a common opinion that great miracles might be wrought by the power and in the name of the devil, Jesus lifted up hi...

Father, I thank thee - As it was a common opinion that great miracles might be wrought by the power and in the name of the devil, Jesus lifted up his eyes to heaven, and invoked the supreme God before these unbelieving Jews, that they might see that it was by his power, and by his only, that this miracle was done; that every hinderance to this people’ s faith might be completely taken out of the way, and that their faith might stand, not in the wisdom of man, but in the power of the Most High. On this account our Lord says, he spoke because of the multitude, that they might see there was no diabolic influence here, and that God in his mercy had visited his people.

Clarke: Joh 11:43 - He cried with a loud voice He cried with a loud voice - In Joh 5:25, our Lord had said, that the time was coming, in which the dead should hear the voice of the Son of God, an...

He cried with a loud voice - In Joh 5:25, our Lord had said, that the time was coming, in which the dead should hear the voice of the Son of God, and live. He now fulfils that prediction, and cries aloud, that the people may take notice, and see that even death is subject to the sovereign command of Christ

Jesus Christ, says Quesnel, omitted nothing to save this dead person: he underwent the fatigue of a journey, he wept, he prayed, he groaned, he cried with a loud voice, and commanded the dead to come forth. What ought not a minister to do in order to raise a soul, and especially a soul long dead in trespasses and sins!

Clarke: Joh 11:44 - Bound hand and foot with grave-clothes Bound hand and foot with grave-clothes - Swathed about with rollers - κειριαις, from κειρω, I cut. These were long slips of linen a f...

Bound hand and foot with grave-clothes - Swathed about with rollers - κειριαις, from κειρω, I cut. These were long slips of linen a few inches in breadth, with which the body and limbs of the dead were swathed, and especially those who were embalmed, that the aromatics might be kept in contact with the flesh. But as it is evident that Lazarus had not been embalmed, it is probable that his limbs were not swathed together, as is the constant case with those who are embalmed, but separately, so that he could come out of the tomb at the command of Christ, though he could not walk freely till the rollers were taken away. But some will have it that he was swathed exactly like a mummy, and that his coming out in that state was another miracle. But there is no need of multiplying miracles in this case: there was one wrought which was a most sovereign proof of the unlimited power and goodness of God. Several of the primitive fathers have adduced this resurrection of Lazarus as the model, type, proof, and pledge of the general resurrection of the dead

Clarke: Joh 11:44 - Loose him, and let him go Loose him, and let him go - He would have the disciples and those who were at hand take part in this business, that the fullest conviction might res...

Loose him, and let him go - He would have the disciples and those who were at hand take part in this business, that the fullest conviction might rest on every person’ s mind concerning the reality of what was wrought. He whom the grace of Christ converts and restores to life comes forth, at his call, from the dark, dismal grave of sin, in which his soul has long been buried: he walks, according to the command of Christ, in newness of life; and gives, by the holiness of his conduct, the fullest proof to all his acquaintance that he is alive from the dead.

Clarke: Joh 11:45 - Many of the Jews - believed on him Many of the Jews - believed on him - They saw that the miracle was incontestable; and they were determined to resist the truth no longer. Their frie...

Many of the Jews - believed on him - They saw that the miracle was incontestable; and they were determined to resist the truth no longer. Their friendly visit to these distressed sisters became the means of their conversion. How true is the saying of the wise man, It is better to go to the house of mourning than to the house of feasting! Ecc 7:2. God never permits men to do any thing, through a principle of kindness to others, without making it instrumental of good to themselves. He that watereth shall be watered also himself, Pro 11:25. Therefore, let no man withhold good, while it is in the power of his hand to do it. Pro 3:27.

Clarke: Joh 11:46 - But some of them went their ways But some of them went their ways - Astonishing! Some that had seen even this miracle steeled their hearts against it; and not only so, but conspired...

But some of them went their ways - Astonishing! Some that had seen even this miracle steeled their hearts against it; and not only so, but conspired the destruction of this most humane, amiable, and glorious Savior! Those who obstinately resist the truth of God are capable of every thing that is base, perfidious, and cruel.

Clarke: Joh 11:47 - Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council - The Pharisees, as such, had no power to assemble councils; and therefore only those ar...

Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council - The Pharisees, as such, had no power to assemble councils; and therefore only those are meant who were scribes or elders of the people, in conjunction with Annas and his son-in-law Caiaphas, who were the high priests here mentioned. See Joh 18:13, Joh 18:24

Clarke: Joh 11:47 - What do we? What do we? - This last miracle was so clear, plain, and incontestable, that they were driven now to their wit’ s end. Their own spies had come...

What do we? - This last miracle was so clear, plain, and incontestable, that they were driven now to their wit’ s end. Their own spies had come and borne testimony of it. They told them what they had seen, and on their word, as being in league with themselves against Jesus, they could confidently rely.

Clarke: Joh 11:48 - All men will believe on him All men will believe on him - If we permit him to work but a few more miracles like these two last (the cure of the blind man, and the resurrection ...

All men will believe on him - If we permit him to work but a few more miracles like these two last (the cure of the blind man, and the resurrection of Lazarus) he will be universally acknowledged for the Messiah; the people will proclaim him king; and the Romans, who can suffer no government here but their own, will be so irritated that they will send their armies against us, and destroy our temple, and utterly dissolve our civil and ecclesiastical existence. Thus, under the pretense of the public good, these men of blood hide their hatred against Christ, and resolve to put him to death. To get the people on their side, they must give the alarm of destruction to the nation: if this man be permitted to live, we shall be all destroyed! Their former weapons will not now avail. On the subject of keeping the Sabbath, they had been already confounded; and his last miracles were so incontestable that they could no longer cry out, He is a deceiver

Clarke: Joh 11:48 - Both our place and nation Both our place and nation - Literally, this place, τον τοπον : but that the temple only is understood is dear from Act 6:13, Act 6:14; 2 Ma...

Both our place and nation - Literally, this place, τον τοπον : but that the temple only is understood is dear from Act 6:13, Act 6:14; 2 Maccabees 1:14; 2:18; 3:18; 5:16, 17; 10:7; where it is uniformly called the place, or the holy place, because they considered it the most glorious and excellent place in the world. When men act in opposition to God’ s counsel, the very evils which they expect thereby to avoid will come upon them. They said, If we do not put Jesus to death, the Romans will destroy both our temple and nation. Now, it was because they put him to death that the Romans burnt and razed their temple to the ground, and put a final period to their political existence. See Mat 22:7; and the notes on chap. 24.

Clarke: Joh 11:49 - Caiaphas being the high priest that same year Caiaphas being the high priest that same year - By the law of Moses, Exo 40:15, the office of high priest was for life, and the son of Aaron’ s...

Caiaphas being the high priest that same year - By the law of Moses, Exo 40:15, the office of high priest was for life, and the son of Aaron’ s race always succeeded his father. But at this time the high priesthood was almost annual: the Romans and Herod put down and raised up whom they pleased, and when they pleased, without attending to any other rule than merely that the person put in this office should be of the sacerdotal race. According to Josephus, Ant. xviii. c. 3, the proper name of this person was Joseph, and Caiaphas was his surname. He possessed the high priesthood for eight or nine years, and was deposed by Vitellius, governor of Judea. See on Luk 3:2 (note)

Clarke: Joh 11:49 - Ye know nothing Ye know nothing - Of the perilous state in which ye stand.

Ye know nothing - Of the perilous state in which ye stand.

Clarke: Joh 11:50 - Nor consider Nor consider - Ye talk more at random than according to reason, and the exigencies of the case. There is a various reading here in some MSS. that sh...

Nor consider - Ye talk more at random than according to reason, and the exigencies of the case. There is a various reading here in some MSS. that should be noticed. Instead of ουδε διαλογιζεσθε, which we translate, ye do not consider, and which properly conveys the idea of conferring, or talking together, ουδε λογιζεσθε, neither do ye reason or consider rightly, is the reading of ABDL, three others, and some of the primitive fathers. Griesbach, by placing it in his inner margin, shows that he thinks it bids fair to be the true reading. Dr. White thinks that this reading is equal, and probably preferable, to that in the text: Lectio aequalis, forsitan praeferenda receptae

Clarke: Joh 11:50 - That one man should die for the people That one man should die for the people - In saying these remarkable words, Caiaphas had no other intention than merely to state that it was better t...

That one man should die for the people - In saying these remarkable words, Caiaphas had no other intention than merely to state that it was better to put Jesus to death than to expose the whole nation to ruin on his account. His maxim was, it is better to sacrifice one man than a whole nation. In politics nothing could be more just than this; but there are two words to be spoken to it

First, The religion of God says, we must not do evil that good may come: Rom 3:8

Secondly, It is not certain that Christ will be acknowledged as king by all the people; nor that he will make any insurrection against the Romans; nor that the Romans will, on his account, ruin the temple, the city, and the nation. This Caiaphas should have considered. A person should be always sure of his premises before he attempts to draw any conclusion from them. See Calmet. This saying was proverbial among the Jews: see several instances of it in Schoettgen.

Clarke: Joh 11:51 - This spake he not of himself This spake he not of himself - Wicked and worthless as he was, God so guided his tongue that, contrary to his intention, he pronounced a prophecy of...

This spake he not of himself - Wicked and worthless as he was, God so guided his tongue that, contrary to his intention, he pronounced a prophecy of the death of Jesus Christ

I have already remarked that the doctrine of a vicarious atonement had gained, long before this time, universal credit in the world. Words similar to these of Caiaphas are, by the prince of all the Roman poets, put in the mouth of Neptune, when promising Venus that the fleet of Aeneas should be preserved, and his whole crew should be saved, one only excepted, whose death he speaks of in these remarkable words: -

" Unum pro multis dabitar caput .

"One life shall fall, that many may be saved.

Which victim the poet informs us was Palinurus, the pilot of Aeneas’ s own ship, who was precipitated into the deep by a Divine influence. See Virg. Aen. v. l. 815, etc

There was no necessity for the poet to have introduced this account. It was no historic fact, nor indeed does it tend to decorate the poem. It even pains the reader’ s mind; for, after suffering so much in the sufferings of the pious hero and his crew, he is at once relieved by the interposition of a god, who promises to allay the storm, disperse the clouds, preserve the fleet, and the lives of the men; but, - one must perish! The reader is again distressed, and the book ominously closes with the death of the generous Palinurus, who strove to the last to be faithful to his trust, and to preserve the life of his master and his friend. Why then did the poet introduce this? Merely, as it appears to me, to have the opportunity of showing in a few words his religious creed, on one of the most important doctrines in the world; and which the sacrificial system of Jews and Gentiles proves that all the nations of the earth credited

As Caiaphas was high priest, his opinion was of most weight with the council; therefore God put these words in his mouth rather than into the mouth of any other of its members. It was a maxim among the Jews that no prophet ever knew the purport of his own prophecy, Moses and Isaiah excepted. They were in general organs by which God chose to speak.

Clarke: Joh 11:52 - And not for that nation only, etc. And not for that nation only, etc. - These, and the preceding words in Joh 11:51, are John’ s explication of what was prophetic in the words of...

And not for that nation only, etc. - These, and the preceding words in Joh 11:51, are John’ s explication of what was prophetic in the words of Caiaphas: as if John had said, He is indeed to die for the sins of the Jewish nation, but not for theirs alone, but for the sins of the whole world: see his own words afterwards, 1Jo 2:1, 1Jo 2:2

Clarke: Joh 11:52 - Gather together in one Gather together in one - That he should collect into one body; - form one Church out of the Jewish and Gentile believers

Gather together in one - That he should collect into one body; - form one Church out of the Jewish and Gentile believers

Clarke: Joh 11:52 - Children of God that were scattered abroad Children of God that were scattered abroad - Probably John only meant the Jews who were dispersed among all nations since the conquest of Judea by t...

Children of God that were scattered abroad - Probably John only meant the Jews who were dispersed among all nations since the conquest of Judea by the Romans; and these are called the dispersed, Joh 7:35, and Jam 1:1; and it is because he refers to these only, that he terms them here, the children of God, which was an ancient character of the Jewish people: see Deu 32:5; Isa 43:6; Isa 45:11; Jer 32:1. Taking his words in this sense, then his meaning is this: that Christ was to die, not only for the then inhabitants of Judea, but for all the Jewish race wheresoever scattered; and that the consequence would be, that they should be all collected from their various dispersions, and made one body. This comports with the predictions of St. Paul: Romans 11:1-32. This probably is the sense of the passage; and though, according to this interpretation, the apostle may seem to confine the benefits of Christ’ s death to the Jewish people only, yet we find from the passage already quoted from his first epistle, that his views of this subject were afterwards very much extended; and that he saw that Jesus Christ was not only a propitiation for their sins (the Jews) but for the sins of the whole world: see his 1st epistle, 1Jo 2:2. All the truths of the Gospel were not revealed at once, even to the apostles themselves.

Clarke: Joh 11:53 - They took counsel together They took counsel together - Συνεβουλευσαντο, they were of one accord in the business, and had fully made up their minds on the subj...

They took counsel together - Συνεβουλευσαντο, they were of one accord in the business, and had fully made up their minds on the subject; and they waited only for a proper opportunity to put him to death.

Clarke: Joh 11:54 - Walked no more openly Walked no more openly - Παρῥησιᾳ, He did not go as before through the cities and villages, teaching, preaching, and healing the sick

Walked no more openly - Παρῥησιᾳ, He did not go as before through the cities and villages, teaching, preaching, and healing the sick

Clarke: Joh 11:54 - Near to the wilderness Near to the wilderness - Some MSS. add, of Samphourein, or Samphourim, or Sapfurim

Near to the wilderness - Some MSS. add, of Samphourein, or Samphourim, or Sapfurim

Clarke: Joh 11:54 - A city called Ephraim A city called Ephraim - Variously written in the MSS., Ephraim, Ephrem, Ephram, and Ephratha. This was a little village, situated in the neighborhoo...

A city called Ephraim - Variously written in the MSS., Ephraim, Ephrem, Ephram, and Ephratha. This was a little village, situated in the neighborhood of Bethel; for the scripture, 2Ch 13:19, and Josephus, War, b. iv. c. 8. s. 9, join them both together. Many believe that this city or village was the same with that mentioned, 1 Maccabees 5:46; 2 Maccabees 12:27. Joshua gave it to the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:9; and Eusebius and Jerome say it was about twenty miles north of Jerusalem

Clarke: Joh 11:54 - And there continued And there continued - Calmet says, following Toynard, that he stayed there two months, from the 24th of January till the 24th of March.

And there continued - Calmet says, following Toynard, that he stayed there two months, from the 24th of January till the 24th of March.

Clarke: Joh 11:55 - The Jews’ passover was nigh at hand The Jews’ passover was nigh at hand - It is not necessary to suppose that this verse has any particular connection with the preceding. Most ch...

The Jews’ passover was nigh at hand - It is not necessary to suppose that this verse has any particular connection with the preceding. Most chronologists agree that our Lord spent at least two months in Ephraim. This was the last passover which our Lord attended; and it was at this one that he suffered death for the salvation of a lost world. As the passover was nigh, many of the inhabitants of Ephraim and its neighborhood went up to Jerusalem, some time (perhaps seven or eight days, for so much time was required to purify those who had touched the dead) before the feast, that they might purify themselves, and not eat the passover otherwise than prescribed in the law. Many of the country people, in the time of Hezekiah, committed a trespass by not attending to this: see 2Ch 30:18, 2Ch 30:19. Those mentioned in the text wished to avoid this inconvenience.

Clarke: Joh 11:56 - Then sought they for Jesus Then sought they for Jesus - Probably those of Ephraim, in whose company Christ is supposed to have departed for the feast, but, having stayed behin...

Then sought they for Jesus - Probably those of Ephraim, in whose company Christ is supposed to have departed for the feast, but, having stayed behind, perhaps at Jericho, or its vicinity, the others had not missed him till they came to the temple, and then inquired among each other whether he would not attend the feast. Or the persons mentioned in the text might have been the agents of the high priest, etc., and hearing that Christ had been at Ephraim, came and inquired among the people that came from that quarter, whether Jesus would not attend the festival, knowing that he was punctual in his attendance on all the Jewish solemnities.

Clarke: Joh 11:57 - Had given a commandment Had given a commandment - Had given order; εντολην, positive order, or injunction, and perhaps with a grievous penalty, that no one should k...

Had given a commandment - Had given order; εντολην, positive order, or injunction, and perhaps with a grievous penalty, that no one should keep the place of his residence a secret. This was their hour, and the power of darkness; and now they are fully determined to take away his life. The order here spoken of was given in consequence of the determination of the council, mentioned Joh 11:48-53

Christ’ s sympathy and tenderness, one of the principal subjects in this chapter, have already been particularly noted on Joh 11:33. His eternal power and Godhead are sufficiently manifested in the resurrection of Lazarus. The whole chapter abounds with great and important truths, delivered in language the most impressive and edifying. In the whole of our Lord’ s conduct in the affair of Lazarus and his sisters, we find majesty, humanity, friendship, and sublime devotion, blended in the most intimate manner, and illustrating each other by their respective splendor and excellence. In every act, in every word, we see God manifested in the Flesh: - Man in all the amiableness and charities of his nature; God in the plenitude of his power and goodness. How sublime is the lesson of instruction conveyed by the words, Jesus wept! The heart that feels them not must be in the gall of bitterness, and bond of iniquity, and consequently lost to every generous feeling

On the quotation from Virgil, on the 50th verse, a learned friend has sent me the following lines

My dear Sir, - I have observed that in one part of your Commentary you quote these words of Virgil, Unum pro multis dabitur caput ; and you are of opinion that Virgil here recognizes the doctrine of atonement. There is a passage in Lucan where this doctrine is exhibited more clearly and fully. It is in the second book, v. 306. Cato, in a speech to Brutus, declares his intention of fighting under the standard of Pompey, and then expresses the following sentiment: -

O utinam, coelique Deis Erebique liberet,

Hoc caput in cunctas damnatum exponere poenas!

Devotum hostiles Decium pressere catervae

Me geminae figant acies, me barbara teli

Rheni turba petat: cunctis ego pervius hasti

Excipiam medius totius vulnera belli

Hic redimat sanguis populos: hac caede luatur

Quidquid Romani meruerunt pendere mores

O, were the gods contented with my fall

If Cato’ s life could answer for you all

Like the devoted Decius would I go

To force from either side the mortal blow

And for my country’ s sake wish to be thought her foe

To me, ye Romans, all your rage confine

To me, ye nations from the barbarous Rhine

Let all the wounds this war shall make be mine

Open my vital streams, and let them run

O, let the purple sacrifice atone

For all the ills offending Rome hath done

Rowe

A little after, v. 377, Lucan portrays the character of Cato with a very masterly hand; but he applies expressions to a mortal which are applicable to Christ alone

Uni quippe vacat, studiisque odiisque carenti,

Humanum lugere genus

The golden mean unchanging to pursue

Constant to keep the purposed end in view

Religiously to follow nature’ s laws

And die with pleasure in his country’ s cause

To think he was not for himself design’ d

But born to be of use to all mankind

Rowe.

||&&$

Calvin: Joh 11:1 - And one named Lazarus was sick // Lazarus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha 1.And one named Lazarus was sick The Evangelist passes on to another narrative, which contains a miracle eminently worthy of being recorded. For not ...

1.And one named Lazarus was sick The Evangelist passes on to another narrative, which contains a miracle eminently worthy of being recorded. For not only did Christ give a remarkable proof of his Divine power in raising Lazarus, but he likewise placed before our eyes a lively image of our future resurrection. This might indeed be said to be the latest and concluding action of his life, for the time of his death was already at hand. We need not wonder, therefore, if he illustrated his own glory, in an extraordinary manner, in that work, the remembrance of which he wished to be deeply impressed on their minds, that it might seal, in some respects, all that had gone before. There were others whom Christ had raised from the dead, but he now displays his power on a rotting corpse. But the circumstances which tend to magnify the glory of God in this miracle shall be pointed out in their proper place and order.

Lazarus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha The probable reason why this circumstance is mentioned is, that Lazarus had not acquired so great celebrity among believers as his sisters had; for these holy women were accustomed to entertain Christ with their hospitality, as is evident from what is related by the Evangelist Luke, (Luk 10:38.) It is really too ridiculous a blunder, to suppose that Monks, and such fry as the Papists have, made this small town or village a castle.

Calvin: Joh 11:2 - It was that Mary who anointed the Lord 2.It was that Mary who anointed the Lord It is a similar display of ignorance, to imagine that this Mary, the sister of Lazarus, was that woman of ...

2.It was that Mary who anointed the Lord It is a similar display of ignorance, to imagine that this Mary, the sister of Lazarus, was that woman of wicked and infamous life, who is mentioned by Luke, (Luk 7:37.) This mistake was occasioned by the anointing; as if it were not evident enough that Christ was anointed on various occasions, and even at different places. The woman who was a sinner, of whom Luke gives an account, anointed Christ at Jerusalem, where he dwelt; but Mary afterwards anointed him at Bethany, which was her own village. The past tense employed by the Evangelist, who anointed, must be referred, not to the time of the occurrence which he is now relating, but to the time when he wrote; as if he had said, “It was this Mary who afterwards poured on the head of Christ the ointment, on account of which a murmuring arose among the disciples,” (Mat 26:7.)

Calvin: Joh 11:3 - Lo, he whom thou lovest is sick 3.Lo, he whom thou lovest is sick The message is short, but Christ might easily learn from it what the two sisters wished; for, under this complaint,...

3.Lo, he whom thou lovest is sick The message is short, but Christ might easily learn from it what the two sisters wished; for, under this complaint, they modestly state their request that he would be pleased to grant them relief. We are not forbidden, indeed, to use a longer form of prayer; but our principal object ought to be, to pour into the bosom of God all our cares, and every thing that distresses us, that he may afford deliverance. Such is the manner in which the women act towards Christ: they plainly tell him their distress, in consequence of which they expect some alleviation. We ought also to observe that, from Christ’s love, they are led to entertain a confident hope of obtaining assistance, he whom thou lovest; and this is the invariable rule of praying aright; for, where the love of God is, there deliverance is certain and at hand, because God cannot forsake him whom he loveth

Calvin: Joh 11:4 - Now Jesus, having heard this, said, This sickness is not to death // But for the glory of God // For the glory, of God, that the Son of God may be glorified 4.Now Jesus, having heard this, said, This sickness is not to death He intended by this reply to free his disciples from anxiety, that they might not...

4.Now Jesus, having heard this, said, This sickness is not to death He intended by this reply to free his disciples from anxiety, that they might not take it amiss, when they saw him giving himself so little concern about the danger of his friend. That they might not be alarmed, therefore, about the life of Lazarus, he declares that the disease is not deadly, and even promises that it will be an additional occasion of promoting his own glory. Though Lazarus died, yet as Christ soon afterwards restored him to life, he now declares, looking to this result, that the disease is not to death

But for the glory of God This clause is not contrasted with death, as if it were an argument that would always hold; for we know that, even though the reprobate die, the glory of God is not less strikingly displayed in their destruction than in the salvation of believers. But Christ strictly meant, in this passage, the glory of God, which was connected with his office. The power of God, which was displayed in the miracles of Christ, was not fitted to strike terror, but was kind and gentle. When he says that there is no danger of death, because he intends to display in it his own glory and the glory of his Father, we ought to inquire for what purpose, and with what intention, he was sent by the Father; which was, to save, and not to destroy.

For the glory, of God, that the Son of God may be glorified This expression is highly emphatic; for we learn from it that God wishes to be acknowledged in the person of his Son in such a manner, that all the reverence which he requires to be given to his own majesty 309 may be ascribed to the Son. Hence we were told formerly,

He who doth not honor the Son doth not honor the Father,
(Joh 5:23.)

It is in vain for Mahometans and Jews, therefore, to pretend to worship God; for they blaspheme against Christ, and even endeavor, in this manner, to rob God of himself.

Calvin: Joh 11:5 - And Jesus loved Martha and her sister, and Lazarus 5.And Jesus loved Martha and her sister, and Lazarus These two things appear to be inconsistent with each other, that Christ remains two days beyon...

5.And Jesus loved Martha and her sister, and Lazarus These two things appear to be inconsistent with each other, that Christ remains two days beyond Jordan, as if he did not care about the life of Lazarus, and yet the Evangelist says, that Christ loved him and his sisters; for, since love produces anxiety, he ought to have hastened immediately. As Christ is the only mirror of the grace of God, we are taught by this delay on his part, that we ought not to judge of the love of God from the condition which we see before our eyes. When we have prayed to him, he often delays his assistance, either that he may increase still more our ardor in prayer, or that he may exercise our patience, and, at the same time, accustom us to obedience. Let believers then implore the assistance of God, but let them also learn to suspend their desires, if he does not stretch out his hand for their assistance as soon as they may think that necessity requires; for, whatever may be his delay, he never sleeps, and never forgets his people. Yet let us also be fully assured that he wishes all whom he loves to be saved.

Calvin: Joh 11:7 - And after this, he saith to his disciples 7.And after this, he saith to his disciples At length he now shows that he cared about Lazarus, though the disciples thought that he had forgotten hi...

7.And after this, he saith to his disciples At length he now shows that he cared about Lazarus, though the disciples thought that he had forgotten him, or, at least, that there were other matters which he reckoned of more importance than the life of Lazarus. He therefore enjoins them to cross the Jordan, and go to Judea

Calvin: Joh 11:8 - Rabbi, the Jews but lately sought to stone thee 8.Rabbi, the Jews but lately sought to stone thee When the disciples dissuade him from going, they do so, not so much perhaps on his account as on th...

8.Rabbi, the Jews but lately sought to stone thee When the disciples dissuade him from going, they do so, not so much perhaps on his account as on their own, for each of them is alarmed about himself, as the danger was common to all. Avoiding the cross, and being ashamed to own it, they allege — what is more plausible — that they are anxious about their Master. The same thing happens every day with many. For they who, through a dread of the cross, shrink from the performance of their duty, eagerly seek excuses to conceal their indolence, that they may not be thought to rob God of the obedience due to him, when they have no good cause to do so.

Calvin: Joh 11:9 - Are there not twelve hours in the day? 9.Are there not twelve hours in the day? This passage has been explained in various ways. Some have thought the meaning of these words to be, that me...

9.Are there not twelve hours in the day? This passage has been explained in various ways. Some have thought the meaning of these words to be, that men sometimes adopt a new and different resolution every hour. This is very far from Christ’s meaning; and indeed I would not have reckoned it worthy of being mentioned, had it not been that it has passed into a common proverb. Let us therefore be satisfied with the simple and natural meaning.

First, Christ borrows a comparison from Day and Night. For if any man perform a journey in the dark, we need not wonder if he frequently stumble, or go astray, or fall; but the light of the sun by day points out the road, so that there is no danger. Now the calling of God is like the light of day, which does not allow us to mistake our road or to stumble. Whoever, then, obeys the word of God, and undertakes nothing but according to his command, always has God to guide and direct him from heaven, and with this confidence he may safely and boldly pursue his journey. For, as we are informed,

Whosoever walketh in his ways hath angels to guard him, and, under their direction, is safe, so that he cannot strike his foot against a stone,
(Psa 91:11.)

Relying on this protection, therefore, Christ advances boldly into Judea, without any dread of being stoned; for there is no danger of going astray, when God, performing the part of the sun, shines on us, and directs our course.

We are taught by these words, that whenever a man allows himself to be guided by his own suggestions, without the calling of God, his whole life is nothing else than a course of wandering and mistake; and that they who think themselves exceedingly wise, when they do not inquire at the mouth of God, and have not his Spirit to govern their actions, are blind men groping in the dark; that the only proper way is, to be fully assured of our divine calling, and to have always God before our eyes as our guide. 310 This rule of regulating our life well is followed by a confident expectation of a prosperous result, because it is impossible that God shall not govern successfully. And this knowledge is highly necessary to us; for believers can scarcely move a foot to follow him, but Satan shall immediately interpose a thousand obstructions, hold out a variety of dangers on every side, and contrive, in every possible way, to oppose their progress. But when the Lord invites us to go forward, by holding out, as it were, his lamp to us, we ought to go forward courageously, though many deaths besiege our path; for he never commands us to advance without at the same time adding a promise to encourage us, so that we may be fully convinced, that whatever we undertake agreeably to his command will have a good and prosperous issue. This is our chariot, and whoever betakes himself to it will never fail through weariness; and even though the obstacles were so formidable that we could not be conveyed through them by a chariot, yet, furnished with these wings, we shall always succeed, till we reach the goal. Not that believers never meet with any adversity, but because adverse occurrences are aids to their salvation.

It amounts to this, that the eyes of God will always be attentive to guard those who shall be attentive to his instructions. Hence we learn also that, whenever men overlook and disregard the word of God, and consequently indulge themselves foolishly, and undertake whatever they think right, the whole course of their life is accursed by God, and vengeance is always ready to punish their presumption and their blind passions. Again, Christ here divides the day into twelve hours, according to ancient custom; for though the days are longer in summer and shorter in winter, 311 yet they had always twelve hours of the day, and twelve of the night.

Calvin: Joh 11:11 - Our friend Lazarus sleepeth 11.Our friend Lazarus sleepeth Having formerly asserted that the disease was not deadly, that his disciples may not be too much distressed at seeing ...

11.Our friend Lazarus sleepeth Having formerly asserted that the disease was not deadly, that his disciples may not be too much distressed at seeing what they did not expect, he now informs them also that Lazarus is dead, and excites a hope of his resurrection. It is a proof of amazing ignorance, that they believe that Christ spoke about sleep; for, though it is a metaphorical form of expression, still it is so frequent and common in Scripture, that it ought to have been familiarly known to all the Jews.

Calvin: Joh 11:12 - If he sleepeth, he will recover // But I go to awake him 12.If he sleepeth, he will recover 313 Replying that sleep will have a salutary effect on Lazarus, they thus endeavor indirectly to dissuade Christ...

12.If he sleepeth, he will recover 313 Replying that sleep will have a salutary effect on Lazarus, they thus endeavor indirectly to dissuade Christ from going thither. And yet they do not craftily or deceitfully turn aside Christ’s words to suit their own purpose, on the pretense of not understanding what he said; 314 but, thinking that he spoke about sleep, they gladly seize this opportunity of avoiding danger. Augustine, and many writers since his time, speculate about the word sleep, alleging that the reason why it is applied to death is, because it is as easy for God to raise the dead to life, as it is for us to perform the customary act of awaking those who are asleep. But that nothing of this sort came into the mind of Christ, may be inferred from the constant use of the term in Scripture; and since even profane writers usually apply this word Sleep to Death, 315 there was unquestionably no other reason why it came into use, but because a lifeless corpse lies without feeling, just as the body of a man who is in a profound sleep. Hence, also, sleep is not inappropriately called the image of death, and Homer calls it the brother of death, (κασίγνητος θανάτουυ.) Since this word denotes only the sleep of the body, it is prodigiously absurd to apply it — as some fanatics have done — to souls, as if, by being deprived of understanding, they were subject to death.

But I go to awake him Christ asserts his own power, when he says that he will come to awake Lazarus; for, though, as we have said, the word sleep does not express the facility of the resurrection, yet Christ shows that he is Lord of death, when he says, that he awakes those whom he restores to life.

Calvin: Joh 11:14 - Then Jesus told them plainly, Lazarus is dead 14.Then Jesus told them plainly, Lazarus is dead The goodness of Christ was astonishing, in being able to bear with such gross ignorance in the disci...

14.Then Jesus told them plainly, Lazarus is dead The goodness of Christ was astonishing, in being able to bear with such gross ignorance in the disciples. And indeed the reason why he delayed, for a time, to bestow upon them the grace of the Spirit in larger measure, was, that the miracle of renewing them in a moment might be the greater.

Calvin: Joh 11:15 - And I rejoice, on your account, that I was not there // That you may believe 15.And I rejoice, on your account, that I was not there He means that his absence was profitable to them, because his power would have been less illu...

15.And I rejoice, on your account, that I was not there He means that his absence was profitable to them, because his power would have been less illustriously displayed, if he had instantly given assistance to Lazarus. For the more nearly the works of God approach to the ordinary course of nature, the less highly are they valued, and the less illustriously is their glory displayed. This is what we experience daily; for if God immediately stretches out his hand, we do not perceive his assistance. That the resurrection of Lazarus, therefore, might be acknowledged by the disciples to be truly a Divine work, it must be delayed, that it might be very widely removed from a human remedy.

We ought to remember, however, what I formerly observed, that the fatherly kindness of God towards us is here represented in the person of Christ. When God permits us to be overwhelmed with distresses, and to languish long under them, let us know that, in this manner, he promotes our salvation. At such a time, no doubt, we groan and are perplexed and sorrowful, but the Lord rejoices on account of our benefit, and gives a twofold display of his kindness to us in this respect, that he not only pardons our sins, but gladly finds means of correcting them.

That you may believe He does not mean that this was the first feeble commencement of faith in them, but that it was a confirmation of faith already begun, though it was still exceedingly small and weak. Yet he indirectly suggests that, if the hand of God had not been openly displayed, they would not have believed.

Calvin: Joh 11:16 - Then Thomas // Let us go, that we may die with him 16.Then Thomas Hitherto the disciples had endeavored to hinder Christ from going. Thomas is now prepared to follow, but it is without confidence; o...

16.Then Thomas Hitherto the disciples had endeavored to hinder Christ from going. Thomas is now prepared to follow, but it is without confidence; or, at least, he does not fortify himself by the promise of Christ, so as to follow hint with cheerfulness and composure.

Let us go, that we may die with him This is the language of despair, for they ought to have entertained no fears about their own life. The phrase, with him, may be explained as referring either to Lazarus or to Christ. If we refer it to Lazarus, it will be ironical, as if Thomas had said, “Of what use will it be to go thither, unless it be that we cannot discharge the duty of friends in any other manner than by seeking to die along with him ?” Yet I greatly prefer the other meaning, that Thomas does not refuse to die with Christ But this, as I have said, proceeds from inconsiderate zeal; for he ought rather to have taken courage from faith in the promise.

Calvin: Joh 11:18 - Now Bethany was near Jerusalem // About fifteen furlongs 18.Now Bethany was near Jerusalem The Evangelist diligently follows out all that contributes to the certainty of the narrative. He relates how near ...

18.Now Bethany was near Jerusalem The Evangelist diligently follows out all that contributes to the certainty of the narrative. He relates how near Jerusalem was to the village of Bethany, that no one may be astonished that, for the purpose of comforting the sisters, many friends came from Jerusalem, whom God intended to be witnesses of the miracle. For, though the desire of performing an office of kindness was their inducement to go, yet they were assembled there, by a secret decree of God, for another purpose, that the resurrection of Lazarus might not remain unknown, or that the witnesses might not be only those who belonged to the family. Now it is a convincing proof of the base ingratitude of the nation, that this striking demonstration of Divine power at a well-known place, amidst a vast crowd of men, and near the gates of the city, and which might almost be said to be erected on a stage, instantly vanishes from the eyes of men. We should rather say that the Jews, by maliciously shutting their eyes, intentionally do not see what is before their eyes. Nor is it a new or uncommon occurrence, that men who, with excessive eagerness, continually gape for miracles, are altogether dull and stupid in the consideration of them.

About fifteen furlongs This distance between the two places was somewhat less than two thousand paces, or, two miles; for the Stadium, or furlong, contains six hundred feet; that is, one hundred and twenty-five paces. 316

Calvin: Joh 11:19 - To comfort them concerning their brother 19.To comfort them concerning their brother This was, no doubt, the object which they had in view, but God had another object to accomplish, as we ha...

19.To comfort them concerning their brother This was, no doubt, the object which they had in view, but God had another object to accomplish, as we have stated. It is evident from what is here mentioned, that the house of Lazarus and his sisters was greatly respected and honored. Again, as it is natural that the death of friends should occasion grief and mourning to men, this duty, which the Evangelist mentions, ought not to be blamed, unless on this ground, that sinful excess, which prevails in this and in other departments of life, corrupts what is not in itself sinful.

Calvin: Joh 11:20 - Martha having heard that Jesus was coming. Martha 20.Martha having heard that Jesus was coming. Martha travels beyond the village, as we shall afterwards see, not only perhaps on account of the rever...

20.Martha having heard that Jesus was coming. Martha travels beyond the village, as we shall afterwards see, not only perhaps on account of the reverence which she bore to Christ, but that she might meet him more secretly; for his danger was fresh in his recollection, and the rage of enemies had not well subsided, which had been a little abated by Christ’s departure into Galilee, but might, on their hearing of his arrival, break out anew with greater violence.

Calvin: Joh 11:21 - Lord, if thou hadst been here 21.Lord, if thou hadst been here She begins with a complaint, though in doing so she modestly expresses her wish. Her meaning may be expressed thus ...

21.Lord, if thou hadst been here She begins with a complaint, though in doing so she modestly expresses her wish. Her meaning may be expressed thus — “By thy presence thou mightst have delivered my brother from death, and even now thou canst do it, for God will not refuse thee any thing.” By speaking in this manner, she gives way to her feelings, instead of restraining them under the rule of faith. I acknowledge that her words proceeded partly from faith, but I say that there were disorderly passions mixed with them, which hurried her beyond due bounds. For when she assures herself that her brother would not have died, if Christ had been present, what ground has she for this confidence? Certainly, it did not arise from any promise of Christ.

The only conclusion therefore is, that she inconsiderately yields to her own wishes, instead of subjecting herself to Christ. When she ascribes to Christ power and supreme goodness, this proceeds from faith; but when she persuades herself of more than she had heard Christ declare, that has nothing to do with faith; 317 for we must always hold the mutual agreement between the word and faith, that no man may rashly forge anything for himself, without the authority of the word of God. Besides, Martha attached too much importance to the bodily presence of Christ. The consequence is, that Martha’s faith, though mixed up and interwoven with ill-regulated desires, and even not wholly free from superstition, could not shine with full brightness; so that we perceive but a few sparks of it in these words.

Calvin: Joh 11:23 - Thy brother shall rise again 23.Thy brother shall rise again The kindness of Christ is amazing, in forgiving those faults of Martha which we have mentioned, and in promising her,...

23.Thy brother shall rise again The kindness of Christ is amazing, in forgiving those faults of Martha which we have mentioned, and in promising her, of his own accord, more than she had ventured plainly and directly to ask.

Calvin: Joh 11:24 - I know that he shall rise again 24.I know that he shall rise again We now see Martha’s excessive timidity in extenuating the meaning of Christ’s words. We have said that she wen...

24.I know that he shall rise again We now see Martha’s excessive timidity in extenuating the meaning of Christ’s words. We have said that she went farther than she had a right to do, when she fabricated a hope for herself out of the feelings of her own mind. She now falls into an opposite fault; for when Christ stretches forth his hand, she stops short, as if she were alarmed. We ought, therefore to guard against both of these extremes. On the one hand, we must not, without the authority of God’s word, drink in empty hopes, which will prove to be nothing but wind; and, on the other hand, when God opens his mouth, it is not proper that he should find our hearts either blocked up, or too firmly closed. Again, by this reply, Martha intended to ascertain more than she ventured to expect from the words of Christ, as if she had said: “If you mean the last resurrection, I have no doubt that my brother will be raised again at the last day, and I comfort myself with this confident expectation, but I do not know if you direct my attention to something greater.”

Calvin: Joh 11:25 - I am the resurrection and the life // He who believeth in me, though, he were dead, shall live 25.I am the resurrection and the life Christ first declares that he is the resurrection and the life, and then he explains, separately and distinctl...

25.I am the resurrection and the life Christ first declares that he is the resurrection and the life, and then he explains, separately and distinctly, each clause of this sentence. His first statement is, that he is the resurrection, because the restoration from death to life naturally comes before the state of life. Now the whole human race is plunged in death; and, therefore, no man will be a partaker of life until he is risen from the dead. Thus Christ shows that he is the commencement of life, and he afterwards adds, that the continuance of life is also a work of his grace. That he is speaking about spiritual life, is plainly shown by the exposition which immediately follows,

He who believeth in me, though, he were dead, shall live Why then is Christ the resurrection ? Because by his Spirit he regenerates the children of Adam, who had been alienated from God by sin, so that they begin to live a new life. On this subject, I have spoken more fully under Joh 5:21 and 24; 318 and Paul is an excellent interpreter of this passage, (Eph 2:5, and Eph 5:8.) Away now with those who idly talk that men are prepared for receiving the grace of God by the movement of nature. They might as well say that the dead walk. For that men live and breathe, and are endued with sense, understanding, and will, all this tends to their destruction, because there is no part or faculty of the soul that is not corrupted and turned aside from what is right. Thus it is that death everywhere holds dominion, for the death of the soul is nothing else than its being estranged and turned aside from God. 319 Accordingly, they who believe in Christ, though they were formerly dead, begin to live, because faith is a spiritual resurrection of the soul, and — so to speak — animates the soul itself that it may live to God; according to that passage,

The dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they who hear shall live
(Joh 5:25.)

This is truly a remarkable commendation of faith, that it conveys to us the life of Christ, and thus frees us from death.

Calvin: Joh 11:26 - And whosoever liveth, and believeth in me // Shall never die // Dost thou believe this? 26.And whosoever liveth, and believeth in me This is the exposition of the second clause, how Christ is the life; and he is so, because he never per...

26.And whosoever liveth, and believeth in me This is the exposition of the second clause, how Christ is the life; and he is so, because he never permits the life which he has once bestowed to be lost, but preserves it to the end. For since flesh is so frail, what would become of men, if, after having once obtained life, they were afterwards left to themselves? The perpetuity of the life must, therefore, be founded on the power of Christ himself, that he may complete what he has begun.

Shall never die The reason why it is said that believers never die is, that their souls, being born again of incorruptible seed, (1Pe 1:23,) have Christ dwelling in them, from whom they derive perpetual vigor; for, though

the body be subject to death on account of sin,
yet the spirit is life on account of righteousness,
(Rom 8:10.)

That the outward man daily decays in them is so far from taking anything away from their true life, that it aids the progress of it, because the inward man is renewed from day to day, (2Co 4:16.) What is still more, death itself is a sort of emancipation from the bondage of death.

Dost thou believe this? Christ seems, at first sight, to discourse about spiritual life, for the purpose of withdrawing the mind of Martha from her present desire. Martha wished that her brother should be restored to life Christ replies, that he is the Author of a more excellent life; and that is, because he quickens the souls of believers by divine power. Yet I have no doubt that he intended to include both favors; and therefore he describes, in general terms, that spiritual life which he bestows on all his followers, but wishes to give them some opportunity of knowing this power, which he was soon afterwards to manifest in raising Lazarus.

Calvin: Joh 11:27 - Yes, Lord 27.Yes, Lord To prove that she believes what she had heard Christ say about himself, that he is the resurrection and the life, Martha replies, that ...

27.Yes, Lord To prove that she believes what she had heard Christ say about himself, that he is the resurrection and the life, Martha replies, that she believes that he is the Christ, and the Son of God; and indeed this knowledge includes the sum of all blessings; for we ought always to remember for what purpose the Messiah was promised, and what duty the prophets ascribe to him. Now when Martha confesses that it was he who was to come into the world, she strengthens her faith by the predictions of the prophets. Hence it follows, that we ought to expect from him the full restoration of all things and perfect happiness; and, in short, that he was sent to erect and prepare the true and perfect state of the kingdom of God.

Calvin: Joh 11:28 - And called Mary, her sister // The Master is here 28.And called Mary, her sister It was probably at the request of Martha, that Christ remained on the outside of the village, that he might not enter ...

28.And called Mary, her sister It was probably at the request of Martha, that Christ remained on the outside of the village, that he might not enter into so great an assembly of people; for she dreaded the danger, because Christ had but lately escaped with difficulty from instant death. Accordingly, that the rumor about his arrival might not spread farther, she makes it known privately to her sister.

The Master is here The word Master shows in what estimation Christ was held among those pious women. Though they had not hitherto profited so much as they might have done, still it was a great matter that they were entirely devoted to him as his disciples; and Mary’s sudden departure, to come and meet him, was a proof that she regarded him with no ordinary reverence.

Calvin: Joh 11:31 - Then the Jews who were with her 31.Then the Jews who were with her Though Martha was permitted by Christ to return home for the purpose of withdrawing her sister from the numerous a...

31.Then the Jews who were with her Though Martha was permitted by Christ to return home for the purpose of withdrawing her sister from the numerous assembly, yet Christ had another design in view, which was, that the Jews might be witnesses of the miracle. True, they have no thought of it, but it was no new thing that men should be led, as it were in darkness, and by the secret providence of God, where they did not intend to go. They think that Mary is going to the tomb, according to the custom of those who seek excitements of their grief. For it is a very prevalent disease, that husbands deprived of their wives, parents deprived of their children, and, on the other hand, wives deprived of their husbands, and children deprived of their parents or other relatives and friends, are eager to increase their grief by every possible method. It is also customary to resort to various contrivances for this purpose. The affections of men are already sufficiently disordered; but it is still worse, 322 that they inflame them by new excitements, that they may rush against God with greater ardor and violence. It was their duty to dissuade Mary from going, that the sight of the tomb might not give fresh occasion for her grief; yet they do not venture to apply so harsh a remedy, but even themselves contribute to the excess of her grief, by accompanying her to the tomb. Thus it frequently happens, that they who treat too gently the excesses of their friends do them little good by their consolations.

Calvin: Joh 11:32 - She fell at his feet // Lord, if thou hadst been here 32.She fell at his feet From her falling down at his feet we learn that Christ was honored in that house beyond the ordinary custom of men. For, th...

32.She fell at his feet From her falling down at his feet we learn that Christ was honored in that house beyond the ordinary custom of men. For, though it was customary to throw themselves down on the ground in the presence of kings and great men, yet as Christ had nothing about him, according to the flesh, that was royal or magnificent, it was for a different purpose that Mary fell down at his feet Indeed, she would not have done so, if she had not been convinced that he was the Son of God.

Lord, if thou hadst been here Though she appears to speak of Christ respectfully, yet we have lately pointed out what is faulty in these words; for the power of Christ, which filled heaven and earth, ought not to have been limited to his bodily presence.

Calvin: Joh 11:33 - He groaned in his spirit 33.He groaned in his spirit If Christ had not been excited to compassion by their tears, he would rather have kept his countenance unmoved, but when,...

33.He groaned in his spirit If Christ had not been excited to compassion by their tears, he would rather have kept his countenance unmoved, but when, of his own accord, he conforms to those mourners, so far as to weep along with them, 323 he gives proof that he has sympathy, (συμπάθεια.) For the cause of this feeling is, in my opinion, expressed by the Evangelist, when he says that Christ saw Mary and the rest weeping Yet I have no doubt that Christ contemplated something higher, namely, the general misery of the whole human race; for he knew well what had been enjoined on him by the Father, and why he was sent into the world, namely, to free us from all evils. As he has actually done this, so he intended to show that he accomplished it with warmth and earnestness. Accordingly, when he is about to raise Lazarus, before granting deliverance or aid, by the groaning of his spirit, by a strong feeling of grief, and by tears, he shows that he is as much affected by our distresses as if he had endured them in his own person.

But how do groaning and trouble of mind belong to the person of the Son of God? As some reckon it absurd to say that Christ, as one of the number of human beings, was subject to human passions, they think that the only way in which he experienced grief or joy was, that he received in himself those feelings, whenever he thought proper, by some secret dispensation. It is in this sense, Augustine thinks, that the Evangelist says that he was troubled, because other men are hurried along by their feelings, which exercise dominion, or rather tyranny, to trouble their minds. He considers the meaning therefore to be, that Christ, though otherwise tranquil and free from all passion, brought groaning and grief upon himself of his own accord. But this simplicity will, in my opinion, be more agreeable to Scripture, if we say that the Son of God, having clothed himself with our flesh, of his own accord clothed himself also with human feelings, so that he did not differ at all from his brethren, sin only excepted. In this way we detract nothing from the glory of Christ, when we say that it was a voluntary submission, by which he was brought to resemble us in the feelings of the soul. Besides, as he submitted from the very commencement, we must not imagine that he was free and exempt from those feelings; and in this respect he proved himself to be our brother, in order to assure us, that we have a Mediator, who willingly pardons our infirmities, and who is ready to assist those infirmities which he has experienced in himself.

It will perhaps be objected, that the passions of men are sinful, and therefore it cannot be admitted that we have them in common with the Son of God. I reply, there is a wide difference between Christ and us. For the reason why our feelings are sinful is, that they rush on without restraint, and suffer no limit; but in Christ the feelings were adjusted and regulated in obedience to God, and were altogether free from sin. To express it more fully, 324 the feelings of men are sinful and perverse on two accounts; first, because they are hurried along by impetuous motion, and are not regulated by the true rule of modesty; and, secondly, because they do not always arise from a lawful cause, or, at least, are not directed to a lawful end. I say that there is excess, because no person rejoices or grieves, so far only as is sufficient, or as God permits, and there are even some who shake themselves loose from all restraint. The vanity of our understanding brings us grief or sadness, on account of trifles, or for no reason whatever, because we are too much devoted to the world. Nothing of this nature was to be found in Christ; for he had no passion or affection of his own that ever went beyond its proper bounds; he had not one that was not proper, and founded on reason and sound judgment.

To make this matter still more clear, it will be of importance for us to distinguish between man’s first nature, as it was created by God, and this degenerate nature, which is corrupted by sin. When God created man, he implanted affections in him, but affections which were obedient and submissive to reason. That those affections are now disorderly and rebellious is an accidental fault; that is, it proceeds from some other cause than from the Creator. 325 Now Christ took upon him human affections, but without (ἀταξία) disorder; for he who obeys the passions of the flesh is not obedient to God. Christ was indeed troubled and vehemently agitated; but, at the same time, he kept himself in subjection to the will of the Father. In short, if you compare his passions with ours, they will differ not less than pure and clear water, flowing in a gentle course, differs from dirty and muddy foam.

The example of Christ ought to be sufficient of itself for setting aside the unbending sternness which the Stoics demand; for whence ought we to look for the rule of supreme perfection but from Christ? We ought rather to endeavor to correct and subdue that obstinacy which pervades our affections on account of the sin of Adam, and, in so doing, to follow Christ as our leader, that he may bring us into subjection. Thus Paul does not demand from us hardened stupidity, but enjoins us to observe moderation

in our mourning, that we may not abandon ourselves to grief, like unbelievers who have no hope
(1Th 4:13;)

for even Christ took our affections into himself, that by his power we may subdue every thing in them that is sinful.

Calvin: Joh 11:36 - Behold, how he loved him! 36.Behold, how he loved him! The Evangelist John here describes to us two different opinions which were formed about Christ. As to the former, who sa...

36.Behold, how he loved him! The Evangelist John here describes to us two different opinions which were formed about Christ. As to the former, who said, Behold, how he loved him! though they think less highly of Christ than they ought to have done, since they ascribe to him nothing but what may belong to a man, yet they speak of him with greater candor and modesty than the latter, who maliciously slander him for not having hindered Lazarus from dying. For, though they applaud the power of Christ, of which the former said nothing, yet they do so, not without bringing against him some reproach. It is evident enough from their words, that the miracles which Christ had performed were not unknown to them; but so much the more base is their ingratitude, that they do not scruple to complain, because now, in a single instance, he abstained from working. Men have always been ungrateful to God in the same manner, and continue to be so. If he does not grant all our wishes, we immediately launch into complaints: “Since he has been accustomed to aid us hitherto, why does he now forsake and disappoint us?” There is here a twofold disease. First, though we rashly desire what is not expedient for us, yet we wish to subject God to the perverse desires of the flesh. Secondly, we are rude in our demands, and the ardor of impatience hurries us before the time.

Calvin: Joh 11:38 - Jesus therefore again groaning within himself 38.Jesus therefore again groaning within himself Christ does not approach the sepulcher as an idle spectator, but as a champion who prepares for a co...

38.Jesus therefore again groaning within himself Christ does not approach the sepulcher as an idle spectator, but as a champion who prepares for a contest; and therefore we need not wonder that he again groans; for the violent tyranny of death, which he had to conquer, is placed before his eyes. Some explain this groan to have arisen from indignation, because he was offended at that unbelief of which we have spoken. But another reason appears to me far more appropriate, namely, that he contemplated the transaction itself rather than the men. Next follow various circumstances, which tend to display more fully the power of Christ in raising Lazarus. I refer to the time of four days, during which the tomb had been secured by a stone, which Christ commands to be removed in presence of all.

Calvin: Joh 11:39 - Lord, he already stinketh 39.Lord, he already stinketh This is an indication of distrust, for she promises herself less from the power of Christ than she ought to have done. T...

39.Lord, he already stinketh This is an indication of distrust, for she promises herself less from the power of Christ than she ought to have done. The root of the evil consists in measuring the infinite and incomprehensible power of God by the perception of her flesh. There being nothing more inconsistent with life than putrefaction and offensive smell, Martha infers that no remedy can be found. Thus, when our minds are preoccupied by foolish thoughts, we banish God from us, if we may be allowed the expression, so that he cannot accomplish in us his own work. Certainly, it was not owing to Martha, that her brother did not lie continually in the tomb, for she cuts off the expectation of life for him, and, at the same time, endeavors to hinder Christ from raising him; and yet nothing was farther from her intention. This arises from the weakness of faith. Distracted in various ways, we fight with ourselves, and while we stretch out the one hand to ask assistance from God, we repel, with the other hand, that very assistance, as soon as it is offered. 326 True, Martha did not speak falsely, when she said, I know that whatsoever thou shalt ask from God he will give thee; but a confused faith is of little advantage, unless it be put in operation, when we come to a practical case.

We may also perceive in Martha how various are the effects of faith, even in the most excellent persons. She was the first that came to meet Christ; this was no ordinary proof of her piety; and yet she does not cease to throw difficulties in his way. That the grace of God may have access to us, let us learn to ascribe to it far greater power than our senses can comprehend; and, if the first and single promise of God has not sufficient weight with us, let us, at least, follow the example of Martha by giving our acquiescence, when he confirms us a second and third time.

Calvin: Joh 11:40 - Did not I tell thee? // If thou believe // Thou shalt see the glory of God 40.Did not I tell thee? He reproves Martha’s distrust, in not forming a hope sufficiently vigorous from the promise which she had heard. It is evid...

40.Did not I tell thee? He reproves Martha’s distrust, in not forming a hope sufficiently vigorous from the promise which she had heard. It is evident from this passage, that something more was said to Martha than John has literally related; though, as I have suggested, this very thing was meant by Christ, when he called himself the resurrection and the life Martha is therefore blamed for not expecting some Divine work.

If thou believe This is said, not only because faith opens our eyes, that we may be able to see the power of God shining in his works, but because our faith prepares the way for the power, mercy, and goodness of God, that they may be displayed towards us, as it is said, Open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it, (Psa 81:10.) In like manner, unbelief, on the other hand, hinders God from approaching us, and may be said to keep his hands shut. On this account it is said elsewhere, that Jesus

could not perform any miracle there on account of their unbelief, (Mat 13:58.)

Not that the power of God is bound by the caprice of men, but because, as far as they are able, their malice opposes the exercise of that power, and therefore they do not deserve that it should be manifested to them. Frequently, indeed, does God overcome such obstacles; but yet, whenever he withdraws his hand, so as not to assist unbelievers, this is done because, shut up within the narrow limits of their unbelief, they do not allow it to enter.

Thou shalt see the glory of God Observe, that a miracle is called the glory of God, because God, displaying in it the power of his hand, glorifies his name. But Martha, now satisfied with Christ’s second declaration, permits the stone to be removed. As yet she sees nothing, but, hearing the Son of God, not without a good reason, give this order, she willingly relies on his authority alone.

Calvin: Joh 11:41 - And Jesus again raised his eyes // Father, I thank thee 41.And Jesus again raised his eyes This was the token of a mind truly prepared for prayer; for before any one calls on God aright, he must be brought...

41.And Jesus again raised his eyes This was the token of a mind truly prepared for prayer; for before any one calls on God aright, he must be brought into communication with him, and this can only be done when, raised above the earth, he ascends even to heaven. True, this is not done by the eyes; for hypocrites, who are plunged in the deep filth of their flesh, appear to draw down heaven to them by their stern aspect; but what they only pretend to do must be sincerely accomplished by the children of God. And yet he who raises his eyes to heaven ought not, in his thoughts, to limit God to heaven; for He is present everywhere, and fills heaven and earth, (Jer 23:24.) But as men can never free themselves from gross imaginations, so as not to form some low and earthly conception about God, unless when they are raised above the world, Scripture sends them to heaven, and declares that heaven is the habitation of God, (Isa 66:1.)

So far as relates to the eyes, it is not a custom that must be perpetually observed, so that without it prayer is not lawful; for the publican, who prays with his face cast down to the ground, does not the less, on this account, pierce heaven by his faith, (Luk 18:13.) Yet this exercise is profitable, because men are aroused by it to seek God; and not only so, but the ardor of prayer often affects the body in such a manner that, without thinking of it, the body follows the mind of its own accord. Certainly, we cannot doubt that, when Christ raised his eyes to heaven, he was carried towards it with extraordinary vehemence. Besides, as all his thoughts were with the Father, so he also wished to bring others to the Father along with him.

Father, I thank thee He begins with thanksgiving, though he has asked nothing; but though the Evangelist does not relate that he prayed in a form of words, yet there can be no doubt whatever that, before this, there was a prayer, for otherwise it could not have been heard. And there is reason to believe that he prayed amidst those groanings which the Evangelist mentions; for nothing could be more absurd than to suppose that he was violently agitated within himself, as stupid men are wont to be. Having obtained the life of Lazarus, he now thanks the Father By saying that he has received this power from the Father, and by not ascribing it to himself, he does nothing more than acknowledge that he is the servant of the Father For, accommodating himself to the capacity of men, he at one time openly proclaims his Divinity, and claims for himself whatever belongs to God; and, at another time, he is satisfied with sustaining the character of a man, and yields to the Father the whole glory of Divinity. Here both are admirably brought together by the Evangelist in one word, when he says that the Father heard Christ, but that he gives thanks, that men may know that he was sent by the Father, that is, that they may acknowledge him to be the Son of God. The majesty of Christ being incapable of being perceived in its true elevation, the power of God, which appeared in his flesh, gradually raised to this elevation the gross and dull senses of men. For since he intended to be wholly ours, we need not wonder if he accommodates himself to us in various ways; and as he even allowed himself to be emptied (Phi 2:7) for us, there is no absurdity in saying that he abases himself on our account.

Calvin: Joh 11:42 - And I knew that thou hearest me always 42.And I knew that thou hearest me always This is an anticipation, lest any one should think that he did not stand so high in favor with the Father,...

42.And I knew that thou hearest me always This is an anticipation, lest any one should think that he did not stand so high in favor with the Father, as to be able easily to perform as many miracles as he chose. He means, therefore, that there is so great an agreement between him and the Father, that the Father refuses him nothing; and even that he had no need to pray, because he only executed what he knew that the Father had enjoined; but in order that men may be more fully assured that this is truly a divine work, for this reason he called on the name of the Father. It will perhaps be objected, Why then did he not raise all the dead? The reply is easy. A certain fixed limit was assigned to miracles by the purpose of God, so far as he knew to be sufficient for confirming the Gospel.

Calvin: Joh 11:43 - He cried with a loud voice 43.He cried with a loud voice By not touching with the hand, but only crying with the voice, his Divine power is more fully demonstrated. At the sam...

43.He cried with a loud voice By not touching with the hand, but only crying with the voice, his Divine power is more fully demonstrated. At the same time, he holds out to our view the secret and astonishing efficacy of his word. For how did Christ restore life to the dead but by the word? And therefore, in raising Lazarus, he exhibited a visible token of his spiritual grace, which we experience every day by the perception of faith, when he shows that his voice gives life.

Calvin: Joh 11:44 - Bound hand and foot with bandages // Loose him, and let him go 44.Bound hand and foot with bandages The Evangelist is careful to mention the napkin and bandages, in order to inform us that Lazarus went out of ...

44.Bound hand and foot with bandages The Evangelist is careful to mention the napkin and bandages, in order to inform us that Lazarus went out of the tomb, in the same manner that he was laid in it. This mode of burying is retained to the present day by the Jews, who cover the body with a shroud, and wrap the head separately in a handkerchief.

Loose him, and let him go To magnify the glory of the miracle, it only remained that the Jews should even touch with their hands that Divine work which they had beheld with their eyes. For Christ might have removed the bandages with which Lazarus was bound, or made them to give way of themselves; but Christ intended to employ the hands of the spectators as his witnesses.

The Papists act an excessively ridiculous part, by endeavoring to draw auricular confession from this passage. They say, “Christ, after having restored Lazarus to life, commanded his disciples to loose him; and therefore it is not enough for us to be reconciled to God, unless the Church also pardon our sins.” But whence do they conjecture that the disciples were enjoined to loose Lazarus? On the contrary, we may infer that the order was given to the Jews, in order to take from them every ground of doubt or hesitation.

Calvin: Joh 11:45 - Many therefore of the Jews believed on him 45.Many therefore of the Jews believed on him Christ did not permit the miracle which he had wrought to be without fruit, for by means of it he drew ...

45.Many therefore of the Jews believed on him Christ did not permit the miracle which he had wrought to be without fruit, for by means of it he drew some persons to the faith. For we ought to understand that miracles have a twofold use. They are intended either to prepare us for faith, or to confirm us in faith. The former is here denoted by the Evangelist; for he means that those of whom he speaks regarded Christ with admiration and reverence, so as to submit to be his disciples; otherwise the bare miracle could not have been sufficient to produce faith. Accordingly, by the word believe we must not suppose anything else to be meant than a willingness to embrace the doctrine of Christ.

Calvin: Joh 11:46 - But some of them went away to the Pharisees 46.But some of them went away to the Pharisees In those who accuse Christ we behold detestable ingratitude, or rather horrible rage, from which we in...

46.But some of them went away to the Pharisees In those who accuse Christ we behold detestable ingratitude, or rather horrible rage, from which we infer how blind and mad is their impiety. The resurrection of Lazarus ought undoubtedly to have softened even hearts of stone; but there is no work of God which impiety will not infect and corrupt by the bitterness of its poison. So then, before men can profit by miracles, their hearts must be purified; for they who have no fear of God, and no reverence for him, though they saw heaven and earth mingled, will never cease to reject sound doctrine through obstinate ingratitude. Thus you will see in the present day many enemies of the Gospel, like fanatics, fighting with the open and visible hand of God. And yet they demand miracles from us, but it is for no other purpose than to show that, in stubborn resistance, they are monsters of men. As to the report being carried to the Pharisees rather than to any others, 327 it is because, in proportion to their hypocrisy, they were more fierce in opposing the Gospel. For the same reason he soon afterwards makes express mention of them, when he relates that the council was assembled. They were indeed a part of the priests, but are specially named by the Evangelist, because they served the purpose of bellows to kindle the rage of the whole council

Calvin: Joh 11:47 - Then the chief priests and the Pharisees assembled the council // What do we? 47.Then the chief priests and the Pharisees assembled the council Not less monstrous is the blindness of the priests, which is here described. If th...

47.Then the chief priests and the Pharisees assembled the council Not less monstrous is the blindness of the priests, which is here described. If they had not been exceedingly stupid and brutish, they would at least have been impressed with some reverence for Christ, after so striking a demonstration of his Divine power. They now assemble deliberately and intentionally to bury the glory of God, at the sight of which they are constrained to be astonished. True, they do not openly proclaim that they wish to make war with God, but as they cannot extinguish Christ but by overturning the power of God, they unquestionably fight against that power openly by presumption and sacrilege. Infidelity indeed is always haughty, and despises God, but does not all at once break out to such an extent as to raise its horns against God. But when men have long struggled against God, the result at which they ultimately arrive is, that they endeavor to ascend above heaven, after the manner of the giants, 328 without any dread of the Divine majesty; 329 for they acknowledge that Christ doth many miracles And whence proceeds his great power? They therefore openly prepare to crush the power of God, which shines in the miracles of Christ. Yet God is not unemployed; but though he wink at them for a time, he laughs at their foolish arrogance, till the time come for executing his wrath, as it is said, (Psa 2:4.)

What do we? By these words they accuse themselves of sloth, as if they said that it is on account of their doing nothing, that Christ continues to make advances, because by active exertion they may stop his progress. Such is the confidence of wicked men, by which they lay claim to everything, as if it were in their power to do as they please, and as if even the result of the work depended on their wishes. And if the whole be duly weighed, they here employ their own industry as a shield against the Divine power, as if by perseverance they could vanquish God.

Calvin: Joh 11:48 - If we let him alone thus // The Romans will come // The Romans will come // Will take away our place 48.If we let him alone thus What if they do not let him alone ? In that case, as we have already said, they are fully convinced that it lies in the...

48.If we let him alone thus What if they do not let him alone ? In that case, as we have already said, they are fully convinced that it lies in their power to block up Christ’s path, so that he shall go no farther, provided that they earnestly strive against him. If Christ had been some impostor, their duty would have been to employ their exertions, that he might not lead away the sheep from the Lord’s flock; but by confessing his miracles, they make it sufficiently evident that they do not care much about God, whose power they so boldly and disdainfully despise.

The Romans will come They cloak their wickedness by a plausible disguise, their zeal for the public good. The fear that chiefly distressed them was, that their tyranny would be destroyed; but they pretend to be anxious about the temple and worship of God, about the name of the nation, and about the condition of the people. And what is the object of all this? For they do not appear to seek pretences of this nature in order to deceive. They are not haranguing the people, but are holding in secrecy a private consultation among themselves. Being all aware that they are guilty of the same treachery, why do they not openly bring forward their plans and opinions? It is because impiety, though gross and manifest, is almost always accompanied by hypocrisy, and thus wraps itself in indirect evasions or subterfuges, so as to deceive under the semblance of virtue. Their chief design undoubtedly was, to hold out some appearance of gravity, moderation, and prudence, so as to practice imposition upon others; but it may readily be believed that, when they pretended to have just ground for persecuting Christ, they were themselves deceived by that poor disguise. Thus hypocrites, though their conscience reproves them within, are afterwards intoxicated by vain imaginations, so that in sinning they appear to be innocent. Yet they evidently contradict themselves; for at first they confessed that Christ did many miracles, and now they dread the Romans, as if there had not been abundantly sufficient protection in the power of God, which showed itself to be present by those miracles

The Romans will come The Evangelist means, that the chief object of their consultation was, to guard against imminent danger. “If the Romans, ” they say, “knew that any innovation was made in public matters, there is reason to fear that they would send an army to ruin our nation, together with the temple and worship of God.” Now it is wicked to consult about guarding against dangers, which we cannot avoid, unless we choose to depart from the right path. Our first inquiry ought to be, What does God command and choose to be done? By this we ought to abide, whatever may be the consequence to ourselves. Those men, on the other hand, resolve that Christ shall be removed from the midst of them, that no inconvenience may arise by allowing him to proceed, as he has begun. But what if he has been sent by God? Shall they banish a prophet of God from among them, to purchase peace with the Romans ? Such are the schemes of those who do not truly and sincerely fear God. What is right and lawful gives them no concern, for their whole attention is directed to the consequences.

But the only way to deliberate in a proper and holy manner is this. First, we ought to inquire what is the will of God. Next, we ought to follow boldly whatever he enjoins, and not to be discouraged by any fear, though we were besieged by a thousand deaths; for our actions must not be moved by any gust of wind, but must be constantly regulated by the will of God alone. He who boldly despises dangers, or, at least, rising above the fear of them, sincerely obeys God, will at length have a prosperous result; for, contrary to the expectation of all, God blesses that firmness which is founded on obedience to his word. Unbelievers, on the other hand, are so far from deriving any advantage from their precautions, that, the more timorous they are, the more numerous are the snares in which they entangle themselves.

In this narrative the form and character of our own age are strikingly delineated. They who are desirous to be regarded as prudent and cautious have continually this song in their mouth: “We must consult the public tranquillity; the reformation which we attempt is not unaccompanied by many dangers.” After having raised this unfounded dislike against us, they find no better expedient than to bury Christ, for the purpose of obviating every annoyance. As if such wicked contempt of the grace of God could actually have a prosperous issue, when, in order to allay disturbances, they contrive this remedy, that the doctrine of salvation shall be abolished. On the contrary, what wicked men dread will happen; and though they may obtain what they expect, still it is a most unworthy recompense, to appease the world by offending God.

Will take away our place It is uncertain whether they mean the temple or their country. They thought that their salvation depended on both; for, if the temple was destroyed, there would be no more sacrifices, or public worship of God, or calling on his name. If, therefore, they cared any thing about religion, they must have been anxious about the temple. It was of great importance, on the other hand, for upholding the condition of the Church, that they should not again be led away out of their own land. They still remembered the captivity into Babylon, which was an awfully severe vengeance of God. It was also a common proverb among them — which is frequently to be found in the Law — that it was in some respects a casting them off, if the Lord thrust them out of that land. Hence they conclude that, unless Christ be destroyed, the Church will not be safe.

Calvin: Joh 11:49 - Then one of them, named Caiaphas // Who was the high priest of that year 49.Then one of them, named Caiaphas It was a short consultation, for Caiaphas did not allow them to hesitate long. He holds out that there is but o...

49.Then one of them, named Caiaphas It was a short consultation, for Caiaphas did not allow them to hesitate long. He holds out that there is but one way of purchasing safety, and that is, to slay an innocent man. To what a pitch of wickedness do men proceed, who, destitute of the fear of God, form their plans rather from the judgment of their flesh than from the word of God, and who confidently believe that they will derive advantage from that which is not permitted by the Author of every blessing. For what Caiaphas meant may be thus expressed. “They must provoke the wrath of God, in order that they may be happy and prosperous.” Wherefore, let us learn never to separate what is useful from what is lawful, since we ought not to expect any prosperity or success but from the blessing of God, which is promised not to wicked and rebellious persons, who ask assistance from the devil, but to believers who sincerely walk in their ways, (Psa 91:11.) And yet there was some plausibility in this argument, for the public advantage ought always to have the preference. But — as I have already said — a people is no better protected by the unjust death of an innocent man, than the whole body of a man is protected, when you only cut his throat, or pierce his breast with a sword.

Who was the high priest of that year He does not call him the high priest of that year, as if he meant that the office was annual, and lasted only for a year; but because it had become a gift that could be purchased with money, and was conveyed to various persons contrary to the injunction of the Law. God did not intend that this dignity should be terminated but by the death of him who held it; 330 but, in consequence of trouble and confusion in public affairs, the Romans frequently changed the priests according to their fancy.

Calvin: Joh 11:51 - Now he spoke this, not of himself // That Jesus would die 51.Now he spoke this, not of himself When the Evangelist says that Caiaphas did not speak this of himself, he does not mean that Caiaphas — like o...

51.Now he spoke this, not of himself When the Evangelist says that Caiaphas did not speak this of himself, he does not mean that Caiaphas — like one who was mad, or out of his senses — uttered what he did not understand; for he spoke what was his own opinion. But the Evangelist means that a higher impulse guided his tongue, because God intended that he should make known, by his mouth, something higher than what occurred to his mind. Caiaphas, therefore, might be said, at that time, to have two tongues; for he vomited out the wicked and cruel design of putting Christ to death, which he had conceived in his mind; but God turned his tongue to a different purpose, so that, under ambiguous words, he likewise uttered a prediction. God intended that the heavenly oracle should proceed from the high priest’s seat, that the Jews might have less excuse. For, though not one person in the whole assembly had his conscience moved, yet they afterwards perceived that their insensibility was not entitled to forgiveness. Nor did the wickedness of Caiaphas prevent his tongue from being the organ of the Holy Spirit, for God looked at the priesthood which he had instituted rather than at the person of the man. And this was the reason which I glanced at, that a voice uttered from a lofty place might be more distinctly heard, and might have greater reverence and authority. In the same manner, God intended to bless his people by the mouth of Balaam, on whom he had bestowed the spirit of prophecy.

But it is highly ridiculous in the Papists to infer from this that we ought to reckon as an oracle whatever the Roman high priest may think fit to pronounce. First, granting what is false, that every man who is a high priest is also a prophet, still they will be under the necessity of proving that the Roman high priest is appointed by the command of God; for the priesthood was abolished by the coming of one man, who is Christ, and we no where read that it was afterwards enjoined by God that any one man should be the ruler of the whole Church. Granting to them, in the second place, that the power and title of high priest was conveyed to the Bishop of Rome, we must see of what advantage it was to the priests that they accepted the prediction of Caiaphas In order to concur in his opinion, they conspire to put Christ to death. But far from us be that kind of obedience which drives us to horrid apostacy by denying the Son of God. With the same voice Caiaphas blasphemes and also prophesies. They who follow his suggestion despise the prophecy, and adopt the blasphemy. We ought to guard against the same thing happening to us, if we listen to the Caiaphas of Rome; for otherwise the comparison would be defective. Besides, I ask, Must we conclude that, because Caiaphas once prophesied, every word uttered by the high priest is always a prophecy ? But soon afterwards Caiaphas condemned as blasphemy (Mat 26:65) the most important article of our faith. Hence we conclude, that what the Evangelist now relates was an extraordinary occurrence, and that it would be foolish to adduce it as an example.

That Jesus would die First, the Evangelist shows that the whole of our salvation consists in this, that Christ should assemble us into one; for in this way he reconciles us to the Father, in whom is the fountain of life, (Psa 36:9.) Hence, also, we infer, that the human race is scattered and estranged from God, until the children of God are assembled under Christ their Head. Thus, the communion of saints is a preparation for eternal life, because all whom Christ does not gather to the Father remain in death, as we shall see again under the seventeenth chapter. For the same reason Paul also teaches that Christ was sent, in order

that he might gather together all things which are in heaven and in earth,
(Eph 1:10.)

Wherefore, that we may enjoy the salvation brought by Christ, discord must be removed, and we must be made one with God and with angels, and among ourselves. The cause and pledge of this unity was the death of Christ, by which he drew all things to himself; but we are daily gathered by the Gospel into the fold of Christ.

Calvin: Joh 11:52 - And not for that nation only 52.And not for that nation only The Evangelist means that the reconciliation effected by Christ is also extended to the Gentiles. But how comes it th...

52.And not for that nation only The Evangelist means that the reconciliation effected by Christ is also extended to the Gentiles. But how comes it that they who, in consequence of being wretchedly scattered and wandering, became the enemies of God, are here called the children of God ? I answer, as has been already said, God had in his breast children, who in themselves were wandering and lost sheep, or rather who were the farthest possible from being sheep, but, on the contrary, were wolves and wild beasts. It is therefore by election that he reckons as the children of God, even before they are called, those who at length begin to be manifested by faith both to themselves and to others.

Calvin: Joh 11:53 - They consulted to put him to death 53.They consulted to put him to death The Evangelist relates that Christ again fled, knowing that his enemies sought him with so great rage. Yet let ...

53.They consulted to put him to death The Evangelist relates that Christ again fled, knowing that his enemies sought him with so great rage. Yet let us remember that he did not fly in order to withdraw from his Father’s calling; for he had no other intention than to present himself to undergo voluntary death at the time which God had appointed. This consultation, which the Evangelist mentions, related not so much to slaying Christ as to find out some method of crushing him. They had already determined to put him to death; it only remained to advise in what way they could carry their resolution into effect.

Calvin: Joh 11:54 - Which is called Ephraim // And there he dwelt with his disciples 54.Which is called Ephraim As to the name of the town which is mentioned here, I think that either it was pronounced at that time in a corrupted mann...

54.Which is called Ephraim As to the name of the town which is mentioned here, I think that either it was pronounced at that time in a corrupted manner, or it was entirely new. For we know how greatly the language was changed after the captivity into Babylon, and likewise how different was the appearance of the country; so that we need not be surprised that some places are mentioned, which in ancient times were altogether unknown.

And there he dwelt with his disciples By calling them disciples of Christ, he means not those who had received his doctrine, but those who were his constant companions, and who were wont to live under the same roof.

Calvin: Joh 11:55 - Many from that country went up to Jerusalem 55.Many from that country went up to Jerusalem It was not absolutely enjoined that they should purify themselves before sacrificing the passover; a...

55.Many from that country went up to Jerusalem It was not absolutely enjoined that they should purify themselves before sacrificing the passover; and, therefore, the Evangelist does not say that all came, but many No unclean person, indeed, was permitted to eat; but I say that this sanctification was undertaken voluntarily and from their own inclination, so that others were not forbidden to eat, though they had not been prepared by such a ceremony before the day of the feast

Calvin: Joh 11:56 - They therefore sought Jesus 56.They therefore sought Jesus The design of the Evangelist is, to show how extensively the fame of Christ was diffused through the whole of Judea; f...

56.They therefore sought Jesus The design of the Evangelist is, to show how extensively the fame of Christ was diffused through the whole of Judea; for they who assemble in the temple, from whatever quarter they come, are eager to seek Christ, and are employed in holding conversations among themselves concerning him. It is true that they seek him after a human fashion, but yet, in seeking him, they discover that it is the tyranny of the priests which prevents him from appearing openly.

Defender: Joh 11:11 - sleepeth "Sleep" is occasionally used to refer to the death of believers (1Th 4:13). At this point, Lazarus had already been dead for three days (compare Joh 1...

"Sleep" is occasionally used to refer to the death of believers (1Th 4:13). At this point, Lazarus had already been dead for three days (compare Joh 11:39), since it would take about a day to walk from "beyond Jordan" (Joh 10:40), where Jesus was staying at the time, to Bethany. Jesus knew that He could not have reached Lazarus before he died, even if He had started as soon as the sisters' messenger reached him (Joh 11:3). His purpose in waiting was to demonstrate beyond question both His omniscience and omnipotence (Joh 11:4, Joh 11:15)."

Defender: Joh 11:16 - Didymus "Didymus" means "twin" in Greek, which is also the meaning of "Thomas" in Aramaic. Thomas seems to have been of a somewhat cynical turn of mind (Joh 1...

"Didymus" means "twin" in Greek, which is also the meaning of "Thomas" in Aramaic. Thomas seems to have been of a somewhat cynical turn of mind (Joh 14:5; Joh 20:25) until after He had seen Jesus alive from the dead (Joh 20:28)."

Defender: Joh 11:18 - nigh unto Jerusalem Bethany is about two miles from Jerusalem on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives and on the road from Jerusalem down to Jericho and the Jordan Ri...

Bethany is about two miles from Jerusalem on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives and on the road from Jerusalem down to Jericho and the Jordan River. Its modern name is an Arabic term meaning "The Place of Lazarus.""

Defender: Joh 11:25 - I am the resurrection This great assertion is the fifth of the "I am" claims in John. "In him is life" (Joh 1:4), for He is the "Son of the living God" (Mat 16:16)."

This great assertion is the fifth of the "I am" claims in John. "In him is life" (Joh 1:4), for He is the "Son of the living God" (Mat 16:16)."

Defender: Joh 11:26 - whosoever liveth Those who "sleep in Jesus" (1Th 4:14) shall be raised from the dead when He returns. Those who are still living when He returns will never die but wil...

Those who "sleep in Jesus" (1Th 4:14) shall be raised from the dead when He returns. Those who are still living when He returns will never die but will be immediately changed and immortalized (1Th 4:13-17)."

Defender: Joh 11:35 - wept This verse is widely recognized as the shortest verse in the English Bible, but it is also one of the most poignant. There is no mention in the Bible ...

This verse is widely recognized as the shortest verse in the English Bible, but it is also one of the most poignant. There is no mention in the Bible of Jesus ever laughing, but He was often observed weeping (Luk 19:41). In this case, He was sharing the grief of Mary and Martha, for He too loved Lazarus (Joh 11:5), but He also "groaned in the spirit, and was troubled" (Joh 11:33) at the very existence of death and the universal phenomenon of sin by which death reigned. His raising of Lazarus, however, would at least testify that He was able to give life and would one day put away sin and death forever."

Defender: Joh 11:44 - came forth This was the last and greatest of the seven miracles of Christ which John described in order to persuade people to "believe that Jesus is the Christ, ...

This was the last and greatest of the seven miracles of Christ which John described in order to persuade people to "believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God" (Joh 20:31). "Many ... believed on him" as a result of this miracle (Joh 11:45), just as they had after His first miracle (Joh 2:11) and His second (Joh 4:53). There is little indication as to how many may have believed after the other four. After at least three of the miracles (Joh 5:18; Joh 10:31; Joh 11:53), however, those who heard of them became all the more determined to kill Him."

Defender: Joh 11:51 - he prophesied This is a remarkable divine irony. The high priest was Caiphas who, as the presumed representative of God to the people, should have gladly received J...

This is a remarkable divine irony. The high priest was Caiphas who, as the presumed representative of God to the people, should have gladly received Jesus as the promised Messiah. Instead he led in His trial and condemnation (Mat 26:65, Mat 26:66). Nevertheless, he was divinely inspired unwittingly to acknowledge the real mission of Christ to the Jews and the whole world (Joh 18:14); that of substitutionary sacrifice for their sins. It is also noteworthy that, in 1992, the bones of this same Caiphas were discovered in his tomb underneath the modern city."

Defender: Joh 11:52 - not for that nation only Caiphas actually prophesied that Jesus "should die for the people" (Joh 18:14) not just the Jews."

Caiphas actually prophesied that Jesus "should die for the people" (Joh 18:14) not just the Jews."

TSK: Joh 11:1 - Now // was sick // Lazarus // Bethany // Mary Now : The raising of Lazarus from the dead, being a work of Christ beyond measure great, the most stupendous of all he had hitherto performed, and bey...

Now : The raising of Lazarus from the dead, being a work of Christ beyond measure great, the most stupendous of all he had hitherto performed, and beyond all others calculated to evince his Divine majesty, was therefore purposely recorded by the Evangelist John; while it was omitted by the other Evangelists, probably, as Grotius supposes, because they wrote their histories during the life of Lazarus, and they did not mention him for fear of exciting the malice of the Jews against him; as we find from Joh 12:10, that they sought to put him to death, that our Lord might not have such a monument of his power and goodness remaining in the land.

was sick : Joh 11:3, Joh 11:6; Gen 48:1; 2Ki 20:1-12; Act 9:37

Lazarus : Joh 11:5, Joh 11:11, Joh 12:2, Joh 12:9, Joh 12:17; Luk 16:20-25

Bethany : Joh 12:1; Mat 21:17; Mar 11:1

Mary : Luk 10:38-42

TSK: Joh 11:2 - that Mary // anointed that Mary : Joh 12:3; Mat 26:6, Mat 26:7; Mar 14:3 anointed : Luk 7:37, Luk 7:38

that Mary : Joh 12:3; Mat 26:6, Mat 26:7; Mar 14:3

anointed : Luk 7:37, Luk 7:38

TSK: Joh 11:3 - he he : Joh 11:1, Joh 11:5, Joh 13:23; Gen 22:2; Psa 16:3; Phi 2:26, Phi 2:27; 2Ti 4:20; Heb 12:6, Heb 12:7; Jam 5:14, Jam 5:15; Rev 3:19

TSK: Joh 11:4 - This // for // that This : Joh 9:3; Mar 5:39-42; Rom 11:11 for : Joh 11:40, Joh 9:24, Joh 12:28, Joh 13:31, Joh 13:32; Phi 1:11; 1Pe 4:11, 1Pe 4:14 that : Joh 2:11, Joh 5...

TSK: Joh 11:5 - loved loved : Joh 11:8, Joh 11:36, Joh 15:9-13, Joh 16:27, Joh 17:26

TSK: Joh 11:6 - he abode he abode : Gen 22:14, Gen 42:24, Gen 43:29-31, Gen 44:1-5, Gen 45:1-5; Isa 30:18, Isa 55:8, Isa 55:9; Mat 15:22-28

TSK: Joh 11:7 - Let Let : Joh 10:40-42; Luk 9:51; Act 15:36, Act 20:22-24

TSK: Joh 11:8 -