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Teks -- Leviticus 25:1-55 (NET)

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Konteks
Regulations for the Sabbatical Year
25:1 The Lord spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai: 25:2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When you enter the land that I am giving you, the land must observe a Sabbath to the Lord. 25:3 Six years you may sow your field, and six years you may prune your vineyard and gather the produce, 25:4 but in the seventh year the land must have a Sabbath of complete rest– a Sabbath to the Lord. You must not sow your field or prune your vineyard. 25:5 You must not gather in the aftergrowth of your harvest and you must not pick the grapes of your unpruned vines; the land must have a year of complete rest. 25:6 You may have the Sabbath produce of the land to eat– you, your male servant, your female servant, your hired worker, the resident foreigner who stays with you, 25:7 your cattle, and the wild animals that are in your land– all its produce will be for you to eat.
Regulations for the Jubilee Year of Release
25:8 “‘You must count off seven weeks of years, seven times seven years, and the days of the seven weeks of years will amount to forty-nine years. 25:9 You must sound loud horn blasts– in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, on the Day of Atonement– you must sound the horn in your entire land. 25:10 So you must consecrate the fiftieth year, and you must proclaim a release in the land for all its inhabitants. That year will be your jubilee; each one of you must return to his property and each one of you must return to his clan. 25:11 That fiftieth year will be your jubilee; you must not sow the land, harvest its aftergrowth, or pick the grapes of its unpruned vines. 25:12 Because that year is a jubilee, it will be holy to you– you may eat its produce from the field.
Release of Landed Property
25:13 “‘In this year of jubilee you must each return to your property. 25:14 If you make a sale to your fellow citizen or buy from your fellow citizen, no one is to wrong his brother. 25:15 You may buy it from your fellow citizen according to the number of years since the last jubilee; he may sell it to you according to the years of produce that are left. 25:16 The more years there are, the more you may make its purchase price, and the fewer years there are, the less you must make its purchase price, because he is only selling to you a number of years of produce. 25:17 No one is to oppress his fellow citizen, but you must fear your God, because I am the Lord your God. 25:18 You must obey my statutes and my regulations; you must be sure to keep them so that you may live securely in the land. 25:19 “‘The land will give its fruit and you may eat until you are satisfied, and you may live securely in the land. 25:20 If you say, ‘What will we eat in the seventh year if we do not sow and gather our produce?’ 25:21 I will command my blessing for you in the sixth year so that it may yield the produce for three years, 25:22 and you may sow the eighth year and eat from that sixth year’s produce– old produce. Until you bring in the ninth year’s produce, you may eat old produce. 25:23 The land must not be sold without reclaim because the land belongs to me, for you are foreigners and residents with me. 25:24 In all your landed property you must provide for the right of redemption of the land. 25:25 “‘If your brother becomes impoverished and sells some of his property, his near redeemer is to come to you and redeem what his brother sold. 25:26 If a man has no redeemer, but he prospers and gains enough for its redemption, 25:27 he is to calculate the value of the years it was sold, refund the balance to the man to whom he had sold it, and return to his property. 25:28 If he has not prospered enough to refund a balance to him, then what he sold will belong to the one who bought it until the jubilee year, but it must revert in the jubilee and the original owner may return to his property.
Release of Houses
25:29 “‘If a man sells a residential house in a walled city, its right of redemption must extend until one full year from its sale; its right of redemption must extend to a full calendar year. 25:30 If it is not redeemed before the full calendar year is ended, the house in the walled city will belong without reclaim to the one who bought it throughout his generations; it will not revert in the jubilee. 25:31 The houses of villages, however, which have no wall surrounding them must be considered as the field of the land; they will have the right of redemption and must revert in the jubilee. 25:32 As for the cities of the Levites, the houses in the cities which they possess, the Levites must have a perpetual right of redemption. 25:33 Whatever someone among the Levites might redeem– the sale of a house which is his property in a city– must revert in the jubilee, because the houses of the cities of the Levites are their property in the midst of the Israelites. 25:34 Moreover, the open field areas of their cities must not be sold, because that is their perpetual possession.
Debt and Slave Regulations
25:35 “‘If your brother becomes impoverished and is indebted to you, you must support him; he must live with you like a foreign resident. 25:36 Do not take interest or profit from him, but you must fear your God and your brother must live with you. 25:37 You must not lend him your money at interest and you must not sell him food for profit. 25:38 I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan– to be your God. 25:39 “‘If your brother becomes impoverished with regard to you so that he sells himself to you, you must not subject him to slave service. 25:40 He must be with you as a hired worker, as a resident foreigner; he must serve with you until the year of jubilee, 25:41 but then he may go free, he and his children with him, and may return to his family and to the property of his ancestors. 25:42 Since they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt, they must not be sold in a slave sale. 25:43 You must not rule over him harshly, but you must fear your God. 25:44 “‘As for your male and female slaves who may belong to you– you may buy male and female slaves from the nations all around you. 25:45 Also you may buy slaves from the children of the foreigners who reside with you, and from their families that are with you, whom they have fathered in your land, they may become your property. 25:46 You may give them as inheritance to your children after you to possess as property. You may enslave them perpetually. However, as for your brothers the Israelites, no man may rule over his brother harshly. 25:47 “‘If a resident foreigner who is with you prospers and your brother becomes impoverished with regard to him so that he sells himself to a resident foreigner who is with you or to a member of a foreigner’s family, 25:48 after he has sold himself he retains a right of redemption. One of his brothers may redeem him, 25:49 or his uncle or his cousin may redeem him, or anyone of the rest of his blood relatives– his family– may redeem him, or if he prospers he may redeem himself. 25:50 He must calculate with the one who bought him the number of years from the year he sold himself to him until the jubilee year, and the cost of his sale must correspond to the number of years, according to the rate of wages a hired worker would have earned while with him. 25:51 If there are still many years, in keeping with them he must refund most of the cost of his purchase for his redemption, 25:52 but if only a few years remain until the jubilee, he must calculate for himself in keeping with the remaining years and refund it for his redemption. 25:53 He must be with the one who bought him like a yearly hired worker. The one who bought him must not rule over him harshly in your sight. 25:54 If, however, he is not redeemed in these ways, he must go free in the jubilee year, he and his children with him, 25:55 because the Israelites are my own servants; they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Levites relating to Levi and the priesthood given to him,a tribal name describing people and ceremonies as sacred
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Sinai a mountain located either between the gulfs of Suez and Akaba or in Arabia, east of Akaba,a mountain; the place where the law was given to Moses


Topik/Tema Kamus: Sabbath | Poor | Jubilee | Israel | Sabbatic Year | PENTATEUCH, 2B | RANSOM | AGRARIAN LAWS | LEVITICUS, 2 | LEVITICUS, 1 | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Agriculture | LAW OF MOSES | Debtor | POVERTY | Servant | JUBILEE YEAR | LOAN | SLAVE | FEASTS AND FASTS | selebihnya
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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Lev 25:1 - In mount Sinai That is, near mount Sinai. So the Hebrew particle beth is sometimes used. So there is no need to disturb the history in this place.

That is, near mount Sinai. So the Hebrew particle beth is sometimes used. So there is no need to disturb the history in this place.

Wesley: Lev 25:2 - When ye come into the land So as to be settled in it; for the time of the wars was not to be accounted, nor the time before Joshua's distribution of the land among them.

So as to be settled in it; for the time of the wars was not to be accounted, nor the time before Joshua's distribution of the land among them.

Wesley: Lev 25:2 - Keep a sabbath That is, enjoy rest and freedom from plowing, and tilling.

That is, enjoy rest and freedom from plowing, and tilling.

Wesley: Lev 25:2 - Unto the Lord In obedience and unto the honour of God. This was instituted, For the assertion of God's sovereign right to the land, in which the Israelites were but...

In obedience and unto the honour of God. This was instituted, For the assertion of God's sovereign right to the land, in which the Israelites were but tenants at God's will. For the trial of their obedience. For the demonstration of his providence as well in general towards men, as especially towards his own people. To wean them from inordinate love, and pursuit of worldly advantages, and to inure them to depend upon God alone, and upon God's blessing for their subsistence. To put them in mind of that blessed and eternal rest provided for all good men.

Wesley: Lev 25:4 - A sabbath of rest to the land They were neither to do any work about it, nor expect any harvest from it. All yearly labours were to be intermitted in the seventh year, as much as d...

They were neither to do any work about it, nor expect any harvest from it. All yearly labours were to be intermitted in the seventh year, as much as daily labours on the seventh day.

Wesley: Lev 25:5 - Of its own accord From the grains that fell out of the ears the last reaping time.

From the grains that fell out of the ears the last reaping time.

Wesley: Lev 25:5 - Thou shalt not reap That is, as thy own peculiarly, but only so as others may reap it with thee, for present food.

That is, as thy own peculiarly, but only so as others may reap it with thee, for present food.

Wesley: Lev 25:5 - Undressed Not cut off by thee, but suffered to grow for the use of the poor.

Not cut off by thee, but suffered to grow for the use of the poor.

Wesley: Lev 25:6 - The sabbath of the land That is, the growth of the sabbath, or that fruit which groweth in the sabbatical year.

That is, the growth of the sabbath, or that fruit which groweth in the sabbatical year.

Wesley: Lev 25:6 - For thy servant For all promiscuously, to take food from thence as they need it.

For all promiscuously, to take food from thence as they need it.

Wesley: Lev 25:9 - The jubilee Signified the true liberty from our spiritual debts and slaveries to be purchased by Christ, and to be published to the world by the sound of the gosp...

Signified the true liberty from our spiritual debts and slaveries to be purchased by Christ, and to be published to the world by the sound of the gospel.

Wesley: Lev 25:9 - The seventh month Which was the first month of the year for civil affairs; the jubilee therefore began in that month; and, as it seems, upon this very tenth day, when t...

Which was the first month of the year for civil affairs; the jubilee therefore began in that month; and, as it seems, upon this very tenth day, when the trumpet sounded, as other feasts generally began when the trumpet sounded.

Wesley: Lev 25:9 - In the day of atonement A very fit time, that when they fasted and prayed for God's mercy to them in the pardon of their sins, then they might exercise their charity to men i...

A very fit time, that when they fasted and prayed for God's mercy to them in the pardon of their sins, then they might exercise their charity to men in forgiving their debts; and to teach us, that the foundation of all solid comfort must be laid in repentance and atonement for our sins through Christ.

Wesley: Lev 25:10 - The fiftieth year The year of jubilee was not the forty and ninth year, as some learned men think, but precisely the fiftieth. The old weekly sabbath is called the seve...

The year of jubilee was not the forty and ninth year, as some learned men think, but precisely the fiftieth. The old weekly sabbath is called the seventh day, because it truly was so, being next after the six days of the week and distinct from them all: and the year of release is called the seventh year, Lev 25:4, as immediately following the six years, Lev 25:3, and distinct from them all. And in like manner the jubilee is called the fiftieth year, because it comes next after seven tines seven or forty - nine years, Lev 25:8, and is distinct from them all.

Wesley: Lev 25:10 - Unto all the inhabitants Understand such as were Israelites; principally to all servants, even to such as would not and did not go out at the seventh year, and to the poor, wh...

Understand such as were Israelites; principally to all servants, even to such as would not and did not go out at the seventh year, and to the poor, who now were acquitted from all their debts, and restored to their possessions.

Wesley: Lev 25:10 - Jubilee So called either from the Hebrew word Jobel which signifies first a ram, and then a ram's horn, by the sound whereof it was proclaimed; or from Jubal ...

So called either from the Hebrew word Jobel which signifies first a ram, and then a ram's horn, by the sound whereof it was proclaimed; or from Jubal the inventor of musical instruments, Gen 4:21, because it was celebrated with music and all expressions of joy.

Wesley: Lev 25:10 - Unto his possession Which had been sold or otherwise alienated from him. This law was not at all unjust, because all buyers and sellers had an eye to this condition in th...

Which had been sold or otherwise alienated from him. This law was not at all unjust, because all buyers and sellers had an eye to this condition in their bargains; but it was expedient in many regards, as To mind them that God alone was the Lord and proprietor both of them and of their lands, and they only his tenants; a point which they were very apt to forget. That hereby inheritances, families, and tribes, might be kept entire and clear until the coming of the Messiah, who was to be known as by other things, so by the tribe and family out of which he was to come. And this accordingly was done by the singular providence of God until the Lord Jesus did come. Since which time those characters are miserably confounded: which is no small argument that the Messiah is come. To set bounds both to the insatiable avarice of some, and the foolish prodigality of others, that the former might not wholly and finally swallow up the inheritances of their brethren, and the latter might not be able to undo themselves and their posterity for ever, which was a singular privilege of this law and people.

Wesley: Lev 25:10 - His family From whom he was gone, being sold to some other family either by himself or by his father.

From whom he was gone, being sold to some other family either by himself or by his father.

Wesley: Lev 25:12 - It shall be holy So it was, because it was sequestered in great part from worldly employments and dedicated to God, and to the exercise of holy joy and thankfulness; a...

So it was, because it was sequestered in great part from worldly employments and dedicated to God, and to the exercise of holy joy and thankfulness; and because it was a type of that holy and happy jubilee which they were to expect and enjoy under the Messiah.

Wesley: Lev 25:12 - The increase thereof Such things as it produced of itself.

Such things as it produced of itself.

Wesley: Lev 25:12 - Out of the field Whence they in common with others might take it as they needed it; but must not put it into barns, See Lev 25:5, and Exo 23:11.

Whence they in common with others might take it as they needed it; but must not put it into barns, See Lev 25:5, and Exo 23:11.

Wesley: Lev 25:14 - Ye shall not oppress Neither the seller by requiring more, nor the buyer by taking the advantage from his brother's necessities to give him less than the worth of it.

Neither the seller by requiring more, nor the buyer by taking the advantage from his brother's necessities to give him less than the worth of it.

Wesley: Lev 25:15 - Years of fruits Or, fruitful years; for there were some unfruitful years; those wherein they were not allowed to sow or reap.

Or, fruitful years; for there were some unfruitful years; those wherein they were not allowed to sow or reap.

Wesley: Lev 25:16 - Years of fruits Or, For the number of the fruits. The meaning is, he selleth not the land, but only the fruits thereof, and that for a certain time.

Or, For the number of the fruits. The meaning is, he selleth not the land, but only the fruits thereof, and that for a certain time.

Wesley: Lev 25:21 - For three years Not compleatly, but in great part, namely, for that part of the 6th year which was between the beginning of harvest and the beginning of the 7th year,...

Not compleatly, but in great part, namely, for that part of the 6th year which was between the beginning of harvest and the beginning of the 7th year, for the whole 7th year, and for that part of the 8th year which was before the harvest, which reached almost until the beginning of the ninth year. This is added to shew the equity of this command. As God would hereby try their faith and obedience, so he gave them an eminent proof of his own exact providence and tender care over them in making provisions suitable to their necessities.

Wesley: Lev 25:22 - Old fruit Of the sixth year principally, if not solely.

Of the sixth year principally, if not solely.

Wesley: Lev 25:23 - For ever So as to be for ever alienated from the family of him that sells it. Or, absolutely and properly, so as to become the property of the buyer: Or, to th...

So as to be for ever alienated from the family of him that sells it. Or, absolutely and properly, so as to become the property of the buyer: Or, to the extermination or utter cutting off, namely, of the seller, from all hopes and possibility of redemption.

Wesley: Lev 25:23 - The land is mine Procured for you by my power, given to you by my grace and bounty, and the right of propriety reserved by me.

Procured for you by my power, given to you by my grace and bounty, and the right of propriety reserved by me.

Wesley: Lev 25:23 - With me That is, in my land or houses: thus he is said to sojourn with another that dwells in his house. Howsoever in your own or other mens opinions you pass...

That is, in my land or houses: thus he is said to sojourn with another that dwells in his house. Howsoever in your own or other mens opinions you pass for lords and proprietors, yet in truth, ye are but strangers and sojourners, not to possess the land for ever, but only for a season, and to leave it to such as I have appointed for it.

Wesley: Lev 25:24 - A redemption A right of redemption in the time and manner following.

A right of redemption in the time and manner following.

Wesley: Lev 25:25 - If any of his kin come Or, If the redeemer come, being near akin to him, who in this was an eminent type of Christ, who was made near akin to us by taking our flesh, that he...

Or, If the redeemer come, being near akin to him, who in this was an eminent type of Christ, who was made near akin to us by taking our flesh, that he might perform the work of redemption for us.

Wesley: Lev 25:27 - The years of the sale That is, from the time of the sale to the jubilee. See above, Lev 25:15-16.

That is, from the time of the sale to the jubilee. See above, Lev 25:15-16.

Wesley: Lev 25:27 - The overplus That is, a convenient price for the years from this redemption to the jubilee.

That is, a convenient price for the years from this redemption to the jubilee.

Wesley: Lev 25:28 - Go out That is, out of the buyer's hand, without any redemption money.

That is, out of the buyer's hand, without any redemption money.

Wesley: Lev 25:30 - It shall not go out The reasons before alledged for lands do not hold in such houses; there was no danger of confusion in tribes or families by the alienation of houses. ...

The reasons before alledged for lands do not hold in such houses; there was no danger of confusion in tribes or families by the alienation of houses. The seller also had a greater propriety in houses than in lands, as being commonly built by the owner's cost and diligence, and therefore had a fuller power to dispose of them. Besides, God would hereby encourage persons to buy and possess houses in such places, as frequency and fulness of inhabitants in cities, was a great strength, honour and advantage to the whole land.

Wesley: Lev 25:31 - In the villages Because they belonged to and were necessary for the management of the lands.

Because they belonged to and were necessary for the management of the lands.

Wesley: Lev 25:34 - May not be sold Not sold at all, partly, because it was of absolute necessity for them for the keeping of their cattle, and partly because these were no enclosures, b...

Not sold at all, partly, because it was of absolute necessity for them for the keeping of their cattle, and partly because these were no enclosures, but common fields, in which all the Levites that lived in such a city had an interest, and therefore no particular Levite could dispose of his part in it.

Wesley: Lev 25:35 - A sojourner Understand it of proselytes only, for of other strangers they were permitted to take usury, Deu 23:20.

Understand it of proselytes only, for of other strangers they were permitted to take usury, Deu 23:20.

Wesley: Lev 25:36 - Of him That is, of thy brother, whether he be Israelite, or proselyte.

That is, of thy brother, whether he be Israelite, or proselyte.

Wesley: Lev 25:36 - Or increase All kinds of usury are in this case forbidden, whether of money, or of victuals, or of any thing that is commonly lent by one man to another upon usur...

All kinds of usury are in this case forbidden, whether of money, or of victuals, or of any thing that is commonly lent by one man to another upon usury, or upon condition of receiving the thing lent with advantage and overplus. If one borrow in his necessity, there can be no doubt but this law is binding still. But it cannot be thought to bind, where money is borrowed for purchase of lands, trade, or other improvements. For there it is reasonable, that the lender share with the borrower in the profit.

Wesley: Lev 25:39 - As a bond man - Neither for the time, for ever, nor for the manner, with the hardest and vilest kinds of service, rigorously and severely exacted.

man - Neither for the time, for ever, nor for the manner, with the hardest and vilest kinds of service, rigorously and severely exacted.

Wesley: Lev 25:41 - Then shall he depart Thou shalt not suffer him or his to abide longer in thy service, as thou mightest do in the year of release, Exo 21:2, Exo 21:6.

Thou shalt not suffer him or his to abide longer in thy service, as thou mightest do in the year of release, Exo 21:2, Exo 21:6.

Wesley: Lev 25:42 - They are my servants They, no less than you, are members of my church and people; such as I have chosen out of all the world to serve me here, and to enjoy me hereafter, a...

They, no less than you, are members of my church and people; such as I have chosen out of all the world to serve me here, and to enjoy me hereafter, and therefore are not to be oppressed, neither are you absolute lords over them to deal with them as you please.

Wesley: Lev 25:43 - Fear thy God Though thou dost not fear them who are in thy power, and unable to right themselves, yet fear that God who hath commanded thee to use them kindly, and...

Though thou dost not fear them who are in thy power, and unable to right themselves, yet fear that God who hath commanded thee to use them kindly, and who can and will avenge their cause, if thou oppress them.

Wesley: Lev 25:47 - The flock Heb. root, that is, one of the root or flock. So the word root is elsewhere used for the branch or progeny growing from it. He seems to note one of a ...

Heb. root, that is, one of the root or flock. So the word root is elsewhere used for the branch or progeny growing from it. He seems to note one of a foreign race and country, transplanted into the land of Israel, and there having taken root amongst the people of God, yet even such an one, though he hath some privilege by it, shall not have power to keep an Hebrew servant from the benefit of redemption.

Wesley: Lev 25:50 - According to the time of an hired servant Allowance shall be made for the time wherein he hath served, proportionable to that which is given to an hired servant for so long service, because hi...

Allowance shall be made for the time wherein he hath served, proportionable to that which is given to an hired servant for so long service, because his condition is in this like theirs; it is not properly his person, but his work and labour that was sold.

Wesley: Lev 25:53 - In thy sight Thou shalt not suffer this to be done, but whethe thou art a magistrate, or a private person, thou shalt take care according to thy capacity to get it...

Thou shalt not suffer this to be done, but whethe thou art a magistrate, or a private person, thou shalt take care according to thy capacity to get it remedied.

JFB: Lev 25:2-4 - When ye come into the land which I give you It has been questioned on what year, after the occupation of Canaan, the sabbatic year began to be observed. Some think it was the seventh year after ...

It has been questioned on what year, after the occupation of Canaan, the sabbatic year began to be observed. Some think it was the seventh year after their entrance. But others, considering that as the first six years were spent in the conquest and division of the land (Jos 5:12), and that the sabbatical year was to be observed after six years of agriculture, maintain that the observance did not commence till the fourteenth year.

JFB: Lev 25:2-4 - the land keep a sabbath unto the Lord This was a very peculiar arrangement. Not only all agricultural processes were to be intermitted every seventh year, but the cultivators had no right ...

This was a very peculiar arrangement. Not only all agricultural processes were to be intermitted every seventh year, but the cultivators had no right to the soil. It lay entirely fallow, and its spontaneous produce was the common property of the poor and the stranger, the cattle and game. This year of rest was to invigorate the productive powers of the land, as the weekly Sabbath was a refreshment to men and cattle. It commenced immediately after the feast of ingathering, and it was calculated to teach the people, in a remarkable manner, the reality of the presence and providential power of God.

JFB: Lev 25:8-11 - thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years This most extraordinary of all civil institutions, which received the name of "Jubilee" from a Hebrew word signifying a musical instrument, a horn or ...

This most extraordinary of all civil institutions, which received the name of "Jubilee" from a Hebrew word signifying a musical instrument, a horn or trumpet, began on the tenth day of the seventh month, or the great day of atonement, when, by order of the public authorities, the sound of trumpets proclaimed the beginning of the universal redemption. All prisoners and captives obtained their liberties, slaves were declared free, and debtors were absolved. The land, as on the sabbatic year, was neither sowed nor reaped, but allowed to enjoy with its inhabitants a sabbath of repose; and its natural produce was the common property of all. Moreover, every inheritance throughout the land of Judea was restored to its original owner.

JFB: Lev 25:10 - ye shall hallow the fiftieth year Much difference of opinion exists as to whether the jubilee was observed on the forty-ninth, or, in round numbers, it is called the fiftieth. The prev...

Much difference of opinion exists as to whether the jubilee was observed on the forty-ninth, or, in round numbers, it is called the fiftieth. The prevailing opinion, both in ancient and modern times, has been in favor of the latter.

JFB: Lev 25:12 - ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field, &c. All that the ground yielded spontaneously during that period might be eaten for their necessary subsistence, but no persons were at liberty to hoard o...

All that the ground yielded spontaneously during that period might be eaten for their necessary subsistence, but no persons were at liberty to hoard or form a private stock in reserve.

JFB: Lev 25:13 - ye shall return every man unto his possession, &c. Inheritances, from whatever cause, and how frequently soever they had been alienated, came back into the hands of the original proprietors. This law o...

Inheritances, from whatever cause, and how frequently soever they had been alienated, came back into the hands of the original proprietors. This law of entail, by which the right heir could never be excluded, was a provision of great wisdom for preserving families and tribes perfectly distinct, and their genealogies faithfully recorded, in order that all might have evidence to establish their right to the ancestral property. Hence the tribe and family of Christ were readily discovered at his birth.

JFB: Lev 25:17 - Ye shall not oppress one another, but thou shalt fear thy God This, which is the same as Lev 25:14, related to the sale or purchase of possessions and the duty of paying an honest and equitable regard, on both si...

This, which is the same as Lev 25:14, related to the sale or purchase of possessions and the duty of paying an honest and equitable regard, on both sides, to the limited period during which the bargain could stand. The object of the legislator was, as far as possible, to maintain the original order of families, and an equality of condition among the people.

JFB: Lev 25:21-22 - I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years, &c. A provision was made, by the special interposition of God, to supply the deficiency of food which would otherwise have resulted from the suspension of...

A provision was made, by the special interposition of God, to supply the deficiency of food which would otherwise have resulted from the suspension of all labor during the sabbatic year. The sixth year was to yield a miraculous supply for three continuous years. And the remark is applicable to the year of Jubilee as well as the sabbatic year. (See allusions to this extraordinary provision in 2Ki 19:29; Isa 37:30). None but a legislator who was conscious of acting under divine authority would have staked his character on so singular an enactment as that of the sabbatic year; and none but a people who had witnessed the fulfilment of the divine promise would have been induced to suspend their agricultural preparations on a recurrence of a periodical Jubilee.

JFB: Lev 25:23-28 - The land shall not be sold for ever Or, "be quite cut off," as the Margin better renders it. The land was God's, and, in prosecution of an important design, He gave it to the people of H...

Or, "be quite cut off," as the Margin better renders it. The land was God's, and, in prosecution of an important design, He gave it to the people of His choice, dividing it among their tribes and families--who, however, held it of Him merely as tenants-at-will and had no right or power of disposing of it to strangers. In necessitous circumstances, individuals might effect a temporary sale. But they possessed the right of redeeming it, at any time, on payment of an adequate compensation to the present holder; and by the enactments of the Jubilee they recovered it free--so that the land was rendered inalienable. (See an exception to this law, Lev 27:20).

JFB: Lev 25:29-31 - if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold All sales of houses were subject to the same condition. But there was a difference between the houses of villages (which, being connected with agricul...

All sales of houses were subject to the same condition. But there was a difference between the houses of villages (which, being connected with agriculture, were treated as parts of the land) and houses possessed by trading people or foreigners in walled towns, which could only be redeemed within the year after the sale; if not then redeemed, these did not revert to the former owner at the Jubilee.

JFB: Lev 25:32-34 - Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites, &c. The Levites, having no possessions but their towns and their houses, the law conferred on them the same privileges that were granted to the lands of t...

The Levites, having no possessions but their towns and their houses, the law conferred on them the same privileges that were granted to the lands of the other Israelites. A certain portion of the lands surrounding the Levitical cities was appropriated to them for the pasturage of their cattle and flocks (Num 35:4-5). This was a permanent endowment for the support of the ministry and could not be alienated for any time. The Levites, however, were at liberty to make exchanges among themselves; and a priest might sell his house, garden, and right of pasture to another priest, but not to an Israelite of another tribe (Jer 41:7-9).

JFB: Lev 25:35-38 - if thy brother be waxen poor, . . . relieve him This was a most benevolent provision for the poor and unfortunate, designed to aid them or alleviate the evils of their condition. Whether a native Is...

This was a most benevolent provision for the poor and unfortunate, designed to aid them or alleviate the evils of their condition. Whether a native Israelite or a mere sojourner, his richer neighbor was required to give him food, lodging, and a supply of money without usury. Usury was severely condemned (Psa 15:5; Eze 18:8, Eze 18:17), but the prohibition cannot be considered as applicable to the modern practice of men in business, borrowing and lending at legal rates of interest.

JFB: Lev 25:39-46 - if thy brother . . . be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond-servant An Israelite might be compelled, through misfortune, not only to mortgage his inheritance, but himself. In the event of his being reduced to this dist...

An Israelite might be compelled, through misfortune, not only to mortgage his inheritance, but himself. In the event of his being reduced to this distress, he was to be treated not as a slave, but a hired servant whose engagement was temporary, and who might, through the friendly aid of a relative, be redeemed at any time before the Jubilee. The ransom money was determined on a most equitable principle. Taking account of the number of years from the proposal to redeem and the Jubilee, of the current wages of labor for that time, and multiplying the remaining years by that sum, the amount was to be paid to the master for his redemption. But if no such friendly interposition was made for a Hebrew slave, he continued in servitude till the year of Jubilee, when, as a matter of course, he regained his liberty, as well as his inheritance. Viewed in the various aspects in which it is presented in this chapter, the Jubilee was an admirable institution, and subservient in an eminent degree to uphold the interests of religion, social order, and freedom among the Israelites.

Clarke: Lev 25:2 - The land keep a Sabbath The land keep a Sabbath - See this ordinance explained, Exo 23:11 (note). It may be asked here: if it required all the annual produce of the field t...

The land keep a Sabbath - See this ordinance explained, Exo 23:11 (note). It may be asked here: if it required all the annual produce of the field to support the inhabitants, how could the people be nourished the seventh year, when no produce was received from the fields? To this it may be answered, that God sent his blessing in an especial manner on the sixth year, (see Lev 25:21, Lev 25:22), and it brought forth fruit for three years. How astonishing and convincing was this miracle! Could there possibly be any deception here? No! The miracle speaks for itself, proves the Divine authenticity of the law, and takes every prop and stay from the system that wishes to convict the Mosaic ordinances of imposture. See Exo 23:11. It is evident from this that the Mosaic law must have had a Divine origin, as no man in his senses, without God’ s authority, could have made such an ordinance as this; for the sixth year, from its promulgation, would have amply refuted his pretensions to a Divine mission.

Clarke: Lev 25:8 - Thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of years Thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of years - This seems to state that the jubilee was to be celebrated on the forty-ninth year; but in Lev 25:10 and ...

Thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of years - This seems to state that the jubilee was to be celebrated on the forty-ninth year; but in Lev 25:10 and Lev 25:11 it is said, Ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and, A jubilee shall this fiftieth year be. Probably in this verse Moses either includes the preceding jubilee, and thus with the forty-ninth makes up the number fifty; or he speaks of proclaiming the jubilee on the forty-ninth, and celebrating it on the fiftieth year current. Some think it was celebrated on the forty-ninth year, as is stated in Lev 25:8; and this prevented the Sabbatical year, or seventh year of rest, from being confounded with the jubilee, which it must otherwise have been, had the celebration of this great solemnity taken place on the fiftieth year; but it is most likely that the fiftieth was the real jubilee.

Clarke: Lev 25:11 - A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be - The literal meaning of the word jubilee, יובל yobel in Hebrew, and יוביל yobil in the Samarit...

A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be - The literal meaning of the word jubilee, יובל yobel in Hebrew, and יוביל yobil in the Samaritan, has not been well ascertained. Josephus and the rabbins have caused many to err; the former says the word signifies liberty; Ελευθεριαν δε σημαινει τουνομα, Antiq., l. 3, cap. 12, edit. Haverc., vol. 1, p. 184; but the word liberty signifies rather the intention of the institution, than the meaning of the Hebrew term. The rabbins say it signifies a ram’ s horn, because the trumpets which were used in proclaiming this solemnity were made out of ram’ s horns. This meaning is adopted in a few places in our translation, but none of the ancient versions acknowledge this sense of the term, the Chaldee excepted. Some derive it from יבל yabal , to bring, carry away, because the Israelites at this time carried away the right of repossessing their inheritances which had been forfeited or alienated. The most natural derivation is from הוביל hobil , to cause to bring back, or recall, because estates, etc., which had been alienated, were then brought back to their primitive owners. This was a wise and excellent institution, but appears to have been little regarded by the Jews after the Babylonish captivity. Indeed, it is not mentioned under the second temple, and the observance must have ceased among the Jews when they were brought under a foreign yoke. The jubilee seems to have been typical

1.    Of the great time of release, the Gospel dispensation, when all who believe in Christ Jesus are redeemed from the bondage of sin - repossess the favor and image of God, the only inheritance of the human soul, having all debts cancelled, and the right of inheritance restored. To this the prophet Isaiah seems to allude, Isa 26:13, and particularly Isa 61:1-3

2.    Of the general resurrection. "It is,"says Mr. Parkhurst, "a lively prefiguration of the grand consummation of time, which will be introduced in like manner by the trump of God, 1Co 15:52, when the children and heirs of God shall be delivered from all their forfeitures, and restored to the eternal inheritance allotted to them by their Father; and thenceforth rest from their labors, and be supported in life and happiness by what the field of God shall supply.

It is worthy of remark that the jubilee was not proclaimed till the tenth day of the seventh month, on the very day when the great annual atonement was made for the sins of the people; and does not this prove that the great liberty or redemption from thraldom, published under the Gospel, could not take place till the great Atonement, the sacrifice of the Lord Jesus, had been offered up? See Lev 25:9.

Clarke: Lev 25:14 - Ye shall not oppress one another Ye shall not oppress one another - Ye shall take no advantage of each other’ s ignorance either in buying or selling; for he that buys an artic...

Ye shall not oppress one another - Ye shall take no advantage of each other’ s ignorance either in buying or selling; for he that buys an article at less than it is worth, or sells one for more than it is worth, taking advantage in both cases of the ignorance of the vender or buyer, is no better than a thief, as he actually robs his neighbor of as much property as he has bought the article at below or sold it above its current value.

Clarke: Lev 25:15 - According to the number of years According to the number of years - The purchases that were to be made of lands were to be regulated by the number of years unelapsed of the current ...

According to the number of years - The purchases that were to be made of lands were to be regulated by the number of years unelapsed of the current jubilee. This was something like buying the unexpired term of a lease among us; the purchase is always regulated by the number of years between the time of purchase and the expiration of the term.

Clarke: Lev 25:20 - What shall we eat the seventh year? What shall we eat the seventh year? - A very natural question, which could only be laid at rest by the sovereign promise in the next verse I will Co...

What shall we eat the seventh year? - A very natural question, which could only be laid at rest by the sovereign promise in the next verse

I will Command my Blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for Three Years. See on Lev 25:2 (note).

Clarke: Lev 25:23 - The land shall not be sold for ever - the land is mine The land shall not be sold for ever - the land is mine - As God in a miraculous manner gave them possession of this land, they were therefore to con...

The land shall not be sold for ever - the land is mine - As God in a miraculous manner gave them possession of this land, they were therefore to consider themselves merely as tenants to him; and on this ground he, as the great landholder or lord of the soil, prescribes to them all the conditions on which they shall hold it. This one circumstance was peculiarly favorable to their advancement in religion, in righteousness, and true holiness; for feeling that they had nothing which they could call their own upon earth, they must frequently, by this, be put in mind of the necessity of having a permanent dwelling in the heavenly inheritance, and of that preparation without which it could not be possessed.

Clarke: Lev 25:25 - Any of his kin come to redeem it Any of his kin come to redeem it - The land that was sold might be redeemed, in the interim between jubilee and jubilee, by the former owner or by o...

Any of his kin come to redeem it - The land that was sold might be redeemed, in the interim between jubilee and jubilee, by the former owner or by one of his kinsmen or relatives. This kinsman is called in the text גאל goel or redeemer; and was not this a lively emblem of the redemption of man by Christ Jesus? That he might have a right to redeem man, he took upon him human nature, and thus became a kinsman of the great family of the human race, and thereby possessed the right of redeeming that fallen nature of which he took part, and of buying back to man that inheritance which had been forfeited by transgression.

Clarke: Lev 25:29 - Sell a dwelling house in a walled city Sell a dwelling house in a walled city - A very proper difference is put between houses in a city and houses in the country. If a man sold his house...

Sell a dwelling house in a walled city - A very proper difference is put between houses in a city and houses in the country. If a man sold his house in the city, he might redeem it any time in the course of a year; but if it were not redeemed within that time, it could no more be redeemed, nor did it go out even in the jubilee. It was not so with a house in the country; such a house might be redeemed during any part of the interim; and if not redeemed, must go out at the jubilee. The reason in both cases is sufficiently evident; the house in the city might be built for purposes of trade or traffic merely, the house in the country was built on or attached to the inheritance which God had divided to the respective families, and it was therefore absolutely necessary that the same law should apply to the house as to the inheritance. But the same necessity did not hold good with respect to the house in the city: and as we may presume the house in the city was merely for the purpose of trade, when a man bought such a house, and got his business established there, it would have been very inconvenient for him to have removed; but as it was possible that the former owner might have sold the house rashly, or through the pressure of some very urgent necessity, a year was allowed him, that during that time he might have leisure to reconsider his rash act, or so to get through his pressing necessity as to be able to get back his dwelling. This time was sufficiently long in either of the above cases; and as such occurrences might have been the cause of his selling his house, it was necessary that he might have the opportunity of redeeming his pledge. Again, as the purchaser, having bought the house merely for the purpose of trade, manufacture, etc., must have been at great pains and expense to fit the place for his work, and establish his business, in which himself, his children, and his children’ s children, were to labor and get their bread; hence it was necessary that he should have some certainty of permanent possession, without which, we may naturally conjecture, no such purchases ever would be made. This seems to be the simple reason of the law in both cases.

Clarke: Lev 25:32 - The cities of the Levites The cities of the Levites - The law in this and the following verses was also a very wise one. A Levite could not ultimately sell his house: if sold...

The cities of the Levites - The law in this and the following verses was also a very wise one. A Levite could not ultimately sell his house: if sold he could redeem it at any time in the interim between the two jubilees; but if not redeemed, it must go out at the following jubilee. And why? "Because Moses framed his laws so much in favor of the priesthood, that they had peculiar privileges?"etc. Just the reverse: they were so far from being peculiarly favored that they had no inheritance in Israel, only their cities, to dwell in: and because their houses in these cities were the whole that they could call their own, therefore these houses could not be ultimately alienated. All that they had to live on besides was from that most precarious source of support, the freewill-offerings of the people, which depended on the prevalence of pure religion in the land.

Clarke: Lev 25:36 - Take thou no usury of him Take thou no usury of him - Usury, at present, signifies unlawful interest for money. Properly, it means the reward or compensation given for the us...

Take thou no usury of him - Usury, at present, signifies unlawful interest for money. Properly, it means the reward or compensation given for the use of a thing, but is principally spoken of money. For the definition of the original term, See the note on Exo 22:25.

Clarke: Lev 25:42 - For they are my servants For they are my servants - As God redeemed every Israelite out of Egyptian bondage, they were therefore to consider themselves as his property, and ...

For they are my servants - As God redeemed every Israelite out of Egyptian bondage, they were therefore to consider themselves as his property, and that consequently they should not alienate themselves from him. It was in being his servants, and devoted to his work, that both their religious and political service consisted. And although their political liberty might be lost, they knew that their spiritual liberty never could be forfeited except by an utter alienation from God. God therefore claims the same right to their persons which he does to their lands; See the note on Lev 25:23.

Clarke: Lev 25:43 - Thou shalt not rule over him with rigor Thou shalt not rule over him with rigor - What is rigorous service? "Service which is not determined, and service whereof there is no need."This is ...

Thou shalt not rule over him with rigor - What is rigorous service? "Service which is not determined, and service whereof there is no need."This is the definition given by the Jews; but much more is implied in this command than is expressed here. Labour beyond the person’ s strength, or labor too long continued, or in unhealthy or uncomfortable places and circumstances, or without sufficient food, etc., is labor exacted with rigour, and consequently inhuman; and this law is made, not for the Mosaic dispensation and the Jewish people, but for every dispensation and for every people under heaven.

Clarke: Lev 25:50 - The price of his sale shall be, etc. The price of his sale shall be, etc. - This was a very equitable law, both for the sojourner to whom the man was sold, and to the Israelite who had ...

The price of his sale shall be, etc. - This was a very equitable law, both for the sojourner to whom the man was sold, and to the Israelite who had been thus sold. The Israelite might redeem himself, or one of his kindred might redeem him; but this must not be done to the prejudice of his master, the sojourner. They were therefore to reckon the years he must have served from that time till the jubilee; and then, taking the current wages of a servant per year at that time, multiply the remaining years by that sum, and the aggregate was the sum to be given to his master for his redemption. The Jews hold that the kindred of such a person were bound, if in their power, to redeem him, lest he should be swallowed up among the heathen; and we find, from Neh 5:8, that this was done by the Jews on their return from the Babylonish captivity: We, after our ability, have redeemed our brethren the Jews, who were sold unto the heathen.

Clarke: Lev 25:55 - For unto me the children of Israel are servants For unto me the children of Israel are servants - The reason of this law we have already seen, (See on Lev 25:42 (note)), but we must look farther t...

For unto me the children of Israel are servants - The reason of this law we have already seen, (See on Lev 25:42 (note)), but we must look farther to see the great end of it. The Israelites were a typical people; they represented those under the Gospel dispensation who are children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. But these last have a peculiarity of blessing: they are not merely servants, but they are Sons; though they also serve God, yet it is in the newness of the spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter. And to this difference of state the apostle seems evidently to allude, Gal 4:6, etc.: And because ye are Sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a Servant, but a Son; and if a Son, then an Heir of God through Christ; genuine believers in Christ not being heirs of an earthly inheritance, nor merely of a heavenly one, for they are heirs of God. God himself therefore is their portion, without whom even heaven itself would not be a state of consummate blessedness to an immortal spirit. The jubilee was a wonderful institution, and was of very great service to the religion, freedom, and independence of the Jewish people. "The motive of this law,"says Calmet, "was to prevent the rich from oppressing the poor, and reducing them to perpetual slavery; and that they should not get possession of all the lands by way of purchase, mortgage, or, lastly, usurpation. That debts should not be multiplied too much, lest thereby the poor should be entirely ruined; and that slaves should not continue always, they, their wives and children, in servitude. Besides, Moses intended to preserve, as much as possible, personal liberty, an equality of property, and the regular order of families, among the Hebrews. Lastly, he designed that the people should be strongly attached to their country, lands, and inheritances; that they should have an affection for them, and consider them as estates which descended to them from their ancestors which they were to leave to their posterity, without any fear of their going ultimately out of their families."But this institution especially pointed out the redemption of man by Christ Jesus

1.    Through him, he who was in debt to God’ s justice had his debt discharged, and his sin forgiven

2.    He who sold himself for naught, who was a bondslave of sin and Satan, regains his liberty and becomes a son of God through faith in his blood

3.    He who by transgression had forfeited all right and title to the kingdom of God, becomes an heir of God, and a joint heir with Christ. Heaven, his forfeited inheritance, is restored, for the kingdom of heaven is open to all believers; and thus, redeemed from his debt, restored to his liberty, united to the heavenly family, and re-entitled to his inheritance, he goes on his way rejoicing, till he enters the paradise of his Maker, and is for ever with the Lord

Reader, hast thou applied for this redemption? Does not the trumpet of the jubilee, the glad tidings of salvation by Christ Jesus, sound in the land? Surely it does. Why then continue a bond-slave of sin, a child of wrath, and an heir of hell, when such a salvation is offered unto thee without money and without price? O suffer not this provision to be made ultimately in vain for thee! For what art thou advantaged if thou gain the whole world and lose thy soul?

Calvin: Lev 25:8 - And thou shalt number seven 8.And thou shalt number seven The third kind of Sabbath follows, which was composed of forty-nine, or seven times seven years. This was the most illu...

8.And thou shalt number seven The third kind of Sabbath follows, which was composed of forty-nine, or seven times seven years. This was the most illustrious Sabbath, since the state of the people, both as to their persons and their houses and property, was renewed; and although in this way God had regard to the public good, gave relief to the poor, so that their liberty should not be destroyed, and preserved also the order laid down by Himself; still there is no question but that He thus added an additional stimulus to incite the Jews to honor the Sabbath. For it was a kind of imposing memorial of the sacred rest, to see slaves emancipated and become suddenly free; houses and lands returning to their former possessors who had sold them; and in fine all things assuming a new face. They called this year Jobel, from the sound of the ram’s horn, whereby liberty and the restitution of property were proclaimed; but as I have said, its main feature was the solemnity which shewed them to be separated from other nations to be a peculiar and holy nation to God; nay, the renewal of all things had reference to this, that being redeemed anew in the great Sabbath, they might entirely devote themselves to God their Deliverer.

Calvin: Lev 25:20 - And if ye shall say 20.And if ye shall say Men will never be obedient to God’s precepts, unless their distrust of Him is corrected, and will be always ingenious in lay...

20.And if ye shall say Men will never be obedient to God’s precepts, unless their distrust of Him is corrected, and will be always ingenious in laying hold of pretexts for disobedience. The difficulty, however, in this matter was a specious excuse for the Jews; for famine might have destroyed them in these two years, since in the seventh year they neither sowed nor reaped; and for reaping they were obliged to wait till the end of the eighth year. Now, whence were they to get seed enough to sow after the land had rested for a whole year? It is not without reason, then, that God delivers them from this doubt, promising them that He will give such abundance in the sixth year as shall suffice for the two following ones. The phrase must be observed, that God would “command His blessing” in an especial manner, and beyond the usual course, so that the land should be twice or thrice more fertile. Hence is suggested to us no ordinary ground of confidence in asking for our daily bread. But this was a special promise, that food should not fail the Jews on account of the Sabbatical year; a manifestation of which God had already given in the desert, when supplied a double portion of manna to those who gathered it on the day before the Sabbath. Now-a-days this inconvenience is avoided by the industry of farmers, who so divide their acres that the land should never lie fallow altogether, but that one part should supply the deficiency of another. This distribution did not obtain with the Jews. Therefore God relieved them from the fear of famine down to the harvest of the eighth year; although He seems at the same time to accustom them to frugality, lest they should waste in intemperance and luxury what He afforded in sufficient abundance to last for two years. To this precept He alludes, when He declares by the Prophets that the land “enjoyed her Sabbaths,” when it had vomited forth its inhabitants, (2Ch 36:21;) for since they had polluted it by violating the Sabbath, so that it groaned as if under a heavy burden, He says that it shall rest for a long continuous period, so as to compensate for the labor of many years.

Calvin: Lev 25:23 - The land shall not be sold for ever 23.The land shall not be sold for ever. Since the reason for this law was peculiar to the children of Abraham, its provisions can hardly be applied t...

23.The land shall not be sold for ever. Since the reason for this law was peculiar to the children of Abraham, its provisions can hardly be applied to other nations; for so equal a partition of the land was made under Joshua, that the inheritance was distributed amongst the several tribes and families; nay, in order that each man’s possession should be more sacred, the land had been divided by lot, as if God by His own hand located them in their separate stations. In fact, that allotment was, as it were, an inviolable decree of God Himself, whereby the memory of the covenant should be maintained, by which the inheritance of the land had been promised to Abraham and his posterity; and thus the land of Canaan was an earnest, or symbol, or mirror, of the adoption on which their salvation was founded. Wherefore it is not to be wondered at that God was unwilling that this inestimable benefit should ever be lost; and, lest this should be the case, like a provident father of a family, He laid a restraint on His children, to prevent them from being too prodigal; for, when a man has any suspicions of his heir, he forbids him to alienate the patrimony he leaves him. Such, therefore, was the condition of the ancient people; yet it cannot be indiscriminately transferred to other nations who have had no common inheritance given them. Some vestige of it appears in the right of redemption; 156 but, because that depends on the consent of the parties, and is also a special mode of contract, it has nothing to do with the law of Moses, which entirely restored both men and lands, (in the year of jubilee, 157) That God should call the land of Canaan His, is, as it were, to assert His direct Lordship 158 ( dominium,) as they call it, over it; as He immediately afterwards more clearly expresses His meaning, where He says that the children of Israel sojourn in it as His guests. 159 For although their condition was the best in which just and perpetual owners can be placed, still, as respected God, they were but His tenants ( coloni,) only living there at His will. In fine, God claims the freehold ( fundum) for Himself, lest the recollection of tits having granted it to them should ever escape them.

Calvin: Lev 25:24 - And in all the land of your possession 24.And in all the land of your possession. Before the jubilee came, He permits not only the relations to redeem land sold by a poor man, but the sell...

24.And in all the land of your possession. Before the jubilee came, He permits not only the relations to redeem land sold by a poor man, but the seller also, if no other redeemer interposed. The same power was also given to relations amongst other nations, though with a different object, viz., the preservation of the family name; still, the seller was never allowed to redeem, unless a special clause to that effect was contained in the contract. But God desired that the lands should be retained by their legal possessor, in order that the people might deviate as little as possible from the division made by Joshua. Meanwhile, He had in view the private advantage of individuals; but in the perpetual succession to the land He considered Himself rather than men, in order that the recollection of His kindness should never be lost. Finally, He orders all lands to return in the year of jubilee to their original owners; and all sales to be cancelled, as if, in the fiftieth year, he renewed the lot for the division of the land.

Calvin: Lev 25:29 - And if a man sell a dwelling-house 29.And if a man sell a dwelling-house. He here distinguishes houses from lands, providing that the power of redemption should not extend beyond a yea...

29.And if a man sell a dwelling-house. He here distinguishes houses from lands, providing that the power of redemption should not extend beyond a year; and also, that the purchase should hold good even in the jubilee. A second distinction, however, is also added between different kinds of houses, viz., that houses in towns might be altogether alienated, whilst the condition of those in the country should be the same as that of the lands themselves, as being annexed so as to form part of them. As regarded houses fix towns, because they were sometimes burdensome to their owners, it was an advantage that they might pass into the hands of the rich who were competent to bear the expenses of building. Besides, a house does not supply daily food like a field, and it is more tolerable to be without a house than a field, in which you may work, and from the cultivation of which you may support yourself and family. But it was necessary to except houses in the country, because they were appendages to the land; for what use would there be in harvesting the fruits, if you had no place to store them in? Nay, what would it profit to possess a farm which you could not cultivate? for how could oxen plough without any stalls in its vicinity? Since, then, lands without farm-buildings or cottages are almost useless, and they cannot be conveniently separated, justly did God appoint that, in the year of Jubilee, every rural possession should revert to its former owner.

Calvin: Lev 25:32 - Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites 32.Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites. Another exception, that the Levites should recover the houses they had sold, either by the right of red...

32.Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites. Another exception, that the Levites should recover the houses they had sold, either by the right of redemption, or gratuitously in the year of jubilee. And this is not only appointed out of favor to them, but because it concerned the whole people, that they should be posted like sentries in the place which God had assigned to them. As to the suburbs, or the lands destined for the support of their cattle, God forbids their alienation, because thus they would have forsaken their proper station and removed elsewhere; whereas it was of importance to the whole people that such a dispersion should not occur.

Calvin: Lev 25:39 - And if thy brother 39.And if thy brother. He now proceeds further, i e. , that one who has bought his brother should treat him with humanity, and not otherwise than a ...

39.And if thy brother. He now proceeds further, i e. , that one who has bought his brother should treat him with humanity, and not otherwise than a hired servant. We have seen, indeed, just above, that the labor of a slave is estimated at twice as much, because the humanity of his master will never go so far as to indulge or spare his slave as if he were a hireling. It is not, therefore, without reason that God puts a restraint upon that rule, which experience shows to have been often tyrannical. Still He prescribes no more than heathen philosophers did, 150 viz., that masters should treat their slaves like hired servants. And this principle of justice ought to prevail towards all without exception; but since it was difficult to prescribe the same rule respecting strangers as respecting their brethren, a special law is enacted, that at least they should observe moderation towards their brethren, with whom they had a common inheritance and condition. First:. therefore, it is provided as to Hebrew slaves that they should not be treated harshly and contemptuously like captives ( mancipia;) and then that their slavery should come to an end in the year of jubilee. But here the question arises, since their liberty was before accorded to them in the, seventh year, why it is now postponed to the fiftieth? Some get over the difficulty by supposing that 151 if the jubilee occurred during the six years, they must then be set free, although they had not completed the whole term; but this is too forced a conjecture. The view that most approves itself to me is, that the word יבל , yobel, is extended to mean every seventh year, or, at any rate, that moderation towards those slaves is specially prescribed who were most exposed to violence and other injurious treatment. For they would not have dared to oppress at pleasure their slaves, who were soon afterwards to be free; but those who, by having their ears bored, had subjected themselves to the longer period of slavery, would have been more outrageously harassed, unless God had interposed. And this opinion I freely adopt, that although their slavery lasted to the jubilee, yet flint their masters were to treat them with moderation and humanity. This too is confirmed by what immediately follows, where it is enjoined that the children should be set free with their fathers, which did not take place in the seventh year.

Calvin: Lev 25:42 - For they are my servants 42.For they are my servants God here declares that His own right is invaded when those, whom He claims as His property, are taken into subjection by ...

42.For they are my servants God here declares that His own right is invaded when those, whom He claims as His property, are taken into subjection by another; for He says that He acquired the people as His own when He redeemed them from Egypt. Whence He infers that His right is violated if any should usurp perpetual dominion over a Hebrew. If any object that this is of equal force, when they only serve for a time, I reply, that though God might have justly asserted His sole ownership, yet He was satisfied with this symbol of it; and therefore that He suffered by indulgence that they should be enslaved for a fixed period, provided some trace of His deliverance of them should remain. In a word, He simply chose to apply this preventative lest slavery should altogether extinguish the recollection of His grace, although He allowed it to be thus smothered as it were. Lest, therefore, cruel masters should trust that their tyranny would be exercised with impunity, Moses reminds them that they had to do with God, who will at length appear as its avenger. Although the political laws of Moses are not now in operation, still the analogy is to be preserved, lest the condition of those who have been redeemed by Christ’s blood should be worse amongst us, than that of old of tits ancient people. To whom Paul’s exhortation refers:

“Ye masters, forbear threatening your slaves, knowing that both your and their Master is in heaven.” 152 (Eph 6:9.)

Calvin: Lev 25:44 - Both thy bond-men, and thy bond-maids 44.Both thy bond-men, and thy bond-maids. What God here permits as regards strangers was everywhere customary among the Gentiles, viz., that their po...

44.Both thy bond-men, and thy bond-maids. What God here permits as regards strangers was everywhere customary among the Gentiles, viz., that their power over their slaves should exist not only until their death, but should continue in perpetual succession to their children; for this is the force of the expression, “ye shall possess them for your children,” that the right of ownership should pass to their heir’s also; nor is there a distinction made only as to perpetuity, 153 but also as to the mode of their treatment. For we must observe the antithesis, “ye shall make use of their service, but over his brother no man shall rule with rigor;” 154 whence it appears that a restraint was imposed upon them lest they should imperiously rule the children of Abraham, and not leave them half their liberty in comparison with the Gentiles. Not that a tyrannical or cruel exercise of power oyer strangers was allowed, but that God would have the race of Abraham, whose liberator lie was, exempted by certain privileges from the common lot.

Calvin: Lev 25:47 - And if a sojourner or a stranger 47.And if a sojourner or a stranger. A caution is here introduced as to the Israelites who had enslaved themselves to strangers. But by strangers und...

47.And if a sojourner or a stranger. A caution is here introduced as to the Israelites who had enslaved themselves to strangers. But by strangers understand only those who inhabited the land of Canaan; for, if any one ]lad been carried away into other countries, God would have enacted this law as to their redemption in vain. A power, therefore, of redeeming the slave is granted to his relatives, or, if he had himself obtained sufficient to pay his price, the same permission is accorded to himself. The mode and the form of this are then expressed: that a calculation of the time which remained before the jubilee should be made, and the period which had already elapsed should be subtracted from the sum, viz., if he had been sold for fifty shekels he should only pay ten shekels in the fortieth year, because only a fifth part of the time remained. But if none of his family aided him, and the unhappy man’s hope of redemption was frustrated, He commands that he should be set free in the jubilee year, in which a general enfranchisement took place as regarded the children of Abraham. The object of the law was, that none of those whom God had adopted, should be alienated from their race, and thus should depart from the true worship of God Himself. The whole of this is comprehended in the last verse, where God declares that the children of Abraham were His property, inasmuch as He had led them forth from the land of Egypt, and, on the other hand, that He is their peculiar God. For, whilst it was just that they should enjoy His blessing, so also it behooved that they should be kept sound in His pure and undivided worship; whereas, if they had been the slaves of Gentiles, not only would the elect people have been diminished in numbers, but circumcision would have been corrupted and a door opened to impious perversions. Yet God so mitigates His law as to lay no unjust burden upon sojourners, since He concedes more to them, with respect to Hebrew slaves, than to the natives of the land; for if they had sold themselves to their brethren, they went forth free in the seventh year, whilst their slavery under sojourners was extended to the fiftieth year. This exception only was introduced that the stranger who had bought slaves should enfranchise them on the payment of their value. Since God had previously promised to His people a large and manifold abundance of all good things, the poverty here adverted to could only occur from the curse of God; 155 we see, therefore, that of His incomparable loving-kindness He stretches forth His hand to the transgressors of His law; and, whilst He chastises them with poverty, still looks upon them, unworthy as they are, and provides a remedy for the ills which their own guilt had brought upon them.

Defender: Lev 25:10 - proclaim liberty throughout all the land This verse was cited in connection with the ringing of the Liberty Bell when America's Declaration of Independence was signed.

This verse was cited in connection with the ringing of the Liberty Bell when America's Declaration of Independence was signed.

Defender: Lev 25:10 - jubilee The institutions of the sabbatical year, giving the lands a rest, and the jubilee year, after seven sabbatical years, were a marvelous provision by Go...

The institutions of the sabbatical year, giving the lands a rest, and the jubilee year, after seven sabbatical years, were a marvelous provision by God to insure perpetual freedom and productivity for all the people of Israel if they would have only observed these commands. The land would have remained perpetually fruitful; permanent slavery could not exist, and vast accumulations of wealth by a few individuals would have been precluded. Sadly, the people repeatedly disobeyed, and God's warning had to be carried out (Lev 26:33-35). Since they rejected God's provision for "liberty throughout the land," their land became desolate and all its people were taken into captivity (2Ch 36:20, 2Ch 36:21)."

TSK: Lev 25:1 - -- Exo 19:1; Num 1:1, Num 10:11, Num 10:12; Gal 4:24, Gal 4:25

TSK: Lev 25:2 - When ye // keep // a sabbath When ye : Lev 14:34; Deu 32:8, Deu 32:49, Deu 34:4; Psa 24:1, Psa 24:2, Psa 115:16; Isa 8:8; Jer 27:5 keep : Heb. rest, Lev 23:32 *marg. a sabbath : L...

TSK: Lev 25:4 - -- Lev 25:20-23, Lev 26:34, Lev 26:35, Lev 26:43; Exo 23:10, Exo 23:11; 2Ch 36:21

TSK: Lev 25:5 - groweth // thy vine undressed groweth : 2Ki 19:29; Isa 37:30 thy vine undressed : Heb. the separation

groweth : 2Ki 19:29; Isa 37:30

thy vine undressed : Heb. the separation

TSK: Lev 25:6 - -- Exo 23:11; Act 2:44, Act 4:32, Act 4:34, Act 4:35

TSK: Lev 25:8 - -- Lev 23:15; Gen 2:2

TSK: Lev 25:9 - jubilee // of the jubilee to sound // the day jubilee : Lev 25:10-12, Lev 27:17, Lev 27:24; Num 36:4 of the jubilee to sound : Heb. loud of sound, Num 10:10; Psa 89:15; Act 13:38, Act 13:39; Rom 1...

TSK: Lev 25:10 - proclaim // every man // ye shall return proclaim : Exo 20:2; Ezr 1:3; Psa 146:7; Isa 49:9, Isa 49:24, Isa 49:25, Isa 61:1-3, Isa 63:4; Jer 34:8, Jer 34:13-17; Zec 9:11, Zec 9:12; Luk 1:74, L...

TSK: Lev 25:11 - A jubilee // ye shall A jubilee : Respecting the literal meaning of the word יובל , yobel , or yovel , critics are not agreed. The most natural derivation of the ...

A jubilee : Respecting the literal meaning of the word יובל , yobel , or yovel , critics are not agreed. The most natural derivation of the word seems to be from הוביל , hovil , the Hiphil form of יבל , yaval , to recall, restore, or bring back, because this year restored all slaves to their liberty, and brought back all alienated estates to their primitive owners. Accordingly the LXX render it here αφεσις , a ""remission""; and Josephus says it signifies ελευθεριαν , liberty. Lev 27:17

ye shall : Lev 25:5-7

TSK: Lev 25:12 - -- Lev 25:6, Lev 25:7

TSK: Lev 25:13 - -- Lev 25:10, Lev 27:17-24; Num 36:4

TSK: Lev 25:14 - -- Lev 25:17, Lev 19:13; Deu 16:19, Deu 16:20; Jdg 4:3; 1Sa 12:3, 1Sa 12:4; 2Ch 16:10; Neh 9:36, Neh 9:37; Job 20:19, Job 20:20; Psa 10:18; Pro 14:31, Pr...

TSK: Lev 25:15 - -- Lev 27:18-23; Phi 4:5

TSK: Lev 25:17 - shall not // fear shall not : Lev 25:14 fear : Lev 25:43, Lev 19:14, Lev 19:32; Gen 20:11, Gen 22:12, Gen 39:9, Gen 42:18; Exo 20:20; Deu 25:18; 1Sa 12:24; 2Ch 19:7; Ne...

TSK: Lev 25:18 - Wherefore // and ye Wherefore : Lev 19:37; Psa 103:18 and ye : Lev 26:3-12; Deu 12:10, Deu 28:1-14, Deu 33:12, Deu 33:28; Psa 4:8; Pro 1:33; Jer 7:3-7; Jer 23:6, Jer 25:5...

TSK: Lev 25:19 - -- Lev 26:5; Psa 67:6, Psa 85:12; Isa 30:23, Isa 65:21, Isa 65:22; Eze 34:25-28, Eze 36:30; Joe 2:24, Joe 2:26

TSK: Lev 25:20 - -- Num 11:4, Num 11:13; 2Ki 6:15-17, 2Ki 7:2; 2Ch 25:9; Psa 78:19, Psa 78:20; Isa 1:2; Mat 6:25-34, Mat 8:26; Luk 12:29; Phi 4:6; Heb 13:5, Heb 13:6

TSK: Lev 25:21 - I will // three years I will : As it is here graciously promised, that the sixth year was to bring forth fruits for three years, not merely for two, it is evident that both...

I will : As it is here graciously promised, that the sixth year was to bring forth fruits for three years, not merely for two, it is evident that both the sabbatical year and the year of jubilee were distinctly provided for. They were not to sow from the sixth to the eighth year, omitting two seed times; nor reap from the sixth to the ninth, omitting two harvests. No legislator, unless conscious of being divinely commissioned, would have committed himself by enacting such a law as this; nor would any people have submitted to receive it, except in consequence of the fullest conviction that a divine authority had dictated it. It therefore stands as a proof that Moses acted by the express direction of the Almighty, and that the people were fully persuaded of the reality of his divine mission by the miracles he wrought. Gen 26:12, Gen 41:47; Exo 16:29; Deu 28:3, Deu 28:8; Psa 133:3; Pro 10:22; 2Co 9:10

three years : Lev 25:4, Lev 25:8-11

TSK: Lev 25:22 - eighth // old fruit eighth : 2Ki 19:29; Isa 37:30 old fruit : Jos 5:11, Jos 5:12

eighth : 2Ki 19:29; Isa 37:30

old fruit : Jos 5:11, Jos 5:12

TSK: Lev 25:23 - The land // for ever // for ye are The land : Lev 25:10; 1Ki 21:3; Eze 48:14 for ever : or, to be quite cut off, Heb. for cutting off, for the land. Deu 32:43; 2Ch 7:20; Psa 24:1, Psa 8...

The land : Lev 25:10; 1Ki 21:3; Eze 48:14

for ever : or, to be quite cut off, Heb. for cutting off, for the land. Deu 32:43; 2Ch 7:20; Psa 24:1, Psa 85:1; Isa 8:8; Hos 9:3; Joe 2:18, Joe 3:2

for ye are : Gen 47:9; 1Ch 29:15; Psa 39:12, Psa 119:19; Heb 11:9-13; 1Pe 2:11

TSK: Lev 25:24 - redemption redemption : Lev 25:27, Lev 25:31, Lev 25:51-53; Rom 8:23; 1Co 1:30; Eph 1:7, Eph 1:14, Eph 4:30

TSK: Lev 25:25 - -- Rth 2:20, Rth 3:2, Rth 3:9, Rth 3:12, Rth 4:4-6; Jer 32:7, Jer 32:8; 2Co 8:9; Heb 2:13, Heb 2:14; Rev 5:9

TSK: Lev 25:26 - himself be able to redeem it himself be able to redeem it : Heb. his hand hath attained, and found sufficiency, Lev 5:7 *marg.

himself be able to redeem it : Heb. his hand hath attained, and found sufficiency, Lev 5:7 *marg.

TSK: Lev 25:27 - -- Lev 25:50-53

TSK: Lev 25:28 - and in the // he shall and in the : Lev 25:13 he shall : Isa 35:9, Isa 35:10; Jer 32:15; 1Co 15:52-54; 1Th 4:13-18; 1Pe 1:4, 1Pe 1:5

TSK: Lev 25:29 - -- A very proper difference is here made between houses in a city and houses in the country. The former might be redeemed any time in the course of a ye...

A very proper difference is here made between houses in a city and houses in the country. The former might be redeemed any time in the course of a year; but after that time could not be redeemed, or go out with the Jubileecaps1 . tcaps0 he latter might be redeemed at any time; and if not redeemed must go out with the jubilee. The reason in both cases is sufficiently evident; the house in the city might be built merely for the purposes of trade or traffic - the house in the country was builded on, or attached to, the inheritance which God had divided to the respective families. It was therefore necessary that the same law should apply to the house as to the inheritance; which necessity did not exist with regard to the house in the city. And, as the house in the city might be purchased for the purpose of trade, it would be very inconvenient for the purchaser, when his business was established, to be obliged to remove.

TSK: Lev 25:31 - they may be redeemed they may be redeemed : Heb. redemption belongeth unto it, Psa 49:7, Psa 49:8

they may be redeemed : Heb. redemption belongeth unto it, Psa 49:7, Psa 49:8

TSK: Lev 25:32 - the cities the cities : As the Levites had no inheritance in Israel, but only cities to dwell in; and consequently the houses in these cities were all they could...

the cities : As the Levites had no inheritance in Israel, but only cities to dwell in; and consequently the houses in these cities were all they could call their own, therefore they could not be ultimately alienated. Num 35:2-8; Josh. 21:1-45

TSK: Lev 25:33 - a man purchase of the Levites // shall go // for the houses a man purchase of the Levites : or, one of the Levites redeem them shall go : Lev 25:28 for the houses : Num 18:20-24; Deu 18:1, Deu 18:2

a man purchase of the Levites : or, one of the Levites redeem them

shall go : Lev 25:28

for the houses : Num 18:20-24; Deu 18:1, Deu 18:2

TSK: Lev 25:34 - -- Lev 25:23; Act 4:36, Act 4:37

TSK: Lev 25:35 - thy brother // fallen in decay // then // relieve // a stranger thy brother : Lev 25:25; Deu 15:7, Deu 15:8; Pro 14:20, Pro 14:21, Pro 17:5, Pro 19:17; Mar 14:7; Joh 12:8; 2Co 8:9; Jam 2:5, Jam 2:6 fallen in decay ...

TSK: Lev 25:36 - usury // fear usury : Exo 22:25; Deu 23:19, Deu 23:20; Neh 5:7-10; Psa 15:5; Pro 28:8; Eze 18:8, Eze 18:13, Eze 18:17; Eze 22:12 fear : Lev 25:17; Neh 5:9, Neh 5:15

TSK: Lev 25:38 - which // and to be which : Exo 20:2 and to be : Lev 11:45, Lev 22:32, Lev 22:33; Num 15:41; Jer 31:1, Jer 31:33, Jer 32:38; Heb 11:16

TSK: Lev 25:39 - be sold // compel him to serve as be sold : Exo 21:2, Exo 22:3; Deu 15:12; 1Ki 9:22; 2Ki 4:1; Neh 5:5; Jer 34:14 compel him to serve as : Heb. serve thyself with him with the service o...

be sold : Exo 21:2, Exo 22:3; Deu 15:12; 1Ki 9:22; 2Ki 4:1; Neh 5:5; Jer 34:14

compel him to serve as : Heb. serve thyself with him with the service of, etc. Lev 25:46 *marg. Exo 1:14; Jer 25:14, Jer 27:7, Jer 30:8

TSK: Lev 25:40 - -- Exo 21:2, Exo 21:3

TSK: Lev 25:41 - then shall // shall return then shall : Exo 21:3; Joh 8:32; Rom 6:14; Tit 2:14 shall return : Lev 25:10, Lev 25:28

then shall : Exo 21:3; Joh 8:32; Rom 6:14; Tit 2:14

shall return : Lev 25:10, Lev 25:28

TSK: Lev 25:42 - my servants // as bondmen my servants : Lev 25:55; Rom 6:22; 1Co 7:21-23 as bondmen : Heb. with the sale of a bondman

my servants : Lev 25:55; Rom 6:22; 1Co 7:21-23

as bondmen : Heb. with the sale of a bondman

TSK: Lev 25:43 - rule // but shalt rule : Lev 25:46, Lev 25:53; Exo 1:13, Exo 1:14, Exo 2:23, Exo 3:7, Exo 3:9, Exo 5:14; Isa 47:6, Isa 58:3; Eph 6:9; Col 4:1 but shalt : Lev 25:17; Exo...

TSK: Lev 25:44 - -- Exo 12:44; Psa 2:8, Psa 2:9; Isa 14:1, Isa 14:2; Rev 2:26, Rev 2:27

TSK: Lev 25:45 - -- Isa 56:3-6

TSK: Lev 25:46 - And ye shall // they shall be your bondmen for ever // ye shall not rule And ye shall : Isa 14:2 they shall be your bondmen for ever : Heb. ye shall serve yourselves with them, Lev 25:39 ye shall not rule : Lev 25:43

And ye shall : Isa 14:2

they shall be your bondmen for ever : Heb. ye shall serve yourselves with them, Lev 25:39

ye shall not rule : Lev 25:43

TSK: Lev 25:47 - sojourner or stranger wax rich sojourner or stranger wax rich : Heb. the hand of a stranger, etc. obtain, etc. Lev 25:26; 1Sa 2:7, 1Sa 2:8; Jam 2:5

sojourner or stranger wax rich : Heb. the hand of a stranger, etc. obtain, etc. Lev 25:26; 1Sa 2:7, 1Sa 2:8; Jam 2:5

TSK: Lev 25:48 - -- Lev 25:25, Lev 25:35; Neh 5:5, Neh 5:8; Gal 4:4, Gal 4:5; Heb 2:11-13

TSK: Lev 25:49 - or if he be or if he be : Lev 25:26

or if he be : Lev 25:26

TSK: Lev 25:50 - reckon // price of his sale // according to the time reckon : Lev 25:27 price of his sale : This was a very equitable law, both to the sojourner to whom the man was sold, and to the Israelite who had bee...

reckon : Lev 25:27

price of his sale : This was a very equitable law, both to the sojourner to whom the man was sold, and to the Israelite who had been sold. The Israelite might redeem himself, or one of his kindred might redeem him; but this must not be done to the prejudice of his master. They were therefore to reckon the years he must have served, from that time till the jubilee; and then taking the current wages of a servant, per year, at that time, multiply the remaining years by that sum, and the aggregate was to be given to his master for his redemption. The Jews hold that the kindred of such a person were bound, if in their power, to redeem him, lest he should be swallowed up among the heathen; and we find (Neh 5:8) that this was done by the Jews on their return from the Babylonish captivity.

according to the time : Lev 25:40, Lev 25:53; Deu 15:18; Job 7:1, Job 7:2, Job 14:6; Isa 16:14, Isa 21:16

TSK: Lev 25:52 - jubilee jubilee : The jubilee was a wonderful institution, and of great service to the religion, freedom, and independence of the Hebrews. It was calculated t...

jubilee : The jubilee was a wonderful institution, and of great service to the religion, freedom, and independence of the Hebrews. It was calculated to prevent the rich from oppressing the poor, and reducing them to perpetual slavery; and to hinder their obtaining possession of all the lands by purchase, mortgage, or usurpation. It was further intended, that debts should not be multiplied too much, lest the poor should be entirely ruined; that slaves should not always continue in servitude; that personal liberty, equality of property, and the regular order of families might, as much as possible, be preserved; and that the people might thus be strongly attached to their country, lands, and inheritances.

TSK: Lev 25:53 - -- Lev 25:43

TSK: Lev 25:54 - in these years // then in these years : or, by these means then : Lev 25:40, Lev 25:41; Exo 21:2, Exo 21:3; Isa 49:9, Isa 49:25, Isa 52:3

in these years : or, by these means

then : Lev 25:40, Lev 25:41; Exo 21:2, Exo 21:3; Isa 49:9, Isa 49:25, Isa 52:3

TSK: Lev 25:55 - my servants my servants : Lev 25:42; Exo 13:3, Exo 20:2; Psa 116:16; Isa 43:3; Luk 1:74, Luk 1:75; Rom 6:14, Rom 6:17, Rom 6:18; Rom 6:22; 1Co 7:22, 1Co 7:23, 1Co...

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Poole: Lev 25:2 - When ye come into the land // Keep a sabbath // Unto the Lord When ye come into the land so as to be settled in it; for the tithe of the wars was not to be accounted, nor the time before Joshua’ s distribut...

When ye come into the land so as to be settled in it; for the tithe of the wars was not to be accounted, nor the time before Joshua’ s distribution of the land among them, Jos 14:7,10 .

Keep a sabbath i.e. enjoy rest and freedom from ploughing, tilling, &c.

Unto the Lord i.e. in obedience and unto the honour of God. This was instituted partly for the assertion of God’ s sovereign right to the land, . in which the Israelites were but tenants at God’ s will; partly for the trial and exercise of their obedience; partly for the demonstration of his providence as well in the general towards men, as more especially towards his own people, of which see below, Lev 25:20-22 ; partly to wean them from inordinate love, and pursuit of or trust to worldly advantages, and to inure them to depend upon God alone, and upon God’ s blessing for their subsistence; partly to put them in the mind of that blessed and eternal rest provided for all good men, wherein they should be perfectly freed from all worldly labours and troubles, and wholly devoted to the service and enjoyment God; see on Exo 23:11 ; and lastly, that by their own straits in that year they might learn more compassion to the poor, who were under the same straits every year.

Poole: Lev 25:5 - Of its own accord // Thou shalt not reap // The grapes of thy vine undressed Of its own accord from the grains that fell out of the ears the last reaping time. Thou shalt not reap i.e. as thy own peculiarly, but only so as o...

Of its own accord from the grains that fell out of the ears the last reaping time.

Thou shalt not reap i.e. as thy own peculiarly, but only so as others may reap it with thee, for present food.

The grapes of thy vine undressed Heb. the grapes of thy separation , i.e. the grapes which thou hast separated or set apart to the honour of God, and to the ends and uses appointed by God; or the grapes of that year, which are in this like the Nazarites’ hair, not cut off by thee, but suffered to grow to the use of the poor.

Poole: Lev 25:6 - The sabbath // For thee, and for thy servant The sabbath i.e. the growth of the sabbath, or that fruit which groweth in the sabbatical year. See on Lev 23:38 , where the word sabbath is taken ...

The sabbath i.e. the growth of the sabbath, or that fruit which groweth in the sabbatical year. See on Lev 23:38 , where the word sabbath is taken in the like sense.

For thee, and for thy servant for all promiscuously, to take food from thence as they need it.

Poole: Lev 25:9 - The jubilee // The seventh month // In the day of atonement The jubilee signified the true liberty from our spiritual debts and slaveries, to be purchased by Christ, and to be published to the world by the sou...

The jubilee signified the true liberty from our spiritual debts and slaveries, to be purchased by Christ, and to be published to the world by the sound of the gospel.

The seventh month was the first month of the year for civil and worldly affairs, which were mainly concerned in the jubilee, and therefore it began in that month; and, as it seems, upon this very tenth day, when the trumpet sounded, as other feasts generally began when the trumpet sounded.

In the day of atonement a very fit time, that when they fasted and prayed for God’ s mercy to them in the pardon of their sins, then they might exercise their charity and kindness to men in forgiving their debts, which is the true fast, as is noted Isa 58:6 , and to teach us that the foundation of all solid comfort and joy must be laid in bitter repentance and atonement for our sins through Christ.

Poole: Lev 25:10 - -- By which it seems most probable that the year of jubilee was not the forty and ninth year, as some learned men think, but precisely the fiftieth yea...

By which it seems most probable that the year of jubilee was not the forty and ninth year, as some learned men think, but precisely the fiftieth year; which may appear,

1. Because the Jews account it so, which is confessed by the adversaries of this opinion, who say that the Jews err in the computation of the jubilee, as they do in Christ , the great end and antitype of the jubilee . But it is not probable that the Jews should universally err in a matter of constant practice among themselves, especially when there was nothing of interest or prejudice in the case, as there was in reference to Christ.

2. Because it is expressly called the fiftieth year here, and Lev 25:11 , that fiftieth year , which was not true if it was but the nine and fortieth year. It is said it is called so popularly, and it was so if you take in the foregoing jubilee. But it must be remembered, that there was not yet any foregoing jubilee, but the very first of the kind is expressly called the fiftieth year , which in truth it was not if the jubilee was ended ere the fiftieth year began.

3. From the common course of computation. The old weekly sabbath is called the seventh day , because it truly was so, being next after the six days of the week, and distinct from them all; and the year of release is called the seventh year , Lev 25:4 , as immediately following the six years, Lev 25:3 , and distinct from them all. And therefore, in like manner, the jubilee must needs be called the fiftieth year , because it comes next after seven times seven , or forty-nine years , Lev 25:8 , and is distinct from them all.

4. From Lev 25:11,12 , where it is said, ye shall not sow, nor reap , &c; for it is the jubilee , &c.; which looks like a vain and useless repetition, if this year were but one of the seven years, for this very command was given concerning every seventh year, Lev 25:4 ; but if this year of jubilee was, as indeed it was, a year distinct from and coming after the seven sevens of years, then this repetition and application of that command to it was highly necessary, because otherwise it might seem hard and unreasonable that they should forbear sowing and reaping two years together, which hereby they are commanded to do. Two things are objected against this:

1. That the jubilee was only a revolution of forty-nine years. But that seems a great mistake, for it is most expressly distinguished from them all, and by way of distinction called the fiftieth year , therefore surely none of the forty-nine.

2. The difficulty propounded Lev 25:20 concerns only the seventh year, whereas it had been a greater difficulty if it had been extended to the jubilee, and the jubilee had been another vacant year coming next after the seventh year. But though the difficulty was greater for the jubilee, yet it was more frequent for the seventh year; and the resolution of the one made the way plan for the satisfaction of the other. For as God promised so to bless every sixth year, that it should bring forth fruit for three years, Lev 25:21 ; so when the case was extraordinary, as in the jubilee, it was but reasonable to expect an extraordinary blessing from God upon that sixth year which went next before the last of the seventh years, or the forty-ninth year, that it should then bring forth fruit for four years.

All the inhabitants thereof : understand such as were Israelites; principally to all servants, even to such as would not and did not go out at the seventh year, and to the poor, who now were acquitted from all their debts, and restored to their possessions. A jubilee ; so called, either from the Hebrew word jobel , which signifies first a ram , and then a ram’ s horn , by the sound whereof it was proclaimed; or from Jubal, the inventor of musical instruments, Gen 4:21 , because it was celebrated with music and all expressions of joy. Every man unto his possession , which had been sold, or otherwise alienated from him. This law was not at all unjust, because all buyers and sellers had an eye to this condition in their bargains; but it was necessary and expedient in many regards; as,

1. To mind them that God alone was the Lord and Owner and Proprietor both of them and of their lands, and they only his tenants and farmers; a point which they were very apt to forget.

2. That hereby inheritances, families, and tribes might be kept entire and clear until the coming of the Messias, who was to be known, as by other things, so by the tribe and family out of which he was to come. And this accordingly was done by the singular providence of God until the Lord Jesus did come. Since which time those characters are miserably confounded; which is no small argument that the Messias is come.

3. To set bounds both to the insatiable avarice of some, and the foolish prodigality of others, that the former might not wholly and finally swallow up the inheritances of their brethren, and the latter might not be able to undo themselves and their posterity for ever, which was a singular privilege of this law and people. Every man unto his family , from whom he was gone, being sold to some other family, either by himself or by his father.

Poole: Lev 25:11 - -- Though it come immediately after a seventh year, wherein also this was forbidden to you.

Though it come immediately after a seventh year, wherein also this was forbidden to you.

Poole: Lev 25:12 - It shall be holy unto you // The increase thereof It shall be holy unto you: so it was, because it was sequestered in great part from worldly employments, and dedicated to God, and to the exercise of...

It shall be holy unto you: so it was, because it was sequestered in great part from worldly employments, and dedicated to God, and to the exercise of holy joy and thankfulness; and because it was a type of that holy and happy jubilee which they were to expect and enjoy by and under the Messias.

The increase thereof such things as it produced of itself; for the year before nothing was sowed. Out of the field; whence they in common with others might take it as they needed it; but must not put it into barns. See Lev 25:5 Exo 23:11 .

Poole: Lev 25:14 - -- Neither the seller by requiring more, nor the buyer by taking the advantage from his brother’ s necessities to give him less than the worth of ...

Neither the seller by requiring more, nor the buyer by taking the advantage from his brother’ s necessities to give him less than the worth of it.

Poole: Lev 25:15 - of years of fruits Or, of years of fruits or, of fruitful years ; for there were some unfruitful years, to wit, such wherein they were not allowed to sow or reap, &...

Or,

of years of fruits or, of fruitful years ; for there were some unfruitful years, to wit, such wherein they were not allowed to sow or reap, &c.

Poole: Lev 25:16 - -- Or, for the number of the fruits . The meaning is, he selleth not the land, but only the fruits thereof, and that for a certain time.

Or, for the number of the fruits . The meaning is, he selleth not the land, but only the fruits thereof, and that for a certain time.

Poole: Lev 25:20 - -- A like objection, see Exo 34:23,24 .

A like objection, see Exo 34:23,24 .

Poole: Lev 25:21 - my blessing // For three years i.e. Give my blessing Commanding is oft used in Scripture either for the performance of promised blessings, as Deu 28:8 Psa 111:9 133:3 , or for...

i.e. Give

my blessing Commanding is oft used in Scripture either for the performance of promised blessings, as Deu 28:8 Psa 111:9 133:3 , or for the execution of threatened judgments, as Isa 5:6 Amo 9:4 ; both being acts of God’ s providential will, as the command is of his legislative will.

For three years not completely, but in great part, to wit, for that part of the sixth year which was between the beginning of harvest and the beginning of the seventh year, for the whole seventh year, and for that part of the eighth year which was before the harvest, which reached almost until the beginning of the ninth year. And by this expression we may understand the meaning of that eminent passage of Christ’ s being three days and three nights in the grave , to wit, one whole day, and part of two days; of which more, if God please, in its proper place. This is added to show the equity of this command. As God would hereby try their faith, and exercise obedience, so he gave them an eminent proof of his own exact providence and tender care over them, in making provisions suitable to their necessities. Albeit it be also probable that divers of them, especially such as were more solicitous or distrustful of God’ s providence, did lay up something of the fruits of former years against this time.

Poole: Lev 25:22 - Of old fruit // Until her fruits Of old fruit of the sixth year principally, if not solely. Until her fruits i.e. the fruits of the eighth year.

Of old fruit of the sixth year principally, if not solely.

Until her fruits i.e. the fruits of the eighth year.

Poole: Lev 25:23 - For ever // Sojourners with me For ever or, absolutely and properly , so as to become the propriety of the buyer; or to the extermination or utter cutting off , to wit, of the se...

For ever or, absolutely and properly , so as to become the propriety of the buyer; or to the extermination or utter cutting off , to wit, of the seller, from all hopes and possibility of redemption. For the land is mine ; procured for you by my power, given to you by my mere grace and bounty, and the right of propriety reserved by me, and to be disposed of by you only to such persons and in such manner as I shall have ordained.

Sojourners with me i.e. in my land or houses: thus he is said to sojourn with another that dwells in his house. Thus the poor decayed Israelites and the strangers are said to live with them, i.e. with the other Israelites, to wit, in the land or houses here, Lev 25:35,36,40,44 . Or, before me , in my sight, or in my account. Howsoever in your own or other men’ s opinions you pass for lords and proprietors, yet in truth, according to which my judgment always is, you are but strangers and sojourners, not to possess the land for ever, but only for a season, and to leave it to such as I have appointed for it.

Poole: Lev 25:24 - -- i.e. A right of redemption in the time and manner following.

i.e. A right of redemption in the time and manner following.

Poole: Lev 25:25 - Some of his possession // If any of his kin come to redeem it Some of his possession to wit, in the fields, but not in cities, Lev 25:29 . If any of his kin come to redeem it or, if the redeemer come, being n...

Some of his possession to wit, in the fields, but not in cities, Lev 25:29 .

If any of his kin come to redeem it or, if the redeemer come, being near akin to him , to whom the right of redemption belonged, Rth 3:2,9,12 Jer 32:7 , who in this act was an eminent type of Christ, who was made near akin to us by taking our flesh, that he might perform the work of redemption for us.

Poole: Lev 25:27 - The years of the sale thereof The years of the sale thereof i.e. from the time of the sale to the jubilee. See Poole "Lev 25:15" See Poole "Lev 25:16" . The overplus, i.e. a conv...

The years of the sale thereof i.e. from the time of the sale to the jubilee. See Poole "Lev 25:15" See Poole "Lev 25:16" . The overplus, i.e. a convenient price for the years from this redemption to the jubilee.

Poole: Lev 25:28 - It shall go out It shall go out i.e. out of the buyer’ s hand, without any redemption money.

It shall go out i.e. out of the buyer’ s hand, without any redemption money.

Poole: Lev 25:30 - -- The reason is from the great difference between such houses and lands. The reasons before alleged for lands do not hold in such houses; there was no...

The reason is from the great difference between such houses and lands. The reasons before alleged for lands do not hold in such houses; there was no danger of confusion in tribes or families by the alienation of houses. The seller also had a greater propriety in houses than in lands, as not coming to him by God’ s mere gift, but being commonly built by the owner’ s cost and diligence, and therefore had a fuller power to dispose of them. Besides, God would hereby encourage persons to buy and possess houses in such places, which frequency and fulness of inhabitants in cities was a great strength, honour, and advantage to the whole land.

Poole: Lev 25:31 - The houses of the villages The houses of the villages belonged to and were necessary or very convenient for the management of the lands.

The houses of the villages belonged to and were necessary or very convenient for the management of the lands.

Poole: Lev 25:33 - -- Or thus, But he that shall redeem it shall be or must be of the Levites, i.e. no person of another tribe, though by marriage near akin to the sell...

Or thus, But he that shall redeem it shall be or must be of the Levites, i.e. no person of another tribe, though by marriage near akin to the selling Levite, shall redeem it, but Levites only, and any of them shall have the same power to redeem it, which in other tribes only the nearest kindred have; and, in case none of them redeem it, yet the house that was sold, and the city of his possession, i.e. his share or interest in the city of his possession, shall go out and return to the Levites without any redemption.

Poole: Lev 25:34 - the suburbs of the cities // May not be sold Of the suburbs of the cities See Poole "Num 35:4". May not be sold not sold at all, partly because it was of absolute necessity for them for the ...

Of

the suburbs of the cities See Poole "Num 35:4".

May not be sold not sold at all, partly because it was of absolute necessity for them for the keeping of their cattle, and partly because these were no enclosures, but common fields, in which all the Levites that lived in such a city had an interest, and therefore no particular Levite could dispose of his part in it. Some conceive that this law was altered in ensuing ages, which they gather from Jer 32:7,8 Ac 4:36,37 . But those examples do not prove it. That sale of Jeremiah’ s was made by a particular dispensation and command of God, and that in a time when the Levites, as well as the people, were to be destroyed or dispersed, and carried into captivity, and therefore could receive no considerable injury by it; and besides, this sale was only made formally and for signification, as it is explained, Lev 25:14,15 . And for the land sold by Barnabas a Levite, Ac 4 , as it was at a time when the Jewish church was dissolved, and their state upon the brink of utter ruin, so it is not evident that it was such suburb land, which would have yielded but a small price, but it might be other land, either such as he might have in right of his wife, or such as he might have purchased. For though the Levites in general had no other share of land beside this allotted them by God, yet it is conceived that particular Levites might purchase lands to themselves.

Poole: Lev 25:35 - Fallen in decay // or is decayed // Relieve him // A sojourner Fallen in decay Heb. his hand wavereth, of faileth or is decayed so that he hath not power to get or keep wealth, as the phrase is, Deu 8:18 ; as...

Fallen in decay Heb. his hand wavereth, of faileth

or is decayed so that he hath not power to get or keep wealth, as the phrase is, Deu 8:18 ; as on the contrary, when a man is able, his hand is said to attain and find sufficiency , as here above, Lev 25:26 .

Relieve him Heb. strengthen him , comfort his heart, and strengthen his hand.

A sojourner understand it of proselytes only, for of other strangers they were permitted to take usury, Deu 23:20 .

Poole: Lev 25:36 - Increase i.e. Of thy brother, whether he be Israelite or proselyte. Increase: this some conceive relates to the fruits of the earth, food, &c., as usury ...

i.e. Of thy brother, whether he be Israelite or proselyte.

Increase: this some conceive relates to the fruits of the earth, food, &c., as usury doth to money. But here may rather seem’ to be two words expressing the same thing,

(1.) To meet with the subtle evasions of crafty and covetous men, who made gain of their poor brethren (for of such only he speaks here, as is evident from Lev 25:35 ) by the lending of money or other things; and that they may quiet their consciences, and palliate their sin, they disguise it under other names; and,

(2.) To show that all kinds of usury are in this case forbidden, whether of money , or of victuals , or of any thing that is commonly lent by one man to another upon usury , or upon condition of receiving the thing lent with advantage and overplus, as it is said Deu 23:19 .

Poole: Lev 25:39 - -- Neither for the time, for ever, nor for the manner, with the hardest and vilest kinds of service, rigorously and severely exacted from him.

Neither for the time, for ever, nor for the manner, with the hardest and vilest kinds of service, rigorously and severely exacted from him.

Poole: Lev 25:41 - Then shall he depart from thee Then shall he depart from thee thou shalt not suffer him or his to abide longer in thy service, as thou mightest do in the year of release, Exo 21:2,...

Then shall he depart from thee thou shalt not suffer him or his to abide longer in thy service, as thou mightest do in the year of release, Exo 21:2,6 .

Poole: Lev 25:42 - They are my servants They are my servants they, no less than you, are members of my church and people; such as I have chosen out of all the world to serve me here, and to...

They are my servants they, no less than you, are members of my church and people; such as I have chosen out of all the world to serve me here, and to enjoy me hereafter, and therefore are not to be oppressed or abused, neither are you absolute lords over them, to deal with them as you please.

Poole: Lev 25:43 - -- Though thou dost not fear them who are in thy power, and unable to right themselves, yet fear that God who hath commanded thee to use them kindly, a...

Though thou dost not fear them who are in thy power, and unable to right themselves, yet fear that God who hath commanded thee to use them kindly, and who can and will avenge their cause, if thou dost oppress them.

Poole: Lev 25:47 - The stock The stock Heb. root , i.e. one of the root or stock. So the word root is elsewhere used for the branch or progeny growing from it, as Num 13:28 2C...

The stock Heb. root , i.e. one of the root or stock. So the word root is elsewhere used for the branch or progeny growing from it, as Num 13:28 2Ch 22:10 . He seems to note one of a foreign race and country, transplanted into the land of Israel, and there having taken root amongst the people of God; yet even such a one, though he hath some privilege by it, yet he shall not have power to keep a Hebrew servant from the benefit of redemption.

Poole: Lev 25:50 - -- Allowance shall be made for the time wherein he hath served, proportionable to that which is given to a hired servant for so long service, because h...

Allowance shall be made for the time wherein he hath served, proportionable to that which is given to a hired servant for so long service, because his condition is in this like theirs; that it is not properly his person, but his work and labour that was sold.

Poole: Lev 25:53 - -- Thou shalt not suffer this to be done, but whether thou art a magistrate, or a private person, thou shalt take care according to thy capacity to get...

Thou shalt not suffer this to be done, but whether thou art a magistrate, or a private person, thou shalt take care according to thy capacity to get it remedied.

Haydock: Lev 25:2 - The rest The rest ( sabbathises sabbatum ). The land was to enjoy the benefit of rest every seventh year, to remind God's people that he had created the worl...

The rest ( sabbathises sabbatum ). The land was to enjoy the benefit of rest every seventh year, to remind God's people that he had created the world, and that he still retained dominion over it, (St. Augustine, q. 91, 92,) requiring the spontaneous fruits of that year as a tribute, part of which he gave to the poor. In the mean time, all creatures rested from their labours, and the people were taught to have an entire confidence in Providence. (Calmet) ---

This law was given in the desert of Sinai, in the month of Nisan, the second year after the exit: but it did not begin to be in force till the Hebrews entered into the land of Chanaan. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 25:5 - Reap // First-fruits Reap entirely, but only take a part, ver. 6. --- First-fruits. None shall be this year presented to the Lord. Hebrew has the word Nezireka, "Na...

Reap entirely, but only take a part, ver. 6. ---

First-fruits. None shall be this year presented to the Lord. Hebrew has the word Nezireka, "Nazareat," alluding to the custom of those who, out of devotion, let their hair grow; as here only the spontaneous fruits of the unpruned vine were to be eaten; they were separated, as the word also means, or "sanctified," (Septuagint) being abandoned indifferently for the use of any one that pleased to eat of them, and no longer fenced in by the proprietor, (Calmet) though he might take the first, or choicest fruits for his own use, (Menochius,) or at least he might take his share like the rest. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Lev 25:6 - They They. Hebrew and Septuagint, "The sabbath of the earth shall be meat for you" in common.

They. Hebrew and Septuagint, "The sabbath of the earth shall be meat for you" in common.

Haydock: Lev 25:7 - Cattle Cattle. This last term in Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., means "wild beasts," which must also live. At this period of the seventh year debts were to be r...

Cattle. This last term in Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., means "wild beasts," which must also live. At this period of the seventh year debts were to be remitted, the law read, &c. (Exodus xxi. 2; Deuteronomy xv. 2, and xxxi. 10.) But in the jubilee year, even those Hebrew slaves whose ears had been pierced, and those who had sold their land, regained their liberty and possessions. (Calmet) ---

Their children and wives, according to Josephus, went out with them, ver. 41. Houses and suburbs for gardens, &c., might be sold for ever, if they were not redeemed the first year, excepting those of the Levites, ver. 34. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Lev 25:8 - Years Years. It is dubious whether the 49th or the 50th year was appointed for the jubilee. The former year is fixed upon by many able chronologers, who ...

Years. It is dubious whether the 49th or the 50th year was appointed for the jubilee. The former year is fixed upon by many able chronologers, who remark, that if two years of rest had occurred together, it would have been a serious inconvenience; and Moses might have said the 50th year for a round number, or comprise therein the year of the former jubilee, as we give five years to the olympiad, and eight days to the week, though the former consists only of four years, and the latter of seven days. (Rader; Scaliger; &c.) But others decide for the fiftieth year, ver. 10. (Philo; Josephus, [Antiquities] iii. 10.; St. Augustine, q. 92.; Salien; &c.) (Calmet) ---

On the feast of expiation of the 49th year, they promulgated the following to be the year of jubilee. (Menochius) ---

Usher places the first in the year of the world 2609, 49 years after the partition of the land by Josue in 2560: Salien dates 50 years from the entrance (ver. 2,) of the Hebrews into Chanaan, in the year of the world 2583, six years sooner; and places the first jubilee 2633, immediately after the sabbatic year, which fell in the 32nd year of Othoniel. He supposes that both were proclaimed at the same time, on the 1st of Tisri, Ros Hassana, "the head of the year;" though the heralds went about the country only on the 10th. The writers both of the Synagogue and of the Church generally adopt the 50th for the year of jubilee; and the pretended inconvenience of two years' rest is nugatory, since God promised a three years' crop, ver. 21. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 25:10 - Remission // Jubilee // Family Remission; that is, a general release and discharge from debts and bondage, and a reinstating of every man in his former possessions. (Challoner) --...

Remission; that is, a general release and discharge from debts and bondage, and a reinstating of every man in his former possessions. (Challoner) ---

Jubilee: Hebrew jubol means "liberty" (Josephus); "re-establishment" (Philo); (Calmet) ---

"deliverance" (Abenezra). The Rabbins falsely assert, that a ram's horn was used on this occasion: but Buchart shews that it is solid and unfit for the purpose. (B. ii. 42.) They also maintain, that from the 1st of this sacred month, as it is called by Philo, till the 10th, the slaves spent their time in continual rejoicings in their master's house, and on the latter day they were set free. Cunæus (Rep., i. 6,) observes, that the jubilee was discontinued after the captivity, though the sabbatic year was still kept. (Calmet) ---

Indeed the Jews were often very negligent in these respects, and God complained and punished them for it, chap. xxvii. 32.; &c. The avarice of the great ones chiefly caused these wise regulations to be despised, though, from time to time, God enforced their observance, that it might be clearly known from what family the Messias spring. After his birth they were abrogated, as no longer necessary. (Haydock) ---

Something similar was instituted by Solon, and styled "the shaking off burdens," for the redemption both of men and good. (Laertius) (Menochius) ---

The Locrians could not alienate their patrimony. (Aristotle, polit. ii. 7, and vi. 4.) The Rabbins deviate from the spirit of their lawgiver, when they assert, that persons might sell their inheritance for a greater number of years than 50, if they specified how many, &c. (Selden, Succes. iii. 24.) In the Christian dispensation, the jubilee denotes a time of indulgence, in consequence of the power left by Jesus Christ. (Matthew xvi. 19.; 2 Corinthians ii. 10.) The first was given by Boniface VIII in 1300; and others were granted every century, till Clement VI reduced the space to 50 years, 1542. Gregory XI would have them dispensed to the faithful every 33 years, and Paul XI every 25th, that more might partake of so great a benefit. This has been done since his time, and the Popes often grant them when the Church is in great danger, and also in the year when they are consecrated. (Calmet) ---

They are designed to promote the fervour of piety, and the remission of punishment due to sin. (Haydock) ---

Family. Slaves shall obtain their liberty. This law set a restraint upon the rich, that they might not get possession of too much land, or oppress the poor. Lycurgus, with the same view, established an equality of lands among the Spartans, and Solon acknowledged the propriety of the regulation, which he probably saw practised in Egypt. (Diodorus i.) (Calmet) ---

The Agrarian laws at Rome, were often proposed; but they caused nothing but confusion and riot. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 25:12 - Eat them Eat them. No wine was to be made of the grapes, nor the corn heaped up, to the detriment of the poor. All is claimed by God, as his own property.

Eat them. No wine was to be made of the grapes, nor the corn heaped up, to the detriment of the poor. All is claimed by God, as his own property.

Haydock: Lev 25:14 - Grieve Grieve. Hebrew, "deceive not." St. Chrysostom observes, that to engage another to sell us any thing for what we know is beneath its value, is theft...

Grieve. Hebrew, "deceive not." St. Chrysostom observes, that to engage another to sell us any thing for what we know is beneath its value, is theft. (Grotius, Jur. ii. 12.) The Rabbins also decide that, if an Israelite be defrauded a sixth part, restitution must be made, ver. 17. (Selden, Jur. vi. 6.)

Haydock: Lev 25:21 - Three years Three years. After the harvest of the sixth year was gotten in, the land rested from September to September, the beginning of the 8th year, when it ...

Three years. After the harvest of the sixth year was gotten in, the land rested from September to September, the beginning of the 8th year, when it was tilled again. Nothing would be ripe till about March; yet the harvest of the 6th year would suffice to furnish food till that time, or even for a year longer, as it would be requisite, when the year of jubilee succeeded that of rest, ver. 8. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 25:23 - For ever For ever. Samaritan version, "absolutely." The only exception to this law is, when a person makes a vow to give some land to the Lord, and will not...

For ever. Samaritan version, "absolutely." The only exception to this law is, when a person makes a vow to give some land to the Lord, and will not redeem it, chap xxvii. 20. In that case, God re-enters upon his property, and it belongs to his priests. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 25:27 - Fruits Fruits. An estimation shall be made of what the buyer would probably have gotten for the fruits of the land, till the year of jubilee, and that sum ...

Fruits. An estimation shall be made of what the buyer would probably have gotten for the fruits of the land, till the year of jubilee, and that sum shall be given to him; (Calmet) or what benefit he has already derived from the land shall be computed; so that, if he purchased it for 100 sicles, and had received the value of 80, he should be content with the addition of 20 more, ver. 53. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 25:29 - City City. These houses are of greater consequence, and therefore God dissuades his people from selling them; though if they think proper to do so, he ho...

City. These houses are of greater consequence, and therefore God dissuades his people from selling them; though if they think proper to do so, he holds out an encouragement to those who buy, that they may afford a better price, on the prospect of keeping possession for ever. (Menochius)

Haydock: Lev 25:33 - Owners Owners. The Levites had no other possessions, but these cities and 2000 cubits of land around them. The priests might buy of one another, Jeremia...

Owners. The Levites had no other possessions, but these cities and 2000 cubits of land around them. The priests might buy of one another, Jeremias xxxi. 7.

Haydock: Lev 25:35 - And thou And thou. Hebrew, "thou shalt receive him: and of the stranger....(ver. 36,) take no usury." There are two precepts; to relieve those in distress, ...

And thou. Hebrew, "thou shalt receive him: and of the stranger....(ver. 36,) take no usury." There are two precepts; to relieve those in distress, and not to injury any one. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 25:40 - Hireling Hireling, who has engaged to work for a term of years, either of six, or at most 49. After the year of the jubilee, he might enter into fresh engage...

Hireling, who has engaged to work for a term of years, either of six, or at most 49. After the year of the jubilee, he might enter into fresh engagements with his late master. (Haydock) ---

The Hebrews have always hated slavery. We have never been slaves to any, John viii. 33. They were not allowed to part with their liberty, except from absolute distress; (Maimonides) and then they do not submit to what they call intrinsical slavery. ---

[ Ver. 41. ] Children. His wife and children were not made slaves of him. But if his master gave him a second wife, her children belonged to their common master. (Selden, Jur. vi. 1.)

Haydock: Lev 25:43 - Might Might. Hebrew, "rigour or haughtiness." Septuagint, "Do not make him strain himself with work."

Might. Hebrew, "rigour or haughtiness." Septuagint, "Do not make him strain himself with work."

Haydock: Lev 25:45 - Servants Servants, or slaves, whom you may treat with greater severity than the Hebrews, and keep for ever, even though they may have embraced the true faith....

Servants, or slaves, whom you may treat with greater severity than the Hebrews, and keep for ever, even though they may have embraced the true faith. But still you must remember that they are your brethren.

Haydock: Lev 25:47 - Stranger Stranger, or Gentile, who engages at least to keep the precepts given to Noe. (Haydock)

Stranger, or Gentile, who engages at least to keep the precepts given to Noe. (Haydock)

Haydock: Lev 25:49 - Himself Himself. He might have saved up something by greater industry. The Athenians allowed their slaves the same privilege. (Calmet)

Himself. He might have saved up something by greater industry. The Athenians allowed their slaves the same privilege. (Calmet)

Haydock: Lev 25:53 - Wages Wages. Hebrew, "as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him." What was customarily given to a hired servant for a certain number of years, might...

Wages. Hebrew, "as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him." What was customarily given to a hired servant for a certain number of years, might be a rule to judge how much was to be paid for redemption. (Haydock) ---

Thus if a man had engaged to serve 20 years for 100 sicles, and at the expiration of 10 years wished to redeem himself, he might do it for half that sum. Some think, that those Hebrews who had sold themselves to a Gentile, sojourning among them, could not take the benefit of the sabbatic year, (Exodus xxi. 6,) because Moses is silent on this head. But this argument is not satisfactory. (Calmet)

Gill: Lev 25:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses in Mount Sinai // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses in Mount Sinai,.... Not when Moses was with the Lord on that mount forty days, but after he came down from thence, even ...

And the Lord spake unto Moses in Mount Sinai,.... Not when Moses was with the Lord on that mount forty days, but after he came down from thence, even after the tabernacle was set up, while the children of Israel where encamped about that mountain, and before they took their journey from thence; for they continued some time in the wilderness of Sinai, and here it was the Lord spoke to Moses; for the words may be rendered "by" or "near Mount Sinai" g; and so Josephus h says, the following laws were delivered to Moses, when Israel was encamped under Mount Sinai:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Lev 25:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them // when ye come into the land which I give you // then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the Lord Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them,.... What follows, being what the whole body of the people would be under obligation to observe, ...

Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them,.... What follows, being what the whole body of the people would be under obligation to observe, and therefore must be delivered to them all, at least to the heads and elders of the people, and by them to the rest:

when ye come into the land which I give you; the land of Canaan, and until they came thither, the following law concerning the sabbatical year could not take place; and as Maimonides i says, it was only used in the land of Israel, and no where else, according to this text, and that both before and after the temple was built:

then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the Lord; a rest from tillage, as it is afterwards explained; and this being according to the will of God, when observed would be to his honour and glory, and show that he was the proprietor of the land; and that the Israelites held it under him by this tenure, that every seventh year they should let it rest, which would be for the benefit of the land, and preserve it from being impoverished by continual usage and hereby they might learn to depend on the providence of God, and to observe that all increase is from him; and to consider the straits and difficulties the poor live in continually, as they in this seventh year; and by this means they would be at leisure to have an opportunity of reading the law, as they did at this time, Deu 31:10; and of meditating upon it, and of giving themselves up to religious exercises, as well as by it they might be led to the typical use of to look for and expect that sabbatism or rest, which remains for the people of God. And now this law did not take place as soon as they came into the land, for it was to be sown six years, and then was the year of rest; and indeed not till after Joshua had subdued the whole land, which was seven years a doing; nor till they were quite settled, and it was divided among them, and every man had his field and vineyard apart, which this law supposes; wherefore the Jewish writers k say, they were not bound to tithes until the fourteenth year, and from thence they began to reckon the sabbatical year; and the twenty first year they made a sabbatical year, and the sixty fourth a jubilee, which they make to be the first that were kept: and they reckoned this year to commence, not on the first of Nisan or March, which was the beginning of the year for ecclesiastical things, but on the first of Tisri or September, when the harvest and all the fruits of the earth were gathered in; and when on other years they used to proceed to sowing the next month, but were forbid on this; and so it is said in the Misnah l, the first of Tisri is the beginning of the year for the sabbatical and jubilee years.

Gill: Lev 25:3 - Six years thou shalt sow thy field // and six years thou shall prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof Six years thou shalt sow thy field,.... Under which is comprehended everything relating to agriculture, both before and after sowing, as dunging the l...

Six years thou shalt sow thy field,.... Under which is comprehended everything relating to agriculture, both before and after sowing, as dunging the land, ploughing and harrowing it, treading the corn, reaping and gathering it in; see Exo 23:10,

and six years thou shall prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; which is not to be restrained to vineyards only, but to be extended to oliveyards, orchards and gardens, and to the planting and cultivating of them, and gathering in the fruits of them.

Gill: Lev 25:4 - But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land // a sabbath for the Lord // thou shalt neither sow thy field nor prune thy vineyard But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land,.... From all tillage of it, from planting and cultivating any sort of trees in it; a...

But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land,.... From all tillage of it, from planting and cultivating any sort of trees in it; and even from digging pits, ditches; and caves, as say the Jewish writers m: and this was typical of that rest which believers enter into under the Gospel dispensation, and of the rest in the new Jerusalem state, and especially in the ultimate glory; not only from the labours of the body, but of the mind, through sin, Satan, doubts and fears, and through conflicts with various enemies, and when even all spiritual labours and services will be at an end but that of praise:

a sabbath for the Lord; for his honour and glory, to ascertain his property in the land, to show the power of his providence, and display his goodness in his care of all creatures, without any means used by them:

thou shalt neither sow thy field nor prune thy vineyard; under which are comprehended all acts of agriculture, which respect the cultivation of vines, olives, figs, and, according to the Misnah n, there were some instruments which it was not lawful to sell to an artificer in the seventh year, such as a plough, with all belonging to it, a yoke, a fan, a spade, but he may sell him a scythe, or a sickle, or a cart, and all its instruments; and which the commentators o interpret of one that is suspected of working in that year; the house of Shammai say, an heifer that ploughed might not be sold that year.

Gill: Lev 25:5 - That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap // neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed // for it is a year of rest unto the land That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap,.... That which sprung up of itself from grains of corn, shed in the harvest o...

That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap,.... That which sprung up of itself from grains of corn, shed in the harvest of the preceding year, without any ploughing or sowing; he might reap it, but not as at other times, the whole of it, and gather it as his own property, but only somewhat of it in common with others for his, present use:

neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed; which was on this year forbid to be dressed; the grapes of which he might gather in common with others, but not as in other years, all of them, and as peculiarly his own: the words may be rendered, "the grapes of thy separations" p; either such as in other years he used to separate for himself, and forbid others gathering them, but now made them common; or which he did not labour in the cultivation of, but abstained from it:

for it is a year of rest unto the land; which is repeated, that it may be observed.

Gill: Lev 25:6 - And the sabbath of the land shall be meat for you // for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid // and for thy hired servant, and for the stranger that sojourneth with thee And the sabbath of the land shall be meat for you,...., That is, that which grew up of itself but of the land, or on trees, vines, olives, &c. undress...

And the sabbath of the land shall be meat for you,...., That is, that which grew up of itself but of the land, or on trees, vines, olives, &c. undressed, should be the meat or food on which they should live that year: and this comprehends everything that is fit for food, and also for drink, and for anointing, and even for the lighting of lamps, as in the Misnah q:

for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid; the owner of the fields and vineyards, he and his family, wife, children, and servants, might eat of the fruits of them in common with others; for whereas it is elsewhere said, Exo 23:11, "that the poor of thy people may eat", this is observed here, lest anyone should think the rich are forbid eating them, as Jarchi remarks:

and for thy hired servant, and for the stranger that sojourneth with thee: which the same writer interprets of Gentiles; the food of this year was common to masters and servants, to rich and poor, to Israelites and Gentiles; all had an equal right unto, and share therein; which might be an emblem of the first times of the Gospel, in which all things were had in common, Act 4:32, and typical of the communion of saints in things spiritual; in salvation by Jesus Christ, common to Jews and Gentiles, high and low, bond and free; in the free and full forgiveness of sins by his blood; and in justification by his righteousness, which is unto all, and upon all them that believe, for there is no difference; in the participation of faith, and other graces, which are alike precious, and in the enjoyment of promises, privileges, and ordinances, and even of eternal life itself.

Gill: Lev 25:7 - And for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land // shall all the increase thereof be meat And for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land,.... The former signifies tame cattle, such as were kept at home, or in fields, or were u...

And for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land,.... The former signifies tame cattle, such as were kept at home, or in fields, or were used in service, and the latter the wild beasts of the field:

shall all the increase thereof be meat; for the one, and for the other; Jarchi remarks, that all the time a wild beast eats of the increase of the field, the cattle may be fed at home; but when it ceaseth to the wild beast of the field, then it ceaseth to the cattle at home; nay, the Jews are so strict in this matter, that they say that when there is no food for the beasts in the field, men are obliged to bring out what they have in their houses r, see Isa 11:6.

Gill: Lev 25:8 - And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee // seven times seven years // and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be forty and nine years And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee,.... Or weeks of years; and there being seven days in a week, and a day being put for a year, ...

And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee,.... Or weeks of years; and there being seven days in a week, and a day being put for a year, seven weeks of years made forty nine years; the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, and Jarchi, interpret it seven "shemittas", or sabbatical years; and a sabbatical year being every seventh year, made the same number:

seven times seven years: or forty nine years, as follows:

and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be forty and nine years; just such a space of years there was between each jubilee, which, as afterwards said, was the fiftieth year; so as there were a seventh day sabbath, and a fiftieth day sabbath, the day of Pentecost, so there were a seventh year sabbath, or sabbatical year, and a fiftieth year sabbath.

Gill: Lev 25:9 - Then shall thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound // on the tenth day of the seventh month // in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land Then shall thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound,.... At the end of forty nine years, or at the beginning of the fiftieth; or "the trumpet of...

Then shall thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound,.... At the end of forty nine years, or at the beginning of the fiftieth; or "the trumpet of a loud sound"; for here the word "jubilee" is not, which, according to some, was so called from the peculiar sound of the trumpet on this day, different from all others; though others, as Ben Melech, think, and the Jews commonly, that it had its name from the trumpet itself, which they suppose was made of a ram's horn, "jobel", in the Arabic language, signifying a ram; but the former reason is best; though perhaps it is best of all to derive it from הוביל, "to bring back, restore, return", because at this time men were returned to their liberty, estates, and families, as hereafter expressed:

on the tenth day of the seventh month; the month Tisri or September, the first day of which was the beginning of the year for "jubilees" s; for the computation of the jubilee year was made from the first day of the month, though the trumpet was not blown, and the rights of the year did not begin till the tenth, as Maimonides t observes:

in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land; which day of atonement was on the tenth day of the said month, and a very proper time it was to sound the trumpet, that after they had been afflicting themselves, then to have joy and comfort; and when atonement was made for all their sins, then to hear the joyful sound; and when it might be presumed they were in a good disposition to release their servants, and restore the poor to their possessions, when they themselves were favoured with the forgiveness of all their sins. This sounding was made throughout all the land of Israel; throughout all the highways, as Aben Ezra, that all might know the year of jubilee was come; and this was done by the order of the sanhedrim, as Maimonides u says, and who, also observes, that from the beginning of the year, to the day of atonement, servants were not released to their own houses, but did not serve their masters, nor were fields returned to their owners; but servants ate, and drank, and rejoiced, and wore garlands on their heads; and when the day of atonement came, the sanhedrim blew the trumpet, and the servants were dismissed to their houses, and fields returned to their owners.

Gill: Lev 25:10 - And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year // and proclaim liberty throughout all the land // unto all the inhabitants thereof // it shall be a jubilee unto you // and ye shall return every man unto his possession // and ye shall return every man unto his family And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year,.... The year following the seven sabbaths of years, or forty nine years; and which they were to sanctify by sep...

And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year,.... The year following the seven sabbaths of years, or forty nine years; and which they were to sanctify by separating it from all others, and devoting it to the uses it was to be put to, and the services done on it, and by abstaining from the tillage of the land, sowing or reaping, and from the cultivation of vines, olives, &c.

and proclaim liberty throughout all the land; to servants, both to those whose ears were bored, and were to serve for ever, even unto the year of jubilee, and then be released; and to those whose six years were not ended, from the time that they were bought; for the jubilee year put an end to their servitude, let the time they had served be what it would; for this year was a general release of servants, excepting bondmen and bondmaids, who were never discharged; hence called the "year of liberty", Eze 46:17; and Josephus w says, the word "jobel" or "jubilee" signifies "liberty":

unto all the inhabitants thereof; that were in servitude or poverty, excepting the above mentioned; from hence the Jews gather, than when the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, went into captivity, the jubilees ceased x, since all the inhabitants were not then in it; but that is a mistake, for the jubilees were continued unto the coming of the Messiah, and perhaps never omitted but once, in the time of the Babylonish captivity:

it shall be a jubilee unto you; to the Israelites, and to them only, as Aben Ezra observes; it was a time of joy and gladness to them, especially to servants, who were now free, and to the poor, who enjoyed their estates again:

and ye shall return every man unto his possession; which had been sold or mortgaged to another, but now reverted to its original owner:

and ye shall return every man unto his family; who through poverty had sold himself for a servant, and had lived in another family. The general design of this law was to preserve the rights of freeborn Israelites, as to person and property, to prevent perpetual servitude, and perpetual alienation of their estates; to continue families and estates as they were originally, that some might not become too rich, and others too poor; nor be blended, but the tribes and families might be kept distinct until the coming of the Messiah, to whom the jubilee had a particular respect, and in whom it ceased. The liberty proclaimed on this day was typical of that liberty from the bondage of sin, Satan, and the law, which Christ is the author of, and is proclaimed by him in the Gospel, Gal 5:1; a liberty of grace and glory, or the glorious liberty of the children of God: returning to possessions and inheritances may be an emblem of the enjoyment of the heavenly inheritance by the saints; though man by sin lost an earthly paradise, and came short of the glory of God, yet through Christ his people are restored to a better inheritance, an incorruptible one; to which they are begotten by his Spirit, have a right to it through his righteousness, and a meetness for it by his grace, and of which the Holy Spirit is the earnest and pledge, and into which Christ himself will introduce them. And the returning of them to their families may signify the return of God's elect through Christ to the family that is named of him; these were secretly of the family of God from all eternity, being taken into it in the covenant of grace, as well as predestinated to the adoption of children: but by the fall, and through a state of nature by it, they became children of wrath, even as others; yet through redemption by Christ, and faith in him, they receive the adoption of children, and openly appear to be of the family of God, 2Co 6:18; and all this is proclaimed by the sound of the Gospel trumpet, which being a sound of liberty, peace, pardon, righteousness, salvation, and eternal life by Christ, is a joyful one, Psa 89:15; where the allusion seems to be to the jubilee trumpet.

Gill: Lev 25:11 - A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you // ye shall not sow // neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you,.... Which, clearly shows, that not the forty ninth year was the year of jubilee, as many learned men h...

A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you,.... Which, clearly shows, that not the forty ninth year was the year of jubilee, as many learned men have asserted, chiefly induced by this reason, because two years would come together in which were no sowing reaping; but that God, that could cause the earth to forth fruit for three years, Lev 25:21; could make it bring forth enough for four years; and in order to make their sentiment agree with this passage, they are obliged to make the foregoing jubilee one of the fifty, and begin their account from thence; but this could not be done in the first account of the jubilee; of the name; see Gill on Lev 25:9,

ye shall not sow; in the year of jubilee, which shows also that this could not be the forty ninth year, which of course being a sabbatical year, there would be no sowing, reaping, &c. and so this law or instruction would be quite needless:

neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed; as in the sabbatical year; see Gill on Lev 25:5; the same with respect to these things being to be observed in the year of jubilee, as in that; and so Jarchi observes that the same that is said of the sabbatical year is said of the jubilee, two holy years being found next to one another, the forty ninth year the sabbatical year, and the fiftieth year the jubilee.

Gill: Lev 25:12 - For it is the jubilee, it shall be holy // ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field For it is the jubilee, it shall be holy,.... Men being restored to their liberty, possessions, and families, it must be matter of joy to them, and the...

For it is the jubilee, it shall be holy,.... Men being restored to their liberty, possessions, and families, it must be matter of joy to them, and therefore this year was to be separated from all others, and devoted to the ends and uses before mentioned; and men were to live upon the spontaneous productions of the earth, without any tillage of land, or cultivation of vines, &c.

ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field; they were not to reap corn, and gather grapes and olives, and bring them into their barns and storehouses, as in other years; but were to go out every day into their fields, and gather for present use, and all were common to all sorts of men, and to cattle, as in the sabbatical year; See Gill on Lev 25:7.

Gill: Lev 25:13 - In the year of this jubilee // ye shall return every man unto his possession In the year of this jubilee,.... In the beginning of it, as Aben Ezra, though not on the first day of Tisri, but the tenth day, the day of atonement, ...

In the year of this jubilee,.... In the beginning of it, as Aben Ezra, though not on the first day of Tisri, but the tenth day, the day of atonement, when the trumpet was blown:

ye shall return every man unto his possession; which is repeated from Lev 25:10; the reason of which, the Jews say, is to include gifts, and which, according to them, are like sales, and returned in the year of "jubilee"; that is, if a man gave his estate in possession to another, he returned to it, in the year of jubilee, equally as if he had sold it; and therefore they observe the same phrase is twice used by Moses, to include gifts y: but perhaps the truer reason is, because this was a special business done at this time, and of great importance; the word "return" being so often used, may serve to confirm the sense of the word "jubilee", given previously; see Gill on Lev 25:9.

Gill: Lev 25:14 - And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour // or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand // ye shall not oppress one another And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour,.... Any estate or possession, house or land, at any time before the year of jubilee: or buyest ought of...

And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour,.... Any estate or possession, house or land, at any time before the year of jubilee:

or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand; of movable goods, as the Targum of Jonathan interprets it; and so other Jewish writers z restrain this to goods which are bought by hand, and delivered from hand to hand; and so they think that fields, and servants, which they say are like to fields, are excluded hereby; but it seems to refer to anything saleable, and chiefly to fields and vineyards, as the following verses show; wherefore Diodorus Siculus, as quoted by Grotius, must be mistaken, when he says, it was not counted lawful by the Jews to sell their inheritance, unless he means for ever, so indeed they could not:

ye shall not oppress one another; the buyer giving too little, or the seller requiring too much; no advantage was to be taken, either of the necessity of the one, or the ignorance of the other, but a fair bargain was to be made, and the full value given, neither too much nor too little. The Jews by "neighbour" understand an Israelite, and not a Gentile a; not that there might be no buying and selling at all between Jews and Gentiles, or that the former might oppress and defraud the latter, though not an Israelite; but lands and inheritances might not be sold at all to Gentiles, only to Israelites.

Gill: Lev 25:15 - According to the number of years after the jubilee thou shalt buy of thy neighbour // and according to the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee According to the number of years after the jubilee thou shalt buy of thy neighbour,.... That is, reckoning how many years had past since the last jubi...

According to the number of years after the jubilee thou shalt buy of thy neighbour,.... That is, reckoning how many years had past since the last jubilee, and how many there were to come to the next, and so give as many years' purchase as were yet to come:

and according to the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee; only care was to be taken, that as many years as were sabbatical ones, which were not years of fruit, should be deducted out of the account by the seller; since these were years the buyer could have no profit by the estate, and therefore it was not reasonable that such years should be reckoned into the purchase; and hence the Jewish writers gather, that when a man had sold his field, he could not redeem it in less than two years, because a number of years cannot be less than two, and that if even the buyer agreed to it, it might not be done b.

Gill: Lev 25:16 - According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof // and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it // for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof,.... More was to be asked and required, and should be given for an estate, w...

According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof,.... More was to be asked and required, and should be given for an estate, when, for instance, there were thirty years to the year of jubilee, than when there were but twenty:

and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it; if it wanted but five, or six, or ten years unto it, then, in proportion, less was to be insisted upon and given:

for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee; which also must be considered, how many years of tillage of land, and cultivation of vineyards, &c. there were in the account, and how many sabbatical years to be deducted; for only according to the number of fruit years was the estate to be valued and sold.

Gill: Lev 25:17 - Ye shall not therefore oppress one another // but thou shalt fear thy God // for I am the Lord your God Ye shall not therefore oppress one another,.... By over or underrating estates: but thou shalt fear thy God; and the fear of God being before their...

Ye shall not therefore oppress one another,.... By over or underrating estates:

but thou shalt fear thy God; and the fear of God being before their eyes, and on their hearts, would preserve both buyer and seller from doing an ill thing, when it was in the power of either, through the necessity of the one, or the ignorance of the other, see Neh 5:15,

for I am the Lord your God; omniscient, and knows all that is done in the most private and artful manner; and omnipotent and able to punish both, which of them either should oppress or defraud, see 1Th 4:6.

Gill: Lev 25:18 - Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them // and ye shall dwell in the land in safety Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them,.... These and all others he enjoined; by which tenure, even obedience to all hi...

Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them,.... These and all others he enjoined; by which tenure, even obedience to all his commands, moral, ritual, and judicial, they were to hold the land of Canaan, and their possessions in it, which is intended in the next clause:

and ye shall dwell in the land in safety; without any fear of enemies, or of the neighbouring nations about them seizing upon them, and distressing them; and Jarchi observes, that it was for transgressing the sabbatical year that Israel was carried captive, which he thinks is intimated in 2Ch 36:21; and that the seventy years' captivity in Babylon were for the seventy sabbatical years that had been neglected.

Gill: Lev 25:19 - And the land shall yield her fruit // and ye shall eat your fill // and dwell therein in safety And the land shall yield her fruit,.... That is, continually, and even in the seventh year, the sabbath of rest; for the land, though not manured, plo...

And the land shall yield her fruit,.... That is, continually, and even in the seventh year, the sabbath of rest; for the land, though not manured, ploughed, and sowed, nor the vines, olives, and fig trees pruned, yet shall yield fruit as in other years, the Israelites observing the statutes and judgments of God:

and ye shall eat your fill; feel no want of provisions, but have fulness of everything as at other times, and never make a scanty meal, having sufficiency and plenty of all things:

and dwell therein in safety; not fearing enemies, nor being disturbed by them, nor carried captive.

Gill: Lev 25:20 - And ye shall say, what shall ye eat the seventh year // behold, we shall not sow // nor gather in our increase And ye shall say, what shall ye eat the seventh year?.... Such as are of little faith, disbelieve the promise, and distrust the providence of God, and...

And ye shall say, what shall ye eat the seventh year?.... Such as are of little faith, disbelieve the promise, and distrust the providence of God, and take thought for tomorrow, and indulge an anxiety of mind how they shall be provided with food in the sabbatical year ordered to be observed, in which there were to be no tillage of land, nor pruning of trees:

behold, we shall not sow; that being forbidden:

nor gather in our increase; neither the barley, nor the wheat, nor the grapes, nor olives, nor figs, into their houses and barns, to lay up for stores, as in other years; though they might go out and gather in for present use in common with others: now if any should put the above question, as it was very likely some would, in such a view of things, the answer to it follows.

Gill: Lev 25:21 - Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year // and it shall bring forth fruit for three years Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year,.... Upon their fields, vineyards, and oliveyards, and make them exceeding fruitful, more t...

Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year,.... Upon their fields, vineyards, and oliveyards, and make them exceeding fruitful, more than in other years; all fruitfulness at any time depends upon the blessing of God, and follows upon it, but is more visible and observable when there is an exceeding great plenty:

and it shall bring forth fruit for three years; and thus God blessed the sixth year with such a plentiful increase as was sufficient for time to come, until a new crop was gathered in; as he had blessed the sixth day with a double portion of manna, for the supply of the seventh.

Gill: Lev 25:22 - And ye shall sow the eighth year // and eat yet of the old fruit // until the ninth year // until her fruits come in, ye shall eat of the old store And ye shall sow the eighth year,.... Sow the land in the eighth year, and likewise dress their vines, olives, &c. and eat yet of the old fruit; e...

And ye shall sow the eighth year,.... Sow the land in the eighth year, and likewise dress their vines, olives, &c.

and eat yet of the old fruit; even in the eighth year, of the old fruit of the sixth year, as the Targum of Jonathan adds:

until the ninth year; that is, as Jarchi explains it, until the feast of tabernacles of the ninth, which was the time that the increase of the eighth came into the house; for all summer it was in the field, and in Tisri or September was the time of gathering it into the house; and sometimes it was necessary to provide for four years on the sixth, which was before the sabbatical year, the seventh, for they ceased from tilling the ground two years running, the seventh and the jubilee year; but this Scripture is said concerning all the rest of the sabbatical years: these encouraging promises, one would have thought, would have been placed more naturally after the account of the sabbatical year that followed, Lev 25:7; but the reason of their being inserted here seems to be, because in the year of jubilee they were neither to sow nor reap, nor gather in the grapes of the undressed vine, as in the sabbatical year, Lev 25:11; wherefore those things are said for encouragement at the one time as at the other; since it might easily be concluded, that he that could provide for them every sixth year for three years to come, could once in fifty years provide for four:

until her fruits come in, ye shall eat of the old store; some of which came in in March, as barley, others in May, as the wheat, and others in August and September, as the grapes, olives, &c. which was the time of ingathering several fruits of the earth, and of finishing the whole.

Gill: Lev 25:23 - The land shall not be sold for ever // for the land is mine // for ye are strangers and sojourners with me The land shall not be sold for ever,.... That is, the land of Israel; the meaning is, any part of it, for that the whole might be sold or disposed of ...

The land shall not be sold for ever,.... That is, the land of Israel; the meaning is, any part of it, for that the whole might be sold or disposed of at once is not to be supposed, but anyone part of it, which was the property of a single man, or belonged to a family; though it might be sold in case of necessity, yet not for ever, so as never to return to the owner, or his heirs; for if it was sold for ever it returned in the year of the jubilee: the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan render the word "absolutely", simply, properly; a proper absolute sale was not to be made, but a conditional one, or for so many years, or with a view to its reversion in the year of jubilee, and so the agreement to be made according to the number of years, as before directed: the word, as Aben Ezra observes, signifies "cutting off", and the sense is, that no land should be sold entirely, so as that the proprietor or his heirs should be wholly cut off from it, or that the entail of it upon the family should be cut off:

for the land is mine; as indeed the whole earth is, but the land of Canaan was peculiarly his, which he had chosen above all other lands for the inheritance of his people; out of which he drove the old inhabitants of it for their sins, and put in his own people to possess it under him; where he himself had his dwelling place, and where he was served and worshipped, and where the Messiah was to be born, and was born, and therefore called Immanuel's land; and which was a figure of the better country, or the heavenly glory and happiness, which is of God's preparing and giving, and will never be alienated from those whose right it is:

for ye are strangers and sojourners with me; as the Gentiles that lived among them were strangers and sojourners with them, so they were with the Lord; he was the original proprietor, they were but tenants at will; though it was both an honour and happiness to be with him, under any character, to board, and lodge, and dwell with him; and they might well be content to be reckoned not proprietors but strangers and sojourners, and especially such as had faith and hope in a better inheritance, of which this was only a figure; however, this being their present case, it was a reason good, why they could not for ever dispose of their lands and possessions, any more than a sojourner or inmate can of a house of which he has only a part.

Gill: Lev 25:24 - And in all the land of your possession // ye shall grant a redemption for the land And in all the land of your possession,.... Which they should possess in the land of Canaan, whatever part of it any of them should enjoy: ye shall...

And in all the land of your possession,.... Which they should possess in the land of Canaan, whatever part of it any of them should enjoy:

ye shall grant a redemption for the land; that is, whenever any estate in it was sold through necessity, the buyer was obliged to grant a liberty to the seller to redeem it, when it was in his power to do it, or any or his relations, especially after two years; so Jarchi observes, he that sells his possession may redeem it after two years, either he himself or he that is near akin to him, nor can the buyer hinder it; See Gill on Lev 25:15.

Gill: Lev 25:25 - If thy brother be waxen poor // and hath sold away some of his possession // and if any of his kin come to redeem it // then shall he redeem that which his brother sold If thy brother be waxen poor,.... Is brought very low, greatly reduced, and is in mean circumstances; hence Jarchi says, we learn, that no man may sel...

If thy brother be waxen poor,.... Is brought very low, greatly reduced, and is in mean circumstances; hence Jarchi says, we learn, that no man may sell his field, unless his distress presses him and forces him to it; for, as Maimonides c observes, a man might not sell his estate to put money into his purse, or to trade with, or to purchase goods, servants, and cattle, only food:

and hath sold away some of his possession; not all of it, as Jarchi remarks; for the way of the earth or custom of the world teaches, that a man should reserve a field (or a part) for himself:

and if any of his kin come to redeem it; come to the buyer and propose to redeem it, by giving what it was sold for, or in proportion to the time he had enjoyed it:

then shall he redeem that which his brother sold; nor was it in the power of the purchaser to hinder him, or at his option whether he would suffer him to redeem it or not: such an one was an emblem of our "goel", our near kinsman and Redeemer the Lord Jesus Christ, who came in our nature into this world to redeem us, and put us into the possession of the heavenly inheritance; nor was it in the power of any to hinder his performance of it, for he is the mighty God, the Lord of Hosts is his name.

Gill: Lev 25:26 - And if the man have none to redeem it // and himself be able to redeem it And if the man have none to redeem it,.... That is, none of kin that was able or willing to redeem it; otherwise no doubt there were persons in the la...

And if the man have none to redeem it,.... That is, none of kin that was able or willing to redeem it; otherwise no doubt there were persons in the land able to do it at any time, but none he was in connection with, or from whom he could expect such a favour:

and himself be able to redeem it; or if his hand has got, and he has found a sufficiency for his redemption, as the Targum of Jonathan; not that he has found anything that was lost, as Chaskuni glosses it, but by one providence or another, by the blessing of God on his trade and business, is become rich, and it is in the power of his hand to redeem the possession he had sold, he might do it; but, as the same writer observes, he might not borrow and redeem, but must do it with what he had got of his own since the time of sale, and which is also the sense of others d.

Gill: Lev 25:27 - Then let him count the years of the sale thereof // and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it // that he may return to his possession Then let him count the years of the sale thereof,.... How many years had passed since it was sold, how many it had been in the hands of the purchaser,...

Then let him count the years of the sale thereof,.... How many years had passed since it was sold, how many it had been in the hands of the purchaser, and how many were yet to come to the year of the jubilee, by which means the price of redemption might easily be settled; thus, for instance, if the years were alike and there was just half the time gone, then half of the price it was sold at was repaid to the purchaser; and if not alike, then in proportion to what had passed and were to come:

and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; for the years that were yet to come; if, as Jarchi says, he has eaten of or enjoyed the fruit of the field three or four years, deduct the price of them from the account, and take the rest; this is the meaning, "and restore the overplus", out of the price of the sale, according to what is eaten, and give it to the buyer: Maimonides e explains it thus; that if there were ten years to the year of the jubilee, and the field was sold for an hundred pieces, if he that bought it has eaten of it three years, then the seller that redeems it must give him seventy pieces, and he must restore his field; if he has eaten of it six years, he is to give forty pieces, and the other restores him the field: in the Misnah it is put thus; if he sell it (his field) to the first for an hundred pence, and the first sells it to a second for two hundred, he must not reckon but with the first, as it is said, "unto the man to whom he sold it"; if he sold it to the first for two hundred, and the first sells it to a second for an hundred, he shall not count but with the last, as it is said, "to a man", i.e. to the man which is in the midst of it, or is possessed of it; nor may he sell it for a distant time, that he may redeem it near, nor when in a bad condition, that he may redeem it when in a good one; nor may he borrow to redeem it, nor redeem it by halves f:

that he may return to his possession; and enjoy it again.

Gill: Lev 25:28 - But if he be not able to restore it to him // then that which is sold shall remain in the hand of him that bought it until the year of the jubilee // and in the jubilee it shall go out // and he shall return unto his possession But if he be not able to restore it to him,.... The overplus, or give him what is in proportion to the time he has had it, and yet to come: then th...

But if he be not able to restore it to him,.... The overplus, or give him what is in proportion to the time he has had it, and yet to come:

then that which is sold shall remain in the hand of him that bought it until the year of the jubilee; continue in his possession, and he shall enjoy all the benefit of it till that year comes:

and in the jubilee it shall go out: out of his hands or possession; or "he shall go out" g, the purchaser shall go out of what he has bought, and shall have no more possession of it, but it shall come into the hands of the seller, and that without money, as the Targum of Jonathan adds:

and he shall return unto his possession; the seller, and enter upon it and enjoy it as his own property, as before he sold it.

Gill: Lev 25:29 - And if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city // then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold // within a full year may he redeem it And if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city,.... Which was so from the days of Joshua the son of Nun, as Jarchi: then he may redeem it with...

And if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city,.... Which was so from the days of Joshua the son of Nun, as Jarchi:

then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold: any time within the year he pleased, either he or any near of kin to him; and if they would, on the day it was sold, or any time after within the compass of the year, even on the day in which the year ended; in this such an house differed from fields, which could not be redeemed under two years; see Gill on Lev 25:15,

within a full year may he redeem it; from the time it was sold, paying what it was sold for: this is to be understood, Maimonides h says, of a solar year, which consists of three hundred sixty five days, and within this space of time such an house might be redeemed.

Gill: Lev 25:30 - And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year // then the house that is in the walled city shall be established for ever to him that bought it, throughout his generation // it shall not go out in the jubilee And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year,.... Either by the seller or any man of kin to him: then the house that is in the walled...

And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year,.... Either by the seller or any man of kin to him:

then the house that is in the walled city shall be established for ever to him that bought it, throughout his generation; after twelve months were elapsed it was not redeemable by any, but to be held by the purchaser and his heirs for ever:

it shall not go out in the jubilee; from the purchaser or his heirs, to the seller or his heirs; for houses were not like lands, the gift of God, and held under him, but were built by men, and were their absolute property, and therefore they could dispose of them, and they that bought them could hold them after the above mentioned time; nor was there any danger of confounding tribes and families by retaining them: this law was made to encourage persons to settle in walled towns, to make and keep them populous, and to make owners of them careful not to sell them: the Jewish canon is this; when the day of the twelfth month is come, and it (the house) is not redeemed, it is absolutely his, whether he bought it or whether it was given him, as it is said, Lev 25:30; and if in the beginning of the day of the twelfth month he (the purchaser) hides himself, that it may be confirmed to him or be his absolutely; Hillel, the elder, ordered that he (the seller) should put his money in the chamber (belonging to the sanhedrim) and break open the door, and go in; and when he would, he (the purchaser) might come, and take his money i; but otherwise, if he suffers this time to pass it is irredeemable, nor will the year of jubilee help him: the Jews except the city of Jerusalem from this law, because, they say, that does not belong to any tribe k.

Gill: Lev 25:31 - But the houses of the villages, which have no walls round about them // shall be counted as the fields of the country // they may be redeemed // they shall go out in the jubilee But the houses of the villages, which have no walls round about them,.... As there were many in the days of Joshua, the Scripture speaks of: the Jews ...

But the houses of the villages, which have no walls round about them,.... As there were many in the days of Joshua, the Scripture speaks of: the Jews suppose that such are meant, even though they were afterwards walled:

shall be counted as the fields of the country; and subject to the same law as they:

they may be redeemed; at any time before the year of jubilee, and if not, then

they shall go out in the jubilee; to the original owners of them, freely, as Jarchi says, without paying anything for them.

Gill: Lev 25:32 - Notwithstanding, the cities of the Levites // and the houses of the cities of their possession // may the Levites redeem at any time Notwithstanding, the cities of the Levites,.... The six cities of refuge, and forty two others; these and the houses in them are excepted from the abo...

Notwithstanding, the cities of the Levites,.... The six cities of refuge, and forty two others; these and the houses in them are excepted from the above law, and only they; not such as they might purchase elsewhere; wherefore it follows:

and the houses of the cities of their possession; which were in cities possessed by them, and which was their possession, and given them as such:

may the Levites redeem at any time; they were not restrained to a year, as houses in walled towns, but they might redeem them as they pleased or could; and if they did not redeem them within the year, they might redeem them afterwards, even years after, and any time before the year of jubilee; so it is said in the Misnah l the priests and the Levites sell always, and they redeem always, as it is said, Lev 25:32; on which one of the commentators says m "they sell always", not as the Israelites, who cannot sell less than two years before the jubilee; but the Levites can sell near the jubilee: "and they redeem always"; if they sell houses in walled cities, they are not confirmed at the end of the year, as the houses of Israelites; and if they sell fields, it is not necessary they should remain in the hands of the buyer two years, but they may redeem them immediately if they will: this redemption was peculiar to the Levites; for if an Israelite has an inheritance from his father's mother, a Levite, he might not redeem according to the manner Levites did, but according to Israelites; and so a Levite that inherited from his father's mother, an Israelite, was obliged to redeem as an Israelite and not as a Levite n; for this perpetual redemption respected only houses that were in the cities of the Levites.

Gill: Lev 25:33 - And if a man purchase of the Levites // then the house that was sold, and the city of his possession, shall go out in the year of jubilee // for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel And if a man purchase of the Levites,.... An house or city, as Jarchi, and which the following clause confirms, that is, if a common Israelite made su...

And if a man purchase of the Levites,.... An house or city, as Jarchi, and which the following clause confirms, that is, if a common Israelite made such a purchase, then it was redeemable, but if a Levite purchased of a Levite, then, as the same writer observes, it was absolutely irredeemable:

then the house that was sold, and the city of his possession, shall go out in the year of jubilee; to the original owner of it, as fields and houses in villages sold by the Israelites

for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel; and their only possession, and therefore if those, when sold, were irredeemable, they would entirely be without any; and hence care is taken they should not; so Jarchi observes, that the Levites had no possession of fields and vineyards, only cities to dwell in, and their suburbs; wherefore cities were to them instead of fields, and their redemption was as that of fields, that so their inheritance might not be broken off from them.

Gill: Lev 25:34 - But the field of the suburbs of their cities may not be sold // for it is their perpetual possession But the field of the suburbs of their cities may not be sold,.... The suburbs to the cities of the Levites reached two thousand cubits on every side o...

But the field of the suburbs of their cities may not be sold,.... The suburbs to the cities of the Levites reached two thousand cubits on every side of their cities, Num 35:5; in which they had fields to keep their cattle in, and these belonged to them in common; every Levite had not a particular field to himself as his own property, and which is the reason why it might not be sold, nor might they agree together to sell it, for then they would have nothing to keep their cattle in: the Jewish writers generally understand this of changing their fields, suburbs, and cities: hence they say, in the Misnah, they do not make a field a suburb, nor a suburb a field, nor a suburb a city, nor a city a suburb; upon which Maimonides o says, all agree that the Levites may not change a city, or suburb, or field which are theirs, because of what is said, Lev 25:34; and the wise men, of blessed memory, say, the meaning of it is, it shall not be changed, for they do not change anything from what it was before:

for it is their perpetual possession: and therefore never to be alienated from them, or be sold to another, or changed and put to another use; such care was taken of the ministers of the sanctuary, and of their maintenance and support, under the former dispensation; and suggests that they should continue in their stations without any alteration, as ministers of the Gospel should, who ought to give up themselves to the ministry of the word, and prayer, and not entangle themselves with the affairs of life.

Gill: Lev 25:35 - And if thy brother be waxen poor // and fallen in decay with thee // then thou shalt relieve him // yea, though he be a stranger or a sojourner // that he may live with thee And if thy brother be waxen poor,.... An Israelite, as Aben Ezra, be reduced to a low estate, through afflictions in body, or in family, or through lo...

And if thy brother be waxen poor,.... An Israelite, as Aben Ezra, be reduced to a low estate, through afflictions in body, or in family, or through losses in trade, or want of business, or through one providence or another:

and fallen in decay with thee; in his worldly substance: or "his hand wavers", or "fails" p; so that he cannot support himself and his family, has not a sufficiency, or it is not in the power of his hands to do it; and it is not owing to sloth and negligence, but to unavoidable want and necessity:

then thou shalt relieve him; not merely by sympathizing with him, but by communicating to him, and distributing to his necessities; holding him up that he may not utterly fall, and strengthening his hands, that he may have a supply for his present wants:

yea, though he be a stranger or a sojourner; whether a proselyte of righteousness, who is circumcised, and in all things conforms to the true religion; or a proselyte of the gate, who takes it upon him not to worship idols, and eat things that die of themselves, as Jarchi notes:

that he may live with thee; continue in the land of Canaan, and not be obliged to quit it, and be laid under temptations of apostatizing from the true religion professed by him, and so far as he is come into it, which would bring a worse death than corporeal upon him; or that he may have a livelihood in some tolerable manner at least, and even live comfortably and cheerfully.

Gill: Lev 25:36 - Take thou no usury of him, or increase // but fear thy God // that thy brother may live with thee Take thou no usury of him, or increase,.... Not only give him somewhat for his present relief, but lend him money to put him in a way of business, to ...

Take thou no usury of him, or increase,.... Not only give him somewhat for his present relief, but lend him money to put him in a way of business, to get his living for the future, without requiring any interest for it; See Gill on Exo 22:25,

but fear thy God; who has given this command, and expects to be obeyed; and who is good, and does good, and should be feared for his goodness' sake; and is omniscient, and knows what is secretly exacted, and will not suffer any exorbitance of this kind to pass unpunished:

that thy brother may live with thee; which it would be still more difficult for him to do, should usury and increase be taken of him.

Gill: Lev 25:37 - Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury // nor lend him thy victuals for increase Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury,.... Lend him money, expecting and insisting upon a large interest for it; this is to be understood of pe...

Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury,.... Lend him money, expecting and insisting upon a large interest for it; this is to be understood of persons in poor and necessitous circumstances, of which the text only speaks; otherwise, if persons borrow money to gain by it, to carry on a greater trade, or to make purchase with it, it is but reasonable that the lender should have a share of profit arising from thence:

nor lend him thy victuals for increase; by which it should seem that those two words, used in Lev 25:36, though in the main they signify the same thing, yet may be distinguished, the one as concerning money, the other food; and which latter is not to be given by way of loan to a person in want of it, but freely; as for instance, if a man gives a poor man a bushel of wheat, on condition he gives him two for it hereafter, this is lending or giving his victuals for increase.

Gill: Lev 25:38 - I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt // to give you the land of Canaan // and to be your God I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt,.... Where they had been strangers and sojourners, and therefore should be kind to...

I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt,.... Where they had been strangers and sojourners, and therefore should be kind to such in necessitous circumstances, and relieve them, and especially their brethren; and where God had given them favour in the eyes of the Egyptians, and they had lent them jewels of gold and silver, and raiment, and therefore they should lend freely to persons in distress; and who had brought them out from thence, that they might take upon them his commandments, though they might be grievous, as Jarchi observes; and this, it may be remarked, is the preface to the ten commandments:

to give you the land of Canaan; freely, a land flowing with milk and honey; and therefore, since he had dealt so bountifully with them, and had given them plenty of good things, they need not grudge giving to their poor brethren, and others in necessitous circumstances:

and to be your God; their covenant God, to bless and prosper them, protect and defend them.

Gill: Lev 25:39 - And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor // and be sold unto thee // thou shall not compel him to serve as a bondservant And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor,.... The above laws and instructions seem designed to prevent such extreme poverty as obliged ...

And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor,.... The above laws and instructions seem designed to prevent such extreme poverty as obliged to what follows, namely, a brother being sold either to an Israelite or to a stranger, by relieving his wants or lending him money; but when these were insufficient to support him, and keep him from sinking into the lowest state of distress and misery, then he was obliged to be sold, as follows:

and be sold unto thee; either by himself, being ready to starve and perish, or by the sanhedrim, having stolen something, as Aben Ezra observes; in such a case the civil magistrate had a power of selling a man, Exo 22:3,

thou shall not compel him to serve as a bondservant; such as were Heathens, and bought of them, or taken in war and made slaves of; but an Israelite sold was not to serve as they, either with respect to matter or manner, or time of service; such as were bondmen were put to the hardest service, the greatest drudgery, as well as what was mean and reproachful, and were used in the most rigorous and despotic manner, and were obliged to serve for ever, and were never released; but a brother, an Israelite, sold to another through extreme poverty, was not to be put to any low, mean, base, and disgraceful service, by which it would be known that he was a servant, as Jarchi notes; such as to carry his master's vessels or instruments after him to the bath, or to unloose his shoes; but, as the same writer observes, he was to be employed in the business of the farm, or in some handicraft work, and was to be kindly and gently used, rather as a brother than a servant, and to be freed in the year of jubilee.

Gill: Lev 25:40 - But as an hired servant // and as a sojourner // he shall be with thee // and shall serve thee unto the year of the jubilee But as an hired servant,.... Who is hired by the day, or month, or year; and, when his time is up, receives his wages and goes where he pleases, and ...

But as an hired servant,.... Who is hired by the day, or month, or year; and, when his time is up, receives his wages and goes where he pleases, and while a servant is not under such despotic power and government as a slave is:

and as a sojourner; an inmate, one that dwells in part of a man's house, or boards and lodges with him, and whom he treats in a kind and familiar manner, rather like one of his own family than otherwise:

he shall be with thee; as under the above characters, and used as such: this the Jews refer to food and drink, and other things, as they do, Deu 15:16; and say q that a master might not eat fine bread, and his servant bread of bran; nor drink old wine, and his servant new; nor sleep on soft pillows and bedding, and his servant on straw: hence, they say r, he that gets himself an Hebrew servant is as if he got himself a master:

and shall serve thee unto the year of the jubilee; and no longer; for if the year of jubilee came before the six years were expired for which he sold himself, the jubilee set him free, as Jarchi observes; nay, if be sold himself for ten or twenty years, and that but one year before the jubilee, it set him free, as Maimonides says s.

Gill: Lev 25:41 - And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him // and shall return unto his own family // and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him,.... His sons and daughters, and his wife also, who is included in himself: if...

And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him,.... His sons and daughters, and his wife also, who is included in himself: if a man had a wife and children when he sold himself, or married afterwards, with his master's consent, he was obliged to maintain them t; though they were not sold to him, nor properly his servants, and so had a right to go out with him:

and shall return unto his own family; his father's family, and that of his near relations, having been out of it during his time of servitude, and which the year of jubilee restored him to, Lev 25:10,

and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return; the estate his father left him by inheritance, and which he was obliged to sell in the time of his poverty, or which fell to him since by the death of his father; to this also he was restored in the year of jubilee, as is expressed in the text referred to.

Gill: Lev 25:42 - For they are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt // they shall not be sold as bondmen For they are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt,.... The Lord redeemed them out of Egypt, made a purchase of them, and had a...

For they are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt,.... The Lord redeemed them out of Egypt, made a purchase of them, and had a prior right unto them, and being his servants first, they cannot be the servants of others; his right unto them as such antecedes and prevents any other claim upon them:

they shall not be sold as bondmen; or, "with", or, "according to the sale of a bondman" u; in the manner they are sold, or according to the laws of selling of servants; not in such a public manner as they are sold in markets, nor for such purposes to be used as slaves in a rigorous manner, nor so as to be retained for ever in servitude; not to be sold by proclamation, as Jarchi observes, saying, here is a servant to be sold; nor shall they set him upon the stone of sale; for it seems in public places in markets, where slaves were sold, there was a stone on which they were placed, which showed that they were to be sold; but now an Israelite was not to be sold in such a manner, so Maimonides w says, but privately, in an honourable way.

Gill: Lev 25:43 - Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour // but shalt fear thy God Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour,.... As the Egyptians ruled over the Israelites, and made them to serve, Exo 1:13; where the same word is use...

Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour,.... As the Egyptians ruled over the Israelites, and made them to serve, Exo 1:13; where the same word is used as here, and seems designed to put them in mind of it, that so they might abstain from such usage of their brethren, which they had met with from their most cruel enemies; it signifies tyranny and oppression, treating them with great severity, laying hard and heavy tasks and burdens upon them they could not bear; enjoining them things they could not perform, and ordering them to do what were unnecessary, and without any limitation with respect to time:

but shalt fear thy God; that has been good to thee, and has brought thee out of hard and rigorous bondage in Egypt; and which should be remembered with thankfulness, and they should fear to offend so good a God by using a brother cruelly.

Gill: Lev 25:44 - Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have // shall be of the heathen that are round about thee, of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have,.... Such it seems were allowed them, if they had need of them; but if they had them, they ...

Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have,.... Such it seems were allowed them, if they had need of them; but if they had them, they were to be not of the nation of Israel, but of other nations; this is an anticipation of an objection, as Jarchi observes; if so, who shall I have to minister to me? The answer follows, they

shall be of the heathen that are round about thee, of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids; that is, of the Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and Syrians, as Aben Ezra, that were their neighbours, that lived round about them, of any but the seven nations, which they were ordered utterly to destroy; wherefore Jarchi observes it is said, "that are round about thee"; not in the midst of the border of your land, for them they were not to save alive, Deu 20:16.

Gill: Lev 25:45 - Moreover, of the children of the strangers, that do sojourn among you // of them shall ye buy // and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land // and they shall be your possession Moreover, of the children of the strangers, that do sojourn among you,.... The uncircumcised sojourners as they are called in the Targums of Onkelos a...

Moreover, of the children of the strangers, that do sojourn among you,.... The uncircumcised sojourners as they are called in the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, proselytes of the gate, such of the nations round about who came and sojourned among them, being subject to the precepts given to the sons of Noah respecting idolatry, &c. but were not circumcised, and did not embrace the Jewish religion:

of them shall ye buy; for bondmen and bondmaids:

and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land; but, as the Targum of Jonathan adds, are not of the Canaanites; though the Jewish writers x say, that one of the nations that lies with a Canaanitish woman, and begets a son of her, he may be bought for a servant; and so if a Canaanitish man lies with one of the nations, and begets a son of her, he may also be bought for a servant:

and they shall be your possession; as servants, as bondmen and bondmaids, and be so for ever to them and their heirs, as follows.

Gill: Lev 25:46 - And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you // to inherit them for a possession // thy shall be your bondmen for ever // but over your brethren, the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you,.... Which they might leave them at their death to inherit, as they did their est...

And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you,.... Which they might leave them at their death to inherit, as they did their estates and lands; for such servants are, with the Jews y, said to be like immovable goods, as fields, vineyards:

to inherit them for a possession; as their property, as anything else that was bequeathed to hem, as negroes now are in our plantations abroad:

thy shall be your bondmen for ever; and not be released at the year jubilee, nor before nor after; unless they obtained their liberty, either by purchase, which they might make themselves, or by the means of others, or else by a writing under their master's hand dismissing them from his service z; or in case they were maimed by him, then he was obliged to let them go free, Exo 21:26,

but over your brethren, the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour; which repeated for the confirmation of it, and for the fuller explanation and description of the person not to be ruled over with rigour; and that it might be the more taken notice of, and to make them the more careful in the observance of it and though this peculiarly respects masters' treatment of their servants, yet Jarchi thinks it comprehends a prince over his people, and a king over his ministers, whom he may not rule with rigour.

Gill: Lev 25:47 - And if a sojourner or stranger wax rich by thee // and thy brother that dwelleth by him wax poor // and sell himself unto the stranger or sojourner thee // or to the stock of a stranger's family And if a sojourner or stranger wax rich by thee,.... An uncircumcised one, as the Targums, a proselyte of the gate, who by living among and trading wi...

And if a sojourner or stranger wax rich by thee,.... An uncircumcised one, as the Targums, a proselyte of the gate, who by living among and trading with the Israelites, might grow rich and wealthy in money, at least so as to be able to purchase an Hebrew servant, though not his lands, which he might not buy:

and thy brother that dwelleth by him wax poor; comes into low circumstances, and is reduced to great poverty, even extreme poverty; for only in such a case might he sell himself to an Israelite, and much less to a stranger, if this was not the case. Jarchi suggests, as in the phrase, "by thee", points at the cause or occasion of the sojourner or stranger becoming rich, his nearness unto, or cleaving to all Israelite; and so here the phrase, "by him", directs to the cause or occasion of the Israelite's becoming poor, his being near and cleaving to the sojourner or stranger: but they seem rather to be used, to show the reason of the poor Israelite falling into the hands of a rich sojourner; they being near neighbours to one another, and having a familiarity, the following bargain is struck between them:

and sell himself unto the stranger or sojourner thee; the uncircumcised sojourner, as the Targum of Jonathan:

or to the stock of a stranger's family; or "root" a, one that sprung from a family, originally proselytes; which some understand of one, who though he be descended from such a family, was now rooted among the people of God, and incorporated into the commonwealth of Israel; and yet such an one could not detain an Hebrew servant longer than the year of jubilee: but the Jewish writers generally interpret it of an idolater b.

Gill: Lev 25:48 - After that he is sold he may be redeemed again // one of his brethren may redeem him After that he is sold he may be redeemed again,.... Though an Heathen, sold to an Israelite, was to be a bondman for ever, and could not be released b...

After that he is sold he may be redeemed again,.... Though an Heathen, sold to an Israelite, was to be a bondman for ever, and could not be released by the year of jubilee, yet an Israelite sold to an Heathen might be redeemed before, and if not, he was freed then. The Jewish writers understand this of an obligation upon the man, or his friends, or the congregation, to redeem him, and that immediately, as the Targum of Jonathan, and Jarchi, because of the danger he was in by being in the family of an idolater, lest he be polluted c, that is, with idolatry; or be swallowed up among the Heathens, as Maimonides d; but it is plain from Lev 25:54, that there was no obligation for an immediate redemption; nor was the person sold in such danger as suggested, since the sojourner, to whom he is supposed to be sold, was no idolater, whether a proselyte either of righteousness, or of the gate

one of his brethren may redeem him; which may be taken in a strict and proper sense, for any of his brethren who were in circumstances sufficient to redeem him, or for any near akin to him, as the following words seem to explain it. No mention is made of his father: the reason of which Abarbinel e says, because it cannot be thought that a father would suffer his son to be sold, if it was in his power to redeem him, since a father is pitiful to his son.

Gill: Lev 25:49 - Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him // or any that is nigh kin unto him of his family may redeem him // or if he be able he may redeem himself Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him,.... it is father's brother or his father's brother's son, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan...

Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him,.... it is father's brother or his father's brother's son, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan:

or any that is nigh kin unto him of his family may redeem him; from whence it appears, that it must be a near kinsman that has to be the redeemer, as in another case, the redemption of inheritances; hence the same word "goel" signifies both a redeemer and a near kinsman:

or if he be able he may redeem himself; who either has found something lost, or inherits the substance of anyone deceased, of his family, as Aben Ezra observes; that is, since he sold himself, which puts him into a capacity to redeem himself; the Targum of Jonathan adds,"or the land of the congregation;''for such a redemption was sometimes made at the expense of the public; see Neh 5:8. Baal Hatturim observes, that the words "Ben Dodo", translated "his uncle's son", wanting the letter "tau" as usual, as the same letters with Ben David, which is a known name of the Messiah with the Jews, and which that author seems to have in view; and another Jewish writer f expressly says,"this Redeemer is the Messiah, the son of David, of the tribe of Judah:''and indeed the whole of this case is applicable to the spiritual and eternal redemption of the people of God by Christ: they through the fall, and in a state of nature, are become poor and helpless, and in a spiritual sense have neither bread to eat, nor clothes to wear, nor money to buy either; and are in debt, owe ten thousand talents, and have nothing to pay, and so are brought into bondage to sin, Satan, and the law; nor can they redeem themselves from these by power or price; nor can a brother, or the nearest relation redeem them, or give to God a ransom for them; none but Christ could do this for them, who through his incarnation, whereby he became of the same nature, of the same flesh and blood with them, and in all things like unto them, is their "goel", and so their Redeemer, and has obtained eternal redemption for them, not with silver and gold, but by his own precious blood.

Gill: Lev 25:50 - And he shall reckon with him that bought him // from the year that he was sold to him unto the year of jubilee // and the price of his sale shall be according to the number of years // according to the time of an hired servant shall it be with him And he shall reckon with him that bought him,.... That is, either the man himself should reckon with him, or whoever undertook to redeem him: from ...

And he shall reckon with him that bought him,.... That is, either the man himself should reckon with him, or whoever undertook to redeem him:

from the year that he was sold to him unto the year of jubilee; and so count how many years he had served, and how many were yet to come; and by this it appears, that one thus sold was not released at the end of six years, or the sabbatical year did not free him:

and the price of his sale shall be according to the number of years; whether more or fewer, as after explained:

according to the time of an hired servant shall it be with him; the time of service he had served his master shall be reckoned, as if he had been hired for so much a year; and according to the number of years he had been with him, so much per annum was to be deducted from the original purchase, and the rest to be made for his redemption to him that bought him.

Gill: Lev 25:51 - If there be yet many years behind // according unto them he shall give again the price of his redemption, out of the money that he was bought for If there be yet many years behind,.... To the year of jubilee, and more than he had served: according unto them he shall give again the price of h...

If there be yet many years behind,.... To the year of jubilee, and more than he had served:

according unto them he shall give again the price of his redemption, out of the money that he was bought for; suppose, for instance, when a man sold himself, there were twenty years to the year of jubilee, and he sold himself for twenty pieces of money, gold or silver, be the value what it will; and when he comes to treat with his master about his redemption, or a relation for him, and he has served just as many years as there are to the year of jubilee, ten years, then his master must be paid for the price of his redemption ten pieces of money; but if he has served but five years, and there are fifteen to come, he must give him fifteen pieces; and so in proportion, be the years more or fewer, as follows.

Gill: Lev 25:52 - And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubilee // then he shall count with him, and according unto his years shall he give him again the price of his redemption And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubilee,.... Fewer than what he has served, then the less is given for his redemption: thus, for in...

And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubilee,.... Fewer than what he has served, then the less is given for his redemption: thus, for instance, in the above supposed case, if he has served fifteen years, and there remain but five to the year of jubilee:

then he shall count with him, and according unto his years shall he give him again the price of his redemption; as in the fore mentioned case, he shall give him five pieces of money; and thus the law of justice and equity was maintained between the buyer and seller, the purchaser and the redeemer: in a like righteous manner the people of God are redeemed by Christ.

Gill: Lev 25:53 - And as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him // and the other shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight And as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him,.... Being redeemable every year, and upon his redemption might quit his master's service, as an h...

And as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him,.... Being redeemable every year, and upon his redemption might quit his master's service, as an hireling may; and the price of his redemption to be valued according to the years he served, and as if he had been hired for so much a year; as well as he was to be treated in a kind and gentle manner, not as a bondman, but as if he was an hired servant, as follows:

and the other shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight; the person he is sold unto, his master, a sojourner or stranger, he might not use an Hebrew he had bought with any severity; for if an Hebrew master might not use an Hebrew servant with rigour, it was not by any means to be admitted in the commonwealth of Israel for a proselyte to use one in such a manner, and that openly, in the sight of an Israelite his neighbour; he looking on and not remonstrating against it, or acquainting the civil magistrate with it, who had it in his power to redress such a grievance, and ought to do it.

Gill: Lev 25:54 - And if he be not redeemed in these years // then he shall go out on the year of jubilee // both he and his children with him And if he be not redeemed in these years,.... The Targum of Jonathan supplies the text as we do, in any of the years from the time of his sale to the...

And if he be not redeemed in these years,.... The Targum of Jonathan supplies the text as we do, in any of the years from the time of his sale to the year of jubilee; and so Aben Ezra interprets it, in the years that remain to the jubilee; but he observes there are others that say, by the means of those above mentioned, that is, by his nearest of kin, or by himself; for the word "years" is not in the text, which may be supplied, either with "years" or "relations"; and so the Vulgate Latin, Septuagint, and Oriental versions read, "by these" means, things or persons:

then he shall go out on the year of jubilee: out of the house and service of him that bought him, he shall go out free and freely, without paying anything for his freedom, having served his full time unto which he was bought:

both he and his children with him; and his wife too, if he had any, who, was comprehended in himself, and whom, both wife and children, his master was obliged to maintain during his servitude.

Gill: Lev 25:55 - For unto me the children of Israel are servants // they are my servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt // I am the Lord your God For unto me the children of Israel are servants,.... And therefore not to be perpetual servants to men, as those who are bought and redeemed by the b...

For unto me the children of Israel are servants,.... And therefore not to be perpetual servants to men, as those who are bought and redeemed by the blood of Christ should not be, 1Co 7:23; The Targum of Jonathan is, servants to my law; see Rom 7:25; those that are redeemed by Christ are also servants to his Gospel, and obey from their heart the form and doctrine delivered to them;

they are my servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: where they were in cruel bondage, and made to serve with rigour, but now, being delivered from thence, were laid under obligation to serve the Lord; nor was it his will that others should rule over them with rigour, whether of their own nation or strangers, or that they should be bondmen and bondmaids, or perpetual servants to any:

I am the Lord your God; their covenant God, who had been kind to them, particularly in the instance mentioned, and would take care that they should not be ill used by others, and therefore ought to serve him readily and cheerfully.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Lev 25:2 Heb “the land shall rest a Sabbath.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:3 Heb “its produce,” but the feminine pronoun “its” probably refers to the “land” (a feminine noun in Hebrew; cf. v....

NET Notes: Lev 25:4 Heb “and.” Here the Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) has an alternative sense (“or”).

NET Notes: Lev 25:5 Heb “consecrated, devoted, forbidden” (נָזִיר, nazir). The same term is used for the “consecrati...

NET Notes: Lev 25:6 A “resident who stays” would be a foreign person who was probably residing as another kind of laborer in the household of a landowner (B. ...

NET Notes: Lev 25:7 The words “for you” are implied.

NET Notes: Lev 25:8 Heb “and they shall be for you, the days of the seven Sabbaths of years, forty-nine years.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:9 On the “loud horn blasts” see the note on Lev 23:24, but unlike the language there, the Hebrew term for “horn” (שׁ...

NET Notes: Lev 25:10 Heb “you [plural] shall return, a man.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:11 See v. 5 above and the notes there.

NET Notes: Lev 25:12 That is, the produce of the land (fem.; cf. v. 7 above).

NET Notes: Lev 25:13 Heb “you [plural] shall return, a man.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:14 Heb “do not oppress a man his brother.” Here “brother” does not refer only to a sibling, but to a fellow Israelite.

NET Notes: Lev 25:15 The purchaser is actually buying only the crops that the land will produce until the next jubilee, since the land will revert to the original owner at...

NET Notes: Lev 25:16 Heb “a number of produce”; the words “years of” are implied. As an alternative this could be translated “a number of har...

NET Notes: Lev 25:17 Heb “And you shall not oppress a man his fellow citizen.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:18 Heb “and you shall dwell on the land to security.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:19 Heb “eat to satisfaction”; KJV, ASV “ye shall eat your fill.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:21 Smr and LXX have “its produce” (cf. 25:3, 7, etc.) rather than “the produce.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:22 Heb “until the ninth year, until bringing [in] its produce.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:23 That is, the Israelites were strangers and residents who were attached to the Lord’s household. They did not own the land. Note the parallel to ...

NET Notes: Lev 25:24 Heb “right of redemption you shall give to the land”; NAB “you must permit the land to be redeemed.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:25 Heb “the sale of his brother.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:26 Heb “and he finds as sufficiency of its redemption.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:27 Heb “and return the excess.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:28 Heb “he”; the referent (the original owner of the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Lev 25:29 Heb “days its right of redemption shall be” (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 176).

NET Notes: Lev 25:30 See the note on v. 23 above.

NET Notes: Lev 25:31 Heb “on the field.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:32 Heb “the houses of the cities of their property.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:33 Heb “And which he shall redeem from the Levites shall go out, sale of house and city, his property in the jubilee.” Although the end of th...

NET Notes: Lev 25:34 This refers to the region of fields just outside and surrounding the city where cattle were kept and garden crops were grown (B. A. Levine, Leviticus ...

NET Notes: Lev 25:35 Heb “a foreigner and resident,” which is probably to be combined (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 170-71).

NET Notes: Lev 25:36 In form the Hebrew term וְחֵי (vÿkhey, “shall live”) is the construct plural noun (i.e., “the lif...

NET Notes: Lev 25:37 Heb “your money” and “your food.” With regard to “interest” and “profit” see the note on v. 36 above.

NET Notes: Lev 25:38 Heb “to be to you for a God.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:39 Heb “you shall not serve against him service of a slave.” A distinction is being made here between the status of slave and indentured serv...

NET Notes: Lev 25:40 See the note on Lev 25:6 above.

NET Notes: Lev 25:41 Heb “fathers.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:42 Or perhaps reflexive Niphal rather than passive, “they shall not sell themselves [as in] a slave sale.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:43 Heb “You shall not rule in him in violence”; cf. NASB “with severity”; NIV “ruthlessly.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:44 Heb “ from the nations which surround you, from them you shall buy male slave and female slave.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:45 Heb “family which is” (i.e., singular rather than plural).

NET Notes: Lev 25:46 Heb “and your brothers, the sons of Israel, a man in his brother you shall not rule in him in violence.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:47 Heb “offshoot, descendant.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:48 Heb “right of redemption shall be to him.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:49 The LXX, followed by the Syriac, actually has “if,” which is not in the MT.

NET Notes: Lev 25:50 Heb “as days of a hired worker he shall be with him.” For this and the following verses see the explanation in P. J. Budd, Leviticus (NCBC...

NET Notes: Lev 25:51 Heb “to the mouth of them.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:52 Heb “but if a little remains in the years.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:53 Heb “He”; the referent (the one who bought him) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Lev 25:54 Heb “go out.”

NET Notes: Lev 25:55 Heb “because to me the sons of Israel are servants.”

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:3 ( a ) Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; ( a ) The Jews began to count...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:5 That which groweth of its ( b ) own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine ( c ) undressed: [for] it is a ye...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:6 And the ( d ) sabbath of the land shall be meat for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stran...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:9 ( e ) Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth [day] of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trum...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout [all] the land unto all the ( f ) inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unt...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:14 And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest [ought] of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall ( h ) not oppress one another: ( h ) By deceit, or oth...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:15 According to the number of ( i ) years after the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, [and] according unto the number of years of the fruits he sha...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:16 According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it: ...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:23 The land shall not be sold ( l ) for ever: for the land [is] mine; for ye [are] strangers and sojourners with me. ( l ) It could not be sold for ever...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:24 And in all the land of your possession ye shall ( m ) grant a redemption for the land. ( m ) You shall sell it on the condition that it may be redeem...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:27 Then let him ( n ) count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; that he may return unto his possessi...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:28 But if he be not able to restore [it] to him, then that which is sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubile: an...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:30 And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that [is] in the walled city shall be established ( p ) for ever to him that...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:34 But the field of the ( q ) suburbs of their cities may not be sold; for it [is] their perpetual possession. ( q ) Where the Levites kept their cattle...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:35 And if thy brother be waxen poor, and ( r ) fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: [yea, though he be] a stranger, or a sojourner; th...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:42 For they [are] my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: they shall not ( s ) be sold as bondmen. ( s ) To perpetual servitude.

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:45 Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that [are] with you, which they begat...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him, or [any] that is nigh of kin unto him of his family may redeem him; or ( u ) if he be able, he m...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:50 And he shall reckon with him that bought him from the year that he was sold to him unto the year of jubile: and the price of his sale shall be accordi...

Geneva Bible: Lev 25:53 [And] as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him: [and the other] shall not rule with rigour over him in thy ( y ) sight. ( y ) You shall not all...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Lev 25:23 - VII. Sojourners With God Lev. 25:23 The land shall not be sold for ever: for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and sojourners with Me.'--Lev. 25:23. The singular institut...

Maclaren: Lev 25:42 - VIII. God's Slaves Lev. 25:42 For they are My servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen.'--Lev. 25:42. This is the basi...

MHCC: Lev 25:1-7 - --All labour was to cease in the seventh year, as much as daily labour on the seventh day. These statues tell us to beware of covetousness, for a man's ...

MHCC: Lev 25:8-22 - --The word " jubilee" signifies a peculiarly animated sound of the silver trumpets. This sound was to be made on the evening of the great day of atonem...

MHCC: Lev 25:23-34 - --If the land were not redeemed before the year of jubilee, it then returned to him that sold or mortgaged it. This was a figure of the free grace of Go...

MHCC: Lev 25:35-38 - --Poverty and decay are great grievances, and very common; the poor ye have always with you. Thou shalt relieve him; by sympathy, pitying the poor; by s...

MHCC: Lev 25:39-55 - --A native Israelite, if sold for debt, or for a crime, was to serve but six years, and to go out the seventh. If he sold himself, through poverty, both...

Matthew Henry: Lev 25:1-7 - -- The law of Moses laid a great deal of stress upon the sabbath, the sanctification of which was the earliest and most ancient of all divine instituti...

Matthew Henry: Lev 25:8-22 - -- Here is, I. The general institution of the jubilee, Lev 25:8. etc. 1. When it was to be observed: after seven sabbaths of years (Lev 25:8), whethe...

Matthew Henry: Lev 25:23-38 - -- Here is, I. A law concerning the real estates of the Israelites in the land of Canaan, and the transferring of them. 1. No land should be sold for e...

Matthew Henry: Lev 25:39-55 - -- We have here the laws concerning servitude, designed to preserve the honour of the Jewish nation as a free people, and rescued by a divine power out...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 25:1 - -- The law for the sabbatical and jubilee years brings to a close the laws given to Moses by Jehovah upon Mount Sinai. This is shown by the words of th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 25:2-4 - -- The Sabbatical Year. - When Israel had come into the land which the Lord gave to it, it was to sanctify it to the Lord by the observance of a Sabbat...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 25:5 - -- " That which has fallen out (been shaken out) of thy harvest (i.e., the corn which had grown from the grains of the previous harvest that had fall...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 25:6-7 - -- " And the Sabbath of the land (i.e., the produce of the sabbatical year or year of rest, whatever grew that year without cultivation) shall be to y...

Keil-Delitzsch: Lev 25:8-55 - -- The law for the Year of Jubilee refers first of all to its observance (Lev 25:8-12), and secondly to its effects ( a ) upon the possession of proper...

Constable: Lev 17:1--27:34 - --II. The private worship of the Israelites chs. 17--27 The second major division of Leviticus deals with how the ...

Constable: Lev 25:1-55 - --F. Sanctification of the possession of land by the sabbatical and jubilee years ch. 25 Chapter 25 conclu...

Constable: Lev 25:1-7 - --1. The sabbatical year 25:1-7 As God ordered the people to rest every seventh day, so He ordered...

Constable: Lev 25:8-55 - --2. The year of jubilee 25:8-55 "The Jubilee legislation found in Leviticus 25 presents a vision ...

Constable: Lev 25:8-12 - --The observance of the year of jubilee 25:8-12 The Israelites were to observe the year of...

Constable: Lev 25:13-34 - --The effects of the year on the possession of property 25:13-34 The people were to buy an...

Constable: Lev 25:35-55 - --The effects of the year on the personal freedom of the Israelites 25:35-55 The Israelite...

Guzik: Lev 25:1-55 - Special Sabbaths and Jubilees Leviticus 25 - Special Sabbaths and Jubilees A. The Sabbath Year. 1. (1-2) The land and its Sabbath. And the LORD spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, s...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Leviticus (Pendahuluan Kitab) LEVITICUS. So called from its treating of the laws relating to the ritual, the services, and sacrifices of the Jewish religion, the superintendence of...