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Teks -- 2 Kings 23:1-37 (NET)

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Konteks
The King Institutes Religious Reform
23:1 The king summoned all the leaders of Judah and Jerusalem. 23:2 The king went up to the Lord’s temple, accompanied by all the people of Judah, all the residents of Jerusalem, the priests, and the prophets. All the people were there, from the youngest to the oldest. He read aloud all the words of the scroll of the covenant that had been discovered in the Lord’s temple. 23:3 The king stood by the pillar and renewed the covenant before the Lord, agreeing to follow the Lord and to obey his commandments, laws, and rules with all his heart and being, by carrying out the terms of this covenant recorded on this scroll. All the people agreed to keep the covenant. 23:4 The king ordered Hilkiah the high priest, the high-ranking priests, and the guards to bring out of the Lord’s temple all the items that were used in the worship of Baal, Asherah, and all the stars of the sky. The king burned them outside of Jerusalem in the terraces of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel. 23:5 He eliminated the pagan priests whom the kings of Judah had appointed to offer sacrifices on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the area right around Jerusalem. (They offered sacrifices to Baal, the sun god, the moon god, the constellations, and all the stars in the sky.) 23:6 He removed the Asherah pole from the Lord’s temple and took it outside Jerusalem to the Kidron Valley, where he burned it. He smashed it to dust and then threw the dust in the public graveyard. 23:7 He tore down the quarters of the male cultic prostitutes in the Lord’s temple, where women were weaving shrines for Asherah. 23:8 He brought all the priests from the cities of Judah and ruined the high places where the priests had offered sacrifices, from Geba to Beer Sheba. He tore down the high place of the goat idols situated at the entrance of the gate of Joshua, the city official, on the left side of the city gate. 23:9 (Now the priests of the high places did not go up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem, but they did eat unleavened cakes among their fellow priests.) 23:10 The king ruined Topheth in the Valley of Ben Hinnom so that no one could pass his son or his daughter through the fire to Molech. 23:11 He removed from the entrance to the Lord’s temple the statues of horses that the kings of Judah had placed there in honor of the sun god. (They were kept near the room of Nathan Melech the eunuch, which was situated among the courtyards.) He burned up the chariots devoted to the sun god. 23:12 The king tore down the altars the kings of Judah had set up on the roof of Ahaz’s upper room, as well as the altars Manasseh had set up in the two courtyards of the Lord’s temple. He crushed them up and threw the dust in the Kidron Valley. 23:13 The king ruined the high places east of Jerusalem, south of the Mount of Destruction, that King Solomon of Israel had built for the detestable Sidonian goddess Astarte, the detestable Moabite god Chemosh, and the horrible Ammonite god Milcom. 23:14 He smashed the sacred pillars to bits, cut down the Asherah pole, and filled those shrines with human bones. 23:15 He also tore down the altar in Bethel at the high place made by Jeroboam son of Nebat, who encouraged Israel to sin. He burned all the combustible items at that high place and crushed them to dust; including the Asherah pole. 23:16 When Josiah turned around, he saw the tombs there on the hill. So he ordered the bones from the tombs to be brought; he burned them on the altar and defiled it. This fulfilled the Lord’s announcement made by the prophet while Jeroboam stood by the altar during a festival. King Josiah turned and saw the grave of the prophet who had foretold this. 23:17 He asked, “What is this grave marker I see?” The men from the city replied, “It’s the grave of the prophet who came from Judah and foretold these very things you have done to the altar of Bethel.” 23:18 The king said, “Leave it alone! No one must touch his bones.” So they left his bones undisturbed, as well as the bones of the Israelite prophet buried beside him. 23:19 Josiah also removed all the shrines on the high places in the cities of Samaria. The kings of Israel had made them and angered the Lord. He did to them what he had done to the high place in Bethel. 23:20 He sacrificed all the priests of the high places on the altars located there, and burned human bones on them. Then he returned to Jerusalem. 23:21 The king ordered all the people, “Observe the Passover of the Lord your God, as prescribed in this scroll of the covenant.” 23:22 He issued this edict because a Passover like this had not been observed since the days of the judges; it was neglected for the entire period of the kings of Israel and Judah. 23:23 But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah’s reign, such a Passover of the Lord was observed in Jerusalem. 23:24 Josiah also got rid of the ritual pits used to conjure up spirits, the magicians, personal idols, disgusting images, and all the detestable idols that had appeared in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem. In this way he carried out the terms of the law recorded on the scroll that Hilkiah the priest had discovered in the Lord’s temple. 23:25 No king before or after repented before the Lord as he did, with his whole heart, soul, and being in accordance with the whole law of Moses. 23:26 Yet the Lord’s great anger against Judah did not subside; he was still infuriated by all the things Manasseh had done. 23:27 The Lord announced, “I will also spurn Judah, just as I spurned Israel. I will reject this city that I chose– both Jerusalem and the temple, about which I said, “I will live there.” 23:28 The rest of the events of Josiah’s reign and all his accomplishments are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah. 23:29 During Josiah’s reign Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt marched toward the Euphrates River to help the king of Assyria. King Josiah marched out to fight him, but Necho killed him at Megiddo when he saw him. 23:30 His servants transported his dead body from Megiddo in a chariot and brought it to Jerusalem, where they buried him in his tomb. The people of the land took Josiah’s son Jehoahaz, poured olive oil on his head, and made him king in his father’s place.
Jehoahaz’s Reign over Judah
23:31 Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah, from Libnah. 23:32 He did evil in the sight of the Lord as his ancestors had done. 23:33 Pharaoh Necho imprisoned him in Riblah in the land of Hamath and prevented him from ruling in Jerusalem. He imposed on the land a special tax of one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. 23:34 Pharaoh Necho made Josiah’s son Eliakim king in Josiah’s place, and changed his name to Jehoiakim. He took Jehoahaz to Egypt, where he died. 23:35 Jehoiakim paid Pharaoh the required amount of silver and gold, but to meet Pharaoh’s demands Jehoiakim had to tax the land. He collected an assessed amount from each man among the people of the land in order to pay Pharaoh Necho.
Jehoiakim’s Reign over Judah
23:36 Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned for eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother was Zebidah the daughter of Pedaiah, from Rumah. 23:37 He did evil in the sight of the Lord as his ancestors had done.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Ahaz a son of Jotham; listed as an ancestor of Jesus,son and successor of King Jotham of Judah,son of Micah of Benjamin
 · Ammonites the tribe/nation of people descended from Ben-Ammi, Lot's son,Territory of the tribe/nation of Ammon
 · Ashtoreth a goddess
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Beer-Sheba a famous well, its town and district in southern Judah
 · Beer-sheba a famous well, its town and district in southern Judah
 · Bethel a town of Benjamin bordering Ephraim 18 km north of Jerusalem
 · Chemosh a pagan god; the national god of Moab
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Eliakim son of Abiud the son of Zerubbabel over 20generations from David; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Melea, only 4 generations from David; an ancester of Jesus,son of Hilkiah; head of Hezekiah's household,son of Josiah; made king of Judah by Pharaoh Neco,a priest who helped celebrate the completion of the wall
 · Euphrates a large river which joins the Tigris river before flowing into the Persian Gulf,a river flowing from eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf
 · Geba a town of Judah 8 km north of Jerusalem, 5 km east of Gibeon (SMM)
 · hamath a town of Syria on the Orontes between Aleppo and Damascus (OS)
 · Hamath a town of unknown location
 · Hamutal mother of kings Jehoahaz and Zedekiah of Judah; daughter of Jeremiah
 · Hilkiah father of Eliakim who was head of King Hezekiah's household,a high priest; son of Shalum /Meshulam,son of Amzi of Levi; forefather of returned exiles,son of Hosah; a Levite gatekeeper,priest leader of some who returned from exile with Zerubbabel,a man of Anathoth; father of the prophet Jeremiah
 · Hinnom a man and a valley
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jehoahaz son and successor of Jehu, King of Israel,son and successor of Josiah, King of Judah,youngest son and successor of King Jehoram of Judah
 · Jehoiakim son of Josiah; made king of Judah by Pharaoh Neco
 · Jeremiah a prophet of Judah in 627 B.C., who wrote the book of Jeremiah,a man of Libnah; father of Hamutal, mother of Jehoahaz, king of Judah,head of an important clan in eastern Manasseh in the time of Jotham,a Benjamite man who defected to David at Ziklag,the fifth of Saul's Gadite officers who defected to David in the wilderness,the tenth of Saul's Gadite officers who defected to David in the wilderness,a man from Anathoth of Benjamin; son of Hilkiah the priest; a major prophet in the time of the exile,an influential priest who returned from exile with Zerubbabel, who later signed the covenant to obey the law, and who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,one of Saul's Gadite officers who defected to David in the wilderness
 · Jeroboam son of Nebat; first king of Israel after it split away from Judah; Jeroboam I,son and successor of Joash/Jehoash, King of Israel; Jeroboam II
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · Josiah the son who succeeded King Amon of Judah; the father of Jeconiah; an ancestor of Jesus,son and successor of Amon, King of Judah,son of Zephaniah; custodian of the temple treasures that were returned from Babylon
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Kidron a brook and its valley,a brook and valley between Jerusalem and the Mt. of Olives
 · Libnah a place where Israel encamped,a town in the western foothills of Judah 12 km SE of Gath & 23 km NE of Hebron
 · Manasseh the tribe of Manasseh.
 · Megiddo a town and a plain of Manasseh


Topik/Tema Kamus: Josiah | Religion | Revivals | Rulers | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Influence | GOD, 2 | HIGH PLACE | CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | SANCTUARY | Pentateuch | Zeal | Israel | Jeremiah | Chemosh | Prophecy | Iconoclasm | Jehoahaz | Riblah | Pharaoh | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 2Ki 23:2 - Prophets Either Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Urijah: or, the sons of the prophets. It seems he read it himself. Josiah did not think it beneath him, to be a reader, an...

Either Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Urijah: or, the sons of the prophets. It seems he read it himself. Josiah did not think it beneath him, to be a reader, any more than Solomon did to be a preacher, and David to be even a door keeper in the house of God. All people are concerned to know the scripture, and all in authority, to spread the knowledge of it.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:3 - Stood They declared their consent to it, and their concurrence with the king in that act, which possibly they did by standing up, as the king himself stood ...

They declared their consent to it, and their concurrence with the king in that act, which possibly they did by standing up, as the king himself stood when he took it. It is of good use, with all possible solemnity, to oblige ourselves to our duty. And he that bears an honest heart, does not startle at assurances.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:4 - Second order Either those two who were next in degree to the high-priest, and in case of sickness were to manage his work: or the heads of the twenty four courses ...

Either those two who were next in degree to the high-priest, and in case of sickness were to manage his work: or the heads of the twenty four courses which David had appointed.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:4 - The grove The image of the grove: it being most frequent to call images by the names of the persons or things which they represent.

The image of the grove: it being most frequent to call images by the names of the persons or things which they represent.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:4 - The fields Adjoining to the brook of Kidron.

Adjoining to the brook of Kidron.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:4 - To Beth el - To shew his abhorrence of them, and that he would not give the ashes of them a place in his kingdom: and to pollute and disgrace that place which...

el - To shew his abhorrence of them, and that he would not give the ashes of them a place in his kingdom: and to pollute and disgrace that place which had been the chief seat and throne of idolatry.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:5 - Priests Heb. the Chemarim; the highest rank of priests, employed in the highest work, which was to burn incense.

Heb. the Chemarim; the highest rank of priests, employed in the highest work, which was to burn incense.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:6 - The people Of that people, those idolatrous people, as it is explained, 2Ch 34:4.

Of that people, those idolatrous people, as it is explained, 2Ch 34:4.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:7 - Sodomites Sodomy was a part of idol - worship, being done to the honour of some of their idols, and by the appointment of those impure and diabolical spirits, w...

Sodomy was a part of idol - worship, being done to the honour of some of their idols, and by the appointment of those impure and diabolical spirits, which were worshipped in their idols.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:7 - Hangings Or, curtains, either to draw before the idols which were worshipped in the grove, to preserve them from defilement, or to gain more reverence for them...

Or, curtains, either to draw before the idols which were worshipped in the grove, to preserve them from defilement, or to gain more reverence for them: Or, garments for the service of the grove, for the idols or the priests belonging to them. Heb. houses, that is, either little chappels made of woven work, like those which were made of silver, Act 19:24, within which there were some representations of their grove - idols: or rather, tents made of those curtains for the use above - mentioned.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:8 - Priests Belonging to the high - places following, whether such as worshipped idols; or such as worshipped God in those forbidden places.

Belonging to the high - places following, whether such as worshipped idols; or such as worshipped God in those forbidden places.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:8 - Defiled By burning dead mens bones upon them, or by putting them to some other unclean use.

By burning dead mens bones upon them, or by putting them to some other unclean use.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:8 - From Geba The northern border of the kingdom of Judah.

The northern border of the kingdom of Judah.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:8 - Beer sheba - The southern border, from one end to the other.

sheba - The southern border, from one end to the other.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:8 - Gates Which were erected by the gates of the city here mentioned, to the honour of their tutelary gods, whom after the manner of the heathen they owned for ...

Which were erected by the gates of the city here mentioned, to the honour of their tutelary gods, whom after the manner of the heathen they owned for the protectors of their city and habitations.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:8 - The governor This circumstance is noted to shew Josiah's great zeal and impartiality, in rooting out all monuments of idolatry, without any respects unto those gre...

This circumstance is noted to shew Josiah's great zeal and impartiality, in rooting out all monuments of idolatry, without any respects unto those great persons who were concerned in them.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:9 - The priest Who worshipped the true God there.

Who worshipped the true God there.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:9 - In Jerusalem Were not suffered to come thither to the exercise of their priestly function; as a just punishment for the corruption of God's worship, and the transg...

Were not suffered to come thither to the exercise of their priestly function; as a just punishment for the corruption of God's worship, and the transgression of so plain and positive a law of God, Deu 12:11, which was much worse in them who had more knowledge to discern the will of God, and more obligations to observe it.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:9 - Did eat Of the meal-offerings, allotted to the priests, wherein there was to be no leaven, Lev 2:4-5, Lev 2:10-11, and consequently of other provisions belong...

Of the meal-offerings, allotted to the priests, wherein there was to be no leaven, Lev 2:4-5, Lev 2:10-11, and consequently of other provisions belonging to the priests, which are contained under this one kind. Thus their spiritual blemish puts them into the very same state which corporal blemishes brought them, Lev 21:17, &c. And thus he mitigates their punishment: he shuts them out from spiritual services, but allows them necessary provisions.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:10 - Topheth Very near Jerusalem, where was the image of Molech, to whom some sacrificed their children, burning them in the fire, others dedicated them, making th...

Very near Jerusalem, where was the image of Molech, to whom some sacrificed their children, burning them in the fire, others dedicated them, making them pass between two fires. It is supposed to be called Topheth, from toph, a drum; because they beat drums at the burning of the children, that their shrieks might not be heard.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:11 - Horses Such the eastern nations used to consecrate to the sun, to signify the swiftness of his motion.

Such the eastern nations used to consecrate to the sun, to signify the swiftness of his motion.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:11 - The sun Either, to be sacrificed to the sun: or, to draw those chariots in which the kings, or some other in their stead, went forth every morning to worship ...

Either, to be sacrificed to the sun: or, to draw those chariots in which the kings, or some other in their stead, went forth every morning to worship the rising sun: for both these were the customs of the Armenians and Persians, as Xenophon testifies.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:11 - Entering in By the gate of the outward court of the temple.

By the gate of the outward court of the temple.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:11 - Chamberlain Or, officer, to whom the care of these horses were committed.

Or, officer, to whom the care of these horses were committed.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:11 - Suburbs Of the temple: in certain outward buildings belonging to the temple.

Of the temple: in certain outward buildings belonging to the temple.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:11 - Chariots Which were made for the worship of the sun.

Which were made for the worship of the sun.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:12 - The top Upon the roof of the king's house. They were so mad upon their idols, that they were not content with all their publick high places and altars, but ma...

Upon the roof of the king's house. They were so mad upon their idols, that they were not content with all their publick high places and altars, but made others upon their house - tops, for the worship of the heavenly bodies.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:12 - Cast To shew his detestation of them: and to abolish the very remembrance of them.

To shew his detestation of them: and to abolish the very remembrance of them.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:13 - Corruption The mount of olives, called the mount of corruption, for the gross idolatry there practiced.

The mount of olives, called the mount of corruption, for the gross idolatry there practiced.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:13 - Which Not the same individual altars; which doubtless either Solomon upon his repentance, or some other of Josiah's predecessors had taken away, but other a...

Not the same individual altars; which doubtless either Solomon upon his repentance, or some other of Josiah's predecessors had taken away, but other altars built by Manasseh or Amon, which because erected by Solomon's example, and for the same use, and in the same place, are called by his name: this brand is left by the Holy Ghost upon his name and memory, as a just punishment of that abominable practice, and a mean to deter others from the like.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:13 - Abomination The idol, so called, because it was abominable, and made them abominable to God.

The idol, so called, because it was abominable, and made them abominable to God.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:14 - Men Of the idolatrous priests, which he caused to be taken out of their graves, 2Ki 23:18. As he carried the ashes of the images to the graves, to mingle ...

Of the idolatrous priests, which he caused to be taken out of their graves, 2Ki 23:18. As he carried the ashes of the images to the graves, to mingle them with dead mens bones, so he carried dead mens bones to the places where the images had been, that both ways idolatry might be rendered loathsome. Dead men and dead gods were indeed much alike, and fittest to go together.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:15 - Beth el - Probably this city was now under the kingdom of Judah, to which it was added by Abijah long since. And it is probable, since the ten tribes were ...

el - Probably this city was now under the kingdom of Judah, to which it was added by Abijah long since. And it is probable, since the ten tribes were carried away, many cities had put themselves under the protection of Judah. The golden calf, it seems, was gone; but Josiah would leave no remains of that idolatry.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:16 - Himself Josiah's care and zeal was so great, that he would not trust his officers with these things, but would see them done with his own eyes.

Josiah's care and zeal was so great, that he would not trust his officers with these things, but would see them done with his own eyes.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:16 - These words Three hundred years before it was done.

Three hundred years before it was done.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:20 - The priests By this relation it appears, that after the departure of the king of Assyria, divers of the Israelites who had retired to other parts, and kept themse...

By this relation it appears, that after the departure of the king of Assyria, divers of the Israelites who had retired to other parts, and kept themselves out of the conqueror's hands, returned together with their priests to their own land, and to their old trade, worshipping idols; to whom, peradventure, they ascribed this their deliverance from that judgment which Jehovah had brought upon them.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:20 - And burnt According to that famous prophecy, 1Ki 13:1-2.

According to that famous prophecy, 1Ki 13:1-2.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:22 - Such a passover Celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices, and universal joy of all good men; which was much the greater, becau...

Celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices, and universal joy of all good men; which was much the greater, because of their remembrance of the former wicked and miserable times under Manasseh, and Amon; and the good hopes they now had of the happy establishment of their nation, and the true religion; and of the prevention of God's judgments denounced against them.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:22 - Judges Or, from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges; as it is expressed 2Ch 35:18. None of the kings had taken such care to prepare themselves, the pr...

Or, from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges; as it is expressed 2Ch 35:18. None of the kings had taken such care to prepare themselves, the priests, and people, and accurately to observe all the rites, and diligently to purge out all uncleanness, and to renew their covenant with God. And undoubtedly God was pleased to recompense their zeal in destroying idolatry with uncommon tokens of his presence and favour. All this concurred to make it such a passover as had not been, even in the days of Hezekiah.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:24 - Images, &c. _Three words noting the same thing, to shew, That all the instruments and monuments of idolatry were destroyed, as God had commanded.

_Three words noting the same thing, to shew, That all the instruments and monuments of idolatry were destroyed, as God had commanded.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:24 - Spied All that were discovered; not only such as were in the place of worship, but such as their priests or zealots had removed, and endeavoured to hide.

All that were discovered; not only such as were in the place of worship, but such as their priests or zealots had removed, and endeavoured to hide.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:25 - No king For his diligent study in God's law, and his exact care, and unwearied industry, and fervent zeal, in rooting out idolators, and all kinds and appeara...

For his diligent study in God's law, and his exact care, and unwearied industry, and fervent zeal, in rooting out idolators, and all kinds and appearances of idolatry, not only in Judah, but in Israel also; and in the establishment of the true religion in all his dominions, and in the conforming of his own life, and his peoples too, (as far as he could) to the holy law of God: though Hezekiah might excel him in some particulars.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:26 - Notwithstanding Because though the king was most hearty in his repentance and acceptable to God, and therefore the judgment was delayed for his time; yet the people w...

Because though the king was most hearty in his repentance and acceptable to God, and therefore the judgment was delayed for his time; yet the people were in general corrupt, and secretly averse from Josiah's pious reformation, as appears from the complaints of the prophets, especially Jeremiah and Zephaniah, against them: and by the following history, wherein we see, that as soon as ever Josiah was gone, his children, and the princes, and the people, suddenly and greedily returned to their former abominations.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:26 - Because The sins of Manasseh, and for the men of his generation; who concurred with him in his idolatrous and cruel practices, are justly punished in this gen...

The sins of Manasseh, and for the men of his generation; who concurred with him in his idolatrous and cruel practices, are justly punished in this generation: because of God's sovereign right of punishing sinners when he sees fit: because of that publick declaration of God, that he would visit the iniquity of the fathers upon the children: and principally, because these men had never sincerely repented of their own, nor of their fathers sins.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:27 - I said Upon the conditions in sundry places expressed, which they broke, and therefore God justly made them to know his breach of promise.

Upon the conditions in sundry places expressed, which they broke, and therefore God justly made them to know his breach of promise.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:29 - The king, &c. _The king of Babylon, who having formerly rebelled against the Assyrian had now conquered him; as appears by the course of the sacred, and the concurr...

_The king of Babylon, who having formerly rebelled against the Assyrian had now conquered him; as appears by the course of the sacred, and the concurrence of the prophane history; and therefore is here and elsewhere called the Assyrian, and the king of Assyria, because now he was the head of that empire.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:29 - Euphrates Against Carchemish by Euphrates, as it is expressed, 2Ch 35:20, which the Assyrian had taken from Pharaoh's confederates, who therefore sends forces a...

Against Carchemish by Euphrates, as it is expressed, 2Ch 35:20, which the Assyrian had taken from Pharaoh's confederates, who therefore sends forces against the Assyrian, that he might both help them, and secure himself.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:29 - Josiah went Either to defend his own country from Pharaoh's incursions; or to assist the king of Babylon, with whom he seems to have been in league.

Either to defend his own country from Pharaoh's incursions; or to assist the king of Babylon, with whom he seems to have been in league.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:29 - Slew Gave him his death wound there; though he died not 'till he came to Jerusalem.

Gave him his death wound there; though he died not 'till he came to Jerusalem.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:29 - Seen him When he fought with him, or in the first onset. It does not appear, that Josiah had any clear call to engage in this war; possibly he received his dea...

When he fought with him, or in the first onset. It does not appear, that Josiah had any clear call to engage in this war; possibly he received his death wound, as a punishment of his rashness.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:30 - Dead Mortally wounded.

Mortally wounded.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:30 - Jehoahaz Who was younger than Jehoiakim, yet preferred by the people before the elder brother; either because Jehoiakim refused the kingdom for fear of Pharaoh...

Who was younger than Jehoiakim, yet preferred by the people before the elder brother; either because Jehoiakim refused the kingdom for fear of Pharaoh, whom he knew he should hereby provoke. Or because Jehoahaz was the more stout and warlike prince; whence he is called a lion, Eze 19:3.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:32 - His fathers His grand - parents, Manasseh, and Amon. He restored that idolatry which his father had destroyed. Jerusalem saw not a good day, after Josiah was laid...

His grand - parents, Manasseh, and Amon. He restored that idolatry which his father had destroyed. Jerusalem saw not a good day, after Josiah was laid in his grave; but one trouble came after another, 'till within two and twenty years it was destroyed.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:33 - In bands Either, because he presumed to take the kingdom without his consent: or because he renewed the war against Pharaoh.

Either, because he presumed to take the kingdom without his consent: or because he renewed the war against Pharaoh.

Wesley: 2Ki 23:34 - Jehoiakim The giving of names was accounted an act of dominion; which therefore parents did to their children, and conquerors to their vassals or tributaries.

The giving of names was accounted an act of dominion; which therefore parents did to their children, and conquerors to their vassals or tributaries.

JFB: 2Ki 23:1-3 - the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders This pious and patriotic king, not content with the promise of his own security, felt, after Huldah's response, an increased desire to avert the threa...

This pious and patriotic king, not content with the promise of his own security, felt, after Huldah's response, an increased desire to avert the threatened calamities from his kingdom and people. Knowing the richness of the divine clemency and grace to the penitent, he convened the elders of the people, and placing himself at their head, accompanied by the collective body of the inhabitants, went in solemn procession to the temple, where he ordered the book of the law to be read to the assembled audience, and covenanted, with the unanimous concurrence of his subjects, to adhere steadfastly to all the commandments of the Lord. It was an occasion of solemn interest, closely connected with a great national crisis, and the beautiful example of piety in the highest quarter would exert a salutary influence over all classes of the people in animating their devotions and encouraging their return to the faith of their fathers.

JFB: 2Ki 23:2 - he read in their ears That is, "caused to be read."

That is, "caused to be read."

JFB: 2Ki 23:3 - all the people stood to the covenant That is, they agreed to the proposals made; they assented to what was required of them.

That is, they agreed to the proposals made; they assented to what was required of them.

JFB: 2Ki 23:4 - the king commanded Hilkiah, &c. That is, the high priest and other priests, for there was not a variety of official gradations in the temple.

That is, the high priest and other priests, for there was not a variety of official gradations in the temple.

JFB: 2Ki 23:4 - all the vessels, &c. The whole apparatus of idol-worship.

The whole apparatus of idol-worship.

JFB: 2Ki 23:4 - burned them without Jerusalem The law required them to be consigned to the flames (Deu 7:25).

The law required them to be consigned to the flames (Deu 7:25).

JFB: 2Ki 23:4 - in the fields of Kidron Most probably that part of the valley of Kidron, where lies Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. It is a level, spacious basin, abounding at present wit...

Most probably that part of the valley of Kidron, where lies Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. It is a level, spacious basin, abounding at present with plantations [ROBINSON]. The brook winds along the east and south of the city, the channel of which is throughout a large portion of the year almost or wholly dry, except after heavy rains, when it suddenly swells and overflows. There were emptied all the impurities of the temple (2Ch 29:15-16) and the city. His reforming predecessors had ordered the mutilated relics of idolatry to be thrown into that receptacle of filth (1Ki 15:13; 2Ch 15:16; 2Ch 30:14); but Josiah, while he imitated their piety, far outstripped them in zeal; for he caused the ashes of the burnt wood and the fragments of the broken metal to be collected and conveyed to Beth-el, in order thenceforth to associate ideas of horror and aversion with that place, as odious for the worst pollutions.

JFB: 2Ki 23:5 - put down the idolatrous priests Hebrew, chemarim, "scorched," that is, Guebres, or fire-worshippers, distinguished by a girdle (Eze 23:14-17) or belt of wool and camel's hair, twiste...

Hebrew, chemarim, "scorched," that is, Guebres, or fire-worshippers, distinguished by a girdle (Eze 23:14-17) or belt of wool and camel's hair, twisted round the body twice and tied with four knots, which had a symbolic meaning, and made it a supposed defense against evil.

JFB: 2Ki 23:5 - them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, &c. Or Baal-shemesh, for Baal was sometimes considered the sun. This form of false worship was not by images, but pure star-worship, borrowed from the old...

Or Baal-shemesh, for Baal was sometimes considered the sun. This form of false worship was not by images, but pure star-worship, borrowed from the old Assyrians.

JFB: 2Ki 23:5 - and Rather, "even to all the host of heaven."

Rather, "even to all the host of heaven."

JFB: 2Ki 23:6 - brought out the grove That is, Asherah, the mystic tree, placed by Manasseh in the temple [2Ki 21:5; 2Ch 33:5], removed by him after his conversion [2Ch 33:15], but replace...

That is, Asherah, the mystic tree, placed by Manasseh in the temple [2Ki 21:5; 2Ch 33:5], removed by him after his conversion [2Ch 33:15], but replaced in the sanctuary by his wicked son Amon [2Ki 21:20-21]. Josiah had it taken to Kidron, burnt the wood, ground the metal about it to powder, and strewed the ashes "on the graves of the children of the people." The poor were buried in a common on part of the valley of Kidron. But reference is here made to the graves "of those that had sacrificed" (2Ch 34:4).

JFB: 2Ki 23:7 - brake down the houses of the sodomites Not solid houses, but tents, called elsewhere [2Ki 17:30] Succoth-benoth, "the booths of the young women," who were devoted to the service of Asherah,...

Not solid houses, but tents, called elsewhere [2Ki 17:30] Succoth-benoth, "the booths of the young women," who were devoted to the service of Asherah, for which they made embroidered hangings, and in which they gave themselves to unbridled revelry and lust. Or the hangings might be for Asherah itself, as it is a popular superstition in the East to hang pieces of cloth on trees.

JFB: 2Ki 23:8-9 - he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places, &c. Many of the Levitical order, finding in the reigns of Manasseh and Amon the temple-worship abolished and the tithes and other offerings alienated, had...

Many of the Levitical order, finding in the reigns of Manasseh and Amon the temple-worship abolished and the tithes and other offerings alienated, had been betrayed into the folly of officiating on high places, and presenting such sacrifices as were brought to them. These irregularities, even though the object of that worship was the true God, were prohibited in the law (Deu 12:11). Those who had been guilty of this sin, Josiah brought to Jerusalem. Regarding them as defiled, he debarred them from the service of the temple, but gave them an allowance out of the temple revenues, like the lame and disabled members of the priesthood (Lev 21:21-22).

JFB: 2Ki 23:8-9 - from Geba to to Beer-sheba The most northern and the most southern places in Judah--meaning all parts of the kingdom.

The most northern and the most southern places in Judah--meaning all parts of the kingdom.

JFB: 2Ki 23:8-9 - the high places . . . which were in the entering in of the gate of Joshua The governor's house and gate were on the left of the city gate, and close by the entrance of that civic mansion house were public altars, dedicated, ...

The governor's house and gate were on the left of the city gate, and close by the entrance of that civic mansion house were public altars, dedicated, it might be, to the true God, but contrary to His own ordinance of worship (Isa 57:8).

JFB: 2Ki 23:10 - Topheth So called from Toph--a "drum." It is the prevailing opinion among Jewish writers that the cries of the terrified children made to pass through the fir...

So called from Toph--a "drum." It is the prevailing opinion among Jewish writers that the cries of the terrified children made to pass through the fire in that place of idolatrous horror were drowned by the sound of that instrument.

JFB: 2Ki 23:11 - took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun Among the people who anciently worshipped the sun, horses were usually dedicated to that divinity, from the supposed idea that the sun himself was dra...

Among the people who anciently worshipped the sun, horses were usually dedicated to that divinity, from the supposed idea that the sun himself was drawn in a chariot by horses. In some cases these horses were sacrificed; but more commonly they were employed either in the sacred processions to carry the images of the sun, or for the worshippers to ride in every morning to welcome his rise. It seems that the idolatrous kings, Ahaz, Manasseh, and Amon, or their great officers, proceeded on these horses early on each day from the east gate of the temple to salute and worship the sun at his appearing above the horizon.

JFB: 2Ki 23:12 - the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz Altars were reared on the flat roofs of houses, where the worshippers of "the host of heaven" burnt incense (Zep 1:5; Jer 19:13). Ahaz had reared alta...

Altars were reared on the flat roofs of houses, where the worshippers of "the host of heaven" burnt incense (Zep 1:5; Jer 19:13). Ahaz had reared altars for this purpose on the oleah, or upper chamber of his palace, and Manasseh on some portion of the roof of the temple. Josiah demolished both of these structures.

JFB: 2Ki 23:13-14 - the high places . . . which Solomon . . . had builded (See on 1Ki 11:5).

(See on 1Ki 11:5).

JFB: 2Ki 23:13-14 - the right hand of the mount of corruption The Mount of Olives is a hilly range on the east of Jerusalem. This range has three summits, of which the central one is the Mount of Corruption, so c...

The Mount of Olives is a hilly range on the east of Jerusalem. This range has three summits, of which the central one is the Mount of Corruption, so called from the idol temples built there, and of course the hill on the right hand denotes the southernmost peak. Josiah is said not to have destroyed, but only defiled, "the high places on the hill of corruption." It is most probable that Hezekiah had long before demolished the idolatrous temples erected there by Solomon but, as the superstitious people continued to regard the spot as consecrated ground, Josiah defiled it.

JFB: 2Ki 23:14 - filled their places with the bones of men Every monument of idolatry in his dominion he in like manner destroyed, and the places where they stood he defiled by strewing them with dead men's bo...

Every monument of idolatry in his dominion he in like manner destroyed, and the places where they stood he defiled by strewing them with dead men's bones. The presence of a dead carcass rendered both persons and places unclean in the eyes both of Jews and heathens.

JFB: 2Ki 23:15-20 - Moreover the altar that was at Beth-el, &c. Not satisfied with the removal of every vestige of idolatry from his own dominion, this zealous iconoclast made a tour of inspection through the citie...

Not satisfied with the removal of every vestige of idolatry from his own dominion, this zealous iconoclast made a tour of inspection through the cities of Samaria and all the territory formerly occupied by the ten tribes, destroying the altars and temples of the high places, consigning the Asherim to the flames, putting to death the priests of the high places, and showing his horror at idolatry by ransacking the sepulchers of idolatrous priests, and strewing the burnt ashes of their bones upon the altars before he demolished them.

JFB: 2Ki 23:16 - according to the word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed, &c. In carrying on these proceedings, Josiah was prompted by his own intense hatred of idolatry. But it is remarkable that this act was predicted three hu...

In carrying on these proceedings, Josiah was prompted by his own intense hatred of idolatry. But it is remarkable that this act was predicted three hundred twenty-six years before his birth, and his name also was expressly mentioned, as well as the very place where it should be done (1Ki 13:2). This is one of the most most remarkable prophecies in the Bible.

JFB: 2Ki 23:17 - What title is that that I see? The king's attention probably, had been arrested by a tombstone more conspicuous than the rest around it, bearing on an inscription the name of him th...

The king's attention probably, had been arrested by a tombstone more conspicuous than the rest around it, bearing on an inscription the name of him that lay beneath; and this prompted his curiosity to make the inquiry.

JFB: 2Ki 23:17 - the men of the city Not the Assyrian colonists--for they could know nothing about the ancient transactions of the place--but some of the old people who had been allowed t...

Not the Assyrian colonists--for they could know nothing about the ancient transactions of the place--but some of the old people who had been allowed to remain, and perhaps the tomb itself might not then have been discoverable, through the effects of time and neglect, had not some "Old Mortality" garnished the sepulcher of the righteous.

JFB: 2Ki 23:21-23 - the king commanded all the people, saying, Keep the passover unto the Lord your God, &c. It was observed with great solemnity and was attended not only by his own subjects, but by the remnant people from Israel (see on 2Ch. 35:1-19). Many ...

It was observed with great solemnity and was attended not only by his own subjects, but by the remnant people from Israel (see on 2Ch. 35:1-19). Many of the Israelites who were at Jerusalem might have heard of, if they did not hear, the law read by Josiah. It is probable that they might even have procured a copy of the law, stimulated as they were to the better observance of Jehovah's worship by the unusual and solemn transactions at Jerusalem.

JFB: 2Ki 23:26 - Notwithstanding, the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his wrath, &c. The national reformation which Josiah carried on was acquiesced in by the people from submission to the royal will; but they entertained a secret ...

&c. The national reformation which Josiah carried on was acquiesced in by the people from submission to the royal will; but they entertained a secret and strong hankering after the suppressed idolatries. Though outwardly purified, their hearts were not right towards God, as appears from many passages of the prophetic writings; their thorough reform was hopeless; and God, who saw no sign of genuine repentance, allowed His decree (2Ki 21:12-15) for the subversion of the kingdom to take fatal effect.

JFB: 2Ki 23:29 - In his days Pharaoh-nechoh (See 2Ch 35:20-27).

(See 2Ch 35:20-27).

Clarke: 2Ki 23:2 - The king went up into the house of the Lord The king went up into the house of the Lord - Here is another very singular circumstance. The high priest, scribes, priest, and prophets, are gather...

The king went up into the house of the Lord - Here is another very singular circumstance. The high priest, scribes, priest, and prophets, are gathered together, with all the elders of the people, and the king himself reads the book of the covenant which had been lately found! It is strange that either the high priest, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, or some other of the prophets, who were certainly there present, did not read the sacred book! It is likely that the king considered himself a mediator between God and them, and therefore read and made the covenant.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:3 - Stood by a pillar Stood by a pillar - He stood, על העמוד al haammud , "upon the stairs or pulpit."This is what is called the brazen scaffold or pulpit which S...

Stood by a pillar - He stood, על העמוד al haammud , "upon the stairs or pulpit."This is what is called the brazen scaffold or pulpit which Solomon made, and on which the kings were accustomed to stand when they addressed the people. See 2Ch 6:13, and the parallel places

Clarke: 2Ki 23:3 - Made a covenant Made a covenant - This was expressed 1.    In general. To walk after Jehovah; to have no gods besides him 2.    To tak...

Made a covenant - This was expressed

1.    In general. To walk after Jehovah; to have no gods besides him

2.    To take his law for the regulation of their conduct

3.    In particular. To bend their whole heart and soul to the observance of it, so that, they might not only have religion without, but, piety within

To this all the people stood up, thus giving their consent, and binding themselves to obedience.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:4 - The priests of the second order The priests of the second order - These were probably such as supplied the place of the high priest when he was prevented: from fulfilling the funct...

The priests of the second order - These were probably such as supplied the place of the high priest when he was prevented: from fulfilling the functions of his office. So the Chaldee understood the place - the sagan of the high priests. But the words may refer to those of the second course or order established by David: though it does not appear that those orders were now in use, yet the distinction was continued even to the time of our Lord. We find the course of Abia, which was the eighth, mentioned Luk 1:5 (note); where see the note

Clarke: 2Ki 23:4 - All the vessels All the vessels - These had been used for idolatrous purposes; the king is now to destroy them; for although no longer used in this way, they might,...

All the vessels - These had been used for idolatrous purposes; the king is now to destroy them; for although no longer used in this way, they might, if permitted to remain, be an incentive to idolatry at a future time.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:5 - The idolatrous priests The idolatrous priests - הכמרים hakkemarim . Who these were is not well known. The Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, call them the priests simply...

The idolatrous priests - הכמרים hakkemarim . Who these were is not well known. The Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, call them the priests simply, which the kings of Judah had ordained. Probably they were an order made by the idolatrous kings of Judah, and called kemarim , from כמר camar , which signifies to be scorched, shriveled together, made dark, or black, because their business was constantly to attend sacrificial fires, and probably they were black garments; hence the Jews in derision call Christian ministers kemarim , because of their black clothes and garments. Why we should imitate, in our sacerdotal dress, those priests of Baal, is strange to think and hard to tell

Clarke: 2Ki 23:5 - Unto Baal, to the sun Unto Baal, to the sun - Though Baal was certainly the sun, yet here they are distinguished; Baal being worshipped under different forms and attribut...

Unto Baal, to the sun - Though Baal was certainly the sun, yet here they are distinguished; Baal being worshipped under different forms and attributes, Baal-peor, Baal-zephon, Baal-zebub, etc

Clarke: 2Ki 23:5 - The planets The planets - מזלות mazzaloth . The Vulgate translates this the twelve signs, i.e., the zodiac. This is as likely as any of the other conject...

The planets - מזלות mazzaloth . The Vulgate translates this the twelve signs, i.e., the zodiac. This is as likely as any of the other conjectures which have been published relative to this word. See a similar word Job 37:9; Job 38:32.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:6 - He brought out the grove He brought out the grove - He brought out the idol Asherah. See at the end of 2Ki 21:26 (note)

He brought out the grove - He brought out the idol Asherah. See at the end of 2Ki 21:26 (note)

Clarke: 2Ki 23:6 - Upon the graves of the children of the people Upon the graves of the children of the people - I believe this; means the burial-place of the common people.

Upon the graves of the children of the people - I believe this; means the burial-place of the common people.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:7 - The houses of the sodomites The houses of the sodomites - We have already often met with these קדשים kedeshim or consecrated persons. The word implies all kinds of pros...

The houses of the sodomites - We have already often met with these קדשים kedeshim or consecrated persons. The word implies all kinds of prostitutes, as well as abusers of themselves with mankind

Clarke: 2Ki 23:7 - Wove hangings for the grove Wove hangings for the grove - For Asherah; curtains or tent coverings for the places where the rites of the impure goddess were performed. See at th...

Wove hangings for the grove - For Asherah; curtains or tent coverings for the places where the rites of the impure goddess were performed. See at the end of 2Ki 21:26 (note).

Clarke: 2Ki 23:8 - The gate of Joshua The gate of Joshua - The place where he, as governor of the city, heard and decided causes. Near this we find there were public altars, where someti...

The gate of Joshua - The place where he, as governor of the city, heard and decided causes. Near this we find there were public altars, where sometimes the true God, at other times false gods, were honored.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:9 - The priests of the high places came not up The priests of the high places came not up - As these priests had offered sacrifices on the high places, though it was to the true God, yet they wer...

The priests of the high places came not up - As these priests had offered sacrifices on the high places, though it was to the true God, yet they were not thought proper to be employed immediately about the temple; but as they were acknowledged to belong to the priesthood, they had a right to their support; therefore a portion of the tithes, offerings, and unleavened bread, shew-bread, etc., was appointed to them for their support. Thus they were treated as priests who had some infirmity which rendered it improper for them to minister at the altar. See Lev 21:17, etc., and particularly Lev 21:22, Lev 21:23.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:10 - He defiled Topheth He defiled Topheth - St. Jerome says that Topheth was a fine and pleasant place, well watered with fountains, and adorned with gardens. The valley o...

He defiled Topheth - St. Jerome says that Topheth was a fine and pleasant place, well watered with fountains, and adorned with gardens. The valley of the son of Hinnom, or Gehenna, was in one part; here it appears the sacred rites of Molech were performed, and to this all the filth of the city was carried, and perpetual fires were kept up in order to consume it. Hence it has been considered a type of hell; and in this sense it is used in the New Testament

It is here said that Josiah defiled this place that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire. He destroyed the image of Molech, and so polluted the place where he stood, or his temple, that it was rendered in every way abominable. The rabbins say that Topheth had its name from תף toph , a drum, because instruments of this kind were used to drown the cries of the children that were put into the burning arms of Molech, to be scorched to death. This may be as true as the following definition: "Topheth, or the valley of the son of Hinnom, was a place near Jerusalem, where the filth and offal of the city were thrown, and where a constant fire was kept up to consume the wretched remains of executed criminals. It was a human shambles, a public chopping-block, where the arms and legs of men and women were quartered off by thousands."Query, On what authority do such descriptions rest?

Clarke: 2Ki 23:11 - The horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun The horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun - Jarchi says that those who adored the sun had horses which they mounted every morning to g...

The horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun - Jarchi says that those who adored the sun had horses which they mounted every morning to go out to meet the sun at his rising. Throughout the East the horse, because of his swiftness and utility, was dedicated to the sun; and the Greeks and Romans feigned that the chariot of the sun was drawn by four horses - Pyroeis, Eous, Aethon, and Phlegon. See the note on 2Ki 2:11

Whether these were living or sculptured horses, we cannot tell; the latter is the more reasonable supposition.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:12 - On the top of the upper chamber On the top of the upper chamber - Altars built on the flat roof of the house. Such altars were erected to the sun, moon, stars, etc.

On the top of the upper chamber - Altars built on the flat roof of the house. Such altars were erected to the sun, moon, stars, etc.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:13 - Mount of corruption Mount of corruption - This, says Jarchi, following the Chaldee, was the mount of Olives, for this is the mount המשחה hammishchah , of unction;...

Mount of corruption - This, says Jarchi, following the Chaldee, was the mount of Olives, for this is the mount המשחה hammishchah , of unction; but because of the idolatrous purposes for which it was used, the Scripture changed the appellation to the mount המשחית hammashchith , of corruption

Clarke: 2Ki 23:13 - Ashtoreth the abomination, etc. Ashtoreth the abomination, etc. - See on 1Ki 11:7 (note).

Ashtoreth the abomination, etc. - See on 1Ki 11:7 (note).

Clarke: 2Ki 23:14 - Filled their places with the bones of men Filled their places with the bones of men - This was allowed to be the utmost defilement to which any thing could be exposed.

Filled their places with the bones of men - This was allowed to be the utmost defilement to which any thing could be exposed.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:16 - And as Josiah turned himself And as Josiah turned himself - This verse is much more complete in the Septuagint, and in the Hexaplar Syriac version at Paris. I shall give the who...

And as Josiah turned himself - This verse is much more complete in the Septuagint, and in the Hexaplar Syriac version at Paris. I shall give the whole, making a distinction where, in those versions, any thing is added: "And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the sepulchres that were there in the mount, and sent and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burnt them upon the altar, and polluted it: according to the word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed [when Jeroboam stood by the altar at the feast. And turning about, he cast his eyes on the sepulcher of the man of God] who proclaimed these words."See 1Ki 13:2 (note), where these things were predicted, and see the notes there.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:17 - What title is that What title is that - There was either a stone, an image, or an inscription here: the old prophet no doubt took care to have the place made sufficien...

What title is that - There was either a stone, an image, or an inscription here: the old prophet no doubt took care to have the place made sufficiently remarkable.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:18 - The prophet that came out of Samaria The prophet that came out of Samaria - See the note on 1Ki 13:32.

The prophet that came out of Samaria - See the note on 1Ki 13:32.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:19 - That were in the cities of Samaria That were in the cities of Samaria - Israel had now no king; and Josiah, of the blood royal of Judah, had certainly a direct right to the kingdom; h...

That were in the cities of Samaria - Israel had now no king; and Josiah, of the blood royal of Judah, had certainly a direct right to the kingdom; he had, at this time, an especial commission from God, to reform every abuse through the whole land - all that ground that was given by the Lord as an inheritance to the twelve sons of Jacob. Therefore he had every right to carry his plans of reformation into the Samaritan states.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:20 - Slew all the priests Slew all the priests - The lives of these, as corrupters of the people, were forfeited to the law.

Slew all the priests - The lives of these, as corrupters of the people, were forfeited to the law.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:22 - Surely there was not holden such a passover Surely there was not holden such a passover - Not one on purer principles, more heartily joined in by the people present, more literally consecrated...

Surely there was not holden such a passover - Not one on purer principles, more heartily joined in by the people present, more literally consecrated, or more religiously observed. The words do not apply to the number present, but to the manner and spirit. See the particulars and mode of celebrating this passover in 2 Chronicles 35:1-18 (note).

Clarke: 2Ki 23:24 - The workers with familiar spirits The workers with familiar spirits - See on 2Ki 21:5 (note)

The workers with familiar spirits - See on 2Ki 21:5 (note)

Clarke: 2Ki 23:24 - And the images And the images - The teraphim. See the note on Gen 31:19.

And the images - The teraphim. See the note on Gen 31:19.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:25 - Like unto him was there no king Like unto him was there no king - Perhaps not one from the time of David; and, morally considered, including David himself, none ever sat on the Jew...

Like unto him was there no king - Perhaps not one from the time of David; and, morally considered, including David himself, none ever sat on the Jewish throne, so truly exemplary in his own conduct, and so thoroughly zealous in the work of God. David was a greater but not a better man than Josiah.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:26 - The Lord turned not The Lord turned not - It was of no use to try this fickle and radically depraved people any longer. They were respited merely during the life of Jos...

The Lord turned not - It was of no use to try this fickle and radically depraved people any longer. They were respited merely during the life of Josiah.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:29 - In his days Pharaoh-nechoh In his days Pharaoh-nechoh - See the note on the death of Josiah, 2Ki 22:20 (note) Nechoh is supposed to have been the son of Psammitichus, king of ...

In his days Pharaoh-nechoh - See the note on the death of Josiah, 2Ki 22:20 (note)

Nechoh is supposed to have been the son of Psammitichus, king of Egypt; and the Assyrian king, whom he was now going to attack, was the famous Nabopolassar. What the cause of this quarrel was, is not known. Some say it was on account of Carchemish, a city on the Euphrates, belonging to the Egyptians, which Nabopolassar had seized. See Isa 10:9.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:30 - Dead from Megiddo Dead from Megiddo - The word מת meth should here be considered as a participle, dying, for it is certain he was not dead: he was mortally wound...

Dead from Megiddo - The word מת meth should here be considered as a participle, dying, for it is certain he was not dead: he was mortally wounded at Megiddo, was carried in a dying state to Jerusalem, and there he died and was buried. See 2Ch 35:24

Herodotus, lib. i., c. 17, 18, 25, and lib. ii. 159, appears to refer to the same war which is here mentioned. He says that Nechoh, in the sixth year of his reign, went to attack the king of Assyria at Magdolum, gained a complete victory, and took Cadytis. Usher and others believe that Magdolum and Megiddo were the same place. The exact place of the battle seems to have been Hadadrimmon, in the valley of Megiddo, for there Zechariah tells us 2Ki 12:11, was the great mourning for Josiah. Compare this with 2Ch 35:24, 2Ch 35:25.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:31 - Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old - This was not the eldest son of Josiah, which is evident from this, that he was twenty-three years old when...

Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old - This was not the eldest son of Josiah, which is evident from this, that he was twenty-three years old when he began to reign; that he reigned but three months; that, being dethroned, his brother Eliakim was put in his place, who was then twenty-five years of age. Eliakim, therefore, was the eldest brother; but Jehoahaz was probably raised to the throne by the people, as being of a more active and martial spirit.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:33 - Nechoh put him in bands Nechoh put him in bands - But what was the cause of his putting him in bands? It is conjectured, and not without reason, that Jehoahaz, otherwise ca...

Nechoh put him in bands - But what was the cause of his putting him in bands? It is conjectured, and not without reason, that Jehoahaz, otherwise called Shallum, raised an army, met Nechoh in his return from Carchemish, fought, was beaten, taken prisoner, put in chains; and taken into Egypt, where he died; 2Ki 23:34, and Jer 22:11, Jer 22:12. Riblah or Diblath, the place of this battle, was probably a town in Syria, in the land or district of Hamath.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:34 - Turned his name to Jehoiakim Turned his name to Jehoiakim - These names are precisely the same in signification: Eliakim is God shall arise; Jehoiakim, Jehovah shall arise; or, ...

Turned his name to Jehoiakim - These names are precisely the same in signification: Eliakim is God shall arise; Jehoiakim, Jehovah shall arise; or, the resurrection of God; the resurrection of Jehovah. That is, God’ s rising again to show his power, justice, etc. The change of the name was to show Nechoh’ s supremacy, and that Jehoiakim was only his vassal or viceroy. Proofs of this mode of changing the name, when a person of greater power put another in office under himself, may be seen in the case of Mattaniah, changed into Zedekiah; Daniel, Mishael, Hananiah, and Azariah, into Belteshazzar, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; and Joseph into Zaphnath-paaneah. See Dan 1:6, Dan 1:7; Gen 41:45.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:35 - Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold - Nechoh had placed him there as viceroy, simply to raise and collect his taxes

Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold - Nechoh had placed him there as viceroy, simply to raise and collect his taxes

Clarke: 2Ki 23:35 - Every one according to his taxation Every one according to his taxation - That is, each was assessed in proportion to his property: that was the principle avowed: but there is reason t...

Every one according to his taxation - That is, each was assessed in proportion to his property: that was the principle avowed: but there is reason to fear that this bad king was not governed by it.

Clarke: 2Ki 23:37 - He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord - He was a most unprincipled and oppressive tyrant. Jeremiah gives us his character at large, Je...

He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord - He was a most unprincipled and oppressive tyrant. Jeremiah gives us his character at large, Jer 22:13-19, to which the reader will do well to refer. Jeremiah was at that time in the land, and was an eyewitness of the abominations of this cruel king.

Defender: 2Ki 23:10 - Hinnom The highlight of King Josiah's reforms was his elimination of child sacrifice by defiling the valley of Hinnom where children had regularly been force...

The highlight of King Josiah's reforms was his elimination of child sacrifice by defiling the valley of Hinnom where children had regularly been forced to pass through the fire burning in the outstretched arms of the "god" Molech. The valley was made the garbage dump of the city and kept continually burning, giving it the perpetual appearance of an eternal lake of fire. The valley's name finally became the name gehenna meaning "hell," the lake of fire "prepared for the devil" and all those who reject God's salvation through Jesus Christ (Mat 25:41; Rev 20:15)."

Defender: 2Ki 23:16 - polluted it This event was the fulfillment of a remarkable prophecy (1Ki 13:2) uttered 350 years before."

This event was the fulfillment of a remarkable prophecy (1Ki 13:2) uttered 350 years before."

Defender: 2Ki 23:22 - such a passover It is remarkable that, except for the Passover feast held under the brief revival of Hezekiah a century earlier (2 Chronicles 30), there is no mention...

It is remarkable that, except for the Passover feast held under the brief revival of Hezekiah a century earlier (2 Chronicles 30), there is no mention of any Passover observance in either the northern or southern kingdom since the days of Samuel some 500 years before (2Ch 35:18). Yet the Passover had been ordained by God as an everlasting ordinance to be kept each year for a memorial, to keep alive the memory of the divine deliverance (Exo 12:24-27). Whether Israel's neglect of the Passover was a cause or an effect of their recurring national apostasy, it certainly highlighted it, illustrating the vital importance of keeping alive the true understanding of our origins, whether of the world as a whole (Exo 20:8-11) or of one's nation and family. It is possible, however, that the Passover custom had been retained as a ritualistic observance of tradition, even if its spiritual significance had been forgotten. When the rediscovered Scriptures were found to describe its origin and meaning, the result was a true Passover celebration."

TSK: 2Ki 23:1 - the king the king : Deu 31:28; 2Sa 6:1; 2Ch 29:20, 2Ch 30:2, 2Ch 34:29, 2Ch 34:30-33

TSK: 2Ki 23:2 - both small and great // he read // the book both small and great : Heb. from small even unto great, Gen 19:11; 1Sa 5:9, 1Sa 30:2; 2Ch 15:13; Est 1:5; Job 3:19; Psa 115:13; Act 26:22; Rev 20:12 h...

both small and great : Heb. from small even unto great, Gen 19:11; 1Sa 5:9, 1Sa 30:2; 2Ch 15:13; Est 1:5; Job 3:19; Psa 115:13; Act 26:22; Rev 20:12

he read : Deu 31:10-13; 2Ch 17:9; Neh 8:1-8, Neh 9:3, Neh 13:1

the book : 2Ki 22:8; Deu 31:26; 1Ki 8:9

TSK: 2Ki 23:3 - stood // made a covenant // to walk // his commandments // with all their heart // And all stood : 2Ki 11:14, 2Ki 11:17; 2Ch 23:13, 2Ch 34:31, 2Ch 34:32 made a covenant : Exo 24:7, Exo 24:8; Deu 5:1-3, Deu 29:1, Deu 29:10-15; Jos 24:25; 2Ch ...

TSK: 2Ki 23:4 - priestss of the second order // the keepers // to bring // Baal // Kidron // Bethel priestss of the second order : These were either such as occasionally supplied the high priests’ s office, or those of the second course or order...

priestss of the second order : These were either such as occasionally supplied the high priests’ s office, or those of the second course or order established by David. See the references. 1Chr. 24:4-19; Mat 26:3, Mat 27:1

the keepers : 2Ki 22:4; 1Chr. 26:1-19

to bring : 2Ki 21:3, 2Ki 21:7; 2Ch 33:3, 2Ch 33:7, 2Ch 34:3, 2Ch 34:4

Baal : 2Ki 17:16; Jdg 2:13; 1Ki 16:31, 1Ki 18:19, 1Ki 18:26, 1Ki 18:40, 1Ki 19:18; Isa 27:9; Jer 7:9

Kidron : 2Sa 15:23; Joh 18:1, Cedron

Bethel : 1Ki 12:29; Hos 4:15; Amo 4:4

TSK: 2Ki 23:5 - put down // the idolatrous priests // planets // all the host put down : Heb. caused to cease the idolatrous priests : Heb. Chemarim. Hos 10:5 *marg. ""Foretold. Zep 1:4, Zep 1:5." planets : or, twelve signs, or...

put down : Heb. caused to cease

the idolatrous priests : Heb. Chemarim. Hos 10:5 *marg. ""Foretold. Zep 1:4, Zep 1:5."

planets : or, twelve signs, or constellations, So the Vulgate duodecim signa , ""the twelve signs,""i.e., the zodiac; which is the most probable meaning of the word mazzaloth , from the Arabic manzeel , a caravanserai, house, or dwelling, as being the apparent dwellings of the sun in his annual course; and the Targumists and Rabbins often employ the words tereysar mazzalaya , to denote the signs of the zodiac.

all the host : 2Ki 21:3, 2Ki 21:4; Jer 8:1, Jer 8:2, Jer 44:17-19

TSK: 2Ki 23:6 - the grove // and burned // the graves // the children the grove : Or rather, Asherah, or Astarte. 2Ki 21:7; Jdg 3:7; 1Ki 14:23, 1Ki 16:33; Jer 17:2 and burned : Exo 32:20; Deu 7:25, Deu 9:21 the graves : ...

the grove : Or rather, Asherah, or Astarte. 2Ki 21:7; Jdg 3:7; 1Ki 14:23, 1Ki 16:33; Jer 17:2

and burned : Exo 32:20; Deu 7:25, Deu 9:21

the graves : 2Ki 10:27; 2Ch 34:4

the children : Probably the common people.

TSK: 2Ki 23:7 - the sodomites // where // hangings the sodomites : Gen 19:4, Gen 19:5; 1Ki 14:24, 1Ki 15:12, 1Ki 22:46; 2Ch 34:33; Rom 1:26, Rom 1:27 where : Exo 35:25, Exo 35:26; Eze 8:14, Eze 16:16; ...

TSK: 2Ki 23:8 - from // Geba // Beersheba from : etc. The northern and southern borders of Judah. Geba : Jos 21:17; 1Ki 15:22; 1Ch 6:60; Isa 10:29; Zec 14:10 Beersheba : Gen 21:31, Gen 26:23; ...

from : etc. The northern and southern borders of Judah.

Geba : Jos 21:17; 1Ki 15:22; 1Ch 6:60; Isa 10:29; Zec 14:10

Beersheba : Gen 21:31, Gen 26:23; Jdg 20:1; 1Ki 19:3

TSK: 2Ki 23:9 - the priests // but they did the priests : Eze 44:10-14; Mal 2:8, Mal 2:9 but they did : 1Sa 2:36; Eze 44:29-31

the priests : Eze 44:10-14; Mal 2:8, Mal 2:9

but they did : 1Sa 2:36; Eze 44:29-31

TSK: 2Ki 23:10 - Topheth // the valley // might make Topheth : Isa 30:33; Jer 7:31, Jer 7:32, Jer 19:6, Jer 19:11-13, Tophet the valley : Jos 15:8; 2Ch 28:3, 2Ch 33:6; Jer 19:2, Jer 32:35; Mat 5:22 *Gr. ...

TSK: 2Ki 23:11 - the sun // house of the Lord // chamberlain the sun : 2Ki 23:5; 2Ch 14:5, 2Ch 34:4; Eze 8:16 house of the Lord : Throughout the East, the horse because of his swiftness and utility, was dedicate...

the sun : 2Ki 23:5; 2Ch 14:5, 2Ch 34:4; Eze 8:16

house of the Lord : Throughout the East, the horse because of his swiftness and utility, was dedicated to the sun; and the Greeks and Romans feigned that the chariot of the sun was drawn by four horses, Pyrous, Eous, Aithon, and Phlegon, and hence also chariots were dedicated to that luminary. Jarchi says, that those who adored the sun had horses, which they mounted every morning, to go out to meet him at his rising. The kings of Judah had imitated these idolatrous customs, and kept the horses of the sun even at the entrance of the temple of the Lord!

chamberlain : or, eunuch, or officer

TSK: 2Ki 23:12 - on the top // which Manasseh // brake them down from thence // cast on the top : Deu 22:8; Jer 19:13; Zep 1:5 which Manasseh : 2Ki 21:5, 2Ki 21:21, 2Ki 21:22; 2Ch 33:5, 2Ch 33:15 brake them down from thence : or, ran f...

on the top : Deu 22:8; Jer 19:13; Zep 1:5

which Manasseh : 2Ki 21:5, 2Ki 21:21, 2Ki 21:22; 2Ch 33:5, 2Ch 33:15

brake them down from thence : or, ran from thence

cast : 2Ki 23:6

TSK: 2Ki 23:13 - the mount of corruption // Solomon // Ashtoreth // Chemosh // Milcom the mount of corruption : that is, the mount of Olives, Houbigant, deriving the Hebrew mashchith from mashach , ""to anoint,""reads ""the Mount o...

the mount of corruption : that is, the mount of Olives, Houbigant, deriving the Hebrew mashchith from mashach , ""to anoint,""reads ""the Mount of Olives.""Jarchi, following the Chaldee, also says this was the Mount of Olives; for this is the mount hammishchah , of unction, but because of the idolatrous purposes for which it was used, the Scripture changed the appellation to the mount of hammashchith , corruption.

Solomon : 1Ki 11:7; Neh 13:26

Ashtoreth : Jdg 2:13, Jdg 10:6; 1Sa 7:4, 1Sa 12:10; 1Ki 11:5, 1Ki 11:33

Chemosh : Num 21:29; Jdg 11:24; Jer 48:7, Jer 48:13, Jer 48:16

Milcom : Zep 1:5, Malcham

TSK: 2Ki 23:14 - he brake // images // the bones of men he brake : Exo 23:24; Num 33:52; Deu 7:5, Deu 7:25, Deu 7:26; 2Ch 34:3, 2Ch 34:4; Mic 1:7 images : Heb. statues the bones of men : 2Ki 23:16; Num 19:1...

TSK: 2Ki 23:15 - the altar // stamped the altar : 2Ki 10:31; 1Ki 12:28-33, 1Ki 14:16, 1Ki 15:30, 1Ki 21:22 stamped : 2Ki 23:6

TSK: 2Ki 23:16 - burned // who proclaimed burned : 1Ki 13:1, 1Ki 13:2, 1Ki 13:32; Mat 24:35; Joh 10:35 who proclaimed : The Septuagint and Hexaplar Syriac at Paris insert, ""when Jeroboam stoo...

burned : 1Ki 13:1, 1Ki 13:2, 1Ki 13:32; Mat 24:35; Joh 10:35

who proclaimed : The Septuagint and Hexaplar Syriac at Paris insert, ""when Jeroboam stood by the altar at the feast. And turning about, he cast his eyes on the sepulchre of the man of God""-

TSK: 2Ki 23:17 - It is the sepulchre It is the sepulchre : 1Ki 13:1, 1Ki 13:30, 1Ki 13:31

It is the sepulchre : 1Ki 13:1, 1Ki 13:30, 1Ki 13:31

TSK: 2Ki 23:18 - alone // the bones of the prophet alone : Heb. to escape the bones of the prophet : 1Kings 13:1-22, 1Ki 13:31

alone : Heb. to escape

the bones of the prophet : 1Kings 13:1-22, 1Ki 13:31

TSK: 2Ki 23:19 - the houses // the cities // the kings // to provoke the Lord the houses : 2Ki 17:9; 1Ki 12:31, 1Ki 13:32 the cities : 2Ch 30:6-11, 2Ch 31:1, 2Ch 34:6, 2Ch 34:7 the kings : 2Ki 8:18; 1Ki 16:33; Mic 6:16 to provok...

TSK: 2Ki 23:20 - he slew // burned he slew : or, he sacrificed, 2Ki 10:25, 2Ki 11:18; Exo 22:20; Deu 13:5; 1Ki 13:2, 1Ki 18:40; Isa 34:6; Zec 13:2, Zec 13:3 burned : 2Ch 34:5

he slew : or, he sacrificed, 2Ki 10:25, 2Ki 11:18; Exo 22:20; Deu 13:5; 1Ki 13:2, 1Ki 18:40; Isa 34:6; Zec 13:2, Zec 13:3

burned : 2Ch 34:5

TSK: 2Ki 23:21 - Keep // as it is written Keep : 2Chr. 35:1-19 as it is written : Exod. 12:3-20; Lev 23:5-8; Num 9:2-5, Num 28:16-25; Deu 16:1-8

Keep : 2Chr. 35:1-19

as it is written : Exod. 12:3-20; Lev 23:5-8; Num 9:2-5, Num 28:16-25; Deu 16:1-8

TSK: 2Ki 23:22 - Surely // of the kings Surely : 2Ch 35:18, 2Ch 35:19 of the kings : 2Ch 30:1-3, 2Ch 30:13-20, 2Ch 35:3-17

TSK: 2Ki 23:24 - Moreover // the workers // images // that he might // the book Moreover : ""His eighteenth year ending." the workers : 2Ki 21:3, 2Ki 21:6; 1Sa 28:3-7; Isa 8:19, Isa 19:3; Act 16:16-18; Rev 22:15 images : or, terap...

Moreover : ""His eighteenth year ending."

the workers : 2Ki 21:3, 2Ki 21:6; 1Sa 28:3-7; Isa 8:19, Isa 19:3; Act 16:16-18; Rev 22:15

images : or, teraphim, Gen 31:19; Jdg 17:5, Jdg 18:17, Jdg 18:18; Hos 3:4

that he might : Lev 19:31, Lev 20:27; Deu 18:10-12; Isa 8:20; Rom 3:20; Jam 1:25

the book : 2Ki 22:8-13; 2Ch 34:14-19

TSK: 2Ki 23:25 - unto him // that turned // according am 3363-3394, bc 641-610 unto him : 2Ki 18:5 that turned : 2Ki 23:3; Deu 4:29, Deu 6:5; 1Ki 2:4, 1Ki 8:48, 1Ki 15:5; Jer 29:13 according : Neh 10:29; ...

am 3363-3394, bc 641-610

unto him : 2Ki 18:5

that turned : 2Ki 23:3; Deu 4:29, Deu 6:5; 1Ki 2:4, 1Ki 8:48, 1Ki 15:5; Jer 29:13

according : Neh 10:29; Mal 4:4; Joh 1:17, Joh 7:19

TSK: 2Ki 23:26 - Notwithstanding // provocations Notwithstanding : 2Ki 21:11-13, 2Ki 22:16, 2Ki 22:17, 2Ki 24:2, 2Ki 24:4; 2Ch 36:16; Jer 3:7-10, Jer 15:1-4 provocations : Heb. angers

Notwithstanding : 2Ki 21:11-13, 2Ki 22:16, 2Ki 22:17, 2Ki 24:2, 2Ki 24:4; 2Ch 36:16; Jer 3:7-10, Jer 15:1-4

provocations : Heb. angers

TSK: 2Ki 23:27 - I will remove // out of my sight // My name I will remove : 2Ki 17:18, 2Ki 17:20, 2Ki 18:11, 2Ki 21:13, 2Ki 24:3, 2Ki 25:11; Deu 29:27, Deu 29:28; Eze 23:32-35 out of my sight : Psa 51:11; Jer 3...

TSK: 2Ki 23:28 - the rest the rest : 2Ki 20:20

the rest : 2Ki 20:20

TSK: 2Ki 23:29 - Pharaohnechoh // Euphrates // Josiah went // slew him // Megiddo // he had seen him am 3394, bc 610 Pharaohnechoh : Pharaoh-nechoh, called Νεκως , Necos , the son of Psammiticus, by Herodotus, was now was now marching ""to ma...

am 3394, bc 610

Pharaohnechoh : Pharaoh-nechoh, called Νεκως , Necos , the son of Psammiticus, by Herodotus, was now was now marching ""to make war upon the Medes and Babylonians, who had dissolved the Assyrian empire,""the king of the latter being the famous Nabopollasar, who had also become king of Assyria. 2Ki 23:33, 2Ki 23:34, 2Ki 23:35; 2Ch 35:20-24; Jer 46:2

Euphrates : 2Ki 24:7; 2Ch 35:20; Jer 46:2

Josiah went : 2Ch 35:20-23

slew him : 2Ki 22:20; Ecc 8:14, Ecc 9:1, Ecc 9:2; Isa 57:1, Isa 57:2; Rom 11:33

Megiddo : Megiddo, called Μαγδολον , Magdolum , by Herodotus, was situated in the tribe of Manasseh, west of Jordan, in the valley of Jezreel, and not far fron Hadad-Rimmon, or Maximianopolis. This shews that Josiah reigned over the country formerly possessed by the ten tribes; and it is also probable, that Nechoh had landed his troops at or near Cesarea of Palestine. 2Ki 9:27; Jos 17:11; Jdg 1:27, Jdg 5:19; 1Ki 4:12; Zec 12:11, Megiddon, Rev 16:16, Armageddon

he had seen him : 2Ki 14:8, 2Ki 14:11

TSK: 2Ki 23:30 - servants // the people servants : 2Ki 9:28; 1Ki 22:33-38; 2Ch 35:24 the people : 2Ki 14:21, 2Ki 21:24; 2Ch 36:1, 2Ch 36:2-4

TSK: 2Ki 23:31 - Jehoahaz // Hamutal Jehoahaz : 1Ch 3:15; Jer 22:11, Shallum Hamutal : 2Ki 24:18

Jehoahaz : 1Ch 3:15; Jer 22:11, Shallum

Hamutal : 2Ki 24:18

TSK: 2Ki 23:32 - -- 2Ki 21:2-7, 2Ki 21:21, 2Ki 21:22

TSK: 2Ki 23:33 - put him // Riblah // Hamath // that he might not reign // put put him : 2Ch 36:3, 2Ch 36:4; Eze 19:3, Eze 19:4 Riblah : Theodoret (in Jer. 46), expressly affirms that Riblah or Reblatha was in his time called Eme...

put him : 2Ch 36:3, 2Ch 36:4; Eze 19:3, Eze 19:4

Riblah : Theodoret (in Jer. 46), expressly affirms that Riblah or Reblatha was in his time called Emesa. Κωμη δε εστιν η Ρεβλαθα της νυν καλουμενης Εμεσης . Emesa was a city of Syria, situated on the Orontes, and, according to the Antonine Itinerary , 18 miles from Laodicea ad Libanum. It is now called Homs, or Hems, about eight hours, or twenty-four miles se of Hamah or Hamath, in the road to Damascus. The present town only occupies about one quarter of the space contained within the ancient walls, which apparently date from the time of the Saracens. Here is nothing remarkable, except a Roman sepulchre, and a large castle in ruins. 2Ki 25:6; Num 34:11; Jer 39:5, Jer 39:6, Jer 52:9, Jer 52:10, Jer 52:26, Jer 52:27

Hamath : Num 13:21; 1Ki 8:65

that he might not reign : or, because he reigned

put : etc. Heb. set a mulct upon the land. 2Ki 18:14; Exo 21:22; 2Ch 36:3; Pro 19:19

TSK: 2Ki 23:34 - Eliakim // the son // turned // Jehoiakim // he came Eliakim : Jos 18:18; 2Ch 36:3, 2Ch 36:4 the son : 1Ch 3:15 turned : 2Ki 24:17; Gen 41:45; Dan 1:7 Jehoiakim : ""Called Jakim, Mat 1:11." he came : Jer...

Eliakim : Jos 18:18; 2Ch 36:3, 2Ch 36:4

the son : 1Ch 3:15

turned : 2Ki 24:17; Gen 41:45; Dan 1:7

Jehoiakim : ""Called Jakim, Mat 1:11."

he came : Jer 22:11, Jer 22:12; Eze 19:3, Eze 19:4

TSK: 2Ki 23:35 - the silver // taxed the silver : 2Ki 23:33 taxed : 2Ki 15:19, 2Ki 15:20

the silver : 2Ki 23:33

taxed : 2Ki 15:19, 2Ki 15:20

TSK: 2Ki 23:36 - Jehoiakim // Rumah am 3394-3405, bc 610-599 Jehoiakim : 1Ch 3:15; 2Ch 36:5; Jer 1:3 Rumah : Josephus here reads Abuma; but he also speaks of Ruma, a village of Galilee.

am 3394-3405, bc 610-599

Jehoiakim : 1Ch 3:15; 2Ch 36:5; Jer 1:3

Rumah : Josephus here reads Abuma; but he also speaks of Ruma, a village of Galilee.

TSK: 2Ki 23:37 - he did // all that he did : Jer 22:13-17, Jer 26:20-23, Jer 36:23-26, Jer 36:31; Eze 19:5-9 all that : 2Ch 28:22-25, 2Ch 33:4-10, 2Ch 33:22, 2Ch 33:23

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 2Ki 23:2 - The prophets // He read The prophets either Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Urijah; or the sons or disciples of the prophets. He read He caused to be read.

The prophets either Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Urijah; or the sons or disciples of the prophets.

He read He caused to be read.

Poole: 2Ki 23:3 - By the pillar // To the covenant By the pillar of which See Poole "2Ki 11:14" ; See Poole "2Ch 34:31" . To the covenant to wit, as to the taking of it; they declared their consen...

By the pillar of which See Poole "2Ki 11:14" ; See Poole "2Ch 34:31" .

To the covenant to wit, as to the taking of it; they declared their consent to it, and their concurrence with the king in that act, which possibly they did by standing upright, as the king himself stood when he took it.

Poole: 2Ki 23:4 - The priests of the second order // The keepers of the door // To bring forth // For the grove // In the fields of Kidron // Carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el The priests of the second order either those two who were next in degree to the high priest, and in case of his sickness were to manage his work; of ...

The priests of the second order either those two who were next in degree to the high priest, and in case of his sickness were to manage his work; of whom see 2Sa 8:17 ; or the heads of the twentyfour courses which David had appointed, 1Ch 24 .

The keepers of the door: See Poole "2Ki 22:4".

To bring forth i.e. to take care that they should be brought forth.

For the grove i.e. the image of the grove; of which See Poole "2Ki 21:7" ; it being most frequent to call images by the names of the persons or things which they represent.

In the fields of Kidron i.e. adjoining to the brook of Kidron.

Carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el partly to show his abhorrency of them, and that he would not give the ashes of them a place in his kingdom; and partly to pollute and disgrace that place which had been the chief seat and throne of idolatry.

Poole: 2Ki 23:5 - The idolatrous priests // Baal The idolatrous priests Heb. the chemarim ; which were ministers of idols, Hos 10:5 , distinct from the priests, Zep 1:4 . Possibly they were the hig...

The idolatrous priests Heb. the chemarim ; which were ministers of idols, Hos 10:5 , distinct from the priests, Zep 1:4 . Possibly they were the highest rank of priests, because they are here employed in the highest work, which was to burn incense.

Baal a particular god, of greatest esteem with them, so called; though elsewhere the name of Baal is common to all false gods.

Poole: 2Ki 23:6 - The grove // the children of the people The grove: See Poole "2Ki 23:4". Of the children of the people, i.e. of the common people, whose graves were made together in some common place, which...

The grove: See Poole "2Ki 23:4". Of the children of the people, i.e. of the common people, whose graves were made together in some common place, which was generally accounted very impure and contemptible, and therefore a fit place for this filth to be thrown into. Or, of bastards, who are oft called

the children of the people who as they had this brand of infamy laid upon them, that they might not enter into the congregation of the Lord , Deu 23:2 ; so possibly they were exposed to this further ignominy, to be buried in a peculiar, and in the most infamous place. Or rather, as it is in the Hebrew, of that people , i.e. those idolatrous people, as it is explained, 2Ch 34:4 , and here sufficiently implied in this and the foregoing verse.

Poole: 2Ki 23:7 - The houses of the sodomites // Hangings // For the grove The houses of the sodomites wherein some males prostituted their bodies to the lusts of others; which abominable practice was both a punishment of id...

The houses of the sodomites wherein some males prostituted their bodies to the lusts of others; which abominable practice was both a punishment of idolatry, Rom 1:23,24,27 , and a part of idol worship, this being done to the honour of some of their idols, and by the appointment and instigation of those impure and diabolical spirits which were worshipped in their idols. See 1Ki 14:24 15:12 22:46 .

Hangings or curtains , either to draw before the idol or idols which were worshipped in the grove, to preserve them from defilement, or to gain more reverence for them; or which were set up in the grove, that the abominable filthiness last mentioned might be committed within them. Or, garments for the service of the grove, for the idols or the priests belonging to them. Heb. houses , i.e. either little chapels made of woven work, like those which were made of silver, Act 19:24 ; within which there were some representations of their grove idols; or rather, tents made of those curtains for the use above mentioned.

For the grove or, for Asherah , an idol so called, as was noted before.

Poole: 2Ki 23:8 - All the priests // Defiled the high places // From Geba // The high places of the gates // In the entering in of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city All the priests to wit, belonging to the high places there following, whether such as worshipped idols, or rather, such as worshipped God in those fo...

All the priests to wit, belonging to the high places there following, whether such as worshipped idols, or rather, such as worshipped God in those forbidden places, Deu 12:11 , as may be gathered from the following verse.

Defiled the high places by burning dead men’ s bones upon them, as 2Ki 23:14,16,20 , or by putting them to some other unclean or filthy use.

From Geba the northern border of the kingdom of Judah; of which see Jos 18:24 1Ki 15:22 . To Beer-sheba , which was the southern border; see Gen 21:31 Jud 20:1 ; i.e. from one end to the other.

The high places of the gates which were erected by the gates of the city here mentioned, unto the honour of their tutelary gods, which after the manner of the heathen they owned for the protectors of their city and habitations.

In the entering in of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city: this circumstance is noted to show Josiah’ s great zeal and impartiality, in rooting out all monuments of idolatry, without any respect unto those great persons who were concerned in them, or affected to them.

Poole: 2Ki 23:9 - The priests of the high places // Came not up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem // Of the unleavened bread The priests of the high places which worshipped the true God there. Came not up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem i.e. were not suffered to com...

The priests of the high places which worshipped the true God there.

Came not up to the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem i.e. were not suffered to come thither to the exercise of their priestly function; as a just punishment for the corruption of God’ s worship, and the transgression of so plain and positive a law of God, Deu 12:11 , which was much worse in them, who had more knowledge to discern God’ s mind therein, and more obligations to observe it, and to engage others to the observation of it. Compare Eze 44:10 .

Of the unleavened bread i.e. of the meat-offerings allotted to the priests, wherein there was to be no leaven, Lev 2:4,5,10,11 ; and consequently of other provisions belonging to the priests, which by a synecdoche are contained under this one kind. Thus their spiritual blemish puts them into the very same state which corporal blemishes brought them, Lev 21:17 , &c. And thus he mitigates their punishment; he shuts them out from spiritual services, but allows them natural and necessary provisions.

Poole: 2Ki 23:10 - In the valley of the children of Hinnom // To pass through the fire to Molech In the valley of the children of Hinnom of which see Jos 15:8 Neh 11:30 Jer 7:31 19:6,11 . To pass through the fire to Molech See Poole "Lev 18:21";...

In the valley of the children of Hinnom of which see Jos 15:8 Neh 11:30 Jer 7:31 19:6,11 .

To pass through the fire to Molech See Poole "Lev 18:21"; See Poole "Deu 18:10" .

Poole: 2Ki 23:11 - The horses // given to the sun // At the entering in of the house of the Lord // The chamberlain // In the suburbs The horses either, 1. The carved or graven horses, to which were adjoined a graven chariot, in which there might be the picture of the sun, which th...

The horses either,

1. The carved or graven horses, to which were adjoined a graven chariot, in which there might be the picture of the sun, which the heathens used to represent in this manner. Or rather,

2. Living horses; for,

1. Such the eastern nations used to consecrate to the sun, to signify the swiftness of his motion.

2. These horses are mentioned apart from the chariots, and are said to be

given to the sun which is not said of the chariots; and to be taken away , when the chariots were burnt , &c.; and a certain place is here allotted to the horses, not to the chariots. To the sun ; either to be sacrificed to the sun; or to draw those chariots in which the kings, or some other in their stead, and by their appointment, went forth every morning to worship the rising sun; for both these were the customs of the Armenians and Persians, as Xenophon testifies.

At the entering in of the house of the Lord i.e. by the gate of the outward court of the temple; for the courts are oft contained under the name of the house or temple.

The chamberlain or officer , to whom the care of these horses was committed.

In the suburbs either,

1. Of the city of David; or rather, of the temple; in certain outward buildings belonging to the temple, and the uses thereof. See Eze 45:2 . Heb. in Parvarim ; a place near the temple, called also Parbar , 1Ch 26:18 , though it be not now known either where it was, or why it was so called. Tie chariots of the sun ; which were made for the honour and worship of the sun, as was before expressed.

Poole: 2Ki 23:12 - On the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz // Which Manasseh had made // Quest // Answ // In the two courts // Cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron On the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz i.e. upon the roof of the king’ s house. They were so mad upon their idols, that they were not content w...

On the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz i.e. upon the roof of the king’ s house. They were so mad upon their idols, that they were not content with all their public high places and altars, but made others upon their house-tops, for the worship of the heavenly bodies. See Jer 19:13 Zep 1:5 .

Which Manasseh had made

Quest. How could this be, when Manasseh had taken them away before, 2Ch 33:15 ?

Answ Either these altars were not so fully destroyed as they should have been, the foundations of them being left through the neglect of the officers appointed to do that work, upon which Amon built his new altars; or if they were wholly rooted out, Amon’ s new altars are called by his father’ s name, because they were built by his example, and in the very same place where his father’ s altars were; as the wells which Isaac digged in the same place where Abraham had digged them before, were therefore called by their ancient names, Gen 26:18 . See more on the next verse.

In the two courts the priests’ and the people’ s. See 2Ki 21:5 .

Cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron partly to show his detestation of them, and partly to abolish the very remembrance of them as far as he could.

Poole: 2Ki 23:13 - The mount of corruption // Which Solomon had builded // For Ashtoreth // The abomination The mount of corruption i.e. the Mount of Olives, 1Ki 11:7 , here called the mount of corruption , for the gross idolatry there practised, which is ...

The mount of corruption i.e. the Mount of Olives, 1Ki 11:7 , here called the mount of corruption , for the gross idolatry there practised, which is oft expressed by the name of corruption. See Exo 32:7 Deu 32:5 . In the Hebrew is an elegant allusion between miscah, anointing , and masheith, corruption , as there is between Beth-el and Beth-aven , Hos 4:15 .

Which Solomon had builded not the same individual altars; which doubtless either Solomon upon his repentance, or some other of Josiah’ s godly predecessors, had taken away long before this time; but other altars built by Manasseh or Amon, which because erected by Solomon’ s example, and for the same use, and in the same place, are called by his name; this brand being left by the Holy Ghost upon his name and memory, as a just punishment of that abominable practice, and a mean to deter others from the like.

For Ashtoreth of which and the rest See Poole "1Ki 11:5" ; See Poole "1Ki 11:6" ; See Poole "1Ki 11:7" .

The abomination i.e. the idol, so called, because it was abominable, and made them abominable to God.

Poole: 2Ki 23:14 - -- i.e. of the idolatrous priests, which he caused to be taken out of their graves, 2Ki 21:18 .

i.e. of the idolatrous priests, which he caused to be taken out of their graves, 2Ki 21:18 .

Poole: 2Ki 23:15 - The altar that was at Beth-el // Question // Answer // The high place The altar that was at Beth-el Question. How could he rightly do this, seeing Beth-el was a part of the kingdom of Israel, not of Judah? Answer. ...

The altar that was at Beth-el

Question. How could he rightly do this, seeing Beth-el was a part of the kingdom of Israel, not of Judah?

Answer. Either, first, This city was now under the kingdom of Judah, to which it was added by Abijah long since, 2Ch 13:19 . Or, secondly, He did this by virtue of that ancient right which David and his posterity had to the kingdom of Israel, which though suspended for a time by God’ s grant of the ten tribes to Jeroboam, and the succeeding kings of Israel; yet these being all extinct, it might seem to return to him, at least so far as to pluck up idolatry out of the land of Israel, as he had opportunity, and especially out of those parts of it which bordered upon Judah. Or, thirdly, The king of Babylon having engaged in a war with the Assyrian, Hezekiah’ s great enemy, and having thereupon occasion for Hezekiah’ s friendship, did (as some suppose) enlarge his dominion, and give him some power over the kingdom of Israel, at least as to matters of religion; which may seem not improbable from 2Ch 30:1-6 . And the same power seems to have been continued, and some kind of league made, between the king of Babylon and Manasseh, (who thereupon was restored to his kingdom, 2Ch 33:13 ) and after him Josiah, who therefore was so zealous in his quarrel against the king of Egypt, 2Ch 35:20 , &c. Or, fourthly, He did it in pursuance of God’ s prediction concerning this action, 1Ki 13:2 , which (in a matter so good, and so agreeable to God’ s will and word, as the extirpation of idolatry unquestionably was) had the force of a warrant or command upon him to do it, as God’ s prediction of the conversion of the Gentiles by the Messias was a command to his apostles to preach to them, Act 13:47 .

The high place which seems to have been some little temple or house erected for that worship, or for the priests attending upon it.

Poole: 2Ki 23:16 - As Josiah turned himself As Josiah turned himself: Josiah’ s care and zeal was so great, that he would not trust his officers with these things, but would see them done ...

As Josiah turned himself: Josiah’ s care and zeal was so great, that he would not trust his officers with these things, but would see them done with his own eyes. Which the man of God proclaimed three hundred years before it was done.

Poole: 2Ki 23:17 - What title is that that I see? What title is that that I see? It was the manner then, as now it is, to set up little pillars or stones by or upon the graves of the higher sort of m...

What title is that that I see? It was the manner then, as now it is, to set up little pillars or stones by or upon the graves of the higher sort of men, upon which the name of the person, and some remarkable passages relating to him, were engraven.

Poole: 2Ki 23:18 - Samaria Which were now mixed together. Samaria the place of his birth or former abode, though now he were in Beth-el, 1Ki 13:11 .

Which were now mixed together.

Samaria the place of his birth or former abode, though now he were in Beth-el, 1Ki 13:11 .

Poole: 2Ki 23:19 - -- By what authority he did this, See Poole "2Ki 23:15" .

By what authority he did this, See Poole "2Ki 23:15" .

Poole: 2Ki 23:20 - The priests of the high places // That were there upon the altars The priests of the high places either, 1. The priests which Jeroboam had made of the meanest of the people, whom he slew, both for their presumptuou...

The priests of the high places either,

1. The priests which Jeroboam had made of the meanest of the people, whom he slew, both for their presumptuous usurpation of that sacred office, which of itself was punishable with death by God’ s law, Num 3:10 , and for their idolatry. Or rather,

2. The priests of Baalim; by comparing this verse with the former, where speaking of the same high places, he doth not say, which Jeroboam made, as is usual when he speaks of the high places of the calves; but, which the other kings of Israel made , who were divers of them worshippers of Baal; and by considering the parallel place, 2Ch 34:4 , where it is said, they brake down the altars of Baalim , &c. By this relation it appears, and from the nature of the thing, and common practice in like cases, it is more than probable, that after the departure of the king of Assyria, divers of the Israelites who had retired to other parts, and kept themselves out of the conqueror’ s hands, returned together with their priests to their own land, and to their old trade of worshipping idols; to whom, peradventure, they ascribed this their deliverance from that judgment which Jehovah had brought upon them.

That were there upon the altars according to that famous prophecy, 1Ki 13:1,2 .

Poole: 2Ki 23:21 - Keep the passover // In this book of the covenant Keep the passover: having abolished false worship, he now endeavours to set up the true worship of the true God. In this book of the covenant in th...

Keep the passover: having abolished false worship, he now endeavours to set up the true worship of the true God.

In this book of the covenant in this book which I have found; wherein is contained the covenant made between God and Israel, and the terms of it.

Poole: 2Ki 23:22 - Such a passover // From the days of the judges Such a passover i.e. celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices. 2Ch 35:7-9 , and universal joy of all good men...

Such a passover i.e. celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices. 2Ch 35:7-9 , and universal joy of all good men; which was much the greater, because of their remembrance of the former wicked and miserable times under Manasseh and Amon; and the good hopes they now had of the happy establishment of their nation, and the true religion; and of the prevention of God’ s judgments denounced against them.

From the days of the judges or, from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges, as it is expressed, 2Ch 35:8 . None of the kings had taken such care to prepare themselves, the priests, and people, and accurately to observe all the rites, and diligently to purge out all uncleanness, and to renew their covenant with God, so solemnly as Josiah now did.

Poole: 2Ki 23:24 - The wizards // The images, and the idols // That were spied The wizards of which see on Lev 19:31 20:27 Num 22:5 Deu 18:11 . The images, and the idols and all the abominations; three words noting the same th...

The wizards of which see on Lev 19:31 20:27 Num 22:5 Deu 18:11 .

The images, and the idols and all the abominations; three words noting the same thing, to show that till the instruments and monuments of idolatry were destroyed, as God had commanded.

That were spied i.e. all that were discovered; not only such as were in the place and state of worship, but such as their priests or zealots had removed, and endeavoured to hide and secure.

Poole: 2Ki 23:25 - Like unto him there was no king before him Like unto him there was no king before him to wit, for his diligent study in God’ s law, and his exact care, and unwearied industry, and fervent...

Like unto him there was no king before him to wit, for his diligent study in God’ s law, and his exact care, and unwearied industry, and fervent zeal, in rooting out of idolaters, and all kinds and appearances of idolatry, not only in Judah, but in Israel also; and in the establishment of the true religion in all his dominions, and in the conforming of his own life, and his people’ s too, (as far as he could,) to the holy law of God; though Hezekiah might excel him in some other particulars; of whom therefore the like is said above, 2Ki 18:5 .

Poole: 2Ki 23:26 - The Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great, wrath // Because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal The Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great, wrath because though the king was most hearty in his repentance, and acceptable to God, as we s...

The Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great, wrath because though the king was most hearty in his repentance, and acceptable to God, as we said before, and therefore the judgment was delayed for his time; yet the people were generally corrupt, and secretly averse from Josiah’ s pious and excellent reformation, and inclined to their old lusts and idols; as appears from the complaints of the prophets, especially Jeremiah and Zephaniah, against them; and by the following history, wherein we see that as soon as ever Josiah was gone, his children, and the princes, and the people suddenly and greedily returned to their former abominations.

Because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal: the sins of Manasseh, and of the men of his generation, who complied and concurred with him in his idolatrous and cruel practices, 2Ki 24:3,4 , are justly punished in this generation; partly, because of God’ s sovereign right of punishing sinners (such as these unquestionably were) when and upon what occasion he sees fit; partly, because of that public warning and declaration of God, that he would visit the iniquity of the fathers upon the children; and principally, because these men had never sincerely repented of their own nor of their fathers’ sins, but their hearts still hankered after them; which, though not yet seen by men, was manifest to God, who therefore pronounced this terrible sentence against them.

Poole: 2Ki 23:27 - -- To wit, upon the conditions in sundry places expressed, which they broke, and therefore God justly made them to know his breach of promise, as he th...

To wit, upon the conditions in sundry places expressed, which they broke, and therefore God justly made them to know his breach of promise, as he threatens, Num 14:34 .

Poole: 2Ki 23:29 - Pharaoh-nechoh // Josiah went against him Pharaoh-nechoh called Necos by Herodotus, who makes mention of this fight; wherein, as he saith, Necos conquered the Syrians in Magdalo . The kin...

Pharaoh-nechoh called Necos by Herodotus, who makes mention of this fight; wherein, as he saith, Necos conquered the Syrians in Magdalo . The king of Assyria , i.e. the king of Babylon, who having formerly rebelled against the Assyrian his lord, had now conquered him; as appears by the course of the sacred, and the concurrence of profane history; and therefore is here and elsewhere called the Assyrian , and the king of Assyria , because now he was the head of that empire. To the river Euphrates , i.e. against Carchemish by Euphrates , as it is expressed, 2Ch 35:20 , which the Assyrian had taken from the Syrians, Isa 10:9 , Pharaoh’ s confederates, who therefore sendeth forces against the Assyrian, that he might both help them, and secure himself.

Josiah went against him either to defend his own country from Pharaoh’ s incursions; or to assist the king of Babylon, with whom he seems to have been in league, as was noted before. He slew him , i.e. gave him his death’ s wound there, though he died not till he came to Jerusalem, 2Ch 35:23,24 . When he had seen him , i.e. when he fought with him, or in the first onset. Thus fighting is called a looking in the face , 2Ki 14:8 .

Poole: 2Ki 23:30 - Dead // Jehoahaz the son of Josiah // Anointed him Dead i.e. mortally wounded, as in the former verse; and as we commonly say of a sick man past hopes of recovery, that he is a dead man: compare Gen 2...

Dead i.e. mortally wounded, as in the former verse; and as we commonly say of a sick man past hopes of recovery, that he is a dead man: compare Gen 20:3 .

Jehoahaz the son of Josiah who was younger than Jehoiakim, by comparing 2Ki 23:31 with 2Ki 23:36 , yet preferred by the people before the elder brother; either because Jehoiakim refused the kingdom for fear of Pharaoh, whom he knew he should hereby provoke; or because Jehoahaz was the more stout and warlike prince; whence he is called a lion, Eze 19:3 , though indeed he showed his courage more against his people than his enemies; but they judged that he was most able and willing to defend them against the conquering army.

Anointed him as they used to do in such extraordinary cases, because this was a troublesome time, and he was not the right heir to the crown, and therefore needed this solemn rite of confirmation, which Solomon had in the same circumstances.

Poole: 2Ki 23:32 - -- i.e. His grandparents, Manasseh and Amon. He restored that idolatry which his father had destroyed, partly to gratify the generality of the people, ...

i.e. His grandparents, Manasseh and Amon. He restored that idolatry which his father had destroyed, partly to gratify the generality of the people, who had made him king, and who were inclined to their old superstitions even in Josiah’ s time, as was observed before, though restrained from the outward acts by fear; and partly to sweeten the king of Egypt, who possibly was a zealous idolater, by his compliance with him in the worship of idols.

Poole: 2Ki 23:33 - Pharaoh-nechoh put him in bands // Riblah // That he might not reign // in the beginning of his reign // A tribute Pharaoh-nechoh put him in bands either because he presumed to take the kingdom without his leave and consent; or because he renewed the war against P...

Pharaoh-nechoh put him in bands either because he presumed to take the kingdom without his leave and consent; or because he renewed the war against Pharaoh, as some affirm, and by him was conquered and taken prisoner.

Riblah an eminent city in Syria; of which see Num 34:11 2Ki 25:6 ; where Pharaoh now was to finish or make good his conquests, whither Jehoahaz was carried to receive his sentence.

That he might not reign or, because he had reigned , i.e. taken the kingdom without right, and without his leave. Or, according to the other reading,

in the beginning of his reign the word reigning being commonly used for beginning to reign ; when he was scarce warm in his throne.

A tribute to wit, a yearly tribute, whereby they should acknowledge him to be their superior; and for which he would be their protector when they needed his help.

Poole: 2Ki 23:34 - Eliakim the son of Josiah // Turned his name to Jehoiakim // Took Jehoahaz away Eliakim the son of Josiah whom he perceived to be of a more mild and peaceable disposition. Turned his name to Jehoiakim because the giving of name...

Eliakim the son of Josiah whom he perceived to be of a more mild and peaceable disposition.

Turned his name to Jehoiakim because the giving of names was accounted an act and sign of dominion; which therefore parents did to their children, and conquerors to their vassals or tributaries. Compare 2Ki 24:17 Dan 1:7 .

Took Jehoahaz away partly as a punishment for him, and partly that he might give no disturbance to his brother.

Poole: 2Ki 23:36 - When he began to reign When he began to reign either, 1. When he began to reign alone, and with full power, or after Jehoahaz’ s death; till which the people would no...

When he began to reign either,

1. When he began to reign alone, and with full power, or after Jehoahaz’ s death; till which the people would not disown him whom they had anointed king, which was esteemed a great tie, 2Sa 19:10 ; nor own or accept Jehoiakim as their king, but only as his brother’ s viceroy, though Pharaoh had by violence forced him upon them. And so Jehoahaz might be his elder brother, and the same who is called Johanan , and is first mentioned, as the eldest son, 1Ch 3:15 , though he may be placed first not in regard of his birth, but of his dignity, the crown being first put upon his head. Or,

2. When he was first set up by Pharaoh; and so this was the elder brother, though by popular violence put by his right: See Poole "2Ki 23:30" .

Poole: 2Ki 23:37 - -- By idolatry, the oppression of his people, and the persecution of the prophets, and other good men, Jer 26:21 Eze 19:5-7 .

By idolatry, the oppression of his people, and the persecution of the prophets, and other good men, Jer 26:21 Eze 19:5-7 .

Haydock: 2Ki 23:1 - Slew Slew. Most of the Israelites who had been left, (Haydock) embraced the true religion, after the captivity of their brethren, (Calmet) and adhered to...

Slew. Most of the Israelites who had been left, (Haydock) embraced the true religion, after the captivity of their brethren, (Calmet) and adhered to the kings of Juda, (ver. 15.; Haydock) who had taken possession of the whole country (Du Hamel) after the fall of the Assyrian empire; (Tirinus) unless the emperors of Chaldea had given it to them as to their vassels. See ver. 29. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:2 - Prophets // He read Prophets. Chaldean, "scribes." But there were many prophets at this time, who were ordered to come and renew the covenant with God. --- He read, ...

Prophets. Chaldean, "scribes." But there were many prophets at this time, who were ordered to come and renew the covenant with God. ---

He read, in person, acting as a mediator, in imitation of Moses, Josue, Samuel, Joiada, and Ezechias. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:3 - The step // To the covenant The step. His tribune or tribunal, a more eminent place, from whence he might be seen and heard by the people. (Challoner) --- This brazen tribune...

The step. His tribune or tribunal, a more eminent place, from whence he might be seen and heard by the people. (Challoner) ---

This brazen tribune is described [in] chap. xi. 14., and 2 Paralipomenon vi. 12. ---

To the covenant, but with much less exactitude than the king. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:4 - Order // Baal // The grove // Cedron // Bethel Order, who presided over the 24 classes of inferior priests. (Menochius) --- Jonathas understands it of those who supplied the place of the high pr...

Order, who presided over the 24 classes of inferior priests. (Menochius) ---

Jonathas understands it of those who supplied the place of the high priest when he could not attend. (Grotius) ---

Baal, the sun: (Calmet) in Hebrew, "for." ---

The grove, Astarte, or the moon. (Haydock) ---

Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed. Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch. See 3 Kings xv. 13., and 2 Paralipomenon xxix. 16., and xxx. 14. ---

Bethel, out of contempt for the golden calf, (Haydock) and to remove those impurities to a greater distance. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:5 - Soothsayers // Baal Soothsayers. Protestants, "the idolatrous priests." Grotius thinks that camilli, or "ministers of the gods," (Serv.[Servius?] and Varro. vi.) may b...

Soothsayers. Protestants, "the idolatrous priests." Grotius thinks that camilli, or "ministers of the gods," (Serv.[Servius?] and Varro. vi.) may be derived from the Hebrew hacemarim, "the black-vested," or cryers. The Rabbins give this title in derision to the religious of the Christian Church. There were some melanophori, or people "in black," who honoured Isis, or the moon, by this dress; as if to condole with her on the absence of the sun. Plutarch Apuleius describes a shining black veil, which was carried in the procession of her statue. ---

Baal. Hebrew, "to Baal the son;" (Calmet) or rather, "to Baal, to the son." (Haydock) ---

The Hebrew mazatoth, (Calmet) Septuagint Mazouroth (Haydock) is not better understood. St. Jerome translates signs of the zodiac; others have, influences, planets, Lucifer, Venus, &c. Job (xxxviii. 32.) designates some stars by the name of Mozruth, and Mozrim. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:6 - Grove // People Grove. The idol of Astarte, or the representation of a grove in sculpture. (Haydock) --- People, who were not rich enough to have a sepulchre. J...

Grove. The idol of Astarte, or the representation of a grove in sculpture. (Haydock) ---

People, who were not rich enough to have a sepulchre. Jeremias (xix. 11.) threatens the people of Jerusalem with such a burial. (Calmet) ---

The common people here means the idolaters, 2 Paralipomenon xxxiv. 4. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:7 - Effeminate // For Effeminate. Hebrew, "consecrated" (Calmet) or "initiated" (Montanus) in the obscene mysteries of idols. See Deuteronomy xxiii. 18., and 3 Kings xv....

Effeminate. Hebrew, "consecrated" (Calmet) or "initiated" (Montanus) in the obscene mysteries of idols. See Deuteronomy xxiii. 18., and 3 Kings xv. 12., and 2 Machabees vi. 4. These men prostituted themselves (Menochius) even in that sacred place. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "he broke down the houses of the Sodomites, that were by the house of the Lord, where the women wove hangings for the grove." These hangings, tents, or dwellings, (Haydock) were destined for the idol; (Syriac, &c.) or they were intended to hid the abominations which were committed. They were called "tents of the daughters," chap. xvii. 30. (Calmet) ---

For. Literally, "of the grove:" luci. But the other translation is conformable to the Septuagint. (Vatable, &c.) (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:8 - Bersabee // Altars // City Bersabee; to which the Israelites went in pilgrimages, Amos v. 5. This place was situated at the southern extremity of the dominions of Juda, as Gab...

Bersabee; to which the Israelites went in pilgrimages, Amos v. 5. This place was situated at the southern extremity of the dominions of Juda, as Gabaa was at the northern. The priests being unable to offer sacrifice in the temple, and desirous to gain a livelihood, had been so weak as to conform to the illegal practices of the country; though they seem to have intended to worship God, Deuteronomy xii. 11. ---

Altars. These might also be consecrated to the true God, but they were forbidden. There were others, placed in similar situations, in honour of Trivia, or the moon, Isaias lvii. 8., and lxv. 11. (Calmet) ---

City, to a person entering. (Chaldean) Josue was the chief lay-judge, or magistrate. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:9 - Brethren Brethren. Thus people are degraded in the Christian Church, that they may suffer some confusion (Calmet) in this world, and repent. (Haydock) --- ...

Brethren. Thus people are degraded in the Christian Church, that they may suffer some confusion (Calmet) in this world, and repent. (Haydock) ---

The priests, who had offered sacrifice unlawfully, where only permitted to perform the minor offices; but provision was made for their support, that they might not be tempted to relapse, Leviticus xxi. 17, 22., and Ezechiel xliv. 10. (Calmet) ---

They were reduced to the rank of Levites. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:10 - Defiled // Topheth Defiled, or declared it unlawful. (Menochius) --- Topheth may signify "a drum;" which the Jews say the idolaters beat, to prevent their childrens'...

Defiled, or declared it unlawful. (Menochius) ---

Topheth may signify "a drum;" which the Jews say the idolaters beat, to prevent their childrens' cries from being heard, when they were burning in the arms of Moloch. St. Jerome interprets it "latitude," as the vale was very wide, and beautifully adorned with gardens and springs. It formed a part of the vale of Josaphat and of Cedron; (Calmet) or the same valley went by these different names, as well as (Haydock) by that of Geh-hinnon, "the vale of Ennom," whence Gehenna is formed, and applied to hell, Matthew v. 22., and Mark ix. 44., &c. (Calmet) ---

Yet some think that the term denotes a place of torment on earth, which those deserve who say, thou fool. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:11 - Nathan-melech // Pharurim // Chariots // Ne detur celeri victima tarda Deo Nathan-melech. Septuagint, "to the treasury (room.; Pagnin) of Nathan, the king's eunuch," or chamberlain. (Haydock) --- Pharurim, "the suburbs."...

Nathan-melech. Septuagint, "to the treasury (room.; Pagnin) of Nathan, the king's eunuch," or chamberlain. (Haydock) ---

Pharurim, "the suburbs." (Vatable) (Menochius) (Chaldean) ---

It perhaps denotes the guard-house. See 1 Paralipomenon xxvi. 18. ---

Chariots. The aforesaid horses were designed to draw them in honour of the sun. Some nations used to ride in this manner with all expedition, at its rising; and the Rabbins pretend that the king, or some other by his order, had been accustomed to ride from the eastern gate of the temple to the house of the governor, Nathan-melech. The horse was consecrated to the sun, on account of its agility. Placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum,

Ne detur celeri victima tarda Deo. (Ovid, Fast. i.)

The Persians sacrificed the horse to the sun, that a slow victim may not be offered to the swift deity. The sun gives vigour to the whole material system, as the instrumental cause in the hand of God; and horses perceive the influence, more particularly in the warmer climates, and exult in their strength, Job xxxix. 21. (Haydock) ---

Perhaps these horses had been destined for sacrifice by the infidel kings of Juda, as well as the chariots. (Calmet) ---

The Rhodeans threw some into the sea every year. (Festus.) ---

Others think that what Josias took away, was only engraved, or, that the horses had been set at liberty for superstitious observations, as was customary among the pagans. (Tacitus, Mor. Germ.) (Suetonius, in Julio)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:12 - Upper chamber // Ran Upper chamber, to be nearer the host of heaven, which they adored. (Haydock) --- We are assured that the Arabs also adored the sun, and offered i...

Upper chamber, to be nearer the host of heaven, which they adored. (Haydock) ---

We are assured that the Arabs also adored the sun, and offered incense to it on the tops of their houses. The prophets often upbraid the people with this practice, Jeremias xix. 13., and Sophonias i. 5. (Calmet) ---

It is wonderful that Ezechias had not before removed these remnants of his father's infidelity; and still more that Manasses, after his repentance, had not destroyed what he had unlawfully erected in the courts of the priests and of the people. But Amon might have restored them. ---

Ran. This shews the zeal of the king. Hebrew and Septuagint, "and thence he broke or tore them."

Haydock: 2Ki 23:13 - Offence // Idol Offence; Olivet. (Haydock) --- In the original, the terms are very much alike; and the Jews take a pleasure in deforming names, for which they had ...

Offence; Olivet. (Haydock) ---

In the original, the terms are very much alike; and the Jews take a pleasure in deforming names, for which they had a horror. Solomon had erected temples here to various idols, (3 Kings xi. 7.) which had probably been demolished by Ezechias, but had been rebuilt under Amon, &c., and subsisted during the minority of Josias; (Calmet) or they had been neglected by the pious kings of Juda, as no longer dangerous. But Josias, in the fervour of his zeal, thought proper to remove every thing that had been the occasion of offence: Hebrew, "of corruption." ---

Idol, and scandal, and abomination, are the same in Hebrew.

Haydock: 2Ki 23:14 - Statues // Dead Statues is more proper than the Protestant "images," which would rather be torn. --- Dead is not expressed in the Hebrew or Septuagint, but must be...

Statues is more proper than the Protestant "images," which would rather be torn. ---

Dead is not expressed in the Hebrew or Septuagint, but must be understood. (Haydock) ---

The pagans had the same idea of their impurity: incestat funere classem. (Virgil, Æneid vi.)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:15 - Bethel Bethel had perhaps fallen into the hands of Juda, after the Israelites had been led away. (Calmet) --- Josias exercised the like authority througho...

Bethel had perhaps fallen into the hands of Juda, after the Israelites had been led away. (Calmet) ---

Josias exercised the like authority throughout all Samaria, (ver. 19.) as the country properly belonged to the house of David, and was God's peculiar inheritance. (Haydock) ---

We may, therefore conclude that He authorized Josias to act in this manner; and the new inhabitants had no interest in maintaining the superstition of those who had lived there before them. The priest sent by Asarhaddon, had taken up his residence at Bethel; whence it is inferred that the town, at that time, was in the hands of the Samaritans, (Calmet) as it might be still, though Josias might exercise dominion in it as lord paramount. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:16 - Spoke Spoke. Septuagint subjoin some words, which seem to be lost in the original: ["when Jeroboam was standing, on the festival day, upon the altar. And...

Spoke. Septuagint subjoin some words, which seem to be lost in the original: ["when Jeroboam was standing, on the festival day, upon the altar. And turning, he lifted up his eyes towards the tomb of the man of God,] who spoke these words." (Haydock) ---

"The copies, from which this version was made, read differently from the modern copies," and often better. (Kennicott, diss. ii. p. 335.)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:17 - Monument // Thou Monument. Hebrew tsiun, "an eminence" of "dry" earth, (Ezechiel xxxix. 15.) heaped upon a corpse; whence the Latin tumulus. (Servius) (Calmet)...

Monument. Hebrew tsiun, "an eminence" of "dry" earth, (Ezechiel xxxix. 15.) heaped upon a corpse; whence the Latin tumulus. (Servius) (Calmet) ---

It seems some inscription was still to be seen on the tomb. (Menochius) ---

Thou, &c. Septuagint, "which he proclaimed against the altar." (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:18 - Samaria Samaria. It seems this word has been inserted instead of Juda, as it is certain the prophet came thence, ver. 17., and 3 Kings xiii. 32. (Calmet) -...

Samaria. It seems this word has been inserted instead of Juda, as it is certain the prophet came thence, ver. 17., and 3 Kings xiii. 32. (Calmet) ---

But thus both prophets would be identified. It would rather appear that the seducing prophet, who resided at Bethel, is here said to have come out of Samaria, though that place was not raised to the dignity of a royal city (Haydock) till 50 years afterwards. (Calmet) ---

There might be a town there long before; and, at any rate, he belonged to the kingdom to Jeroboam, or of Samaria. (Haydock) ---

His faith in the prophet's prediction was, perhaps, thus rewarded, (Menochius) as his bones were left unmolested, on account of their being buried in the same sepulchre with the man of God. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:21 - Covenant Covenant, in Deuteronomy, chap. xxii. 8. (Menochius)

Covenant, in Deuteronomy, chap. xxii. 8. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:22 - No such No such, is all respects. (Haydock) --- The number of paschal lambs was certainly greater when all Israel was assembled; but the other victims pres...

No such, is all respects. (Haydock) ---

The number of paschal lambs was certainly greater when all Israel was assembled; but the other victims presented by the king and his officers during the octave is here noticed, (2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 7.; Menochius) as they are also styled the Phase; (Haydock) and this explains John xviii. 28. (Tirinus) ---

Neither ought we to push these expressions too far, as they only mean, that this solemnity was very great. See ver. 25., and chap. xviii. 5. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:24 - Spirits // Idols // Uncleannesses Spirits. Literally, "the pythons," Deuteronomy xviii. 11., and Numbers xxii. 5. --- Idols. Hebrew Teraphim; Protestants, "images," Genesis xxi....

Spirits. Literally, "the pythons," Deuteronomy xviii. 11., and Numbers xxii. 5. ---

Idols. Hebrew Teraphim; Protestants, "images," Genesis xxi. 19. ---

Uncleannesses. Hebrew, &c., "idols."

Haydock: 2Ki 23:25 - Like him Like him. Every person has some peculiarity, which distinguishes him from every other. (Haydock) --- Thus we say of many saints: There was none f...

Like him. Every person has some peculiarity, which distinguishes him from every other. (Haydock) ---

Thus we say of many saints: There was none found like unto him, Ecclesiasticus xliv. 20. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:26 - Had provoked him Had provoked him. The impiety of this king must have been extreme, since his repentance did not avert the scourge. (Haydock) --- Besides, many of ...

Had provoked him. The impiety of this king must have been extreme, since his repentance did not avert the scourge. (Haydock) ---

Besides, many of the people were corrupt at heart, though they were afraid of shewing it, as we learn from the prophets Jeremias and Sophonias. God therefore withdrew the good Josias, who was their bulwark, that they might feel the effects of his just indignation.

Haydock: 2Ki 23:29 - Nechao // Meet him // Seen him Nechao, six years (Usher, the year of the world 3394.) after he had succeeded his father Psammetichus, with whose ambitious views hew as animated to ...

Nechao, six years (Usher, the year of the world 3394.) after he had succeeded his father Psammetichus, with whose ambitious views hew as animated to attempt the conquest of Asia. (Marsham sæc. 18.) Pharao pretends that God had sent him to attack the Assyrians, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 21. But Josias thought he was only imposing on him, or speaking through fear. The Jews assert that Jeremias also opposed the king's design, 3 Esdras i. 28. (St. Jerome, ad Ctesip.) But this does not appear from the canonical Scripture. (Calmet) ---

Meet him, in order to hinder him from passing through his dominions without leave; as this might prove dangerous. (Haydock) ---

Seen him, and fought. (Menochius) ---

He received a mortal wound at Mageddo, but did at Jerusalem, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 23. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 6.) ---

Mageddo lay to the south of Cison, where Barak had fought before, Judges v. 19. Herodotus (ii. 159.) says, that Nechos gained a victory over the Syrians at Magdolum, and took Cadytis, which is probably Cades, a strong city of Galilee, though some take it to be Jerusalem, as it may be interpreted "the holy city." (Calmet) ---

Mageddo is called Magdala in the Greek, and Magedan in other copies, and in the Vulgate, Matthew xv. 39.

Haydock: 2Ki 23:30 - Sepulchre Sepulchre. Paralipomenon xxxv., in the monument (or mausoleum) of his fathers. Such was the end of Josias: he fell gloriously in defence of his...

Sepulchre. Paralipomenon xxxv., in the monument (or mausoleum) of his fathers. Such was the end of Josias: he fell gloriously in defence of his country, as he had spent his life in promoting religion. God therefore withdrew him from the sight of the miseries which were shortly to fall on his devoted people, chap. xxii. 20. (Haydock) ---

He was a prince of most excellent disposition, and receives the highest encomium, ver. 25., and Ecclesiasticus xlix. 1. Jeremias composed his funeral canticle, which was sung on his anniversary for many years, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 24. The mourning for this pious king became proverbial, and resembled that which should be made for the Messias, Zacharias xii. 11. The life and death of Josias prefigured those of Jesus Christ; who should be long expected as the restorer of the true religion, the teacher of a more excellent law, and the most innocent victim for the sins of the people. The glorious Phase under Josias, was but a faint representation of the eucharistic sacrifice. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:31 - Old Old. Eliacim his brother was 25. (Haydock) --- Perhaps Joachaz was esteemed more by the people, as fitter to defend them against the king of Egypt...

Old. Eliacim his brother was 25. (Haydock) ---

Perhaps Joachaz was esteemed more by the people, as fitter to defend them against the king of Egypt, who had proceeded on his journey to attack Charchamis on the Euphrates. (Calmet) ---

Having placed a garrison in it, he was met by Joachaz, and gained a victory over him at Rebla, (Haydock) as Sanctius gathers from Ezechiel xix. 4. Hence he treated the captive king with such severity, and sent him into Egypt to die in chains, Jeremias xxii. 11. Joachaz is called Sellum (in Jeremias) and Jechonias, 3 Esdras i. 34. (Calemt) ---

He was a lion only against his own subjects. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:33 - Rebla Rebla. Syriac and Arabic, "Deblat;" probably (Calmet) Apamea on the Orontes. (Chaldean, on Numbers xxxiv. 11.)

Rebla. Syriac and Arabic, "Deblat;" probably (Calmet) Apamea on the Orontes. (Chaldean, on Numbers xxxiv. 11.)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:34 - Joakim Joakim. Thus he asserted his dominion over him, as Nabuchodonosor did afterwards over Matthanias, chap. xxiv. 17., and Daniel i. 6. (Calmet) --- E...

Joakim. Thus he asserted his dominion over him, as Nabuchodonosor did afterwards over Matthanias, chap. xxiv. 17., and Daniel i. 6. (Calmet) ---

Eliacim means nearly the same as Joakim, "the Lord's strength," or "appointment." (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:36 - Old Old, of course Josias had him at 15. Some suspect we ought to read 15 here. (Du Hamel)

Old, of course Josias had him at 15. Some suspect we ought to read 15 here. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: 2Ki 23:37 - Fathers Fathers, or ancestors, not his immediate father Josias, ver. 32. (Haydock) --- Joakim chose to imitate the wicked, and was not deterred by the chas...

Fathers, or ancestors, not his immediate father Josias, ver. 32. (Haydock) ---

Joakim chose to imitate the wicked, and was not deterred by the chastisement of his brother. (Calmet) ---

His character was marked with avarice and cruelty. He slew the prophet Urias, Jeremias xxii. 13., and xxvi 23. (Haydock) ---

St. Matthew (i. 11.) calls him Jechonias, (Menochius) 1 Paralipomenon iii. 15.

Gill: 2Ki 23:1 - And the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem. And the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem. Josiah sent messengers throughout the land, and convened all t...

And the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem. Josiah sent messengers throughout the land, and convened all the principal men in it at Jerusalem.

Gill: 2Ki 23:2 - And the king went up into the house of the Lord // and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him // and the priests, and the prophets // and all the people, both small and great // and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the Lord And the king went up into the house of the Lord,.... To the temple, from his palace: and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem ...

And the king went up into the house of the Lord,.... To the temple, from his palace:

and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him: they met him there:

and the priests, and the prophets; the prophets Jeremiah, Zephaniah, and Uriah, who, though they might not be at Jerusalem when the book of the law was found, yet, upon this message of the king's, might come up thither from the countries where they were; the Targum interprets the word "scribes": and some take them to be the sons of the prophets, their disciples; in 2Ch 34:30 they are called Levites:

and all the people, both small and great; a very numerous assembly:

and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the Lord: that is, he caused it to be read by others, and perhaps by more than one, the congregation being so large.

Gill: 2Ki 23:3 - And the king stood by a pillar // and made a covenant before the Lord // to walk after the Lord // and to keep his commandments, and his testimonies, and his statutes // with all their heart, and all their soul // to perform the words of the covenant that were written in this book // and all the people stood to the covenant And the king stood by a pillar,.... As the manner of kings was, 2Ki 11:14 and is thought to be the brasen scaffold erected by Solomon, on which he sto...

And the king stood by a pillar,.... As the manner of kings was, 2Ki 11:14 and is thought to be the brasen scaffold erected by Solomon, on which he stood at the dedication of the temple, and now Josiah at the reading of the law, 2Ch 6:13, it is said to be his place, 2Ch 34:31; see Gill on 2Ki 11:14.

and made a covenant before the Lord: agreed and promised in the presence of God, both he and his people:

to walk after the Lord: the worship of the Lord, as the Targum; closely to attend to that:

and to keep his commandments, and his testimonies, and his statutes: all the laws of God, moral, civil, and ceremonial:

with all their heart, and all their soul: cordially and sincerely:

to perform the words of the covenant that were written in this book: lately found, and now read unto them:

and all the people stood to the covenant: agreed to it, and promised to keep it; so the Targum,"all the people took upon them the covenant,''engaged to observe it.

Gill: 2Ki 23:4 - And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order // and the keepers of the door // to bring forth out of the temple of the Lord all the vessels that were made for Baal // and for the grove // and for all the host of heaven // and he burnt them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron // and carried the ashes of them unto Bethel And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order,.... Or the second course of the priests; the course of Jedaiah, 1...

And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order,.... Or the second course of the priests; the course of Jedaiah, 1Ch 24:7 as some think; or rather, the two chief priests next to the high priest, who were of the line both of Eleazar and Ithamar; though the Targum interprets it of the Sagan of the priests, a deputy of the high priest, such as in later times the high priest had always appointed for him on the day of atonement r:

and the keepers of the door: the porters at the door and gates of the temple; or rather the treasurers, as the Targum; such as were appointed over the vessels of the sanctuary, as the Jewish writers generally interpret it, and which best agrees with what follows:

to bring forth out of the temple of the Lord all the vessels that were made for Baal: used in burning incense, or offering sacrifices to him:

and for the grove: the idol of the grove, or Asherah, that is, Ashtoreth, or Astarte, the same with Venus, or the moon, as Baal was the sun, the one the husband, and the other the wife, according to the Jews s:

and for all the host of heaven: the stars:

and he burnt them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron; or plain of Kidron, as the Targum; through which the brook Kidron ran:

and carried the ashes of them unto Bethel; where one of Jeroboam's calves was set, and was the source of idolatry; and this he did in contempt of that place; and, to show his detestation of the idolatry there, he made it a dunghill of ashes of things used in idolatrous service; this he could do, that place being in the hands of the kings of Judah from the times of Ahijah, 2Ch 13:19.

Gill: 2Ki 23:5 - And he put down the idolatrous priests // whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places, in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem // them also that burnt incense unto Baal // to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets // and to all the host of heaven // burning incense And he put down the idolatrous priests,.... The Cemarim, so called, because they wore black clothes, as Kimchi and others, whereas the priests of the ...

And he put down the idolatrous priests,.... The Cemarim, so called, because they wore black clothes, as Kimchi and others, whereas the priests of the Lord were clothed in white linen; see Gill on Zep 1:4.

whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places, in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; for though those high places were destroyed by Hezekiah, they were rebuilt by Manasseh his son, and priests put in them to officiate there, whom Josiah now deposed, 2Ki 21:3,

them also that burnt incense unto Baal; in the same high places; these were the priests, and the others in the preceding clause are thought to be ministers unto them:

to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets; the five planets besides the sun and moon, as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, and Venus; or to the twelve celestial signs in the firmament, as some t; though Theodoret takes it to be a single star, the evening star:

and to all the host of heaven; or even to the host of heaven, all the stars thereof: this part of worship:

burning incense, which was peculiar to the most high God, yet was frequently made by idolaters to their deities; and from the word u by which it is here and elsewhere expressed may "nectar" be derived, so much spoken of by the Heathen poets as of a sweet smell w, and as delicious to their gods; and so Porphyry x represents the gods as living on smoke, vapours, and perfumes; and frankincense is said, by Diodorus Siculus y, to be most grateful to them, and beloved by them; this therefore is a much better derivation of the word "nectar" than what Suidas z gives, that is, as if it was "nectar", because it makes those young that drink it; or than the account Athenaeus a gives of it, that it is a wine in Babylon so called.

Gill: 2Ki 23:6 - And he brought out the grove from the house of the Lord // without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burnt it at the brook Kidron // and stamped it small to powder // and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the children of the people And he brought out the grove from the house of the Lord,.... Not a real grove of trees, but a carved one, as some think; or rather the image of the gr...

And he brought out the grove from the house of the Lord,.... Not a real grove of trees, but a carved one, as some think; or rather the image of the grove, 2Ki 21:7 that is, the idol Ashtoreth, or Astarte, which was set up there; so Theodoret says; some interpreters call it Astoreth, the name of Venus, whom they call Astarte: this Josiah ordered to be brought

without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burnt it at the brook Kidron; the black brook, where the filth of the sacrifices was carried:

and stamped it small to powder; as Moses did the golden calf:

and cast the powder thereof upon the graves of the children of the people; the common people, see Jer 26:23 or rather on the graves of the worshippers of idols, as it seems from 2Ch 34:4 the Targum is,"on the graves of the children of Galia,''which, Kimchi says, is the name of an idol; this was done partly in contempt of the idol, groves being, according to law, impure; and partly to the reproach of the deceased, and the memory of them, for their idolatry, and to deter from it those that survived them.

Gill: 2Ki 23:7 - And he brake down the houses of the Sodomites that were by the house of the Lord // where the women wove hangings for the grove And he brake down the houses of the Sodomites that were by the house of the Lord,.... Near the temple were apartments, in which men, the worshippers o...

And he brake down the houses of the Sodomites that were by the house of the Lord,.... Near the temple were apartments, in which men, the worshippers of idols, prostituted their bodies to each other; committing that unnatural sin with one another, which has its name from Sodom, and from which those are so called, and which sin they committed in honour of the idols they worshipped; to such vile affections were they, in a judicial manner, delivered up, because of their idolatry; see Rom 1:27 the word signifies "Holy Ones", they being called so by an antiphrasis; though Abarbinel thinks these were the idolatrous priests, whom the worshippers of idols reckoned "holy", and so built houses for them near the temple to lodge in; the Targum is,"and broke down the houses of things consecrated to idols,''where they were put; and Theodoret on the place observes, that by an homonymy, they called the demons or idols themselves "Holy Ones"; and it is not likely, indeed, that the Sodomites should be

where the women wove hangings for the grove; that is, for Astarte, as the same writer observes: or "curtains", as the Jewish writers generally interpret it, in which either the idol was enclosed, or these made apartments for the idolaters to commit their abominable wickedness privately; though the Syriac and Arabic versions are,"they wove garments for the idols that were there;''and so the Septuagint version, of the Complutensian edition; that is, they wove garments for the goddess Astarte, which they dressed her with: the word signifies "houses", and may mean the shrines of the idol made of woven work.

Gill: 2Ki 23:8 - And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah // and defiled the high places where the priests had burnt incense // from Geba to Beersheba // and brake down the high places of the gates // which were in the entering in of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on a man's left hand at the gate of the city And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah,.... Who were of the sons of Aaron, and had served in the high places there: and defiled ...

And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah,.... Who were of the sons of Aaron, and had served in the high places there:

and defiled the high places where the priests had burnt incense; by casting dead carcasses, or the bones of dead men, or dung, or anything that was unclean, into them, by way of contempt:

from Geba to Beersheba; which were the northern and southern boundaries of the land of Judah:

and brake down the high places of the gates: of the cities where some think tutelar gods were placed to be worshipped by persons as they went in or out of them: and particularly that

which were in the entering in of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on a man's left hand at the gate of the city; of the city of Jerusalem, where this Joshua was chief magistrate under the king; at whose door stood an high place, which, Kimchi thinks, might he greater than the rest, and therefore mentioned alone, yet was not spared on account of its greatness, or of the person to whom it belonged.

Gill: 2Ki 23:9 - Nevertheless, the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the Lord at Jerusalem // but they did eat of the unleavened bread with their brethren Nevertheless, the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the Lord at Jerusalem,.... To sacrifice there, as the Targum; though they wer...

Nevertheless, the priests of the high places came not up to the altar of the Lord at Jerusalem,.... To sacrifice there, as the Targum; though they were removed from the high places, they were not admitted to officiate at the altar of the Lord, having offered in forbidden places:

but they did eat of the unleavened bread with their brethren; the priests that were pure, as the sons of Zadok; though they might not offer sacrifices, they were allowed to partake of the holy things with the priests, as the meat offerings made of flour unleavened, Lev 2:4 which are here meant, and put for all the rest on which the priests lived, see Eze 44:10.

Gill: 2Ki 23:10 - And he defiled Topheth // which is the valley of the children of Hinnom // that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech And he defiled Topheth,.... A place so called, as is generally thought, from the beating of drums or timbrels in it, that the shrieks of the infants s...

And he defiled Topheth,.... A place so called, as is generally thought, from the beating of drums or timbrels in it, that the shrieks of the infants sacrificed here to Molech might not be heard by their parents, and they repent of delivering them to him, and take them away. So the Indians in India now, at the burning of wives with their deceased husbands, attend them with drums and trumpets; and at such time as the fire is put to the wood, the drums and trumpets make a terrible noise for fear their cries should be heard b; See Gill on Isa 30:33, Jer 7:31 this he defiled by casting any sort of filth or unclean thing into it, in contempt of the idolatry there committed, and to alienate the minds of men from it:

which is the valley of the children of Hinnom; a valley that belonged to the posterity of a man of this name, near to Jerusalem, see Jos 15:8, hence the Greek word "geenna" for hell, in the New Testament:

that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech; which piece of idolatry used to be committed in this place.

Gill: 2Ki 23:11 - And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun // at the entering of the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathanmelech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs // and burnt the chariots of the sun with fire And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun,.... Consecrated to it; these were not images of horses, as some have thought...

And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun,.... Consecrated to it; these were not images of horses, as some have thought, but real living ones; and the kings that gave them for the service of the sun, and for sacrifice to it, very probably were Manasseh and Amon: that horses were sacred to the sun with many Heathen nations, as the Massagetae, a people in Scythia, and the Persians, and Babylonians, and Ethiopians, is affirmed by various writers c: and from them the Jews received this notion. According to the Jewish commentators, these were horses provided for the worshippers of the sun to ride upon, and meet the sun in the morning at its rising, and pay their homage to it; but certain it is that the Heathen nations before mentioned slew the horses, and sacrificed them as burnt offerings to the sun, as is asserted by Herodotus d, Xenophon e, Strabo f, Pausanias g, Philostratus h, and other writers i; and so the Indians of India k sacrificed them to Apollo, the same with the sun; these being the swiftest of creatures, they offered them to the swiftest of their gods, as Herodotus and Heliodorus observe, in the places before referred to. The stables in which these horses were kept were

at the entering of the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathanmelech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs; so that they reached from the temple to the suburbs of Jerusalem, to that part of them where this officer had a chamber, or lodgings, being in some place of power and authority there; though, according to L'Empereur l, it is the same with Parbar, 1Ch 26:18 and should not be rendered "suburbs", it being between the compass or wall of the temple, and the court:

and burnt the chariots of the sun with fire; these were either chariots, in which the king and his nobles rode, when they went to meet and worship the rising sun; or rather such as were sacred to the sun, as well as the horses, or Josiah would not have burnt them; they seem to be such in which the images of the sun were carried. Herodotus m makes mention as of sacred horses, so of a sacred chariot. Xenophon n speaks of the chariot of the sun as being of a white colour, and drawn in procession at the worship of the sun; as does also Pausanias o of a chariot, in which were the sun, Jupiter, and Juno, and near them other deities; which notion of sacred chariots the Heathens might take from the chariot of the cherubim Jehovah sat and rode in, 1Ch 28:18.

Gill: 2Ki 23:12 - And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made // and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the Lord // did the king beat down // and brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made,.... Which were on the roof of the royal palace; t...

And the altars that were on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made,.... Which were on the roof of the royal palace; the roofs of houses in Judah being flat, Deu 21:8 altars might be built upon them; so, in Arabia, altars were built on the tops of houses to offer incense thereon daily to the sun p; as here by Manasseh and Amon very probably, which might be chosen because nearer the heavens; for which reason the Heathens made use of high places to worship in, see Jer 19:13.

and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the Lord; 2Ki 21:5.

did the king beat down; ordered to be demolished:

and brake them down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron; that there might be no remains of them to be put to any superstitious use.

Gill: 2Ki 23:13 - And the high places that were before Jerusalem // which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption // which Solomon king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon // did the king defile And the high places that were before Jerusalem,.... Not only that were within the city, and at the gates of it, but what were without it: which wer...

And the high places that were before Jerusalem,.... Not only that were within the city, and at the gates of it, but what were without it:

which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption: the mount of Olives, so called from the idolatry and corrupt worship performed in it, by way of reproach, with a small alteration of the letters of the word משחית for משחה; at the right hand, or south of this mountain, as the Targum; though others say q, on the north side of the mount of Olives, four furlongs or half a mile from Jerusalem, were high places:

which Solomon king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon; of which See Gill on 1Ki 11:5, 1Ki 11:7.

did the king defile; by casting unclean things into them. Rauwolff r says,"before Mount Zion toward the south, at the other side of the rivulet Kidron, lies the mount of transgression, called Mashith, 2Ki 23:13, this is higher and steeper than any hereabout; there you still see some old walls of habitations, wherein the concubines of Solomon did live;''and Mr. Maundrell s observes, that below the hill stands now a village called Siloe, where it is said he kept them.

Gill: 2Ki 23:14 - And he brake in pieces the images // and cut down the groves // and filled their places with the bones of men And he brake in pieces the images,.... Of Ashtoreth, Chemosh, and Milcom, in the above high places; which as these high places had been rebuilt by Man...

And he brake in pieces the images,.... Of Ashtoreth, Chemosh, and Milcom, in the above high places; which as these high places had been rebuilt by Manasseh or Amon, so new images of these deities were placed there:

and cut down the groves; in which they were set:

and filled their places with the bones of men; of idolatrous priests and worshippers, buried in parts adjacent; these he dug up and scattered in the high places and groves to defile them, bones of the dead being by law unclean, Num 19:15.

Gill: 2Ki 23:15 - Moreover, the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made. // both that altar, and the high place, he brake down // and burnt the high place, and stamped it small to powder // and burnt the grove Moreover, the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made. For the worship of the c...

Moreover, the altar that was at Bethel, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made. For the worship of the calf there:

both that altar, and the high place, he brake down; according to an ancient prophecy of the man of God, 1Ki 13:3 and of Amos in later times, Amo 9:1.

and burnt the high place, and stamped it small to powder; that there might be no remains of it:

and burnt the grove; either the grove of trees on it, or the idol that was in it.

Gill: 2Ki 23:16 - And as Josiah turned himself // he spied the sepulchres that were there in the mount // and sent and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burnt them upon the altar // and polluted it // according to the word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words And as Josiah turned himself,.... From the high place, and the altar at Bethel; for he not only gave orders for the destroying of idolatrous places an...

And as Josiah turned himself,.... From the high place, and the altar at Bethel; for he not only gave orders for the destroying of idolatrous places and idols, but he saw them executed himself:

he spied the sepulchres that were there in the mount; the graves of idolatrous priests and worshippers, who chose to be buried near those places of idolatry; nor was it unusual for persons to be buried on hills and mountains, see Jos 24:30 and this was a custom in other nations formerly t, particularly among the Indians u now, who in many things agree with the Jews:

and sent and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burnt them upon the altar; where they had sacrificed to idols:

and polluted it; with their bones, which, according to the law, were defiling, and which was done in contempt of their idolatrous worship there:

according to the word of the Lord which the man of God proclaimed, who proclaimed these words; or things; foretold that such a king by name would arise, and burn men's bones upon the altar, and which had been foretold more than three hundred and fifty years before this time.

Gill: 2Ki 23:17 - Then he said, what title is that that I see // and the men of the city told him, it is the sepulchre of the man of God, which came from Judah, and proclaimed these things that thou hast done against the altar of Bethel Then he said, what title is that that I see?.... A high and large monument over a grave, with an inscription on it, more remarkable than any of the re...

Then he said, what title is that that I see?.... A high and large monument over a grave, with an inscription on it, more remarkable than any of the rest, which made Josiah take notice of it; and the Jews have a tradition, as Kimchi observes, that on one side of the grave grew nettles and thistles, and on the other side odoriferous herbs; which is not to be depended on; but what he further observes may be right, that the old prophet, as he gave orders to his sons to lay his body in the same grave with the man of God, believing his words would be fulfilled, so he likewise gave orders to have a distinguished monument or pillar erected over the grave; and which people in later times took care to support, in memory of the man of God, that thereby it might be known; by which means not only the bones of the man of God were preserved from being burnt, but those of the old prophet also, buried with him:

and the men of the city told him, it is the sepulchre of the man of God, which came from Judah, and proclaimed these things that thou hast done against the altar of Bethel; see 1Ki 13:1.

Gill: 2Ki 23:18 - And he said, let him alone, let no man move his bones // so they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet that came out of Samaria And he said, let him alone, let no man move his bones,.... Not take them out of the grave, as they had done the rest: so they let his bones alone, ...

And he said, let him alone, let no man move his bones,.... Not take them out of the grave, as they had done the rest:

so they let his bones alone, with the bones of the prophet that came out of Samaria; the old prophet, whereby his end was answered in being buried with him, 1Ki 13:31.

Gill: 2Ki 23:19 - And all the houses also of the high places // that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the Lord to anger, Josiah took away // and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Bethel And all the houses also of the high places,.... The temples of the idols there, and the houses for the priests to dwell in: that were in the cities...

And all the houses also of the high places,.... The temples of the idols there, and the houses for the priests to dwell in:

that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke the Lord to anger, Josiah took away; particularly in the cities of Manasseh, Ephraim, and Simeon, unto Naphtali, 2Ch 34:6 the Israelites that remained there acknowledging Josiah as their king; and perhaps, after the defeat of Sennacherib, many of the cities of Israel might put themselves under the protection of Hezekiah, and especially upon the destruction of the Assyrian empire; and Manasseh, with his liberty, might have his kingdom enlarged by the king of Babylon; and which being continued and increased in the times of Josiah, might be the reason of his opposing the king of Egypt in favour of the king of Babylon:

and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Bethel; defiled them, and broke down the altars in them.

Gill: 2Ki 23:20 - And he slew all the priests of the high places that were there // upon the altars // and burnt men's bones upon them // and returned to Jerusalem And he slew all the priests of the high places that were there,.... The idolatrous priests who sacrificed to Baal, and other Heathen deities; for as f...

And he slew all the priests of the high places that were there,.... The idolatrous priests who sacrificed to Baal, and other Heathen deities; for as for others that burnt incense in high places, yet to the true God, those he spared, though they were not suffered to officiate at the altar of God: the others he slew

upon the altars; where they sacrificed:

and burnt men's bones upon them: the bones of the priests, and worshippers of idols, as he had done at Bethel:

and returned to Jerusalem; after he had gone through the land, both of Judah and Israel, and abolished idolatrous worship everywhere.

Gill: 2Ki 23:21 - And the king commanded all the people // keep the passover unto the Lord your God, as it is written in this book of the covenant And the king commanded all the people,.... Not at Jerusalem only, but throughout the whole kingdom: saying: keep the passover unto the Lord your Go...

And the king commanded all the people,.... Not at Jerusalem only, but throughout the whole kingdom: saying:

keep the passover unto the Lord your God, as it is written in this book of the covenant; which had been lately found and read, and they had agreed to observe, and in which this ordinance was strictly enjoined, and was a commemoration of their deliverance out of Egypt, and a direction of their faith to the Messiah, the antitype of the passover.

Gill: 2Ki 23:22 - Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel // nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel,.... As the king commanded; the people obeyed and kept the ...

Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel,.... As the king commanded; the people obeyed and kept the passover, according to the law of the Lord; the manner of its being kept is not here recorded, but is at large in 2Ch 35:1 where it is observed there had not been such an one from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges; so that the days of the judges here mean the last days of them:

nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah; since the division of the kingdoms; for as for the kings of Israel, they kept it not; and though it was observed in the times of Hezekiah king of Judah, yet not universally, and by some in their uncleanness; for it is a mistake of Clemens of Alexandria w, that it was not kept in the times between Samuel and Josiah; in the days of David and Solomon it might be kept by greater numbers, but not with such purity, and with such cheerfulness and joy of heart, or with so many other sacrifices attending it, or so exactly agreeable to the law of God, and with such munificence and liberality; the king, and the chief of the priests and Levites, providing out of their own substance for the people and their brethren.

Gill: 2Ki 23:23 - But in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, wherein this passover was holden to the Lord in Jerusalem. But in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, wherein this passover was holden to the Lord in Jerusalem. This shows that Josiah must begin the reformatio...

But in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, wherein this passover was holden to the Lord in Jerusalem. This shows that Josiah must begin the reformation very early that year, since he did all that is before recorded in this and the preceding chapter by the fourteenth of Nisan, the day on which the passover was kept, which month answers to part of our March and part of April, see 2Ki 22:3 and was the same year the repairs of the temple were finished.

Gill: 2Ki 23:24 - Moreover, the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards // and the images; or teraphim: and the idols, and all the abominations // that were spied in the land of Judah, and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away // that he might perform the words of the law, which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the Lord Moreover, the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards,.... Who were not to be allowed among the Israelites, Deu 18:10. and the images; or te...

Moreover, the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards,.... Who were not to be allowed among the Israelites, Deu 18:10.

and the images; or teraphim: and the idols, and all the abominations; which were worshipped by the Heathens, and introduced among the Jews, and forbidden by the word of God:

that were spied in the land of Judah, and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away; for which, it seems, diligent search was made, and wherever they were discovered were removed:

that he might perform the words of the law, which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the Lord; both with respect to witchcraft and idolatry, see Lev 20:27.

Gill: 2Ki 23:25 - And like unto him was there no king before him // that turned to the Lord with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might // according to all the law of Moses // neither after him arose there any like him And like unto him was there no king before him,.... The same is said of Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:5, Hezekiah might excel him in some things, as Josiah might e...

And like unto him was there no king before him,.... The same is said of Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:5, Hezekiah might excel him in some things, as Josiah might excel Hezekiah in others:

that turned to the Lord with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might; with such sincerity, heartiness, zeal, and constancy:

according to all the law of Moses; having respect to every commandment, especially relative to worship, with the greatest precision and exactness:

neither after him arose there any like him; for all to the captivity were wicked princes.

Gill: 2Ki 23:26 - Notwithstanding, the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah // because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal Notwithstanding, the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah,.... Notwithstanding the gr...

Notwithstanding, the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah,.... Notwithstanding the great reformation wrought among them; for though Josiah was a sincere reformer, and did what he did heartily, as to the Lord, according to his will, and for his glory; yet the people were not sincere in their compliance, they turned to the Lord not with their whole heart, but feignedly, Jer 3:10.

because of all the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal; by shedding innocent blood and committing idolatry, which the people consented to and approved of, and even now privately committed idolatry, as the prophecies of Jeremiah and Zephaniah show; and it may easily be concluded that their hearts were after their idols, by their openly returning to them in the days of the sons of Josiah.

Gill: 2Ki 23:27 - And the Lord said, I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel. // and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen // and the house of which I said, my name shall be there And the Lord said, I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel. Not from his all seeing eye, but from being the object of his s...

And the Lord said, I will remove Judah also out of my sight, as I have removed Israel. Not from his all seeing eye, but from being the object of his special care and protection; the meaning is, that he would suffer them to he carried out of their land into captivity as Israel was; this he had said in his heart, was determined upon; the decree was gone forth, and it was irrevocable:

and will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen: for the place of his worship, the people having forsaken his worship there, and followed after idols:

and the house of which I said, my name shall be there; the temple, called after his name, and where his name was to be, and had been, called upon.

Gill: 2Ki 23:28 - Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did // are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did,.... For abolishing idolatry, and restoring the true worship of God: are they not written i...

Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all that he did,.... For abolishing idolatry, and restoring the true worship of God:

are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? and also of Israel, in which an account was kept of the transactions of their reign; many other of the acts of Josiah are recorded in the canonical book of Chronicles, 2Ch 34:1.

Gill: 2Ki 23:29 - In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt // that he went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates // and King Josiah went against him // and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt,.... Who is called in the Targum Pharaoh the lame, because he was lame in his feet, perhaps gouty; Herodotus x...

In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt,.... Who is called in the Targum Pharaoh the lame, because he was lame in his feet, perhaps gouty; Herodotus x also calls him Necos the son of Psammiticus; now it was in the last days of Josiah this king reigned in Egypt, or however that the following event was:

that he went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates; to Carchemish, a city situated upon it; see 2Ch 35:26, the king he went against was the king of Babylon, who had conquered the Assyrian monarchy, and therefore called king of it; some take him to be Nabopolassar; according to Marsham y, he was Chyniladanus:

and King Josiah went against him; to stop him, that he might not pass through his country, and attack the king of Babylon, whose ally, perhaps, Josiah was; or, however, thought himself obliged to him by the privileges, power, and authority he allowed him to exercise in the land of Israel:

and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him; as soon as they came face to face, and engaged in battle, see 2Ki 14:8 that is Pharaoh slew Josiah at the first onset. Megiddo was a city in the tribe of Manasseh, Jos 17:11. Herodotus z calls it Magdolus, which seems to be a city on the borders of Egypt, the same with Migdol, Jer 44:1 where he says Pharoahnechoh conquered the Syrians; in Josephus a it is called Mendes very wrongly. Josiah seems to have engaged in this action without consulting the Lord and his prophets.

Gill: 2Ki 23:30 - And his servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo // and brought him to Jerusalem // and buried him in his own sepulchre // and the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead And his servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo,.... They took him out of the chariot in which he was wounded, and put him into another, w...

And his servants carried him in a chariot dead from Megiddo,.... They took him out of the chariot in which he was wounded, and put him into another, where he died of his wounds by the way; being mortally wounded, he is said to be dead, or a dead man, see 2Ch 35:24.

and brought him to Jerusalem; which, according to Bunting b, was forty four miles from Megiddo:

and buried him in his own sepulchre; which either he had provided for himself in his lifetime, or which in common belonged to the kings of Judah, see 2Ch 35:24.

and the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead; though he was not the eldest son, Jehoiakim, who was afterwards placed in his room, being two years older, as appears from 2Ki 23:31 and this is the reason, as the Jewish commentators in general agree, that he was anointed; which they say was never done to the son of a king, unless there was a competitor, or some objection to, or dispute about, the succession, as in the case of Solomon and others.

Gill: 2Ki 23:31 - Jehoahaz was twenty three years old when he began to reign // and he reigned three months in Jerusalem // and his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah Jehoahaz was twenty three years old when he began to reign,.... Who seems to be the same with Shallum, Jer 22:11. and he reigned three months in Je...

Jehoahaz was twenty three years old when he began to reign,.... Who seems to be the same with Shallum, Jer 22:11.

and he reigned three months in Jerusalem; a short reign, being deposed by the king of Egypt, as after related:

and his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; a city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 10:29.

Gill: 2Ki 23:32 - And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord // according to all that his fathers had done And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord,.... Committed idolatry: according to all that his fathers had done; his grand father and g...

And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord,.... Committed idolatry:

according to all that his fathers had done; his grand father and great grandfather, Amon and Manasseh; so soon after Josiah's death was the revolt to idolatry.

Gill: 2Ki 23:33 - And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath // that he might not reign in Jerusalem // and put the land to a tribute of one hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath,.... Places in Syria; Hamath was formerly a kingdom in Syria, and Riblah is said by...

And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath,.... Places in Syria; Hamath was formerly a kingdom in Syria, and Riblah is said by Jerom c to be Antioch of Syria, near to which was the fountain of Daphne; and in the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem on Num 34:11. Daphne is put for Riblah; and Josephus d says Antioch was by Daphne of Syria; and in the Apocrypha:"Which when Onias knew of a surety, he reproved him, and withdrew himself into a sanctuary at Daphne, that lieth by Antiochia.'' (2 Maccabees 4:33)Daphne is said to be by Antioch; with which place Pompey was greatly delighted, because of the pleasantness of it, and the abundance of waters about it e: hither, it is probable, Jehoahaz went with an army to avenge his father's death on the king of Egypt, or to assist the king of Babylon, or both; and here Pharaoh met with him, and took him, and bound him; he seems to be of a martial spirit, from Eze 19:3.

that he might not reign in Jerusalem; whither afterwards the king of Egypt came, and took it; and so Herodotus f says that after he had conquered the Syrians at Migdol, he took Cadytis, a great city of Syria, which seems to be Jerusalem, the holy city:

and put the land to a tribute of one hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold; the land of Judah; and one hundred talents, according to Bunting g, amounted to 37,500 pounds of our money; and a talent of gold, according to Brerewood h, was 4,500 pounds; but Bishop Cumberland i makes it 5,067 pounds, three shillings, and ten pence; a talent of gold could not be so large in Homer's time, since he speaks of seven of them given at once in a way of hospitality k.

Gill: 2Ki 23:34 - And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father // and turned his name to Jehoiakim // and took Jehoahaz away // and he came to Egypt, and died there And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father,.... Not in the room of Jehoahaz; for he did not allow him to b...

And Pharaohnechoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father,.... Not in the room of Jehoahaz; for he did not allow him to be a king, and to have any lawful right to the throne; but, deposing him, set up his elder brother:

and turned his name to Jehoiakim; to show his subjection to him, and that he held his government by him:

and took Jehoahaz away: with him, from Jerusalem, when he departed thence:

and he came to Egypt, and died there: and never returned to Jerusalem, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah, Jer 22:11.

Gill: 2Ki 23:35 - And Jehoiakim gave the silver and gold to Pharaoh // but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh // he exacted the silver and gold of the people of the land // of everyone according to his taxation, to give it unto Pharaohnechoh And Jehoiakim gave the silver and gold to Pharaoh,.... The one hundred talents of silver and the talent of gold, which he imposed as a tribute upon th...

And Jehoiakim gave the silver and gold to Pharaoh,.... The one hundred talents of silver and the talent of gold, which he imposed as a tribute upon the land:

but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh; he did not take it out of his own treasures nor the treasures of the house of the Lord, which perhaps might be exhausted, but levied it of the people of the land:

he exacted the silver and gold of the people of the land, required them to pay it in:

of everyone according to his taxation, to give it unto Pharaohnechoh: everyone was taxed according to his abilities, in proportion to what he was worth, or to the estate he was possessed of.

Gill: 2Ki 23:36 - Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign // and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem; and therefore must die at the age of thirty and six // and his mother's name was Zebudah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign,.... And therefore must be two years older than his brother Jehoahaz, who was deposed: ...

Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he began to reign,.... And therefore must be two years older than his brother Jehoahaz, who was deposed:

and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem; and therefore must die at the age of thirty and six:

and his mother's name was Zebudah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah; which Josephus l calls Abuma; but he speaks of a village in Galilee called Ruma m; but whether the same with this is not certain.

Gill: 2Ki 23:37 - And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. Amon and Manasseh; see 2Ki 23:32.

And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. Amon and Manasseh; see 2Ki 23:32.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:1 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:2 Heb “read in their ears.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:3 Heb “stood in the covenant.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:4 For location see Map4 G4; Map5 C1; Map6 E3; Map7 D1; Map8 G3.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:5 Or “burned incense.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:6 The phrase “sons of the people” refers here to the common people (see BDB 766 s.v. עַם), as opposed to the upper classes...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:7 Heb “houses.” Perhaps tent-shrines made from cloth are in view (see BDB 109 s.v. בַּיִת). M. Cogan and...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:8 The Hebrew text reads “the high places of the gates,” which is problematic in that the rest of the verse speaks of a specific gate. The tr...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:9 Heb “their brothers.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:10 Attempts to identify this deity with a god known from the ancient Near East have not yet yielded a consensus. For brief discussions see M. Cogan and H...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:11 Heb “and the chariots of the sun he burned with fire.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:12 The MT reads, “he ran from there,” which makes little if any sense in this context. Some prefer to emend the verbal form (Qal of ר&#...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:13 This is a derogatory name for the Mount of Olives, involving a wordplay between מָשְׁחָה (mashÿkh...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:14 Heb “their places.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:15 Heb “he burned the high place, crushing to dust, and he burned the Asherah pole.” High places per se are never referred to as being burned...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:16 This recalls the prophecy recorded in 1 Kgs 13:2.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:17 Heb “man of God.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:18 Heb “and they left undisturbed his bones, the bones of the prophet who came from Samaria.” If the phrase “the bones of the prophet&#...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:19 For location see Map4 G4; Map5 C1; Map6 E3; Map7 D1; Map8 G3.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:22 Heb “because there had not been observed [one] like this Passover from the days of the judges who judged Israel and all the days of the kings of...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:24 Heb “carrying out the words of the law.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:25 The description of Josiah’s devotion as involving his whole “heart, soul, and being” echoes the language of Deut 6:5.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:26 Heb “Yet the Lord did not turn away from the fury of his great anger, which raged against Judah, on account of all the infuriating things by whi...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:27 Heb “My name will be there.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:28 Heb “As for the rest of the events of Josiah, and all which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:29 For location see Map1 D4; Map2 C1; Map4 C2; Map5 F2; Map7 B1.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:30 Or “anointed him.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:31 Heb “the name of his mother.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:32 Heb “according to all which his fathers had done.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:33 The Hebrew term כִּכָּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When use...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:34 Heb “and he took Jehoahaz, and he came to Egypt and he died there.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:35 Heb “And the silver and the gold Jehoiakim gave to Pharaoh, but he taxed the land to give the silver at the command of Pharaoh, [from] each acco...

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:36 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: 2Ki 23:37 Heb “in the eyes of.”

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:1 And the king ( a ) sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem. ( a ) Because he saw the great plagues of God that were...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:3 And the king stood by ( b ) a pillar, and made a ( c ) covenant before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep his commandments and his testimon...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the ( d ) priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temp...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:5 And he put down the ( f ) idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in t...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:6 And he brought out the ( g ) grove from the house of the LORD, without Jerusalem, unto the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron, and stampe...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:9 Nevertheless the priests of the high places ( i ) came not up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they did eat of the unleavened bread among th...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:10 And he defiled ( k ) Topheth, which [is] in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the f...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:11 And he took away the ( l ) horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entering in of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathanm...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:13 And the high places that [were] before Jerusalem, which [were] on the right hand of the ( m ) mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel ha...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:15 Moreover ( n ) the altar that [was] at Bethel, [and] the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, both that altar...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:16 And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the sepulchres that [were] there in the mount, and sent, and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burned [...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:18 And he said, Let him alone; let no man move his bones. So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the ( p ) prophet that came out of Samaria. ( p...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:22 Surely there was not holden ( q ) such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of t...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:26 Notwithstanding the LORD turned not from the ( r ) fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the pr...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:29 In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah ( s ) went against him; and he sle...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:32 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his ( t ) fathers had done. ( t ) Meaning, the wicked kings before.

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 23:33 And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands ( u ) at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hu...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 2Ki 23:1-3 - --Josiah had received a message from God, that there was no preventing the ruin of Jerusalem, but that he should only deliver his own soul; yet he does ...

MHCC: 2Ki 23:4-14 - --What abundance of wickedness in Judah and Jerusalem! One would not have believed it possible, that in Judah, where God was known, in Israel, where his...

MHCC: 2Ki 23:15-24 - --Josiah's zeal extended to the cities of Israel within his reach. He carefully preserved the sepulchre of that man of God, who came from Judah to foret...

MHCC: 2Ki 23:25-30 - --Upon reading these verses, we must say, Lord, though thy righteousness be as the great mountains, evident, plainly to be seen, and past dispute; yet t...

MHCC: 2Ki 23:31-37 - --After Josiah was laid in his grave, one trouble came on another, till, in twenty-two years, Jerusalem was destroyed. The wicked perished in great numb...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 23:1-3 - -- Josiah had received a message from God that there was no preventing the ruin of Jerusalem, but that he should deliver only his own soul; yet he did ...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 23:4-24 - -- We have here an account of such a reformation as we have not met with in all the history of the kings of Judah, such thorough riddance made of all t...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 23:25-30 - -- Upon the reading of these verses we must say, Lord, though thy righteousness be as the great mountains - evident, conspicuous, and past dispute,...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 23:31-37 - -- Jerusalem saw not a good day after Josiah was laid in his grave, but one trouble came after another, till within twenty-two years it was quite destr...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 23:1-30 - -- Instead of resting content with the fact that he was promised deliverance from the approaching judgment, Josiah did everything that was in his power...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 23:31-32 - -- Reign of Jehoahaz (cf. 2Ch 36:1-4). - Jehoahaz , called significantly by Jeremiah (Jer 22:11) Shallum , i.e., "to whom it is requited,"reigned onl...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 23:33 - -- "Pharaoh Necho put him in fetters ( ויּאסרהוּ ) at Riblah in the land of Hamath, when he had become king at Jerusalem."In 2Ch 36:3 we have, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 23:34-35 - -- From the words "Necho made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the place of his father Josiah ,"it follows that the king of Egypt did not acknowledge...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 23:36-37 - -- Reign of Jehoiakim (cf. 2Ch 36:5-8). - Jehoiakim reigned eleven years in the spirit of his ungodly forefathers (compare 2Ki 23:37 with 2Ki 23:32). ...

Constable: 2Ki 18:1--25:30 - --III. THE SURVIVING KINGDOM chs. 18--25 In this third major section of 1 and 2 Kings the writer showed that the c...

Constable: 2Ki 22:1--23:31 - --D. Josiah's Good Reign 22:1-23:30 Since Josiah was eight years old when his father died at age 22, he mu...

Constable: 2Ki 22:3--23:28 - --2. Josiah's reforms 22:3-23:27 Josiah began to seek Yahweh when he was 16 years old and began in...

Constable: 2Ki 23:28-30 - --3. Josiah's death 23:28-30 The king seems to have preferred Babylon to Assyria. When Egyptian ar...

Constable: 2Ki 23:31-35 - --E. Jehoahaz's Evil Reign 23:31-35 Jehoahaz, whose other name was Shallum, was the middle of Josiah's thr...

Constable: 2Ki 23:36--24:8 - --F. Jehoiakim's Evil Reign 23:36-24:7 Jehoiakim reigned as a puppet king for 11 years (609-598 B.C.). He ...

Guzik: 2Ki 23:1-37 - The Reforms of Josiah 2 Kings 23 - The Reforms of Josiah A. The covenant and the reforms of King Josiah. 1. (1-3) The covenant is renewed. Now the king sent them to gat...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF KINGS, in the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, constitute one book. Various titles have been given them; in the Septu...

JFB: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) MOAB REBELS. (2Ki 1:1) AHAZIAH'S JUDGMENT BY ELIJAH. (2Ki 1:2-8) ELIJAH BRINGS FIRE FROM HEAVEN ON AHAZIAH'S MESSENGERS. (2Ki 1:9-16) AHAZIAH DIES, A...

TSK: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) The events detailed in these books (Kings) are highly interesting and important. The account of the wisdom, magnificence, and extended commerce of So...

TSK: 2 Kings 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 2Ki 23:1, Josiah causes the book to be read in a solemn assembly; 2Ki 23:3, He renews the covenant of the Lord; 2Ki 23:4, He destroys ido...

Poole: 2 Kings 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) KINGS CHAPTER 23 Josiah causeth the law to be read in a solemn assembly; reneweth the covenant of the Lord; destroyeth idolatry, 2Ki 23:1-14 ; brea...

MHCC: 2 Kings 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (2Ki 23:1-3) Josiah reads the law, and renews the covenant. (2Ki 23:4-14) He destroys idolatry. (2Ki 23:15-24) The reformation extended to Israel, A...

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Kings This second book of the Kings (which the Septuagint, numbering from Samuel, ca...

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings 23 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We have here, I. The happy continuance of the goodness of Josiah's reign, and the progress of the reformation he began, reading the law (2Ki 23:1,...

Constable: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Second Kings continues the narrative begun in 1 Kings. It opens with the translation of godly Elijah to hea...

Constable: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) Outline (Continued from notes on 1 Kings) 3. Ahaziah's evil reign in Israel -1 Kings 22:51-2...