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Teks -- Proverbs 30:1-33 (NET)

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Konteks
The Words of Agur
30:1 The words of Agur, the son of Jakeh; an oracle: This man says to Ithiel, to Ithiel and to Ukal: 30:2 Surely I am more brutish than any other human being, and I do not have human understanding; 30:3 I have not learned wisdom, nor do I have knowledge of the Holy One. 30:4 Who has ascended into heaven, and then descended? Who has gathered up the winds in his fists? Who has bound up the waters in his cloak? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name?– if you know! 30:5 Every word of God is purified; he is like a shield for those who take refuge in him. 30:6 Do not add to his words, lest he reprove you, and prove you to be a liar. 30:7 Two things I ask from you; do not refuse me before I die: 30:8 Remove falsehood and lies far from me; do not give me poverty or riches, feed me with my allotted portion of bread, 30:9 lest I become satisfied and act deceptively and say, “Who is the Lord?” Or lest I become poor and steal and demean the name of my God. 30:10 Do not slander a servant to his master, lest he curse you, and you are found guilty. 30:11 There is a generation who curse their fathers and do not bless their mothers. 30:12 There is a generation who are pure in their own eyes and yet are not washed from their filthiness. 30:13 There is a generation whose eyes are so lofty, and whose eyelids are lifted up disdainfully. 30:14 There is a generation whose teeth are like swords and whose molars are like knives to devour the poor from the earth and the needy from among the human race. 30:15 The leech has two daughters: “Give! Give!” There are three things that are never satisfied, four that never say, “Enough”– 30:16 the grave, the barren womb, land that is not satisfied with water, and fire that never says, “Enough!” 30:17 The eye that mocks at a father and despises obeying a mother– the ravens of the valley will peck it out and the young vultures will eat it. 30:18 There are three things that are too wonderful for me, four that I do not understand: 30:19 the way of an eagle in the sky, the way of a snake on a rock, the way of a ship in the sea, and the way of a man with a woman. 30:20 This is the way of an adulterous woman: she eats and wipes her mouth and says, “I have not done wrong.” 30:21 Under three things the earth trembles, and under four things it cannot bear up: 30:22 under a servant who becomes king, under a fool who is stuffed with food, 30:23 under an unloved woman who is married, and under a female servant who dispossesses her mistress. 30:24 There are four things on earth that are small, but they are exceedingly wise: 30:25 ants are creatures with little strength, but they prepare their food in the summer; 30:26 rock badgers are creatures with little power, but they make their homes in the crags; 30:27 locusts have no king, but they all go forward by ranks; 30:28 a lizard you can catch with the hand, but it gets into the palaces of the king. 30:29 There are three things that are magnificent in their step, four things that move about magnificently: 30:30 a lion, mightiest of the beasts, who does not retreat from anything; 30:31 a strutting rooster, a male goat, and a king with his army around him. 30:32 If you have done foolishly by exalting yourself or if you have planned evil, put your hand over your mouth! 30:33 For as the churning of milk produces butter and as punching the nose produces blood, so stirring up anger produces strife.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Agur son of Jakeh of the Arabian tribe of Massa (OS)
 · Ithiel son of Jeshaiah of Benjamin,a man who was perhaps Agur's student (NIVfn)
 · Jakeh father of Agur, the wise man who wrote Proverbs 30
 · Massa son of Ishmael son of Abraham and Hagar,a tribe of people in Arabia (OS)
 · Sheol the place of the dead
 · Ucal perhaps Agur's student to whom Proverbs 30 was written (NIVfn)


Topik/Tema Kamus: Agur | MASSA | Riddle | FOUR | Serpent | Coney | NUMBER | Spider | Ucal | Raven | Animals | Industry | Servant | Humility | Ithiel | Adultery | Blasphemy | GOD, 2 | Lasciviousness | Hell | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Pro 30:1 - Jakeh Who lived either in Solomon's time, or rather afterwards, and was famous in his generation for wisdom and piety.

Who lived either in Solomon's time, or rather afterwards, and was famous in his generation for wisdom and piety.

Wesley: Pro 30:1 - The prophecy The prophetical instruction; for as the prophets were public preachers as well as foretellers of things to come, so their sermons, no less than their ...

The prophetical instruction; for as the prophets were public preachers as well as foretellers of things to come, so their sermons, no less than their predictions, are commonly called their prophecies.

Wesley: Pro 30:1 - And Ucal Two friends and co - temporaries of Agur, who desired his instructions.

Two friends and co - temporaries of Agur, who desired his instructions.

Wesley: Pro 30:2 - Surely This he utters from a modest and humble apprehension of his own ignorance.

This he utters from a modest and humble apprehension of his own ignorance.

Wesley: Pro 30:3 - I neither learned I have not been taught in the schools of wisdom.

I have not been taught in the schools of wisdom.

Wesley: Pro 30:3 - Of the holy Of the holy prophets. I have not such Divine inspirations as prophets strictly so called have received.

Of the holy prophets. I have not such Divine inspirations as prophets strictly so called have received.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - Who What mere man? None at all.

What mere man? None at all.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - Ascended To learn the mind of God who dwells there.

To learn the mind of God who dwells there.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - Descended To teach men below what he had learned above. No man can fully know and teach us these things unless he hath been in heaven, and sent down from thence...

To teach men below what he had learned above. No man can fully know and teach us these things unless he hath been in heaven, and sent down from thence to the earth for that end.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - In his fists To hold them in, or let them out at his pleasure? And none but he who made and governs all creatures, can know and teach these things.

To hold them in, or let them out at his pleasure? And none but he who made and governs all creatures, can know and teach these things.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - The waters Those above the clouds, and those below, the sea which God keeps as it were within doors, and the water which he shuts up in the bowels of the earth.

Those above the clouds, and those below, the sea which God keeps as it were within doors, and the water which he shuts up in the bowels of the earth.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - The earth The whole earth from one end to another, which God upholdeth in the air, by the word of his power.

The whole earth from one end to another, which God upholdeth in the air, by the word of his power.

Wesley: Pro 30:4 - If If thou thinkest there be any man who can do these things, produce his name; or if he be dead, the name of any of his posterity.

If thou thinkest there be any man who can do these things, produce his name; or if he be dead, the name of any of his posterity.

Wesley: Pro 30:5 - Pure You must not expect the full knowledge of Divine mysteries from me, nor from any man, but from the word of God.

You must not expect the full knowledge of Divine mysteries from me, nor from any man, but from the word of God.

Wesley: Pro 30:8 - Vanity All vanity of heart and life; a vain conversation, or a love of the vain things of this world.

All vanity of heart and life; a vain conversation, or a love of the vain things of this world.

Wesley: Pro 30:8 - Lies All falsehood and deceit in my words and carriage.

All falsehood and deceit in my words and carriage.

Wesley: Pro 30:8 - Convenient Moderate and suitable both to my natural necessities, and to that condition of life in which thou hast put me.

Moderate and suitable both to my natural necessities, and to that condition of life in which thou hast put me.

Wesley: Pro 30:9 - Deny thee By trusting to riches, which is a denial of God, and by unthankfulness for, and abuse of his mercies.

By trusting to riches, which is a denial of God, and by unthankfulness for, and abuse of his mercies.

Wesley: Pro 30:9 - Who is the Lord That I should serve him.

That I should serve him.

Wesley: Pro 30:9 - Lest I take Use false oaths either to vindicate myself when I am suspected, or to gratify others, as poor men frequently do.

Use false oaths either to vindicate myself when I am suspected, or to gratify others, as poor men frequently do.

Wesley: Pro 30:10 - Accuse not Without sufficient cause: for otherwise, in some cases this may be a duty.

Without sufficient cause: for otherwise, in some cases this may be a duty.

Wesley: Pro 30:10 - Curse thee Desire God to punish thee.

Desire God to punish thee.

Wesley: Pro 30:10 - Guilty By God, who is ready to plead the cause of the afflicted.

By God, who is ready to plead the cause of the afflicted.

Wesley: Pro 30:11 - A generation A sort of men.

A sort of men.

Wesley: Pro 30:12 - Not washed Who imagine they are truly religious, when they live in a course of wickedness.

Who imagine they are truly religious, when they live in a course of wickedness.

Wesley: Pro 30:14 - Devour Extortioners, and cruel oppressors.

Extortioners, and cruel oppressors.

Wesley: Pro 30:15 - The horse leach - An insatiable creature, sucking blood 'till it is ready to burst.

leach - An insatiable creature, sucking blood 'till it is ready to burst.

Wesley: Pro 30:15 - Two daughters The following things resemble the horse - leach in its insatiableness; nothing being more ordinary than to call those persons or things the sons or da...

The following things resemble the horse - leach in its insatiableness; nothing being more ordinary than to call those persons or things the sons or daughters of those whose examples they imitate.

Wesley: Pro 30:15 - Three Though he begins with two, yet he proceeds from thence to three, and four, all which are said to be the daughters of the horse - leach.

Though he begins with two, yet he proceeds from thence to three, and four, all which are said to be the daughters of the horse - leach.

Wesley: Pro 30:17 - The eye He that scorneth or derideth his parents, tho' it be but with a look or gesture, and much more when he breaks out into opprobrious words and actions.

He that scorneth or derideth his parents, tho' it be but with a look or gesture, and much more when he breaks out into opprobrious words and actions.

Wesley: Pro 30:18 - Wonderful The way whereof I cannot trace.

The way whereof I cannot trace.

Wesley: Pro 30:20 - Such is So secret and undiscernible.

So secret and undiscernible.

Wesley: Pro 30:20 - Eateth The bread of deceit in secret.

The bread of deceit in secret.

Wesley: Pro 30:21 - Four Which are intolerable in human societies.

Which are intolerable in human societies.

Wesley: Pro 30:22 - A servant For such an one is commonly ignorant, and therefore commits many errors; he is poor, and therefore insatiable, he is proud and imperious, and usually ...

For such an one is commonly ignorant, and therefore commits many errors; he is poor, and therefore insatiable, he is proud and imperious, and usually injurious and cruel.

Wesley: Pro 30:22 - A fool A conceited fool.

A conceited fool.

Wesley: Pro 30:22 - When When he abounds in wealth.

When he abounds in wealth.

Wesley: Pro 30:23 - An odious Proud, and perverse.

Proud, and perverse.

Wesley: Pro 30:23 - Married For then she displays all those ill humours, which before, she concealed.

For then she displays all those ill humours, which before, she concealed.

Wesley: Pro 30:23 - Is heir Which great and sudden change transports her beside herself, and makes her insufferably proud and scornful.

Which great and sudden change transports her beside herself, and makes her insufferably proud and scornful.

Wesley: Pro 30:27 - Bands Several companies, in exact order.

Several companies, in exact order.

Wesley: Pro 30:28 - Hands With her legs, which he calls hands, because they serve her for the same use, to do her work, to weave her web, and to catch gnats or flies.

With her legs, which he calls hands, because they serve her for the same use, to do her work, to weave her web, and to catch gnats or flies.

Wesley: Pro 30:28 - Palaces Is not only in poor cottages, but many times in palaces also.

Is not only in poor cottages, but many times in palaces also.

Wesley: Pro 30:31 - An he goat - Which marches in the head of the flock in a grave and stately manner, conducting them with great courage and resolution, and being ready to fig...

goat - Which marches in the head of the flock in a grave and stately manner, conducting them with great courage and resolution, and being ready to fight for them, either with beasts or men that oppose him.

Wesley: Pro 30:31 - A king Heb. a king and his people with him, a king when he hath the hearts and hands of his people going along with him in his undertakings.

Heb. a king and his people with him, a king when he hath the hearts and hands of his people going along with him in his undertakings.

Wesley: Pro 30:32 - Thought Designed any injury against thy neighbour.

Designed any injury against thy neighbour.

Wesley: Pro 30:32 - Lay thine hand Do not open thy mouth to excuse it, but repent of it, and do so no more.

Do not open thy mouth to excuse it, but repent of it, and do so no more.

Wesley: Pro 30:33 - The forcing The stirring up of wrath, either in a man's self towards others, by giving way to passion; or in others by reproaches, or any other provocations.

The stirring up of wrath, either in a man's self towards others, by giving way to passion; or in others by reproaches, or any other provocations.

Wesley: Pro 30:33 - Bringeth forth Is the cause of many quarrels.

Is the cause of many quarrels.

JFB: Pro 30:1 - -- (Pro. 30:1-33) This is the title of this chapter (see Introduction).

(Pro. 30:1-33)

This is the title of this chapter (see Introduction).

JFB: Pro 30:1 - the prophecy Literally, "the burden" (compare Isa 13:1; Zec 9:1), used for any divine instruction; not necessarily a prediction, which was only a kind of prophecy ...

Literally, "the burden" (compare Isa 13:1; Zec 9:1), used for any divine instruction; not necessarily a prediction, which was only a kind of prophecy (1Ch 15:27, "a song"). Prophets were inspired men, who spoke for God to man, or for man to God (Gen 20:7; Exo 7:14-16). Such, also, were the New Testament prophets. In a general sense, Gad, Nathan, and others were such, who were divine teachers, though we do not learn that they ever predicted.

JFB: Pro 30:1 - the man spake Literally, "the saying of the man"; an expression used to denote any solemn and important announcement (compare 2Sa 23:1; Psa 36:1; Psa 110:1; Isa 1:2...

Literally, "the saying of the man"; an expression used to denote any solemn and important announcement (compare 2Sa 23:1; Psa 36:1; Psa 110:1; Isa 1:24, &c.). Ithiel and Ucal were perhaps pupils.

JFB: Pro 30:2-4 - brutish Stupid, a strong term to denote his lowly self-estimation; or he may speak of such as his natural condition, as contrasted with God's all-seeing compr...

Stupid, a strong term to denote his lowly self-estimation; or he may speak of such as his natural condition, as contrasted with God's all-seeing comprehensive knowledge and almighty power. The questions of this clause emphatically deny the attributes mentioned to be those of any creature, thus impressively strengthening the implied reference of the former to God (compare Deu 30:12-14; Isa 40:12; Eph 4:8).

JFB: Pro 30:5 - -- (Compare Psa 12:6; Psa 119:140).

(Compare Psa 12:6; Psa 119:140).

JFB: Pro 30:6 - Add . . . words Implying that his sole reliance was on God's all-sufficient teaching.

Implying that his sole reliance was on God's all-sufficient teaching.

JFB: Pro 30:6 - reprove thee Or, "convict thee"--and so the falsehood will appear.

Or, "convict thee"--and so the falsehood will appear.

JFB: Pro 30:7-9 - -- A prayer for exemption from wickedness, and the extremes of poverty and riches, the two things mentioned. Contentment is implied as desired.

A prayer for exemption from wickedness, and the extremes of poverty and riches, the two things mentioned. Contentment is implied as desired.

JFB: Pro 30:8 - vanity All sorts of sinful acts (Job 11:11; Isa 5:18).

All sorts of sinful acts (Job 11:11; Isa 5:18).

JFB: Pro 30:9 - be full . . . deny That is, puffed up by the pride of prosperity.

That is, puffed up by the pride of prosperity.

JFB: Pro 30:9 - take the name . . . vain This is not (Hebrew) the form (compare Exo 20:7), but "take" rather denotes laying violent hold on any thing; that is, lest I assail God's name or att...

This is not (Hebrew) the form (compare Exo 20:7), but "take" rather denotes laying violent hold on any thing; that is, lest I assail God's name or attributes, as justice, mercy, &c., which the poor are tempted to do.

JFB: Pro 30:10 - Accuse not Slander not (Psa 10:7).

Slander not (Psa 10:7).

JFB: Pro 30:10 - curse . . . guilty Lest, however lowly, he be exasperated to turn on thee, and your guilt be made to appear.

Lest, however lowly, he be exasperated to turn on thee, and your guilt be made to appear.

JFB: Pro 30:11-14 - Four kinds of hateful persons (1) graceless children, (2) hypocrites, (3) the proud, (4) cruel oppressors (compare on Pro 30:14; Psa 14:4; Psa 52:2) --are now illustrated; (1) Pro ...

(1) graceless children, (2) hypocrites, (3) the proud, (4) cruel oppressors (compare on Pro 30:14; Psa 14:4; Psa 52:2) --are now illustrated; (1) Pro 30:15-16, the insatiability of prodigal children and their fate; (2) Pro 30:17, hypocrisy, or the concealment of real character; (3 and 4) Pro 30:18-20, various examples of pride and oppression.

JFB: Pro 30:15-16 - horse leech Supposed by some to be the vampire (a fabulous creature), as being literally insatiable; but the other subjects mentioned must be taken as this, compa...

Supposed by some to be the vampire (a fabulous creature), as being literally insatiable; but the other subjects mentioned must be taken as this, comparatively insatiable. The use of a fabulous creature agreeably to popular notions is not inconsistent with inspiration.

JFB: Pro 30:15-16 - There are three . . . yea, four (Compare Pro 6:16).

(Compare Pro 6:16).

JFB: Pro 30:17 - The eye For the person, with reference to the use of the organ to express mockery and contempt, and also as that by which punishment is received.

For the person, with reference to the use of the organ to express mockery and contempt, and also as that by which punishment is received.

JFB: Pro 30:17 - the ravens . . . eagles . . . eat Either as dying unnaturally, or being left unburied, or both.

Either as dying unnaturally, or being left unburied, or both.

JFB: Pro 30:18-20 - -- Hypocrisy is illustrated by four examples of the concealment of all methods or traces of action, and a pertinent example of double dealing in actual v...

Hypocrisy is illustrated by four examples of the concealment of all methods or traces of action, and a pertinent example of double dealing in actual vice is added, that is, the adulterous woman.

JFB: Pro 30:20 - she eateth . . . mouth That is, she hides the evidences of her shame and professes innocence.

That is, she hides the evidences of her shame and professes innocence.

JFB: Pro 30:21-23 - -- Pride and cruelty, the undue exaltation of those unfit to hold power, produce those vices which disquiet society (compare Pro 19:10; Pro 28:3).

Pride and cruelty, the undue exaltation of those unfit to hold power, produce those vices which disquiet society (compare Pro 19:10; Pro 28:3).

JFB: Pro 30:23 - heir . . . mistress That is, takes her place as a wife (Gen 16:4).

That is, takes her place as a wife (Gen 16:4).

JFB: Pro 30:24-31 - -- These verses provide two classes of apt illustrations of various aspects of the moral world, which the reader is left to apply. By the first (Pro 30:2...

These verses provide two classes of apt illustrations of various aspects of the moral world, which the reader is left to apply. By the first (Pro 30:25-28), diligence and providence are commended; the success of these insignificant animals being due to their instinctive sagacity and activity, rather than strength. The other class (Pro 30:30-31) provides similes for whatever is majestic or comely, uniting efficiency with gracefulness.

JFB: Pro 30:26 - conies Mountain mice, or rabbits.

Mountain mice, or rabbits.

JFB: Pro 30:28 - spider Tolerated, even in palaces, to destroy flies.

Tolerated, even in palaces, to destroy flies.

JFB: Pro 30:28 - taketh . . . hands Or, uses with activity the limbs provided for taking prey.

Or, uses with activity the limbs provided for taking prey.

JFB: Pro 30:32 - -- As none can hope, successfully, to resist such a king, suppress even the thought of an attempt.

As none can hope, successfully, to resist such a king, suppress even the thought of an attempt.

JFB: Pro 30:32 - lay . . . hand upon thy mouth "lay" is well supplied (Jdg 18:19; Job 29:9; Job 40:4).

"lay" is well supplied (Jdg 18:19; Job 29:9; Job 40:4).

JFB: Pro 30:33 - That is, strife Or other ills, as surely arise from devising evil as natural effects from natural causes.

Or other ills, as surely arise from devising evil as natural effects from natural causes.

Clarke: Pro 30:1 - The words of Agur the son of Jakeh The words of Agur the son of Jakeh - The words Agur, Jakeh, Ithiel, and Ucal, have been considered by some as proper names: by others, as descriptiv...

The words of Agur the son of Jakeh - The words Agur, Jakeh, Ithiel, and Ucal, have been considered by some as proper names: by others, as descriptive characters. With some, Agur is Solomon; and Jakeh, David; and Ithiel and Ural are epithets of Christ

The Vulgate translates, Verba congregantis filii vomentis: visio, quam locutus est sir, cum quo est Deus, et qui Deo secum morante confortatus, ait . "The words of the collector, the son of the vomiter: the vision of the man who has God with him, and who is fortified by God dwelling with him, saith.

Coverdale makes the following words a title to the chapter

"The wordes of Agur the sonne of Jake

"The prophecie of a true faithfull man, whom God hath helped; whom God hath comforted and nourished.

The whole might be thus translated, keeping near to the letter: -

"The words of the epistle of the obedient son."Or

"The words of the collector, the son of Jakeh. The parable which הגבר haggeber , the strong man, the hero, spake unto him who is God with me; to him who is God with me, even the strong God.

The visioun that a man spake with whiche is God, and that God with him, wonyng confortid. - Old MS. Bible

From this introduction, from the names here used, and from the style of the book, it appears evident that Solomon was not the author of this chapter; and that it was designed to be distinguished from his work by this very preface, which specifically distinguishes it from the preceding work. Nor can the words in Pro 30:2, Pro 30:3, Pro 30:8, Pro 30:9, be at all applied to Solomon: they suit no part of Solomon’ s life, nor of his circumstances. We must, therefore, consider it an appendix or supplement to the preceding collection; something in the manner of that part which the men of Hezekiah, king of Judah, had collected. As to mysteries here, many have been found by them who sought for nothing else; but they are all, in my view of the subject, hazarded and precarious. I believe Agur, Jakeh, Ithiel, and Ural, to be the names of persons who did exist, but of whom we know nothing but what is here mentioned. Agur seems to have been a public teacher, and Ithiel and Ucal to have been his scholars; and what he delivers to them was done by prophesy. It was what the prophets generally term משא massa , an Oracle, something immediately delivered by the Holy Spirit for the benefit of man.

Clarke: Pro 30:2 - Surely I am more brutish Surely I am more brutish - These words can in no sense, nor by any mode of speech, be true of Solomon: for while he was the wisest of men, he could ...

Surely I am more brutish - These words can in no sense, nor by any mode of speech, be true of Solomon: for while he was the wisest of men, he could not have said that he was more brutish than any man, and had not the understanding of a man. It is saying nothing to the purpose, to say he was so independently of the Divine teaching. Had he put this in, even by innuendo, it might be legitimate: but he does not; nor is it by fair implication to be understood. Solomon is not supposed to have written the Proverbs after he fell from God. Then indeed he might have said he had been more brutish than any man. But Agur might have used these words with strict propriety, for aught we know; for it is very probable that he was a rustic, without education, and without any human help, as was the prophet Amos; and that all that he knew now was by the inspiration of the Almighty, independently of which he was rustic and uneducated.

Clarke: Pro 30:3 - I neither learned wisdom I neither learned wisdom - I have never been a scholar in any of those schools of the wise men, nor have the knowledge of the holy, קדשים kedo...

I neither learned wisdom - I have never been a scholar in any of those schools of the wise men, nor have the knowledge of the holy, קדשים kedoshim , of the saints or holy persons

The Septuagint give this a different turn: yeov dedidace me sofian, kai gnwsin agiwn egnwka; "God hath taught me wisdom, and the knowledge of the saints I have known.

This may refer to the patriarchs, prophets, or holy men, that lived before the days of Solomon. That is, the translators might have had these in view.

Clarke: Pro 30:4 - Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? - Calmet paraphrases this passage thus: "Who hath descended, etc. In order to show the truth of what...

Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? - Calmet paraphrases this passage thus: "Who hath descended, etc. In order to show the truth of what he was about to say, he observes: I have not the science of the saints; for how could I have acquired it? Who is he who could attain to that? Who has ascended to heaven to learn that science, and who has descended in order to publish it? Is the science of salvation one of those things that can be apprehended only by study? Is it not a pure gift of the goodness of God? Moses, after having shown to the people the will of God, said to them: ‘ This commandment which I command thee this day is not hidden from thee; neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it?’ Deu 30:11, Deu 30:12. The person whose words we are here examining speaks a knowledge more sublime than that contained in the simple laws of the Lord, common to all the people of Israel. He speaks of the sublime science of the designs of God, of his ways, and of his secrets; and in this sense he affirms he has no knowledge.

Clarke: Pro 30:4 - Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? - It is as difficult for a mortal man to acquire this Divine science by his own reason and strength, as to ...

Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? - It is as difficult for a mortal man to acquire this Divine science by his own reason and strength, as to collect the winds in his fists. And who can command the spirit of prophecy, so that he can have it whensoever he pleases

Clarke: Pro 30:4 - What is his name? What is his name? - Show me the nature of this Supreme Being. Point out his eternity, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence; comprehend and describ...

What is his name? - Show me the nature of this Supreme Being. Point out his eternity, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence; comprehend and describe him, if thou canst

Clarke: Pro 30:4 - What is his son’ s name What is his son’ s name - Some copies of the Septuagint have η τι ονομα τοις τικνοιο αυτου ; "Or the name of his sons;...

What is his son’ s name - Some copies of the Septuagint have η τι ονομα τοις τικνοιο αυτου ; "Or the name of his sons;"meaning, I suppose, the holy angels, called his saints or holy ones, Pro 30:3

The Arabic has, What is his name? and what is the name of his father? him who begat him. But the Chaldee, the Syriac, and the Vulgate, read as the Hebrew

Many are of opinion that Agur refers here to the first and second persons of the everblessed Trinity. It may be so; but who would venture to rest the proof of that most glorious doctrine upon such a text, to say nothing of the obscure author? The doctrine is true, sublimely true; but many doctrines have suffered in controversy, by improper texts being urged in their favor. Every lover of God and truth should be very choice in his selections, when he comes forward in behalf of the more mysterious doctrines of the Bible. Quote nothing that is not clear: advance nothing that does not tell. When we are obliged to spend a world of critical labor, in order to establish the sense of a text which we intend to allege in favor of the doctrine we wish to support, we may rest assured that we are going the wrong way to work. Those who indiscriminately amass every text of Scripture they think bears upon the subject they defend, give their adversaries great advantage against them. I see many a sacred doctrine suffering through the bad judgment of its friends every day. The Godhead of Christ, salvation by faith, the great atoning sacrifice, and other essential doctrines of this class, are all suffering in this way. My heart says, with deep concern

Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis

Tempus eget

When truth is assailed by all kinds of weapons, handled by the most powerful foes, injudicious defenders may be ranked among its enemies. To such we may innocently say, "Keep your cabins; you do assist the storm."

Clarke: Pro 30:5 - Every word of God is pure Every word of God is pure - כל אמרת אלוה צרופה col imrath eloah tseruphah , "Every oracle of God is purified."A metaphor taken from ...

Every word of God is pure - כל אמרת אלוה צרופה col imrath eloah tseruphah , "Every oracle of God is purified."A metaphor taken from the purifying of metals. Every thing that God has pronounced, every inspiration which the prophets have received, is pure, without mixture of error, without dross. Whatever trials it may be exposed to, it is always like gold: it bears the fire, and comes out with the same lustre, the same purity, and the same weight

Clarke: Pro 30:5 - He is a shield unto them He is a shield unto them - And this oracle among the rest. "He is the defense of all them that put their trust in him." לכל lechol , to all, is a...

He is a shield unto them - And this oracle among the rest. "He is the defense of all them that put their trust in him." לכל lechol , to all, is added here by nineteen of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s MSS.; for instead of לחסים lachosim , to the trusters, they read לכל החוסים lechol hachosim , "to Every One of them that trust."Where the preposition and adjective are not only added, but the noun is written more full, and more emphatic: but a translation cannot well express it without paraphrase.

Clarke: Pro 30:6 - Add not thou unto his words Add not thou unto his words - You can no more increase their value by any addition, than you can that of gold by adding any other metal to it. Take ...

Add not thou unto his words - You can no more increase their value by any addition, than you can that of gold by adding any other metal to it. Take care that you do not any thing that this word forbids, nor leave undone any thing that it commands: for this is adding and diminishing in Scripture phrase

Clarke: Pro 30:6 - Lest he reprove thee Lest he reprove thee - Lest he try thy word by fire, as his has been tried; and it appear that, far from abiding the test, the fire shows thine to b...

Lest he reprove thee - Lest he try thy word by fire, as his has been tried; and it appear that, far from abiding the test, the fire shows thine to be reprobate silver; and so thou be found a falsifier of God’ s word, and a liar

How amply has this been fulfilled in the case of the Romish Church! It has added all the gross stuff in the Apocrypha, besides innumerable legends and traditions, to the word of God! They have been tried by the refiner’ s fire. And this Church has been reproved, and found to be a liar, in attempting to filiate on the most holy God spurious writings discreditable to his nature.

Clarke: Pro 30:7 - Two things have I required of thee Two things have I required of thee - These two petitions are mentioned in the next verse; and he wishes to have them answered before he should die. ...

Two things have I required of thee - These two petitions are mentioned in the next verse; and he wishes to have them answered before he should die. That is, he wishes the answer now, that he may live the rest of his life in the state he describes.

Clarke: Pro 30:8 - Remove far from me vanity and lies Remove far from me vanity and lies - 1.    שוא shav , all false shows, all false appearances of happiness, every vain expectation...

Remove far from me vanity and lies -

1.    שוא shav , all false shows, all false appearances of happiness, every vain expectation. Let me not set my heart on any thing that is not solid, true, durable, and eternal

2.    Lies, דבר כזב debar cazab , all words of deception, empty pretensions, false promises, uncertain dependences, and words that Fail; promises which, when they become due, are like bad bills; they are dishonored because they are found to be forged, or the drawer insolvent

From the import of the original, I am satisfied that Agur prays against idolatry, false religion, and false worship of every kind. שוא shau is used for an idol, a false god. Jer 18:15 : "My people have forsaken me; they have burnt incense to Vanity;" לשוא lashshav , "to an Idol."Psa 31:6 : "I have hated them that regard lying Vanities;" הבלי שוא habley shave , "vain Idols."See also Hos 12:11; Jon 2:8. And כזב cazab , a thing that fails or deceives, may well apply to the vain pretensions, false promises, and deceptive religious rites of idolatry. So Jer 15:18 : "Wilt thou be unto me as a liar," כמו אכזב kemo achzob , like the false, failing promises of the false gods; "and as waters that fail;" לא נאמנו lo neemanu , that are not faithful; not like the true God, whose promises never fail. According to this view of the subject, Agur prays

1.    That he may be preserved from idolatry

2.    That he may put no confidence in any words but those pure words of God that never fail them that trust in him

Clarke: Pro 30:8 - Give me neither poverty nor riches Give me neither poverty nor riches - Here are three requests 1.    Give me not poverty. The reason is added: Lest, being poor, I shal...

Give me neither poverty nor riches - Here are three requests

1.    Give me not poverty. The reason is added: Lest, being poor, I shall get into a covetous spirit, and, impelled by want, distrust my Maker, and take my neighbour’ s property; and, in order to excuse, hide, or vindicate my conduct, I take the name of my God in vain; תפשתי taphasti , "I catch at the name of God."Or, by swearing falsely, endeavor to make myself pass for innocent. Forswere the name of my God - Old MS. Bible. Coverdale, "deny or apostatize from him.

2.    Give me not riches. For which petition he gives a reason also: Lest I be full, and addict myself to luxurious living, pamper the flesh and starve the soul, and so deny thee, the Fountain of goodness; and, if called on to resort to first principles, I say, Who is Jehovah! Why should I acknowledge, why should I serve him? And thus cast aside all religion, and all moral obligation

3.    The third request is, Feed me with food convenient for me, הטריפני לחם חקי hatripheni leechem chukki ; the meaning of which is, "give me as prey my statute allowance of bread,"i.e., my daily bread, a sufficient portion for each day. There is an allusion made to hunting: "Direct so by thy good providence, that I may each day find sufficient portion to subsist on, as a hunter in the forest prays that he may have good speed."It is the province of a preacher to show the importance and utility of such a prayer, and dilate the circumstances, and expand the reasons, after the commentator has shown the literal sense.

Clarke: Pro 30:10 - Accuse not a servant Accuse not a servant - Do not bring a false accusation against a servant, lest thou be found guilty of the falsehood, and he curse thee for having t...

Accuse not a servant - Do not bring a false accusation against a servant, lest thou be found guilty of the falsehood, and he curse thee for having traduced his character, and in his turn traduce thine. In general, do not meddle with other people’ s servants.

Clarke: Pro 30:11 - There is a generation There is a generation - There are such persons in the world. In this and the three following verses the wise man points out four grand evils that pr...

There is a generation - There are such persons in the world. In this and the three following verses the wise man points out four grand evils that prevailed in his time

The first, Those who not only did not honor, but who evil-treated, their parents.

Clarke: Pro 30:12 - -- The second, Those who were self-righteous, supposing themselves pure, and were not so.

The second, Those who were self-righteous, supposing themselves pure, and were not so.

Clarke: Pro 30:13 - -- The third, Those who were full of vanity, pride, and insolence.

The third, Those who were full of vanity, pride, and insolence.

Clarke: Pro 30:14 - -- The fourth, The greedy, cruel, and oppressive, and, especially, oppressive to the poor.

The fourth, The greedy, cruel, and oppressive, and, especially, oppressive to the poor.

Clarke: Pro 30:15 - The horseleech hath two daughters, crying, Give, give The horseleech hath two daughters, crying, Give, give - " This horseleech,"says Calmet, "is Covetousness, and her two daughters are Avarice and Ambi...

The horseleech hath two daughters, crying, Give, give - " This horseleech,"says Calmet, "is Covetousness, and her two daughters are Avarice and Ambition. They never say, It is enough; they are never satisfied; they are never contented.

Many explanations have been given of this verse; but as all the versions agree in render ing עלוקה alukah the horseleech or blood-sucker, the general meaning collected has been, "There are persons so excessively covetous and greedy, that they will scarcely let any live but themselves; and when they lay hold of any thing by which they may profit, they never let go their hold till they have extracted the last portion of good from it."Horace has well expressed this disposition, and by the same emblem, applied to a poor poet, who seizes on and extracts all he can from an author of repute, and obliges all to hear him read his wretched verses

Quem vero arripuit, tenet, occiditque legendo

Non missura cutem, nisi plena cruoris

Hirudo. De arte poet., ver. 475

"But if he seize you, then the torture dread

He fastens on you till he reads you dead

And like a leech, voracious of his food

Quits not his cruel hold till gorged with blood.

Francis

The word אלוקה alukah , which we here translate horseleech, is read in no other part of the Bible. May it not, like Agur, Jakeh, Ithiel, and Ucal, be a proper name, belonging to some well-known woman of his acquaintance, and well known to the public, who had two daughters notorious for their covetousness and lechery? And at first view the following verse may be thought to confirm this supposition: "There are three things that are never satisfied, yea, four things say not, It is enough."The grave, the barren womb the earth, the fire. What an astonishing simiiarity there is between this and the following institute, taken from the Code of Hindoo Laws, chapter 20, sec. i., p. 203

"A woman is never satisfied with the copulation of man, no more than a fire is satisfied with burning fuel; or the main ocean is with receiving the rivers; or death, with the dying of men and animals."You can no more satisfy these two daughters of Alukah than you can the grave, etc

Some of the rabbins have thought that alukah signifies destiny, or the necessity of dying, which they say has two daughters, Eden and Gehenna, paradise and hell. The former has never enough of righteous souls; the latter, of the wicked. Similar to them is the opinion of Bochart, who thinks alukah means destiny, and the two daughters, the grave and hell; into the first of which the body descends after death, and into the second, the soul

The Septuagint gives it a curious turn, by connecting the fifteenth with the sixteenth verse: Τῃ Βδελλῃ θυγατερες ησαν αγαπησει αγαπωμεναι, και αἱ τρεις αὑται ουκ ενεπιμπλασαν αυτην, και ἡ τεταρτη ουκ ηρκεσθη ειπειν· Ἱκανον ; "The horseleech had three well-beloved daughters; and these three were not able to satisfy her desire: and the fourth was not satisfied, so as to say, It is enough.

After all, I think my own conjecture the most probable. Alukah is a proper name, and the two daughters were of the description I have mentioned.

Clarke: Pro 30:17 - The eye that mocketh at his father The eye that mocketh at his father - This seems to be spoken against those who curse their father, and do not bless their mother, Pro 30:11

The eye that mocketh at his father - This seems to be spoken against those who curse their father, and do not bless their mother, Pro 30:11

Clarke: Pro 30:17 - The ravens of the valley The ravens of the valley - Those which frequent the places where dead carcasses and offal are most likely to be found. The raven, the crow, the rook...

The ravens of the valley - Those which frequent the places where dead carcasses and offal are most likely to be found. The raven, the crow, the rook, the daw, the carrion crow, and the Cornish chough, appear to be all of the same genus. Some of them live on pulse and insects; others, the raven in particular, live on carrion

Clarke: Pro 30:17 - The young eagles shall eat it The young eagles shall eat it - The mother eagle shall scoop out such an eye, and carry it to the nest to feed her young. Many of the disobedient to...

The young eagles shall eat it - The mother eagle shall scoop out such an eye, and carry it to the nest to feed her young. Many of the disobedient to parents have come to an untimely end, and, in the field of battle, where many a profligate has fallen, and upon gibbets, have actually become the prey of ravenous birds.

Clarke: Pro 30:19 - The way of an eagle The way of an eagle - I borrow, with thanks, the very sensible note of the Rev. Mr. Holden on this passage "The particle כן ken plainly shows t...

The way of an eagle - I borrow, with thanks, the very sensible note of the Rev. Mr. Holden on this passage

"The particle כן ken plainly shows that Pro 30:19 and Pro 30:20 are to be taken in connection; consequently, it is a comparison between the way of an adulterous woman, and the way of the things here described

"The adulterous woman goes about in search of her deluded victim, like as the eagle takes its flight into the air to spy out its prey. She uses every species of blandishment and insinuation to allure and beguile, as the serpent employs its windings and sinuous motions to pass along the rocks; she pursues a course surrounded with danger, as a ship in the midst of the sea is continually exposed to the fury of the tempest, and the hazard of shipwreck; and she tries every means, and exercises all her sagacity, to prevent the discovery of her illicit enjoyments, as a man attempts to conceal his clandestine intercourse with a maid. Such is the conduct of a lewd woman, marked by specious dissimulation and traitorous blandishment; she eateth and wipeth her mouth-she indulges her adulterous lust, yet artfully endeavors to conceal it, and with unblushing countenance asserts her innocence, exclaiming, I have done no wickedness.

Chaucer’ s January and May is an excellent comment on such wiles and protestations

Clarke: Pro 30:19 - The way of a man with a maid The way of a man with a maid - בעלמה bealmah with or in a maid; but one of De Rossi’ s MSS. has בעלמיו bealmaiv , in his youth; ...

The way of a man with a maid - בעלמה bealmah with or in a maid; but one of De Rossi’ s MSS. has בעלמיו bealmaiv , in his youth; and with this the Septuagint, ev neothti, the Vulgate, in adolescentia, the Syriac and the Arabic agree; and so also my own MS. Bible: - The weie of a man in his waxing youthe. Dr. Kennicott, in a sermon preached at Onsford, 1765, p. 46, has defended the reading of the versions, corroborating it by two MSS., one in the Harleian, and the other in the Bodleian library, besides that mentioned by De Rossi. See De Rossi’ s Var. Lect. Certainly the way of a man in his youth contains too many intricacies for human wisdom to explore. He only who searches the heart knows fully its various corrupt principles, and their productions. The common reading may refer to the formation of a child in the womb. But some have understood it of the immaculate conception. See my note on Mat 1:23 (note), where the subject is largely considered

If we take the four things which Agur says were too wonderful for him, in their obvious sense, there is little difficulty in them

1.    The passage which a bird makes through the air

2.    That which is made by a serpent on a rock; and

3.    That made by a ship through the sea, are such as cannot be ascertained: for who can possibly show the track in which either of them has passed

And as to the fourth, if it refer to the suspected incontinence of one reputed a virgin, the signs are so equivocal, as to be absolutely unascertainable. The existence of the hymen has been denied by the ablest anatomists; and the signs of continence or incontinence, except in the most recent cases, are such as neither man nor woman can swear to, even to the present day; and they were certainly not less difficult to Agur and his contemporaries. I shall carry this matter no farther.

Clarke: Pro 30:21 - For three things the earth is disquieted, and for four which it cannot bear For three things the earth is disquieted, and for four which it cannot bear - This is another enigma. Four things insupportable to men. 1. A slave, ...

For three things the earth is disquieted, and for four which it cannot bear - This is another enigma. Four things insupportable to men. 1. A slave, when he becomes ruler. 2. An overfed fool. 3. An ill-tempered woman, when mistress of a family. And, 4. A servant maid, when the rule of the house is committed to her

1.    A slave, when he comes to bear rule, is an unprincipled tyrant. It has been often observed both in America and in the West Indies, when it was judged necessary to arm some of the most confidential slaves, that no regiments were used so cruelly in the drill, etc., as those black regiments that had black officers

2.    The overfed fool. The intellectually weak man, who has every thing at his command, has generally manners which none can bear; and, if a favourite with his master, he is insupportable to all others

3.    An ill-tempered woman, when she gets embarrassed with domestic cares, is beyond bearing

4.    A servant maid, when, either through the death of the mistress, or the sin of the husband, she is in fact exalted to be head over the family, is so insolent and impudent, as to be hateful to every one, and execrated by all.

Clarke: Pro 30:24 - There be four things There be four things - Of which it is said, they are very little but very wise. 1. The ants. 2. The rabbits. 3. The locusts. 4. The spider 1. &...

There be four things - Of which it is said, they are very little but very wise. 1. The ants. 2. The rabbits. 3. The locusts. 4. The spider

1.    The ants show their wisdom by preparing their meat in the summer, seeking for it and storing it when it may be had; not for winter consumption, for they sleep all that time; but for autumn and spring. See the note on Pro 6:6 (note). The ants are a people; they have their houses, towns, cities, public roads, etc. I have seen several of these, both of the brown and large black ant

2.    The rabbits act curiously enough in the construction of their burrows; but the word שפן shaphan probably does not here mean the animal we call coney or rabbit. It is most likely that this is what Dr. Shaw calls the Daman - Israel; a creature very like a rabbit, but never burrowing in the ground, but dwelling in clefts and holes of rocks

3.    The locusts. These surprising animals we have already met with and described. Though they have no leader, yet they go forth by troops, some miles in circumference, when they take wing

4.    The spider. This is a singularly curious animal, both in the manner of constructing her house, her nets, and taking her prey. But the habits, etc., of these and such like must be sought in works on natural history.

Clarke: Pro 30:29 - There be three things which go well There be three things which go well - Here is another set of emblems; four things which walk beautifully and with majesty. 1. The lion. 2. The greyh...

There be three things which go well - Here is another set of emblems; four things which walk beautifully and with majesty. 1. The lion. 2. The greyhound. 3. The he-goat. And, 4. A king

1.    Nothing can be more majestic than the walk of the lion. It is deliberate, equal, firm, and in every respect becoming the king of the forest

2.    The greyhound. זרזיר מתנים zarzir mothnayim , the girt in the loins; but what this beast is we do not distinctly know. It is most likely that this was the greyhound, which in the East are remarkably fine, and very fleet. Scarcely any thing can be conceived to go with greater fleetness, in full chase, than a greyhound with its prey in view: it seems to swim over the earth

3.    The goat, תיש tayish . This is generally allowed to be the he-goat; and how he walks, and what state he assumes, in the presence of his part of the flock, every one knows, who has at all noticed this animal. The ram also, which some suppose to be intended, is both fierce and majestic at the head of the sheep

4.    And a king, against whom there is no risi,nv up. That is, a king whose court, counsels, and troops, are so firmly united to him, as to render all hopes of successful conspiracy against him utterly vain. He walks boldly and majestically about, being safe in the affections of his people. But the Hebrew is singular; it makes but two words; and these are they, ומלך אלקום umelech Alkum , "and King Alkum."It is a doubt whether this may not be a proper name, as Agur abounds in them; see Ithiel, Ucal, and probably Alukah, Pro 30:15. But it is said, "We know nothing of a king named Alkum."True; nor do we know any thing of Agur, Ithiel, Ucal, to say nothing of Alukah. And this might have been some remarkable chieftain, who carried his victories wherever he went, and was remarkably fortunate. If, however, we separate the word into אל al , "not,"and קום kum , "he arose,"we may make the interpretation above given.

Clarke: Pro 30:32 - If thou hast done foolishly If thou hast done foolishly - And who has not, at one time or other of his life

If thou hast done foolishly - And who has not, at one time or other of his life

Clarke: Pro 30:32 - Lay thine hand upon thy mouth Lay thine hand upon thy mouth - Like the leper; and cry to God, Unclean! unclean! and keep silence to all besides. God will blot out thy offense, an...

Lay thine hand upon thy mouth - Like the leper; and cry to God, Unclean! unclean! and keep silence to all besides. God will blot out thy offense, and neither the world nor the Church ever know it, for he is merciful; and man is rarely able to pass by a sin committed by his fellows, especially if it be one to which himself is by nature not liable or inclined.

Clarke: Pro 30:33 - And the wringing And the wringing - Who hugeli snytith drawith out blood. - Old MS. Bible. This is well expressed in homely phrase. The Septuagint have, "draw the m...

And the wringing - Who hugeli snytith drawith out blood. - Old MS. Bible. This is well expressed in homely phrase. The Septuagint have, "draw the milk, and you may have butter; if you press the nostrils you may bring out blood; and if you draw out your discourse to a great length, you may have strife and contention."Avoid, therefore, all strong excitements and irritations. Coverdale’ s translation of this verse is very simple: "Whoso chyrneth mylck maketh butter; he that rubbeth his nose maketh it blede; and he that causeth wrath bryngeth forth strife."

Defender: Pro 30:1 - Agur The name Agur may mean "gatherer" and Jakeh "hearkening." Ithiel means "God with me" and Ucal means "overcomer." Since none of these men are mentioned...

The name Agur may mean "gatherer" and Jakeh "hearkening." Ithiel means "God with me" and Ucal means "overcomer." Since none of these men are mentioned anywhere else in Scripture, it may be that they are just symbolic names. However, their meanings are uncertain, so it is conjectural as to what their symbolic meaning might be. They were probably real men known to Solomon. The important thing is the message, which Solomon thought well to include in the Proverbs."

Defender: Pro 30:4 - ascended up into heaven The answer to the seven rhetorical questions in these verses can be none other than God Himself, together with His Son. The Lord Jesus gave the answer...

The answer to the seven rhetorical questions in these verses can be none other than God Himself, together with His Son. The Lord Jesus gave the answer to the first two questions 1000 years later in his conversation with Nicodemus (Joh 3:13).

Defender: Pro 30:4 - his son's name Here is strong Old Testament evidence that the God of creation has a Son, by whom, in fact, He formed the winds and the waters and all the ends of the...

Here is strong Old Testament evidence that the God of creation has a Son, by whom, in fact, He formed the winds and the waters and all the ends of the earth, and who finally descended from heaven to become the Son of man as well as Son of God. That Son's name was given later through the prophet Isaiah - "Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace" (Isa 9:6)."

Defender: Pro 30:5 - Every word of God Note the emphasis that every word of God is pure and worthy of trust - not just some words, but every word, and not just the thoughts but the words!"

Note the emphasis that every word of God is pure and worthy of trust - not just some words, but every word, and not just the thoughts but the words!"

Defender: Pro 30:6 - Add thou not It is a serious blasphemy for a creature to try either to augment or dilute the words of the Creator (compare Rev 22:18, Rev 22:19)."

It is a serious blasphemy for a creature to try either to augment or dilute the words of the Creator (compare Rev 22:18, Rev 22:19)."

Defender: Pro 30:25 - The ants Agur, in Pro 30:24-31, draws spiritual lessons for man from the instincts of animals created by God, specifically referring to ants, conies, locusts, ...

Agur, in Pro 30:24-31, draws spiritual lessons for man from the instincts of animals created by God, specifically referring to ants, conies, locusts, spiders, lions, greyhounds, and goats - seven animals representing all animals (Job 12:7-9)."

TSK: Pro 30:1 - Agur // even Agur : Agur was probably a public teacher, and Ithiel and Ucal, his pupils; and this was the massa , or oracle, which he delivered, not by his own w...

Agur : Agur was probably a public teacher, and Ithiel and Ucal, his pupils; and this was the massa , or oracle, which he delivered, not by his own wisdom, but by the Holy Spirit, for the benefit of man; and which, it is probable, was added by ""the men of Hezekiah."

even : Pro 31:1; 2Pe 1:19-21

TSK: Pro 30:2 - I am // brutish I am : Job 42:3-6; Psa 73:22; Isa 6:5; Rom 11:25; 1Co 3:18, 1Co 8:2; Jam 1:5 brutish : Pro 5:12; Psa 92:6; Jer 10:14; 2Pe 2:12-16

TSK: Pro 30:3 - neither // nor // have // the holy neither : Amo 7:14, Amo 7:15; Mat 16:17 nor : Job 11:7-9; Mat 11:27; Joh 17:3; Rom 11:33; Eph 3:18, Eph 3:19 have : Heb. know the holy : Isa 6:3, Isa ...

TSK: Pro 30:4 - Who hath ascended // who hath gathered // what is his name // and what Who hath ascended : Deu 30:12; Joh 3:13; Rom 10:6; Eph 4:9, Eph 4:10 who hath gathered : Job 38:4-41; Psa. 104:2-35; Isa. 40:12-31, Isa 53:8 what is h...

Who hath ascended : Deu 30:12; Joh 3:13; Rom 10:6; Eph 4:9, Eph 4:10

who hath gathered : Job 38:4-41; Psa. 104:2-35; Isa. 40:12-31, Isa 53:8

what is his name : Exo 3:13-15, Exo 6:3, Exo 34:5-7; Deu 28:58

and what : Gen 32:29; Jdg 13:18; Psa 2:7; Isa 7:14, Isa 9:6; Jer 23:6; Mat 1:21-23; Mat 11:27; Luk 10:22

TSK: Pro 30:5 - word // pure word : Psa 12:6, Psa 18:30, Psa 19:8, Psa 119:140; Rom 7:12; Jam 3:17 pure : Heb. purified, Gen 15:1; Psa 84:11, Psa 91:2, Psa 115:9-11, Psa 144:2

TSK: Pro 30:6 - Add // and Add : Deu 4:2, Deu 12:32; Rev 22:18, Rev 22:19 and : Job 13:7-9; 1Co 15:15

TSK: Pro 30:7 - have // deny me them not have : 1Ki 3:5-9; 2Ki 2:9; Psa 27:4; Luk 10:42 deny me them not : Heb. withhold them not from me, Psa 21:2

have : 1Ki 3:5-9; 2Ki 2:9; Psa 27:4; Luk 10:42

deny me them not : Heb. withhold them not from me, Psa 21:2

TSK: Pro 30:8 - Remove // feed // convenient for me Remove : Pro 21:6, Pro 22:8, Pro 23:5; Psa 62:9, Psa 62:10, Psa 119:29, Psa 119:37; Ecc 1:2; Isa 5:18, Isa 59:4; Joh 2:8; Act 14:15 feed : Gen 28:20, ...

TSK: Pro 30:9 - I be full // deny thee // Who // or // and take the name I be full : Deu 6:10-12, Deu 8:10-14, Deu 31:20, Deu 32:15; Neh 9:25, Neh 9:26; Job 31:24-28; Jer 2:31; Eze 16:14, Eze 16:15, Eze 16:49, Eze 16:50; Da...

TSK: Pro 30:10 - Accuse not // lest Accuse not : Heb. Hurt not with thy tongue, Pro 24:23; Deu 23:15; 1Sa 22:9, 1Sa 22:10, 1Sa 24:9, 1Sa 26:19, 1Sa 30:15; 2Sa 16:1-4; 2Sa 19:26, 2Sa 19:2...

TSK: Pro 30:11 - a generation // that curseth // doth a generation : Pro 30:12-14; Mat 3:7; 1Pe 2:9 that curseth : Pro 30:17, Pro 20:20; Lev 20:9; Deu 21:20, Deu 21:21, Deu 27:16; Mat 15:4-6; Mar 7:10-13 ...

TSK: Pro 30:12 - that are // not that are : Pro 21:2; Jdg 17:5, Jdg 17:13; 1Sa 15:13, 1Sa 15:14; Job 33:9; Psa 36:2; Isa 65:5; Jer 2:22-24, Jer 2:35; Luk 11:39, Luk 11:40, Luk 16:15, ...

TSK: Pro 30:13 - -- Pro 6:17, Pro 21:4; Psa 101:5, Psa 131:1; Isa 2:11, Isa 3:16; Eze 28:2-5, Eze 28:9; Dan 11:36, Dan 11:37; Hab 2:4; 2Th 2:3, 2Th 2:4

TSK: Pro 30:14 - whose // to devour whose : Pro 12:18; Job 29:17; Psa 3:7, Psa 52:2, Psa 57:4, Psa 58:6; Dan 7:5-7; Rev 9:8 to devour : Pro 22:16, Pro 28:3; Psa 10:8, Psa 10:9, Psa 12:5,...

TSK: Pro 30:15 - The horseleach // Give // There // It is enough The horseleach : Isa 57:3; Eze 16:44-46; Mat 23:32; Joh 8:39, Joh 8:44 Give : Isa 56:11, Isa 56:12; Hos 4:18; Mic 7:3; Rom 16:18; 2Pe 2:3, 2Pe 2:13-15...

TSK: Pro 30:16 - -- Pro 27:20; Hab 2:5

TSK: Pro 30:17 - eye // the ravens // valley eye : Pro 30:11, Pro 20:20, Pro 23:22; Gen 9:21-27; Lev 20:9; Deu 21:18-21; 2Sa 18:9, 2Sa 18:10, 2Sa 18:14-17 the ravens : 1Sa 17:44; 2Sa 21:10 valley...

TSK: Pro 30:18 - too too : Job 42:3; Psa 139:6

TSK: Pro 30:19 - way of an // midst // and the way of an : Job 39:27; Isa 40:31 midst : Heb. heart and the : Exo 22:16

way of an : Job 39:27; Isa 40:31

midst : Heb. heart

and the : Exo 22:16

TSK: Pro 30:20 - -- Pro 7:13-23; Num. 5:11-30

Pro 7:13-23; Num. 5:11-30

TSK: Pro 30:22 - a servant // a fool a servant : Pro 19:10, Pro 28:3; Ecc 10:7; Isa 3:4, Isa 3:5 a fool : 1Sa 25:3, 1Sa 25:10, 1Sa 25:11, 1Sa 25:25, 1Sa 25:36-38, 1Sa 30:16

TSK: Pro 30:23 - an odious // an handmaid an odious : Pro 19:13, Pro 21:9, Pro 21:19, Pro 27:15 an handmaid : Pro 29:21

an odious : Pro 19:13, Pro 21:9, Pro 21:19, Pro 27:15

an handmaid : Pro 29:21

TSK: Pro 30:24 - little // exceeding wise little : Job 12:7 exceeding wise : Heb. wise, made wise

little : Job 12:7

exceeding wise : Heb. wise, made wise

TSK: Pro 30:25 - -- The ants may truly be called a people, as they have houses, towns, public roads, etc.; and shew their wisdom and prudence by preparing their meat in d...

The ants may truly be called a people, as they have houses, towns, public roads, etc.; and shew their wisdom and prudence by preparing their meat in due season.

Pro 6:6-8

TSK: Pro 30:26 - -- Lev 11:5; Psa 104:18

TSK: Pro 30:27 - The locusts // by bands The locusts : Exo 10:4-6, Exo 10:13-15; Psa 105:34; Joe 1:4, Joe 1:6, Joe 1:7, Joe 2:7-11, Joe 2:25; Rev 9:3-11 by bands : Heb. gathered together

The locusts : Exo 10:4-6, Exo 10:13-15; Psa 105:34; Joe 1:4, Joe 1:6, Joe 1:7, Joe 2:7-11, Joe 2:25; Rev 9:3-11

by bands : Heb. gathered together

TSK: Pro 30:30 - -- Num 23:24; Jdg 14:18

TSK: Pro 30:31 - greyhound // against greyhound : or, horse, Heb. girt in the lions against : Pro 16:14, Pro 20:2; Dan 3:15-18

greyhound : or, horse, Heb. girt in the lions

against : Pro 16:14, Pro 20:2; Dan 3:15-18

TSK: Pro 30:32 - thou hast done // lay thou hast done : Pro 26:12; Ecc 8:3 lay : Pro 17:28; Job 21:5, Job 40:4; Ecc 8:4; Mic 7:16, Mic 7:17; Rom 3:19

TSK: Pro 30:33 - so so : Pro 15:18, Pro 16:28, Pro 17:14, Pro 26:21, Pro 28:25, Pro 29:22

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Poole: Pro 30:1 - Agur the son of Jakeh // The prophecy // Unto Ithiel and Ucal // Ithiel // Ucal Agur the son of Jakeh a person so called, as appears from the designation of his own and his father’ s name, who lived either in Solomon’ ...

Agur the son of Jakeh a person so called, as appears from the designation of his own and his father’ s name, who lived either in Solomon’ s time, or rather afterwards, and was famous in his generation for wisdom, and piety, and prophecy; and therefore his proverbs were thought fit to be added to those of Solomon, either by those men of Hezekiah, mentioned Pro 25:1 , or by some other. But that this should be meant of Solomon may easily be supposed, but cannot be proved; nor is it probable, as being contrary both to the style of the whole chapter, and to the matter of some part of it, as Pro 30:7-9 , which agrees not to Solomon; and to the laws of good interpretation, one of which is, that all words should be taken in their most natural and proper sense, when there is no evidence nor necessity of understanding them improperly and figuratively, which is the present case.

The prophecy the prophetical instruction; for as the prophets were public preachers as well as foretellers of things to come, so their sermons, no less than their predictions, are commonly called their prophecies.

Unto Ithiel and Ucal two friends, or disciples, and contemporaries of Agur, called by those names, who having a great and just opinion of his wisdom, desired his instructions. Others, concerning Ithiel and Ucal ; which they understand of Christ, called

Ithiel which signifies God with me , and answers to Immanuel , which is God with us ; and

Ucal which signifies power or prevalency . But if he had meant this of Christ, why should he design him such obscure and ambiguous names, as if he would not be understood? Why did he not call him by the name of Shiloh or Messiah , or some other Scripture title belonging and ascribed to him? Besides, this interpretation agrees not with the contents of this chapter, wherein there is only a short and occasional mention of Christ, but the chapter consists in a manner wholly of counsels and sentences of a quite other kind.

Poole: Pro 30:2 - -- You come to me with a great opinion of my wisdom, and you expect that I should inform and instruct you in all things, yea, even in the greatest myst...

You come to me with a great opinion of my wisdom, and you expect that I should inform and instruct you in all things, yea, even in the greatest mysteries: but you are much mistaken in me; I am as ignorant and foolish as other men generally are, yea, more than many others; which he utters either,

1. From a deep sense of the common corruption of human nature, and of the blindness of men’ s minds in things concerning God and their own duty, and of the necessity of instruction from God’ s word, and of illumination from his Spirit, without which they can never understand these matters. Or,

2. From a modest and humble apprehension of his own ignorance, which hath extorted such-like expressions even from heathen philosophers; whence Pythagoras rejected the title of a wise man when it was ascribed to him; and Socrates, though reputed the wisest man of his age, professed that he knew nothing but this, that he knew nothing .

Poole: Pro 30:3 - I neither learned wisdom // Of the holy I neither learned wisdom I have not been taught in the schools of wisdom, as the sons of prophets were, but must own myself to be an unlearned man, a...

I neither learned wisdom I have not been taught in the schools of wisdom, as the sons of prophets were, but must own myself to be an unlearned man, as the prophet Amos was, Amo 7:14,15 . Or, I have not learned it, neither by my own understanding and study, nor by the help of other men.

Of the holy either,

1. Of the holy angels, who are called holy by way of eminency, as Deu 33:2 Job 15:15 Dan 4:13,17,23 8:13 . But it was vain to deny that angelical knowledge to be in him, which no man imagined to be in him, and which was not in Adam fix the state of innocency. Or,

2. Of the holy prophets. So the sense is, I have not such Divine inspirations as prophets strictly so called have received, whereby I should be enabled to know or explain those great mysteries wherein you desire information from me. Or,

3. Of holy things, of the mind and will of God concerning man’ s salvation, and the way which leads to it; not that he denieth that he had any knowledge of these things, but only a full, and comprehensive, and perfect knowledge, which they falsely supposed to be in him.

Poole: Pro 30:4 - Who? // Hath ascended up into heaven // Or descended // Hath gathered the wind in his fists // All the ends of the earth // What is his name, and what is his son’ s name, if thou canst tell? Who? what mere man? None at all; and therefore I may truly say, that I have not that which no mortal man ever yet had. Hath ascended up into heaven ...

Who? what mere man? None at all; and therefore I may truly say, that I have not that which no mortal man ever yet had.

Hath ascended up into heaven there to learn the mind of God who dwells there, and that wisdom which is from above.

Or descended or rather, and descended , to teach men below what he had learned above. The meaning of the place is, No man can fully know and teach us these things unless he hath been in heaven, and sent down from thence to the earth to that end; whence our Saviour Christ justly applies these words to himself, Joh 3:13 , and appropriates this work of declaring God’ s nature and will to men to himself, upon this account, that he alone was in his Father’ s bosom, Joh 1:18 .

Hath gathered the wind in his fists to hold them in, or let them out, and rule them at his pleasure. Where is there a man that can do this? And none but he who made and governs all the creatures can know and teach these things. The waters ; those above in the clouds, and those below, the sea, which God keeps as it were within doors , and in a garment and swaddling-band , as it is expressed, Job 38:8,9 ; and the waters which he shuts up in the bowels of the earth.

All the ends of the earth the whole earth, from one end to another, which God upholdeth in the air by the word of his power, and secureth from the rage of the sea, by the banks and shores wherewith he hath begirt it for that purpose.

What is his name, and what is his son’ s name, if thou canst tell? The sense is either,

1. Seeing it is apparent that no man hath this power, and consequently this knowledge, but that this is the prerogative of the great God, declare, if thou art able, his name, i.e. his nature and perfections, and the eternal generation and the perfections of his Son. Or rather,

2. If thou thinkest there be any such man who can do these things, I challenge thee to produce his name; or if he be long since dead, and gone out of the world, the name of any of his posterity that can assure us that their progenitor was such a person; which because thou canst not do, I must conclude that none can thoroughly understand this matter but the blessed God, and his Son Christ, and they to whom God shall reveal it by Christ.

Poole: Pro 30:5 - Every word of God is pure // That put their trust in him Every word of God is pure and therefore you, Ithiel and Ucal, must not expect the full knowledge of Divine mysteries from me, nor from any man, but f...

Every word of God is pure and therefore you, Ithiel and Ucal, must not expect the full knowledge of Divine mysteries from me, nor from any man, but from the word of God, which is a certain rule, both of your belief and practice, because every part and parcel of it is holy, and true, and good, and there is not the least mixture of falsehood and folly in it, as there is in all the words and writings of men.

That put their trust in him which supposeth their knowledge of him by his word, Psa 9:10 ; and contains their reliance upon his promises, joined with obedience to his commands.

Poole: Pro 30:6 - -- And as the word of God is pure, do not thou corrupt or abuse it, by adding to it thine own or other men’ s inventions and opinions, and deliver...

And as the word of God is pure, do not thou corrupt or abuse it, by adding to it thine own or other men’ s inventions and opinions, and delivering or receiving of them in the name and as the words of God. He here forbids only adding to it, not diminishing from it, which yet is equally forbidden, Deu 4:2 12:32 , because the Israelites then and always were, and others are, more prone to add than to diminish, because it is more easy to add under colour of interpreting, and because it is more agreeable to the humour of mankind, which is much delighted with its own inventions, as the experience of all ages showeth. Lest he reprove thee by words or deeds ; by discovering thy folly, and bringing thee to deserved shame and punishment.

Poole: Pro 30:7 - Have I required // withhold them not from me before I die Have I required I do earnestly and especially desire Deny me them not before I die , Heb. withhold them not from me before I die i.e. whilst I liv...

Have I required I do earnestly and especially desire Deny me them not before I die , Heb.

withhold them not from me before I die i.e. whilst I live, as things of great and continual necessity for thy honour and service, and my own good.

Poole: Pro 30:8 - Remove far from me // Vanity // Lies // Give me neither poverty nor riches // Food convenient for me Remove far from me from my heart, and from the course of my life. This is the first of Agur’ s petitions. Vanity either, 1. All vain and fals...

Remove far from me from my heart, and from the course of my life. This is the first of Agur’ s petitions.

Vanity either,

1. All vain and false opinions concerning God, or the things of God; all unbelief, idolatry, or misbelief. Or,

2. All vanity of heart and life; a vain conversation, an affectation of the vain things of this world, as riches, pleasures, or honours, the bewitching power and sad effects whereof he had observed in others, and feared in himself, as the following request implies.

Lies all falsehood and deceit in my words and carriage towards God or men.

Give me neither poverty nor riches: this is his second request, which may seem to have some reference to the former, poverty being commonly the occasion and temptation to the sin of lying, and riches being the great occasions and enticements to vanity. Thus, as his first petition was against the sins themselves, so this latter is against the occasions of them.

Food convenient for me moderate, and suitable both to my natural necessities, and to that estate and condition of life in which thou hast put me, and to that work and service which thou hast for me to do. And this mediocrity of estate is so amiable, that it hath been oft desired by wise heathens, as more eligible than a state of the greatest plenty and glory.

Poole: Pro 30:9 - Deny thee // Who is the Lord // Take the name of my God in vain Deny thee by trusting to riches, which is a denial of God, Job 31:24-28 , by unthankfulness for and abuse of his mercies, and by rebellion against hi...

Deny thee by trusting to riches, which is a denial of God, Job 31:24-28 , by unthankfulness for and abuse of his mercies, and by rebellion against him, and divers other courses and common practices of rich men, whereby God is denied in truth and in works, even when he is owned in words and in show.

Who is the Lord that I should obey or serve him? I do not need him, I can live of my own without him. Lest by degrees I should arrive at downright atheism or infidelity, which is most incident to rich and great men, as is manifest from experience.

Take the name of my God in vain use false oaths, either to vindictate myself when I am suspected or accused of theft, and my oath is required according to the law, Exo 22:8-11 , or to gratify others for filthy lucre, as poor men frequently do.

Poole: Pro 30:10 - Accuse not a servant // A servant // Curse thee // Be found guilty Accuse not a servant to wit, maliciously, rashly, or without just and sufficient cause; for otherwise, in some cases, this may be not only lawful, bu...

Accuse not a servant to wit, maliciously, rashly, or without just and sufficient cause; for otherwise, in some cases, this may be not only lawful, but a duty, as when a servant lives wickedly, or robs his master, or the like,

A servant whose condition is in itself mean and miserable, and therefore thou shouldst not make it worse without great and apparent necessity.

Curse thee desire God to curse and punish thee, which though it may be sinful in him, yet being deserved by thee, thou hast reason to fear and expect.

Be found guilty by God, who is ready to plead the cause of the afflicted, and upon strict search shall find thee guilty, and punish thee accordingly.

Poole: Pro 30:11 - A generation // Their father A generation a sort of men, abominable both to God and men; which is implied concerning these and the following kinds of sinners, Pro 30:12-14 . The...

A generation a sort of men, abominable both to God and men; which is implied concerning these and the following kinds of sinners, Pro 30:12-14 .

Their father and mother too, as it follows; ungrateful and unnatural monsters.

Poole: Pro 30:12 - -- Who not only pretend to others, but conceit within themselves, that they are truly religious persons, when they live in the course of wickedness.

Who not only pretend to others, but conceit within themselves, that they are truly religious persons, when they live in the course of wickedness.

Poole: Pro 30:13 - -- Who are proud and insolent, advancing themselves, and despising all others in comparison of themselves, and showing the pride of their hearts in the...

Who are proud and insolent, advancing themselves, and despising all others in comparison of themselves, and showing the pride of their hearts in their countenances and carriages.

Poole: Pro 30:14 - -- Extortioners, and cruel oppressors, who grind the faces of the poor.

Extortioners, and cruel oppressors, who grind the faces of the poor.

Poole: Pro 30:15 - The horseleech // hath two daughters // Crying, Give, give // There are three things // Give, give The horseleech an insatiable creature, sucking blood till it be ready to burst, hath two daughters which are either, 1. The two forks into which h...

The horseleech an insatiable creature, sucking blood till it be ready to burst,

hath two daughters which are either,

1. The two forks into which her tongue is divided, and wherewith she sucks: but those who have more accurately observed and described the frame of that creature tell us that they have no tongue, and that they suck either by three little teeth, or several parts of the mouth gathered and compressed together. Or rather,

2. The following things, which resemble the horse leech in its insatiableness; nothing being more ordinary than to call those persons or things the sons or daughters of those whose examples they imitate. And whereas it is objected, that they are not only two, but three , yea, four , as is said in the next clause, the answer is easy, that though he begin with two, yet he proceeds from thence to three, and four, all which are said to be the daughters of the horseleech, if the words be rendered commodiously, and as they are in the Hebrew, as we shall presently see.

Crying, Give, give never filled, and always craving, and ready to receive more and more.

There are three things or, yea, (which may be understood in this, as it is in our translation of the next clause,) they (to wit, the daughters of the horseleech) are three; that are never satisfied; which is added partly to explain the former clause,

Give, give and to show the cause of that excessive desire of more, because they were not contented with what they had; and partly to give the reason why he calls them the daughters of the horseleech . Yea, four things say not ; or, yea, they (the daughters forementioned) are four , which say not .

Poole: Pro 30:16 - The barren womb // The earth // The fire The barren womb for as the Israelitish women did generally and vehemently desire many children, for divers reasons elsewhere mentioned; so those who ...

The barren womb for as the Israelitish women did generally and vehemently desire many children, for divers reasons elsewhere mentioned; so those who were barren amongst them were most eager in those desires, as we see in Rachel, Gen 30:1 , and as in all other cases persons most prize and thirst after those good things which they want.

The earth which when it is dry thirsts for rain, and in a little time sucks up great quantities of water, and gapes for more.

The fire which continually burns as long as there is any combustible matter left for it.

Poole: Pro 30:17 - The eye that mocketh at his father // The ravens of the valley shall pick it out // The young eagle The eye that mocketh at his father he that scorneth or derideth his parents, though it be but with a look or gesture, and much more when he breaks ou...

The eye that mocketh at his father he that scorneth or derideth his parents, though it be but with a look or gesture, and much more when he breaks out into opprobrious words and actions.

The ravens of the valley shall pick it out he shall die an unnatural, and untimely, and ignominious death, and after death shall lie unburied, and so be exposed to the birds and beasts of prey, and, amongst others, to the crows or ravens, who use to feed upon dead carcasses, and particularly to pick out their eyes, as is noted by all sorts of writers; of which see my Latin Synopsis. He saith, the ravens oft he valley, either because they most delight in valleys, or with a particular respect unto that valley near Jerusalem, which was called the valley of dead bodies, Jer 31:40 , from the carcasses cast out there, to which therefore the ravens resorted in great numbers, according to their manner or, as others render, the ravens of the brooks, because they are of a hot and dry temper, and therefore delight in places adjacent to the brooks of water.

The young eagle which also preyeth upon dead carcasses and especially upon their eyes, as the ravens do, the reason being the same in both, whether it be the softness of that part which makes it more easy to them to take, or from the pleasant taste of it.

Poole: Pro 30:18 - -- The way whereof I cannot trace or find out.

The way whereof I cannot trace or find out.

Poole: Pro 30:19 - The way of an eagle in the air // The way of a serpent upon a rock // The way of a ship in the midst of the sea The way of an eagle in the air either, 1. The manner of her flight, which is exceeding high, and swift, and strong. Or rather, 2. The way or part o...

The way of an eagle in the air either,

1. The manner of her flight, which is exceeding high, and swift, and strong. Or rather,

2. The way or part of the air through which she passeth, without leaving any print or sign in it, which though it be true of all birds, yet is here attributed to the eagle, of whom this is more true, because she flies out of sight, where neither her body nor any sign of it can be discerned.

The way of a serpent upon a rock where she leaves no impression, nor slime, nor token where she was, as she doth in softer bodies, and as birds leave their feathers there.

The way of a ship in the midst of the sea which though at present it make a furrow, yet is speedily closed again. The way of a man with a maid; either,

1. The various methods and artifices which young men use to entice or persuade young virgins, either to honest love and marriage, or to unlawful lust and uncleanness. Or rather,

2. The impure conversation of a man with one who goeth under the name of a maid, but is not so in truth, which is managed with so much secrecy and cunning that it can very hardly be discovered; which exposition agrees best with the foregoing. similitudes referred to it, and with the following verse.

Poole: Pro 30:20 - Such // is the way of an adulterous woman // She eateth // Wipeth her mouth // Saith, I have done no wickedness Such so secret and undiscernible, is the way of an adulterous woman of her who, though she be called and accounted a maid yet in truth is an adul...

Such so secret and undiscernible,

is the way of an adulterous woman of her who, though she be called and accounted a maid yet in truth is an adulteress: not a common strumpet, for of such the following words are not true, but one that secretly lives in the sin of adultery or fornication.

She eateth to wit, the bread of deceit in secret , by which is understood the act of filthiness, Pro 9:17 20:17 , which such persons do as greedily desire, and as delightfully feed upon, as hungry persons do upon bread. Thus chastely doth the Holy Ghost express the most filthy actions, to teach us to avoid all immodest and obscene speeches as well as actions.

Wipeth her mouth as a child doth when it hath eaten some forbidden food, and would not be discovered.

Saith, I have done no wickedness denies the fact, and avoweth her innoceney.

Poole: Pro 30:21 - The earth is disquieted // Which it cannot bear The earth is disquieted either, 1. The earth itself trembleth and is moved; so it is an hyperbole. Or rather, 2. The inhabitants of the earth. They...

The earth is disquieted either,

1. The earth itself trembleth and is moved; so it is an hyperbole. Or rather,

2. The inhabitants of the earth. They do by their insolence and impudence cause great and dreadful disturbances in the places where they live.

Which it cannot bear which are intolerable in human societies.

Poole: Pro 30:22 - When he reigneth // A fool // when he is filled with meat When he reigneth when he is advanced to great power and dignity; for such a one is ignorant and unfit for his place, and therefore commits many error...

When he reigneth when he is advanced to great power and dignity; for such a one is ignorant and unfit for his place, and therefore commits many errors; he is poor, and therefore an insatiable oppressor, according to Pro 28:3 ; he is proud and imperious, and being maligned and hated by others, he is provoked to hate them, and to be injurious and cruel to them.

A fool a conceited and wilful fool, or all obstinately wicked man,

when he is filled with meat either,

1. When he is glutted with meat or drink, which dulls men’ s reason, and heats their blood, and stirs them up to many insolencies. Or rather,

2. When he abounds in wealth, which in that case is like a sword in a madman’ s hand, being an instrument and occasion of innumerable wickednesses and mischiefs, as appears from common experience.

Poole: Pro 30:23 - Odious // When she is married // That is heir to her mistress Odious proud, and perverse, and full of hateful and offensive qualities. When she is married for then she displayeth and exerciseth all those ill h...

Odious proud, and perverse, and full of hateful and offensive qualities.

When she is married for then she displayeth and exerciseth all those ill humours, which before for her own ends she concealed; then she is puffed up, and imperious, and becomes intolerable to her own family, and to her relations and neighbours.

That is heir to her mistress that possesseth her estate, either by the gift of her mistress, into whose favour she had insinuated herself by her cunning and officious carriage; or rather by the marriage of her master, which great and sudden change transports her beside herself, and makes her insufferably proud, and scornful, and injurious to all that converse with her.

Poole: Pro 30:24 - -- Comparatively to other brute creatures. They act very wisely and providently, not from any reason which they have, but by the direction of Divine Pr...

Comparatively to other brute creatures. They act very wisely and providently, not from any reason which they have, but by the direction of Divine Providence, which secretly guides them to do those things for their own preservation which are most agreeable to the rules of wisdom. The design of this observation is either,

1. To commend wisdom to us, and to teach us to imitate the providence of these creatures, as we are provoked to imitate their diligence, Pro 6:6 . Or,

2. To keep us from being proudly conceited of our own wisdom, because we are either equalled or exceeded therein by the unreasonable creatures in the wise conduct of their affairs. Or,

3. To direct us to whom to resort for wisdom when we want and desire it, even to that God who is able to inspire wisdom even into the brute creatures.

Poole: Pro 30:25 - People // They prepare their meat in the summer People which title is oft given to the unreasonable creatures, both in Scripture, as Joe 1:6 2:2 , and in Homer, and Virgil, and divers other authors...

People which title is oft given to the unreasonable creatures, both in Scripture, as Joe 1:6 2:2 , and in Homer, and Virgil, and divers other authors.

They prepare their meat in the summer of which See Poole "Pro 30:6" , See Poole "Pro 30:7" , See Poole "Pro 30:8" .

Poole: Pro 30:26 - -- In rocky ground, or in the holes of rocks, for their safety against their too potent enemies.

In rocky ground, or in the holes of rocks, for their safety against their too potent enemies.

Poole: Pro 30:27 - Have no king // By bands Have no king to rule and order them. By bands in great numbers, and in several companies, and in exact order, as is observed in Scripture, as Jud 6...

Have no king to rule and order them.

By bands in great numbers, and in several companies, and in exact order, as is observed in Scripture, as Jud 6:5 7:12 Joe 1:6 2:7 , and by other writers.

Poole: Pro 30:28 - The spider taketh hold // Is in kings’ palaces The spider taketh hold of the thread which she spins out of her own bowels with her hands; with her legs, which he calls hands, because they serve he...

The spider taketh hold of the thread which she spins out of her own bowels with her hands; with her legs, which he calls hands, because they serve her for the same purpose, to do her work, to weave her web, and to catch gnats or flies, &c.

Is in kings’ palaces is not only in poor cottages, but many times in palaces also, where she makes a shift to keep her abode, notwithstanding all the care and pains which is taken to sweep and cleanse it.

Poole: Pro 30:29 - -- That walk decently, and with great alacrity and courage; which are here commended to us to imitate in the management of our affairs.

That walk decently, and with great alacrity and courage; which are here commended to us to imitate in the management of our affairs.

Poole: Pro 30:30 - -- He doth not flee from his pursuers, whether men or beasts, but walketh away with a slow and majestic pace, as is observed by Aristotle, and many oth...

He doth not flee from his pursuers, whether men or beasts, but walketh away with a slow and majestic pace, as is observed by Aristotle, and many others.

Poole: Pro 30:31 - A greyhound // An he-goat // A king, against whom there is no rising up A greyhound called in Hebrew, girt in the lions ; either because its loins are slender, and as it were girt up into a little compass, and tight or w...

A greyhound called in Hebrew, girt in the lions ; either because its loins are slender, and as it were girt up into a little compass, and tight or well trussed up: or because of its great agility and swiftness; for the girding of the loins was used for expedition in going or working. Or, as it is rendered by others a horse , to wit, a war-horse, having his armour girt about him, and marching to the battle, which he doth with great majesty and courage, as God himself observes at large, Job 39:19 , &c.

An he-goat which marcheth in the head of the flock in grave and stately manner, conducting them with great courage and resolution, and being ready to fight for them, either with beasts or men that oppose him; whence great captains are oft compared to he-goats, as Isa 14:9 Jer 1 8 Da 8:5,21 Zec 10:3 .

A king, against whom there is no rising up a mighty and victorious king, whose power none can withstand, who therefore goeth hither and thither, and proceedeth in his affairs with invincible courage and majesty. But this place, with the variation of one Hebrew point, reading ammo for immo , may be rendered, as a very learned man observes, a king, and his people with him; a king when he hath the hearts and hands of his people going along with him in his undertakings.

Poole: Pro 30:32 - In lifting up thyself // Thought evil // Lay thine hand upon thy mouth In lifting up thyself either, 1. By rebellion or sedition against the king last mentioned. Or, 2. By anger or wrath, of which he speaks in the next...

In lifting up thyself either,

1. By rebellion or sedition against the king last mentioned. Or,

2. By anger or wrath, of which he speaks in the next verse. But this verse hath no necessary dependence either upon the foregoing or following verse. Or,

3. Through thy pride, which makes men carry themselves very foolishly, and scornfully, and injuriously, and is the root of contention, as was observed, Pro 13:10 .

Thought evil i.e. designed any mischief or injury against thy neighbour.

Lay thine hand upon thy mouth to wit, to shut it. Be silent, as this phrase is used, Job 21:5 29:9 . Restrain thyself, do not speak one word, much less do any thing tending to the accomplishment of it; do not open thy mouth to justify or excuse it, but silently and seriously consider the evil of it, and repent of it, and do so no more.

Poole: Pro 30:33 - The forcing of wrath // Bringeth forth strife The forcing of wrath the stirring up of wrath, either, 1. In a man’ s self towards others, by giving way to passion, or by fixing his thoughts ...

The forcing of wrath the stirring up of wrath, either,

1. In a man’ s self towards others, by giving way to passion, or by fixing his thoughts upon those things which may inflame it. Or,

2. In others by reproaches, injuries, or any other provocations.

Bringeth forth strife is the cause of many quarrels, and much mischief among men.

PBC: Pro 30:15 - -- Surely the horseleach is connected with the three, yea, four things that follow, things that are never satisfied. The horseleach clings to its object ...

Surely the horseleach is connected with the three, yea, four things that follow, things that are never satisfied. The horseleach clings to its object of desire until it is filled in a gluttonous manner, while taking the very life out of its victim. Once it is full, and the victim thinks it has left, its children are not far behind. They see the pleasure their mother has enjoyed, and become even more gluttonous than she, attacking the same victim.

In this passage, we are being warned against greed, covetousness, and never being satisfied: desiring the things that we don’t have, desiring the things that we cannot have, not being satisfied with what we do have, wasting that which is given to us.

1.   The grave is continually given the object of its desire, but is never satisfied. Its void is never filled and it always has room for more.

2.   The barren womb cannot have the object of her desire but never becomes reconciled to this fact. Her overwhelming desire overshadows any joy that she might have had otherwise.

3.   The earth that is not filled with water continually takes in that which it needs but the water is dispersed in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. The need is fulfilled but wasted and more is demanded.

4.   The fire consumes everything given to it and cannot survive without having more.

We concentrate on the object of our desire to the point that nothing else matters. In spite of the manifold blessings of God, we are not satisfied until we are given that which we long after or lust after. Then, when we have our heart’s desire, that is still not enough. We’ve tasted it, it was good, we want more, we may have wasted it, spent it foolishly, so we are even more dissatisfied than before; our appetite is never quenched.

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Haydock: Pro 30:1 - Gatherer // Vomiter // Vision // With Gatherer, &c., or, as it is in the Latin, Congregans, the son of Vomens. The Latin interpreter has given us in this place the signification of t...

Gatherer, &c., or, as it is in the Latin, Congregans, the son of Vomens. The Latin interpreter has given us in this place the signification of the Hebrew names, instead of the names themselves, which are in the Hebrew, Agur, the son of Jakeh. But whether this Agur be the same person as Solomon, as many think, or a different person, whose doctrine was adopted by Solomon, and inserted among his parables or proverbs, is uncertain. (Challoner) ---

Vomiter may denote David, who delivered many excellent canticles; Eructavit cor, Psalm xliv. De Dieu translates, "The words of him who is recollected the son of obedience." The author styles himself foolish, and asks for neither beggary nor riches, (ver. 2, 8.) which seems not to agree with Solomon; though there can be no doubt but this chapter is inspired. (Calmet) ---

In effect, that great king might form this petition, being mindful of the instability of human greatness, and confess that of himself he was foolish. ---

Vision. Hebrew massa (Haydock) generally implies something disagreeable, but here it is put for a collection of moral sentences. ---

With, &c. Hebrew also, "to Ithiel, even unto Ithiel and Ucal," (Protestants; Haydock) friends of Agur, (Calmet) or his children, (Menochius) or rather Solomon speaks to all the faithful. We never find Agur mentioned as a canonical writer; and if he were, he would have been placed after Solomon. (Worthington)

Haydock: Pro 30:2 - With me With me. He speaks of what he could claim of his own, abstracting from the prophetic light. (Calmet) --- In his humility, he supposeth that others...

With me. He speaks of what he could claim of his own, abstracting from the prophetic light. (Calmet) ---

In his humility, he supposeth that others are more perfect. The wisest know best their own defects. (Worthington)

Haydock: Pro 30:4 - Descended // Hands // Son Descended. How then could I acquire such a sublime science? (Deuteronomy xxx. 11.) (Calmet) --- Christ alone could impart it, (John iii. 13.; Hay...

Descended. How then could I acquire such a sublime science? (Deuteronomy xxx. 11.) (Calmet) ---

Christ alone could impart it, (John iii. 13.; Haydock) who is the perfect wisdom. (Worthington) ---

Hands. Septuagint, "breast." (Haydock) ---

It is no less difficult to fathom the designs of Providence. Some understand the "spirit" of prophecy to be here meant. ---

Son. Septuagint, "children." But many Greek copies, and all the interpreters, have Son, which the Fathers explain of the second person of the blessed Trinity, specified [in] chap. viii. 22. (Calmet)

Haydock: Pro 30:5 - Is fire-tried Is fire-tried; that is, most pure, like gold purified by fire. (Challoner) (Psalm xvii. 31., and Jeremias xxiii. 29.) --- It cannot deceive.

Is fire-tried; that is, most pure, like gold purified by fire. (Challoner) (Psalm xvii. 31., and Jeremias xxiii. 29.) ---

It cannot deceive.

Haydock: Pro 30:6 - And not any thing // Liar And not any thing contrary, Deuteronomy iv. 2., and xii. 32. --- Liar. Our Saviour condemned the false explanations of the Pharisees, as his Churc...

And not any thing contrary, Deuteronomy iv. 2., and xii. 32. ---

Liar. Our Saviour condemned the false explanations of the Pharisees, as his Church does those of all heretics.

Haydock: Pro 30:8 - Words // Riches Words, which are so opposite to thine, ver. 5. --- Riches. The former often prompts men to deceive, the latter to grow proud and forget God.

Words, which are so opposite to thine, ver. 5. ---

Riches. The former often prompts men to deceive, the latter to grow proud and forget God.

Haydock: Pro 30:10 - Accuse // Servant Accuse. Septuagint, "deliver not" to an idolater, Deuteronomy xxiii. 15. (Rabbins) --- Servant. Add not to his affliction. (Worthington) --- W...

Accuse. Septuagint, "deliver not" to an idolater, Deuteronomy xxiii. 15. (Rabbins) ---

Servant. Add not to his affliction. (Worthington) ---

We must suppose that the accusation is frivolous or false. (Lyranus) ---

A servant may do a person much injury: but this ought not to deter the other from performing what justice and charity require.

Haydock: Pro 30:15 - The horse-leech The horse-leech: concupiscence, which hath two daughters that are never satisfied, viz., lust and avarice. (Challoner)

The horse-leech: concupiscence, which hath two daughters that are never satisfied, viz., lust and avarice. (Challoner)

Haydock: Pro 30:16 - Womb // Enough Womb. Septuagint, "the love of a woman," (Haydock) a harlot, or rather Hebrew, "a barren woman." --- Enough. The more fuel, the brighter the flam...

Womb. Septuagint, "the love of a woman," (Haydock) a harlot, or rather Hebrew, "a barren woman." ---

Enough. The more fuel, the brighter the flame. These four similitudes may denote cruelty, lust, avarice, and prodigality; (Calmet) or the first and last may be understood (Haydock) of envy and ambition. (Worthington)

Haydock: Pro 30:17 - Labour Labour. Septuagint, &c., "old age." Hebrew, "the obedience or admonition." Those who curse their parents, were sentenced to death, Leviticus xx. 6...

Labour. Septuagint, &c., "old age." Hebrew, "the obedience or admonition." Those who curse their parents, were sentenced to death, Leviticus xx. 6.

Haydock: Pro 30:19 - Youth Youth. Hebrew, "a virgin." The "conception of a mighty man (the Messias; Haydock) in a virgin," is fitly compared to the flight of an eagle in the...

Youth. Hebrew, "a virgin." The "conception of a mighty man (the Messias; Haydock) in a virgin," is fitly compared to the flight of an eagle in the air, which leaves no trace behind, and is the most difficult to comprehend. See Jeremias xxxi. 22.; Univ. Hist. iii. p. 144, note. Isaiah vii. 14.; Parkhurst in alm. (Haydock) ---

Some of the Jews have admitted this explanation. (Cornelius a Lapide) ---

Others understand that the marks of virginity are equivocal; (Bossuet, &c.) or, if we stick to the Vulgate and Septuagint, the difference betwixt a child and a young man is extremely great, and almost incomprehensible. (Calmet) ---

Young people who follow their carnal appetite, can no more give an account of their actions than of the course of an eagle, &c. (Worthington) ---

His wanderings are manifold. The Hebrew seems to contain a prophecy of Christ's conception.

Haydock: Pro 30:23 - Mistress Mistress, and is married to her master. She will generally prove insolent; like slaves on the throne, Regnabit sanguine multo ad regnum quisquis v...

Mistress, and is married to her master. She will generally prove insolent; like slaves on the throne, Regnabit sanguine multo ad regnum quisquis venit ab exilio. (Suetonius, Tib. 59.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Pro 30:27 - Bands Bands, like an army. When one rises or falls, all do the like. They are so numerous in the East, as to darken the sun and spread destruction, Joel ...

Bands, like an army. When one rises or falls, all do the like. They are so numerous in the East, as to darken the sun and spread destruction, Joel i., and ii. (Calmet)

Haydock: Pro 30:28 - The stellio The stellio. A kind of house lizard, marked with spots like stars, from whence it has its name. (Challoner) --- Hebrew semamith. (Haydock) --- ...

The stellio. A kind of house lizard, marked with spots like stars, from whence it has its name. (Challoner) ---

Hebrew semamith. (Haydock) ---

It probably provides food against the stormy season, like ants. (Bochart) (Calmet) ---

Others understand "the spider," (Kimchi) or "monkey." (Vatable, &c.)

Haydock: Pro 30:30 - Meeteth Meeteth. If he retreat, he looks back with disdain, till the woods conceal the turpitude of his flight. (Pliny, [Natural History?] viii. 16.)

Meeteth. If he retreat, he looks back with disdain, till the woods conceal the turpitude of his flight. (Pliny, [Natural History?] viii. 16.)

Haydock: Pro 30:31 - Loins // Whom Loins. It rules, and is even terrible to lions. (Pliny x. 21.) --- The terms of the original are found nowhere else, and some understand the horse...

Loins. It rules, and is even terrible to lions. (Pliny x. 21.) ---

The terms of the original are found nowhere else, and some understand the horse, the bee, and a soldier in arms. (Calmet) ---

Whom. Hebrew, "and Alkum with him." (Montanus) ---

But we know no animal or king of this name;; and it may imply, "in the midst of his court," or "assembly." (Chaldean) Some Latin copies read, Et Rex, nec est qui resistat ei, (Sixtus V.) which is more conformable to the Hebrew, (Calmet) and is here translated, though the Vulgate read, Nec est rex qui, &c. These four emblems (Haydock) denote fortitude, chastity, order, and justice.

Haydock: Pro 30:32 - Mouth Mouth. Fools ought not to govern. (Worthington) --- Many might have been deemed wise, if they had continued in a lower station. (Calmet) --- Heb...

Mouth. Fools ought not to govern. (Worthington) ---

Many might have been deemed wise, if they had continued in a lower station. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew, "If thou hast acted foolishly in raising thyself, and if thou hast entertained evil thoughts, put thy hand to thy mouth." (Haydock) ---

Chaldean, "put not thy," &c. Give not way to pride, or to insolent language. (Calmet)

Haydock: Pro 30:33 - And // Strife And. Hebrew, "For he who presseth milk." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Surely the churning of milk bringeth for butter," &c. (Haydock) --- Strife. ...

And. Hebrew, "For he who presseth milk." (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "Surely the churning of milk bringeth for butter," &c. (Haydock) ---

Strife. Moderation is necessary, (Calmet) in all actions. (Worthington)

Gill: Pro 30:1 - The words of Agur the son of Jakeh // even the prophecy // the man spake // unto Ithiel, even unto Ithiel and Ucal The words of Agur the son of Jakeh,.... Here begins, according to Aben Ezra, the fourth part of this book; though, according to others, it is the fift...

The words of Agur the son of Jakeh,.... Here begins, according to Aben Ezra, the fourth part of this book; though, according to others, it is the fifth; See Gill on Pro 22:17; Who this Agur was is a matter of doubt; some of the Jewish writers, as Jarchi and Gersom, and likewise some Christian writers f, take him to be Solomon himself, who calls himself Agur, which is said to signify "a gatherer"; and so the Vulgate Latin version renders it, "the words of the gatherer, the son of the vomiter"; just as he calls himself Koheleth, or "the caller", or "preacher", Ecc 1:1. The reason given of this name is, because he gathered wisdom and the law g; or, as Jarchi, he gathered wisdom, and vomited it; that is, delivered it out to others; so he did, he sought after and attained to more wisdom than any before him, for he was wiser than all men; and it may be added, that he "gathered" silver and gold, and the treasure of kings, and increased in riches more than any before him, Ecc 1:13. But then all this does not agree with the person whose words these are; for he speaks of himself as being very ignorant, and as not having learned wisdom, Pro 30:2; and desires neither poverty nor riches, Pro 30:8; besides, the word "Agur" signifies not "a gatherer", but "gathered", as Hillerus h renders it; and so Cocceius, who thinks also that Solomon is meant, yet not for the above reasons, but translates the clause thus, "the words of the recollected son of the obedient"; as if it described Solomon the son of David, the obedient one, the man after God's own heart, when he was restored by repentance; but it seems better, with Aben Ezra, to understand this of some very good, knowing, and worthy man, who lived in those times, either before the times of Solomon, or in the same, whose pithy sayings and sentences he had a great regard for, and joined them to his own; or who lived in the times of Hezekiah, or before, whose proverbs were collected by his men, and added to those of Solomon's they had copied in the preceding chapters; see Pro 25:1;

even the prophecy; or "burden" i, as many of the prophecies are called; it designs something received from the Lord, taken up and carried to others; so Balaam is said to "take up his parable", Num 23:7. Here it does not design a prediction of future events, unless it can be thought that there is in the following words a prophecy of the Messiah; but an instruction, a declaration of things useful and profitable; so preaching in the New Testament is called prophesying often, 1Co 14:1. This is a part of the word of God, of the prophecy which came not by the will of man, but by the inspiration of God, 2Pe 1:19; which prophecy

the man spake, this excellent good man Agur, who was divinely inspired; see Num 24:3;

unto Ithiel, even unto Ithiel and Ucal; who were either the children of Agur, whom he instructed in the knowledge of divine things; or they were, as Aben Ezra, either his companions with whom he conversed about sacred things, or his disciples who inquired of him about these things, and learned them of him. Some think k these are titles of God himself, to whom Agur directs his speech, and acknowledges his ignorance of the divine Being, whom he might justly call Ithiel and Ucal, that is, "God with me", and "the mighty One"; and certain it is that Agur does direct a prayer to God, Pro 30:7; And some read these words themselves as a prayer, "let God be with me, and one shall prevail" l, that is, over all mine enemies; for, if God is on the side of his people, who shall be against them? or, "I shall be able" to do all things through the Lord's strength, Rom 8:31; But I rather think the words should be read, as Jarchi observes, "concerning Ithiel and Ucal" m; that is, concerning the Messiah, to whom these names agree. Ithiel, or "God with me", is very similar to a phrase used by Christ himself in the days of his flesh, Joh 8:29. God was with him as the eternal Word, and his only begotten Son, from all eternity, which denotes his co-existence, nearness of union, equality of nature, and distinction of persons; he was with him as Mediator before the world began, in the council of peace, which was between them both; in the covenant of grace made with him, in which all things were agreed upon respecting the salvation of his people; he was with him in the beginning of time down to his incarnation; he was with him in the creation of all things, in the sustentation of them; in the works of providence, and in the government of the church; he was with him during his state of humiliation; in his infancy, to protect him from the malice of Herod; he was with him when disputing with the doctors in the temple, to direct him; he was with him at his baptism, transfiguration, and other times; he was with him throughout his public ministry, from the beginning to the end of it; he did good and healed all manner of diseases, and wrought amazing miracles, God being with him, Joh 3:2, Act 10:38; and he was with him in his sufferings and at his death; and so he is with him in his exalted state; he raised him from the dead, set him at his own right hand, and ever attends to his prevalent intercession; and will be with him in raising the dead and judging the world. "Ucal", which has the signification of being able, strong, mighty, and powerful, agrees with Christ, who is the mighty God the most mighty, the Almighty; and which appears by the works he did before his incarnation, as the creation of all things out of nothing, the preservation of all things, and the several wonderful events in which he was; concerned, as the confusion of languages, the burning of Sodom and Gomorrah, the conducting the children of Israel through the wilderness, with others; also what he did when here on earth, the mighty works and miracles done by him, and especially the great work of man's redemption, and also the raising of himself from the dead: moreover, what he now does and will do for his people show him to be the mighty One; taking the care of all the churches and providing for them; supplying all the wants of his people, bearing all their burdens, supporting them under all their temptations, and delivering them out of them; strengthening them for his service, protecting them from their enemies, keeping them from falling, raising their dead bodies, and bringing all the sons of God to glory: or if the word should be rendered, as it may, "eaten" or "consumed" n, it is true of Christ, whose zeal ate him up, Psa 69:9; and who is the antitype of the sacrifice consumed by fire.

Gill: Pro 30:2 - Surely I am more brutish than any man // and have not the understanding of a man Surely I am more brutish than any man,.... "Every man is become brutish in his knowledge"; man in his original state was a knowing creature but sinn...

Surely I am more brutish than any man,.... "Every man is become brutish in his knowledge"; man in his original state was a knowing creature but sinning lost his knowledge, and "became like the beasts that perish"; hence we read of the "brutish among the people": but Agur thought himself not only brutish among the rest, but more brutish than any. So Plato o says of some souls living on earth, that they are θηριωδεις, of a brutish nature; see Jer 10:14. Or I think the words may be rendered, "a brute am I rather than a man" p; have more of the brute than of the man, especially in the sight and presence of God; a very beast before him, or in comparison of other wise, holy, and good men; or with respect to the knowledge of spiritual, divine, and heavenly things, Psa 73:22; or "a brute was I from the time", or " ever since I was a man" q; as soon as be was born, being born in sin, and like a wild ass's colt, Job 11:12;

and have not the understanding of a man; or "of Adam" r; who was made after the image of God, which consisted in knowledge as well as holiness; who knew much of God, his nature, perfections, and persons; of the creatures, and the works of his hands and of all things in nature; but affecting more knowledge than he should lost in a great measure what he had, and brought his posterity in and left them in a state of blindness and ignorance, one of whose sons Agur was: or his meaning is, that he had not the understanding, as not of Adam in innocence, and of prophets and other eminent men of God, so not of ordinary men of those who had, he least share of the knowledge of divine things. Aben Ezra, who takes Ithiel and Ucal to be scholars or companions of Agur, supposes, that they asked him questions concerning the divine Being, nature, and perfections, to which he answers in this strain; showing his insufficiency to give them any instruction or satisfaction in such matters, or to discourse on such sublime subjects: or rather his view was to show the blindness and ignorance of human nature with respect to divine things he was about to treat of; and particularly to observe, that the knowledge of a Saviour, and salvation by him, were not from nature, and attainable by that; and that a man must first know himself, his own folly and ignorance, before he can have any true knowledge of Ithiel and Ucal, the mighty Saviour and Redeemer; of the need of him, and of interest in him. Some think his view is to prove that his words, his prophecy, or what he was about to say, or did say, must be owing entirely to divine inspiration; since he was of himself; and without a divine revelation, so very blind, dark, and ignorant; it could not be owing to any natural sagacity of his, who was more brutish than any; nor to any acquired knowledge, or the instruction of men, since he had none, as follows; and so כי, with which the words begin, may be rendered "for" or "because" s, as it usually is, "for I am more brutish, than any man", &c.

Gill: Pro 30:3 - I neither learned wisdom // nor have the knowledge of the holy I neither learned wisdom,.... Natural wisdom or philosophy, so as to understand the nature of things, and reason about them in a philosophical manner;...

I neither learned wisdom,.... Natural wisdom or philosophy, so as to understand the nature of things, and reason about them in a philosophical manner; or political wisdom, so as to know how to govern states, and manage the affairs of kingdoms; or in a lower sphere to transact the affairs of life to any peculiar advantage; he had not a polite or liberal education: or spiritual and evangelical wisdom; that is, not of himself through the mere strength and force of his genius and natural capacity, or of others; he was not the son of a prophet, nor brought up in the schools of the prophets; he did not learn it, nor was he taught it by men; for this is not acquired by human teaching; it is what comes from above, from heaven, and by the revelation of God;

nor have the knowledge of the holy; or "holies" s; either of holy persons, such knowledge as holy men of God had; or of the holy angels, not of their nature, capacities, influence and operations; nor such as they have: or rather of the holy Persons in the Trinity, Father, Son and Spirit; their nature modes of subsisting, perfections, purposes, and the like; at least not a full and comprehensive one: or of holy things, of the holy Scriptures, and the holy doctrines of them; however, not what is perfect and complete. It may be rendered, "but I have the knowledge of the holy" t, though he had not the advantage of human literature, nor had ever been under the instructions of men on one account or another, and therefore what he knew, or was about to discourse of, was from God. Some understand this verse and Pro 30:2 of Ithiel, or Christ u, as in the esteem of men, 1Co 1:23.

Gill: Pro 30:4 - Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended // who hath gathered the wind in his fists // who hath bound the waters in a garment // who hath established all the ends of the earth // what is his name, and what is his son's name, if thou canst tell Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended?.... That has been thither to fetch knowledge of God and divine things, and has returned to communicate...

Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended?.... That has been thither to fetch knowledge of God and divine things, and has returned to communicate it. Enoch was taken up to heaven before this time: and Elijah, as is very probable, after; but neither of them returned again, to inform mortals what was to be seen, known, and enjoyed there: since, the Apostle Paul was caught up into the third heaven, and came back again; but then the things he heard were such as it was not lawful for a man to utter: and indeed, since the coming of Christ there is no need of any further revelation to be made nor of any such expedition, in order to obtain it, Rom 10:6. And, properly speaking, there never was any besides him, whose names are Ithiel and Ucal, that ever did this: he lay in the bosom of the Father, and was privy to his whole mind and will; he descended from heaven to earth not by local motion, but, by assumption of nature; and when he had made known his Father's will, and done his work, he ascended far above all heavens, and received gifts for men; to fill his churches and ministers with them, in order to communicate and improve spiritual and divine knowledge; and therefore, with great propriety and pertinence, he applies these words to himself, Joh 3:13;

who hath gathered the wind in his fists? not any mere creature; not any man or set of men; it is not in the power of any, either men or angels, to restrain or let loose the winds at pleasure; nor has Satan, though called the prince of the power of the air, that is, of the devils in the air, any such command of them; none but he that made them can command them to blow, or be still; even he who brings them out of his treasures, and his own son, whom the wind and seas obeyed; see Psa 135:7; The Heathens w themselves are so sensible of this, that the power of the winds only belongs to God, that they have framed a deity they call Aeolus; whom the supreme Being has made a kind of steward or store keeper of the winds, and given him a power to still or raise them as he pleases x;

who hath bound the waters in a garment? either the waters above, which are bound in the thick clouds as in a garment which hold them from pouring out; or the waters of the sea, which are as easily managed by the Lord as an infant by its parent, and is wrapped about with a swaddling band, Job 26:8. But can any creature do this? none but the mighty God; and his almighty Son the Ithiel and Ucal, who clothes the heavens with blackness, and makes sackcloth their covering: even he who is the Redeemer of this people, and has the tongue of the learned, to speak a word in season to them Isa 50:2;

who hath established all the ends of the earth? fixed the boundaries of the several parts of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, and the several countries in them? settled the foundations of the earth, and secured the banks and borders of it from the raging of the sea? None but these next mentioned; see Job 38:4;

what is his name, and what is his son's name, if thou canst tell? if thou surest it is a mere man that does all these things tell his name; or, if he be dead, say what is the name of his son or of any of his family; so Jarchi and others interpret it: or rather, since it is the Lord alone and his own proper Son, to whom these things can he ascribed say what is his name; that is, his nature and perfections which are incomprehensible and ineffable; otherwise he is known by his name Jehovah and especially as his name is proclaimed in Christ and manifested by him and in his Gospel: and seeing he has a son of the same nature with him, and possessed of the same perfections, co-essential, and co-existent, and every way equal to him, and a distinct person from him, say what is his nature and perfections also; declare his generation and the manner of it; his divine filiation, and in what class it is; things which are out of the reach of human capacity, and not to be expressed by the tongue of men and angels; see Mat 11:27. Otherwise, though his name for a while was a secret, and he was only called the seed of the woman and of Abraham, Gen 3:15; yet he had many names given him under the Old Testament; as Shiloh, Immanuel, the Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, and Prince of peace; the Lord our righteousness, and the Man, the Branch: and under the New Testament, Jesus the Saviour, Christ the Anointed; the Head of the church, the Judge of the world; the Word of God, and King of kings, and Lord of lords. This Scripture is a proof of Christ's being the eternal Son of God; of his equality with his divine Father as such, their name and nature being alike ineffable; of his co-existence with his Father as such; and of his omnipresence and omnipotence, expressed by the phrases here used of ascending, &c. and of his distinct personality from the Father; the same question being distinctly put of him as of the Father. Some render the last clause, "dost thou know?" y thou dost not know God and his Son, their being and perfections are not to be known by the light of nature, only by revelation, and but imperfectly.

Gill: Pro 30:5 - Every word of God is pure // he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him Every word of God is pure,.... The whole word of God. "All Scripture", given by inspiration of God, to which Agur directs, as giving the best account...

Every word of God is pure,.... The whole word of God. "All Scripture", given by inspiration of God, to which Agur directs, as giving the best account of God, of his name, nature, and perfections; of his Son, person, offices, and grace; being pure, very pure, "purified" z like silver, purified in a furnace of earth. The whole of Scripture is pure, free from all falsehood and error; coming from the God of truth, who cannot lie, and therefore called "the Scriptures of truth": every promise is pure as well as precious, made without dissimulation, faithfully performed, and all yea and amen in Christ; every doctrine is pure, free from the mixtures and inventions of men; the sincere milk of the word; consistent and all of a piece, not yea and nay; and tending to promote purity of heart and life; wholesome words, and doctrines according to godliness; see Psa 12:6;

he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him; not the word, but God, whose the word is; and which represents him as a proper object of trust, both with respect to things temporal and spiritual, at all times; and as a shield to protect such, by his power and grace, from all their enemies, sin, Satan, and the world, and also from all errors and false doctrines; see Psa 3:3.

Gill: Pro 30:6 - Add thou not unto his words // lest he reprove thee // and thou be found a liar Add thou not unto his words,.... To the words of God; as the Jews did, by joining their oral law, or the traditions of the elders, to the written word...

Add thou not unto his words,.... To the words of God; as the Jews did, by joining their oral law, or the traditions of the elders, to the written word, and preferring them before it; and as the Papists, by making their unwritten traditions, and the sense and determinations of their church, equal to the Scriptures; and as all enthusiasts do, who set up their pretended dreams, visions, revelations, and prophecies, upon a foot with the word of God, or as superior to it; whereas that is, and that only, the rule and standard of faith and practice, and is a sufficient and perfect one; see Deu 4:2;

lest he reprove thee; that is, God; either by words or by blows, by threatenings and denunciations of his wrath and displeasure; or by chastisements and corrections for such daring pride, blasphemy, and wickedness; those who add to his words, he threatens to add plagues unto them, Rev 22:18;

and thou be found a liar; a forger, speaker, and spreader of doctrinal lies, such doctrines as are contrary to the word of truth; not being built on that, but upon human inventions, and additions to it.

Gill: Pro 30:7 - Two things have I required of thee // deny me them not before I die Two things have I required of thee,.... Or, "have asked of thee a, O God"; as may be supplied, for the words are addressed to him. The following is a...

Two things have I required of thee,.... Or, "have asked of thee a, O God"; as may be supplied, for the words are addressed to him. The following is a prayer made unto him, which contains the two requests here referred to; his requests are not many, his words are few; he did not make long prayers, or expect to be heard for much speaking;

deny me them not before I die; not that he thought he was near his end; nor is it his sense that he desired some time or other, at least before he died, that he might have these two requests granted him after mentioned; for what are poverty and riches, or convenient food, to a man just dying? but his meaning is, that he might be thus favoured as long as he lived; that all the while he was in the world, he might be kept from sin, and be free from anxious worldly thoughts and cares, having a moderate competency of good things: faith in prayer will have no denial; a wrestling Jacob will not let the angel go without a blessing; importunity in prayer gets much from the hands of God; "the effectual fervent prayer of the righteous man availeth much", Jam 5:16.

Gill: Pro 30:8 - Remove far from me vanity and lies // give me neither poverty nor riches // feed me with food convenient for me Remove far from me vanity and lies,.... This is the "first" request, to be preserved from sin, in general; which is a vain, lying, and deceitful thing...

Remove far from me vanity and lies,.... This is the "first" request, to be preserved from sin, in general; which is a vain, lying, and deceitful thing; promising pleasure, profit, liberty, and impunity, which it does not give. Agur desires to have vain thoughts removed out of his mind, vain words from his mouth, and vain actions from his life and conversation; to have his eyes turned from beholding vanity, and his feet from walking in it; and his affections taken off from the vain things of the world, the lusts, pleasures, profits, and honours of it; as well as to be kept from all errors and false doctrines, which are lies in hypocrisy; with which men that lie in wait to deceive would, if it were possible, deceive the very elect: Agur conscious of his own weakness, and proneness to evil, desires the Lord would not lead him into temptation, but deliver him from all evil, doctrinal and practical. Some understand this of the forgiveness of sin; which is sometimes expressed by a putting or removing it away, 2Sa 7:13, Psa 103:12;

give me neither poverty nor riches; this is the "second" request, not to be extremely poor nor too rich; but to be in a middle state between both, neither rich nor poor; which Horace b calls the golden mean, and which Agur wisely judged to be the happiest state; most free from care, least liable to temptation, and the best situation to serve the Lord in: a like wish was made by Theognis c, I neither love to be rich,

"nor desire it; but to live on a little, having no evil;''

so Martial d. Both riches and poverty are of God; men are rich or poor, as the Lord pleases; he suffers poverty in some, and gives riches to others: Agur deprecates both, as having their separate, peculiar, snares and temptations; though no doubt this request was made with submission to the will of God; and not as considering either of them as evils in themselves, but as they might be attended with bad consequences, and what is next mentioned being more eligible;

feed me with food convenient for me; not merely what was agreeable to his palate, suitable to his constitution, and sufficient for nature; nor for him personally, but for his family also; and what was proper and suitable to the condition and circumstances in which he was, and to the rank and quality he held, whether in a more private or in a more public capacity. Some render it, "the food of my allowance" e; what is allotted and appointed for me It seems to be the same which Job calls his "necessary food", and Christ "our daily bread": it takes in both food and raiment, which having, men should be contented with; see Job 23:12. The allusion seems to be to the stated measure of food allowed to servants by the day, or rather by the month, called "demensum", and which was but small and scanty f; yet with this Agur could be content.

Gill: Pro 30:9 - Lest I be full, and deny thee // and say, Who is the Lord // or lest I be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God in vain Lest I be full, and deny thee,.... This is the dangerous consequence of riches, and the temptation they expose men unto; who, being full of the thing...

Lest I be full, and deny thee,.... This is the dangerous consequence of riches, and the temptation they expose men unto; who, being full of the things of this world, are tempted to deny the Lord; not his being and perfections directly, but chiefly his providence; to deny that what they have, they have received of him, but attribute it to their own care, diligence, and industry; and now think they can live without him, without any dependence on his providence, having a large affluence of the things of life: yea, they may be said to deny him, when they forget the bounties of his providence; are not thankful to him for them; that flatter themselves with a continuance of them, without any regard to him, as if he had no concern in the affairs of life; see Deu 32:15;

and say, Who is the Lord? as Pharaoh did, Exo 5:2. I am not obliged to him; I can live without him, I have enough of my own;

or lest I be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God in vain; this is the snare that attends poverty; men, for want of food and raiment, are tempted to steal from their neighbours, which is a sin against the law of God, the eighth command; and then to cover the theft, when an oath is offered to purge them from the charge and suspicion of it, they take it, and so are guilty of false swearing, or taking the name of God not only in vain, but falsely, and so become guilty of the breach of the third command. Agur, a good man, is desirous he might not be exposed to temptations to such evils, and especially which so affected the honour and glory of God.

Gill: Pro 30:10 - Accuse not a servant unto his master // lest he curse thee, and thou be found guilty Accuse not a servant unto his master,.... Wrongly, rashly, and without any foundation, nor for any trifling thing; unless it be in a case of moment an...

Accuse not a servant unto his master,.... Wrongly, rashly, and without any foundation, nor for any trifling thing; unless it be in a case of moment and importance, when his master's business is sadly neglected, or he is injured in his property by him: especially care should be taken not to calumniate a servant, to abuse him with the tongue, as the word g signifies; the circumstance he is in should be considered, as a servant; and how severe masters are apt to be towards them, and therefore little matters should be hid from them; and much less should they be aggravated, and least of all should falsehoods be told of them. So Doeg the Edomite accused David to Saul, and the Pharisees accused the disciples of Christ to their Master, 1Sa 22:9; the apostle's advice is good, and agrees with Agur's, Rom 14:4;

lest he curse thee, and thou be found guilty; or, "and thou shouldest sin" h; that is, afterwards; and so the curse come upon thee he has wished for: or the sense is, lest he should curse thee before men, and hurt thy character and reputation; or imprecate a curse from the Lord, which he may suffer to come upon thee for sin. Aben Ezra interprets this of a servant, that flies from Heathen countries to the land of Israel, to be made a proselyte of; who should not be discovered, and returned to his old master.

Gill: Pro 30:11 - There is a generation that curseth their father // and doth not bless their mother There is a generation that curseth their father,.... A sort of men that neither fear God nor regard men; and are so inhuman as to be without natural...

There is a generation that curseth their father,.... A sort of men that neither fear God nor regard men; and are so inhuman as to be without natural affections to their parents; have no reverence of them, love to them, nor give them any honour or obedience; so far from it, that they curse their father that begot them; imprecate on him all the evils in life they can think of, and wish him out of the world;

and doth not bless their mother; cannot give her a good word, who bore them, and brought them up in the most tender and indulgent manner; yea, so unnatural as to curse her also, for that is intended by this way of speaking; see Pro 30:17.

Gill: Pro 30:12 - There is a generation that are pure in their own eyes // and yet is not washed from their filthiness There is a generation that are pure in their own eyes,.... Not in the eyes of God, who sees the heart, and all the impurities of it, as well as of l...

There is a generation that are pure in their own eyes,.... Not in the eyes of God, who sees the heart, and all the impurities of it, as well as of life and conversation; nor in the eyes of others, though such may appear outwardly righteous before men; but in their own eyes, in their own conceit and imagination, trusting in themselves that they are righteous: but such have not their eyes opened or enlightened to see the plague of their own hearts, the spirituality of the law of God, the perfection of righteousness that requires; nor the righteousness and holiness of God himself; nor the imperfection and insufficiency of their own; did they, they would not seem pure and righteous to themselves. No man is pure by nature, or through anything done by them; but by the grace of God, and through the blood and righteousness of Christ; and such are far from being pure in their own eyes, or as considered in themselves: but those who are pure neither by nature nor by grace, yet think they are so. There were some such in Agur's time, and such were the Scribes and Pharisees in Christ's time; there were a generation of them; and there are of the same sort in our days, as Papists, Perfectionists, and all self-justiciaries; see Luk 18:9;

and yet is not washed from their filthiness; their native, original, and universal pollution by sin they have from their birth, and which is increased by numerous actual transgressions; and from which none are or can be washed but those who are born of water and of the Spirit, or are washed with the washing of regeneration; and are washed from their sins in the blood of the Lamb, whose blood cleanses from all sin; and are arrayed with the fine linen, clean and white, the righteousness of the saints, which is the righteousness of Christ imputed to them: whatsoever is short of these leaves men unwashed from their filthiness, whatever opinion they may have of themselves; see Job 9:30, Jer 2:22.

Gill: Pro 30:13 - There is a generation, O how lofty are their eyes! and their eyelids are lifted up. There is a generation, O how lofty are their eyes! and their eyelids are lifted up. Above others, on whom they look with scorn and contempt; as those...

There is a generation, O how lofty are their eyes! and their eyelids are lifted up. Above others, on whom they look with scorn and contempt; as those do who have more riches than others, and boast of them; they despise their poor neighbours, and disdain to look upon them: and such also who have more knowledge and wisdom than others, or at least think so; they are puffed up in their fleshly minds, and say of the illiterate or less knowing, as the proud Pharisees did, "this people, who knoweth not the law, are cursed": and likewise those who fancy themselves more holy and righteous than others; these, in a scornful manner, say, "stand by thyself, I am holier than thou"; and thank God they are not as other men are, as publicans and sinners; see Pro 19:4. Hence Pliny i says, that in the eyebrows there is a part of the mind; those especially show haughtiness; that pride has a receptacle elsewhere, but here it has its seat; it is bred in the heart, but here it comes and here it hangs: wherefore Juvenal k calls pride and haughtiness, "grande supercilium"; and proud haughty persons are said to be supercilious.

Gill: Pro 30:14 - There is a generation whose teeth are as swords // and their jaw teeth as knives // to devour the poor from off the earth, and the needy from among men There is a generation whose teeth are as swords,.... As sharp as swords; like such the beasts of prey have; cruel, barbarous, and inhuman creatures;...

There is a generation whose teeth are as swords,.... As sharp as swords; like such the beasts of prey have; cruel, barbarous, and inhuman creatures; see Psa 57:4;

and their jaw teeth as knives; exceeding sharp and biting:

to devour the poor from off the earth, and the needy from among men: by their tyranny, oppression, and cruelty, to deprive them of the little they have; and even to take away their lives from them, and utterly destroy them; of this disposition are all tyrants and persecutors: such were Rome Pagan, compared to a red dragon in the times of the ten Heathen persecutions; and such is Rome Papal, signified by a beast, like a leopard, bear, and lion; and which has been drunk with the blood of the saints.

Gill: Pro 30:15 - The horse leech hath two daughters, crying, Give, give // there are three things // that are never satiated: yea, four things say not, It is enough The horse leech hath two daughters, crying, Give, give,.... Or "the blood sucker" l; so it began to be called in the times of Pliny m, to which the l...

The horse leech hath two daughters, crying, Give, give,.... Or "the blood sucker" l; so it began to be called in the times of Pliny m, to which the last generation of men may well be compared; blood thirsty creatures, that never have enough, and are not satisfied with the flesh of men, nor with their blood; and such particularly the Papists are: and not only this generation of men, but there are three or four things besides, which resemble the horse leech for its insatiableness; for the horse leech has not two daughters only, but more. Some, by her two daughters, understand the two forks of its tongue, which some naturalists say it has; though later ones, and more diligent inquirers into those things, find it has not; but either with its three teeth, or by the compression of its mouth on all sides, sucks the blood, and will not let go until it is filled with it n: others have proposed the two sorts of leeches as its daughters, the sea leech, and that which is found in fenny and marshy places. But it is best, by its daughters, to understand such that resemble it, and are like unto it; as those that are of like nature and quality, and do the same things as others, are called their children; see Mat 23:31, 1Jo 3:10; and so the number of its daughters, which are always craving and asking for more, and are never satisfied, are not only two, but more, as follows;

there are three things; or, " yea, there are three things"

that are never satiated: yea, four things say not, It is enough; not two only, but three, and even four, that are quite insatiable and are as follow. The Syriac version renders the whole thus,

"the horse leech hath three beloved daughters; three, "I say", they are, which are not satisfied; and the fourth says not, It is enough.''

Some, as Abendana observes, interpret it of hell, by a transposition of the letters; because everyone that perverts his ways descends thither. Bochart o interprets it of fate, and so Noldius p: and Schultens renders the word, the most monstrous of evils; it signifying in the Arabic language, as he observes, anything monstrous and dreadful; such as wood demons, serpents, and dragons, which devour men and beasts. Suidas q, by the "horse leech", understands sin, whose daughters are fornication, envy, and idolatry, which are never satisfied by evil actions, and the fourth is evil concupiscence.

Gill: Pro 30:16 - The grave // and the barren womb // the earth that is not filled with water // and the fire that saith not, It is enough The grave,.... Which is the first of the four daughters, or insatiable things, which resemble the horse leech: the grave is the house appointed for al...

The grave,.... Which is the first of the four daughters, or insatiable things, which resemble the horse leech: the grave is the house appointed for all living; it stands ready for them, it is open to receive them when dead; and though such multitudes have been put into it, since death reigned in the world, yet it is not full, it waits for more; nor will its mouth be shut till the last enemy, death, is destroyed; see Pro 27:20; This is an emblem of a covetous man, who enlarges his desire as hell or the grave; and is never satisfied with gold, silver, and increase of substance he has, but is always craving more;

and the barren womb; the second daughter, that cries, Give, give, as Rachel, "give me children, or I die", Gen 30:1, barren women are oftentimes impatient for children, as she was; and importunate, as Hannah; and as the Israelitish women were before the coming of the Messiah, each hoping he might be born of them; especially before it was so clearly known that he should be born of a virgin: though it may be rather the barren womb of harlots is here meant, and who are generally barren, and whose lust is insatiable; and this may be an emblem of lust, which is never satisfied; whether it be a lust of riches, or of honour, or of uncleanness, or of sensual pleasures;

the earth that is not filled with water; which is dry and parched, and opens and gapes; and though large quantities of rain may fall upon it, which it greedily drinks in; yet is not seen, nor is it filled with it, but it thirsts for more: this may be an emblem of good men, that have received abundance of the grace of God; and though they thirst not after sin, as they before did, and others do; yet thirst after God, more knowledge of him, and communion with him, and for more grace, like the dry and thirsty land, and cannot have enough of it; see Joh 4:13; or rather of wicked men, who drink up iniquity like water, and yet never have their fill of it to their satisfaction. This is the third thing, and the fourth follows:

and the fire that saith not, It is enough; but let what fuel will be cast into it, it devours it, and still wants more: by the Egyptians, as Herodotus r relates, fire is reckoned an animated beast, which devours all it can lay hold on; and when it is filled with food, it dies with that which is devoured by it. Such is the fire of divine wrath, hell fire, in which sinners are, as thorns and briers; and which is unquenchable, everlasting, burns for ever and ever; the Tophet, ordained of old, deep and large, the pile thereof is fire and much wood, kindled by the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, Isa 30:33. These are the four daughters of the horse leech which resemble that in its insatiableness. Jarchi makes mention of some that interpret the horse leech of "sheol", or the state of the dead; and the two daughters, of paradise and hell; the one says, "Give me the righteous"; and the other says, "Give me the wicked." Aben Ezra applies these four to the four generations before spoken of; the grave, into which are cast the generation of those that curse their father, and die before their time; the barren womb, the generation of those that are not washed from the filthiness of whoredom, and have no children; the earth not filled with water, the proud and haughty, who are humbled by famine; and the fire is that which descends from heaven, to consume the generation that destroy the poor and oppress the needy, as fire came down upon them in the days of Elijah. Jarchi takes notice of a Midrash, which applies these four things to the four monarchies; as it does also all the four things after mentioned.

Gill: Pro 30:17 - The eye that mocketh at his father // and despiseth to obey his mother // the ravens of the valley, shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it The eye that mocketh at his father,.... At his advice, admonitions, and instructions; looks upon him with scorn and disdain, and treats him as a wea...

The eye that mocketh at his father,.... At his advice, admonitions, and instructions; looks upon him with scorn and disdain, and treats him as a weak, silly, old man: here Agur returns to the first generation he had observed;

and despiseth to obey his mother; her orders and commands: or, "the obedience of his mother" s; her discipline and instruction, having no regard to it. The word is rendered "gathering" in Gen 49:10; and Jarchi interprets it of the gathering of wrinkles in her face: and so the Targum, Arabic, and Syriac versions render it, "the old age of his mother"; despising her as an old foolish woman; see Pro 23:22; להק, in the Ethiopic language, signifies to "grow old", from whence the word here used, by a transposition of letters, may be derived; and Mr. Castell t observes, that the royal prophet, among others, seems to have taken this word from the queen of Sheba;

the ravens of the valley, shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it; it signifies, that such persons shall come to an untimely end, and an ignominious death; either be drowned in a river, when floating upon it, or cast upon the banks of it, the ravens that frequent such places, and are most cruel and voracious, should feed upon them: or they should be hanged on a tree, or be crucified u, where birds of prey would light upon them; and particularly pick out their eyes and eat them, as being softest and sweetest to them; therefore first aim at them, and of which birds, and especially ravens, are very fond w; and is a just retaliation for their scornful and disdainful looks at their parent. This may figuratively design the black devils of hell, the posse of them in the air, who are sometimes compared to the fowls thereof; to whom such unnatural and disobedient children shall become a prey; see Mat 13:4.

Gill: Pro 30:18 - There be three things which are too wonderful for me // yea, four things which I know not There be three things which are too wonderful for me,.... Which were above his reach and comprehension; what he could not find out, nor account for, ...

There be three things which are too wonderful for me,.... Which were above his reach and comprehension; what he could not find out, nor account for, nor sufficiently admire;

yea, four things which I know not; the way of them; as follows.

Gill: Pro 30:19 - The way of an eagle in the air // the way of a serpent upon a rock // the way of a ship in the midst of the sea // and the way of a man with a maid The way of an eagle in the air,.... And so of any other bird; but this is mentioned, because it flies swiftest, and soars highest: but the way in whic...

The way of an eagle in the air,.... And so of any other bird; but this is mentioned, because it flies swiftest, and soars highest: but the way in which it goes is not known, nor can it be seen with the eye; it cuts the air, and passes through it, but leaves no track behind it which may be pointed to, and it may be said, that is the way the eagle took and flew towards heaven out of sight;

the way of a serpent upon a rock; a smooth hard rock; and wonderful it is that it should creep up it without legs; and where it leaves no impression, no footsteps by which it can be traced, as it may in soft and sandy places;

the way of a ship in the midst of the sea; it is marvellous that such a vessel should be supported upon the sea; that it should weather the storms and tempests of it; that it should be steered through the trackless ocean to distant countries; and, particularly, though it makes furrows in the waters, and divides the waves; yet these quickly close again, and there is no path to be seen in which it goes; there is no beaten road made by it, nor by the vast numbers which go the same way, which a man can see with his eyes or follow;

and the way of a man with a maid; or "to a maid" x; the many artful ways and methods he uses to get into her company, who is kept recluse; and to convey the sentiments and affections of his heart unto her, to gain her love to him, and obtain her in an honourable way of marriage; or to decoy and deceive her, and draw her into impure and unlawful embraces: it may design the private and secret way of committing fornication with her; which sense seems to be confirmed by Pro 30:20. Some of the ancients, particularly Ambrose y, interpreted the whole of this verse of Christ: "the way of an eagle in the air", of his ascension to heaven, with men his prey, taken out of the jaws of the enemy; and which is such as is beyond the comprehension of men, that one of so great majesty should vouchsafe to come down from heaven, or ascend thither: "the way of a serpent upon a rock" he understands of the temptations of Satan, the old serpent, with which he attacked Christ, the Rock; but could imprint no footsteps of his malice and wickedness on him; could find nothing in him to work upon, nor leave any sign behind him, as upon Adam: "the way of a ship in the midst of the sea" he interprets of the church; which though distressed with storms and tempests of persecution and false doctrine, yet cannot suffer shipwreck, Christ being in it: and the last clause he renders as the Vulgate Latin version does, "and the way of a man in youth"; which he explains of the journeys which Christ took, and the ways of virtue he pursued, to do good to the bodies and souls of men, which are so many as not to be numbered. But it may be better interpreted of the wonderful incarnation of Christ, his conception and birth of a virgin; which was a new and unheard of thing, and the way and manner of it quite inscrutable, and more hard and difficult to be understood than any of the rest; for the words may be rendered, "the way of a man in a maid" or "virgin"; that is, the conception of Geber, the mighty man, in the virgin; see Jer 31:22. Gussetius z gives the mystical sense of the whole, as referring to the ascension of Christ; his coming out of the stony grave; his conversation among the people, like the tumultuous waves; and his incarnation of a virgin.

Gill: Pro 30:20 - Such is the way of an adulterous woman // she eateth, and wipeth her mouth // and saith, I have done no wickedness Such is the way of an adulterous woman,.... It is equally unknown as the way of a man with a maid; it is difficult to detect her, she takes so much c...

Such is the way of an adulterous woman,.... It is equally unknown as the way of a man with a maid; it is difficult to detect her, she takes so much care and caution, and uses so many artful methods to conceal her wickedness from her husband; though she lives in adultery, it is in a most private manner, and carried on so secretly and artfully that she is not easily discovered;

she eateth, and wipeth her mouth; like one that eats what he should not, wipes his mouth that it might not be known or suspected he had ate anything; so such an adulteress commits the sin of adultery; and when she has done looks as grave and demure, and carries it so to her husband and all her friends, as if she was the chastest person upon earth. The allusion may be to harlots, who after an impure congress used to wash themselves a, and had servants to wait upon them and serve them with water, called from hence "aquarioli" b;

and saith, I have done no wickedness; she says by her behaviour, by her demure looks; and if suspected and challenged with it utterly denies it. This is an emblem of the antichristian whore of Rome, who, though the mother of harlots, and abominations of the earth; though guilty of the foulest adultery, that is, the grossest idolatry, yet pretends to be the pure and chaste spouse of Christ; and, under the guise of purity and holiness, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness, seduces the minds of many; see Rev 17:1.

Gill: Pro 30:21 - For three things the earth is disquieted // and for four which it cannot bear For three things the earth is disquieted,.... The inhabitants of it are made very uneasy; and for four which it cannot bear; they are a load and ...

For three things the earth is disquieted,.... The inhabitants of it are made very uneasy;

and for four which it cannot bear; they are a load and burden upon it, and are intolerable to those that dwell on it, and make them very uncomfortable.

Gill: Pro 30:22 - For a servant, when he reigneth // and a fool, when he is filled with meat For a servant, when he reigneth,.... Being unfit for it through his education, not having been trained up in and learned the arts of government and ma...

For a servant, when he reigneth,.... Being unfit for it through his education, not having been trained up in and learned the arts of government and maxims of it; and through the disposition of his mind, which is mean, abject, and servile; and as he has been used himself when a servant, so he will use others c and through his circumstances, being poor, he will take oppressive methods to become rich; and being raised from a low estate, he is the more imperious, proud, and haughty d; all which and more make his reign intolerable; see Pro 19:10. This may be applied to antichrist, the "servus servorum", who in a haughty, tyrannical, and insolent manner, exalts himself above all that is called God: and reigns over the kings of the earth, at least has done so, and that in such a manner as was unbearable; deposing kings at pleasure, disposing of their kingdoms, and trampling upon their necks, and making their subjects his vassals; see 2Th 2:4;

and a fool, when he is filled with meat; as Nabal at his feast, when he behaved so intolerably in his cups towards David and his messengers, that he determined on his destruction, had not Abigail interposed, 1Sa 25:10; and there are many such fools, who having their bellies full of food, and their heads full of liquor, are very overbearing in company, and give their tongues such a loose as is very disturbing: or this may intend such fools, or wicked men, who are full of wealth and riches, and being purse proud, are exceeding haughty and insolent; set their mouths against the heaven, and blaspheme God that is in it; and their tongues walk through the earth, and spare none, but lash all in an insufferable manner. These disquiet families, neighbourhoods, communities, and commonwealths; see Psa 73:7.

Gill: Pro 30:23 - For an odious woman, when she is married // and an handmaid, that is heir to her mistress For an odious woman, when she is married,.... Odious for her person, her ugliness, and the deformity of her body; or rather for the ill qualities of ...

For an odious woman, when she is married,.... Odious for her person, her ugliness, and the deformity of her body; or rather for the ill qualities of her mind, which, while single, she endeavours to conceal, but, being married, hides them no longer; but becomes imperious, proud, scornful, and malicious, and behaves in an ill natured way to her husband and all about her, to such a degree, that there is no bearing the place where she is;

and an handmaid, that is heir to her mistress; that has got so much into her affections that she leaves all she has to her when she dies, which makes her insufferably proud and vain; or she marries her master after the death of her mistress, and so coming into her place enjoys all she had, but only her wisdom and humility; which being wanting, she behaves in such a manner as to make the whole family uneasy. This might be exemplified in the case of Hagar, the bondmaid of Sarah, a type of those that are under the law of works, and seek the inheritance by it; and who trust in themselves that they are righteous, and despise others, Gen 16:4.

Gill: Pro 30:24 - There be four things which are little upon the earth // but they are exceeding wise There be four things which are little upon the earth,.... Small in bulk, that have little bodies, are the lesser sort of animals; but they are ex...

There be four things which are little upon the earth,.... Small in bulk, that have little bodies, are the lesser sort of animals;

but they are exceeding wise; show a great deal of art and wisdom in what they do; or "but they are wise, made wise" e by the instinct of nature, by the direction of Providence, by which they do things that are surprising. Some versions, that have no regard to the points, read the words, "but their are wiser than the wise" f; than even wise men; wise men may learn much from the least of creatures; see Job 12:7.

Gill: Pro 30:25 - The ants are a people not strong // yet their prepare their meat in the summer The ants are a people not strong,.... Far from it; what is weaker than an ant? a multitude of them may be destroyed at once, with the crush of a foot...

The ants are a people not strong,.... Far from it; what is weaker than an ant? a multitude of them may be destroyed at once, with the crush of a foot. Pliny calls it "minimum animal", the least animal; and the Arabians use it as a proverb, to call a weak man one weaker than an ant: and there is one sort of ants called "dsar", so small that one hundred of them will not weigh more than a barley corn g: they are called a people, because they associate together in great numbers; though small in bulk, and weak as to power and strength; and which is a figure elsewhere used in the sacred Scriptures; see Joe 1:6; and by profane writers, as Homer and Virgil, who speak of bees as a people and nation h; and of nations of flies, and of flying birds, geese, cranes, and swans i;

yet their prepare their meat in the summer; build granaries with great art and wisdom, carry in grains of corn with great labour and industry, in the summer season, when only to be got, and lay them up against winter. Phocylides k the poet says much the same things of them; he calls them a tribe or nation, small but laborious, and says, they gather and carry in their food in summer for the winter, which is a proof of their wisdom. Cicero l says, the ant has not only sense, but mind, reason, and memory. Aelianus m ascribes unspeakable wisdom to it; and Pliny n discourse and conversation; See Gill on Pro 6:6; see Gill on Pro 6:7; See Gill on Pro 6:8. It is a pattern of industry and diligence both as to temporal and spiritual things, Ecc 9:10.

Gill: Pro 30:26 - The coneys are but a feeble folk // yet make they their houses in the rocks The coneys are but a feeble folk,.... Or "rabbits"; though some think these creatures are not intended, because they are not so little as those with ...

The coneys are but a feeble folk,.... Or "rabbits"; though some think these creatures are not intended, because they are not so little as those with which they are ranked, the ant, the locust, and spider; and because of the places in which they burrow and make their houses, which though in holes and caverns of the earth, yet not in rocky but sandy places; rather therefore it is thought that the mountain mouse, or bear mouse o, as Jerom calls it, is meant; of which, he says p, there were great numbers in Palestine, and which had their habitations in the holes of rocks; though if Spain has its name from שפן, as some say, because of the multitudes of coneys in it; and hence that part of Spain called Celtiberia is called by Catullus q Cuniculosa; the coney may be thought to be meant by this word, and so it is translated in Lev 11:5; the only places where it is elsewhere used; and the word may be derived either from ספן, to "cover", by a change of the letters ש and ס; or from שוף, which has the signification both of breaking, and of hiding and covering, Gen 3:15; and this creature breaks the earth and hides itself in it r;

yet make they their houses in the rocks; it is usual with other writers to call the receptacles of any creatures, beasts, birds, or insects, their houses so we read of the house of the ant, and of the tortoise and snail s; and which, because it carries its house era its back, it is called by Cicero t "domiporta"; see Psa 104:17; the coneys make theirs in the rocks, to cure themselves from their more potent enemies; and thus what they want in strength is made up in sagacity, and by their wise conduct they provide for their safety and protection. These are an emblem of the people of God, who are a weak and feeble people, unable of themselves to perform spiritual duties, to exercise grace, to withstand the corruptions of their nature, resist the temptations of Satan, bear up under afflictive providences, and grapple with spiritual enemies, or defend themselves from them: but such heavenly wisdom is given them, as to betake themselves for refuge and shelter to Christ, the Rock of Israel; the Rock of salvation, the Rock that is higher than they; a strong one, on which the church is built, and against which the gates of hell cannot prevail: and here they are safe from the storms of divine wrath, and the avenging justice of God; from the rage and fury of men, and the fiery darts of Satan; here they dwell safely and delightfully, and have all manner of provision at hand for them; they are the inhabitants of that Rock, who have reason to sing indeed! see Isa 33:16.

Gill: Pro 30:27 - The locusts have no king // yet they go forth all of them by bands The locusts have no king,.... These are small creatures also, yet very devouring ones; and consume the fruits of the earth, wherever they come and lig...

The locusts have no king,.... These are small creatures also, yet very devouring ones; and consume the fruits of the earth, wherever they come and light; see Exo 10:13; they are very numerous, and move in large bodies, and yet with great regularity and order; which shows the wisdom there is in them by natural instinct, though they have no king to command, guide, and direct them: in this the mystical locusts differ from them, who have a king, whose name is Abaddon, Rev 9:11;

yet they go forth all of them by bands; the Targum is,

"they are all gathered together as one.''

They get together in one place; they associate and join themselves in bands, and keep together, though they have no ruler over them; an emblem of unity, concord, and harmony, let the form of government be what it will, as the best security to a people: and these creatures, when they move from place to place, they move in a body, in a very regular manner; "in precise order" u, as the words may be rendered, with great exactness, everyone in his proper place, all in rank and file; and though they have no general to marshal them, yet are in, and march in as good order as the most regular army does. So the Arabic version,

"yet in their army, their affairs and manner are in a beautiful disposition;''

indeed they are God's army, as they are called, Joe 2:25; and it is he that gives them their wisdom, instructions, directions, and commission. It is rendered by some, "everyone cutting"; that is, as Kimchi w interprets it, cutting the green grass and trees; or, "every one dividing" x; that is, to himself, the prey or spoils, as kings do; see Isa 33:4.

Gill: Pro 30:28 - The spider taketh hold with her hands // and is in kings' palaces The spider taketh hold with her hands,.... On the thread she spins, or on the flies and bees she catches in her web. This is a small creature, yet ver...

The spider taketh hold with her hands,.... On the thread she spins, or on the flies and bees she catches in her web. This is a small creature, yet very wise; what a curious thread does she spin! what a fine web does she weave! with what exactness and proportion is it framed! as if she understood the rules of mathematics and architecture;

and is in kings' palaces; as well as in the houses of poor people, and in temples also; we read y of one in the temple of Ceres, which drew its web over the face of the image: and though her webs are oftentimes destroyed, especially in kings' palaces; yet such is her constancy and assiduity, and her unwearied application to business, that, as fast as they are destroyed, she attempts to restore them. This creature is an emblem of diligence in things temporal and spiritual; which those that use in the former sense shall stand before kings, and not before mean men; and in the latter sense shall have the presence of the King of kings, and dwell in his palace here and hereafter: also of worldly minded men, who labour to be rich; spend their time, and take a great deal of pains for mere trifles; weave curious webs, and, after all, only catch flies; and those they cannot hold, uncertain riches, which make themselves wings and fly away. Likewise this creature may resemble hypocrites, whose hope and trust are as the spider's web, built upon their own righteousness, spun out of their own hearts; a fine, thin, slender thread, which cannot bear one stroke of the besom of divine justice; such as these are in the palaces of Christ the King, are in his churches, hypocrites in Zion; see Job 8:13. Aben Ezra interprets it of the ape: the same David de Pomis z observes, and Mr. Weemse a, who seems to incline to this sense; and this creature King Solomon, no doubt, had in his palace, since his navy brought many of these, every three years, from those parts to which it was sent, 1Ki 10:22; and to these hands more properly belong than to spiders, and are taken into king's palaces for their pleasure and diversion; but to these there is one objection, that this creature is not a little one. Others understand it of the "lizard", that sort which is called "stellio"; but it is a question whether this is to be found in king's palaces. Bellonius b makes mention of a kind of lizard, which creeps into walls and catches flies, and is called by the Greeks "samiamiton", a name very near the Hebrew word here used: and Pliny c speaks of the "stellio", or lizard, as being in doors, windows, and chambers; and as a very fraudulent and deceitful creature to men, none more so; and also as poisonous, as this creature in the text by its name seems to be: and Austin d makes mention of the lizard as a domestic animal; which catches flies as the spider, with whom he joins it. The Targum, Jarchi, and Gersom, take it to be the spider, as we do; which may be thought most likely, since the creature here meant seems to have its name from the Arabic word "sam", which signifies poison e; though it is affirmed f the spider is not poisonous; as is well known by persons who have frequently swallowed them, without any more harm than happens to hens, robin red breasts, and other birds, who make them their daily food; and so men have been bit by them, without any ill consequence: wherefore it is still thought by some that the lizard is more probably meant; since some sorts of them are poisonous g, though not all, for some are eatable; See Gill on Lev 11:30.

Gill: Pro 30:29 - There be three things which go well // yea, four are comely in going There be three things which go well,.... In a very orderly and composed manner; with constancy and cheerfulness, with great stateliness and majesty, ...

There be three things which go well,.... In a very orderly and composed manner; with constancy and cheerfulness, with great stateliness and majesty, intrepidly, and without fear;

yea, four are comely in going; very beautiful and lovely to look at as they walk.

Gill: Pro 30:30 - A lion, which is strongest among beasts // and turneth not away for any A lion, which is strongest among beasts,.... For what is stronger than a lion, or more courageous and undaunted? it walks with great majesty, very sl...

A lion, which is strongest among beasts,.... For what is stronger than a lion, or more courageous and undaunted? it walks with great majesty, very slowly, step by step, the left foot first; shaking its shoulders as it goes, as the philosopher h describes its going, and as here intended, and this without fear;

and turneth not away for any; it does not go out of its way for any creature it meets with; nor does it hasten its pace when pursued, nor show the lest sign of fear; nor does it turn its back to any; which is observed and confirmed by Aristotle i, Aelianus k, Pliny l, and other naturalists; particularly what Homer m and Virgil n say of this animal agrees with this account of Solomon. This creature is an emblem of Christ, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, who is stronger than the strong man armed; who never turned his back to any of his enemies; nor turned aside from the way of his duty, or the work of his office, on account of any; not Herod the fox, who threatened to kill him; nor Satan, the roaring lion, when he knew he was on the march to meet him; nor any of those, who, though they had a band of soldiers, that came to take him; see Luk 13:31; and also it is an emblem of righteous men, who are as bold as a lion; and cannot be moved from their duty by anything they meet with, but remain steadfast and constant in it; see Pro 28:1.

Gill: Pro 30:31 - A greyhound // an he goat also // and a king, against whom there is no rising up A greyhound,.... So Gersom interprets the word; but Jarchi owns he does not know what is meant; and Aben Ezra only says, it is the name of a living cr...

A greyhound,.... So Gersom interprets the word; but Jarchi owns he does not know what is meant; and Aben Ezra only says, it is the name of a living creature, but does not say what; but observes, that some interpret it of the "bee", and others of the "eagle". The words of the original text only describe something "girt about the loins" o: and Kimchi p observes, that some say it is a hunting dog so called, because it is thin about the loins, as if it was bound and girt; and Aristotle q describes hunting dogs as well girded about their loins: but others, as Kimchi in the same place observes, interpret it of the leopard, which is small, and strong in its loins; and others of a bird called the starling; but he owns he cannot understand the meaning of its loins being girt: David de Pomis r interprets it of a cock; others, he says, interpret it a hunting dog; others, a leopard; and some, a species of an unclean bird; perhaps he means the starling, as before; and so the word is used for that bird in the Talmud s, and in the Arabic language t. Most likely the "horse" is meant; which is a very stately and majestic creature in its going, and is very comely when it has its harness girt on; and especially a war horse, with all its warlike accoutrements, when it proceeds to battle, and stalks on in it; this creature, one should think, could not be omitted among the four, which is described in so magnificent a manner in Job 39:19; and is called the goodly horse in the battle, Zec 10:3; unless a fine slender bodied race horse should be meant: the horse bids fairer than any other creature named to be what is designed. The third creature follows, which goes well, and is comely in going:

an he goat also; which with its long beard walks very gravely, and in a stately manner, before the flock; and the Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions add, "going before the flock"; see Jer 50:8. This stately walk of the goat is very particularly taken notice of by, Aelian u; he observes, that the she goat disdains to be last in a flock of sheep, but declares by her walk that she ought to be first; he adds, that the he goat goes before the she goats, glorying in his beard; and, by a kind of wonderful instinct in nature, judges the male is to be preferred to the female w. Kings, rulers, and governors, are compared to this creature; as Alexander the great is in Dan 8:5; see Zec 10:3; especially such resemble it who rule well, and set good examples to their subjects: and to such, ministers of the Gospel are like; who go before their flocks, guide and direct them, and are examples to them: and likewise all believers; who strive to go before others in good works, and who then are comely in their going. The fourth is,

and a king, against whom there is no rising up; no insurrection, no opposition; who is not to be resisted or withstood; a lawful king, in the lawful administration of government, who rules in the fear of God, and according to his word, and the good and wholesome laws of a nation, ought not to be resisted, Rom 13:1; and a powerful, successful, and victorious king cannot be resisted, withstood, and prevailed over; he drives all before him, and subdues all under him, as David, Cyrus, Alexander, and others. But to none can this better be applied than to Christ, the King of kings; against whom there is no rising, before whom none can stand, against whom the gates of hell can never prevail; who, even in his state of humiliation, conquered and subdued all his and our enemies; destroyed the tyrant, sin; spoiled Satan, and his principalities and powers; overcame the world; abolished death, the last enemy; and delivered his people out of the hands of all, and made them more than conquerors: and who went forth in the ministry of the Gospel, into the Gentile world, conquering and to conquer; bearing down all opposition before him, and subduing the people under him; and who, in the latter day, will engage with his antichristian enemies, the beast, false prophet, and kings of the earth, and shall overcome them, and clear the world of them. And this is King who is comely in his going; as he was in his goings of old from everlasting; when he drew nigh to his divine. Father, and became the surety of his people; and in his coming into this world, by the assumption of our nature, to save lost perishing sinners: and so he is in his spiritual visits to his saints; in his goings in the sanctuary, and walks he takes amidst the golden candlesticks, his churches; as he will be also when he comes a second time in the clouds of heaven: it will be a glorious appearing; he will come with all the saints, and be attended with his mighty angels; he will come in their glory, in his own, and in the glory of his Father; and will be comely in his going indeed it will be with great stateliness and majesty. The learned Dr. Pococke x, from the use of the word "alkum" in the Arabic language, renders the words thus, "and a king with whom the people is"; who agree together; the one rules well, and the other obey cheerfully; such a king walking with majesty is comely to his people, and terrible to his enemies. The Targum is,

"and a king, who stands and speaks in the house of his people.''

Gill: Pro 30:32 - If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself // or if thou hast thought evil // lay thine hand upon thy mouth If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself,.... Against a king, against whom there is no rising up; by speaking evil of him, or rebelling again...

If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself,.... Against a king, against whom there is no rising up; by speaking evil of him, or rebelling against him; which is acting a foolish part, since it brings a man into troubles and difficulties inextricable; or by self-commendation, which is the height of folly, and the fruit of pride; or carried it in such a haughty and overbearing manner to others, as to provoke to wrath and anger;

or if thou hast thought evil; purposed and designed it, and contrived the scheme of doing it, though not yet put in execution; though folly is not actually committed, yet since the thought of it is rain, care should be taken to prevent it;

lay thine hand upon thy mouth: think again before the thing resolved on is done; as studious and thoughtful men put their hand to their mouth, when they are deeply considering any affair before them: or put a stop to the design, let it go no further; what has been thought of in the mind, let it never come out of the mouth, nor be carried into execution; stifle it in the first motion: or if this respects a foolish action done, as it also may, since it stands connected with both clauses, then the sense is, be silent; do not pretend to deny the action, nor to excuse it; nor to say one word in the defence of it; nor to lay the blame upon others; and much less to calumniate and reproach such who faithfully reprove for it; take shame to thyself in silence, and repent of the iniquity done. Aben Ezra thinks these words are said to Ithiel and Ucal; but rather, to any and everyone, to all that should hear and read these proverbs. The Targum is,

"do not lift up thyself, lest thou be foolish; and do not stretch out thine hand to thy mouth.''

Gill: Pro 30:33 - Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter // and the wringing of the nose bringeth forth blood // so the forcing of wrath bringeth forth strife Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter,.... Or the pressing of it. This is a thing well known and certain, that of milk, when pressed out o...

Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter,.... Or the pressing of it. This is a thing well known and certain, that of milk, when pressed out of the udder, and put into a churn, and there is shook together, by a constant violent agitation or motion, called churning, butter is produced; and cheese is sometimes called pressed milk y, and is pressed with the runnet, and by the hand also z;

and the wringing of the nose bringeth forth blood: a too violent compression of it, or forcible blowing of it, in order to purge it from any impurity in it; instead of doing which it may break the tender skin, and bring forth blood, which may be of bad consequence;

so the forcing of wrath bringeth forth strife; irritating the passions of men, and provoking them by scurrilous and reproachful words to wrath and anger, produce contentions, feuds, and lawsuits, which are not soon and easily ended; and therefore such a conduct should be carefully avoided. The same word is used in the three clauses, and signifies pressing, squeezing, forcing.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Pro 30:1 There have been numerous attempts to reinterpret the first two verses of the chapter. The Greek version translated the names “Ithiel” and ...

NET Notes: Pro 30:2 Heb “the understanding of a man,” with “man” used attributively here.

NET Notes: Pro 30:3 The epithet “the Holy One” is the adjective “holy” put in the masculine plural (as in 9:10). This will harmonize with the plur...

NET Notes: Pro 30:4 The reference to “son” in this passage has prompted many suggestions down through the years: It was identified as Israel in the Jewish Mid...

NET Notes: Pro 30:5 The line uses two more figures of speech to declare that God can be trusted for security and salvation. “Shield” is a simple metaphor R...

NET Notes: Pro 30:6 The form of the verb is a Niphal perfect tense with a vav consecutive from the root כָּזַב (kazav, “to lie&#...

NET Notes: Pro 30:7 Assuming that the contents of vv. 7-9 are a prayer, several English versions have supplied a vocative phrase: “O Lord” (NIV); “O God...

NET Notes: Pro 30:8 Agur requested an honest life (not deceitful) and a balanced life (not self-sufficient). The second request about his provision is clarified in v. 9.

NET Notes: Pro 30:9 The Hebrew verb literally means “to take hold of; to seize”; this produces the idea of doing violence to the reputation of God.

NET Notes: Pro 30:10 If what was said were true, then there would be no culpability. But the implication here is that it was slander. And the effect of that will be a curs...

NET Notes: Pro 30:11 The first observation is that there is a segment in society that lacks respect for parents. This uses the antonyms “curse” and [not] ̶...

NET Notes: Pro 30:12 Filthiness often refers to physical uncleanness, but here it refers to moral defilement. Zech 3:3-4 uses it metaphorically as well for the sin of the ...

NET Notes: Pro 30:13 The verbs “to be high” (translated “are…lofty”) and “to be lifted up” depict arrogance and disdain for other...

NET Notes: Pro 30:14 The Hebrew form לֶאֱכֹל (le’ekhol) is the Qal infinitive construct; it indicates the purpose of this g...

NET Notes: Pro 30:15 Throughout the book of Proverbs הוֹן (hon) means “wealth”; but here it has the nuance of “sufficiency”...

NET Notes: Pro 30:16 There is no clear lesson made from these observations. But one point that could be made is that greed, symbolized by the leech, is as insatiable as al...

NET Notes: Pro 30:17 The sternest punishment is for the evil eye. The punishment is talionic – eye for eye. The reference to “the valley” may indicate a ...

NET Notes: Pro 30:18 The form נִפְלְאוּ (niflÿ’u) is the Niphal perfect from פָּל&...

NET Notes: Pro 30:19 This last item in the series is the most difficult to understand. The MT reads וְדֶּרֶךְ ג...

NET Notes: Pro 30:20 This is the amazing part of the observation. It is one thing to sin, for everyone sins, but to dismiss the act of adultery so easily, as if it were no...

NET Notes: Pro 30:21 The Hebrew verb means “to rage; to quake; to be in tumult.” The sage is using humorous and satirical hyperbole to say that the changes des...

NET Notes: Pro 30:22 The expression stuffed with food probably represents prosperity in general. So the line portrays someone who suddenly comes into wealth, but continues...

NET Notes: Pro 30:23 The verb יָרַשׁ (yarash) means either (1) “to possess; to inherit” or (2) “to dispossess.”...

NET Notes: Pro 30:24 The construction uses the Pual participle with the plural adjective as an intensive; these four creatures are the very embodiment of wisdom (BDB 314 s...

NET Notes: Pro 30:25 The wisdom of the ants is found in their diligent preparation (כּוּן, kun) of food supplies in the summer for times in t...

NET Notes: Pro 30:26 Modern scholars identify this creature with the rock badger (the Syrian hyrax), a small mammal that lives in the crevices of the rock. Its wisdom cons...

NET Notes: Pro 30:27 The Hebrew term means “divided”; they go forward in orderly divisions, or ranks (C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 535). Joel 1:4 describes their...

NET Notes: Pro 30:28 Although the Hebrew noun translated “king” is singular here, it is traditionally translated as plural: “kings’ palaces” ...

NET Notes: Pro 30:29 The construction uses the Hiphil participle again (as in the previous line) followed by the infinitive construct of הָלַך...

NET Notes: Pro 30:30 Heb “mighty among the beasts,” but referring to a superlative degree (“mightiest”).

NET Notes: Pro 30:31 This last line has inspired many suggestions. The MT has “with his army around him” (אַלְקוּ...

NET Notes: Pro 30:32 Heb “hand to mouth.” This express means “put your hand to your mouth” (e.g., Job 40:4, 5); cf. NIV “clap your hand over....

NET Notes: Pro 30:33 The analogy indicates that continuously pressing certain things will yield results, some good, some bad. So pressing anger produces strife. The prover...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:1 The words of ( a ) Agur the son of Jakeh, [even] the prophecy: the man spoke to Ithiel, even to ( b ) Ithiel and Ucal, ( a ) Who was an excellent man...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:2 Surely I [am] more ( c ) senseless than [any] man, and have not the understanding of a man. ( c ) In this he declares his great humility who would no...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:4 Who hath ascended into ( d ) heaven, or descended? who hath gathered the wind in his fists? who hath bound the waters in a garment? who hath establish...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:7 Two ( e ) [things] have I required of thee; deny [them] not to me before I die: ( e ) He makes this request to God.

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:9 Lest I be full, and deny [thee], and say, ( f ) Who [is] the LORD? or lest I be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God [in vain]. ( f ) Meaning...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:10 Accuse not a servant to his master, lest he curse thee, ( g ) and thou be found guilty. ( g ) In accusing him without cause.

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:15 The horseleach hath two ( h ) daughters, [crying], Give, give. There are three [things that] are never satisfied, [yea], four [things] say not, [It is...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:17 The eye [that] mocketh at [its] father, and despiseth to obey [its] mother, the ravens ( i ) of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles sha...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:20 Such [is] the way of an adulterous woman; she eateth, and ( k ) wipeth her mouth, and saith, I have done no wickedness. ( k ) She has her desires, an...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:22 For ( l ) a servant when he reigneth; and a fool when he is filled with food; ( l ) These commonly abuse the state to which they are called.

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:23 For an odious [woman] when she is married; and an handmaid that is ( m ) heir to her mistress. ( m ) Who is married to her master after the death of ...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:24 There are four [things which are] little upon the earth, but they [are] very ( n ) wise: ( n ) They contain great doctrine and wisdom.

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:28 The spider taketh hold ( o ) with her hands, and is in kings' palaces. ( o ) If man is not able to compass these common things by his wisdom, we cann...

Geneva Bible: Pro 30:32 If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself, or if thou hast thought evil, [lay] thy hand ( p ) upon thy mouth. ( p ) Make a stay and continue ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Pro 30:1-6 - --Agur speaks of himself as wanting a righteousness, and having done very foolishly. And it becomes us all to have low thoughts of ourselves. He speaks ...

MHCC: Pro 30:7-9 - --Agur wisely prayed for a middle state, that he might be kept at a distance from temptations; he asked daily bread suited to his station, his family, a...

MHCC: Pro 30:10 - --Slander not a servant to his master, accuse him not in small matters, to make mischief.

MHCC: Pro 30:11-14 - --In every age there are monsters of ingratitude who ill-treat their parents. Many persuade themselves they are holy persons, whose hearts are full of s...

MHCC: Pro 30:15-17 - --Cruelty and covetousness are two daughters of the horseleech, that still cry, " Give, give," and they are continually uneasy to themselves. Four thin...

MHCC: Pro 30:18-20 - --Four things cannot be fully known. The kingdom of nature is full of marvels. The fourth is a mystery of iniquity; the cursed arts by which a vile sedu...

MHCC: Pro 30:21-23 - --Four sorts of persons are very troublesome. Men of low origin and base spirit, who, getting authority, become tyrants. Foolish and violent men indulgi...

MHCC: Pro 30:24-28 - --Four things that are little, are yet to be admired. There are those who are poor in the world, and of small account, yet wise for their souls and anot...

MHCC: Pro 30:29-33 - --We may learn from animals to go well; also to keep our temper under all provocations. We must keep the evil thought in our minds from breaking out int...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:1-6 - -- Some make Agur to be not the name of this author, but his character; he was a collector (so it signifies), a gatherer, one that did not compose ...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:7-9 - -- After Agur's confession and creed, here follows his litany, where we may observe, I. The preface to his prayer: Two things have I required (that i...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:10-14 - -- Here is, I. A caution not to abuse other people's servants any more than our own, nor to make mischief between them and their masters, for it is an ...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:15-17 - -- He had spoken before of those that devoured the poor (Pro 30:14), and had spoken of them last, as the worst of all the four generations there mentio...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:18-23 - -- Here is, I. An account of four things that are unsearchable, too wonderful to be fully known. And here, 1. The first three are natural things, and...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:24-28 - -- I. Agur, having specified four things that seem great and yet are really contemptible, here specifies four things that are little and yet are very a...

Matthew Henry: Pro 30:29-33 - -- Here is, I. An enumeration of four things which are majestic and stately in their going, which look great: - 1. A lion, the king of beasts, becaus...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:1 - -- The title of this first appendix, according to the text lying before us, is: "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh, the utterance." This title of the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:2-3 - -- The כי now following confirms the fruitlessness of the long zealous search: 2 For I am without reason for a man, And a man's understanding I ha...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:4 - -- 4 Who hath ascended to the heavens and descended? Who hath grasped the wind in his fists? Who hath bound up the waters in a garment? Who hath set...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:5-6 - -- 5 Every word of Eloah is pure; A shield is He for those who hide themselves in Him. 6 Add thou not to His words, Lest He convict thee and thou b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:7-9 - -- In what now follows, the key-note struck in Pro 30:1 is continued. There follows a prayer to be kept in the truth, and to be preserved in the middle...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:10 - -- 10 Calumniate not a servant with his master, Lest he curse thee, and thou must atone for it. Incorrectly Ewald: entice not a servant to slander ag...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:11-14 - -- There now follows a Priamel , (Note: Cf. vol. i. p. 13. The name (from praeambulum ) given to a peculiar form of popular gnomic poetry which pre...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:15-16 - -- With the characteristic of insatiableness Pro 30:11-14 closes, and there follows an apophthegma de quatuor insatiabilibus quae ideo comparantur cum...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:17 - -- The proverb of the ‛Alûka is the first of the proverbs founded on the figure of an animal among the "words"of Agur. It is now followed by anoth...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:18-20 - -- The following proverb, again a numerical proverb, begins with the eagle, mentioned in the last line of the foregoing: 18 Three things lie beyond me...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:21-23 - -- It is now not at all necessary to rack one's brains over the grounds or the reasons of the arrangement of the following proverb ( vid ., Hitzig). Th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:24-28 - -- Another proverb with the cipher 4, its first line terminating in ארץ : 24 Four are the little things of the earth, And yet they are quick of w...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:29-31 - -- Another numerical proverb with the cipher 4 = 3 + 1: 29 Three things are of stately walk, And four of stately going: 30 The lion, the hero among ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Pro 30:32-33 - -- Another proverb, the last of Agur's "Words"which exhorts to thoughtful, discreet demeanour, here follows the proverb of self-conscious, grave deport...

Constable: Pro 30:1--31:31 - --V. TWO DISCOURSES BY OTHER WISE MEN chs. 30--31 Chapters 30 and 31 form a distinct section in Proverbs because n...

Constable: Pro 30:1-33 - --A. The Wisdom of Agur ch. 30 The most distinctive features of Agur's proverbs are his numerical style of...

Constable: Pro 30:1 - --1. The introduction of Agur 30:1 Scripture does not refer to either Agur or his father (or ances...

Constable: Pro 30:2-9 - --2. Wisdom about God 30:2-9 Agur began with three declarations. The subject of each is God. 30:2-4 Behind this ironical section one can perhaps imagine...

Constable: Pro 30:10-33 - --3. Wisdom about life 30:10-33 Though his view of and awareness of God are very much behind what Agur said in the rest of this chapter, his counsel dea...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Pro 30:1-2 This is the foundational key to learning. See 1Co 1:21 ; 1Co 3:18 .

Evidence: Pro 30:4 His name is " I AM" and His Son’s name is Jesus Christ. See Psa 2:12 .