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Teks -- Acts 18:1-28 (NET)

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Konteks
Paul at Corinth
18:1 After this Paul departed from Athens and went to Corinth. 18:2 There he found a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had ordered all the Jews to depart from Rome. Paul approached them, 18:3 and because he worked at the same trade, he stayed with them and worked with them (for they were tentmakers by trade). 18:4 He addressed both Jews and Greeks in the synagogue every Sabbath, attempting to persuade them. 18:5 Now when Silas and Timothy arrived from Macedonia, Paul became wholly absorbed with proclaiming the word, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. 18:6 When they opposed him and reviled him, he protested by shaking out his clothes and said to them, “Your blood be on your own heads! I am guiltless! From now on I will go to the Gentiles!” 18:7 Then Paul left the synagogue and went to the house of a person named Titius Justus, a Gentile who worshiped God, whose house was next door to the synagogue. 18:8 Crispus, the president of the synagogue, believed in the Lord together with his entire household, and many of the Corinthians who heard about it believed and were baptized. 18:9 The Lord said to Paul by a vision in the night, “Do not be afraid, but speak and do not be silent, 18:10 because I am with you, and no one will assault you to harm you, because I have many people in this city.” 18:11 So he stayed there a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them.
Paul Before the Proconsul Gallio
18:12 Now while Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews attacked Paul together and brought him before the judgment seat, 18:13 saying, “This man is persuading people to worship God in a way contrary to the law!” 18:14 But just as Paul was about to speak, Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of some crime or serious piece of villainy, I would have been justified in accepting the complaint of you Jews, 18:15 but since it concerns points of disagreement about words and names and your own law, settle it yourselves. I will not be a judge of these things!” 18:16 Then he had them forced away from the judgment seat. 18:17 So they all seized Sosthenes, the president of the synagogue, and began to beat him in front of the judgment seat. Yet none of these things were of any concern to Gallio.
Paul Returns to Antioch in Syria
18:18 Paul, after staying many more days in Corinth, said farewell to the brothers and sailed away to Syria accompanied by Priscilla and Aquila. He had his hair cut off at Cenchrea because he had made a vow. 18:19 When they reached Ephesus, Paul left Priscilla and Aquila behind there, but he himself went into the synagogue and addressed the Jews. 18:20 When they asked him to stay longer, he would not consent, 18:21 but said farewell to them and added, “I will come back to you again if God wills.” Then he set sail from Ephesus, 18:22 and when he arrived at Caesarea, he went up and greeted the church at Jerusalem and then went down to Antioch. 18:23 After he spent some time there, Paul left and went through the region of Galatia and Phrygia, strengthening all the disciples.
Apollos Begins His Ministry
18:24 Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, arrived in Ephesus. He was an eloquent speaker, well-versed in the scriptures. 18:25 He had been instructed in the way of the Lord, and with great enthusiasm he spoke and taught accurately the facts about Jesus, although he knew only the baptism of John. 18:26 He began to speak out fearlessly in the synagogue, but when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained the way of God to him more accurately. 18:27 When Apollos wanted to cross over to Achaia, the brothers encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him. When he arrived, he assisted greatly those who had believed by grace, 18:28 for he refuted the Jews vigorously in public debate, demonstrating from the scriptures that the Christ was Jesus.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Achaia a Roman province located in Greece along the south coast of the Gulf of Corinth
 · Alexandria an inhabitant of Alexandria
 · Antioch a city in Syria located 15 miles inland from the Mediterranean Sea on the Orontes River,a principal city of the province of Pisidia in Asia Minor, west of Iconium.
 · Apollos a Jewish man from Alexandria who was taught by Aquila and Priscilla
 · Aquila the husband of Priscilla
 · Athens a town which was the capital of Attica in Greece
 · Caesarea a town on the Mediterranean 40 kilometers south of Mt. Carmel and 120 kilometers NW of Jerusalem.
 · Cenchreae the eastern port town of Corinth
 · Claudius the Roman emperor who was the successor of Caligula,a Roman army captain in Jerusalem
 · Corinth a town located on the narrow isthmus connecting the Greek mainland with the Peloponnesus Peninsula to the south
 · Corinthians the inhabitants of Corinth.
 · Crispus a leader of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth, baptized by Paul
 · Ephesus a town in western Asia Minor at the mouth of the Cayster River
 · Galatia a nation, and later a Roman province, in central Asia Minor
 · Gallio the man who was deputy or proconsul of Achaia in Corinth.
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Greek the language used by the people of Greece
 · Italy a country west of Greece, whose capital is Rome
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · John a son of Zebedee; younger brother of James; the beloved disciple of Christ,a relative of Annas the high priest,a son of Mary the sister of Barnabas, and surnamed Mark,the father of Simon Peter
 · Justus a man who was nominated with Matthias to replace Judas Iscariot as an apostle,a godly man of Corinth,a man in Rome from whom Paul sends greetings
 · Macedonia a Roman province north of Greece which included 10 Roman colonies (IBD),citizens of the province of Macedonia
 · Paul a man from Tarsus who persecuted the church but became a missionary and writer of 13 Epistles
 · Phrygia a region located in central Asia Minor
 · Pontus the coastal region of north Asia Minor
 · Priscilla the wife of Aquila
 · Rome the capital city of Italy
 · Silas a man who went with Peter and Paul on separate missionary journeys
 · Sosthenes the man in charge of the synagogue in Corinth who was beaten
 · Syria the country to the north of Palestine,a country of north western Mesopotamia
 · Timothy a young man of Lystra who travelled with Paul and to whom two epistles were addressed


Topik/Tema Kamus: Corinth | Paul | Achaia | ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, 13-OUTLINE | LAODICEANS, EPISTLE TO THE | PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 1 | Coriander | Ephesus | Gallio | Apollos | Sosthenes | PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 5 | TEACH; TEACHER; TEACHING | Minister | Zeal | Synagogue | CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE | Priscilla | Thessalonians, Epistles to the | AQUILA | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Act 18:1 - To Corinth To Corinth ( eis Korinthon ). Mummius had captured and destroyed Corinth b.c. 146. It was restored by Julius Caesar b.c. 46 as a boom town and made a...

To Corinth ( eis Korinthon ).

Mummius had captured and destroyed Corinth b.c. 146. It was restored by Julius Caesar b.c. 46 as a boom town and made a colony. It was now the capital of the province of Achaia and the chief commercial city of Greece with a cosmopolitan population. It was only fifty miles from Athens. The summit of Acrocorinthus was 1, 800 feet high and the ports of Cenchreae and Lechaeum and the Isthmus across which ships were hauled gave it command of the trade routes between Asia and Rome. The temple of Aphrodite on the Acrocorinthus had a thousand consecrated prostitutes and the very name to Corinthianize meant immorality. Not the Parthenon with Athene faced Paul in Corinth, but a worse situation. Naturally many Jews were in such a mart of trade. Philippi, Thessalonica, Beroea, Athens, all had brought anxiety to Paul. What could he expect in licentious Corinth?

Robertson: Act 18:2 - Aquila Aquila ( Akulan ). Luke calls him a Jew from Pontus, apparently not yet a disciple, though there were Jews from Pontus at the great Pentecost who wer...

Aquila ( Akulan ).

Luke calls him a Jew from Pontus, apparently not yet a disciple, though there were Jews from Pontus at the great Pentecost who were converted (Act 2:9). Aquila who made the famous a.d. translation of the O.T. was also from Pontus. Paul "found"(heurōn , second aorist active participle of heuriskō ) though we do not know how. Edersheim says that a Jewish guild always kept together whether in street or synagogue so that by this bond they probably met.

Robertson: Act 18:2 - Lately come from Italy Lately come from Italy ( prosphatōs elēluthota apo tēs Italias ). Second perfect participle of erchomai . Koiné[28928]š adverb, here only i...

Lately come from Italy ( prosphatōs elēluthota apo tēs Italias ).

Second perfect participle of erchomai . Koiné[28928]š adverb, here only in the N.T., from adjective prosphatos (pro , sphaō or sphazō , to kill), lately slaughtered and so fresh or recent (Heb 10:20).

Robertson: Act 18:2 - With his wife Priscilla With his wife Priscilla ( kai Priskillan gunaika autou ). Diminutive of Priska (Rom 16:3; 1Co 16:19). Prisca is a name in the Acilian family and th...

With his wife Priscilla ( kai Priskillan gunaika autou ).

Diminutive of Priska (Rom 16:3; 1Co 16:19). Prisca is a name in the Acilian family and the Prisci was the name of another noble clan. Aquila may have been a freedman like many Jews in Rome. Her name comes before his in Act 17:18, Act 17:26; Rom 16:3; 2Ti 4:9.

Robertson: Act 18:2 - Because Claudius had commanded Because Claudius had commanded ( dia to diatetachenai Klaudion ). Perfect active articular infinitive of diatassō , old verb to dispose, arrange, h...

Because Claudius had commanded ( dia to diatetachenai Klaudion ).

Perfect active articular infinitive of diatassō , old verb to dispose, arrange, here with accusative of general reference. Dia here is causal sense, "because of the having ordered as to Claudius."This was about a.d. 49, done, Suetonius says ( Claudius C. 25), because "the Jews were in a state of constant tumult at the instigation of one Chrestus"(probably among the Jews about Christ so pronounced). At any rate Jews were unpopular in Rome for Tiberius had deported 4,000 to Sardinia. There were 20,000 Jews in Rome. Probably mainly those implicated in the riots actually left.

Robertson: Act 18:3 - Because he was of the same trade Because he was of the same trade ( dia to homotechnon einai ). Same construction with dia as above. Homotechnon is an old word (homos , technē...

Because he was of the same trade ( dia to homotechnon einai ).

Same construction with dia as above. Homotechnon is an old word (homos , technē ), though here alone in N.T. Rabbi Judah says: "He that teacheth not his son a trade, doth the same as if he taught him to be a thief."So it was easy for Paul to find a home with these "tentmakers by trade"(skēnoipoioi tēi technēi ). Late word from skēnē and poieō , here only in the N.T. They made portable tents of leather or of cloth of goat’ s hair. So Paul lived in this home with this noble man and his wife, all the more congenial if already Christians which they soon became at any rate. They worked as partners in the common trade. Paul worked for his support elsewhere, already in Thessalonica (1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8) and later at Ephesus with Aquila and Priscilla (Act 18:18, Act 18:26; Act 20:34; 1Co 16:19). They moved again to Rome (Rom 16:3) and were evidently a couple of considerable wealth and generosity. It was a blessing to Paul to find himself with these people. So he "abode"(emenen , imperfect active) with them and "they wrought"(ērgazonto , imperfect middle), happy and busy during week days.

Robertson: Act 18:4 - He reasoned He reasoned ( dielegeto ). Imperfect middle, same form as in Act 17:17 about Paul’ s work in Athens, here only on the Sabbaths.

He reasoned ( dielegeto ).

Imperfect middle, same form as in Act 17:17 about Paul’ s work in Athens, here only on the Sabbaths.

Robertson: Act 18:4 - Persuaded Persuaded ( epeithen ). Imperfect active, conative, he tried to persuade both Jews and Greeks (God-fearers who alone would come).

Persuaded ( epeithen ).

Imperfect active, conative, he tried to persuade both Jews and Greeks (God-fearers who alone would come).

Robertson: Act 18:5 - Was constrained by the word Was constrained by the word ( suneicheto tōi logōi ). This is undoubtedly the correct text and not tōi pneumati of the Textus Receptus, but s...

Was constrained by the word ( suneicheto tōi logōi ).

This is undoubtedly the correct text and not tōi pneumati of the Textus Receptus, but suneicheto is in my opinion the direct middle imperfect indicative, not the imperfect passive as the translations have it (Robertson, Grammar , p. 808). Paul held himself together or completely to the preaching instead of just on Sabbaths in the synagogue (Act 18:4). The coming of Silas and Timothy with the gifts from Macedonia (1Th 3:6; 2Co 11:9; Phi 4:15) set Paul free from tent-making for a while so that he began to devote himself (inchoative imperfect) with fresh consecration to preaching. See the active in 2Co 5:14. He was now also assisted by Silas and Timothy (2Co 1:19).

Robertson: Act 18:5 - Testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ Testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ ( diamarturomenos tois Ioudaiois einai ton Christon Iēsoun ). Paul’ s witness everywhere (Act...

Testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ ( diamarturomenos tois Ioudaiois einai ton Christon Iēsoun ).

Paul’ s witness everywhere (Act 9:22; Act 17:3). This verb diamarturomenos occurs in Act 2:40 (which see) for Peter’ s earnest witness. Perhaps daily now in the synagogue he spoke to the Jews who came. Einai is the infinitive in indirect discourse (assertion) with the accusative of general reference. By ton Christon Paul means "the Messiah."His witness is to show to the Jews that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah.

Robertson: Act 18:6 - When they opposed themselves When they opposed themselves ( antitassomenōn autōn ). Genitive absolute with present middle (direct middle again) of antitassō , old verb to r...

When they opposed themselves ( antitassomenōn autōn ).

Genitive absolute with present middle (direct middle again) of antitassō , old verb to range in battle array (tassō ) face to face with or against (anti ). In the N.T. only here and Rom 13:2; Jam 4:6; 1Pe 5:5. Paul’ s fresh activity roused the rabbis as at Antioch in Pisidia and at Thessalonica in concerted opposition and railing (blasphemy).

Robertson: Act 18:6 - He shook out his raiment He shook out his raiment ( ektinaxamenos ta himatia ). First aorist middle of ektinassō , old verb, in the N.T. only here as in Act 13:51 (middle) ...

He shook out his raiment ( ektinaxamenos ta himatia ).

First aorist middle of ektinassō , old verb, in the N.T. only here as in Act 13:51 (middle) and Mar 6:11; Mat 10:15 where active voice occurs of shaking out dust also. Vivid and dramatic picture here like that in Neh 5:13, "undoubtedly a very exasperating gesture"(Ramsay), but Paul was deeply stirred.

Robertson: Act 18:6 - Your blood be upon your own heads Your blood be upon your own heads ( To haima humōn epi tēn kephalēn humōn ). As in Eze 3:18., Eze 33:4, Eze 33:8.; 2Sa 1:16. Not as a curse, ...

Your blood be upon your own heads ( To haima humōn epi tēn kephalēn humōn ).

As in Eze 3:18., Eze 33:4, Eze 33:8.; 2Sa 1:16. Not as a curse, but "a solemn disclaimer of responsibility"by Paul (Page) as in Act 20:26. The Jews used this very phrase in assuming responsibility for the blood of Jesus (Mat 27:25). Cf. Mat 23:35.

Robertson: Act 18:6 - I am clean I am clean ( katharos egō ). Pure from your blood. Repeats the claim made in previous sentence. Paul had done his duty.

I am clean ( katharos egō ).

Pure from your blood. Repeats the claim made in previous sentence. Paul had done his duty.

Robertson: Act 18:6 - From henceforth From henceforth ( apo tou nun ). Turning point reached in Corinth. He will devote himself to the Gentiles, though Jews will be converted there also. ...

From henceforth ( apo tou nun ).

Turning point reached in Corinth. He will devote himself to the Gentiles, though Jews will be converted there also. Elsewhere as in Ephesus (Act 19:1-10) and in Rome (Act 28:23-28) Paul will preach also to Jews.

Robertson: Act 18:7 - Titus Justus Titus Justus ( Titou Ioustou ). So Aleph E Vulgate, while B has Titiau Ioustou , while most MSS. have only Ioustou . Evidently a Roman citizen and no...

Titus Justus ( Titou Ioustou ).

So Aleph E Vulgate, while B has Titiau Ioustou , while most MSS. have only Ioustou . Evidently a Roman citizen and not Titus, brother of Luke, of Gal 2:1. We had Barsabbas Justus (Act 1:23) and Paul speaks of Jesus Justus (Corinthians Gal 4:11). The Titii were a famous family of potters in Corinth. This Roman was a God-fearer whose house "joined hard to the synagogue"(ēn sunomorousa tēi sunagōgēi ). Periphrastic imperfect active of sunomoreō , a late (Byzantine) word, here only in the N.T., followed by the associative instrumental case, from sunomoros (sun , homoros from homos , joint, and horos , boundary) having joint boundaries, right next to. Whether Paul chose this location for his work because it was next to the synagogue, we do not know, but it caught the attendants at the synagogue worship. In Ephesus when Paul had to leave the synagogue he went to the school house of Tyrannus (Act 19:9.). The lines are being drawn between the Christians and the Jews, drawn by the Jews themselves.

Robertson: Act 18:8 - Crispus Crispus ( Krispos ). Though a Jew and ruler of the synagogue (cf. Act 13:15), he had a Latin name. Paul baptized him (1Co 1:14) himself, perhaps beca...

Crispus ( Krispos ).

Though a Jew and ruler of the synagogue (cf. Act 13:15), he had a Latin name. Paul baptized him (1Co 1:14) himself, perhaps because of his prominence, apparently letting Silas and Timothy baptize most of the converts (1Co 1:14-17). Probably he followed Paul to the house of Titus Justus. It looked like ruin for the synagogue.

Robertson: Act 18:8 - With all his house With all his house ( sun holōi tōi oikōi autou ). Another household conversion, for Crispus "believed (episteusen ) in the Lord with all his h...

With all his house ( sun holōi tōi oikōi autou ).

Another household conversion, for Crispus "believed (episteusen ) in the Lord with all his house."

Robertson: Act 18:8 - Hearing believed and were baptized Hearing believed and were baptized ( akouontes episteuon kai ebaptizonto ). Present active participle and imperfect indicatives active and passive, e...

Hearing believed and were baptized ( akouontes episteuon kai ebaptizonto ).

Present active participle and imperfect indicatives active and passive, expressing repetition for the "many"others who kept coming to the Lord in Corinth. It was a continual revival after Silas and Timothy came and a great church was gathered here during the nearly two years that Paul laboured in Corinth (possibly a.d. 51 and 52).

Robertson: Act 18:9 - Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace ( Mē phobou , alla lalei kai mē siōpēsēis ). Literally, "stop being afraid (mē with p...

Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace ( Mē phobou , alla lalei kai mē siōpēsēis ).

Literally, "stop being afraid (mē with present middle imperative of phobeō ), but go on speaking (present active imperative of laleō ) and do not become silent (mē and first aorist active of siōpaō , ingressive aorist)."Evidently there were signs of a gathering storm before this vision and message from the Lord Jesus came to Paul one night. Paul knew only too well what Jewish hatred could do as he had learned it at Damascus, Jerusalem, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, Thessalonica, Beroea. He had clearly moments of doubt whether he had not better move on or become silent for a while in Corinth. Every pastor knows what it is to have such moods and moments. In 2Th 3:2 (written at this time) we catch Paul’ s dejection of spirits. He was like Elijah (1Ki 19:4) and Jeremiah (Jer 15:15.).

Robertson: Act 18:10 - Because I am with thee Because I am with thee ( dioti egō eimi meta sou ). Jesus had given this promise to all believers (Mat 28:20) and here he renews it to Paul. This p...

Because I am with thee ( dioti egō eimi meta sou ).

Jesus had given this promise to all believers (Mat 28:20) and here he renews it to Paul. This promise changes Paul’ s whole outlook. Jesus had spoken to Paul before, on the way to Damascus (Act 9:4), in Jerusalem (Act 22:17.), in Troas (Act 16:9), in great crises of his life. He will hear him again (Act 23:11; Act 27:23). Paul knows the voice of Jesus.

Robertson: Act 18:10 - No man shall set on thee to harm thee No man shall set on thee to harm thee ( oudeis epithēsetai soi tou kakōsai se ). Future direct middle indicative of epitithēmi , old and common...

No man shall set on thee to harm thee ( oudeis epithēsetai soi tou kakōsai se ).

Future direct middle indicative of epitithēmi , old and common verb, here in direct middle to lay or throw oneself upon, to attack. Jesus kept that promise in Corinth for Paul. Tou kakōsai is genitive articular infinitive of purpose of kakoō , to do harm to. Paul would now face all the rabbis without fear.

Robertson: Act 18:10 - I have much people I have much people ( laos estin moi polus ). Dative of personal interest. "There is to me much people,"not yet saved, but who will be if Paul holds o...

I have much people ( laos estin moi polus ).

Dative of personal interest. "There is to me much people,"not yet saved, but who will be if Paul holds on. There is the problem for every preacher and pastor, how to win the elect to Christ.

Robertson: Act 18:11 - A year and six months A year and six months ( eniauton kai mēnas hex ). Accusative of extent of time. How much time before this incident he had been there we do not know...

A year and six months ( eniauton kai mēnas hex ).

Accusative of extent of time. How much time before this incident he had been there we do not know. He was in Corinth probably a couple of years in all. His work extended beyond the city (2Co 11:10) and there was a church in Cenchreae (Rom 16:1).

Robertson: Act 18:12 - When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia ( Galliōnos de anthupatou ontos tēs Achaias ). Genitive absolute of present participle ontos . Brother of Sen...

When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia ( Galliōnos de anthupatou ontos tēs Achaias ).

Genitive absolute of present participle ontos . Brother of Seneca the Stoic (Nero’ s tutor) and uncle of Lucan the author of the Pharsalia . His original name was M. Annaeus Novatus till he was adopted by Gallio the rhetorician. The family was Spanish. Gallio was a man of culture and refinement and may have been chosen proconsul of Achaia for this reason. Statius calls him " dulcis Gallio ."Seneca says of him: Nemo enim mortalium uni tam dulcis quam hic omnibus (No one of mortals is so pleasant to one person as he is to all). Luke alone among writers says that he was proconsul, but Seneca speaks of his being in Achaia where he caught fever, a corroboration of Luke. But now a whitish grey limestone inscription from the Hagios Elias quarries near Delphi (a letter of Claudius to Delphi) has been found which definitely names Gallio as proconsul of Achaia (authupatos tēs Achaias ). The province of Achaia after various shifts (first senatorial, then imperial) back and forth with Macedonia, in a.d. 44 Claudius gave back to the Senate with proconsul as the title of the governor. It is amazing how Luke is confirmed whenever a new discovery is made. The discovery of this inscription has thrown light also on the date of Paul’ s work in Corinth as it says that Gallio came in the 26th acclamation of Claudius as Emperor in a.d. 51, that would definitely fix the time of Paul in Corinth as a.d. 50 and 51 (or 51 and 52). Deissmann has a full and able discussion of the whole matter in Appendix I to his St. Paul.

Robertson: Act 18:12 - Rose up Rose up ( katepestēsan ). Second aorist active of kaṫepḣistēmi , intransitive, to take a stand against, a double compound verb found nowhere ...

Rose up ( katepestēsan ).

Second aorist active of kaṫepḣistēmi , intransitive, to take a stand against, a double compound verb found nowhere else. They took a stand (estēsan ) against (kata , down on, epi , upon), they made a dash or rush at Paul as if they would stand it no longer.

Robertson: Act 18:12 - Before the judgment seat Before the judgment seat ( epi to bēma ). See Act 12:21. The proconsul was sitting in the basilica in the forum or agora. The Jews had probably hea...

Before the judgment seat ( epi to bēma ).

See Act 12:21. The proconsul was sitting in the basilica in the forum or agora. The Jews had probably heard of his reputation for moderation and sought to make an impression as they had on the praetors of Philippi by their rush (sunepestē , Act 16:22). The new proconsul was a good chance also (Act 25:2). So for the second time Paul faces a Roman proconsul (Sergius Paulus, Act 13:7) though under very different circumstances.

Robertson: Act 18:13 - Contrary to the law Contrary to the law ( para ton nomon ). They did not accuse Paul of treason as in Thessalonica, perhaps Paul had been more careful in his language he...

Contrary to the law ( para ton nomon ).

They did not accuse Paul of treason as in Thessalonica, perhaps Paul had been more careful in his language here. They bring the same charge here that the owners of the slave-girl brought in Philippi (Act 16:21) Perhaps they fear to go too far with Gallio, for they are dealing with a Roman proconsul, not with the politarchs of Thessalonica. The Jewish religion was a religio licita and they were allowed to make proselytes, but not among Roman citizens. To prove that Paul was acting contrary to Roman law (for Jewish law had no standing with Gallio though the phrase has a double meaning) these Jews had to show that Paul was making converts in ways that violated the Roman regulations on that subject. The accusation as made did not show it nor did they produce any evidence to do it. The verb used anapeithei means to stir up by persuasion (old verb here only in the N.T.), a thing that he had a right to do.

Robertson: Act 18:14 - When Paul was about to open his mouth When Paul was about to open his mouth ( mellontos tou Paulou anoigein to stoma ). Genitive absolute again. Before Paul could speak, Gallio cut in and...

When Paul was about to open his mouth ( mellontos tou Paulou anoigein to stoma ).

Genitive absolute again. Before Paul could speak, Gallio cut in and ended the whole matter. According to their own statement Paul needed no defence.

Robertson: Act 18:14 - Wrong Wrong ( adikēma ). Injuria . Old word, a wrong done one. In N.T. only here, Act 24:20; Rev 18:5. Here it may mean a legal wrong to the state.

Wrong ( adikēma ).

Injuria . Old word, a wrong done one. In N.T. only here, Act 24:20; Rev 18:5. Here it may mean a legal wrong to the state.

Robertson: Act 18:14 - Wicked villainy Wicked villainy ( rhāidiourgēma ). A crime, act of a criminal, from rhāidiourgos (rhāidios , easy, ergon , work), one who does a thing with...

Wicked villainy ( rhāidiourgēma ).

A crime, act of a criminal, from rhāidiourgos (rhāidios , easy, ergon , work), one who does a thing with ease, adroitly, a "slick citizen."

Robertson: Act 18:14 - Reason would that I should bear with you Reason would that I should bear with you ( kata logon an aneschomēn humōn ). Literally, "according to reason I should have put up with you (or he...

Reason would that I should bear with you ( kata logon an aneschomēn humōn ).

Literally, "according to reason I should have put up with you (or held myself back from you)."This condition is the second class (determined as unfulfilled) and means that the Jews had no case against Paul in a Roman court. The verb in the conclusion (aneschomēn ) is second aorist middle indicative and means with the ablative humōn "I should have held myself back (direct middle) from you (ablative). The use of an makes the form of the condition plain.

Robertson: Act 18:15 - Questions Questions ( zētēmata ). Plural, contemptuous, "a parcel of questions"(Knowling).

Questions ( zētēmata ).

Plural, contemptuous, "a parcel of questions"(Knowling).

Robertson: Act 18:15 - About words About words ( peri logou ). Word, singular, talk, not deed or fact (ergon , factum ).

About words ( peri logou ).

Word, singular, talk, not deed or fact (ergon , factum ).

Robertson: Act 18:15 - And names And names ( kai onomatōn ). As to whether "Jesus"should also be called "Christ"or "Messiah."The Jews, Gallio knew, split hairs over words and names...

And names ( kai onomatōn ).

As to whether "Jesus"should also be called "Christ"or "Messiah."The Jews, Gallio knew, split hairs over words and names.

Robertson: Act 18:15 - And your own law And your own law ( kai nomou tou kath' humās ) Literally, "And law that according to you."Gallio had not been caught in the trap set for him. What ...

And your own law ( kai nomou tou kath' humās )

Literally, "And law that according to you."Gallio had not been caught in the trap set for him. What they had said concerned Jewish law, not Roman law at all.

Robertson: Act 18:15 - Look to it yourselves Look to it yourselves ( opsesthe autoi ). The volitive future middle indicative of horaō often used (cf. Mat 27:4) where an imperative could be e...

Look to it yourselves ( opsesthe autoi ).

The volitive future middle indicative of horaō often used (cf. Mat 27:4) where an imperative could be employed (Robertson, Grammar , p. 874). The use of autoi (yourselves) turns it all over to them.

Robertson: Act 18:15 - I am not minded I am not minded ( ou boulomai ). I am not willing, I do not wish. An absolute refusal to allow a religious question to be brought before a Roman civi...

I am not minded ( ou boulomai ).

I am not willing, I do not wish. An absolute refusal to allow a religious question to be brought before a Roman civil court. This decision of Gallio does not establish Christianity in preference to Judaism. It simply means that the case was plainly that Christianity was a form of Judaism and as such was not opposed to Roman law. This decision opened the door for Paul’ s preaching all over the Roman Empire. Later Paul himself argues (Romans 9-11) that in fact Christianity is the true, the spiritual Judaism.

Robertson: Act 18:16 - He drave them He drave them ( apēlasen autous ). First aorist active indicative of apelaunō , old word, but here alone in the N.T. The Jews were stunned by thi...

He drave them ( apēlasen autous ).

First aorist active indicative of apelaunō , old word, but here alone in the N.T. The Jews were stunned by this sudden blow from the mild proconsul and wanted to linger to argue the case further, but they had to go.

Robertson: Act 18:17 - They all laid hold on Sosthenes They all laid hold on Sosthenes ( epilabomenoi pantes Sōsthenēn ). See note on Act 16:19; and note on Act 17:19 for the same form. Here is violen...

They all laid hold on Sosthenes ( epilabomenoi pantes Sōsthenēn ).

See note on Act 16:19; and note on Act 17:19 for the same form. Here is violent hostile reaction against their leader who had failed so miserably.

Robertson: Act 18:17 - Beat him Beat him ( etupton ). Inchoative imperfect active, began to beat him, even if they could not beat Paul. Sosthenes succeeded Crispus (Act 18:8) when h...

Beat him ( etupton ).

Inchoative imperfect active, began to beat him, even if they could not beat Paul. Sosthenes succeeded Crispus (Act 18:8) when he went over to Paul. The beating did Sosthenes good for he too finally is a Christian (1Co 1:1), a co-worker with Paul whom he had sought to persecute.

Robertson: Act 18:17 - And Gallio cared for none of these things And Gallio cared for none of these things ( kai ouden toutōn tōi Galliōni emelen ). Literally, "no one of these things was a care to Gallio."Th...

And Gallio cared for none of these things ( kai ouden toutōn tōi Galliōni emelen ).

Literally, "no one of these things was a care to Gallio."The usually impersonal verb (melei , emelen , imperfect active) here has the nominative as in Luk 10:40. These words have been often misunderstood as a description of Gallio’ s lack of interest in Christianity, a religious indifferentist. But that is quite beside the mark. Gallio looked the other way with a blind eye while Sosthenes got the beating which he richly deserved. That was a small detail for the police court, not for the proconsul’ s concern. Gallio shows up well in Luke’ s narrative as a clear headed judge who would not be led astray by Jewish subterfuges and with the courage to dismiss a mob.

Robertson: Act 18:18 - Having tarried after this yet many days Having tarried after this yet many days ( eti prosmeinas hēmeras hikanas ). First aorist (constative) active participle of prosmenō , old verb, t...

Having tarried after this yet many days ( eti prosmeinas hēmeras hikanas ).

First aorist (constative) active participle of prosmenō , old verb, to remain besides (pros as in 1Ti 1:3) and that idea is expressed also in eti (yet). The accusative is extent of time. On Luke’ s frequent use of hikanos See note on Act 8:11. It is not certain that this period of "considerable days"which followed the trial before Gallio is included in the year and six months of Act 18:11or is in addition to it which is most likely. Vindicated as Paul was, there was no reason for haste in leaving, though he usually left after such a crisis was passed.

Robertson: Act 18:18 - Took his leave Took his leave ( apotaxamenos ). First aorist middle (direct), old verb, to separate oneself, to bid farewell (Vulgate valefacio ), as in Act 18:21...

Took his leave ( apotaxamenos ).

First aorist middle (direct), old verb, to separate oneself, to bid farewell (Vulgate valefacio ), as in Act 18:21; Mar 6:46.

Robertson: Act 18:18 - Sailed thence Sailed thence ( exeplei ). Imperfect active of ekpleō , old and common verb, inchoative imperfect, started to sail. Only Priscilla and Aquila are m...

Sailed thence ( exeplei ).

Imperfect active of ekpleō , old and common verb, inchoative imperfect, started to sail. Only Priscilla and Aquila are mentioned as his companions though others may have been in the party.

Robertson: Act 18:18 - Having shorn his head Having shorn his head ( keiramenos tēn kephalēn ). First aorist middle (causative) of keirō , old verb to shear (sheep) and the hair as also in...

Having shorn his head ( keiramenos tēn kephalēn ).

First aorist middle (causative) of keirō , old verb to shear (sheep) and the hair as also in 1Co 11:6. The participle is masculine and so cannot refer to Priscilla. Aquila comes next to the participle, but since mention of Priscilla and Aquila is parenthetical and the two other participles (prosmeinas , apotaxamenos ) refer to Paul it seems clear that this one does also.

Robertson: Act 18:18 - For he had a vow For he had a vow ( eichen gar euchēn ). Imperfect active showing the continuance of the vow up till this time in Cenchreae, the port of Corinth whe...

For he had a vow ( eichen gar euchēn ).

Imperfect active showing the continuance of the vow up till this time in Cenchreae, the port of Corinth when it expired. It was not a Nazarite vow which could be absolved only in Jerusalem. It is possible that the hair was only polled or trimmed, cut shorter, not "shaved"(xuraō as in Act 21:24) for there is a distinction as both verbs are contrasted in 1Co 11:6 (keirāsthai ē xurāsthai ). It is not clear what sort of a vow Paul had taken nor why he took it. It may have been a thank offering for the outcome at Corinth (Hackett). Paul as a Jew kept up his observance of the ceremonial law, but refused to impose it on the Gentiles.

Robertson: Act 18:19 - Came Came ( katēntēsan ). Came down, as usual in speaking of coming to land (Act 16:1).

Came ( katēntēsan ).

Came down, as usual in speaking of coming to land (Act 16:1).

Robertson: Act 18:19 - To Ephesus To Ephesus ( eis Epheson ). This great city on the Cayster, the capital of the Province of Asia, the home of the worship of Diana (Artemis) with a wo...

To Ephesus ( eis Epheson ).

This great city on the Cayster, the capital of the Province of Asia, the home of the worship of Diana (Artemis) with a wonderful temple, Paul at last had reached, though forbidden to come on the way out on this tour (Act 16:6). Here Paul will spend three years after his return from Jerusalem.

Robertson: Act 18:19 - He left them there He left them there ( kakeinous katelipen autou ). That is, Priscilla and Aquila he left (second aorist active indicative) here (autou ). But Luke me...

He left them there ( kakeinous katelipen autou ).

That is, Priscilla and Aquila he left (second aorist active indicative) here (autou ). But Luke mentions the departure by way of anticipation before he actually went away (Act 18:21).

Robertson: Act 18:19 - But he himself But he himself ( autos de ). Paul again the leading person in the narrative. On this occasion he may have gone alone into the synagogue.

But he himself ( autos de ).

Paul again the leading person in the narrative. On this occasion he may have gone alone into the synagogue.

Robertson: Act 18:19 - He reasoned He reasoned ( dielexato ). Luke’ s favourite word for Paul’ s synagogue discourses (Act 17:2, Act 17:17; Act 18:4 which see) as also Act 19...

He reasoned ( dielexato ).

Luke’ s favourite word for Paul’ s synagogue discourses (Act 17:2, Act 17:17; Act 18:4 which see) as also Act 19:8, Act 19:9.

Robertson: Act 18:20 - When they asked him When they asked him ( erōtōntōn autōn ). Genitive absolute of present participle of erōtaō , old verb to ask a question, common in Koin...

When they asked him ( erōtōntōn autōn ).

Genitive absolute of present participle of erōtaō , old verb to ask a question, common in Koiné[28928]š to make a request as here.

Robertson: Act 18:20 - He consented not He consented not ( ouk epeneusen ). First aorist active indicative of epineuō , old verb to express approval by a nod, only here in the N.T.

He consented not ( ouk epeneusen ).

First aorist active indicative of epineuō , old verb to express approval by a nod, only here in the N.T.

Robertson: Act 18:21 - I shall return I shall return ( anakampsō ). Future active indicative of anakamptō , old verb to bend back, turn back (Mat 2:2).

I shall return ( anakampsō ).

Future active indicative of anakamptō , old verb to bend back, turn back (Mat 2:2).

Robertson: Act 18:21 - If God will If God will ( tou theou thelontos ). Genitive absolute of present active participle. This expression (ean with subjunctive) occurs also in 1Co 4:19...

If God will ( tou theou thelontos ).

Genitive absolute of present active participle. This expression (ean with subjunctive) occurs also in 1Co 4:19; 1Co 16:7; Jam 4:15. Such phrases were common among Jews, Greeks, and Romans, and are today. It is simply a recognition that we are in God’ s hands. The Textus Receptus has here a sentence not in the best MSS.: "I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem."This addition by D and other documents may have been due to a desire to give a reason for the language in Act 18:22about "going up"to Jerusalem. Whether Paul said it or not, it was in the spring when he made this journey with a company of pilgrims probably going to the feast of Pentecost in Jerusalem. We know that later Paul did try to reach Jerusalem for Pentecost (Act 20:16) and succeeded. As the ship was leaving, Paul had to go, but with the hope of returning soon to Ephesus as he did.

Robertson: Act 18:22 - He went up and saluted the church He went up and saluted the church ( anabas kai aspasamenos tēn ekklēsian ). The language could refer to the church in Caesarea where Paul had jus...

He went up and saluted the church ( anabas kai aspasamenos tēn ekklēsian ).

The language could refer to the church in Caesarea where Paul had just landed, except for several things. The going up (anabas , second aorist active participle of anabainō ) is the common way of speaking of going to Jerusalem which was up from every direction save from Hebron. It was the capital of Palestine as people in England today speaking of going up to London. Besides "he went down to Antioch"(katebē eis Antiocheian , second aorist active indicative of katabainō ) which language suits better leaving Jerusalem than Caesarea. Moreover, there was no special reason for this trip to Caesarea, but to Jerusalem it was different. Here Paul saluted the church in the fourth of his five visits after his conversion (Act 9:26; Act 11:30; Act 15:4; Act 18:22; Act 21:17). The apostles may or may not have been in the city, but Paul had friends in Jerusalem now. Apparently he did not tarry long, but returned to Antioch to make a report of his second mission tour as he had done at the close of the first when he and Barnabas came back (Act 14:26-28). He had started on this tour with Silas and had picked up Timothy and Luke, but came back alone. He had a great story to tell.

Robertson: Act 18:23 - Having spent some time Having spent some time ( poiēsas chronon tina ). Literally, having done some time. How long we do not know, probably not long. There are those who ...

Having spent some time ( poiēsas chronon tina ).

Literally, having done some time. How long we do not know, probably not long. There are those who place the visit of Peter here to which Paul alludes in Gal 2:11. and which we have located while Paul was here the last time (Act 15:35).

Robertson: Act 18:23 - He departed He departed ( exēlthen ). Thus simply and alone Paul began the third mission tour without a Barnabas or a Silas.

He departed ( exēlthen ).

Thus simply and alone Paul began the third mission tour without a Barnabas or a Silas.

Robertson: Act 18:23 - Went through Went through ( dierchomenos ). Present middle participle, going through.

Went through ( dierchomenos ).

Present middle participle, going through.

Robertson: Act 18:23 - The region of Galatia and Phrygia The region of Galatia and Phrygia ( ten Galatikēn chōran kai Phrygian ). See note on Act 16:6 for discussion of this phrase, here in reverse orde...

The region of Galatia and Phrygia ( ten Galatikēn chōran kai Phrygian ).

See note on Act 16:6 for discussion of this phrase, here in reverse order, passing through the Galatic region and then Phrygia. Does Luke mean Lycaonia (Derbe and Lystra) and Phrygia (Iconium and Pisidian Antioch)? Or does he mean the route west through the old Galatia and the old Phrygia on west into Asia? The same conflict exists here over the South Galatian and the North Galatian theories. Phrygia is apparently distinguished from the Galatic region here. It is apparently a.d. 52 when Paul set out on this tour.

Robertson: Act 18:23 - In order In order ( kathexēs ). In succession as in Act 11:4, though the names of the cities are not given.

In order ( kathexēs ).

In succession as in Act 11:4, though the names of the cities are not given.

Robertson: Act 18:23 - Stablishing Stablishing ( stērizōn ). As he did in the second tour (Act 15:41, epistērizōn , compound of this same verb) which see.

Stablishing ( stērizōn ).

As he did in the second tour (Act 15:41, epistērizōn , compound of this same verb) which see.

Robertson: Act 18:24 - Apollos Apollos ( Apollōs ). Genitive ̇ō Attic second declension. Probably a contraction of Apollonios as D has it here.

Apollos ( Apollōs ).

Genitive ̇ō Attic second declension. Probably a contraction of Apollonios as D has it here.

Robertson: Act 18:24 - An Alexandrian An Alexandrian ( Alexandreus ). Alexander the Great founded this city b.c. 332 and placed a colony of Jews there which flourished greatly, one-third ...

An Alexandrian ( Alexandreus ).

Alexander the Great founded this city b.c. 332 and placed a colony of Jews there which flourished greatly, one-third of the population at this time. There was a great university and library there. The Jewish-Alexandrian philosophy developed here of which Philo was the chief exponent who was still living. Apollos was undoubtedly a man of the schools and a man of parts.

Robertson: Act 18:24 - A learned man A learned man ( anēr logios ). Or eloquent, as the word can mean either a man of words (like one "wordy,"verbose) or a man of ideas, since logos ...

A learned man ( anēr logios ).

Or eloquent, as the word can mean either a man of words (like one "wordy,"verbose) or a man of ideas, since logos was used either for reason or speech. Apollos was doubtless both learned (mighty in the Scriptures) and eloquent, though eloquence varies greatly in people’ s ideas.

Robertson: Act 18:24 - Mighty in the Scriptures Mighty in the Scriptures ( dunatos ōn en tais graphais ). Being powerful (dunatos verbal of dunamai and same root as dunamis , dynamite, dynamo...

Mighty in the Scriptures ( dunatos ōn en tais graphais ).

Being powerful (dunatos verbal of dunamai and same root as dunamis , dynamite, dynamo) in the Scriptures (in the knowledge and the use of the Scriptures), as should be true of every preacher. There is no excuse for ignorance of the Scriptures on the part of preachers, the professed interpreters of the word of God. The last lecture made to the New Testament English class in Southern Baptist Theological Seminary by John A. Broadus was on this passage with a plea for his students to be mighty in the Scriptures. In Alexandria Clement of Alexandria and Origen taught in the Christian theological school.

Robertson: Act 18:25 - Had been instructed in the way of the Lord Had been instructed in the way of the Lord ( ēn katēchēmenos tēn hodon tou kuriou ). Periphrastic past perfect passive of katēcheō , rare...

Had been instructed in the way of the Lord ( ēn katēchēmenos tēn hodon tou kuriou ).

Periphrastic past perfect passive of katēcheō , rare in the old Greek and not in the lxx from kata and ēcheō (ēchō , sound) as in Luk 1:4, to re-sound, to re-echo, to teach by repeated dinning into the ears as the Arabs do now, to teach orally by word of mouth (and ear). Here the accusative of the thing (the word) is retained in the passive like with didaskō , to teach (Robertson, Grammar , p. 485). Being fervent in spirit (zeōn tōi pneumati ). Boiling (from zeō , to boil, old and common verb, in N.T. only here and Rom 12:11) like boiling water or yeast. The Latin verb ferveo means to boil or ferment. Locative case after it.

Robertson: Act 18:25 - Taught carefully Taught carefully ( edidasken akribōs ). Imperfect active, was teaching or inchoative, began teaching, accurately. He taught accurately what he knew...

Taught carefully ( edidasken akribōs ).

Imperfect active, was teaching or inchoative, began teaching, accurately. He taught accurately what he knew, a fine gift for any preacher.

Robertson: Act 18:25 - Only the baptism of John Only the baptism of John ( monon to baptisma Iōanou ). It was a baptism of repentance (marked by repentance) as Paul said (Act 13:24; Act 19:4), ...

Only the baptism of John ( monon to baptisma Iōanou ).

It was a baptism of repentance (marked by repentance) as Paul said (Act 13:24; Act 19:4), as Peter said (Act 2:38) and as the Gospels tell (Mar 1:4, etc.). That is to say, Apollos knew only what the Baptist knew when he died, but John had preached the coming of the Messiah, had baptized him, had identified him as the Son of God, had proclaimed the baptism of the Holy Spirit, but had not seen the Cross, the Resurrection of Jesus, nor the great Day of Pentecost.

Robertson: Act 18:26 - They took him unto them They took him unto them ( proselabonto ). Second aorist middle (indirect) indicative of proslambanō , old verb, to their home and heart as companio...

They took him unto them ( proselabonto ).

Second aorist middle (indirect) indicative of proslambanō , old verb, to their home and heart as companion (cf. the rabbis and the ruffians in Act 17:5). Probably for dinner after service.

Robertson: Act 18:26 - Expounded Expounded ( exethento ). Second aorist (effective) middle indicative of ektithēmi seen already in Act 11:4, to set forth.

Expounded ( exethento ).

Second aorist (effective) middle indicative of ektithēmi seen already in Act 11:4, to set forth.

Robertson: Act 18:26 - More carefully More carefully ( akribesteron ). Comparative adverb of akribōs . More accurately than he already knew. Instead of abusing the young and brilliant p...

More carefully ( akribesteron ).

Comparative adverb of akribōs . More accurately than he already knew. Instead of abusing the young and brilliant preacher for his ignorance they (particularly Priscilla) gave him the fuller story of the life and work of Jesus and of the apostolic period to fill up the gaps in his knowledge. It is a needed and delicate task, this thing of teaching gifted young ministers. They do not learn it all in schools. More of it comes from contact with men and women rich in grace and in the knowledge of God’ s ways. He was not rebaptized, but only received fuller information.

Robertson: Act 18:27 - Encouraged him Encouraged him ( protrepsamenoi ). First aorist middle participle of protrepō , old verb, to urge forward, to push on, only here in the N.T. Since ...

Encouraged him ( protrepsamenoi ).

First aorist middle participle of protrepō , old verb, to urge forward, to push on, only here in the N.T. Since Apollos wanted (boulomenou autou , genitive absolute) to go into Achaia, the brethren (including others besides Priscilla and Aquila) wrote (egrapsan ) a letter of introduction to the disciples in Corinth to receive him (apodexasthai auton ), a nice letter of recommendation and a sincere one also. But Paul will refer to this very letter later (2Co 3:1) and observe that he himself needed no such letter of commendation. The Codex Bezae adds here that certain Corinthians who had come to Ephesus heard Apollos and begged him to cross over with them to Corinth. This may very well be the way that Apollos was led to go. Preachers often receive calls because visitors from other places hear them. Priscilla and Aquila were well known in Corinth and their approval would carry weight. But they did not urge Apollos to stay longer in Ephesus.

Robertson: Act 18:27 - Helped them much Helped them much ( sunebaleto polu ). Second aorist middle indicative of sunballō used in Act 17:18 for "dispute,"old verb to throw together, in ...

Helped them much ( sunebaleto polu ).

Second aorist middle indicative of sunballō used in Act 17:18 for "dispute,"old verb to throw together, in the N.T. always in the active save here in the middle (common in Greek writers) to put together, to help.

Robertson: Act 18:27 - Through grace Through grace ( dia tēs charitos ). This makes sense if taken with "believed,"as Hackett does (cf. Act 13:48; Act 16:14) or with "helped"(1Co 3:10;...

Through grace ( dia tēs charitos ).

This makes sense if taken with "believed,"as Hackett does (cf. Act 13:48; Act 16:14) or with "helped"(1Co 3:10; 1Co 15:10; 2Co 1:12). Both are true as the references show.

Robertson: Act 18:28 - Powerfully Powerfully ( eutonōs ). Adverb from eutonos (eu , well, teinō , to stretch), well-strung, at full stretch.

Powerfully ( eutonōs ).

Adverb from eutonos (eu , well, teinō , to stretch), well-strung, at full stretch.

Robertson: Act 18:28 - Confuted Confuted ( diakatēlegcheto ). Imperfect middle of the double compound verb diȧkaṫelegchomai , to confute with rivalry in a contest, here alone....

Confuted ( diakatēlegcheto ).

Imperfect middle of the double compound verb diȧkaṫelegchomai , to confute with rivalry in a contest, here alone. The old Greek has dielegchō , to convict of falsehood, but not this double compound which means to argue down to a finish. It is the imperfect tense and does not mean that Apollos convinced these rabbis, but he had the last word.

Robertson: Act 18:28 - Publicly Publicly ( dēmosiāi ). See note on Act 5:18; and note on Act 16:37. In open meeting where all could see the victory of Apollos.

Publicly ( dēmosiāi ).

See note on Act 5:18; and note on Act 16:37. In open meeting where all could see the victory of Apollos.

Robertson: Act 18:28 - Shewing Shewing ( epideiknus ). Present active participle of epideiknumi , old verb to set forth so that all see.

Shewing ( epideiknus ).

Present active participle of epideiknumi , old verb to set forth so that all see.

Robertson: Act 18:28 - By the Scriptures By the Scriptures ( dia tōn graphōn ). In which Apollos was so "mighty"(Act 18:24) and the rabbis so weak for they knew the oral law better than ...

By the Scriptures ( dia tōn graphōn ).

In which Apollos was so "mighty"(Act 18:24) and the rabbis so weak for they knew the oral law better than the written (Mar 7:8-12).

Robertson: Act 18:28 - That Jesus was the Christ That Jesus was the Christ ( einai ton Christon Iēsoun ). Infinitive and the accusative in indirect assertion. Apollos proclaims the same message th...

That Jesus was the Christ ( einai ton Christon Iēsoun ).

Infinitive and the accusative in indirect assertion. Apollos proclaims the same message that Paul did everywhere (Act 17:3). He had not yet met Paul, but he had been instructed by Priscilla and Aquila. He is in Corinth building on the foundation laid so well by Paul (1Co 3:4-17). Luke has here made a brief digression from the story of Paul, but it helps us understand Paul better There are those who think that Apollos wrote Hebrews, a guess that may be correct.

Vincent: Act 18:1 - Found Found " A Jewish guild always keeps together, whether in street or synagogue. In Alexandria the different trades sat in the synagogue arranged in...

Found

" A Jewish guild always keeps together, whether in street or synagogue. In Alexandria the different trades sat in the synagogue arranged into guilds; and St. Paul could have no difficulty in meeting, in the bazaar of his trade, with the like-minded Aquila and Priscilla" (Edersheim, " Jewish Social Life" ).

Vincent: Act 18:2 - Lately Lately ( προσφάτως ) Only here in New Testament, though the kindred adjective, rendered new, is found in Heb 10:20. It is derived from...

Lately ( προσφάτως )

Only here in New Testament, though the kindred adjective, rendered new, is found in Heb 10:20. It is derived from φένω , to slay, and the adjective means, originally, lately slain; thence , fresh, new, recent. It is quite common in medical writings in this sense.

Vincent: Act 18:3 - Of the same craft Of the same craft ( ὁμότεχνον ) It was a Rabbinical principle that whoever does not teach his son a trade is as if he brought him up...

Of the same craft ( ὁμότεχνον )

It was a Rabbinical principle that whoever does not teach his son a trade is as if he brought him up to be a robber. All the Rabbinical authorities in Christ's time, and later, were working at some trade. Hillel, Paul's teacher, was a wood-cutter, and his rival, Shammai, a carpenter. It is recorded of one of the celebrated Rabbis that he was in the habit of discoursing to his students from the top of a cask of his own making, which he carried every day to the academy.

Vincent: Act 18:3 - Tent-makers Tent-makers ( σκηνοποιοὶ ) Not weavers of the goat's-hair cloth of which tents were made, which could easily be procured at every lar...

Tent-makers ( σκηνοποιοὶ )

Not weavers of the goat's-hair cloth of which tents were made, which could easily be procured at every large town in the Levant, but makers of tents used by shepherds and travellers. It was a trade lightly esteemed and poorly paid.

Vincent: Act 18:5 - Was pressed in the spirit Was pressed in the spirit ( συνείχετο τῷ πνεύματι ) Instead of spirit the best texts read λόγῳ , by the wor...

Was pressed in the spirit ( συνείχετο τῷ πνεύματι )

Instead of spirit the best texts read λόγῳ , by the word. On pressed or constrained, see note on taken, Luk 4:38. The meaning is, Paul was engrossed by the word. He was relieved of anxiety by the arrival of his friends, and stimulated to greater activity in the work of preaching the word.

Vincent: Act 18:6 - Opposed themselves Opposed themselves ( ἀντιτασσομένων ) Implying an organized or concerted resistance. See on resisteth, 1Pe 5:5.

Opposed themselves ( ἀντιτασσομένων )

Implying an organized or concerted resistance. See on resisteth, 1Pe 5:5.

Vincent: Act 18:12 - Gallio Gallio Brother of the philosopher Seneca (Nero's tutor), and uncle of the poet Lucan, the author of the " Pharsalia." Seneca speaks of him as am...

Gallio

Brother of the philosopher Seneca (Nero's tutor), and uncle of the poet Lucan, the author of the " Pharsalia." Seneca speaks of him as amiable and greatly beloved.

Vincent: Act 18:12 - Deputy Deputy See on Act 13:7. The verb, to be deputy, occurs only here.

Deputy

See on Act 13:7. The verb, to be deputy, occurs only here.

Vincent: Act 18:12 - Judgment-seat Judgment-seat See on Act 7:5.

Judgment-seat

See on Act 7:5.

Vincent: Act 18:14 - Lewdness Lewdness ( ῥᾳδιούργημα ) See on mischief , Act 13:10. Rev., villany.

Lewdness ( ῥᾳδιούργημα )

See on mischief , Act 13:10. Rev., villany.

Vincent: Act 18:15 - Question Question The best texts read the plural, questions. See on Act 15:2.

Question

The best texts read the plural, questions. See on Act 15:2.

Vincent: Act 18:15 - Judge Judge In the Greek the position of the word is emphatic, at the beginning of the sentence: " Judge of these matters I am not minded to be."

Judge

In the Greek the position of the word is emphatic, at the beginning of the sentence: " Judge of these matters I am not minded to be."

Vincent: Act 18:17 - Cared for none of these things Cared for none of these things Not said to indicate his indifference to religion, but simply that he did not choose to interfere in this ease.

Cared for none of these things

Not said to indicate his indifference to religion, but simply that he did not choose to interfere in this ease.

Vincent: Act 18:18 - Took his leave Took his leave ( ἀποταξάμενος ) See on Luk 9:61; and Mar 6:46.

Took his leave ( ἀποταξάμενος )

See on Luk 9:61; and Mar 6:46.

Vincent: Act 18:18 - Priscilla and Aquila Priscilla and Aquila They are named in the same order, Rom 16:3; 2Ti 4:19.

Priscilla and Aquila

They are named in the same order, Rom 16:3; 2Ti 4:19.

Vincent: Act 18:18 - Having shorn his head Having shorn his head Referring to Paul, and not to Aquila.

Having shorn his head

Referring to Paul, and not to Aquila.

Vincent: Act 18:18 - He had a vow He had a vow A private vow, such as was often assumed by the Jews in consequence of some mercy received or of some deliverance from danger. Not t...

He had a vow

A private vow, such as was often assumed by the Jews in consequence of some mercy received or of some deliverance from danger. Not the Nazarite vow, though similar in its obligations; for, in the case of that vow, the cutting of the hair, which marked the close of the period of obligation, could take place only in Jerusalem.

Vincent: Act 18:21 - I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem The best texts omit.

I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Act 18:24 - Eloquent Eloquent ( λόγιος ) Only here in New Testament. The word is used in Greek literature in several senses. As λόγος means either re...

Eloquent ( λόγιος )

Only here in New Testament. The word is used in Greek literature in several senses. As λόγος means either reason or speech, so this derivative may signify either one who has thought much, and has much to say, or one who can say it well. Hence it is used: 1. Of one skilled in history. Herodotus, for example, says that the Heliopolitans are the most learned in history (λογιώτατοι ) of all the Egyptians. 2. Of an eloquent person. An epithet of Hermes or Mercury, as the god of speech and eloquence. 3. Of a learned person generally. There seems hardly sufficient reason for changing the rendering of the A. V. (Rev., learned ) , especially as the scripture-learning of Apollos is specified in the words mighty in the scriptures, and his superior eloquence appears to have been the reason why some of the Corinthians preferred him to Paul. See 1Co 1:12; 1Co 2:4; 2Co 10:10.

Vincent: Act 18:25 - Instructed Instructed See on Luk 1:4.

Instructed

See on Luk 1:4.

Vincent: Act 18:25 - Fervent Fervent ( ζέων ) Fervent, which is formed from the participle of the Latin ferveo , to boil or ferment, is an exact translation of t...

Fervent ( ζέων )

Fervent, which is formed from the participle of the Latin ferveo , to boil or ferment, is an exact translation of this word, which means to seethe or bubble, and is therefore used figuratively of mental states and emotions. See on leaven, Mat 13:33.

Vincent: Act 18:25 - Diligently Diligently ( ἀκριβῶς ) Rather, accurately; so far as his knowledge went. The limitation is given by the words following: knowing on...

Diligently ( ἀκριβῶς )

Rather, accurately; so far as his knowledge went. The limitation is given by the words following: knowing only the baptism of John. See on Luk 1:3; and compare the kindred verb, inquired diligently, Mat 2:7, where Rev. renders learned carefully.

Vincent: Act 18:26 - More perfectly More perfectly ( ἀκριβέστερον ) The comparative of the same word. More accurately.

More perfectly ( ἀκριβέστερον )

The comparative of the same word. More accurately.

Vincent: Act 18:27 - Exhorting Exhorting ( προτρεψάμενοι ) Originally, to turn forward, as in flight. Hence, to impel or urge. The word may apply either to...

Exhorting ( προτρεψάμενοι )

Originally, to turn forward, as in flight. Hence, to impel or urge. The word may apply either to the disciples at Corinth, in which case we must render as A. V., or to Apollos himself, as Rev., encouraged him. I prefer the former. Hackett very sensibly remarks that Apollos did not need encouragement, as he was disposed to go.

Vincent: Act 18:27 - Helped Helped ( συνεβάλετο ) The radical sense of the word is to throw together: hence, to contribute; to help; to be useful to. He ...

Helped ( συνεβάλετο )

The radical sense of the word is to throw together: hence, to contribute; to help; to be useful to. He threw himself into the work along with them. On different senses of the word, see notes on Luk 2:19; and see on Luk 14:31; and compare Act 4:15; Act 17:18; Act 18:27; Act 20:14.

Vincent: Act 18:27 - Through grace Through grace Grace has the article, the special grace of God imparted. Expositors differ as to the connection; some joining through grace ...

Through grace

Grace has the article, the special grace of God imparted. Expositors differ as to the connection; some joining through grace with them which had believed, insisting on the Greek order of the words; and others with helped, referring to grace conferred on Apollos. I prefer the latter, principally for the reason urged by Meyer, that " the design of the text is to characterize Apollos and his work, and not those who believed."

Vincent: Act 18:28 - Mightily Mightily ( εὐτόνως ) See on Luk 23:10.

Mightily ( εὐτόνως )

See on Luk 23:10.

Vincent: Act 18:28 - Convinced Convinced ( διακατηλέγχετο ) Only here in New Testament. See on tell him his fault, Mat 18:15. The compound here is a very stro...

Convinced ( διακατηλέγχετο )

Only here in New Testament. See on tell him his fault, Mat 18:15. The compound here is a very strong expression for thorough confutation. Confute (Rev.) is better than convince. Note the prepositions. He confuted them thoroughly (διά ) , against (κατά ) all their arguments.

Wesley: Act 18:1 - Paul departing from Athens He did not stay there long. The philosophers there were too easy, too indolent, and too wise in their own eyes to receive the Gospel.

He did not stay there long. The philosophers there were too easy, too indolent, and too wise in their own eyes to receive the Gospel.

Wesley: Act 18:2 - Claudius, the Roman emperor, had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome All who were Jews by birth. Whether they were Jews or Christians by religion, the Romans were too stately to regard.

All who were Jews by birth. Whether they were Jews or Christians by religion, the Romans were too stately to regard.

Wesley: Act 18:3 - They were tent makers by trade For it was a rule among the Jews (and why is it not among the Christians?) to bring up all their children to some trade, were they ever so rich or nob...

For it was a rule among the Jews (and why is it not among the Christians?) to bring up all their children to some trade, were they ever so rich or noble.

Wesley: Act 18:5 - And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia Silas seems to have stayed a considerable time at Berea: but Timotheus had come to the apostle while he was at Athens, and been sent by him to comfort...

Silas seems to have stayed a considerable time at Berea: but Timotheus had come to the apostle while he was at Athens, and been sent by him to comfort and confirm the Church at Thessalonica, 1Th 3:1-5. But now at length both Silas and Timotheus came to the apostle at Corinth.

Wesley: Act 18:5 - Paul was pressed in spirit The more probably from what Silas and Timotheus related. Every Christian ought diligently to observe any such pressure in his own spirit, and if it ag...

The more probably from what Silas and Timotheus related. Every Christian ought diligently to observe any such pressure in his own spirit, and if it agree with Scripture, to follow it: if he does not he will feel great heaviness.

Wesley: Act 18:6 - He shook his raiment To signify he would from that time refrain from them: and to intimate, that God would soon shake them off as unworthy to be numbered among his people.

To signify he would from that time refrain from them: and to intimate, that God would soon shake them off as unworthy to be numbered among his people.

Wesley: Act 18:6 - I am pure None can say this but he that has borne a full testimony against sin.

None can say this but he that has borne a full testimony against sin.

Wesley: Act 18:6 - From henceforth I will go to the Gentiles But not to them altogether. He did not break off all intercourse with the Jews even at Corinth. Only he preached no more in their synagogue.

But not to them altogether. He did not break off all intercourse with the Jews even at Corinth. Only he preached no more in their synagogue.

Wesley: Act 18:7 - He went into the house of one named Justus A Gentile, and preached there, though probably he still lodged with Aquila.

A Gentile, and preached there, though probably he still lodged with Aquila.

Wesley: Act 18:8 - And many hearing The conversation of Crispus, and the preaching of Paul.

The conversation of Crispus, and the preaching of Paul.

Wesley: Act 18:10 - -- I am with thee: therefore fear not all the learning, politeness, grandeur, or power of the inhabitants of this city.

I am with thee: therefore fear not all the learning, politeness, grandeur, or power of the inhabitants of this city.

Wesley: Act 18:10 - Speak and hold not thy peace For thy labour shall not be in vain.

For thy labour shall not be in vain.

Wesley: Act 18:10 - For I have much people in this city So he prophetically calls them that afterward believed.

So he prophetically calls them that afterward believed.

Wesley: Act 18:11 - He continued there a year and six months A long time! But how few souls are now gained in a longer time than this? Who is in the fault? Generally both teachers and hearers.

A long time! But how few souls are now gained in a longer time than this? Who is in the fault? Generally both teachers and hearers.

Wesley: Act 18:12 - When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia Of which Corinth was the chief city. This Gallio, the brother of the famous Seneca, is much commended both by him and by other writers, for the sweetn...

Of which Corinth was the chief city. This Gallio, the brother of the famous Seneca, is much commended both by him and by other writers, for the sweetness and generosity of his temper, and easiness of his behaviour. Yet one thing he lacked! But he knew it not and had no concern about it.

Wesley: Act 18:15 - But if it be He speaks with the utmost coolness and contempt, a question of names - The names of the heathen gods were fables and shadows. But the question concern...

He speaks with the utmost coolness and contempt, a question of names - The names of the heathen gods were fables and shadows. But the question concerning the name of Jesus is of more importance than all things else under heaven. Yet there is this singularity (among a thousand others) in the Christian religion, that human reason, curious as it is in all other things, abhors to inquire into it.

Wesley: Act 18:17 - Then they all took Sosthenes The successor of Crispus, and probably Paul's chief accuser, and beat him - It seems because he had occasioned them so much trouble to no purpose, bef...

The successor of Crispus, and probably Paul's chief accuser, and beat him - It seems because he had occasioned them so much trouble to no purpose, before the judgment seat - One can hardly think in the sight of Gallio, though at no great distance from him. And it seems to have had a happy effect. For Sosthenes himself was afterward a Christian, 1Co 1:1.

Wesley: Act 18:18 - Paul continued many days After the year and six months, to confirm the brethren.

After the year and six months, to confirm the brethren.

Wesley: Act 18:18 - Aquila having shaved his head As was the custom in a vow, Act 21:24; Num 6:18.

As was the custom in a vow, Act 21:24; Num 6:18.

Wesley: Act 18:18 - At Cenchrea A seaport town, at a small distance from Corinth.

A seaport town, at a small distance from Corinth.

Wesley: Act 18:21 - I must by all means keep the feast at Jerusalem This was not from any apprehension that he was obliged in conscience to keep the Jewish feasts; but to take the opportunity of meeting a great number ...

This was not from any apprehension that he was obliged in conscience to keep the Jewish feasts; but to take the opportunity of meeting a great number of his countrymen to whom he might preach Christ, or whom he might farther instruct, or free from the prejudices they had imbibed against him.

Wesley: Act 18:21 - But I will return to you So he did, Act 19:1.

So he did, Act 19:1.

Wesley: Act 18:22 - And landing at Cesarea, he went up Immediately to Jerusalem; and saluted the Church - Eminently so called, being the mother Church of Christian believers: and having kept the feast ther...

Immediately to Jerusalem; and saluted the Church - Eminently so called, being the mother Church of Christian believers: and having kept the feast there, he went down from thence to Antioch.

Wesley: Act 18:23 - He went over the country of Galatia and Phrygia It is supposed, spending about four years therein, including the time he stayed at Ephesus.

It is supposed, spending about four years therein, including the time he stayed at Ephesus.

Wesley: Act 18:24 - An eloquent man, mighty in the Scriptures Of the Old Testament. Every talent may be of use in the kingdom of God, if joined with the knowledge of the Scriptures and fervour of spirit.

Of the Old Testament. Every talent may be of use in the kingdom of God, if joined with the knowledge of the Scriptures and fervour of spirit.

Wesley: Act 18:25 - This man had been instructed Though not perfectly, in the way of the Lord - In the doctrine of Christ.

Though not perfectly, in the way of the Lord - In the doctrine of Christ.

Wesley: Act 18:25 - Knowing only the baptism of John Only what John taught those whom he baptized, namely, to repent and believe in a Messiah shortly to appear.

Only what John taught those whom he baptized, namely, to repent and believe in a Messiah shortly to appear.

Wesley: Act 18:26 - He spake Privately; and taught publicly. Probably he returned to live at Alexandria, soon after he had been baptized by John; and so had no opportunity of bein...

Privately; and taught publicly. Probably he returned to live at Alexandria, soon after he had been baptized by John; and so had no opportunity of being fully acquainted with the doctrines of the Gospel, as delivered by Christ and his apostles.

Wesley: Act 18:26 - And explained to him the way of God more perfectly He who knows Christ, is able to instruct even those that are mighty in the Scriptures.

He who knows Christ, is able to instruct even those that are mighty in the Scriptures.

Wesley: Act 18:27 - Who greatly helped through grace It is through grace only that any gift of any one is profitable to another.

It is through grace only that any gift of any one is profitable to another.

Wesley: Act 18:27 - Them that had believed Apollos did not plant, but water. This was the peculiar gift which he had received. And he was better able to convince the Jews, than to convert the h...

Apollos did not plant, but water. This was the peculiar gift which he had received. And he was better able to convince the Jews, than to convert the heathens.

JFB: Act 18:1-4 - came to Corinth Rebuilt by Julius Cæsar on the isthmus between the Ægean and Ionian Seas; the capital of the Roman province of Achaia, and the residence of the proc...

Rebuilt by Julius Cæsar on the isthmus between the Ægean and Ionian Seas; the capital of the Roman province of Achaia, and the residence of the proconsul; a large and populous mercantile city, and the center of commerce alike for East and West; having a considerable Jewish population, larger, probably, at this time than usual, owing to the banishment of the Jews from Rome by Claudius Cæsar (Act 18:2). Such a city was a noble field for the Gospel, which, once established there, would naturally diffuse itself far and wide.

JFB: Act 18:2 - a Jew . . . Aquila . . . with his wife Priscilla From these Latin names one would conclude that they had resided so long in Rome as to lose their Jewish family names.

From these Latin names one would conclude that they had resided so long in Rome as to lose their Jewish family names.

JFB: Act 18:2 - born in Pontus The most easterly province of Asia Minor, stretching along the southern shore of the Black Sea. From this province there were Jews at Jerusalem on the...

The most easterly province of Asia Minor, stretching along the southern shore of the Black Sea. From this province there were Jews at Jerusalem on the great Pentecost (Act 2:9), and the Christians of it are included among "the strangers of the dispersion," to whom Peter addressed his first Epistle (1Pe 1:1). Whether this couple were converted before Paul made their acquaintance, commentators are much divided. They may have brought their Christianity with them from Rome [OLSHAUSEN], or Paul may have been drawn to them merely by like occupation, and, lodging with them, have been the instrument of their conversion [MEYER]. They appear to have been in good circumstances, and after travelling much, to have eventually settled at Ephesus. The Christian friendship now first formed continued warm and unbroken, and the highest testimony is once and again borne to them by the apostle.

JFB: Act 18:2 - Claudius, &c. This edict is almost certainly that mentioned by SUETONIUS, in his life of this emperor [Lives of the Cæsars, "Claudius," 25].

This edict is almost certainly that mentioned by SUETONIUS, in his life of this emperor [Lives of the Cæsars, "Claudius," 25].

JFB: Act 18:3 - tentmakers Manufacturers, probably, of those hair-cloth tents supplied by the goats of the apostle's native province, and hence, as sold in the markets of the Le...

Manufacturers, probably, of those hair-cloth tents supplied by the goats of the apostle's native province, and hence, as sold in the markets of the Levant, called cilicium. Every Jewish youth, whatever the pecuniary circumstances of his parents, was taught some trade (see on Luk 2:42), and Paul made it a point of conscience to work at that which he had probably been bred to, partly that he might not be burdensome to the churches, and partly that his motives as a minister of Christ might not be liable to misconstruction. To both these he makes frequent reference in his Epistles.

JFB: Act 18:4 - the Greeks That is, Gentile proselytes; for to the heathen, as usual, he only turned when rejected by the Jews (Act 18:6).

That is, Gentile proselytes; for to the heathen, as usual, he only turned when rejected by the Jews (Act 18:6).

JFB: Act 18:5-6 - And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia That is, from Thessalonica, whither Silas had probably accompanied Timothy when sent back from Athens (see on Act 17:15).

That is, from Thessalonica, whither Silas had probably accompanied Timothy when sent back from Athens (see on Act 17:15).

JFB: Act 18:5-6 - Paul was pressed in the spirit Rather (according to what is certainly the true reading) "was pressed with the word"; expressing not only his zeal and assiduity in preaching it, but ...

Rather (according to what is certainly the true reading) "was pressed with the word"; expressing not only his zeal and assiduity in preaching it, but some inward pressure which at this time he experienced in the work (to convey which more clearly was probably the origin of the common reading). What that pressure was we happen to know, with singular minuteness and vividness of description, from the apostle himself, in his first Epistles to the Corinthians and Thessalonians (1Co 2:1-5; 1Th 3:1-10). He had come away from Athens, as he remained there, in a depressed and anxious state of mind, having there met, for the first time, with unwilling Gentile ears. He continued, apparently for some time, laboring alone in the synagogue of Corinth, full of deep and anxious solicitude for his Thessalonian converts. His early ministry at Corinth was colored by these feelings. Himself deeply humbled, his power as a preacher was more than ever felt to lie in demonstration of the Spirit. At length Silas and Timotheus arrived with exhilarating tidings of the faith and love of his Thessalonian children, and of their earnest longing again to see their father in Christ; bringing with them also, in token of their love and duty, a pecuniary contribution for the supply of his wants. This seems to have so lifted him as to put new life and vigor into his ministry. He now wrote his FIRST EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS, in which the "pressure" which resulted from all this strikingly appears. (See Introduction to First Thessalonians). Such emotions are known only to the ministers of Christ, and, even of them, only to such as "travail in birth until Christ be formed in" their hearers.

JFB: Act 18:6 - Your blood be upon your own heads, &c. See Eze 33:4, Eze 33:9.

JFB: Act 18:6 - from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles Compare Act 13:46.

Compare Act 13:46.

JFB: Act 18:7-8 - he departed thence, and entered into a certain man's house, named Justus Not changing his lodging, as if Aquila and Priscilla up to this time were with the opponents of the apostle [ALFORD], but merely ceasing any more to t...

Not changing his lodging, as if Aquila and Priscilla up to this time were with the opponents of the apostle [ALFORD], but merely ceasing any more to testify in the synagogue, and henceforth carrying on his labors in this house of Justus, which "joining hard to the synagogue," would be easily accessible to such of its worshippers as were still open to light. Justus, too, being probably a proselyte, would more easily draw a mixed audience than the synagogue. From this time forth conversions rapidly increased.

JFB: Act 18:8 - Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house An event felt to be so important that the apostle deviated from his usual practice (1Co 1:14-16) and baptized him, as well as Caius (Gaius) and the ho...

An event felt to be so important that the apostle deviated from his usual practice (1Co 1:14-16) and baptized him, as well as Caius (Gaius) and the household of Stephanas, with his own hand [HOWSON].

JFB: Act 18:8 - many of the Corinthians . . . believed and were baptized The beginning of the church gathered there.

The beginning of the church gathered there.

JFB: Act 18:9-11 - Then spake the Lord to Paul . . . by a vision, Be not afraid . . . no man shall set on thee to hurt thee, &c. From this it would seem that these signal successes were stirring up the wrath of the unbelieving Jews, and probably the apostle feared being driven b...

From this it would seem that these signal successes were stirring up the wrath of the unbelieving Jews, and probably the apostle feared being driven by violence, as before, from this scene of such promising labor. He is reassured, however, from above.

JFB: Act 18:10 - I have much people in this city "whom in virtue of their election to eternal life He already designates as His" (compare Act 13:48) [BAUMGARTEN].

"whom in virtue of their election to eternal life He already designates as His" (compare Act 13:48) [BAUMGARTEN].

JFB: Act 18:11 - continued there a year and six months The whole period of this stay at Corinth, and not merely up to what is next recorded. During some part of this period he wrote his SECOND EPISTLE TO T...

The whole period of this stay at Corinth, and not merely up to what is next recorded. During some part of this period he wrote his SECOND EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS. (See Introduction to Second Thessalonians.)

JFB: Act 18:12-17 - when Gallio was the deputy "the proconsul." See on Act 13:7. He was brother to the celebrated philosopher SENECA, the tutor of Nero, who passed sentence of death on both.

"the proconsul." See on Act 13:7. He was brother to the celebrated philosopher SENECA, the tutor of Nero, who passed sentence of death on both.

JFB: Act 18:13 - contrary to the Jewish

Jewish

JFB: Act 18:13 - law Probably in not requiring the Gentiles to be circumcised.

Probably in not requiring the Gentiles to be circumcised.

JFB: Act 18:14 - If it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness Any offense punishable by the magistrate.

Any offense punishable by the magistrate.

JFB: Act 18:15 - if it be a question of words and names, and of your law . . . I will be no judge, &c. In this only laying down the proper limits of his office.

In this only laying down the proper limits of his office.

JFB: Act 18:16 - drave them, &c. Annoyed at such a case.

Annoyed at such a case.

JFB: Act 18:17 - all the Greeks The Gentile spectators.

The Gentile spectators.

JFB: Act 18:17 - took Sosthenes Perhaps the successor of Crispus, and certainly the head of the accusing party. It is very improbable that this was the same Sosthenes as the apostle ...

Perhaps the successor of Crispus, and certainly the head of the accusing party. It is very improbable that this was the same Sosthenes as the apostle afterwards calls "his brother" (1Co 1:1).

JFB: Act 18:17 - and beat him before the judgment-seat Under the very eye of the judge.

Under the very eye of the judge.

JFB: Act 18:17 - And Gallio cared for none of those things Nothing loath, perhaps, to see these turbulent Jews, for whom probably he felt contempt, themselves getting what they hoped to inflict on another, and...

Nothing loath, perhaps, to see these turbulent Jews, for whom probably he felt contempt, themselves getting what they hoped to inflict on another, and indifferent to whatever was beyond the range of his office and case. His brother eulogizes his loving and lovable manners. Religious indifference, under the influence of an easy and amiable temper, reappears from age to age.

JFB: Act 18:18 - Paul . . . tarried . . . yet a good while During his long residence at Corinth, Paul planted other churches in Achaia (2Co 1:1).

During his long residence at Corinth, Paul planted other churches in Achaia (2Co 1:1).

JFB: Act 18:18 - then took . . . leave of the brethren, and sailed . . . into Rather, "for"

Rather, "for"

JFB: Act 18:18 - Syria To Antioch, the starting-point of all the missions to the Gentiles, which he feels to be for the present concluded.

To Antioch, the starting-point of all the missions to the Gentiles, which he feels to be for the present concluded.

JFB: Act 18:18 - with him Priscilla and Aquila In this order the names also occur in Act 18:26 (according to the true reading); compare Rom 16:3; 2Ti 4:19, which seem to imply that the wife was the...

In this order the names also occur in Act 18:26 (according to the true reading); compare Rom 16:3; 2Ti 4:19, which seem to imply that the wife was the more prominent and helpful to the Church. Silas and Timotheus doubtless accompanied the apostle, as also Erastus, Gaius, and Aristarchus (Act 19:22, Act 19:29). Of Silas, as Paul's associate, we read no more. His name occurs last in connection with Peter and the churches of Asia Minor [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Act 18:18 - having shorn his head in Cenchrea The eastern harbor of Corinth, about ten miles distant, where a church had been formed (Rom 16:1).

The eastern harbor of Corinth, about ten miles distant, where a church had been formed (Rom 16:1).

JFB: Act 18:18 - for he Paul.

Paul.

JFB: Act 18:18 - had a vow That it was the Nazarite vow (Num. 6:1-27) is not likely. It was probably one made in one of his seasons of difficulty or danger, in prosecution of wh...

That it was the Nazarite vow (Num. 6:1-27) is not likely. It was probably one made in one of his seasons of difficulty or danger, in prosecution of which he cuts off his hair and hastens to Jerusalem to offer the requisite sacrifice within the prescribed thirty days [JOSEPHUS, Wars of the Jews, 2.15.1]. This explains the haste with which he leaves Ephesus (Act 18:21), and the subsequent observance, on the recommendation of the brethren, of a similar vow (Act 21:24). This one at Corinth was voluntary, and shows that even in heathen countries he systematically studied the prejudices of his Jewish brethren.

JFB: Act 18:19 - he came to Ephesus The capital of the Roman province of Asia. (See Introduction to Ephesians). It was a sail, right across from the west to the east side of the Ægean S...

The capital of the Roman province of Asia. (See Introduction to Ephesians). It was a sail, right across from the west to the east side of the Ægean Sea, of some eight or ten days, with a fair wind.

JFB: Act 18:19 - left them there Aquila and Priscilla.

Aquila and Priscilla.

JFB: Act 18:19 - but he himself entered into the synagogue Merely taking advantage of the vessel putting in there.

Merely taking advantage of the vessel putting in there.

JFB: Act 18:19 - and reasoned with the Jews The tense here not being the usual one denoting continuous action (as in Act 17:2; Act 18:4), but that expressing a transient act. He had been forbidd...

The tense here not being the usual one denoting continuous action (as in Act 17:2; Act 18:4), but that expressing a transient act. He had been forbidden to preach the word in Asia (Act 16:6), but he would not consider that as precluding this passing exercise of his ministry when Providence brought him to its capital; nor did it follow that the prohibition was still in force.

JFB: Act 18:20 - when they desired him to tarry The Jews seldom rose against the Gospel till the successful preaching of it stirred them up, and there was no time for that here.

The Jews seldom rose against the Gospel till the successful preaching of it stirred them up, and there was no time for that here.

JFB: Act 18:21 - I must . . . keep this feast Probably Pentecost, presenting a noble opportunity of preaching the Gospel.

Probably Pentecost, presenting a noble opportunity of preaching the Gospel.

JFB: Act 18:21 - but I will return The fulfilment of which promise is recorded in Act 19:1.

The fulfilment of which promise is recorded in Act 19:1.

JFB: Act 18:22 - And when he had landed at Cæsarea Where he left the vessel.

Where he left the vessel.

JFB: Act 18:22 - and gone up That is, to Jerusalem.

That is, to Jerusalem.

JFB: Act 18:22 - and saluted the church In these few words does the historian despatch the apostle's FOURTH VISIT TO JERUSALEM after his conversion. The expression "going up" is invariably u...

In these few words does the historian despatch the apostle's FOURTH VISIT TO JERUSALEM after his conversion. The expression "going up" is invariably used of a journey to the metropolis; and thence he naturally "went down to Antioch." Perhaps the vessel reached too late for the feast, as he seems to have done nothing in Jerusalem beyond "saluting the Church," and privately offering the sacrifice with which his vow (Act 18:18) would conclude. It is left to be understood, as on his arrival from his first missionary tour, that "when he was come, and had gathered the church together, he rehearsed all that God had done with him" (Act 14:27) on this his second missionary journey.

JFB: Act 18:23 - And after he had spent some time there But probably not long.

But probably not long.

JFB: Act 18:23 - he departed Little thinking, probably, he was never more to return to Antioch.

Little thinking, probably, he was never more to return to Antioch.

JFB: Act 18:23 - went over all . . . Galatia and Phrygia in order Visiting the several churches in succession. See on Act 16:6. Galatia is mentioned first here, as he would come to it first from Antioch. It was on th...

Visiting the several churches in succession. See on Act 16:6. Galatia is mentioned first here, as he would come to it first from Antioch. It was on this visitation that he ordained the weekly collection (1Co 16:1-2), which has been since adopted generally, and converted into a public usage throughout Christendom. Timotheus and Erastus, Gaius and Aristarchus, appear to have accompanied him on this journey (Act 19:22, Act 19:29; 2Co 1:1), and from Second Corinthians we may presume, Titus also. The details of this visit, as of the former (Act 16:6), are not given.

JFB: Act 18:24-25 - a . . . Jew named Apollos A contraction from Apollonius.

A contraction from Apollonius.

JFB: Act 18:24-25 - born at Alexandria The celebrated city of Egypt on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean, called after its founder, Alexander the Great. Nowhere was there such a f...

The celebrated city of Egypt on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean, called after its founder, Alexander the Great. Nowhere was there such a fusion of Greek, Jewish, and Oriental peculiarities, and an intelligent Jew educated in that city could hardly fail to manifest all these elements in his mental character.

JFB: Act 18:24-25 - eloquent Turning his Alexandrian culture to high account.

Turning his Alexandrian culture to high account.

JFB: Act 18:24-25 - and mighty in the scriptures His eloquence enabling him to express clearly and enforce skilfully what, as a Jew, he had gathered from a diligent study of the Old Testament Scriptu...

His eloquence enabling him to express clearly and enforce skilfully what, as a Jew, he had gathered from a diligent study of the Old Testament Scriptures.

JFB: Act 18:24-25 - came to Ephesus On what errand is not known.

On what errand is not known.

JFB: Act 18:25 - This man was instructed in the way of the Lord . . . knowing only the baptism of John He was instructed, probably, by some disciple of the Baptist, in the whole circle of John's teaching concerning Jesus, but no more: he had yet to lear...

He was instructed, probably, by some disciple of the Baptist, in the whole circle of John's teaching concerning Jesus, but no more: he had yet to learn the new light which the outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost had thrown upon the Redeemer's death and resurrection; as appears from Act 19:2-3.

JFB: Act 18:25 - being fervent in the spirit His heart warm, and conscious, probably, of his gifts and attainments, he burned to impart to others the truth he had himself received.

His heart warm, and conscious, probably, of his gifts and attainments, he burned to impart to others the truth he had himself received.

JFB: Act 18:25 - he spake and taught diligently Rather, "accurately" (it is the same word as is rendered "perfectly" in Act 18:26).

Rather, "accurately" (it is the same word as is rendered "perfectly" in Act 18:26).

JFB: Act 18:26 - speak boldly in the synagogue, whom when Aquila and Priscilla heard Joying to observe the extent of Scripture knowledge and evangelical truth which he displayed, and the fervency, courage, and eloquence with which he p...

Joying to observe the extent of Scripture knowledge and evangelical truth which he displayed, and the fervency, courage, and eloquence with which he preached the truth.

JFB: Act 18:26 - they took him unto them Privately.

Privately.

JFB: Act 18:26 - and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly Opening up those truths, to him as yet unknown, on which the Spirit had shed such glorious light. (In what appears to be the true reading of this vers...

Opening up those truths, to him as yet unknown, on which the Spirit had shed such glorious light. (In what appears to be the true reading of this verse, Priscilla is put before Aquila, as in Act 18:18 [see on Act 18:18]; she being probably the more intelligent and devoted of the two). One cannot but observe how providential it was that this couple should have been left at Ephesus when Paul sailed thence for Syria; and no doubt it was chiefly to pave the way for the better understanding of this episode that the fact is expressly mentioned by the historian in Act 18:19. We see here also an example of not only lay agency (as it is called), but female agency of the highest kind and with the most admirable fruit. Nor can one help admiring the humility and teachableness of so gifted a teacher in sitting at the feet of a Christian woman and her husband.

JFB: Act 18:27-28 - And when he was disposed "minded," "resolved."

"minded," "resolved."

JFB: Act 18:27-28 - to pass into Achaia Of which Corinth, on the opposite coast (see on Act 18:1), was the capital; there to proclaim that Gospel which he now more fully comprehended.

Of which Corinth, on the opposite coast (see on Act 18:1), was the capital; there to proclaim that Gospel which he now more fully comprehended.

JFB: Act 18:27-28 - the brethren We had not before heard of such gathered at Ephesus. But the desire of the Jews to whom Paul preached to retain him among them for some time (Act 18:2...

We had not before heard of such gathered at Ephesus. But the desire of the Jews to whom Paul preached to retain him among them for some time (Act 18:20), and his promise to return to them (Act 18:21), seem to indicate some drawing towards the Gospel, which, no doubt, the zealous private labors of Priscilla and Aquila would ripen into discipleship.

JFB: Act 18:27-28 - wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him A beautiful specimen of "letters of recommendation" (as Act 15:23, Act 15:25-27, and see 2Co 3:1); by which, as well as by interchange of deputations,...

A beautiful specimen of "letters of recommendation" (as Act 15:23, Act 15:25-27, and see 2Co 3:1); by which, as well as by interchange of deputations, &c., the early churches maintained active Christian fellowship with each other.

JFB: Act 18:27-28 - when he was come, helped them much Was a great acquisition to the Achaian brethren.

Was a great acquisition to the Achaian brethren.

JFB: Act 18:27-28 - which believed through grace One of those incidental expressions which show that faith's being a production of God's grace in the heart was so current and recognized a truth that ...

One of those incidental expressions which show that faith's being a production of God's grace in the heart was so current and recognized a truth that it was taken for granted, as a necessary consequence of the general system of grace, rather than expressly insisted on. (It is against the natural order of the words to read them, as BENGEL, MEYER, and others, do, "helped through grace those who believed").

JFB: Act 18:28 - For he mightily convinced the Jews The word is very strong: "stoutly bore them down in argument," "vigorously argued them down," and the tense in that he continued to do it, or that thi...

The word is very strong: "stoutly bore them down in argument," "vigorously argued them down," and the tense in that he continued to do it, or that this was the characteristic of his ministry.

JFB: Act 18:28 - showing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ Rather, "that the Christ (or Messiah) was Jesus." This expression, when compared with Act 18:25, seems to imply a richer testimony than with his parti...

Rather, "that the Christ (or Messiah) was Jesus." This expression, when compared with Act 18:25, seems to imply a richer testimony than with his partial knowledge he was at first able to bear; and the power with which he bore down all opposition in argument is that which made him such an acquisition to the brethren. Thus his ministry would be as good as another visitation to the Achaian churches by the apostle himself (see 1Co 3:6) and the more as, in so far as he was indebted for it to Priscilla and Aquila, it would have a decidedly Pauline cast.

Clarke: Act 18:1 - Paul departed from Athens Paul departed from Athens - How long he stayed here, we cannot tell; it is probable it could not be less than three months; but, finding that the Go...

Paul departed from Athens - How long he stayed here, we cannot tell; it is probable it could not be less than three months; but, finding that the Gospel made little progress among the Athenians, he resolved to go to Corinth

Corinth was situated on the isthmus that connects Peloponnesus to Attica; and was the capital of all Achaia, or Peloponnesus. It was most advantageously situated for trade; for, by its two ports, the Lecheum and Cenchreae, it commanded the commerce both of the Ionian and Aegean Sea. It was destroyed by the Romans under Mummius, about one hundred and forty-six years before Christ, in their wars with Attica; but was rebuilt by Julius Caesar, and became one of the most considerable cities of Greece. Like other kingdoms and states, it has undergone a variety of revolutions: from the oppressive and destructive government of the Turks it has been lately restored to that of the Greeks; but it is greatly reduced, its whole population amounting only to between thirteen and fourteen thousand souls. It is about 46 miles east of Athens, and 342 S.W. of Constantinople. Its public buildings were very superb; and there the order called the Corinthian Order, in architecture, took its rise.

Clarke: Act 18:2 - A certain Jew named Aquila A certain Jew named Aquila - Some have supposed that this Aquila was the same with the Onkelos, mentioned by the Jews. See the article in Wolfius, B...

A certain Jew named Aquila - Some have supposed that this Aquila was the same with the Onkelos, mentioned by the Jews. See the article in Wolfius, Bibl. Hebr. vol. ii. p. 1147. We have no evidence that this Jew and his wife were at this time converted to the Christian religion. Their conversion was most likely the fruit of St. Paul’ s lodging with them - Pontus. See the note on Act 2:9

Clarke: Act 18:2 - Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome - This edict of the Roman emperor is not mentioned by Josephus; but it is probably the same to w...

Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome - This edict of the Roman emperor is not mentioned by Josephus; but it is probably the same to which Suetonius refers in his life of Claudius; where he says, Judaeos, impulsore Chresto, assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit . "He expelled the Jews from Rome, as they were making continual insurrections, under their leader Chrestus."Who this Chrestus was we cannot tell; probably Suetonius means Christ; but this I confess does not appear to me likely. There might have been a Jew of the name of Chrestus, who had made some disturbances, and, in consequence, Claudius thought proper to banish all Jews from the city. But how could he intend Christ, who was never at Rome? nor did any one ever personate him in that city; and it is evident he could not refer to any spiritual influence exerted by Christ on the minds of the people. Indeed he speaks of Chrestus as being the person who was the cause of the disturbances. It is no fictitious name, no name of an absent person, nor of a sect; but of one who was well known by the disturbances which he occasioned, and for which it is likely he suffered, and those of his nation were expelled. This decree, which was made, not by the senate, but by the emperor himself, continued only in force during his life, if so long; for in a short time after this Rome again abounded with Jews.

Clarke: Act 18:3 - He abode with them, and wrought He abode with them, and wrought - Bp. Pearce observes that it was a custom among the Jews, even of such as had a better education than ordinary, whi...

He abode with them, and wrought - Bp. Pearce observes that it was a custom among the Jews, even of such as had a better education than ordinary, which was Paul’ s case, Act 22:3, to learn a trade, that, wherever they were, they might provide for themselves in case of necessity. And though Paul, in some cases, lived on the bounty of his converts, yet he chose not to do so at Ephesus, Act 20:34; nor at Corinth or other places, 1Co 4:12; 2Co 9:8, 2Co 9:9; 1Th 3:8; and this Paul did for a reason which he gives in 2Co 11:9-12. While he was at Corinth he was supplied, when his own labor did not procure him enough, "by the brethren which came to him there from Macedonia."It appears that the apostle had his lodging with Aquila and Priscilla; and probably a portion of the profits of the business, after his board was deducted. It was evidently no reproach for a man, at that time, to unite public teaching with an honest useful trade. And why should it be so now? May not a man who has acquired a thorough knowledge of the Gospel way of salvation, explain that way to his less informed neighbors, though he be a tent-maker, (what perhaps we would call a house-carpenter), or a shoemaker, or any thing else? Even many of those who consider it a cardinal sin for a mechanic to preach the Gospel, are providing for themselves and their families in the same way. How many of the clergy, and other ministers, are farmers, graziers, schoolmasters, and sleeping partners in different trades and commercial concerns! A tent-maker, in his place, is as useful as any of these. Do not ridicule the mechanic because he preaches the Gospel to the salvation of his neighbors, lest some one should say, in a language which you glory to have learned, and which the mechanic has not, Mutato nomine, de Te fabula narrator

There are different opinions concerning that is meant here by the σκηνοποιος, which we translate tent-maker. Some think it means a maker of those small portable tents, formed of skins, which soldiers and travelers usually carried with them on their journeys; others suppose that these tents mere made of linen cloth. Some think that the trade of St. Paul was making hangings or curtains, such as were used at the theatres; others think the σκηνοποιος was a sort of umbrella-maker; others, a weaver, etc., etc. In short, we know not what the trade was. I have generally preferred the notion of a carpenter, or faber lignarius . Whatever it was, it was an honest, useful calling, and Paul got his bread by it.

Clarke: Act 18:4 - He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath - Discoursed at large concerning Jesus as the Messiah, proving this point from their own Scriptures, coll...

He reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath - Discoursed at large concerning Jesus as the Messiah, proving this point from their own Scriptures, collated with the facts of our Lord’ s life, etc

Clarke: Act 18:4 - And persuaded the Jews and the Greeks And persuaded the Jews and the Greeks - Many, both Jews and proselytes, were convinced of the truth of his doctrine. Among his converts was Epenetus...

And persuaded the Jews and the Greeks - Many, both Jews and proselytes, were convinced of the truth of his doctrine. Among his converts was Epenetus, the first fruit of his labor in Achaia, Rom 16:5; and the family of Stephanas was the next; and then Crispus and Caius, or Gaius; all of whom the apostle himself baptized, 1Co 1:14-16. See on Act 18:8 (note).

Clarke: Act 18:5 - When Silas and Timotheus were come When Silas and Timotheus were come - We have seen, Act 17:13, that when Paul was obliged to leave Berea, because of the persecution raised up agains...

When Silas and Timotheus were come - We have seen, Act 17:13, that when Paul was obliged to leave Berea, because of the persecution raised up against him in that place, he left Silas and Timotheus behind; to whom he afterwards sent word to rejoin him at Athens with all speed. It appears, from 1Th 3:10, that, on Timothy’ s coming to Athens, Paul immediately sent him, and probably Silas with him, to comfort and establish the Church at Thessalonica. How long they labored here is uncertain, but they did not rejoin him till some time after he came to Corinth. It appears that he was greatly rejoiced at the account which Timothy brought of the Church at Thessalonica; and it must have been immediately after this that he wrote his first epistle to that Church, which is probably the first, in order of time, of all his epistles

Clarke: Act 18:5 - Paul was pressed in spirit Paul was pressed in spirit - Συνειχετο τῳ πνευματι, or he was constrained by the Spirit of God, in an extraordinary manner, to...

Paul was pressed in spirit - Συνειχετο τῳ πνευματι, or he was constrained by the Spirit of God, in an extraordinary manner, to testify to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. Instead of τῳ πνευματι, in the spirit, τῳ λογῳ, in the word or doctrine, is the reading of ABDE, three others; both the Syriac, Coptic, Vulgate, Basil, Chrysostom, and others. Griesbach has received this reading into the text, and Bp. Pearce thus paraphrases the verse: "And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia, Paul set himself, together with them, wholly to the word; i.e. he was fully employed, now that he had their assistance, it preaching the Gospel, called the word in Act 4:4; Act 16:6, Act 16:32; Act 17:11. St. Luke seems to have intended to express here something relating to St. Paul which was the consequence of the coming of Silas and Timotheus; and that was rather labouring with them more abundantly in preaching the word than his being "pressed in spirit."This appears to be the true sense of the word, and that τῳ λογῳ is the genuine reading there can be no doubt. Συνειχετο, which we translate pressed, and which the Vulgate translates instabat , Bp. Pearce thinks should be translated una cum illis instabat , he earnestly strove together with them, τῳ λογῳ, in preaching the word. The true sense is given by Calmet, Paul s’ employoit a precher encore avec plus d’ ardeur , Paul was employed with more ardour in preaching, and testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. From this time we hear no more of Silas; probably he died in Macedonia.

Clarke: Act 18:6 - When they opposed When they opposed - Αντιτασσομενων, Systematically opposing, putting themselves in warlike order against him: so the word implies

When they opposed - Αντιτασσομενων, Systematically opposing, putting themselves in warlike order against him: so the word implies

Clarke: Act 18:6 - And blasphemed And blasphemed - This is precisely the way in which they still act. They have no arguments against Jesus being the Messiah; but, having made a coven...

And blasphemed - This is precisely the way in which they still act. They have no arguments against Jesus being the Messiah; but, having made a covenant with unbelief, as soon as they are pressed on this point, they rail and blaspheme. - See the Tela ignea Satanae, by Wagenseil

Clarke: Act 18:6 - He shook his raiment He shook his raiment - This was an action similar to that of shaking the dust of the feet; see on Mat 10:14 (note). See a parallel act, and its sign...

He shook his raiment - This was an action similar to that of shaking the dust of the feet; see on Mat 10:14 (note). See a parallel act, and its signification, in Neh 5:13 : Also I Shook My Lap, and said, So shall God Shake every man From His House and From his Labor; even thus shall he be Shaken Out and Emptied. St. Paul’ s act on this occasion seems to have been the same with this of Nehemiah, and with the same signification; and it is likely that he was led by a Divine impulse to do it - thus signifying the shaking and emptying out of this disobedient people, which took place about sixteen years afterwards

Clarke: Act 18:6 - Your blood be upon your own heads Your blood be upon your own heads - That is, ye alone are the cause of the destruction that is coming upon yourselves and upon your country

Your blood be upon your own heads - That is, ye alone are the cause of the destruction that is coming upon yourselves and upon your country

Clarke: Act 18:6 - I am clean I am clean - Καθαρος εγω, I am pure or innocent of your death and ruin. I have proposed to you the Gospel of Jesus Christ - the only mean...

I am clean - Καθαρος εγω, I am pure or innocent of your death and ruin. I have proposed to you the Gospel of Jesus Christ - the only means by which ye can be saved, and ye have utterly rejected it. I shall labor no more with you; and, from henceforth, shall confine my labors to the Gentiles. St. Paul must refer to the Jews and Gentiles of Corinth particularly; for he preached to the Jews occasionally in other places; see Act 19:8, Act 19:9; and several were brought to the knowledge of the truth. But it seems as if the Jews from this time systematically opposed the Gospel of Christ; and yet, general tenders of this salvation were made to them wherever the apostles came; and when they rejected them, the word was sent to the Gentiles; see Act 19:8, Act 19:9

Pure from blood, or pure from guilt, is commonly expressed by καθαρος ; thus Heliodorus, lib. i. p. 49: Εις δευρο διετελεσα καθαραν εμαυτην απο σης ὁμιλιας φυλαττουσα, Until now I have lived, preserving myself pure: and Alciphron, lib. i. epist. 7, ad. fin.: Ουδε μιαναι λυθρῳ τας χειρας, ἁς ἡ θαλαττα εκ παιδος εις δευρο καθαρας αδικηματων εφυλαξε, Nor to stain with pollution the hands which a seafaring life has kept from a child until now pure from iniquity.

Clarke: Act 18:7 - And he departed thence And he departed thence - From his former lodging, or that quarter of the city where he had dwelt before with Aquila and Priscilla; and went to lodge...

And he departed thence - From his former lodging, or that quarter of the city where he had dwelt before with Aquila and Priscilla; and went to lodge with Justus, apparently a proselyte of the gate. This person is called Titus, and Titus Justus, in several MSS. and versions.

Clarke: Act 18:8 - Crispus the chief ruler of the synagogue Crispus the chief ruler of the synagogue - This person held an office of considerable consequence; and therefore his conversion to Christianity must...

Crispus the chief ruler of the synagogue - This person held an office of considerable consequence; and therefore his conversion to Christianity must have been very galling to the Jews. It belonged to the chief or ruler of the synagogue to preside in all the assemblies, interpret the law, decide concerning things lawful and unlawful, punish the refractory, excommunicate the rebellious, solemnize marriages, and issue divorces. It is likely that, on the conversion of Crispus, Sosthenes was chosen to succeed him

Clarke: Act 18:8 - Many of the Corinthians Many of the Corinthians - Those to whom the sacred historian refers were probably Gentiles, and were the fruits of the apostle’ s labors after ...

Many of the Corinthians - Those to whom the sacred historian refers were probably Gentiles, and were the fruits of the apostle’ s labors after he had ceased to preach among the Jews.

Clarke: Act 18:9 - Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision - It is likely that Paul was at this time much discouraged by the violent opposition of the Jew...

Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision - It is likely that Paul was at this time much discouraged by the violent opposition of the Jews, and probably was in danger of his life; see Act 18:10; and might have been entertaining serious thoughts of ceasing to preach, or leaving Corinth. To prevent this, and comfort him, God was pleased to give him this vision

Clarke: Act 18:9 - Be not afraid Be not afraid - That this comfort and assurance were necessary himself shows us in his first epistle to these Corinthians, Act 2:3 : I was with you ...

Be not afraid - That this comfort and assurance were necessary himself shows us in his first epistle to these Corinthians, Act 2:3 : I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling.

Clarke: Act 18:10 - No man shall set on thee No man shall set on thee - Και ουδεις επιθησεται σοι, No man shall be permitted to lay violent hands upon thee. It is very li...

No man shall set on thee - Και ουδεις επιθησεται σοι, No man shall be permitted to lay violent hands upon thee. It is very likely that the Jews had conspired his death; and his preservation was an act of the especial interposition of Divine Providence

Clarke: Act 18:10 - I have much people in this city I have much people in this city - Εν τῃ πολει ταυτῃ, In this very city: there are many here who have not resisted my Spirit, and ...

I have much people in this city - Εν τῃ πολει ταυτῃ, In this very city: there are many here who have not resisted my Spirit, and consequently are now under its teachings, and are ready to embrace my Gospel as soon as thou shalt declare it unto them.

Clarke: Act 18:11 - He continued there a year and six months He continued there a year and six months - He was now confident that he was under the especial protection of God, and therefore continued teaching t...

He continued there a year and six months - He was now confident that he was under the especial protection of God, and therefore continued teaching the word, τον λογον, the doctrine of God. It is very likely, that it was during his stay here that he wrote his first epistle to the Thessalonians, and the second not long after; and some think that the epistle to the Galatians was written during his stay at Corinth.

Clarke: Act 18:12 - When Gallio was the deputy of Achaia When Gallio was the deputy of Achaia - The Romans comprehended, under the name of Achaia, all that part of Greece which lay between Thessaly and the...

When Gallio was the deputy of Achaia - The Romans comprehended, under the name of Achaia, all that part of Greece which lay between Thessaly and the southernmost coasts of Peloponnesus. Pausanias, in Attic. vii. 16, says that the Romans were accustomed to send a governor into that country, and that they called him the governor of Achaia, not of Greece; because the Achaeans, when they subdued Greece, were the leaders in all the Grecian affairs see also Suetonius, in his life of Claudius, cap. xxv., and Dio Cassius, lx. 24. Edit. Reimari

Clarke: Act 18:12 - Deputy Deputy - Ανθυπατευοντος, serving the office of Ανθυπατος, or deputy: see the note on Act 13:7

Deputy - Ανθυπατευοντος, serving the office of Ανθυπατος, or deputy: see the note on Act 13:7

Clarke: Act 18:12 - Gallio Gallio - This deputy, or proconsul, was eldest brother to the celebrated Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the stoic philosopher, preceptor of Nero, and who is...

Gallio - This deputy, or proconsul, was eldest brother to the celebrated Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the stoic philosopher, preceptor of Nero, and who is so well known among the learned by his works. The name of Gallio, was at first Marcus Annaeus Novatus; but, having been adopted in the family of Gallio, he took the name of Lucius Junius Gallio. He, and Annaeus Mela his brother, father of the poet Lucan, shared in the disgrace of their brother Seneca; and by this tyrant, Nero, whose early years were so promising, the three brothers were put to death; see Tacitus, Annal. lib. xv. 70, and xvi. 17. It was to this Gallio that Seneca dedicates his book De Ira. Seneca describes him as a man of the most amiable mind and manners: " Quem nemo non parum amat, etiam qui amare plus non potent; nemo mortalium uni tam dulcis est, quam hic omnibus: cum interim tanta naturalis boni vis est, uti artem simulationemque non redoleat :"vide Senec. Praefat. ad Natural. Quaest. 4. He was of the sweetest disposition, affable to all, and beloved by every man

Statius, Sylvar. lib. ii. 7. ver. 30, Ode on the Birthday of Lucan, says not a little in his favor, in a very few words: -

Lucanum potes imputare terris;

Hoc plus quam Senecam dedisse mundo,

Aut dulcem generasse Gallionem

You may consider nature as having made greater efforts in producing Lucan, than it has done in producing Seneca, or even the amiable Gallio

Clarke: Act 18:12 - And brought him to the judgment seat And brought him to the judgment seat - They had no power to punish any person in the Roman provinces, and therefore were obliged to bring their comp...

And brought him to the judgment seat - They had no power to punish any person in the Roman provinces, and therefore were obliged to bring their complaint before the Roman governor. The powers that be are ordained of God. Had the Jews possessed the power here, Paul had been put to death!

Clarke: Act 18:13 - Persuaded men to worship God contrary to the law Persuaded men to worship God contrary to the law - This accusation was very insidious. The Jews had permission by the Romans to worship their own Go...

Persuaded men to worship God contrary to the law - This accusation was very insidious. The Jews had permission by the Romans to worship their own God in their own way: this the laws allowed. The Roman worship was also established by the law. The Jews probably intended to accuse Paul of acting contrary to both laws. "He is not a Jew, for he does not admit of circumcision; he is not a Gentile, for he preaches against the worship of the gods. He is setting up a worship of his own, in opposition to all laws, and persuading many people to join with him: he is therefore a most dangerous man, and should be put to death."

Clarke: Act 18:14 - Paul was now about to open his mouth Paul was now about to open his mouth - He was about to enter on his defense; but Gallio, perceiving that the prosecution was through envy and malice...

Paul was now about to open his mouth - He was about to enter on his defense; but Gallio, perceiving that the prosecution was through envy and malice, would not put Paul to any farther trouble, but determined the matter as follows

Clarke: Act 18:14 - If it were a matter of wrong If it were a matter of wrong - Αδικημα, Of injustice; any thing contrary to the rights of the subject

If it were a matter of wrong - Αδικημα, Of injustice; any thing contrary to the rights of the subject

Clarke: Act 18:14 - Or wicked lewdness Or wicked lewdness - Ῥᾳδιουργημα πονηρον, Destructive mischief. (See the note on Act 13:10, where the word is explained.) Som...

Or wicked lewdness - Ῥᾳδιουργημα πονηρον, Destructive mischief. (See the note on Act 13:10, where the word is explained.) Something by which the subject is grievously wronged; were it any crime against society or against the state

Clarke: Act 18:14 - Reason would that I should bear with you Reason would that I should bear with you - Κατα λογον αν ηνεσχομην ὑμων, According to reason, or the merit of the case, I...

Reason would that I should bear with you - Κατα λογον αν ηνεσχομην ὑμων, According to reason, or the merit of the case, I should patiently hear you.

Clarke: Act 18:15 - But if it be a question of words But if it be a question of words - Περι λογου, Concerning doctrine and names - whether the person called Jesus be the person you call the ...

But if it be a question of words - Περι λογου, Concerning doctrine and names - whether the person called Jesus be the person you call the Messiah. And of your law - any particular nicety, concerning that law which is peculiar to yourselves: Look ye to it - settle the business among yourselves; the Roman government does not meddle with such matters, and I will not take upon me to - decide in a case that does not concern my office. As if he had said: "The Roman laws give religious liberty to Jews and Greeks; but, if controversies arise among you on these subjects, decide them among yourselves, or dispute about them as much as you please."A better answer could not be given by man; and it was highly becoming the acknowledged meekness, gentleness, and benevolence of this amiable man. He concluded that the state had no right to control any man’ s religious opinion; that was between the object of his worship and his own conscience; and therefore he was not authorized to intermeddle with subjects of this nature, which the law left to every man’ s private judgment. Had all the rulers of the people in every country acted as this sensible and benevolent Roman, laws against liberty of conscience, concerning religious persecution, would not be found to be, as they not are, blots and disgraces on the statute books of almost all the civilized nations of Europe.

Clarke: Act 18:16 - And he drave them from the judgment seat And he drave them from the judgment seat - He saw that their accusation was both frivolous and vexatious, and he ordered them to depart, and the ass...

And he drave them from the judgment seat - He saw that their accusation was both frivolous and vexatious, and he ordered them to depart, and the assembly to disperse. The word απηλασεν, which we translate he drave, does not signify here any act of violence on the part of Gallio or the Roman officers, but simply an authoritative dismission.

Clarke: Act 18:17 - Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes - As this man is termed the chief ruler of the synagogue, it is probable that he had lately succeeded Crispus in ...

Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes - As this man is termed the chief ruler of the synagogue, it is probable that he had lately succeeded Crispus in that office; see Act 18:8; and that he was known either to have embraced Christianity, or to have favored the cause of St. Paul. He is supposed to be the same person whom St. Paul associates with himself in the first epistle to the Corinthians, 1Co 1:1. Crispus might have been removed from his presidency in the synagogue as soon as the Jews found he had embraced Christianity, and Sosthenes appointed in his place

And, as he seems to have speedily embraced the same doctrine, the Jews would be the more enraged, and their malice be directed strongly against him, when they found that the proconsul would not support them in their opposition to Paul

But why should the Greeks beat Sosthenes? I have in the above note proceeded on the supposition that this outrage was committed by the Jews; and my reason for it is this: Οἱ Ἑλληνες, the Greeks, is omitted by AB, two of the oldest and most authentic MSS. in the world: they are omitted also by the Coptic and Vulgate, Chrysostom, and Bede. Instead of Οἱ Ἑλληνες, three MSS., one of the eleventh, and two of the thirteenth century, have Ιουδαιοι, the Jews; and it is much more likely that the Jews beat one of their own rulers, through envy at his conversion, than that the Greeks should do so; unless we allow, which is very probable, (if Ἑλληνες, Greeks, be the true reading), that these Hellenes were Jews, born in a Greek country, and speaking the Greek language

Clarke: Act 18:17 - And Gallio cared for none of those things And Gallio cared for none of those things - Και ουδεν τουτων τῳ Γαλλιωνι εμελεν . And Gallio did not concern himsel...

And Gallio cared for none of those things - Και ουδεν τουτων τῳ Γαλλιωνι εμελεν . And Gallio did not concern himself, did not intermeddle with any of these things. As he found that it was a business that concerned their own religion, and that the contention was among themselves, and that they were abusing one of their own sect only, he did not choose to interfere. He, like the rest of the Romans, considered the Jews a most despicable people, and worthy of no regard; and their present conduct had no tendency to cause him to form a different opinion of them from that which he and his countrymen had previously entertained. It is not very likely, however, that Gallio saw this outrage; for, though it was before the judgment seat, it probably did not take place till Gallio had left the court; and, though he might be told of it, he left the matter to the lictors, and would not interfere

The conduct of Gallio has been, in this case, greatly censured; and I think with manifest injustice. In the business brought before his tribunal, no man could have followed a more prudent or equitable course. His whole conduct showed that it was his opinion, that the civil magistrate had nothing to do with religious opinions or the concerns of conscience, in matters where the safety of the state was not implicated. He therefore refused to make the subject a matter of legal discussion. Nay, he went much farther; he would not even interfere to prevent either the Jews or the apostles from making proselytes. Though the complaint against the apostles was, that they were teaching men to worship God contrary to the law; see the note on Act 18:15, yet, even in this case, he did not think it right to exert the secular power to restrain the free discussion and teaching of matters which concerned the rights of conscience in things pertaining to the worship of the gods. As to his not preventing the tumult which took place, we may say, if he did see it, which is not quite evident, that he well knew that this could rise to no serious amount; and the lictors, and other minor officers, were there in sufficient force to prevent any serious riot, and it was their business to see that the public peace was not broken, besides, as a heathen, he might have no objection to permit this people to pursue a line of conduct by which they were sure to bring themselves and their religion into contempt. These wicked Jews could not disprove the apostle’ s doctrine, either by argument or Scripture; and they had recourse to manual logic, which was an indisputable proof of the badness of their own cause, and the strength of that of their opponents

But in consequence of this conduct Gallio has been represented as a man perfectly careless and unconcerned about religion in general; and therefore has been considered as a proper type or representative of even professed Christians, who are not decided in their religious opinions or conduct. As a heathen, Gallio certainly was careless about both Judaism and Christianity. The latter he had probably never heard of but by the cause now before his judgment seat; and, from any thing he could see of the other, through the medium of its professors, he certainly could entertain no favorable opinion of it: therefore in neither case was he to blame. But the words, cared for none of those things, are both misunderstood and misapplied: we have already seen that they only mean that he would not intermeddle in a controversy which did not belong to his province and sufficient reasons have been alleged why he should act as he did. It is granted that many preachers take this for a text, and preach useful sermons for the conviction of the undecided and lukewarm; and it is to be deplored that there are so many undecided and careless people in the world, and especially in reference to what concerns their eternal interests. But is it not to be lamented, also, that there should be preachers of God’ s holy word who attempt to explain passages of Scripture which they do not understand? For he who preaches on Gallio cared for none of those things, in the way in which the passage has, through mismanagement, been popularly understood, either does not understand it, or he wilfully perverts the meaning.

Clarke: Act 18:18 - And Paul - tarried there yet a good while And Paul - tarried there yet a good while - The persecuting Jews plainly saw, from the manner in which the proconsul had conducted this business, th...

And Paul - tarried there yet a good while - The persecuting Jews plainly saw, from the manner in which the proconsul had conducted this business, that they could have no hope of raising a state persecution against the apostles; and the laws provided so amply for the personal safety of every Roman citizen that then were afraid to proceed any farther in their violence. It would not be unknown that Paul was possessed of the right of Roman citizenship; and therefore his person was sacred as long as he did nothing contrary to the laws

It is probable that at this time Paul stayed, on the whole, as Corinth, about two years

Clarke: Act 18:18 - Having shorn his head in Cenchrea Having shorn his head in Cenchrea - But who was it that shore his head? Paul or Aquila? Some think the latter, who had bound himself by the Nazarite...

Having shorn his head in Cenchrea - But who was it that shore his head? Paul or Aquila? Some think the latter, who had bound himself by the Nazarite vow, probably before he became a Christian; and, being under that vow, his conscience would not permit him to disregard it. There is nothing in the text that absolutely obliges us to understand this action as belonging to St. Paul. It seems to have been the act of Aquila alone; and therefore both Paul and Priscilla are mentioned before Aquila; and it is natural to refer the vow to the latter. Yet there are certainly some weighty reasons why the vow should be referred to St. Paul, and not to Aquila; and interpreters are greatly divided on the subject. Chrysostom, Isidore of Seville, Grotius, Hammond, Zegerus, Erasmus, Baronius, Pearce, Wesley, and others, refer the vow to Aquila. - Jerome, Augustin, Bede, Calmet, Dodd, Rosenmuller, and others, refer it to St. Paul. Each party has its strong reasons - the matter is doubtful - the bare letter of the text determines nothing: yet I cannot help leaning to the latter opinion. Perhaps it was from feeling the difficulty of deciding which was under the vow that the Ethiopic and two Latin versions, instead of κειραμενος, having shaved, in the singular, appear to have read κειραμενοι, they shaved; and thus put both Paul and Aquila under the vow

Cenchrea. This was a port on the east side of the isthmus of Corinth, opposite to the Lecheum, which was the other port on the west. And it is likely that it was at Cenchrea that St. Paul took shipping for Syria, as it would be more convenient her him, and a shorter passage to embark at Cenchrea, in order to go by the Aegean Sea to Syria, than to embark at the Lecheum, and sail down into the Mediterranean. This isthmus is generally described now as dividing the Gulf of Lepanto, on the west, from the Gulf of Engia, or Eginaon, on the east.

Clarke: Act 18:19 - He came to Ephesus He came to Ephesus - Where it appears he spent but one Sabbath. It is supposed that Paul left Aquila and Priscilla at this place, and that he went o...

He came to Ephesus - Where it appears he spent but one Sabbath. It is supposed that Paul left Aquila and Priscilla at this place, and that he went on alone to Jerusalem; for it is certain they were at Ephesus when Apollos arrived there. See Act 18:24, Act 18:26

Ephesus was at the time in which St. Paul visited it, one of the most flourishing cities of Asia Minor. It was situated in that part anciently called Ionia, but now Natolia. It abounded with the most eminent orators, philosophers, etc., in the world; and was adorned with the most splendid buildings. Here was that famous temple of Diana, reputed one of the seven wonders of the world. This city is now under the dominion of the Turks, and is in a state of almost entire ruin. The temple of Minerva, which had long served as a Christian church, is now so completely ruined that its site cannot be easily determined; though some ruins of the walls are still standing, with five or six marble columns, forty feet in length, and seven in diameter, all of one piece. It still has a good harbour, and is about forty miles from Smyrna. In Chandler’ s Travels in Asia Minor, some curious information is given concerning this once eminent city. His account concludes thus: "The Ephesians are now a few Greek peasants, living in extreme wretchedness, dependence, and insensibility: the representative of an illustrious people, and inhabiting the wrecks of their greatness: some beneath the vaults of the Stadium, once the crowded scene of their diversions; and some live by the abrupt precipice, in the sepulchres which received the ashes of their ancestors. Such are the present citizens of Ephesus; and such is the condition to which that renowned city has been gradually reduced. Its streets are obscured and overgrown; a herd of goats was driven to it for shelter from the sun at noon; and a noisy flight of crows from the quarries seemed to insult its silence. We heard the partridge call in the area of the theater, and of the Stadium. The glorious pomp of its heathen worship is no longer remembered; and Christianity, which was there nursed by apostles, and fostered by general councils, until it increased to fullness of stature, barely lingers on, in an existence hardly visible."Travels in Asia Minor, p. 130. Reader! This city was once the capital of Asia Minor; and its ruins alone prove that it has existed: and it was one of those seven Churches to which a letter was expressly dictated by Jesus Christ himself! Ephesus is properly no more! and the Church of Ephesus is blotted put of the map of Christianity! Be silent and adore.

Clarke: Act 18:21 - I must - keep this feast I must - keep this feast - Most likely the passover, at which he wished to attend for the purpose of seeing many of his friends, and having the most...

I must - keep this feast - Most likely the passover, at which he wished to attend for the purpose of seeing many of his friends, and having the most favorable opportunity to preach the Gospel to thousands who would attend at Jerusalem on that occasion. The whole of this clause, I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem, is wanting in ABE, six others; with the Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, and Vulgate. Griesbach leaves it in the text, with the mark of doubtfulness; and Professor White, in his Crisews, says, probabiliter delenda . Without this clause the verse will read thus: But he bade them farewell, saying, I will return again unto you, if God will. And this he did before the expiration of that same year, Act 19:1, and spent three years with them, Act 20:31, extending and establishing the Church at that place.

Clarke: Act 18:22 - Landed at Caesarea Landed at Caesarea - This must have been Caesarea in Palestine

Landed at Caesarea - This must have been Caesarea in Palestine

Clarke: Act 18:22 - Gone up Gone up - To Jerusalem, though the name is not mentioned: but this is a common form of speech in the evangelists, Jerusalem being always meant when ...

Gone up - To Jerusalem, though the name is not mentioned: but this is a common form of speech in the evangelists, Jerusalem being always meant when this expression was used; for the word αναβαινω, to go up, is often used absolutely, to signify, to go to Jerusalem: e.g. Go ye Up unto this feast; I Go not Up yet, Joh 7:8. But when his brethren were Gone Up, then Went he also Up unto the feast, Joh 7:10. There were certain Greeks - that Came Up to worship, Joh 12:20. St. Paul himself uses a similar form of expression. There are yet but twelve days since I Went Up to Jerusalem, for to worship, Act 24:11. So all parts of England are spoken of as being below London: so we talk of going up to London; and people in London talk of going down to the country

Clarke: Act 18:22 - Saluted the Church Saluted the Church - That is, the Church at Jerusalem, called emphatically The Church, because it was the First Church - the Mother, or Apostolic Ch...

Saluted the Church - That is, the Church at Jerusalem, called emphatically The Church, because it was the First Church - the Mother, or Apostolic Church; and from it all other Christian Churches proceeded: those in Galatia, Philippi, Thessalonica, Corinth, Ephesus, Rome, etc. Therefore, even this last was only a daughter Church, when in its purest state

Clarke: Act 18:22 - Went down to Antioch Went down to Antioch - That is, Antioch in Syria, as the word is generally to be understood when without addition, so Caesarea is always to be under...

Went down to Antioch - That is, Antioch in Syria, as the word is generally to be understood when without addition, so Caesarea is always to be understood Caesarea in Palestine, when without the addition of Philippi.

Clarke: Act 18:23 - Went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia Went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia - Both were provinces of Asia Minor: see on Act 2:10 (note)

Went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia - Both were provinces of Asia Minor: see on Act 2:10 (note)

Clarke: Act 18:23 - In order In order - Καθεξης, A word peculiar to St. Luke; see his Gospel, Luk 1:3; Luk 8:1; and his history of the Acts, Act 3:24; Act 11:4, and the ...

In order - Καθεξης, A word peculiar to St. Luke; see his Gospel, Luk 1:3; Luk 8:1; and his history of the Acts, Act 3:24; Act 11:4, and the place above; the only places where this word occurs in the New Testament. It properly signifies, in order, distinctly, particularly; from κατα, according to, and ἑξη, order, as opposed to confusion, indistinctness, etc. If St. Paul went up to Jerusalem at this time, which we are left to infer, for Luke has not expressed it, (Act 18:22), it was his fourth journey thither; and this is generally supposed to have been the twenty-first year after his conversion. His first journey is mentioned Act 9:26; his second, Act 11:30; his third, Act 15:4; and his fourth, Act 18:22, the place above.

Clarke: Act 18:24 - A certain Jew named Apollos A certain Jew named Apollos - One MS., with the Coptic and Armenian, calls him Apelles; and the Codex Bezae, Apollonius. It is strange that we shoul...

A certain Jew named Apollos - One MS., with the Coptic and Armenian, calls him Apelles; and the Codex Bezae, Apollonius. It is strange that we should find a Jew, not only with a Roman name, as Aquila, an eagle; but with the name of one of the false gods, as Apollos or Apollo in the text. Query: Whether the parents of this man were not originally Gentiles, but converted to Judaism after their son Apollo (for so we should write the word) had been born and named

Clarke: Act 18:24 - Born at Alexandria Born at Alexandria - This was a celebrated city of Egypt, built by Alexander the Great, from whom it took its name. It was seated on the Mediterrane...

Born at Alexandria - This was a celebrated city of Egypt, built by Alexander the Great, from whom it took its name. It was seated on the Mediterranean Sea, between the Lake Mareotis and the beautiful harbour formed by the Isle of Pharos, about twelve miles west of the Canopic branch of the Nile, in lat. 31°. 10’ . N. This city was built under the direction of Dinocrates, the celebrated architect of the temple of Diana at Ephesus. It was in this city that Ptolemy Soter founded the famous academy called the Museum, in which a society of learned men devoted themselves to philosophical studies. Some of the most celebrated schools of antiquity flourished here; and here was the Tower of Pharos, esteemed one of the seven wonders of the world. Alexandria was taken by the French, July 4, 1798, under the command of Bonaparte; and was surrendered to the English under General, now Lord, Hutchinson, in 1801. And, in consequence of the treaty of peace between France and England, it was restored to the Turks. Near this place was the celebrated obelisk, called Cleopatra’ s Needle; and the no less famous column, called Pompey’ s Pillar. This city exhibits but very slender remains of its ancient splendor

Clarke: Act 18:24 - An eloquent man An eloquent man - Having strong rhetorical powers; highly cultivated, no doubt, in the Alexandrian schools

An eloquent man - Having strong rhetorical powers; highly cultivated, no doubt, in the Alexandrian schools

Clarke: Act 18:24 - Mighty in the Scriptures Mighty in the Scriptures - Thoroughly acquainted with the law and prophets; and well skilled in the Jewish method of interpreting them.

Mighty in the Scriptures - Thoroughly acquainted with the law and prophets; and well skilled in the Jewish method of interpreting them.

Clarke: Act 18:25 - This man was instructed in the way of the Lord This man was instructed in the way of the Lord - Κατηχημενος ; He was catechized, initiated, in the way, the doctrine, of Jesus as the C...

This man was instructed in the way of the Lord - Κατηχημενος ; He was catechized, initiated, in the way, the doctrine, of Jesus as the Christ

Clarke: Act 18:25 - Being fervent in the spirit Being fervent in the spirit - Being full of zeal to propagate the truth of God, he taught diligently, ακριβως accurately, (so the word shou...

Being fervent in the spirit - Being full of zeal to propagate the truth of God, he taught diligently, ακριβως accurately, (so the word should be translated), the things of Christ as far as he could know them through the ministry of John the Baptist; for it appears he knew nothing more of Christ than what John preached. Some suppose we should read ουκ, not, before ακριβως, correctly, or accurately, because it is said that Aquila and Priscilla expounded the way of the Lord, ακριβεϚερον, more perfectly, rather more accurately; but of this emendation there is not the slightest necessity; for surely it is possible for a man to teach accurately what he knows; and it is possible that another, who possesses more information on the subject than the former, may teach him more accurately, or give him a larger portion of knowledge. Apollo knew the baptism of John; but he knew nothing farther of Jesus Christ than that baptism taught; but, as far as he knew, he taught accurately. Aquila and Priscilla were acquainted with the whole doctrine of the Gospel: the doctrine of Christ dying for our sins, and rising again for our justification; and in this they instructed Apollo; and this was more accurate information than what he had before received, through the medium of John’ s ministry.

Clarke: Act 18:26 - They took him unto them They took him unto them - This eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, who was even a public teacher, was not ashamed to be indebted to the inst...

They took him unto them - This eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, who was even a public teacher, was not ashamed to be indebted to the instructions of a Christian woman, in matters that not only concerned his own salvation, but also the work of the ministry, in which he was engaged. It is disgraceful to a man to be ignorant, when he may acquire wisdom; but it is no disgrace to acquire wisdom from the meanest person or thing. The adage is good: Despise not advice, even of the meanest: the gaggling of geese preserved the Roman state.

Clarke: Act 18:27 - When he was disposed to pass into Achaia When he was disposed to pass into Achaia - There is a very long and important addition here in the Codex Bezae, of which the following is a translat...

When he was disposed to pass into Achaia - There is a very long and important addition here in the Codex Bezae, of which the following is a translation: But certain Corinthians, who sojourned at Ephesus, and heard him, entreated him to pass over with them to their own country. Then, when he had given his consent, the Ephesians wrote to the disciples at Corinth, that they should receive this man. Who, when he was come, etc. The same addition is found in the later Syriac, and in the Itala version in the Codex Bezae

Clarke: Act 18:27 - Which had believed through grace Which had believed through grace - These words may either refer to Apollo, or to the people at Corinth. It was through grace that they had believed;...

Which had believed through grace - These words may either refer to Apollo, or to the people at Corinth. It was through grace that they had believed; and it was through grace that Apollo was enabled to help them much

The words δια της χαριτος, through grace, are wanting in the Codex Bezae, the later Syriac, the Vulgate, one copy of the Itala, and in some of the fathers. But this omission might have been the effect of carelessness in the writers of those copies from which the foregoing were taken: the words convey the same idea that is expressed by St. Paul, 1Co 3:6 : Paul planted, and Apollos watered; but God gave the increase. Though this eminent man became the instrument of mightily helping the believers in Corinth, yet he was also the innocent cause of a sort of schism among them. For some, taken by his commanding eloquence, began to range themselves on his side, and prefer him to all other teachers. This evil St. Paul reprehends and corrects in his first epistle to the Corinthians. St. Jerome says that Apollo became bishop of Corinth.

Clarke: Act 18:28 - He mightily convinced the Jews He mightily convinced the Jews - Ευτονως διακατηλεγχετο ; He vehemently confuted the Jews; and that publicly, not in private c...

He mightily convinced the Jews - Ευτονως διακατηλεγχετο ; He vehemently confuted the Jews; and that publicly, not in private conferences, but in his public preaching: showing by the scriptures of the Old Testament, which the Jews received as divinely inspired, that Jesus, who had lately appeared among them, and whom they had crucified, was the Christ, the promised Messiah, and that there was salvation in none other; and that they must receive him as the Messiah, in order to escape the wrath to come. This they refused to do; and we know the consequence. Their city was sacked, their temple burnt, their whole civil and religious polity subverted, more than a million of themselves killed, and the rest scattered over the face of the earth

1.    The Christian religion did not hide itself in corners and obscure places at first, in order, privately, to get strength, before it dared to show itself publicly. Error, conscious of its weakness, and that its pretensions cannot bear examination, is obliged to observe such a cautious procedure. With what caution, circumspection, and privacy, did Mohammed propose his new religion! He formed a party by little and little, in the most private manner, before he ventured to exhibit his pretensions openly. Not so Christianity: it showed itself in the most public manner, not only in the teaching of Christ, but also in that of the apostles. Even after the crucifixion of our Lord, the apostles and believers went to the temple, the most public place; and in the most public manner taught and worked miracles. Jerusalem, the seat of the doctors, the judge of religion, was the first place in which, by the command of their Lord, the disciples preached Christ crucified. They were, therefore, not afraid to have their cause tried by the most rigid test of Scripture; and in the very place, too, where that Scripture was best understood

2.    When the same apostles. carried this Gospel to heathen countries, did they go to the villages, among the less informed or comparatively ignorant Greeks, in order to form a party, and shield themselves by getting the multitude on their side? No! They went to Caesarea, to Antioch, to Thessalonica, to Athens, to Corinth, to Ephesus; to the very places where learning flourished most, where sciences were best cultivated, where imposture was most likely to be detected, and where the secular power existed in the most despotic manner, and could at once have crushed them to nothing could they have been proved to be impostors, or had they not been under the immediate protection of Heaven! Hence it is evident that these holy men feared no rational investigation of their doctrines, for they taught them in the face of the most celebrated schools in the universe

3.    They preached Christ crucified in Jerusalem, where it was the most solemn interest of the Jews to disprove their doctrine, that they might exculpate themselves from the murder of Jesus Christ. They preached the same Christ, and the vanity of idolatry, in Athens, in Corinth, and in Ephesus, where idolatry existed in the plenitude of its power; and where all its interests required it to make the moat desperate and formidable stand against those innovators. What but the fullest confidence of the truth of what they preached, the fullest conviction of the Divinity of their doctrine, and the supernatural influence of God upon their souls, could ever have induced these men to preach Christ crucified, either at Jerusalem, or at Athens? I scruple not to assert that the bold, public manner in which the apostles preached the Gospel, among the Jews and Greeks, is a most incontestable proof of the conviction they had of its truth; and the success with which they were favored is a demonstration that what they preached as truth God proved to be the truth, by stretching forth his hand to heal, and causing signs and wonders to be wrought in the name of the holy child Jesus. This is an additional proof of the sincerity of the apostles, and of the truth of Christianity. If Paul and Peter, Barnabas and Silas, had not had the fullest persuasion that their doctrine was of God, they would never have ventured to propose it before the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem, the literati of Corinth, and the Stoics and inexorable judges of the Areopagus at Athens

4.    We may be surprised to find that, even among the Jews as well as the Gentiles, there were persons who used curious arts. Those were inexcusable; these were to be pitied. Blind as every man is by nature, yet he is conscious that without supernatural assistance he can neither secure the good he needs, nor avoid the evil he fears: therefore, he endeavors to associate to himself the influence of supernatural agents, in order to preserve him in safety, and make him happy. Thus forsaking and forgetting the fountain of living water, he hews out to himself cisterns that can hold no water. The existence of magical arts and incantations, whether real or pretended, prove the general belief of the existence of a spiritual world, and man’ s consciousness of his own weakness, and his need of supernatural help. When shall the eye be directed solely to Him from whom alone true help can come, by whom evil is banished, and happiness restored!

Calvin: Act 18:1 - NO PHRASE 1. This history is worthy to be remembered even for this one cause, because it containeth the first beginning of the Church of Corinthus, which, as ...

1. This history is worthy to be remembered even for this one cause, because it containeth the first beginning of the Church of Corinthus, which, as it was famous for good causes, both because of the multitude of men, and also because of the excellent gifts bestowed upon them, so there were in it gross and shameful vices. Furthermore, Luke showeth in this place with what great labor, and how hardly, Paul did win the same to Christ. It is well known what a rich city Corinthus was by reason of the noble mart, how populous, how greatly given to pleasure. And the old proverb doth testify that it was sumptuous and full of riot: All men cannot go to Corinthus. When Paul entereth the same, what hope, I pray you, can he conceive? He is a simple man, unknown, having no eloquence or pomp, showing no wealth or power. In that that huge gulf doth not swallow up his and desire which he had to spread abroad the gospel, by this we gather that he was furnished with wonderful power of the Spirit of God; and also that God wrought by his hand after a heavenly manner, and not after any human manner. Wherefore he boasteth not without cause, that the Corinthians are the seal of his apostleship, ( 1Co 9:2.) For they be twice blind, who do not acknowledge that the glory of God did more plainly appear in such a simple and base kind of dealing; and he himself showed no small token of invincible constancy, when, being vexed with the mocks of all men, (as the proud did contemn him,) he did notwithstanding stay himself upon God’s help alone. But it is worth the labor to note all the circum-stances, as Luke setteth down the same in order. −

Calvin: Act 18:2 - A Jew called Aquila // All Jews to depart from Rome 2.A Jew called Aquila This was no small trial, in that Paul findeth none at Corinthus to lodge him save Aquila, who had been twice exiled. For being ...

2.A Jew called Aquila This was no small trial, in that Paul findeth none at Corinthus to lodge him save Aquila, who had been twice exiled. For being born in Pontus, he forsook his country, and sailed over the sea, that he might dwell at Rome. He was compelled to depart thence again by the commandment of Claudius Caesar. Though the commodiousness of the city was such, the plenty so great, the situation so pleasant, and there were also so many Jews there, yet Paul found no more fit host than a man that had been banished out of his own country, and also out of another soil. − 310 If we compare the great fruit which ensued immediately upon his preaching with such a base entrance, the power of the Spirit of God shall [more] plainly appear. Also we may see how the Lord, by his singular counsel, turneth those things to his glory, and the salvation of the godly, which seem contrary to the flesh, and unhappy. − 311 Nothing is more miserable than exile, according to the sense of the flesh. But it was far better for Aquila to be Paul’s companion, than to be in the highest office either at Rome or in his country. Therefore, this happy calamity of Aquila doth teach us, that the Lord doth often better provide for when he doth sharply punish − 312 us, than if he should most gently entreat us, and when he tosseth us to and fro in most extreme exile, − 313 that he may bring us unto the heavenly rest. −

All Jews to depart from Rome The estate of that nation was then very miserable, so that it is a wonder that they did not almost all depart from the worship of God. But this is a greater wonder, that the religion wherein they had been brought up prevailed against Caesar’s tyranny, and that so soon as Christ, the Sun of righteousness, did arise, few were turned unto him. Notwithstanding, I do not doubt but that the Lord suffered them − 314 to pass through many troubles, that they might the more willingly, yea, the more greedily receive the grace of redemption offered them; but the more part − 315 became dull in their misery, − 316 few did submit themselves to be taught when the Lord did punish them, as did Aquila and Priscilla. Yet, if Suetonius say the truth, they were expelled through hatred of the name of Christ, and so calamity might have more provoked and angered a great part, because they were wrongfully accused for that religion which they did detest. −

Calvin: Act 18:3 - They were of the same trade 3.They were of the same trade This place teacheth that Paul, before he came to Corinth, was wont to work with his hands; and that not upon pleasure, ...

3.They were of the same trade This place teacheth that Paul, before he came to Corinth, was wont to work with his hands; and that not upon pleasure, but that he might get his living with his handiwork. It is not known where he first learned his occupation; notwithstanding it appeareth by his own testimony that he wrought principally at Corinth. And he showeth a reason, because the false apostles taught freely without taking any thing, that they might craftily creep in, therefore the holy man would not give place to them in that point, lest he should cause the gospel of Christ to be evil spoken of, ( 1Co 9:12.) But we may easily gather out of this place, that whithersoever he came, (until he was occupied in the continual labor of teachings) he wrought of his occupation, that he might get his living. When Chrysostom saith that Paul was a cordiner he doth no whit dissent from Luke, because they were wont at that time to make tents of skins. −

Calvin: Act 18:4 - He disputed in the synagogue 4.He disputed in the synagogue It is a wonder how that crept in which is in the Latin books, − 317 that Paul put in the name of Christ: unless it w...

4.He disputed in the synagogue It is a wonder how that crept in which is in the Latin books, − 317 that Paul put in the name of Christ: unless it were because some reader would supply the want of the general sentence. For Luke setteth down two things in this place: to wit, that Paul disputed among the Jews; secondly, that he began more plainly to profess Christ after that Silas and Timotheus were come. And though it be likely that he began to speak of Christ even at the first entrance, because he could not omit the principal point of the heavenly doctrine, yet that doth not hinder but that he might use some other manner of disputation. Therefore I take [ πειθειν ] that is, to persuade, for to induce by little and little. For, in my judgment, Luke doth signify, that forasmuch as the Jews did handle the law coldly and foolishly, Paul spake of the corrupt and wicked nature of man, of the necessity of grace of the Redeemer which was promised, of the means to obtain salvation, that he might awake them; for this is a fit and brief − 318 preparation unto Christ. Again, when he saith that he was forced in spirit to teach that Jesus was Christ, his meaning is, that he was enforced with greater vehemency to intreat and speak of Christ freely and openly. So that we see that Paul did not utter all things at one time, but he tempered his doctrine as occasion did serve. −

And because like moderation is profitable at this day, it is convenient for faithful teachers wisely to consider where to begin, lest a preposterous and confused order do hinder the proceeding of doctrine. Furthermore, though there were ferventness enough in Paul, yet it is no inconvenient thing that he was made more courageous by some new help, not that he was encouraged by shame, or the hope which he reposed in his fellows, but because he considered that this help was sent him, as it were, from heaven. But this forcing in the spirit is not taken for a violent or external impulsion, (as they say, − 319) as those which were called Phoebades and frantic men were wont to be carried away with devilish madness; but there was more ferventness added unto the wonted inspiration of the Spirit which was in Paul, so that he was moved with new power of God, and yet did he of his own accord follow the Spirit as his guide. Whereas Paul did testify that Jesus is Christ, I expound it thus: when he had thoroughly taught the Jews concerning the office of the Redeemer, he declared by testimonies of Scripture that this is he which was to be hoped for, because all those things agree to him which the law and the prophets attribute to Christ. Therefore, he did not simply affirm, but using a solemn testification, he proved Jesus, the Son of Mary, to be that Christ who should be the Mediator between God and men, that he might restore the world from destruction to life.

Calvin: Act 18:6 - When they gainsayed // Your blood // I will go undo the Gentiles 6.When they gainsayed The Jews suffered Paul after a sort until he came unto the manifest preaching of Christ. And here brake out their rage. And we ...

6.When they gainsayed The Jews suffered Paul after a sort until he came unto the manifest preaching of Christ. And here brake out their rage. And we must note the speech, that they go from gainsaying unto blaspheming and railing. For it falleth out thus for the most part, when men take to themselves such liberty, that the devil doth inflame them by little and little unto greater madness. For which cause, we must take good heed that no wicked lust or desire provoke us to resist the truth; and, above all, let that horrible judgment terrify us which the Spirit of God thundereth out by the mouth of Paul against all rebels. For undoubtedly, in that Paul by shaking his garments gave some token of detestation, it was no human or private indignation, but zeal kindled by God in his heart; yea, God raised him up to be a preacher and setter forth of his vengeance, to the end the enemies of the word might know that they should not escape scot free for their stubbornness. We spake somewhat touching this sign of execration or cursing in the thirteenth chapter, ( Act 13:51.) Let the readers repair thither. The sum is, that God is sorer displeased with contempt of his word than with any wickedness. And surely, men be quite past hope when they tread under foot, or drive from them, the only remedy of all evils and maladies. Now, as the Lord cannot abide rebellion against his word, so it ought to sting and nettle us full sore. My meaning is this, that when the wicked enter combat with God, and, as it were, arm themselves to resist, we are called, as it were, by the heavenly trumpet unto the conflict, because there is nothing more filthy than that the wicked should mock God to his face, whilst we say nothing, and that they should even break out into reproaches and blasphemies. −

Your blood He denounceth to them vengeance, because they be without excuse. For they can shift no part of their fault from themselves, after that despising the calling of God they have endeavored to put out the light of life. Therefore, seeing they bear the blame of their own destruction, he doth also affirm that they shall be punished. And in saying that he is clean, he testifieth that he hath done his duty, it is well known what the Lord giveth all his ministers in charge in Ezekiel, ( Eze 3:18.) If thou show not unto the wicked that he may convert, − 320 I will require his blood at thy hand. Therefore Paul (because he did what he could to bring the Jews to repentance) doth acquit himself of all guiltiness. And by these words, teachers are warned that unless they will be guilty of blood before the Lord, they must do what in them lieth to bring those which go astray into the way, and that they suffer nothing to perish through ignorance. −

I will go undo the Gentiles Though the Jews had showed themselves to be most ready to be taught, yet ought Paul to have employed himself to teach the Gentiles, whose apostle and minister he was made; but here he expresseth the passage whereby he withdrew himself from the stubborn Jews for all. For he observed this course in teaching, that beginning with the Jews he might couple the Gentiles with them in the society of faith, and so might make of both together one body of the Church. When there remained no hope to do any good among the Jews, then the Gentiles only remained. Therefore, the sense is this, that they must be deprived of their own inheritance, that it may be given to the Gentiles, and so be wounded, partly that being stricken with fear, yea, being cast down, − 321 they might come to soundness of mind; partly that the emulation or striving of the Gentiles might prick them forward unto repentance. But because they were incurable, reproach and shame served for this purpose only to bring them into despair. −

Calvin: Act 18:7 - Departing thence 7.Departing thence Paul did not change his lodging which he had with Priscilla and Aquila, because he was weary of their company; but that he might m...

7.Departing thence Paul did not change his lodging which he had with Priscilla and Aquila, because he was weary of their company; but that he might more familiarly insinuate himself and come in favor with the Gentiles. For I suspect that this Justus, of whom Luke maketh mention, was rather a Gentile than a Jew. Neither doth the highness of the synagogue any whit hinder; for the Jews were scattered abroad, so that they had no certain place of the city to dwell in. Yea, it seemeth that Paul did make choice of the house which did join to the synagogue, that he might the more nettle the Jews. The title and commendation ascribed to Justus confirmeth this opinion; for it is said that he was a worshipper of God. For though the Jews had not sincere religion, yet because they did all profess the worship of God, it might have seemed that godliness took place commonly in all the whole nation. But because it was a rare matter among the Gentiles to worship God if any drew near unto true godliness, he hath this singular testimony given him which is set against idolatry. Also, I think that the Corinthians, of whom Luke speaketh shortly after, were Gentiles. Nevertheless, lest we should think that Paul’s labor was altogether fruitless which he bestowed among the Jews, Luke reckoneth up two of them which believed, Crispus and Sosthenes, of whom Paul himself speaketh in the first chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians, ( 1Co 1:1.) For in his salutation he maketh Sosthenes his fellow in office, after that he saith that he baptized Crispus. I take it that he is called the ruler of the synagogue, not as if he alone did bear rule and had the government, because Sosthenes hath the same title given him shortly after, but because he was one of the chief men. −

Calvin: Act 18:9 - And the Lord said // Fear not 9.And the Lord said Though the fruit of Paul’s doctrine (in that he gained some daily to Christ) might have encouraged him to go forward, yet is th...

9.And the Lord said Though the fruit of Paul’s doctrine (in that he gained some daily to Christ) might have encouraged him to go forward, yet is the heavenly oracle added for his farther confirmation. Whence we gather that there were great combats set before him, and that he was sore tossed divers ways. For the Lord did never, without cause, − 322 pour out his oracles; neither was it an ordinary thing with Paul to have visions, but the Lord used this kind of remedy when necessity did so require; and the thing itself doth show that there laid upon the holy man a great weight of business, under which he might not only sweat but almost faint, unless he had been set on foot again, and refreshed with some new help. And it is not without cause that he saith that his coming was base and contemptible, and that he was conversant there in fear and trembling, ( 1Co 2:3.) For mine own part, I think thus, that the wonderful power of the Spirit, wherewith Paul was endued before, was holpen with the oracle. Furthermore, forasmuch as the Scripture distinguisheth visions from dreams, as it appeareth by the twelfth chapter of the book of Numbers, ( Num 12:6,) Luke meaneth by this word vision, that when Paul was in a trance he saw a certain shape or form whereby he knew that God was present with him. Assuredly, it is not to be doubted but that God appeared by some sign. −

Fear not This exhortation showeth that Paul had cause of fear ministered unto him; for it had been a superfluous thing to correct fear, or to will him not to fear when all was well and quiet, and especially in a man so willing and ready. −

Furthermore, when the Lord (to the end he may have his servant to do his duty faithfully and stoutly) beginneth with restraining fear, by this we gather that nothing is more contrary to the pure and free preaching of the gospel than the straits of a faint heart. And surely experience doth show that none are faithful and courageous ministers of the word whom this fault doth hinder; and that those only are rightly prepared and addressed to teach to whom it is granted with boldness and courage of heart to overcome all manner [of] danger. In which respect, he writeth to Timothy that the spirit of fear is not given to the preachers of the gospel, but of power, and love, and sobriety, ( Tit 1:7.) Therefore, we must note the connection of words, Fear not, but speak, which is all one as if he should have said, Let not fear let thee to speak. And because fear doth not only make us altogether without tongue, but doth so bind us that we cannot purely and freely speak that which is needful. Christ touched both briefly. Speak, (saith he,) and hold not thy peace; that is, speak not with half thy mouth, as it is in the common proverb. But in these words there is prescribed to the ministers of the word of God a common rule, that they expound and lay open plainly, and without color or dissimulation, whatsoever the Lord will have made known to his Church; yea, let them keep back nothing which may make for the edifying or increase of God’s Church. −

Calvin: Act 18:10 - Because I am // Because I have much people 10.Because I am This is the former reason why Paul, having subdued fear, must manfully and stoutly do his duty, because he hath God on his side. Wher...

10.Because I am This is the former reason why Paul, having subdued fear, must manfully and stoutly do his duty, because he hath God on his side. Whereto answereth the rejoicing of David, −

“If I shall walk in the midst of the shadow of death, I shall fear none ill: because thou art with me,” ( Psa 23:4.)

Again, −

“If tents be pitched about me,” etc., ( Psa 27:3.) −

The question is, whether he did not perceive that God was present with him elsewhere, as he had had experience of his help in divers places. For the promise is general, −

“I am with you until the end of the world,”
( Mat 28:20.) −

Neither is it lawful for us to mistrust so often as we obey his calling, but that he will be present with us. But it is an usual thing with the Lord to apply that unto certain kinds when the matter so requireth, which he hath promised to do in all affairs; and we know that when we come to the push, then are we most desirous of help. Moreover, these two members are joined together, “I am with thee, and no man shall hurt thee.” For it falleth out sometimes that God doth help us, and yet doth he, to look to, suffer us to be oppressed, as he forsook not Paul even in the midst of death; and here he promiseth the peculiar defense of his hand, whereby he shall be preserved from the violence of his enemies. −

But the question is, whether Paul needed any such confirmation, who ought to have been willing to enter [undergo] all manner [of] dangers. For what if he had been to suffer death, should he therefore have fainted through fear? I answer, that if at any time God pronounce that his servants shall be safe for a time, that doth no whit hinder, but that they may prepare themselves to suffer death valiantly; but as we distinguish between profitable and necessary, so we must note that there be some promises, which, if the faithful want, they must needs faint and sink down; − 323 and that other some are added when it is expedient so to be, which, though they be taken away, (because the grace of God doth nevertheless remain firm and sure,) the faith of the godly doth not fail. After this sort, Paul is commanded not to fear, because his enemies shall not touch him; and if so be he should have been oppressed even then with their violence, yet would he not have been afraid, but God would have his boldness and courage to increase even by this, because he should be without danger. If at any time the Lord bear with us so far forth, we are not to despise such a comfort of our infirmity. In the mean season, let this be sufficient for us to tread under foot all corrupt fear of the flesh, that so long as we fight under his banner we cannot be forsaken of him. And when it is said, “No man shall gainstand thee to do thee hurt,” the Lord doth not mean that he shall be free from violence and tumult whom the Jews did afterward deadly invade; but his meaning is, that their attempts shall be frustrate, because the Lord had determined to deliver him out of their hands. Therefore, we must fight stoutly that we may win the field. − 324

Because I have much people The second reason why he should take a good heart is, because the Lord will raise up a great and populous church there, though it be to be doubted whether this member depend upon that which goeth next before; for the text will run fitly thus, Because the Lord determined by the hand of Paul to gather together a great church, he would not suffer the enemies to interrupt the course of his labors, as if he should have said, I will help thee, that thou mayest not fail my people whose minister I have appointed thee to be. I do willingly embrace this exposition, that divers reasons are not inferred which are to be read apart, but that they be so distinguished that they agree together. Furthermore, the Lord calleth those his people, who, though they might then for good causes be counted strangers, yet because they were written in the book of life, and were forthwith to be admitted into his family, they have this title given them not improperly. For we know that many sheep wander without the flock for a time, as the sheep have many wolves among them. Therefore whom the Lord determined shortly after to gather to himself, those doth he take for his people in respect of their future faith. But let us remember, that those are engrafted into the body of Christ who appertain unto the same by the eternal adoption of God; as it is written, −

“Thine they were and thou gavest them me” ( Joh 17:6.) −

Calvin: Act 18:11 - He continued there a year 11.He continued there a year We do not read that Paul stayed so long anywhere else save there; and yet it appeareth by his two epistles that he was n...

11.He continued there a year We do not read that Paul stayed so long anywhere else save there; and yet it appeareth by his two epistles that he was not only likely to suffer much troubles, but that he had suffered many unjust and unmeet things by reason of the pride and unthankfulness of the people, so that we see that there was no part of warfare wherein the Lord did not wonderfully exercise him. Also, we gather what a hard and laborious matter the edifying of the Church is, seeing that the most excellent workmaster spent so much time about the laying of the foundation of one church only. Neither doth he boast that he had finished the work, but that the Lord had put others in his place, that they might build upon his foundation; as he saith afterwards that he had planted, and that Apollos had watered, ( 1Co 3:6.)

Calvin: Act 18:12 - When Gallio 12.When Gallio Either the change of the deputy did encourage the Jews to wax more proud and insolent, as froward men use to abuse new things that the...

12.When Gallio Either the change of the deputy did encourage the Jews to wax more proud and insolent, as froward men use to abuse new things that they may procure some tumult, or else hoping that the judge would favor them, they brake the peace and silence at a sudden, which had continued one whole year. And the sum of the accusation is, that Paul went about to bring in a false kind of worship contrary to the law. Now, the question is, whether they spake of the law of Moses or of the rites used in the empire of Rome. Because this latter thing seemeth to me to be cold, − 325 I do rather receive that, that they burdened Paul with this crime that he brake and altered the worship prescribed in the law of God, and that to the end they might hit him in the teeth with novelty or innovation. And surely Paul had been worthy to have been condemned if he had gone about any such thing; but forasmuch as it is most certain that they did treacherously and wickedly slander the holy man, they endeavored to cover an evil cause with an honest excuse. We know how straitly the Lord commandeth in the law, how he will have his servants to worship him. Therefore, to depart from that rule is sacrilege. But forasmuch as Paul never meant to add to or take away anything from the law, he is unjustly accused of this fault. Whence we gather, that though the faithful themselves never so uprightly and blamelessly, yet can they not escape false and slanderous reports until they be admitted to purge themselves. But Paul was not only unworthily and falsely slandered by the adversaries, but when he would have refuted their impudency and false reports, his mouth was stopped by the deputy. Therefore he was enforced to depart from the judgment-seat without defending himself. And Gallio refuseth to hear the cause, not for any evil will he bare to Paul, but because it was not agreeable to the office of the deputy to give judgment concerning the religion of every province. For though the Romans could not enforce the nations which were subject to them to observe their rites, yet lest they should seem to allow that which they did tolerate, they forbade their magistrates to meddle with this part of jurisdiction. −

Here we see what the ignorance of true godliness doth in setting in order the state of every commonwealth and dominion. All men confess that this is the principal thing that true religion be in force and flourish. Now, when the true God is known, and the certain and sure rule of worshipping him is understood, there is nothing more equal − 326 than that which God commandeth in his law, to wit, that those who bear rule with power (having abolished contrary superstitions) defend the pure worship of the true God. But seeing that the Romans did observe their rites only through pride and stubbornness, and seeing they had no certainty where there was no truth, they thought that this was the best way − 327 they could take if they should grant liberty to those who dwelt in the provinces to live as they listed. But nothing is more absurd than to leave the worship of God to men’s choice. Wherefore, it was not without cause that God commanded by Moses that the king should cause a book of the law to be written out for himself, ( Deu 17:18;) to wit, that being well instructed, and certain of his faith, he might with more courage take in hand to maintain that which he knew certainly was right. −

Calvin: Act 18:15 - Of words and names 15.Of words and names These words are not well packed together. Yet Gallio speaketh thus of the law of God by way of contempt, as if the Jewish relig...

15.Of words and names These words are not well packed together. Yet Gallio speaketh thus of the law of God by way of contempt, as if the Jewish religion did consist only in words and superfluous questions. And surely (as the nation was much given to contention) it is not to be doubted but that many did trouble themselves and others with superfluous trifles. Yea, we hear with what Paul hitteth them in the teeth − 328 in many places, especially in the Epistle to Titus, ( Tit 1:14, and Tit 3:9.) Yet Gallio is not worthy to be excused who doth mock the holy law of God together with their curiosity. For as it behooved him to cut off all occasion of vain contentions in words, so we must, on the other side, know that when the worship of God is in hand, the strife is not about words, but a matter of all other most serious is handled. −

Calvin: Act 18:17 - All the Grecians having taken Sosthenes // Neither did Gallio care for any of these things 17.All the Grecians having taken Sosthenes This is that Sosthenes whom Paul doth honorably couple with himself as his companion in the beginning of t...

17.All the Grecians having taken Sosthenes This is that Sosthenes whom Paul doth honorably couple with himself as his companion in the beginning of the former Epistle to the Corinthians. And though there be no mention made of him before among the faithful, yet it is to be thought that he was then one of Paul’s companions and advocates. And what fury did enforce the Grecians to run headlong upon him, save only because it is allotted to all the children of God to have the world set against them, and offended with them and their cause, though unknown? Wherefore, there is no cause why such unjust dealing should trouble us at this day when we see the miserable Church oppugned on every side. Moreover, the frowardness of man’s nature is depainted out unto us as in a table, [picture.] Admit we grant that the Jews were hated everywhere for good causes, yet why are the Grecians rather displeased with Sosthenes, a modest man, than with the authors of the tumult, who troubled Paul without any cause? Namely, this is the reason, because, when men are not governed with the Spirit of God, they are carried headlong unto evil, as it were, by the secret inspiration of nature, notwithstanding it may be that they bare Sosthenes such hatred, thinking he had lodged wicked men to raise sedition. −

Neither did Gallio care for any of these things This looseness − 329 must be imputed not so much to the sluggishness of the deputy as to the hatred of the Jewish religion. The Romans could have wished that the remembrance of the true God had been buried. And, therefore, when as it was lawful for them to vow their vows, and to pay them to all the idols of Asia and Greece, it was a deadly fact − 330 to do sacrifice to the God of Israel. Finally, in the common liberty − 331 of all manner [of] superstition, only true religion was accepted. This is the cause that Gallio winketh at the injury done to Sosthenes. He professed of late that he would punish injuries if any were done; now he suffereth a guiltless man to be beaten before the judgment-seat. Whence cometh this sufferance, save only because he did in heart desire that the Jews might one slay another, that their religion might be put out − 332 with them? But forasmuch as, by the mouth of Luke, the Spirit condemneth Gallio’s carelessness, because he did not aid a man who was unjustly punished, − 333 let our magistrates know that they be far more inexcusable if they wink at injuries and wicked facts, if they bridle not the wantonness of the wicked, if they reach not forth their hand to the oppressed. But and if the sluggish are to look for just damnation, what terrible judgment hangeth over the heads of those who are unfaithful and wicked, − 334 who, by favoring evil causes, and bearing with wicked facts, set up, as it were, a banner of want of punishment, − 335 and are fans to kindle boldness to do hurt?

Calvin: Act 18:18 - And when he had tarried there many days // When he had shorn his head // The feast 18.And when he had tarried there many days Paul’s constancy appeareth in this, in that he is not driven away with fear, lest he should trouble the ...

18.And when he had tarried there many days Paul’s constancy appeareth in this, in that he is not driven away with fear, lest he should trouble the disciples, who were as yet ignorant and weak, with his sudden and untimely departure. We read in many other places, that when persecution was raised against him elsewhere he fled forthwith. What is the cause then, that he stayeth at Corinthus? to wit, when he saw that the enemies were provoked with his presence to rage against the whole Church, he did not doubt but that the faithful − 336 should have peace and rest by his departure; but now, when he seeth their malice bridled, so that they cannot hurt the flock of God, he had rather sting and nettle them, than by departing minister unto them any new occasion of rage. Furthermore, this was the third journey which Paul took to Jerusalem. For going from Damascus, he went once up that he might be made known to the apostles. And he was sent the second time with Barnabas, that he might handle and end the controversy about ceremonies. But Luke doth not set down for what cause he now took such a long and laborious journey, determining with all speed to return. −

When he had shorn his head It is uncertain whether that be spoken of Aquila or of Paul: neither skilleth it much. Though I interpret it willingly of Paul, because it seemeth to me a likely thing that he did this for because of the Jews, unto whom he was about to come. Assuredly, I think this to be a thing which all men grant, that he made not any ceremonial vow for his own cause, only that he might do some worship to God. He knew that that was to continue only for a time which God commanded under the law to the old people; and we know how diligently he teacheth that the kingdom of God consisteth not in these external elements, and how straitly he urgeth the abrogating thereof. It had been an absurd thing for him to bind his own conscience with that religion from which he had loosed all other men. −

Therefore, he did shear his head for no other cause, save only that he might apply himself − 337 to the Jews, who were as yet ignorant, and not thoroughly taught; as he doth testify that he took upon him the voluntary observing of the law, from which he was freed, that he might gain those who were under the law, ( 1Co 9:20.) If any man object that it was not lawful for him to make semblance of a vow which he had not made from his heart, we may easily answer, that as touching the substance of purifying he did not dissemble, and that he used the ceremony which was as yet free, not as if God did require such worship, but that he might somewhat bear with the ignorant. −

Therefore, the Papists are ridiculous when they fet − 338 from hence an example of making vows. Paul was moved with no religion to make his vow; but these men place a reigned worship of God in vows. Respect of time enforced Paul to keep the rites of the law. These men do nothing else but entangle in superstition the Church of Christ, which was set free long ago. For it is one thing to bring in use again old ceremonies used long ago, and another to tolerate the same being as yet used, until such time as they may by little and little grow out of use. I omit that the Papists in vain and foolishly compare the shaving of their priests with the sign of purifying which God had allowed in the law. But because we need not stand any longer to refute them, let this one thing suffice us, that Paul bound himself with a vow that he might bring those which were weak to Christ, at least that he might not offend them, which vow he knew was of no importance before God. −

19. Entering into the synagogue. In that he shook his garment at Corinthus, − 339 it was [not] done for that cause, (as this place teacheth,) that he might cast off the whole nation, but only such as he had already tried [experienced] to be of desperate obstinacy. Now, he cometh afresh unto the Ephesians, that he might try whether he could find any more obedience among them. Furthermore, it is a wonder, that seeing it appeareth by Luke’s report that he was heard more patiently in this synagogue than in any other place, and also that he was requested to tarry, he did not grant their request. Hence we may easily gather that which I said before, that he had some great cause to go up to Jerusalem in haste. Also, he himself showeth that he must make haste, saying, I must keep the feast which is at hand at Jerusalem. Neither is it to be doubted but that after he had set things in good order there, he departed with their good leave; and we may gather out of Luke’s words that they did admit his excuse lest the repulse should offend them. And this is worth the noting, that when better hope to do good is offered us than we were wont to have, we are drawn unto divers affairs, as it were, by the hand of God, that we may learn to give over ourselves to be governed at his pleasure. −

The feast That which I said of late touching the vow doth also appertain unto the feast day. For Paul meant not to do thereby any duty of godliness − 340 to God, but to be at the assembly, wherein he might do more good than at any other time of the year. For the Epistle to the Galatians doth sufficiently testify what account he made of difference of days, ( Gal 4:10.) And we must note that he maketh no promise touching his return without using this exception, if it please the Lord. We do all confess that we be not able to stir one finger without his direction; but because there reigneth in men so great arrogancy everywhere, that they dare determine anything (passing over God) not only for the time to come, but also for many years, we must oftentimes think upon this reverence and sobriety, that we may learn to make our counsels subject to the will and providence of God; lest, if we be deliberate and take counsel as those use to do who think that they have fortune at their commandment, we be justly punished for our rashness. And though there be not so great religion in words but that we may at our pleasure say that we will do this or that, yet is it good to accustom ourselves to use certain forms in our speeches, that they may put us in mind that God doth direct all our doings. −

Calvin: Act 18:22 - When he came down to Caesarea 22.When he came down to Caesarea Though Luke saith in a word that Paul saluted the Church at Jerusalem, yet is it certain that he was drawn thither w...

22.When he came down to Caesarea Though Luke saith in a word that Paul saluted the Church at Jerusalem, yet is it certain that he was drawn thither with some great necessity. And yet we may gather by this text that he stayed not long at Jerusalem, peradventure because things fell not out as he would. Moreover, he declareth that his journey in his return was not idle or barren, in that he saith that he strengthened all the disciples, undoubtedly not without great pains-taking, because he was enforced to go hither and thither, and oft to turn out of his way; for this word [ καθεξης ] doth signify a continual course. Now, we have already declared ( Act 9:36) in what respect those be called disciples who had given their names to Christ, and professed the name of Christ; to wit, because there is no godliness without true instruction. They had, indeed, their pastors under whom they might profit. Yet the greater Paul’s authority was, and the more excellent spirit he had given him, so they were not a little strengthened by his by them, especially seeing he was the chief work-master in the founding of all these churches.

Calvin: Act 18:24 - A certain Jew 24.A certain Jew This ought for good causes to be ascribed to the providence of God, in that whilst Paul is enforced to depart from Ephesus, Apollos ...

24.A certain Jew This ought for good causes to be ascribed to the providence of God, in that whilst Paul is enforced to depart from Ephesus, Apollos cometh in his place to supply his absence. And it is very expedient to know the beginning of this man of what sort it was, forasmuch as he was Paul’s successor among the Corinthians, and did behave himself so excellently, and did his faithful endeavor, and took great pains, so that Paul commendeth him honorably as a singular fellow in office. −

“I have planted, (saith he,) Apollos hath watered,”
( 1Co 3:6.) −

Also, these things have I figuratively appointed unto myself and Apollos, ( 1Co 4:6.) Luke giveth him first two titles of commendation, that he was eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures; afterward he will add his zeal, faith, and constancy. And though Paul do truly deny that the kingdom of God consisteth in words, and he himself was not commended for eloquence yet dexterity in speaking and reasoning − 341 (such as Luke doth here commend) is not to be despised, especially when no pomp or vain boasting is sought after, by using fine words and great eloquence; but he which is to teach counteth it sufficient for him, without fraud or ambition, without lofty words and curious cunning, plainly to lay open the matter he hath in hand. Paul was without eloquence; the Lord would have the chief apostle to want this virtue, to the end the power of the Spirit might appear more excellent in his rude and homely speech. And yet was he furnished with such eloquence as was sufficient to set forth the name of Christ, and to maintain the doctrine of salvation. But as the distribution of the gifts of the Spirit is divers and manifold, Paul’s infancy, − 342 that I may so call it, did no whit let but that the Lord might choose to himself eloquent ministers. Furthermore, lest any man should think that Apollos’ eloquence was profane or vain, − 343 Luke saith that it was joined with great power, − 344 namely, that he was mighty in the Scriptures. Which I expound thus, that he was not only well and soundly exercised in the Scriptures, but that he had the force and efficacy thereof, that, being armed with them, he did in all conflicts get the upper hand. And this (in my judgment) is rather the praise of the Scripture than of man, − 345 that it hath sufficient force both to defend the truth, and also to refute the subtilty of Satan. −

Calvin: Act 18:25 - He was instructed // Being fervent in spirit he spake 25.He was instructed That which Luke addeth shortly after seemeth not to agree with this commendation, to wit, that he knew only the baptism of John....

25.He was instructed That which Luke addeth shortly after seemeth not to agree with this commendation, to wit, that he knew only the baptism of John. But this latter member is added by way of correction. Nevertheless, these two agree very well together; that he understood the doctrine of the gospel, because he both knew that the Redeemer was given to the world, and also was well and sincerely instructed concerning the grace of reconciliation; and yet had he been trained up only in the principles of the gospel, so much as could be had out of John’s institution. − 346 For we know that John was in the midst between Christ and the prophets; and of his office doth both his father Zacharias intreat in his tongue, ( Luk 1:76; Luk 1:16 and 17;) and also the angel out of the prophecy of Malachi, ( Mal 3:1.) Surely, seeing that he carried the light before Christ, and did highly extol his power, his disciples are for good causes said to have had knowledge of Christ. Moreover, the speech is worth the noting, that he knew the baptism of John. For thence we gather the true use of the sacraments; to wit, that they enter − 347 us in some certain kind of doctrine, or that they establish that faith which we have embraced. Surely, it is wickedness and impious profanation to pull them away − 348 from doctrine. Wherefore, that the sacraments may be rightly administered, the voice of the heavenly doctrine must sound there. For what is the baptism of John? Luke comprehendeth all his ministry under this word, not only because doctrine is annexed unto baptism, but also because it is the foundation and head thereof, without which it should be a vain and dead ceremony. −

Being fervent in spirit he spake Apollos hath another commendation given him in these words, that he was inflamed with an holy zeal to teach. Doctrine without zeal is either like a sword in the hand of a madman, or else it lieth still as cold and without use, or else it serveth for vain and wicked boasting. For we see that some learned men become slothful; other some (which is worse) become ambitious; other some (which is of all the worst) trouble the Church with contention and brawling. Therefore, that doctrine shall be unsavory which is not joined with zeal. But let us remember that Luke putteth the knowledge of the Scripture in the first place, which must be the moderation of zeal, − 349 for we know that many are fervent without consideration, as the Jews did rage against the gospel, by reason of a perverse affection which they did bear toward the law; and even at this day we see what the Papists be, who carried headlong with furious violence, being pricked forward with an opinion unadvisedly conceived. Therefore, let knowledge be present that it may govern zeal. And now it is said that zeal was the cause of diligence, because Apollos gave himself to teach diligently. But and if that man, being not yet thoroughly and perfectly taught in the gospel, did preach Christ so diligently and freely, what excuse do those men hope to have, who know that more perfectly and fully, which he knew not as yet, if they do not endeavor so much as in them lieth to further and advance the kingdom of Christ? Luke doth attribute zeal to the Spirit, therefore, because it is a rare and peculiar gift; neither do I so expound it that Apollos was moved and pricked forward with the instinct of his mind, but by motion of the Holy Spirit. −

Calvin: Act 18:26 - Whom, when Priscilla 26.Whom, when Priscilla By this it appeareth how far Priscilla and Aquila were from the love of themselves, and from envying another man’s virtue, ...

26.Whom, when Priscilla By this it appeareth how far Priscilla and Aquila were from the love of themselves, and from envying another man’s virtue, in that they deliver those things familiarly and privately to an eloquent man, which he may afterward utter publicly. They excelled not in the same grace wherein he did excel, and, peradventure, they might have been despised in the congregation. Moreover, they most diligently help him, whom they see better furnished as well with eloquence as the use of the Scripture; so that they keep silence, and he alone is heard. −

Again, this was no small modesty which was in Apollos, in that he doth suffer himself to be taught and instructed not only in [by] an handy-craftsman, but also by a woman. He was mighty in the Scripture, and did surpass − 350 them; but as touching the accomplishment of the kingdom of Christ, those do polish and trim him who might seem to be scarce fit ministers. Also, we see that at that time women were not so ignorant of the word of God as the Papists will have them; forasmuch as we see that one of. the chief teachers of the Church was instructed by a woman. Notwithstanding, we must remember that Priscilla did execute this function of teaching at home in her own house, that she might not overthrow the order prescribed by God and nature. −

Calvin: Act 18:27 - When he was determined // When he came 27.When he was determined Luke doth not express for what cause Apollos would go to Achaia. Notwithstanding, we gather out of the text [context] that ...

27.When he was determined Luke doth not express for what cause Apollos would go to Achaia. Notwithstanding, we gather out of the text [context] that he was not allured with any private commodity, but because more plentiful fruit in spreading abroad the gospel did show itself there; because the brethren did more encourage him with their exhortation, and did spur him when he did already run. Which they would not have done, unless it had been for the common profit of the Church. For it had been an absurd thing to entreat a man to depart to another place, whose faithful industry they already used, and did know that they should have need of him afterward, unless there had been some better recompense offered. And I take it that the brethren of Ephesus wrote to those of Achaia, not only that they should provide lodging for the man, but also that they should suffer him to teach. This is holy commendation indeed, when we study to extol every good man with our testimony and consent, [suffrage,] lest the gifts of the Holy Ghost, which he hath given to every man for the edifying of the Church, lie buried. −

When he came The brethren foresaw this, who had already had experience thereof, when they exhorted him to address himself to that journey which he had already in mind conceived. And whereas it is said that he helped the faithful much, we may take it two ways; either that he helped those who were not so well furnished, and that he did support them to beat down the pride of their enemies; for every man was not able to have weapon in readiness, to undertake a hard combat against old − 351 enemies, who would never have yielded, unless they had been enforced; or that he aided them, lest their faith should fail, being shaken with the gainsaying of the enemies, which thing doth oftentimes befall the weak. I take it that they were helped both ways; that having a skillful and practiced captain, they got − 352 the victory in the conflict. Secondly, that their faith was fortified with a new prop, that it might be without danger of wavering. Furthermore, Luke seemeth to note that the brethren were helped with this stoutness and constancy, when as he saith that he disputed publicly with the Jews. For this was a sign of zeal and boldness not to fly the light. Whereas, in the end of the sentence, these words are used, through grace; it doth either agree with the word going before, they believed; or else it must be referred unto the help wherewith he helped the brethren. The former interpretation is nothing hard. For the meaning thereof shall be this, that the faithful were illuminate by the grace of God, that they might believe; as if he had said, The brethren, who were already called by the benefit of God unto faith, were furthered. Yet the other text seemeth to agree better, that Apollos, in imparting that grace which he had received with the brethren, did help them. So that, through grace, shall import as much as according to the measure of the grace received. −

Calvin: Act 18:28 - He overcame the Jews 28.He overcame the Jews By this it appeareth to what use that ability which Apollos had (in that he was mighty in the Holy Scriptures) did serve; to ...

28.He overcame the Jews By this it appeareth to what use that ability which Apollos had (in that he was mighty in the Holy Scriptures) did serve; to wit, because he had a strong and forcible proof to reprove and overcome the enemies withal. Also, the state of the disputation is briefly set down, that Jesus is Christ. For this was out of question among the Jews, that Christ was promised to be the deliverer; but it was a hard matter to persuade them that Jesus, the Son of Mary, was this Christ, through whom salvation was offered. Therefore, it was expedient for Apollos so to dispute concerning the office of Christ, that he might prove that the testimonies of the Scripture were fulfilled in the Son of Mary; and that he might thereby gather that he was Christ. −

Also, this place doth testify, that the Scripture is profitable not only to teach, but also to break the obstinacy of those which do not obey and follow willingly. For our faith should not otherwise be firm enough, unless there were an evident demonstration extant there of those things which are necessary to be known for salvation. Surely, if the law and the prophets had so great light, that Apollos did thereby prove manifestly that Jesus is Christ, as if he did point out the matter with his finger, the adding of the gospel must bring this to pass at least, that the perfect knowledge of Christ may be let [sought] from the whole Scripture. −

Wherefore it is detestable blasphemy against God in that the Papists say, that the Scripture is dark and doubtful. For to what end should God have spoken, unless the plain and invincible truth should show itself in his words? And whereas they infer, that we must stand to the authority of the Church, and they are not to dispute with heretics out of the Scriptures; their cavil is sufficiently refuted by Luke. For, seeing there was nothing more stubborn than the Jews, we need not to fear but that those weapons whereto Apollos trusted, and overcame them, shall suffice us against all heretics, seeing that by them we get the victory of the devil, the prince of all errors.

Defender: Act 18:1 - Corinth Corinth was a very prosperous and very immoral commercial center occupying the entire width of the isthmus just south of Athens. It had a large Jewish...

Corinth was a very prosperous and very immoral commercial center occupying the entire width of the isthmus just south of Athens. It had a large Jewish colony and, as usual, Paul went first to the chief synagogue, where he preached Christ to its Jews and God-fearing Greek communicants."

Defender: Act 18:2 - Priscilla Priscilla and Aquila had apparently become Christian believers while in Rome (Rom 16:3)."

Priscilla and Aquila had apparently become Christian believers while in Rome (Rom 16:3)."

Defender: Act 18:3 - occupation Paul, in accordance with the practice of many of the Jewish scribes and rabbis, normally tried to provide his own material needs in order not to give ...

Paul, in accordance with the practice of many of the Jewish scribes and rabbis, normally tried to provide his own material needs in order not to give occasion for complaint by the churches to whom he was ministering (Act 20:34; 1Co 4:12; 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8)."

Defender: Act 18:10 - much people Many Corinthians did, indeed, accept Christ during the year and a half that Paul preached there (Act 18:11). It is significant, however, that the Lord...

Many Corinthians did, indeed, accept Christ during the year and a half that Paul preached there (Act 18:11). It is significant, however, that the Lord already knew them and regarded them as His own people before they became believers. Although they eventually believed on Christ as a free choice by their own wills, the Lord had already prepared them to do this through their circumstances and by the convicting ministry of the Holy Spirit (Joh 16:7-11; Act 13:48; Gal 1:15)."

Defender: Act 18:12 - Gallio Gallio's name, as proconsul of Achaia, has actually been found on an inscription at Delphi in Central Greece. He was a son of the famous rhetorician L...

Gallio's name, as proconsul of Achaia, has actually been found on an inscription at Delphi in Central Greece. He was a son of the famous rhetorician Lucius Junius Gallio and brother of the equally famous philosopher Seneca, and was appointed proconsul of Achaia by the emperor Claudius about a.d. 51. Corinth was the capital of Achaia, which included southern Greece, south of Macedonia."

Defender: Act 18:17 - Sosthenes Sosthenes evidently became a Christian believer, for he later joined with Paul in addressing the first epistle to the Corinthians (1Co 1:1). He had su...

Sosthenes evidently became a Christian believer, for he later joined with Paul in addressing the first epistle to the Corinthians (1Co 1:1). He had succeeded Crispus, who had also become a Christian, as chief ruler of the synagogue (Act 18:8). When Gallio summarily rejected the Jews' complaint against Paul (Act 18:16), it gave the pagan Greeks an excuse to vent their anti-Jewish hostility in beating Sosthenes. Perhaps this experience contributed to his later conversion."

Defender: Act 18:18 - shorn his head For some reason, Paul had apparently taken a Nazarite vow, not cutting his hair until the duration of the vow was finished. Possibly it was a vow of t...

For some reason, Paul had apparently taken a Nazarite vow, not cutting his hair until the duration of the vow was finished. Possibly it was a vow of thanks for God's promise of protection (Act 18:10). Although this was strictly a Jewish institution (Numbers 6), Paul often made an effort to retain his Jewish identity, hoping thereby to reach the Jews more effectively (1Co 9:19, 1Co 9:20; Act 16:3; Act 21:18-26)."

Defender: Act 18:25 - This man was instructed Apollos is said to have been "mighty in the Scriptures,"(Act 18:24) "fervent in the Spirit" (undoubtedly referring to the indwelling Holy Spirit), "in...

Apollos is said to have been "mighty in the Scriptures,"(Act 18:24) "fervent in the Spirit" (undoubtedly referring to the indwelling Holy Spirit), "instructed in the way of the Lord" (directly or indirectly instructed by John the Baptist), and teaching "diligently the things of the Lord." Even though he knew "only the baptism of John," he had surely believed all that John had taught, and - like the disciples of John who became the first disciples of Christ - was "prepared for the Lord" (Luk 1:17), needing only the up-to-date instruction of Priscilla and Aquila to know "the way of God more perfectly" (Act 18:26) and then to become a mighty preacher like Paul. There is no indication that he - unlike the disciples of John at Ephesus (see notes on Act 19:1-7) - had to be rebaptized, for he had already accepted by faith the coming one as preached by John. He then went on to Corinth, in Achaia, and continued with great success the work begun there by Paul (Act 18:27, Act 18:28; 1Co 3:5, 1Co 3:6)."

TSK: Act 18:1 - departed // Corinth departed : Act 17:32, Act 17:33 Corinth : Act 19:1; 1Co 1:2; 2Co 1:1, 2Co 1:23; 2Ti 4:20

TSK: Act 18:2 - Aquila // Pontus // Claudius Aquila : Act 18:26; Rom 16:3, Rom 16:4; 1Co 16:19; 2Ti 4:19 Pontus : Act 2:9; 1Pe 1:1 Claudius : Act 11:28

TSK: Act 18:3 - and wrought and wrought : Act 20:34, Act 20:35; 1Co 4:12, 1Co 9:6-12; 2Co 11:9; 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8, 2Th 3:9

TSK: Act 18:4 - he // persuaded he : Acts 13:14-52, Act 14:1, Act 17:1-3, Act 17:11, Act 17:17, Act 19:8; Luk 4:16 persuaded : Act 18:13, Act 13:43, Act 19:26, Act 26:28, Act 28:23; ...

TSK: Act 18:5 - Silas // was // and testified // was Christ Silas : Act 17:14, Act 17:15; 1Th 3:2 was : Act 4:20, Act 17:16; Job 32:18-20; Jer 6:11, Jer 20:9; Eze 3:14; Mic 3:8; Luk 12:50; 2Co 5:14; Phi 1:23 *G...

TSK: Act 18:6 - they // he shook // Your // from they : Act 13:45, Act 19:9, Act 26:11; Luk 22:65; 1Th 2:14-16; 2Ti 2:25; Jam 2:6, Jam 2:7; 1Pe 4:4, 1Pe 4:14 he shook : Act 13:51; Neh 5:13; Mat 10:14...

TSK: Act 18:7 - Justus // worshipped Justus : Col 4:11 worshipped : Act 10:2, Act 10:22, Act 13:42, Act 16:14, Act 17:4

TSK: Act 18:8 - Crispus // the chief // believed // hearing Crispus : 1Co 1:14 the chief : Act 18:17, Act 13:15; Mar 5:35 believed : Act 10:2, Act 16:14, Act 16:15, Act 16:34; Gen 17:27, Gen 18:19; Jos 24:15 he...

TSK: Act 18:9 - spake // Be spake : Act 16:9, Act 22:18, Act 23:11, Act 27:23-25; 2Co 12:1-3 Be : Isa 58:1; Jer 1:17; Eze 2:6-8, Eze 3:9-11; Jon 3:2; Mic 3:8; Eph 6:19, Eph 6:20;...

TSK: Act 18:10 - I am // and no // for I am : Exo 4:12; Jos 1:5, Jos 1:9; Jdg 2:18; Isa 8:10, Isa 41:10, Isa 43:2; Jer 1:18, Jer 1:19; Mat 1:23, Mat 28:20; 2Co 12:9; 2Ti 4:17, 2Ti 4:22 and ...

TSK: Act 18:11 - he // continued there he : Act 14:3, Act 19:10, Act 20:31 continued there : Gr. sat there

he : Act 14:3, Act 19:10, Act 20:31

continued there : Gr. sat there

TSK: Act 18:12 - the deputy // Achaia // the Jews // the judgment Cir, am 4059, ad 55 the deputy : Act 13:7, Act 13:12 Achaia : Act 18:27; Rom 15:26, Rom 16:5; 1Co 16:15; 2Co 1:1, 2Co 9:2, 2Co 11:10; 1Th 1:7, 1Th 1:8...

TSK: Act 18:13 - -- Act 18:4, Act 6:13, Act 21:28, Act 24:5, Act 24:6, Act 25:8

TSK: Act 18:14 - when // If // bear when : Act 21:39, Act 21:40, Act 22:1, Act 22:2, Act 26:1, Act 26:2; Luk 21:12-15; 1Pe 3:14, 1Pe 3:15 If : Act 23:27-29, Act 25:11, Act 25:18-20,Act 2...

TSK: Act 18:15 - a question // look // for a question : Act 23:29, Act 25:11, Act 25:19, Act 26:3; 1Ti 1:4, 1Ti 6:4; 2Ti 2:23; Tit 3:9 look : Mat 27:4, Mat 27:24 for : Act 24:6-8; Joh 18:31

TSK: Act 18:16 - -- Psa 76:10; Rom 13:3, Rom 13:4; Rev 12:16

TSK: Act 18:17 - Sosthenes // the chief // And Gallio Sosthenes : 1Co 1:1 the chief : Act 18:8 And Gallio : Act 17:32; Amo 6:6; 1Co 1:23

Sosthenes : 1Co 1:1

the chief : Act 18:8

And Gallio : Act 17:32; Amo 6:6; 1Co 1:23

TSK: Act 18:18 - Syria // Priscilla // having // Cenchrea Syria : Act 15:23, Act 15:41, Act 21:3; Gal 1:21 Priscilla : Act 18:2 having : Act 21:24; Num 6:5-9, Num 6:18; 1Co 9:20 Cenchrea : Cenchrea, now Kenkr...

Syria : Act 15:23, Act 15:41, Act 21:3; Gal 1:21

Priscilla : Act 18:2

having : Act 21:24; Num 6:5-9, Num 6:18; 1Co 9:20

Cenchrea : Cenchrea, now Kenkri, was the port of Corinth, on the east side of the isthmus, and about nine miles from the city. Rom 16:1

TSK: Act 18:19 - Ephesus // but Ephesus : Act 18:24, Act 19:1, Act 19:17, Act 19:26, Act 20:16; 1Co 16:8; Eph 1:1; 1Ti 1:3; 2Ti 1:18, 2Ti 4:12; Rev 1:11, Rev 2:1 but : Act 18:4, Act ...

TSK: Act 18:20 - he he : Act 20:16, Act 21:13, Act 21:14; Mar 1:37, Mar 1:38; 1Co 16:12

TSK: Act 18:21 - bade // I must // if God bade : Act 15:29; Luk 9:61; 2Co 13:11 I must : Act 20:16; Deu 16:1 if God : Act 19:21, Act 21:14; Mat 26:39; Rom 1:10, Rom 15:32; 1Co 4:19; Phi 2:19-2...

TSK: Act 18:22 - Caesarea // gone // the church // he went Caesarea : Act 8:40, Act 10:1, Act 10:24, Act 11:11, Act 18:22, Act 23:23 gone : Act 25:1, Act 25:9 the church : Act 18:21, Act 11:22, Act 15:4, Act 2...

TSK: Act 18:23 - the country // strengthening the country : Act 16:6; 1Co 16:1; Gal 1:2, Gal 4:14 strengthening : Act 14:22, Act 15:32, Act 15:41, Act 16:40; Deu 3:28; Ezr 1:6; Isa 35:3, Isa 35:4;...

TSK: Act 18:24 - Apollos // Alexandria // an // mighty Apollos : Act 19:1; 1Co 1:12, 1Co 3:5, 1Co 3:6, 1Co 4:6, 1Co 16:12; Tit 3:13 Alexandria : Act 6:9, Act 27:6 an : Exo 4:10; Isa 3:3; 1Co 2:1, 1Co 2:2; ...

TSK: Act 18:25 - instructed // fervent // knowing instructed : Act 13:10, Act 16:17, Act 19:9, Act 19:23; Gen 18:19; Jdg 2:22; 1Sa 12:23; Psa 25:8, Psa 25:9; Psa 119:1; Isa 40:3; Jer 6:16; Hos 14:9; M...

TSK: Act 18:26 - to speak // Aquila // expounded to speak : Act 14:3; Isa 58:1; Eph 6:19, Eph 6:20 Aquila : Act 18:2, Act 18:3 expounded : Act 8:31, Act 28:23; Pro 1:5, Pro 9:9, Pro 22:17, Pro 22:18,...

TSK: Act 18:27 - the brethren // exhorting // helped // believed the brethren : Act 9:27; Rom 16:1, Rom 16:2; 1Co 16:3; 2Co 3:1, 2Co 3:2 exhorting : Col 4:10; 3Jo 1:8-10 helped : 1Co 3:6, 1Co 3:10-14; 2Co 1:24; Phi ...

TSK: Act 18:28 - convinced // showing // was Christ convinced : Act 18:5, Act 18:25, Act 9:22, Act 17:3, Act 26:22, Act 26:23; Luk 24:27, Luk 24:44; 1Co 15:3, 1Co 15:4; Heb. 7:1-10:39 showing : Joh 5:39...

convinced : Act 18:5, Act 18:25, Act 9:22, Act 17:3, Act 26:22, Act 26:23; Luk 24:27, Luk 24:44; 1Co 15:3, 1Co 15:4; Heb. 7:1-10:39

showing : Joh 5:39

was Christ : or, is the Christ, Act 18:5

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Act 18:1 - -- Act 18:1-8 Paul worketh for his subsistence, and preacheth Christ at Corinth, first to the Jews, and, upon their opposing and blaspheming, to the G...

Act 18:1-8 Paul worketh for his subsistence, and preacheth Christ

at Corinth, first to the Jews, and, upon their opposing

and blaspheming, to the Gentiles with more success.

Act 18:9-11 He is encouraged by the Lord in a vision, and abideth

there a long time.

Act 18:12-17 The Jews accuse him before Gallio the deputy, who

will have nothing to do with them.

Act 18:18-23 Paul passeth from city to city, confirming the disciples.

Act 18:24-28 Apollos, instructed more perfectly in the Christian

doctrine by Aquila and Priscilla, preacheth it at

Ephesus, and afterward in Achaia, with great efficacy.

The metropolis of Achaia, being a rich sea town, and situate in the very isthmus which joins Peloponnesus unto Achaia; made a Roman colony, and now flourishing with learned men. Here St. Paul gathered a famous church, unto which he wrote two of his Epistles.

Poole: Act 18:2 - Pontus // Claudius Pontus a country between Cappadocia and the Black Sea, Act 2:9 , whither the progenitors of Aquila, in one of the dispersions, might flee from Judea ...

Pontus a country between Cappadocia and the Black Sea, Act 2:9 , whither the progenitors of Aquila, in one of the dispersions, might flee from Judea to inhabit there.

Claudius the Roman emperor, who, at the beginning of his reign, gave liberty to the Jews freely to exercise their religion, but about eight years after took away that privilege from them; which Suetonius makes mention of, though very much mistaking the reason. With the Jews, it is thought that the Christians were banished too; for the pagan Romans did not care to distinguish between them, they both worshipping but one God, and agreeing in opposing their idolatry.

Poole: Act 18:3 - Of the same craft // And wrought // Tent-makers Of the same craft the most learned amongst the Jews did always learn some handicraft, and it was one of those things which they held a father was bou...

Of the same craft the most learned amongst the Jews did always learn some handicraft, and it was one of those things which they held a father was bound to do for his child, viz. to teach him some trade. And one of their rabbi’ s sayings is, That whosoever does not teach his child a trade, does as bad as if he did teach him to play the thief.

And wrought St. Paul wrought with his hands, not so much because as yet there was no church there that could maintain him, but:

1. Because he would not be burdensome unto them, they being probably most mean persons that believed there, as appears, 1Co 1:26 . Or:

2. That he might show how that he did not covet theirs, but them, and to gain nothing but souls amongst them. Yet he asserted his right, and the right of ministers, by Divine appointment, to live of the gospel, 1Co 9:6,11,12 .

Tent-makers tents were used by soldiers, and in those hot countries by others also, being usually made of skins sewn together to keep off the violence of the weather.

Poole: Act 18:4 - He reasoned in the synagogue // And persuaded the Jews // And the Greeks He reasoned in the synagogue or argued and disputed, giving his reasons out of Scripture, and answering their objections. And persuaded the Jews no...

He reasoned in the synagogue or argued and disputed, giving his reasons out of Scripture, and answering their objections.

And persuaded the Jews not only using cogent arguments, but, as some understand the verb, such as did prevail upon them.

And the Greeks not such as were of the Jewish race, and after the dispersion used the Scripture in the Greek tongue; but such as were Gentile Greeks, Greeks by descent.

Poole: Act 18:5 - Were come from Macedonia // Pressed in the spirit // Jesus was Christ Were come from Macedonia according as was ordered by him, Act 17:14,15 . Pressed in the spirit more than ordinarily affected, the Spirit of God inf...

Were come from Macedonia according as was ordered by him, Act 17:14,15 .

Pressed in the spirit more than ordinarily affected, the Spirit of God influencing his spirit, so that he felt an anguish or pain at the heart, as 2Co 2:4 ; such was his grief for the contumacy of the Jews, so great was his desire that they might be saved.

Jesus was Christ:

1. The Christ, or anointed, that excelled all other Christs or anointed ones, being anointed with oil above measure.

2. The Christ that was promised by the prophets.

Poole: Act 18:6 - Blasphemed // He shook his raiment // Your blood be upon your own heads Blasphemed they blasphemed Paul, miscalling of him, but especially Christ, whose dishonour grieved Paul most. He shook his raiment his upper garmen...

Blasphemed they blasphemed Paul, miscalling of him, but especially Christ, whose dishonour grieved Paul most.

He shook his raiment his upper garment, as the manner was, Mat 26:65 , that none of the dust of that place where such blasphemy was spoken might stick unto him. See Act 13:51 .

Your blood be upon your own heads or, You are guilty of your own deaths and damnation, 2Sa 1:16 Mat 27:25 ;

Felo de se. This expression is borrowed from the witnesses laying their hands on the head of the guilty person; or the sacrificer’ s laying his hand on the head of the beast which was to be slain; Exo 29:10 Lev 1:4 .

I am clean; free from their blood, or the loss of their souls, having warned them, and shown the way of life unto them. Eze 33:4 ; he had blown the trumpet, and warned the people.

Poole: Act 18:7 - Justus // One that worshipped God Justus some read Titus, some both Titus and Justus, making Justus a surname, as Act 1:23 Col 4:11 ; after the manner of the Romans. One that worship...

Justus some read Titus, some both Titus and Justus, making Justus a surname, as Act 1:23 Col 4:11 ; after the manner of the Romans.

One that worshipped God had forsaken the polytheism of the heathen.

Poole: Act 18:8 - The chief ruler // Many of the Corinthians believed The chief ruler: there were several rulers in a synagogue, which we find frequent mention of, as Mat 9:18 Mar 5:22 . Their office and place was, to a...

The chief ruler: there were several rulers in a synagogue, which we find frequent mention of, as Mat 9:18 Mar 5:22 . Their office and place was, to advise and give order about the affairs of the synagogue, that all things might be performed according to their prescribed rules.

Many of the Corinthians believed amongst whom are reckoned Gaius, Sosthenes, 1Co 1:1 , and Epenetus, Rom 16:5 .

Poole: Act 18:9 - In the night by a vision // Speak, and hold not thy peace In the night by a vision as Act 16:9 ; it may be, by an angel. Speak, and hold not thy peace it is doubled again and again, as of greatest conseque...

In the night by a vision as Act 16:9 ; it may be, by an angel.

Speak, and hold not thy peace it is doubled again and again, as of greatest consequence:

1. To the Corinthians, whose salvation by this means might be procured.

2. To Paul himself, whose soul, howsoever, should be delivered, he having discharged his duty, Act 20:26,27 .

The fierceness of the enemies of God and his truth, should kindle a greater fervour in his servants for his glory. Should Satan have better servants than God? Should they dare for their master beyond what the servants of God are willing to do or suffer for him? Isa 62:1 Jer 1:17,18 .

Poole: Act 18:10 - -- Christ, in this vision, useth two arguments to persuade Paul to continue preaching the gospel at Corinth: 1. Because he would be with him, to suppl...

Christ, in this vision, useth two arguments to persuade Paul to continue preaching the gospel at Corinth:

1. Because he would be with him, to supply, support, and deliver him; as it is promised to Jeremiah, Jer 1:19 , and to all the faithful ministers of Christ, Mat 28:20 . This promise was fulfilled to Paul, and to other of God’ s servants; whatsoever troubles they met with, even when they were killed, they were not hurt, Rom 8:36-39 .

2. The other reason why Paul was commanded to tarry was, because there were many that God would have called by his ministry; and thus those who were not his people God calleth his people, as Hos 1:10 2:23 .

Poole: Act 18:11 - -- He sat there as his fixed place; which implies his continuance and constancy in the work of the ministry.

He sat there as his fixed place; which implies his continuance and constancy in the work of the ministry.

Poole: Act 18:12 - Deputy of Achaia // With one accord This Gallio was brother to that deservedly famous Seneca, (who was tutor to Nero), and hath great commendations given him, as being a man of excell...

This Gallio was brother to that deservedly famous Seneca, (who was tutor to Nero), and hath great commendations given him, as being a man of excellent disposition, beloved by all men, an enemy to all vice, and especially a hater of flattery.

Deputy of Achaia this man was proconsul, governing Achaia and all Greece absolutely, or with the power of a consul.

With one accord wicked men in their evil deeds are unanimous, for Satan knows that his kingdom would not stand if it were once divided.

Poole: Act 18:13 - Contrary to the law Contrary to the law of the Romans, who, to avoid tumults and confusions, did forbid any to set up any new worship without leave; and the Jews in thes...

Contrary to the law of the Romans, who, to avoid tumults and confusions, did forbid any to set up any new worship without leave; and the Jews in these parts having here no power to punish St. Paul as they had at Jerusalem, maliciously incite the governor against him. Or by the law here may be meant the law of Moses, which they accuse Paul to have broken, and so not to be comprehended in that licence which they had to exercise their religion.

Poole: Act 18:14 - To open his mouth // A matter of wrong // Reason would that I should bear with you To open his mouth to make his apology, and to speak in his own defence. A matter of wrong as murder, theft, or any such injury, which judges do usu...

To open his mouth to make his apology, and to speak in his own defence.

A matter of wrong as murder, theft, or any such injury, which judges do usually determine of.

Reason would that I should bear with you I would endure any trouble to hear and understand it, I should think it my duty to suffer you to say as much as you would in your case.

Poole: Act 18:15 - A question of words // And names // And of your law // I will be no judge of such matters A question of words which have been spoken about the controversies of religion. And names as, whether Jesus was to be called Christ or the Messiah;...

A question of words which have been spoken about the controversies of religion.

And names as, whether Jesus was to be called Christ or the Messiah; and whether his disciples might be called Christians.

And of your law concerning circumcision, as whether none may be saved without it.

I will be no judge of such matters he acknowledges his unfitness and unwillingness to determine such things as did not belong unto him, or he did not understand.

Poole: Act 18:16 - -- He commanded them to be gone, having dismissed their case; and, if need were, added threatening and force.

He commanded them to be gone, having dismissed their case; and, if need were, added threatening and force.

Poole: Act 18:17 - All the Greeks // Sosthenes // Gallio cared for none of those things All the Greeks not the converted Greeks, though St. Austin thought they beat Sosthenes, as an enemy to Paul, (yet surely they had not so learned Chri...

All the Greeks not the converted Greeks, though St. Austin thought they beat Sosthenes, as an enemy to Paul, (yet surely they had not so learned Christ), but the unbelieving or Gentile Greeks, who cared for neither Paul nor Jews, but favoured Gallio, who would have them driven away.

Sosthenes some think him to have been the same with Crispus, Act 18:8 ; others, to have succeeded him in that office; and some think that he was chief ruler of another synagogue (for in great cities there might be more than one); and others, that there might be several called chief rulers over one and the same synagogue.

Gallio cared for none of those things either slighting the Jews and all their controversies, or prudently declined intermeddling with them.

Poole: Act 18:18 - A good while // Took his leave of the brethren // Priscilla and Aquila // Cenchrea // For he had a vow A good while a year and a half in all, as some think, which is mentioned Act 18:11 , by a prolepsis; or, besides that year and a half there spoken of...

A good while a year and a half in all, as some think, which is mentioned Act 18:11 , by a prolepsis; or, besides that year and a half there spoken of.

Took his leave of the brethren ordering every thing as if he were to have taken his last farewell of them, as it fell out accordingly: howsoever, holy men live in a constant expectation of their dissolution.

Priscilla and Aquila: that the wife’ s name is here put before the husband’ s, have caused various conjectures; and it is observed, that in St. Paul’ s Epistles, whereas there are three times only mention of them both together, viz. Rom 16:3 1Co 16:19 2Ti 4:19 , the wife’ s name is twice placed first, to show, that in Christ Jesus there is neither male nor female, Gal 3:28 .

Cenchrea which was a town at the entering into the haven belonging to Corinth, Rom 16:1 .

For he had a vow to wit, St. Paul had; and therefore had shaven his head, according unto the law, Num 6:18 . To the Jews he became as a Jew.

Poole: Act 18:19 - Ephesus // Left them there Ephesus the metropolis of the Lesser Asia, where afterwards that famous church was, unto which St. Paul wrote an Epistle, as also St. John wrote anot...

Ephesus the metropolis of the Lesser Asia, where afterwards that famous church was, unto which St. Paul wrote an Epistle, as also St. John wrote another, Rev 2:1 .

Left them there that is, Aquila and Priscilla at Ephesus, to confirm the believing Ephesians; whilst Paul

entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews out of an extraordinary love for his nation, although he had suffered all those indignities from them, yet he would give them precept upon precept, and line upon line.

Poole: Act 18:20 - They desired // He consented not They desired that is, Aquila and Priscilla, whom Paul would not yield unto. He consented not by God’ s wonderful providence, which overrules a...

They desired that is, Aquila and Priscilla, whom Paul would not yield unto.

He consented not by God’ s wonderful providence, which overrules all our inclinations; Paul having greater things to do and suffer for the glory of God elsewhere.

Poole: Act 18:21 - This feast // If God will This feast the feast of the passover; which is meant where feast is put absolutely, unless some after expression qualifies it: not that this holy man...

This feast the feast of the passover; which is meant where feast is put absolutely, unless some after expression qualifies it: not that this holy man did out of conscience to the feast intend to observe it, for Christ is the end of the law to them that believe, Rom 10:4 ; but because of the vast concourse from all places to Jerusalem at that time, which would give him an opportunity of making Christ known to such multitudes, and to gain their souls unto him.

If God will though he was an apostle, and had the Spirit of prophecy, and might know whether he should return or no, yet he does not absolutely promise them to return to them, but conditionally, if the Lord will; to teach us what caution we should use in all our promises and resolutions, as Jam 4:15 , being we know not what a day may bring forth. Besides, in our owning of God’ s will and pleasure, we acknowledge a providence of God in all things, especially in our concerns, which we desire to refer all unto.

Poole: Act 18:22 - Caesarea // Antioch Caesarea not that Caesarea that was in Syria, but that which was in Palestine, called Caesarea Stratonis; and which was the safest way to Jerusalem; ...

Caesarea not that Caesarea that was in Syria, but that which was in Palestine, called Caesarea Stratonis; and which was the safest way to Jerusalem; for the way by Joppa, though shorter, was accounted more dangerous. The church; either the church of Caesarea in his journey, or that at Jerusalem at his journey’ s end, which for its populousness might be called eminently, the church.

Antioch that Antioch that was in Syria.

Poole: Act 18:23 - Had spent some time there // Galatia // Phrygia // Strengthening all the disciples Had spent some time there this work might take up the constant care and indefatigable pains of the apostle. Galatia where he had converted many. P...

Had spent some time there this work might take up the constant care and indefatigable pains of the apostle.

Galatia where he had converted many.

Phrygia: see Act 16:6 .

Strengthening all the disciples though the seed be duly sown, yet it must be seasonably watered; and redit labor actus in orbem.

Poole: Act 18:24 - Apollos // Born at Alexandria // An eloquent man // Mighty in the Scriptures Apollos who is thought also to be called Apelles, Rom 16:10 . Born at Alexandria his parents having lived there. An eloquent man a rational, prud...

Apollos who is thought also to be called Apelles, Rom 16:10 .

Born at Alexandria his parents having lived there.

An eloquent man a rational, prudent, and learned man. Though the kingdom of God is not in any excellency of speech, 1Co 2:1,4 , yet this Egyptian jewel may be used to adorn the tabernacle.

Mighty in the Scriptures in quoting, explaining, and urging of them.

Poole: Act 18:25 - Instructed // Fervent in the spirit // Knowing only the baptism of John Instructed catechised, or taught, viva voce. In the way of the Lord; Christ, who hath by his precepts and example tanght us the way to happiness. ...

Instructed catechised, or taught, viva voce. In the way of the Lord; Christ, who hath by his precepts and example tanght us the way to happiness.

Fervent in the spirit very zealous to promote God’ s glory, and men’ s salvation, as Rom 12:11 .

Knowing only the baptism of John who baptized with water, but could not baptize with the Holy Ghost, Mat 3:11 ; that is, they had not those extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost which followed upon baptism after that Christ was ascended, and the Spirit poured out, Act 2:4 . But John was a preacher of repentance, and of faith in Christ, pointing at the Lamb of God; and he baptized his disciples into this doctrine; which is the same with the baptism and belief of the apostles afterwards; only now they knew many things more fully than were revealed in the Baptist’ s time.

Poole: Act 18:26 - -- If we allow Priscilla to have contributed towards the instruction of Apollos, as doubtless we may, it is certain it was only in private discourse; w...

If we allow Priscilla to have contributed towards the instruction of Apollos, as doubtless we may, it is certain it was only in private discourse; which being joined with a meek and humble behaviour, might be very effectual for the conversion of souls, 1Pe 3:1,2 . Thus Timothy was indebted for his knowledge in the things of God to his mother and grandmother, 2Ti 1:5 . But otherwise it is not lawful for a woman to teach, 1Ti 2:11,12 .

Poole: Act 18:27 - To pass into Achaia // The brethren wrote // Helped them much which had believed through grace To pass into Achaia to Corinth, which was in Achaia. The brethren wrote who were at Ephesus. Helped them much which had believed through grace Ap...

To pass into Achaia to Corinth, which was in Achaia.

The brethren wrote who were at Ephesus.

Helped them much which had believed through grace Apollos helped them much by his eloquence, zeal, and constancy, which all are the gifts of God; but, especially, that they believed was through grace; for faith is the gift of God, Eph 2:8 , and it was given unto them to believe, Phi 1:29 .

Poole: Act 18:28 - Mightily // Showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was Christ Mightily with great constancy, perseverance, and enduring of opposition. Showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was Christ as Act 17:3 . Some think t...

Mightily with great constancy, perseverance, and enduring of opposition.

Showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was Christ as Act 17:3 . Some think that Christ ought to be the subject, and Jesus the predicate; and then the sense is, that Christ is our Jesus, or Saviour. The Messiah, that was sent from God, is the Saviour of the world.

Haydock: Act 18:3 - -- Critics are divided in their opinion about the nature of St. Paul's employment: but it is generally supposed to be making tents of skins, such as were...

Critics are divided in their opinion about the nature of St. Paul's employment: but it is generally supposed to be making tents of skins, such as were formerly used by travellers and soldiers. (Tirinus) ---

Hence the expression, esse sub pellibus. The apostle submitted to this labour, that he might be no burden to those whom he preached the gospel. (St. Augustine, tract. in Joan.) ---

The Jews, with their characteristic good sense, in matters of this kind, made it the first duty of parents, to teach their children some trade, by which they might gain their livelihood. To neglect this was supposed to be equivalent to teaching them to steal. Hence their learned men were likewise practitioners in some laborious trade. They were ignorant of the distinction between low, and honourable professions, which refinement and vanity have introduced among us. Every employment was honourable, which was conducive to the good of their neighbour, and compatible with virtue and modesty; and the more so, in proportion as the wants of mankind made it more necessary. See Fleury's Manners of the Israelites. (Passim.)

Haydock: Act 18:4 - Introducing the name of the Lord Jesus Introducing the name of the Lord Jesus. These words are found in few Greek copies, and so are omitted in the Protestant translation. (Witham)

Introducing the name of the Lord Jesus. These words are found in few Greek copies, and so are omitted in the Protestant translation. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 18:5 - -- No further mention is made of Silas in these Acts. Some martyrologists think he died in Macedonia by martyrdom. He is honoured in the Church as a sa...

No further mention is made of Silas in these Acts. Some martyrologists think he died in Macedonia by martyrdom. He is honoured in the Church as a saint, and sometimes, as well as St. Barnabas, obtains the title of apostle. (Calmet) See annotation, chap. xvi. ver. 37.

Haydock: Act 18:6 - Shaking his garments Shaking his garments. See Matthew x. 14. Your blood be upon your own heads: that is, you are guilty of your own perdition: we have discharged our...

Shaking his garments. See Matthew x. 14. Your blood be upon your own heads: that is, you are guilty of your own perdition: we have discharged our duty by preaching to you. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 18:12 - -- This Gallio was brother to the great Seneca, Nero's preceptor, as that author himself assures us. (Præf. lib. v. Quæs. Natur.) He was called Annæus...

This Gallio was brother to the great Seneca, Nero's preceptor, as that author himself assures us. (Præf. lib. v. Quæs. Natur.) He was called Annæus Novatus, but took the name of Gallio by adoption, and was made proconsul by his brother's interest, whose honours and disgraces he equally participated. Being condemned to death by Nero, he laid violent hands upon himself. It is probable St. Paul became acquainted with Seneca. St. Jerome and St. Augustine say, many letters passed between them, which are not now extant. (Tirinus) See also Eusebius. An. Christi 66. [The year A.D. 66.]

Ver 17. Beat him. It is uncertain whether the Jews themselves beat Sosthenes, being vexed at him, for not managing well the cause; or whether he was struck by the attendants of the proconsul, to force him away, when he would not desist, nor retire. See the Analysis, dissert. xxxv. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 18:18 - Shorn // For he had a vow Shorn, &c. It was customary among the Jews to make vows of abstaining from all inebriating liquor, not to cut their hair for a limited time, &c. Th...

Shorn, &c. It was customary among the Jews to make vows of abstaining from all inebriating liquor, not to cut their hair for a limited time, &c. This was the vow of the Nazarites, mentioned in Numbers vi. 18; Acts xxii. 24. St. Paul had probably taken upon himself some obligation of this kind; perhaps in condescension to the Jews, who were yet weak in faith. The time being now expired, he cut his hair as before. It was lawful for converts to observe these legal ceremonies, till the gospel was perfectly established, provided they did not place their hopes of salvation in them, or believe that the faith and grace of Christ were ineffectual without them. (Denis the Carthusian) ---

For he had a vow, that is, Paul, not Aquila. This seems to have been such a vow, as those called Nazarenes, used to make, of abstaining from wine for a time, of not cutting their hair, and of making some offerings in the temple at Jerusalem. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 18:22 - He went up // He went up // To Cæsarea He went up. To Jerusalem is most probably understood, that being the chief object of St. Paul's journey. It seems rather extraordinary that St. Luk...

He went up. To Jerusalem is most probably understood, that being the chief object of St. Paul's journey. It seems rather extraordinary that St. Luke should have omitted the express mention of the city. But having told us his object was to be at Jerusalem, he perhaps thought it was enough to say, he went up. (Calmet) ---

In Palestine, the expression, to go up, was sometimes taken for going up to Jerusalem. (John vii. 8. 10; John xii. 20; Acts xxiv. 11) And reciprocally in Acts chap. xxiv. 1. to go down, is taken for going down from Jerusalem to Cæsarea. (Bible de Vence) ---

He went up. In the Scripture, when Antioch and Cæsarea are simply mentioned, Antioch, in Syria, and Cæsarea, in Palestine, are uniformly designated. ---

To Cæsarea, not in Cappadocia, but in Palestine, from whence he went up to Jerusalem, and then down to Antioch, in Syria. (Witham)

Haydock: Act 18:24 - Apollo...one mighty in the Scripture Apollo...one mighty in the Scripture. Literally, powerful in the Scripture, yet knew no baptism, but that of John. (Witham) --- When we consider th...

Apollo...one mighty in the Scripture. Literally, powerful in the Scripture, yet knew no baptism, but that of John. (Witham) ---

When we consider the great harvest, and few labourers, and the small time that the apostles could give to any one place for instructions, we shall not be so much surprised, that this zealous convert should not yet be perfectly instructed in every doctrine of Christianity. This happened about twenty years after our Lord's ascension. He is the same person as is mentioned 1 Corinthians iii. 7. (Haydock)

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Gill: Act 18:1 - After these things // Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth After these things,.... The Arabic version renders it, "after these words, or discourses"; after the apostle's disputation with the philosophers, and ...

After these things,.... The Arabic version renders it, "after these words, or discourses"; after the apostle's disputation with the philosophers, and his sermon in the Areopagus, the effects of which are before related:

Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth; the metropolis of Achaia, or Peloponnesus. The city was formerly called Ephyra, from Ephyra p, the daughter of Oceanus, and had its name of Corinth from Corinthus, the son of Maratho, who repaired it when destroyed; or, as others say, from Corinthus the son of Pelops, others of Orestes, and others of Jupiter: though more probably it was so called from the multitudes of whores in this place, as if it was κοραι ενθα, "corai entha, here are girls, or whores"; for in the temple of Venus there were no less than a thousand whores provided, to be prostituted to all comers thither; See Gill on 2Co 12:21. It was situated between two great seas, the Aegean and Ionean; hence q Horace calls it Bimaris: it had a very strong tower, built on a high mount, called Acrocorinthus, from whence these two seas might be seen, and where was the fountain Pirene, sacred to the Muses: the city was about sixty furlongs, or seven miles and a half, from the shore r: it was a city that abounded in riches and luxury. Florus s calls it the head of Achaia, and the glory of Greece; and Cicero t, the light of all Greece: it was in time so much enlarged, and became so famous, that it was little inferior to Rome itself, on which account it grew proud and haughty; and using the Roman ambassadors with some degree of insolence, who were sent into Greece, on some certain occasion, first Metellus, and then Mummius, were sent against it, which latter took it, and burnt it; and the city then abounding with images and statues of gold, silver, and brass, were melted down together in the fire, and made what was afterwards called the Corinthian brass, which became so famous, and is often spoken of in history u: but Julius Caesar, moved with the commodious situation of the place, rebuilt it w, and it became a colony of the Romans, as Pliny x and Mela y both call it: and so it was at this time when the apostle was there. After this it came into the hands of the Venetians, from whom it was taken by Mahomet, the second son of Amurath, in the year 1458 z; but is now again in the hands of the Venetians; and that and the country about it are called the Morea. And as the Gospel was to be preached to the worst of sinners, among whom God's chosen ones lay, the apostle was directed to come hither; and it appears by the sequel, that God had much people here, even more than at Athens, among the wise and learned.

Gill: Act 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila // born in Pontus // lately come from Italy // with his wife Priscilla // because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome // And came unto them And found a certain Jew named Aquila,.... This seems to have been his Roman name, which he had took, or was given him, while he was at Rome; very like...

And found a certain Jew named Aquila,.... This seems to have been his Roman name, which he had took, or was given him, while he was at Rome; very likely his Jewish name was נשד, "Nesher", which signifies an eagle, as "Aquila" does: unless it should rather be thought to be a Greek name; and as "Olympas" is from "Olympios", and "Nymphas" from Nymphios"; so "Akilas", as it in the Greek text, from Akylios", and this from ακυλος, "Akylos", which signifies an acorn. There was a Jewish proselyte of this name, who translated the Bible into Greek, who is called by the Jewish writers עקילס, "Akilas" a; and Eusebius b calls him ακυλας ο ποντικος, or "Akylas" or "Aquila" of Pontus, as here, but cannot be the same; for one was a Jew, the other a Gentile, then a Christian, and afterwards a Jewish proselyte, and lived after the destruction of Jerusalem many years, even in the times of Adrian: nor is it the same name with Onkelos, the famous Chaldee paraphrast, as some have thought, and much less the same person; for though their age better agrees, yet neither their name, nor their nation; for Onkelos was only a proselyte, not a Jew, as this man was; and the agreement the names of these proselytes may be thought to have with this, does but confirm it to be a Roman name; and in a decree of Claudius the Roman emperor, mention is made of Akylas, or Aquila, a Roman governor of Alexandria c: and in the reign of Caius Caligula, there was a consul of Rome whose name was M. Aquila Julianus. This is said to be afterwards bishop of Heraclea; but that is not to be depended upon:

born in Pontus; a country in Asia; See Gill on Act 2:9 where many Jews lived; though he was born in an Heathen country, his parents were Jews:

lately come from Italy; a famous and well known country in Europe: See Gill on Heb 13:24.

with his wife Priscilla; she and her husband are both highly spoken of in Rom 16:3; see Gill on Rom 16:4,

because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome; of which edict Suetonius d makes mention, who says, that Claudius

"expelled the Jews from Rome, who were continually making tumults, being moved thereunto by one Chrestus,''

who is generally understood to be Christ; and it is thought that the reason of this edict was, that the Jews in Rome continually opposing and disputing with the Christians, about Jesus being the Messiah, Claudius, who was of a timorous disposition, was afraid of a tumult, and that it might issue in his detriment, and therefore banished all the Jews, with whom the Christians were involved; for by the Heathens they were all called Jews, the first Christians being Jews: though others say the reason was, that the Jews had contracted an acquaintance with Agrippina, the wife of Claudius, and had drawn her into Judaism: but be it as it will, such an edict was made, on account of which Aquila and Priscilla were obliged to leave Rome, and come to Corinth. It must be something that was very provoking to him, otherwise before he had shown much favour to the Jews; for he not only granted to the Jews at Alexandria, that they should continue in the observance of their laws and customs, but permitted the same to them in all parts of the empire, by a special decree, which runs thus e;

"Tiberius Claudius Caesar, &c. decrees, seeing the Kings Agrippa and Herod, my dearest friends, have entreated me that I would suffer the Jews in every government under the Romans, to observe their laws as in Alexandria; I most willingly grant it, not only for the sake of gratifying those who ask it, but judging that those are worthy, for whom it is asked, because of their faithfulness and friendship to the Romans; especially accounting it most just that no Grecian city should be deprived of these rights, seeing they were kept for them by the divine Augustus; wherefore it is right also that the Jews throughout all our empire should observe the customs of their country without any hinderance, whom I now command that in love to us they would behave more moderately, and not despise the religion of other nations, but keep their own laws; and I will that governors of cities, and colonies, and freedoms, both in Italy and without, have this my edict transcribed, and also kings and princes by their ambassadors, and that it be put in such a place in less than thirty days, from whence it may be plainly read.''

This Claudius was the "fifth" emperor of Rome; and this decree passed in the "ninth", or, as others, in the "eleventh" year of his reign, and about the year of Christ 51, or, as others, 54.

And came unto them: that is, the apostle, having found out Aquila and Priscilla, he came and visited them, and took up his lodging with them.

Gill: Act 18:3 - And because he was of the same craft // he abode with them // and wrought // for by their occupation they were tent makers And because he was of the same craft, Art, occupation, or trade: he abode with them; in the same house in which they were: and wrought; with his...

And because he was of the same craft, Art, occupation, or trade:

he abode with them; in the same house in which they were:

and wrought; with his own hands, to support himself, for he was a stranger in this place; and as yet here was no church to minister to him; and when there was, he would take nothing of them, that the false teachers, who rose up among them, might not make any handle of it against him, and to the prejudice of the Gospel; though otherwise he thought it his just due to receive a maintenance from the churches; and insisted upon it as an ordination of Christ. He learned a trade whilst among the Jews, with whom it was common for their greatest doctors to be brought up to some trade or another; See Gill on Mar 6:3.

for by their occupation they were tent makers; either for the soldiers, and which were made of sack cloth of hair, or of leather, and of the skins of various animals f, sewed together; hence the phrase, "sub pellibus", "under the skins", is used for to lie in tents g: or those tents they made, were canopies made of linen, and other things, which were erected in the summer season to shade and screen from the heat of the sun; though others take them for a sort of tapestry, or hangings, which they made for theatres, palaces, and stately rooms; and according to the Syriac version, they were horses' trappings which they made: perhaps they were of the same occupation with Menedemus the philosopher, who was σκηνορραφος, "a sewer of tents" h.

Gill: Act 18:4 - And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath // And persuaded the Jews and the Greeks And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath,.... In Corinth there was a synagogue of the Jews, in which they met together for worship on the sevent...

And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath,.... In Corinth there was a synagogue of the Jews, in which they met together for worship on the seventh day of the week, which was their sabbath; and hither Paul went, and took the opportunity of reasoning with them out of the Scriptures, concerning Christ, his person, and offices, his incarnation, obedience, sufferings, and death, and about redemption and salvation by him: we may observe the diligence, industry, and indefatigableness of the apostle; on the sabbath day he went to the synagogue, and preached Christ to those who there attended; and on the weekdays he laboured with his own hands. Beza's most ancient copy, and the Vulgate Latin version add here, "interposing the name of the Lord Jesus"; frequently making mention of his name, or calling upon it, and doing miracles in it.

And persuaded the Jews and the Greeks; this was the effect of his reasoning, and the success that attended it; some, both of the Jews, who were so by birth, as well as religion, and of the Greeks, or Gentiles, who were Jewish proselytes, and attended synagogue worship, were convinced by his arguments, and were induced to believe the truth of his doctrine, and to embrace it; or at least he endeavoured to persuade them that they were lost sinners, and that there was salvation for them in Christ, and in him only.

Gill: Act 18:5 - And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia // Paul was pressed in Spirit // and testified to the Jews that Jesus was Christ And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia,.... Not from Berea in Macedonia, for from hence they came to the apostle while at Athens, and f...

And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia,.... Not from Berea in Macedonia, for from hence they came to the apostle while at Athens, and from whence he sent them, at least Timothy, to Thessalonica, to know the state of the saints there, as appears from 1Th 3:1 and from hence they now came to the apostle at Corinth: when

Paul was pressed in Spirit; either by the Holy Spirit, by which he was moved and stirred up to preach the Gospel more frequently, and more powerfully; for he had not always the same measure of the Spirit, or was not always under the same influence; or else in his own spirit, and so the Arabic version renders it, "grief beset the spirit of Paul"; his soul was filled with trouble and sorrow, when he observed the nonrepenitence and unbelief, the contradiction and blasphemy of the greater part of the Jews; and being filled with zeal for their welfare, he continued preaching Christ unto them. The Alexandrian copy, and some others, and the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions, instead of "in spirit", read "in speech", or "in word"; and the sense is, not that he was straitened in his speech, and knew not what to say to the Jews, or had not freedom of speech with them; but he was instant in preaching to them, and preached the word more frequently and fervently, upon the coming of Silas and Timothy to his assistance:

and testified to the Jews that Jesus was Christ; he continued to produce more testimonies out of the writings of Moses, and the prophets, to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ, or Messiah, prophesied of in those writings, and promised to the Jews, and whom they expected.

Gill: Act 18:6 - And when they opposed themselves // he shook his raiment // and said unto them, your blood be upon your heads // I am clean // from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles And when they opposed themselves,.... To the truth, and contradicted themselves in many instances, and their own prophecies; or those books which they...

And when they opposed themselves,.... To the truth, and contradicted themselves in many instances, and their own prophecies; or those books which they themselves allowed to be the oracles of God, and blasphemed both Christ, and the apostle, and the doctrine which he taught; and railed at him, and spoke evil of him, and used him in a very contumelious and reproachful manner, as they were used from contradicting to go to blaspheming; see Act 13:45

he shook his raiment; his outer garment, and the dust off from it, as a testimony against them; see Mat 10:14

and said unto them, your blood be upon your heads; meaning, that they were the authors of their own ruin and destruction; that they could not impute it to any other, when it came upon them; and that they were left inexcusable, and must bear their own iniquities, and the punishment of them: this clause is wanting in the Syriac version.

I am clean; meaning from their blood; see Act 20:26. The apostle seems to allude to Eze 33:4 signifying, that he had discharged his duty as a preacher, and so had delivered his own soul from their blood being required at his hands; and that it rested entirely on themselves, and they were answerable for all their impenitence, unbelief, and blasphemy:

from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles; in that city, and preach the Gospel to them, and no more enter into their synagogue, as it is very likely he afterwards never did; for though Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, was afterwards converted, yet his conversion seems to have been not in the synagogue, but in the house of Justus, which was hard by it. Compare with this Act 13:46.

Gill: Act 18:7 - And he departed thence // and entered into a certain man's house named Justus // One that worshipped God And he departed thence,..... Not from Corinth, but from the synagogue: and entered into a certain man's house named Justus; he did not return to Aq...

And he departed thence,..... Not from Corinth, but from the synagogue:

and entered into a certain man's house named Justus; he did not return to Aquila and Priscilla, because they were Jews, lest he should be thought not to abide by his words, that he would henceforth go to the Gentiles; wherefore as he came out of the synagogue, he turned into a house adjoining to it, which belonged to one Justus: in one copy of Beza's, and in some others, and in the Vulgate Latin version, he is called "Titus Justus"; and in the Arabic version, "Titus the son of Justus"; the Syriac version only reads "Titus": whether this is not the same Titus, who afterwards was a companion of the apostle, and to whom he wrote an epistle, may be inquired.

One that worshipped God; a Gentile, but a religious man, such an one as Cornelius: he might be a proselyte either of the gate, or of righteousness; though if he was the same with Titus, he could not be the latter, because he was not circumcised, Gal 2:3 whose house joined hard to the synagogue; had this man been a Jew, his house might very well have been taken for the house which was סמוך לבית הכנסת, "near to the synagogue", in which travellers were entertained, and ate, and drank, and lodged i; and that he was the person appointed to take care of them, and so a very suitable house for Paul, a stranger, to take up his lodging in. The Ethiopic version adds, very wrongly, taking it from the beginning of the next verse, "because he was the ruler of the synagogue"; as if Justus was the ruler of the synagogue; and this the reason why his house was so near; whereas not he, but Crispus, was the ruler, as follows.

Gill: Act 18:8 - And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue // and many of the Corinthians hearing // believed // and were baptized And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue,.... This was a Jewish name; frequent mention is made of R. Crispa in the Jewish writings k this person,...

And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue,.... This was a Jewish name; frequent mention is made of R. Crispa in the Jewish writings k this person, either through hearing Paul before he departed from the synagogue, or when in Justus's house, which was hard by the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house: he believed the doctrine the apostle preached, concerning Jesus, and that he was the Messiah; and he believed in him for life and salvation, and made a profession of his faith in him, and so did all his family, upon which he was baptized by the apostle; see 1Co 1:14

and many of the Corinthians hearing not "his faith", as the Arabic version adds; as if hearing of the faith of Crispus induced them to believe also; for the ruler of the Jewish synagogue had no such influence on the Gentile Corinthians, as these were: but these hearing the Gospel preached by the apostle, very likely in the house of Justus, to which they came,

believed; faith came by hearing; they believed the Gospel, and they believed in Christ, the sum and substance of it; and not with a bare historical faith, but with a spiritual and saving one, or such as is unto salvation, with their heart, and with their mouth made confession of it:

and were baptized; not by the apostle, for he baptized at Corinth none but Crispus and Gaius, and the household of Stephanas, but by some of his companions, as Silas, or Timothy, or both: this is a plain instance of believers' baptism; first they heard the word of God; then they believed, this word coming with power to them; and upon their believing, they are baptized. These laid the foundation of a famous church in this place, which continued for many ages after; Silas, who is reckoned among the seventy disciples, is said to be the first bishop or pastor of it; See Gill on Luk 10:1; in the "second" century Primus was bishop of this church, with whom Egesippus as he went to Rome stayed some days, and was much refreshed with the orthodox faith of him, and the Corinthians; in the same century Dionysius presided over this church, who was not only very useful to the church under his care, but to many others l; in the same age, under Severus lived Bacchylus bishop of Corinth, who wrote a book concerning Easter in the name of all the bishops in Achaia m; in the third century Tertullian n makes mention of a church at Corinth; in the fourth century Epictetus was bishop of the said church, and was contemporary and familiar with Athanasius, to whom a letter is extant in the works of Athanasius o; in the "fifth" century there was a church at Corinth, and a bishop of it was in the synod at Chalcedon, and it was then a metropolitan church; in this age Peregrinus bishop of Corinth was in the first synod at Ephesus, held against Nestorius, and Erisistratus, a bishop also of the same church, was in another synod at the same place, and Peter bishop of Corinth was in the Chalcedon council; in the "sixth" century mention is made of a bishop of the Corinthians, in the fifth synod at Constantinople, and in the same century Gregory instructed John bishop of the Corinthians rightly to govern the Lord's flock, and exhorted all the Corinthian bishops to concord. In this age Adrianus also was bishop of Corinth, he flourished under Mauritius the emperor; as likewise did Anastasius archbishop of the Corinthians; and he being removed from his office, John succeeded him in it; in the "seventh" century there was a Corinthian bishop in the sixth council at Constantinople p; thus far this ancient church is to be traced in history.

Gill: Act 18:9 - Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision // be not afraid // but speak, and hold not thy peace Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision,.... On a certain night as he was asleep, the Lord Jesus Christ appeared to him in a dream, and s...

Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision,.... On a certain night as he was asleep, the Lord Jesus Christ appeared to him in a dream, and spake after this manner to him:

be not afraid; it is very likely that after the baptism of Crispus and his family, and of many of the Corinthians, that both the Jews and the Gentiles were exasperated against the apostle; and his life might seem to be in danger, and he might be thinking of removing from hence for his preservation and safety; and might be advised to it by his friends, or at least that he should be incognito, and not be seen publicly: wherefore the Lord appears to him, and bids him not indulge any fears, or conceal himself and be silent,

but speak, and hold not thy peace; preach freely and boldly the Gospel without fear of men; the fear of men should not stop the mouths of Christ's ministers.

Gill: Act 18:10 - For I am with thee // and no man shall set on thee // to hurt thee // For I have much people in this city For I am with thee,.... According to his promise, Mat 28:20 not only to assist in the ministry of the word, to give light into it, and liberty to prea...

For I am with thee,.... According to his promise, Mat 28:20 not only to assist in the ministry of the word, to give light into it, and liberty to preach it, and success in it, but to keep and preserve him from being hurt by men:

and no man shall set on thee; attack thee, or lay hands on thee:

to hurt thee; to do any injury to thy person, to thy body, in any part of it: wicked men cannot strike a blow, or do the least damage to a servant of Christ without his permission; he can tie their hands, and restrain their rage.

For I have much people in this city; this wicked and luxurious city; there were many here who were yet in their sins, in a state of unregeneracy, whom God had chosen to be his people, and had taken into his covenant as such; were given to Christ as his peculiar people, and whom he had redeemed with his precious blood: they were his people both by gift and purchase, before they were called by grace; and because of this his interest in them, he will have his Gospel continued for the gathering them in to himself; for Christ will lose none of his, all shall come unto him: from all which it appears, that Christ has a people who are related to him, and he has an interest in, before they are effectually called by grace; for this refers not to the many Corinthians who had heard and believed, and were baptized, but to some that had not, and were yet to be called; not the Jews in this city, Christ's own nation, nor all the inhabitants of it who were in some sense Christ's people, being made and supported in their beings by him, are intended; but a special people among the Gentiles, the same with the other sheep Christ speaks of, Joh 10:16 not yet of his fold; a people beloved of God, chosen in Christ, given to him, and with whom a covenant was made in him, for whom Christ undertook, in whose name he acted, and for whom he received blessings and promises, as well as took the care and charge of their persons; for the sake of these he assumed human nature, and suffered and died; towards these his heart always is; his eye is upon them, and he knows them, and where they are; and therefore he will look them up and find them out, and they shall be brought to believe in him, and shall not perish, but have everlasting life: and it may be further observed, that Christ has "many" such, though they are but comparatively few, yet in themselves they are a great number; yea, he has sometimes many of these in the worst of places, and among the vilest of men; and for the sake of these, in order to select and separate them from the rest, is the Gospel preached and continued. The ministers of it are sent here and there, where such persons are, and there they are continued till they are gathered in; yea, on this account both the Gospel and its preachers are continued in the world; and even the world itself, for the sake of these, till they are brought in, and then it will be destroyed; and it may be also remarked, that for the encouragement of Gospel ministers, Christ promises his presence and protection, and which was fulfilled in the Apostle Paul at Corinth; who though he stayed there a year and six months, none were suffered to do him any injury; and when an insurrection was made within that time, yet the apostle escaped, and quietly departed elsewhere.

Gill: Act 18:11 - And he continued there // teaching the word of God among them And he continued there,.... At Corinth, as the Syriac version, and some copies, read; he was obedient to the heavenly vision: in the Greek text it is,...

And he continued there,.... At Corinth, as the Syriac version, and some copies, read; he was obedient to the heavenly vision: in the Greek text it is, "he sat" there, answerable to the Hebrew word ישב, which signifies to sit, continue and abide: he stayed there in all a year and six months; which was a long time for the apostle to stay in one place, and longer than he did anywhere, unless at Ephesus, where he continued two years, Act 19:10 for as for his stay at Rome, that was by confinement: but here were many people to be called, and much work to do, a large church to be raised, and put in order; and this required time as well as care and labour:

teaching the word of God among them; he did not sit idle here, but preached the Gospel, which is the word of God, and not man, openly and publicly, among them all; and that frequently, in season and out of season, and with great boldness and faithfulness.

Gill: Act 18:12 - And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia // The Jews made insurrection with one accord against Paul // and brought him to the judgment seat And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia,.... This province, which was now become a Roman one, Pliny the younger q calls true and mere Greece; it went...

And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia,.... This province, which was now become a Roman one, Pliny the younger q calls true and mere Greece; it went by the name of Aegialus r, and now it is called Livadia: it has on the north the country of Thessaly, and on the west the river Acheloo, or Aracheo, on the east the Aegean sea, and on the south Peloponnesus, or the Morea. Gallio, who was now deputy of it, was brother to L. Annaeus Seneca, the famous philosopher, who was preceptor to Nero; his name at first was M. Annaeus Novatus, but being adopted by L. Junius Gallio, he took the name of the family. According to his brother's account of him s, he was a very modest man, of a sweet disposition, and greatly beloved; and Statius t calls him Dulcem Gallionem, "the sweet Gallio", mild and gentle in his speech, as Quintilian says. Seneca u makes mention of him as being in Achaia; and whilst he was deputy there he had a fever, when as soon as it took him he went aboard a ship, crying, that it was not the disease of the body, but of the place.

The Jews made insurrection with one accord against Paul; being provoked that so many of their people, as well as of the Gentiles, were converted by him to the Christian religion, and were baptized:

and brought him to the judgment seat; of Gallio, the deputy, to be tried and judged by him.

Gill: Act 18:13 - Saying, this fellow persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law. Saying, this fellow persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law. Meaning either to the law of the Romans, which forbad the bringing in of any ne...

Saying, this fellow persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law. Meaning either to the law of the Romans, which forbad the bringing in of any new gods, without the leave of the senate; See Gill on Act 16:21; or rather to the law of Moses: the Arabic version reads, "our law"; though this was false, for Moses in his law wrote of Christ, and ordered the children of Israel to hearken to him.

Gill: Act 18:14 - And when Paul was now about to open his mouth // Gallio said unto the Jews, if it was matter of wrong // or wicked lewdness // O ye Jews, reason would that I should bear with you And when Paul was now about to open his mouth,.... In his own defence, and plead his own cause, and answer to the charge exhibited against him: Gal...

And when Paul was now about to open his mouth,.... In his own defence, and plead his own cause, and answer to the charge exhibited against him:

Gallio said unto the Jews, if it was matter of wrong; of injury to any man's person or property, as murder, theft, &c.

or wicked lewdness; as fraud, forgery, perjury, treason, &c.

O ye Jews, reason would that I should bear with you: his sense is, that it would be according to right reason, and agreeably to his office as a judge, to admit them and their cause, and try it, and hear them patiently, and what was to be said on both sides of the question, what the charges were, and the proof of them, and what the defendant had to say for himself. The Vulgate Latin version reads, "O men Jews"; and so Beza's ancient copy.

Gill: Act 18:15 - But if it be a question of words // and of your law // look ye to it // for I will be no judge of such matters But if it be a question of words,.... "Or of the word", what the Jews called the word of God, which Gallio did not pretend to understand: "and names";...

But if it be a question of words,.... "Or of the word", what the Jews called the word of God, which Gallio did not pretend to understand: "and names"; as the names of God, of Jesus, and of Christ, whether he is God, and the Messiah:

and of your law; concerning circumcision, whether these Christians, and the proselytes they make, are obliged unto it:

look ye to it; suggesting that this was a matter that lay before them, and they were the proper judges of, and might determine for themselves, since they had the free exercise of their religion, and a right of judging of everything that respected that within themselves, and for which they were best furnished, as having a more competent knowledge of them; as the Arabic version renders it, "and ye are more learned in these things"; and most conversant with them:

for I will be no judge of such matters; and it would be well if every civil magistrate would act the same part, and not meddle with religious affairs, any further than to preserve the public peace.

Gill: Act 18:16 - And he drave them from the judgment seat. And he drave them from the judgment seat. He would not hear, and try the cause; but dismissed them with threatening them, if ever they brought an affa...

And he drave them from the judgment seat. He would not hear, and try the cause; but dismissed them with threatening them, if ever they brought an affair of that kind to him any more.

Gill: Act 18:17 - Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes // chief ruler of the synagogue // and beat him before the judgment seat // and Gallio cared for none of these things Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes,.... These were not the Greeks or Gentiles that were devout persons, or converted to Christianity, and were on the ...

Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes,.... These were not the Greeks or Gentiles that were devout persons, or converted to Christianity, and were on the side of Paul, and fell foul on Sosthenes, as being his chief accuser; for this is not agreeably to the spirit and character of such persons, but the profane and unconverted Greeks, who observing that Gallio sent the Jews away, with some resentment and contempt, were encouraged to fall upon the principal of them, and use him in a very ill manner; it is very likely that this person was afterwards converted, and is the same that is mentioned in 1Co 1:1. The name is Greek, and there is one of this name mentioned among the executors of Plato's will w. This man was now

chief ruler of the synagogue; chosen in, very likely, upon Crispus becoming a Christian, and being baptized:

and beat him before the judgment seat; of Gallio; before he and his friends could get out of court:

and Gallio cared for none of these things; which might not be owing to any sluggishness in him, but to an ill opinion he had of the Jews, as being a turbulent and uneasy people, and therefore he connived at some of the insolencies of the people towards them; though it did not become him, as a magistrate, to act such a part, whose business it was to keep the public peace, to quell disorders, to protect men's persons, and property, and prevent abuse and mischief, and to correct and punish for it. The Arabic version renders it, "and no man made any account of Gallio"; they did not fear his resentment, he having drove the Jews from the judgment seat.

Gill: Act 18:18 - And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while // and then took his leave of the brethren // and sailed thence into Syria // and with him Priscilla and Aquila // Having shorn his head in Cenchrea // For he had a vow And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while,.... A year and a half, as in Act 18:11 for this insurrection might follow immediately upon the vis...

And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while,.... A year and a half, as in Act 18:11 for this insurrection might follow immediately upon the vision the apostle had; and who by that was encouraged to continue in this city, notwithstanding the treatment he met with; he not doubting of the promise of God, and of his power and faithfulness to fulfil it, though this was a trial of his faith and constancy:

and then took his leave of the brethren; whom he had been instrumental in the conversion of, and had established and confirmed in the faith; and having now done his work in this place, at least for the time present, he takes his leave of them and departs:

and sailed thence into Syria; or towards Syria, for he took Ephesus by the way, which was in Asia, and stopped there a little while:

and with him Priscilla and Aquila; whom he had met with at Corinth, and with whom he had lodged and wrought at his trade, Act 18:2

Having shorn his head in Cenchrea; which some understand not of Paul, but of Aquila, who is the last person spoken of; and the Ethiopic version reads in the plural number, referring this to both Priscilla and Aquila, "and they had shaved their heads, for they had a vow"; and so it was read in a manuscript of Baronius, and Bede observes, that it was read in like manner in some copies in his time; but the more authentic reading is in the singular number, and is more generally understood of the Apostle Paul; who being about to go into Judea, to the Jew became a Jew, that he might gain some: Cenchrea, where this was done, was a sea port belonging to the Corinthians, on the east of the Isthmus, as Lechea was on the west; according to Pliny x, there were two gulfs, or bays, to the Isthmus, the one he calls the Corinthian bay, and others the Crissean and Alcyonian bay, and Golfo de Petras; the other the Saronic bay, now called Golfo de Engia; Lechea was in the Corinthian bay, and Cenchrea in the Saronic bay; and both belonged to Corinth, and were the bounds of the Straights; the space between them was the Isthmus, which consisted of about five miles; and so Pausanias says y, the Isthmus of the Corinthians is washed on both sides by the sea; on one side at Cenchrea, and on the other at Lechea, and this makes the island a continent; and likewise Philo z giving an account of a voyage of Flaccus says, that passing over the Ionian gulf, he came to the sea (or shore) of Corinth ------- and going over the Isthmus from Lechea, to the opposite sea, he came down to Cenchrea, a seaport of the Corinthians; of which Apuleius a gives this account:

"this town is a most noble colony of the Corinthians, it is washed by the Aegean and Saronic sea, where there is a port, a most safe receptacle for ships, and very populous.''

Hither the apostle came from Corinth to take shipping, and from hence he sailed to Syria, as before observed: it has its name either from millet, for "Cenchros" signifies "millet"; and "Cenchrias" is "bread made of millet"; or from the bird "Cenchris", which is a kind of hawk; See Gill on Rom 16:1.

For he had a vow; this, some think, could not be the vow of the Nazarites, for then he should have stayed till he came to Jerusalem, and have shaved his head at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and cast the hair into the fire, under the pot in which the peace offerings were boiled b; though he that vowed in the country, was not obliged to this: others think it was such an one as the Jews in travelling used, that they would not shave till they came to such a place; and so the apostle had made a vow that he would shave at Cenchrea; and accordingly did; but this is not likely, that the apostle should make a vow upon so light an occasion: others that it refers to his going to Jerusalem, to keep the feast there, Act 18:21 and so these think the words are a reason, not of his shaving of his head, but of his sailing to Syria; the first is most probable, that it was a Nazarite's vow; see Act 21:24.

Gill: Act 18:19 - And he came to Ephesus // and left them there // but he himself entered into the synagogue and reasoned with the Jews And he came to Ephesus,.... The metropolis of Asia; according to Pliny c, it had been called by many names; at the time of the Trojan war, Alopes, the...

And he came to Ephesus,.... The metropolis of Asia; according to Pliny c, it had been called by many names; at the time of the Trojan war, Alopes, then Ortygia and Morges, also Smyrna Trachea, Samornion and Prelea, and which he calls the work of the Amazons: some say d it was called Ephesus, because Hercules permitted the Amazons to dwell in it, Ephesus in the Greek language signifying "permission"; Pausanias e denies, that the famous temple in it was built by them, but by Ephesus the son of Caystrus, and says that from him the city had its name; though others say it was built by Androclus, the son of Codrus, king of Athens, in the time of David king of Israel; and that having suffered by the sea, it was rebuilt by Lysimachus king of Thrace, who called it after his wife's name Arsinoe; but he being dead, it was called by its ancient name Ephesus: it is now a poor village in the hands of the Turks, and with them goes by the name of Aiasalik; though with others it still has the name of Epheso; the Syriac version reads, "they came"; not only Paul, but Aquila and Priscilla; and certain it is that they came with him thither, since it follows,

and left them there; unless this is to be understood of Cenchrea: this clause is not here read in the Syriac version, but is placed at the end of Act 18:21, where it reads much better; as that he should leave them at Ephesus, when he departed from thence, than when he first came thither; unless the sense is, that he left them in some part of the city, whilst he went to the Jewish synagogue; since it follows,

but he himself entered into the synagogue and reasoned with the Jews; concerning Jesus being the Messiah, and the abrogation of the law; and the doctrine of justification by the righteousness of Christ, and not by the deeds of the law: which were the principal things in debate, between him and the Jews: Beza's ancient copy reads, "and the sabbath following he left them there".

Gill: Act 18:20 - When they desired him to tarry longer time with them // Ac 18:24,26 // he consented not When they desired him to tarry longer time with them,.... Either Aquila and Priscilla, whom he left here, for here they were, as is certain from Ac...

When they desired him to tarry longer time with them,.... Either Aquila and Priscilla, whom he left here, for here they were, as is certain from

Ac 18:24,26 or rather the Jews with whom he reasoned, who might be desirous of further conference with him, upon the subject they had disputed about; either in order to gain more knowledge, or in hopes of baffling and confounding him:

he consented not; for a reason afterwards given.

Gill: Act 18:21 - But bade them farewell, saying // I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem // but I will return again unto you, if God will But bade them farewell, saying,.... As follows: I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem; which perhaps was the passover, since...

But bade them farewell, saying,.... As follows:

I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem; which perhaps was the passover, since that often went by the name of the feast: the why he must by all means keep it, was not because it was obligatory upon him; nor did he always observe it, as appears from his long stay at Corinth, and other places; and besides, as a Christian, he had nothing to do with it; but either because of his vow, Act 18:18 or because he knew he should have an opportunity of preaching the Gospel to great numbers; the Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions omit this clause:

but I will return again unto you, if God will; he promises to return to them, but not peremptorily as knowing that he was altogether subject to the will of God, who disposes and orders all things according to his sovereign pleasure; see Jam 4:15 and he sailed from Ephesus; which was near the Aegean sea: such was the situation of Ephesus, according to Apollonius f; who says, that it stood out to the sea, which encompassed the land on which it was built; so Pausanias g relates, that Lysimachus passing into Asia by shipping, took the kingdom of Antigonus from him, and built the city the Ephesians now inhabit near the sea; so Josephus h reports of Herod and Agrippa, that travelling by land to Phrygia Major, they came to Ephesus, and again, διεπλευσιν, "they sailed from Ephesus" to Samos.

Gill: Act 18:22 - And when he had landed at Caesarea // and gone up // and saluted the church // he went down to Antioch And when he had landed at Caesarea,.... This was Caesarea Stratonis, formerly called Strato's tower: it would have been nearest for the apostle to hav...

And when he had landed at Caesarea,.... This was Caesarea Stratonis, formerly called Strato's tower: it would have been nearest for the apostle to have landed at Joppa, in order to go to Jerusalem, but that haven was a dangerous one; this was the safest, and which therefore Herod had repaired at a vast expense, and in honour of Caesar had called it by this name: of the port at Caesarea, and what a convenient and commodious one, as it was made by Herod, Josephus i gives a particular account, and who often calls this place Caesarea, παραλιος, "Caesarea by the sea" k; and in other Jewish l writings mention is made of this place as a sea port, and of שונתא דימא דקיסרין, "the shore of the sea of Caesarea": Josephus m sometimes calls it the port Sebastus, or Augustus, it being, as before observed, made by Herod, and so called in honour of Augustus Caesar; and in another place n, Sebastus the port of Caesarea: according to Jerom o, or a writer under his name, this was neither Caesarea Philippi, which indeed it could not be, that being an inland town; nor Caesarea formerly called Strato's tower, but a third Caesarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia: in which he must be mistaken, seeing that was no sea port, and the apostle could not be said to land there; nor did it lie in the way to Jerusalem from Ephesus; but this city was in Phenice, and lay between Joppa and Dora; which cities were maritime ones, but very disagreeable havens, because of the vehement strong winds from Africa: which rolling up the sand out of the sea upon the shore, would not admit of a quiet station p; wherefore the apostle chose to land here, and not at either of the said ports;

and gone up; not to Caesarea, but to Jerusalem, from thence, which lay higher; and going to and from these places, is signified by a going up and down, Act 9:30. Moreover, the apostle had told the Ephesians, that he must go and keep the feast in Jerusalem, as he undoubtedly did: and yet if this does not refer to his going up thither, it will not be easy to observe that he went thither at all before his return to Ephesus; and besides, to suppose him to go from Caesarea to Antioch, was all one as to go back to Ephesus; and so to go, as one observes, by the same place to Jerusalem, into which he promised, in his return from Jerusalem, to come again, if God would:

and saluted the church; at Jerusalem, the mother church:

he went down to Antioch; in Syria, from whence he first set out.

Gill: Act 18:23 - And after he had spent some time there // he departed // and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples And after he had spent some time there,.... At Antioch: he departed; from thence: and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order,...

And after he had spent some time there,.... At Antioch:

he departed; from thence:

and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples; that were in those parts, confirming them in the faith of Christ, and fortifying their minds against the temptations of Satan, and encouraging them to bear the reproaches and persecutions of men; which shows the affection, diligence, and industry of the apostle: it seems there were disciples in these countries of Galatia and Phrygia, which very likely were made by the apostle, when he passed trough those places, Act 16:6 and who were the beginning of Gospel churches in these places, which continued for ages after: certain it is, there were churches in Galatia in the apostle's time, of whom he makes mention, and to whom he wrote, 1Co 16:1. According to the apostolical constitutions, Crescens, mentioned 2Ti 4:10 was appointed by the apostles bishop of the churches of Galatia; and particularly it is said, that he was bishop of Chalcedon in Galatia; See Gill on Luk 10:1 and in the "second" century, there was a church at Ancyra, which was disturbed by the heresy of Montanus, and was established by Apolinarius, who makes mention of the elders of this church q: in the "third" century there were churches in Galatia, which Stephen bishop of Rome threatened with excommunication, because they rebaptized heretics: in the beginning of the "fourth" century, there were bishops from hence, which assisted at the council of Nice, against Arius, and at the synod of Sardica, in the same century; and at the beginning of it, Clemens bishop of Ancyra, after he had taught twenty nine years, suffered much in the persecution of Dioclesian, first at Rome, then at Nicomedia, and at last was put to death by the sword; in this age also lived Basil, bishop of Ancyra, under Constantius; he first came to the bishopric of that place under Constantine, but being deprived of it for four years, was restored by Constantius in the council of Sardica; under the former he disputed against Photinus, as Epiphanius r relates; who makes mention of Anysius his deacon, and Eutyches and Theodulus his notaries; and the same writer s takes notice of several elders and officers of the same church in that age, as Photinus, Eustathius, another Photinus, and Sigerius, elders, Hyginus deacon, Heracides subdeacon, Elpidus reader, and Cyriacus president of the church: in the "fifth" century, there were many churches in Galatia, yea, they are said to be innumerable; Leontius was bishop of Ancyra in the times of Arcadius and Honorius; and was succeeded by Theodotus, who was in the first Ephesine synod against Nestorius, as was also Eusebius bishop of the same church, at another synod in the same place; Anastasius was bishop of the said church, lived under the emperor Leo the first, and was at the synod of Constantinople; Meliphthongus, bishop of Juliopolis in the same country, assisted at several synods; Eusebius, bishop of Aspona in Galatia, was present in the first synod at Ephesus, against Nestorius; likewise Peter bishop of Gangrae, and Theoctistus bishop of Pessinus, both lived in the time of the two synods, the infamous one at Ephesus, and the other at Chalcedon: in the "sixth" century, there were bishops of Ancyra, Juliopolis, and other cities in Galatia, who were present at the Roman and Constantipolitan synod; in this age, under Anastasius the emperor, lived Dorotheus bishop of Ancyra: in the "seventh" century were present, at the sixth council at Constantinople, several bishops of the churches of Galatia; as of Sinope, Pessinus, Aspona, and others: in the "eighth" century, mention is made of Basil, bishop of the church at Ancyra, Nicodemus bishop of Didymi, Gregory bishop of Sinope: and even in the ninth century a garrison of Christians was placed in Ancyra, against the incursions of the Saracens t; so long the Christian name remained in those parts: and that there were also churches in Phrygia is as evident; Aristarchus, a companion of the apostle Paul, is said to be bishop of Apamea, which was a city in Phrygia; See Gill on Luk 10:1 the second century, Papias, a disciple of the Apostle John, was bishop of Hierapolis in this country u; and in the same age there was a church at Philomelium in Phrygia, to which the church at Smyrna wrote a letter, still extant in Eusebius w, which gives an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp; likewise the church at Lyons, in France, sent a letter to the churches in Asia and Phrygia, giving an account of their martyrs, which is to be seen in the same writer x; in this century lived Apolinarius, bishop of Hierapolis, who opposed the Phrygian heresy of Montanus; and who makes mention of Zoticus, of the village of Comana, and Julianus of Apamea, both in Phrygia, as his fellow elders and bishops y: Dionysius, of Alexandria, speaks of a church, and of the brethren at Synnada, which was in Phrygia, in a letter of his to Philemon, a presbyter at Rome z; at Lampsacus in Phrygia, there were martyrs that suffered under Decius: in the third century, there was a church at Hierapolis, famous from the times of the apostles. Tertullian makes mention of the believers in Christ in Phrygia, in his time a: in the beginning of the "fourth" century under Dioclesian, a whole city in Phrygia of Christians was set on fire and burnt, men, women, and children, calling upon Christ the God of all b; and at the council of Nice, under Constantine, were present bishops of many churches in Phrygia; as Ilium, Synnada, Eucarpia, Hierapolis, and others; at Lampsacus, in this country, was held a memorable synod against Eudoxus and Acacius, the chief of the Arian faction: in the "fifth" century there were churches in Phrygia; Theodosius and Agapetus were bishops of Synnada in Phrygia Pacatiana; Marinianus, bishop of the same place, was present at the several synods in this century; Nunechius of Laodicea, Gennadius of Acmonii, Thomas and Olympius, both of Theodosiopolis, Lucianus of Ipsa, Albertus of Hierapolis, Eusebius of Doryleus, with many others, all in Phrygia, are made mention of in history: in the "sixth" century, several bishops of Phrygia, as of Philomelium, &c. were present at the synod held at Rome and Constantinople: in the "seventh" century, bishops of several churches in this country, as of Hierapolis, Synnada, &c. assisted at the sixth synod at Constantinople: in the eighth century were many churches here, whose bishops were present at the Nicene synod, as Basil, bishop of Pergamus, Nicetas of Ilium, John of Synnada, and others c.

Gill: Act 18:24 - And a certain Jew named Apollos // born at Alexandria // an eloquent man // and mighty in the Scriptures // came to Ephesus And a certain Jew named Apollos,.... Who by some is thought to be the same with Apelles, Rom 16:10, his name is Greek, though he was a Jew, not only b...

And a certain Jew named Apollos,.... Who by some is thought to be the same with Apelles, Rom 16:10, his name is Greek, though he was a Jew, not only by religion, but by birth, being of a Jewish extract:

born at Alexandria; in Egypt, which was built by Alexander the great, from whence it had its name; it was the metropolis of Egypt, and the seat of the kings of it; great numbers of Jews were in this place; here lived Philo the famous Jew:

an eloquent man; in speech, as well as learned, wise, and "prudent", as the Ethiopic version renders it:

and mighty in the Scriptures; of the Old Testament, particularly in the prophecies of them concerning the Messiah; he had thoroughly read them, and carefully examined them, and could readily cite them; as well as had great knowledge of them, and was capable of explaining them; he was "skilful in the Scriptures", as the Syriac version renders it; or he "knew" them, as the Ethiopic; he had large acquaintance with them, and was well versed in them: it is a Jewish way of speaking; so Ahithophel is said to be גבור בתורה, "mighty in the law" d; the same is said of the sons of Reuben e: this man

came to Ephesus; after the departure of the Apostle Paul, and while Aquila and Priscilla were there; the reason of his coming hither was to preach the word, as he did.

Gill: Act 18:25 - This man was instructed in the way of the Lord // and being fervent in the spirit // knowing only the baptism of John This man was instructed in the way of the Lord,.... Which John, whose baptism he only knew, came to prepare: the word here used signifies "catechised"...

This man was instructed in the way of the Lord,.... Which John, whose baptism he only knew, came to prepare: the word here used signifies "catechised"; and suggests, that he was trained up by his parents in this way, who might have been the disciples of John, though afterwards removed from Judea to Alexandria; and that he only had been taught the rudiments of the Christian religion, or doctrine of the Gospel; here called the way of the Lord, or which directs and leads unto him, as the only Saviour, and is the path of faith and truth; or as some copies read, "the word of the Lord"; and which accounts for what is afterwards said of him:

and being fervent in the spirit; either in or by the Spirit of God, being made so by him, who is, compared to fire, and who, in the form of cloven tongues of fire, sat upon the disciples at the day of Pentecost, and upon others; among whom this Apollos is by some thought to be, though without any reason; however, he might be inspired with zeal by the Spirit of God: or "in his own spirit", as the Ethiopic version renders it; his soul was inflamed with zeal for the glory of God, the honour of Christ, and the good of souls; his ministry was very affectionate, warm, and lively; see Rom 12:11 He spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord; or "of Jesus", as read the Alexandrian copy, the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Ethiopic versions; according to the measure of light and grace he had received, he spake out freely and fully, and taught the people with great industry, and with all the exactness he could, the things he knew concerning the person, offices, and grace of the Lord Jesus:

knowing only the baptism of John; which must be understood, not of the ordinance of baptism singly, as administered by John, but of the whole ministry of John; as of that ordinance, so of his doctrine concerning repentance and remission of sins; and concerning Christ that was to come, and concerning his being come, and who he was, whom John pointed at, and taught the people to believe in: but perhaps he might know very little, if anything, of the miracles of Christ, or of his death and resurrection from the dead, and the benefits and effects thereof; and of the pouring out of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles, and the light and knowledge which were communicated thereby.

Gill: Act 18:26 - And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue // whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard // they took him unto them // and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue,.... Of the Jews at Ephesus; using great freedom of speech, and showing much intrepidity and greatness o...

And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue,.... Of the Jews at Ephesus; using great freedom of speech, and showing much intrepidity and greatness of soul, and presence of mind; not fearing the faces of men, nor the revilings and contradictions of the Jews:

whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard; they attending at the synagogue, and having observed what he delivered, that there was some deficiency in it, though they took no notice of it publicly; partly on their own account, it not being proper, especially for Priscilla, to speak in public, nor was it allowed in the Jewish synagogues for a woman to speak there; and partly on his account, that they might not put him to the blush, and discourage him; and chiefly on account of the Gospel, that they might not lay any stumblingblocks in the way of that, and of young converts, and give an occasion to the adversary to make advantages: wherefore

they took him unto them; they took him aside when he came out of the synagogue, and privately conversed with him; they had him "to their own house"; as the Syriac version renders it;

and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly; these two doubtless had received a considerable measure of evangelical light and knowledge from the Apostle Paul, during the time of their conversation with him; and as they freely received from him, they freely imparted it to Apollos, with a good design to spread the truth of the Gospel, and to promote it and the interest of Christ in the world: and as on the one hand it was a good office, and a kind part in them, to communicate knowledge to him, so it was an instance of a good spirit, and of condescension in him, to be taught and instructed by them; especially since one of them was a woman, and both mechanics, and made but a mean figure: and from hence it may be observed, that women of grace, knowledge, and experience, though they are not allowed to teach in public, yet they may, and ought to communicate in private, what they know of divine things, for the use of others.

Gill: Act 18:27 - And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia // the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him // who when he was come // helped them much which had believed through grace And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, &c. The chief city of which was Corinth, and whither Apollos went, as appears from Act 19:1. What dispos...

And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, &c. The chief city of which was Corinth, and whither Apollos went, as appears from Act 19:1. What disposed him to go thither, after he had received a greater degree of light and knowledge, was no doubt that he might communicate it, to the good of others, to which he was moved by the Holy Ghost, who had work for him to do there: according to Beza's most ancient copy, there were Corinthians sojourning in Ephesus, who when they had heard him (Apollos), besought him that he would go with them into their country; to which he agreeing, the Ephesians wrote to the disciples at Corinth to receive him, as follows:

the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him; that is, the brethren at Ephesus, among whom Aquila was a principal one, wrote letters of recommendation to the brethren of the churches in Achaia, particularly at Corinth, not only that they would receive him into their houses, and hospitably entertain him as a Christian man, but admit him, and behave towards him as a preacher of the Gospel:

who when he was come; into Achaia, and to Corinth:

helped them much which had believed through grace; the phrase "through grace", is omitted in the Vulgate Latin version, but is in all the Greek copies, and may be connected either with the word "helped"; as the Syriac version, "he helped through grace"; and then the sense is, that Apollos, through the gifts of grace bestowed on him, or by the assistance of the grace of God, or both, greatly helped and contributed much to the advantage of the believers in those parts; as to the encouragement of their faith, and the increase of the joy of it; for the quickening, and comforting, and establishing them in the truths and doctrines of the Gospel, by his affectionate, fervent, and nervous way of preaching: or it may be connected with the word "believed", as it is in the Arabic version and in ours; and the meaning is, that he greatly assisted such who were already believers; and who became so, not of themselves, but through the grace of God; for faith is not of nature, nor the produce of man's free will, but is the gift of God's grace; it is a fruit of electing grace, an instance of distinguishing grace, it is owing to efficacious grace, and comes along with effectual calling grace, through the word preached, the means of grace; and is supported and maintained by the grace of God; the Ethiopic version renders it, "he preached much to them, who believed in the grace of God"; that is, in the Gospel, the doctrine of the grace of God, which they had received and professed; or in the love and favour of God, they were rooted and grounded in, and persuaded of.

Gill: Act 18:28 - For he mightily convinced the Jews // and that publicly // that Jesus was Christ For he mightily convinced the Jews,.... His reasoning was so strong and nervous, his arguments so weighty and powerful, and the passages he produced o...

For he mightily convinced the Jews,.... His reasoning was so strong and nervous, his arguments so weighty and powerful, and the passages he produced out of the Old Testament so full and pertinent, that the Jews were not able to stand against him; they could not object to the texts of Scripture he urged, nor to the sense he gave of them, nor answer the arguments founded upon them; he was an overmatch for them; they were refuted by him over and over, and were confounded to the last degree:

and that publicly, in their synagogue, before all the people; which increased their shame and confusion; and was the means of spreading the Gospel, of bringing others to the faith of it, and of establishing them in it, who had already received it: showing by the Scriptures; of the Old Testament, which the Jews received and acknowledged as the word of God:

that Jesus was Christ; or that Christ, that Messiah, which these Scriptures spoke of, whom God had promised, and the church of God expected; and which was the main thing in controversy between the Jews and the Christians, as it still is.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Act 18:1 For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

NET Notes: Act 18:2 Or “went to.”

NET Notes: Act 18:3 This is a parenthetical note by the author.

NET Notes: Act 18:4 Grk “Addressing in the synagogue every Sabbath, he was attempting to persuade both Jews and Greeks.” Because in English the verb “ad...

NET Notes: Act 18:5 See the note on Christ in 2:31.

NET Notes: Act 18:6 Or “innocent.” BDAG 489 s.v. καθαρός 3.a has “guiltless Ac 18:6.”

NET Notes: Act 18:7 Here yet another Gentile is presented as responsive to Paul’s message in Acts.

NET Notes: Act 18:8 Or “who heard him,” or “who heard Paul.” The ambiguity here results from the tendency of Greek to omit direct objects, which m...

NET Notes: Act 18:9 The present imperative here (with negation) is used (as it normally is) of a general condition (BDF §335).

NET Notes: Act 18:10 Or “injure.”

NET Notes: Act 18:11 See BDAG 326-27 s.v. ἐν 1.d. However, it is also possible that ἐν (en) followed by the dative here stands for the ordinary dativ...

NET Notes: Act 18:12 The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in a...

NET Notes: Act 18:13 Grk “worship God contrary to.” BDAG 758 s.v. παρά C.6 has “against, contrary to” for Acts 18:13. The words...

NET Notes: Act 18:14 Grk “accepting your complaint, O Jews.”

NET Notes: Act 18:15 Or “I am not willing to be.” Gallio would not adjudicate their religious dispute.

NET Notes: Act 18:16 See the note on the term judgment seat in 18:12.

NET Notes: Act 18:17 Rome was officially indifferent to such disputes. Gallio understood how sensitive some Jews would be about his meddling in their affairs. This is simi...

NET Notes: Act 18:18 He had made a vow. It is debated whether this vow is a private vow of thanksgiving or the Nazirite vow, because it is not clear whether the Nazirite v...

NET Notes: Act 18:19 Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι...

NET Notes: Act 18:20 He would not consent. Paul probably refused because he wanted to reach Jerusalem for the festival season before the seas became impassable during the ...

NET Notes: Act 18:21 A new sentence was begun here in the translation due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the requirements of contemporary English style, which ...

NET Notes: Act 18:22 For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

NET Notes: Act 18:23 Phrygia was a district in central Asia Minor west of Pisidia. See Acts 16:6.