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Teks -- Acts 28:1-31 (NET)

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Paul on Malta
28:1 After we had safely reached shore, we learned that the island was called Malta. 28:2 The local inhabitants showed us extraordinary kindness, for they built a fire and welcomed us all because it had started to rain and was cold. 28:3 When Paul had gathered a bundle of brushwood and was putting it on the fire, a viper came out because of the heat and fastened itself on his hand. 28:4 When the local people saw the creature hanging from Paul’s hand, they said to one another, “No doubt this man is a murderer! Although he has escaped from the sea, Justice herself has not allowed him to live!” 28:5 However, Paul shook the creature off into the fire and suffered no harm. 28:6 But they were expecting that he was going to swell up or suddenly drop dead. So after they had waited a long time and had seen nothing unusual happen to him, they changed their minds and said he was a god. 28:7 Now in the region around that place were fields belonging to the chief official of the island, named Publius, who welcomed us and entertained us hospitably as guests for three days. 28:8 The father of Publius lay sick in bed, suffering from fever and dysentery. Paul went in to see him and after praying, placed his hands on him and healed him. 28:9 After this had happened, many of the people on the island who were sick also came and were healed. 28:10 They also bestowed many honors, and when we were preparing to sail, they gave us all the supplies we needed.
Paul Finally Reaches Rome
28:11 After three months we put out to sea in an Alexandrian ship that had wintered at the island and had the “Heavenly Twins” as its figurehead. 28:12 We put in at Syracuse and stayed there three days. 28:13 From there we cast off and arrived at Rhegium, and after one day a south wind sprang up and on the second day we came to Puteoli. 28:14 There we found some brothers and were invited to stay with them seven days. And in this way we came to Rome. 28:15 The brothers from there, when they heard about us, came as far as the Forum of Appius and Three Taverns to meet us. When he saw them, Paul thanked God and took courage. 28:16 When we entered Rome, Paul was allowed to live by himself, with the soldier who was guarding him.
Paul Addresses the Jewish Community in Rome
28:17 After three days Paul called the local Jewish leaders together. When they had assembled, he said to them, “Brothers, although I had done nothing against our people or the customs of our ancestors, from Jerusalem I was handed over as a prisoner to the Romans. 28:18 When they had heard my case, they wanted to release me, because there was no basis for a death sentence against me. 28:19 But when the Jews objected, I was forced to appeal to Caesar– not that I had some charge to bring against my own people. 28:20 So for this reason I have asked to see you and speak with you, for I am bound with this chain because of the hope of Israel.” 28:21 They replied, “We have received no letters from Judea about you, nor have any of the brothers come from there and reported or said anything bad about you. 28:22 But we would like to hear from you what you think, for regarding this sect we know that people everywhere speak against it.” 28:23 They set a day to meet with him, and they came to him where he was staying in even greater numbers. From morning until evening he explained things to them, testifying about the kingdom of God and trying to convince them about Jesus from both the law of Moses and the prophets. 28:24 Some were convinced by what he said, but others refused to believe. 28:25 So they began to leave, unable to agree among themselves, after Paul made one last statement: “The Holy Spirit spoke rightly to your ancestors through the prophet Isaiah 28:26 when he said, ‘Go to this people and say, “You will keep on hearing, hearing, but will never understand, and you will keep on looking, looking, but will never perceive. 28:27 For the heart of this people has become dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.”’ 28:28 “Therefore be advised that this salvation from God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen!” 28:29 [[EMPTY]] 28:30 Paul lived there two whole years in his own rented quarters and welcomed all who came to him, 28:31 proclaiming the kingdom of God and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ with complete boldness and without restriction.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Alexandria an inhabitant of Alexandria
 · Appius, Forum of a town 65 kilometers south of Rome on the Appian Way
 · Caesar a title held by Roman emperors
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Judea a region that roughly corresponded to the earlier kingdom of Judah
 · Malta an island 50 miles southwest of Sicily
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Publius a man who was the highest official on Malta when Paul visited there
 · Puteoli a town on the SW coast of Italy, in the northern part of the Bay of Naples
 · Rhegium a town on the southwestern tip of Italy
 · Roman any person or thing associated with Rome, particularly a person who was a citizen of Rome.
 · Rome the capital city of Italy
 · Syracuse a town on the east coast of the island of Sicily
 · Three Taverns a town which was apparently often used by travellers as a rest stop on the Appian Way
 · Twin Brothers the two "sons of Zeus", pagan gods said to be the guardian deities of sailors (NIV note).


Topik/Tema Kamus: Melita | Luke | Paul | Ships | ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, 8-12 | Prisoners | ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, 13-OUTLINE | PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 5 | Minister | ROME | Puteoli | Zeal | Barbarian | Publius | Serpent | ISLAND; ISLE | Call | Rhegium | Jesus, The Christ | Syracuse | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Act 28:1 - Then we knew Then we knew ( tote epegnōmen ). Second aorist (ingressive) active indicative of epiginōskō . Then we recognized. See note on Act 27:39.

Then we knew ( tote epegnōmen ).

Second aorist (ingressive) active indicative of epiginōskō . Then we recognized. See note on Act 27:39.

Robertson: Act 28:1 - Was called Was called ( kaleitai ). Present passive indicative retained in indirect discourse.

Was called ( kaleitai ).

Present passive indicative retained in indirect discourse.

Robertson: Act 28:1 - Melita Melita ( Melitē ). Not Miletenē as only B reads, a clerical error, but retained in the text of Westcott and Hort because of B. Page notes that ...

Melita ( Melitē ).

Not Miletenē as only B reads, a clerical error, but retained in the text of Westcott and Hort because of B. Page notes that the island was Malta as is shown from the name, the location, the presence of a ship from Alexandria bound for Rome wintering there (Act 28:11), and the mention of Syracuse as the next stop after leaving (Act 28:12).

Robertson: Act 28:2 - The barbarians The barbarians ( hoi barbaroi ). The Greeks called all men "barbarians"who did not speak Greek (Rom 1:14), not "barbarians"in our sense of rude and u...

The barbarians ( hoi barbaroi ).

The Greeks called all men "barbarians"who did not speak Greek (Rom 1:14), not "barbarians"in our sense of rude and uncivilized, but simply "foreign folk."Diodorus Siculus (Act 28:12) says that it was a colony of the Phoenicians and so their language was Punic (Page). The word originally meant an uncouth repetition (barbar ) not understood by others (1Co 14:11). In Col 3:11 Paul couples it with Scythian as certainly not Christian. These are (with Act 28:4below) the only N.T. instances.

Robertson: Act 28:2 - Showed us Showed us ( pareichan ). Imperfect active of parechō with ̇an instead of ̇on as eichan in Mar 8:7 (Robertson, Grammar , p. 339). It was ...

Showed us ( pareichan ).

Imperfect active of parechō with ̇an instead of ̇on as eichan in Mar 8:7 (Robertson, Grammar , p. 339). It was their habit on this occasion, Luke means, they kept on showing.

Robertson: Act 28:2 - No common kindness No common kindness ( ou tēn tuchousan philanthrōpian ). The old word philanthrōpia (philos , anthrōpos ), love of mankind, occurs in the N...

No common kindness ( ou tēn tuchousan philanthrōpian ).

The old word philanthrōpia (philos , anthrōpos ), love of mankind, occurs in the N.T. only here and Tit 3:4 (adverb in Act 27:3). See note on Act 19:11 for this use of ou tēn tuchousan , "not the kindness that happens every day."They were not "wreckers"to take advantage of the calamity.

Robertson: Act 28:2 - They kindled a fire They kindled a fire ( hapsantes puran ). The only N.T. example and Act 28:3of the old word pura (from pur , fire), a pile of burning fuel (sticks)....

They kindled a fire ( hapsantes puran ).

The only N.T. example and Act 28:3of the old word pura (from pur , fire), a pile of burning fuel (sticks). First aorist active participle of haptō , to set fire to, to kindle. Cf. anaptō in Luk 12:49.

Robertson: Act 28:2 - Received us all Received us all ( proselabonto pantas hēmās ). Second aorist middle (indirect indicative of proslambanō . They took us all to themselves (cf. A...

Received us all ( proselabonto pantas hēmās ).

Second aorist middle (indirect indicative of proslambanō . They took us all to themselves (cf. Act 18:26).

Robertson: Act 28:2 - The present The present ( ton ephestōta ). Second perfect active participle (intransitive) of ephistēmi , "the rain that stood upon them"(the pouring rain). ...

The present ( ton ephestōta ).

Second perfect active participle (intransitive) of ephistēmi , "the rain that stood upon them"(the pouring rain). Only in Luke and Paul in N.T.

Robertson: Act 28:3 - When Paul had gathered When Paul had gathered ( sustrepsantos tou Paulou ). Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of sustrephō , old verb to twist or turn...

When Paul had gathered ( sustrepsantos tou Paulou ).

Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of sustrephō , old verb to twist or turn together or roll into a bundle. In N.T. only here and Mat 17:22.

Robertson: Act 28:3 - A bundle of sticks A bundle of sticks ( phruganōn tōi plēthos ). "Some multitude (or pile) of dry twigs"(phruganōn from phrugō or phrussō , to dry. Only...

A bundle of sticks ( phruganōn tōi plēthos ).

"Some multitude (or pile) of dry twigs"(phruganōn from phrugō or phrussō , to dry. Only here in N.T.).

Robertson: Act 28:3 - Laid Laid ( epithentos ). So genitive absolute again with second aorist active participle of epitithēmi , to place upon. Few things show Paul to better ...

Laid ( epithentos ).

So genitive absolute again with second aorist active participle of epitithēmi , to place upon. Few things show Paul to better advantage than this incident.

Robertson: Act 28:3 - By reason of the heat By reason of the heat ( apo tēs thermēs ). Old word, only here in N.T. Ablative case with apo (from the heat). The viper was in a state of torp...

By reason of the heat ( apo tēs thermēs ).

Old word, only here in N.T. Ablative case with apo (from the heat). The viper was in a state of torpor in the bundle of sticks. The heat wakened him.

Robertson: Act 28:3 - A viper A viper ( echidna ). The old word used by the Baptist of the Pharisees (Mat 3:7; Luk 3:7) and by Jesus also (Mat 12:34; Mat 23:33). It is objected th...

A viper ( echidna ).

The old word used by the Baptist of the Pharisees (Mat 3:7; Luk 3:7) and by Jesus also (Mat 12:34; Mat 23:33). It is objected that there is little wood in the island today and no vipers, though Lewin as late as 1853 believes that he saw a viper near St. Paul’ s Bay. But the island now has 1, 200 people to the square mile and snakes of any kind have a poor chance. The viper has also disappeared from Arran as the island became more frequented (Knowling). Ramsay thinks that the small constrictor ( Coronella Austriaca ) which still exists in the island may be the "viper,"though it has no poison fangs, but clings and bites. The natives thought that it was a poisonous viper.

Robertson: Act 28:3 - Fastened on his hand Fastened on his hand ( kathēpse tēs cheiros autou ). First aorist active indicative of kathaptō , to fasten down on with the genitive case. Old...

Fastened on his hand ( kathēpse tēs cheiros autou ).

First aorist active indicative of kathaptō , to fasten down on with the genitive case. Old verb, here only in N.T. Cf. Mar 16:18.

Robertson: Act 28:4 - The beast The beast ( to thērion ). Diminutive of thēr and so little beast. See note on Mar 1:13. Aristotle and the medical writers apply the word to ven...

The beast ( to thērion ).

Diminutive of thēr and so little beast. See note on Mar 1:13. Aristotle and the medical writers apply the word to venomous serpents, the viper in particular (Knowling), as Luke does here. Vincent calls attention to the curious history of our word " treacle "for molasses (Latin theriaca ) from thēriakē , an antidote made from the flesh of vipers. Coverdale translates Jer 8:22 : "There is no more treacle in Gilead."Jeremy Taylor: "We kill the viper and make treacle of him."

Robertson: Act 28:4 - Hanging from his hand Hanging from his hand ( kremamenon ek tēs cheiros autou ). Vivid picture of the snake dangling from Paul’ s hand. Present middle participle of...

Hanging from his hand ( kremamenon ek tēs cheiros autou ).

Vivid picture of the snake dangling from Paul’ s hand. Present middle participle of kremamai , late form for kremannumi , to hang up, to suspend (cf. Gal 3:13).

Robertson: Act 28:4 - No doubt No doubt ( pantōs ). Literally, By all means, old adverb. Cf. Act 21:22; Luk 4:23; 1Co 9:22. Only by Luke and Paul in the N.T. "They knew that he...

No doubt ( pantōs ).

Literally, By all means, old adverb. Cf. Act 21:22; Luk 4:23; 1Co 9:22. Only by Luke and Paul in the N.T. "They knew that he was a prisoner being taken to Rome on some grave charge, and inferred that the charge was murder"(Page).

Robertson: Act 28:4 - Though he hath escaped Though he hath escaped ( diasōthenta ). First aorist passive participle of diasōzō (same verb used in Act 27:43, Act 27:44; Act 28:1), so-cal...

Though he hath escaped ( diasōthenta ).

First aorist passive participle of diasōzō (same verb used in Act 27:43, Act 27:44; Act 28:1), so-called concessive use of the participle (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1129).

Robertson: Act 28:4 - Yet Justice Yet Justice ( dikē ). An abstraction personified like the Latin Justitia (Page). The natives speak of @ Dikēn as a goddess, but we know noth...

Yet Justice ( dikē ).

An abstraction personified like the Latin Justitia (Page). The natives speak of @ Dikēn as a goddess, but we know nothing of such actual worship in Malta, though the Greeks worshipped abstractions as in Athens.

Robertson: Act 28:4 - Hath not suffered Hath not suffered ( nouk eiasenn ). Did not suffer. They look on Paul as a doomed man as good as dead. These people thought that calamity was proof o...

Hath not suffered ( nouk eiasenn ).

Did not suffer. They look on Paul as a doomed man as good as dead. These people thought that calamity was proof of guilt, poor philosophy and worse theology.

Robertson: Act 28:5 - Shook off Shook off ( apotinaxas ). First aorist active participle of apotinassō , to shake off. Rare word (Euripides, Galen, lxx). In N.T. only here and Luk...

Shook off ( apotinaxas ).

First aorist active participle of apotinassō , to shake off. Rare word (Euripides, Galen, lxx). In N.T. only here and Luk 9:5.

Robertson: Act 28:6 - But they expected But they expected ( hoi de prosedokōn ). Imperfect active, were expecting, continued to expect.

But they expected ( hoi de prosedokōn ).

Imperfect active, were expecting, continued to expect.

Robertson: Act 28:6 - That he would have swollen That he would have swollen ( auton mellein pimprasthai ). More exactly, "Expecting him to be about (or that he was about) to swell up."Pimprasthai ...

That he would have swollen ( auton mellein pimprasthai ).

More exactly, "Expecting him to be about (or that he was about) to swell up."Pimprasthai is present middle infinitive from pimprēmi , to blow, to burn, to inflame, to cause to swell. Prēthō , to swell, seems connected and both use the aorist eprēsa . Our word "inflammation"likewise means a burning and a swelling. This verb is a common medical term used as Luke has it. It occurs here only in N.T.

Robertson: Act 28:6 - Or fallen down dead suddenly Or fallen down dead suddenly (ē katapiptein aphnō nekron ). Rather, "or was about to fall down dead suddenly."The two common results of a bite ...

Or fallen down dead suddenly

(ē katapiptein aphnō nekron ). Rather, "or was about to fall down dead suddenly."The two common results of a bite by a viper or other poisonous snake, both medical terms used by Luke.

Robertson: Act 28:6 - But when they were long in expectation But when they were long in expectation ( epi polu de autōn prosdokōntōn ). Genitive absolute. "But while they were expecting for much time."

But when they were long in expectation ( epi polu de autōn prosdokōntōn ).

Genitive absolute. "But while they were expecting for much time."

Robertson: Act 28:6 - Nothing amiss come to him Nothing amiss come to him ( mēden atopon eis auton ginomenon ). "Nothing out of place coming to him"(present middle participle). Mēden the usua...

Nothing amiss come to him ( mēden atopon eis auton ginomenon ).

"Nothing out of place coming to him"(present middle participle). Mēden the usual negative of the participle and the accusative case the object of theōrountōn (genitive absolute).

Robertson: Act 28:6 - Changed their minds Changed their minds ( metabalomenoi ). Aorist middle (direct) participle of metaballō , old verb to turn about or around, turning themselves about,...

Changed their minds ( metabalomenoi ).

Aorist middle (direct) participle of metaballō , old verb to turn about or around, turning themselves about, changing their minds. Plato uses this very verb in middle voice for changing the mind.

Robertson: Act 28:6 - That he was a god That he was a god ( auton einai theon ). Accusative and infinitive in indirect discourse. At Lystra Paul was first received as a god (Mercury) and th...

That he was a god ( auton einai theon ).

Accusative and infinitive in indirect discourse. At Lystra Paul was first received as a god (Mercury) and then they stoned him to kill him (Act 14:11, Act 14:19). So fickle is popular favour.

Robertson: Act 28:7 - To the chief man of the island To the chief man of the island ( tōi prōtōi tēs nēsou ). An official title correct in Malta (Ramsay, St. Paul , p. 343). An inscription in...

To the chief man of the island ( tōi prōtōi tēs nēsou ).

An official title correct in Malta (Ramsay, St. Paul , p. 343). An inscription in Malta calls Prudens "Primate of the Maltese"(prōtos Melitaiōn ). Here it is plainly a title and not the common use seen in Act 13:50; Act 25:2; Act 28:17.

Robertson: Act 28:7 - Publius Publius ( Popliōi ). This Greek name (praenomen ) can be derived either from Popilius or Publius (cf. publicus for populicus from populus ...

Publius ( Popliōi ).

This Greek name (praenomen ) can be derived either from Popilius or Publius (cf. publicus for populicus from populus ). Entertained us (exenisen hēmēs ). Paul and his companions (Luke and Aristarchus). Was Julius included? On xenizō see note on Act 10:23.

Robertson: Act 28:7 - Courteously Courteously ( philophronōs ). This old adverb from philophrōn (philos , phren , friendly mind) occurs here alone in the N.T. In a kindly or fri...

Courteously ( philophronōs ).

This old adverb from philophrōn (philos , phren , friendly mind) occurs here alone in the N.T. In a kindly or friendly manner, all the more so because of the original suspicion of Paul as a criminal.

Robertson: Act 28:8 - Lay Lay ( katakeisthai ). Common verb for the sick (Mar 1:30; Joh 5:6).

Lay ( katakeisthai ).

Common verb for the sick (Mar 1:30; Joh 5:6).

Robertson: Act 28:8 - Sick Sick ( sunechomenon ). "Held together."Common verb again for the sick as in Luk 4:38.

Sick ( sunechomenon ).

"Held together."Common verb again for the sick as in Luk 4:38.

Robertson: Act 28:8 - Of fever Of fever ( puretois ). Instrumental case, and plural "fevers,"medical term for intermittent attacks of fever (Demosthenes, Lucian, medical writers).

Of fever ( puretois ).

Instrumental case, and plural "fevers,"medical term for intermittent attacks of fever (Demosthenes, Lucian, medical writers).

Robertson: Act 28:8 - Dysentery Dysentery ( dusenteriōi ). Instrumental case also. Late form of the older ndusenterian and only here in N.T. Our very word dysentery. Another medi...

Dysentery ( dusenteriōi ).

Instrumental case also. Late form of the older ndusenterian and only here in N.T. Our very word dysentery. Another medical term of which Luke uses so many. Hippocrates often mentions these two diseases together.

Robertson: Act 28:8 - Laying his hands on him healed him Laying his hands on him healed him ( epitheis tas cheiras autōi iasato auton ). Either like the laying on of hands in Jam 5:14, the gift of healing...

Laying his hands on him healed him ( epitheis tas cheiras autōi iasato auton ).

Either like the laying on of hands in Jam 5:14, the gift of healing (1Co 12:9.), or the tender interest of Jesus when he took hold of the hand of Peter’ s mother-in-law (Mar 1:31). Ramsay argues that iaomai is employed here of the miraculous healing by Paul while therapeuō is used of the cures by Luke the physician (Act 28:9). This is a general distinction and it is probably observed here, but in Luk 6:18 (which see) both verbs are employed of the healings by Jesus.

Robertson: Act 28:8 - Came and were healed Came and were healed ( prose4rchonto kai etherapeuonto ). Imperfect middle and imperfect passive. A regular stream of patients came during these month...

Came and were healed ( prose4rchonto kai etherapeuonto ).

Imperfect middle and imperfect passive. A regular stream of patients came during these months. Luke had his share in the honours, "us"(hēmēs ), and no doubt his share in the cures.

Robertson: Act 28:8 - With many honours With many honours ( pollais timais ). Instrumental case. The word was often applied to payment for professional services as we today speak of an hono...

With many honours ( pollais timais ).

Instrumental case. The word was often applied to payment for professional services as we today speak of an honorarium.

Robertson: Act 28:8 - They put on board They put on board ( epethento ). Second aorist middle indicative of epitithēmi , to put on. The idea of "on board"is merely suggested by anagomenoi...

They put on board ( epethento ).

Second aorist middle indicative of epitithēmi , to put on. The idea of "on board"is merely suggested by anagomenois (when we sailed) "the things for our needs"(ta pros tas chreias ).

Robertson: Act 28:11 - Which had wintered Which had wintered ( parakecheimakoti ). Perfect active participle of paracheimazō , to pass the winter. Old verb, in N.T. only Act 27:12; Act 28:1...

Which had wintered ( parakecheimakoti ).

Perfect active participle of paracheimazō , to pass the winter. Old verb, in N.T. only Act 27:12; Act 28:11; 1Co 16:6; Tit 3:12. The locative case agreeing with ploiōi . Navigation in the Mediterranean usually opened up in February (always by March), spring beginning on Feb. 9 (Page).

Robertson: Act 28:11 - Whose sign was the Twin Brothers Whose sign was the Twin Brothers ( parasēmōi Dioskourois ). The word parasēmōi can be either a substantive (as Revised Version has it) or a...

Whose sign was the Twin Brothers ( parasēmōi Dioskourois ).

The word parasēmōi can be either a substantive (as Revised Version has it) or an adjective "marked by the sign,"examples of both uses common in ancient Greek. Dioskourois is in apposition with parasēmōi The word means the twin sons (kouros or koros ) of Zeus (Dios , genitive of Zeus ) and Leda, viz., Castor and Pollux. The Attic used the dual, tō Dioskorō . Castor and Pollux were the tutelary deities of sailors whose figures were painted one on each side of the prow of the ship. This sign was the name of the ship. So they start in another grain ship of Alexandria bound for Rome.

Robertson: Act 28:12 - Touching Touching ( katachthentes ). First aorist passive participle of katagō , to go down to land, just the opposite of anēchthēmen in Act 28:11from...

Touching ( katachthentes ).

First aorist passive participle of katagō , to go down to land, just the opposite of anēchthēmen in Act 28:11from anagō ,to go up to sea.

Robertson: Act 28:12 - At Syracuse At Syracuse ( eis Surakousas ). The chief city of Sicily and eighty miles from Malta. Perhaps open weather and a southerly wind helped them across. H...

At Syracuse ( eis Surakousas ).

The chief city of Sicily and eighty miles from Malta. Perhaps open weather and a southerly wind helped them across. Here it was that Alcibiades wrecked the power and glory of Athens. Why the ship spent three days we do not know.

Robertson: Act 28:13 - We made a circuit We made a circuit ( perielthontes ). Second aorist active of perierchomai , to go around, old verb, already in Act 19:13. See also Heb 11:37; 1Ti 5:1...

We made a circuit ( perielthontes ).

Second aorist active of perierchomai , to go around, old verb, already in Act 19:13. See also Heb 11:37; 1Ti 5:13. But Westcott and Hort read perielontes after Aleph B (from periaireō ) as in Act 27:40, though here it could only mean casting loose, for which no other authority exists. At any rate the ship had to tack to reach Rhegium and was not able to make a straight course (enthudromeō , Act 16:11).

Robertson: Act 28:13 - Rhegium Rhegium ( Rhēgion ) is from rhēgnumi , to break off, the place where the land breaks off, the southern entrance to the straits of Messina.

Rhegium ( Rhēgion )

is from rhēgnumi , to break off, the place where the land breaks off, the southern entrance to the straits of Messina.

Robertson: Act 28:13 - A south wind sprang up A south wind sprang up ( epigenomenou notou ). Genitive absolute again, and for all the world like that fatal south wind in Act 27:13, but with no ba...

A south wind sprang up ( epigenomenou notou ).

Genitive absolute again, and for all the world like that fatal south wind in Act 27:13, but with no bad results this time, though the weather was plainly treacherous at this early season.

Robertson: Act 28:13 - On the second day On the second day ( deuteraioi ). This is the classical use of the predicate adjective, "We second day men"as in Luk 24:22; Joh 11:39; Phi 3:5 instea...

On the second day ( deuteraioi ).

This is the classical use of the predicate adjective, "We second day men"as in Luk 24:22; Joh 11:39; Phi 3:5 instead of the adverb (Robertson, Grammar , p. 657).

Robertson: Act 28:13 - To Puteoli To Puteoli ( eis Potiolous ). It was 182 miles from Rhegium and would require 26 hours (Page). It was eight miles northwest from Neapolis (Naples) an...

To Puteoli ( eis Potiolous ).

It was 182 miles from Rhegium and would require 26 hours (Page). It was eight miles northwest from Neapolis (Naples) and the chief port of Rome, the regular harbour for the Alexandrian ships from Rome. Portions of the great mole are said to be still visible.

Robertson: Act 28:14 - Where we found brethren Where we found brethren ( hou heurontes adelphous ). Possibly from Alexandria, but, as Blass observes, it is no more strange to find "brethren"in Chr...

Where we found brethren ( hou heurontes adelphous ).

Possibly from Alexandria, but, as Blass observes, it is no more strange to find "brethren"in Christ in Puteoli when Paul arrives than in Rome. There was a large Jewish quarter.

Robertson: Act 28:14 - Seven days Seven days ( hēmeras hepta ). Accusative of extent of time. Paul and his party remained so long at the urgent request of the brethren. He was still...

Seven days ( hēmeras hepta ).

Accusative of extent of time. Paul and his party remained so long at the urgent request of the brethren. He was still a prisoner, but clearly Julius was only too glad to show another courtesy to Paul to whom they all owed their lives. It was 130 miles by land from Puteoli to Rome over one of the great Roman roads.

Robertson: Act 28:14 - And so we came to Rome And so we came to Rome ( kai houtōs eis tēn Romēn ēlthamen ). So at last. Luke is exultant as Page observes: Paulus Romae captivus: triumphu...

And so we came to Rome ( kai houtōs eis tēn Romēn ēlthamen ).

So at last. Luke is exultant as Page observes: Paulus Romae captivus: triumphus unicus . It is the climax of the book of Acts (Act 19:21; Act 23:11), but not the close of Paul’ s career. Page rightly remarks that a new paragraph should begin with Act 28:15, for brethren came from Rome and this part of the journey is touched with the flavour of that incident. The great event is that Paul reached Rome, but not as he had once hoped (Rom 15:22-29).

Robertson: Act 28:15 - When they heard of us When they heard of us ( akousantes ta peri hēmōn ). How "they heard the things concerning us"we do not know. Good news had its way of travel even...

When they heard of us ( akousantes ta peri hēmōn ).

How "they heard the things concerning us"we do not know. Good news had its way of travel even before the days of telegraph, telephone, daily papers. Possibly Julius had to send on special couriers with news of his arrival after the shipwreck. Possibly some of the brethren in Puteoli at once (beginning of the week) sent on news to the brethren in Rome. The church in Rome had long ago received Paul’ s letter from Corinth at the hands of Phoebe.

Robertson: Act 28:15 - To meet us To meet us ( eis apantōsin hēmin ). Idiomatic phrase, "for meeting with us"(associative instrumental case). Koiné[28928]š word apantōsis ...

To meet us ( eis apantōsin hēmin ).

Idiomatic phrase, "for meeting with us"(associative instrumental case). Koiné[28928]š word apantōsis from verb apantaō , to meet, in N.T. only here; Mat 25:6; 1Th 4:17. Use after neisn rather than infinitive like a translation Hebraism (Robertson, Grammar , p. 91).

Robertson: Act 28:15 - As far as the Market of Appius As far as the Market of Appius ( achri Appiou Phorou ). The Forum of Appius, 90 miles from Puteoli, 40 from Rome, on the great Appian Way. The Censor...

As far as the Market of Appius ( achri Appiou Phorou ).

The Forum of Appius, 90 miles from Puteoli, 40 from Rome, on the great Appian Way. The Censor Appius Claudius had constructed this part of the road, b.c. 312. Paul probably struck the Appian Way at Capua. Portions of this great stone highway are still in use. If one wishes to tread where Paul trod, he can do it here. Appii Forum had a bad reputation, the haunt of thieves, thugs, and swindlers. What would this motley crowd think of Paul chained to a soldier?

Robertson: Act 28:15 - Three Taverns Three Taverns ( Triōn Tabernōn ). Genitive case after achri like Appiou Phorou . About 30 miles from Rome. Tres Tabernae .

Three Taverns ( Triōn Tabernōn ).

Genitive case after achri like Appiou Phorou . About 30 miles from Rome. Tres Tabernae .

Robertson: Act 28:15 - Whom Whom ( hous ). Two groups of the disciples came (one Gentile, one Jewish, Rackham thinks), one to Appii Forum, the other to Three Taverns. It was a j...

Whom ( hous ).

Two groups of the disciples came (one Gentile, one Jewish, Rackham thinks), one to Appii Forum, the other to Three Taverns. It was a joyous time and Julius would not interfere.

Robertson: Act 28:15 - Took courage Took courage ( elabe tharsos ). The old substantive tharsos is here alone in the N.T. Jesus himself had exhorted Paul to be of good courage (tharse...

Took courage ( elabe tharsos ).

The old substantive tharsos is here alone in the N.T. Jesus himself had exhorted Paul to be of good courage (tharsei Act 23:11) as he had done the disciples (Joh 16:33). Paul had passed through enough to cause depression, whether he was depressed or not, but he deeply appreciated this kindly sympathy.

Robertson: Act 28:16 - Paul was suffered to abide by himself Paul was suffered to abide by himself ( epetrapē tōi Paulōi menein kath̀ heauton ). Second aorist passive of epitrepo , to permit or allow. Li...

Paul was suffered to abide by himself ( epetrapē tōi Paulōi menein kath̀ heauton ).

Second aorist passive of epitrepo , to permit or allow. Literally, "It was permitted to Paul to abide by himself."Some late documents ( Textus Receptus ) here add: "The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard"(or the stratopedarch ). This officer used to be considered Burrus who was Prefect of the Praetorian Guard a.d. 51-62. But it is by no means certain that Julius turned the prisoners over to this officer. It seems more likely that Julius would report to the captain of the Peregrini. If so, we may be sure that Julius would give a good report of Paul to this officer who would be kindly disposed and would allow Paul comparative freedom (living by himself, in his lodging, Act 28:23, his own hired house Act 28:30, though still chained to a soldier).

Robertson: Act 28:16 - With the soldier that guarded him With the soldier that guarded him ( sun tōi phulassonti auton stratiōtēi ). Probably a new soldier every day or night, but always with this sol...

With the soldier that guarded him ( sun tōi phulassonti auton stratiōtēi ).

Probably a new soldier every day or night, but always with this soldier chained to his right hand day and night. Now that Paul is in Rome what can he do for Christ while he awaits the outcome of his own appeal to Nero?

Robertson: Act 28:17 - Those that were the chief of the Jews Those that were the chief of the Jews ( tous ontas tōn Ioudaiōn prōtous ). This use of prōtos for the leading men of a city or among the Je...

Those that were the chief of the Jews ( tous ontas tōn Ioudaiōn prōtous ).

This use of prōtos for the leading men of a city or among the Jews we have already had in Act 13:50; Act 25:2; Luk 19:47. Literally, "Those that were first among the Jews."The position of the participle ontas between the article and the adjective prōtous is regular (Robertson, Grammar , p. 777).

Robertson: Act 28:17 - When they were come together When they were come together ( sunelthontōn autōn ). Genitive absolute again. Paul could not go to the synagogue, as his custom was, being a boun...

When they were come together ( sunelthontōn autōn ).

Genitive absolute again. Paul could not go to the synagogue, as his custom was, being a bound prisoner. So he invited the Jewish leaders to come to his lodging and hear his explanation of his presence in Rome as a prisoner with an appeal to Caesar. He is anxious that they may understand that this appeal was forced upon him by Festus following Felix and lot because he has come to make an attack on the Jewish people. He was sure that false reports had come to Rome. These non-Christian Jews accepted Paul’ s invitation.

Robertson: Act 28:17 - Nothing against Nothing against ( ouden enantion ). Adjective here as in Act 26:9, not preposition as in Act 7:10; Act 8:32. From en and antios (anti ), face to...

Nothing against ( ouden enantion ).

Adjective here as in Act 26:9, not preposition as in Act 7:10; Act 8:32. From en and antios (anti ), face to face. Concessive participle poiēsas as in Act 28:4(diasōthenta ) which see.

Robertson: Act 28:17 - Yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans Yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans ( desmios ex Ierosolumōn paredothēn eis tas cheiras tōn Romaiōn ). T...

Yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans ( desmios ex Ierosolumōn paredothēn eis tas cheiras tōn Romaiōn ).

This condensed statement does not explain how he "was delivered,"for in fact the Jews were trying to kill him when Lysias rescued him from the mob (Act 22:27 -36). The Jews were responsible for his being in the hands of the Romans, though they had hoped to kill him first.

Robertson: Act 28:18 - When they had examined me When they had examined me ( anakrinantes me ). First aorist active participle of anakrinō , the same verb used already in Act 24:8; Act 25:6, Act 2...

When they had examined me ( anakrinantes me ).

First aorist active participle of anakrinō , the same verb used already in Act 24:8; Act 25:6, Act 25:26 of the judicial examinations by Felix and Festus.

Robertson: Act 28:18 - Desired Desired ( eboulonto ). Imperfect middle of attempted action or picture of their real attitude. This is a correct statement as the words of both Felix...

Desired ( eboulonto ).

Imperfect middle of attempted action or picture of their real attitude. This is a correct statement as the words of both Felix and Festus show.

Robertson: Act 28:18 - Because there was Because there was ( dia tȯ̇huparchein ). Accusative case with dia (causal use) with the articular infinitive, "Because of the being no cause of ...

Because there was ( dia tȯ̇huparchein ).

Accusative case with dia (causal use) with the articular infinitive, "Because of the being no cause of death in me"(en emoi , in my case, naitian, usual word for crime or charge of crime).

Robertson: Act 28:19 - When the Jews spake against it When the Jews spake against it ( antilegontōn tōn Ioudaiōn ). Genitive absolute again, antilegontōn (antilegō ) common verb for speaking...

When the Jews spake against it ( antilegontōn tōn Ioudaiōn ).

Genitive absolute again, antilegontōn (antilegō ) common verb for speaking against as in Act 13:45. Clementer dicit (Bengel). "The word is a mild one to describe the bitter enmity of the Jews"(Knowling).

Robertson: Act 28:19 - I was constrained I was constrained ( ēnagkasthēn ). "I was compelled,"first aorist passive indicative of anagkazō , the very word used of Paul’ s efforts t...

I was constrained ( ēnagkasthēn ).

"I was compelled,"first aorist passive indicative of anagkazō , the very word used of Paul’ s efforts to get the Christians to blaspheme (Act 26:11) which see. Paul was compelled to appeal to Caesar (See note on Act 25:11, and note on Act 25:12for this phrase), unless Paul was willing to be the victim of Jewish hate when he had done no wrong.

Robertson: Act 28:19 - Not that I had aught to accuse my nation of Not that I had aught to accuse my nation of ( ouch hōs tou ethnous mou echōn ti katēgorein ). This use of hōs with a participle (echōn )...

Not that I had aught to accuse my nation of ( ouch hōs tou ethnous mou echōn ti katēgorein ).

This use of hōs with a participle (echōn ) is common in Greek for the alleged reason. The genitive case with the infinitive katēgorein is regular. Paul says ethnos instead of laos as in Act 24:17; Act 26:4.

Robertson: Act 28:20 - Did I intreat Did I intreat ( parekalesa Did I invite you.

Did I intreat ( parekalesa Did I invite you.

Robertson: Act 28:20 - Because of the hope of Israel Because of the hope of Israel ( heineken tēs elpidos tou Israel ). Genitive with preposition heineken . The hope of the Messiah is his point as in ...

Because of the hope of Israel ( heineken tēs elpidos tou Israel ).

Genitive with preposition heineken . The hope of the Messiah is his point as in Act 26:6.

Robertson: Act 28:20 - I am bound with this chain I am bound with this chain ( tēn halusin tautēn perikeimai ). This old verb means to lie around as in Luk 17:2; Heb 12:1. But it is also used as ...

I am bound with this chain ( tēn halusin tautēn perikeimai ).

This old verb means to lie around as in Luk 17:2; Heb 12:1. But it is also used as the passive of peritithēmi , to place around with the accusative of peritithēmi retained. It is a transitive passive. Paul does not lie around the chain, but the chain lies around him, a curious reversal of the imagery (Robertson, Grammar , p. 815).

Robertson: Act 28:21 - Letters Letters ( grammata ). Official documents from the Sanhedrin about the charges against Paul.

Letters ( grammata ).

Official documents from the Sanhedrin about the charges against Paul.

Robertson: Act 28:21 - Any harm of thee Any harm of thee ( ti peri sou ponēron ).

Any harm of thee ( ti peri sou ponēron ).

Robertson: Act 28:21 - Evil Evil ( ponēron ). The three aorists (edexametha , apēggeile , elalēsen ) cover the past. These Jews do not mean to say that they had never h...

Evil ( ponēron ).

The three aorists (edexametha , apēggeile , elalēsen ) cover the past. These Jews do not mean to say that they had never heard of Paul. It is hardly likely that they had heard of his appeal to Caesar, "for how could the news have reached Rome before Paul?"(Page).

Robertson: Act 28:22 - But we desire But we desire ( axioumen de ). Old verb axioō , to deem worthy, to think right or proper as in Act 15:38 which see. They think it only fair to hear...

But we desire ( axioumen de ).

Old verb axioō , to deem worthy, to think right or proper as in Act 15:38 which see. They think it only fair to hear Paul’ s side of his case.

Robertson: Act 28:22 - Concerning this sect Concerning this sect ( peri tēs haireseōs tautēs ). Paul had identified Christianity with Judaism (Act 28:20) in its Messianic hope. The langua...

Concerning this sect ( peri tēs haireseōs tautēs ).

Paul had identified Christianity with Judaism (Act 28:20) in its Messianic hope. The language seems to imply that the number of Christians in Rome was comparatively small and mainly Gentile. If the edict of Claudius for the expulsion of the Jews from Rome (Act 18:2) was due to disturbance over Christ (Chrēstus ), then even in Rome the Jews had special reason for hostility towards Christians.

Robertson: Act 28:22 - Everywhere spoken against Everywhere spoken against ( npantachou antilegetain). Cf. Act 28:19. The line of cleavage between Jew and Christian was now sharply drawn everywhere.

Everywhere spoken against ( npantachou antilegetain).

Cf. Act 28:19. The line of cleavage between Jew and Christian was now sharply drawn everywhere.

Robertson: Act 28:23 - Appointed Appointed ( taxamenoi ). First aorist middle participle of tassō . Formal arrangement as in Mat 28:16 when Jesus appointed the mountain for his mee...

Appointed ( taxamenoi ).

First aorist middle participle of tassō . Formal arrangement as in Mat 28:16 when Jesus appointed the mountain for his meeting in Galilee.

Robertson: Act 28:23 - In great number In great number ( pleiones ). Comparative of polus , "more than a few."

In great number ( pleiones ).

Comparative of polus , "more than a few."

Robertson: Act 28:23 - Expounded Expounded ( exetitheto ). Imperfect middle of ektithēmi , to set forth, as in Act 11:4; Act 18:26. He did it with detail and care and spent all day...

Expounded ( exetitheto ).

Imperfect middle of ektithēmi , to set forth, as in Act 11:4; Act 18:26. He did it with detail and care and spent all day at it, "from morning till evening"(apo prōi heōs hesperas ). In N.T. only here, Act 4:3 and Luk 24:29, though common word.

Robertson: Act 28:23 - Persuading them concerning Jesus Persuading them concerning Jesus ( peithōn autous peri tou Iēsou ). Conative present active participle, trying to persuade. It was only about Jes...

Persuading them concerning Jesus ( peithōn autous peri tou Iēsou ).

Conative present active participle, trying to persuade. It was only about Jesus that he could make good his claim concerning the hope of Israel (Act 28:20). It was Paul’ s great opportunity. So he appealed both to Moses and to the prophets for proof as it was his custom to do.

Robertson: Act 28:24 - Some believed Some believed ( hoi men epeithonto ). Imperfect passive indicative of peithō . More exactly, "some began to be persuaded"(inchoative ).

Some believed ( hoi men epeithonto ).

Imperfect passive indicative of peithō . More exactly, "some began to be persuaded"(inchoative ).

Robertson: Act 28:24 - Some disbelieved Some disbelieved ( hoi de ēpistoun ). Imperfect active of apisteō , to disbelieve, continued to disbelieve. It is usually so.

Some disbelieved ( hoi de ēpistoun ).

Imperfect active of apisteō , to disbelieve, continued to disbelieve. It is usually so.

Robertson: Act 28:25 - When they agreed not When they agreed not ( asumphōnoi ontes ). Old adjective, only here in N.T., double compound (an privative , sum , phōnē ), without symphony...

When they agreed not ( asumphōnoi ontes ).

Old adjective, only here in N.T., double compound (an privative , sum , phōnē ), without symphony, out of harmony, dissonant, discordant. It was a triumph to gain adherents at all in such an audience.

Robertson: Act 28:25 - They departed They departed ( apeluonto ). Imperfect middle (direct) indicative, "They loosed themselves from Paul."Graphic close.

They departed ( apeluonto ).

Imperfect middle (direct) indicative, "They loosed themselves from Paul."Graphic close.

Robertson: Act 28:25 - After that Paul had spoken one word After that Paul had spoken one word ( eipontos tou Paulou rhēma hen ). Genitive absolute. One last word (like a preacher) after the all day exposit...

After that Paul had spoken one word ( eipontos tou Paulou rhēma hen ).

Genitive absolute. One last word (like a preacher) after the all day exposition.

Robertson: Act 28:25 - Well Well ( kalōs ). Cf. Mat 14:7; Mar 7:6, Mar 7:9 (irony). Here strong indignation in the very position of the word (Page).

Well ( kalōs ).

Cf. Mat 14:7; Mar 7:6, Mar 7:9 (irony). Here strong indignation in the very position of the word (Page).

Robertson: Act 28:25 - To your fathers To your fathers ( pros tous pateras humōn ). So Aleph A B instead of hēmōn (our) like Stephen in Act 7:52 whose words Paul had heard. By ment...

To your fathers ( pros tous pateras humōn ).

So Aleph A B instead of hēmōn (our) like Stephen in Act 7:52 whose words Paul had heard. By mentioning the Holy Spirit Paul shows (Knowling) that they are resisting God (Act 7:52).

Robertson: Act 28:26 - Say Say ( eipon ). Second aorist active imperative instead of the old form eipe . The quotation is from Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10. This very passage is quoted by...

Say ( eipon ).

Second aorist active imperative instead of the old form eipe . The quotation is from Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10. This very passage is quoted by Jesus (Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:10) in explanation of his use of parables and in Joh 12:40 the very point made by Paul here, "the disbelief of the Jews in Jesus"(Page). See note on Mat 13:14 for discussion of the language used. Here the first time ("go to this people and say") does not occur in Matthew. It is a solemn dirge of the doom of the Jews for their rejection of the Messiah foreseen so long ago by Isaiah.

Robertson: Act 28:28 - This salvation This salvation ( touto to sōtērion ). Adjective from sōtēr (Saviour), saving, bringing salvation. Common in the old Greek. The neuter as he...

This salvation ( touto to sōtērion ).

Adjective from sōtēr (Saviour), saving, bringing salvation. Common in the old Greek. The neuter as here often in lxx (as Ps 67:2) as substantive like sōtēria (cf. Luk 3:6).

Robertson: Act 28:28 - They will also hear They will also hear ( autoi kai akousontai ). Autoi as opposed to the rejection by the Jews, "vivid and antithetical"(Page).

They will also hear ( autoi kai akousontai ).

Autoi as opposed to the rejection by the Jews, "vivid and antithetical"(Page).

Robertson: Act 28:30 - Two whole years Two whole years ( dietian holēn ). Only here in N.T. and Act 24:27 which see. During these busy years in Rome Paul wrote Philippians, Philemon, Col...

Two whole years ( dietian holēn ).

Only here in N.T. and Act 24:27 which see. During these busy years in Rome Paul wrote Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians, Epistles that would immortalize any man, unless, forsooth, one or more of them was written from Ephesus or Caesarea, which has not yet been proven.

Robertson: Act 28:30 - In his own hired dwelling In his own hired dwelling ( en idiōi misthōmati ). Old word, here only in N.T., that which is hired for a price (from misthoō and that from m...

In his own hired dwelling ( en idiōi misthōmati ).

Old word, here only in N.T., that which is hired for a price (from misthoō and that from misthos , hire).

Robertson: Act 28:30 - Received Received ( apedecheto ). Imperfect middle of apodechomai , received from time to time as they came, all that came (eisporeuomenous ) from time to ti...

Received ( apedecheto ).

Imperfect middle of apodechomai , received from time to time as they came, all that came (eisporeuomenous ) from time to time.

Robertson: Act 28:30 - Preaching Preaching ( kerussōn ) , teaching (didaskōn ), the two things that concerned Paul most, doing both as if his right hand was not in chains, to ...

Preaching ( kerussōn )

, teaching (didaskōn ), the two things that concerned Paul most, doing both as if his right hand was not in chains, to the amazement of those in Rome and in Philippi (Phi 1:12-14).

Robertson: Act 28:30 - None forbidding him None forbidding him ( akōlutōs ). Old adverb from nan privative and the verbal adjective kōlutos (from kōluō , to hinder), here only in t...

None forbidding him ( akōlutōs ).

Old adverb from nan privative and the verbal adjective kōlutos (from kōluō , to hinder), here only in the N.T. Page comments on "the rhythmic cadence of the concluding words."Page rejects the notion that the book is an unfinished work. It closes with the style of a concluded work. I agree with Harnack that Luke wrote the Acts during this period of two years in Rome and carried events no further because they had gone no further. Paul was still a prisoner in Rome when Luke completed the book. But he had carried Paul to "Rome, the capital of the world, Urbi et Orbi "(Page). The gospel of Christ has reached Rome. For the fate of Paul we must turn elsewhere. But Luke had the presence of Paul while he carried the Acts to its triumphant conclusion. Ramsay can give a good deal in proof of his claim that Luke is the greatest of all historians. Beyond a doubt his rank is high and the world can never repay its debt to this cultured physician who wrote the Gospel and the Acts.

Vincent: Act 28:1 - They knew They knew The best texts read we knew: ascertained or recognized: with a reference to ver. 39.

They knew

The best texts read we knew: ascertained or recognized: with a reference to ver. 39.

Vincent: Act 28:2 - Barbarous people Barbarous people From the Roman point of view, regarding all as barbarians who spoke neither Greek nor Latin. Not necessarily uncivilized. It i...

Barbarous people

From the Roman point of view, regarding all as barbarians who spoke neither Greek nor Latin. Not necessarily uncivilized. It is equivalent to foreigners. Compare Rom 1:14; 1Co 14:11. The inhabitants of Malta were of Carthaginian descent. " Even in the present day the natives of Malta have a peculiar language, termed the Maltese, which has been proved to be essentially an Arabic dialect, with an admixture of Italian" (Gloag).

Vincent: Act 28:2 - No little No little ( οὐ τυχοῦσαν ) See on special, Act 19:11. Rev., much better, " no common kindness."

No little ( οὐ τυχοῦσαν )

See on special, Act 19:11. Rev., much better, " no common kindness."

Vincent: Act 28:2 - Kindness Kindness ( φιλανθρωπίαν ) See on the kindred adverb courteously, Act 27:3.

Kindness ( φιλανθρωπίαν )

See on the kindred adverb courteously, Act 27:3.

Vincent: Act 28:2 - Present rain Present rain ( ὑετὸν τὸν ἐφεστῶτα ) Lit., which was upon us, or had set in. No mention of rain occurs up to this ...

Present rain ( ὑετὸν τὸν ἐφεστῶτα )

Lit., which was upon us, or had set in. No mention of rain occurs up to this point in the narrative of the shipwreck. The tempest may thus far have been unattended with rain, but it is hardly probable.

Vincent: Act 28:3 - Of sticks Of sticks ( φρυγάνων ) Only here in New Testament. From φρύγω , to roast or parch. Hence, dry sticks.

Of sticks ( φρυγάνων )

Only here in New Testament. From φρύγω , to roast or parch. Hence, dry sticks.

Vincent: Act 28:3 - Out of Out of ( ἐκ ) The best texts read ἀπό , by reason of.

Out of ( ἐκ )

The best texts read ἀπό , by reason of.

Vincent: Act 28:4 - Justice Justice ( Δίκη ) Personified.

Justice ( Δίκη )

Personified.

Vincent: Act 28:4 - Suffereth not Suffereth not ( οὐκ εἴασεν ) The aorist tense: did not suffer . His death is regarded as fixed by the divine decree.

Suffereth not ( οὐκ εἴασεν )

The aorist tense: did not suffer . His death is regarded as fixed by the divine decree.

Vincent: Act 28:5 - The beast The beast ( τὸ θηρίον ) Luke uses the word in the same way as the medical writers, who employed it to denote venomous serpents, and p...

The beast ( τὸ θηρίον )

Luke uses the word in the same way as the medical writers, who employed it to denote venomous serpents, and particularly the viper; so much so that an antidote, made chiefly from the flesh of vipers, was termed θηριακή . A curious bit of etymological history attaches to this latter word. From it came the Latin theriaca, of which our treacle (molasses) is a corruption. Treacle, therefore, is originally a preparation of viper's flesh, and was used later of any antidote. Thus Coverdale's translation of Jer 8:22 has, " There is no more treacle in Gilead." Gurnall (" Christian in Complete Armor" ) says: " The saints' experiences help them to a sovereign treacle made of the scorpion's own flesh (which they through Christ have slain), and that hath a virtue above all other to expel the venom of Satan's temptations from the heart." So Jeremy Taylor' " We kill the viper and make treacle of him."

Vincent: Act 28:6 - Swollen Swollen ( πίμπρασθαι ) Only here in New Testament. The usual medical word for inflammation.

Swollen ( πίμπρασθαι )

Only here in New Testament. The usual medical word for inflammation.

Vincent: Act 28:6 - Looked Looked ( προσδοκώντων ) Occurring eleven times in Luke, and only five times in the rest of the New Testament. Frequent in medical w...

Looked ( προσδοκώντων )

Occurring eleven times in Luke, and only five times in the rest of the New Testament. Frequent in medical writers, to denote expectation of the fatal result of illness.

Vincent: Act 28:6 - No harm No harm ( μηδὲν ἄτοπον ) Lit., nothing out of place. The word ἄτοπος occurs three times in Luke, and only once else...

No harm ( μηδὲν ἄτοπον )

Lit., nothing out of place. The word ἄτοπος occurs three times in Luke, and only once elsewhere in the New Testament (2Th 3:2). Used by physicians to denote something unusual in the symptoms of disease, and also something fatal or deadly as here. Rev., nothing amiss. Compare Luk 23:41; and Act 25:5, where the best texts insert the word.

Vincent: Act 28:6 - Said Said ( ἔλεγον ) The imperfect, denoting current talk.

Said ( ἔλεγον )

The imperfect, denoting current talk.

Vincent: Act 28:6 - A god A god " Observe, " says Bengel, " the fickleness of human reasoning. He is either an assassin, say they, or a god. So, at one time bulls, ...

A god

" Observe, " says Bengel, " the fickleness of human reasoning. He is either an assassin, say they, or a god. So, at one time bulls, at another stones " (Act 14:13, Act 14:19).

Vincent: Act 28:7 - The chief man The chief man ( τῷ πρώτῳ ) Official title, without reference to his rank and possessions. Though not occurring as the official des...

The chief man ( τῷ πρώτῳ )

Official title, without reference to his rank and possessions. Though not occurring as the official designation of the governor of Malta in any ancient author, it has been found in two inscriptions discovered in the island.

Vincent: Act 28:8 - Sick Sick ( συνεχόμενον ) Lit., taken or holden . See on taken , Luk 4:38.

Sick ( συνεχόμενον )

Lit., taken or holden . See on taken , Luk 4:38.

Vincent: Act 28:8 - Fever Fever ( πυρετοῖς ) Lit., fevers. This peculiarly medical use of the plural is confined to Luke in the New Testament. It denotes succe...

Fever ( πυρετοῖς )

Lit., fevers. This peculiarly medical use of the plural is confined to Luke in the New Testament. It denotes successive and varying attacks of fever.

Vincent: Act 28:8 - Bloody flux Bloody flux ( δυσεντερίᾳ ) Only here in New Testament. Our word dysentery is nearly a transcript of it. Hippocrates often speaks ...

Bloody flux ( δυσεντερίᾳ )

Only here in New Testament. Our word dysentery is nearly a transcript of it. Hippocrates often speaks of the two complaints in combination.

Vincent: Act 28:8 - Healed Healed ( ἰάσατο ) See on Luk 6:19.

Healed ( ἰάσατο )

See on Luk 6:19.

Vincent: Act 28:10 - Honors Honors ( τιμαῖς ) The word was applied to payments for professional services, and that fact may have influenced Luke in selecting it; but...

Honors ( τιμαῖς )

The word was applied to payments for professional services, and that fact may have influenced Luke in selecting it; but it is evidently not used in that sense here.

Vincent: Act 28:11 - Sign Sign Answering to the ship's name in modern times. It was the image of a god, a man, a beast, or of some other object, sculptured or painted on...

Sign

Answering to the ship's name in modern times. It was the image of a god, a man, a beast, or of some other object, sculptured or painted on the prow. The figure of the guardian deity was affixed to the stern.

Vincent: Act 28:11 - Castor and Pollux Castor and Pollux Known as the twin brothers and the Dioscuri, or sons of Jove. They were regarded as tutelary deities of sailors.

Castor and Pollux

Known as the twin brothers and the Dioscuri, or sons of Jove. They were regarded as tutelary deities of sailors.

Vincent: Act 28:16 - The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard The best texts omit.

The centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Act 28:20 - I am bound I am bound ( περίκειμαι ) Lit., compassed.

I am bound ( περίκειμαι )

Lit., compassed.

Vincent: Act 28:22 - We desire We desire ( ἀξιοῦμεν ) Rather, we think it. Compare Act 15:38.

We desire ( ἀξιοῦμεν )

Rather, we think it. Compare Act 15:38.

Vincent: Act 28:22 - Sect Sect See on heresies, 2Pe 2:1.

Sect

See on heresies, 2Pe 2:1.

Vincent: Act 28:25 - Agreed not Agreed not See on agreed together, Act 5:9.

Agreed not

See on agreed together, Act 5:9.

Vincent: Act 28:27 - Waxed gross Waxed gross See on Mat 13:15.

Waxed gross

See on Mat 13:15.

Vincent: Act 28:27 - Their ears are dull of hearing Their ears are dull of hearing Lit., with their ears they heard heavily.

Their ears are dull of hearing

Lit., with their ears they heard heavily.

Vincent: Act 28:27 - Closed Closed See on Mat 13:15.

Closed

See on Mat 13:15.

Vincent: Act 28:30 - Hired house Hired house ( μισθώματι ) Probably different from the ξενία , or lodging-place, where he resided for the first few days, perh...

Hired house ( μισθώματι )

Probably different from the ξενία , or lodging-place, where he resided for the first few days, perhaps as the guest of friends, though under custody, and where he received the Jews (Act 28:23).

Wesley: Act 28:1 - -- Melita or Malta, is about twelve miles broad, twenty long, and sixty distant from Sicily to the south. It yields abundance of honey, (whence its name ...

Melita or Malta, is about twelve miles broad, twenty long, and sixty distant from Sicily to the south. It yields abundance of honey, (whence its name was taken,) with much cotton, and is very fruitful, though it has only three feet depth of earth above the solid rock. The Emperor Charles the Fifth gave it, in 1530, to the knights of Rhodes, driven out of Rhodes by the Turks. They are a thousand in number, of whom five hundred always reside on the island.

Wesley: Act 28:2 - And the barbarians So the Romans and Greeks termed all nations but their own. But surely the generosity shown by these uncultivated inhabitants of Malta, was far more va...

So the Romans and Greeks termed all nations but their own. But surely the generosity shown by these uncultivated inhabitants of Malta, was far more valuable than all the varnish which the politest education could give, where it taught not humanity and compassion.

Wesley: Act 28:4 - And when the barbarians saw they said - Seeing also his chains, Doubtless this man is a murderer - Such rarely go unpunished even in this life; whom vengeance hath not suffered t...

they said - Seeing also his chains, Doubtless this man is a murderer - Such rarely go unpunished even in this life; whom vengeance hath not suffered to live - They look upon him as a dead man already. It is with pleasure that we trace among these barbarians the force of conscience, and the belief of a particular providence: which some people of more learning have stupidly thought it philosophy to despise. But they erred in imagining, that calamities must always be interpreted as judgments. Let us guard against this, lest, like them, we condemn not only the innocent, but the excellent of the earth.

Wesley: Act 28:5 - Having shaken off the venomous animal, he suffered no harm The words of an eminent modern historian are, "No venomous kind of serpent now breeds in Malta, neither hurts if it be brought thither from another pl...

The words of an eminent modern historian are, "No venomous kind of serpent now breeds in Malta, neither hurts if it be brought thither from another place. Children are seen there handling and playing even with scorpions; I have seen one eating them." If this be so, it seems to be fixed by the wisdom of God, as an eternal memorial of what he once wrought there.

Wesley: Act 28:6 - They changed their minds, and said he was a god Such is the stability of human reason! A little before he was a murderer; and presently he is a god: (just as the people of Lystra; one hour sacrifici...

Such is the stability of human reason! A little before he was a murderer; and presently he is a god: (just as the people of Lystra; one hour sacrificing, and the next stoning:) nay, but there is a medium. He is neither a murderer nor a god, but a man of God. But natural men never run into greater mistakes, than in judging of the children of God.

Wesley: Act 28:7 - The chief man of the island In wealth if not in power also.

In wealth if not in power also.

Wesley: Act 28:7 - Three days The first three days of our stay on the island.

The first three days of our stay on the island.

Wesley: Act 28:11 - Whose sign was It was the custom of the ancients to have images on the head of their ships, from which they took their names.

It was the custom of the ancients to have images on the head of their ships, from which they took their names.

Wesley: Act 28:11 - Castor and Pollux Two heathen gods who were thought favourable to mariners.

Two heathen gods who were thought favourable to mariners.

Wesley: Act 28:15 - The brethren That is, the Christians, came out thence to meet us - It is remarkable that there is no certain account by whom Christianity was planted at Rome. Prob...

That is, the Christians, came out thence to meet us - It is remarkable that there is no certain account by whom Christianity was planted at Rome. Probably some inhabitants of that city were at Jerusalem on the day of pentecost, Act 2:10; and being then converted themselves, carried the Gospel thither at their return.

Wesley: Act 28:15 - Appii Forum was a town fifty - one miles from Rome; the Three Taverns about thirty.

Forum was a town fifty - one miles from Rome; the Three Taverns about thirty.

Wesley: Act 28:15 - He took courage He saw Christ was at Rome also, and now forgot all the troubles of his journey.

He saw Christ was at Rome also, and now forgot all the troubles of his journey.

Wesley: Act 28:16 - With the soldier To whom he was chained, as the Roman custom was.

To whom he was chained, as the Roman custom was.

Wesley: Act 28:17 - And after three days Given to rest and prayer, Paul called the chief of the Jews together - He always sought the Jews first; but being now bound, he could not so convenien...

Given to rest and prayer, Paul called the chief of the Jews together - He always sought the Jews first; but being now bound, he could not so conveniently go round to them.

Wesley: Act 28:17 - Though I have done nothing Seeing him chained, they might have suspected he had. Therefore he first obviates this suspicion.

Seeing him chained, they might have suspected he had. Therefore he first obviates this suspicion.

Wesley: Act 28:19 - When the Jews opposed it He speaks tenderly of them, not mentioning their repeated attempts to murder him.

He speaks tenderly of them, not mentioning their repeated attempts to murder him.

Wesley: Act 28:19 - Not that I had any thing to accuse my nation of Not that I had any design to accuse others, but merely to defend myself.

Not that I had any design to accuse others, but merely to defend myself.

Wesley: Act 28:20 - The hope of Israel What Israel hopes for, namely, the Messiah and the resurrection.

What Israel hopes for, namely, the Messiah and the resurrection.

Wesley: Act 28:21 - We have neither received letters concerning thee There must have been a peculiar providence in this, nor has any of the brethren - The Jews, related - Professedly, in a set discourse, or spoke - Occa...

There must have been a peculiar providence in this, nor has any of the brethren - The Jews, related - Professedly, in a set discourse, or spoke - Occasionally, in conversation, any evil of thee - How must the bridle then have been in their mouth!

Wesley: Act 28:22 - This sect we know is every where spoken against This is no proof at all of a bad cause, but a very probable mark of a good one.

This is no proof at all of a bad cause, but a very probable mark of a good one.

Wesley: Act 28:23 - To whom he expounded, testifying the kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus These were his two grand topics, That the kingdom of the Messiah was of a spiritual, not temporal nature: That Jesus of Nazareth was the very person f...

These were his two grand topics, That the kingdom of the Messiah was of a spiritual, not temporal nature: That Jesus of Nazareth was the very person foretold, as the Lord of that kingdom. On this head he had as much need to persuade as to convince, their will making as strong a resistance as their understanding.

Wesley: Act 28:24 - And some believed the things that were spoken With the heart, as well as understanding.

With the heart, as well as understanding.

Wesley: Act 28:25 - Well spake the Holy Ghost to your fathers Which is equally applicable to you.

Which is equally applicable to you.

Wesley: Act 28:26 - Hearing ye shall hear That is, ye shall most surely hear, and shall not understand - The words manifestly denote a judicial blindness, consequent upon a wilful and obstinat...

That is, ye shall most surely hear, and shall not understand - The words manifestly denote a judicial blindness, consequent upon a wilful and obstinate resistance of the truth. First they would not, afterward they could not, believe. Isa 6:9, &c; Mat 13:14; Joh 12:40.

Wesley: Act 28:28 - The salvation of God is sent to the Gentiles Namely, from this time. Before this no apostle had been at Rome. St. Paul was the first.

Namely, from this time. Before this no apostle had been at Rome. St. Paul was the first.

Wesley: Act 28:30 - And Paul continued two whole years After which this book was written, long before St. Paul's death, and was undoubtedly published with his approbation by St. Luke, who continued with hi...

After which this book was written, long before St. Paul's death, and was undoubtedly published with his approbation by St. Luke, who continued with him to the last, 2Ti 4:11.

Wesley: Act 28:30 - And received all that came to him Whether they were Jews or Gentiles.

Whether they were Jews or Gentiles.

Wesley: Act 28:30 - These two years completed twenty five years after our Saviour's passion. Such progress had the Gospel made by that time, in the parts of the world which lay west of Jerusalem, by the ...

five years after our Saviour's passion. Such progress had the Gospel made by that time, in the parts of the world which lay west of Jerusalem, by the ministry of St. Paul among the Gentiles. How far eastward the other apostles had carried it in the same time, history does not inform us.

Wesley: Act 28:31 - No man forbidding him Such was the victory of the word of God. While Paul was preaching at Rome, the Gospel shone with its highest lustre. Here therefore the Acts of the Ap...

Such was the victory of the word of God. While Paul was preaching at Rome, the Gospel shone with its highest lustre. Here therefore the Acts of the Apostles end; and end with great advantage. Otherwise St. Luke could easily have continued his narrative to the apostle's death.

JFB: Act 28:1 - knew the island was called Melita (See on Act 27:39). The opinion that this island was not Malta to the south of Sicily, but Meleda in the Gulf of Venice--which till lately had respect...

(See on Act 27:39). The opinion that this island was not Malta to the south of Sicily, but Meleda in the Gulf of Venice--which till lately had respectable support among Competent judges--is now all but exploded; examination of all the places on the spot, and of all writings and principles bearing on the question, by gentlemen of the highest qualification, particularly SMITH (see on Act 27:41), having set the question, it may now be affirmed, at rest.

JFB: Act 28:2 - the barbarous people So called merely as speaking neither the Greek nor the Latin language. They were originally Phœnician colonists.

So called merely as speaking neither the Greek nor the Latin language. They were originally Phœnician colonists.

JFB: Act 28:2 - showed us no little "no ordinary"

"no ordinary"

JFB: Act 28:2 - kindness, for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain "the rain that was on us"--not now first falling, but then falling heavily.

"the rain that was on us"--not now first falling, but then falling heavily.

JFB: Act 28:2 - and because of the cold Welcomed us all, drenched and shivering, to these most seasonable marks of friendship. In this these "barbarians" contrast favorably with many since b...

Welcomed us all, drenched and shivering, to these most seasonable marks of friendship. In this these "barbarians" contrast favorably with many since bearing the Christian name. The lifelike style of the narrative here and in the following verses gives it a great charm.

JFB: Act 28:3 - when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks "a quantity of dry sticks." The vigorous activity of Paul's character is observable in this comparatively trifling action [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

"a quantity of dry sticks." The vigorous activity of Paul's character is observable in this comparatively trifling action [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Act 28:3 - and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat Having laid itself up among the sticks on the approach of the cold winter season, it had suddenly recovered from its torpor by the heat.

Having laid itself up among the sticks on the approach of the cold winter season, it had suddenly recovered from its torpor by the heat.

JFB: Act 28:3 - and fastened Its fangs.

Its fangs.

JFB: Act 28:3 - on his hand Vipers dart at their enemies sometimes several feet at a bound. They have now disappeared from Malta, owing to the change which cultivation has produc...

Vipers dart at their enemies sometimes several feet at a bound. They have now disappeared from Malta, owing to the change which cultivation has produced.

JFB: Act 28:4-6 - No doubt this man is a murderer His chains, which they would see, might strengthen the impression.

His chains, which they would see, might strengthen the impression.

JFB: Act 28:4-6 - whom . . . vengeance suffereth not to live They believed in a Supreme, Resistless, Avenging Eye and Hand, however vague their notions of where it resided.

They believed in a Supreme, Resistless, Avenging Eye and Hand, however vague their notions of where it resided.

JFB: Act 28:5 - shook off the beast and felt no harm See Mar 16:18.

See Mar 16:18.

JFB: Act 28:6 - they looked "continued looking."

"continued looking."

JFB: Act 28:6 - when he should have swollen or fallen down dead Familiar with the effects of such bites.

Familiar with the effects of such bites.

JFB: Act 28:6 - and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said . . . he was a god From "a murderer" to "a god," as the Lycaonian greeting of Paul and Silas from "sacrificing to them" to "stoning them" (Act 14:13, Act 14:19). What ha...

From "a murderer" to "a god," as the Lycaonian greeting of Paul and Silas from "sacrificing to them" to "stoning them" (Act 14:13, Act 14:19). What has not the Gospel done for the uncultivated portion of the human family, while its effects on the educated and refined, though very different, are not less marvellous! Verily it is God's chosen restorative for the human spirit, in all the multitudinous forms and gradations of its lapsed state.

JFB: Act 28:7-8 - possessions of the chief man "the first man."

"the first man."

JFB: Act 28:7-8 - of the island He would hardly be so styled in the lifetime of his father, if his distinction was that of the family. But it is now ascertained that this was the pro...

He would hardly be so styled in the lifetime of his father, if his distinction was that of the family. But it is now ascertained that this was the proper official title of the Maltese representative of the Roman prætor to Sicily, to whose province Malta belonged; two inscriptions having been discovered in the island, one in Greek, the other in Latin, containing the same words which Luke here employs.

JFB: Act 28:7-8 - who received us Of Paul's company, but doubtless including the "courteous" Julius.

Of Paul's company, but doubtless including the "courteous" Julius.

JFB: Act 28:7-8 - and lodged us three days courteously Till proper winter lodgings could be obtained for them.

Till proper winter lodgings could be obtained for them.

JFB: Act 28:8 - the father of Publius lay sick of a fever "fevers." The word was often thus used in the plural number, probably to express recurring attacks.

"fevers." The word was often thus used in the plural number, probably to express recurring attacks.

JFB: Act 28:8 - and of a bloody flux "of dysentery." (The medical accuracy of our historian's style has been observed here.)

"of dysentery." (The medical accuracy of our historian's style has been observed here.)

JFB: Act 28:8 - to whom Paul entered in, and prayed Thereby precluding the supposition that any charm resided in himself.

Thereby precluding the supposition that any charm resided in himself.

JFB: Act 28:8 - and laid his hands on him, and healed him Thus, as our Lord rewarded Peter for the use of his boat (Luk 5:3-4, &c.), so Paul richly repays Publius for his hospitality. Observe the fulfilment h...

Thus, as our Lord rewarded Peter for the use of his boat (Luk 5:3-4, &c.), so Paul richly repays Publius for his hospitality. Observe the fulfilment here of two things predicted in Mar 16:18 --the "taking up serpents," and "recovering of the sick by laying hands on them."

JFB: Act 28:9 - this . . . done, others . . . came and were healed "kept coming to [us] and getting healed," that is, during our stay, not all at once [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

"kept coming to [us] and getting healed," that is, during our stay, not all at once [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Act 28:10 - who also honoured us . . . and when we departed they laded us, &c. This was not taking hire for the miracles wrought among them (Mat 10:8), but such grateful expressions of feeling, particularly in providing what woul...

This was not taking hire for the miracles wrought among them (Mat 10:8), but such grateful expressions of feeling, particularly in providing what would minister to their comfort during the voyage, as showed the value they set upon the presence and labors of the apostle among them, and such as it would have hurt their feelings to refuse. Whether any permanent effects of this three months' stay of the greatest of the apostles were left at Malta, we cannot certainly say. But though little dependence is to be placed upon the tradition that Publius became bishop of Malta and afterwards of Athens, we may well believe the accredited tradition that the beginnings of the Christian Church at Malta sprang out of this memorable visit.

JFB: Act 28:11 - we departed in a ship of Alexandria (See on Act 27:6).

(See on Act 27:6).

JFB: Act 28:11 - which had wintered in the isle No doubt driven m by the same storm which had wrecked on its shores the apostle's vessel--an incidental mark of consistency in the narrative.

No doubt driven m by the same storm which had wrecked on its shores the apostle's vessel--an incidental mark of consistency in the narrative.

JFB: Act 28:11 - whose sign Or "figurehead"; the figure, carved or painted on the bow, which gave name to the vessel. Such figureheads were anciently as common as now.

Or "figurehead"; the figure, carved or painted on the bow, which gave name to the vessel. Such figureheads were anciently as common as now.

JFB: Act 28:11 - was Castor and Pollux The tutelar gods of mariners, to whom all their good fortune was ascribed. St. Anthony is substituted for them in the modern superstitions of Mediterr...

The tutelar gods of mariners, to whom all their good fortune was ascribed. St. Anthony is substituted for them in the modern superstitions of Mediterranean (Romanist) sailors. They carry his image in their boats and ships. It is highly improbable that two ships of Alexandra should have been casually found, of which the owners were able and willing to receive on board such a number of passengers (Act 27:6). We may then reasonably conceive that it was compulsory on the owners to convey soldiers and state travellers [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Act 28:12-13 - landing at Syracuse The ancient and celebrated capital of Sicily, on its eastern coast, about eighty miles, or a day's sail, north from Malta.

The ancient and celebrated capital of Sicily, on its eastern coast, about eighty miles, or a day's sail, north from Malta.

JFB: Act 28:12-13 - we tarried there three days Probably from the state of the wind. Doubtless Paul would wish to go ashore, to find out and break ground among the Jews and proselytes whom such a me...

Probably from the state of the wind. Doubtless Paul would wish to go ashore, to find out and break ground among the Jews and proselytes whom such a mercantile center would attract to it; and if this was allowed at the outset of the voyage (Act 27:3), much more readily would it be now when he had gained the reverence and confidence of all classes with whom he came in contact. At any rate we cannot wonder that he should be regarded by the Sicilians as the founder of the Church of that island.

JFB: Act 28:13 - from thence we fetched a compass That is, proceeded circuitously, or tacked, working to windward probably, and availing themselves of the sinuosities of the coast, the wind not being ...

That is, proceeded circuitously, or tacked, working to windward probably, and availing themselves of the sinuosities of the coast, the wind not being favorable [SMITH]. What follows confirms this.

JFB: Act 28:13 - and came to Rhegium Now Reggio, a seaport on the southwest point of the Italian coast, opposite the northeast point of Sicily, and at the entrance of the narrow straits o...

Now Reggio, a seaport on the southwest point of the Italian coast, opposite the northeast point of Sicily, and at the entrance of the narrow straits of Messina.

JFB: Act 28:13 - after one day the south wind blew A south wind having sprung up; being now favored with a fair wind, for want of which they had been obliged first to stay three days at Syracuse, and t...

A south wind having sprung up; being now favored with a fair wind, for want of which they had been obliged first to stay three days at Syracuse, and then to tack and put in for a day at Rhegium.

JFB: Act 28:13 - the next day to Puteoli Now Pozzuoli, situated on the northern part of the magnificent bay of Naples about one hundred eighty miles north of Rhegium, a distance which they mi...

Now Pozzuoli, situated on the northern part of the magnificent bay of Naples about one hundred eighty miles north of Rhegium, a distance which they might make, running before their "south wind," in about twenty-six hours. The Alexandrian corn ships enjoyed a privilege peculiar to themselves, of not being obliged to strike their topsail on landing. By this they were easily recognized as they hove in sight by the crowds that we find gathered on the shore on such occasions [HOWSON].

JFB: Act 28:14-15 - Where we found brethren Not "the brethren" (see on Act 21:4), from which one would conclude they did not expect to find such [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

Not "the brethren" (see on Act 21:4), from which one would conclude they did not expect to find such [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Act 28:14-15 - and were desired "requested."

"requested."

JFB: Act 28:14-15 - to tarry with them seven days If this request came from Julius, it may have proceeded partly from a wish to receive instructions from Rome and make arrangements for his journey thi...

If this request came from Julius, it may have proceeded partly from a wish to receive instructions from Rome and make arrangements for his journey thither, partly from a wish to gratify Paul, as he seems studiously and increasingly to have done to the last. One can hardly doubt that he was influenced by both considerations. However this may be, the apostle had thus an opportunity of spending a Sabbath with the Christians of the place, all the more refreshing from his long privation in this respect, and as a seasoning for the unknown future that lay before him at the metropolis.

so we went toward Rome.

JFB: Act 28:15 - And from thence, when the brethren Of Rome

Of Rome

JFB: Act 28:15 - heard of us By letter from Puteoli, and probably by the same conveyance which took Julius' announcement of his arrival.

By letter from Puteoli, and probably by the same conveyance which took Julius' announcement of his arrival.

JFB: Act 28:15 - they came to meet us as far as Appii Forum A town forty-one miles from Rome.

A town forty-one miles from Rome.

JFB: Act 28:15 - and the Three Taverns Thirty miles from Rome. Thus they came to greet the apostle in two parties, one stopping short at the nearer, the other going on to the more distant p...

Thirty miles from Rome. Thus they came to greet the apostle in two parties, one stopping short at the nearer, the other going on to the more distant place.

JFB: Act 28:15 - whom when Paul saw, he thanked God For such a welcome. How sensitive he was to such Christian affection all his Epistles show (Rom 1:9, &c.).

For such a welcome. How sensitive he was to such Christian affection all his Epistles show (Rom 1:9, &c.).

JFB: Act 28:15 - and took courage His long-cherished purpose to "see Rome" (Act 19:21), there to proclaim the unsearchable riches of Christ, and the divine pledge that in this he shoul...

His long-cherished purpose to "see Rome" (Act 19:21), there to proclaim the unsearchable riches of Christ, and the divine pledge that in this he should be gratified (Act 23:11), being now about to be auspiciously realized.

JFB: Act 28:16 - when we came to Rome The renowned capital of the ancient world, situated on the Tiber.

The renowned capital of the ancient world, situated on the Tiber.

JFB: Act 28:16 - the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard The Prætorian Prefect, to whose custody, as commander of the Prætorian guard, the highest military authority in the city, were committed all who wer...

The Prætorian Prefect, to whose custody, as commander of the Prætorian guard, the highest military authority in the city, were committed all who were to come before the emperor for trial. Ordinarily there were two such prefects; but from A.D. 51 to 62, one distinguished general--Burrus Aframus, who had been Nero's tutor--held that office; and as our historian speaks of "the captain," as if there were but one, it is thought that this fixes the apostle's arrival at Rome to be not later than the year 62 [WIES]. But even though there had been two when Paul arrived, he would be committed only to one of them, who would be "the captain" who got charge of him. (At most, therefore, this can furnish no more than confirmation to the chronological evidence otherwise obtained).

JFB: Act 28:16 - but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a "the"

"the"

JFB: Act 28:16 - soldier that kept him "guarded" him. (See on Act 12:6). This privilege was allowed in the case of the better class of prisoners, not accused of any flagrant offense, on fin...

"guarded" him. (See on Act 12:6). This privilege was allowed in the case of the better class of prisoners, not accused of any flagrant offense, on finding security--which in Paul's case would not be difficult among the Christians. The extension of this privilege to the apostle may have been due to the terms in which Festus wrote about him; but far more probably it was owing to the high terms in which Julius spoke of him, and his express intercession in his behalf. It was overruled, however, for giving the fullest scope to the labors of the apostle compatible with confinement at all. As the soldiers who kept him were relieved periodically, he would thus make the personal acquaintance of a great number of the Prætorian guard; and if he had to appear before the Prefect from time to time, the truth might thus penetrate to those who surrounded the emperor, as we learn, from Phi 1:12-13, that it did.

JFB: Act 28:17-20 - Paul called the chief of the Jews together Though banished from the capital by Claudius, the Jews enjoyed the full benefit of the toleration which distinguished the first period of Nero's reign...

Though banished from the capital by Claudius, the Jews enjoyed the full benefit of the toleration which distinguished the first period of Nero's reign, and were at this time in considerable numbers, wealth, and influence settled at Rome. We have seen that long before this a flourishing Christian Church existed at Rome, to which Paul wrote his Epistle (see on Act 20:3), and the first members of which were probably Jewish converts and proselytes. (See Introduction to Romans.)

JFB: Act 28:17-20 - yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans The Roman authorities, Felix and Festus.

The Roman authorities, Felix and Festus.

JFB: Act 28:19 - I was constrained to appeal . . . not that I had aught to accuse my nation of "I am here not as their accuser, but as my own defender, and this not of choice but necessity." His object in alluding thus gently to the treatment he...

"I am here not as their accuser, but as my own defender, and this not of choice but necessity." His object in alluding thus gently to the treatment he had received from the Jews was plainly to avoid whatever might irritate his visitors at the first; especially as he was not aware whether any or what information against him had reached their community.

JFB: Act 28:20 - For this cause . . . have I called for you . . . because . . . for the hope of Israel (See on Act 26:6-7).

(See on Act 26:6-7).

JFB: Act 28:20 - I am bound with this chain "This cause is not so much mine as yours; it is the nation's cause; all that is dear to the heart and hope of Israel is bound up with this case of min...

"This cause is not so much mine as yours; it is the nation's cause; all that is dear to the heart and hope of Israel is bound up with this case of mine." From the touching allusions which the apostle makes to his chains, before Agrippa first, and here before the leading members of the Jewish community at Rome, at his first interview with them, one would gather that his great soul felt keenly his being in such a condition; and it is to this keenness of feeling, under the control of Christian principle, that we owe the noble use which he made of it in these two cases.

JFB: Act 28:21-22 - We neither received letters out of Judea concerning thee, &c. We need not suppose (with THOLUCK and others) that there was any dishonest concealment here. The distinction made between himself, against whom they h...

We need not suppose (with THOLUCK and others) that there was any dishonest concealment here. The distinction made between himself, against whom they heard nothing, and his "sect," as "everywhere spoken against," is a presumption in favor of their sincerity; and there is ground to think that as the case took an unexpected turn by Paul's appealing to Cæsar, so no information on the subject would travel from Jerusalem to Rome in advance of the apostle himself.

JFB: Act 28:22 - we desire "deem it proper"

"deem it proper"

JFB: Act 28:22 - to hear of thee what thou thinkest What are thy sentiments, views, &c. The apparent freedom from prejudice here expressed may have arisen from a prudent desire to avoid endangering a re...

What are thy sentiments, views, &c. The apparent freedom from prejudice here expressed may have arisen from a prudent desire to avoid endangering a repetition of those dissensions about Christianity to which, probably, SUETONIUS alludes, and which had led to the expulsion of the Jews under Claudius [HUMPHRY]. See on Act 18:2.

JFB: Act 28:23-24 - there came many "considerable numbers"

"considerable numbers"

JFB: Act 28:23-24 - into his lodging The word denotes one's place of stay as a guest (Phm 1:22), not "his own hired house," mentioned in Act 28:30. Some Christian friends--possibly Aquila...

The word denotes one's place of stay as a guest (Phm 1:22), not "his own hired house," mentioned in Act 28:30. Some Christian friends--possibly Aquila and Priscilla, who had returned to Rome (Rom 16:3), would be glad to receive him, though he would soon find himself more at liberty in a house of his own.

JFB: Act 28:23-24 - to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God Opening up the great spiritual principles of that kingdom in opposition to the contracted and secular views of it entertained by the Jews.

Opening up the great spiritual principles of that kingdom in opposition to the contracted and secular views of it entertained by the Jews.

JFB: Act 28:23-24 - persuading them concerning Jesus As the ordained and predicted Head of that kingdom.

As the ordained and predicted Head of that kingdom.

JFB: Act 28:23-24 - out of the law . . . and the prophets Drawing his materials and arguments from a source mutually acknowledged.

Drawing his materials and arguments from a source mutually acknowledged.

JFB: Act 28:23-24 - from morning till evening "Who would not wish to have been present?" exclaims BENGEL; but virtually we are present while listening to those Epistles which he dictated from his ...

"Who would not wish to have been present?" exclaims BENGEL; but virtually we are present while listening to those Epistles which he dictated from his prison at Rome, and to his other epistolary expositions of Christian truth against the Jews.

JFB: Act 28:24 - and some believed . . . some not What simplicity and candor are in this record of a result repeated from age to age where the Gospel is presented to a promiscuous assemblage of sincer...

What simplicity and candor are in this record of a result repeated from age to age where the Gospel is presented to a promiscuous assemblage of sincere and earnest inquirers after truth, frivolous worldlings, and prejudiced bigots!

JFB: Act 28:25-29 - when they The Jews.

The Jews.

JFB: Act 28:25-29 - agreed not among themselves The discussion having passed into one between the two parties into which the visitors were now divided, respecting the arguments and conclusions of th...

The discussion having passed into one between the two parties into which the visitors were now divided, respecting the arguments and conclusions of the apostle.

JFB: Act 28:25-29 - they departed The material of discussion being felt by both parties to be exhausted.

The material of discussion being felt by both parties to be exhausted.

JFB: Act 28:25-29 - after Paul had spoken one word One solemn parting testimony, from those Scriptures regarded by both alike as "the Holy Ghost speaking" to Israel.

One solemn parting testimony, from those Scriptures regarded by both alike as "the Holy Ghost speaking" to Israel.

JFB: Act 28:26 - Hearing, ye shall hear, &c. (See on Mat 13:13-15 and Joh 12:38-40). With what pain would this stern saying be wrung from him whose "heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel wa...

(See on Mat 13:13-15 and Joh 12:38-40). With what pain would this stern saying be wrung from him whose "heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel was that they might be saved," and who "had great heaviness and continual sorrow in his heart" on their account (Rom 10:1; Rom 9:2)!

JFB: Act 28:28 - the salvation of God is sent to the Gentiles, and they will hear (See on Act 13:44-48). "This departure to the Gentiles" he had intimated to the perverse Jews at Antioch (Act 13:46), and at Corinth (Act 18:6); now a...

(See on Act 13:44-48). "This departure to the Gentiles" he had intimated to the perverse Jews at Antioch (Act 13:46), and at Corinth (Act 18:6); now at Rome: thus in Asia, Greece, and Italy" [BENGEL].

JFB: Act 28:29 - the Jews departed, and had great "much"

"much"

JFB: Act 28:29 - reasoning among themselves "This verse is wanting in many manuscripts [and omitted by several recent editors], but certainly without reason. Probably the words were regarded as ...

"This verse is wanting in many manuscripts [and omitted by several recent editors], but certainly without reason. Probably the words were regarded as superfluous, as they seem to tell us what we were told before, that Paul "departed" (see Act 28:25). But in Act 28:25 it is the breaking off of the discourse that is meant, here the final departure from the house" [OLSHAUSEN].

JFB: Act 28:30 - in his own hired house (See on Act 28:23), yet still in custody, for he only "received all that came to him"; and it is not said that he went to the synagogue or anywhere el...

(See on Act 28:23), yet still in custody, for he only "received all that came to him"; and it is not said that he went to the synagogue or anywhere else.

JFB: Act 28:31 - with all confidence, no man forbidding him Enjoying, in the uninterrupted exercise of his ministry, all the liberty of a guarded man. Thus closes this most precious monument of the beginnings o...

Enjoying, in the uninterrupted exercise of his ministry, all the liberty of a guarded man. Thus closes this most precious monument of the beginnings of the Christian Church in its march from east to west, among the Jews first, whose center was Jerusalem; next among the Gentiles, with Antioch for its headquarters; finally, its banner is seen waving over imperial Rome, foretokening its universal triumphs. That distinguished apostle whose conversion, labors, and sufferings for "the faith which once he destroyed" occupy more than half of this History, it leaves a prisoner, unheard, so far as appears, for two years. His accusers, whose presence was indispensable, would have to await the return of spring before starting for the capital, and might not reach it for many months; nor, even when there, would they be so sanguine of success--after Felix, Festus, and Agrippa had all pronounced him innocent--as to be impatient of delay. And if witnesses were required to prove the charge advanced by Tertullus, that he was "a mover of sedition among all the Jews throughout the [Roman] world" (Act 24:5), they must have seen that unless considerable time was allowed them the case would certainly break down. If to this be added the capricious delays which the emperor himself might interpose, and the practice of Nero to hear but one charge at a time, it will not seem strange that the historian should have no proceedings in the case to record for two years. Begun, probably, before the apostle's arrival, its progress at Rome under his own eye would furnish exalted employment, and beguile many a tedious hour of his two years' imprisonment. Had the case come on for hearing during this period, much more if it had been disposed of, it is hardly conceivable that the History should have closed as it does. But if, at the end of this period, the Narrative only wanted the decision of the case, while hope deferred was making the heart sick (Pro 13:12), and if, under the guidance of that Spirit whose seal was on it all, it seemed of more consequence to put the Church at once in possession of this History than to keep it back indefinitely for the sake of what might come to be otherwise known, we cannot wonder that it should be wound up as it is in its two concluding verses. All that we know of the apostle's proceedings and history beyond this must be gathered from the Epistles of the Imprisonment--Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon--written during this period, and the Pastoral Epistles--to Timothy and Titus, which, in our judgment, are of subsequent date. From the former class of Epistles we learn the following particulars: (1) That the trying restraint laid upon the apostle's labors by his imprisonment had only turned his influence into a new channel; the Gospel having in consequence penetrated even into the palace, and pervaded the city, while the preachers of Christ were emboldened; and though the Judaizing portion of them, observing his success among the Gentiles, had been led to inculcate with fresh zeal their own narrower Gospel, even this had done much good by extending the truth common to both (See on Phi 1:12-18; Phi 4:22); (2) That as in addition to all his other labors, "the care of all the churches pressed upon him from day to-day" (2Co 11:28), so with these churches he kept up an active correspondence by means of letters and messages, and on such errands he lacked not faithful and beloved brethren enough ready to be employed--Luke; Timotheus; Tychicus; (John) Mark; Demas; Aristarchus; Epaphras; Onesimus; Jesus, called Justus; and, for a short time, Epaphroditus (See on Col 4:7; Col 4:9-12; Col 4:14; Phm 1:23-24; see Introduction to Ephesians, Introduction to Philippians, and Introduction to Philemon). That the apostle suffered martyrdom under Nero at Rome has never been doubted. But that the appeal which brought him to Rome issued in his liberation, that he was at large for some years thereafter and took some wide missionary circuits, and that he was again arrested, carried to Rome, and then executed--was the undisputed belief of the early Church, as expressed by CHRYSOSTOM, JEROME, and EUSEBIUS, in the fourth century, up to CLEMENT OF ROME, the "fellow laborer" of the apostle himself (Phi 4:3), in the first century. The strongest possible confirmation of this is found in the Pastoral Epistles, which bear marks throughout of a more advanced state of the Church, and more matured forms of error, than can well have existed at any period before the appeal which brought the apostle to Rome; which refer to movements of himself and Timothy that cannot without some straining (as we think) be made to fit into any prior period; and which are couched in a manifestly riper style than any of his other Epistles. (See Introduction to First Timothy, Introduction to Second Timothy Introduction to Titus and Notes). All this has been called in question by modern critics of great research and acuteness [PETAVIUS, LARDNER, DE WETTE, WIESELER, DAVIDSON, and others]. But those who maintain the ancient view are of equal authority and more numerous, while the weight of argument appears to us to be decidedly on their side.

Clarke: Act 28:1 - They knew that the island was called Melita They knew that the island was called Melita - There were two islands of this name: one in the Adriatic Gulf, or Gulf of Venice, on the coast of Illy...

They knew that the island was called Melita - There were two islands of this name: one in the Adriatic Gulf, or Gulf of Venice, on the coast of Illyricum, and near to Epidaurus; the other in the Mediterranean Sea, between Sicily and Africa, and now called Malta. It is about fifty miles from the coast of Sicily; twenty miles long, and twelve miles in its greatest breadth; and about sixty miles in circumference. It is one immense rock of white, soft freestone, with about one foot depth of earth on an average, and most of this has been brought from Sicily! It produces cotton, excellent fruits, and fine honey; from which it appears the island originally had its name; for μελι, meli , and in the genitive case, μελιτος, melitos , signifies honey. Others suppose that it derived its name from the Phoenicians, who established a colony in it, and made it a place of refuge, when they extended their traffic to the ocean, because it was furnished with excellent harbours: (on the E. and W. shores): hence, in their tongue, it would be called מליטה Meliteh , escape or refuge, from מלט malat , to escape

The Phaeacians were probably the first inhabitants of this island: they were expelled by the Phoenicians; the Phoenicians by the Greeks; the Greeks by the Carthaginians; the Carthaginians by the Romans, who possessed it in the time of the apostle; the Romans by the Goths; the Goths by the Saracens; the Saracens by the Sicilians, under Roger, earl of Sicily, in 1190. Charles V., emperor of Germany, took possession of it by his conquest of Naples and Sicily; and he gave it in 1525 to the knights of Rhodes, who are also called the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1798, this island surrendered to the French, under Bonaparte, and in 1800, after a blockade of two years, the island being reduced by famine, surrendered to the British, under whose dominion it still remains (1814.) Every thing considered, there can be little doubt that this is the Melita at which St. Paul was wrecked, and not at that other island in the Adriatic, or Venitian Gulf, as high up northward as Illyricum. The following reasons make this greatly evident

1.    Tradition has unvaryingly asserted this as the place of the apostle’ s shipwreck

2.    The island in the Venitian Gulf, in favor of which Mr. Bryant so learnedly contends, is totally out of the track in which the euroclydon must have driven the vessel

3.    It is said, in Act 28:11, that another ship of Alexandria, bound, as we must suppose, for Italy, and very probably carrying wheat thither, as St. Paul’ s vessel did, (Act 27:38), had been driven out of its course of sailing, by stress of weather, up to the Illyricum Melita, and had been for that cause obliged to winter in the isle. Now this is a supposition which, as I think, is too much of a supposition to be made

4.    In St. Paul’ s voyage to Italy from Melita, on board the Alexandrian ship that had wintered there, he and his companions landed at Syracuse, Act 28:12, Act 28:13, and from thence went to Rhegium. But if it had been the Illyrican Melita, the proper course of the ship would have been, first to Rhegium, before it reached Syracuse, and needed not to have gone to Syracuse at all; whereas, in a voyage from the present Malta to Italy, it was necessary to reach Syracuse, in Sicily, before the ship could arrive at Rhegium in Italy. See the map; and see Bp. Pearce, from whom I have extracted the two last arguments

That Malta was possessed by the Phoenicians, before the Romans conquered it, Bochart has largely proved; and indeed the language to the present day, notwithstanding all the political vicissitudes through which the island has passed, bears sufficient evidence of its Punic origin. In the year 1761, near a place called Ben Ghisa, in this island, a sepulchral cave was discovered, in which was a square stone with an inscription in Punic or Phoenician characters, on which Sir Wm. Drummond has written a learned essay, (London, Valpy, 1810, 4to.), which he supposes marks the burial place, at least of the ashes, of the famous Carthaginian general, Hannibal. I shall give this inscription in Samaritan characters, as being the present form of the ancient Punic, with Sir Wm. Drummond’ s translation: -

Chadar Beth olam kabar Chanibaal

Nakeh becaleth haveh , rach -

m daeh Amos beshuth Chanib -

aal ben Bar -melec

"The inner chamber of the sanctuary of the sepulchre of Hannibal

Illustrious in the consummation of calamity

He was beloved

The people lament, when arraye

In order of battle

Hannibal the son of Bar-Melec.

As this is a curious piece, and one of the largest remains of the Punic language now in existence, and as it helps to ascertain the ancient inhabitants of this island, I thought it not improper to insert it here. For the illustration of this and several other points of Punic antiquity, I must refer the curious reader to the essay itself.

Clarke: Act 28:2 - The barbarous people The barbarous people - We have already seen that this island was peopled by the Phoenicians, or Carthaginians, as Bochart has proved, Phaleg. chap. ...

The barbarous people - We have already seen that this island was peopled by the Phoenicians, or Carthaginians, as Bochart has proved, Phaleg. chap. xxvi.; and their ancient language was no doubt in use among them at that time, though mingled with some Greek and Latin terms; and this language must have been unintelligible to the Romans and the Greeks. With these, as well as with other nations, it was customary to call those βαρβαροι, barbarians, whose language they did not understand. St. Paul himself speaks after this manner in 1Co 14:11 : If I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a Barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a Barbarian unto me. Thus Herodotus also, lib. ii. 158, says, βαρβαρους παντας Αιγυπτιοι καλεουσι τους μη σφι ὁμογλωσσους· The Egyptians call all those Barbarians who have not the same language with themselves. And Ovid, when among the Getes, says, in Trist. ver. 10: -

Barbarus hic ego sum, quia non Intelligor ulli

"Here I am a barbarian, for no person understands me.

Various etymologies have been given of this word. I think that of Bp. Pearce the best. The Greeks who traded with the Phoenicians, formed this word from their observing that the Phoenicians were generally called by the name of their parent, with the word בר bar , prefixed to that name; as we find in the New Testament men called Bar-Jesus, Bar-Tholomeus, Bar-Jonas, Bar-Timeus, etc. Hence the Greeks called them βαρ-βαροι, meaning the men who are called Bar Bar, or have no other names than what begin with Bar. And because the Greeks did not understand the language of the Phoenicians, their first, and the Romans in imitation of them, gave the name of Barbarians to all such as talked in a language to which they were strangers."No other etymology need be attempted; this is its own proof; and the Bar-melec in the preceding epitaph is, at least, collateral evidence. The word barbarian is therefore no term of reproach in itself; and was not so used by ancient authors, however fashionable it may be to use it so now

Clarke: Act 28:2 - Because of the present rain and - of the cold Because of the present rain and - of the cold - This must have been sometime in October; and, when we consider the time of the year, the tempestuous...

Because of the present rain and - of the cold - This must have been sometime in October; and, when we consider the time of the year, the tempestuousness of the weather, and their escaping to shore on planks, spars, etc., wet of course to the skin, they must have been very cold, and have needed all the kindness that these well disposed people showed them. In some parts of Christianized Europe, the inhabitants would have attended on the beach, and knocked the survivors on the head, that they might convert the wreck to their own use! This barbarous people did not act in this way: they joined hands with God to make these sufferers live.

Clarke: Act 28:3 - There came a viper out of the heat There came a viper out of the heat - We may naturally suppose that there had been fuel laid before on the fire, and that the viper was in this fuel,...

There came a viper out of the heat - We may naturally suppose that there had been fuel laid before on the fire, and that the viper was in this fuel, and that it had been revived by the heat; and, when St. Paul laid his bundle on the fire, the viper was then in a state to lay hold on his hand.

Clarke: Act 28:4 - The venomous beast The venomous beast - Το θηριον, The venomous animal; for θηρια is a general name among the Greek writers for serpents, vipers, scorp...

The venomous beast - Το θηριον, The venomous animal; for θηρια is a general name among the Greek writers for serpents, vipers, scorpions, wasps, and such like creatures. Though the viper fastened on Paul’ s hand, it does not appear that it really bit him; but the Maltese supposed that it had, because they saw it fasten on his hand

Clarke: Act 28:4 - Vengeance suffereth not to live Vengeance suffereth not to live - These heathens had a general knowledge of retributive justice; and they thought that the stinging of the serpent w...

Vengeance suffereth not to live - These heathens had a general knowledge of retributive justice; and they thought that the stinging of the serpent was a proof that Paul was a murderer. There is a passage in Bamidbar Rabba, fol. 239, that casts some light on this place. "Although the Sanhedrin is ceased, yet are not the four deaths ceased. For he that deserves stoning either falls from his house, or a wild beast tears and devours him. He that deserves burning either falls into the fire, or a serpent bites him. He that deserves cutting of with the sword is either betrayed into the power of a heathen kingdom, or the robbers break in upon him. He that deserves strangling is either suffocated in the water, or dies of a quinsy."See Lightfoot

As these people were heathens, it is not likely that they had any correct notion of the justice of the true God; and therefore it is most probable that they used the word δικη, not to express the quality or attribute of any being, but the goddess Dikê, or vindictive Justice, herself, who is represented as punishing the iniquities of men

Hesiod makes a goddess of what the Maltese called Δικη, or Justice: -

Η δε τε παρθενος εϚι ΔΙΚΗ, Διος εκγεγαυια,

Κυδνη τ αιδοιη τε θεοις, οἱ Ολυμπον εχουσιν·

Και ρ ὁποτ αν τις μιν βλαπτῃ σκολιως ονοταζων

Αυτικα παρ Διΐ πατρι καθεζομενη Κρονιων

Γηρυετ ανθρωπων αδικον νοον·

Hesiod. Opera, ver. 254

Justice, unspotted maid, derived from Jove

Renown’ d and reverenced by the gods above

When mortals violate her sacred laws

When judges hear the bribe and not the cause

Close by her parent god, behold her stand

And urge the punishment their sins demand

Coke.

||&&$

Clarke: Act 28:5 - Shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm Shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm - This is a presumptive evidence that the viper did not bite St. Paul: it fastened on his hand, ...

Shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm - This is a presumptive evidence that the viper did not bite St. Paul: it fastened on his hand, but had no power to injure him.

Clarke: Act 28:6 - When he should have swollen When he should have swollen - Πιμπρασθαι, When he should have been inflamed: by means of an acrid poison introduced into the blood, it is...

When he should have swollen - Πιμπρασθαι, When he should have been inflamed: by means of an acrid poison introduced into the blood, it is soon coagulated; and, in consequence, the extremities of the vessels become obstructed, strong inflammation takes place, and all the parts become most painfully swollen. Lucan, ix. v. 791, gives a terrible account of this effect of the bite of a serpent: -

- illi rubor igneus ora

Succendit, tenditque cutem, pereunte figura

Miscens cuncta tumor jam toto corpore major

Humanumque egressa modum super omnia membr

Efflatur sanies late tollente veneno

Ipse latet penitus, congesto corpore mersus;

Nec lorica tenet distenti corporis auctum

And straight a sudden flame began to spread

And paint his visage with a glowing red

With swift expansion swells the bloated skin

Nought but an undistinguished mass is seen

While the fair human form lies lost within

The puffy poison spreads and heaves around

Till all the man is in the monster drown’ d

Rowe

See other ensamples, in the notes on Num 21:6 (note)

Clarke: Act 28:6 - Said that he was a god Said that he was a god - As Hercules was one of the gods of the Phoenicians, and was worshipped in Malta under the epithet of Αλεξικακος,...

Said that he was a god - As Hercules was one of the gods of the Phoenicians, and was worshipped in Malta under the epithet of Αλεξικακος, the dispeller of evil, they probably thought that Paul was Hercules; and the more so, because Hercules was famous for having destroyed, in his youth, two serpents that attacked him in his cradle.

Clarke: Act 28:7 - The chief man of the island The chief man of the island - The term πρωτος, Chief, used hereby St. Luke, was the ancient title of the governor of this island, as is evide...

The chief man of the island - The term πρωτος, Chief, used hereby St. Luke, was the ancient title of the governor of this island, as is evident from an inscription found in Malta, which runs thus: -

Λ. Κ. υἱος, κυρ. ἱππευς. ῥωμ. πρωτος Μελιταιων·

Lucius Caius, son of Quirinus, a Roman knight, Chief of the Melitese. See Bochart, Phaleg. and Chan. vol. i. chap. 498, etc., and Grotius. This title is another proof of the accuracy of St. Luke, who uses the very epithet by which the Roman governor of that island was distinguished.

Clarke: Act 28:8 - The father of Publius lay sick The father of Publius lay sick - Πυρετοις και δυσεντεριᾳ ; Of a fever and dysentery; perhaps a cholera morbus

The father of Publius lay sick - Πυρετοις και δυσεντεριᾳ ; Of a fever and dysentery; perhaps a cholera morbus

Clarke: Act 28:8 - Paul - prayed Paul - prayed - That God would exert his power; and laid his hands on him, as the means which God ordinarily used to convey the energy of the Holy S...

Paul - prayed - That God would exert his power; and laid his hands on him, as the means which God ordinarily used to convey the energy of the Holy Spirit, and healed him; God having conveyed the healing power by this means. In such a disorder as that mentioned here by St. Luke, where the bowels were in a state of inflammation, and a general fever aiding the dysentery in its work of death, nothing less than a miracle could have made an instantaneous cure in the patient. Such a cure was wrought, and even the heathens saw that it was the hand of God.

Clarke: Act 28:9 - Others - which had diseases Others - which had diseases - Luke was a physician; yet we do not find him engaging in these cures. As a medical man, he might have been of use to t...

Others - which had diseases - Luke was a physician; yet we do not find him engaging in these cures. As a medical man, he might have been of use to the father of Publius; but he is not even consulted on the occasion. Paul enters in to him, prays for him, lays his hands on him, and he is healed. The other diseased persons who are mentioned in this verse were doubtless healed in the same way.

Clarke: Act 28:10 - Honoured us with many honors Honoured us with many honors - The word τιμη, as Bishop Pearce has remarked, is often used to signify a pecuniary recompense, or present. The G...

Honoured us with many honors - The word τιμη, as Bishop Pearce has remarked, is often used to signify a pecuniary recompense, or present. The Greek word seems to be thus used in 1Ti 5:17. Let the elders which rule well be accounted worthy of double Honor, τιμης, which St. Chrysostom, on the place, explains thus: την των αναγκαιων χορηγιαν· a supplying them with all necessary things. Diodorus Siculus, and Xenophon, used the word in the same way. In the sense of a pecuniary recompense, or price, paid for any thing, the word τιμη is met with in 1Co 6:20; and 1Co 7:23. And in the Septuagint, Num 22:17; compared with Num 22:18; Psa 8:5; and Psa 49:12; Pro 3:9. Bp. Pearce

Clarke: Act 28:10 - Such things as were necessary Such things as were necessary - They had before given them many presents, and now they gave them a good sea stock; all that was necessary for their ...

Such things as were necessary - They had before given them many presents, and now they gave them a good sea stock; all that was necessary for their passage.

Clarke: Act 28:11 - After three months After three months - Supposing that they had reached Malta about the end of October, as we have already seen, then it appears that they left it abou...

After three months - Supposing that they had reached Malta about the end of October, as we have already seen, then it appears that they left it about the end of January, or the beginning of February; and, though in the depth of winter, not the worst time for sailing, even in those seas, the wind being then generally more steady; and, on the whole, the passage more safe

Clarke: Act 28:11 - Whose sign was Castor and Pollux Whose sign was Castor and Pollux - These were two fabulous semi-deities, reported to be the sons of Jupiter and Leda, who were afterwards translated...

Whose sign was Castor and Pollux - These were two fabulous semi-deities, reported to be the sons of Jupiter and Leda, who were afterwards translated to the heavens, and made the constellation called Gemini, or the Twins. This constellation was deemed propitious to mariners; and, as it was customary to have the images of their gods both on the head and stern of their ships, we may suppose that this Alexandrian ship had these on either her prow or stern, and that these gave name to the ship. We, who profess to be a Christian people, follow the same heathen custom: we have our ships called the Castor, the Jupiter, the Minerva, the Leda, (the mother of Castor and Pollux), with a multitude of other demon gods and goddesses; so that, were ancient Romans or Grecians to visit our navy, they would be led to suppose that, after the lapse of more than 2000 years, their old religion had continued unaltered

Virgil speaks of a vessel called the Tiger. Aeneid, x. ver. 166: -

Massicus aerata princeps secat aequora Tigri

"Massicus, chief, cuts the waves in the brazen-beaked Tiger.

Of another called the Chimera. Aen. v. ver. 118, 223: -

Ingentemque Gyas ingenti mole Chimaeram

"Gyas the vast Chimera’ s bulk commands.

And of another called the Centaur. Aen. v. ver. 122, 155, 157: -

- Centauro invehitur magna

"Sergestus, in the great Centaur, took the leading place.

Besides these names, they had their tutelary gods in the ship, from whom they expected succor; and sometimes they had their images on the stern; and when they got safely to the end of their voyage, they were accustomed to crown these images with garlands: thus Virgil, Geor. i. ver. 304: -

Puppibus et laeti naute imposuere Coronas

"The joyous sailors place garlands on their sterns.

Several ancient fables appear to have arisen out of the names of ships. Jupiter is fabled to have carried off Europa, across the sea, in the shape of a bull; and to have carried away Ganymede, in the shape of an eagle. That is, these persons were carried away, one in a ship called Taurus, or Bull; and the other in one denominated Aquila, the Eagle. Why not Taurus, as well as Tigris? and why not Aquila, as well as Chimera? - which names did belong to ships, as we find from the above quotations.

Clarke: Act 28:12 - Landing at Syracuse Landing at Syracuse - In order to go to Rome from Malta, their readiest course was to keep pretty close to the eastern coast of Sicily, in order to ...

Landing at Syracuse - In order to go to Rome from Malta, their readiest course was to keep pretty close to the eastern coast of Sicily, in order to pass through the straits of Rhegium and get into the Tyrrhenian Sea

Syracuse is one of the most famous cities of antiquity: it is the capital of the island of Sicily, and was built about 730 years before the Christian era. It lies 72 miles S. by E. of Messina, and about 112 of Palermo. Long. 15°. 30’ . W., lat. 37°. 17’ . N. In its ancient state, it was about 22 English miles in circumference; and was highly celebrated for the martial spirit of its inhabitants. This was the birthplace of the illustrious Archimedes; who, when the city was besieged by the Romans, under Marcellus, about 212 years before Christ, defended the place with his powerful engines against all the valor and power of the assailants. He beat their galleys to pieces by huge stones projected from his machines; and by hooks, chains, and levers, from the walls, weighed the ships out of the water, and, whirling them round, dashed them in pieces against each other, or sunk them to the bottom: several also, he is said to have destroyed by his burning glasses. When the city was taken by treachery, Archimedes was found intensely engaged in the demonstration of a problem. A Roman soldier coming up, and presenting his dagger to his throat, he cried, "Stop, soldier, or thou wilt spoil my diagram!"The brute was unmoved, and murdered him on the spot

This city was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1693: its present population amounts to but about 18,000. Christianity, in some form or other, has existed here ever since St. Paul spent the three days in it, mentioned in the text.

Clarke: Act 28:13 - We fetched a compass We fetched a compass - Ὁθεν περιελθοντες, Whence we coasted about. This will appear evident, when the coast of Sicily is viewed o...

We fetched a compass - Ὁθεν περιελθοντες, Whence we coasted about. This will appear evident, when the coast of Sicily is viewed on any correct map, of a tolerably large scale

Clarke: Act 28:13 - Rhegium Rhegium - A city and promontory in Calabria, in Italy, opposite to Sicily. It is now called Reggio. It had its name, Ῥηγιον, Rhegium, from ...

Rhegium - A city and promontory in Calabria, in Italy, opposite to Sicily. It is now called Reggio. It had its name, Ῥηγιον, Rhegium, from the Greek Ῥηγνυμι, to break off; because it appears to have been broken off from Sicily

Clarke: Act 28:13 - The south wind blew The south wind blew - This was the fairest wind they could have from Syracuse, to reach the straits of Rhegium

The south wind blew - This was the fairest wind they could have from Syracuse, to reach the straits of Rhegium

Clarke: Act 28:13 - The next day to Puteoli The next day to Puteoli - This place, now commonly called Pozzuoli, is an ancient town of Naples in the Terra di Lavoro; and is supposed to have bee...

The next day to Puteoli - This place, now commonly called Pozzuoli, is an ancient town of Naples in the Terra di Lavoro; and is supposed to have been founded by the Samians, about 470 years before Christ. Within this city are several warm baths, very highly celebrated; and from these, and its springs in general, it seems to have had its ancient name Puteoli, from Putei, wells or pits; though some derive it from putor , a stench, or bad smell, because of the sulphureous exhalations from its warm waters. Varro gives both these etymologies, lib. iv. de Ling. Lat. cap. 5. It is famous for its temple of Jupiter Serapis, which is built, not according to the Grecian or Roman manner, but according to the Asiatic. Near this place are the remains of Cicero’ s villa, which are of great extent. The town contains, at present, about 10,000 inhabitants. Long. 14°. 40’ . E., lat. 41°. 50’ . N.

Clarke: Act 28:14 - Where we found brethren Where we found brethren - That is, Christians; for there had been many in Italy converted to the faith of Christ, some considerable time before this...

Where we found brethren - That is, Christians; for there had been many in Italy converted to the faith of Christ, some considerable time before this, as appears from St. Paul’ s epistle to the Romans, written some years before this voyage

Clarke: Act 28:14 - We went toward Rome We went toward Rome - One of the most celebrated cities in the universe, the capital of Italy, and once of the whole world; situated on the river Ti...

We went toward Rome - One of the most celebrated cities in the universe, the capital of Italy, and once of the whole world; situated on the river Tiber, 410 miles SSE. of Vienna; 600 SE. of Paris; 730 E. by N. of Madrid; 760 W. of Constantinople; and 780 SE. of London. Long. 12°. 55’ . E., lat. 41°. 54’ . N. This famous city was founded by Romulus, at the end of the seventh Olympiad, a.m. 3251; of the flood, 1595; and 753 years before the Christian era. The history of this city must be sought for in works written expressly on the subject, of which there are many. Modern Rome is greatly inferior to ancient Rome in every respect. Its population, taken in 1709, amounted to 138,569 souls only; among whom were 40 bishops, 2686 priests, 3359 monks, 1814 nuns, 893 courtezans, between 8 and 9000 Jews, and 14 Moors. This city, which once tyrannized over the world by its arms, and over the whole Christian world by its popes, is now reduced to a very low state among the governments of Europe, by whom it is supported, for it has no power sufficient for its own defense.

Clarke: Act 28:15 - When the brethren heard of us When the brethren heard of us - By whom the Gospel was planted at Rome is not known: it does not appear that any apostle was employed in this work. ...

When the brethren heard of us - By whom the Gospel was planted at Rome is not known: it does not appear that any apostle was employed in this work. It was probably carried thither by some of those who were converted to God at the day of pentecost; for there were then at Jerusalem, not only devout men, proselytes to the Jewish religion, from every nation under heaven, Act 2:5, but there were strangers of Rome also, Act 2:10. And it in most reasonable to believe, as we know of no other origin, that it was by these Christianity was planted at Rome

Clarke: Act 28:15 - As far as Appii Forum As far as Appii Forum - About 52 miles from Rome; a long way to come on purpose to meet the apostle! The Appii Forum, or Market of Appius, was a tow...

As far as Appii Forum - About 52 miles from Rome; a long way to come on purpose to meet the apostle! The Appii Forum, or Market of Appius, was a town on the Appian way, a road paved from Rome to Campania, by the consul Appius Claudius. It was near the sea, and was a famous resort for sailors, peddlers, etc. Horace, lib. i. Satyr. 5, ver. 3, mentions this place on his journey from Rome to Brundusium: -

- Inde Forum Appi

Differtum nautis, cauponibus atgue malignis

"To Forum Appii thence we steer, a plac

Stuff’ d with rank boatmen, and with vintners base.

This town is now called Caesarilla de S. Maria

Clarke: Act 28:15 - And the Three Taverns And the Three Taverns - This was another place on the same road, and about 33 miles from Rome. Some of the Roman Christians had come as far as Appii...

And the Three Taverns - This was another place on the same road, and about 33 miles from Rome. Some of the Roman Christians had come as far as Appii Forum: others, to the Three Taverns. Bp. Pearce remarks, there are some ruins in that place which are now called Tre Taverne; and this place Cicero mentions in his epistles to Atticus, lib. ii. 11. Ab Appi Foro hora quarta: dederam aliam paulo ante in Tribus Tabernis . "Dated at ten in the morning, from Appii Forum. I sent off another (epistle) a little before, from the Three Taverns.

Zosimus, lib. 2, mentions τρια καπηλεια, the three taverns, or victualling houses, where the Emperor Severus was strangled by the treason of Maximinus Herculeus, and his son Maxentius. See Lightfoot

The word taberna , from trabs , a beam, signifies any building formed of timber; such as those we call booths, sheds, etc., which are formed of beams, planks, boards, and the like; and therefore me may consider it as implying, either a temporary residence, or some mean building, such as a cottage, etc. And in this sense Horace evidently uses it, Carm. lib. i. Od. iv. ver. 13: -

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas

Regumque turres

"With equal pace, impartial Fat

Knocks at the palace as the cottage gate.

Francis

This place, at first, was probably a place for booths or sheds, three of which were remarkable; other houses became associated with them in process of time, and the whole place denominated Tres Tabernae, from the three first remarkable booths set up there. It appears to have been a large town in the fourth century, as Optatus mentions Felix a Tribus Tabernis , Felix of the Three Taverns, as one of the Christian bishops

Clarke: Act 28:15 - Thanked God, and took courage Thanked God, and took courage - He had longed to see Rome; (see Rom 1:9-15); and, finding himself brought through so many calamities, and now so nea...

Thanked God, and took courage - He had longed to see Rome; (see Rom 1:9-15); and, finding himself brought through so many calamities, and now so near the place that he was met by a part of that Church to which, some years before, he had written an epistle, he gave thanks to God, who had preserved him, and took fresh courage, in the prospect of bearing there a testimony for his Lord and Master.

Clarke: Act 28:16 - The captain of the guard The captain of the guard - Στρατοπεδαρχῃ . This word properly means the commander of a camp; but it signifies the prefect, or comman...

The captain of the guard - Στρατοπεδαρχῃ . This word properly means the commander of a camp; but it signifies the prefect, or commander of the pretorian cohorts, or emperor’ s guards

Tacitus (Annal. lib. iv. cap. 2) informs us that, in the reign of Tiberius, Sejanus, who was then prefect of these troops, did, in order to accomplish his ambitious designs, cause them to be assembled from their quarters in the city, and stationed in a fortified camp near it; so that their commander is with peculiar propriety styled by St. Luke στρατοπεδαρχης, the commander of the camp. For the arrival of St. Paul at Rome was in the seventh year of Nero; and it is certain, from Suetonius, (in Tiber. cap. 37), that the custom of keeping the pretorian soldiers in a camp, near the city, was retained by the emperors succeeding Tiberius; for the historian observes that Claudius, at his accession to the empire, was received into the camp, in castra delatus est , namely, of the pretorian cohorts; and so Tacitus says of Nero, An. lib. xii. cap. 69, that on the same occasions illatus castris , he was brought into the camp. Dr. Doddridge observes that it was customary for prisoners who were brought to Rome to be delivered to this officer, who had the charge of the state prisoners, as appears from the instance of Agrippa, who was taken into custody by Macro, the pretorian prefect, who succeeded Sejanus; (Joseph. Ant. lib. xviii. cap. 7. sec. 6); and from Trajan’ s order to Pliny, when two were in commission, Plin. lib. x. ep. 65. Vinctus mitti ad praefectos praetorii mei debet : he should be sent bound to the prefects of my guards. The person who now had that office was the noted Afranius Burrhus; but both before and after him it was held by two: Tacit. An. lib. xii. sec. 42; lib. xiv. sec. 51. See Parkhurst

Burrhus was a principal instrument in raising Nero to the throne; and had considerable influence in repressing many of the vicious inclinations of that bad prince. With many others, he was put to death by the inhuman Nero. Burrhus is praised by the historians for moderation and love of justice. His treatment of St. Paul is no mean proof of this. Calmet

Clarke: Act 28:16 - With a soldier that kept him With a soldier that kept him - That is, the soldier to whom he was chained, as has been related before, Act 12:6.

With a soldier that kept him - That is, the soldier to whom he was chained, as has been related before, Act 12:6.

Clarke: Act 28:17 - Paul called the chief of the Jews together Paul called the chief of the Jews together - We have already seen, in Act 18:2, that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome; see the no...

Paul called the chief of the Jews together - We have already seen, in Act 18:2, that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome; see the note there: but it seems they were permitted to return very soon; and, from this verse, it appears that there were then chiefs, probably of synagogues, dwelling at Rome

Clarke: Act 28:17 - I have committed nothing I have committed nothing - Lest they should have heard and received malicious reports against him, he thought it best to state his own case.

I have committed nothing - Lest they should have heard and received malicious reports against him, he thought it best to state his own case.

Clarke: Act 28:20 - For the hope of Israel I am bound, etc. For the hope of Israel I am bound, etc. - As if he had said: This, and this alone, is the cause of my being delivered into the hands of the Romans; ...

For the hope of Israel I am bound, etc. - As if he had said: This, and this alone, is the cause of my being delivered into the hands of the Romans; I have proclaimed Jesus as the Messiah; have maintained that though he was crucified by the Jews, yet he rose again from the dead; and, through him, I have preached the general resurrection of mankind: this all Israel professes to hope for; and yet it is on this account that the Jews persecute me. Both the Messiah and the resurrection might be said to be the hope of Israel; and it is hard to tell which of them is here meant: see Act 13:6; Act 24:15, Act 24:21; Act 26:6. It is certain that, although the Jews believed in the general resurrection, yet they did not credit it in the manner in which Paul preached it; for he laid the foundation of the general resurrection on the resurrection of Christ.

Clarke: Act 28:21 - We neither received letters, etc. We neither received letters, etc. - This is very strange, and shows us that the Jews knew their cause to be hopeless, and therefore did not send it ...

We neither received letters, etc. - This is very strange, and shows us that the Jews knew their cause to be hopeless, and therefore did not send it forward to Rome. They wished for an opportunity to kill Paul: and, when they were frustrated by his appeal to the emperor, they permitted the business to drop. Calmet supposes they had not time to send; but this supposition does not appear to be sufficiently solid: they might have sent long before Paul sailed; and they might have written officially by the vessel in which the centurion and the prisoners were embarked. But their case was hopeless; and they could not augur any good to themselves from making a formal complaint against the apostle at the emperor’ s throne.

Clarke: Act 28:22 - For as concerning this sect For as concerning this sect - See the note on Act 24:14. A saying of Justin Martyr casts some light on this saying of the Jews: he asserts that the ...

For as concerning this sect - See the note on Act 24:14. A saying of Justin Martyr casts some light on this saying of the Jews: he asserts that the Jews not only cursed them in their synagogues, but they sent out chosen men from Jerusalem, to acquaint the world, and particularly the Jews everywhere, that the Christians were an atheistical and wicked sect, which should be detested and abhorred by all mankind. Justin Martyr, Dial. p. 234.

Clarke: Act 28:23 - To whom he expounded - the kingdom of God To whom he expounded - the kingdom of God - To whom he showed that the reign of the Messiah was to be a spiritual reign; and that Jesus, whom the Je...

To whom he expounded - the kingdom of God - To whom he showed that the reign of the Messiah was to be a spiritual reign; and that Jesus, whom the Jewish rulers had lately crucified, was the true Messiah, who should rule in this spiritual kingdom. These two points were probably those on which he expatiated from morning to evening, proving both out of the law and out of the prophets. How easily Jesus, as the Messiah, and his spiritual kingdom, might be proved from the law of Moses, any person may be satisfied, by consulting the notes written on those books. As to the prophets, their predictions are so clear, and their prophecies so obviously fulfilled in the person, preaching, miracles, passion, and death of Jesus Christ, that it is utterly impossible, with any show of reason, to apply them to any other.

Clarke: Act 28:24 - Some believed, etc. Some believed, etc. - His message was there treated as his Gospel is to the present day: some believe, and are converted; others continue in obstina...

Some believed, etc. - His message was there treated as his Gospel is to the present day: some believe, and are converted; others continue in obstinate unbelief, and perish. Could the Jews then have credited the spiritual nature of the Messiah’ s kingdom, they would have found little difficulty to receive Jesus Christ as the Messiah

Multitudes of those now called Christians can more easily credit Jesus as the Messiah than believe the spiritual nature of his kingdom. The cross is the great stumbling block: millions expect Jesus and his kingdom who cannot be persuaded that the cross is the way to the crown.

Clarke: Act 28:25 - Agreed not among themselves Agreed not among themselves - It seems that a controversy arose between the Jews themselves, in consequence of some believing, and others disbelievi...

Agreed not among themselves - It seems that a controversy arose between the Jews themselves, in consequence of some believing, and others disbelieving; and the two parties contested together; and, in respect to the unbelieving party, the apostle quoted the following passage from Isa 6:9.

Clarke: Act 28:26 - Hearing ye shall hear, etc. Hearing ye shall hear, etc. - See the notes on Mat 13:14, and Joh 12:39, Joh 12:40.

Hearing ye shall hear, etc. - See the notes on Mat 13:14, and Joh 12:39, Joh 12:40.

Clarke: Act 28:28 - The salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles The salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles - St. Paul had spoken to this effect twice before, Act 13:46, and Act 18:6, where see the notes; but ...

The salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles - St. Paul had spoken to this effect twice before, Act 13:46, and Act 18:6, where see the notes; but here he uses a firmer tone, being out of the Jewish territories, and under the protection of the emperor. By the salvation of God, all the blessings of the kingdom of Christ are intended. This salvation God could have sent unto the Gentiles, independently of the Jewish disobedience; but He waited till they had rejected it, and then reprobated them, and elected the Gentiles. Thus the elect became reprobate, and the reprobate elect

Clarke: Act 28:28 - They will hear it They will hear it - That is, they will obey it; for ακουειν signifies, not only to hear, but also to obey.

They will hear it - That is, they will obey it; for ακουειν signifies, not only to hear, but also to obey.

Clarke: Act 28:29 - And had great reasoning among themselves And had great reasoning among themselves - The believers contending with the unbelievers; and thus we may suppose that the cause of truth gained gro...

And had great reasoning among themselves - The believers contending with the unbelievers; and thus we may suppose that the cause of truth gained ground. For contentions about the truth and authenticity of the religion of Christ infallibly end in the triumph and extension of that religion.

Clarke: Act 28:30 - Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house - As a state prisoner, he might have had an apartment in the common prison; but peculiar favor was...

Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house - As a state prisoner, he might have had an apartment in the common prison; but peculiar favor was showed him, and he was permitted to dwell alone, with the soldier that guarded him, Act 28:16. Finding now an opportunity of preaching the Gospel, he hired a house for the purpose, and paid for it, St. Chrysostom observes, by the fruits of his own labor. Here he received all that came unto him, and preached the Gospel with glorious success; so that his bonds became the means of spreading the truth, and he became celebrated even in the palace of Nero, Phi 1:12, Phi 1:13; and we find that there were several saints, even in Caesar’ s household, Phi 4:22, which were, no doubt, the fruits of the apostle’ s ministry. It is said that during his two years’ residence here he became acquainted with Seneca, the philosopher, between whom and the apostle an epistolary correspondence took place. In an ancient MS. of Seneca’ s epistles in my own possession, these letters are extant, and are in number fourteen and have a prologue to them written by St. Jerome. That they are very ancient cannot be doubted; but learned men have long ago agreed that they are neither worthy of Paul nor of Seneca

While he was in captivity, the Church at Philippi, to which he was exceedingly dear, sent him some pecuniary assistance by the hands of their minister, Epaphroditus, who, it appears, risked his life in the service of the apostle, and was taken with a dangerous malady. When he got well, he returned to Philippi, and, it is supposed, carried with him that epistle which is still extant; and from it we learn that Timothy was then at Rome with Paul, and that he had the prospect of being shortly delivered from his captivity. See Phi 1:12, Phi 1:13; Phi 2:25; Phi 4:15, Phi 4:16, Phi 4:18, etc.

Clarke: Act 28:31 - Preaching the kingdom of God Preaching the kingdom of God - Showing the spiritual nature of the true Church, under the reign of the Messiah. For an explanation of this phrase, s...

Preaching the kingdom of God - Showing the spiritual nature of the true Church, under the reign of the Messiah. For an explanation of this phrase, see the note on Mat 3:2

Clarke: Act 28:31 - Those things which concern the Lord Those things which concern the Lord - The Redeemer of the world was to be represented as the Lord; as Jesus; and as the Christ. As the Lord, ὁ ...

Those things which concern the Lord - The Redeemer of the world was to be represented as the Lord; as Jesus; and as the Christ. As the Lord, ὁ Κυριος, the sole potentate, upholding all things by the word of his power; governing the world and the Church; having all things under his control, and all his enemies under his feet; in short, the maker and upholder of all things, and the judge of all men. As Jesus - the Savior; he who saves, delivers, and preserves; and especially he who saves his people from their sins. For the explanation of the word Jesus, see the note on Joh 1:17. As Christ - the same as Messiah; both signifying the Anointed: he who was appointed by the Lord to this great and glorious work; who had the Spirit without measure, and who anoints, communicates the gifts and graces of that Spirit to all true believers. St. Paul taught the things which concerned or belonged to the Lord Jesus Christ. He proved him to be the Messiah foretold by the prophets, and expected by the Jews; he spoke of what he does as the Lord, what he does as Jesus, and what he does as Christ. These contain the sum and substance of all that is called the Gospel of Christ. Yet, the things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, necessarily include the whole account of his incarnation, preaching in Judea, miracles, persecutions, passion, death, burial, resurrection, ascension, intercession, and his sending down the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit. These were the subjects on which the apostle preached for two whole years, during his imprisonment at Rome

Clarke: Act 28:31 - With all confidence With all confidence - Παρῥησιας, Liberty of speech; perfect freedom to say all he pleased, and when he pleased. He had the fullest toler...

With all confidence - Παρῥησιας, Liberty of speech; perfect freedom to say all he pleased, and when he pleased. He had the fullest toleration from the Roman government to preach as he pleased, and what he pleased; and the unbelieving Jews had no power to prevent him

It is supposed that it was during this residence at Rome that he converted Onesimus, and sent him back to his master Philemon, with the epistle which is still extant. And it is from Phm 1:23, Phm 1:24, of that epistle, that we learn that Paul had then with him Epaphras, Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke

Here St. Luke’ s account of Paul’ s travels and sufferings ends; and it is probable that this history was written soon after the end of the two years mentioned in Act 28:30

That the apostle visited many places after this, suffered much in the great cause of Christianity, and preached the Gospel of Jesus with amazing success, is generally believed. How he came to be liberated we are not told; but it is likely that, having been kept in this sort of confinement for about two years, and none appearing against him, he was released by the imperial order

Concerning the time, place, and manner of his death, we have little certainty. It is commonly believed that, when a general persecution was raised against the Christians by Nero, about a.d. 64, under pretense that they had set Rome on fire, both St. Paul and St. Peter then sealed the truth with their blood; the latter being crucified with his head downward; the former being beheaded, either in a.d. 64 or 65, and buried in the Via Ostiensis. Eusebius, Hist, Eccles. lib. ii. cap. 25, intimates that the tombs of these two apostles, with their inscriptions, were extant in his time; and quotes as his authority a holy man of the name of Caius, who wrote against the sect of the Cataphrygians, who has asserted this, as from his personal knowledge. See Eusebius, by Reading, vol. i. p. 83; and see Dr. Lardner, in his life of this apostle, who examines this account with his usual perspicuity and candour. Other writers have been more particular concerning his death: they say that it was not by the command of Nero that he was martyred, but by that of the prefects of the city, Nero being then absent; that he was beheaded at Aquae Salviae, about three miles from Rome, on Feb. 22; that he could not be crucified, as Peter was, because he was a freeman of the city of Rome. But there is great uncertainty on these subjects, so that we cannot positively rely on any account that even the ancients have transmitted to us concerning the death of this apostle; and much less on the accounts given by the moderns; and least of all on those which are to be found in the Martyrologists. Whether Paul ever returned after this to Rome has not yet been satisfactorily proved. It is probable that he did, and suffered death there, as stated above; but still we have no certainty

There are several subscriptions to this book in different manuscripts: these are the principal: - The Acts of the Apostles - The Acts of the holy Apostles - The end of the Acts of the holy Apostles, written by Luke the Evangelist, and fellow traveler of the illustrious Apostle Paul - By the holy Apostle and Evangelist Luke, etc. etc

The versions are not less various in their subscriptions

The end of the Acts, that is, the History of the holy Apostles. - Syriac

Under the auspices and help of God, the book of the Acts of the pure Apostles is finished; whom we humbly supplicate to obtain us mercy by all their prayers. Amen. And may praise be ascribed to God, the Lord of the universe! - Arabic

This (book) of the Acts of the Apostles, which has been by many translated into the Roman tongue, is translated from the Roman and Greek tongue into the Ethiopic. - Aethiopic

On the nature and importance of the Acts of the Apostles, see what is said in the preface to this book. To which may be added the following observations, taken from the conclusion of Dr. Dodd’ s Commentary

"The plainness and simplicity of the narration are strong circumstances in its favor; the writer appears to have been very honest and impartial, and to have set down, very fairly, the objections which were made to Christianity, both by Jews and heathens, and the reflections which enemies cast upon it, and upon the first preachers of it. He has likewise, with a just and honest freedom, mentioned the weaknesses, faults, and prejudices, both of the apostles and their converts. There is a great and remarkable harmony between the occasional hints dispersed up and down in St. Paul’ s epistles, and the facts recorded in this history; insomuch as that it is generally acknowledged that the history of the Acts is the best clue to guide us in the studying of the epistles written by that apostle. The other parts of the New Testament do likewise agree with this history, and give great confirmation to it; for the doctrines and principles are every where uniformly the same; the conclusions of the gospels contain a brief account of those things which are more particularly related in the beginning of the Acts. And there are frequent intimations, in other parts of the gospels, that such an effusion of the Spirit was expected; and that with a view to the very design which the apostles and primitive Christians are said to have carried on, by virtue of that extraordinary effusion which Christ poured out upon his disciples after his ascension; and, finally, the epistles of the other apostles, as well as those of St. Paul, plainly suppose such things to have happened as are related in the Acts of the Apostles; so that the history of the Acts is one of the most important parts of the sacred history, for neither the gospels nor epistles could have been so clearly understood without it; but by the help of it the whole scheme of the Christian revelation is set before us in an easy and manifest view

"Even the incidental things mentioned by St. Luke are so exactly agreeable to all the accounts which remain of the best ancient historians, among the Jews and heathens, that no person who had forged such a history, in later ages, could have had that external confirmation, but would have betrayed himself by alluding to some customs or opinions since sprung up; or by misrepresenting some circumstance, or using some phrase or expression not then in use. The plea of forgery, therefore, in later ages, cannot be allowed; and for a man to have published a history of such things so early as St. Luke wrote; (that is, while some of the apostles and many other persons were alive who were concerned in the transactions which he has recorded); if his account had not been punctually true, could have been only to have exposed himself to an easy confutation and certain infamy

"As, therefore, the Acts of the Apostles are in themselves consistent and uniform, the incidental things agreeable to the best ancient historians which have come down to us, and the main facts supported and confirmed by the other books of the New Testament, and by the unanimous testimony of so many of the ancient fathers, we may, I think, very fairly, and with great justness, conclude that, if any history of former times deserves credit, the Acts of the Apostles ought to be received and credited; and, if the history of the Acts of the Apostles be true, Christianity cannot be false: for a doctrine so good in itself, and attended with so many miraculous and Divine testimonies, has an the possible masks of a true revelation.

On St. Paul’ s character and conduct, see the observations at the end of Act 9:43 (note), where the subject is particularly considered

The book of the Acts is not only a history of the Church, the most ancient and most impartial, as it is the most authentic extant, but it is also a history of God’ s grace and providence, The manner in which he has exerted himself in favor of Christianity, and of the persons who were originally employed to disseminate its doctrines, shows us the highest marks of the Divine approbation. Had not that cause been of God, could he have so signally interposed in its behalf? Would he have wrought such a series of miracles for its propagation and support? And would all its genuine professors have submitted to sustain the loss of all things, had not his own Spirit, by its consolations in their hearts, given them to feel that his favor was better than life

That the hardships suffered by the primitive apostles and Christians were great, the facts themselves related in this book sufficiently declare: that their consolation and happiness were abundant, the cheerful manner in which they met and sustained those hardships demonstrates. He who cordially embraced Christianity found himself no loser by it; if he lost earthly good in consequence, it was infinitely overbalanced by the spiritual good which he received. Paul himself, who suffered most, had this compensated by superabounding happiness. Wherever the Gospel comes, it finds nothing but darkness, sin, and misery; wherever it is received, it communicates light, holiness, and felicity. Reader, magnify thy God and Savior, who hath called thee to such a state of salvation. Should thou neglect it, how grievous must thy punishment be! Not only receive its doctrines, as a system of wisdom and goodness, but receive them as motives of conduct, and as a rule of life; and show thy conscientious belief of them, by holding the truth in righteousness, and thus adorn these doctrines of God thy Savior in all things. - Amen

I have often with pleasure, and with great advantage to my subject, quoted Dr. Lardner, whose elaborate works in defense of Divine revelation are really beyond all praise. The conclusion of his Credibility of the Gospel History is peculiarly appropriate; and the introduction of it here can need no apology. I hope, with him, I may also say: -

"I have now performed what I undertook, and have shown that the account given by the sacred writers of persons and things is confirmed by other ancient authors of the best note. There is nothing in the books of the New Testament unsuitable to the age in which they are supposed to have been written. There appears in these writers a knowledge of the affairs of those times, not to be found in authors of later ages. We are hereby assured that the books of the New Testament are genuine, and that they were written by persons who lived at or near the time of those events of which they have given the history

"Any one may be sensible how hard it is for the most learned, acute, and cautious man, to write a book in the character of some person of an earlier age; and not betray his own time by some mistake about the affairs of the age in which he pretends to place himself; or by allusions to customs or principles since sprung up; or by some phrase or expression not then in use. It is no easy thing to escape all these dangers in the smallest performance, though it be a treatise of theory or speculation: these hazards are greatly increased when the work is of any length; and especially if it be historical, and be concerned with characters and customs. It is yet more difficult to carry on such a design in a work consisting of several pieces, written, to all appearance, by several persons. Many indeed are desirous to deceive, but all hate to be deceived; and therefore, though attempts have been made to impose upon the world in this way, they have never, or very rarely, succeeded; but have been detected and exposed by the skill and vigilance of those who have been concerned for the truth

"The volume of the New Testament consists of several pieces: these are ascribed to eight several persons; and there are the strongest appearances that they were not all written by any one hand, but by as many persons as they are ascribed to. There are lesser differences in the relations of some facts, and such seeming contradictions as would never have happened if these books had been all the work of one person, or of several who wrote in concert. There are as many peculiarities of temper and style as there are names of writers; divers of which show no depth of genius nor compass of knowledge! Here are representations of titles, posts, behavior of persons of higher and lower ranks in many parts of the world; persons are introduced, and their characters are set in a full light; here is a history of things done in several cities and countries; and there are allusions to a vast variety of customs and tenets, of persons of several nations, sects, and religions. The whole is written without affectation, with the greatest simplicity and plainness, and is confirmed by other ancient writers of unquestionable authority. If it be difficult for a person of learning and experience to compose a small treatise concerning matters of speculation, with the characters of a more early age than that in which he writes, it is next to impossible that such a work of considerable length, consisting of several pieces, with a great variety of historical facts, representations of characters, principles, and customs of several nations, and distant countries, of persons of ranks and degrees, of many interests and parties, should be performed by eight several persons, the most of them unlearned, without any appearance of concert

"I might perhaps call this argument a demonstration, if that term had not been often misapplied by men of warm imagination, and been bestowed upon reasonings that have but a small degree of probability. But though it should not be a strict demonstration that these writings are genuine, or though it be not absolutely impossible, in the nature of the thing, that the books of the New Testament should have been composed in a later age than that to which they are assigned, and of which they have innumerable characters, yet, I think, it is in the highest degree improbable, and altogether incredible

"If the books of the New Testament were written by persons who lived before the destruction of Jerusalem, that is, if they were written at the time in which they are said to have been written, the things related in them are true. If they had not been matter of fact, they would not have been credited by any persons near that time, and in those parts of the world in which they are said to have been done, but would have been treated as the most notorious lies and falsehoods. Suppose three or four books should now appear amongst us, in the language most generally understood, giving an account of many remarkable and extraordinary events, which had happened in some kingdom of Europe, and in the most noted cities of the countries next adjoining to it; some of them said to have happened between sixty and seventy gears ago, others between twenty and thirty, others nearer our own time; would they not be looked upon as the most manifest and ridiculous forgeries and impostures that ever were contrived? Would great numbers of persons in those very places, change their religious principles and practices upon the credit of things reported to be publicly done, which no man ever heard of before? Or, rather, is it possible that such a design as this would be conceived by any sober and serious persons, or even the most wild and extravagant? If the history of the New Testament be credible, the Christian religion is true. If the things that were related to have been done by Jesus, and by his followers, by virtue of powers derived from him, do not prove a person to come from God, and that his doctrine is true and divine, nothing can. And as Jesus does here, in the circumstances of his birth, life, sufferings, and after exaltation, and in the success of his doctrine, answer the description of the great person promised and foretold in the Old Testament, he is at the same time showed to be the Messiah

"From the agreement of the writers of the New Testament with other ancient writers, we are not only assured that these books are genuine, but also that they are come down to us pure and uncorrupted, without any considerable interpolations or alterations. If such had been made in them, there would have appeared some smaller differences at least between them and other ancient writings

"There has been in all ages a wicked propensity in mankind to advance their own notions and fancies by deceits and forgeries: they have been practised by heathens, Jews, and Christians, in support of imaginary historical facts, religious schemes and practices, and political interests. With these views some whole books have been forged, and passages inserted into others of undoubted authority. Many of the Christian writers of the second and third centuries, and of the following ages, appear to have had false notions concerning the state of Judea between the nativity of Jesus and the destruction of Jerusalem; and concerning many other things occasionally mentioned in the New Testament. The consent of the best ancient writers with those of the New Testament is a proof that these books are still untouched, and that they have not been new modelled and altered by Christians of later times, in conformity to their own peculiar sentiments

"This may be reckoned an argument that the generality of Christians had a very high veneration for these books; or else that the several sects among them have had an eye upon each other, that no alterations might be made in those writings to which they have all appealed. It is also an argument that the Divine providence has all along watched over and guarded these books, (a very fit object of especial care), which contain the best of principles, were apparently written with the best views, and have in them inimitable characters of truth and simplicity."- See Dr. Lardner’ s Works, vol. i. p. 419

Let him answer these arguments who can. - A. C

Calvin: Act 28:1 - A viper coming out of the heat 1. That doleful spectacle is described in the beginning of the chapter, when so many men being wet, and also all berayed with the foam and filth of ...

1. That doleful spectacle is described in the beginning of the chapter, when so many men being wet, and also all berayed with the foam and filth of the sea, and stiff with cold, did with much ado crawl to the shore; for that was all one as if they had been cast up by the sea to die some other death. After that, Luke declareth that they were courteously entertained of the barbarians, that they kindled a fire that they might dry their clothes, and refresh their joints, which were stiff with cold, and at length that they were saved − 654 from the shower. Therefore, in that Paul commendeth these duties, he showeth his thankfulness; and so great liberality toward strangers is for good causes advanced, whereof there be rare examples in the world. And though common nature doth wring out of the barbarous Gentiles some affection of mercy in so great necessity; yet undoubtedly it was God which caused the men of Melita to handle these men so courteously, that his promise might be sure and certain, which might seem imperfect if the shipwreck had caused the loss of any man’s life. −

A viper coming out of the heat The very event did prove that Paul was a true and undoubted prophet of God. Now, that God may make him famous as well by land as by sea, he sealeth the former miracles − 655 with a new miracle; and so he ratifieth his apostleship among the men of Melita. And though there were not many which did profit thereby, yet the majesty of the gospel did shine even among the unbelievers; also this did greatly confirm the oracles to the mariners, which they had not sufficiently reverenced. Neither did the viper come out of the sticks by chance; but the Lord did direct her by his secret counsel to bite Paul, because he saw it would turn to the glory of his gospel. −

Calvin: Act 28:4 - So soon as the barbarians saw // Vengeance doth not suffer 4.So soon as the barbarians saw This judgment was common in all ages, that those who were grievously punished had grievously offended. Neither was th...

4.So soon as the barbarians saw This judgment was common in all ages, that those who were grievously punished had grievously offended. Neither was this persuasion conceived of nothing; but it came rather from a true feeling of godliness. For God, to the end he might make the world without excuse, would have this deeply rooted in the minds of all men, that calamity and adversity, and chiefly notable destruction, were testimonies and signs of his wrath and just vengeance against sins. Therefore, so often as we call to mind any notable calamity, we do also remember that God is sore offended, seeing he punisheth so sharply. Neither did ungodliness ever get the upper hand so far, but that all men did still retain this principle, that God, to the end he may show himself to be the Judge of the world, doth notably punish the wicked. But here crept in an error almost always, because they condemned all those of wickedness − 656 whom they saw roughly handled. Though God doth always punish men’s sins with adversity, yet doth he not punish every man according to his deserts in this life; and sometimes the punishments of the godly are not so much punishments as trials of their faith and exercises of godliness. −

Therefore, those men are deceived, who make this a general rule to judge every man according to his prosperity or adversity. This was the state of the controversy between Job and his friends, ( Job 4:7) they did affirm that that man was a reprobate, and hated of God, whom God did punish; and he did allege, on the other side, that the godly are sometimes humbled with the cross. Wherefore, lest we be deceived in this point, we must beware of two things. The former is, that we give not rash and blind judgment of things unknown, − 657 according to the event alone, for because God doth punish the good as well as the bad; yea, it falleth out oftentimes that he spareth the reprobate, and doth sharply punish those who are his; if we will judge aright, we must begin at another thing than at punishments, to wit, that we inquire after the life and deeds. If any adulterer, if any blasphemous person, if any perjured man or murderer, if any filthy person, if any cozener, if any bloody beast be punished, God doth point out his judgment as it were with his finger. If we see no wickedness, nothing is better than to suspend our judgment concerning punishment. −

The other caution is, that we wait for the end. For so soon as God beginneth to strike, we do not by and by see his drift and purpose; but the unlike end doth at length declare, that those differ far before God who seem in men’s eyes both alike in the likelihood of punishment. If any man object that it is not in vain so often repeated in the law, that all private and public miseries are the scourges of God, I grant indeed that that is true; but yet I deny that it doth keep God from sparing whom he will for a time, though they be of all men the worst, and from punishing those more sharply whose fault is mean. − 658 Nevertheless, it is not our duty to make that perpetual which falleth out oftentimes. We see now wherein the men of Melita were deceived, to wit, because having not scanned Paul’s life, they judge him to be a wicked man, only because the viper doth bite him; secondly, because they stay not the end, but give judgment rashly. Nevertheless, we must note that these are detestable monsters, who go about to pluck out of their hearts all feelings of God’s judgment, which is ingrafted in us all naturally, and which is also found in the barbarians and savage men. Whereas they think that Paul is rather guilty of murder than of any other offense, they follow this reason, because murder hath always been most detestable. −

Vengeance doth not suffer They gather that he is a wicked man, because vengeance doth persecute him though he have escaped the sea. And they feigned that the revenging goddess did sit by the seat of Jupiter, which they commonly called Δικη; grossly, I grant, as men ignorant of pure religion, and yet not without some tolerable signification, as if they had painted out God to be Judge of the world. But by these words the wrath of God is distinguished from fortune, and so the judgment of God is avouched against all blind chances. For the men of Melita take it to be a sign of the heavenly vengeance, in that though Paul be saved, yet can he not be safe. −

Calvin: Act 28:5 - Shaking off the viper 5.Shaking off the viper The shaking off of the viper is a token of a quiet mind. For we see how greatly fear doth trouble and weaken men; and yet you...

5.Shaking off the viper The shaking off of the viper is a token of a quiet mind. For we see how greatly fear doth trouble and weaken men; and yet you must not think that Paul was altogether void of fear. For faith doth not make us blockish, as brain-sick men do imagine, when they be out of danger. − 659 But though faith doth not quite take away the feeling of evils, yet it doth temperate the same, lest the godly be more afraid than is meet; that they may always be bold and have a good hope. So though Paul understand that the viper was a noisome beast, yet did he trust to the promise which was made to him, and did not so fear her plaguy − 660 biting, that it did trouble him; because he was even ready to die if need had been. −

Calvin: Act 28:6 - Changing their minds, they said 6.Changing their minds, they said This so wonderful and sudden a change ought to have inwardly touched the men of Melita, and to have moved them to g...

6.Changing their minds, they said This so wonderful and sudden a change ought to have inwardly touched the men of Melita, and to have moved them to give the glory to the mercy of God, as they did before to vengeance. But as man’s reason is always carried amiss unto extremities, they make Paul at a sudden a god, whom they took before to be a wicked murderer. But if he could not choose but be the one, it had been better for him to be counted a murderer than a god. And surely Paul would rather have wished to be condemned, not only of one crime, but also to have sustained all shame, − 661 and to have been thrust down into the deep pit of hell, − 662 than to take to himself the glory of God, which thing those knew full well who had heard him preach amidst the storms. Notwithstanding, it may be, that, being taught afterward, they did confess that God was the author of the miracle. −

Furthermore, let us learn by this history, with patient and quiet minds, to wait for the prosperous event of things, − 663 which seem at the first to tend toward the robbing of God of his honor. Which of us would not have been terrified with this spectacle which did arm the wicked to slander with all manner of slanderous speeches the glory of the gospel? Yet we see how God did in good time prevent this inconvenience; therefore, let us not doubt but that after he hath suffered his to be darkened with clouds of slanders, he will send remedy in his good time, and will turn their darkness into light. In the mean season, let us remember that we must beware of the judgment of the flesh. And because men do always forget themselves, let us beg of God the Spirit of moderation, that he may keep us always in the right mean. Furthermore, let us learn by this how ready the world is to fall to superstition. Yea, this wickedness is in a manner born with us, to be desirous to adorn creatures with that which we take from God. −

Wherefore, no marvel if new errors have come abroad − 664 in all ages, seeing every one of us is, even from his mother’s womb, expert in inventing idols. But lest men excuse themselves therewithal, this history doth witness that this is the fountain of superstitions, because men are unthankful to God, and do give his glory to some other.

Calvin: Act 28:7 - And in those places 7.And in those places Because this name, Publius, is a Roman name, I suspect that this man, of whom mention is made, was rather a citizen of Rome tha...

7.And in those places Because this name, Publius, is a Roman name, I suspect that this man, of whom mention is made, was rather a citizen of Rome than born in the isle. For the Grecians and other strangers were not wont to borrow their names of the Latins unless they were men of small reputation. And it may be that some of the noble men of Rome came then to see his possessions, and is called the chief man of the isle, not because he dwelt there, but because no man could compare with him in wealth and possessions. And it is scarce probable that all the whole multitude of Grecians was lodged there three days. I do rather think, that, when he entertained the centurion, he did also honor Paul and his companions, because, being admonished by the miracle, he did believe that he was a man beloved of God. Notwithstanding, howsoever it be, his hospitality was not unrewarded. For shortly after the Lord restored his father to health by the hand of Paul, who was indeed sick of a dangerous disease. And by this means he meant to testify how greatly that courtesy, which is showed to men in misery and to strangers, doth please him. Although those who are holpen be unmindful and unthankful for that benefit which they have received, or they be not able to recompense those who have done good to them, yet God himself will abundantly restore to men whatsoever they have bestowed at his commandment; and he hath sometimes appointed, to those which be merciful and given to hospitality, some of his servants, which bring with them a blessing. This was now great honor, in that Publius did lodge Christ in the person of Paul. Notwithstanding, this was added as an overplus, in that Paul came furnished with the gift of healing, that he might not only recompense his courtesy, but also give more than he had received. −

Also, we know not whether he learned the first principles of faith, as miracles do for the most part win the rude and unbelievers unto faith, − 665 Luke mentioneth the kind of disease that he may the better set forth the grace of God. For seeing it is an hard matter to cure a bloody flux, − 666 especially when the ague is joined therewith, the old man was cured thus suddenly only by the laying on of hands and prayer, not without the manifest power of God. −

Calvin: Act 28:8 - And had laid his hands upon him 8.And had laid his hands upon him Paul declareth by prayer that he himself is not the author of the miracle, but only the minister, lest God be defra...

8.And had laid his hands upon him Paul declareth by prayer that he himself is not the author of the miracle, but only the minister, lest God be defrauded of his glory. He confirmeth this self-same thing by the external sign. For, as we saw before, in other places, the laying on of hands was nothing else but a solemn rite of offering and presenting. Wherefore, in that Paul doth offer the man to God with his own hands, he professed that he did humbly crave his life of him. By which example, not only those who have excellent gifts of the Spirit given them are admonished to beware, lest by extolling themselves they darken the glory of God, but also we are all taught in general that we must so thank the ministers of the grace of God that the glory remain to him alone. It is said, indeed, that Paul healed the man which had the bloody flux; but it is plainly expressed by the circumstances which are added, that it was God which bestowed this benefit, making him the minister thereof. Whereas Luke saith afterwards, that others which were sick in the isle were cured, he doth not extend it unto all; but his meaning is, that the power of God, which appeared evidently enough, was proved by many testimonies, that the apostleship of Paul might be thereby ratified. Neither need we doubt but that Paul sought as well to cure their souls as their bodies. Yet Luke doth not declare what good he did, save only that the barbarians gave him and his fellows victual and necessary things when they loosed from the haven. In the mean season, we must note, that though Paul might have withdrawn himself, and have escaped many ways, yet was the will of God to him instead of voluntary fetters, because he was often cited by the heavenly oracle to appear before the judgment-seat of Nero to bear witness of Christ. Again, he knew that if he should run away, he could no longer have preached the gospel, but should have lurked in some corner during his whole life. −

Calvin: Act 28:11 - In a ship of Alexandria 11.In a ship of Alexandria By these words, Luke giveth us to understand, that the former ship was either drowned, or else so rent and beaten, that it...

11.In a ship of Alexandria By these words, Luke giveth us to understand, that the former ship was either drowned, or else so rent and beaten, that it served for no use afterward; whereby the greatness of the shipwreck doth the better appear. And he setteth down expressly that the badge of the ship of Alexandria, wherein they were carried to Rome, was Castor and Pollux, that we may know that Paul had not liberty granted to sail with such as were like to himself; but was enforced to enter into a ship which was dedicated to two idols. The old poets did feign that Castor and Pollux came of Jupiter and Leda; for which cause they are called in Greek διοσκουροι; which word Luke useth in this place, as if you should say, Jupiter’s sons. Again, they said − 667 that they are the sign in the zodiac called Gemini. There was also another superstition among the mariners, that those fine exhalations which appear in tempests are the very same. Therefore, in times past, they were thought to be gods of the seas, and were therefore called upon as at this day, Nicholas and Clement, and such like. Yea, as in Popery, they retain the old errors, changing the names only; so at this day they worship these exhalations under the name of Saint Hermes, or Saint Ermus. And because if one exhalation appear alone, it is a doleful token; but if two together, (as Pliny writeth) then they foreshow a prosperous course. To the end the mariners of Alexandria might have both Castor and Pollux to favor them, they had both for the badge of their ship. Therefore, as touching them, the ship was polluted with wicked sacrilege; but because Paul did not make choice thereof, of his own accord, he is not polluted thereby. −

And surely seeing an idol is nothing, it cannot infect the creatures of God, but that the faithful may use them purely and lawfully. And we must needs think thus, that all those blots wherewith Satan doth go about to stain the creatures of God through his juggling, are washed away by no other means but by a good and pure conscience, whereas the wicked and ungodly do defile those things which are of themselves pure, though they do but touch them. Finally, Paul was no more defiled by entering into this ship, than when he did behold the altars at Athens; because, being void of all superstition, he knew that all the rites of the Gentiles were mere illusions. Again, the men could not think that he did agree to that profane error; for if he had been to do any worship to Castor and Pollux, though it had been only for fashion’s sake, he would rather have died a thousand deaths than once have yielded. −

Therefore, because he needed not to fear any offense, he entereth the ship without any more ado; and undoubtedly he did this heavily, and with inward sorrow; because he saw the honor which is due to God alone given to vain inventions. Therefore, this ought to be numbered among his exercises, in that he had those to be his guides, who thought that they were governed of idols, and had committed their ship to their tuition. −

Calvin: Act 28:12 - When we were come to Syracuse 12.When we were come to Syracuse Luke prosecuteth the residue of the course of their sailing, that they arrived first in Sicilia. And after that they...

12.When we were come to Syracuse Luke prosecuteth the residue of the course of their sailing, that they arrived first in Sicilia. And after that they set a compass − 668 by reason of the tempest and raging of the sea, and sailed over into Italy. And as that haven whereof Luke speaketh in this place is the most famous haven of all Sicilia, so is it farther from the coast of Italy than is that of Messina, over against which is Rhegium, whereof he maketh mention. And it is in the country of the Brutians, as is Puteoli, a city of Campania. But forasmuch as the brethren kept Paul at Puteoli seven days, by this we gather how favorably and gently the centurion handled Paul. Neither do I doubt but that the holy man would have made him a faithful promise that he would always return in due time. But he was persuaded of his uprightness, so that he was not afraid that he would deceive him. And now we gather out of this place, that the seed of the gospel was then sown abroad, seeing there was some body of the Church even at Puteoli.

Calvin: Act 28:15 - When the brethren heard 15.When the brethren heard God did comfort Paul by the coming of the brethren who came forth to meet him, that he might the more joyfully make haste ...

15.When the brethren heard God did comfort Paul by the coming of the brethren who came forth to meet him, that he might the more joyfully make haste to defend the gospel. And the zeal and godly care of the brethren appeareth therein, in that they inquire for Paul’s coming, and go out to meet him. For it was at that time not only an odious thing to profess the Christian faith, but it might also bring them in hazard of their life. Neither did a few men only put themselves in private danger, because the envy redounded to the whole Church. But nothing is more dear to them than their duty wherein they could not be negligent, unless they would be counted sluggish and unthankful. It had been a cruel fact to neglect so great an apostle of Jesus Christ, especially seeing he labored for the common salvation. −

And now forasmuch as he had written to them before, and had of his own accord offered his service to them, it had been an unseemly thing not to repay to him brotherly goodwill and courtesy. Therefore, the brethren did, by this their dutifulness, testify their godliness toward Christ; and Paul’s desire was more inflamed, because he saw fruit prepared for his constancy. For though he were endued with invincible strength, − 669 so that he did not depend upon man’s help; yet God, who useth to strengthen his by means of men, did minister to him new strength by this means. Though he were afterward forsaken when he was in prison, as he complaineth in a certain place, ( 2Ti 4:16) yet he did not despair; but did fight no less valiantly and manfully under Christ’s banner, than if he had been guarded with a great army. But the remembrance of this meeting did serve even then to encourage him, seeing he did consider with himself that there were many godly brethren at Rome, but they were weak, and that he was sent to strengthen them. And there is no cause why we should marvel that Paul was emboldened at this present when he saw the brethren, because he did hope that the confession his faith would yield no small fruit. For so often as God showeth to his servants any fruit of their labor, he doth, as it were, prick them forward with a goad, that they may proceed more courageously in their work. −

Calvin: Act 28:16 - The centurion delivered the prisoners 16.The centurion delivered the prisoners Luke doth signify that Paul had more liberty granted him than the rest; for his condition and estate was pec...

16.The centurion delivered the prisoners Luke doth signify that Paul had more liberty granted him than the rest; for his condition and estate was peculiar. For he was suffered to dwell in an house by himself, having one keeper with him, whereas the rest were shut up in the common prison. For the general captain − 670 knew by Festus’ report that Paul was guiltless; and the centurion, as it is likely, did faithfully rehearse such things as might serve to bring him into favor. Notwithstanding, let us know that God did govern − 671 from heaven the bonds of his servant; not only that he might ease him of his trouble, but that the faithful might have freer access unto him. For he would not have the treasure of his faith shut up in prison, but he would have it laid open, that it might enrich many far and wide. And yet Paul was not so at liberty, but that he did always carry a chain. Luke calleth the general captain στρατοπεδαρχης, who was appointed over the army which kept the city, as histories make mention. − 672

Calvin: Act 28:17 - And after three days // I have done nothing against the people 17.And after three days Paul’s humanity − 673 was wonderful, in that, though he had suffered such cruel injuries of his nation, he studied, notwi...

17.And after three days Paul’s humanity − 673 was wonderful, in that, though he had suffered such cruel injuries of his nation, he studied, notwithstanding, to appease the Jews which are at Rome, and he excuseth himself to them, lest they hate his cause, because they hear that the priests do hate him. He might well have excused himself before men, if he passed over these Jews and turned himself to the Gentiles. For though he had continually, in divers places, essayed to bring them to Christ, yet they were more and more nettled and moved; − 674 and yet he had omitted nothing, neither in Asia, nor in Greece, neither at Jerusalem, which might mitigate their fury. Therefore, all men would have justly pardoned him, if he had let those alone whom he had so often tried [experienced] to be of desperate pride. − 675 But because he knew that his Master was given of his Father to be the minister of the Jews, to fulfill the promises whereby God had adopted to himself the seed of Abraham to be his people; he looketh unto the calling of God, and is never weary. He saw that he must remain at Rome, seeing he had liberty granted to teach, he would not that they should be deprived of the fruit of his labor. Secondly, he would not have them moved through hatred of his cause to trouble the Church; because a small occasion might have caused great destruction. Therefore, Paul meant to beware, lest, according to their wonted madness, they should set all on fire. − 676

I have done nothing against the people These two things might have made the Jews hate him; either because he should have done hurt to the commonwealth of his nation, as some runagates did increase their bondage, which was too cruel, through their treachery; or because he should have done somewhat against the worship of God; for though the Jews were grown out of kind, − 677 and religion was depraved and corrupted among them with many errors, yet the very name of the law and the worship of the temple were greatly reverenced. Furthermore, Paul denieth not but that he did freely omit those ceremonies whereto the Jews were superstitiously tied; yet he cleareth himself of the crime of revolting whereof he might be suspected. Therefore, understand those ordinances of the fathers, whereby the children of Abraham, and the disciples of Moses ought, according to their faith, to have been distinguished from the rest of the Gentiles. And surely in that he did cleave so holily to Christ, who is the soul and perfection of the law, he is so far from impairing the ordinances of the fathers, that none did better observe the same. −

Calvin: Act 28:19 - I was enforced to appeal 19.I was enforced to appeal This appeal was full of hatred and envy for this cause, because the authority and liberty of the Jewish nation did seem t...

19.I was enforced to appeal This appeal was full of hatred and envy for this cause, because the authority and liberty of the Jewish nation did seem to be sore opprest, who could have been content to have lived with their own laws. Secondly, because his defense was joined with infamy and loss of all the people. Therefore he answereth this objection also, because he was enforced with the stubbornness of his enemies to fly to this fortress [asylum]. For he is excused by necessity, because he had no other way to escape death. And after that he had excused that which was done already, he promiseth that he will so handle his matter hereafter, − 678 that he will not labor against the Jews. −

Calvin: Act 28:20 - For the hope of Israel 20.For the hope of Israel We must understand much more under these words than Luke expresseth; as we gather out of the answer, where the Jews speak o...

20.For the hope of Israel We must understand much more under these words than Luke expresseth; as we gather out of the answer, where the Jews speak of the sect; to wit, repeating his speech, which Luke omitteth. Therefore Paul intreated of Christ, that it might plainly appear that neither the law nor the temple did profit the Jews anything without him; because the covenant of adoption is grounded in him, and the promise of salvation is in him confirmed. Neither did they doubt but that the restoring of the kingdom did depend upon the coming of the Messias; and even at that time their misery and decay did increase the hope and desire of him. Wherefore Paul saith, for good causes, that he is bound for the hope of Israel. Whereby we be also taught, that no man doth hope aright, but he which looketh unto Christ and his spiritual kingdom; for when he placeth the hope of the godly in Christ, he excludeth all other hopes.

Calvin: Act 28:21 - Neither by letters 21.Neither by letters The priests and scribes did not hold their peace, because they were become more gentle towards Paul, or to the end they might s...

21.Neither by letters The priests and scribes did not hold their peace, because they were become more gentle towards Paul, or to the end they might spare him; that proceeded rather of contempt, or else of despair, because they neither knew how to oppress him when he was so far from them, and his carrying into Italy was − 679 to them instead of a grave. For they did lord it no less carelessly than proudly, so that nobody did trouble them at home. Furthermore, though the Jews come not altogether rightly prepared to hear, yet they show some desire to learn, when as they do not refuse to hear the defense of his doctrine, which is spoken against everywhere. For many do stop the way before themselves with this prejudice, because they cannot abide to hear that which is refused by common judgment, but subscribe to the opinion of other men to the condemning of doctrine which they know not. Nevertheless, this is not without fault (as I said) that they object gainsaying to cause hatred, or to procure evil suspicion; as if it had not been said before by Isaiah, that God should be a stone of offense to all the people. It is uncertain, whether upon the day appointed Paul disputed all the day, or they reasoned one with another; save only, because we may guess, by the circumstance of time, that Paul did not continue speaking still. − 680 For he could scarce have framed a speech which could have continued from morning to night. Wherefore I do not doubt, but that after the apostle had briefly expounded the sum of the gospel, he granted liberty to the hearers to propound questions, − 681 and did make answer to the questions which were objected to him. −

But we must note the state of the disputation, which Luke saith is double. For Paul taught first, after what sort the kingdom of God was amongst them, and principally what manner [of] chief felicity and glory that was which was promised to them, which the prophets do so highly extol. For seeing that many of them did dream of a frail estate of the kingdom of God in the world, and did place the same falsely in idleness, pleasure, and in plenty of present good things, it was necessary that it should be rightly defined, that they might know that the kingdom of God is spiritual, whose beginning is newness of life, and the end thereof blessed immortality and the heavenly glory. Secondly, Paul exhorted them to receive Christ, the author of the promised felicity. −

And, again, this second point had two members, for it could not be handled profitably and soundly unless he did expound the office of the promised Redeemer; secondly, unless he did show that he is already given, and that the Son of Mary is he in whom the fathers hoped. It was indeed a common maxim among the Jews, that the Messias should come and restore all things into perfect order. −

But Paul labored another point, which was not so well known; that the Messias was promised, who should, with the sacrifice of his death, make satisfaction for the sins of the world; who should reconcile God to men; who should purchase eternal righteousness; who should fashion men after the image of God, being regenerate with his Spirit; who should, finally, make his faithful servants heirs with him of eternal life; and that all those things were fulfilled in the person of Jesus Christ crucified. He could not intreat of those things; but he must needs call back the Jews from gross and earthly inventions into heaven, and also take away the stumbling-block of the cross, seeing he taught that there was no other way or means whereby we are reconciled with God. −

And let us note, that (as Luke doth testify) Paul took all that which he spake of Christ out of the law and prophets. For true religion differeth from all feigned religions, because the word of God alone is the rule thereof. Also the Church of God differeth from all profane sects in this, because it heareth him speak alone, and is governed by his commandment. And now by this we see the agreement that is between the Old and the New Testaments to establish the faith of Christ; secondly, that double profit of the Scripture which the same Paul commendeth in another place, to wit, that it is sufficient as well to instruct those which are willing to learn, as to refute the stubbornness of those which set themselves against the truth ( Tit 3:16; Tit 1:9). Therefore, let those who desire to be wise with sobriety, and to teach others well, appoint themselves these bounds, that they utter nothing but out of the pure fountain of the word. The philosophers deal otherwise, who contend only with reasons, because they have no sound authority, whom the Papists imitate too much, who set apart the oracles of God, and lean only to the inventions of man’s brain, that is, to mere folly. −

Calvin: Act 28:24 - Some believed 24.Some believed Luke declareth that this was at length the success of the disputation, that they did not all profit − 682 in the same doctrine. We...

24.Some believed Luke declareth that this was at length the success of the disputation, that they did not all profit − 682 in the same doctrine. We know that the apostle was endued with such grace of the Spirit, that he ought to have moved stones; and yet he could not, after long disputing and testifying, win all men unto Christ. Wherefore, let us not marvel, if the unbelief of many do at this day resist the plain doctrine of the gospel, and if many remain obstinate, to whom the truth of Christ is no less made manifest than the sun at noon-day. Moreover, those return from Paul blind and blockish, who came unto him willingly, as if they had been desirous to learn. If there were such stubbornness in voluntary hearers, what marvel is it if those refuse Christ with a malicious − 683 mind, who swell with pride and malice, [bitterness] and do openly fly and hate the light?

Calvin: Act 28:25 - And when they could not // After that Paul 25.And when they could not The malice and frowardness of the unfaithful is the cause of this, that Christ, who is our peace, and the only bond of hol...

25.And when they could not The malice and frowardness of the unfaithful is the cause of this, that Christ, who is our peace, and the only bond of holy unity, is an occasion of dissension, and doth cause those to go together by the ears who were friends before. For, behold, when the Jews come together to hear Paul, they think all one thing; and speak all one thing; they do all profess that they embrace the law of Moses. So soon as they hear the doctrine of reconciliation, there ariseth dissension among them, so that they are divided. − 685 And yet for all this we must not think that the preaching of the gospel is the cause of discord; but that privy displeasure, which lurked before in their malicious minds, doth then break out; and as the brightness of the sun doth not color things otherwise than they were, but doth plainly show the difference, which was none so long as it was dark. Therefore, seeing God doth illuminate his elect peculiarly, and faith is not common to all men, let us remember that it cannot be but that, so soon as Christ cometh abroad, there will be a division among men. But then let us call to mind that which Simon foretold of him, that he shall be a sign which shall be spoken against, that the thoughts of many hearts may be disclosed ( Luk 2:34) and that unbelief which striveth against God is the mother of dissension. −

After that Paul At the first he went about to allure them meekly and gently; now, so soon as he espieth their obstinacy, he inveigheth sharply, and doth severely denounce the judgment of God. For the rebellious must be handled thus, whose pride cannot be tamed with plain doctrine. The same order must we keep; we must gently govern those who are apt to be taught and gentle, but we must cite the stubborn unto God’s judgment-seat. Whereas he bringeth in rather the Holy Ghost speaking than the prophet, it maketh to the credit of the oracle. For seeing God requireth that he alone be heard, doctrine cannot otherwise be of authority, than if we know that it did proceed from him, and that it did not issue out of man’s brain. Again, he declareth therewithal that the stubbornness of one age only is not there noted, but that the oracle of the Spirit is extended unto the time to come. −

Calvin: Act 28:26 - Go to this people // Lest they be converted, and I heal them 26.Go to this people This is a notable place, because it is cited six times in the New Testament, ( Mat 13:14; Joh 12:40; Rom 11:8; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:1...

26.Go to this people This is a notable place, because it is cited six times in the New Testament, ( Mat 13:14; Joh 12:40; Rom 11:8; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:10) but because it is brought in elsewhere to another end, we must mark for what purpose Paul applieth it unto the present cause; namely, he meant with this, as with a mallet, to beat in pieces the hardness and frowardness of the wicked, and to encourage the faithful, who were as yet weak and tender, lest the unbelief of others should trouble them. −

Therefore, the sum is, that that was fulfilled which was foretold by the prophet, and that, therefore, there is no cause why the reprobate should flatter themselves, or that the faithful should be terrified, as it were, with some new unwonted thing. And though it be certain that this blindness whereof the prophet spake began in his time, yet John showeth that it did properly appertain unto the kingdom of Christ. Therefore, Paul doth fitly apply it unto that contempt of the gospel which he saw; as if he should have said, This is the very same thing which the Holy Ghost foretold in times past by the mouth of Isaiah. And though this place be diversely applied not only by the Evangelists, but also by Paul himself, the show of contrariety is easily put away and answered. Matthew, Mark, and Luke, say that this prophecy was fulfilled when Christ spake by parables unto the people, and did not reveal to them the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. For then the unfaithful heard the voice of God with their outward ears, but they did not profit thereby. John saith in a sense not much unlike to this, that the, Jews were not brought to believe, no, not with many miracles, ( Joh 12:37) so that this same prophecy of the prophet was fulfilled. −

Therefore, these four agree in this, that it came to pass by the just judgment of God, that the reprobate in hearing should not hear, and in seeing should not see. Now, Paul calleth to mind that which the prophet did testify concerning the Jews, lest any man wonder at their blindness. Furthermore, in the Epistle to the Romans, ( Rom 11:5) he mounteth higher, showing that this is the cause of blindness, because God doth give the light of faith only to the remnant whom he hath chosen freely. And surely it is certain that because the reprobate reject the doctrine of salvation, this cometh to pass through their own malice, and that therefore they themselves are to be blamed. But this next cause doth not let but that the secret election of God may distinguish between men; that those may believe who are ordained to life, and that the other may remain blockish. I will not stand long about the words of the prophet, because I have expounded the same elsewhere. Neither did Paul curiously recite the words which are in the prophet; but did rather apply his words unto his purpose. Therefore, he imputeth that making blind, which the prophet attributeth to the secret judgment of God, to their malice. For the prophet is commanded to stop the eyes of his hearers; and Paul in this place accuseth the unbelieving of his time, because they shut their own eyes. Though he setteth down both things distinctly, that God is the author of their blindness, and that yet, notwithstanding, they shut their own eyes, and become blind of their own accord; as these two things do very well agree together, as we said elsewhere. −

In the last remember where it is said, Lest they see with their eyes, or hear with their ears, or understand with their heart; God showeth how clear his doctrine is, to wit, that it is sufficient to lighten all the senses, unless men do maliciously darken themselves; as Paul also teacheth in another place, that his gospel is plain, so that none can be blind in the light thereof, save those who are ordained to destruction, whose eyes Satan hath blinded, ( 2Co 4:3). −

Lest they be converted, and I heal them By this we gather that the Word of God is not set before all men that they may return to soundness of mind; but that the external voice soundeth in the ears of many, without the effectual working of the Spirit, only that they may be made inexcusable. And here the pride of flesh doth rashly murmur against God; as we see many object, that men are called in vain, yea, absurdly, unless it be in their power to obey; though we see no reason why God appeareth to the blind, and speaketh to the deaf; yet his will alone, which is the rule of all righteousness, ought to be to us instead of a thousand reasons. −

In the conclusion, we must note the wholesome effect of the Word of God; namely, the conversion of men, which is not only the beginning of health, but also a certain resurrection from death to life. −

Calvin: Act 28:28 - Therefore be it 28.Therefore be it Lest the Jews may afterward accuse him of revolting, because he forsaketh the holy stock of Abraham, and goeth to the profane Gent...

28.Therefore be it Lest the Jews may afterward accuse him of revolting, because he forsaketh the holy stock of Abraham, and goeth to the profane Gentiles; he denounceth that which the prophets did so often testify, that the salvation whereof they were the proper, at least the principal − 686 heirs, should be translated unto strangers. Notwithstanding, whereas he saith that salvation was sent to the Gentiles, he meaneth, in the second place, to wit, after that the Jews had rejected it, as we have said before more at large ( Act 13:46) Therefore, the sense is, that there is no cause why the Jews should complain if the Gentiles be admitted into the void possession after that they have forsaken it. Neither doth he make faith common to all the Gentiles in general, when he saith that they shall hear. For he had full well tried, that even many of the Gentiles did wickedly resist God, but he setteth so many of the Gentiles as believed against the unbelieving Jews, that he may provoke them unto jealousy; as it is in the Song of Moses ( Deu 32:21). In the mean season, he signifieth that the doctrine which they refuse shall profit others. −

Calvin: Act 28:29 - Having much reasoning 29.Having much reasoning No doubt, the wicked were more nettled because he cited the prophecy against them; for they are so far from waxing meek when...

29.Having much reasoning No doubt, the wicked were more nettled because he cited the prophecy against them; for they are so far from waxing meek when they are reproved, that they are more inflamed with fury. This is the reason why they reasoned − 687 when they were gone out from Paul, because the more part would not be quiet. But seeing there was such disputing, it appeareth that some did so embrace those things which Paul had spoken, that they doubted not to defend and stoutly to avouch that which they believed. But it is in vain for any man to object thereupon, that the gospel of Christ is the seed of contention, which cometh undoubtedly from man’s pride and waywardness; and assuredly, if we will have peace with God, we must strive against − 688 those which contemn him. −

Calvin: Act 28:30 - He received all // Preaching the kingdom of God 30.He received all The apostle showed an excellent example of constancy, in that he offered himself so willingly to all those which were desirous to ...

30.He received all The apostle showed an excellent example of constancy, in that he offered himself so willingly to all those which were desirous to hear him. Surely he was not ignorant what great hatred he did purchase; and that this was his best way, if by holding his peace he might appease the hatred of his adversaries. For a man being desirous to provide for himself alone would not have done thus; but because he remembered that he was no less the servant of Christ, and a preacher of the gospel, when he was in prison, than if he had been at liberty, he thought it was not lawful for him to withdraw himself from any which was ready to learn, lest he should foreslow [neglect] the occasion which was offered him by God, and therefore he did more regard the holy calling of God than his own life. And that we may know that he did incur danger willingly, Luke doth shortly after expressly commend his boldness, as if he should say, that setting all fear aside, he did faithfully obey the commandment of God, neither was he terrified with any danger, − 689 but did proceed to take pains with whomsoever he met. −

Preaching the kingdom of God He doth not separate the kingdom of God, and those things which belong to Christ, as diverse things, but doth rather add the second thing by way of exposition, that we may know that the kingdom of God is grounded and contained in the knowledge of the redemption purchased by Christ. Therefore, Paul taught that men are strangers − 690 and foreigners from the kingdom of God, until having their sins done away they be reconciled to God, and be renewed into holiness of life by the Spirit; and that the kingdom of God is then erected, and doth then flourish among them, when Christ the Mediator doth join them to the Father, having both their sins freely forgiven them, and being also regenerate unto righteousness, that beginning the heavenly life upon earth, they may always have a longing desire to come to heaven, where they shall fully and perfectly enjoy glory. Also, Luke setteth forth a singular benefit of God, in that Paul had so great liberty granted him. For that came not to pass through the winking and dissimulation of those who could hinder it, seeing they did detest religion, but because the Lord did shut their eyes. Wherefore, it is not without cause that Paul himself doth boast that the Word of God was not bound with his bonds ( 2Ti 2:9).

Defender: Act 28:1 - Melita The island of Melita is now known as Malta, south of Sicily."

The island of Melita is now known as Malta, south of Sicily."

Defender: Act 28:2 - barbarous people The people were probably descendants of Phoenician sailors who first used this island. They were considered "barbarous" merely because they did not sp...

The people were probably descendants of Phoenician sailors who first used this island. They were considered "barbarous" merely because they did not speak either Latin or Greek as their native language. Some at least were able to converse with Paul; evidently they had learned one or both languages."

Defender: Act 28:3 - bundle of sticks It is interesting that, out of the 300 or so people who must have been enjoying the fire, it was Paul who took it upon himself to gather sticks to kee...

It is interesting that, out of the 300 or so people who must have been enjoying the fire, it was Paul who took it upon himself to gather sticks to keep it burning. Among these sticks, however, was a venomous snake (the exact species is in dispute) which had been torpid from the cold, looking much like another stick. The heat energized the snake, so that it suddenly bit Paul."

Defender: Act 28:5 - felt no harm Christ had promised that His followers, in carrying out His great commission, might "take up serpents" without harm (Mar 16:18). This experience of Pa...

Christ had promised that His followers, in carrying out His great commission, might "take up serpents" without harm (Mar 16:18). This experience of Paul's is the only actual example of such a phenomenon recorded in the New Testament, though there may have been others. This promise was for protection, not for show, and was not intended to apply indefinitely, especially after the completion and circulation of the New Testament. One danger involved in the indiscriminate use - or attempted display - of signs and wonders is that those who observe them may be tempted to ascribe divinity to those who perform them (Act 28:6; Act 14:11)."

Defender: Act 28:9 - were healed The healing of Publius' father was miraculous (Act 28:8); the others may have been healed by the medical means available to Luke the physician."

The healing of Publius' father was miraculous (Act 28:8); the others may have been healed by the medical means available to Luke the physician."

Defender: Act 28:11 - ship of Alexandria This grain ship from Alexandria spent the winter months in Malta, probably the harbor of Valleta, as the owner of Paul's ship had wanted to do at Phen...

This grain ship from Alexandria spent the winter months in Malta, probably the harbor of Valleta, as the owner of Paul's ship had wanted to do at Phenice. Navigation by sailing vessels on the Mediterranean virtually ceased during the winter months.

Defender: Act 28:11 - Castor and Pollux "Castor and Pollux" was evidently the figurehead and name of the ship, it was so chosen because the astrological sign of Gemini, the Twins, was consid...

"Castor and Pollux" was evidently the figurehead and name of the ship, it was so chosen because the astrological sign of Gemini, the Twins, was considered the favorite sign of many ancient mariners."

Defender: Act 28:12 - Syracuse Syracuse, on Sicily's eastern coast, was the large island's most important city."

Syracuse, on Sicily's eastern coast, was the large island's most important city."

Defender: Act 28:14 - with them seven days As he had done at Sidon at the beginning of the journey (Act 27:3), the centurion graciously allowed Paul to spend time with the Christian brethren at...

As he had done at Sidon at the beginning of the journey (Act 27:3), the centurion graciously allowed Paul to spend time with the Christian brethren at Puteoli, on the bay of Naples in southern Italy, near the end of the journey (Act 28:13). It is possible that they wanted Paul to spend a week with them so he could address the local congregation on the Lord's Day. At Puteoli, they left the ship and continued the rest of the way to Rome on the Appian Way, an important Roman road leading to the Appii Forum, a marketing center some forty or so miles south of Rome (Act 28:15). There some of the Roman Christians had come to meet Paul. They had undoubtedly read his Roman epistle, which had been sent to them some three years previously, and were eagerly anticipating his coming. They did not know he would be coming as a prisoner, of course, but were nevertheless glad to be identified with him, and Paul was encouraged and thankful."

Defender: Act 28:16 - to dwell by himself Luke could not stay with Paul any longer, but undoubtedly was allowed to visit him, as were many others (Act 28:30). Luke is mentioned in Paul's epist...

Luke could not stay with Paul any longer, but undoubtedly was allowed to visit him, as were many others (Act 28:30). Luke is mentioned in Paul's epistles to Philemon and to the Colossians, which were written during this period. Even though Nero was emperor at this time, he had not yet shown his true character. Paul was still treated with courtesy and allowed many privileges."

Defender: Act 28:23 - into his lodging As always, Paul went first to the Jews with the gospel (Rom 1:16), just as he had written to the Roman Christians. Since he could not go to the synago...

As always, Paul went first to the Jews with the gospel (Rom 1:16), just as he had written to the Roman Christians. Since he could not go to the synagogues this time, he got the Jewish leaders to come to him.

Defender: Act 28:23 - the prophets Again according to his regular approach, he expounded the Scriptures to the Jews, showing forth their testimony concerning Jesus. Significantly, just ...

Again according to his regular approach, he expounded the Scriptures to the Jews, showing forth their testimony concerning Jesus. Significantly, just as Jesus had done (Luk 24:27), Paul began with Genesis and continued through all the Scriptures, proving that Jesus had fulfilled the promises to the fathers. There is, indeed, much to expound, evidenced by Paul's persuading from morning until evening."

Defender: Act 28:24 - some believed As always, when Christ is presented in all fullness, some will believe, but most will not."

As always, when Christ is presented in all fullness, some will believe, but most will not."

Defender: Act 28:25 - Esaias the prophet Paul here applied the prophecy of Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10, to the Jews' rejection of Jesus as their Messiah. Jesus had made a similar application of the sam...

Paul here applied the prophecy of Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10, to the Jews' rejection of Jesus as their Messiah. Jesus had made a similar application of the same prophecy in Mat 13:14 and Joh 12:40."

Defender: Act 28:28 - unto the Gentiles Once again Paul announced that since the Jews had rejected the offer of salvation, it would go to the Gentiles. It seems somewhat symbolic that Paul h...

Once again Paul announced that since the Jews had rejected the offer of salvation, it would go to the Gentiles. It seems somewhat symbolic that Paul has by this time preached the gospel all the way from Jerusalem to Rome, the greatest city in the world at that time, and that the account ends at this point. He had always gone first to the Jews, only to find again and again that the Gentiles were the ones who responded. It was said of Jesus that "He came unto his own, and his own received him not" (Joh 1:11). The same had been proved true of His gospel.

Defender: Act 28:28 - they will hear This has been a wonderfully fulfilled prophecy. The Gentiles, in practically every nation, have received the gospel gladly in substantial numbers. The...

This has been a wonderfully fulfilled prophecy. The Gentiles, in practically every nation, have received the gospel gladly in substantial numbers. The Christians of the first century, beginning with the apostles, were largely Jews, but this soon changed. Ever since, it has been the Gentile churches and missionaries who have been spreading the gospel."

Defender: Act 28:30 - two whole years According to Roman law, it was necessary to wait about two years for the prosecution to come forward with their case. There is no indication that the ...

According to Roman law, it was necessary to wait about two years for the prosecution to come forward with their case. There is no indication that the Jews ever did this, certainly not within the two year period, since Luke would have mentioned it if they had. Accordingly, many scholars believe that Paul was released at this point and was able to continue his missionary activities for a few years, later being rearrested and executed by Nero following the burning of Rome. On the other hand, there have been others who argue that the Jews finally did bring their case and persuaded the emperor that Paul and his Christian followers were plotting against the empire, so Paul was put to death without ever getting out of prison. This particular controversy has never been settled, though the first option seems more likely in view of Luke's optimistic ending of the book after the two-year statutory period. Even so, there is still the possibility that Luke died before he learned of the later negative developments."

TSK: Act 28:1 - the island the island : Act 27:26, Act 27:44

the island : Act 27:26, Act 27:44

TSK: Act 28:2 - barbarous // showed // because barbarous : Act 28:4; Rom 1:14; 1Co 14:11; Col 3:11 showed : Act 27:3; Lev 19:18, Lev 19:34; Pro 24:11, Pro 24:12; Mat 10:42; Luk 10:30-37; Rom 2:14, ...

TSK: Act 28:3 - came // fastened came : Job 20:16; Isa 30:6, Isa 41:24, Isa 59:5; Mat 3:7, Mat 12:34, Mat 23:33 fastened : Act 28:4; Amo 5:19; 2Co 6:9, 2Co 11:23

TSK: Act 28:4 - barbarians // beast // No doubt // a murderer barbarians : Act 28:2 beast : Act 28:5; Gen 3:1; Isa 13:21, Isa 13:22, Isa 43:20; Zep 2:15 No doubt : Luk 13:2, Luk 13:4; Joh 7:24, Joh 9:1, Joh 9:2 a...

TSK: Act 28:5 - felt felt : Num 21:6-9; Psa 91:13; Mar 16:18; Luk 10:19; Joh 3:14, Joh 3:15; Rom 16:20; Rev 9:3, Rev 9:4

TSK: Act 28:6 - said said : Act 12:22, Act 14:11-13; Mat 21:9, Mat 27:22

TSK: Act 28:7 - the chief // who the chief : Act 13:7, Act 18:12, Act 23:24 who : Act 28:2; Mat 10:40,Mat 10:41; Luk 19:6-9

TSK: Act 28:8 - the father // prayed // laid // and healed the father : Mar 1:30,Mar 1:31 prayed : Act 9:40; 1Ki 17:20-22; Jam 5:14-16 laid : Act 9:17, Act 9:18, Act 19:11, Act 19:12; Mat 9:18; Mar 6:5, Mar 7:...

TSK: Act 28:9 - others others : Act 5:12, Act 5:15; Mat 4:24; Mar 6:54-56

TSK: Act 28:10 - honoured // laded honoured : Mat 15:5, Mat 15:6; 1Th 2:6; 1Ti 5:3, 1Ti 5:4, 1Ti 5:17, 1Ti 5:18 laded : 2Ki 8:9; Ezr 7:27; Mat 6:31-34, Mat 10:8-10; 2Co 8:2-6, 2Co 9:5-1...

TSK: Act 28:11 - a ship // whose Cir, am 4067, ad 63 a ship : Act 6:9, Act 27:6 whose : Isa 45:20; Jon 1:5, Jon 1:16; 1Co 8:4

Cir, am 4067, ad 63

a ship : Act 6:9, Act 27:6

whose : Isa 45:20; Jon 1:5, Jon 1:16; 1Co 8:4

TSK: Act 28:12 - Syracuse Syracuse : Syracuse was the capital of Sicily, situated on the eastern side of the island, 72 miles s by e of Messina, and about 112 of Palermo. In i...

Syracuse : Syracuse was the capital of Sicily, situated on the eastern side of the island, 72 miles s by e of Messina, and about 112 of Palermo. In its ancient state of splendour it was 22+ in extent, according to Strabo; and such was its opulence, that when the Romans took it, they found more riches than they did at Carthage. Act 28:12

TSK: Act 28:13 - Rhegium // the south // Puteoli Rhegium : Rhegium, now Reggio, was a maritime city and promontory in Italy, opposite Messina. the south : Act 27:13 Puteoli : Puteoli, now Puzzuoli, i...

Rhegium : Rhegium, now Reggio, was a maritime city and promontory in Italy, opposite Messina.

the south : Act 27:13

Puteoli : Puteoli, now Puzzuoli, is an ancient sea-port of Campania, in the kingdom of Naples, about eight miles sw of that city, standing upon a hill in a creek opposite to Baiae.

TSK: Act 28:14 - we found // and were we found : Act 9:42, Act 9:43, Act 19:1, Act 21:4, Act 21:7, Act 21:8; Psa 119:63; Mat 10:11 and were : Act 20:6; Gen 7:4, Gen 8:10-12

TSK: Act 28:15 - when // Appii forum // The three taverns // he thanked when : Act 10:25, Act 21:5; Exo 4:14; Joh 12:13; Rom 15:24; Gal 4:14; Heb 13:3; 3Jo 1:6-8 Appii forum : Appii Forum, now Borgo Longo, was an ancient c...

when : Act 10:25, Act 21:5; Exo 4:14; Joh 12:13; Rom 15:24; Gal 4:14; Heb 13:3; 3Jo 1:6-8

Appii forum : Appii Forum, now Borgo Longo, was an ancient city of the Volsci, fifty miles s of Rome.

The three taverns : The Three Taverns was a place in the Appian Way, thirty miles from Rome.

he thanked : Jos 1:6, Jos 1:7, Jos 1:9; 1Sa 30:6; Psa 27:14; 1Co 12:21, 1Co 12:22; 2Co 2:14, 2Co 7:5-7; 1Th 3:7

TSK: Act 28:16 - Rome // the centurion // captain // but Rome : Rome, the capital of Italy, and once of the whole world, is situated on the banks of the Tiber, about sixteen miles from the sea; 410 miles sse...

Rome : Rome, the capital of Italy, and once of the whole world, is situated on the banks of the Tiber, about sixteen miles from the sea; 410 miles sse of Vienna, 600 se of Paris, 730 e by n of Madrid, 760 w of Constantinople, and 780 se of London. Act 2:10, Act 18:2, Act 19:21, Act 23:11; Rom 1:7-15, Rom 15:22-29; Rev 17:9, Rev 17:18

the centurion : Act 27:3, Act 27:31, Act 27:43

captain : Gen 37:36; 2Ki 25:8; Jer 40:2

but : Act 28:30,Act 28:31, Act 24:23, Act 27:3; Gen 39:21-23

TSK: Act 28:17 - though // was though : Act 23:1-11, Act 24:10-16, Act 25:8, Act 25:10; Gen 40:15 was : Act 21:33-40, Act 23:33

TSK: Act 28:18 - -- Act 22:24, Act 22:25, Act 22:30, Act 24:10,Act 24:22, Act 25:7, Act 25:8, Act 26:31

TSK: Act 28:19 - I was // not I was : Act 25:10-12, Act 25:21, Act 25:25, Act 26:32 not : Rom 12:19-21; 1Pe 2:22, 1Pe 2:23

TSK: Act 28:20 - this cause // for the // this chain this cause : Act 28:17, Act 10:29, Act 10:33 for the : Act 23:6, Act 24:15, Act 26:6, Act 26:7 this chain : That is, the chain with which he was bound...

this cause : Act 28:17, Act 10:29, Act 10:33

for the : Act 23:6, Act 24:15, Act 26:6, Act 26:7

this chain : That is, the chain with which he was bound to the ""soldier that kept him""(Act 28:16); a mode of custody which Dr. Lardner has shown was in use among the Romans. It is in exact conformity, therefore, with the truth of St. Paul’ s situation at this time, that he declares himself to be ""an ambassador in a chain,"" εν [Strong’ s G1722], αλυσει [Strong’ s G254], (Eph 6:20); and the exactness is the more remarkable, as αλυσις [Strong’ s G254], a chain is no where used in the singular number to express any other kind of custody. Act 26:29; Eph 3:1, Eph 4:1, Eph 6:20; Phi 1:13; Col 4:18; 2Ti 1:10, 2Ti 2:9; Phm 1:10,Phm 1:13

TSK: Act 28:21 - We We : Exo 11:7; Isa 41:11, Isa 50:8, Isa 54:17

TSK: Act 28:22 - for // sect for : Act 16:20,Act 16:21, Act 17:6, Act 17:7, Act 24:5, Act 24:6, Act 24:14; Luk 2:34; 1Pe 2:12, 1Pe 3:16, 1Pe 4:14-16 sect : Act 5:17, Act 15:5, Act...

TSK: Act 28:23 - there came // he expounded // both // from there came : Phm 1:2 he expounded : Act 17:2, Act 17:3, Act 18:4, Act 18:28, Act 19:8, Act 26:22, Act 26:23 both : Act 26:6, Act 26:22; Luk 24:26, Luk...

TSK: Act 28:24 - -- Act 13:48-50, Act 14:4, Act 17:4, Act 17:5, Act 18:6-8, Act 19:8, Act 19:9; Rom 3:3, Rom 11:4-6

TSK: Act 28:25 - agreed // well agreed : Act 28:29 well : Mat 15:7; Mar 7:6; 2Pe 1:21

agreed : Act 28:29

well : Mat 15:7; Mar 7:6; 2Pe 1:21

TSK: Act 28:26 - Go // Hearing Go : Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10; Eze 12:2; Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:10; Joh 12:38-40; Rom 11:8-10 Hearing : Deu 29:4; Psa 81:11, Psa 81:12; Isa 29...

TSK: Act 28:28 - it known // the salvation // sent it known : Act 2:14, Act 4:10, Act 13:38; Eze 36:32 the salvation : Psa 98:2, Psa 98:3; Isa 49:6, Isa 52:10; Lam 3:26; Luk 2:30-32, Luk 3:6 sent : Act...

TSK: Act 28:29 - great reasoning great reasoning : Act 28:25; Mat 10:34-36; Luk 12:51; Joh 7:40-53

TSK: Act 28:30 - Paul // dwelt Paul : St. Paul, after his release, is supposed to have visited Judea, in the way to which he left Titus at Crete (Tit 1:5), and then returned through...

Paul : St. Paul, after his release, is supposed to have visited Judea, in the way to which he left Titus at Crete (Tit 1:5), and then returned through Syria, Cilicia, Asia Minor, and Greece, to Rome; where, according to primitive tradition, he was beheaded by order of Nero, ad 66, at Aquae Saiviae, three miles from Rome, and interred in the Via Ostensis, two miles from the city, where Constantine erected a church.

dwelt : Act 28:16

TSK: Act 28:31 - Preaching // and teaching // with Cir, am 4069, ad 65 Preaching : Act 28:23, Act 8:12, Act 20:25; Mat 4:23; Mar 1:14; Luk 8:1 and teaching : Act 5:42, Act 23:11 with : Act 4:29, Act 4:...

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Act 28:1 - The island // Melita Act 28:1,2 Paul and his company, after their shipwreck, are kindly entertained by the barbarians of Melita. Act 28:3-6 A viper fastening on his ...

Act 28:1,2 Paul and his company, after their shipwreck, are

kindly entertained by the barbarians of Melita.

Act 28:3-6 A viper fastening on his hand without hurting him,

the people, who at first thought ill of him, believed

him a god.

Act 28:7-10 He healeth the father of Publius, and other sick

persons by the island.

Act 28:11-16 Paul and his company depart, and arrive at Rome; where

Paul is left with a guard in a house of his own.

Act 28:17-22 He calleth the Jews together, and showeth the

occasion of his coming.

Act 28:23-29 He preacheth Christ to them, of whom some believe,

others believe not.

Act 28:30,31 He continueth for two whole years to preach the

gospel without interruption.

The island this was foretold by Paul, Act 27:26 ; and therefore though the mariners knew not the land, Act 27:39 , and were not able to direct the ship, as Act 27:15 , yet God so ordered it, that not a word spoken by Paul did fall to the ground, but the wind and sea obey him.

Melita now called Malta, a little island between Sicily and Africa. There is another obscure island in Illyricum that was called by this name, which some have mistook for this place of Paul’ s shipwreck, by reason that this tempest was in the Adriatic Sea: but not only the Gulf of Venice, but the sea about Sicily, and this coast, was so called, as Strabo witnesseth. See Act 27:27 .

Poole: Act 28:2 - The barbarous people // For they kindled a fire, &c. The barbarous people so the Grecians and Romans called all other nations that did not receive their customs, nor speak their language, 1Co 14:11 ; an...

The barbarous people so the Grecians and Romans called all other nations that did not receive their customs, nor speak their language, 1Co 14:11 ; and to this day the African coast over against this island is called Barbary.

For they kindled a fire, &c.: how far is this humanity of heathens beyond that inhumanity which some that are called Christians use towards those that are shipwrecked, and their goods that come on shore!

Poole: Act 28:3 - A viper // Fastened on his hand A viper a creature so venomous, that not only its biting, but (some say) its breath, is deadly: this, upon the warmth of the fire, being benumbed wit...

A viper a creature so venomous, that not only its biting, but (some say) its breath, is deadly: this, upon the warmth of the fire, being benumbed with the cold, and now refreshed, began to stir itself.

Fastened on his hand as it used to do when it biteth. God by this miracle prepares this people not only to be civil and courteous unto Paul, but to believe the gospel which he preached, wheresoever he went. And this wonderful work of God was (as God’ s seal to his ministry) to show his authority to be from him.

Poole: Act 28:4 - Venomous // This man is a murderer Venomous so the viper is called by that appellative word, from whence also comes theriaca, or treacle, which is made out of flesh, or trochusses, ...

Venomous so the viper is called by that appellative word, from whence also comes theriaca, or treacle, which is made out of flesh, or trochusses, of vipers. And if men can make an antidote out of poison, much more can God bring good out of evil.

This man is a murderer it is a strange sense that men by the light of nature had of Divine vengeance, especially of God’ s revenging of murder. Hence they called one of their furies Tisiphone, as one that punished and revenged murder. Yet they were to blame in this case:

1. Because they confine the punishment of wicked men wholly unto this life.

2. In that they did not expect the event; they judged before they knew what would be the end of Paul afterwards.

3. They erred, in that they measured the goodness or badness of a man’ s state or cause by his prosperity or adversity.

Poole: Act 28:5 - -- As Daniel in the lion’ s den. God is the God of nature, and the most natural properties are restrained when he pleases, and cannot be exerted w...

As Daniel in the lion’ s den. God is the God of nature, and the most natural properties are restrained when he pleases, and cannot be exerted without his concurrence. Thus the promises our blessed Saviour made, in Mar 16:18 Luk 10:19 , were fulfilled according to the letter.

Poole: Act 28:6 - Should have swollen // Or fallen down dead suddenly // And said that he was a god Should have swollen the word signifies primarily to be burnt, and then by burning or scalding to swell, which is accounted the ordinary symptom of th...

Should have swollen the word signifies primarily to be burnt, and then by burning or scalding to swell, which is accounted the ordinary symptom of the biting of a viper; to swell or blister, as if the part was burnt with fire.

Or fallen down dead suddenly in those places where there is much more heat, there is more venom in these vipers. And though some are said to live several days after they are bit by them, yet others die very suddenly upon their biting; as the known story of Cleopatra testifies; and condemned persons were sometimes put to death by vipers set unto their breasts.

And said that he was a god a strange extreme; so uncertain and unequal are men’ s minds.

Poole: Act 28:7 - -- This Publius is thought to have been governor for the Romans in this island. Howsoever, he was a man of great account and estate, that could provid...

This Publius is thought to have been governor for the Romans in this island. Howsoever, he was a man of great account and estate, that could provide for so many as were in the ship, and receive them into his own house.

Poole: Act 28:8 - A bloody flux // And prayed // Laid his hands on him A bloody flux a painful and dangerous disease; the torment in the bowels frequently causing a fever. And prayed Paul could do nothing of himself, a...

A bloody flux a painful and dangerous disease; the torment in the bowels frequently causing a fever.

And prayed Paul could do nothing of himself, and therefore begs of God the recovery of Publius’ s father. It is God only that kills and makes alive, 1Sa 2:6 .

Laid his hands on him this imposition of hands was commonly used in miraculous cures, as Mat 9:18 Mar 6:5 ; and is joined with prayer, Mat 19:13 , which it might be a symbol of. Thus Publius was well paid for what he did for Paul and his company. Relieving of the poor and distressed is frequently rewarded in this world, and not only in the world to come. And God now recommends the gospel and the ministry of Paul by this miracle also: for none could do such things as these, unless God were with him.

Poole: Act 28:9 - -- The fame of this cure, wrought so suddenly, perfectly, and only with the laying on of Paul’ s hands, could not but spread far and near; especia...

The fame of this cure, wrought so suddenly, perfectly, and only with the laying on of Paul’ s hands, could not but spread far and near; especially being done upon the governor: and men are usually very careful about their bodily health and welfare. So that their diseases were blessed occasions to bring them to the knowledge of God in Christ, whom Paul preached; and they might have perished eternally if they had not perished (or been thus near unto perishing) temporally.

Poole: Act 28:10 - -- They who were cured, rewarded or presented the apostle and his company very liberally. And this was the effect of that inward respect and real estee...

They who were cured, rewarded or presented the apostle and his company very liberally. And this was the effect of that inward respect and real esteem they had for them; and was a fruit of their faith.

Poole: Act 28:11 - Had wintered in the isle // Castor and Pollux These three months that St. Paul staid at Malta, he spent like a true labourer in the Lord’ s vineyard, planting a church that was famous for ...

These three months that St. Paul staid at Malta, he spent like a true labourer in the Lord’ s vineyard, planting a church that was famous for its stedfastness in the truth.

Had wintered in the isle it was their wont to lay up their ships all the winter season; as we may see, Act 27:12 . And to this day the galleys seldom go out on those seas in winter.

Castor and Pollux feigned to be the sons of Jupiter, and to have the ordering of tempests, and the care of mariners, and were chosen for the patrons of that ship, by the pagan owners of it.

Poole: Act 28:12 - Syracuse // We tarried there three days Syracuse the chief city of Sicily, famous for Archimedes. We tarried there three days probably to sell some of their wares, the ship making a tradi...

Syracuse the chief city of Sicily, famous for Archimedes.

We tarried there three days probably to sell some of their wares, the ship making a trading voyage.

Poole: Act 28:13 - Rhegium // Puteoli Rhegium a city in the kingdom of Naples, over against Messina in Sicily; so called because that Sicily was believed to be thereabouts rent and plucke...

Rhegium a city in the kingdom of Naples, over against Messina in Sicily; so called because that Sicily was believed to be thereabouts rent and plucked from the main land, unto which they held it to have been formerly joined, until by a tempest it became an island.

Puteoli is a sea town not far from Naples.

Poole: Act 28:14 - Where we found brethren // Rome Where we found brethren Christians, as some think, for so they mutually called one another. But it is not so probable that any should profess Christi...

Where we found brethren Christians, as some think, for so they mutually called one another. But it is not so probable that any should profess Christianity so near unto Rome, and that it should be no more known or believed in Rome. Others therefore think that the apostle means Jews, whom he calls brethren (being, as himself, descended from Abraham); for so he calls the Jews he found at Rome, Act 28:17 ; who yet called the Christians a sect, adding, that it was every where spoken against, Act 28:22 .

Rome is known to be the chief city in Italy, and to have been the empress of the world, and famous for the church to whom St. Paul wrote his Epistle, known by its inscription unto them.

Poole: Act 28:15 - Appii forum // The three taverns // Took courage Appii forum a place about one and fifty miles, or seventeen leagues, from Rome; so called from Appius Claudius, who made a way from Rome thither, cal...

Appii forum a place about one and fifty miles, or seventeen leagues, from Rome; so called from Appius Claudius, who made a way from Rome thither, called from his name: The Appian Way; and had his statue there set up; which is the reason why it is called thus: for the Romans did call those places fora, were such statues were placed. (The concourse to see those statues might bring them to become markets).

The three taverns as that was a place of resort for the buying and selling of other commodities, so this for the affording of necessary provision; a little town, hence so called, about three and thirty miles, or eleven leagues, from Rome. So that some came a greater, some a lesser way to meet with Paul, and show their respect unto him. These brethren are thought to have been converted by such as at the day of Pentecost were present when those miracles were wrought, Act 2:10 , it being expressly said, that there were strangers from Rome.

Took courage God moving so many not to be ashamed of his bonds.

Poole: Act 28:16 - The captain of the guard // Paul was suffered to dwell by himself The captain of the guard the praefectus praetorio, being commander-in-chief over the soldiers, and unto whom the prisoners of state were usually c...

The captain of the guard the praefectus praetorio, being commander-in-chief over the soldiers, and unto whom the prisoners of state were usually committed.

Paul was suffered to dwell by himself God by this means giving Paul an opportunity to go abroad at his pleasure; though chained, as Act 28:20 , yet he might preach the gospel, and that was not bound, 2Ti 2:9 . And now God is with Paul, as he was with Joseph, in prison, Gen 39:21 , and procures him favour.

Poole: Act 28:17 - Paul called the chief of the Jews together Paul called the chief of the Jews together Paul does this not only out of an extraordinary love which he had for that people, but also because the ap...

Paul called the chief of the Jews together Paul does this not only out of an extraordinary love which he had for that people, but also because the apostles were commanded to go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, Mat 10:5,6 . The whole economy of the gospel is a doing good for evil. So did our Saviour, who is the author and subject of it; and so must his messengers or ministers do, or they are not like to do any good at all; for the world will hate them, 1Jo 3:13 .

Poole: Act 28:18 - Examined me Examined me as Festus did in the presence of king Agrippa, Act 25:26 , who, they were both unbelievers, yet justified Paul, acknowledging that he had...

Examined me as Festus did in the presence of king Agrippa, Act 25:26 , who, they were both unbelievers, yet justified Paul, acknowledging that he had not committed any thing worthy of bonds, much less of death. Thus our Saviour was declared innocent by Pilate, Luk 23:4,14 .

Poole: Act 28:19 - The Jews spake against it // Not that I had aught to accuse my nation of The Jews spake against it the Jews used all their oratory and interest against Paul, both before Felix and Festus. And had it been in Festus’ s ...

The Jews spake against it the Jews used all their oratory and interest against Paul, both before Felix and Festus. And had it been in Festus’ s power, (which after Paul’ s appeal it was not), he would have sacrificed Paul to the malice of the Jews; and by that means got their favour, whom he had so incensed against them.

Not that I had aught to accuse my nation of Paul did not so much want matter, as mind, to accuse the Jews; and he declares, that whatsoever he had suffered, his intentions were not to calumniate them, but to vindicate himself.

Poole: Act 28:20 - For the hope of Israel // I am bound with this chain For the hope of Israel: see Act 23:6 24:21 . This hope is either, 1. Of the resurrection, as in the forementioned places; and Act 26:6,7 ; or: 2....

For the hope of Israel: see Act 23:6 24:21 . This hope is either,

1. Of the resurrection, as in the forementioned places; and Act 26:6,7 ; or:

2. The Messiah; Christ is the hope of Israel, so they pretended for many ages, and him now Paul preached.

I am bound with this chain for though he had his liberty to go abroad, yet he was chained with his right hand to the soldier’ s left hand who went with him, and could not possibly be loosened unwittingly from him.

Poole: Act 28:21 - -- The high priest, and the rest of them that had persecuted Paul, did either despond of their cause, when it should come to be impartially heard; or w...

The high priest, and the rest of them that had persecuted Paul, did either despond of their cause, when it should come to be impartially heard; or were supine and negligent in a matter which they pretended so highly to concern their religion; but self-ends, their present ease and reputation, were the main matters they contended for.

Poole: Act 28:22 - Sect // Every where it is spoken against Sect or heresy, for so they called the Christian religion, Act 24:5,14 . Every where it is spoken against of all conditions of men, governors and p...

Sect or heresy, for so they called the Christian religion, Act 24:5,14 .

Every where it is spoken against of all conditions of men, governors and people, and in all places; as, Luk 2:34 , Christ is said to be a sign that shall be spoken against.

Poole: Act 28:23 - His lodging // He expounded and testified the kingdom of God // Persuading them concerning Jesus // From morning till evening His lodging the house which he had hired, as Act 28:16 , and Act 28:30 . He expounded and testified the kingdom of God Paul expounded the Scripture...

His lodging the house which he had hired, as Act 28:16 , and Act 28:30 .

He expounded and testified the kingdom of God Paul expounded the Scriptures, and by them proved our Saviour to be the Messiah; and that the kingdom of the Messiah, which God had promised, and Moses and the prophets had foretold, was now come.

Persuading them concerning Jesus using such proofs and arguments as were cogent enough to prove what he asserted; and which also did thoroughly persuade or prevail with several of them.

From morning till evening thus Paul laboured more abundantly, 1Co 15:10 .

Poole: Act 28:24 - -- Thus there are different soils into which the word is cast, as appears in the parable of the sower, Mat 13:19,20 , &c. Thus Paul found by experience...

Thus there are different soils into which the word is cast, as appears in the parable of the sower, Mat 13:19,20 , &c. Thus Paul found by experience what he says, 2Th 3:2 , that all men have not faith; and the word preached doth not profit, unless it be mixed with faith in them that hear it, Heb 4:2 .

Poole: Act 28:25 - They agreed not among themselves // After that Paul had spoken one word They agreed not among themselves thus Christ came to send fire on the earth, Luk 12:49 : not that the gospel does this in itself; for it is the gos...

They agreed not among themselves thus Christ came to send fire on the earth, Luk 12:49 : not that the gospel does this in itself; for it is the gospel of peace, Eph 6:15 , not only betwixt God and man, but betwixt man and man; and if its precepts were observed, love, meekness, and goodness would banish all hatred, pride, and contention out of the hearts and lives of men; but this arises out of the corruption that is in man, and from the evil one that sows his tares amongst us.

After that Paul had spoken one word Paul spake this eminent and remarkable word, or sentence, that they might (if possible) be pricked in their hearts at the hearing of God’ s judgments denounced against them.

Poole: Act 28:26 - -- As their fathers did hear the many prophecies concerning the miseries and calamities which for their sins were to come upon them, as also concerning...

As their fathers did hear the many prophecies concerning the miseries and calamities which for their sins were to come upon them, as also concerning the Messiah which was to come, but did not believe them or entertain them as they ought; so these their children (through the righteous judgment of God) inherited their fathers’ sins, and should be heirs also of their punishments. Thus we see, that Scriptura prophetica saepius impletur; and what was spoken and fillfilled in that generation so long before, was also in this so many hundred years after.

Poole: Act 28:27 - Their eyes have they closed Though God did forsake this people, (being first forsaken of them), and withdraw his gratuitous assistance from them, yet it is all justly charged u...

Though God did forsake this people, (being first forsaken of them), and withdraw his gratuitous assistance from them, yet it is all justly charged upon them, they having by their sins said unto God, Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways, Job 21:14 .

Their eyes have they closed they winked, as those that were loth to see, though they could not but see, the truths Paul preached concerning the Messiah; prejudicate opinions and self-conceit hindering them from coming unto the acknowledgment of them.

I should heal them, or pardon them; for by guilt the soul is wounded.

Poole: Act 28:28 - The salvation of God // Is sent unto the Gentiles The salvation of God so the gospel is called; because: 1. The finding of it out. 2. The preparing of it by sending his Son. 3. The revealing of it, ...

The salvation of God so the gospel is called; because:

1. The finding of it out.

2. The preparing of it by sending his Son.

3. The revealing of it, and;

4. Its efficacy, is only of God.

Is sent unto the Gentiles as by our Saviour’ s commission, Mat 28:19 , and Luk 24:47 , does appear. And Paul had by experience found the effects of it, as may be seen in all this book of his travels, where we may find many of the Gentiles were obedient unto the word, which the Jews gainsaid and blasphemed.

Poole: Act 28:29 - -- Some accusing of Paul, others vindicating of him; some believing, as Act 28:24 , others not believing; our Saviour, and his gospel too, being for th...

Some accusing of Paul, others vindicating of him; some believing, as Act 28:24 , others not believing; our Saviour, and his gospel too, being for the rising and falling of many.

Poole: Act 28:30 - -- Of what nation or quality soever they were, Paul preached salvation to them upon the gospel condition of faith and holiness; and in that imitated Go...

Of what nation or quality soever they were, Paul preached salvation to them upon the gospel condition of faith and holiness; and in that imitated God and our Saviour, who refuse none that thus come unto him. And though Paul might have had greater security from trouble by the Jews if he would have desisted, yet a necessity was laid upon him, and a woe unto him if he did not preach the gospel, as 1Co 9:16 , which may abundantly excuse and justify him.

Poole: Act 28:31 - The kingdom of God // Those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ // No man forbidding him The kingdom of God the gospel is so called; as also Paul preached that kingdom of God which is to come at the end of the world, which falls in with t...

The kingdom of God the gospel is so called; as also Paul preached that kingdom of God which is to come at the end of the world, which falls in with the subject he was so often upon, concerning the resurrection; which if men did but believe effectually, all the other ends of preaching would be easily obtained.

Those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ Christ’ s precepts and miracles, his death and resurrection.

No man forbidding him: God, who puts bounds to the raging sea, had stopped the Jews’ malice, and bidden it go no further; and he who delivered Daniel from the lions, had delivered Paul from Nero, and would have delivered him, had not his death been more for the glory of God, and the good of Paul himself, than his life; which at last he offered in confirmation of the truths which he had preached; which he foresaw, 2Ti 4:6 , and, as Eusebius says, it came to pass accordingly.

This book may be called, not only praxeiv , but terata ; not only the Acts, but the wonders, of the Apostles: though the holy penman and the apostles meekly contented themselves with that name by which at present it is called, yet what wonders are contained in it! Not only such as were wrought by the apostles, but for them, to deliver, preserve, and encourage them; insomuch as the attempt to silence them, and to hinder the progress of the gospel preached by them, proved as vain as if men had endeavoured to hinder the sun from shining, or the wind from blowing.

Now unto him, who is able to work so as none can hinder, be all honour and glory, dominion and power, for ever and ever. Amen.

Haydock: Act 28:1 - Melita Melita, now called Malta, famous for being the residence of, and giving the title to, the military order of Knights, who strenuously resisted the Tur...

Melita, now called Malta, famous for being the residence of, and giving the title to, the military order of Knights, who strenuously resisted the Turks, when they threatened to overrun Christendom. The inhabitants are called Barbarians, not as a term of reproach, for the manner he speaks of their humanity testifies the contrary; but in the classical sense of the word, it was applied by Greeks and Romans to all who did not speak either of those languages. Their hospitality was rewarded by the light of faith, which they still maintain, although infidels have sometimes for a century had dominion over this island. (Tirinus, &c.)

Haydock: Act 28:4 - Murderer // Not to live Murderer. In this instance we see how unfounded are the judgments of men. As if the misfortune itself were not sufficient to endure, the man upon w...

Murderer. In this instance we see how unfounded are the judgments of men. As if the misfortune itself were not sufficient to endure, the man upon whom any temporal calamity falls, must be also judged to be an object of divine vengeance. How cruel and preposterous, yet how common are such proceedings! Whence can it happen that man is so forward to think evil, so slow to suspect good in his neighbour? (Haydock) ---

Not to live. The inhabitants of the island, called Barbarians, had a notion of a Deity, and also that murder was against the law of God and nature. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 28:6 - That he would suddenly fall down and die That he would suddenly fall down and die. It is not then by the natural situation and temper of the air, that this island has no venomous creature. ...

That he would suddenly fall down and die. It is not then by the natural situation and temper of the air, that this island has no venomous creature. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 28:16 - To dwell by himself, with a soldier that guarded him To dwell by himself, with a soldier that guarded him. St. Paul was chained, as it appears by the 20th verse: and it was the custom to fasten one e...

To dwell by himself, with a soldier that guarded him. St. Paul was chained, as it appears by the 20th verse: and it was the custom to fasten one end of the chain by a lock ot the prisoner's wrist, and the other end of the chain to the wrist of the soldier who was to guard him. In most Greek copies we read: the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guards: as it is in the Protestant translation, and very probable; but these words are not found in divers Greek manuscripts nor were read by the ancient interpreter of the Latin Vulgate. (Witham) ---

St. John Chrysostom attributes this liberty St. Paul enjoyed at Rome of going whither he liked, to their admiration of him. (Hom. liv. in Acts.) ---

Others to the moderation of Afranius Burrus, who was prefect of the Prætorium in the year 61, and who used his authority, as long as he possessed any over Nero's mind, to repress that emperor's bad inclinations, and direct his councils with wisdom. (Calmet)

Haydock: Act 28:17 - Chief of the Jews Chief of the Jews. We have seen before, that the emperor Claudius banished all Jews from Rome. It would appear from this verse, that many of the pr...

Chief of the Jews. We have seen before, that the emperor Claudius banished all Jews from Rome. It would appear from this verse, that many of the principal Jews returned at his death, which happened five years before St. Paul's arrival. (Calmet)

Haydock: Act 28:20 - Because that for the hope of Israel Because that for the hope of Israel. That is, of the Messias, so long expected and hoped for by the Israelites. (Witham) --- According to the Roman...

Because that for the hope of Israel. That is, of the Messias, so long expected and hoped for by the Israelites. (Witham) ---

According to the Roman custom, St. Paul must have been fastened by the right hand to one end of a chain, the other end of which chain held to the left hand of the soldier who guarded him. (Bible de Vence)

Haydock: Act 28:22 - It is every where gainsayed It is every where gainsayed. Here we observe one of the characters of the true religion. It is contradicted and spoken against. As singular as thi...

It is every where gainsayed. Here we observe one of the characters of the true religion. It is contradicted and spoken against. As singular as this may appear, it is however true. Jesus, the author of that religion, had foretold it should be so. If the world hateth me, it will hate you also. The situation of the Catholic religion in this country [the United Kingdom], at present, is something similar to what is related here of Christianity: and those who have the candour to inquire seriously into its merits, have generally the reward of being convinced and of believing in it. Christianity, like some plants, grows the better for being trodden upon. (Haydock)

Haydock: Act 28:30 - Two whole years in his own hired lodging Two whole years in his own hired lodging. That is, in the lodgings which St. Paul was permitted to hire for himself, and to live there, with a soldi...

Two whole years in his own hired lodging. That is, in the lodgings which St. Paul was permitted to hire for himself, and to live there, with a soldier chained to him for his guard. Happy soldier, if he knew how to make use of such a favourable opportunity! We may take notice by all this narration of St. Luke, (as when he says here, ver. 16, when we arrived at Rome, &c.) that he was all the way in the ship with St. Paul. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 28:31 - -- Here terminates the history of St. Paul, as contained in the Acts of the Apostles. The other actions of this great apostle, for want of being recorde...

Here terminates the history of St. Paul, as contained in the Acts of the Apostles. The other actions of this great apostle, for want of being recorded, are involved in much obscurity. That he obtained his liberty again, and made many voyages to carry the light of the gospel into many countries, is certain: but nothing is known as to the manner or time. He finished his labours by martyrdom, being beheaded at Rome in the 66th of the Christian æra [the year A.D. 66], and the 13th of Nero. What a degree of virtue might we not attain, were we animated by the spirit and courage of a St. Paul. Let us at least try to imitate his example; and, if in dangers and difficulties we cannot clothe our souls in adamant, as he did, we may certainly avoid yielding ingloriously to every light impression. Let us at an humble distance tread in his footsteps and live so that we may navigate in safety the boisterous ocean of life, and by the grace of Jesus Christ arrive at the port, where danger is no more to be apprehended. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. lv. in Act. at the end.)

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Gill: Act 28:1 - And when they were escaped // then they knew that the island was called Melita And when they were escaped,.... From the danger they were exposed to by shipwreck, and were got safe to land; this is omitted in the Syriac version: ...

And when they were escaped,.... From the danger they were exposed to by shipwreck, and were got safe to land; this is omitted in the Syriac version:

then they knew that the island was called Melita; an island toward the African shore, where it is placed both by Pliny g, and Ptolomy h; in which, the latter says, was the city Melita: it lies between Sicily and Tripolis of Barbary, and is now called Malta: it was famous for the knights of Rhodes, which are now called the knights of Malta: it has its name from מלט, "to escape", it being formerly a refuge to the Phoenicians, especially in stormy weather, in their long voyage from Tyre to Gades; and was indeed a place of escape to the Apostle Paul, and those that were with him. And perhaps it might be so called from its being a refuge for pirates; for Cicero i says, here pirates used to winter almost every year, and yet did not spoil the temple of Juno, as Verres did: though some say it was so called from the great abundance of honey found in it; for it was a very pleasant and fruitful island, bringing forth great plenty of wheat, rye, flax, cummin, cotton, figs, wine, roses, thyme, lavender, and many other sweet and delightful herbs, from whence bees did gather great plenty of honey. It was, according to Pliny, distant from Camerina eighty four miles, and from Lilybaeum a hundred and thirteen; and it is said to be distant from the promontory of Sicily an hundred miles, though others say sixty; and that it was so far from Syracuse, which is the next place the apostle came to in this voyage, was from Africa an hundred and ninety miles. On the east side, a little from the chief city of it, now called Malta, was a famous temple of Juno, spoiled by Verres, as before observed; and on the south side another of Hercules, the ruins of both which are yet to be seen. The compass of the island is about sixty miles, the length twenty, and the breadth twelve, and has in it five ports, and about sixty villages.

Gill: Act 28:2 - And the barbarous people showed us no little kindness // for they kindled a fire // and received us everyone // because of the present rain, and because of the cold And the barbarous people showed us no little kindness,.... The inhabitants of this island are called barbarians, not from the country of Barbary, near...

And the barbarous people showed us no little kindness,.... The inhabitants of this island are called barbarians, not from the country of Barbary, near to which they were; nor so much on account of their manners, for, though Heathens, they were a civil and cultivated people, being, as appears from the name of the chief man of the island, under the Roman government; but because of their language, see 1Co 14:11, it being neither Hebrew, Greek, nor Latin; for as the inhabitants were originally a colony of the Phoenicians, they spoke their language; and now though it is inhabited by such as are called Christians, they speak the Saracen or Arabic language, and little different from the old Punic or Phoenician language: however, though the inhabitants could not understand their language, they understood their case, and were very civil and humane to them, and showed them extraordinary kindness:

for they kindled a fire; or set fire to a large pile of wood; for a large fire it must be to be of service to such a number of people, in such a condition as they were:

and received us everyone: though their number were two hundred threescore and sixteen;

because of the present rain, and because of the cold; for a violent rain fell on them, as is usual upon a storm, and much wetted them, so that a fire was very necessary; and it being winter or near it, it was cold weather; and especially they having been so long in a storm, and now shipwrecked; and some having thrown themselves into the sea, and swam to the island; and others having been obliged to put themselves on boards and planks, and get ashore, and were no doubt both wet and cold; so that nothing was more needful and more agreeable to them than a large fire.

Gill: Act 28:3 - And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks // and laid them on the fire // there came a viper out of the heat // and fastened on his hand And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks,.... Had picked up some sticks, and put them in a bundle fit for the fire, as everyone was busy to assis...

And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks,.... Had picked up some sticks, and put them in a bundle fit for the fire, as everyone was busy to assist in this extremity; nor did the apostle think such an action below him, who in all things was a man of great humility and condescension:

and laid them on the fire; to increase it:

there came a viper out of the heat: a viper is a kind of serpent, which brings forth its young living, to the number of twenty, only one in a day, which come forth wrapped up in thin skins, which break on the third day, and set them at liberty; and so is reckoned among viviparous animals, from whence it seems to have its name, whereas other serpents lay eggs and hatch them. It is said k, that this remarkable reptile has the biggest and flattest head of all the serpent kind; its usual length is about half an ell, and its thickness an inch; its snout is not unlike that of a hog; it has sixteen small immovable teeth in each jaw, besides two other large, sharp, hooked, hollow, transparent, canine teeth, situate at each side of the upper jaw, which are those that do the mischief: these are flexible in their articulation, and are ordinarily laid flat along the jaw, the animal never raising them but when it would bite The roots or bases of these teeth, or fangs, are encompassed with a vesicle or bladder, containing the quantity of a large drop of a yellow insipid salivous juice.--It has only one row of teeth, whereas all other serpents have two; its body is not at all fetid, whereas the inner parts of the bodies of other serpents are intolerable.--It creeps very slowly, and never leaps like other serpents, though it is nimble enough to bite when provoked.--Its body is of two colours, ash coloured or yellow, and the ground speckled with longish brown spots; the scales under its belly are of the colour of well polished steel. Its bite is exceeding venomous, and its poison the most dangerous. Now when this viper here is said to come out of the heat, the meaning is, that it came out from the sticks, which were laid upon the fire, being forced from thence by the heat of it: and so the Syriac version renders it, "there came out of them" (the sticks) "a viper, because of the heat of the fire"; it lay quiet among the sticks, among which, and such like things, this creature often lies; but when the fire began to heat it, it sprung out:

and fastened on his hand; or wrapped itself about his hand: the Syriac and Arabic versions render it, "bit his hand"; but that does not seem so likely, since he felt no harm by it; the Ethiopic version, "hung upon his hand"; which agrees with what follows; nor is it inconsistent with its wrapping itself about his hand, which is the more proper signification of the word used.

Gill: Act 28:4 - And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast // hang on his hand // they said among themselves, no doubt this man is a murderer // whom though he hath escaped the sea // yet vengeance suffereth not to live And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast,.... The viper is called "Therion", a beast, it being of the viviparous kind; and hence comes "Theriaca...

And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast,.... The viper is called "Therion", a beast, it being of the viviparous kind; and hence comes "Theriaca", or "Venice treacle", the foundation of which composition is vipers' flesh; and it is called venomous, because it is of all serpents the most venomous: this when the country people saw

hang on his hand, having wrapped itself about it,

they said among themselves, no doubt this man is a murderer: they might see he was a prisoner by his chain, or might learn it from some of the company, and therefore took it for granted he had been guilty of some crime; and by the viper's fastening on him, they concluded it was murder he was guilty of; for the same notion might obtain among them, as among the Jews, that a murderer that could not be legally convicted, was sometimes punished this way.

"Says R. Simeon ben Shetach l, may I never see the consolation, if I did not see one run after his friend into a desert place; and I ran after him, and I saw the sword in his hand, and the blood dropping, and he that was slain panting; and I said to him, O wicked man, who has slain this? either I or thou; but what shall I do? for thy blood is not delivered into my hand; "for the law says, by the mouth of two or three witnesses he shall surely die" (#De 17:6): may he that knows the thoughts take vengeance on that man that slew his friend; they say, they did not remove from thence, עד שבא נחש, "till a serpent came", and bit him, and he died.''

So the Jews observe, that when the execution of capital punishments was taken away from them, yet such who deserved them were punished by God in a way equivalent to them: so for instance, if a man committed a crime, for which he deserved to be burnt, either he fell into the fire, or נחש נושכו, "a serpent bit him" m; or if he deserved to be strangled, either he was drowned in a river, or died of a quinsy. There is a kind of an asp which the Egyptians call "Thermuthis", which they reckon sacred, and worship: this they say will not hurt good men, but destroys the wicked; and if so, says the historian, then δικη, "vengeance", or justice has honoured this creature, to be so sharp sighted as to discern the good from the bad; and they say, Isis sends it to the most wicked n. Agreeably to which these men reason,

whom though he hath escaped the sea: has not been drowned there, when shipwrecked,

yet vengeance suffereth not to live. The Greek word "Dice" rendered "vengeance", is the name of a goddess among the Heathens, said to be the daughter of Jupiter and Themis o. She is represented as sitting by her father Jupiter; and when anyone does injury to another, informs him of it p. She is painted sorrowful, and with a contracted forehead, a grave countenance, and a rough aspect, to strike terror in unrighteous persons, and give confidence to righteous ones q, agreeably to her name, which signifies "justice". This deity the barbarians supposed pursued Paul; and though she let him escape the sea, she will not suffer him to live any longer; for they looked upon the viper's fastening on him, as to be sent by her, so to be immediate death to him.

Gill: Act 28:5 - And he shook off the beast into the fire // and felt no harm And he shook off the beast into the fire,.... Having held it a while, and as being master of it, and as not being afraid of it, though it was the read...

And he shook off the beast into the fire,.... Having held it a while, and as being master of it, and as not being afraid of it, though it was the ready way to provoke it to fasten on him again:

and felt no harm; it having not bit him, nor infected him with its poison; and hereby was fulfilled what our Lord promised to his disciples, Mar 16:18;

Gill: Act 28:6 - Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen // or fallen down dead suddenly // but after they had looked a great while // and saw no harm come to him // they changed their minds, and said that he was a god Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen,.... With the venomous bite of the viper; swelling is one of the symptoms following the bite of this c...

Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen,.... With the venomous bite of the viper; swelling is one of the symptoms following the bite of this creature; and if the bite does not issue in death, yet the swelling continues inflamed for some time. The symptoms following the bite of a viper are said to be r an acute pain in the place wounded; swelling, first red, afterwards livid, spreading by degrees; great faintness; a quick, low, and sometimes interrupted pulse; sickness at the stomach; bilious convulsions: vomiting; cold sweats; sometimes pains about the navel; and death itself, if the strength of the patient, or the slightness of the bite, do not overcome it: if he does overcome it, the swelling continues inflamed for some time; and the symptoms abating, from the wound runs a sanious liquor, little pustules are raised about it, and the colour of the skin is as if the patient were icterical or jaundice; or had the jaundice: the Arabic and Ethiopic versions render it, "that he should burn", or "burnt"; that is, inflamed, for the bite of the viper causes an inflammation, a hot swelling, which rises up in pustules or blisters:

or fallen down dead suddenly; for immediate death is sometimes the effect of such poison. Pliny s relates, that the Scythians dip their arrows in the sanies or corrupt matter of vipers, and in human blood, which by the least touch causes immediate death; and Pausanias t reports from a certain Phoenician, that a man fleeing from a viper got up into a tree, where the viper could not reach him, but it blew, or breathed out its poison on the tree, and the man immediately died: though the force of this creature's poison does not always, and in all places, and in all persons operate alike; some die within a few hours, and others live some days, some to the third day, and some to the seventh u:

but after they had looked a great while; upon the apostle, to observe whether any inflammation or swelling arose, or death ensued, as they expected: when they had waited some time, perhaps an hour or two,

and saw no harm come to him; that he was neither inflamed, nor swelled, nor dead; that it had no manner of effect upon him, and no evil of punishment was inflicted on him hereby, from whence they could conclude that he was guilty of any notorious crime:

they changed their minds, and said that he was a god: before they took him to be a murderer, and now they even ascribe deity to him, as was usual with the Gentiles, when anything extraordinary was performed by men: so the Lystrians took Paul for Mercury, and Barnabas for Jupiter, upon the apostle's curing the cripple, Act 14:11; but what god the inhabitants of Melita thought him to be, is not certain; some think Hercules, who was worshipped in this island. The inhabitants of this island now believe that the apostle expelled all poison and venom out of it when he was there; and it is reported, that the children born in this place fear not any snakes, neither are hurt by anything that is venomous, insomuch that they will take scorpions, and eat them without danger; although, in all other parts of the world, those kind of creatures are most pernicious, and yet do no manner of hurt to men in this island; yea, it is affirmed, that there is a sort of earth found here, which kills serpents: as for the eating of them, the viper itself may be eaten; most authors agree w, that there is no part, humour, or excrement, not even the gall itself, of a viper, but may be swallowed without much harm; accordingly the ancients, and, as several authors assure us, the Indians at this day, both of the east and west, eat them as we do eels--viper's flesh either roasted or boiled, physicians unanimously prescribe as an excellent restorative, particularly in the elephantiasis, incurable consumptions, leprosy, &c.

Gill: Act 28:7 - In the same quarters were possessions of the chief man of the island // whose name was Publius // who received us, and lodged us three days courteously In the same quarters were possessions of the chief man of the island,.... Or "the first man of the island"; so the governor of Melita used to be calle...

In the same quarters were possessions of the chief man of the island,.... Or "the first man of the island"; so the governor of Melita used to be called, as appears by an inscription mentioned by Bochart, wherein a Roman knight is called πρωτος μελιταιων, "the first of the Melitians"; for this island was under the Roman government, and the very name of this chief man shows it: it was first in the hands of the Africans, when Dido built Carthage, which was eight or nine hundred years before the time of Christ: Battus was king of this island, from whom it was taken by Hiarbas king of Lybia, or of the Getulians, and who also conquered Carthage; and it continued under the power of the Carthaginians, until they were conquered by the Romans; and then it was taken by Titus Sempronius, above two hundred years before Christ, in whose hands it was when the apostle was here; since then it has been taken by the Saracenes, though they held it not, being taken from them by Roger earl of Sicily, in the year 1090; and so it remained in the hands of the Sicilians, until the knights of Rhodes were driven out of that island by the Turks, in 1522; and then this was given them by the Emperor Charles the Fifth seven years after, on condition they would oppose the Turks, and defend that part of Christendom, which they bravely did: in the year 1565, it was besieged by Pialis Bassa, but without success x; and it is said to be so well fortified, as that it is impossible it should be taken, unless through treachery or famine; it is now in the hands of the said knights: but whether this man was governor of the island or not, it may be reasonably thought that he was the richest man in the island, and in the greatest honour and dignity; and had near the shore, where the ship's company landed, many houses and much land, and farms and vineyards, and the like:

whose name was Publius; or Poplius, as some copies, and the Syriac version read. Publius was a name common with the Romans; it was with them a forename, by which such were called, who were "pupilli", or fatherless, for it is a contraction of "Popilius". There was one of this name who was bishop of Athens, said to succeed Dionysius the Areopagite there; who is thought by some to be the same here mentioned; who they say was first bishop in his own country, which through mistake they make to be Miletus, instead of Melita; and afterwards bishop of Athens, where he suffered martyrdom: but this is not likely, for even though he might be converted by the apostle, of which we have no account; and also became a preacher of the Gospel, of which there is no proof; it is not probable that he should leave his own country, and go to Athens, and take upon him the care of that church there: but whether he was afterwards converted or not, he was very kind to the apostle and the ship's company, as follows:

who received us, and lodged us three days courteously; this was a very considerable instance of humanity and hospitality, to receive so many strangers at once into his houses, as two hundred three score and sixteen; and give them food and lodging, for three days together, and that in such a kind, friendly, and cheerful manner: and thus, as Abraham and Lot, by receiving strangers, entertained angels at unawares, so Publius, though ignorant of it, entertained an apostle of Christ among those strangers; the benefit of which he afterwards enjoyed, and which was a compensation for his liberality and beneficence.

Gill: Act 28:8 - And it came to pass that the father of Publius // lay sick of a fever // and of a bloody flux // to whom Paul entered in // and prayed and laid his hands on him, and healed him And it came to pass that the father of Publius,.... So that Publius was not an old man, though of so much dignity and wealth: the Arabic version, cont...

And it came to pass that the father of Publius,.... So that Publius was not an old man, though of so much dignity and wealth: the Arabic version, contrary to all copies, and other versions, reads, "the son of Publius":

lay sick of a fever; or fevers, of different sorts, a complication of them, which sometimes is the case; unless this was an intermitting fever, and the several fits of it are intended; or rather the plural number is put for the singular, to denote the vehemence of it, and which was attended with another disorder, and might be brought on by it:

and of a bloody flux; or dysentery, a pain of the bowels, as the Syriac version renders it; or an ulceration of the bowels, as the Arabic version; which occasioned a discharge of blood, so that his case was very threatening. This disease, according to modern writers y, is attended with a fever. The word "dysentery" here used properly signifies that kind of flux of the belly, characterized by the frequency of stools, or dejections, mixed with blood, and accompanied with gripes: the fever, ulcer, &c. which attend it, are not essential to the disease; though many both of the ancients and moderns think the ulcer is.--There are three kinds of "dysenteries"; the "first" when a laudable blood is evacuated from a mere plethora, or plenitude, without any disorder of the intestines, as in the haemorrhoidal flux; the "second" when a thin watery blood is evacuated, called the "hepatic" flux, though really arising from haemorrhoidal vessels; the "third" kind, which is that that is properly called the dysentery, is when blood is cast out, mixed with a purulent matter in the excrements: this is either "benign", i.e. without a fever, and not contagious; or "malignant", which is attended with a pestilential fever, and frequently ravages whole cities and provinces, happening most commonly in armies; in the last stage, a sort of caruncles are frequently ejected along with the purulent matter, which are difficult to be accounted for, unless from an excoriation and ulceration of the intestines: sometimes the intestines are even gangrened: this seems to have been the case of the father of Publius, which makes the following cure the more remarkable:

to whom Paul entered in; into the room where he was, no doubt with the consent and leave, if not at the request of Publius; the Ethiopic version adds, "and he entreated him to put his hand upon him"; that is, either Publius asked this favour of the apostle for his father, having heard of the affair of the viper, from whence he concluded there was something divine and extraordinary in him; or the father of Publius asked this for himself:

and prayed and laid his hands on him, and healed him; when Paul had entered the room, and found in what a bad condition the sick man was, he either kneeled down and prayed by him, or stood and prayed over him, and for him, that God would restore him to his health; and this he did, to let them know that he himself was not a god; and that the cure that would now be wrought would be from God, and not from himself, and therefore all the glory should be given to God; and he laid his hands on him, as a sign or symbol, or rite that was used in extraordinary cases, and agreeably to the direction and promise of Christ, Mar 16:18; and upon this a cure followed; both the diseases left him at once, and he was restored to health.

Gill: Act 28:9 - So when this was done // others also which had diseases in the island came // and were healed So when this was done,.... This miracle was wrought, and the fame of it spread over the island: others also which had diseases in the island came: ...

So when this was done,.... This miracle was wrought, and the fame of it spread over the island:

others also which had diseases in the island came: from all parts of it, to the apostle:

and were healed; of whatsoever diseases they were afflicted with.

Gill: Act 28:10 - Who also honoured us with many honours // And when we departed // they laded us with such things as were necessary Who also honoured us with many honours,.... Not with divine honours, with religious adorations, as if they had been so many deities; for these they wo...

Who also honoured us with many honours,.... Not with divine honours, with religious adorations, as if they had been so many deities; for these they would not have received, nor have recorded them, to the commendation of the inhabitants; but civil honours, expressions of respect and gratitude; and particularly gifts and presents, large and valuable, in which sense the phrase is used by Jewish writers; so upon those words in Jdg 13:17. "What is thy name, that when the sayings come to pass, we may do thee honour?" they make this paraphrase z,

"Manoah said to him (the angel), tell me thy name, that I may inquire where to find thee, when thy prophecy is fulfilled, and give thee דורן, "a gift", ואין וכבדנוך אלא מנחה, "for there is no honour but a present", or "offering"; or wherever this phrase is used, it signifies nothing else but a gift, as it is said, Num 22:17. "For honouring I will honour thee":''

that is, with money and gifts, as Balaam's answer in the next verse shows, and so the Jewish commentators interpret it a; See Gill on 1Ti 5:17;

And when we departed; from the island, which was not till three months from their first coming ashore:

they laded us with such things as were necessary; that is, for the voyage: they provided a proper supply of food for them, which they put into the strip, for their use in their voyage; by which they expressed their gratitude for the favours they received from Paul; for whose sake not only his company, but the whole ship's company fared the better: and very likely many of them were converted under the apostle's ministry; for it can hardly be thought that the apostle should be on this island three months, as he was, and not preach the Gospel to the inhabitants of it, in which he always met with success, more or less; and the great respect shown him at his departure seems to confirm this; though we meet with no account of any church, or churches, or preachers of the word in this place, in ecclesiastical history, until the "sixth" century, when mention is made of a bishop of the island of Melita b; indeed in the "fourth" century, Optatus Milevitanus is said by some, through mistake; to be bishop of Melita, when he was bishop of Milevis, a city in Africa upon the continent; and, through a like mistake, this island is said to be famous for a council held in it under Pope Innocent, against Pelagius, in the beginning of the "fifth" century; when the council was held at the above place Milevis, and not at Melita, from whence it was called the Milevitan council.

Gill: Act 28:11 - And after three months we departed // in a ship of Alexandria // which had wintered in the isle // whose sign was Castor and Pollux And after three months we departed,.... From Melita; here they stayed the three winter months, which were unseasonable for navigation; but now the spr...

And after three months we departed,.... From Melita; here they stayed the three winter months, which were unseasonable for navigation; but now the spring coming on, and the weather agreeable, they left the island, and sailed

in a ship of Alexandria; See Gill on Act 27:6;

which had wintered in the isle; perhaps all the said three months, for the same reason:

whose sign was Castor and Pollux; or Dioscuri, that is, the sons of Jupiter; for Castor and Pollux were his sons, by Leda: these are placed among the constellations in the Zodiac, and go by the name of Gemini, or the twins; and these were supposed to have a power of saving men in danger at sea: wherefore such as were about to go to sea, first paid their devoirs, and made vows to them; which they performed when they returned, and were delivered from shipwreck; and when they were in danger at sea, they used to pray unto them: the fiery exhalations that sometimes appear at sea, they took for them; and when only one appeared, it was looked on as a bad omen; but when both, it was reckoned to portend a prosperous voyage; hence they were considered as sea deities; and the Ethiopic version accordingly renders it here "Dioscoura", and adds, "who is the god of the mariners": now the images of these two brothers were sometimes set at the head, or forepart of the ship, as they were in this, from whence the ship took its name; as it is very common for the names of ships to be the same with the pictures or images that are placed at the head of them: whether the centurion chose this ship because of its sign, imagining there might be more safety in it, he having suffered shipwreck already; or whether this was the only one in the island, that was going for Italy, is not certain, nor very material: the Arabic version takes the word rendered Castor and Pollux, to be the name of a man, who was the owner of the ship; for it reads the words thus, "in a ship of Alexandria", that belonged "to a man of Alexandria, called Dioscorides".

Gill: Act 28:12 - And landing at Syracuse // we tarried there three days And landing at Syracuse,.... A famous city in the isle of Sicily, now called Saragossa: it is placed by Ptolomy c on the east side of the island, in t...

And landing at Syracuse,.... A famous city in the isle of Sicily, now called Saragossa: it is placed by Ptolomy c on the east side of the island, in the Adriatic sea; it was 180 furlongs, or two and twenty miles and a half in circuit, and formerly had a marble haven and triple wall, and as many towers; the founder of it was Archias, a Corinthian; Pliny says d, that it is never so cloudy weather, but the sun is seen in it, at one time or another of the day: Cicero e calls it the greatest and most beautiful of all the cities of Greece; it is such a city, he says, that it may be said to consist of four large cities; "one" part of it is called "the island", which has two ports to it; "another" was called Acradina, in which were a large market, beautiful porticos, &c. the "third", Tiche, in which was the ancient temple of Fortune; and the "fourth", which because it was last built, was called Neapolis: it is a very ancient city, being built more than seven hundred years before the birth of Christ; it was a colony of the Corinthians; here reigned two tyrants, whose names were Dionysius; it was attacked by the Carthaginians, but without success, being delivered from the siege by Pyrrhus king of Epirus f; it was again assaulted by the Athenians, who were repulsed, and entirely conquered, about the year before Christ 413: after that it was taken by Marcellus, the Roman consul, about the year of the city of Rome 542 g, after a three years' siege; during which time it was defended, and preserved by the means of the famous mathematician Archimedes; who by his invention of warlike machines, baffled all the attempts of the Romans; but was killed by a soldier, as he was intent upon his studies, not knowing that the city was taken; and it continued in the hands of the Romans, until it was taken and plundered by the Saracens, in the year of Christ 675; and was retaken by Roger king of Apulia, about the year 1090, and is now under the government of Don Carlos, king of the two Sicilies;

we tarried there three days; on what account it is not said, whether on account of merchandise, or for the sake of the conversation of Christians here: it is certain there were churches in Sicily very early; we read of them in the "second" and "third" centuries; in the time of Constantine, at the beginning of the "fourth" century, there was a church at Syracuse, of which Chrestus was bishop, to whom the emperor wrote a letter himself, which is still extant in Eusebius h: in the "fifth" century, Hilarius, a teacher at Syracuse, wrote from thence to Augustine, concerning the Pelagian heresy, to whom he gave an answer: in the "sixth" century, Maximinianus, bishop of this church, had the inspection of all the churches in Sicily committed to him, by Gregory; who was wonderfully preserved in a shipwreck, as he was returning from Rome; in this same age lived John, bishop of Syracuse, and Trajanus a presbyter, and Felix a deacon of the same church: in the seventh century there was one George bishop of this place, to whom Pope Vitalian wrote a letter; and in the same century a bishop of this church was in the sixth council at Constantinople i.

Gill: Act 28:13 - And from thence we fetched a compass // and came to Rhegium // and after one day the south wind blew // and we came the next day to Puteoli And from thence we fetched a compass,.... About the isle of Sicily, from Syracuse to Pachinus, the promontory of the island: and came to Rhegium; a...

And from thence we fetched a compass,.... About the isle of Sicily, from Syracuse to Pachinus, the promontory of the island:

and came to Rhegium; a city in Calabria, called by Ptolomy k Regium Julium; it was built, as Solinus l says, by the Chalcidensians, and was formerly a city of the Brutians m; it is now called Reggio: it is said n to have its name from its being broken off from the main continent, for it lies in the straits of Sicily; and formerly Sicily was joined to Italy, but was separated from it by the violence of the sea at this place:

and after one day the south wind blew; they stayed one day at Rhegium, and when they departed from thence, they had a south wind, which was favourable to them: whether the apostle preached here, or no, is not certain, since his stay was so short; some Popish writers tell some idle stories about the apostle's preaching; how that the fishes came to the shore to hear him; that the grasshoppers were commanded by him to be silent, and have never been seen in that place since; that a stone pillar was set on fire by the flame of a candle, by which miracle the inhabitants present were converted and baptized; and one Stephen, that was in company, was made by him their first bishop: but in ecclesiastical history we meet with no account of any church in this place, until the fifth century; when the bishop of it, with others, subscribed a letter of Leo the First, sent into the east; and about the year 440, there was a synod of thirteen bishops convened in this place, on account of a certain ordination; and in the "seventh" century, a bishop of the church at Rhegium was present in the sixth council at Constantinople; in the "eighth", Constantine, bishop of Rhegium, was in the Nicene synod o:

and we came the next day to Puteoli; the Syriac version adds, "a city of Italy"; it was formerly called Dicearchia p, from the strict justice used in the government of it: it had its name of Puteoli, either "a putore", from the rankness and ill smell of the waters of it, through the "sulphur" and "alum" in them; or "a puteis", from the wells about it, the waters of which, by Pausanias, are said q to be so hot, as in time to melt the leaden pipes through which they flow, who calls it a town of the Tyrrhenians; by Pliny r it is placed in Campania, and so Jerom s says, Puteoli a city, a colony of Campania, the same that is called Dicearchia. Josephus t also speaks of it as in the same country; for he says, that Herod and Herodias both came to Dicearchia, (or Puteoli), and found Caius (the emperor) at Baiai, which is a little town in Campania, about five furlongs from Dicearchia; and he also in another u place says, the Italians call Dicearchia, ποτιολους, "Potioli"; which is the same word the apostle here uses, and which is the Latin "Puteoli" corrupted; it is said to be first built by the Samians: frequent mention is made by writers w, of "pulvis Puteolanus", the dust of Puteoli; which being touched by the sea water, hardens into a stone; and was therefore used to bank the sea, break the waves, and repel the force of them: that it was a place by the sea side, may be learned from the sea being called after its name, "mare Puteolanum" x, the sea of Puteoli; so Apollonius Tyaneus is said y to sail from this place to Rome, whither he came in three days; to this port the ships of Alexandria particularly used to come, and hither persons were wont to go to take shipping for Alexandria z; it is now called by the Italians Pozzuolo, and lies about eight miles from Naples; and according to the following story of the Jews', must be an hundred and twenty miles from Rome; who tell us a, that

"Rabban Gamaliel, and R. Eleazar ben Azariah, and R. Joshua, and R. Akiba, went to Rome, and they heard the noise of the multitude at Rome, from Puteoli, an hundred and twenty miles:''

the story is a fable designed to signify the vast number of people at Rome, and the noise, hurry, and tumult there; but perhaps the distance between the two places may not be far from truth: and as fabulous is the account which R. Benjamin b gives of this place Puteoli, when he says it was called Surentum, a great city which Tzintzan Hadarezer built, when he fled for fear of David.

Gill: Act 28:14 - Where we found brethren // and were desired to tarry with them seven days // and so we went toward Rome Where we found brethren,.... Christians; which is not to be wondered at, since it was a port much frequented, and where many came and went, of differe...

Where we found brethren,.... Christians; which is not to be wondered at, since it was a port much frequented, and where many came and went, of different countries and nations; particularly there were many Jews here, to whom the Gospel was first preached, and to some of them it was the power of God unto salvation in many places, and doubtless was so here: Josephus c speaks of Jews in this place, who were deceived by a false Alexander, who pretended to be the son of Herod, a prince of their nation. Patrobulus, the same with Patrobas in Rom 16:14; who is reckoned one of the seventy disciples, is said to be bishop of this place; See Gill on Luk 10:1; though we have no account of its church state until the "fifth" century, when a bishop of the church at Puteoli is said to be in the council held at Ephesus against Eutyches, and sustained the place of Leo, pope of Rome: in the "sixth" century, a bishop of this church was in a council held at Rome, under Symmachus: in the seventh century, the bishop of Puteoli was in the sixth council at Constantinople d:

and were desired to tarry with them seven days; that is, the Christians at Puteoli desired the apostle, and those that were with him, to stay a week with them, that they might have the advantage of a day of public worship together, and might enjoy much of their Christian conversation; and accordingly they did stay that time, no doubt by the leave, and with the consent of Julius the centurion; and which shows, that he used the apostle with great civility and courteousness, and was very ready to grant him favours; if he was not in this voyage converted by him, which is not unlikely, considering the whole of his conduct:

and so we went toward Rome; after they had stayed seven days at Puteoli, they set forward on their journey to Rome; for from hence they went thither on foot, though they might have gone from hence to Rome by sea, as Apollonius Tyaneus did; See Gill on Act 28:13; and so likewise Titus the son of Vespasian, who went from Rhegium to Puteoli in a merchant ship, and from thence to Rome e; but it may be the ship unloaded here, and there was no other going for Rome at that time: Rome was the metropolis of Italy, the seat of the empire, and mistress of the whole world; it is so well known, as not to need describing: it was built on seven hills, and had its name either from Romulus the founder of it; or from the Greek word ρωμη, which signifies "strength" f, from whence Romulus is supposed to have his name; with the Hebrews it has its name from its sublimity, height, and glory, from the word רום, which signifies to be high and exalted: some say it had its name from Roma, a daughter of Italus, who first laid the foundation of it, though Romulus and Remus brought it into the form of a city; it was built seven hundred and fifty years, and upwards, before the birth of Christ. The Jews make it to be of an earlier date; they say g, that at the time Solomon married Pharaoh's daughter, Gabriel descended and fixed a reed in the sea, and brought up clay, and with it was built the great city, which is Rome; and in another place h it is said, in the day in which Jeroboam set up the two calves, one at Dan, and the other at Bethel, was built a certain cottage, which is Italy of Greece, that is, Rome; for it is elsewhere observed i, Italy of Greece, this is the great city of Rome; and again k, on the day in which Jeroboam set up the two calves, Remus and Romulus came and built two cottages in Rome.

Gill: Act 28:15 - And from thence // when the brethren heard of us // they came to meet us as far as Appii Forum and the Three Taverns // whom when Paul saw, he thanked God and took courage And from thence,.... That is, from Rome, whither they were going: when the brethren heard of us; when the Christians at Rome heard that the apostle...

And from thence,.... That is, from Rome, whither they were going:

when the brethren heard of us; when the Christians at Rome heard that the apostle and his friends were landed at Puteoli, and were on their journey to Rome: these were the members of the church at Rome; for there was a church state here before this time. The apostle had before this written a letter to them, called the Epistle to the Romans, in which he treats them as a church. The Papists say that the Apostle Peter was the first bishop of it, and pretend an uninterrupted succession from him; though it is questionable whether he ever was at Rome; and if he was, it is not probable that he should take upon him the care of a single church, which was not consistent with his office as an apostle: in the "first" century, the bishops or pastors of this church were as follow; after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter, Eusebius l says, Linus was the first bishop of it, the same that is mentioned in 2Ti 4:21 and according to the same writer m, Anencletus succeeded him, and then Clement, a fellow labourer of the Apostle Paul's, Phi 4:3; who wrote two epistles to the Corinthians, which are still extant; though Eusebius n, not consistent with himself, makes Clement in another place to succeed Linus; and some make Clement even to be before him; and some place one Cletus before Anencletus and him: such an uncertainty is there, and such a puzzle attends the first account of this uninterrupted succession; and which seems designed in Providence to bring it into contempt: in the "second" century, Euarestus succeeded Clement; and then followed him Alexander, Sixtus, or Xystus, Telesphorus, Hyginus, Pius, Anicetus, Soter, Eleutherius, and Victor: in the "third" century, Victor was succeeded by Zephyrinus; and after him were Calixtus, Urbanus, Pontianus, Anterus, Fabianus, Cornelius, Lucius, Stephanus, Sixtus, or Xystus II, Dionysius, Felix, Eutychianus, and Gaius: in the "fourth" century, Marcellinus succeeded Gaius; who was followed by Marcellus, Eusebius, Miltiades, Sylvester, Julius, Liberius, Felix II, Damasus, and Siricius o; and further than this age, it is not worth while to follow them; the man of sin began to grow apace, and in a century or two afterwards, proclaimed himself universal bishop:

they came to meet us as far as Appii Forum and the Three Taverns; these were both of them towns that lay in the Appian way to Rome; the former of these Horace p makes mention of, in the account of his journey from Rome to Brundusium; first he says, he came to Aricia, or Rizza, which is about 160 furlongs, or 21 miles from Rome, and from thence to Appii Forum: that Appii Forum was further from Rome than the Three Taverns, appears from what Cicero says q, who dates his letter to Atticus from Appii Forum, at four o'clock, and tells him, that be had sent him another a little before from "Tres Tabernae", or the Three Taverns; and indeed, Appii Forum was one and fifty miles from Rome, and the Three Taverns but three and thirty: so that the sense must be, that some of the brethren from Rome came as far as the Three Taverns, and others as far as Appii Forum; which, as before observed, were two towns upon the road: hence the former of these was not a statue of Appius, near the city of Rome, as some have r said; nor a market in the city itself, as says Jerom s, or a writer under his name; whose words are, Appii Forum is the name of a market at Rome, from Appius, formerly a consul, and from whom the Appian way had its name: but this was a town at some distance; there were several towns in Italy of a like appellation; as Julii Forum, Cornelii Forum, now Imola, Livii Forum, now Forli: Pliny t makes mention of an Appii Forum; and there was a town in Calabria, called Taberna: and as the one was not a mere market place, so the other does not design three houses for public entertainment; for the words should not be translated "three taverns", nor indeed translated at all; nor are they by Luke, who retains the Latin name, as the name of a place; and here it was that Severus, the Roman emperor, was killed by Herculius Maximianus u; and this, in Constantine's time, was the seat of a bishop; for among the bishops assembled on account of Donatus, mention is made of one "Felix a Tribus Tabernis" w, or Felix bishop of Tres Tabernae, the same place we call "the Three Taverns":

whom when Paul saw, he thanked God and took courage; that is, when he saw the brethren that came to meet him, he gave thanks to God for the sight of them, which he had so much desired; and he took heart and courage, and went on cheerfully, and in high spirits, towards Rome; in hope of seeing the rest, and believing that God had some work for him to do there.

Gill: Act 28:16 - And when we came to Rome // the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard // but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him And when we came to Rome,.... To the city itself: the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard; or general of the army; or, as...

And when we came to Rome,.... To the city itself:

the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard; or general of the army; or, as some think, the governor of the "praetorian" band of soldiers, who attended the emperor as his guards: his name is thought to have been Burrhus Afranius; to him Julius the centurion delivered all the prisoners he brought from Caesarea, excepting Paul, to be disposed of by him, in the several prisons, or jails, to whom it belonged to take care of such persons: this clause is wanting in the Alexandrian copy, and in the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions:

but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him: this was owing, either to the letter which Festus sent to Rome concerning him, and his case; by which it appeared, that he was no malefactor, and therefore to be used in a different manner from the rest of the prisoners; or rather to the intercession of the centurion, who had all along used him in a very civil and courteous manner; who requesting this favour had it granted, that Paul should not be put into the common prison with the rest, but should dwell in an apartment by himself; or, as the Ethiopic version renders it, "at his own will"; where he himself pleased, for he dwelt in his own hired house, Act 28:30; only he was under the care and custody of a soldier, who constantly attended him wherever he went; and which could not be otherwise, seeing he was chained, as in Act 28:20 and his chain was put on his right hand, and fastened to the left hand of the soldier, that had him under his keeping; so that wherever he was or went, the soldier must be likewise: hence that passage in Seneca x,

"as the same chain joins together the prisoner and the soldier, so those things which are unlike go together; fear follows hope.''

Gill: Act 28:17 - And it came to pass, that after three days // Paul called the chief of the Jews together // and when they were come together // he said unto them, men and brethren // Though I have committed nothing against the people and customs of our fathers // yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans And it came to pass, that after three days,.... From his first coming to Rome, when he had hired himself a house, or lodging, and was settled in it, a...

And it came to pass, that after three days,.... From his first coming to Rome, when he had hired himself a house, or lodging, and was settled in it, and was rested from the fatigue of his voyage and journey:

Paul called the chief of the Jews together: he sent to the principal men among them; for though the Jews, were expelled from Rome in the reign of Claudius, they were now returned, and had their liberty of residing there; very likely by means of Poppea, Nero's concubine, who favoured the Jews: but whether they had a synagogue, and these men were the chief and leading men in it, the doctors, rulers, and officers of it, are things not certain; however, these the apostle desired to come to him where he was, for whether he had the liberty of going about where he would, the soldier attending him, is not so clear a point:

and when they were come together; to his house, or lodging:

he said unto them, men and brethren: which was the usual form of address with the Jews; see Act 7:2.

Though I have committed nothing against the people and customs of our fathers; meaning he had said nothing disrespectfully of the people of the Jews; nor had done anything to the prejudice of their temporal, spiritual, and eternal good, but just the reverse; nor had he said or done anything contrary to the laws and customs enjoined the Jews by Moses, even those that were of a ceremonial nature; for though he had everywhere declared that the Gentiles were not obliged to an obedience to them, yet he did not dissuade the Jews from the use of them; and oftentimes complied with them himself, things he had been charged with:

yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans; he was first seized by the Jews in the temple of Jerusalem, and then fell into the hands of Lysias, the chief captain; who bound him, and by whom he was sent to Caesarea, where he was retained a prisoner both by Felix and Festus, Roman governors.

Gill: Act 28:18 - Who when they had examined me // would have let me go // because there was no cause of death in me Who when they had examined me,.... About the things laid to his charge, had heard what his accusers had to object to him, and the defence he made for ...

Who when they had examined me,.... About the things laid to his charge, had heard what his accusers had to object to him, and the defence he made for himself:

would have let me go; released him from his bonds, and set him at liberty to go where he pleased:

because there was no cause of death in me; no crime proved upon him, which was worthy of death; and this was the sense of Lysias the chief captain, and of Felix and Festus the Roman governors, and of King Agrippa.

Gill: Act 28:19 - But when the Jews spake against it // I was constrained to appeal to Caesar // not that I had ought to accuse my nation of But when the Jews spake against it,.... His being cleared and dismissed, and desired he might be sent back to Jerusalem, to be tried and judged there,...

But when the Jews spake against it,.... His being cleared and dismissed, and desired he might be sent back to Jerusalem, to be tried and judged there, to which Festus seemed inclined:

I was constrained to appeal to Caesar; to prevent the design of the Jews upon him, which was to way lay him and kill him, or by what ways they could, right or wrong, take away his life; and to provide for his own safety:

not that I had ought to accuse my nation of; meaning, that he had no ill design in this appeal against his country, to expose them, and bring them under reproach and censure, but to vindicate himself, defend his own innocence, and preserve his character and life; suggesting, that what he did was not of choice, but by constraint, and with reluctance; being no friend to Heathen tribunals, nor any enemy to the Jewish nation.

Gill: Act 28:20 - For this cause therefore have I called for you // to see you and speak with you // because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain For this cause therefore have I called for you,.... To let them know the true state of his case; that though he was a prisoner, it was not for any cri...

For this cause therefore have I called for you,.... To let them know the true state of his case; that though he was a prisoner, it was not for any crime he had done, much less any of a capital nature; and that as he was no scandal to his country, so neither did he intend to raise any against it, or say or do anything which might bring it into contempt and danger: as well as

to see you and speak with you; and keep up and maintain a free and friendly conversation together:

because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain; which was then upon him, and he pointed to; the true reason of which was, because he had preached that the Messiah the tribes of Israel were hoping and waiting for, and who is the only solid foundation of the hope of eternal life and salvation, was already come; and that he had suffered and died, and rose again from the dead, and that Jesus of Nazareth was he; see Jer 14:8. And this title well agrees with Jesus Christ, who in the New Testament is called "our hope", and "the hope of glory", 1Ti 1:1, and he is the hope of every Israelite indeed, of every sensible sinner, of every regenerated person, whether Jew or Gentile; and such are encouraged to hope in him for grace here, and glory hereafter: and whereas they see themselves lost and undone, and that there is no salvation for them by their own works, and that there is salvation in Christ, they are directed and encouraged to hope in him for it; because it is a work finished by him, and is complete in him; it is of free grace and favour bestowed; it is wrought out for the chief of sinners; and such as they themselves are, are invited by himself to look to him for it; and the Gospel declaration is, that whoever believes in him shall be saved: they see themselves to be sinners, and that there is no hope of the forgiveness of their sins from an absolute God, or the absolute mercy of God out of Christ, but that the blood of Christ was shed for the remission of sins, and that God, for Christ's sake, does forgive sins: wherefore they hope in him for it; to which they are encouraged by the proclamation of the grace of God, as a forgiving God in Christ; by the promises of forgiveness in the covenant of grace; by the Gospel declaration of it; by its being entirely of free grace, through the blood of Christ; and by the many instances of the worst of sinners who have been favoured with it: these Israelites, indeed, also see themselves unrighteous creatures, and that they cannot be justified before God by works of righteousness done by them; but that there is a righteousness wrought out by Christ, which is acceptable and well pleasing to God; is freely bestowed on men, and is imputed to all sorts of men, even to the ungodly; wherefore they hope in him for it, and lay hold on this object of hope set before them: in a word, they have hope of eternal life on his account, that being the gift of God through him; and it being the will of God, that whoever believes in him should have it; and it being in the power and right of Christ to bestow it; and they having also his Spirit as the earnest and pledge of it; as well as have his righteousness as their title to it, his grace as their meetness for it, and have a share both in his intercession and in his preparations of it: moreover, the apostle taught that there would be a general resurrection of the dead, upon which would succeed a state of everlasting happiness for the righteous; and which was the hope of the tribes of Israel in common, especially of every Israelite indeed: now these things had irritated the carnal Jews against him, who could not rest till they had been the means of bringing him into the condition he now was; nor were they content with this, without having his life.

Gill: Act 28:21 - And they said unto him // we neither received letters out of Judea concerning thee // neither any of the brethren that came from Jerusalem // shewed or spake any harm of thee And they said unto him,.... That is, the chief men of the Jews at Rome, whom Paul had called together, replied; either in a lying and dissembling way,...

And they said unto him,.... That is, the chief men of the Jews at Rome, whom Paul had called together, replied; either in a lying and dissembling way, or as expressing matter of fact; which last may be allowed:

we neither received letters out of Judea concerning thee: which was very much, that the high priest and sanhedrim had not wrote to the principal men of their religion at Rome; giving an account of the apostle, and his case unto them, in order to prejudice them against him, and to furnish them with charges and accusations; which if they could not prevail by them, so as to get him condemned by the emperor, yet might be a means of preventing any of their nation giving heed unto him, and embracing his sentiments and notions concerning Jesus of Nazareth:

neither any of the brethren that came from Jerusalem; or any part of Judea, to Rome; meaning not the Christian Jews, for these they would not call brethren; but those who were of the same religion as well as nation, whom it was usual with the Jews to call brethren:

shewed or spake any harm of thee; so that it looks as if they did make mention of him, but did not charge him with anything that was wicked and criminal: this they said, to show that they were not prejudiced against him by any person or means; and which carried in it a very considerable testimony of the apostle's innocence.

Gill: Act 28:22 - But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest // for as concerning this sect // We know that everywhere it is spoken against But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest,.... What was his opinion and judgment, concerning the Messiah, whether he was come or not, and wheth...

But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest,.... What was his opinion and judgment, concerning the Messiah, whether he was come or not, and whether Jesus of Nazareth was he; and concerning other principles relating to him, embraced by the Christians; and what he had to say for the clearing up, proving, and confirming his sentiments about these things:

for as concerning this sect; or heresy, meaning the Christian religion: in saying so, they reproached it; for the Gospel, or Christian religion, is not an human device, the choice and option of man's free will, and what he pleases himself with, as an opinion and invention of his own, or of other men, as "heresy" signifies; but it is of God, and by revelation of Jesus Christ, and is a doctrine of the highest wisdom: nor does it deny or take away any fundamental article of true religion; either natural, as known by the Gentiles, or as revealed, with which the Jews were made acquainted, under the former dispensation; but establishes every such article, as the unity of the divine Being; the worship of the one only and true God of Israel, in a spiritual manner; the doctrine of the Messiah, his person, office, and grace; the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment; and therefore could not be chargeable with heresy: nor was it set up for any worldly gain, or popular applause, which are the things that authors and abettors of heresy have in view; nor was it designed to divide and separate persons from the true church of God, but to bring them to it, and unite them together in it; see Act 24:14.

We know that everywhere it is spoken against; this they knew, both by letters they received, and by persons who came from different parts of the world; and which was fact, and was no other than what was foretold concerning Christ, that he should be a sign that should be spoken against, Luk 2:34; and which the apostle found true of the Gospel preached by him, both among Jews and Greeks; it being to the one a stumblingblock, and to the other foolishness, 1Co 1:23, and especially it was contradicted and blasphemed everywhere by the Jews; these in all places opposed themselves to it, and spoke evil of it, and of its preachers and professors: Christ, the author, sum, and subject of the Christian religion, was spoken against in his person; his deity and divine sonship were denied, as they still are; and his offices, as prophet, priest, and King; yea, his actions, even his works of mercy to the bodies of men, by healing their diseases, his conversing with sinners for the good of their souls, the several miracles he wrought, and the whole series of his life and conversation, were blasphemed and evil spoken of: the doctrines of the Gospel in general were contradicted, as they now are by many, as absurd and irrational, and as tending to licentiousness; and in particular those which respect the Father of Christ, as being the Father of Christ, his everlasting love to the elect in him, and his distinguishing grace in the choice of them; and those which relate to Christ, as that he is truly God, and the Son of God, and to his sacrifice, satisfaction, and imputed righteousness; and also which concern the Spirit of God, as his deity and personality, and his operations on the souls of men; and such as relate to a future state, the resurrection of all the dead, and judgment to come: likewise the ordinances of the Christian religion, baptism and the Lord's supper, were despised and spoken against, and the professors of it treated as fools and wicked men; the reasons of all this are, because the Christian religion, and the doctrines of it, are not of men, are contrary to the lusts of men, and particularly to the pride of men; they subject them to reproach and persecution, and gather men out from among them.

Gill: Act 28:23 - And when they had appointed him a day // there came many to him into his lodging // to whom he expounded // And testified the kingdom of God // persuading them concerning Jesus // Both out off the law of Moses // and out of the prophets // from morning till evening And when they had appointed him a day,.... When they should meet together, and when both sides might be better prepared to enter into a conversation o...

And when they had appointed him a day,.... When they should meet together, and when both sides might be better prepared to enter into a conversation on the subject of Christianity; and when there might be an opportunity for a more numerous assembly to hear:

there came many to him into his lodging; the same very likely with his own hired house, Act 28:30; hither a large number came at the time appointed, more than those whom Paul first sent for:

to whom he expounded; the Scriptures, the writings of Moses, and the prophets; and particularly such parts of them as concerned the Messiah; so our Lord expounded to his disciples in all the Scriptures, the things concerning himself, Luk 24:27.

And testified the kingdom of God; or the kingdom of the Messiah, which oftentimes signifies the Gospel, and the Gospel dispensation: he produced full and sufficient proofs and testimonies from prophecies, miracles, and facts, that the kingdom of the Messiah was come; which consisted not in outward pompous things, in temporal riches and honours, as they expected; but in the ministration of the Gospel, and in the administration of its ordinances; and in righteousness and holiness, which give the one a right unto, and the other a meetness for, the kingdom of heaven: and of this he testified, that it is the kingdom of God, of his preparing and of his giving, and is what he calls his people unto, and makes them meet for; and in which they shall reign with him, and enjoy him for ever: and the apostle could testify and make it evident, that there was such a kingdom, and such a future glorious state; from the promise of God, to which the twelve tribes of Israel hoped to come; from the prophecies of the Old Testament, which speak of everlasting life, and of the resurrection of the dead unto it; from the expectations of the saints of the former dispensation, who all died in the faith of it; and from the coming of the Messiah, his sufferings and death, and ascension to heaven, whereby he had brought life and immortality to the clearest light:

persuading them concerning Jesus; endeavouring to persuade them, that Jesus was the true Messiah; that he was truly God, and the Son of God, as well as man; that he was born of a virgin, and wrought miracles, and yielded perfect obedience to the law; that he laid down his life as a sacrifice for sin, and to make reconciliation and atonement for it; that he brought in an everlasting righteousness; that he rose again from the dead for justification; that he was ascended up to heaven, and was set down at the right hand of God, where he ever lives to make intercession, and will come again a second time to judge both quick and dead: these are some of "the things concerning Jesus", as the words may be rendered, which the apostle endeavoured to persuade the Jews into a belief of; as also the blessings of grace which come by him, such as peace and pardon through his blood, reconciliation and atonement by his sacrifice, justification by his righteousness, and complete salvation in him: concerning these he persuaded the Jews, setting things in a clear light, using strong arguments to convince them, and giving full proof, as the nature of them would admit of; and which is no other than moral persuasion, and is of itself ineffectual; efficacious persuasion is only of God; it is he that opens the heart to attend to these things, and gives faith to receive and embrace them: however, it is the duty of Gospel ministers to make use of arguments, and by them to endeavour to persuade men of their need of Christ, and of salvation by him, as the apostle did; see 2Co 5:11.

Both out off the law of Moses: not the law of the ten commandments, given on Mount Sinai to Moses, who delivered it to the children of Israel, and is opposed to the doctrine of grace and truth, which came by Jesus Christ, Joh 1:17; that accuses and convinces of sin, and pronounces guilty, and curses for it; but does not reveal Jesus Christ as a Saviour from it; no proof can be taken from thence of the things concerning Jesus; but the five books of Moses are here meant, in which he wrote of Christ, as our Lord himself says, Joh 5:46 as he did particularly in Gen 3:15; also the types and sacrifices, recorded in his writings, might be made use of in proof of Jesus, and the things of him:

and out of the prophets: such as Psa 22:15 Isa 7:14; with many others: and in this work he continued,

from morning till evening; not that we are to suppose, that he carried on one continued discourse upon these subjects, without any intermission; but that he was all the day employed, either in expounding: the Scriptures, proving that the kingdom of the Messiah was come, and using strong and persuasive arguments, to show that Jesus was he; or in answering the cavils and objections of the Jews, to what he said.

Gill: Act 28:24 - And some believed the things which were spoken // and some believed not And some believed the things which were spoken,.... By him, concerning the kingdom of God and Jesus Christ; even as many as were ordained unto eternal...

And some believed the things which were spoken,.... By him, concerning the kingdom of God and Jesus Christ; even as many as were ordained unto eternal life, and to whom it was given to believe; for faith is the gift of God, and which comes by hearing of the word, when it is attended with a divine power; and then it is not only notionally understood, and barely assented to as truth, but is cordially believed and embraced, and cheerfully professed, and steadily held fast: this was not a mere historical faith, or a bare assent to the truth of the things spoken, nor a mere profession of faith in them, but a believing in Christ with the heart, the sum and substance of them; as they heard these things, their understandings were enlightened, and they saw their need of Christ, and the things of Christ, which were held forth in the ministry of the word; and so approved of them, savoured, relished, and fed upon them; and until this is the case, none can, nor will believe aright:

and some believed not: notwithstanding the full proof, and clear evidence produced by the apostle: these were not of Christ's sheep, their eyes were blinded, and their hearts were hardened, as was prophesied of them, and therefore they could not believe; they were given up to a judicial blindness and hardness of heart, and were left under the power of obstinate and invincible unbelief: their disbelief of these things arose from the prejudices they had conceived about a worldly kingdom; from the sufferings and death of Jesus Christ, they imagining the Messiah would not die, but abide for ever; from the carnal reasonings of their minds, about divine and spiritual things; and from the ignorance that was in them, because of the obduracy of their hearts. The kingdom the apostle testified of was not an Utopian kingdom, nor any of the real kingdoms of this world, but the kingdom of the Messiah they were expecting; but that which he described, being not such an one as they imagined, they believed him not: the things he said concerning Jesus were not trivial, speculative, and indifferent things; but of the greatest moment and importance, and of which there was full proof in their own writings; and though spoken by Paul, were no other than the word of God; and besides, were good news, and glad tidings, and yet they believed them not: this difference among them, some believing and some not believing, was not owing to the power and free will of man, as if some of themselves would, and did believe, and others would not, but to the distinguishing grace of God; for faith is not of man, it is the gift of God, it is the fruit of electing grace, and is given in consequence of it: nor is this any unusual thing, under the same ministration of the word, for one to believe, and another not believe: this is a common case, and is the usual success the Gospel meets with; so it always has been, and so it is, and will be; so it was in the times of Noah, he was a preacher of righteousness to the old world, even of the righteousness of faith, many were disobedient, few believed; and so it fared with the evangelical prophet Isaiah, and with Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Zechariah, and other prophets of the Old Testament; and with John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ, and with Christ himself, as well as with our apostle; and this has been the case ever since his time, now is, and will be, as long as the Gospel is preached.

Gill: Act 28:25 - And when they agreed not among themselves // They departed // after that Paul had spoken one word // well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers And when they agreed not among themselves,.... One part believing what was said, and the other disbelieving; and such a division is the usual effect o...

And when they agreed not among themselves,.... One part believing what was said, and the other disbelieving; and such a division is the usual effect of the Gospel ministry; see Luk 12:51. Or this may be understood of the unbelieving party, who though they agreed in the main that Jesus was not the Messiah, yet might have different sentiments of the apostle; of the manner of his reasoning, and the nature of his proofs and arguments; and of some things which he delivered, which some might assent to, and others deny; as the Pharisees and Sadducees in the sanhedrim at Jerusalem disagreed about the doctrine of the resurrection: and the rather this may be thought to be the sense, because they not only departed, when very likely those that believed might stay longer, but because at their departure the apostle says something very cutting and stinging, and which he would not say in common of them all, of the believers; and besides, they are afterwards said to reason among themselves, Act 28:29.

They departed; from the apostle's lodging to their own houses, or to some other place, where they could call over, and debate among themselves, the things they had heard:

after that Paul had spoken one word; a very remarkable one, and full to the purpose, and which he gave them just at parting with them:

well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers; the passage referred to is in Isa 6:9, which the prophet Isaiah delivered under the influence and by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, being moved by him, as all the holy men of God were; and which was very appropriate, not only to the Jewish fathers in the times of Isaiah, but to their posterity in succeeding ages, in the times of Christ and his apostles; see Mat 13:10; and were exceeding applicable to the present unbelieving Jews, who had been disputing with the apostle, and were now departing from him, in unbelief: and from hence it appears, that since it was the Holy Ghost that spake by Isaiah the prophet, and he that spoke to him and by him, was the Adon, Jehovah, and Lord of hosts, as is clear from Isa 6:1; it follows, that the Holy Ghost is a divine person, truly God, and equal with the Father and the Son.

Gill: Act 28:26 - Saying, go unto this people, and say // hearing ye shall hear // and shall not understand // and seeing ye shall see // and not perceive Saying, go unto this people, and say,.... A message sent in wrath and judgment to the people of Israel, rejected from being the people of God, a "lo a...

Saying, go unto this people, and say,.... A message sent in wrath and judgment to the people of Israel, rejected from being the people of God, a "lo ammi" being written upon them; and therefore God does not call them "his", but "this" people: and this message was sent by an evangelical prophet, who foretold, in the clearest manner, the Messiah's incarnation, and birth of a virgin, the work he was to do, the sufferings he should undergo, and the glory that should follow; and that after he had seen in a vision the glory of the King Messiah, the perfections of deity filling the temple of his human nature, him exalted on a throne, and attended and worshipped by angels; after he had had such a view of his beauty and excellency, that laid him low in his own sight, and humbled him under a sense of his own impurity and unworthiness; and after he had had a comfortable discovery and application of pardoning grace; and after he had expressed such a readiness and willingness to go on the Lord's errand: which one might have thought would have been of a different nature; and that he would have been sent, and have been made useful, to set forth the glories and excellencies of Christ's person, office, and grace, he had had such a view of; and to preach the comfortable doctrine of pardoning grace to men, which he had just now such a gracious experience of; but on the contrary, he is bid to say,

hearing ye shall hear; with bodily ears, the Gospel preached by the Messiah and his apostles:

and shall not understand, spiritually and experimentally, what they heard: to have an opportunity of hearing the Gospel, is a great blessing; seeing it is good news, glad tidings of good things, a joyful sound, and the voice of Christ himself; it is a distinguishing favour, and what all men at all times have not; when it is attended with a divine energy, the Spirit of God is received through it, regeneration, quickening and sanctifying grace are by it; faith comes by hearing it, and Christ is found under the ministration of it; and, generally speaking, the understanding and knowledge of divine things, are by means of it: men are naturally without the understanding of spiritual things, and where the Gospel is not, they remain so; the ministers of the Gospel, and the word preached by them, are the means of leading men into a spiritual understanding of things, though only as, and when attended with the Spirit of God, who is a Spirit of wisdom and revelation, in the knowledge of Christ: and a special mercy it is when persons, whilst hearing the word, understand what they hear, and can distinguish truth from error; and approve of the truth, receive the love of it, feel the power, and taste the sweetness of it; find it and eat it, believe, embrace, and profess it, and bring forth fruits worthy of it: but on the contrary, when it is heard and not understood, it is an awful dispensation; for hence either they content themselves with bare hearing, and depend upon it for salvation; or they despise and speak evil of what they do not understand; and so their hearing, instead of being a blessing, is an aggravation of their condemnation:

and seeing ye shall see: miracles wrought:

and not perceive; them to be proofs of the things, for which they are wrought: so Jarchi expounds those words,

"ye shall see the wonders, or miracles I have done for you, and shall not set your hearts to know me''

from whence it appears that the Gospel preached in the clearest and most powerful manner, and even miracles wrought in confirmation of it, are insufficient for conversion; and nothing will effect it, but efficacious grace.

Gill: Act 28:27 - For the heart of this people is waxed gross // and their ears are dull of hearing // and their eyes have they closed // lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears // and understand with their heart, and should be converted // and I should heal them For the heart of this people is waxed gross,.... Or fat; stupefied with notions of carnal and temporal things, and become hardened against, and unsusc...

For the heart of this people is waxed gross,.... Or fat; stupefied with notions of carnal and temporal things, and become hardened against, and unsusceptible of, divine and spiritual things:

and their ears are dull of hearing; the Gospel, and its joyful sound; to which they stop their cars, as the deaf adder to the voice of the charmer:

and their eyes have they closed; and wilfully shut, against all evidence from facts, miracles, prophecies, and preaching:

lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears,

and understand with their heart, and should be converted; that is, see the evidence of miracles, take in the truth of doctrine, understand the meaning of prophecy, and so be turned from darkness, ignorance, and unbelief, to light, knowledge, and faith:

and I should heal them; or "have mercy on them", as the Ethiopic version renders it; that is, forgive their sins: hearing the Gospel preached, is the ordinary means of understanding spiritual things; and the understanding being enlightened through the ministry of the word, by the Spirit of God, whereby the sinner sees his lost state by nature, his impurity and impotency, the danger he is in, and the destruction that is imminent on him, and he is liable to, and also his need of Christ, and salvation by him; this issues in conversion, in the turning of a man from the evil of his ways, to believe in Christ, walk on in him, and worthy of him; when he is healed of the diseases of his soul, which are many, are natural, and hereditary, mortal and incurable, but by Christ the great physician; by whose stripes, wounds, and blood, there is healing, that is, pardon; for healing diseases, and pardoning iniquities, are one and the same; see Psa 103:3; and at conversion, when a soul is enlightened, and made sensible of the evil of sin, and that there is no cure of this disease, by anything that he or any creature can do, or prescribe for him, but only by the blood of Christ; a discovery of pardoning grace is made unto him; and he is made whole, and cured of every disease that attended him; from whence spring joy, peace, and comfort to him:, but when through hearing the word, the understanding is not enlightened, and conversion does not follow upon it, there is no healing of the disease of sin, no pardon applied; and consequently such must be in a most deplorable and miserable condition, as all ignorant hearers and despisers of the Gospel are; See Gill on Mat 13:14; See Gill on Mat 13:15;

Gill: Act 28:28 - Be it known therefore unto you // that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles // and that they will hear it Be it known therefore unto you,.... Unbelievers and despisers, take this along with you at parting, and do not say you were never acquainted with it: ...

Be it known therefore unto you,.... Unbelievers and despisers, take this along with you at parting, and do not say you were never acquainted with it:

that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles; meaning the Gospel, which is a publication and declaration of that salvation, which God contrived from all eternity; made provision for, and secured in the covenant of grace; which he appointed, called, and sent Christ to effect, in the fulness of time; and which he has accomplished, by his obedience, sufferings, and death; even a full, complete, spiritual, and eternal salvation, from sin, Satan, the world, the curse of the law, and eternal death; that that Gospel which proclaims this, and is the power of God unto it, to them that believe, is sent to the Gentile world, by God himself, who has ordered his ministers to turn to them, upon the rejection of it by the Jews:

and that they will hear it: and do understand it and obey it, believe it and profess it: this the apostle could assert upon his own knowledge, who had preached it in many nations of the world; and could testify how gladly they heard it, with what pleasure they received it, how readily they obeyed it, and how cheerfully they professed it, and how steadily they held it; though the Jews despised and put it away from them, judging themselves unworthy of everlasting life: this the apostle says, reproaching them with their folly, stupidity, and infidelity; when the Gentiles, which knew not God, received the Gospel and are saved.

Gill: Act 28:29 - And when he had said these words // the Jews departed // and had great reasoning among themselves And when he had said these words,.... Cited the prophecy of Isaiah, and declared the mission of the Gospel to the Gentiles, and their calling by it; b...

And when he had said these words,.... Cited the prophecy of Isaiah, and declared the mission of the Gospel to the Gentiles, and their calling by it; both which must greatly gravel and disturb the unbelieving part of his audience:

the Jews departed; much displeased and uneasy:

and had great reasoning among themselves; not only with them that believed, but with others, that seemed to incline towards the apostle, and who espoused and undertook to defend some principles of his, against the rest, as the doctrine of the resurrection; and particularly they might take into consideration the passage in Isaiah, the apostle had recited to them at parting, and which was so appropriate to them; as well as the account he gave them of the preaching of the Gospel, and the success of it among the Gentiles, things which must be very grating to them: this whole verse is wanting in the Alexandrian copy, and in the Syriac version.

Gill: Act 28:30 - And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house // and received all that came in unto him And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house,.... In a house which he hired with his own money; in which his friends Luke, Aristarchus, and o...

And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house,.... In a house which he hired with his own money; in which his friends Luke, Aristarchus, and others, dwelt with him; where he was guarded by a soldier: whether at the expiration of these two years he was set at liberty, and for ten years afterwards travelled into Italy, France, and Spain, preaching the Gospel, as some think; or whether he then suffered martyrdom, is not certain; the latter is most probable:

and received all that came in unto him; there, as the Syriac version reads, that is, into his lodging, as the Ethiopic version expresses it; which is not to be understood of his hospitality, for it cannot be thought that he should provide food and lodging for all that came unto him; but that be admitted all that would to come and hear him, and freely preached the Gospel to them: it should seem by this, as well as by what is said Act 28:23; that many of the Jews came into his lodging, and heard him expound, that it was a large house he had hired and dwelt in; and such an one Jerom y thinks it was, like that he supposes he would have Philemon provide for him, which he desires in his epistle to him, Phm 1 22; namely, a house in the most noted place in the city, for the conveniency of those that came to him; large enough to hold many; free from noise and disturbance; and not situated in a scandalous neighbourhood, nor near to shows and plays; and that the lodging should rather be on the floor than in an upper room: and such a house, with all the conditions that Jerom mentions, the Papists pretend to show at Rome to this day; where, as their tradition is, Luke composed, or however finished this his history; which, as the above writer observes z, reaches to the two years of Paul's stay at Rome; that is, until the fourth year of Nero; from whence, adds he, we learn that in the same city this book was composed: and it is certain, that Luke was with him, when the apostle wrote his second epistle to Timothy from Rome, and when the time of his martyrdom seemed to himself to be at hand, 2Ti 4:7.

Gill: Act 28:31 - Preaching the kingdom of God // and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ // with all confidence // no man forbidding him Preaching the kingdom of God,.... That is, the Gospel, as in Luk 4:43; he preached up Jesus as the King Messiah, and declared that his kingdom was com...

Preaching the kingdom of God,.... That is, the Gospel, as in Luk 4:43; he preached up Jesus as the King Messiah, and declared that his kingdom was come, and opened the nature of it; that it consisted not in meats and drinks, but in righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost; which is the kingdom of grace here, and is within a man, in his heart, where grace reigns through righteousness, unto eternal life: and he gave them same account of the kingdom of glory, and the way unto it; and showed, that without regeneration and sanctification, no one could be meet for it; and without the justifying righteousness of Christ, no man could have a right unto it, or be possessed of it:

and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ: his person, as God and man; his office as Mediator, being prophet, priest, and King; his incarnation and birth; his life and miracles; his doctrine and obedience, sufferings and death; his resurrection, ascension, session at God's right hand; his intercession, and second coming to judgment; with all the truths of the Gospel, in which he has a concern; as redemption, peace, reconciliation and pardon, by his blood and sacrifice, and justification by his righteousness, and salvation and eternal life through him. These things had been the subject of the apostle's ministry, throughout the whole of it: he began at Damascus with preaching Jesus as the Son of God and the true Messiah; and he ends at Rome, with teaching the things concerning him: at his first setting out in the work of the Lord, he determined to make known none but Christ, and him crucified; and in this resolution he continued through the whole course of his life, and abode by it to the end: and this he did

with all confidence; with all freedom and liberty in his soul, though he was bound in his body with a chain; with all plainness, openness, and faithfulness; and with all courage and boldness, though in the midst of adversaries:

no man forbidding him; not the Roman emperor, nor the Roman senate, nor any other magistrate; nor could the Jews hinder him, nor was his mouth to be stopped by any; nor could the open door of the Gospel be shut, or its course be impeded; for though the apostle was bound, the word of God was not, but ran and was glorified; and was made known, and even owned in Caesar's palace; some say Nero's cupbearer, and Poppea his concubine, were converted by him: and he not only continued preaching the Gospel during the two years of his imprisonment at Rome, but also wrote several epistles to churches, and particular persons; as the epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and the Hebrews, and to Philemon, and the "second" epistle to Timothy: some copies add here, "Amen"; and at the close of the Alexandrian copy, stand these words, "the Acts of the holy Apostles"; and at the Syriac version these, "the End of the Acts of the blessed Apostles, that is, of their Histories".

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