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Teks -- 2 Kings 18:1-37 (NET)

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Hezekiah Becomes King of Judah
18:1 In the third year of the reign of Israel’s King Hoshea son of Elah, Ahaz’s son Hezekiah became king over Judah. 18:2 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother was Abi, the daughter of Zechariah. 18:3 He did what the Lord approved, just as his ancestor David had done. 18:4 He eliminated the high places, smashed the sacred pillars to bits, and cut down the Asherah pole. He also demolished the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for up to that time the Israelites had been offering incense to it; it was called Nehushtan. 18:5 He trusted in the Lord God of Israel; in this regard there was none like him among the kings of Judah either before or after. 18:6 He was loyal to the Lord and did not abandon him. He obeyed the commandments which the Lord had given to Moses. 18:7 The Lord was with him; he succeeded in all his endeavors. He rebelled against the king of Assyria and refused to submit to him. 18:8 He defeated the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from the watchtower to the city fortress. 18:9 In the fourth year of King Hezekiah’s reign (it was the seventh year of the reign of Israel’s King Hoshea, son of Elah), King Shalmaneser of Assyria marched up against Samaria and besieged it. 18:10 After three years he captured it (in the sixth year of Hezekiah’s reign); in the ninth year of King Hoshea’s reign over Israel Samaria was captured. 18:11 The king of Assyria deported the people of Israel to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, along the Habor (the river of Gozan), and in the cities of the Medes. 18:12 This happened because they did not obey the Lord their God and broke his agreement with them. They did not pay attention to and obey all that Moses, the Lord’s servant, had commanded.
Sennacherib Invades Judah
18:13 In the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah’s reign, King Sennacherib of Assyria marched up against all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them. 18:14 King Hezekiah of Judah sent this message to the king of Assyria, who was at Lachish, “I have violated our treaty. If you leave, I will do whatever you demand.” So the king of Assyria demanded that King Hezekiah of Judah pay three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. 18:15 Hezekiah gave him all the silver in the Lord’s temple and in the treasuries of the royal palace. 18:16 At that time King Hezekiah of Judah stripped the metal overlays from the doors of the Lord’s temple and from the posts which he had plated and gave them to the king of Assyria. 18:17 The king of Assyria sent his commanding general, the chief eunuch, and the chief adviser from Lachish to King Hezekiah in Jerusalem, along with a large army. They went up and arrived at Jerusalem. They went and stood at the conduit of the upper pool which is located on the road to the field where they wash and dry cloth. 18:18 They summoned the king, so Eliakim son of Hilkiah, the palace supervisor, accompanied by Shebna the scribe and Joah son of Asaph, the secretary, went out to meet them. 18:19 The chief adviser said to them, “Tell Hezekiah: ‘This is what the great king, the king of Assyria, says: “What is your source of confidence? 18:20 Your claim to have a strategy and military strength is just empty talk. In whom are you trusting that you would dare to rebel against me? 18:21 Now look, you must be trusting in Egypt, that splintered reed staff. If a man leans for support on it, it punctures his hand and wounds him. That is what Pharaoh king of Egypt does to all who trust in him. 18:22 Perhaps you will tell me, ‘We are trusting in the Lord our God.’ But Hezekiah is the one who eliminated his high places and altars and then told the people of Judah and Jerusalem, ‘You must worship at this altar in Jerusalem.’ 18:23 Now make a deal with my master the king of Assyria, and I will give you two thousand horses, provided you can find enough riders for them. 18:24 Certainly you will not refuse one of my master’s minor officials and trust in Egypt for chariots and horsemen. 18:25 Furthermore it was by the command of the Lord that I marched up against this place to destroy it. The Lord told me, ‘March up against this land and destroy it.’”’” 18:26 Eliakim son of Hilkiah, Shebna, and Joah said to the chief adviser, “Speak to your servants in Aramaic, for we understand it. Don’t speak with us in the Judahite dialect in the hearing of the people who are on the wall.” 18:27 But the chief adviser said to them, “My master did not send me to speak these words only to your master and to you. His message is also for the men who sit on the wall, for they will eat their own excrement and drink their own urine along with you.” 18:28 The chief adviser then stood there and called out loudly in the Judahite dialect, “Listen to the message of the great king, the king of Assyria. 18:29 This is what the king says: ‘Don’t let Hezekiah mislead you, for he is not able to rescue you from my hand! 18:30 Don’t let Hezekiah talk you into trusting in the Lord when he says, “The Lord will certainly rescue us; this city will not be handed over to the king of Assyria.” 18:31 Don’t listen to Hezekiah!’ For this is what the king of Assyria says, ‘Send me a token of your submission and surrender to me. Then each of you may eat from his own vine and fig tree and drink water from his own cistern, 18:32 until I come and take you to a land just like your own– a land of grain and new wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of olive trees and honey. Then you will live and not die. Don’t listen to Hezekiah, for he is misleading you when he says, “The Lord will rescue us.” 18:33 Have any of the gods of the nations actually rescued his land from the power of the king of Assyria? 18:34 Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivvah? Indeed, did any gods rescue Samaria from my power? 18:35 Who among all the gods of the lands has rescued their lands from my power? So how can the Lord rescue Jerusalem from my power?’” 18:36 The people were silent and did not respond, for the king had ordered, “Don’t respond to him.” 18:37 Eliakim son of Hilkiah, the palace supervisor, accompanied by Shebna the scribe and Joah son of Asaph, the secretary, went to Hezekiah with their clothes torn and reported to him what the chief adviser had said.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abi a daughter of Zechariah; mother of King Hezekiah
 · Ahaz a son of Jotham; listed as an ancestor of Jesus,son and successor of King Jotham of Judah,son of Micah of Benjamin
 · Aramaic an ancient Jewish language used in the Old Testament
 · Arpad a town of Syria 40 km north of Aleppo & 100 km east of the Great Sea
 · Asaph father of Joah, Hezekiah's recorder,son of Berechiah the Levite; music minister under David,father of Zichri; a Levite ancestor of some returnees,an official over the (Persian) king's forest in Judah
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Elah a chief of Edom,the valley where David killed Goliath,son and successor of Baasha, king of Israel (about 900 BC),father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel about 700 BC,son of Caleb the son of Jephunneh of Judah,son of Uzzi (Michri Benjamin) who led his clan back from exile
 · Eliakim son of Abiud the son of Zerubbabel over 20generations from David; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Melea, only 4 generations from David; an ancester of Jesus,son of Hilkiah; head of Hezekiah's household,son of Josiah; made king of Judah by Pharaoh Neco,a priest who helped celebrate the completion of the wall
 · Gaza a city A Philistine town 5 km east of the Mediterranean and 60 west of Hebron,a town on the western coast of the territory of Judah,a town and the region it controled
 · Gozan a town on the Habor River 100 km ESE of Haran
 · Habor a river that flows south past Gozan to the Euphrates River
 · Halah a town in upper Mesopotamia
 · hamath a town of Syria on the Orontes between Aleppo and Damascus (OS)
 · Hamath a town of unknown location
 · Hena a town on the Euphrates about 300 km NW of ancient Babylon (ZD)
 · Hezekiah the son of Ahaz who succeeded him as king of Judah; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Ahaz; king of Judah,forefather of the prophet Zephaniah,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to obey God's law
 · Hilkiah father of Eliakim who was head of King Hezekiah's household,a high priest; son of Shalum /Meshulam,son of Amzi of Levi; forefather of returned exiles,son of Hosah; a Levite gatekeeper,priest leader of some who returned from exile with Zerubbabel,a man of Anathoth; father of the prophet Jeremiah
 · Hoshea son of Nun of Ephraim; successor of Moses,son of Azaziah; David's chief officer over the tribe of Ephraim,son of Elah; assassin and successor of King Pekah,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to keep God's law
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Ivvah a town in Syria
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Joah son of Asaph; record keeper of King Hezekiah,son of Zimmah one of the Levites of Gershon whom, along with his son Eden, King Hezekiah assigned to supervise the cleansing of the temple,son of Obed-Edom; a Levite gatekeeper whose descendants returned from exile,son of Joahaz; record keeper of King Josiah
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Lachish a town of Judah 23 km west of Hebron & 40 km north of Beersheba (SMM)
 · Medes the inhabitants of Media, a region south and southwest of the Caspian Sea in the Zagros mountains,a people and a nation
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Nehushtan the name applied to the bronze serpent Moses had made.
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time


Topik/Tema Kamus: Shebna | Isaiah | Israel | CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | KINGS, BOOKS OF | BIBLE, THE, IV CANONICITY | HEZEKIAH (2) | CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF | Assyria | RABSHAKEH | Jerusalem | Hezekiah | Diplomacy | Seacherib | Hypocrisy | Rabmag | Scribes | Rab-shakeh | War | SENNACHERIB | selebihnya
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Wesley: 2Ki 18:2 - To reign It is not certain that Ahaz lived only thirty six years, for those sixteen years which he reigned, may be computed, not from the first beginning of hi...

It is not certain that Ahaz lived only thirty six years, for those sixteen years which he reigned, may be computed, not from the first beginning of his reign, when he reigned with his father; which was at the twentieth year of his age, but from the beginning of his reigning alone.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:4 - Serpent The most of them, or such as the people most frequented: for all were not taken away, 2Ki 23:13-14, tho' his own father had set them up. We must never...

The most of them, or such as the people most frequented: for all were not taken away, 2Ki 23:13-14, tho' his own father had set them up. We must never dishonour God, in honour to our earthly parents.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:4 - Brazen serpent Which had been hitherto kept as a memorial of God's mercy; but being now commonly abused to superstition, was destroyed.

Which had been hitherto kept as a memorial of God's mercy; but being now commonly abused to superstition, was destroyed.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:4 - To it Not doubtless as to a god, but only as to an instrument of God's mercy, by and through which, their adoration was directed to God, and given to that o...

Not doubtless as to a god, but only as to an instrument of God's mercy, by and through which, their adoration was directed to God, and given to that only for God's sake.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:4 - Nehushtan He said, this serpent, howsoever formerly honoured, and used by God as a sign of his grace, yet now it is nothing but a piece of brass which can do yo...

He said, this serpent, howsoever formerly honoured, and used by God as a sign of his grace, yet now it is nothing but a piece of brass which can do you neither good nor hurt.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:5 - Trusted Without calling in foreign succours to establish or help him; which his father Ahaz did; and before him Asa.

Without calling in foreign succours to establish or help him; which his father Ahaz did; and before him Asa.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:5 - Before him Of the kings of Judah only; for David and Solomon were kings of all Israel. The like is said of Josiah, 2Ki 23:25. Each of them, excelled the other in...

Of the kings of Judah only; for David and Solomon were kings of all Israel. The like is said of Josiah, 2Ki 23:25. Each of them, excelled the other in several respects. Hezekiah in this, that he fell upon this work in the beginning of his reign, which Josiah did not, and with no less resolution, undertaking to do that which none of his predecessors durst do, even to remove the high places, wherein Josiah did only follow his example.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:7 - Rebelled He shook off that yoke of subjection, to which his father had wickedly submitted, and reassumed that full and independent sovereignty which God had se...

He shook off that yoke of subjection, to which his father had wickedly submitted, and reassumed that full and independent sovereignty which God had settled in the house of David. And Hezekiah's case differs much from that of Zedekiah, who is blamed for rebellion against the king of Babylon, both because he had engaged himself by a solemn oath and covenant, which we do not read of Ahaz; and because he broke the covenant which he himself had made; and because God had actually given the dominion of his own land and people to the king of Babylon, and commanded both Zedekiah and his people to submit to him. And whereas Hezekiah is here said to rebel; that word implies, only a defection from that subjection which had been performed to another; which sometimes may be justly done, and therefore that word doth not necessarily prove this to be a sin. And that it was not a sin in him, seems certain, because God owned and assisted him therein; and did not at all reprove him for it, in that message which he sent to him by Isaiah, nor afterwards, though he did particularly reprove him, for his vain - glory, and ostentation, 2Ch 32:25-26.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:13 - Them Many of them; universal particles being frequently so used both in scripture, and other authors; and this success God gave him; to lift him up to his ...

Many of them; universal particles being frequently so used both in scripture, and other authors; and this success God gave him; to lift him up to his own greater and more shameful destruction: to humble and chastise his own people for their manifold sins, and, to gain an eminent opportunity to advance his own honour by that miraculous deliverance which he designed for his people.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:14 - Three hundred talents, &c. _Above two hundred thousand pounds.

_Above two hundred thousand pounds.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:17 - Sent Having received the money, upon which he agreed to depart from Hezekiah and his land, he breaks his faith with Hezekiah, thereby justifying his revolt...

Having received the money, upon which he agreed to depart from Hezekiah and his land, he breaks his faith with Hezekiah, thereby justifying his revolt, and preparing the way for his own destruction.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:19 - Thus saith, &c. _But what are the greatest men when they come to compare with God, or when God comes to contend with them?

_But what are the greatest men when they come to compare with God, or when God comes to contend with them?

Wesley: 2Ki 18:21 - This broken reed Whoever trusts in man, leans on a broken reed: but God is the rock of ages.

Whoever trusts in man, leans on a broken reed: but God is the rock of ages.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:22 - Is not, &c. _Thus boldly he speaks of the things which he understood not, judging of the great God, by their petty gods; and of God's worship by the vain fancies ...

_Thus boldly he speaks of the things which he understood not, judging of the great God, by their petty gods; and of God's worship by the vain fancies of the Heathens, who measured piety by the multitude of altars.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:25 - Am I, &c. _He neither owned God's word, nor regarded his providence; but he forged this, to strike a terror into Hezekiah and the people.

_He neither owned God's word, nor regarded his providence; but he forged this, to strike a terror into Hezekiah and the people.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:27 - To the men To tell them to what extremities and miseries he will force them.

To tell them to what extremities and miseries he will force them.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:28 - Jews language The tradition of the Jews is, that Rabshaketh was an apostate Jew. If so, his ignorance of the God of Israel was the less excusable, and his enmity th...

The tradition of the Jews is, that Rabshaketh was an apostate Jew. If so, his ignorance of the God of Israel was the less excusable, and his enmity the less strange: for apostates are usually the most bitter and spiteful enemies.

Wesley: 2Ki 18:31 - A present Upon which terms, I will give you no disturbance; but quietly suffer each of you to enjoy his own possession.

Upon which terms, I will give you no disturbance; but quietly suffer each of you to enjoy his own possession.

JFB: 2Ki 18:1-2 - Hezekiah . . . began to reign. Twenty and five years old According to this statement (compare 2Ki 16:2), he must have been born when his father Ahaz was no more than eleven years old. Paternity at an age so ...

According to this statement (compare 2Ki 16:2), he must have been born when his father Ahaz was no more than eleven years old. Paternity at an age so early is not unprecedented in the warm climates of the south, where the human frame is matured sooner than in our northern regions. But the case admits of solution in a different way. It was customary for the later kings of Israel to assume their son and heir into partnership in the government during their lives; and as Hezekiah began to reign in the third year of Hoshea (2Ki 18:1), and Hoshea in the twelfth year of Ahaz (2Ki 17:1), it is evident that Hezekiah began to reign in the fourteenth year of Ahaz his father, and so reigned two or three years before his father's death. So that, at the beginning of his reign in conjunction with his father, he might be only twenty-two or twenty-three, and Ahaz a few years older than the common calculation makes him. Or the case may be solved thus: As the ancient writers, in the computation of time, take notice of the year they mention, whether finished or newly begun, so Ahaz might be near twenty-one years old at the beginning of his reign, and near seventeen years older at his death; while, on the other hand, Hezekiah, when he began to reign, might be just entering into his twenty-fifth year, and so Ahaz would be near fourteen years old when his son Hezekiah was born--no uncommon age for a young man to become a father in southern latitudes [PATRICK].

JFB: 2Ki 18:4 - He removed the high places and brake the images, &c. The methods adopted by this good king for extirpating idolatry, and accomplishing a thorough reformation in religion, are fully detailed (2Ch 20:3; 2C...

The methods adopted by this good king for extirpating idolatry, and accomplishing a thorough reformation in religion, are fully detailed (2Ch 20:3; 2Ch 31:19). But they are indicated very briefly, and in a sort of passing allusion.

JFB: 2Ki 18:4 - brake in pieces the brazen serpent The preservation of this remarkable relic of antiquity (Num 21:5-10) might, like the pot of manna and Aaron's rod, have remained an interesting and in...

The preservation of this remarkable relic of antiquity (Num 21:5-10) might, like the pot of manna and Aaron's rod, have remained an interesting and instructive monument of the divine goodness and mercy to the Israelites in the wilderness: and it must have required the exercise of no small courage and resolution to destroy it. But in the progress of degeneracy it had become an object of idolatrous worship and as the interests of true religion rendered its demolition necessary, Hezekiah, by taking this bold step, consulted both the glory of God and the good of his country.

JFB: 2Ki 18:4 - unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it It is not to be supposed that this superstitious reverence had been paid to it ever since the time of Moses, for such idolatry would not have been tol...

It is not to be supposed that this superstitious reverence had been paid to it ever since the time of Moses, for such idolatry would not have been tolerated either by David or by Solomon in the early part of his reign, by Asa or Jehoshaphat had they been aware of such a folly. But the probability is, that the introduction of this superstition does not date earlier than the time when the family of Ahab, by their alliance with the throne of Judah, exercised a pernicious influence in paving the way for all kinds of idolatry. It is possible, however, as some think, that its origin may have arisen out of a misapprehension of Moses' language (Num 21:8). Serpent-worship, how revolting soever it may appear, was an extensively diffused form of idolatry; and it would obtain an easier reception in Israel because many of the neighboring nations, such as the Egyptians and Phœnicians, adored idol gods in the form of serpents as the emblems of health and immortality.

JFB: 2Ki 18:5-6 - He trusted in the Lord God of Israel Without invoking the aid or purchasing the succor of foreign auxiliaries like Asa (1Ki 15:18-19) and Ahaz (2Ki 16:17; Isa. 7:1-25).

Without invoking the aid or purchasing the succor of foreign auxiliaries like Asa (1Ki 15:18-19) and Ahaz (2Ki 16:17; Isa. 7:1-25).

JFB: 2Ki 18:5-6 - so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah Of course David and Solomon are excepted, they having had the sovereignty of the whole country. In the petty kingdom of Judah, Josiah alone had a simi...

Of course David and Solomon are excepted, they having had the sovereignty of the whole country. In the petty kingdom of Judah, Josiah alone had a similar testimony borne to him (2Ki 23:25). But even he was surpassed by Hezekiah, who set about a national reformation at the beginning of his reign, which Josiah did not. The pious character and the excellent course of Hezekiah was prompted, among other secondary influences, by a sense of the calamities his father's wicked career had brought on the country, as well as by the counsels of Isaiah.

JFB: 2Ki 18:7-8 - he rebelled against the king of Assyria That is, the yearly tribute his father had stipulated to pay, he, with imprudent haste, withdrew. Pursuing the policy of a truly theocratic sovereign,...

That is, the yearly tribute his father had stipulated to pay, he, with imprudent haste, withdrew. Pursuing the policy of a truly theocratic sovereign, he was, through the divine blessing which rested on his government, raised to a position of great public and national strength. Shalmaneser had withdrawn from Palestine, being engaged perhaps in a war with Tyre, or probably he was dead. Assuming, consequently, that full independent sovereignty which God had settled on the house of David, he both shook off the Assyrian yoke, and, by an energetic movement against the Philistines, recovered from that people the territory which they had taken from his father Ahaz (2Ch 28:18).

JFB: 2Ki 18:13 - Sennacherib The son and successor of Shalmaneser.

The son and successor of Shalmaneser.

JFB: 2Ki 18:13 - all the fenced cities of Judah Not absolutely all of them; for, besides the capital, some strong fortresses held out against the invader (2Ki 18:17; 2Ki 19:8). The following account...

Not absolutely all of them; for, besides the capital, some strong fortresses held out against the invader (2Ki 18:17; 2Ki 19:8). The following account of Sennacherib's invasion of Judah and the remarkable destruction of his army, is repeated almost verbatim in 2Ch. 32:1-33 and Isa. 36:1-37:38. The expedition seems to have been directed against Egypt, the conquest of which was long a leading object of ambition with the Assyrian monarchs. But the invasion of Judah necessarily preceded, that country being the key to Egypt, the highway through which the conquerors from Upper Asia had to pass. Judah had also at this time formed a league of mutual defense with Egypt (2Ki 18:24). Moreover, it was now laid completely open by the transplantation of Israel to Assyria. Overrunning Palestine, Sennacherib laid siege to the fortress of Lachish, which lay seven Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, and therefore southwest of Jerusalem on the way to Egypt [ROBINSON]. Among the interesting illustrations of sacred history furnished by the recent Assyrian excavations, is a series of bas-reliefs, representing the siege of a town, which the inscription on the sculpture shows to be Lachish, and the figure of a king, whose name is given, on the same inscription, as Sennacherib. The legend, sculptured over the head of the king, runs thus: "Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish [Lakhisha], I give permission for its slaughter" [Nineveh and Babylon]. This minute confirmation of the truth of the Bible narrative is given not only by the name Lachish, which is contained in the inscription, but from the physiognomy of the captives brought before the king, which is unmistakably Jewish.

JFB: 2Ki 18:14-16 - Hezekiah . . . sent to Lachish, saying, . . . that which thou puttest on me will I bear Disappointed in his expectations of aid from Egypt, and feeling himself unable to resist so mighty a conqueror who was menacing Jerusalem itself, Heze...

Disappointed in his expectations of aid from Egypt, and feeling himself unable to resist so mighty a conqueror who was menacing Jerusalem itself, Hezekiah made his submission. The payment of 300 talents of silver, and 30 talents of gold--£351,000--brought a temporary respite; but, in raising the imposed tribute, he was obliged not only to drain all the treasures of the palace and the temple, but even to strip the doors and pillars of the sacred edifice of the gold that adorned them.

JFB: 2Ki 18:17 - king of Assyria sent Tartan General (Isa 20:1).

General (Isa 20:1).

JFB: 2Ki 18:17 - Rab-saris Chief of the eunuchs.

Chief of the eunuchs.

JFB: 2Ki 18:17 - Rab-shakeh Chief cupbearer. These were the great officers employed in delivering Sennacherib's insulting message to Hezekiah. On the walls of the palace of Senna...

Chief cupbearer. These were the great officers employed in delivering Sennacherib's insulting message to Hezekiah. On the walls of the palace of Sennacherib, at Khorsabad, certain figures have been identified with the officers of that sovereign mentioned in Scripture. In particular, the figures, Rab-shakeh, Rab-saris, and Tartan, appear as full-length portraits of the persons holding those offices in the reign of Sennacherib. Probably they represent the very individuals sent on this embassy.

JFB: 2Ki 18:17 - with a great host to Jerusalem Engaged in a campaign of three years in Egypt, Sennacherib was forced by the king of Ethiopia to retreat, and discharging his rage against Jerusalem, ...

Engaged in a campaign of three years in Egypt, Sennacherib was forced by the king of Ethiopia to retreat, and discharging his rage against Jerusalem, he sent an immense army to summon it to surrender. (See on 2Ch 32:30).

JFB: 2Ki 18:17 - the conduit of the upper pool The conduit which went from the reservoir of the Upper Gihon (Birket et Mamilla) to the lower pool, the Birket es Sultan.

The conduit which went from the reservoir of the Upper Gihon (Birket et Mamilla) to the lower pool, the Birket es Sultan.

JFB: 2Ki 18:17 - the highway of the fuller's field The public road which passed by that district, which had been assigned them for carrying on their business without the city, on account of the unpleas...

The public road which passed by that district, which had been assigned them for carrying on their business without the city, on account of the unpleasant smell [KEIL].

JFB: 2Ki 18:18 - when they had called to the king Hezekiah did not make a personal appearance, but commissioned his three principal ministers to meet the Assyrian deputies at a conference outside the ...

Hezekiah did not make a personal appearance, but commissioned his three principal ministers to meet the Assyrian deputies at a conference outside the city walls.

JFB: 2Ki 18:18 - Eliakim Lately promoted to be master of the royal household (Isa 22:20).

Lately promoted to be master of the royal household (Isa 22:20).

JFB: 2Ki 18:18 - Shebna Removed for his pride and presumption (Isa 22:15) from that office, though still royal secretary.

Removed for his pride and presumption (Isa 22:15) from that office, though still royal secretary.

JFB: 2Ki 18:18 - Joah . . . the recorder That is, the keeper of the chronicles, an important office in Eastern countries.

That is, the keeper of the chronicles, an important office in Eastern countries.

JFB: 2Ki 18:19 - Rab-shakeh said The insolent tone he assumed appears surprising. But this boasting [2Ki 18:19-25], both as to matter and manner, his highly colored picture of his mas...

The insolent tone he assumed appears surprising. But this boasting [2Ki 18:19-25], both as to matter and manner, his highly colored picture of his master's powers and resources, and the impossibility of Hezekiah making any effective resistance, heightened by all the arguments and figures which an Oriental imagination could suggest, has been paralleled in all, except the blasphemy, by other messages of defiance sent on similar occasions in the history of the East.

JFB: 2Ki 18:27 - that they may eat, &c. This was designed to show the dreadful extremities to which, in the threatened siege, the people of Jerusalem would be reduced.

This was designed to show the dreadful extremities to which, in the threatened siege, the people of Jerusalem would be reduced.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:1 - Now - in the third year of Hoshea Now - in the third year of Hoshea - See the note on 2Ki 16:1 (note), where this chronology is considered.

Now - in the third year of Hoshea - See the note on 2Ki 16:1 (note), where this chronology is considered.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:3 - He did that which was right in the sight of the Lord He did that which was right in the sight of the Lord - In chap. 29 of the second book of Chronicles, we have an account of what this pious king did ...

He did that which was right in the sight of the Lord - In chap. 29 of the second book of Chronicles, we have an account of what this pious king did to restore the worship of God. He caused the priests and Levites to cleanse the holy house, which had been shut up by his father Ahaz, and had been polluted with filth of various kinds; and this cleansing required no less than sixteen days to accomplish it. As the passover, according to the law, must be celebrated the fourteenth of the first month, and the Levites could not get the temple cleansed before the sixteenth day, he published the passover for the fourteenth of the second month, and sent through all Judah and Israel to collect all the men that feared God, that the passover might be celebrated in a proper manner. The concourse was great, and the feast was celebrated with great magnificence. When the people returned to their respective cities and villages, they began to throw down the idol altars, statues, images, and groves, and even to abolish the high places; the consequence was that a spirit of piety began to revive in the land, and a general reformation took place.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:4 - Brake in pieces the brazen serpent Brake in pieces the brazen serpent - The history of this may be seen in Num 21:8 (note), Num 21:9 (note) We find that this brazen serpent had become...

Brake in pieces the brazen serpent - The history of this may be seen in Num 21:8 (note), Num 21:9 (note)

We find that this brazen serpent had become an object of idolatry, and no doubt was supposed to possess, as a telesm or amulet, extraordinary virtues, and that incense was burnt before it which should have been burnt before the true God

Clarke: 2Ki 18:4 - And he called it Nehushtan And he called it Nehushtan - נהשתן . Not one of the versions has attempted to translate this word. Jarchi says, "He called it Nechustan, throu...

And he called it Nehushtan - נהשתן . Not one of the versions has attempted to translate this word. Jarchi says, "He called it Nechustan, through contempt, which is as much as to say, a brazen serpent."Some have supposed that the word is compounded of נחש nachash , to divine, and תן tan , a serpent, so it signifies the divining serpent; and the Targum states that it was the people, not Hezekiah, that gave it this name. נחש nachash signifies to view, eye attentively, observe, to search, inquire accurately, etc.; and hence is used to express divination, augury. As a noun it signifies brass or copper, filth, verdigris, and some sea animal, Amo 9:3; see also Job 26:13, and Isa 26:1. It is also frequently used for a serpent; and most probably for an animal of the genus Simia, in Gen 3:1 (note), where see the notes. This has been contested by some, ridiculed by a few, and believed by many. The objectors, because it signifies a serpent sometimes, suppose it must have the same signification always! And one to express his contempt and show his sense, has said, "Did Moses hang up an ape on a pole?"I answer, No, no more than he hanged up you, who ask the contemptible question. But this is of a piece with the conduct of the people of Milan, who show you to this day the brazen serpent which Moses hung up in the wilderness, and which Hezekiah broke in pieces two thousand five hundred years ago

Of serpents there is a great variety. Allowing that נחש nachash signifies a serpent, I may ask in my turn, What kind of a serpent was it that tempted Eve? Of what species was that which Moses hung up on the pole, and which Hezekiah broke to pieces? Who of the wise men can answer these questions? Till this is done I assert, that the word, Gen 3:1, etc., does not signify a serpent of any kind; and that with a creature of the genus Simia the whole account best agrees.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:5 - He trusted in the Lord He trusted in the Lord - See the character of this good king 1.    He trusted in the Lord God of Israel 2.    He clave...

He trusted in the Lord - See the character of this good king

1.    He trusted in the Lord God of Israel

2.    He clave to the Lord

3.    He was steady in his religion; he departed not from following the Lord

4.    He kept God’ s commandments. And what were the consequences

1. The Lord was with him

2. He prospered whithersoever he went.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:8 - From the tower of the watchmen From the tower of the watchmen - See the same words, 2Ki 17:9 (note). It seems a proverbial mode of expression: he reduced every kind of fortificati...

From the tower of the watchmen - See the same words, 2Ki 17:9 (note). It seems a proverbial mode of expression: he reduced every kind of fortification; nothing was able to stand before him.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:9 - In the fourth year In the fourth year - This history has been already given, 2Ki 17:3, etc.

In the fourth year - This history has been already given, 2Ki 17:3, etc.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:17 - The king of Assyria sent Tartan, etc. The king of Assyria sent Tartan, etc. - Calmet has very justly remarked that these are not the names of persons, but of offices. Tartan, תרתן t...

The king of Assyria sent Tartan, etc. - Calmet has very justly remarked that these are not the names of persons, but of offices. Tartan, תרתן tartan or tantan , as in the parallel place in Isaiah, in the Greek version, signifies he who presides over the gifts or tribute; chancellor of the exchequer

Clarke: 2Ki 18:17 - Rabsaris Rabsaris - רב סריס, the chief of the eunuchs. Rab-shakeh, רב שקה master or chief over the wine cellar; or he who had the care of the k...

Rabsaris - רב סריס, the chief of the eunuchs. Rab-shakeh, רב שקה master or chief over the wine cellar; or he who had the care of the king’ s drink

Clarke: 2Ki 18:17 - From Lachish From Lachish - It seems as if the Assyrian troops had been worsted before Lachish, and were obliged to raise the siege, from which they went and sat...

From Lachish - It seems as if the Assyrian troops had been worsted before Lachish, and were obliged to raise the siege, from which they went and sat down before Libnah. While Sennacherib was there with the Assyrian army, he heard that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, had invaded the Assyrian territories. Being obliged therefore to hasten, in order to succor his own dominions, he sent a considerable force under the aforementioned officers against Jerusalem, with a most fearful and bloody manifesto, commanding Hezekiah to pay him tribute, to deliver up his kingdom to him, and to submit, he and his people, to be carried away captives into Assyria! This manifesto was accompanied with the vilest insults, and the highest blasphemies. God interposed and the evils threatened against others fell upon himself

Manifestoes of this kind have seldom been honorable to the senders. The conduct of Rab-shakeh was unfortunately copied by the Duke of Brunswick, commander-in-chief of the allied army of the center, in the French revolution, who was then in the plains of Champagne, August 27, 1792, at the head of ninety thousand men, Prussians, Austrians, and emigrants, on his way to Paris, which in his manifesto he threatened to reduce to ashes! This was the cause of the dreadful massacres which immediately took place. And shortly after this time the blast of God fell upon him, for in Sept. 20 of the same year, (three weeks after issuing the manifesto), almost all his army was destroyed by a fatal disease, and himself obliged to retreat from the French territories with shame and confusion. This, and some other injudicious steps taken by the allies, were the cause of the ruin of the royal family of France, and of enormities and calamities the most extensive, disgraceful, and ruinous, that ever stained the page of history. From all such revolutions God in mercy save mankind

Clarke: 2Ki 18:17 - Conduit of the upper pool Conduit of the upper pool - The aqueduct that brought the water from the upper or eastern reservoir, near to the valley of Kidron, into the city. Pr...

Conduit of the upper pool - The aqueduct that brought the water from the upper or eastern reservoir, near to the valley of Kidron, into the city. Probably they had seized on this in order to distress the city

Clarke: 2Ki 18:17 - The fuller’ s field The fuller’ s field - The place where the washermen stretched out their clothes to dry.

The fuller’ s field - The place where the washermen stretched out their clothes to dry.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:18 - Called to the king Called to the king - They wished him to come out that they might get possession of his person

Called to the king - They wished him to come out that they might get possession of his person

Clarke: 2Ki 18:18 - Eliakim - over the household Eliakim - over the household - What we would call lord chamberlain

Eliakim - over the household - What we would call lord chamberlain

Clarke: 2Ki 18:18 - Shebna the scribe Shebna the scribe - The king’ s secretary

Shebna the scribe - The king’ s secretary

Clarke: 2Ki 18:18 - Joah - the recorder Joah - the recorder - The writer of the public annals.

Joah - the recorder - The writer of the public annals.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:19 - What confidence is this What confidence is this - מה הבטחן הזה ma habbittachon hazzeh . The words are excessively insulting: What little, foolish, or unavailing...

What confidence is this - מה הבטחן הזה ma habbittachon hazzeh . The words are excessively insulting: What little, foolish, or unavailing cause of confidence is it, to which thou trustest? I translate thus, because I consider the word בטחון bittachon as a diminutive, intended to express the utmost contempt for Hezekiah’ s God.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:21 - The staff of this bruised reed The staff of this bruised reed - Egypt had already been greatly bruised and broken, through the wars carried on against it by the Assyrians.

The staff of this bruised reed - Egypt had already been greatly bruised and broken, through the wars carried on against it by the Assyrians.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:22 - Whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away Whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away - This was artfully malicious. Many of the people sacrificed to Jehovah on the high plac...

Whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away - This was artfully malicious. Many of the people sacrificed to Jehovah on the high places; Hezekiah had removed them, (2Ki 18:4), because they were incentives to idolatry: Rab-shakeh insinuates that by so doing he had offended Jehovah, deprived the people of their religious rights, and he could neither expect the blessing of God nor the cooperation of the people.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:23 - I will deliver thee two thousand horses I will deliver thee two thousand horses - Another insult: Were I to give thee two thousand Assyrian horses, thou couldst not find riders for them. H...

I will deliver thee two thousand horses - Another insult: Were I to give thee two thousand Assyrian horses, thou couldst not find riders for them. How then canst thou think that thou shalt be able to stand against even the smallest division of my troops?

Clarke: 2Ki 18:25 - Am I now come up without the Lord Am I now come up without the Lord - As Rab-shakeh saw that the Jews placed the utmost confidence in God, he wished to persuade them that by Hezekiah...

Am I now come up without the Lord - As Rab-shakeh saw that the Jews placed the utmost confidence in God, he wished to persuade them that by Hezekiah’ s conduct Jehovah had departed from them, and was become ally to the king of Assyria, and therefore they could not expect any help from that quarter.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:26 - Talk not with us in the Jews’ language Talk not with us in the Jews’ language - The object of this blasphemous caitiff was to stir up the people to sedition, that the city and the k...

Talk not with us in the Jews’ language - The object of this blasphemous caitiff was to stir up the people to sedition, that the city and the king might be delivered into his hand.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:27 - That they may eat their own dung That they may eat their own dung - That they may be duly apprised, if they hold on Hezekiah’ s side, Jerusalem shall be most straitly besieged,...

That they may eat their own dung - That they may be duly apprised, if they hold on Hezekiah’ s side, Jerusalem shall be most straitly besieged, and they be reduced to such a state of famine as to be obliged to eat their own excrements.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:28 - Hear the word of the great king - of Assyria Hear the word of the great king - of Assyria - This was all intended to cause the people to revolt from their allegiance to their king.

Hear the word of the great king - of Assyria - This was all intended to cause the people to revolt from their allegiance to their king.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:32 - Until I come and take you away Until I come and take you away - This was well calculated to stir up a seditious spirit. Ye cannot be delivered; your destruction, if ye resist, is ...

Until I come and take you away - This was well calculated to stir up a seditious spirit. Ye cannot be delivered; your destruction, if ye resist, is inevitable; Sennacherib will do with you, as he does with all the nations he conquers, lead you captive into another land: but if you will surrender without farther trouble, he will transport you into a land as good as your own.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:34 - Where are the gods of Hamath Where are the gods of Hamath - Sennacherib is greater than any of the gods of the nations. The Assyrians have already overthrown the gods of Hamath,...

Where are the gods of Hamath - Sennacherib is greater than any of the gods of the nations. The Assyrians have already overthrown the gods of Hamath, Arpad, Hena, and Ivah; therefore, Jehovah shall be like one of them, and shall not be able to deliver Jerusalem out of the hand of my master

The impudent blasphemy of this speech is without parallel. Hezekiah treated it as he ought: it was not properly against him, but against the Lord; therefore he refers the matter to Jehovah himself, who punishes this blasphemy in the most signal manner.

Clarke: 2Ki 18:36 - Answer him not Answer him not - The blasphemy is too barefaced; Jehovah is insulted, not you; let him avenge his own quarrel. See the succeeding chapter, 2 Kings 1...

Answer him not - The blasphemy is too barefaced; Jehovah is insulted, not you; let him avenge his own quarrel. See the succeeding chapter, 2 Kings 19 (note).

Clarke: 2Ki 18:37 - Then came Eliakim - and Shebna - and Joah - to Hezekiah with their clothes rent Then came Eliakim - and Shebna - and Joah - to Hezekiah with their clothes rent - It was the custom of the Hebrews, when they heard any blasphemy, t...

Then came Eliakim - and Shebna - and Joah - to Hezekiah with their clothes rent - It was the custom of the Hebrews, when they heard any blasphemy, to rend their clothes, because this was the greatest of crimes, as it immediately affected the majesty of God, and it was right that a religious people should have in the utmost abhorrence every insult offered to the object of their religious worship. These three ambassadors lay the matter before the king as God’ s representative; he lays it before the prophet, as God’ s minister; and the prophet lays it before God, as the people’ s mediator.

Defender: 2Ki 18:4 - brasen serpent The brasen serpent (Num 21:8, Num 21:9) was originally a symbol of sin judged and salvation given. Once it had served its purpose, however, it should ...

The brasen serpent (Num 21:8, Num 21:9) was originally a symbol of sin judged and salvation given. Once it had served its purpose, however, it should have been abandoned. Instead it eventually became an idol. This is the danger involved in too much emphasis on symbols rather than the realities they are intended to represent.

Defender: 2Ki 18:4 - Nehushtan The meaning of "Nehushtan" is "a piece of brass.""

The meaning of "Nehushtan" is "a piece of brass.""

Defender: 2Ki 18:5 - He trusted in the Lord God of Israel Hezekiah was arguably the most godly of all the kings of Judah, yet his father Ahaz was probably the most ungodly. Perhaps the testimony of his grandf...

Hezekiah was arguably the most godly of all the kings of Judah, yet his father Ahaz was probably the most ungodly. Perhaps the testimony of his grandfather, Jotham, or his great grandfather, Uzziah, influenced him toward Jehovah. More likely, he was pointed to the Lord by the prophet Isaiah, who was a frequent spokesman for God at the king's court."

Defender: 2Ki 18:17 - Rabshakeh These names are actually titles. Tartan, Rabsaris and Rabshakeh mean, respectively, "Tribute Officer," "Chief Eunuch" and "Chief Butler."

These names are actually titles. Tartan, Rabsaris and Rabshakeh mean, respectively, "Tribute Officer," "Chief Eunuch" and "Chief Butler."

Defender: 2Ki 18:17 - conduit of the upper pool Ironically (or providentially), this was the same location where Ahaz had received and then ignored, the testimony of the prophet Isaiah some thirty y...

Ironically (or providentially), this was the same location where Ahaz had received and then ignored, the testimony of the prophet Isaiah some thirty years before, even including the great promise of the coming virgin birth of the Messiah, Immanuel (Isa 7:3, Isa 7:10-14)."

TSK: 2Ki 18:1 - in the third // Hezekiah am 3278, bc 726 in the third : 2Ki 18:9, 2Ki 15:30, 2Ki 17:1 Hezekiah : 2Ki 16:20; 1Ch 3:13; 2Ch 28:27, 2Ch 29:1; Mat 1:9, Mat 1:10, Ezekias

am 3278, bc 726

in the third : 2Ki 18:9, 2Ki 15:30, 2Ki 17:1

Hezekiah : 2Ki 16:20; 1Ch 3:13; 2Ch 28:27, 2Ch 29:1; Mat 1:9, Mat 1:10, Ezekias

TSK: 2Ki 18:2 - Twenty and five years old // Abi Twenty and five years old : As Ahaz was 20 years old when he began to reign, and died when he had reigned 16 years, his whole age only amounted to 36 ...

Twenty and five years old : As Ahaz was 20 years old when he began to reign, and died when he had reigned 16 years, his whole age only amounted to 36 years; and as Hezekiah was, at least, entering on his 25th year when he began to reign, then Ahaz must have been under 12 years of age when his son was born! This is not at all impossible, and there are well-attested facts of men having children at as early a period, especially in eastern countries., am 3278-3306, bc 726-698

Abi : 2Ch 29:1, Abijah

TSK: 2Ki 18:3 - right in the sight // according right in the sight : 2Ki 20:3; Exo 15:26; Deu 6:18; 2Ch 31:20, 2Ch 31:21; Job 33:27; Psa 119:128; Rom 7:12; Eph 6:1 according : 2Ki 22:2; 1Ki 3:14, 1K...

TSK: 2Ki 18:4 - removed // brake // images // the brazen serpent // unto those days // Nehushtan removed : 2Ki 12:3, 2Ki 14:4, 2Ki 15:4, 2Ki 15:35; Lev 26:30; 1Ki 3:2, 1Ki 3:3, 1Ki 15:14, 1Ki 22:43; Psa 78:58; Eze 20:28, Eze 20:29 brake : 2Ki 23:4...

removed : 2Ki 12:3, 2Ki 14:4, 2Ki 15:4, 2Ki 15:35; Lev 26:30; 1Ki 3:2, 1Ki 3:3, 1Ki 15:14, 1Ki 22:43; Psa 78:58; Eze 20:28, Eze 20:29

brake : 2Ki 23:4; Deu 7:5, Deu 12:2, Deu 12:3; Jdg 6:25, Jdg 6:28; 1Ki 15:12, 1Ki 15:13; 2Ch 19:3, 2Ch 31:1; 2Ch 33:3

images : Heb. statues

the brazen serpent : Num 21:8, Num 21:9; Joh 3:14, Joh 3:15

unto those days : 2Ki 16:15

Nehushtan : That is, a piece of brass.

TSK: 2Ki 18:5 - trusted // after him trusted : 2Ki 19:10; 2Ch 32:7, 2Ch 32:8; Job 13:15; Psa 13:5, Psa 27:1, Psa 27:2, Psa 46:1, Psa 46:2, Psa 84:12; Psa 146:5, Psa 146:6; Jer 17:7, Jer 1...

TSK: 2Ki 18:6 - he clave // from following him // kept he clave : None of the kings of Judah, from the time of the division of the kingdom, equalled Hezekiah in the stedfastness and simplicity of his depen...

he clave : None of the kings of Judah, from the time of the division of the kingdom, equalled Hezekiah in the stedfastness and simplicity of his dependence upon the Lord; in which he aspired to an equality with his progenitor David, who had reigned over the whole land. Even Asa, through weakness of faith, sought the assistance of a heathen prince; and Jehoshaphat formed an alliance with idolatrous Ahab; but Hezekiah clave to the Lord, in entire confidence and unreserved obedience, to the end of his life. Deu 10:20; Jos 23:8; Act 11:23

from following him : Heb. from after him

kept : 2Ki 17:13, 2Ki 17:16, 2Ki 17:19; Jer 11:4; Joh 14:15, Joh 14:21, Joh 15:10, Joh 15:14; 1Jo 5:3

TSK: 2Ki 18:7 - And the Lord // he prospered // rebelled And the Lord : Gen 21:22, Gen 39:2, Gen 39:3; 1Sa 18:14; 2Ch 15:2; Psa 46:11, Psa 60:12; Mat 1:23; Mat 28:20; Act 7:9, Act 7:10 he prospered : Gen 39:...

TSK: 2Ki 18:8 - the Philistines // Gaza // from the tower the Philistines : 1Ch 4:41; 2Ch 28:18; Isa 14:29 Gaza : Heb. Azzah from the tower : 2Ki 17:9; 2Ch 26:10; Isa 5:2

the Philistines : 1Ch 4:41; 2Ch 28:18; Isa 14:29

Gaza : Heb. Azzah

from the tower : 2Ki 17:9; 2Ch 26:10; Isa 5:2

TSK: 2Ki 18:9 - the fourth year // Shalmaneser am 3281, bc 723 the fourth year : 2Ki 18:1, 2Ki 17:4-6 Shalmaneser : 2Kings 17:3-23; Hos 10:14, Shalman

am 3281, bc 723

the fourth year : 2Ki 18:1, 2Ki 17:4-6

Shalmaneser : 2Kings 17:3-23; Hos 10:14, Shalman

TSK: 2Ki 18:10 - they took it am 3283, bc 721 they took it : Hos 13:16; Amo 3:11-15, Amo 4:1-3, Amo 6:7, Amo 9:1-4; Mic 1:6-9, Mic 6:16, Mic 7:13

am 3283, bc 721

they took it : Hos 13:16; Amo 3:11-15, Amo 4:1-3, Amo 6:7, Amo 9:1-4; Mic 1:6-9, Mic 6:16, Mic 7:13

TSK: 2Ki 18:11 - the king // Halah the king : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 19:11; 1Ch 5:26; Isa 7:8, Isa 8:4, Isa 9:9-21, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:11, Isa 37:12; Hos 8:8, Hos 8:9; Hos 9:3; Amo 5:1-3, Amo 5:6,...

the king : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 19:11; 1Ch 5:26; Isa 7:8, Isa 8:4, Isa 9:9-21, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:11, Isa 37:12; Hos 8:8, Hos 8:9; Hos 9:3; Amo 5:1-3, Amo 5:6, Amo 5:25-27; Act 7:43

Halah : It is thought, with much probability, that Halah, or Chalach, is Ptolemy’ s Calachene, the northern part of Assyria; that Habor, or Chabor, is the mountain or mountainous country, between Media and Assyria, called by Ptolemy, Χαβωρας , Chaboras; and that Gozan is Gauzanitis of Ptolemy, situated between that mountain and the Caspian sea, and between the two channels of the river Cyrus.

TSK: 2Ki 18:12 - they obeyed not // Moses they obeyed not : 2Kings 17:7-23; Deu 8:20, Deu 11:28, Deu 29:24-28, Deu 31:17; Neh 9:17, Neh 9:26, Neh 9:27; Psa 107:17; Isa 1:19; Jer 3:8, Jer 7:23;...

TSK: 2Ki 18:13 - the fourteenth // Sennacherib // come up am 3291, bc 713 the fourteenth : 2Chr. 32:1-23; Isa. 36:1-22 Sennacherib : Heb. Sanherib come up : Isa 7:17-25, Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8, Isa 10:5; Hos 12:1, ...

am 3291, bc 713

the fourteenth : 2Chr. 32:1-23; Isa. 36:1-22

Sennacherib : Heb. Sanherib

come up : Isa 7:17-25, Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8, Isa 10:5; Hos 12:1, Hos 12:2

TSK: 2Ki 18:14 - I have offended I have offended : 2Ki 18:7; 1Ki 20:4; Pro 29:25; Luk 14:32

I have offended : 2Ki 18:7; 1Ki 20:4; Pro 29:25; Luk 14:32

TSK: 2Ki 18:15 - -- 2Ki 12:18, 2Ki 16:8; 1Ki 15:15, 1Ki 15:18, 1Ki 15:19; 2Ch 16:2

TSK: 2Ki 18:16 - gold // it gold : 1Ki 6:31-35; 2Ch 29:3 it : Heb. them

gold : 1Ki 6:31-35; 2Ch 29:3

it : Heb. them

TSK: 2Ki 18:17 - the king // Tartan // great // the conduit of the upper pool am 3294, bc 710 the king : 2Ch 32:9; Isa 20:1, Isa 36:2 Tartan : Calmet remarks, that these are not the names of persons, but of offices: Tartan s...

am 3294, bc 710

the king : 2Ch 32:9; Isa 20:1, Isa 36:2

Tartan : Calmet remarks, that these are not the names of persons, but of offices: Tartan signifies ""he who presides over gifts or tribute;""Rabsaris , ""the chief of the eunuchs;""and Rabshakeh , ""the chief cup-bearer."

great : Heb. heavy

the conduit of the upper pool : If the Fuller’ s field were near En-Rogel, or the Fuller’ s fountain, east of Jerusalem, as is generally supposed, then the conduit of the upper pool may been an aqueduct that brought the water from the upper or eastern reservoir of that fountain, which had been seized in order to distress the city. 2Ki 20:20; Isa 7:3, Isa 22:9-11, Isa 36:2

TSK: 2Ki 18:18 - Eliakim // Shebna // the scribe // the recorder Eliakim : 2Ki 19:2; Isa 22:20-24, Isa 36:3, Isa 36:22, Isa 37:2 Shebna : Isa 22:15-19 the scribe : or, secretary, 2Sa 8:17 *marg. the recorder : 2Sa 8...

Eliakim : 2Ki 19:2; Isa 22:20-24, Isa 36:3, Isa 36:22, Isa 37:2

Shebna : Isa 22:15-19

the scribe : or, secretary, 2Sa 8:17 *marg.

the recorder : 2Sa 8:16, 2Sa 20:24; 1Ki 4:3; 2Ch 34:8

TSK: 2Ki 18:19 - Rabshakeh // Thus saith // What confidence Rabshakeh : He was the chief speaker, being a very eloquent man, and, according to the Hebrews, whom Procopius follows, an apostate Jew; which is not ...

Rabshakeh : He was the chief speaker, being a very eloquent man, and, according to the Hebrews, whom Procopius follows, an apostate Jew; which is not improbable, as he spoke Hebrew so fluently; and when he blasphemed the Divine Majesty, the king and nobles rent their clothes, which was usual unless the blasphemer were an Israelite.

Thus saith : 2Ch 32:10; Isa 10:8-14, Isa 36:4, Isa 37:13; Dan 4:30

What confidence : 2Ki 18:22, 2Ki 18:29, 2Ki 18:30, 2Ki 19:10; 2Ch 32:7, 2Ch 32:8, 2Ch 32:10, 2Ch 32:11, 2Ch 32:14-16; Psa 4:2; Isa 36:4, Isa 36:7, Isa 37:10

TSK: 2Ki 18:20 - sayest // vain words // rebellest sayest : or, talkest vain words : Heb. word of the lips, I have counsel and strength for the war. or, but counsel and strength are for the war. Pro 2...

sayest : or, talkest

vain words : Heb. word of the lips, I have counsel and strength for the war. or, but counsel and strength are for the war. Pro 21:30, Pro 21:31

rebellest : 2Ki 18:14

TSK: 2Ki 18:21 - trustest // the staff // upon Egypt // so is Pharaoh trustest : Heb. trustest thee the staff : Isa 36:6; Eze 29:6, Eze 29:7 upon Egypt : Isa 30:2, Isa 30:7, Isa 31:1-3 so is Pharaoh : 2Ki 17:4; Jer 46:17

trustest : Heb. trustest thee

the staff : Isa 36:6; Eze 29:6, Eze 29:7

upon Egypt : Isa 30:2, Isa 30:7, Isa 31:1-3

so is Pharaoh : 2Ki 17:4; Jer 46:17

TSK: 2Ki 18:22 - We trust // whose high places We trust : 2Ki 18:5; Dan 3:15; Mat 27:43 whose high places : 2Ki 18:4; 2Ch 31:1, 2Ch 32:12; Isa 36:7; 1Co 2:15

We trust : 2Ki 18:5; Dan 3:15; Mat 27:43

whose high places : 2Ki 18:4; 2Ch 31:1, 2Ch 32:12; Isa 36:7; 1Co 2:15

TSK: 2Ki 18:23 - pledges // I will deliver pledges : Heb. hostages I will deliver : 1Sa 17:42, 1Sa 17:44; 1Ki 20:10, 1Ki 20:18; Neh 4:2-5; Psa 123:3, Psa 123:4; Isa 10:13, Isa 10:14; Isa 36:8, ...

TSK: 2Ki 18:24 - How then // thy trust // chariots How then : Isa 10:8; Dan 2:37, Dan 2:38, Dan 4:22, Dan 4:37 thy trust : 2Ki 18:21; Deu 17:16; Isa 31:1, Isa 31:3, Isa 36:6, Isa 36:9; Jer 37:7, Jer 42...

TSK: 2Ki 18:25 - Amos I now Amos I now : 2Ki 19:6, 22-37; 1Ki 13:18; 2Ch 35:21; Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6; Amo 3:6; Joh 19:10, Joh 19:11

TSK: 2Ki 18:26 - Speak // in the Syrian language Speak : Perceiving that the object of this blasphemous caitiff was to stir up the people to sedition, they mildly and reasonably required him to make ...

Speak : Perceiving that the object of this blasphemous caitiff was to stir up the people to sedition, they mildly and reasonably required him to make his proposals in the Syrian language.

in the Syrian language : Ezr 4:7; Isa 36:11, Isa 36:12; Dan 2:4

TSK: 2Ki 18:27 - eat // their own piss eat : 2Ki 6:25; Deu 28:53-57; Psa 73:8; Lam 4:5; Eze 4:13, Eze 4:15 their own piss : Heb. the water of their feet

eat : 2Ki 6:25; Deu 28:53-57; Psa 73:8; Lam 4:5; Eze 4:13, Eze 4:15

their own piss : Heb. the water of their feet

TSK: 2Ki 18:28 - Rabshakeh // the king of Assyria Rabshakeh : 2Ch 32:18; Isa 36:13-18 the king of Assyria : 2Ki 18:19; Ezr 7:12; Psa 47:2; Isa 10:8-13; Eze 29:3, Eze 31:3-10; Rev 19:6

TSK: 2Ki 18:29 - saith // Let not saith : Psa 73:8, Psa 73:9 Let not : 2Ch 32:11, 2Ch 32:15; Dan 3:15-17, Dan 6:16; Joh 19:10, Joh 19:11; 2Th 2:4, 2Th 2:8

TSK: 2Ki 18:30 - make you // this city make you : 2Ki 18:22; 2Ki 19:10, 2Ki 19:22; Psa 4:2, Psa 11:1, Psa 22:7, Psa 22:8, Psa 71:9, Psa 71:11, Psa 125:1, Psa 125:2; Mat 27:43; Luk 23:35 thi...

TSK: 2Ki 18:31 - Make an agreement with me // eat ye // cistern Make an agreement with me : or, Seek my favour, Heb. Make with me a blessing, Gen 32:20, Gen 33:11; Pro 18:16 eat ye : 1Ki 4:20, 1Ki 4:25; Zec 3:10 ci...

Make an agreement with me : or, Seek my favour, Heb. Make with me a blessing, Gen 32:20, Gen 33:11; Pro 18:16

eat ye : 1Ki 4:20, 1Ki 4:25; Zec 3:10

cistern : or, pit

TSK: 2Ki 18:32 - I come // like your own // persuadeth I come : 2Ki 18:11, 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 17:23, 2Ki 24:14-16, 2Ki 25:11 like your own : Exo 3:8; Num 13:26, Num 13:27, Num 14:8; Deu 8:7-9, Deu 11:12, Deu 32...

TSK: 2Ki 18:33 - Hath any Hath any : 2Ki 19:12, 2Ki 19:13, 2Ki 19:17, 2Ki 19:18; 2Ch 32:14-17, 2Ch 32:19; Isa 10:10, Isa 36:18-20

TSK: 2Ki 18:34 - the gods // Hamath // Arpad // the gods // have they delivered the gods : 2Ki 19:13; Num 13:21; 2Sa 8:9; Jer 49:23 Hamath : Hamath, there is little doubt, was the Epiphania of the Greeks, as Josephus, Theodoret, a...

the gods : 2Ki 19:13; Num 13:21; 2Sa 8:9; Jer 49:23

Hamath : Hamath, there is little doubt, was the Epiphania of the Greeks, as Josephus, Theodoret, and Jerome, expressly assert. It was a celebrated city of Syria, situated on the Orontes, and the present Hamah doubtless occupies its site; as Abulfeda, who was prince or emir of Hamah about ad 1345, expressly states, in his Description of Syria, that Hamah is an ancient city mentioned in the writings of the Israelites. It is still a considerable town, situated on both sides of the Orontes, about three days’ journey and a half from Tripoli; and must contain, Burckhardt says, at least 30,000 inhabitants.

Arpad : Arpad is probably the town of Arphas, mentioned by Josephus as limiting the province of Gamalitis, Gaulanitis, Batanea, and Trachonitis, to the ne; and the Raphan, or Raphanea, which Stephanus places near Epiphania.

the gods : 2Ki 17:24-33, Ava, Isa 36:18, Isa 36:19, Isa 37:11, Isa 37:12, Isa 37:18, Isa 37:19

have they delivered : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 17:23, 2Ki 17:24, 2Ki 17:30, 2Ki 17:31, 2Ki 19:12, 2Ki 19:13

TSK: 2Ki 18:35 - Who are // that the Lord Who are : 2Ki 19:17; Dan 3:15 that the Lord : Exo 5:2; 2Ch 32:15; Job 15:25, Job 15:26; Isa 10:15, Isa 37:23-29

TSK: 2Ki 18:36 - held their peace held their peace : Psa 38:13, Psa 38:14, Psa 39:1; Pro 9:7, Pro 26:4; Amo 5:13; Mat 7:6

TSK: 2Ki 18:37 - with their clothes rent with their clothes rent : 2Ki 5:7, 2Ki 22:11, 2Ki 22:19; Gen 37:29, Gen 37:34; Job 1:20; Isa 33:7, Isa 36:21, Isa 36:22; Jer 36:24; Mat 26:65

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 2Ki 18:1 - In the third year In the third year in the third of those nine years mentioned 2Ki 17:1 , of which see there. See 2Ki 18:10 .

In the third year in the third of those nine years mentioned 2Ki 17:1 , of which see there. See 2Ki 18:10 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:2 - Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign // Answ Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign How is this credible? For then Ahaz, who lived but six and thirty years, 2Ki 16:2 , must bege...

Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign How is this credible? For then Ahaz, who lived but six and thirty years, 2Ki 16:2 , must beget Hezekiah at the eleventh year of his age.

Answ 1. There are some like instances mentioned by credible authors; which these very men will not deny, who are so ready to quarrel with the Holy Scriptures for such matters.

2. This being the confessed custom of sacred and other writers, in the numbering of years, sometimes to omit, and sometimes to add, those which are imperfect or unfinished; and so Ahaz might be near one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and near seventeen years older when he died. And on the other side, Hezekiah, when he began to reign, might be only four and twenty years old complete, and but entered into his five and twentieth year. And thus Ahaz might be between thirteen and fourteen years old when he got Hezekiah; which is not at all strange, especially in that nation, to which God had promised a singular degree of fruitfulness, and in that house of David, to which God had made so many and such great promises.

3. It is not certain that Ahaz lived only thirty six years; for those sixteen years which he reigned, 2Ki 17:2 , may be computed, not from the first beginning of his reign, when he reigned with his father, (of which See Poole "2Ki 15:30" ,) which was at the twentieth year of his age, but from the beginning of his reign alone.

4. Some affirm that Hezekiah was not the natural, but only the legal son and successor of Ahaz; for the name of son is given in Scripture to such persons; as 1Ch 3:16 , compared with 2Ki 24:17 Mat 1:12 , compared with Jer 22:30 ; and to adopted sons, Act 7:21 Heb 11:24 ; and to sons-in-law, 1Sa 24:16 26:17 Luk 3:23 . Any of these solutions are far more credible to any man of common prudence, than that these sacred books, whose Divine original hath been so fully evidenced both by God and men, are but the fictions and contrivances of a base impostor. And if none of these solutions were sufficient, it is absurd to conclude that a true resolution cannot be found because it is not yet found; because it is manifest, that many difficulties, both in Scripture and in the arts, which were formerly judged insoluble, have been cleared in later times; and therefore we may justly expect the resolution of other difficulties, which may be thought not yet fully explained. Abi , or Abijah , 2Ch 29:1 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:4 - He removed the high places // The brazen serpent that Moses had made // The children of Israel did burn incense to it // He called it Nehushtan He removed the high places i.e. the most of them, or such as the people most frequented; for all were not taken away, 2Ki 23:13,14 . And this he atte...

He removed the high places i.e. the most of them, or such as the people most frequented; for all were not taken away, 2Ki 23:13,14 . And this he attempted to do, notwithstanding the people’ s great and constant affection to them; partly because he had more zeal and courage than his predecessors; and partly because thee dreadful judgments of God upon the kingdom of Israel for their superstition and idolatry had made the people of Judah more pliable to the commands of God, and of their good king.

The brazen serpent that Moses had made by God’ s command, to be an ordinance or mean for the conveyance of God’ s blessing to the people; which therefore had been hitherto kept as a memorial of God’ s mercy; but being now commonly abused to superstition, was destroyed.

The children of Israel did burn incense to it not doubtless as to a god, but only as to an instrument and token of God’ s mercy, by and through which their adoration was directed to God, and given to that only for God’ s sake.

He called it Nehushtan i.e. he said, This serpent, howsoever formerly honoured, and used by God as a sign of his grace, yet now it is nothing but a piece of brass, which can do you neither good nor hurt; and therefore is no fit object for your worship.

Poole: 2Ki 18:5 - He trusted in the Lord God of Israel // Nor any that were before him // Object // Answ He trusted in the Lord God of Israel without calling in foreign and heathenish succours to stablish or help him; which his father Ahaz did, 2Ki 16:7 ...

He trusted in the Lord God of Israel without calling in foreign and heathenish succours to stablish or help him; which his father Ahaz did, 2Ki 16:7 Isa 7 ; and before him Asa, 1Ki 15:18,19 , with reflection upon whom this seems to be noted.

Nor any that were before him to wit, of the kings of Judah only; for David and Solomon were kings of all Israel.

Object. The like is said of Josiah, 2Ki 23:25 .

Answ Each of them excelled the other in several qualities or actions: Hezekiah in this, that he fell upon this work with great expedition, even in the beginning of his reign, which Josiah did not, 2Ki 22:1,3 ; and with no less resolution, undertaking to do that which none of his predecessors durst do, even to remove the high places, wherein Josiah did only follow his example, 2Ki 23 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:6 - Departed not from following him Departed not from following him in the general course of his life and especially in the matters of God’ s worship.

Departed not from following him in the general course of his life and especially in the matters of God’ s worship.

Poole: 2Ki 18:7 - he rebelled // and he served him not He shook off that yoke of subjection and tribute to which his father had wickedly submitted, 2Ki 16:7 , and reassumed that full and independent sove...

He shook off that yoke of subjection and tribute to which his father had wickedly submitted, 2Ki 16:7 , and reassumed that full and independent sovereignty which God had settled in the house of David, which Ahaz could not alienate further than for his own time. And Hezekiah’ s case differs much from that of Zedekiah, who is blamed for rebellion against the king of Babylon, both because he had engaged himself to him by a solemn oath and covenant, which we do not read of Ahaz; and because he broke the covenant which he himself had made; and because God had actually given the dominion of his own land and people to the king of Babylon, and commanded both Zedekiah and his people to submit to him. And whereas Hezekiah is here said to rebel , that word implies only a defection from that subjection which had been professed and performed to another: which sometimes may be justly done, and sometimes may not; and therefore that word doth not necessarily prove this action to be a sin. And these words,

he rebelled & c., are explained by the next following words,

and he served him not And that it was not a sin in him seems most probable because God did own and assist him therein; and did not at all reprove him for it in that message which he sent to him by Isaiah about this matter, 2Ki 19:20 , &c., nor afterwards, though he did particularly reprove him for that which might seem a less fault, for his vain-glory and ostentation, 2Ch 32:25,26 . For what he saith, I have offended , See Poole "2Ki 18:14" .

Poole: 2Ki 18:8 - He smote the Philistines // From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city He smote the Philistines and recovered from them what his father had lost, 2Ch 28:18 , and more. From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city ...

He smote the Philistines and recovered from them what his father had lost, 2Ch 28:18 , and more.

From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city of which phrase See Poole "2Ki 17:9" .

Poole: 2Ki 18:9 - The seventh year of Hoshea The seventh year of Hoshea the seventh of those nine years expressed 2Ki 17:1 .

The seventh year of Hoshea the seventh of those nine years expressed 2Ki 17:1 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:10 - At the end of three years At the end of three years to wit, of the siege, i.e. in the third year, as this phrase is used, Deu 14:28 Jos 9:16,17 Jer 34:14 , compared with Exo 2...

At the end of three years to wit, of the siege, i.e. in the third year, as this phrase is used, Deu 14:28 Jos 9:16,17 Jer 34:14 , compared with Exo 21:2 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:11 - -- Of which See Poole "2Ki 17:6" .

Of which See Poole "2Ki 17:6" .

Poole: 2Ki 18:12 - All that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded All that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded: they began with one sin, the worship of the calves; but from thence they were led by degrees into t...

All that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded: they began with one sin, the worship of the calves; but from thence they were led by degrees into the violation of all the other commands; although indeed that one sin made them in some sort guilty of the breach of the whole law, Jam 2:10 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:13 - Sennacherib // Come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them Sennacherib the son or successor of Shalmaneser. Come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them i.e. against many of them; universal...

Sennacherib the son or successor of Shalmaneser.

Come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them i.e. against many of them; universal particles being frequently so used, both in Scripture and other authors; for that all were not taken appears from 2Ki 19:8 . And his success God gave him, partly, to lift him up to his own greater and more shameful destruction; partly, to humble and chastise his own people for their manifold sins, and afterwards to raise them up with more comfort and glory; and partly, to gain an eminent opportunity to advance his own honour and service by that miraculous deliverance which he designed for his people.

Poole: 2Ki 18:14 - I have offended I have offended to wit, against thee, i.e. I have given thee occasion of warring against me, whereof I now repent. Or his ill success might make him ...

I have offended to wit, against thee, i.e. I have given thee occasion of warring against me, whereof I now repent. Or his ill success might make him think that he had sinned against God in this action, and might make him willing to submit to him, though God graciously prevented it. Of a talent of gold see on Exo 25:39 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:16 - Which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid Which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid so repairing the injury which his father had done to them, and putting them into the same condition in whic...

Which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid so repairing the injury which his father had done to them, and putting them into the same condition in which Solomon left them, 1Ki 6:32 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:17 - The king of Assyria sent The king of Assyria sent having received the money, upon which he agreed to depart from Hezekiah and his land, 2Ki 18:16 . He breaks his faith with H...

The king of Assyria sent having received the money, upon which he agreed to depart from Hezekiah and his land, 2Ki 18:16 . He breaks his faith with Hezekiah, thereby justifying Hezekiah’ s rebellion, and preparing the way for his own approaching destruction.

Poole: 2Ki 18:18 - When they had called the king // Eliakim the son of Hilkiah // Over the household // Shebna the scribe When they had called the king i.e. sent a message to him to come or send to treat with them. Eliakim the son of Hilkiah of whom see Isa 22:20 , &c....

When they had called the king i.e. sent a message to him to come or send to treat with them.

Eliakim the son of Hilkiah of whom see Isa 22:20 , &c.

Over the household Heb. over the house ; either of God; or rather, of the king here mentioned; as appears from Isa 22 .

Shebna the scribe so called to distinguish him from an other Shebna who was over the house, Isa 22:15 .

Poole: 2Ki 18:20 - Thou sayest // But they are but vain words // Counsel and strength for the war // on whom // dost thou trust? Thou sayest either to thy people, to encourage them; or rather, within thyself. But they are but vain words or, surely , or, only words of the li...

Thou sayest either to thy people, to encourage them; or rather, within thyself.

But they are but vain words or, surely , or, only words of the lips , i.e. vain, unprofitable, idle talk, without any effect; or they come not from thy heart; thou speakest this against thy own knowledge.

Counsel and strength for the war counsel to contrive, strength or courage to execute; which two things are of greatest necessity and use for war. But the words are and may be rendered otherwise; either this, thou speakest surely words of the lips , i.e. thou encouragest thyself and thy people with talk and words; but counsel and strength are for war , are necessary for thy defence; neither of which thou hast within thyself, but must seek them from others; and where wilt thou find them?

on whom (as it follows)

dost thou trust? Or thus, Thou sayest , I have the word of my lips , (either,

1. Words wherewith to pray to God for help; or,

2. Eloquence to encourage my soldiers and people,) counsel and strength for war ; i.e. I am furnished with all things necessary for my defence. On whom dost thou trust ? seeing it is apparent thou hast not strength of thy own, from whom dost thou expect succours?

Poole: 2Ki 18:21 - This bruised reed // It will go into his hand, and pierce it // Unto all that trust on him This bruised reed he calls Egypt a reed, with allusion to the reeds wherewith the banks of Nilus were full; and bruised, to note their weakness and i...

This bruised reed he calls Egypt a reed, with allusion to the reeds wherewith the banks of Nilus were full; and bruised, to note their weakness and insufficiency to support him. Compare Eze 29:6,7 .

It will go into his hand, and pierce it by some of the fragments into which it will be broken.

Unto all that trust on him doing them no good, but much hurt.

Poole: 2Ki 18:22 - Whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away Whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away thereby robbing him of that worship and service which he had in those places. Thus boldly...

Whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away thereby robbing him of that worship and service which he had in those places. Thus boldly he speaks of these things which he understood not, judging of the great God by their false and petty gods; and judging of God’ s worship according to the vain fancies of the heathens, who measured piety by the multitude of altars.

Poole: 2Ki 18:23 - Give pledges to my lord Give pledges to my lord i.e. give him hostages to secure him from thy future rebellion, and he will depart from thee. Or rather, contend with my lor...

Give pledges to my lord i.e. give him hostages to secure him from thy future rebellion, and he will depart from thee. Or rather, contend with my lord in battle ; seeing thou hast counsel and strength for war, do not lie lurking in thy strong hold, but come out into the open field, and let us try for mastery; and whereas thou mayest pretend thou wantest horses to fight with me, if thou wilt accept of my challenge, I will furnish thee with two thousand horses, if thou hast riders for them; as it here follows.

Poole: 2Ki 18:24 - -- How wilt thou force him to turn his back to thee, and flee away from thee?

How wilt thou force him to turn his back to thee, and flee away from thee?

Poole: 2Ki 18:25 - Without the Lord // The Lord said unto me Without the Lord without his consent and commission. The Lord said unto me to wit, by secret inspiration, or by his providence. But indeed he neith...

Without the Lord without his consent and commission.

The Lord said unto me to wit, by secret inspiration, or by his providence. But indeed he neither owned God’ s word, nor regarded his providence; but he forged this, to strike a terror into Hezekiah and the people.

Poole: 2Ki 18:26 - -- Upon which these officers stood; not being willing to put themselves into the power of such a barbarous and perfidious enemy, by going out of the ci...

Upon which these officers stood; not being willing to put themselves into the power of such a barbarous and perfidious enemy, by going out of the city.

Poole: 2Ki 18:27 - -- To tell them to what extremities and miseries he will force them.

To tell them to what extremities and miseries he will force them.

Poole: 2Ki 18:28 - In the Jews’ language In the Jews’ language that he might affright the people into a compliance with him, which he perceived Eliakim and his brethren endeavour to pr...

In the Jews’ language that he might affright the people into a compliance with him, which he perceived Eliakim and his brethren endeavour to prevent.

Poole: 2Ki 18:31 - Make an agreement with me by a present // Then eat ye every man of his own vine Make an agreement with me by a present to redeem yourselves from all the calamities of a close siege, and that death which certainly will follow on t...

Make an agreement with me by a present to redeem yourselves from all the calamities of a close siege, and that death which certainly will follow on them. Or, procure , or purchase a blessing from me, i.e. a blessed peace; whereby you may be delivered out of your distressed and cursed condition, and receive from me the blessings of protection and provision, which your king cannot give you.

Then eat ye every man of his own vine upon these terms I will give you no disturbance, but quietly suffer each of you to enjoy his own possessions.

Poole: 2Ki 18:32 - Like your own land Like your own land i.e. a fruitful and pleasant land. Because he could not conceal from them his intentions of transplanting them into another land, ...

Like your own land i.e. a fruitful and pleasant land. Because he could not conceal from them his intentions of transplanting them into another land, which he had already discovered in his dealing with the Israelites, and other nations, he assures them they shall be no losers by it; and shall only change their place, but not their condition and comforts; which they should enjoy in that land, no less than in their own.

Poole: 2Ki 18:34 - Hamath and Arpad // Sepharvaim // Hena and Ivah // Have they delivered Samaria? Hamath and Arpad of which see Jer 49:23 . Sepharvaim of which see 2Ki 17:21 . Hena and Ivah the names, either, 1. Of idol gods. But why should o...

Hamath and Arpad of which see Jer 49:23 .

Sepharvaim of which see 2Ki 17:21 .

Hena and Ivah the names, either,

1. Of idol gods. But why should only these two be named, and not the gods of the other places here mentioned? Or rather,

2. Of cities or countries, as is manifest from 2Ki 19:13 , where those words are repeated among other places, whose kings are there mentioned, and where they are rendered, of Hena and Ivah , as they should be here also, the words in the Hebrew being the very same.

Have they delivered Samaria? i.e.

1. Either the gods here mentioned, which, together with other idols, were worshipped in Samaria. Or,

2. Their gods; which is easily understood from the foregoing words.

Poole: 2Ki 18:36 - The people // Answer him not The people i.e. either these three men, this word being sometimes used of a very few men, as 1Sa 9:24 . Or rather, the people that were with then upo...

The people i.e. either these three men, this word being sometimes used of a very few men, as 1Sa 9:24 . Or rather, the people that were with then upon the wall, 2Ki 18:26 , to whom he spake, and from whom he expected an answer.

Answer him not which was wisely ordered, partly lest by their words they should either betray their fears, or provoke their enemies to greater injuries or blasphemies, or give them some advantage or direction for their further proceedings; and partly that by this instance of obedience and calmness he might see the resolution of the people to cleave unto their king, and the vanity of his attempts to seduce them to a defection from him.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:1 - Emath // Arphad // Of Ana // Ana // Samaria Emath, Emesa. --- Arphad, or Arad, an island and city on the continent, (Calmet) near Tyre. --- Of Ana, &c. , "of," is not expressed in the Vulga...

Emath, Emesa. ---

Arphad, or Arad, an island and city on the continent, (Calmet) near Tyre. ---

Of Ana, &c. , "of," is not expressed in the Vulgate, (Haydock) and it may be explained as if Ana and Ava were idols of Sepharvaim. (Menochius) ---

But they are commonly supposed to be cities. (Haydock) ---

Ana is probably a city (Du Hamel) built on both sides of the Euphrates, four days' journey from Bagdat. Isaias does not specify these cities in the parallel passage, but they are found in the letter addressed to Ezechias, Isaias xxxvii. 13. ---

Samaria, or the inhabitants who had come from distant parts, and had perhaps revolted. We do not however find the Sennacherib had conquered them, nor does the pretend that all these conquests were made by himself. (Calmet) ---

He gives part of the honour to his ancestors, chap. xix. 12., and 2 Paralipomenon xxxii. 13. But he asserts that all the gods of the respective countries of Samaria, &c., had yielded to his superior force. (Haydock) ---

Strange infatuation in a man who looked upon the idols as gods! They are in effect nothing, 1 Corinthians viii. 4. But as their votaries were of a different persuasion, ought they not to have acted and spoken consistently? Yet Suetonius (Caius, c. 5.) informs us, that "on the day when Germanicus died, the temples were stoned, the altars of the gods overturned, the domestic lares thrown out by some into the open air;" all to express their grief and indignation at the gods, for not preserving his life. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:1 - Third Third, far advanced, as he was associated by his father in the last year of his reign, (Calmet) or three years before its termination. (Du Hamel)

Third, far advanced, as he was associated by his father in the last year of his reign, (Calmet) or three years before its termination. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:3 - Good Good; opening the temple, celebrating the Passover with extraordinary magnificence, &c. He had invited people from all Israel, and at their return t...

Good; opening the temple, celebrating the Passover with extraordinary magnificence, &c. He had invited people from all Israel, and at their return they broke many statues. Ezechias provided for the subsistence of the Levitical tribe, by ordering the laws to be put in execution in their favour, 2 Paralipomenon xxix., and xxx.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:4 - Groves // Nohestan Groves. The people were now more obedient, being terrified at the chastisement of Israel, (Calmet) though Samaria was not taken till the sixth year ...

Groves. The people were now more obedient, being terrified at the chastisement of Israel, (Calmet) though Samaria was not taken till the sixth year of this good king; who carried his reform rather than most of his predecessors, (Haydock) in destroying the high places which had been unlawfully (Calmet) retained, as consecrated to the true God. See ver. 22. (Haydock) ---

Yet Josias had still some to remove. (Menochius) ---

Nohestan; that is, their brass, or a little brass. So he called it in comtempt, because they had made a god of it. (Challoner) ---

Before, this image had been treated with due respect. When any relic or image becomes the occasion of abuse in the Catholic Church, it is thus taken away, or the error is otherwise corrected. See St. Augustine, City of God x. 8., Ser. 14., de Verb. Ap., &c. (Worthington) ---

Some of the ancients assert, that Ezechias suppressed many books of Solomon, on account of similar abuses. But this seems not to be well attested. We know that he made a collection of some of some of his sentences, Proverbs xxv. 1.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:5 - Like him Like him. Ezechias was remarkable for many excellent qualities. Yet we must not push these comparisons too far, contrary to the intention of the sa...

Like him. Ezechias was remarkable for many excellent qualities. Yet we must not push these comparisons too far, contrary to the intention of the sacred writers. The same eulogium is given to Josias, (chap. xxiii. 25.) and David seems to be preferred, chap. xix. 34. These three are particularly commended, Ecclesiasticus xlix. 5. (Calmet) ---

Their virtues were certainly different in some respects. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:7 - Wisely // Rebelled Wisely. Hebrew, "with success." Syriac, &c., "he was victorious wherever he went." --- Rebelled. The Assyrian assumed an undue authority in cons...

Wisely. Hebrew, "with success." Syriac, &c., "he was victorious wherever he went." ---

Rebelled. The Assyrian assumed an undue authority in consequence of the words of Achaz, (chap. xvi. 7.) and arrogated to himself the authority of doing what he pleased with the people, ver. 32. Ezechias having formed various alliances, judged it necessary to make some resistance. Yet the prophet Isaias (xxx. 1.) complains of his applying to the Egyptians. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:8 - City City. Thus he punished them for their late invasion, 2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 18.

City. Thus he punished them for their late invasion, 2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 18.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:9 - Samaria Samaria. The same history is given, chap. xvii. 3. (Calmet)

Samaria. The same history is given, chap. xvii. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:11 - By the rivers By the rivers. Gozan was the name of the river, as above; (Haydock) so that Salien suspects it should be fluvii, "of the river." (Menochius)

By the rivers. Gozan was the name of the river, as above; (Haydock) so that Salien suspects it should be fluvii, "of the river." (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:13 - Sennacherib's // Offended // Gold Sennacherib's expedition in Egypt and Asia are mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 141.) and Berosus, (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 1.) but they do not say th...

Sennacherib's expedition in Egypt and Asia are mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 141.) and Berosus, (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 1.) but they do not say that he passed farther then Pelusium, (Calmet) the frontier on the Egyptian side of Palestine. (Haydock) ---

These expeditions might have been performed in less than eight months, during the 14th year of Ezechias, who fell sick, perhaps soon after the ruin of Sennacherib's army, chap. xx. 1. Isaias (x. 28.) represents the Assyrian proceeding from Gabaa towards Egypt, and thence he ascended to attack the cities of Juda, (ver. 25.) Manresa, (Micheas i. 15.) &c. While he was before Lachis, Ezechias, dreading the horrors of war, purchased a peace: but the tyrant soon after sent to require him to surrender at discretion; and in the mean time he went to besiege Lebna, where his envoys found him, having received no answer from the king of Juda. The haughty Assyrian being obliged to go to meet the king of Chus, sent insolent letters to Ezechias; but the latter was assured that all his menaces were to be despised, and on the same night that Sennacherib left Lebna, the angel destroyed 185,000 of his men. It is thought that the siege of Lachis did not take place till three years after Sennacherib had come into Palestine, and after he had spent that time in attacking Egypt, chap. xix. 24. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 2., and 3.) ---

He attempted afterwards to take the southern cities of Juda, in order to cut off all communication with Egypt; as Nabuchodonosor, Holofernes, and Eupator probably intended to do, Jeremias xxiv. 7., Judith vi., and vii., and 1 Machabees vi. 31. (Calmet) ---

Offended, and been imprudent. (Menochius) ---

Gold, so that the value of each was equal. (Du Hamel) ---

Josephus reads, "or thirty," as if that quantity of gold would suffice. (Haydock) ---

The talent contains 3000 sicles. (Menochius) ---

The heart of Ezechias fainted at the approach of so great an army, though he had before made the greatest preparations, chap. xx. 2., 2 Paralipomenon xxxii. 5., and Ecclesiasticus xlviii. 19. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:16 - On them On them. All must go to meet the exigencies of the state. (Grotius, Jur. ii. 5.) --- The doors of temples and palaces were frequently adorned with...

On them. All must go to meet the exigencies of the state. (Grotius, Jur. ii. 5.) ---

The doors of temples and palaces were frequently adorned with the most precious metals, as Homer describes the palace of Alcinous; (Odyssey; Haydock) and Tavernier (vii. 12.) speaks of some mosques in Persia, the doors of which are covered with plates of silver. See Josephus, Jewish Wars vi. 6.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:17 - Tharthan // Field Tharthan, or Thathania, (1 Esdras v. 3.) and in the Greek of Isaias xx. 1., means "the president of tributes," or presents. The two other names de...

Tharthan, or Thathania, (1 Esdras v. 3.) and in the Greek of Isaias xx. 1., means "the president of tributes," or presents. The two other names denote "the chief eunuch," and "the chief butler," and are not proper names. These officers were sent at the head of a strong army to Jerusalem. ---

Field, by the torrent Cedron, to the east. There they defied the king, or perhaps endeavoured to persuade him to come out, that they might seize his person. (Calmet) They came in a military capacity, rather than as ambassadors.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:18 - House // Scribe // Recorder House. Josephus says, "procurator of the palace or kingdom." (Haydock) --- The house often refers to the temple, when placed without any explana...

House. Josephus says, "procurator of the palace or kingdom." (Haydock) ---

The house often refers to the temple, when placed without any explanation, Isaias xxii. 15. (Calmet) ---

Eliacim was prefect of the prætorium, (Salien) or grand master of the palace. He was richly dressed, and possessed a great authority over the people. ---

Scribe. See Judges viii. 14. This Sobna, according to St. Jerome, is different from the one who was over the house in the days of Manasses, before Eliacim was restored to his office, (Calmet) unless he also was a different person. (Tirinus) ---

The Jews say Sobna was deprived of his dignity, on account of his having betrayed the lower city to Sennacherib. See Isaias xxii. 21. ---

Recorder, or chancellor, &c., 2 Kings viii. 16. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:20 - Counsel Counsel. Hebrew, "Thou sayest ( but they are but vain words) I have counsel and strength for the war." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- You have vain...

Counsel. Hebrew, "Thou sayest ( but they are but vain words) I have counsel and strength for the war." (Protestants) (Haydock) ---

You have vainly boasted. (Calmet) ---

Isaias xxvi. 5. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:21 - Pierce it Pierce it. He alludes to the reeds which grow on the Nile. See Delrio, adag. 210. Egypt had been already greatly harassed in the expedition of Sen...

Pierce it. He alludes to the reeds which grow on the Nile. See Delrio, adag. 210. Egypt had been already greatly harassed in the expedition of Sennacherib, so that no succour could be expected thence. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:22 - Jerusalem Jerusalem. Many were perhaps displeased at this injunction, and Rabsaces endeavoured to excite them to revolt, and insinuates (Calmet) that the king...

Jerusalem. Many were perhaps displeased at this injunction, and Rabsaces endeavoured to excite them to revolt, and insinuates (Calmet) that the king had made God his enemy, (Haydock) and must expect punishment from him. (Theodoret, in Isaias xxxvi. 5.) He perhaps was ignorant that these altars were contrary to his law. (Menochius) ---

Yet the Jews say that Rabsaces was son of Isaias, (ap. St. Jerome, bib.) or a Samaritan.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:23 - Over Over. Josephus insinuates that it is a challenge to fight, and that Rabsaces was so confident of victory, that he made this contemptuous proposal, (...

Over. Josephus insinuates that it is a challenge to fight, and that Rabsaces was so confident of victory, that he made this contemptuous proposal, (Haydock) knowing that the subjects of Ezechias were not good horsemen, (Calmet) or that they were comparatively (Haydock) so few in number. (Menochius) ---

Hebrew, "agree, or give pledges to my master."

Haydock: 2Ki 18:25 - Destroy Destroy. Prosperity renders a man insolent, and the passions blind him. Rabsaces interprets success to be a sure proof of the divine approbation, a...

Destroy. Prosperity renders a man insolent, and the passions blind him. Rabsaces interprets success to be a sure proof of the divine approbation, and thus attempts to justify all the excesses of his master. (Calmet) ---

God only used Sennacherib as a rod to chastise his people. (Menochius) ---

The most wicked often represent themselves as the executioners of God's will, and attribute their ambition to his decrees. (Haydock) ---

God did not order the Assyrians to destroy the land: he rather threatened to destroy them, Isaias xxxvii., and 2 Paralipomenon xxxii. (Worthington)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:26 - Syriac Syriac, or Chaldean language, which was spoken at the Assyrian court, 1 Esdras iv. 7., and Daniel ii. 4. Rabsaces was acquainted with both the langu...

Syriac, or Chaldean language, which was spoken at the Assyrian court, 1 Esdras iv. 7., and Daniel ii. 4. Rabsaces was acquainted with both the languages; as the Jews say he was an apostate, which they infer from this passage, and from the legates tearing their clothes when they heard him blaspheme; as t hey pretend this was only done when blasphemy came from the mouth of an Israelite. (Grotius) ---

But these reasons are very weak. (Calmet) ---

The like was practised when any thing terrifying was heard, ver. 37. (Haydock) ---

The reasons why the legates desire Rabsaces not to speak in a language which the common soldiers understood, was to prevent them from shewing their indignation by shooting at him, or out of fear, lest they should be induced to cause some sedition. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:27 - With you With you. Insolent bravado! whence some have inferred the probability of pigeons' dung being really eaten, chap. vi. 25. (Calmet) --- Rabsaces thr...

With you. Insolent bravado! whence some have inferred the probability of pigeons' dung being really eaten, chap. vi. 25. (Calmet) ---

Rabsaces threatens them with all the horrors of famine, so that they shall eat such things, if they refuse to give up the city. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:29 - My My. Hebrew and Vatican Septuagint, "his (Sennacherib's) hand." But the other reading of the Syriac, &c., is more natural. These words do not occur...

My. Hebrew and Vatican Septuagint, "his (Sennacherib's) hand." But the other reading of the Syriac, &c., is more natural. These words do not occur [in] Isaias xxxvi. 14.

Haydock: 2Ki 18:31 - Advantage Advantage. Hebrew, "make a blessing," or present. (Calmet) --- Chaldean and Syriac, "peace."

Advantage. Hebrew, "make a blessing," or present. (Calmet) ---

Chaldean and Syriac, "peace."

Haydock: 2Ki 18:32 - Till // Deliver us Till. Sennacherib will remove you to another country, but it will be as good as this. He requires you to surrender at discretion. (Calmet) --- De...

Till. Sennacherib will remove you to another country, but it will be as good as this. He requires you to surrender at discretion. (Calmet) ---

Deliver us. This will not be in his power, no more than it was in that of the other tutelary gods. (Menochius) ---

Infidels and heretics are very foolish thus to compare their delusions with God, and his holy religion. (Worthington)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:36 - The people The people. The three legates, (Calmet) Isaias xxxvi. 21. And they held their peace. (Haydock)

The people. The three legates, (Calmet) Isaias xxxvi. 21. And they held their peace. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 18:37 - Rent Rent, as was customary on such dismal occasions. Joakim is reprehended for not shewing this mark of consternation, when he heard the dreadful predic...

Rent, as was customary on such dismal occasions. Joakim is reprehended for not shewing this mark of consternation, when he heard the dreadful predictions of Jeremias, xxxvi. 24. (Calmet)

Gill: 2Ki 18:1 - Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel // that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz king of Judah began to reign Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel,.... That is, in the third year of his rebelling against the king of Assyri...

Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel,.... That is, in the third year of his rebelling against the king of Assyria, when he shook off his yoke, and refused to be tributary to him any longer, see 2Ki 17:1,

that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz king of Judah began to reign; having finished the account of the kingdom of Israel, and the captivity of the people, the historian returns to the kingdom of Judah, and the things of it.

Gill: 2Ki 18:2 - Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign // and he reigned twenty and nine years in Jerusalem // his mother's name also was Abi the daughter of Zachariah Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign,.... Now as Ahaz his father began to reign at twenty, and reigned sixteen, he must die at thir...

Twenty and five years old was he when he began to reign,.... Now as Ahaz his father began to reign at twenty, and reigned sixteen, he must die at thirty six; so that this son of his must be born to him when at eleven years of age, for only so many years there be between twenty five and thirty six, which may seem wonderful; but, as Grotius observes, Hezekiah had now entered into the twenty fifth year, and he might be just turned of twenty four, and so his father might be twelve years of age at his birth: besides, as it is usual for the divine historian to take away or add the incomplete years of kings, Ahaz might be near twenty one when he began to reign, and might reign almost seventeen, which makes the age of Ahaz to be about thirty eight; and Hezekiah being but little more than twenty four, at his death there were thirteen or near fourteen years difference in their age, and which was an age that need not be thought incredible for begetting of children. Bochart f and others g have given many instances of children begotten by persons under that age, even at ten years of age h: four years after his birth, the famous city of Rome began to be founded i, A. M. 3256, and before Christ 748, as commonly received, though it is highly probable it was of a more early date; according to Dionysius Halicarnassensis, it was founded in the first year of the seventh Olympaid, in the times of Ahaz, A. M. 3118 k:

and he reigned twenty and nine years in Jerusalem; so that he reigned twenty three years or more after the captivity of the ten tribes:

his mother's name also was Abi the daughter of Zachariah; perhaps the daughter of the same that was taken by Isaiah for a witness, Isa 8:3 who very probably was a very good woman, and took care to give her son a religious education, though he had so wicked a father.

Gill: 2Ki 18:3 - And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that David his father did. And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that David his father did. Some of the kings of Judah, that were better tha...

And he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, according to all that David his father did. Some of the kings of Judah, that were better than some others, are said to do that which was right, but not like David; or they did as he did, but not according to all that he did, as is here said of Hezekiah.

Gill: 2Ki 18:4 - He removed the high places // and broke the images, and cut down the groves // and brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made // for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it // and he called it Nehushtan He removed the high places,.... Which the best of the kings of Judah never attempted, and which is observed of them to their discredit: and broke t...

He removed the high places,.... Which the best of the kings of Judah never attempted, and which is observed of them to their discredit:

and broke the images, and cut down the groves; the idols his father set up and served, 2Ki 16:4, groves and idols in them, were early instances of idolatry; See Gill on Jdg 3:7, and their use for temples are still continued, not only among some Indian nations l, but among some Christians in the northern parts of Europe m:

and brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; which he made in the wilderness, and which was brought by the children of Israel with them into the land of Canaan, and was kept as a memorial of the miracle wrought by looking to it, being laid up in some proper place where it had been preserved to this day:

for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it not from the time it was brought into Canaan, nor even in later times, in the days of Asa and Jehoshaphat, who would never have suffered it; very probably this piece of idolatry began in the times of Ahaz, who encouraged everything of that kind: for this serpent they had a great veneration, being made by Moses, and a means in his time of healing the Israelites; and they imagined it might be of some service to them, in a way of mediation to God; and worthy of worship, having some degree of divinity, as Kimchi and Ben Gersom; but Laniado n excuses them from all show of idolatry, and supposes what they did was for the honour of God only; hence sprung the heresy of the Ophites, according to Theodoret:

and he called it Nehushtan; perceiving they were ensnared by it, and drawn into idolatry to it, by way of contempt he called it by this name, which signifies "brass"; suggesting that it was only a mere piece of brass, had no divinity in it, and could be of no service to them in divine things; and, that it might no longer be a snare to them, he broke it into pieces; and, as the Jews o say, ground it to powder, and scattered it to every wind, that there might be no remains of it.

Gill: 2Ki 18:5 - He trusted in the Lord God of Israel // so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah // nor any that were before him He trusted in the Lord God of Israel,.... To be his protector and defender, and had no dependence on idols as an arm of flesh; the Targum is, he trust...

He trusted in the Lord God of Israel,.... To be his protector and defender, and had no dependence on idols as an arm of flesh; the Targum is, he trusted in the Word of the Lord God; not in Nehushtan, but in him the brasen serpent was a type of, even in the Word and Son of God, his alone Saviour and Redeemer:

so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah: for though Josiah was like him in some things, yet not in all:

nor any that were before him; from the times of the division of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; and Ben Gersom and Abarbinel think that David and Solomon are not to be excepted; David sinning in the case of Uriah, and Solomon falling into idolatry, crimes that Hezekiah was not guilty of.

Gill: 2Ki 18:6 - For he clave to the Lord // and departed not from following him // but kept his commandments, which the Lord commanded Moses For he clave to the Lord,.... To his worship and service; to the fear of the Lord, as the Targum: and departed not from following him; from his wor...

For he clave to the Lord,.... To his worship and service; to the fear of the Lord, as the Targum:

and departed not from following him; from his worship, as the same paraphrase:

but kept his commandments, which the Lord commanded Moses; both moral, ceremonial, and judicial.

Gill: 2Ki 18:7 - And the Lord was with him // and he prospered whithersoever he went forth // and he rebelled against the king of Assyria // and served him not And the Lord was with him,.... The Word of the Lord was for his help, as the Targum: and he prospered whithersoever he went forth; that is, to war:...

And the Lord was with him,.... The Word of the Lord was for his help, as the Targum:

and he prospered whithersoever he went forth; that is, to war:

and he rebelled against the king of Assyria: which is explained in the next clause:

and served him not; he refused to be his servant, as his father Ahaz had been, 2Ki 16:7, to which he was not obliged by any agreement of his; and, if it was in his power, might lawfully shake off his yoke, which is all that is meant by rebelling against him; he refused to be tributary to him.

Gill: 2Ki 18:8 - He smote the Philistines even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof // from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city He smote the Philistines even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof,.... Who in his father's time had invaded Judah, and taken many cities and towns in i...

He smote the Philistines even unto Gaza, and the borders thereof,.... Who in his father's time had invaded Judah, and taken many cities and towns in it, which Hezekiah now recovered, and drove them to their own territories, of which Gaza was one; see 2Ch 28:18.

from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city; that is, places both great and small, cities, towns, and villages; of this phrase, see 2Ki 17:9.

Gill: 2Ki 18:9 - And it came to pass in the fourth year of King Hezekiah // which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel // that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it And it came to pass in the fourth year of King Hezekiah,.... In the beginning of it: which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israe...

And it came to pass in the fourth year of King Hezekiah,.... In the beginning of it:

which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel: the beginning of his seventh:

that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it; see 2Ki 17:5.

Gill: 2Ki 18:10 - And at the end of three years they took it And at the end of three years they took it,.... That is, at the first end of them, at the beginning, in which sense the phrase is taken in Deu 15:1, e...

And at the end of three years they took it,.... That is, at the first end of them, at the beginning, in which sense the phrase is taken in Deu 15:1, even in the sixth year of Hezekiah, that is, the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken: see 2Ki 17:6.

Gill: 2Ki 18:11 - And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria,.... Of the places he disposed of them in, after mentioned; see Gill on 2Ki 17:6.

And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria,.... Of the places he disposed of them in, after mentioned; see Gill on 2Ki 17:6.

Gill: 2Ki 18:12 - Because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord // but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded // and would not hear them, nor do them Because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord,.... In his law, and by his prophets: but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant o...

Because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord,.... In his law, and by his prophets:

but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded; which evils are at large insisted on in the preceding chapter as the cause of their captivity:

and would not hear them, nor do them; contrary to the agreement of their fathers at Sinai, who promised to do both, Exo 24:3.

Gill: 2Ki 18:13 - Now in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah // did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them Now in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah,.... Eight years after the captivity of Israel: did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the...

Now in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah,.... Eight years after the captivity of Israel:

did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them; many of them, the frontier towns, and proceeded as far as Lachish; ambitious of enlarging his dominions, his father having subdued the kingdom of Israel, and being also provoked by Hezekiah's refusing to pay him tribute. Mention is made of this king by name, by Herodotus and other Heathen writers, see the note on Isa 36:1 in the Apocryha:"Now when Enemessar was dead, Sennacherib his son reigned in his stead; whose estate was troubled, that I could not go into Media.'' (Tobit 1:15)he is called Sennacherib, and is said to be son of Enemassat, that is, Shalmaneser; however, he succeeded him in his kingdom; though some o take him to be the same with Shalmaneser: he is said by Metasthenes p to reign seven years, and was succeeded by Assaradon, who, according to him, reigned ten years.

Gill: 2Ki 18:14 - And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish // saying, I have offended // return from me // that which thou puttest on me I will bear // and the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver, and thirty talents of gold And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish,.... A city in the tribe of Judah, about twenty miles from Jerusalem, towards the so...

And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish,.... A city in the tribe of Judah, about twenty miles from Jerusalem, towards the southwest q; which the king of Assyria was now besieging, 2Ch 32:9 at first Hezekiah made provision to defend himself, and encouraged his people not to be afraid of the king of Assyria, 2Ch 32:1, but understanding he had taken his fortified cities, and made such progress with his arms, he was disheartened, and sent an embassy to him to sue for peace; judging it more advisable to buy it than to expose his capital to a siege; in which he betrayed much weakness and distrust of the power and providence of God:

saying, I have offended; not the Lord, but the king of Assyria by rebelling against him, or refusing to pay the yearly tribute to him; he owned he had acted imprudently, and had given him, just occasion to invade his land:

return from me; from his land, from proceeding to Jerusalem, which he seemed to have a design upon, and go back to his own country with his army, and make no further conquests:

that which thou puttest on me I will bear; what mulct or fine he should lay upon him, or tribute he should impose upon him, or whatever he should demand of him, he would submit to:

and the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver, and thirty talents of gold; to be paid to him directly; which, according to Brerewood r, amounted to 247,500 pounds.

Gill: 2Ki 18:15 - And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's house. And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's house. To make up the three hundred t...

And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's house. To make up the three hundred talents of silver, for which purpose he exhausted both, which had been done more than once before by the kings of Judah; these were their resources in times of distress; see 2Ki 12:18.

Gill: 2Ki 18:16 - At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the Lord // and from the pillars which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid // and gave it to the king of Assyria At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the Lord,.... The plates of gold with which they were covered; or scraped o...

At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the Lord,.... The plates of gold with which they were covered; or scraped off the gold from them, as the Targum interprets it:

and from the pillars which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid: or the posts, as the Targum, the lintel or side posts of the doors of the temple; which though covered in Solomon's time, the gold was worn off, or had been taken off by Ahaz, but was renewed by Hezekiah; and who, in this time of distress, thought he might take it off again, no doubt with a full purpose to replace it, when he should be able. This is one of the three things the Talmudic writers s disapprove of in Hezekiah:

and gave it to the king of Assyria; to make up the thirty talents of gold he demanded.

Gill: 2Ki 18:17-37 - And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris, and Rabshakeh from Lachish to King Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris, and Rabshakeh from Lachish to King Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem,.... Notwithstanding...

And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris, and Rabshakeh from Lachish to King Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem,.... Notwithstanding he took the above large sum of money of him, so false and deceitful was he: these were three generals of his army, whom he sent to besiege Jerusalem, while he continued the siege of Lachish; only Rabshakeh is mentioned in Isa 36:2 he being perhaps chief general, and the principal speaker; whose speech, to the end of this chapter, intended to intimidate Hezekiah, and dishearten his people, with some circumstances which attended it, are recorded word for word in Isa 36:1 throughout; See Gill on Isa 36:1 and notes on that chapter.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:2 The parallel passage in 2 Chr 29:1 has “Abijah.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:3 Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord, according to all which David his father had done.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:4 In Hebrew the name sounds like the phrase נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשׁ&#...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:5 Heb “and after him there was none like him among all the kings of Judah, and those who were before him.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:6 Heb “had commanded.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:7 Heb “and did not serve him.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:8 See the note at 2 Kgs 17:9.

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:9 For location see Map2 B1; Map4 D3; Map5 E2; Map6 A4; Map7 C1.

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:11 The Hebrew text has simply “Israel” as the object of the verb.

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:12 Heb “all that Moses, the Lord’s servant, had commanded, and they did not listen and they did not act.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:14 The Hebrew term כִּכָּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When use...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:15 Heb “that was found.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:16 Heb “At that time Hezekiah stripped the doors of the Lord’s temple, and the posts which Hezekiah king of Judah had plated.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:17 Heb “the field of the washer.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:19 Heb “What is this object of trust in which you are trusting?”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:20 Heb “you say only a word of lips, counsel and might for battle.” Sennacherib’s message appears to be in broken Hebrew at this point....

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:23 Heb “exchange pledges.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:24 Heb “How can you turn back the face of an official [from among] the least of my master’s servants and trust in Egypt for chariots and hors...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:25 In v. 25 the chief adviser develops further the argument begun in v. 22. He claims that Hezekiah has offended the Lord and that the Lord has commissio...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:26 Or “Hebrew.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:27 The chief adviser alludes to the horrible reality of siege warfare, when the starving people in the besieged city would resort to eating and drinking ...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:28 The Hebrew text also has, “and he spoke and said.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:29 The MT has “his hand,” but this is due to graphic confusion of vav (ו) and yod (י). The translation reads “my hand,̶...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:31 Heb “make with me a blessing and come out to me.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:33 Heb “Have the gods of the nations really rescued, each his land, from the hand of the king of Assyria?” The infinitive absolute lends emph...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:34 Heb “that they rescued Samaria from my hand?” But this gives the impression that the gods of Sepharvaim were responsible for protecting Sa...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:35 Heb “that the Lord might rescue Jerusalem from my hand?” The logic runs as follows: Since no god has ever been able to withstand the Assyr...

NET Notes: 2Ki 18:37 As a sign of grief and mourning.

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:3 And he did [that which was] ( a ) right in the sight of the LORD, according to all that David his father did. ( a ) Although they of Judah were given...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:4 He removed the high places, and brake the images, and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brasen serpent that Moses had made: for unto those ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:8 He smote the Philistines, [even] unto Gaza, and the borders thereof, ( c ) from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city. ( c ) Read (2Ki 17:9).

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:14 And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying, ( d ) I have offended; return from me: that which thou puttest on me will I...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:17 And the king of Assyria sent ( e ) Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:20 Thou sayest, (but [they are but] vain words,) [I have] ( f ) counsel and strength for the war. Now on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest agains...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:21 Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, [even] upon ( g ) Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:22 But if ye say unto me, We trust in the LORD our God: [is] not that he, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath ( h ) taken away, and hath sai...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:23 Now therefore, I pray thee, give ( i ) pledges to my lord the king of Assyria, and I will deliver thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy par...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:25 Am I now come up without the ( k ) LORD against this place to destroy it? The LORD said to me, Go up against this land, and destroy it. ( k ) The wic...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:32 Until ( l ) I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of oil olive and of ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 18:35 Who [are] they among all the gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of mine hand, that the ( m ) LORD should deliver Jerusalem o...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 2Ki 18:1-8 - --Hezekiah was a true son of David. Some others did that which was right, but not like David. Let us not suppose that when times and men are bad, they m...

MHCC: 2Ki 18:9-16 - --The descent Sennacherib made upon Judah, was a great calamity to that kingdom, by which God would try the faith of Hezekiah, and chastise the people. ...

MHCC: 2Ki 18:17-37 - --Rabshakeh tries to convince the Jews, that it was to no purpose for them to stand it out. What confidence is this wherein thou trustest? It were well ...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 18:1-8 - -- We have here a general account of the reign of Hezekiah. It appears, by comparing his age with his father's, that he was born when his father was ab...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 18:9-16 - -- The kingdom of Assyria had now grown considerable, though we never read of it till the last reign. Such changes there are in the affairs of nations ...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 18:17-37 - -- Here is, I. Jerusalem besieged by Sennacherib's army, 2Ki 18:17. He sent three of his great generals with a great host against Jerusalem. Is this th...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 18:1-8 - -- 2Ki 18:1-2 Length and character of Hezekiah's reign. (Note: On comparing the account of Hezekiah's reign given in our books (2 Kings 18-20) wit...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 18:9-12 - -- In 2Ki 18:9-12 the destruction of the kingdom of the ten tribes by Salmanasar, which has already been related according to the annals of the kingdom...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 18:13-37 - -- Sennacherib invades Judah and threatens Jerusalem. (Note: We have a parallel and elaborate account of this campaign of Sennacherib and his defeat ...

Constable: 2Ki 9:30--18:1 - --C. The Second Period of Antagonism 9:30-17:41 The kingdoms of Israel and Judah continued without an alli...

Constable: 2Ki 18:1--25:30 - --III. THE SURVIVING KINGDOM chs. 18--25 In this third major section of 1 and 2 Kings the writer showed that the c...

Constable: 2Ki 18:1--20:21 - --A. Hezekiah's Good Reign chs. 18-20 The writer of Kings devoted more attention to Hezekiah than to any H...

Constable: 2Ki 18:1-12 - --1. Hezekiah's goodness 18:1-12 Hezekiah began reigning as his father Ahaz's vice-regent in 729 B...

Constable: 2Ki 18:13-37 - --2. Sennacherib's challenge to Hezekiah 18:13-37 Samaria's conqueror, Shalmaneser V, died in 722 ...

Guzik: 2Ki 18:1-37 - Hezekiah's Reign; Assyria's Threat 2 Kings 18 - Hezekiah's Reign; Assyria's Threat A. The righteous reign of Hezekiah. 1. (1-2) Hezekiah reigns over Judah for 29 years. Now it came ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF KINGS, in the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, constitute one book. Various titles have been given them; in the Septu...

JFB: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) MOAB REBELS. (2Ki 1:1) AHAZIAH'S JUDGMENT BY ELIJAH. (2Ki 1:2-8) ELIJAH BRINGS FIRE FROM HEAVEN ON AHAZIAH'S MESSENGERS. (2Ki 1:9-16) AHAZIAH DIES, A...

TSK: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) The events detailed in these books (Kings) are highly interesting and important. The account of the wisdom, magnificence, and extended commerce of So...

TSK: 2 Kings 18 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 2Ki 18:1, Hezekiah’s good reign; 2Ki 18:4, He destroys idolatry, and prospers; 2Ki 18:9, The inhabitants of Samaria are carried captive...

Poole: 2 Kings 18 (Pendahuluan Pasal) KINGS CHAPTER 18 Hezekiah king over Judah, his good reign: he is not afraid of the king of Assyria, and overcometh the Philistines, 2Ki 18:1-8 . Sa...

MHCC: 2 Kings 18 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (2Ki 18:1-8) Good reign of Hezekiah in Judah, Idolatry. (2Ki 18:9-16) Sennacherib invades Judah. (v. 17-37) Rabshakeh's blasphemies.

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Kings This second book of the Kings (which the Septuagint, numbering from Samuel, ca...

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings 18 (Pendahuluan Pasal) When the prophet had condemned Ephriam for lies and deceit he comforted himself with this, that Judah yet " ruled with God, and was faithful with t...

Constable: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Second Kings continues the narrative begun in 1 Kings. It opens with the translation of godly Elijah to hea...

Constable: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) Outline (Continued from notes on 1 Kings) 3. Ahaziah's evil reign in Israel -1 Kings 22:51-2...

Constable: 2 Kings 2 Kings Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. "An Interpretation of the Babylonian Exile: A Study of 2 Kings 20, Isaia...

Haydock: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FOURTH BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This Book brings us to the conclusion of the kingdom of Israel, (chap. xvii.) and to the captivity of ...

Gill: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 2 KINGS This, and the preceding book, are properly but one book divided into two parts, because of the size of it, as the book of S...

Gill: 2 Kings 18 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO 2 KINGS 18 This chapter begins with the good reign of Hezekiah king of Judah, the reformation he made in the kingdom, and the prosp...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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