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Teks -- Romans 8:1-39 (NET)

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The Believer’s Relationship to the Holy Spirit
8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. 8:2 For the law of the life-giving Spirit in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death. 8:3 For God achieved what the law could not do because it was weakened through the flesh. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 8:4 so that the righteous requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 8:5 For those who live according to the flesh have their outlook shaped by the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit have their outlook shaped by the things of the Spirit. 8:6 For the outlook of the flesh is death, but the outlook of the Spirit is life and peace, 8:7 because the outlook of the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able to do so. 8:8 Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. 8:9 You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him. 8:10 But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is your life because of righteousness. 8:11 Moreover if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who lives in you. 8:12 So then, brothers and sisters, we are under obligation, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh 8:13 (for if you live according to the flesh, you will die), but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. 8:14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God. 8:15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery leading again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, “Abba, Father.” 8:16 The Spirit himself bears witness to our spirit that we are God’s children. 8:17 And if children, then heirs (namely, heirs of God and also fellow heirs with Christ)– if indeed we suffer with him so we may also be glorified with him. 8:18 For I consider that our present sufferings cannot even be compared to the glory that will be revealed to us. 8:19 For the creation eagerly waits for the revelation of the sons of God. 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility– not willingly but because of God who subjected it– in hope 8:21 that the creation itself will also be set free from the bondage of decay into the glorious freedom of God’s children. 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers together until now. 8:23 Not only this, but we ourselves also, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we eagerly await our adoption, the redemption of our bodies. 8:24 For in hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope, because who hopes for what he sees? 8:25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with endurance. 8:26 In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness, for we do not know how we should pray, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with inexpressible groanings. 8:27 And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes on behalf of the saints according to God’s will. 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good for those who love God, who are called according to his purpose, 8:29 because those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that his Son would be the firstborn among many brothers and sisters. 8:30 And those he predestined, he also called; and those he called, he also justified; and those he justified, he also glorified. 8:31 What then shall we say about these things? If God is for us, who can be against us? 8:32 Indeed, he who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all– how will he not also, along with him, freely give us all things? 8:33 Who will bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies. 8:34 Who is the one who will condemn? Christ is the one who died (and more than that, he was raised), who is at the right hand of God, and who also is interceding for us. 8:35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will trouble, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? 8:36 As it is written, “For your sake we encounter death all day long; we were considered as sheep to be slaughtered.” 8:37 No, in all these things we have complete victory through him who loved us! 8:38 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor heavenly rulers, nor things that are present, nor things to come, nor powers, 8:39 nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in creation will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
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Topik/Tema Kamus: Sin | Rome | GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE | Romans, Epistle to the | Regeneration | Holy Spirit | Adoption | SANCTIFICATION | Righteous | SIN (1) | Religion | Resurrection | MAN, NATURAL | Perseverance | MAN; NEW | Jesus, The Christ | PAULINE THEOLOGY | Death | ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, VI-X | Justification | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey

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Robertson: Rom 8:1 - Therefore now Therefore now ( ara nun ). Two particles. Points back to the triumphant note in Rom 7:25 after the preceding despair.

Therefore now ( ara nun ).

Two particles. Points back to the triumphant note in Rom 7:25 after the preceding despair.

Robertson: Rom 8:1 - No condemnation No condemnation ( ouden katakrima ). As sinners we deserved condemnation in our unregenerate state in spite of the struggle. But God offers pardon "t...

No condemnation ( ouden katakrima ).

As sinners we deserved condemnation in our unregenerate state in spite of the struggle. But God offers pardon "to those in Christ Jesus (tois en Christōi Iēsou ). This is Paul’ s Gospel. The fire has burned on and around the Cross of Christ. There and there alone is safety. Those in Christ Jesus can lead the consecrated, the crucified, the baptized life.

Robertson: Rom 8:2 - The law of the Spirit of life The law of the Spirit of life ( ho nomos tou pneumatos tēs zōēs ). The principle or authority exercised by the Holy Spirit which bestows life a...

The law of the Spirit of life ( ho nomos tou pneumatos tēs zōēs ).

The principle or authority exercised by the Holy Spirit which bestows life and which rests "in Christ Jesus."

Robertson: Rom 8:2 - Made me free Made me free ( ēleutherōsen me ). First aorist active indicative of the old verb eleutheroō for which see note on Gal 5:1. Aleph B have se ...

Made me free ( ēleutherōsen me ).

First aorist active indicative of the old verb eleutheroō for which see note on Gal 5:1. Aleph B have se (thee) instead of me . It matters little. We are pardoned, we are free from the old law of sin and death (7:7-24), we are able by the help of the Holy Spirit to live the new life in Christ.

Robertson: Rom 8:3 - That the law could not do That the law could not do ( to adunaton tou nomou ). Literally, "the impossibility of the law"as shown in 7:7-24, either nominative absolute or accus...

That the law could not do ( to adunaton tou nomou ).

Literally, "the impossibility of the law"as shown in 7:7-24, either nominative absolute or accusative of general reference. No syntactical connection with the rest of the sentence.

Robertson: Rom 8:3 - In that In that ( en hōi ). "Wherein."

In that ( en hōi ).

"Wherein."

Robertson: Rom 8:3 - It was weak It was weak ( ēsthenei ). Imperfect active, continued weak as already shown.

It was weak ( ēsthenei ).

Imperfect active, continued weak as already shown.

Robertson: Rom 8:3 - In the likeness of sinful flesh In the likeness of sinful flesh ( en homoiōmati sarkos hamartias ). For "likeness"see note on Phi 2:7, a real man, but more than man for God’ ...

In the likeness of sinful flesh ( en homoiōmati sarkos hamartias ).

For "likeness"see note on Phi 2:7, a real man, but more than man for God’ s "own Son."Two genitives "of flesh of sin"(marked by sin), that is the flesh of man is, but not the flesh of Jesus.

Robertson: Rom 8:3 - And for sin And for sin ( kai peri hamartias ). Condensed phrase, God sent his Son also concerning sin (our sin).

And for sin ( kai peri hamartias ).

Condensed phrase, God sent his Son also concerning sin (our sin).

Robertson: Rom 8:3 - Condemned sin in the flesh Condemned sin in the flesh ( katekrine tēn hamartian en tēi sarki ). First aorist active indicative of katakrinō . He condemned the sin of men ...

Condemned sin in the flesh ( katekrine tēn hamartian en tēi sarki ).

First aorist active indicative of katakrinō . He condemned the sin of men and the condemnation took place in the flesh of Jesus. If the article tēn had been repeated before en tēi sarki Paul would have affirmed sin in the flesh of Jesus, but he carefully avoided that (Robertson, Grammar , p. 784).

Robertson: Rom 8:4 - The ordinance of the law The ordinance of the law ( to dikaiōma tou nomou ). "The requirement of the law."

The ordinance of the law ( to dikaiōma tou nomou ).

"The requirement of the law."

Robertson: Rom 8:4 - Might be fulfilled Might be fulfilled ( hina plerōthēi ). Purpose of the death of Christ by hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of plēroō . Christ met i...

Might be fulfilled ( hina plerōthēi ).

Purpose of the death of Christ by hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of plēroō . Christ met it all in our stead (Rom 3:21-26).

Robertson: Rom 8:4 - Not after the flesh, but after the Spirit Not after the flesh, but after the Spirit ( mē kata sarka alla kata pneuma ). The two laws of life (kata sarka in 7:7-24, kata pneuma Rom 8:1-1...

Not after the flesh, but after the Spirit ( mē kata sarka alla kata pneuma ).

The two laws of life (kata sarka in 7:7-24, kata pneuma Rom 8:1-11). Most likely the Holy Spirit or else the renewed spirit of man.

Robertson: Rom 8:5 - Do mind Do mind ( phronousin ). Present active indicative of phroneō , to think, to put the mind (phrēn ) on. See note on Mat 16:23; note on Rom 12:16. ...

Do mind ( phronousin ).

Present active indicative of phroneō , to think, to put the mind (phrēn ) on. See note on Mat 16:23; note on Rom 12:16. For the contrast between sarx and pneuma , see Gal 5:16-24.

Robertson: Rom 8:6 - The mind The mind ( to phronēma ). The bent or will of the flesh is death as shown in 7:7-24.

The mind ( to phronēma ).

The bent or will of the flesh is death as shown in 7:7-24.

Robertson: Rom 8:6 - Life Life ( zōē ). In contrast with "death."

Life ( zōē ).

In contrast with "death."

Robertson: Rom 8:6 - Peace Peace ( eirēnē ). As seen in Rom 5:1-5.

Peace ( eirēnē ).

As seen in Rom 5:1-5.

Robertson: Rom 8:7 - Is not subject Is not subject ( ouch hupotassetai ). Present passive indicative of hupotassō , late verb, military term for subjection to orders. Present tense he...

Is not subject ( ouch hupotassetai ).

Present passive indicative of hupotassō , late verb, military term for subjection to orders. Present tense here means continued insubordination.

Robertson: Rom 8:7 - Neither indeed can it be Neither indeed can it be ( oude gar dunatai ). "For it is not even able to do otherwise."This helpless state of the unregenerate man Paul has shown a...

Neither indeed can it be ( oude gar dunatai ).

"For it is not even able to do otherwise."This helpless state of the unregenerate man Paul has shown above apart from Christ. Hope lies in Christ (Rom 7:25) and the Spirit of life (Rom 8:2).

Robertson: Rom 8:8 - Cannot please God Cannot please God ( theōi aresai ou dunantai ). Because of the handicap of the lower self in bondage to sin. This does not mean that the sinner has...

Cannot please God ( theōi aresai ou dunantai ).

Because of the handicap of the lower self in bondage to sin. This does not mean that the sinner has no responsibility and cannot be saved. He is responsible and can be saved by the change of heart through the Holy Spirit.

Robertson: Rom 8:9 - Not in the flesh Not in the flesh ( ouk en sarki ). Not sold under sin (Rom 7:14) any more.

Not in the flesh ( ouk en sarki ).

Not sold under sin (Rom 7:14) any more.

Robertson: Rom 8:9 - But in the spirit But in the spirit ( alla en pneumati ). Probably, "in the Holy Spirit."It is not Pantheism or Buddhism that Paul here teaches, but the mystical union...

But in the spirit ( alla en pneumati ).

Probably, "in the Holy Spirit."It is not Pantheism or Buddhism that Paul here teaches, but the mystical union of the believer with Christ in the Holy Spirit.

Robertson: Rom 8:9 - If so be that If so be that ( eiper ). "If as is the fact"(cf. Rom 3:30).

If so be that ( eiper ).

"If as is the fact"(cf. Rom 3:30).

Robertson: Rom 8:9 - The Spirit of Christ The Spirit of Christ ( pneuma Christou ). The same as "the Spirit of God"just before. See also Phi 1:19; 1Pe 1:11. Incidental argument for the Deity ...

The Spirit of Christ ( pneuma Christou ).

The same as "the Spirit of God"just before. See also Phi 1:19; 1Pe 1:11. Incidental argument for the Deity of Christ and probably the meaning of 2Co 3:18 "the Spirit of the Lord."Condition of first class, assumed as true.

Robertson: Rom 8:10 - The body is dead The body is dead ( to men sōma nekron ). Has the seeds of death in it and will die "because of sin."

The body is dead ( to men sōma nekron ).

Has the seeds of death in it and will die "because of sin."

Robertson: Rom 8:10 - The spirit is life The spirit is life ( to de pneuma zōē ). The redeemed human spirit. He uses zōē (life) instead of zōsa (living), "God-begotten, God-sus...

The spirit is life ( to de pneuma zōē ).

The redeemed human spirit. He uses zōē (life) instead of zōsa (living), "God-begotten, God-sustained life"(Denney), if Christ is in you.

Robertson: Rom 8:11 - Shall quicken Shall quicken ( zōopoiēsei ). Future active indicative of zōopoieō , late verb from zōopoios , making alive. See note on 1Co 15:22.

Shall quicken ( zōopoiēsei ).

Future active indicative of zōopoieō , late verb from zōopoios , making alive. See note on 1Co 15:22.

Robertson: Rom 8:11 - Through his Spirit Through his Spirit ( dia tou pneumatos ). B D L have dia to pneuma (because of the Spirit). Both ideas are true, though the genitive is slightly mo...

Through his Spirit ( dia tou pneumatos ).

B D L have dia to pneuma (because of the Spirit). Both ideas are true, though the genitive is slightly more probably correct.

Robertson: Rom 8:12 - We are debtors We are debtors ( opheiletai esmen ). See note on Gal 5:3; Rom 1:14.

We are debtors ( opheiletai esmen ).

See note on Gal 5:3; Rom 1:14.

Robertson: Rom 8:12 - Not to the flesh Not to the flesh ( ou tēi sarki ). Negative ou goes with preceding verb and tēi sarki , not with the infinitive tou zēin .

Not to the flesh ( ou tēi sarki ).

Negative ou goes with preceding verb and tēi sarki , not with the infinitive tou zēin .

Robertson: Rom 8:13 - Ye must die Ye must die ( mellete apothnēskein ). Present indicative of mellō , to be about to do and present active infinitive of apothnēskō , to die. "...

Ye must die ( mellete apothnēskein ).

Present indicative of mellō , to be about to do and present active infinitive of apothnēskō , to die. "Ye are on the point of dying."Eternal death.

Robertson: Rom 8:13 - By the spirit By the spirit ( pneumati ). Holy Spirit, instrumental case.

By the spirit ( pneumati ).

Holy Spirit, instrumental case.

Robertson: Rom 8:13 - Ye shall live Ye shall live ( zēsesthe ). Future active indicative of zaō . Eternal life.

Ye shall live ( zēsesthe ).

Future active indicative of zaō . Eternal life.

Robertson: Rom 8:14 - Sons of God Sons of God ( huioi theou ). In the full sense of this term. In Rom 8:16 we have tekna theou (children of God). Hence no great distinction can be d...

Sons of God ( huioi theou ).

In the full sense of this term. In Rom 8:16 we have tekna theou (children of God). Hence no great distinction can be drawn between huios and teknon . The truth is that huios is used in various ways in the New Testament. In the highest sense, not true of any one else, Jesus Christ is God’ s Son (Rom 8:3). But in the widest sense all men are "the offspring"(genos ) of God as shown in Act 17:28 by Paul. But in the special sense here only those are "sons of God"who are led by the Spirit of God, those born again (the second birth) both Jews and Gentiles, "the sons of Abraham"(huioi Abraam , Gal 3:7), the children of faith.

Robertson: Rom 8:15 - The spirit of adoption The spirit of adoption ( pneuma huiothesias ). See note on this term huiothesia , on Gal 4:4. Also see Gal 4:5. Both Jews and Gentiles receive this "...

The spirit of adoption ( pneuma huiothesias ).

See note on this term huiothesia , on Gal 4:4. Also see Gal 4:5. Both Jews and Gentiles receive this "adoption"into the family of God with all its privileges. "

Robertson: Rom 8:15 - Whereby we cry, Abba, Father Whereby we cry, Abba, Father "(en hēi krazomen Abbā ho patēr ). See note on Gal 4:6 for discussion of this double use of Father as the child&#...

Whereby we cry, Abba, Father

"(en hēi krazomen Abbā ho patēr ). See note on Gal 4:6 for discussion of this double use of Father as the child’ s privilege.

Robertson: Rom 8:16 - The Spirit himself The Spirit himself ( auto to pneuma ). The grammatical gender of pneuma is neuter as here, but the Greek used also the natural gender as we do excl...

The Spirit himself ( auto to pneuma ).

The grammatical gender of pneuma is neuter as here, but the Greek used also the natural gender as we do exclusively as in Joh 16:13 ekeinos (masculine he ), to pneuma (neuter). See also Joh 16:26 (hȯ̇ekeinos ). It is a grave mistake to use the neuter "it"or "itself"when referring to the Holy Spirit.

Robertson: Rom 8:16 - Beareth witness with our spirit Beareth witness with our spirit ( summarturei tōi pneumati hēmōn ). See note on Rom 2:15 for this verb with associative instrumental case. See ...

Beareth witness with our spirit ( summarturei tōi pneumati hēmōn ).

See note on Rom 2:15 for this verb with associative instrumental case. See 1Jo 5:10. for this double witness.

Robertson: Rom 8:17 - Joint-heirs with Christ Joint-heirs with Christ ( sunklēronomoi Christou ). A late rare double compound, in Philo, an Ephesian inscription of the imperial period (Deissman...

Joint-heirs with Christ ( sunklēronomoi Christou ).

A late rare double compound, in Philo, an Ephesian inscription of the imperial period (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , p. 92), papyri of the Byzantine period. See note on Rom 8:29 for this idea expanded. Paul is fond of compounds of sun , three in this verse (sunklēronomoi , sunpaschōmen , sundoxasthōmen ). The last (first aorist passive subjunctive of sundoxazō with hina (purpose), late and rare, here only in N.T.

Robertson: Rom 8:18 - To us-ward To us-ward ( eis hēmās ). We shall be included in the radiance of the coming glory which will put in the shadow the present sufferings. Precisely...

To us-ward ( eis hēmās ).

We shall be included in the radiance of the coming glory which will put in the shadow the present sufferings. Precisely the same idiom here with mellousan doxan (aorist passive infinitive of apokaluphthēnai ) occurs in Gal 3:23 with mellousan pistin , which see.

Robertson: Rom 8:19 - The earnest expectation of creation The earnest expectation of creation ( hē apokaradokia tēs ktiseōs ). This substantive has so far been found nowhere save here and Phi 1:20, tho...

The earnest expectation of creation ( hē apokaradokia tēs ktiseōs ).

This substantive has so far been found nowhere save here and Phi 1:20, though the verb apokaradokeō is common in Polybius and Plutarch. Milligan ( Vocabulary ) thinks that Paul may have made the substantive from the verb. It is a double compound (apo , off from, kara , head, dokeō , Ionic verb, to watch), hence to watch eagerly with outstretched head.

Robertson: Rom 8:19 - Waiteth for Waiteth for ( apekdechetai ). See note on 1Co 1:7; Gal 5:5 for this rare word (possibly formed by Paul, Milligan). "To wait it out"(Thayer).

Waiteth for ( apekdechetai ).

See note on 1Co 1:7; Gal 5:5 for this rare word (possibly formed by Paul, Milligan). "To wait it out"(Thayer).

Robertson: Rom 8:19 - The revealing of the sons of God The revealing of the sons of God ( tēn apokalupsin tōn huiōn tou theou ). Cf. 1Jo 3:2; 2Th 2:8; Col 3:4. This mystical sympathy of physical nat...

The revealing of the sons of God ( tēn apokalupsin tōn huiōn tou theou ).

Cf. 1Jo 3:2; 2Th 2:8; Col 3:4. This mystical sympathy of physical nature with the work of grace is beyond the comprehension of most of us. But who can disprove it?

Robertson: Rom 8:20 - Was subjected Was subjected ( hupetagē ). Second aorist passive indicative of hupatassō (cf. Rom 8:7).

Was subjected ( hupetagē ).

Second aorist passive indicative of hupatassō (cf. Rom 8:7).

Robertson: Rom 8:20 - To vanity To vanity ( tēi mataiotēti ). Dative case. Rare and late word, common in lxx. From mataios , empty, vain. Eph 4:17; 2Pe 2:18.

To vanity ( tēi mataiotēti ).

Dative case. Rare and late word, common in lxx. From mataios , empty, vain. Eph 4:17; 2Pe 2:18.

Robertson: Rom 8:20 - Not of its own will Not of its own will ( ouch hekousa ). Common adjective, in N.T. only here and 1Co 9:27. It was due to the effect of man’ s sin.

Not of its own will ( ouch hekousa ).

Common adjective, in N.T. only here and 1Co 9:27. It was due to the effect of man’ s sin.

Robertson: Rom 8:20 - But by reason of him But by reason of him ( alla dia ton ). Because of God.

But by reason of him ( alla dia ton ).

Because of God.

Robertson: Rom 8:20 - In hope that In hope that ( Ephesians' helpidi hoti ). Note the form helpidi rather than the usual elpidi and so Ephesians' . Hoti can be causal "because"in...

In hope that ( Ephesians' helpidi hoti ).

Note the form helpidi rather than the usual elpidi and so Ephesians' . Hoti can be causal "because"instead of declarative "that."

Robertson: Rom 8:21 - The creation itself The creation itself ( autē hē ktisis ). It is the hope of creation, not of the Creator. Nature "possesses in the feeling of her unmerited sufferi...

The creation itself ( autē hē ktisis ).

It is the hope of creation, not of the Creator. Nature "possesses in the feeling of her unmerited suffering a sort of presentiment of her future deliverance"(Godet).

Robertson: Rom 8:22 - Groaneth and travaileth in pain Groaneth and travaileth in pain ( sunstenazei kai sunōdinei ). Two more compounds with sun . Both rare and both here alone in N.T. Nature is pictur...

Groaneth and travaileth in pain ( sunstenazei kai sunōdinei ).

Two more compounds with sun . Both rare and both here alone in N.T. Nature is pictured in the pangs of childbirth.

Robertson: Rom 8:23 - The first fruits The first fruits ( tēn aparchēn ). Old and common metaphor.

The first fruits ( tēn aparchēn ).

Old and common metaphor.

Robertson: Rom 8:23 - Of the Spirit Of the Spirit ( tou pneumatos ). The genitive of apposition. The Holy Spirit came on the great Pentecost and his blessings continue as seen in the "g...

Of the Spirit ( tou pneumatos ).

The genitive of apposition. The Holy Spirit came on the great Pentecost and his blessings continue as seen in the "gifts"in 1 Corinthians 12-14, in the moral and spiritual gifts of Gal 5:22. And greater ones are to come (1Co 15:44.).

Robertson: Rom 8:23 - Even we ourselves Even we ourselves ( kai autoi ). He repeats for emphasis. We have our "groaning"(stenazomen ) as well as nature.

Even we ourselves ( kai autoi ).

He repeats for emphasis. We have our "groaning"(stenazomen ) as well as nature.

Robertson: Rom 8:23 - Waiting for Waiting for ( apekdechomenoi ). The same verb used of nature in Rom 8:19.

Waiting for ( apekdechomenoi ).

The same verb used of nature in Rom 8:19.

Robertson: Rom 8:23 - Our adoption Our adoption ( huiothesian ). Our full "adoption"(see Rom 8:15), "the redemption of our body"(tēn apolutrōsin tou sōmatos hēmōn ). That is...

Our adoption ( huiothesian ).

Our full "adoption"(see Rom 8:15), "the redemption of our body"(tēn apolutrōsin tou sōmatos hēmōn ). That is to come also. Then we shall have complete redemption of both soul and body.

Robertson: Rom 8:24 - For by hope were we saved For by hope were we saved ( tēi gar elpidi esōthēmen ). First aorist passive indicative of sōzō . The case of elpidi is not certain, the ...

For by hope were we saved ( tēi gar elpidi esōthēmen ).

First aorist passive indicative of sōzō . The case of elpidi is not certain, the form being the same for locative, instrumental and dative. Curiously enough either makes good sense in this context: "We were saved in hope, by hope, for hope"(of the redemption of the body).

Robertson: Rom 8:25 - With patience With patience ( di' hupomonēs ). Paul repeats the verb apekdechomai of Rom 8:23.

With patience ( di' hupomonēs ).

Paul repeats the verb apekdechomai of Rom 8:23.

Robertson: Rom 8:26 - Helpeth our infirmity Helpeth our infirmity ( sunantilambanetai tēi astheneiāi hēmōn ). Present middle indicative of sunantilambanomai , late and striking double c...

Helpeth our infirmity ( sunantilambanetai tēi astheneiāi hēmōn ).

Present middle indicative of sunantilambanomai , late and striking double compound (Diodorus, lxx, Josephus, frequent in inscriptions, Deissmann, Light, etc. , p. 87), to lend a hand together with, at the same time with one. Only twice in N.T., here and Luk 10:40 in Martha’ s plea for Mary’ s help. Here beautifully Paul pictures the Holy Spirit taking hold at our side at the very time of our weakness (associative instrumental case) and before too late.

Robertson: Rom 8:26 - How to pray How to pray ( to ti proseuxōmetha ). Articular clause object of oidamen (we know) and indirect question with the deliberative aorist middle subju...

How to pray ( to ti proseuxōmetha ).

Articular clause object of oidamen (we know) and indirect question with the deliberative aorist middle subjunctive proseuxōmetha , retained in the indirect question.

Robertson: Rom 8:26 - As we ought As we ought ( katho dei ). "As it is necessary."How true this is of all of us in our praying.

As we ought ( katho dei ).

"As it is necessary."How true this is of all of us in our praying.

Robertson: Rom 8:26 - Maketh intercession Maketh intercession ( huperentugchanei ). Present active indicative of late double compound, found only here and in later ecclesiastical writers, but...

Maketh intercession ( huperentugchanei ).

Present active indicative of late double compound, found only here and in later ecclesiastical writers, but entugchanō occurs in Rom 8:27 (a common verb). It is a picturesque word of rescue by one who "happens on"(entugchanei ) one who is in trouble and "in his behalf"(huper ) pleads "with unuttered groanings"(instrumental case) or with "sighs that baffle words"(Denney). This is work of our Helper, the Spirit himself.

Robertson: Rom 8:27 - He that searcheth He that searcheth ( ho eraunōn ). God (1Sa 16:7).

He that searcheth ( ho eraunōn ).

God (1Sa 16:7).

Robertson: Rom 8:27 - According to the will of God According to the will of God ( kata theon ). See note on 2Co 7:9-11 for this phrase kata theon (according to God). The Holy Spirit is the "other Pa...

According to the will of God ( kata theon ).

See note on 2Co 7:9-11 for this phrase kata theon (according to God). The Holy Spirit is the "other Paraclete"(Joh 14:16) who pleads God’ s cause with us as Christ is our Paraclete with the Father (1Jo 2:1). But more is true as here, for the Holy Spirit interprets our prayers to God and "makes intercession for us in accord with God’ s will."

Robertson: Rom 8:28 - All things work together All things work together ( panta sunergei ). A B have ho theos as the subject of sunergei (old verb, see 1Co 16:16; 2Co 6:1). That is the idea an...

All things work together ( panta sunergei ).

A B have ho theos as the subject of sunergei (old verb, see 1Co 16:16; 2Co 6:1). That is the idea anyhow. It is God who makes "all things work together"in our lives "for good"(eis agathon ), ultimate good.

Robertson: Rom 8:28 - According to his purpose According to his purpose ( kata prothesin ). Old word, seen already in Act 27:13 and for "shewbread"in Mat 12:4. The verb protithēmi Paul uses in...

According to his purpose ( kata prothesin ).

Old word, seen already in Act 27:13 and for "shewbread"in Mat 12:4. The verb protithēmi Paul uses in Rom 3:24 for God’ s purpose. Paul accepts fully human free agency but behind it all and through it all runs God’ s sovereignty as here and on its gracious side (Rom 9:11; Rom 3:11; 2Ti 1:9).

Robertson: Rom 8:29 - Foreknew Foreknew ( proegnō ). Second aorist active indicative of proginōskō , old verb as in Act 26:5. See Psalms 1:6 (lxx) and Mat 7:23. This fore-kno...

Foreknew ( proegnō ).

Second aorist active indicative of proginōskō , old verb as in Act 26:5. See Psalms 1:6 (lxx) and Mat 7:23. This fore-knowledge and choice is placed in eternity in Eph 1:4.

Robertson: Rom 8:29 - He foreordained He foreordained ( proōrisen ). First aorist active indicative of proorizō , late verb to appoint beforehand as in Act 4:28; 1Co 2:7. Another comp...

He foreordained ( proōrisen ).

First aorist active indicative of proorizō , late verb to appoint beforehand as in Act 4:28; 1Co 2:7. Another compound with prȯ (for eternity).

Robertson: Rom 8:29 - Conformed to the image Conformed to the image ( summorphous tēs eikonos ). Late adjective from sun and morphē and so an inward and not merely superficial conformity...

Conformed to the image ( summorphous tēs eikonos ).

Late adjective from sun and morphē and so an inward and not merely superficial conformity. Eikōn is used of Christ as the very image of the Father (2Co 4:4; Col 1:15). See note on Phi 2:6. for morphē . Here we have both morphē and eikōn to express the gradual change in us till we acquire the likeness of Christ the Son of God so that we ourselves shall ultimately have the family likeness of sons of God. Glorious destiny.

Robertson: Rom 8:29 - That he might be That he might be ( eis to einai auton ). Common idiom for purpose.

That he might be ( eis to einai auton ).

Common idiom for purpose.

Robertson: Rom 8:29 - First born among many brethren First born among many brethren ( prōtotokon en pollois adelphois ). Christ is "first born"of all creation (Col 1:15), but here he is "first born fr...

First born among many brethren ( prōtotokon en pollois adelphois ).

Christ is "first born"of all creation (Col 1:15), but here he is "first born from the dead"(Col 1:18), the Eldest Brother in this family of God’ s sons, though "Son"in a sense not true of us.

Robertson: Rom 8:30 - Called Called ( ekalesen )

Called ( ekalesen )

Robertson: Rom 8:30 - - Justified - Justified ( edikaiōsen )

- Justified ( edikaiōsen )

Robertson: Rom 8:30 - - Glorified - Glorified ( edoxasen ). All first aorist active indicatives of common verbs (kaleō , dikaioō , doxazō ). But the glorification is stated a...

- Glorified ( edoxasen ).

All first aorist active indicatives of common verbs (kaleō , dikaioō , doxazō ). But the glorification is stated as already consummated (constative aorists, all of them), though still in the future in the fullest sense. "The step implied in edoxasen is both complete and certain in the Divine counsels"(Sanday and Headlam).

Robertson: Rom 8:31 - For these things For these things ( pros tauta ). From Rom 8:12 on Paul has made a triumphant presentation of the reasons for the certainty of final sanctification of...

For these things ( pros tauta ).

From Rom 8:12 on Paul has made a triumphant presentation of the reasons for the certainty of final sanctification of the sons of God. He has reached the climax with glorification (edoxasen in Rom 8:30). But Paul lets the objector have his say as he usually does so that in Rom 8:31-39 he considers the objections.

Robertson: Rom 8:31 - If God is for us, who is against us? If God is for us, who is against us? ( ei ho theos huper hēmōn ,tis kath' hēmōṅ ). This condition of the first class carries Paul’ s ...

If God is for us, who is against us? ( ei ho theos huper hēmōn ,tis kath' hēmōṅ ).

This condition of the first class carries Paul’ s challenge to all doubters. There is no one on a par with God. Note the two prepositions in contrast (huper , over, kata , down or against).

Robertson: Rom 8:32 - He that He that ( hos ge ). "Who as much as this"(ge here magnifying the deed, intensive particle).

He that ( hos ge ).

"Who as much as this"(ge here magnifying the deed, intensive particle).

Robertson: Rom 8:32 - Spared not Spared not ( ouk epheisato ). First aorist middle of pheidomai , old verb used about the offering of Isaac in Gen 22:16. See note on Act 20:29.

Spared not ( ouk epheisato ).

First aorist middle of pheidomai , old verb used about the offering of Isaac in Gen 22:16. See note on Act 20:29.

Robertson: Rom 8:32 - Also with him Also with him ( kai sun autōi ). The gift of "his own son"is the promise and the pledge of the all things for good of Rom 8:28. Christ is all and c...

Also with him ( kai sun autōi ).

The gift of "his own son"is the promise and the pledge of the all things for good of Rom 8:28. Christ is all and carries all with him.

Robertson: Rom 8:33 - Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’ s elect? Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’ s elect? ( tis egkalesei kata eklektōn theou̇ ). Future active indicative of egkaleō , old ver...

Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’ s elect? ( tis egkalesei kata eklektōn theou̇ ).

Future active indicative of egkaleō , old verb, to come forward as accuser (forensic term) in case in court, to impeach, as in Act 19:40; Act 23:29; Act 26:2, the only N.T. examples. Satan is the great Accuser of the brethren.

Robertson: Rom 8:33 - It is God that justifieth It is God that justifieth ( theos ho dikaiōn ). God is the Judge who sets us right according to his plan for justification (Rom 3:21-31). The Accus...

It is God that justifieth ( theos ho dikaiōn ).

God is the Judge who sets us right according to his plan for justification (Rom 3:21-31). The Accuser must face the Judge with his charges.

Robertson: Rom 8:34 - Shall condemn Shall condemn ( katakrinōn ). Can be either present active participle (condemns) or the future (shall condemn). It is a bold accuser who can face G...

Shall condemn ( katakrinōn ).

Can be either present active participle (condemns) or the future (shall condemn). It is a bold accuser who can face God with false charges or with true ones for that matter for we have an "Advocate"at God’ s Court (1Jo 2:1), "who is at the right hand of God"(hos estin en dexiāi tou theou ) "who also maketh intercession for us"(hos kai entugchanei huper hēmōn ). Our Advocate paid the debt for our sins with his blood. The score is settled. We are free (Rom 8:1).

Robertson: Rom 8:35 - Shall separate Shall separate ( chōrisei ). Future active of old verb chorizō from adverb chōris and that from chōra , space. Can any one put a distance...

Shall separate ( chōrisei ).

Future active of old verb chorizō from adverb chōris and that from chōra , space. Can any one put a distance between Christ’ s love and us (objective genitive)? Can any one lead Christ to cease loving us? Such things do happen between husband and wife, alas. Paul changes the figure from "who"(tis ) to "what"(ti ). The items mentioned will not make Christ love us less. Paul here glories in tribulations as in Rom 5:3.

Robertson: Rom 8:36 - Even as it is written Even as it is written ( kathōs gegraptai ). He quotes Psa 44:23.

Even as it is written ( kathōs gegraptai ).

He quotes Psa 44:23.

Robertson: Rom 8:36 - We are killed We are killed ( thanatoumetha ). Present passive indicative of thanatoō for which see note on Rom 7:4. Same idea of continuous martyrdom in 1Co 1...

We are killed ( thanatoumetha ).

Present passive indicative of thanatoō for which see note on Rom 7:4. Same idea of continuous martyrdom in 1Co 15:31.

Robertson: Rom 8:36 - As sheep for the slaughter As sheep for the slaughter ( hōs probata sphagēs ). Objective genitive (sphagēs ).

As sheep for the slaughter ( hōs probata sphagēs ).

Objective genitive (sphagēs ).

Robertson: Rom 8:37 - Nay Nay ( alla ). On the contrary, we shall not be separated.

Nay ( alla ).

On the contrary, we shall not be separated.

Robertson: Rom 8:37 - We are more than conquerors We are more than conquerors ( hupernikōmen ). Late and rare compound. Here only in N.T. "We gain a surpassing victory through the one who loved us....

We are more than conquerors ( hupernikōmen ).

Late and rare compound. Here only in N.T. "We gain a surpassing victory through the one who loved us."

Robertson: Rom 8:38 - For I am persuaded For I am persuaded ( pepeismai gar ). Perfect passive participle of peithō , "I stand convinced."The items mentioned are those that people dread (l...

For I am persuaded ( pepeismai gar ).

Perfect passive participle of peithō , "I stand convinced."The items mentioned are those that people dread (life, death, supernatural powers, above, below, any creature to cover any omissions).

Robertson: Rom 8:39 - To separate us To separate us ( hēmās chōrisai ). Aorist active infinitive of chorizō (same verb as in Rom 8:35). God’ s love is victor over all poss...

To separate us ( hēmās chōrisai ).

Aorist active infinitive of chorizō (same verb as in Rom 8:35). God’ s love is victor over all possible foes, "God’ s love that is in Christ Jesus."Paul has reached the mountain top. He has really completed his great argument concerning the God-kind of righteousness save for its bearing on some special problems. The first of these concerns the fact that the Jews (God’ s chosen people) have so largely rejected the gospel (chapters 9-11).

Vincent: Rom 8:1 - Therefore now Therefore now Connecting with Rom 7:25. Being freed through Jesus Christ, there is therefore no condemnation now .

Therefore now

Connecting with Rom 7:25. Being freed through Jesus Christ, there is therefore no condemnation now .

Vincent: Rom 8:1 - Condemnation Condemnation ( κατάκριμα ) As Rom 5:16, sentence of condemnation.

Condemnation ( κατάκριμα )

As Rom 5:16, sentence of condemnation.

Vincent: Rom 8:1 - Who walk not, etc Who walk not, etc. The best texts omit to the end of the verse.

Who walk not, etc.

The best texts omit to the end of the verse.

Vincent: Rom 8:2 - The law of the Spirit of life The law of the Spirit of life ( ὁ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ). The law , the regulative principle; th...

The law of the Spirit of life ( ὁ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ).

The law , the regulative principle; the Spirit , the divine Spirit who inspires the law (compare Rom 7:14). Of life , proceeding from the life of Jesus and producing and imparting life. Compare Joh 16:15.

Vincent: Rom 8:2 - In Christ Jesus In Christ Jesus Construe with hath made me free . Compare Joh 8:36.

In Christ Jesus

Construe with hath made me free . Compare Joh 8:36.

Vincent: Rom 8:3 - What the law could not do What the law could not do ( τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου ) Lit., the impossible ( thing ) of the law . An absolute ...

What the law could not do ( τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου )

Lit., the impossible ( thing ) of the law . An absolute nominative in apposition with the divine act - condemned sin . God condemned sin which condemnation was an impossible thing on the part of the law. The words stand first in the Greek order for emphasis.

Vincent: Rom 8:3 - In the likeness of sinful flesh In the likeness of sinful flesh Lit., of the flesh of sin . The choice of words is especially noteworthy. Paul does not say simply, " He...

In the likeness of sinful flesh

Lit., of the flesh of sin . The choice of words is especially noteworthy. Paul does not say simply, " He came in flesh " (1Jo 4:2; 1Ti 3:16), for this would not have expressed the bond between Christ's manhood and sin. Not in the flesh of sin , which would have represented Him as partaking of sin. Not in the likeness of flesh , since He was really and entirely human; but, in the likeness of the flesh of sin : really human, conformed in appearance to the flesh whose characteristic is sin, yet sinless. " Christ appeared in a body which was like that of other men in so far as it consisted of flesh, and was unlike in so far as the flesh was not flesh of sin " (Dickson).

Vincent: Rom 8:3 - For sin For sin ( περὶ ἁμαρτίας ) The preposition expresses the whole relation of the mission of Christ to sin. The special rel...

For sin ( περὶ ἁμαρτίας )

The preposition expresses the whole relation of the mission of Christ to sin. The special relation is stated in condemned . For sin - to atone, to destroy, to save and sanctify its victims.

Vincent: Rom 8:3 - Condemned Condemned Deposed from its dominion, a thing impossible to the law, which could pronounce judgment and inflict penalty, but not dethrone. Christ'...

Condemned

Deposed from its dominion, a thing impossible to the law, which could pronounce judgment and inflict penalty, but not dethrone. Christ's holy character was a condemnation of unholiness. Construe in the flesh with condemned .

Vincent: Rom 8:4 - Righteousness Righteousness ( δικαίωμα ) Rev., ordinance . Primarily that which is deemed right , so as to have the force of law; hence an...

Righteousness ( δικαίωμα )

Rev., ordinance . Primarily that which is deemed right , so as to have the force of law; hence an ordinance . Here collectively, of the moral precepts of the law: its righteous requirement . Compare Luk 1:6; Rom 2:26; Heb 9:1. See on Rom 5:16.

Vincent: Rom 8:4 - The Spirit The Spirit ( πνεῦμα ) From πνέω to breathe or blow . The primary conception is wind or breath . Breath being the sign and c...

The Spirit ( πνεῦμα )

From πνέω to breathe or blow . The primary conception is wind or breath . Breath being the sign and condition of life in man, it comes to signify life . In this sense, physiologically considered, it is frequent in the classics. In the psychological sense, never. In the Old Testament it is ordinarily the translation of ruach . It is also used to translate chai life , Isa 38:12; n’shamah breath , 1Ki 17:17.

In the New Testament it occurs in the sense of wind or breath , Joh 3:8; 2Th 2:8; Heb 1:7. Closely related to the physiological sense are such passages as Luk 8:55; Jam 2:26; Rev 13:15.

Pauline Usage:

1. Breath , 2Th 2:8.

2. The spirit or mind of man ; the inward, self-conscious principle which feels and thinks and wills (1Co 2:11; 1Co 5:3; 1Co 7:34; Col 2:5).

In this sense it is distinguished from σῶμα body , or accompanied with a personal pronoun in the genitive, as my , our , his spirit (Rom 1:9; Rom 8:16; 1Co 5:4; 1Co 16:18, etc.). It is used as parallel with ψυχή soul , and καρδία heart . See 1Co 5:3; 1Th 2:17; and compare Joh 13:21 and Joh 12:27; Mat 26:38 and Luk 1:46, Luk 1:47. But while ψυχή soul , is represented as the subject of life, πνεύμα spirit , represents the principle of life, having independent activity in all circumstances of the perceptive and emotional life, and never as the subject. Generally, πνεύμα spirit , may be described as the principle , ψυχή soul , as the subject , and καρδία heart , as the organ of life.

3. The spiritual nature of Christ . Rom 1:4; 1Co 15:45; 1Ti 3:16.

4. The divine power or influence belonging to God , and communicated in Christ to men , in virtue of which they become πνευματικοί spiritual - recipients and organs of the Spirit . This is Paul's most common use of the word. Rom 8:9; 1Co 2:13; Gal 4:6; Gal 6:1; 1Th 4:8. In this sense it appears as: a . Spirit of God . Rom 8:9, Rom 8:11, Rom 8:14; 1Co 2:10, 1Co 2:11, 1Co 2:12, 1Co 2:14; 1Co 3:16; 1Co 6:11; 1Co 7:40; 2Co 3:3; Eph 3:16. b . Spirit of Christ . Rom 8:9; 2Co 3:17, 2Co 3:18; Gal 4:6; Phi 1:19. c . Holy Spirit . Rom 5:5; 1Co 6:19; 1Co 12:3; Eph 1:13; 1Th 1:5, 1Th 1:6; 1Th 4:8, etc. d . Spirit . With or without the article, but with its reference to the Spirit of God or Holy Spirit indicated by the context. Rom 8:16, Rom 8:23, Rom 8:26, Rom 8:27; 1Co 2:4, 1Co 2:10; 1Co 12:4, 1Co 12:7, 1Co 12:8, 1Co 12:9; Eph 4:3; 2Th 2:13, etc.

5. A power or influence , the character , manifestations , or results of which are more peculiarly defined by qualifying genitives . Thus spirit of meekness , faith , power , wisdom . Rom 8:2, Rom 8:15; 1Co 4:21; 2Co 4:13; Gal 6:1; Eph 1:17; 2Ti 1:7, etc.

These combinations with the genitives are not mere periphrases for a faculty or disposition of man. By the spirit of meekness or wisdom , for instance, is not meant merely a meek or wise spirit ; but that meekness , wisdom , power , etc., are gifts of the Spirit of God. This usage is according to Old Testament analogy. Compare Exo 28:3; Exo 31:3; Exo 35:31; Isa 11:2.

6. In the plural, used of spiritual gifts or of those who profess to be under spiritual influence, 1Co 12:10; 1Co 14:12.

7. Powers or influences alien or averse from the divine Spirit , but with some qualifying word . Thus, the spirit of the world ; another spirit ; spirit of slumber . Rom 11:8; 1Co 2:12; 2Co 11:4; Eph 2:2; 2Ti 1:7. Where these expressions are in negative form they are framed after the analogy of the positive counterpart with which they are placed in contrast. Thus Rom 8:15 : " Ye have not received the spirit of bondage , but of adoption . In other cases, as Eph 2:2, where the expression is positive, the conception is shaped according to Old-Testament usage, where spirits of evil are conceived as issuing from, and dependent upon, God, so far as He permits their operation and makes them subservient to His own ends. See Jdg 9:23; 1Sa 16:14-16, 1Sa 16:23; 1Sa 18:10; 1Ki 22:21 sqq.; Isa 19:4.

Spirit is found contrasted with letter , Rom 2:29; Rom 7:6; 2Co 3:6. With flesh , Rom 8:1-13; Gal 5:16, Gal 5:24.

It is frequently associated with the idea of power (Rom 1:4; Rom 15:13, Rom 15:19; 1Co 2:4; Gal 3:5; Eph 3:16; 2Ti 1:7); and the verb ἐνεργεῖν , denoting to work efficaciously , is used to mark its special operation (1Co 12:11; Eph 3:20; Phi 2:13; Col 1:29). It is also closely associated with life , Rom 8:2, Rom 8:6, Rom 8:11, Rom 8:13; 1Co 15:4, 1Co 15:5; 2Co 3:6; Gal 5:25; Gal 6:8.

It is the common possession of the Church and its members; not an occasional gift, but an essential element and mark of the christian life; not appearing merely or mainly in exceptional, marvelous, ecstatic demonstrations, but as the motive and mainspring of all christian action and feeling. It reveals itself in confession (1Co 12:3); in the consciousness of sonship (Rom 8:16); in the knowledge of the love of God (Rom 5:5); in the peace and joy of faith (Rom 14:17; 1Th 1:6); in hope (Rom 5:5; Rom 15:13). It leads believers (Rom 8:14; Gal 5:18): they serve in newness of the Spirit (Rom 7:6) They walk after the Spirit (Rom 8:4, Rom 8:5; Gal 5:16-25). Through the Spirit they are sanctified (2Th 2:13). It manifests itself in the diversity of forms and operations, appearing under two main aspects: a difference of gifts , and a difference of functions . See Rom 8:9; 1Co 3:16; 1Co 5:1, 1Co 5:11; 1Co 12:13; Eph 1:13; Eph 4:3, Eph 4:4, Eph 4:30; Phi 2:1; 1Co 12:4, 1Co 12:7, 1Co 12:11.

As compared with the Old-Testament conception, Paul's πνεῦμα " is the ruach of the Old Testament, conceived as manifesting itself after a manner analogous to, but transcending, its earlier forms. It bears the same characteristic marks of divine origin, of supernatural power, of motive energy in active exercise - standing in intimate relation to the fuller religious life and distinctive character and action of its recipients. But while in the Old Testament it is partial, occasional, intermittent, here it is general, constant, pervading. While in the Old Testament, as well as in the New, its forms of manifestation are diverse, they are expressly referred under the New to one and the same Spirit. While in the Old Testament they contemplate mainly the official equipment of men for special work given them to perform, they include under the New the inward energy of moral action in the individual, no less than the gifts requisite for the edification of the Church; they embrace the whole domain of the religious life in the believer, and in the community to which he belongs. The πνεῦμα of the apostle is not the life-breath of man as originally constituted a creature of God; but it is the life-spirit of " the new creation" in which all things have become new" (Dickson).

With the relation of this word to ψυχή soul is bound up the complicated question whether Paul recognizes in the human personality a trichotomy , or threefold division into body, soul, and spirit. On the one side it is claimed that Paul regards man as consisting of body , the material element and physical basis of his being; soul , the principle of animal life; and spirit , the higher principle of the intellectual nature. On the other side, that spirit and soul represent different sides or functions of the one inner man; the former embracing the higher powers more especially distinctive of man, the latter the feelings and appetites. The threefold distinction is maintained chiefly on the basis of 1Th 5:23. Compare Heb 4:12. On the distinction from ψυχή soul, see, further, on Rom 11:3.

Vincent: Rom 8:5 - They that are They that are ( οἱ ὄντες ) Wider in meaning than walk , which expresses the manifestation of the condition expressed by are .

They that are ( οἱ ὄντες )

Wider in meaning than walk , which expresses the manifestation of the condition expressed by are .

Vincent: Rom 8:5 - Do mind Do mind ( φρονοῦσιν ) The verb primarily means to have understanding ; then to feel or think (1Co 13:11); to have an ...

Do mind ( φρονοῦσιν )

The verb primarily means to have understanding ; then to feel or think (1Co 13:11); to have an opinion (Rom 12:3). Hence to judge (Act 28:22; Gal 5:10; Phi 3:15). To direct the mind to something , and so to seek or strive for (Mat 16:23, note; Phi 3:19; Col 3:2). So here. The object of their thinking and striving is fleshly.

Vincent: Rom 8:6 - To be carnally minded To be carnally minded ( τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ) Lit., as Rev., the mind of the flesh . Fleshly thinking and st...

To be carnally minded ( τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς )

Lit., as Rev., the mind of the flesh . Fleshly thinking and striving. Similarly the mind of the Spirit for to be spiritually minded .

Vincent: Rom 8:7 - Is not subject Is not subject ( οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται ) See on Jam 4:7. Originally to arrange under . Possibly with a shade of military meani...

Is not subject ( οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται )

See on Jam 4:7. Originally to arrange under . Possibly with a shade of military meaning suggested by enmity . It is marshaled under a hostile banner.

Vincent: Rom 8:10 - The body The body The believer's natural body.

The body

The believer's natural body.

Vincent: Rom 8:10 - The spirit The spirit The believer's human spirit.

The spirit

The believer's human spirit.

Vincent: Rom 8:13 - Ye shall die Ye shall die ( μέλλετε ἀποθνήσκειν ) The expression is stronger than the simple future of the verb. It indicates a necess...

Ye shall die ( μέλλετε ἀποθνήσκειν )

The expression is stronger than the simple future of the verb. It indicates a necessary consequence. So Rev., ye must .

Vincent: Rom 8:13 - Mortify Mortify ( θανατοῦτε ) Put to death.

Mortify ( θανατοῦτε )

Put to death.

Vincent: Rom 8:13 - Deeds Deeds ( πράξεις ) Habitual practices. See on Rom 7:15; see on Joh 3:21.

Deeds ( πράξεις )

Habitual practices. See on Rom 7:15; see on Joh 3:21.

Vincent: Rom 8:14 - Sons Sons ( υἱοί ) See on Joh 1:12; see on Mat 1:1. There is an implied contrast with the Jewish idea of sonship by physical descent.

Sons ( υἱοί )

See on Joh 1:12; see on Mat 1:1. There is an implied contrast with the Jewish idea of sonship by physical descent.

Vincent: Rom 8:15 - Spirit of bondage Spirit of bondage ( πνεῦμα δουλείας ) The Holy Spirit, as in Spirit of adoption . The Spirit which ye received was not a s...

Spirit of bondage ( πνεῦμα δουλείας )

The Holy Spirit, as in Spirit of adoption . The Spirit which ye received was not a spirit of bondage. See Rom 8:4, under πνεῦμα , 7.

Vincent: Rom 8:15 - Spirit of adoption Spirit of adoption ( πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας ) The Spirit of God, producing the condition of adoption. Ὑιοθεσία adopti...

Spirit of adoption ( πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας )

The Spirit of God, producing the condition of adoption. Ὑιοθεσία adoption , is from υἱός son , and θέσις a setting or placing: the placing one in the position of a son. Mr. Merivale, illustrating Paul's acquaintance with Roman law, says: " The process of legal adoption by which the chosen heir became entitled not only to the reversion of the property but to the civil status, to the burdens as well as the rights of the adopter - became, as it were, his other self, one with him... this too is a Roman principle, peculiar at this time to the Romans, unknown, I believe, to the Greeks, unknown, to all appearance, to the Jews, as it certainly is not found in the legislation of Moses, nor mentioned anywhere as a usage among the children of the covenant. We have but a faint conception of the force with which such an illustration would speak to one familiar with the Roman practice; how it would serve to impress upon him the assurance that the adopted son of God becomes, in a peculiar and intimate sense, one with the heavenly Father" (" Conversion of the Roman Empire" ).

Vincent: Rom 8:15 - We cry We cry ( κράζομεν ) Of a loud cry or vociferation; expressing deep emotion.

We cry ( κράζομεν )

Of a loud cry or vociferation; expressing deep emotion.

Vincent: Rom 8:15 - Abba Abba ( Ἁββᾶ ) Compare Mar 14:36. A Syrian term, to which Paul adds the Greek Father . The repetition is probably from a liturgical formu...

Abba ( Ἁββᾶ )

Compare Mar 14:36. A Syrian term, to which Paul adds the Greek Father . The repetition is probably from a liturgical formula which may have originated among the Hellenistic Jews who retained the consecrated word Abba . Some find here a hint of the union of Jew and Gentile in God.

Vincent: Rom 8:16 - Beareth witness with our spirit Beareth witness with our spirit ( συμμαρτυρεῖ τῶ πνεύματι ἡμῶν ) This rendering assumes the concurrent testi...

Beareth witness with our spirit ( συμμαρτυρεῖ τῶ πνεύματι ἡμῶν )

This rendering assumes the concurrent testimony of the human spirit with that of the divine Spirit. Others, however, prefer to render to our spirit, urging that the human spirit can give no testimony until acted upon by the Spirit of God.

Vincent: Rom 8:16 - Children Children ( τέκνα ) See on Joh 1:12.

Children ( τέκνα )

See on Joh 1:12.

Vincent: Rom 8:17 - Joint-heirs Joint-heirs Roman law made all children, including adopted ones, equal heritors. Jewish law gave a double portion to the eldest son. The Roman la...

Joint-heirs

Roman law made all children, including adopted ones, equal heritors. Jewish law gave a double portion to the eldest son. The Roman law was naturally in Paul's mind, and suits the context, where adoption is the basis of inheritance.

Vincent: Rom 8:17 - If so be that If so be that ( εἴπερ ) The conditional particle with the indicative mood assumes the fact. If so be, as is really the case.

If so be that ( εἴπερ )

The conditional particle with the indicative mood assumes the fact. If so be, as is really the case.

Vincent: Rom 8:17 - Suffer with Him Suffer with Him Mere suffering does not fulfill the condition. It is suffering with Christ . Compare with Him - all things , Rom 8:32.

Suffer with Him

Mere suffering does not fulfill the condition. It is suffering with Christ . Compare with Him - all things , Rom 8:32.

Vincent: Rom 8:18 - I reckon I reckon ( λογίζομαι ) See on 1Pe 5:12. It implies reasoning. " I judge after calculation made" (Godet). Compare Rom 3:28; 2Co 11:5; ...

I reckon ( λογίζομαι )

See on 1Pe 5:12. It implies reasoning. " I judge after calculation made" (Godet). Compare Rom 3:28; 2Co 11:5; Phi 3:13.

Vincent: Rom 8:19 - Earnest expectation Earnest expectation ( ἀποκαραδοκία ) Only here and Phi 1:20. From ἀπό away κάρα the head , δοκεῖν to ...

Earnest expectation ( ἀποκαραδοκία )

Only here and Phi 1:20. From ἀπό away κάρα the head , δοκεῖν to watch . A watching with the head erect or outstretched. Hence a waiting in suspense . Ἀπό from , implies abstraction, the attention turned from other objects. The classical student will recall the watchman in the opening of Aeschylus' " Agamemnon," awaiting the beacon which is to announce the capture of Troy.

Vincent: Rom 8:19 - Creature Creature ( κτίσεως ) The word may signify either the creative act (as Rom 1:20), or the thing created (Mar 10:6; Mar 13:19; ...

Creature ( κτίσεως )

The word may signify either the creative act (as Rom 1:20), or the thing created (Mar 10:6; Mar 13:19; Mar 16:15; Col 1:23; Heb 4:13). See on 1Pe 2:13. Here in the latter sense. The interpretations vary: 1. The whole unredeemed creation, rational and irrational. 2. All creation, except humanity. The point of difference is the inclusion or exclusion of humanity. The second explanation is preferable, the non-rational creation viewed collectively, animate and inanimate. Equivalent to all nature .

Vincent: Rom 8:19 - Waiteth Waiteth ( ἀπεκδέχεται ) Only in Paul and Heb 9:28. The whole passage, with the expressions waiting , sighing , hoping , bondag...

Waiteth ( ἀπεκδέχεται )

Only in Paul and Heb 9:28. The whole passage, with the expressions waiting , sighing , hoping , bondage , is poetical and prophetic. Compare Psa 19:2; Isa 11:6; Isa 14:8; Isa 55:12; Isa 65:17; Eze 31:15; 37.; Hab 2:11.

Vincent: Rom 8:20 - Vanity Vanity ( ματαιότητι ) Only here, Eph 4:17; 2Pe 2:18. Compare the kindred verb became vain (Rom 1:21 note), and the adjective vai...

Vanity ( ματαιότητι )

Only here, Eph 4:17; 2Pe 2:18. Compare the kindred verb became vain (Rom 1:21 note), and the adjective vain (1Co 3:20; 1Pe 1:18). Vain is also used to render κενός (1Co 15:14, 1Co 15:58; Eph 5:6; Jam 2:20). Κενός signifies empty ; μάταιος idle , resultless . Κενός , used of persons, implies not merely the absence of good, but the presence of evil. So Jam 2:20. The Greek proverb runs. " The empty think empty things." Μάταιος expresses aimlessness . All which has not God for the true end of its being is μάταιος . Pindar describes the vain man as one who hunts bootless things with fruitless hopes. Plato (" Laws," 735) of labor to no purpose. Eze 13:6, " prophesying vain things (μάταια )," things which God will not bring to pass. Compare Tit 3:9. Here, therefore, the reference is to a perishable and decaying condition, separate from God, and pursuing false ends.

Vincent: Rom 8:20 - By reason of Him who hath subjected By reason of Him who hath subjected ( διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα ) God, not Adam nor Satan. Paul does not use the grammatical for...

By reason of Him who hath subjected ( διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα )

God, not Adam nor Satan. Paul does not use the grammatical form which would express the direct agency of God, by Him who hath subjected, but that which makes God's will the occasion rather than the worker - on account of Him . Adam's sin and not God's will was the direct and special cause of the subjection to vanity. The supreme will of God is thus removed " to a wider distance from corruption and vanity" (Alford).

Vincent: Rom 8:21 - In hope because In hope because ( ἐπ ' ἐλπίδι ὅτι ) The best texts transfer these words from the preceding verse, and construe with was m...

In hope because ( ἐπ ' ἐλπίδι ὅτι )

The best texts transfer these words from the preceding verse, and construe with was made subject , rendering ὅτι that instead of because . " The creation was subjected in the hope that," etc. In hope is literally on hope, as a foundation. The hope is that of the subjected , not of the subjector . Nature " possesses in the feeling of her unmerited suffering, a sort of presentiment of her future deliverance" (Godet). Some adopt a very suggestive connection of in hope with waiteth for the manifestation .

Vincent: Rom 8:21 - Glorious liberty Glorious liberty ( ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης ) Better, and more literally, as Rev., liberty of the glory . Liberty is...

Glorious liberty ( ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης )

Better, and more literally, as Rev., liberty of the glory . Liberty is one of the elements of the glorious state and is dependent upon it. The glory is that in Rom 8:18. The Greek student will note the accumulation of genitives, giving solemnity to the passage.

Vincent: Rom 8:22 - For For Introducing the proof of the hope , not of the bondage .

For

Introducing the proof of the hope , not of the bondage .

Vincent: Rom 8:22 - Groaneth - travaileth together Groaneth - travaileth together ( συστενάζει - συνωδίνει ) Both only here in the New Testament. The simple verb ὠδι...

Groaneth - travaileth together ( συστενάζει - συνωδίνει )

Both only here in the New Testament. The simple verb ὠδίνω to travail , occurs Gal 4:19, Gal 4:27; Rev 12:2; and the kindred noun ὠδίν birth-pang , in Matthew and Mark, Acts, and 1Th 5:3. See on Mar 13:9; see on Act 2:24. Together refers to the common longing of all the elements of the creation, not to its longing in common with God's children. " Nature, with its melancholy charm, resembles a bride who, at the very moment when she was fully attired for marriage, saw the bridegroom die. She still stands with her fresh crown and in her bridal dress, but her eyes are full of tears" (Schelling, cited by Godet).

Vincent: Rom 8:24 - By hope By hope ( τῇ ἐλπίδι ) Better in hope. We are saved by faith. See on 1Pe 1:3.

By hope ( τῇ ἐλπίδι )

Better in hope. We are saved by faith. See on 1Pe 1:3.

Vincent: Rom 8:24 - Hope - not hope Hope - not hope Here the word is used of the object of hope. See Col 1:5; 1Ti 1:1; Heb 6:18.

Hope - not hope

Here the word is used of the object of hope. See Col 1:5; 1Ti 1:1; Heb 6:18.

Vincent: Rom 8:26 - Helpeth Helpeth ( συναντιλαμβάνεται ) Only here and Luk 10:40, on which see note. " Λαμβάνεται taketh . Precisely the sam...

Helpeth ( συναντιλαμβάνεται )

Only here and Luk 10:40, on which see note. " Λαμβάνεται taketh . Precisely the same verb in precisely the same phrase, which is translated 'took our infirmities'," Mat 8:17 (Bushnell).

Vincent: Rom 8:26 - As we ought As we ought ( καθὸ δεῖ ) Not with reference to the form of prayer, but to the circumstances: in proportion to the need. Compare ...

As we ought ( καθὸ δεῖ )

Not with reference to the form of prayer, but to the circumstances: in proportion to the need. Compare 2Co 8:12; 1Pe 4:13.

Vincent: Rom 8:26 - Maketh intercession for Maketh intercession for ( ὑπερεντυγχάνει ) Only here in the New Testament. The verb ἐντυγχάνω means to light ...

Maketh intercession for ( ὑπερεντυγχάνει )

Only here in the New Testament. The verb ἐντυγχάνω means to light upon or fall in with ; to go to meet for consultation, conversation, or supplication. So Act 25:24, " dealt with," Rev., " made suit." Compare Rom 8:34; Rom 11:2; Heb 7:25.

Vincent: Rom 8:26 - Which cannot be uttered Which cannot be uttered ( ἀλαλήτοις ) This may mean either unutterable or unuttered .

Which cannot be uttered ( ἀλαλήτοις )

This may mean either unutterable or unuttered .

Vincent: Rom 8:28 - Work together Work together ( συνεργεῖ ) Or, are working together , now, while the creation is in travail. Together refers to the common worki...

Work together ( συνεργεῖ )

Or, are working together , now, while the creation is in travail. Together refers to the common working of all the elements included in πάντα all things .

Vincent: Rom 8:28 - For good For good Jacob cried, all these things are against me . Paul, all things are working together for good .

For good

Jacob cried, all these things are against me . Paul, all things are working together for good .

Vincent: Rom 8:29 - Did foreknow Did foreknow ( προέγνω ) Five times in the New Testament. In all cases it means foreknow . Act 26:5; 1Pe 1:20; 2Pe 3:17; Rom 11:2. It d...

Did foreknow ( προέγνω )

Five times in the New Testament. In all cases it means foreknow . Act 26:5; 1Pe 1:20; 2Pe 3:17; Rom 11:2. It does not mean foreordain . It signifies prescience , not preelection . " It is God's being aware in His plan, by means of which, before the subjects are destined by Him to salvation, He knows whom He has to destine thereto" (Meyer).

It is to be remarked:

1. That προέγνω foreknew is used by the apostle as distinct and different from predestinated (προώρισεν ).

2. That, strictly speaking, it is coordinate with foreordained . " In God is no before." All the past, present, and future are simultaneously present to Him. In presenting the two phases, the operation of God's knowledge and of His decretory will, the succession of time is introduced, not as metaphysically true, but in concession to human limitations of thought. Hence the coordinating force of καὶ also .

3. That a predetermination of God is clearly stated as accompanying or (humanly speaking) succeeding, and grounded upon the foreknowledge.

4. That this predetermination is to the end of conformity to the image of the Son of God, and that this is the vital point of the passage.

5. That, therefore, the relation between foreknowledge and predestination is incidental, and is not contemplated as a special point of discussion. God's foreknowledge and His decree are alike aimed at holy character and final salvation.

" O thou predestination, how remote

Thy root is from the aspect of all those

Who the First Cause do not behold entire!

And you, O mortals! hold yourselves restrained

In judging; for ourselves, who look on God,

We do not known as yet all the elect;

And sweet to us is such a deprivation,

Because our good in this good is made perfect,

That whatsoe'er God wills, we also will"

Dante, " Paradiso ," xx ., 130-138 .

Vincent: Rom 8:29 - To be conformed To be conformed ( συμμόρφους ) With an inner and essential conformity. See on transfigured , Mat 17:2.

To be conformed ( συμμόρφους )

With an inner and essential conformity. See on transfigured , Mat 17:2.

Vincent: Rom 8:29 - To the image To the image ( τῆς εἰκόνος ) See on Rom 1:23. In all respects, sufferings and moral character no less than glory. Compare Rom 8:1...

To the image ( τῆς εἰκόνος )

See on Rom 1:23. In all respects, sufferings and moral character no less than glory. Compare Rom 8:18, Rom 8:28, Rom 8:31, and see Phi 3:21; 1Co 15:49; 2Co 3:18; 1Jo 3:2, 1Jo 3:3. " There is another kind of life of which science as yet has taken little cognizance. It obeys the same laws. It builds up an organism into its own form. It is the Christ-life. As the bird-life builds up a bird, the image of itself, so the Christ-life builds up a Christ, the image of Himself, in the inward nature of man.... According to the great law of conformity to type, this fashioning takes a specific form. It is that of the Artist who fashions. And all through life this wonderful, mystical, glorious, yet perfectly definite process goes on 'until Christ be formed' in it" (Drummond, " Natural Law in the Spiritual World" ).

Vincent: Rom 8:29 - First-born First-born ( πρωτότοκον ) See on Rev 1:5. Compare Col 1:15, Col 1:18, note.

First-born ( πρωτότοκον )

See on Rev 1:5. Compare Col 1:15, Col 1:18, note.

Vincent: Rom 8:32 - Spared Spared ( ἐφείσατο ) Mostly in Paul. Elsewhere only Act 20:29; 2Pe 2:4, 2Pe 2:5. Compare Gen 22:16, which Paul may have had in mind.

Spared ( ἐφείσατο )

Mostly in Paul. Elsewhere only Act 20:29; 2Pe 2:4, 2Pe 2:5. Compare Gen 22:16, which Paul may have had in mind.

Vincent: Rom 8:32 - His own His own ( ἰδίου ) See on Act 1:7; see on 2Pe 1:3, 2Pe 1:20.

His own ( ἰδίου )

See on Act 1:7; see on 2Pe 1:3, 2Pe 1:20.

Vincent: Rom 8:32 - With Him With Him Not merely in addition to Him, but all gifts of God are to be received, held, and enjoyed in communion with Christ.

With Him

Not merely in addition to Him, but all gifts of God are to be received, held, and enjoyed in communion with Christ.

Vincent: Rom 8:32 - Freely give Freely give In contrast with spared .

Freely give

In contrast with spared .

Vincent: Rom 8:33 - Shall lay - to the charge Shall lay - to the charge ( ἐγκαλέσει ) Only here by Paul. Frequent in Acts. See Act 19:38, Act 19:40; Act 23:28, Act 23:29; Act 26:...

Shall lay - to the charge ( ἐγκαλέσει )

Only here by Paul. Frequent in Acts. See Act 19:38, Act 19:40; Act 23:28, Act 23:29; Act 26:2, Act 26:7. Lit., " to call something in one." Hence call to account ; bring a charge against .

The following clauses are differently arranged by expositors. I prefer the succession of four interrogatives: Who shall lay? etc. Is it God? etc. Who is He that condemneth? Is it Christ? etc.

Vincent: Rom 8:34 - Rather Rather ( μᾶλλον ) " Our faith should rest on Christ's death. but it should rather also so far progress as to lean on His resurrection, ...

Rather ( μᾶλλον )

" Our faith should rest on Christ's death. but it should rather also so far progress as to lean on His resurrection, dominion, and second coming" (Bengel). " From the representations of the dead Christ the early believers shrank as from an impiety. To them He was the living, not the dead Christ - the triumphant, the glorified, the infinite, - not the agonized Christ in that one brief hour and power of darkness which was but the spasm of an eternal glorification" (Farrar, " Lives of the Fathers," i. 14).

Vincent: Rom 8:37 - We are more than conquerors We are more than conquerors ( ὑπερνικῶμεν ) A victory which is more than a victory. " A holy arrogance of victory in the might of ...

We are more than conquerors ( ὑπερνικῶμεν )

A victory which is more than a victory. " A holy arrogance of victory in the might of Christ" (Meyer).

Vincent: Rom 8:38 - Powers Powers ( ἀρχαί ) Angelic, higher than mere angels.

Powers ( ἀρχαί )

Angelic, higher than mere angels.

Vincent: Rom 8:38 - Things present Things present ( ἐνεστῶτα ) Only in Paul and Heb 9:9. The verb literally means to stand in sight . Hence to impend or thr...

Things present ( ἐνεστῶτα )

Only in Paul and Heb 9:9. The verb literally means to stand in sight . Hence to impend or threaten . So 2Th 2:2; 2Ti 3:1; 1Co 7:26. Used of something that has set in or begun . So some render here. Bengel says: " Things past are not mentioned, not even sins, for they have passed away."

Wesley: Rom 8:1 - There is therefore now no condemnation Either for things present or past. Now he comes to deliverance and liberty. The apostle here resumes the thread of his discourse, which was interrupte...

Either for things present or past. Now he comes to deliverance and liberty. The apostle here resumes the thread of his discourse, which was interrupted, Rom 7:7.

Wesley: Rom 8:2 - The law of the Spirit That is, the gospel.

That is, the gospel.

Wesley: Rom 8:2 - Hath freed me from the law of sin and death That is, the Mosaic dispensation.

That is, the Mosaic dispensation.

Wesley: Rom 8:3 - For what the law Of Moses. Could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh - Incapable of conquering our evil nature. If it could, God needed not to have sent his ...

Of Moses. Could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh - Incapable of conquering our evil nature. If it could, God needed not to have sent his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh - We with our sinful flesh were devoted to death. But God sending his own Son, in the likeness of that flesh, though pure from sin, condemned that sin which was in our flesh; gave sentence, that sin should be destroyed, and the believer wholly delivered from it.

Wesley: Rom 8:4 - That the righteousness of the law The holiness it required, described, Rom 8:11. Might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit - Who are guided in all ou...

The holiness it required, described, Rom 8:11. Might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit - Who are guided in all our thoughts, words, and actions, not by corrupt nature, but by the Spirit of God. From this place St. Paul describes primarily the state of believers, and that of unbelievers only to illustrate this.

Wesley: Rom 8:5 - They that are after the flesh Who remain under the guidance of corrupt nature.

Who remain under the guidance of corrupt nature.

Wesley: Rom 8:5 - Mind the things of the flesh Have their thoughts and affections fixed on such things as gratify corrupt nature; namely, on things visible and temporal; on things of the earth, on ...

Have their thoughts and affections fixed on such things as gratify corrupt nature; namely, on things visible and temporal; on things of the earth, on pleasure, (of sense or imagination,) praise, or riches.

Wesley: Rom 8:5 - But they who are after the Spirit Who are under his guidance.

Who are under his guidance.

Wesley: Rom 8:5 - Mind the things of the Spirit Think of, relish, love things invisible, eternal; the things which the Spirit hath revealed, which he works in us, moves us to, and promises to give u...

Think of, relish, love things invisible, eternal; the things which the Spirit hath revealed, which he works in us, moves us to, and promises to give us.

Wesley: Rom 8:6 - For to be carnally minded That is, to mind the things of the flesh.

That is, to mind the things of the flesh.

Wesley: Rom 8:6 - Is death The sure mark of spiritual death, and the way to death everlasting.

The sure mark of spiritual death, and the way to death everlasting.

Wesley: Rom 8:6 - But to be spiritually minded That is, to mind the things of the Spirit.

That is, to mind the things of the Spirit.

Wesley: Rom 8:6 - Is life A sure mark of spiritual life, and the way to life everlasting.

A sure mark of spiritual life, and the way to life everlasting.

Wesley: Rom 8:6 - And attended with peace The peace of God, which is the foretaste of life everlasting; and peace with God, opposite to the enmity mentioned in the next verse.

The peace of God, which is the foretaste of life everlasting; and peace with God, opposite to the enmity mentioned in the next verse.

Wesley: Rom 8:7 - Enmity against God His existence, power, and providence.

His existence, power, and providence.

Wesley: Rom 8:8 - They who are in the flesh Under the government of it.

Under the government of it.

Wesley: Rom 8:9 - In the Spirit Under his government.

Under his government.

Wesley: Rom 8:9 - If any man have not the Spirit of Christ Dwelling and governing in him.

Dwelling and governing in him.

Wesley: Rom 8:9 - He is none of his He is not a member of Christ; not a Christian; not in a state of salvation. A plain, express declaration, which admits of no exception. He that hath e...

He is not a member of Christ; not a Christian; not in a state of salvation. A plain, express declaration, which admits of no exception. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear!

Wesley: Rom 8:10 - Now if Christ be in you Where the Spirit of Christ is, there is Christ.

Where the Spirit of Christ is, there is Christ.

Wesley: Rom 8:10 - The body indeed is dead Devoted to death.

Devoted to death.

Wesley: Rom 8:10 - Because of sin Heretofore committed.

Heretofore committed.

Wesley: Rom 8:10 - But the Spirit is life Already truly alive.

Already truly alive.

Wesley: Rom 8:10 - Because of righteousness Now attained. From Rom 8:13, St. Paul, having finished what he had begun, Rom 6:1, describes purely the state of believers.

Now attained. From Rom 8:13, St. Paul, having finished what he had begun, Rom 6:1, describes purely the state of believers.

Wesley: Rom 8:12 - We are not debtors to the flesh We ought not to follow it.

We ought not to follow it.

Wesley: Rom 8:13 - The deeds of the flesh Not only evil actions, but evil desires, tempers, thoughts.

Not only evil actions, but evil desires, tempers, thoughts.

Wesley: Rom 8:13 - If ye mortify Kill, destroy these.

Kill, destroy these.

Wesley: Rom 8:13 - Ye shall live The life of faith more abundantly here, and hereafter the life of glory.

The life of faith more abundantly here, and hereafter the life of glory.

Wesley: Rom 8:14 - For as many as are led by the Spirit of God In all the ways of righteousness.

In all the ways of righteousness.

Wesley: Rom 8:14 - They are the sons of God Here St. Paul enters upon the description of those blessings which he comprises, Rom 8:30, in the word glorified; though, indeed, he does not describe...

Here St. Paul enters upon the description of those blessings which he comprises, Rom 8:30, in the word glorified; though, indeed, he does not describe mere glory, but that which is still mingled with the cross. The sum is, through sufferings to glory.

Wesley: Rom 8:15 - For ye Who are real Christians.

Who are real Christians.

Wesley: Rom 8:15 - Have not received the spirit of bondage The Holy Ghost was not properly a spirit of bondage, even in the time of the Old Testament. Yet there was something of bondage remaining even in those...

The Holy Ghost was not properly a spirit of bondage, even in the time of the Old Testament. Yet there was something of bondage remaining even in those who then had received the Spirit.

Wesley: Rom 8:15 - Again As the Jews did before.

As the Jews did before.

Wesley: Rom 8:15 - We All and every believer.

All and every believer.

Wesley: Rom 8:15 - Cry The word denotes a vehement speaking, with desire, confidence, constancy. Abba, Father - The latter word explains the former. By using both the Syriac...

The word denotes a vehement speaking, with desire, confidence, constancy. Abba, Father - The latter word explains the former. By using both the Syriac and the Greek word, St. Paul seems to point out the joint cry both of the Jewish and gentile believers. The spirit of bondage here seems directly to mean, those operations of the Holy Spirit by which the soul, on its first conviction, feels itself in bondage to sin, to the world, to Satan, and obnoxious to the wrath of God. This, therefore, and the Spirit of adoption, are one and the same Spirit, only manifesting itself in various operations, according to the various circumstances of the persons.

Wesley: Rom 8:16 - The same Spirit beareth witness with our spirit With the spirit of every true believer, by a testimony distinct from that of his own spirit, or the testimony of a good conscience. Happy they who enj...

With the spirit of every true believer, by a testimony distinct from that of his own spirit, or the testimony of a good conscience. Happy they who enjoy this clear and constant.

Wesley: Rom 8:17 - Joint heirs That we may know it is a great inheritance which God will give us for he hath given a great one to his Son.

That we may know it is a great inheritance which God will give us for he hath given a great one to his Son.

Wesley: Rom 8:17 - If we suffer with him Willingly and cheerfully, for righteousness' sake. This is a new proposition, referring to what follows.

Willingly and cheerfully, for righteousness' sake. This is a new proposition, referring to what follows.

Wesley: Rom 8:18 - For I reckon This verse gives the reason why he but now mentioned sufferings and glory. When that glory "shall be revealed in us," then the sons of God will be rev...

This verse gives the reason why he but now mentioned sufferings and glory. When that glory "shall be revealed in us," then the sons of God will be revealed also.

Wesley: Rom 8:19 - For the earnest expectation The word denotes a lively hope of something drawing near, and a vehement longing after it.

The word denotes a lively hope of something drawing near, and a vehement longing after it.

Wesley: Rom 8:19 - Of the creation Of all visible creatures, believers excepted, who are spoken of apart; each kind, according as it is capable. All these have been sufferers through si...

Of all visible creatures, believers excepted, who are spoken of apart; each kind, according as it is capable. All these have been sufferers through sin; and to all these (the finally impenitent excepted) shall refreshment redound from the glory of the children of God. Upright heathens are by no means to be excluded from this earnest expectation: nay, perhaps something of it may at some times be found even in the vainest of men; who (although in the hurry of life they mistake vanity for liberty, and partly stifle. partly dissemble, their groans, yet) in their sober, quiet, sleepless, afflicted hours, pour forth many sighs in the ear of God.

Wesley: Rom 8:20 - The creation was made subject to vanity Abuse, misery, and corruption.

Abuse, misery, and corruption.

Wesley: Rom 8:20 - By him who subjected it Namely, God, Gen 3:17, Gen 5:29. Adam only made it liable to the sentence which God pronounced; yet not without hope.

Namely, God, Gen 3:17, Gen 5:29. Adam only made it liable to the sentence which God pronounced; yet not without hope.

Wesley: Rom 8:21 - The creation itself shall be delivered Destruction is not deliverance: therefore whatsoever is destroyed, or ceases to be, is not delivered at all. Will, then, any part of the creation be d...

Destruction is not deliverance: therefore whatsoever is destroyed, or ceases to be, is not delivered at all. Will, then, any part of the creation be destroyed? Into the glorious liberty - The excellent state wherein they were created.

Wesley: Rom 8:22 - For the whole creation groaneth together With joint groans, as it were with one voice.

With joint groans, as it were with one voice.

Wesley: Rom 8:22 - And travaileth Literally, is in the pains of childbirth, to be delivered of the burden of the curse.

Literally, is in the pains of childbirth, to be delivered of the burden of the curse.

Wesley: Rom 8:22 - Until now To this very hour; and so on till the time of deliverance.

To this very hour; and so on till the time of deliverance.

Wesley: Rom 8:23 - And even we, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit That is, the Spirit, who is the first-fruits of our inheritance.

That is, the Spirit, who is the first-fruits of our inheritance.

Wesley: Rom 8:23 - The adoption Persons who had been privately adopted among the Romans were often brought forth into the forum, and there publicly owned as their sons by those who a...

Persons who had been privately adopted among the Romans were often brought forth into the forum, and there publicly owned as their sons by those who adopted them. So at the general resurrection, when the body itself is redeemed from death, the sons of God shall be publicly owned by him in the great assembly of men and angels.

Wesley: Rom 8:23 - The redemption of our body From corruption to glory and immortality.

From corruption to glory and immortality.

Wesley: Rom 8:24 - For we are saved by hope Our salvation is now only in hope. We do not yet possess this full salvation.

Our salvation is now only in hope. We do not yet possess this full salvation.

Wesley: Rom 8:26 - Likewise the Spirit Nay, not only the universe, not only the children of God, but the Spirit of God also himself, as it were, groaneth, while he helpeth our infirmities, ...

Nay, not only the universe, not only the children of God, but the Spirit of God also himself, as it were, groaneth, while he helpeth our infirmities, or weaknesses. Our understandings are weak, particularly in the things of God our desires are weak; our prayers are weak.

Wesley: Rom 8:26 - We know not Many times.

Many times.

Wesley: Rom 8:26 - What we should pray for Much less are we able to pray for it as we ought: but the Spirit maketh intercession for us - In our hearts, even as Christ does in heaven.

Much less are we able to pray for it as we ought: but the Spirit maketh intercession for us - In our hearts, even as Christ does in heaven.

Wesley: Rom 8:26 - With groanings The matter of which is from ourselves, but the Spirit forms them; and they are frequently inexpressible, even by the faithful themselves.

The matter of which is from ourselves, but the Spirit forms them; and they are frequently inexpressible, even by the faithful themselves.

Wesley: Rom 8:27 - But he who searcheth the hearts Wherein the Spirit dwells and intercedes.

Wherein the Spirit dwells and intercedes.

Wesley: Rom 8:27 - Knoweth Though man cannot utter it. What is the mind of the Spirit, for he maketh intercession for the saints - Who are near to God.

Though man cannot utter it. What is the mind of the Spirit, for he maketh intercession for the saints - Who are near to God.

Wesley: Rom 8:27 - According to God According to his will, as is worthy of God. and acceptable to him.

According to his will, as is worthy of God. and acceptable to him.

Wesley: Rom 8:28 - And we know This in general; though we do not always know particularly what to pray for.

This in general; though we do not always know particularly what to pray for.

Wesley: Rom 8:28 - That all things Ease or pain, poverty or riches, and the ten thousand changes of life.

Ease or pain, poverty or riches, and the ten thousand changes of life.

Wesley: Rom 8:28 - Work together for good Strongly and sweetly for spiritual and eternal good.

Strongly and sweetly for spiritual and eternal good.

Wesley: Rom 8:28 - To them that are called according to his purpose His gracious design of saving a lost world by the death of his Son. This is a new proposition. St. Paul, being about to recapitulate the whole blessin...

His gracious design of saving a lost world by the death of his Son. This is a new proposition. St. Paul, being about to recapitulate the whole blessing contained in justification, (termed "glorification," Rom 8:30,) first goes back to the purpose or decree of God, which is frequently mentioned in holy writ.

Wesley: Rom 8:28 -

To explain this (nearly in the words of an eminent writer) a little more at large: When a man has a work of time and importance before him, he pauses, consults, and contrives; and when he has laid a plan, resolves or decrees to proce...

When a man has a work of time and importance before him, he pauses, consults, and contrives; and when he has laid a plan, resolves or decrees to proceed accordingly. Having observed this in ourselves, we are ready to apply it to God also; and he, in condescension to us has applied it to himself.

The works of providence and redemption are vast and stupendous, and therefore we are apt to conceive of God as deliberating and consulting on them, and then decreeing to act according to "the counsel of his own will;" as if, long before the world was made, he had been concerting measures both as to the making and governing of it, and had then writ down his decrees, which altered not, any more than the laws of the Medes and Persians. Whereas, to take this consulting and decreeing in a literal sense, would be the same absurdity as to ascribe a real human body and human passions to the ever - blessed God.

This is only a popular representation of his infallible knowledge and unchangeable wisdom; that is, he does all things as wisely as a man can possibly do, after the deepest consultation, and as steadily pursues the most proper method as one can do who has laid a scheme beforehand. But then, though the effects be such as would argue consultation and consequent decrees in man, yet what need of a moment's consultation in Him who sees all things at one view?

Nor had God any more occasion to pause and deliberate, and lay down rules for his own conduct from all eternity, than he has now. What was there any fear of his mistaking afterwards, if he had not beforehand prepared decrees, to direct him what he was to do? Will any man say, he was wiser before the creation than since? or had he then more leisure, that he should take that opportunity to settle his affairs, and make rules (or himself, from which he was never to vary?

He has doubtless the same wisdom and all other perfections at this day which he had from eternity; and is now as capable of making decrees, or rather has no more occasion for them now than formerly: his understanding being always equally clear and bright, his wisdom equally infallible.

Wesley: Rom 8:29 - Whom he foreknew, he also predestinated conformable to the image of his Son Here the apostle declares who those are whom he foreknew and predestinated to glory; namely, those who are conformable to the image of his Son. This i...

Here the apostle declares who those are whom he foreknew and predestinated to glory; namely, those who are conformable to the image of his Son. This is the mark of those who are foreknown and will be glorified, 2Ti 2:19. Phi 3:10, Phi 3:21.

Wesley: Rom 8:30 - Them he In due time.

In due time.

Wesley: Rom 8:30 - Called By his gospel and his Spirit.

By his gospel and his Spirit.

Wesley: Rom 8:30 - And whom he called When obedient to the heavenly calling, Act 26:19.

When obedient to the heavenly calling, Act 26:19.

Wesley: Rom 8:30 - He also justified Forgave and accepted.

Forgave and accepted.

Wesley: Rom 8:30 - And whom he justified Provided they "continued in his goodness," Rom 11:22, he in the end glorified - St. Paul does not affirm, either here or in any other part of his writ...

Provided they "continued in his goodness," Rom 11:22, he in the end glorified - St. Paul does not affirm, either here or in any other part of his writings. that precisely the same number of men are called, justified, and glorified. He does not deny that a believer may fall away and be cut off between his special calling and his glorification, Rom 11:22. Neither does he deny that many are called who never are justified. He only affirms that this is the method whereby God leads us step by step toward heaven.

Wesley: Rom 8:30 - He glorified He speaks as one looking back from the goal, upon the race of faith. Indeed grace, as it is glory begun, is both an earnest and a foretaste of eternal...

He speaks as one looking back from the goal, upon the race of faith. Indeed grace, as it is glory begun, is both an earnest and a foretaste of eternal glory.

Wesley: Rom 8:31 - What shall we say then to these things Related in the third, fifth, and eighth chapters? As if he had said, We cannot go, think, or wish anything farther.

Related in the third, fifth, and eighth chapters? As if he had said, We cannot go, think, or wish anything farther.

Wesley: Rom 8:31 - If God be for us Here follow four periods, one general and three particular. Each begins with glorying in the grace of God, which is followed by a question suitable to...

Here follow four periods, one general and three particular. Each begins with glorying in the grace of God, which is followed by a question suitable to it, challenging all opponents to all which, "I am persuaded," &c., is a general answer. The general period is, If God be for us, who can be against us? The first particular period, relating to the past time, is, He that spared not his own Son, how shall he not freely give us all things? The second, relating to the present, is, It is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? The third, relating to the future, is, It is Christ that died - Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?

Wesley: Rom 8:32 - He that This period contains four sentences: He spared not his own Son; therefore he will freely give us all things. He delivered him up for us all; therefore...

This period contains four sentences: He spared not his own Son; therefore he will freely give us all things. He delivered him up for us all; therefore, none can lay anything to our charge.

Wesley: Rom 8:32 - Freely For all that follows justification is a free gift also.

For all that follows justification is a free gift also.

Wesley: Rom 8:32 - All things Needful or profitable for us.

Needful or profitable for us.

Wesley: Rom 8:33 - God's elect The above cited author observes, that long before the coming of Christ the heathen world revolted from the true God, and were therefore reprobated, or...

The above cited author observes, that long before the coming of Christ the heathen world revolted from the true God, and were therefore reprobated, or rejected.

But the nation of the Jews were chosen to be the people of God, and were therefore styled, "the children" or "sons of God," Deu 14:1;

"holy people," Deu 7:6; Deu 14:2;

"a chosen seed," Deu 4:37;

"the elect," Isa 41:8-9; Isa 43:10;

"the called of God," Isa 48:12.

And these titles were given to all the nation of Israel, including both good and bad.

Now the gospel having the most strict connexion with the Books of the Old Testament, where these phrases frequently occur; and our Lord and his apostles being native Jews, and beginning to preach in the land of Israel, the language in which they preached would of course abound with the phrases of the Jewish nation. And hence it is easy to see why such of them as would not receive him were styled reprobated. For they no longer continued to be the people of God; whereas this and those other honourable titles were continued to all such Jews as embraced Christianity. And the same appellations which once belonged to the Jewish nation were now given to the gentile Christians also together with which they were invested with all the privileges of "the chosen people of God;" and nothing could cut them off from these but their own wilful apostasy.

It does not appear that even good men were ever termed God's elect till above two thousand years from the creation. God's electing or choosing the nation of Israel, and separating them from the other nations, who were sunk in idolatry and all wickedness, gave the first occasion to this sort of language. And as the separating the Christians from the Jews was a like event, no wonder it was expressed in like words and phrases only with this difference, the term elect was of old applied to all the members of the visible church; whereas in the New Testament it is applied only to the members of the invisible.

Wesley: Rom 8:34 - Yea rather, that is risen Our faith should not stop at his death, but be exercised farther on his resurrection, kingdom, second coming.

Our faith should not stop at his death, but be exercised farther on his resurrection, kingdom, second coming.

Wesley: Rom 8:34 - Who maketh intercession for us Presenting there his obedience, his sufferings, his prayers, and our prayers sanctified through him.

Presenting there his obedience, his sufferings, his prayers, and our prayers sanctified through him.

Wesley: Rom 8:35 - Who shall separate us from the love of Christ Toward us? Shall affliction or distress - He proceeds in order, from less troubles to greater: can any of these separate us from his protection in it ...

Toward us? Shall affliction or distress - He proceeds in order, from less troubles to greater: can any of these separate us from his protection in it ; and, if he sees good, deliverance from it?

Wesley: Rom 8:36 - All the day That is, every day, continually.

That is, every day, continually.

Wesley: Rom 8:36 - We are accounted By our enemies; by ourselves. Psa 44:22.

By our enemies; by ourselves. Psa 44:22.

Wesley: Rom 8:37 - We more than conquer We are not only no losers, but abundant gainers, by all these trials. This period seems to describe the full assurance of hope.

We are not only no losers, but abundant gainers, by all these trials. This period seems to describe the full assurance of hope.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - I am persuaded This is inferred from Rom 8:34, in an admirable order: - Neither death" shall hurt us; For "Christ is dead:" "Nor life;" 'is risen" Nor angels, nor pr...

This is inferred from Rom 8:34, in an admirable order: - Neither death" shall hurt us; For "Christ is dead:" "Nor life;" 'is risen" Nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers; nor things pre - sent, nor things to come;" "is at the right hand of God:" "Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature;" "maketh intercession for us." Neither death - Terrible as it is to natural men; a violent death in particular, Rom 8:36.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - Nor life With all the affliction and distress it can bring, Rom 8:35; or a long, easy life; or all living men.

With all the affliction and distress it can bring, Rom 8:35; or a long, easy life; or all living men.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - Nor angels Whether good (if it were possible they should attempt it) or bad, with all their wisdom and strength. Nor principalities, nor powers - Not even those ...

Whether good (if it were possible they should attempt it) or bad, with all their wisdom and strength. Nor principalities, nor powers - Not even those of the highest rank, or the most eminent power.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - Nor things present Which may befal us during our pilgrimage; or the whole world, till it passeth away.

Which may befal us during our pilgrimage; or the whole world, till it passeth away.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - Nor things to come Which may occur either when our time on earth is past, or when time itself is at an end, as the final judgment, the general conflagration, the everlas...

Which may occur either when our time on earth is past, or when time itself is at an end, as the final judgment, the general conflagration, the everlasting fire. Nor height, nor depth - The former sentence respected the differences of times; this, the differences of places. How many great and various things are contained in these words, we do not, need not, cannot know yet.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - The height In St. Paul's sublime style, is put for heaven.

In St. Paul's sublime style, is put for heaven.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - The depth For the great abyss: that is, neither the heights, I will not say of walls, mountains, seas, but, of heaven itself, can move us; nor the abyss itself,...

For the great abyss: that is, neither the heights, I will not say of walls, mountains, seas, but, of heaven itself, can move us; nor the abyss itself, the very thought of which might astonish the boldest creature.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - Nor any creature Nothing beneath the Almighty; visible enemies he does not even deign to name.

Nothing beneath the Almighty; visible enemies he does not even deign to name.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - Shall be able Either by force, Rom 8:35; or by any legal claim, Rom 8:33, &c.

Either by force, Rom 8:35; or by any legal claim, Rom 8:33, &c.

Wesley: Rom 8:38 - To separate us from the love of God in Christ Which will surely save, protect, deliver us who believe in, and through, and from, them all.

Which will surely save, protect, deliver us who believe in, and through, and from, them all.

JFB: Rom 8:1 - There is therefore now, &c. Referring to the immediately preceding context [OLSHAUSEN, PHILIPPI, MEYER, ALFORD, &c.]. The subject with which the seventh chapter concludes is stil...

Referring to the immediately preceding context [OLSHAUSEN, PHILIPPI, MEYER, ALFORD, &c.]. The subject with which the seventh chapter concludes is still under consideration. The scope of Rom 8:1-4 is to show how "the law of sin and death" is deprived of its power to bring believers again into bondage, and how the holy law of God receives in them the homage of a living obedience [CALVIN, FRASER, PHILIPPI, MEYER, ALFORD, &c.].

JFB: Rom 8:1 - no condemnation: to them which are in Christ Jesus As Christ, who "knew no sin," was, to all legal effects, "made sin for us," so are we, who believe in Him, to all legal effects, "made the righteousne...

As Christ, who "knew no sin," was, to all legal effects, "made sin for us," so are we, who believe in Him, to all legal effects, "made the righteousness of God in Him" (2Co 5:21); and thus, one with Him in the divine reckoning. there is to such "NO CONDEMNATION." (Compare Joh 3:18; Joh 5:24; Rom 5:18-19). But this is no mere legal arrangement: it is a union in life; believers, through the indwelling of Christ's Spirit in them, having one life with Him, as truly as the head and the members of the same body have one life.

JFB: Rom 8:1 - who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit The evidence of manuscripts seems to show that this clause formed no part of the original text of this verse, but that the first part of it was early ...

The evidence of manuscripts seems to show that this clause formed no part of the original text of this verse, but that the first part of it was early introduced, and the second later, from Rom 8:4, probably as an explanatory comment, and to make the transition to Rom 8:2 easier.

JFB: Rom 8:2 - For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free Rather, "freed me"--referring to the time of his conversion, when first he believed.

Rather, "freed me"--referring to the time of his conversion, when first he believed.

JFB: Rom 8:2 - from the law of sin and death It is the Holy Ghost who is here called "the Spirit of life," as opening up in the souls of believers a fountain of spiritual life (see on Joh 7:38-39...

It is the Holy Ghost who is here called "the Spirit of life," as opening up in the souls of believers a fountain of spiritual life (see on Joh 7:38-39); just as He is called "the Spirit of truth," as "guiding them into all truth" (Joh 16:13), and "the Spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord" (Isa 11:2), as the inspirer of these qualities. And He is called "the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus," because it is as members of Christ that He takes up His abode in believers, who in consequence of this have one life with their Head. And as the word "law" here has the same meaning as in Rom 7:23, namely, "an inward principle of action, operating with the fixedness and regularity of a law," it thus appears that "the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" here means, "that new principle of action which the Spirit of Christ has opened up within us--the law of our new being." This "sets us free," as soon as it takes possession of our inner man, "from the law of sin and death" that is, from the enslaving power of that corrupt principle which carries death in its bosom. The "strong man armed" is overpowered by the "stronger than he"; the weaker principle is dethroned and expelled by the more powerful; the principle of spiritual life prevails against and brings into captivity the principle of spiritual death--"leading captivity captive." If this be the apostle's meaning, the whole verse is to this effect: That the triumph of believers over their inward corruption, through the power of Christ's Spirit in them, proves them to be in Christ Jesus, and as such absolved from condemnation. But this is now explained more fully.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - For what the law could not do, &c. A difficult and much controverted verse. But it is clearly, we think, the law's inability to free us from the dominion of sin that the apostle has in ...

A difficult and much controverted verse. But it is clearly, we think, the law's inability to free us from the dominion of sin that the apostle has in view; as has partly appeared already (see on Rom 8:2), and will more fully appear presently. The law could irritate our sinful nature into more virulent action, as we have seen in Rom 7:5, but it could not secure its own fulfilment. How that is accomplished comes now to be shown.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - in that it was weak through the flesh That is, having to address itself to us through a corrupt nature, too strong to be influenced by mere commands and threatenings.

That is, having to address itself to us through a corrupt nature, too strong to be influenced by mere commands and threatenings.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - God, &c. The sentence is somewhat imperfect in its structure, which occasions a certain obscurity. The meaning is, that whereas the law was powerless to secure...

The sentence is somewhat imperfect in its structure, which occasions a certain obscurity. The meaning is, that whereas the law was powerless to secure its own fulfilment for the reason given, God took the method now to be described for attaining that end.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - sending "having sent"

"having sent"

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - his own Son This and similar expressions plainly imply that Christ was God's "OWN SON" before He was sent--that is, in His own proper Person, and independently of...

This and similar expressions plainly imply that Christ was God's "OWN SON" before He was sent--that is, in His own proper Person, and independently of His mission and appearance in the flesh (see on Rom 8:32 and Gal 4:4); and if so, He not only has the very nature of God, even as a son of his father, but is essentially of the Father, though in a sense too mysterious for any language of ours properly to define (see on the first through fourth chapters). And this peculiar relationship is put forward here to enhance the greatness and define the nature of the relief provided, as coming from beyond the precincts of sinful humanity altogether, yea, immediately from the Godhead itself.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - in the likeness of sinful flesh Literally, "of the flesh of sin"; a very remarkable and pregnant expression. He was made in the reality of our flesh, but only in the likeness of its ...

Literally, "of the flesh of sin"; a very remarkable and pregnant expression. He was made in the reality of our flesh, but only in the likeness of its sinful condition. He took our nature as it is in us, compassed with infirmities, with nothing to distinguish Him as man from sinful men, save that He was without sin. Nor does this mean that He took our nature with all its properties save one; for sin is no property of humanity at all, but only the disordered state of our souls, as the fallen family of Adam; a disorder affecting, indeed, and overspreading our entire nature, but still purely our own.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - and for sin Literally, "and about sin"; that is, "on the business of sin." The expression is purposely a general one, because the design was not to speak of Chris...

Literally, "and about sin"; that is, "on the business of sin." The expression is purposely a general one, because the design was not to speak of Christ's mission to atone for sin, but in virtue of that atonement to destroy its dominion and extirpate it altogether from believers. We think it wrong, therefore, to render the words (as in the Margin) "by a sacrifice for sin" (suggested by the language of the Septuagint and approved by CALVIN, &c.); for this sense is too definite, and makes the idea of expiation more prominent than it is.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - condemned sin "condemned it to lose its power over men" [BEZA, BENGEL, FRASER, MEYER, THOLUCK, PHILIPPI, ALFORD]. In this glorious sense our Lord says of His approa...

"condemned it to lose its power over men" [BEZA, BENGEL, FRASER, MEYER, THOLUCK, PHILIPPI, ALFORD]. In this glorious sense our Lord says of His approaching death (Joh 12:31), "Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out," and again (see on Joh 16:11), "When He (the Spirit) shall come, He shall convince the world of . . . judgment, because the prince of this world is judged," that is, condemned to let go his hold of men, who, through the Cross, shall be emancipated into the liberty and power to be holy.

JFB: Rom 8:3-4 - in the flesh That is, in human nature, henceforth set free from the grasp of sin.

That is, in human nature, henceforth set free from the grasp of sin.

JFB: Rom 8:4 - That the righteousness of the law "the righteous demand," "the requirement" [ALFORD], Or "the precept" of the law; for it is not precisely the word so often used in this Epistle to den...

"the righteous demand," "the requirement" [ALFORD], Or "the precept" of the law; for it is not precisely the word so often used in this Epistle to denote "the righteousness which justifies" (Rom 1:17; Rom 3:21; Rom 4:5-6; Rom 5:17-18, Rom 5:21), but another form of the same word, intended to express the enactment of the law, meaning here, we believe, the practical obedience which the law calls for.

JFB: Rom 8:4 - might be fulfilled in us Or, as we say, "realized in us."

Or, as we say, "realized in us."

JFB: Rom 8:4 - who walk The most ancient expression of the bent of one's life, whether in the direction of good or of evil (Gen 48:15; Psa 1:1; Isa 2:5; Mic 4:5; Eph 4:17; 1J...

The most ancient expression of the bent of one's life, whether in the direction of good or of evil (Gen 48:15; Psa 1:1; Isa 2:5; Mic 4:5; Eph 4:17; 1Jo 1:6-7).

JFB: Rom 8:4 - not after That is, according to the dictates of

That is, according to the dictates of

JFB: Rom 8:4 - the flesh, but after the spirit From Rom 8:9 it would seem that what is more immediately intended by "the spirit" here is our own mind as renewed and actuated by the Holy Ghost.

From Rom 8:9 it would seem that what is more immediately intended by "the spirit" here is our own mind as renewed and actuated by the Holy Ghost.

JFB: Rom 8:5 - For they that are after the flesh That is, under the influence of the fleshly principle.

That is, under the influence of the fleshly principle.

JFB: Rom 8:5 - do mind Give their attention to (Phi 3:19).

Give their attention to (Phi 3:19).

JFB: Rom 8:5 - the things of the flesh, &c. Men must be under the predominating influence of one or other of these two principles, and, according as the one or the other has the mastery, will be...

Men must be under the predominating influence of one or other of these two principles, and, according as the one or the other has the mastery, will be the complexion of their life, the character of their actions.

JFB: Rom 8:6 - For A mere particle of transition here [THOLUCK], like "but" or "now."

A mere particle of transition here [THOLUCK], like "but" or "now."

JFB: Rom 8:6 - to be carnally minded Literally, "the mind" or "minding of the flesh" (Margin); that is, the pursuit of fleshly ends.

Literally, "the mind" or "minding of the flesh" (Margin); that is, the pursuit of fleshly ends.

JFB: Rom 8:6 - is death Not only "ends in" [ALFORD, &c.], but even now "is"; carrying death into its bosom, so that such are "dead while they live" (1Ti 5:6; Eph 2:1, Eph 2:5...

Not only "ends in" [ALFORD, &c.], but even now "is"; carrying death into its bosom, so that such are "dead while they live" (1Ti 5:6; Eph 2:1, Eph 2:5) [PHILIPPI].

JFB: Rom 8:6 - but to be spiritually minded "the mind" or "minding of the spirit"; that is, the pursuit of spiritual objects.

"the mind" or "minding of the spirit"; that is, the pursuit of spiritual objects.

JFB: Rom 8:6 - is life and peace Not "life" only, in contrast with the "death" that is in the other pursuit, but "peace"; it is the very element of the soul's deepest repose and true ...

Not "life" only, in contrast with the "death" that is in the other pursuit, but "peace"; it is the very element of the soul's deepest repose and true bliss.

JFB: Rom 8:7 - Because the carnal mind is enmity against God The desire and pursuit of carnal ends is a state of enmity to God, wholly incompatible with true life and peace in the soul.

The desire and pursuit of carnal ends is a state of enmity to God, wholly incompatible with true life and peace in the soul.

JFB: Rom 8:7 - for it is not subject "doth not submit itself."

"doth not submit itself."

JFB: Rom 8:7 - to the law of God, neither indeed can be In such a state of mind there neither is nor can be the least subjection to the law of God. Many things may be done which the law requires, but nothin...

In such a state of mind there neither is nor can be the least subjection to the law of God. Many things may be done which the law requires, but nothing either is or can be done because God's law requires it, or purely to please God.

JFB: Rom 8:8 - So then Nearly equivalent to "And so."

Nearly equivalent to "And so."

JFB: Rom 8:8 - they that are in And, therefore, under the government of

And, therefore, under the government of

JFB: Rom 8:8 - the flesh cannot please God Having no obediential principle, no desire to please Him.

Having no obediential principle, no desire to please Him.

JFB: Rom 8:9 - But ye are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you This does not mean, "if the disposition or mind of God dwell in you"; but "if the Holy Ghost dwell in you" (see 1Co 6:11, 1Co 6:19; 1Co 3:16, &c.). (I...

This does not mean, "if the disposition or mind of God dwell in you"; but "if the Holy Ghost dwell in you" (see 1Co 6:11, 1Co 6:19; 1Co 3:16, &c.). (It thus appears that to be "in the spirit" means here to be under the dominion of our own renewed mind; because the indwelling of God's Spirit is given as the evidence that we are "in the spirit").

JFB: Rom 8:9 - Now "But."

"But."

JFB: Rom 8:9 - if any man have not the Spirit of Christ Again, this does not mean "the disposition or mind of Christ," but the Holy Ghost; here called "the Spirit of Christ," just as He is called "the Spiri...

Again, this does not mean "the disposition or mind of Christ," but the Holy Ghost; here called "the Spirit of Christ," just as He is called "the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" (see on Rom 8:2). It is as "the Spirit of Christ" that the Holy Ghost takes possession of believers, introducing into them all the gracious, dove-like disposition which dwelt in Him (Mat 3:16; Joh 3:34). Now if any man's heart be void, not of such dispositions, but of the blessed Author of them, "the Spirit of Christ."

JFB: Rom 8:9 - he is none of his Even though intellectually convinced of the truth of Christianity, and in a general sense influence by its spirit. Sharp, solemn statement this!

Even though intellectually convinced of the truth of Christianity, and in a general sense influence by its spirit. Sharp, solemn statement this!

JFB: Rom 8:10-11 - And if Christ be in you By His indwelling Spirit in virtue of which we have one life with him.

By His indwelling Spirit in virtue of which we have one life with him.

JFB: Rom 8:10-11 - the body "the body indeed."

"the body indeed."

JFB: Rom 8:10-11 - is dead because of "by reason of"

"by reason of"

JFB: Rom 8:10-11 - sin; but the spirit is life because Or, "by reason"

Or, "by reason"

JFB: Rom 8:10-11 - of righteousness The word "indeed," which the original requires, is of the nature of a concession--"I grant you that the body is dead . . . and so far redemption is in...

The word "indeed," which the original requires, is of the nature of a concession--"I grant you that the body is dead . . . and so far redemption is incomplete, but," &c.; that is, "If Christ be in you by His indwelling Spirit, though your 'bodies' have to pass through the stage of 'death' in consequence of the first Adam's 'sin,' your spirit is instinct with new and undying 'life,' brought in by the 'righteousness' of the second Adam" [THOLUCK, MEYER, and ALFORD in part, but only HODGE entirely].

JFB: Rom 8:11 - But "And."

"And."

JFB: Rom 8:11 - if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you That is, "If He dwell in you as the Spirit of the Christ-raising One," or, "in all the resurrection-power which He put forth in raising Jesus."

That is, "If He dwell in you as the Spirit of the Christ-raising One," or, "in all the resurrection-power which He put forth in raising Jesus."

JFB: Rom 8:11 - he that raised up Christ from the dead Observe the change of name from Jesus, as the historical Individual whom God raised from the dead, to CHRIST, the same Individual, considered as the L...

Observe the change of name from Jesus, as the historical Individual whom God raised from the dead, to CHRIST, the same Individual, considered as the Lord and Head of all His members, or of redeemed Humanity [ALFORD].

JFB: Rom 8:11 - shall also quicken Rather, "shall quicken even"

Rather, "shall quicken even"

JFB: Rom 8:11 - your mortal bodies by The true reading appears to be "by reason of."

The true reading appears to be "by reason of."

JFB: Rom 8:11 - his Spirit that dwelleth in you "Your bodies indeed are not exempt from the death which sin brought in; but your spirits even now have in them an undying life, and if the Spirit of H...

"Your bodies indeed are not exempt from the death which sin brought in; but your spirits even now have in them an undying life, and if the Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, even these bodies of yours, though they yield to the last enemy and the dust of them return to the dust as it was, shall yet experience the same resurrection as that of their living Head, in virtue of the indwelling of same Spirit in you that quickened Him."

JFB: Rom 8:12-13 - Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh "Once we were sold under sin (Rom 7:14); but now that we have been set free from that hard master and become servants to Righteousness (Rom 6:22), we ...

"Once we were sold under sin (Rom 7:14); but now that we have been set free from that hard master and become servants to Righteousness (Rom 6:22), we owe nothing to the flesh, we disown its unrighteous claims and are deaf to its imperious demands." Glorious sentiment!

JFB: Rom 8:13 - For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die In the sense of Rom 6:21.

In the sense of Rom 6:21.

JFB: Rom 8:13 - but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body (See on Rom 7:23).

(See on Rom 7:23).

JFB: Rom 8:13 - ye shall live In the sense of Rom 6:22. The apostle is not satisfied with assuring them that they are under no obligations to the flesh, to hearken to its suggestio...

In the sense of Rom 6:22. The apostle is not satisfied with assuring them that they are under no obligations to the flesh, to hearken to its suggestions, without reminding them where it will end if they do; and he uses the word "mortify" (put to death) as a kind of play upon the word "die" just before. "If ye do not kill sin, it will kill you." But he tempers this by the bright alternative, that if they do, through the Spirit, mortify the deeds of the body, such a course will infallibly terminate in "life" everlasting. And this leads the apostle into a new line of thought, opening into his final subject, the "glory" awaiting the justified believer.

Note, (1) "There can be no safety, no holiness, no happiness, to those who are out of Christ: No "safety," because all such are under the condemnation of the law (Rom 8:1); no holiness, because such only as are united to Christ have the spirit of Christ (Rom 8:9); no happiness, because to be "carnally minded is death" (Rom 8:6)" [HODGE]. (2) The sanctification of believers, as it has its whole foundation in the atoning death, so it has its living spring in the indwelling of the Spirit of Christ (Rom 8:2-4). (3) "The bent of the thoughts, affections, and pursuits, is the only decisive test of character (Rom 8:5)" [HODGE]. (4) No human refinement of the carnal mind will make it spiritual, or compensate for the absence of spirituality. "Flesh" and "spirit" are essentially and unchangeably opposed; nor can the carnal mind, as such, be brought into real subjection to the law of God (Rom 8:5-7). Hence (5) the estrangement of God and the sinner is mutual. For as the sinner's state of mind is "enmity against God" (Rom 8:7), so in this state he "cannot please God" (Rom 8:8). (6) Since the Holy Ghost is, in the same breath, called indiscriminately "the Spirit of God," "the Spirit of Christ," and "Christ" Himself (as an indwelling life in believers), the essential unity and yet Personal distinctness of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, m the one adorable Godhead must be believed, as the only consistent explanation of such language (Rom 8:9-11). (7) The consciousness of spiritual life in our renewed souls is a glorious assurance of resurrection life in the body also, in virtue of the same quickening Spirit whose inhabitation we already enjoy (Rom 8:11). (8) Whatever professions of spiritual life men may make, it remains eternally true that "if we live after the flesh we shall die," and only "if we through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body we shall live" (Rom 8:13, and compare Gal 6:7-8; Eph 5:6; Phi 3:18-19; 1Jo 3:7-8).

JFB: Rom 8:13 - SECOND: The Sonship of Believers Their Future Inheritance--The Intercession of the Spirit for Them (Rom 8:14-27).

Their Future Inheritance--The Intercession of the Spirit for Them (Rom 8:14-27).

JFB: Rom 8:14 - For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God, they, &c. "these are sons of God." Hitherto the apostle has spoken of the Spirit simply as a power through which believers mortify sin: now he speaks of Him as ...

"these are sons of God." Hitherto the apostle has spoken of the Spirit simply as a power through which believers mortify sin: now he speaks of Him as a gracious, loving Guide, whose "leading"--enjoyed by all in whom is the Spirit of God's dear Son--shows that they also are "sons of God."

JFB: Rom 8:15 - For, &c. "For ye received not (at the time of your conversion) the spirit of bondage," that is, "The spirit ye received was not a spirit of bondage."

"For ye received not (at the time of your conversion) the spirit of bondage," that is, "The spirit ye received was not a spirit of bondage."

JFB: Rom 8:15 - again Gendering.

Gendering.

JFB: Rom 8:15 - to fear As under the law which "worketh wrath," that is, "Such was your condition before ye believed, living in legal bondage, haunted with incessant forebodi...

As under the law which "worketh wrath," that is, "Such was your condition before ye believed, living in legal bondage, haunted with incessant forebodings under a sense of unpardoned sin. But it was not to perpetuate that wretched state that ye received the Spirit."

JFB: Rom 8:15 - but ye have received "ye received."

"ye received."

JFB: Rom 8:15 - the spirit of adoption, whereby Rather, "wherein."

Rather, "wherein."

JFB: Rom 8:15 - we cry, Abba, Father The word "cry" is emphatic, expressing the spontaneousness, the strength, and the exuberance of the final emotions. In Gal 4:6 this cry is said to pro...

The word "cry" is emphatic, expressing the spontaneousness, the strength, and the exuberance of the final emotions. In Gal 4:6 this cry is said to proceed from the Spirit in us, drawing forth the filial exclamation in our hearts. Here, it is said to proceed from our own hearts under the vitalizing energy of the Spirit, as the very element of the new life in believers (compare Mat 10:19-20; and see on Rom 8:4). "Abba" is the Syro-Chaldaic word for "Father"; and the Greek word for that is added, not surely to tell the reader that both mean the same thing, but for the same reason which drew both words from the lips of Christ Himself during his agony in the garden (Mar 14:36). He, doubtless, loved to utter His Father's name in both the accustomed forms; beginning with His cherished mother tongue, and adding that of the learned. In this view the use of both words here has a charming simplicity and warmth.

JFB: Rom 8:16 - The Spirit itself It should be "Himself" (see on Rom 8:26).

It should be "Himself" (see on Rom 8:26).

JFB: Rom 8:16 - beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children "are children"

"are children"

JFB: Rom 8:16 - of God The testimony of our own spirit is borne in that cry of conscious sonship, "Abba, Father"; but we are not therein alone; for the Holy Ghost within us,...

The testimony of our own spirit is borne in that cry of conscious sonship, "Abba, Father"; but we are not therein alone; for the Holy Ghost within us, yea, even in that very cry which it is His to draw forth, sets His own distinct seal to ours; and thus, "in the mouth of two witnesses" the thing is established. The apostle had before called us "sons of God," referring to our adoption; here the word changes to "children," referring to our new birth. The one expresses the dignity to which we are admitted; the other the new life which we receive. The latter is more suitable here; because a son by adoption might not be heir of the property, whereas a son by birth certainly is, and this is what the apostle is now coming to.

JFB: Rom 8:17 - And if children, then heirs "heirs also."

"heirs also."

JFB: Rom 8:17 - heirs of God Of our Father's kingdom.

Of our Father's kingdom.

JFB: Rom 8:17 - and joint-heirs with Christ As the "First-born among many brethren" (Rom 8:29), and as "Heir of all things" (Heb 1:2).

As the "First-born among many brethren" (Rom 8:29), and as "Heir of all things" (Heb 1:2).

JFB: Rom 8:17 - if so be that we suffer "provided we be suffering with Him."

"provided we be suffering with Him."

JFB: Rom 8:17 - that we may be also glorified together With Him. This necessity of conformity to Christ in suffering in order to participate in His glory, is taught alike by Christ Himself and by His apost...

With Him. This necessity of conformity to Christ in suffering in order to participate in His glory, is taught alike by Christ Himself and by His apostles (Joh 12:24-26; Mat 16:24-25; 2Ti 2:12).

JFB: Rom 8:18 - For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us That is, "True, we must suffer with Christ, if we would partake of His glory; but what of that? For if such sufferings are set over against the coming...

That is, "True, we must suffer with Christ, if we would partake of His glory; but what of that? For if such sufferings are set over against the coming glory, they sink into insignificance."

JFB: Rom 8:19-22 - For, &c. "The apostle, fired with the thought of the future glory of the saints, pours forth this splendid passage, in which he represents the whole creation g...

"The apostle, fired with the thought of the future glory of the saints, pours forth this splendid passage, in which he represents the whole creation groaning under its present degradation, and looking and longing for the revelation of this glory as the end and consummation of its existence" [HODGE].

JFB: Rom 8:19-22 - the earnest expectation (compare Phi 1:20).

(compare Phi 1:20).

JFB: Rom 8:19-22 - of the creature Rather, "the creation."

Rather, "the creation."

JFB: Rom 8:19-22 - waiteth for the manifestation "is waiting for the revelation"

"is waiting for the revelation"

JFB: Rom 8:19-22 - of the sons of God That is, "for the redemption of their bodies" from the grave (Rom 8:23), which will reveal their sonship, now hidden (compare Luk 20:36; Rev 21:7).

That is, "for the redemption of their bodies" from the grave (Rom 8:23), which will reveal their sonship, now hidden (compare Luk 20:36; Rev 21:7).

JFB: Rom 8:20 - For the creature "the creation."

"the creation."

JFB: Rom 8:20 - was made subject to vanity, not willingly That is, through no natural principle of decay. The apostle, personifying creation, represents it as only submitting to the vanity with which it was s...

That is, through no natural principle of decay. The apostle, personifying creation, represents it as only submitting to the vanity with which it was smitten, on man's account, in obedience to that superior power which had mysteriously linked its destinies with man's. And so he adds

JFB: Rom 8:20 - but by reason of him who hath subjected the same "who subjected it."

"who subjected it."

JFB: Rom 8:20 - in hope Or "in hope that."

Or "in hope that."

JFB: Rom 8:21 - Because the creature itself also "even the creation itself."

"even the creation itself."

JFB: Rom 8:21 - shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption Its bondage to the principle of decay.

Its bondage to the principle of decay.

JFB: Rom 8:21 - into the glorious liberty Rather, "the liberty of the glory."

Rather, "the liberty of the glory."

JFB: Rom 8:21 - of the children of God That is, the creation itself shall, in a glorious sense, be delivered into that freedom from debility and decay in which the children of God, when rai...

That is, the creation itself shall, in a glorious sense, be delivered into that freedom from debility and decay in which the children of God, when raised up in glory, shall expatiate: into this freedom from corruptibility the creation itself shall, in a glorious sense, be delivered (So CALVIN, BEZA, BENGEL, THOLUCK, OLSHAUSEN, DE WETTE, MEYER, PHILIPPI, HODGE, ALFORD, &c.).

JFB: Rom 8:22 - For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now If for man's sake alone the earth was cursed, it cannot surprise us that it should share in his recovery. And if so, to represent it as sympathizing w...

If for man's sake alone the earth was cursed, it cannot surprise us that it should share in his recovery. And if so, to represent it as sympathizing with man's miseries, and as looking forward to his complete redemption as the period of its own emancipation from its present sin-blighted condition, is a beautiful thought, and in harmony with the general teaching of Scripture on the subject. (See on 2Pe 3:13).

JFB: Rom 8:23 - And not only they, but ourselves also Or "not only [so], but even we ourselves"--that is, besides the inanimate creation.

Or "not only [so], but even we ourselves"--that is, besides the inanimate creation.

JFB: Rom 8:23 - which have the first-fruits of the Spirit Or, "the Spirit as the first-fruits" of our full redemption (compare 2Co 1:22), moulding the heart to a heavenly frame and attempering it to its futur...

Or, "the Spirit as the first-fruits" of our full redemption (compare 2Co 1:22), moulding the heart to a heavenly frame and attempering it to its future element.

JFB: Rom 8:23 - even we ourselves Though we have so much of heaven already within us.

Though we have so much of heaven already within us.

JFB: Rom 8:23 - groan within ourselves Under this "body of sin and death," and under the manifold "vanity and vexation of spirit" that are written upon every object and every pursuit and ev...

Under this "body of sin and death," and under the manifold "vanity and vexation of spirit" that are written upon every object and every pursuit and every enjoyment under the sun.

JFB: Rom 8:23 - waiting for the Manifestation of our

Manifestation of our

JFB: Rom 8:23 - adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body From the grave: "not (be it observed) the deliverance of ourselves from the body, but the redemption of the body itself from the grave" [BENGEL].

From the grave: "not (be it observed) the deliverance of ourselves from the body, but the redemption of the body itself from the grave" [BENGEL].

JFB: Rom 8:24 - For we are saved by hope Rather, "For in hope we are saved"; that is, it is more a salvation in hope than as yet in actual possession.

Rather, "For in hope we are saved"; that is, it is more a salvation in hope than as yet in actual possession.

JFB: Rom 8:24 - but hope that is seen is not hope For the very meaning of hope is, the expectation that something now future will become present.

For the very meaning of hope is, the expectation that something now future will become present.

JFB: Rom 8:24 - for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for? The latter ending when the other comes.

The latter ending when the other comes.

JFB: Rom 8:25 - But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it That is, then, patient waiting for it is our fitting attitude.

That is, then, patient waiting for it is our fitting attitude.

JFB: Rom 8:26-27 - Likewise the Spirit also, &c. Or, "But after the like manner doth the Spirit also help.

Or, "But after the like manner doth the Spirit also help.

JFB: Rom 8:26-27 - our infirmities Rather (according to the true reading), "our infirmity"; not merely the one infirmity here specified, but the general weakness of the spiritual life i...

Rather (according to the true reading), "our infirmity"; not merely the one infirmity here specified, but the general weakness of the spiritual life in its present state, of which one example is here given.

JFB: Rom 8:26-27 - for we know not what we should pray for as we ought It is not the proper matter of prayer that believers are at so much loss about, for the fullest directions are given them on this head: but to ask for...

It is not the proper matter of prayer that believers are at so much loss about, for the fullest directions are given them on this head: but to ask for the right things "as they ought" is the difficulty. This arises partly from the dimness of our spiritual vision in the present veiled state, while we have to "walk by faith, not by sight" (see on 1Co 13:9 and 2Co 5:7), and the large admixture of the ideas and feelings which spring from the fleeting objects of sense that there is in the very best views and affections of our renewed nature; partly also from the necessary imperfection of all human language as a vehicle for expressing the subtle spiritual feelings of the heart. In these circumstances, how can it be but that much uncertainty should surround all our spiritual exercises, and that in our nearest approaches and in the freest outpourings of our hearts to our Father in heaven, doubts should spring up within us whether our frame of mind in such exercises is altogether befitting and well pleasing to God? Nor do these anxieties subside, but rather deepen, with the depth and ripeness of our spiritual experience.

JFB: Rom 8:26-27 - but the Spirit itself Rather, "Himself." (See end of Rom 8:27).

Rather, "Himself." (See end of Rom 8:27).

JFB: Rom 8:26-27 - maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered That is, which cannot be expressed in articulate language. Sublime and affecting ideas, for which we are indebted to this passage alone! "As we strugg...

That is, which cannot be expressed in articulate language. Sublime and affecting ideas, for which we are indebted to this passage alone! "As we struggle to express in articulate language the desires of our hearts and find that our deepest emotions are the most inexpressible, we 'groan' under this felt inability. But not in vain are these groanings. For 'the Spirit Himself' is in them, giving to the emotions which He Himself has kindled the only language of which they are capable; so that though on our part they are the fruit of impotence to utter what we feel, they are at the same time the intercession of the Spirit Himself in our behalf."

JFB: Rom 8:27 - And Rather, "But," inarticulate though these groanings be.

Rather, "But," inarticulate though these groanings be.

JFB: Rom 8:27 - he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he The Spirit

The Spirit

JFB: Rom 8:27 - maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God As the Searcher of hearts, He watches the surging emotions of them in prayer, and knows perfectly what the Spirit means by the groanings which He draw...

As the Searcher of hearts, He watches the surging emotions of them in prayer, and knows perfectly what the Spirit means by the groanings which He draws forth within us, because that blessed Intercessor pleads by them only for what God Himself designs to bestow.

JFB: Rom 8:27 - Note, (1) Are believers "led by the Spirit of God" (Rom 8:14)? How careful then should they be not to "grieve the Holy Spirit of God" (Eph 4:30)! Compare Psa 32:8-9 : "I will . . . guide thee with Mine eye. Be not (then) as the horse, or as the mule," &c. (2) "The spirit of bondage," to which many Protestants are "all their lifetime subject," and the "doubtsome faith" which the Popish Church systematically inculcates, are both rebuked here, being in direct and painful contrast to that "spirit of adoption," and that witness of the Spirit, along with our own spirit, to the fact of our sonship, which it is here said the children of God, as such, enjoy (Rom 8:15-16). (3) As suffering with Christ is the ordained preparation for participating in this glory, so the insignificance of the one as compared with the other cannot fail to lighten the sense of it, however bitter and protracted (Rom 8:17-18). (4) It cannot but swell the heart of every intelligent Christian to think that if external nature has been mysteriously affected for evil by the fall of man, it only awaits his completed recovery, at the resurrection, to experience a corresponding emancipation from its blighted condition into undecaying life and unfading beauty (Rom 8:19-23). (5) It is not when believers, through sinful "quenching of the Spirit," have the fewest and faintest glimpses of heaven, that they sigh most fervently to be there; but, on the contrary, when through the unobstructed working of the Spirit in their hearts, "the first-fruits" of the glory to be revealed are most largely and frequently tasted, then, and just for that reason, is it that they "groan within themselves" for full redemption (Rom 8:23). For thus they reason: If such be the drops, what will the ocean be? If thus "to see through a glass darkly" be so very sweet, what will it be to "see face to face?" If when "my Beloved stands behind our wall, looking forth at the windows, showing Himself through the lattice" (Son 2:9) That thin veil which parts the seen from the unseen--if He is even thus to me "Fairer than the children of men," what shall He be when He stands confe...

That thin veil which parts the seen from the unseen--if He is even thus to me "Fairer than the children of men," what shall He be when He stands confessed before my undazzled vision, the Only-begotten of the Father in my own nature, and I shall be like Him, for I shall see Him as He is? (6) "The patience of hope" (1Th 1:3) is the fitting attitude for those who with the joyful consciousness that they are already "saved" (2Ti 1:9; Tit 3:5), have yet the painful consciousness that they are saved but in part: or, "that being justified by His grace, they are made (in the present state) heirs according to the hope (only) of eternal life," Tit 3:7 (Rom 8:24-25). (7) As prayer is the breath of the spiritual life, and the believer's only effectual relief under the "infirmity" which attaches to his whole condition here below, how cheering is it to be assured that the blessed Spirit, cognizant of it all, comes in aid of it all; and in particular, that when believers, unable to articulate their case before God, can at times do nothing but lie "groaning" before the Lord, these inarticulate groanings are the Spirit's own vehicle for conveying into "the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth" their whole case; and come up before the Hearer of prayer as the Spirit's own intercession in their behalf, and that they are recognized by Him that sitteth on the Throne, as embodying only what His own "will" determined before to bestow upon them (Rom 8:26-27)! (8) What a view do these two verses (Rom 8:26-27) give of the relations subsisting between the Divine Persons in the economy of redemption, and the harmony of their respective operations in the case of each of the redeemed!

THIRD: Triumphant Summary of the Whole Argument (Rom 8:28-39).

JFB: Rom 8:28 - And Or, "Moreover," or "Now"; noting a transition to a new particular.

Or, "Moreover," or "Now"; noting a transition to a new particular.

JFB: Rom 8:28 - we know, &c. The order in the original is more striking: "We know that to them that love God" (compare 1Co 2:9; Eph 6:24; Jam 1:12; Jam 2:5) "all things work toget...

The order in the original is more striking: "We know that to them that love God" (compare 1Co 2:9; Eph 6:24; Jam 1:12; Jam 2:5) "all things work together for good [even] to them who are the called (rather, 'who are called') according to His (eternal) purpose." Glorious assurance! And this, it seems, was a "household word," a "known" thing, among believers. This working of all things for good is done quite naturally to "them that love God," because such souls, persuaded that He who gave His own Son for them cannot but mean them well in all His procedure, learn thus to take in good part whatever He sends them, however trying to flesh and blood: and to them who are the called, according to "His purpose," all things do in the same intelligible way "work together for good"; for, even when "He hath His way in the whirlwind," they see "His chariot paved with love" (Son 3:10). And knowing that it is in pursuance of an eternal "purpose" of love that they have been "called into the fellowship of His Son Jesus Christ" (1Co 1:9), they naturally say within themselves, "It cannot be that He 'of whom, and through whom, and to whom are all things,' should suffer that purpose to be thwarted by anything really adverse to us, or that He should not make all things, dark as well as light, crooked as well as straight, to co-operate to the furtherance and final completion of His high design."

JFB: Rom 8:29 - For As touching this "calling according to his purpose" (Rom 8:28).

As touching this "calling according to his purpose" (Rom 8:28).

JFB: Rom 8:29 - whom he did foreknow he also did predestinate Foreordain. In what sense are we to take the word "foreknow" here? "Those who He foreknew would repent and believe," say Pelagians of every age and ev...

Foreordain. In what sense are we to take the word "foreknow" here? "Those who He foreknew would repent and believe," say Pelagians of every age and every hue. But this is to thrust into the text what is contrary to the whole spirit, and even letter, of the apostle's teaching (see Rom 9:11; 2Ti 1:9). In Rom 11:2, and Psa 1:6, God's "knowledge" of His people cannot be restricted to a mere foresight of future events, or acquaintance with what is passing here below. Does "whom He did foreknow," then, mean "whom He foreordained?" Scarcely, because both "foreknowledge" and "foreordination" are here mentioned, and the one as the cause of the other. It is difficult indeed for our limited minds to distinguish them as states of the Divine Mind towards men; especially since in Act 2:23 "the counsel" is put before "the foreknowledge of God," while in 1Pe 1:2 "election" is said to be "according to the foreknowledge of God." But probably God's foreknowledge of His own people means His "peculiar, gracious, complacency in them," while His "predestinating" or "foreordaining" them signifies His fixed purpose, flowing from this, to "save them and call them with an holy calling" (2Ti 1:9).

JFB: Rom 8:29 - to be conformed to the image of his Son That is, to be His sons after the pattern, model, or image of His Sonship in our nature.

That is, to be His sons after the pattern, model, or image of His Sonship in our nature.

JFB: Rom 8:29 - that he might be the first-born among many brethren "The First-born," the Son by nature; His "many brethren," sons by adoption: He, in the Humanity of the Only-begotten of the Father, bearing our sins o...

"The First-born," the Son by nature; His "many brethren," sons by adoption: He, in the Humanity of the Only-begotten of the Father, bearing our sins on the accursed tree; they in that of mere men ready to perish by reason of sin, but redeemed by His blood from condemnation and wrath, and transformed into His likeness: He "the First-born from the dead"; they "that sleep in Jesus," to be in due time "brought with Him"; "The First-born," now "crowned with glory and honor"; His "many brethren," "when He shall appear, to be like Him, for they shall see Him as He is."

JFB: Rom 8:30 - Moreover "And," or "Now"; explanatory of Rom 8:29 --In "predestinating us to be conformed to the image of His Son" in final glory, He settled all the successiv...

"And," or "Now"; explanatory of Rom 8:29 --In "predestinating us to be conformed to the image of His Son" in final glory, He settled all the successive steps of it. Thus

JFB: Rom 8:30 - whom he did predestinate, them he also called The word "called" (as HODGE and others truly observe) is never in the Epistles of the New Testament applied to those who have only the outward invitat...

The word "called" (as HODGE and others truly observe) is never in the Epistles of the New Testament applied to those who have only the outward invitation of the Gospel (as in Mat 20:16; Mat 22:14). It always means "internally, effectually, savingly called." It denotes the first great step in personal salvation and answers to "conversion." Only the word conversion expresses the change of character which then takes place, whereas this "calling" expresses the divine authorship of the change, and the sovereign power by which we are summoned, Matthew-like, Zaccheus-like, out of our old, wretched, perishing condition, into a new, safe, blessed life.

JFB: Rom 8:30 - and whom he called Thus.

Thus.

JFB: Rom 8:30 - them he also justified Brought into the definite state of reconciliation already so fully described.

Brought into the definite state of reconciliation already so fully described.

JFB: Rom 8:30 - and whom he justified, them he also glorified Brought to final glory (Rom 8:17-18). Noble climax, and so rhythmically expressed! And all this is viewed as past; because, starting from the past dec...

Brought to final glory (Rom 8:17-18). Noble climax, and so rhythmically expressed! And all this is viewed as past; because, starting from the past decree of "predestination to be conformed to the image of God's Son" of which the other steps are but the successive unfoldings--all is beheld as one entire, eternally completed salvation.

JFB: Rom 8:31 - What shall we then say to these things? "We can no farther go, think, wish" [BENGEL]. This whole passage, to Rom 8:34, and even to the end of the chapter, strikes all thoughtful interpreters...

"We can no farther go, think, wish" [BENGEL]. This whole passage, to Rom 8:34, and even to the end of the chapter, strikes all thoughtful interpreters and readers, as transcending almost every thing in language, while OLSHAUSEN notices the "profound and colossal" character of the thought.

JFB: Rom 8:31 - If God be for us, who can be against us? If God be resolved and engaged to bring us through, all our enemies must be His; and "Who would set the briers and thorns against Him in battle? He wo...

If God be resolved and engaged to bring us through, all our enemies must be His; and "Who would set the briers and thorns against Him in battle? He would go through them. He would burn them together" (Isa 27:4). What strong consolation is here! Nay, but the great Pledge of all has already been given; for,

JFB: Rom 8:32 - He Rather, "He surely." (It is a pity to lose the emphatic particle of the original).

Rather, "He surely." (It is a pity to lose the emphatic particle of the original).

JFB: Rom 8:32 - that spared not "withheld not," "kept not back." This expressive phrase, as well as the whole thought, is suggested by Gen 22:12, where Jehovah's touching commendatio...

"withheld not," "kept not back." This expressive phrase, as well as the whole thought, is suggested by Gen 22:12, where Jehovah's touching commendation of Abraham's conduct regarding his son Isaac seems designed to furnish something like a glimpse into the spirit of His own act in surrendering His own Son. "Take now (said the Lord to Abraham) thy son, thine only, whom thou lovest, and . . . offer him for a burnt offering" (Gen 22:2); and only when Abraham had all but performed that loftiest act of self-sacrifice, the Lord interposed, saying, "Now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou HAST NOT WITHHELD THY SON, THINE ONLY SON, from Me." In the light of this incident, then, and of this language, our apostle can mean to convey nothing less than this, that in "not sparing His own Son, but delivering Him up," or surrendering Him, God exercised, in His Paternal character, a mysterious act of Self-sacrifice, which, though involving none of the pain and none of the loss which are inseparable from the very idea of self-sacrifice on our part, was not less real, but, on the contrary, as far transcended any such acts of ours as His nature is above the creature's. But this is inconceivable if Christ be not God's "own (or proper) Son," partaker of His very nature, as really as Isaac was of his father Abraham's. In that sense, certainly, the Jews charged our Lord with making Himself "equal with God" (see on Joh 5:18), which He in reply forthwith proceeded, not to disown, but to illustrate and confirm. Understand Christ's Sonship thus, and the language of Scripture regarding it is intelligible and harmonious; but take it to be an artificial relationship, ascribed to Him in virtue either of His miraculous birth, or His resurrection from the dead, or the grandeur of His works, or all of these together--and the passages which speak of it neither explain of themselves nor harmonize with each other.

JFB: Rom 8:32 - delivered him up Not to death merely (as many take it), for that is too narrow an idea here, but "surrendered Him" in the most comprehensive sense; compare Joh 3:16, "...

Not to death merely (as many take it), for that is too narrow an idea here, but "surrendered Him" in the most comprehensive sense; compare Joh 3:16, "God so loved the world that He GAVE His only-begotten Son."

JFB: Rom 8:32 - for us all That is, for all believers alike; as nearly every good interpreter admits must be the meaning here.

That is, for all believers alike; as nearly every good interpreter admits must be the meaning here.

JFB: Rom 8:32 - how shall he not How can we conceive that He should not.

How can we conceive that He should not.

JFB: Rom 8:32 - with him also Rather, "also with Him." (The word "also" is often so placed in our version as to obscure the sense; see on Heb 12:1).

Rather, "also with Him." (The word "also" is often so placed in our version as to obscure the sense; see on Heb 12:1).

JFB: Rom 8:32 - freely give us all things? All other gifts being not only immeasurably less than this Gift of gifts, but virtually included in it.

All other gifts being not only immeasurably less than this Gift of gifts, but virtually included in it.

JFB: Rom 8:33-34 - Who shall lay anything to the charge of Or, "bring any charge against."

Or, "bring any charge against."

JFB: Rom 8:33-34 - God's elect? The first place in this Epistle where believers are styled "the elect." In what sense this is meant will appear in next chapter.

The first place in this Epistle where believers are styled "the elect." In what sense this is meant will appear in next chapter.

JFB: Rom 8:34 - yea rather, that is risen again To make good the purposes of His death. Here, as in some other cases, the apostle delightfully corrects himself (see Gal 4:9; and see on Rom 1:12); no...

To make good the purposes of His death. Here, as in some other cases, the apostle delightfully corrects himself (see Gal 4:9; and see on Rom 1:12); not meaning that the resurrection of Christ was of more saving value than His death, but that having "put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself"--which though precious to us was to Him of unmingled bitterness--it was incomparably more delightful to think that He was again alive, and living to see to the efficacy of His death in our behalf.

JFB: Rom 8:34 - who is even "also"

"also"

JFB: Rom 8:34 - at the right hand of God The right hand of the king was anciently the seat of honor (compare 1Sa 20:25; 1Ki 2:19; Psa 45:9), and denoted participation in the royal power and g...

The right hand of the king was anciently the seat of honor (compare 1Sa 20:25; 1Ki 2:19; Psa 45:9), and denoted participation in the royal power and glory (Mat 20:21). The classical writings contain similar allusions. Accordingly Christ's sitting at the right hand of God--predicted in Psa 110:1, and historically referred to in Mar 16:19; Act 2:33; Act 7:56; Eph 1:20; Col 3:1; 1Pe 3:22; Rev 3:21 --signifies the glory of the exalted Son of man, and the power in the government of the world in which He participates. Hence it is called "sitting on the right hand of Power" (Mat 26:64), and "sitting on the right hand of the Majesty on high" (Heb 1:3) [PHILIPPI].

JFB: Rom 8:34 - who also maketh intercession for us Using all His boundless interest with God in our behalf. This is the top of the climax. "His Session at God's right hand denotes His power to save us;...

Using all His boundless interest with God in our behalf. This is the top of the climax. "His Session at God's right hand denotes His power to save us; His Intercession, His will to do it" [BENGEL]. But how are we to conceive of this intercession? Not certainly as of one pleading "on bended knees and with outstretched arms," to use the expressive language of CALVIN. But yet, neither is it merely a figurative intimation that the power of Christ's redemption is continually operative [THOLUCK], or merely to show the fervor and vehemence of His love for us [CHRYSOSTOM]. It cannot be taken to mean less than this: that the glorified Redeemer, conscious of His claims, expressly signifies His will that the efficacy of His death should be made good to the uttermost, and signifies it in some such royal style as we find Him employing in that wonderful Intercessory Prayer which He spoke as from within the veil (see on Joh 17:11-12): "Father, I WILL that they also whom Thou hast given Me be with Me where I am" (see on Joh 17:24). But in what form this will is expressed is as undiscoverable as it is unimportant.

JFB: Rom 8:35-36 - Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? This does not mean "our love to Christ," as if, Who shall hinder us from loving Christ? but "Christ's love to us," as is clear from the closing words ...

This does not mean "our love to Christ," as if, Who shall hinder us from loving Christ? but "Christ's love to us," as is clear from the closing words of the chapter, which refer to the same subject. Nor would the other sense harmonize with the scope of the chapter, which is to exhibit the ample ground of the believer's confidence in Christ. "It is no ground of confidence to assert, or even to feel, that we will never forsake Christ; but it is the strongest ground of assurance to be convinced that His love will never change" [HODGE].

JFB: Rom 8:35-36 - shall tribulation, &c. "None of these, nor all together, how terrible soever to the flesh, are tokens of God's wrath, or the least ground for doubt of His love. From whom co...

"None of these, nor all together, how terrible soever to the flesh, are tokens of God's wrath, or the least ground for doubt of His love. From whom could such a question come better than from one who had himself for Christ's sake endured so much? (See 2Co. 11:11-33; 1Co 4:10-13). The apostle says not (remarks CALVIN nobly) "What," but "Who," just as if all creatures and all afflictions were so many gladiators taking arms against the Christians [THOLUCK].

JFB: Rom 8:36 - As it is written, For thy sake, &c. (Psa 44:22) --quoted as descriptive of what God's faithful people may expect from their enemies at any period when their hatred of righteousness is r...

(Psa 44:22) --quoted as descriptive of what God's faithful people may expect from their enemies at any period when their hatred of righteousness is roused, and there is nothing to restrain it (see Gal 4:29).

JFB: Rom 8:37 - Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors, through him that loved us Not, "We are so far from being conquered by them, that they do us much good" [HODGE]; for though this be true, the word means simply, "We are pre-emin...

Not, "We are so far from being conquered by them, that they do us much good" [HODGE]; for though this be true, the word means simply, "We are pre-eminently conquerors." See on Rom 5:20. And so far are they from "separating us from Christ's love," that it is just "through Him that loved us" that we are victorious over them.

JFB: Rom 8:38-39 - For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers Whether good or bad. But as the bad are not called "angels," or "principalities," or "powers," save with some addition to show that such are meant (Ma...

Whether good or bad. But as the bad are not called "angels," or "principalities," or "powers," save with some addition to show that such are meant (Mat 25:41; Col 2:15; Eph 6:12; 2Pe 2:4 --except perhaps 1Co 6:3), probably the good are meant here, but merely as the same apostle supposes an angel from heaven to preach a false gospel. (So the best interpreters).

JFB: Rom 8:38-39 - nor things present, nor things to come No condition of the present life and none of the unknown possibilities of the life to come.

No condition of the present life and none of the unknown possibilities of the life to come.

JFB: Rom 8:39 - nor any other creature Rather, "created thing"--any other thing in the whole created universe of God

Rather, "created thing"--any other thing in the whole created universe of God

JFB: Rom 8:39 - shall be able to separate us, &c. "All the terms here are to be taken in their most general sense, and need no closer definition. The indefinite expressions are meant to denote all tha...

"All the terms here are to be taken in their most general sense, and need no closer definition. The indefinite expressions are meant to denote all that can be thought of, and are only a rhetorical paraphrase of the conception of allness" [OLSHAUSEN].

JFB: Rom 8:39 - from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord Thus does this wonderful chapter, with which the argument of the Epistle properly closes, leave us who are "justified by faith" in the arms of everlas...

Thus does this wonderful chapter, with which the argument of the Epistle properly closes, leave us who are "justified by faith" in the arms of everlasting Love, whence no hostile power or conceivable event can ever tear us. "Behold what manner of love is this?" And "what manner of persons ought we to be," who are thus "blessed with all spiritual blessings in Christ?"

JFB: Rom 8:39 - Note, (1) There is a glorious consistency between the eternal purposes of God and the free agency of men, though the link of connection is beyond human, perhaps created, apprehension (Rom 8:28). (2) How ennobling is the thought that the complicated movements of the divine government of the world are all arranged in expressed furtherance of the "good" of God's chosen (Rom 8:28)! (3) To whatever conformity to the Son of God in dignity and glory, believers are or shall hereafter be raised, it will be the joy of everyone of them, as it is most fitting, "that in all things He should have the pre-eminence" (Col 1:18), (Rom 8:29). (4) "As there is a beautiful harmony and necessary connection between the several doctrines of grace, so must there be a like harmony in the character of the Christian. He cannot experience the joy and confidence flowing from his election without the humility which" the consideration of its being gratuitous must produce; nor can he have the peace of one who is justified without the holiness of one who is saved" (Rom 8:29-30) [HODGE]. (5) However difficult it may be for finite minds to comprehend the emotions of the Divine Mind, let us never for a moment doubt that in "not sparing His own Son, but delivering Him up for us all," God made a real sacrifice of all that was dearest to His heart, and that in so doing He meant for ever to assure His people that all other things which they need Inasmuch as they are nothing to this stupendous gift, and indeed but the necessary sequel of it--will in due time be forthcoming (Rom 8:32). (6) In re...

Inasmuch as they are nothing to this stupendous gift, and indeed but the necessary sequel of it--will in due time be forthcoming (Rom 8:32). (6) In return for such a sacrifice on God's part, what can be considered too great on ours? (7) If there could be any doubt as to the meaning of the all-important word "JUSTIFICATION" in this Epistle--whether, as the Church of Rome teaches, and many others affirm, it means "infusing righteousness into the unholy, so as to make them righteous," or, according to Protestant teaching, "absolving, acquitting, or pronouncing righteous the guilty" Rom 8:33 ought to set such doubt entirely at rest. For the apostle's question in this verse is, "Who shall bring a charge against God's elect?" In other words, "Who shall pronounce" or "hold them guilty?" seeing that "God justifies" them: showing beyond all doubt, that to "justify" was intended to express precisely the opposite of "holding guilty"; and consequently (as CALVIN triumphantly argues) that it means "to absolve from the charge of guilt." (8) If there could be any reasonable doubt in what light the death of Christ is to be regarded in this Epistle, Rom 8:34 ought to set that doubt entirely at rest. For there the apostle's question is, Who shall "condemn" God's elect, since "Christ died" for them; showing beyond all doubt (as PHILIPPI justly argues) that it was the expiatory (character of that death which the apostle had in view). (9) What an affecting view of the love of Christ does it give us to learn that His greatest nearness to God and most powerful interest with Him--as "seated on His right hand"--is employed in behalf of His people here below (Rom 8:34)! (10) "The whole universe, with all that it contains, so far as it is good, is the friend and ally of the Christian; and, so far as it is evil, is more than a conquered foe" (Rom 8:35-39) [HODGE]. (11) Are we who "have tasted that the Lord is gracious," both "kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation" (1Pe 1:5), and embraced in the arms of Invincible Love? Then surely, while "building ourselves up on our most holy faith," and "praying in the Holy Ghost," only the more should we feel constrained to "keep ourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life" (Jud 1:20-21).

Clarke: Rom 8:1 - There is, therefore, now no condemnation There is, therefore, now no condemnation - To do justice to St. Paul’ s reasoning, this chapter must be read in the closest connection with the...

There is, therefore, now no condemnation - To do justice to St. Paul’ s reasoning, this chapter must be read in the closest connection with the preceding. There we have seen the unavailing struggles of an awakened Jew, who sought pardon and holiness from that law which he was conscious he had broken; and in which he could find no provision for pardon, and no power to sanctify. This conviction having brought him to the very brink of despair, and, being on the point of giving up all hope, he hears of redemption by Jesus Christ, thanks God for the prospect he has of salvation, applies for and receives it; and now magnifies God for the unspeakable gift of which he has been made a partaker

Those who restrain the word now, so as to indicate by it the Gospel dispensation only, do not take in the whole of the apostles meaning. The apostle has not been dealing in general matters only, but also in those which are particular. He has not been pointing out merely the difference between the two dispensations, the Mosaic and the Christian; but he marks out the state of a penitent under the former, and that of a believer under the latter. The last chapter closed with an account of the deep distress of the penitent; this one opens with an account of his salvation. The now, therefore, in the text, must refer more to the happy transition from darkness to light, from condemnation to pardon, which this believer now enjoys, than to the Christian dispensation taking the place of the Jewish economy

Clarke: Rom 8:1 - Who walk not after the flesh, etc. Who walk not after the flesh, etc. - In this one verse we find the power and virtue of the Gospel scheme; it pardons and sanctifies; the Jewish law ...

Who walk not after the flesh, etc. - In this one verse we find the power and virtue of the Gospel scheme; it pardons and sanctifies; the Jewish law could do neither. By faith in our Lord Jesus Christ the penitent, condemned by the law, is pardoned; the carnal man, labouring under the overpowering influence of the sin of his nature, is sanctified. He is first freely justified; he feels no condemnation; he is fully sanctified; he walks not after the Flesh, but after the Spirit

This last clause is wanting in the principal MSS., versions, and fathers. Griesbach has excluded it from the text; and Dr. White says, Certissime delenda ; it should most undoubtedly be expunged. Without it, the passage reads thus: There is, therefore, no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus; for the law of the Spirit of life, etc. It is a fairly assumed point, that those who are in Christ Jesus, who believe in his name, have redemption in his blood; are made partakers of his Spirit, and have the mind in them that was in him; will not walk after the flesh, but after the Spirit: therefore the thing itself is included in the being in Christ, whether it be expressed or not: and it was probably to make the thing more obvious, that this explanatory clause was added by some copyist, for it does not appear to have made an original part of the text; and it is most likely that it was inserted here from the fourth verse.

Clarke: Rom 8:2 - For the law of the Spirit of life For the law of the Spirit of life - The Gospel of the grace of Christ, which is not only a law or rule of life, but affords that sovereign energy by...

For the law of the Spirit of life - The Gospel of the grace of Christ, which is not only a law or rule of life, but affords that sovereign energy by which guilt is removed from the conscience, the power of sin broken, and its polluting influence removed from the heart. The law was a spirit of death, by which those who were under it were bound down, because of their sin, to condemnation and death. The Gospel proclaims Jesus the Savior; and what the law bound unto death, It looses unto life eternal. And thus the apostle says, whether of himself or the man whom he is still personating, the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death. Most people allow that St. Paul is here speaking of his own state; and this state is so totally different from that described in the preceding chapter, that it is absolutely impossible that they should have been the state of the same being, at one and the same time. No creature could possibly be carnal, sold under sin, brought into captivity to the law of sin and death; and at the same time be made free from that law of sin and death, by the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus! Until the most palpable absurdities and contradictions can be reconciled, these two opposite states can never exist in the same person at the same time.

Clarke: Rom 8:3 - For what the law could not do For what the law could not do - The law could not pardon; the law could not sanctify; the law could not dispense with its own requisitions; it is th...

For what the law could not do - The law could not pardon; the law could not sanctify; the law could not dispense with its own requisitions; it is the rule of righteousness, and therefore must condemn unrighteousness. This is its unalterable nature. Had there been perfect obedience to its dictates, instead of condemning, it would have applauded and rewarded; but as the flesh, the carnal and rebellious principle, had prevailed, and transgression had taken place, it was rendered weak, inefficient to undo this word of the flesh, and bring the sinner into a state of pardon and acceptance with God

Clarke: Rom 8:3 - God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh - Did that which the law could not do; i.e. purchased pardon for the sinner, and brought eve...

God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh - Did that which the law could not do; i.e. purchased pardon for the sinner, and brought every believer into the favor of God. And this is effected by the incarnation of Christ: He, in whom dwelt the fullness of the Godhead bodily, took upon him the likeness of sinful flesh, that is, a human body like ours, but not sinful as ours; and for sin, και περι ἁμαρτιας, and as a Sacrifice for Sin, (this is the sense of the word in a multitude of places), condemned sin in the flesh - condemned that to death and destruction which had condemned us to both

Clarke: Rom 8:3 - Condemned sin in the flesh Condemned sin in the flesh - The design and object of the incarnation and sacrifice of Christ was to condemn sin, to have it executed and destroyed;...

Condemned sin in the flesh - The design and object of the incarnation and sacrifice of Christ was to condemn sin, to have it executed and destroyed; not to tolerate it as some think, or to render it subservient to the purposes of his grace, as others; but to annihilate its power, guilt, and being in the soul of a believer.

Clarke: Rom 8:4 - That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us - That the guilt might be pardoned through the merit of that sacrifice; and that we might...

That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us - That the guilt might be pardoned through the merit of that sacrifice; and that we might be enabled, by the power of his own grace and Spirit, to walk in newness of life; loving God with all our heart, soul, mind, and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves: and thus the righteousness, the spirit, design, and purpose of the law is fulfilled in us, through the strength of the Spirit of Christ, which is here put in opposition to the weakness of the law through the flesh

It is very likely that the concluding clause of this verse, which is the very same as that found in the common text of the first verse, has been transferred to that verse from this place.

Clarke: Rom 8:5 - For they that are after the flesh For they that are after the flesh - And here is the great distinction between Jews and genuine Christians: the former are after the flesh - are unde...

For they that are after the flesh - And here is the great distinction between Jews and genuine Christians: the former are after the flesh - are under the power of the carnal, rebellious principle; and consequently mind, προνουσιν, relish, the things of the flesh - the things which appertain merely to the present life; having no relish for spiritual and eternal things

Clarke: Rom 8:5 - But they that are after the Spirit But they that are after the Spirit - They who are regenerated, who are born of the Spirit, being redeemed from the influence and law of the carnal m...

But they that are after the Spirit - They who are regenerated, who are born of the Spirit, being redeemed from the influence and law of the carnal mind; these relish the things of the Spirit - they are spiritually minded, and pass through things temporal, so as not to lose the things which are eternal. And this, which in these apostolic times distinguished between the carnal Jew and the spiritual believer in Christ, is the grand mark of distinction between the nominal and the real Christian now. The former is earthly minded, and lives for this world; the latter is spiritually minded, and lives for the world to come.

Clarke: Rom 8:6 - For to be carnally minded is death For to be carnally minded is death - To live under the influence of the carnal mind is to live in the state of condemnation, and consequently liable...

For to be carnally minded is death - To live under the influence of the carnal mind is to live in the state of condemnation, and consequently liable to death eternal: whereas, on the contrary, he who is spiritually minded has the life and peace of God in his soul, and is in full prospect of life eternal.

Clarke: Rom 8:7 - Because the carnal mind is enmity against God Because the carnal mind is enmity against God - Because it is a carnal mind, and relishes earthly and sinful things, and lives in opposition to the ...

Because the carnal mind is enmity against God - Because it is a carnal mind, and relishes earthly and sinful things, and lives in opposition to the pure and holy law of God: therefore, it is enmity against God; it is irreconcilable and implacable hatred

Clarke: Rom 8:7 - It is not subject to the law of God It is not subject to the law of God - It will come under no obedience; for it is sin, and the very principle of rebellion; and therefore it cannot b...

It is not subject to the law of God - It will come under no obedience; for it is sin, and the very principle of rebellion; and therefore it cannot be subject, nor subjected; for it is essential to sin to show itself in rebellion; and when it ceases to rebel, it ceases to be sin

From this we learn that the design of God in the economy of the Gospel, is not to weaken, curtail, or lay the carnal principle in bonds, but to destroy it. As it is not subject, and cannot be subject, to the law of God, it must be destroyed, else it will continue to rebel against God. It cannot be mended, or rendered less offensive in its nature, even by the operations of God; it is ever sin, and sin is ever enmity; and enmity, wherever it has power, will invariably show itself in acts of hostility and rebellion.

Clarke: Rom 8:8 - So then So then - Because this carnal mind is enmity against God, they that are in the flesh - who are under the power of the workings of this carnal mind, ...

So then - Because this carnal mind is enmity against God, they that are in the flesh - who are under the power of the workings of this carnal mind, (which every soul is that has not received redemption in the blood of the Lamb), -

Cannot please God - Because of the rebellious workings of this principle of rebellion and hatred. And, if they cannot please God, they must be displeasing to him; and consequently in the broad road to final perdition.

Clarke: Rom 8:9 - But ye are not in the flesh But ye are not in the flesh - Ye Christians, who have believed in Christ Jesus as the sin offering which has condemned sin in the flesh; and, having...

But ye are not in the flesh - Ye Christians, who have believed in Christ Jesus as the sin offering which has condemned sin in the flesh; and, having been justified by faith and made partakers of the Holy Spirit, are enabled to walk in newness of life

Clarke: Rom 8:9 - If so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you If so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you - Or seeing that, ειπερ, the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. The flesh, the sinful principle, dwel...

If so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you - Or seeing that, ειπερ, the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. The flesh, the sinful principle, dwelt in them before; and its motions were the proofs of its indwelling; but now the Spirit dwells in them; and its testimony in their conscience, and its powerful operations in their hearts, are the proofs of its indwelling. God made man in union with himself, and his heart was his temple. Sin being committed, the temple was defiled, and God abandoned it. Jesus Christ is come by his sacrifice and Spirit to cleanse the temple, and make man again a habitation of God through the Spirit. And when this almighty Spirit again makes the heart his residence, then the soul is delivered from the moral effects of the fall. And that this is absolutely necessary to our present peace and final salvation is proved from this: that if any man have not the Spirit of Christ - the mind that was in him, produced there by the power of the Holy Ghost - he is none of his; he does not belong to the kingdom, flock, or family of God. This is an awful conclusion! Reader, lay it to heart.

Clarke: Rom 8:10 - And if Christ be in you, etc. And if Christ be in you, etc. - This is the criterion by which you may judge of the state of grace in which ye stand. If Christ dwell in your hearts...

And if Christ be in you, etc. - This is the criterion by which you may judge of the state of grace in which ye stand. If Christ dwell in your hearts by faith, the body is dead because of sin, δι ἁμαρτιαν, in reference to sin; the members of your body no more perform the work of sin than the body of a dead man does the functions of natural life. Or the apostle may mean, that although, because of sin, the life of man is forfeited; and the sentence, dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return, must be fulfilled on every human being, until the judgment of the great day; yet, their souls being quickened by the indwelling Spirit of Christ, which enables them to live a life of righteousness, they receive a full assurance that their bodies, which are now condemned to death because of sin, shall be raised again to a life of immortal glory.

Clarke: Rom 8:11 - But if the Spirit, etc. But if the Spirit, etc. - This verse confirms the sense given to the preceding. He who here receives the grace and Spirit of Christ, and continues t...

But if the Spirit, etc. - This verse confirms the sense given to the preceding. He who here receives the grace and Spirit of Christ, and continues to live under its influence a life of obedience to the Divine will, shall have a resurrection to eternal life; and the resurrection of Christ shall be the pattern after which they shall be raised

Clarke: Rom 8:11 - By his Spirit that dwelleth in you By his Spirit that dwelleth in you - Instead of δια του ενοικουντος αυτου πνευματος, because of the Spirit of hi...

By his Spirit that dwelleth in you - Instead of δια του ενοικουντος αυτου πνευματος, because of the Spirit of him who dwelleth in you, DEFG, a great many others, with the Vulgate, Itala, and several of the fathers, have δια το ενοικουν αυτου πνευμα, which gives almost no variety of meaning. The latter may be neater Greek, but it is not better sense than the preceding.

Clarke: Rom 8:12 - Therefore, brethren, etc. Therefore, brethren, etc. - Dr. Taylor is of opinion that the apostle having spoken separately, both to Jews and Gentiles, concerning holiness and t...

Therefore, brethren, etc. - Dr. Taylor is of opinion that the apostle having spoken separately, both to Jews and Gentiles, concerning holiness and the obligations to it, now addresses himself to both conjointly, and

I.    Draws the general conclusion from all his arguments upon this subject, Rom 8:12

II.    Proves the validity of their claims to eternal life, Rom 8:14-17

III.    And as the affair of suffering persecution was a great stumbling block to the Jews, and might very much discourage the Gentiles, he introduces it to the best advantage, Rom 8:17, and advances several arguments to fortify their minds under all trials: as -

(1.)    That they suffered with Christ

(2.)    In order to be glorified with him in a manner which will infinitely compensate all sufferings, Rom 8:17, Rom 8:18

(3.)    All mankind are under various pressures, longing for a better state, Rom 8:19-22

(4.)    Many of the most eminent Christians are in the same distressed condition, Rom 8:23

(5.)    According to the plan of the Gospel, we are to be brought to glory after a course of patience exercised in a variety of trials, Rom 8:24, Rom 8:25

(6.)    The Spirit of God will supply patience to every upright soul under persecution and suffering, Rom 8:26, Rom 8:27

(7.)    All things, even the severest trials, shall work together for their good, Rom 8:28. And this he proves, by giving us a view of the several steps which the wisdom and goodness of God have settled, in order to our complete salvation, Rom 8:29, Rom 8:30. Thence he passes to the affair of our perseverance; concerning which he concludes, from the whole of his preceding arguments, that as we are brought into a state of pardon by the free grace of God, through the death of Christ, who is now our mediator in heaven; no possible cause, providing we continue to love and serve God, shall be able to pervert our minds, or separate us from his love in Christ Jesus, Rom 8:31-39. Therefore, αρα ουν is the grand inference from all that he has been arguing in relation to sanctity of life, both to the Gentiles, chap. 6, and to the Jews, chap. 7, and 8, to this verse, where I suppose he begins to address himself to both, in a body, to the end of the chapter. - Taylor, page 317.

Clarke: Rom 8:13 - For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die - Though μελλετε αποθνησκειν may mean, ye shall afterwards die, and this seems to...

For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die - Though μελλετε αποθνησκειν may mean, ye shall afterwards die, and this seems to indicate a temporal death, yet not exclusively of an eternal death; for both, and especially the latter, are necessarily implied

Clarke: Rom 8:13 - But if ye through the Spirit But if ye through the Spirit - If ye seek that grace and spiritual help which the Gospel of Christ furnishes, resist, and, by resisting, mortify the...

But if ye through the Spirit - If ye seek that grace and spiritual help which the Gospel of Christ furnishes, resist, and, by resisting, mortify the deeds of the flesh, against which the law gave you no assistance, ye shall live a life of faith, love, and holy obedience here, and a life of glory hereafter.

Clarke: Rom 8:14 - For as many as are led by the Spirit, etc. For as many as are led by the Spirit, etc. - No man who has not Divine assistance can either find the way to heaven, or walk in it when found. As Ch...

For as many as are led by the Spirit, etc. - No man who has not Divine assistance can either find the way to heaven, or walk in it when found. As Christ, by his sacrificial offering, has opened the kingdom of God to all believers; and, as a mediator, transacts the concerns of their kingdom before the throne; so the Spirit of God is the great agent here below, to enlighten, quicken, strengthen, and guide the true disciples of Christ; and all that are born of this Spirit are led and guided by it; and none can pretend to be the children of God who are not thus guided.

Clarke: Rom 8:15 - Ye have not received the spirit of bondage Ye have not received the spirit of bondage - All that were under the law were under bondage to its rites and ceremonies; and as, through the prevale...

Ye have not received the spirit of bondage - All that were under the law were under bondage to its rites and ceremonies; and as, through the prevalence of that corrupt nature with which every human being is polluted, and to remove which the law gave no assistance, they were often transgressing, consequently they had forfeited their lives, and were continually, through fear of death, subject to bondage, Heb 2:15. The believers in Christ Jesus were brought from under that law, and from under its condemnation; and, consequently, were freed from its bondage. The Gentiles were also in a state of bondage as well as the Jews, they had also a multitude of burdensome rites and ceremonies, and a multitude of deities to worship; nor could they believe themselves secure of protection while one of their almost endless host of gods, celestial, terrestrial, or infernal, was left unpropitiated

Clarke: Rom 8:15 - But ye have received the Spirit of adoption But ye have received the Spirit of adoption - Ye are brought into the family of God by adoption; and the agent that brought you into this family is ...

But ye have received the Spirit of adoption - Ye are brought into the family of God by adoption; and the agent that brought you into this family is the Holy Spirit; and this very Spirit continues to witness to you the grace in which ye stand, by enabling you to call God your Father, with the utmost filial confidence and affection

Clarke: Rom 8:15 - The Spirit of adoption The Spirit of adoption - Adoption was an act frequent among the ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans; by which a person was taken out of one family a...

The Spirit of adoption - Adoption was an act frequent among the ancient Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans; by which a person was taken out of one family and incorporated with another. Persons of property, who had no children of their own, adopted those of another family. The child thus adopted ceased to belong to his own family, and was in every respect bound to the person who had adopted him, as if he were his own child; and in consequence of the death of his adopting father he possessed his estates. If a person after he had adopted a child happened to have children of his own, then the estate was equally divided between the adopted and real children. The Romans had regular forms of law, by which all these matters were settled. - See in Aulus Gellius. Noctes Attic., vol. i. cap. xix. p. 331. Edit Beloe; and the note there

Clarke: Rom 8:15 - Whereby we cry, Abba, Father Whereby we cry, Abba, Father - The reason why the Syriac and Greek words are here conjoined, may be seen in the note on Mar 14:36 (note), to which t...

Whereby we cry, Abba, Father - The reason why the Syriac and Greek words are here conjoined, may be seen in the note on Mar 14:36 (note), to which the reader is referred. The introduction of the words here shows that the persons in question had the strongest evidence of the excellence of the state in which they stood; they knew that they were thus adopted; and they knew this by the Spirit of God which was given them on their adoption; and let me say, they could know it by no other means. The Father who had adopted them could be seen by no mortal eye; and the transaction being purely of a spiritual nature, and transacted in heaven, can be known only by God’ s supernatural testimony of it upon earth. It is a matter of such solemn importance to every Christian soul, that God in his mercy has been pleased not to leave it to conjecture, assumption, or inductive reasoning; but attests it by his own Spirit in the soul of the person whom he adopts through Christ Jesus. It is the grand and most observable case in which the intercourse is kept up between heaven and earth; and the genuine believer in Christ Jesus is not left to the quibbles or casuistry of polemic divines or critics, but receives the thing, and the testimony of it, immediately from God himself. And were not the testimony of the state thus given, no man could possibly have any assurance of his salvation which would beget confidence and love. If to any man his acceptance with God be hypothetical, then his confidence must be so too. His love to God must be hypothetical, his gratitude hypothetical, and his obedience also. If God had forgiven me my sins, then I should love him, and I should be grateful, and I should testify this gratitude by obedience. But who does not see that these must necessarily depend on the If in the first case. All this uncertainty, and the perplexities necessarily resulting from it, God has precluded by sending the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, by which we cry, Abba, Father: and thus our adoption into the heavenly family is testified and ascertained to us in the only way in which it can possibly be done, by the direct influence of the Spirit of God. Remove this from Christianity, and it is a dead letter

It has been remarked that slaves were not permitted to use the term Abba , father, or Imma , mother, in accosting their masters and mistresses. The Hebrew canon, relative to this, is extant in the tract Berachoth, fol. 16. 2, העבדים והשפחות אין קורין אותם לא אבא פלוגי ולא אימא פלוגית haabadim vehashshephachoth ein korin otham , lo Abba N velo Imma N . Men-servants and maid-servants do not call to their master Abba, (father), N. nor to their mistress Imma, (mother), N. And from this some suppose that the apostle intimates that being now brought from under the spirit of bondage, in which they durst not call God their Father, they are not only brought into a new state, but have got that language which is peculiar to that state. It is certain that no man who has not redemption in the blood of the cross has any right to call God Father, but merely as he may be considered the Father of the spirits of all flesh

Some have supposed that the apostle, by using the Syriac and Greek words which express Father, shows the union of Jewish and Gentile believers in those devotions which were dictated by a filial spirit. Others have thought that these were the first words which those generally uttered who were made partakers of the Holy Spirit. It is enough to know that it was the language of their sonship, and that it expressed the clear assurance they had of being received into the Divine favor, the affection and gratitude they felt for this extraordinary blessing, and their complete readiness to come under the laws and regulations of the family, and to live in the spirit of obedience.

Clarke: Rom 8:16 - The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit - Αυτο το πνευμα, that same Spirit, the Spirit of adoption; that is, the Spirit who...

The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit - Αυτο το πνευμα, that same Spirit, the Spirit of adoption; that is, the Spirit who witnesses this adoption; which can be no other than the Holy Ghost himself, and certainly cannot mean any disposition or affection of mind which the adopted person may feel; for such a disposition must arise from a knowledge of this adoption, and the knowledge of this adoption cannot be given by any human or earthly means; it must come from God himself: therefore the αυτο το πνευμα must have reference to that Spirit, by whom alone the knowledge of the adoption is witnessed to the soul of the believer

Clarke: Rom 8:16 - With our spirit With our spirit - In our understanding, the place or recipient of light and information; and the place or faculty to which such information can prop...

With our spirit - In our understanding, the place or recipient of light and information; and the place or faculty to which such information can properly be brought. This is done that we may have the highest possible evidence of the work which God has wrought. As the window is the proper medium to let the light of the sun into our apartments, so the understanding is the proper medium of conveying the Spirit’ s influence to the soul. We, therefore, have the utmost evidence of the fact of our adoption which we can possibly have; we have the word and Spirit of God; and the word sealed on our spirit by the Spirit of God. And this is not a momentary influx: if we take care to walk with God, and not grieve the Holy Spirit, we shall have an abiding testimony; and while we continue faithful to our adopting Father, the Spirit that witnesses that adoption will continue to witness it; and hereby we shall know that we are of God by the Spirit which he giveth us.

Clarke: Rom 8:17 - And if children, then heirs And if children, then heirs - For the legitimate children can alone inherit the estate. This is not an estate to which they succeed in consequence o...

And if children, then heirs - For the legitimate children can alone inherit the estate. This is not an estate to which they succeed in consequence of the death of a former possessor; it is like the promised land, given by God himself, and divided among the children of the family

Clarke: Rom 8:17 - Heirs of God Heirs of God - It is neither an earthly portion nor a heavenly portion; but God himself, who is to be their portion. It is not heaven they are to in...

Heirs of God - It is neither an earthly portion nor a heavenly portion; but God himself, who is to be their portion. It is not heaven they are to inherit; it is God, who is infinitely greater and more glorious than heaven itself. With such powers has God created the soul of man, that nothing less than himself can be a sufficient and satisfactory portion for the mind of this most astonishing creature

Clarke: Rom 8:17 - Joint heirs with Christ Joint heirs with Christ - Partaking of the same eternal glory with the glorified human nature of Christ

Joint heirs with Christ - Partaking of the same eternal glory with the glorified human nature of Christ

Clarke: Rom 8:17 - If so be that we suffer with him If so be that we suffer with him - Observe, says Dr. Taylor, how prudently the apostle advances to the harsh affair of suffering. He does not mentio...

If so be that we suffer with him - Observe, says Dr. Taylor, how prudently the apostle advances to the harsh affair of suffering. He does not mention it till he had raised up their thoughts to the highest object of joy and pleasure - the happiness and glory of a joint inheritance with the ever-blessed Son of God

We are heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ, if so be that we suffer with him. This, with the additional consideration that we suffer with Christ, or, as he himself suffered, would greatly qualify the transitory afflictions of this world, and dispose them to attend to the other arguments he had to offer.

Clarke: Rom 8:18 - For I reckon that the sufferings, etc. For I reckon that the sufferings, etc. - If the glory that is to be revealed be the enjoyment of God himself, (see above, Rom 8:17 (note)), then the...

For I reckon that the sufferings, etc. - If the glory that is to be revealed be the enjoyment of God himself, (see above, Rom 8:17 (note)), then the sufferings of this life, which, when compared with eternity, are but as for a moment, are not worthy to be put in competition with this glory which shall be revealed in us. This case is perfectly clear.

Clarke: Rom 8:19 - For the earnest expectation of the creature For the earnest expectation of the creature - There is considerable difficulty in this and the four following verses: and the difficulty lies chiefl...

For the earnest expectation of the creature - There is considerable difficulty in this and the four following verses: and the difficulty lies chiefly in the meaning of the word ἡ κτισις, which we translate the creature, and creation. Some think that by it the brute creation is meant; others apply it to the Jewish people; others to the godly; others to the Gentiles; others to the good angels; and others to the fallen spirits, both angelic and human. Dissertations without end have been written on it; and it does not appear that the Christian world are come to any general agreement on the subject. Dr. Lightfoot’ s mode of explanation appears to me to be the best, on the whole. "There is,"says he, "a twofold key hanging at this place, which may unlock the whole, and make the sense plain and easy

1.    The first is the phrase, πασα ἡ κτισις, which we render the whole creation, Rom 8:22, and with which we meet twice elsewhere in the New Testament. Mar 16:15 : Preach the Gospel, πασῃ τῃ κτισει, to every creature; and Col 1:23 : The Gospel was preached, εν πασῃ τῃ κτισει, to every creature. Now it is sufficiently apparent what is meant by πασα κτισις in both these places, viz. all nations, or the heathen world. For that which in St. Mark is, preach the Gospel to every creature, is, in St. Matthew, go and teach, παντα τα εθνη, all nations. And this very phrase in this place lays claim to that very interpretation. And the Hebrew כל הבריות col habberioth , which answers to the Greek πασα ἡ κτισις, every creature, is applied by the Jews to the Gentiles, and that by way of opposition to Israel

2.    The second key is the word ματαιοτητι, Rom 8:20, which is not unfitly rendered vanity; but then this vanity is improperly applied to the vanishing, dying, changing state of the creation. For ματαιοτης, vanity, does not so much denote the vanishing condition of the outward state, as it does the inward vanity or emptiness of the mind. So the apostle, speaking of the Gentiles concerning whom he speaks here, tells us εματαιωθησαν, They became vain in their imaginations, Rom 1:21; and again, The Gentiles walk εν ματαιοτητι, in the vanity of their mind, Eph 4:17; so also, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, ὁτι εισι ματαιοι, that they are vain, 1Co 3:20. To all which let me add this farther observation, that throughout this whole place the apostle seems to allude to the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt, and their deliverance from it; with a comparison made betwixt the Jewish and the Gentile Church. When God would deliver Israel from his bondage, he challenges him for his Son, and his first-born, Exo 4:22. And in like manner the Gentiles earnestly expect and wait for such a kind of manifestation of the sons of God, within and among themselves. The Romans, to whom the apostle writes, knew well how many predictions and promises it had pleased God to publish by his prophets, concerning gathering together and adopting sons to himself among the Gentiles; the manifestation of which sons the whole Gentile world with a neck as it were stretched out, as the word αποκαραδοκια implies, ( απο, from, and καρα, the head, and δοκαω, to expect), doth now wait for."See the observations at the end of this chapter, (Rom 8:39 (note)).

Clarke: Rom 8:20 - For the creature was made subject to vanity For the creature was made subject to vanity - The Gentile world were subject to vanity of mind; but how? not willingly, but by reason of him who hat...

For the creature was made subject to vanity - The Gentile world were subject to vanity of mind; but how? not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same. May we not say, it became vain willingly, but was made subject to vanity unwillingly? For, let us recur to the origin of Gentilism, the confusion of languages, by reason of the attempt to build the tower of Babel; and though there are some passages in the gloss of the Targumists upon this matter that are sufficiently ridiculous, yet as to their scope and design they are worthy of notice. "They said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, and let its head reach unto the top of heaven; and let us make a house of worship in the top of it; and let us put a sword in his hand that he may wage war for us against our enemies, before we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth."It is an ancient tradition among the Jews, that this tower was built on an idolatrous account. The confusion of tongues, by which true religion was lost in the world, is a proof that the builders of this tower sinned against God in the highest degree. They were inclined to vanity, i.e. idolatry, Willingly; but they were subjected to vanity Unwillingly; for this proceeded from the just indignation and vengeance of God. From this time the world lay under heathenism till the bringing in of the Gospel, upwards of 2000 years after. See Lightfoot.

Clarke: Rom 8:21 - Because the creature Because the creature - This and the preceding verse should be thus connected: in hope That ( ὁτι ) the creature itself also shall be delivered....

Because the creature - This and the preceding verse should be thus connected: in hope That ( ὁτι ) the creature itself also shall be delivered. The word φθορα denotes, very frequently, sinful corruption. So, 2Pe 1:4 : Corruption through lust, της εν επιθυμια φθορας . 2Co 11:3 : Lest your minds should be corrupted. 1Co 15:33 : Evil communications corrupt good manners. The sense, therefore, of the apostle in this place seems to be: the Gentile world shall, in time, be delivered from the bondage of their sinful corruption, i.e. the bondage of their lusts and vile affections; and be brought into such a noble liberty as the sons of God enjoy.

Clarke: Rom 8:22 - The whole creation groaneth and travaileth The whole creation groaneth and travaileth - If it be inquired how the Gentile world groaned and travailed in pain; let them who explain this of the...

The whole creation groaneth and travaileth - If it be inquired how the Gentile world groaned and travailed in pain; let them who explain this of the fabric of the material world, tell us how that groans and travails? They must needs own it to be a borrowed and allusive phrase: but in the sense above given, the very literal construction may be admitted.

Clarke: Rom 8:23 - And not only they, but ourselves also And not only they, but ourselves also - Neither the Gentiles only, but we Jews also, (however we belong to a nation envious of the heathen), to whom...

And not only they, but ourselves also - Neither the Gentiles only, but we Jews also, (however we belong to a nation envious of the heathen), to whom God hath granted the first fruits of the Spirit; we sigh among ourselves for their sakes, waiting for the adoption; that is, the redemption of our mystical body, whereof the Gentiles make a very great part. Lightfoot’ s works. vol. ii. p. 359 and 707

The scope and design of St. Paul in these verses may be thus summed up: - The apostle shows that the whole creation is in a suffering state, into which it has been brought by the disobedience of one man, Adam; therefore, it was made subject to vanity - pain, sickness, and death; not willingly, for mankind had no part in that transgression which "brought death into the world and all our wo;"but God subjected the whole, purposing to afford them a deliverance and infusing into every heart a hope that a more auspicious era should take place; and it is through the influence of this hope, which every man possesses, that the present ills are so patiently borne, because all are expecting better days. The great deliverer is the Messiah, and the Gospel days the auspicious era which God intended to bring forward. They who believe in Christ with a heart unto righteousness are freed from the bondage of their sinful corruption, and brought into the glorious liberty of the sons of God; and they look forward with joyous expectation, waiting for the general resurrection, when their bodies also shall be redeemed from corruption, and the whole man, body and soul, be adopted into the family of heaven Above, as their souls had been previously adopted into the family of faith Below. And although it may be said that the redemption provided by the Gospel can not be an object of hope to those who have never heard of it; yet, as every man has hope, and this hope is inspired by God for this very purpose; that it may be the means of supporting them in the ills of life, and God, in inspiring it, had respect to the glorious state of Christianity, therefore it is this state, in effect, that the whole creation are longing for. So Jesus Christ is said, by the Prophet Haggai, Hag 2:7, to be the desire of all nations; and yet not one of the nations of the earth had, at that time, heard of him. And thus, as Dr. Whitby has very properly remarked, "desire and expectation are ascribed to creatures, in reference to things they want, and which tend to their advantage; notwithstanding they explicitly know nothing of them."

Clarke: Rom 8:24 - For we are saved by hope For we are saved by hope - We are supported and are comfortable in the expectation we have of receiving from the hand of our God all the good we nee...

For we are saved by hope - We are supported and are comfortable in the expectation we have of receiving from the hand of our God all the good we need in the troubles and adversities of this life, and of having our bodies raised from corruption and death at the general resurrection

Clarke: Rom 8:24 - Hope that is seen is not hope Hope that is seen is not hope - As hope signifies the expectation of future good, so it necessarily supposes that the object of it is not seen, i.e....

Hope that is seen is not hope - As hope signifies the expectation of future good, so it necessarily supposes that the object of it is not seen, i.e. not enjoyed; for to see, in Scripture language, sometimes signifies to enjoy, as in Job 7:7 : Mine eye shall no more See (margin, Enjoy) good. Job 9:25 : My days flee away, and See no good; i.e. enjoy no prosperity. Psa 50:23 : I will Show the salvation of God: I will give that man to enjoy my salvation who walks uprightly. Mat 5:8 : Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall See God; that is, they shall enjoy his favor and blessing. See also Joh 3:36; Heb 12:14, and 1Jo 3:2. The hope that is seen, that is, enjoyed, is no longer hope, it is fruition: and a man cannot hope for that which he has in his possession.

Clarke: Rom 8:25 - But if we hope for that we see not But if we hope for that we see not - If we have a well-grounded expectation of our resurrection and final glorification, knowing that such things ar...

But if we hope for that we see not - If we have a well-grounded expectation of our resurrection and final glorification, knowing that such things are necessarily future, and must for a certain time be delayed; then do we patiently wait for them, continue patiently to endure the common ills of life, and whatever tribulations we may be exposed to in consequence of our Christian profession; for we know, Faithful is he who has promised. Hope is a sort of universal blessing, and one of the greatest which God has granted to man. To mankind, in general, life would be intolerable without it; and it is as necessary as faith is even to the followers of God

The ancients have a very instructive and elegant fable concerning it. "Prometheus having made a human body, went up to heaven, and stole some celestial fire to animate it: Jupiter, incensed at the theft, sent down Pandora, with a box full of diseases and plagues of every kind, as an ensnaring present to Prometheus; but he refused to accept it. Epimetheus took and opened it, and instantly all those diseases, etc., by which mankind have been made miserable, flew out, and spread themselves over the whole earth; and only Hope remained at the bottom of the box."This fable explains itself, as to its main design. Men find life, with its various and unavoidable ills, only supportable by the hope they have of not only getting safely through them, but of enjoying a state of blessedness in the end. Hope is still at the bottom; and therefore man is encouraged to bear up in all the pressures of life. Take away hope, and then black despair and indescribable wretchedness would be the instant result. Hope stands justly among the highest mercies of God.

Clarke: Rom 8:26 - The Spirit also helpeth our infirmities The Spirit also helpeth our infirmities - The same Spirit, το πνευμα, mentioned before as bearing witness with ours that we are the child...

The Spirit also helpeth our infirmities - The same Spirit, το πνευμα, mentioned before as bearing witness with ours that we are the children of God; and consequently it is not a disposition or frame of mind, for the disposition of our mind surely cannot help the infirmities of our minds

The word συναντιλαμβανεται is very inadequately expressed by helpeth. It is compounded of συν, together, αντι, against, and λαμβανομαι, to support or help, and signifies such assistance as is afforded by any two persons to each other, who mutually bear the same load or carry it between them. He who prays, receives help from the Spirit of God; but he who prays not receives no such help. Whatever our strength may be, we must put it forth, even while most implicitly depending on the strength of God himself

Clarke: Rom 8:26 - For we know not what we should pray for as we ought For we know not what we should pray for as we ought - And should therefore be liable to endless mistakes in our prayers, if suitable desires were no...

For we know not what we should pray for as we ought - And should therefore be liable to endless mistakes in our prayers, if suitable desires were not excited by the Holy Spirit and power received to bring these desires, by prayer, before the throne of grace

Clarke: Rom 8:26 - But the Spirit itself But the Spirit itself - Αυτο το πνευμα, The same Spirit, viz. the Spirit that witnesses of our adoption and sonship, Rom 8:15, Rom 8:16...

But the Spirit itself - Αυτο το πνευμα, The same Spirit, viz. the Spirit that witnesses of our adoption and sonship, Rom 8:15, Rom 8:16, makes intercession for us. Surely if the apostle had designed to teach us that he meant our own sense and understanding by the Spirit, he never could have spoken in a manner in which plain common sense was never likely to comprehend his meaning. Besides, how can it be said that our own spirit, our filial disposition, bears witness with our own spirit; that our own spirit helps the infirmities of our own spirit; that our own spirit teaches our own spirit that of which it is ignorant; and that our own spirit maketh intercession for our own spirit, with groanings unutterable? This would have been both incongruous and absurd. We must therefore understand these places of that help and influence which the followers of God receive from the Holy Ghost; and consequently, of the fulfillment of the various promises relative to this point which our Lord made to his disciples, particularly in Joh 14:16, Joh 14:17, Joh 14:26; Joh 15:26, Joh 15:27; Joh 16:7; and particularly Joh 16:13, Joh 16:14 : Howbeit, when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth; and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you.

Clarke: Rom 8:27 - He maketh intercession for the saints He maketh intercession for the saints - The word εντυγχανω signifies to apply one’ s self to a person in behalf of another; to inter...

He maketh intercession for the saints - The word εντυγχανω signifies to apply one’ s self to a person in behalf of another; to intercede or negotiate for. Our Lord makes intercession for us, by negotiating and managing, as our friend and agent, all the affairs pertaining to our salvation. And the Spirit of God makes intercession for the saints, not by supplication to God on their behalf, but by directing and qualifying their supplications in a proper manner, by his agency and influence upon their hearts; which, according to the Gospel scheme, is the peculiar work and office of the Holy Spirit. See Taylor

Clarke: Rom 8:27 - According to the will of God According to the will of God - Κατα Θεον· According to the mind, intention, or design of God. And thus the prayers which we offer up, and...

According to the will of God - Κατα Θεον· According to the mind, intention, or design of God. And thus the prayers which we offer up, and the desires which subsist in the unutterable groanings, are all such as are pleasing in the sight of God. So that God, whose is the Spirit, and who is acquainted with the mind of the Spirit, knows what he means when he leads the saints to express themselves in words, desires, groans, sighs, or tears: in each God reads the language of the Holy Ghost, and prepares the answer according to the request

From all this we learn that a fluency in prayer is not essential to praying: a man may pray most powerfully in the estimation of God, who is not able to utter even one word. The unutterable groan is big with meaning, and God understands it, because it contains the language of his own Spirit. Some desires are too mighty to be expressed; there is no language expressive enough to give them proper form and distinct vocal sound: such desires show that they came from God; and as they came from him, so they express what God is disposed to do, and what he has purposed to do. This is a matter of great encouragement to all those who are agonizing to enter in at the strait gate.

Clarke: Rom 8:28 - And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God - To understand this verse aright, let us observe 1.    That...

And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God - To understand this verse aright, let us observe

1.    That the persons in whose behalf all things work for good are they who love God, and, consequently, who live in the spirit of obedience

2.    It is not said that all things shall work for good, but that συνεργει, they work now in the behalf of him who loveth now, αγαπωσι ; for both verbs are in the present tense. All these things work together; while they are working, God’ s providence is working, his Spirit is working, and they are working Together with him. And whatever troubles, or afflictions, or persecutions may arise, God presses them into their service; and they make a part of the general working, and are caused to contribute to the general good of the person who now loves God, and who is working by faith and love under the influence and operation of the Holy Ghost. They who say sin works for good to them that love God speak blasphemous nonsense. A man who now loves God is not now sinning against God; and the promise belongs only to the present time: and as love is the true incentive to obedience, the man who is entitled to the promise can never, while thus entitled, (loving God), be found in the commission of sin. But though this be a good general sense for these words, yet the all things mentioned here by the apostle seem more particularly to mean those things mentioned in Rom 8:28-30

Clarke: Rom 8:28 - To them who are the called according to his purpose To them who are the called according to his purpose - Dr. Taylor translates τοις κλητοις, the invited; and observes that it is a metapho...

To them who are the called according to his purpose - Dr. Taylor translates τοις κλητοις, the invited; and observes that it is a metaphor taken from inviting guests, or making them welcome to a feast. As if he had said: Certainly all things work together for their good; for this reason, because they are called, invited, or made welcome to the blessings of the covenant, (which is ratified in eating of the covenant sacrifice), according to God’ s original purpose first declared to Abraham, Gen 17:4 : Thou shalt be a father of many nations - and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him, Gen 18:18. Thus this clause is to be understood; and thus it is an argument to prove that all things, how afflictive soever, shall work for our good while we continue to love God. Our being called or invited, according to God’ s purpose, proves that all things work for our good, on the supposition that we love God, and not otherwise. For our loving God, or making a due improvement of our calling, is evidently inserted by the apostle to make good his argument. He does not pretend to prove that all things shall concur to the everlasting happiness of all that are called; but only to those of the called who love God. Our calling, thus qualified is the ground of his argument, which he prosecutes and completes in the two next verses. Our calling he takes for granted, as a thing evident and unquestionable among all Christians. But you will say: How is it evident and unquestionable that we are called? I answer: From our being in the visible Church, and professing the faith of the Gospel. For always, in the apostolic writings, all that are in the visible Church, and profess the faith of the Gospel, are numbered among the called or invited; i.e. among the persons who are invited to feast on the covenant sacrifice, and who thus, in reference to themselves, confirm and ratify the covenant. As for what is termed effectual calling, as distinguished from the general invitations of the Gospel, it is a distinction which divines have invented without any warrant from the sacred writings. Our calling, therefore, is considered by the apostle in the nature of a self-evident proposition, which nobody doubts or denies; or which, indeed, no Christian ought to doubt, or can call in question, Taylor’ s notes.

Clarke: Rom 8:29 - For whom he did foreknow, etc. For whom he did foreknow, etc. - " In this and the following verse the apostle shows how our calling is an argument that all things work together to...

For whom he did foreknow, etc. - " In this and the following verse the apostle shows how our calling is an argument that all things work together to advance our eternal happiness, by showing the several steps which the wisdom and goodness of God have settled, in order to complete our salvation. In order to this he first gives us, in this verse, the foundation and finishing, or the beginning and end, of the scheme of our redemption: For whom God did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son. To foreknow, here signifies to design before, or at the first forming of the scheme; to bestow the favor and privilege of being God’ s people upon any set of men, Rom 11:2. This is the foundation or first step of our salvation; namely, the purpose and grace of God, which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began, 2Ti 1:9. Then, he knew or favored us; for in this sense the word to know is taken in a great variety of places, both in the Old and New Testaments. And as he knew the Gentiles then, when the scheme was laid, and before any part of it was executed, consequently, in reference to the execution of this scheme, he foreknew us. This is the first step of our salvation, and the end or finishing of it is our conformity to the Son of God in eternal glory, Rom 8:17, which includes and supposes our moral conformity to him. When God knew us, at the forming of the Gospel scheme; or, when he intended to bestow on us the privilege of being his people; he then destinated or designed us to be conformed to the image of his Son; and, as he destinated or determined us then to this very high honor and happiness, he pre-destinated, fore-ordained, or pre-determined us to it. Thus we are to understand the foundation and finishing of the scheme of our salvation. The foundation is the foreknowledge, or gracious purpose of God; the finishing is our being joint heirs with Christ. Now, our calling or invitation (see on Rom 8:28 (note)) stands in connection with both these

1.    It stands in connection with God’ s foreknowledge; and so it is a true and valid calling: for we are called, invited, or chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, who may bestow his blessings upon any people, as may seem good in his sight, 1Pe 1:2; consequently, we have a good title to the blessings of the Gospel to which we are called or invited. And this was to be proved, that the Jew, to whom the apostle particularly wrote, might see that the Gentiles being now called into the Church of God was not an accidental thing, but a matter which God had determined when he conceived the Gospel scheme. Thus our calling is connected with God’ s foreknowledge

2.    It stands also in connection with our being conformed to the image of his Son; for we are invited by the Gospel to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, 2Th 2:14. And therefore, supposing, what the apostle supposes, that we love God, it is certain, from our being called, that we shall be glorified with the sons of God; and so our calling proves the point, that all things should work together for our good in our present state, because it proves that we are intended for eternal glory; as he shows in the next verse. For we must understand his foreknowing, predestinating, calling, and justifying, in relation to his glorifying; and that none are finally glorified, but those who, according to his purpose, are conformed to the image of his Son."Taylor

Clarke: Rom 8:29 - The first-born among many brethren The first-born among many brethren - That he might be the chief or head of all the redeemed; for His human nature is the first fruits of the resurre...

The first-born among many brethren - That he might be the chief or head of all the redeemed; for His human nature is the first fruits of the resurrection from the dead; and He is the first human being that, after having passed through death, was raised to eternal glory. See Dr. Taylor.

Clarke: Rom 8:30 - Whom he did predestinate, etc. Whom he did predestinate, etc. - The Gentiles, whom He determined to call into his Church with the Jewish people, He called - He invited by the prea...

Whom he did predestinate, etc. - The Gentiles, whom He determined to call into his Church with the Jewish people, He called - He invited by the preaching of the Gospel, to believe on his Son Jesus Christ. It is worthy of note, that all that is spoken here refers to what had already taken place; for the calling, justifying, and glorifying are here represented as having already taken place, as well as the foreknowing and the predestinating. It is therefore reasonable to suppose that the apostle refers to what God had already done among the Jews and Gentiles: though he may also speak of the things that were not as though they were

Clarke: Rom 8:30 - He also justified He also justified - Pardoned the sins of all those who with hearty repentance and true faith turned unto him

He also justified - Pardoned the sins of all those who with hearty repentance and true faith turned unto him

Clarke: Rom 8:30 - He also glorified He also glorified - He has honored and dignified the Gentiles with the highest privileges, and he has already taken many of them to the kingdom of g...

He also glorified - He has honored and dignified the Gentiles with the highest privileges, and he has already taken many of them to the kingdom of glory, and many more are on their way thither; and all who love him, and continue faithful unto death, shall inherit that glory eternally. Hence it is added, them he also glorified; for all the honors which he confers on them have respect to and are intended to promote their endless felicity; and though the terms are here used in a more general sense, yet, if we take them more restrictedly, we must consider that in the work of justification sanctification is implied; justification being the foundation and beginning of that work. From all this we learn that none will be glorified who have not been sanctified and justified; that the justified are those who have been called or invited by the Gospel of Christ; that those who have had this calling are they to whom God determined to grant this privilege - they did not choose this salvation first, but God sent it to them when they knew him not - and therefore the salvation of the Gentile world, as well as that of the Jews, comes through the gratuitous mercy of God himself, was the result of infinite designs, and stands on the same ground as the calling, etc., of the Jewish people. The word δοξα, which we render glory, and δοξαζω, to glorify, both mean to render illustrious, eminent, etc., etc., in various parts of the New Testament; and in this sense the verb is used Joh 11:4; Joh 12:23, Joh 12:28; Joh 13:31, Joh 13:32; Joh 14:13; Joh 15:8; Joh 21:19; Act 3:13; Act 11:13; in none of which places eternal beatification can be intended. Here it seems to mean that those whom God had called into a state of justification he had rendered illustrious by innumerable gifts, graces, and privileges, in the same manner as he had done to the Israelites of old

The whole of the preceding discourse will show that every thing here is conditional, as far as it relates to the ultimate salvation of any person professing the Gospel of Christ; for the promises are made to character, and not to persons, as some have most injudiciously affirmed. The apostle insists upon a character all along from the beginning of the chapter. Rom 8:1 : There is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. Rom 8:13 : If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die, etc. The absolute necessity of holiness to salvation is the very subject of his discourse; this necessity he positively affirms, and establishes by the most solid arguments. At the very entrance of his argument here, he takes care to settle the connection between our calling and our love and obedience to God, on purpose to prevent that mistake into which so many have fallen, through their great inattention to the scope of his reasoning. Rom 8:28 : All things work together for good - To whom? To Them that Love God: to them that are the called according to his purpose. To them that love God, because they are called according to his purpose; for those only who love God can reap any benefit by this predestination, vocation, or any other instance of God’ s favor. See the observations at the end of this chapter, (Rom 8:39 (note)).

Clarke: Rom 8:31 - What shall we then say to these things? What shall we then say to these things? - What conclusion should we draw from the above premises? From all that was already laid down in the precedi...

What shall we then say to these things? - What conclusion should we draw from the above premises? From all that was already laid down in the preceding chapters, but especially in the preceding verses, from Rom 8:28-30 inclusive. As if he had said: What comfort may we derive from these doctrines? God has called us all to holiness, and to love to him, which is the principle of holiness. We are persecuted and despised, it is true, and we may be more so; but, as God has called us to love him, and all things work together for good to them that love him; and, as his covenant with Abraham, while he was in his Gentile state, shows his gracious purpose towards us Gentiles, whom he has foreknown, who have been objects of his gracious foreknowledge, as well as the Jews, and who have now the fullest proof that we were so, by his sending us the Gospel, and showing us, in it, that if the Israelites were to be a holy priesthood, a royal nation, we are no less favored, as he has predestinated, from the beginning determined, that we should be conformed to the image of his Son, who is to be the first-born among many brethren, the head and chief of all converted Jews and Gentiles, and, in order to our final salvation, has called, invited us to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, has justified those who do believe, and has glorified, highly honored, and adorned them with innumerable gifts and graces, and, if they continue to possess that faith which worketh by love, will bring them, both body and soul, to his eternal glory, their bodies being made like unto his glorious body: - seeing, therefore, all these things are so, what comfort in our tribulations shall we derive from them? - Why this: If God be for us, who can be against us? He who is infinitely wise has undertaken to direct us: He who is infinitely powerful has undertaken to protect us: He who is infinitely good has undertaken to save us. What cunning, strength, or malice, can prevail against his wisdom, power, and goodness? None. Therefore we are safe who love God; and not only shall sustain no essential damage by the persecutions of ungodly men, but even these things work together for our good.

Clarke: Rom 8:32 - He that spared not his own Son He that spared not his own Son - And can we, his sincere followers, doubt of the safety of our state, or the certainty of his protection? No: for if...

He that spared not his own Son - And can we, his sincere followers, doubt of the safety of our state, or the certainty of his protection? No: for if he loved us, Gentiles and Jews, so intensely as to deliver up to death his own Son for us all, can he withhold from us any minor blessing? Nay, will he not, on the contrary, freely give us all things? For if he told Abraham, who is the father of the faithful, and representative of us all, and with whom the covenant was made, that, because he had not withheld from him his only son Isaac, but delivered him up to that death which he thought his God had required, in blessing, he would bless him; and in multiplying, he would multiply him; that his seed should possess the gate of his enemies; and that in it all the nations of the earth should be blessed, Gen 22:16-19; will He not give US all that was spiritually intended by these promises, whose only begotten Son was not sacrificed in a figure, but really, in order to purchase every blessing that the soul of man can need and that the hand of God can dispense.

Clarke: Rom 8:33 - -- This and the two following verses contain a string of questions, most appropriately introduced and most powerfully urged, tending to show the safety o...

This and the two following verses contain a string of questions, most appropriately introduced and most powerfully urged, tending to show the safety of the state of those who have believed the Gospel of the grace of God. I shall lay these verses down as they are pointed by the best Greek critics: -

"Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God’ s elect? - God who justifieth? Who is he that condemneth? - Christ who died? or, rather, who is risen again? He, who is at the right hand of God? He, who maketh intercession for us? Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? - Tribulation? or distress? or persecution? or famine? or nakedness? or peril? or sword?"In all these questions the apostle intimates that if neither God nor Christ would bring any charge against them who love him, none else could. And as God justifies through Christ who died, consequently no charge can lie against these persons, as God alone could produce any; and He, so far from doing this, has justified them - freely forgiven their trespasses

For the proper meaning and sense of the terms chosen, elect, called, etc., etc., see the discourse prefixed to this epistle; and especially Section 6, p. 19, etc., and Section 7, p. 23, etc.

Clarke: Rom 8:34 - Who is even at the right hand of God Who is even at the right hand of God - To which he has exalted our human nature, which he took in conjunction with his Divinity; and there he maketh...

Who is even at the right hand of God - To which he has exalted our human nature, which he took in conjunction with his Divinity; and there he maketh intercession for us - manages all the concerns of his own kingdom in general, and of every member of his Church in particular.

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? - I do think that this question has been generally misunderstood. The apostle is referring to the per...

Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? - I do think that this question has been generally misunderstood. The apostle is referring to the persecutions and tribulations to which genuine Christians were exposed through their attachment to Christ, and the gracious provision God had made for their support and final salvation. As in this provision God had shown his infinite love to them in providing Jesus Christ as their sin-offering, and Jesus Christ had shown his love in suffering death upon the cross for them; so, here, he speaks of the love of the followers of God to that Christ who had first loved them. Therefore the question is not, Who shall separate the love of Christ from us? or prevent Christ from loving us? but, Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Who or what shall be able to remove our affection from him? And the questions that immediately follow show that this is the sense of the passage; for the tribulation, distress, etc., which he enumerates, are things by which they might be affected, but by which Christ could not be affected; and, consequently, the question most evidently refers to their love to him who had first loved them, and, while it affords a strong presumption of their perseverance, furnishes a most powerful argument against apostasy

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Shall tribulation? Shall tribulation? - Θλιψις, grievous affliction, or distress of any kind; from θλιβω, to compress, oppress, straiten, etc.; any thing ...

Shall tribulation? - Θλιψις, grievous affliction, or distress of any kind; from θλιβω, to compress, oppress, straiten, etc.; any thing by which a man is rendered miserable

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Or distress? Or distress? - Στενοχωρια, a word of nearly the same import with the former, but more intense in its signification. It signifies straitne...

Or distress? - Στενοχωρια, a word of nearly the same import with the former, but more intense in its signification. It signifies straitness, being hemmed in on every side, without the possibility of getting out or escaping; from στενος, strait or narrow, and χωρος, a place

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Or persecution? Or persecution? - Διωγμος, from διωκω, to pursue, press upon, prosecute, signifies such pursuing as an enemy uses in order to overtake...

Or persecution? - Διωγμος, from διωκω, to pursue, press upon, prosecute, signifies such pursuing as an enemy uses in order to overtake the object of his malice, that he may destroy him

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Or famine? Or famine? - Λιμος, from λειπω, to fail; the total want of bread, and all the necessaries of life

Or famine? - Λιμος, from λειπω, to fail; the total want of bread, and all the necessaries of life

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Or nakedness? Or nakedness? - Γυμνοτης, being absolutely without clothing; forcibly expressed by the derivation of the word γυια μονα εχων, ...

Or nakedness? - Γυμνοτης, being absolutely without clothing; forcibly expressed by the derivation of the word γυια μονα εχων, having one’ s limbs only, being totally unclothed

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Or peril? Or peril? - Κινδυνος, a state of extreme and continued danger, perplexing and distressing with grievous forebodings and alarms; derived fro...

Or peril? - Κινδυνος, a state of extreme and continued danger, perplexing and distressing with grievous forebodings and alarms; derived from κινει τας οδυνας, it excites anguish; because much evil is felt, and much more feared

Clarke: Rom 8:35 - Or sword? Or sword? - Μαχαιρα, slaughter; the total destruction of life, and especially beheading, and such like, done by the order of the civil magis...

Or sword? - Μαχαιρα, slaughter; the total destruction of life, and especially beheading, and such like, done by the order of the civil magistrate; for the word is used in this epistle, Rom 13:4, to signify the authority and power which he has of judicially terminating life; i.e. of inflicting capital punishment.

Clarke: Rom 8:36 - As it is written As it is written - And these are no more than we may naturally expect from the present constitution of the world, and the positive predictions of th...

As it is written - And these are no more than we may naturally expect from the present constitution of the world, and the positive predictions of the prophet, Psa 44:22, who foresaw that a wicked world would always persecute and oppress the true followers of God.

Clarke: Rom 8:37 - Nay Nay - as the prophet adds in the same place, all this is come upon us, yet have we not forgotten thee, nor dealt falsely in thy covenant, Rom 8:17, ...

Nay - as the prophet adds in the same place, all this is come upon us, yet have we not forgotten thee, nor dealt falsely in thy covenant, Rom 8:17, Rom 8:18, so all these things may happen unto us; but in all these things we are more than conquerors; We abide faithful in the new covenant of our God; and He is faithful who has promised to support and make us more than conquerors; i.e. to give us a complete triumph over sin, and death, and hell, not leaving one enemy unsubdued.

Clarke: Rom 8:38 - For I am persuaded For I am persuaded - After the blessed experience we have had of support by the grace and Spirit of him that loved us, that neither fear of death, n...

For I am persuaded - After the blessed experience we have had of support by the grace and Spirit of him that loved us, that neither fear of death, nor hope of life, nor evil angels, nor principalities, nor powers, persecuting us for Christ’ s sake; nor the things we endure at present, nor the things to come, whatever tribulation we may be called to suffer in future;

Clarke: Rom 8:39 - -- Nor height - of honor, nor depth - of ignominy, nor any other creature, ουτε τις κτισις ετερα, (nor any other thing whatever), shal...

Nor height - of honor, nor depth - of ignominy, nor any other creature, ουτε τις κτισις ετερα, (nor any other thing whatever), shall be able to separate us, who love God, from the love of God, which he has vouchsafed to us in Christ Jesus. See Whitby. And for farther observations on the subject of the 29th and 30th verses, see at the end of the chapter, (the following notes)

1.    The confidence expressed by the apostle at the end of this chapter, is as rational as it is bold. On the premises laid down by him, in reference to which he has most logically conducted his whole argument, the conclusion to which he arrives is as natural and forcible as it is legitimate. The permanency of the Christian Church, in all the tribulations it has endured from pagans and papists, is a full proof of the correctness of the apostle’ s reasoning. The true followers of Christ can never be forsaken by him. And his Church, which is founded on the rock, can never be shaken down by the tempests of persecution. And what God does for his Church in general, (the collective body of those who believe in the Lord Jesus, love, and obey him), he does for every individual in that body: no man that trusts in him can be confounded. While the love of God is in his heart, and the work of God in his hand, he may be as fully persuaded as he is of his own being, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other thing whatsoever, shall be able to separate him from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus. The reader who has any knowledge of what is great, commanding, and sublime in composition, will not hesitate to add here, with Dr. Taylor: "The conclusion of this chapter is the most elegant and sublime piece of writing I remember ever to have read. It is founded on the grand and solid principles of the Gospel; it breathes the true spirit of Christian magnanimity; raises our minds far above all things created; and shows, in a bright and heavenly view, the greatness of soul and the strong consolation which the Gospel inspires. God grant that it may stand clear before our understandings, and be transcribed into all our hearts! They who despise the Gospel despise all that is great, and happy, and glorious!

2.    The doctrine of the necessity of personal holiness, so clearly and strongly laid down in the former part of this chapter, should be deeply considered by every person professing godliness; and while from the seventh chapter they learn that they have an infected and morally diseased nature, they should learn from the eighth that to destroy the work of the devil was Jesus Christ manifested; and that no soul can be said to be saved by Jesus Christ who is not saved from its sins. What a full proof is it of the fallen state of man, that there should be found persons professing Christianity more fervent in their pleadings for the necessary continuance of indwelling sin, than they are for the mind that was in Christ. The seventh chapter, because there are some expressions which, being misunderstood, seem to favor this doctrine, is read and incessantly quoted: the eighth chapter, though given by the same inspiration, yet because it so strongly shows the necessity of being saved from all sin, is seldom read and scarcely ever quoted

3.    The restoration of the brute creation to a state of happiness has been thought by several to be the doctrine of Rom 8:19-25. In the notes on those verses I have given reasons against this opinion, and have proved that the Gentiles, and not the irrational part of the creation, are the persons of whom the apostle speaks; nor can any consistent interpretation be given of the place, if it be applied to the brute creation. But, although this doctrine is not contained in the above verses, it does not follow that the doctrine itself is not true. Indeed, there are several reasons which render the supposition very probable

1.    The brute creation never sinned against God, nor are they capable of it, and consequently cannot be justly liable to punishment

2.    But the whole brute creation is in a state of suffering, and partake of the common infirmities and privations of life, as well as mankind: they suffer, but who can say that they suffer justly

3.    As they appear to be necessarily involved in the sufferings of sinful man, and yet neither through their fault nor their folly, it is natural to suppose that the Judge of all the earth, who ever does right, will find some means by which these innocent creatures shall be compensated for their sufferings

4.    That they have no compensation here, their afflictions, labors, and death prove; and if they are to have any compensation, they must have it in another state

5.    God, the fountain of all goodness, must have originally designed them for that measure of happiness which is suited to the powers with which he had endowed them; but, since the fall of man, they never had that happiness; and, in their present circumstances, never can

6.    In reference to intelligent beings, God has formed his purposes in reference to their happiness on the ground of their rational natures. He has decreed that they shall be happy if they will, all the means of it being placed within their power; and, if they be ultimately miserable, it is the effect of their own unconstrained choice. Therefore his purpose is fulfilled, either in their happiness or misery; because he has purposed that they shall be happy if they please, and that misery shall be the result of their refusal

7.    But it does not appear that the brute creation are capable of this choice; and it is evident that they are not placed in their present misery through either their choice or their sin; and if no purpose of God can be ultimately frustrated, these creatures must be restored to that state of happiness for which they have been made, and of which they have been deprived through the transgression of man

8.    To say that the enjoyments which they have in this life are a sufficient compensation, is most evidently false; for, had not sin entered into the world, they would have had much greater enjoyments, without pain, excessive labor and toil, and without death, and all those sufferings which arise from its predisposing causes. Nor does it appear that they have much happiness from eating, drinking, and rest, as they have these only in the proportion in which they are necessary to their existence as the slaves of men. Therefore, allowing that they have even gratification and enjoyment in life, they have much less than they would have had had not sin entered into the world; and consequently they have been deprived of the greater portion of the happiness designed for them by their bountiful Creator

9.    It is therefore obvious that the gracious purpose of God has not been fulfilled in them; and that, as they have not lost their happiness through their own fault, both the beneficence and justice of God are bound to make them a reparation

10.    Hence it is reasonable to conclude that, as from the present constitution of things they cannot have the happiness designed for them in this state, they must have it in another

4.    On the subject of the foreknowledge of God, some observations have been made at the conclusion of the notes on the second chapter of Acts. On the subject of the prescience and predestination mentioned here, Rom 8:29, Rom 8:30, vast volumes have been written, and the Christian world greatly agitated and perplexed. These doctrines of men have very little place in the texts in question. After a long and serious investigation of this business, I am led to conclude that, whether the doctrine of the decrees be true or false, it does not exist in these verses

    No portion of the word of God has been more unhappily misunderstood than several parts of the Epistle to the Romans; because men have applied to individuals what belongs to nations; and referred to eternity transactions which have taken place in time

    We have already seen that one grand aim of the apostle in writing this epistle was

1.    To prove, to both Jews and Gentiles, that they were all under sin, and that neither of them had any claim either on the justice or beneficence of God; yet he, of his own free mercy, had revealed himself to the Jews, and crowned them with innumerable privileges; and

2.    That, as he was no respecter of persons, his mercy was as free to the Gentiles as to them, being equally their God as he was the God of the Jews, and therefore had, by the Gospel, called them to a state of salvation; and to this display of his mercy the two verses in question seem particularly to refer, and show us not what God will do for some selected individuals, but what he has already done for nations

    After having shown that the whole Gentile world was groaning and travailing in pain together, waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God, he shows that it was, according to the affectionate purpose, προθεσιν, of God, that the Gentiles should be also called into the glorious liberty of the sons of God - into equal privileges with the Jews. He therefore represents them as objects of God’ s gracious foreknowledge. That the word προγινωσκω, which literally signifies to know, or discern beforehand, and to know so as to determine, signifies also to approve, or love before, to be well affected to, is not only evident from ידע yada in Hebrew, but also from the simple verb γινωσκω, in Greek, by which it is translated, and to which the compound verb repeatedly answers, without any extension of meaning by means of the preposition, as its use among the best Greek writers proves: and it is evident that the apostle uses the word in the sense of loving, being graciously affected to, Rom 11:1, Rom 11:2. I say then, hath God cast away his people, which he Foreknew, ὁν προεγνω ; to whom he has been so long graciously affected? By no means. As, therefore, he had been so long graciously affected towards the Jews, so has he towards the Gentiles. His call of Abraham, and the promises made to him, are the proof of it. The Jews, thus foreknown, were called into a glorious state of salvation, and endowed with privileges the most extraordinary ever bestowed on any people; as their whole history testifies. But is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not also the God of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also, Rom 3:29; and to prove this is the main subject of the ninth chapter. Now, as he is the God of the Gentiles, he foreknew, had from the beginning a gracious purpose to them as well as to the Jews; and, being thus graciously disposed towards them, he determined προωρισε, from προ, before, and ὁριζω, to bound, define, etc., he defined, circumscribed, and determined the boundaries of this important business from the beginning, that they also should be taken into his Church, and conformed to the image of his Son; and, as Jesus Christ was to be their pattern, it must be by his Gospel that they should be brought into the Church; and consequently, that bringing in could not take place before the revelation of Christ. Having therefore thus foreknown and thus predestinated them Also, he called them Also by the Gospel; he justified them Also on their believing; and he glorified them Also, dignified them also with the same privileges, blessings, honors, and Divine gifts: so that they were now what the Jews had been before, the peculiar people of God. The apostle, therefore, speaks here not of what they should be, or of what they might be, but of what they then were - the called, the justified, the highly honored of God. See the note on Rom 8:30

    It is strange that so obvious a meaning of the passage should not have been noticed; but the word δοξαζω, which we render to glorify, and by which we understand eternal beatification, which it is very seldom used to express, being taken in this sense in the passage in question, fixed the meaning of the preceding terms; and thus the whole passage was applied to things eternal, which had reference only to things in time. This seems to me to be the true key of the passage, and the whole scope of the epistle, and especially of the context, which shows that this is the sense in which it should be understood. The passages understood in this way illustrate the infinite mercy and wisdom of God; they show that whatever appearances his providential dealings may assume of partiality towards any particular people, yet he is equally the Father of the spirits of all flesh; hateth nothing that he hath made; is loving to all; that his tender mercies are over all his works; and that he is not willing that any should perish, but that all should come unto the knowledge of the truth and be saved. Hence, whatever he did for the Jews he purposed to do for the Gentiles: if he foreknew, predestinated, called, justified, and glorified the former; he Also foreknew, predestinated, called, justified, and glorified the latter; having brought them into the same state of salvation, with a vast extension of blessings and higher degrees of honor. As the Jews forfeited their privileges, and now, instead of being glorified, instead of being highly honored, and rendered illustrious, they are degraded, brought down, and rendered contemptible; because they have not made a proper use of their election, they are now reprobated; so a similar reverse awaits the Gentiles if they sin after the similitude of their transgression; and it is against this that the apostle so solemnly warns them, Rom 11:20-22 : Because of unbelief they (the Jews) were broken off - thou (the Gentiles) standest by faith. If God spared not the Natural Branches, take heed lest he also spare not Thee. Behold the goodness and severity of God! on them which Fell severity; but toward Thee goodness, If Thou Continue in his goodness; otherwise Thou Also shalt be Cut Off

5.    This is also a lesson of solemn instruction to Christians in general: God has called them into a glorious state of salvation, and has furnished them with every requisite help to enable them to work out that salvation with fear and trembling. As it is an awful thing to receive the grace of God in vain, (whether that grace imply the common benefits of the Gospel, or those especial blessings received by believing souls), so every person professing godliness should be jealous over himself lest he should trifle with matters of eternal moment; for, should he even neglect so great a salvation, his escape would be impossible. Heb 2:3; and if so, to what severe punishment must they be exposed who despise and reject it?

Calvin: Rom 8:1 - There is then, === etc. After having described the contest which the godly have perpetually with their own flesh, he returns to the consolation, which was very needful for them, and which he had before mentioned; and it was this, — That though they were still beset by sin, they were yet exempt fiom the power of death, and from every curse, provided they lived not in the flesh but in the Spirit: for he joins together these three things, — the imperfection under which the faithful always labor, — the mercy of God in pardoning and forgiving it, —and the regeneration of the Spirit; and this indeed in the last place, that no one should flatter himself with a vain notion, as though he were freed from the curse, while securely indulging in the meantime his own flesh. As then the carnal man flatters himself in vain, when in no way solicitous to reform his life, he promises to himself impunity under the pretense of having this grace; so the trembling consciences of the godly have an invincible fortress, for they know that while they abide in Christ they are beyond every danger of condemnation. We shall now examine the words.

===After the Spirit 1.There is then, === etc. After having described the contest which the godly have perpetually with their own flesh, he returns to the consolation, w...

1.There is then, === etc. After having described the contest which the godly have perpetually with their own flesh, he returns to the consolation, which was very needful for them, and which he had before mentioned; and it was this, — That though they were still beset by sin, they were yet exempt fiom the power of death, and from every curse, provided they lived not in the flesh but in the Spirit: for he joins together these three things, — the imperfection under which the faithful always labor, — the mercy of God in pardoning and forgiving it, —and the regeneration of the Spirit; and this indeed in the last place, that no one should flatter himself with a vain notion, as though he were freed from the curse, while securely indulging in the meantime his own flesh. As then the carnal man flatters himself in vain, when in no way solicitous to reform his life, he promises to himself impunity under the pretense of having this grace; so the trembling consciences of the godly have an invincible fortress, for they know that while they abide in Christ they are beyond every danger of condemnation. We shall now examine the words.

===After the Spirit Those who walk after the Spirit are not such as have wholly put off all the emotions of the flesh, so that their whole life is redolent with nothing but celestial perfection; but they are those who sedulously labor to subdue and mortify the flesh, so that the love of true religion seems to reign in them. He declares that such walk not after the flesh; for wherever the real fear of God is vigorous, it takes away from the flesh its sovereignty, though it does not abolish all its corruptions.

Calvin: Rom 8:2 - NO PHRASE 2.=== For the law of the Spirit of life, === etc. This is a confirmation of the former sentence; and that it may be understood, the meaning of the w...

2.=== For the law of the Spirit of life, === etc. This is a confirmation of the former sentence; and that it may be understood, the meaning of the words must be noticed. Using a language not strictly correct, by the law of the Spirit he designates the Spirit of God, who sprinkles our souls with the blood of Christ, not only to cleanse us from the stain of sin with respect to its guilt, but also to sanctify us that we may be really purified. He adds that it is life-giving, (for the genitive case, after the manner of the Hebrew, is to be taken as an adjective,) it hence follows, that they who detain man in the letter of the law, expose him to death. On the other hand, he gives the name of the law of sin and death to the dominion of the flesh and to the tyranny of death, which thence follows: the law of God is set as it were in the middle, which by teaching righteousness cannot confer it, but on the contrary binds us with the strongest chains in bondage to sin and to death.

The meaning then is, — that the law of God condemns men, and that this happens, because as long as they remain under the bond of the law, they are oppressed with the bondage of sin, and are thus exposed to death; but that the Spirit of Christ, while it abolishes the law of sin in us by destroying the prevailing desires of the flesh, does at the same time deliver us from the peril of death. If any one objects and says, that then pardon, by which our transgressions are buried, depends on regeneration; to this it may be easily answered, that the reason is not here assigned by Paul, but that the manner only is specified, in which we are delivered from guilt; and Paul denies that we obtain deliverance by the external teaching of the law, but intimates that when we are renewed by the Spirit of God, we are at the same time justified by a gratuitous pardon, that the curse of sin may no longer abide on us. The sentence then has the same meaning, as though Paul had said, that the grace of regeneration is never disjoined from the imputation of righteousness.

I dare not, with some, take the law of sin and death for the law of God, because it seems a harsh expression. For though by increasing sin it generates death, yet Paul before turned aside designedly from this invidious language. At the same time I no more agree in opinion with those who explain the law of sin as being the lust of the flesh, as though Paul had said, that he had become the conqueror of it. But it will appear very evident shortly, as I think, that he speaks of a gratuitous absolution, which brings to us tranquillizing peace with God. I prefer retaining the word law, rather than with [Erasmus] to render it right or power: for Paul did not without reason allude to the law of God. 238

Calvin: Rom 8:3 - For what was impossible for the law // Because it was weak === etc. That no one might think that the law was irreverently charged with weakness, or confine it to ceremonies, Paul has distinctly expressed that this defect was not owing to any fault in the law, but to the corruption of our flesh; for it must be allowed that if any one really satisfies the divine law, he will be deemed just before God. He does not then deny that the law is sufficient to justify us as to doctrine, inasmuch as it contains a perfect rule of righteousness: but as our flesh does not attain that righteousness, the whole power of the law fails and vanishes away. Thus condemned is the error or rather the delirious notion of those who imagine that the power of justifying is only taken away from ceremonies; for Paul, by laying the blame expressly on us, clearly shows that he found no fault with the doctrine of the law.

But further, understand the weakness of the law according to the sense in which the Apostle usually takes the word ασθενεια, weakness, not only as meaning a small imbecility but impotency; for he means that the law has no power whatever to justify. 241 You then see that we are wholly excluded from the righteousness of works, and must therefore flee to Christ for righteousness, for in us there can be none, and to know this is especially necessary; for we shall never be clothed with the righteousness of Christ except we first know assuredly that we have no righteousness of our own. The word flesh is to be taken still in the same sense, as meaning ourselves. The corruption then of our nature renders the law of God in this respect useless to us; for while it shows the way of life, it does not bring us back who are running headlong into death.

===God having sent his own Son, === etc. He now points out the way in which our heavenly Father has restored righteousness to us by his Son, even by condemning sin in the very flesh of Christ; who by cancelling as it were the handwriting, abolished sin, which held us bound before God; for the condemnation of sin made us free and brought us righteousness, for sin being blotted out we are absolved, so that God counts us as just. But he declares first that Christ was sent, in order to remind us that righteousness by no means dwells in us, for it is to be sought from him, and that men in vain confide in their own merits, who become not just but at the pleasure of another, or who borrow righteousness from that expiation which Christ accomplished in his own flesh. But he says, that he came in the likeness of the flesh of sin; for though the flesh of Christ was polluted by no stains, yet it seemed apparently to be sinful, inasmuch as it sustained the punishment due to our sins, and doubtless death exercised all its power over it as though it was subject to itself. And as it behoved our High-priest to learn by his own experience how to aid the weak, Christ underwent our infirmities, that he might be more inclined to sympathy, and in this respect also there appeared some resemblance of a sinful nature.

===Even for sin 3.For what was impossible for the law, etc. Now follows the polishing or the adorning of his proof, that the Lord has by his gratuitous mercy justi...

3.For what was impossible for the law, etc. Now follows the polishing or the adorning of his proof, that the Lord has by his gratuitous mercy justified us in Christ; the very thing which it was impossible for the law to do. But as this is a very remarkable sentence, let us examine every part of it.

That he treats here of free justification or of the pardon by which God reconciles us to himself, we may infer from the last clause, when he adds, who walk not according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit For if Paul intended to teach us, that we are prepared by the spirit of regeneration to overcome sin, why was this addition made? But it was very proper for him, after having promised gratuitous remission to the faithful, to confine this doctrine to those who join penitence to faith, and turn not the mercy of God so as to promote the licentiousness of the flesh. And then the state of the case must be noticed; for the Apostle teaches us here how the grace of Christ absolves us from guilt.

Now as to the expression, τὸ ἀδύνατον, the impossibility of the law, it is no doubt to be taken for defect or impotency; as though it had been said, that a remedy had been found by God, by which that which was an impossibility to the law is removed. The particle, ἐν ᾧ, [Erasmus] has rendered “ ea parte qua — in that part in which;” but as I think it to be causal, I prefer rendering it, “ eo quod — because:” and though perhaps such a phrase does not occur among good authors in the Greek language, yet as the Apostles everywhere adopt Hebrew modes of expression, this interpretation ought not to be deemed improper. 239 No doubt intelligent readers will allow, that the cause of defect is what is here expressed, as we shall shortly prove again. Now though [Erasmus] supplies the principal verb, yet the text seems to me to flow better without it. The copulative καὶ, and, has led [Erasmus] astray, so as to insert the verb prœstitit — hath performed; but I think that it is used for the sake of emphasis; except it may be, that some will approve of the conjecture of a Grecian scholiast, who connects the clause thus with the preceding words, “God sent his own Son in the likeness of the flesh of sin and on account of sin,” etc. I have however followed what I have thought to be the real meaning of Paul. I come now to the subject itself. 240

Paul clearly declares that our sins were expiated by the death of Christ, because it was impossible for the law to confer righteousness upon us. It hence follows, that more is required by the law than what we can perform; for if we were capable of fulfilling the law there would have been no need to seek a remedy elsewhere. It is therefore absurd to measure human strength by the precepts of the law; as though God in requiring what is justly due, had regarded what and how much we are able to do.

Because it was weak === etc. That no one might think that the law was irreverently charged with weakness, or confine it to ceremonies, Paul has distinctly expressed that this defect was not owing to any fault in the law, but to the corruption of our flesh; for it must be allowed that if any one really satisfies the divine law, he will be deemed just before God. He does not then deny that the law is sufficient to justify us as to doctrine, inasmuch as it contains a perfect rule of righteousness: but as our flesh does not attain that righteousness, the whole power of the law fails and vanishes away. Thus condemned is the error or rather the delirious notion of those who imagine that the power of justifying is only taken away from ceremonies; for Paul, by laying the blame expressly on us, clearly shows that he found no fault with the doctrine of the law.

But further, understand the weakness of the law according to the sense in which the Apostle usually takes the word ασθενεια, weakness, not only as meaning a small imbecility but impotency; for he means that the law has no power whatever to justify. 241 You then see that we are wholly excluded from the righteousness of works, and must therefore flee to Christ for righteousness, for in us there can be none, and to know this is especially necessary; for we shall never be clothed with the righteousness of Christ except we first know assuredly that we have no righteousness of our own. The word flesh is to be taken still in the same sense, as meaning ourselves. The corruption then of our nature renders the law of God in this respect useless to us; for while it shows the way of life, it does not bring us back who are running headlong into death.

===God having sent his own Son, === etc. He now points out the way in which our heavenly Father has restored righteousness to us by his Son, even by condemning sin in the very flesh of Christ; who by cancelling as it were the handwriting, abolished sin, which held us bound before God; for the condemnation of sin made us free and brought us righteousness, for sin being blotted out we are absolved, so that God counts us as just. But he declares first that Christ was sent, in order to remind us that righteousness by no means dwells in us, for it is to be sought from him, and that men in vain confide in their own merits, who become not just but at the pleasure of another, or who borrow righteousness from that expiation which Christ accomplished in his own flesh. But he says, that he came in the likeness of the flesh of sin; for though the flesh of Christ was polluted by no stains, yet it seemed apparently to be sinful, inasmuch as it sustained the punishment due to our sins, and doubtless death exercised all its power over it as though it was subject to itself. And as it behoved our High-priest to learn by his own experience how to aid the weak, Christ underwent our infirmities, that he might be more inclined to sympathy, and in this respect also there appeared some resemblance of a sinful nature.

===Even for sin, etc. I have already said that this is explained by some as the cause or the end for which God sent his own Son, that is, to give satisfaction for sin. [Chrysostom] and many after him understood it in a still harsher sense, even that sin was condemned for sin, and for this reason, because it assailed Christ unjustly and beyond what was right. I indeed allow that though he was just and innocent, he yet underwent punishment for sinners, and that the price of redemption was thus paid; but I cannot be brought to think that the word sin is put here in any other sense than that of an expiatory sacrifice, which is called אשם , ashem, in Hebrew, 242 and so the Greeks call a sacrifice to which a curse is annexed κάθαρμα, catharma. The same thing is declared by Paul in 2Co 5:21, when he says, that

“Christ, who knew no sin, was made sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in him.”

But the preposition περὶ peri, is to be taken here in a causative sense, as though he had said, “On account of that sacrifice, or through the burden of sin being laid on Christ, sin was cast down from its power, so that it does not hold us now subject to itself.” For using a metaphor, he says that it was condemned, like those who fail in their cause; for God no longer deals with those as guilty who have obtained absolution through the sacrifice of Christ. If we say that the kingdom of sin, in which it held us, was demolished, the meaning would be the same. And thus what was ours Christ took as his own, that he might transfer his own to us; for he took our curse, and has freely granted us his blessing.

Paul adds here, In the flesh, and for this end, — that by seeing sin conquered and abolished in our very nature, our confidence might be more certain: for it thus follows, that our nature is really become a partaker of his victory; and this is what he presently declares.

Calvin: Rom 8:4 - That the justification of the law might be fulfilled 4.That the justification of the law might be fulfilled, etc. They who understand that the renewed, by the Spirit of Christ, fulfil the law, introdu...

4.That the justification of the law might be fulfilled, etc. They who understand that the renewed, by the Spirit of Christ, fulfil the law, introduce a gloss wholly alien to the meaning of Paul; for the faithful, while they sojourn in this world, never make such a proficiency, as that the justification of the law becomes in them full or complete. This then must be applied to forgiveness; for when the obedience of Christ is accepted for us, the law is satisfied, so that we are counted just. For the perfection which the law demands was exhibited in our flesh, and for this reason — that its rigor should no longer have the power to condemn us. But as Christ communicates his righteousness to none but to those whom he joins to himself by the bond of his Spirit, the work of renewal is again mentioned, lest Christ should be thought to be the minister of sin: for it is the inclination of many so to apply whatever is taught respecting the paternal kindness of God, as to encourage the lasciviousness of the flesh; and some malignantly slander this doctrine, as though it extinquished the desire to live uprightly. 243

Calvin: Rom 8:5 - NO PHRASE 5.=== For they who are after the flesh, === etc. He introduces this difference between the flesh and the Spirit, not only to confirm, by an argument...

5.=== For they who are after the flesh, === etc. He introduces this difference between the flesh and the Spirit, not only to confirm, by an argument derived from what is of an opposite character, what he has before mentioned, — that the grace of Christ belongs to none but to those who, having been regenerated by the Spirit, strive after purity; but also to relieve the faithful with a seasonable consolation, lest being conscious of many infirmities, they should despair: for as he had exempted none from the curse, but those who lead a spiritual life, he might seem to cut off from all mortals the hope of salvation; for who in this world can be found adorned with so much angelic purity so as to be wholly freed from the flesh? It was therefore necessary to define what it is to be in the flesh, and to walk after the flesh. At first, indeed, Paul does not define the distinction so very precisely; but yet we shall see as we proceed, that his object is to afford good hope to the faithful, though they are bound to their flesh; only let them not give loose reins to its lusts, but give themselves up to be guided by the Holy Spirit.

By saying that carnal men care for, or think upon, the things of the flesh, he shows that he did not count those as carnal who aspire after celestial righteousness, but those who wholly devote themselves to the world. I have rendered φρονουσιν by a word of larger meaning, cogitant — think, that readers may understand that those only are excluded from being the children of God who, being given to the allurements of the flesh, apply their minds and study to depraved lusts. 244 Now, in the second clause he encourages the faithful to entertain good hope, provided they find that they are raised up by the Spirit to the meditation of righteousness: for wherever the Spirit reigns, it is an evidence of the saving grace of God; as the grace of God does not exist where the Spirit being extinguished the reign of the flesh prevails. But I will briefly repeat here what I have reminded you of before, — That to be in the flesh, or, after the flesh, is the same thing as to be without the gift of regeneration: 245 and such are all they who continue, as they commonly say, in pure naturals, ( Puris naturalibus .)

Calvin: Rom 8:6 - The minding of the flesh 6.The minding of the flesh, etc. [Erasmus] has rendered it “affection,” ( affectum ;) the old translator, “prudence,” ( prudentiam .) ...

6.The minding of the flesh, etc. [Erasmus] has rendered it “affection,” ( affectum ;) the old translator, “prudence,” ( prudentiam .) But as it is certain that the το φρονημα of Paul is the same with what Moses calls the imagination ( figmentum — devising) of the heart, (Gen 6:5;) and that under this word are included all the faculties of the soul — reason, understanding, and affections, it seems to me that minding ( cogitatio — thinking, imagining, caring) is a more suitable word 246 And though Paul uses the particle γὰρ — for, yet I doubt not but that is only a simple confirmative, for there is here a kind of concession; for after having briefly defined what it is to be in the flesh, he now subjoins the end that awaits all who are slaves to the flesh. Thus by stating the contrary effect, he proves, that they cannot be partakers of the favor of Christ, who abide in the flesh, for through the whole course of their life they proceed and hasten unto death.

This passage deserves special notice; for we hence learn, that we, while following the course of nature, rush headlong into death; for we, of ourselves, contrive nothing but what ends in ruin. But he immediately adds another clause, to teach us, that if anything in us tends to life, it is what the Spirit produces; for no spark of life proceeds from our flesh.

The minding of the Spirit he calls life, for it is life-giving, or leads to life; and by peace he designates, after the manner of the Hebrews, every kind of happiness; for whatever the Spirit of God works in us tends to our felicity. There is, however, no reason why any one should on this account attribute salvation to works; for though God begins our salvation, and at length completes it by renewing us after his own image; yet the only cause is his good pleasure, whereby he makes us partakers of Christ.

Calvin: Rom 8:7 - Because the minding of the flesh, // For to the law of God // Nor can be 7.Because the minding of the flesh, 247 etc. He subjoins a proof of what he had stated, — that nothing proceeds from the efforts of our flesh but...

7.Because the minding of the flesh, 247 etc. He subjoins a proof of what he had stated, — that nothing proceeds from the efforts of our flesh but death, because it contends as an enemy against the will of God. Now the will of God is the rule of righteousness; it hence follows, that whatever is unjust is contrary to it; and what is unjust at the same time brings death. But while God is adverse, and is offended, in vain does any one expect life; for his wrath must be necessarily followed by death, which is the avenging of his wrath. But let us observe here, that the will of man is in all things opposed to the divine will; for, as much as what is crooked differs from what is straight, so much must be the difference between us and God.

For to the law of God, etc. This is an explanation of the former sentence; and it shows how all the thinkings ( meditationes ) of the flesh carry on war against the will of God; for his will cannot be assailed but where he has revealed it. In the law God shows what pleases him: hence they who wish really to find out how far they agree with God must test all their purposes and practices by this rule. For though nothing is done in this world, except by the secret governing providence of God; yet to say, under this pretext, that nothing is done but what he approves, ( nihil nisi eo approbante fieri ,) is intolerable blasphemy; and on this subject some fanatics are wrangling at this day. The law has set the difference between right and wrong plainly and distinctly before our eyes, and to seek it in a deep labyrinth, what sottishness is it! The Lord has indeed, as I have said, his hidden counsel, by which he regulates all things as he pleases; but as it is incomprehensible to us, let us know that we are to refrain from too curious an investigation of it. Let this in the mean time remain as a fixed principle, — that nothing pleases him but righteousness, and also, that no right estimate can be made of our works but by the law, in which he has faithfully testified what he approves and disapproves.

Nor can be. Behold the power of free-will! which the Sophists cannot carry high enough. Doubtless, Paul affirms here, in express words, what they openly detest, — that it is impossible for us to render our powers subject to the law. They boast that the heart can turn to either side, provide it be aided by the influence of the Spirit, and that a free choice of good or evil is in our power, when the Spirit only brings help; but it is ours to choose or refuse. They also imagine some good emotions, by which we become of ourselves prepared. Paul, on the contrary, declares, that the heart is full of hardness and indomitable contumacy, so that it is never moved naturally to undertake the yoke of God; nor does he speak of this or of that faculty, but speaking indefinitely, he throws into one bundle all the emotions which arise within us. 248 Far, then, from a Christian heart be this heathen philosophy respecting the liberty of the will. Let every one acknowledge himself to be the servant of sin, as he is in reality, that he may be made free, being set at liberty by the grace of Christ: to glory in any other liberty is the highest folly.

Calvin: Rom 8:8 - NO PHRASE 8.=== They then who are in the flesh, === etc. It is not without reason that I have rendered the adversative δὲ as an illative: for the Apostle i...

8.=== They then who are in the flesh, === etc. It is not without reason that I have rendered the adversative δὲ as an illative: for the Apostle infers from what had been said, that those who give themselves up to be guided by the lusts of the flesh, are all of them abominable before God; and he has thus far confirmed this truth, — that all who walk not after the Spirit are alienated from Christ, for they are without any spiritual life.

Calvin: Rom 8:9 - But ye // If indeed the Spirit of God // But if any have not the Spirit of Christ 9.But ye, etc. He applies hypothetically a general truth to those to whom he was writing; not only that by directing his discourse to them particul...

9.But ye, etc. He applies hypothetically a general truth to those to whom he was writing; not only that by directing his discourse to them particularly he might more powerfully affect them, but also that they might with certainty gather from the description already given, that they were of the number of those, from whom Christ had taken away the curse of the law. Yet, at the same time, by explaining what the Spirit of God works in the elect, and what fruit he brings forth, he encourages them to strive after newness of life.

If indeed the Spirit of God, etc. This qualifying sentence is fitly subjoined, by which they were stirred up to examine themselves more closely, lest they should profess the name of Christ in vain. And it is the surest mark by which the children of God are distinguished from the children of the world, when by the Spirit of God they are renewed unto purity and holiness. It seems at the same time to have been his purpose, not so much to detect hypocrisy, as to suggest reasons for glorying against the absurd zealots of the law, who esteem the dead letter of more importance than the inward power of the Spirit, who gives life to the law.

But this passage shows, that what Paul has hitherto meant by the Spirit, is not the mind or understanding (which is called the superior part of the soul by the advocates of freewill) but a celestial gift; for he shows that those are spiritual, not such as obey reason through their own will, but such as God rules by his Spirit. Nor are they yet said to be according to the Spirit, because they are filled with God’s Spirit, (which is now the case with none,) but because they have the Spirit dwelling in them, though they find some remains of the flesh still remaining in them: at the same time it cannot dwell in them without having the superiority; for it must be observed that man’s state is known by the power that bears rule in him.

But if any have not the Spirit of Christ, etc. He subjoins this to show how necessary in Christians is the denial of the flesh. The reign of the Spirit is the abolition of the flesh. Those in whom the Spirit reigns not, belong not to Christ; then they are not Christians who serve the flesh; for they who separate Christ from his own Spirit make him like a dead image or a carcase. And we must always bear in mind what the Apostle has intimated, that gratuitous remission of sins can never be separated from the Spirit of regeneration; for this would be as it were to rend Christ asunder.

If this be true, it is strange that we are accused of arrogance by the adversaries of the gospel, because we dare to avow that the Spirit of Christ dwells in us: for we must either deny Christ, or confess that we become Christians through his Spirit. It is indeed dreadful to hear that men have so departed from the word of the Lord, that they not only vaunt that they are Christians without God’s Spirit, but also ridicule the faith of others: but such is the philosophy of the Papists.

But let readers observe here, that the Spirit is, without any distinction, called sometimes the Spirit of God the Father, and sometimes the Spirit of Christ; and thus called, not only because his whole fulness was poured on Christ as our Mediator and head, so that from him a portion might descend on each of us, but also because he is equally the Spirit of the Father and of the Son, who have one essence, and the same eternal divinity. As, however, we have no intercourse with God except through Christ, the Apostle wisely descends to Christ from the Father, who seems to be far off:

Calvin: Rom 8:10 - But if Christ be in us 10.But if Christ be in us, etc. What he had before said of the Spirit he says now of Christ, in order that the mode of Christ’s dwelling in us mi...

10.But if Christ be in us, etc. What he had before said of the Spirit he says now of Christ, in order that the mode of Christ’s dwelling in us might be intimated; for as by the Spirit he consecrates us as temples to himself, so by the same he dwells in us. But what we have before referred to, he now explains more fully — that the children of God are counted spiritual, not on the ground of a full and complete perfection, but only on account of the newness of life that is begun in them. And he anticipates here an occasion of doubt, which might have otherwise disturbed us; for though the Spirit possesses a part of us, we yet see another part still under the power of death. He then gives this answer — that the power of quickening is in the Spirit of Christ, which will be effectual in swallowing up our mortality. He hence concludes that we must patiently wait until the relics of sin be entirely abolished.

Readers have been already reminded, that by the word Spirit they are not to understand the soul, but the Spirit of regeneration; and Paul calls the Spirit life, not only because he lives and reigns in us, but also because he quickens us by his power, until at length, having destroyed the mortal fesh, he perfectly renews us. So, on the other hand, the word body signifies that gross mass which is not yet purified by the Spirit of God from earthly dregs, which delight in nothing but what is gross; for it would be otherwise absurd to ascribe to the body the fault of sin: besides the soul is so far from being life that it does not of itself live. The meaning of Paul then is — that although sin adjudges us to death as far as the corruption of our first nature remains in us, yet that the Spirit of God is its conqueror: nor is it any hindrance, that we are only favored with the first-fruits, for even one spark of the Spirit is the seed of life. 249

Calvin: Rom 8:11 - If the Spirit // Who raised 11.If the Spirit, etc. This is a confirmation of the last verse, derived from the efficient cause, and according to this sense, — “Since by the...

11.If the Spirit, etc. This is a confirmation of the last verse, derived from the efficient cause, and according to this sense, — “Since by the power of God’s Spirit Christ was raised, and since the Spirit possesses eternal power, he will also exert the same with regard to us.” And he takes it as granted, that in the person of Christ was exhibited a specimen of the power which belongs to the whole body of the Church: and as he makes God the author of the resurrection, he assigns to him a life-giving Spirit.

Who raised, etc. By this periphrasis he describes God; which harmonizes better with his present object, than if he had called him simply by his own name. For the same reason he assigns to the Father the glory of raising Christ; for it more clearly proved what he had in view, than if he had ascribed the act to Christ himself. For it might have been objected, “That Christ was able by his own power to raise up himself, and this is what no man can do.” But when he says, that God raised up Christ by his Spirit, and that he also communicated his Spirit to us, there is nothing that can be alleged to the contrary; so that he thus makes sure to us the hope of resurrection. Nor is there anything here that derogates from that declaration in John,

“I have power to lay down my life, and to take it up again.”
(Joh 10:18.)

No doubt Christ arose through his own power; but as he is wont to attribute to the Father whatever Divine power he possesses, so the Apostle has not improperly transferred to the Father what was especially done by Christ, as the peculiar work of divinity.

By mortal bodies he understands all those things which still remain in us, that are subject to death; for his usual practice is to give this name to the grosser part of us. We hence conclude, that he speaks not of the last resurrection, which shall be in a moment, but of the continued working of the Spirit, by which he gradually mortifies the relics of the flesh and renews in us a celestial life.

Calvin: Rom 8:12 - So then, brethren 12.So then, brethren, etc. This is the conclusion of what has been previously said; for if we are to renounce the flesh, we ought not to consent to...

12.So then, brethren, etc. This is the conclusion of what has been previously said; for if we are to renounce the flesh, we ought not to consent to it; and if the Spirit ought to reign in us, it is inconsistent not to attend to his bidding. Paul’s sentence is here defective, for he omits the other part of the contrast, — that we are debtors to the Spirit; but the meaning is in no way obscure. 251 This conclusion has the force of an exhortation; for he is ever wont to draw exhortations from his doctrine. So in another place, Eph 4:30, he exhorts us

“not to grieve the Spirit of God, by whom we have been sealed to the day of redemption:”

he does the same in Gal 5:25,

“If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.”

And this is the case, when we renounce carnal lusts, so as to devote ourselves, as those who are bound, to the righteousness of God. Thus indeed we ought to reason, not as some blasphemers are wont to do, who talk idly, and say, — that we must do nothing, because we have no power. But it is as it were to fight against God, when we extinguish the grace offered to us, by contempt and negligence.

Calvin: Rom 8:13 - NO PHRASE 13.=== For if ye will live after the flesh, === etc. He adds a threatening, in order more effectually to shake off their torpor; by which also they ...

13.=== For if ye will live after the flesh, === etc. He adds a threatening, in order more effectually to shake off their torpor; by which also they are fully confuted who boast of justification by faith without the Spirit of Christ, though they are more than sufficiently convicted by their own conscience; for there is no confidence in God, where there is no love of righteousness. It is indeed true, that we are justified in Christ through the mercy of God alone; but it is equally true and certain, that all who are justified are called by the Lord, that they may live worthy of their vocation. Let then the faithful learn to embrace him, not only for justification, but also for sanctification, as he has been given to us for both these purposes, lest they rend him asunder by their mutilated faith.

===But if ye by the Spirit, === etc. He thus moderates his address, that he might not deject the minds of the godly, who are still conscious of much infirmity; for however we may as yet be exposed to sins, he nevertheless promises life to us, provided we strive to mortify the flesh: for he does not strictly require the destruction of the flesh, but only bids us to make every exertion to subdue its lusts.

Calvin: Rom 8:14 - For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God 14.For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, etc. This is a confirmation of what has immediately preceded; for he teaches us, that those only are...

14.For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God, etc. This is a confirmation of what has immediately preceded; for he teaches us, that those only are deemed the sons of God who are ruled by his Spirit; for by this mark God acknowledges them as his own people. Thus the empty boasting of hypocrites is taken away, who without any reason assume the title; and the faithful are thus encouraged with unhesitating confidence to expect salvation. The import of the whole is this — “all those are the sons of God who are led 252 by God’s Spirit; all the sons of God are heirs of eternal life: then all who are led by God’s Spirit ought to feel assured of eternal life. But the middle term or assumption is omitted, for it was indubitable.

But it is right to observe, that the working of the Spirit is various: for there is that which is universal, by which all creatures are sustained and preserved; there is that also which is peculiar to men, and varying in its character: but what he means here is sanctification, with which the Lord favors none but his own elect, and by which he separates them for sons to himself.

Calvin: Rom 8:15 - NO PHRASE 15. ]He now confirms the certainty of that confidence, in which he has already bidden the faithful to rest secure; and he does this by mentioning th...

15. ]He now confirms the certainty of that confidence, in which he has already bidden the faithful to rest secure; and he does this by mentioning the special effect produced by the Spirit; for he has not been given for the purpose of harassing us with trembling or of tormenting us with anxiety; but on the contrary, for this end — that having calmed every perturbation, and restoring our minds to a tranquil state, he may stir us up to call on God with confidence and freedom. He does not then pursue only the argument which he had before stated, but dwells more on another clause, which he had connected with it, even the paternal mercy of God, by which he forgives his people the infirmities of the flesh and the sins which still remain in them. He teaches us that our confidence in this respect is made certain by the Spirit of adoption, who could not inspire us with confidence in prayer without sealing to us a gratuitous pardon: and that he might make this more evident, he mentions a twofold spirit; he calls one the spirit of bondage, which we receive from the law; and the other, the spirit of adoption, which proceeds from the gospel. The first, he says, was given formerly to produce fear; the other is given now to afford assurance. By such a comparison of contrary things the certainty of our salvation, which he intended to confirm, is, as you see, made more evident. 253 The same comparison is used by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, where he says, that we have not come to Mount Sinai, where all thing were so terrible, that the people, being alarmed as it were by an immediate apprehension of death, implored that the word should be no more spoken to them, and Moses himself confessed that he was terrified;

“but to Sion, the mount of the Lord, and to his city, the heavenly Jerusalem, where Jesus is, the Mediator of the New Testament,” etc. (Heb 12:22.)

By the adverb again, we learn, that the law is here compared with the gospel: for the Son of God by his coming has brought to us this invaluable benefit, — that we are no longer bound by the servile condition of the law. You are not however to infer from this, either that no one before the coming of Christ was endued with the spirit of adoption, or that all who received the law were servants and not sons: for he compares the ministration of the law with the dispensation of the gospel rather than persons with persons. I indeed allow that the faithful are here reminded how much more bountifully God now deals with them than he did formerly with the fathers under the Old Testament; he yet regards the outward dispensation, in respect of which only we excel them: for though the faith of Abraham, of Moses, and of David, was superior to ours, yet as God kept them apparently under a schoolmaster, they had not advanced into that liberty which has been revealed to us.

But it must at the same time be noticed, that it was designedly, on account of false apostles, that a contrast was made between the literal disciples of the law, and the faithful whom Christ, the heavenly Teacher, not only addresses by words, but also teaches inwardly and effectually by his Spirit.

And though the covenant of grace is included under the law, it is yet far different from it; for in setting up the gospel in opposition to it, he regards nothing but what was peculiar to the law itself, as it commands and forbids, and restrains transgressors by the denunciation of death: and thus he gives the law its own character, in which it differs from the gospel; or this statement may be preferred by some, — “He sets forth the law only, as that by which God covenants with us on the ground of works.” So then persons only must be regarded as to the Jewish people; for when the law was published, and also after it was published, the godly were illuminated by the same Spirit of faith; and thus the hope of eternal life, of which the Spirit is the earnest and seal, was sealed on their hearts. The only difference is, that the Spirit is more largely and abundantly poured forth in the kingdom of Christ. But if you regard only the dispensation of the law, it will then appear, that salvation was first clearly revealed at that time, when Christ was manifested in the flesh. All things under the Old Testament were involved in great obscurity, when compared with the clear light of the gospel.

And then, if the law be viewed in itself, it can do nothing but restrain those, devoted to its miserable bondage, by the horror of death; for it promises no good except under condition, and denounces death on all transgressors. Hence, as there is the spirit of bondage under the law, which oppresses the conscience with fear; so under the gospel there is the spirit of adoption, which exhilarates our souls by bearing a testimony as to our salvation. But observe, that fear is connected with bondage, as it cannot be otherwise, but that the law will harass and torment souls with miserable disquietness, as long as it exercises its dominion. There is then no other remedy for quieting them, except God forgives us our sin and deals kindly with us as a father with his children.

===Through whom we cry, === etc. He has changed the person, that he might describe the common privilege of all the saints; as though he had said, — “Ye have the spirit, through whom you and all we, the rest of the faithful, cry,” etc. The imitation of their language is very significant; when he introduces the word Father, in the person of the faithful. The repetition of the name is for the sake of amplification; for Paul intimates, that God’s mercy was so published through the whole world, that he was invoked, as [Augustine] observes, indiscriminately in all languages. 254 His object then was to express the consent which existed among all nations. It hence follows, that there is now no difference between the Jew and the Greek, as they are united together. Isaiah speaks differently when he declares, that the language of Canaan would be common to all, (Isa 19:18;) yet the meaning is the same; for he had no respect to the external idiom, but to the harmony of heart in serving God, and to the same undisguised zeal in professing his true and pure worship. The word cry is set down for the purpose of expressing confidence; as though he said, “We pray not doubtingly, but we confidently raise up a loud voice to heaven.”

The faithful also under the law did indeed call God their Father, but not with such full confidence, as the vail kept them at a distance from the sanctuary: but now, since an entrance has been opened to us by the blood of Christ, we may rejoice fully and openly that we are the children of God; hence arises this crying. In short, thus is fulfilled the prophecy of Hosea,

“I will say to them, My people are ye: they in their turn will answer, Thou art our God.” (Hos 2:23.)

For the more evident the promise is, the greater the freedom in prayer.

Calvin: Rom 8:16 - The Spirit himself 16.The Spirit himself, etc. He does not simply say, that God’s Spirit is a witness to our spirit, but he adopts a compound verb, which might be r...

16.The Spirit himself, etc. He does not simply say, that God’s Spirit is a witness to our spirit, but he adopts a compound verb, which might be rendered “contest,” ( contestatur ,) were it not that contestation ( contestatio ) has a different meaning in Latin. But Paul means, that the Spirit of God gives us such a testimony, that when he is our guide and teacher, our spirit is made assured of the adoption of God: for our mind of its own self, without the preceding testimony of the Spirit, could not convey to us this assurance. There is also here an explanation of the former verse; for when the Spirit testifies to us, that we are the children of God, he at the same time pours into our hearts such confidence, that we venture to call God our Father. And doubtless, since the confidence of the heart alone opens our mouth, except the Spirit testifies to our heart respecting the paternal love of God, our tongues would be dumb, so that they could utter no prayers. For we must ever hold fast this principle, — that we do not rightly pray to God, unless we are surely persuaded in our hearts, that he is our Father, when we so call him with our lips. To this there is a corresponding part, — that our faith has no true evidence, except we call upon God. It is not then without reason that Paul, bringing us to this test, shows that it then only appears how truly any one believes, when they who have embraced the promise of grace, exercise themselves in prayers. 255

But there is here a striking refutation of the vain notions of the Sophists respecting moral conjecture, which is nothing else but uncertainty and anxiety of mind; nay, rather vacillation and delusion. 256 There is also an answer given here to their objection, for they ask, “How can a man fully know the will of God?” This certainly is not within the reach of man, but it is the testimony of God’s Spirit; and this subject he treats more at large in 1Co 2:6, from which we may derive a fuller explanation of a passage. Let this truth then stand sure, — that no one can be called a son of God, who does not know himself to be such; and this is called knowledge by John, in order to set forth its certainty. (1Jo 5:19.)

Calvin: Rom 8:17 - And if children // If so be that we suffer together 17.And if children, etc. By an argument, taken from what is annexed or what follows, he proves that our salvation consists in having God as our Fat...

17.And if children, etc. By an argument, taken from what is annexed or what follows, he proves that our salvation consists in having God as our Father. It is for children that inheritance is appointed: since God then has adopted us as his children, he has at the same time ordained an inheritance for us. He then intimates what sort of inheritance it is — that it is heavenly, and therefore incorruptible and eternal, such as Christ possesses; and his possession of it takes away all uncertainty: and it is a commendation of the exellency of this inheritance, that we shall partake of it in common with the only-begotten Son of God. It is however the design of Paul, as it will presently appear more fully, highly to extol this inheritance promised to us, that we may be contented with it, and manfully despise the allurements of the world, and patiently bear whatever troubles may press on us in this life.

If so be that we suffer together, etc. Various are the interpretations of this passage, but I approve of the following in preference to any other, “We are co-heirs with Christ, provided, in entering on our inheritance, we follow him in the same way in which he has gone before.” And he thus made mention of Christ, because he designed to pass over by these steps to an encouraging strain, — “God’s inheritance is ours, because we have by his grace been adopted as his children; and that it may not be doubtful, its possession as been already conferred on Christ, whose partners we are become: but Christ came to it by the cross; then we must come to it in the same manner.” 257 Nor is that to be dreaded which some fear, that Paul thus ascribes the cause of our eternal glory to our labours; for this mode of speaking is not unusual in Scripture. He denotes the order, which the Lord follows in dispensing salvation to us, rather than the cause; for he has already sufficiently defended the gratuitous mercy of God against the merits of works. When now exhorting us to patience, he does not show whence salvation proceeds, but how God governs his people.

Calvin: Rom 8:18 - I indeed judge 18.I indeed judge, 258 etc. Though they take not altogether an unsuitable view who understand this as a kind of modification; yet I prefer to regar...

18.I indeed judge, 258 etc. Though they take not altogether an unsuitable view who understand this as a kind of modification; yet I prefer to regard it in the light of an encouragement, for the purpose of anticipating an objection, according to this import, — “It ought not indeed to be grievous to us, if we must pass through various afflictions into celestial glory, since these, when compared with the greatness of that glory, are of the least moment.” He has mentioned future for eternal glory, intimating that the afflictions of the world are such as pass away quickly.

It is hence evident how ill understood has this passage been by the Schoolmen; for they have drawn from it their frivolous distinction between congruity and condignity. The Apostle indeed compares not the worthiness of the one with that of the other, but only lightens the heaviness of the cross by a comparison with the greatness of glory, in order to confirm the minds of the faithful in patience.