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Teks -- Job 1:1-22 (NET)

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Konteks

I. The Prologue (1:1-2:13)

Job’s Good Life
1:1 There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job. And that man was pure and upright, one who feared God and turned away from evil. 1:2 Seven sons and three daughters were born to him. 1:3 His possessions included 7,000 sheep, 3,000 camels, 500 yoke of oxen, and 500 female donkeys; in addition he had a very great household. Thus he was the greatest of all the people in the east. 1:4 Now his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one in turn, and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and to drink with them. 1:5 When the days of their feasting were finished, Job would send for them and sanctify them; he would get up early in the morning and offer burnt offerings according to the number of them all. For Job thought, “Perhaps my children have sinned and cursed God in their hearts.” This was Job’s customary practice.
Satan’s Accusation of Job
1:6 Now the day came when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord– and Satan also arrived among them. 1:7 The Lord said to Satan, “Where have you come from?” And Satan answered the Lord, “From roving about on the earth, and from walking back and forth across it.” 1:8 So the Lord said to Satan, “Have you considered my servant Job? There is no one like him on the earth, a pure and upright man, one who fears God and turns away from evil.” 1:9 Then Satan answered the Lord, “Is it for nothing that Job fears God? 1:10 Have you not made a hedge around him and his household and all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his livestock have increased in the land. 1:11 But extend your hand and strike everything he has, and he will no doubt curse you to your face!” 1:12 So the Lord said to Satan, “All right then, everything he has is in your power. Only do not extend your hand against the man himself!” So Satan went out from the presence of the Lord.
Job’s Integrity in Adversity
1:13 Now the day came when Job’s sons and daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house, 1:14 and a messenger came to Job, saying, “The oxen were plowing and the donkeys were grazing beside them, 1:15 and the Sabeans swooped down and carried them all away, and they killed the servants with the sword! And I– only I alone– escaped to tell you!” 1:16 While this one was still speaking, another messenger arrived and said, “The fire of God has fallen from heaven and has burned up the sheep and the servants– it has consumed them! And I– only I alone– escaped to tell you!” 1:17 While this one was still speaking another messenger arrived and said, “The Chaldeans formed three bands and made a raid on the camels and carried them all away, and they killed the servants with the sword! And I– only I alone– escaped to tell you!” 1:18 While this one was still speaking another messenger arrived and said, “Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house, 1:19 and suddenly a great wind swept across the wilderness and struck the four corners of the house, and it fell on the young people, and they died! And I– only I alone– escaped to tell you!” 1:20 Then Job got up and tore his robe. He shaved his head, and then he threw himself down with his face to the ground. 1:21 He said, “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I will return there. The Lord gives, and the Lord takes away. May the name of the Lord be blessed!” 1:22 In all this Job did not sin, nor did he charge God with moral impropriety.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Job a man whose story is told in the book of Job,a man from the land of Uz in Edom
 · Sabeans people of Seba /Sheba, known as traders or sometimes as bandits
 · Satan a person, male (evil angelic),an angel that has rebelled against God
 · Uz son of Aram; (grand)son of Shem son of Noah,son of Milcah and Nahor, brother of Abraham,son of Dishan of Seir,a region in Edom inhabited by the descendants of Uz of Seir


Topik/Tema Kamus: Afflictions and Adversities | Faith | God | Satan | Temptation | Job | JOB, BOOK OF | Resignation | ESCHEW | Bereavement | UT | Motive | Birth-day | DEVIL | Camel | ANGEL | SLANDER | UZ (1) | Mourning | Intercession | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Job 1:1 - Uz Part of Arabia.

Part of Arabia.

Wesley: Job 1:1 - Perfect Not legally or exactly, but as to his sincere intentions, hearty affections, and diligent endeavours to perform all his duties to God and men.

Not legally or exactly, but as to his sincere intentions, hearty affections, and diligent endeavours to perform all his duties to God and men.

Wesley: Job 1:1 - Upright Heb. right, exact and regular in all his dealings, with men; one of an unblameable conversation.

Heb. right, exact and regular in all his dealings, with men; one of an unblameable conversation.

Wesley: Job 1:1 - Feared One truly pious, and devoted to God.

One truly pious, and devoted to God.

Wesley: Job 1:1 - Eschewed Carefully avoiding all sin against God or men.

Carefully avoiding all sin against God or men.

Wesley: Job 1:3 - Camels Camels in these parts were very numerous, and very useful, both for carrying burdens in these hot and dry countries, as being able to endure thirst mu...

Camels in these parts were very numerous, and very useful, both for carrying burdens in these hot and dry countries, as being able to endure thirst much better than other creatures, and for service in war.

Wesley: Job 1:3 - Asses He - asses also may be included in this expression, because the greatest part of them (from which the denomination is usually taken) were she asses.

He - asses also may be included in this expression, because the greatest part of them (from which the denomination is usually taken) were she asses.

Wesley: Job 1:3 - The greatest That lived in those parts. The account of his piety and prosperity comes before the account of his afflictions, to shew that neither of these will sec...

That lived in those parts. The account of his piety and prosperity comes before the account of his afflictions, to shew that neither of these will secure us from the common, no, nor from the uncommon calamities of human life.

Wesley: Job 1:4 - Feasted To testify and maintain their brotherly love.

To testify and maintain their brotherly love.

Wesley: Job 1:4 - His day Each his appointed day, perhaps his birth - day, or the first day of the month.

Each his appointed day, perhaps his birth - day, or the first day of the month.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - When When each of them had had his turn.

When each of them had had his turn.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - Satisfied He exhorted them to examine their own consciences, to repent of any thing, which had been amiss in their feasting, and compose their minds for employm...

He exhorted them to examine their own consciences, to repent of any thing, which had been amiss in their feasting, and compose their minds for employments of a more solemn nature.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - Early Thereby shewing his ardent zeal in God's service.

Thereby shewing his ardent zeal in God's service.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - May be His zeal for God's glory, and his true love to his children, made him jealous.

His zeal for God's glory, and his true love to his children, made him jealous.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - Cursed Not in a gross manner, which it is not probable either that they should do, or that Job should suspect it concerning them, but despised or dishonoured...

Not in a gross manner, which it is not probable either that they should do, or that Job should suspect it concerning them, but despised or dishonoured God; for both Hebrew and Greek words signifies cursing, are sometimes used to note only, reviling or setting light by a person.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - Hearts By slight and low thoughts of God, or by neglecting to give God the praise for the mercies which they enjoyed.

By slight and low thoughts of God, or by neglecting to give God the praise for the mercies which they enjoyed.

Wesley: Job 1:5 - Thus It was his constant course at the end of every feasting time, to offer a sacrifice for each. Parents should be particular in their addresses to God, f...

It was his constant course at the end of every feasting time, to offer a sacrifice for each. Parents should be particular in their addresses to God, for the several branches of their family; praying for each child, according to his particular temper, genius and disposition.

Wesley: Job 1:6 - A day A certain time appointed by God.

A certain time appointed by God.

Wesley: Job 1:6 - The sons The holy angels, so called, Job 38:7; Dan 3:25, Dan 3:28, because of their creation by God, for their resemblance of him in power, and dignity, and ho...

The holy angels, so called, Job 38:7; Dan 3:25, Dan 3:28, because of their creation by God, for their resemblance of him in power, and dignity, and holiness, and for their filial affection and obedience, to him.

Wesley: Job 1:6 - Before Before his throne, to receive his commands, and to give him an account of their negotiations. But you must not think that these things are to be under...

Before his throne, to receive his commands, and to give him an account of their negotiations. But you must not think that these things are to be understood literally; it is only a parabolical representation of that great truth, that God by his wise and holy providence governs all the actions of men and devils: It being usual with the great God to condescend to our shallow capacities, and to express himself, as the Jews phrase it, in the language of the sons of men. And it is likewise intimated, that the affairs of earth are much the subject of the counsels of the unseen world. That world is dark to us: but we lie open to it.

Wesley: Job 1:9 - For nought Out of pure love and respect to thee? No. It is policy, not piety, that makes him good; he doth not serve thee, but serveth himself of thee, serving t...

Out of pure love and respect to thee? No. It is policy, not piety, that makes him good; he doth not serve thee, but serveth himself of thee, serving thee for his own ends.

Wesley: Job 1:12 - Behold, &c. _It seems strange, that, God should give Satan such a permission as this. But he did it for his own glory, for the honour of Job, for the explanation ...

_It seems strange, that, God should give Satan such a permission as this. But he did it for his own glory, for the honour of Job, for the explanation of providence, and the encouragement of his afflicted people in all ages.

Wesley: Job 1:14 - Messenger, &c. _One messenger immediately followed another; Satan so ordering by God's permission, that there might seem to be more than ordinary displeasure of God ...

_One messenger immediately followed another; Satan so ordering by God's permission, that there might seem to be more than ordinary displeasure of God against him in his troubles, and that he might not have leisure to recollect himself, but be overwhelmed by a complication of calamities.

Wesley: Job 1:15 - Sabeans A people of Arabia, who led a wandering life, and lived by robbery and spoil.

A people of Arabia, who led a wandering life, and lived by robbery and spoil.

Wesley: Job 1:15 - I Whom Satan spared, that Job might have speedy and certain intelligence of his calamity.

Whom Satan spared, that Job might have speedy and certain intelligence of his calamity.

Wesley: Job 1:16 - The fire of God As thunder is the voice of God, so lightning is his fire. How terrible then were the tidings of this destruction, which came immediately from the hand...

As thunder is the voice of God, so lightning is his fire. How terrible then were the tidings of this destruction, which came immediately from the hand of God! And seemed to shew, that God was angry at his very offerings, and would receive no more from his hands.

Wesley: Job 1:17 - Chaldeans Who also lived upon spoil, as Xenephon and others observe.

Who also lived upon spoil, as Xenephon and others observe.

Wesley: Job 1:19 - The young men This was the greatest of Job's losses, and therefore Satan reserved it to the last, that if the other provocations failed, this might make him curse G...

This was the greatest of Job's losses, and therefore Satan reserved it to the last, that if the other provocations failed, this might make him curse God. They died by a wind of the devils raising, but which seemed to be the immediate hand of God. And they were taken away, when he had the most need of them, to comfort him under all his other losses. Such miserable comforters are creatures: in God we have a constant and sufficient help.

Wesley: Job 1:20 - Shaved Caused his hair to be shaved or cut off, which was then an usual ceremony in mourning.

Caused his hair to be shaved or cut off, which was then an usual ceremony in mourning.

Wesley: Job 1:20 - Worshipped Instead of cursing God, which Satan said he would do, he adored him, and gave him the glory of his sovereignty, of his justice, and of his goodness al...

Instead of cursing God, which Satan said he would do, he adored him, and gave him the glory of his sovereignty, of his justice, and of his goodness also, in this most severe dispensation.

Wesley: Job 1:21 - Naked I brought none of these things with me, when I came out of my mother's womb into the world, but I received them from the hand of God, who hath now req...

I brought none of these things with me, when I came out of my mother's womb into the world, but I received them from the hand of God, who hath now required his own again.

Wesley: Job 1:21 - Return thither I shall be as rich when I die as I was when I was born, and therefore have reason to be contented with my condition, which also is the common lot of a...

I shall be as rich when I die as I was when I was born, and therefore have reason to be contented with my condition, which also is the common lot of all men. Into the lap of our common mother, the earth, as the weary child lays its head in its mother's bosom. We go out of the world naked; the body doth, tho' the sanctified soul goes clothed. (2Co 5:3.) Death strips us of all our enjoyments: clothing can neither warm nor adorn a dead body.

Wesley: Job 1:21 - Taken He hath taken away nothing but his own, and what he so gave that he reserved the supreme disposal of in his own hand. And what is it to me, by what ha...

He hath taken away nothing but his own, and what he so gave that he reserved the supreme disposal of in his own hand. And what is it to me, by what hand he that gives, resumes what he gave?

Wesley: Job 1:22 - Charged Heb. not imputed folly to God; so far was he from blaspheming God, that he did not entertain any dishonourable thought of God, as if he had done anyth...

Heb. not imputed folly to God; so far was he from blaspheming God, that he did not entertain any dishonourable thought of God, as if he had done anything unworthy of his infinite wisdom, or justice, or goodness, but heartily acquiesced in his good pleasure, and in his righteous though sharp proceedings against him. Discontent and impatience do in effect impute folly to God. Against the workings of these we should carefully watch, acknowledging that God has done well, but we have done foolishly.

JFB: Job 1:1 - Uz North of Arabia-Deserta, lying towards the Euphrates. It was in this neighborhood, and not in that of Idumea, that the Chaldeans and Sabeans who plund...

North of Arabia-Deserta, lying towards the Euphrates. It was in this neighborhood, and not in that of Idumea, that the Chaldeans and Sabeans who plundered him dwell. The Arabs divide their country into the north, called Sham, or "the left"; and the south, called Yemen, or "the right"; for they faced east; and so the west was on their left, and the south on their right. Arabia-Deserta was on the east, Arabia-Petræa on the west, and Arabia-Felix on the south.

JFB: Job 1:1 - Job The name comes from an Arabic word meaning "to return," namely, to God, "to repent," referring to his end [EICHORN]; or rather from a Hebrew word sign...

The name comes from an Arabic word meaning "to return," namely, to God, "to repent," referring to his end [EICHORN]; or rather from a Hebrew word signifying one to whom enmity was shown, "greatly tried" [GESENIUS]. Significant names were often given among the Hebrews, from some event of later life (compare Gen 4:2, Abel--a "feeder" of sheep). So the emir of Uz was by general consent called Job, on account of his "trials." The only other person so called was a son of Issachar (Gen 46:13).

JFB: Job 1:1 - perfect Not absolute or faultless perfection (compare Job 9:20; Ecc 7:20), but integrity, sincerity, and consistency on the whole, in all relations of life (G...

Not absolute or faultless perfection (compare Job 9:20; Ecc 7:20), but integrity, sincerity, and consistency on the whole, in all relations of life (Gen 6:9; Gen 17:1; Pro 10:9; Mat 5:48). It was the fear of God that kept Job from evil (Pro 8:13).

JFB: Job 1:3 - she-asses Prized on account of their milk, and for riding (Jdg 5:10). Houses and lands are not mentioned among the emir's wealth, as nomadic tribes dwell in mov...

Prized on account of their milk, and for riding (Jdg 5:10). Houses and lands are not mentioned among the emir's wealth, as nomadic tribes dwell in movable tents and live chiefly by pasture, the right to the soil not being appropriated by individuals. The "five hundred yoke of oxen" imply, however, that Job tilled the soil. He seems also to have had a dwelling in a town, in which respect he differed from the patriarchs. Camels are well called "ships of the desert," especially valuable for caravans, as being able to lay in a store of water that suffices them for days, and to sustain life on a very few thistles or thorns.

JFB: Job 1:3 - household (Gen 26:14). The other rendering which the Hebrew admits, "husbandry," is not so probable.

(Gen 26:14). The other rendering which the Hebrew admits, "husbandry," is not so probable.

JFB: Job 1:3 - men of the east Denoting in Scripture those living east of Palestine; as the people of North Arabia-Deserta (Jdg 6:3; Eze 25:4).

Denoting in Scripture those living east of Palestine; as the people of North Arabia-Deserta (Jdg 6:3; Eze 25:4).

JFB: Job 1:4 - every one his day Namely, the birthday (Job 3:1). Implying the love and harmony of the members of the family, as contrasted with the ruin which soon broke up such a sce...

Namely, the birthday (Job 3:1). Implying the love and harmony of the members of the family, as contrasted with the ruin which soon broke up such a scene of happiness. The sisters are specified, as these feasts were not for revelry, which would be inconsistent with the presence of sisters. These latter were invited by the brothers, though they gave no invitations in return.

JFB: Job 1:5 - when the days of their feasting were gone about That is, at the end of all the birthdays collectively, when the banquets had gone round through all the families.

That is, at the end of all the birthdays collectively, when the banquets had gone round through all the families.

JFB: Job 1:5 - cursed God The same Hebrew word means to "curse," and to "bless"; GESENIUS says, the original sense is to "kneel," and thus it came to mean bending the knee in o...

The same Hebrew word means to "curse," and to "bless"; GESENIUS says, the original sense is to "kneel," and thus it came to mean bending the knee in order to invoke either a blessing or a curse. Cursing is a perversion of blessing, as all sin is of goodness. Sin is a degeneracy, not a generation. It is not, however, likely that Job should fear the possibility of his sons cursing God. The sense "bid farewell to," derived from the blessing customary at parting, seems sufficient (Gen 47:10). Thus UMBREIT translates "may have dismissed God from their hearts"; namely, amid the intoxication of pleasure (Pro 20:1). This act illustrates Job's "fear of God" (Job 1:1).

JFB: Job 1:6 - sons of God Angels (Job 38:7; 1Ki 22:19). They present themselves to render account of their "ministry" in other parts of the universe (Heb 1:14).

Angels (Job 38:7; 1Ki 22:19). They present themselves to render account of their "ministry" in other parts of the universe (Heb 1:14).

JFB: Job 1:6 - the Lord Hebrew, JEHOVAH, the self-existing God, faithful to His promises. God says (Exo 6:3) that He was not known to the patriarchs by this name. But, as the...

Hebrew, JEHOVAH, the self-existing God, faithful to His promises. God says (Exo 6:3) that He was not known to the patriarchs by this name. But, as the name occurs previously in Gen 2:7-9, &c., what must be meant is, not until the time of delivering Israel by Moses was He known peculiarly and publicly in the character which the name means; namely, "making things to be," fulfilling the promises made to their forefathers. This name, therefore, here, is no objection against the antiquity of the Book of Job.

JFB: Job 1:6 - Satan The tradition was widely spread that he had been the agent in Adam's temptation. Hence his name is given without comment. The feeling with which he lo...

The tradition was widely spread that he had been the agent in Adam's temptation. Hence his name is given without comment. The feeling with which he looks on Job is similar to that with which he looked on Adam in Paradise: emboldened by his success in the case of one not yet fallen, he is confident that the piety of Job, one of a fallen race, will not stand the test. He had fallen himself (Job 4:19; Job 15:15; Jud 1:6). In the Book of Job, Satan is first designated by name: "Satan," Hebrew, "one who lies in wait"; an "adversary" in a court of justice (1Ch 21:1; Psa 109:6; Zec 3:1); "accuser" (Rev 12:10). He has the law of God on his side by man's sin, and against man. But Jesus Christ has fulfilled the law for us; justice is once more on man's side against Satan (Isa 42:21); and so Jesus Christ can plead as our Advocate against the adversary. "Devil" is the Greek name--the "slanderer," or "accuser." He is subject to God, who uses his ministry for chastising man. In Arabic, Satan is often applied to a serpent (Gen 3:1). He is called prince of this world (Joh 12:31); the god of this world (2Co 4:4); prince of the power of the air (Eph 2:2). God here questions him, in order to vindicate His own ways before angels.

JFB: Job 1:7 - going to and fro Rather, "hurrying rapidly to and fro." The original idea in Arabic is the heat of haste (Mat 12:43; 1Pe 5:8). Satan seems to have had some peculiar co...

Rather, "hurrying rapidly to and fro." The original idea in Arabic is the heat of haste (Mat 12:43; 1Pe 5:8). Satan seems to have had some peculiar connection with this earth. Perhaps he was formerly its ruler under God. Man succeeded to the vice royalty (Gen 1:26; Psa 8:6). Man then lost it and Satan became prince of this world. The Son of man (Psa 8:4) --the representative man, regains the forfeited inheritance (Rev 11:15). Satan's replies are characteristically curt and short. When the angels appear before God, Satan is among them, even as there was a Judas among the apostles.

JFB: Job 1:8 - considered Margin, "set thine heart on"; that is, considered attentively. No true servant of God escapes the eye of the adversary of God.

Margin, "set thine heart on"; that is, considered attentively. No true servant of God escapes the eye of the adversary of God.

JFB: Job 1:9 - fear God for naught It is a mark of the children of Satan to sneer and not give credit to any for disinterested piety. Not so much God's gifts, as God Himself is "the rew...

It is a mark of the children of Satan to sneer and not give credit to any for disinterested piety. Not so much God's gifts, as God Himself is "the reward" of His people (Gen 15:1).

JFB: Job 1:10 - his substance is increased Literally, "spread out like a flood"; Job's herds covered the face of the country.

Literally, "spread out like a flood"; Job's herds covered the face of the country.

JFB: Job 1:11 - curse thee to thy face In antithesis to God's praise of him (Job 1:8), "one that feareth God." Satan's words are too true of many. Take away their prosperity and you take aw...

In antithesis to God's praise of him (Job 1:8), "one that feareth God." Satan's words are too true of many. Take away their prosperity and you take away their religion (Mal 3:14).

JFB: Job 1:12 - in thy power Satan has no power against man till God gives it. God would not touch Job with His own hand, though Satan asks this (Job 1:11, "thine"), but He allows...

Satan has no power against man till God gives it. God would not touch Job with His own hand, though Satan asks this (Job 1:11, "thine"), but He allows the enemy to do so.

JFB: Job 1:13 - -- JOB, IN AFFLICTION, BLESSES GOD, &c.==== (Job 1:13-22)

JOB, IN AFFLICTION, BLESSES GOD, &c.==== (Job 1:13-22)

JFB: Job 1:13 - wine Not specified in Job 1:4. The mirth inspired by the "wine" here contrasts the more sadly with the alarm which interrupted it.

Not specified in Job 1:4. The mirth inspired by the "wine" here contrasts the more sadly with the alarm which interrupted it.

JFB: Job 1:14 - the asses feeding beside them Hebrew, "she asses." A graphic picture of rural repose and peace; the more dreadful, therefore, by contrast is the sudden attack of the plundering Ara...

Hebrew, "she asses." A graphic picture of rural repose and peace; the more dreadful, therefore, by contrast is the sudden attack of the plundering Arabs.

JFB: Job 1:15 - Sabeans Not those of Arabia-Felix, but those of Arabia-Deserta, descending from Sheba, grandson of Abraham and Keturah (Gen 25:3). The Bedouin Arabs of the pr...

Not those of Arabia-Felix, but those of Arabia-Deserta, descending from Sheba, grandson of Abraham and Keturah (Gen 25:3). The Bedouin Arabs of the present day resemble, in marauding habits, these Sabeans (compare Gen 16:12).

JFB: Job 1:15 - I alone am escaped Cunningly contrived by Satan. One in each case escapes (Job 1:16-17, Job 1:19), and brings the same kind of message. This was to overwhelm Job, and le...

Cunningly contrived by Satan. One in each case escapes (Job 1:16-17, Job 1:19), and brings the same kind of message. This was to overwhelm Job, and leave him no time to recover from the rapid succession of calamities--"misfortunes seldom come single."

JFB: Job 1:16 - fire of God Hebraism for "a mighty fire"; as "cedars of God"--"lofty cedars" [Psa 80:10]. Not lightning, which would not consume all the sheep and servants. UMBRE...

Hebraism for "a mighty fire"; as "cedars of God"--"lofty cedars" [Psa 80:10]. Not lightning, which would not consume all the sheep and servants. UMBREIT understands it of the burning wind of Arabia, called by the Turks "wind of poison." "The prince of the power of the air" [Eph 2:2] is permitted to have control over such destructive agents.

JFB: Job 1:17 - Chaldeans Not merely robbers as the Sabeans; but experienced in war, as is implied by "they set in array three bands" (Hab 1:6-8). RAWLINSON distinguishes three...

Not merely robbers as the Sabeans; but experienced in war, as is implied by "they set in array three bands" (Hab 1:6-8). RAWLINSON distinguishes three periods: 1. When their seat of empire was in the south, towards the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates. The Chaldean period, from 2300 B.C. to 1500 B.C. In this period was Chedorlaomer (Gen 14:1), the Kudur of Hur or Ur of the Chaldees, in the Assyrian inscriptions, and the conqueror of Syria. 2. From 1500 to 625 B.C., the Assyrian period. 3. From 625 to 538 B.C. (when Cyrus the Persian took Babylon), the Babylonian period. "Chaldees" in Hebrew--Chasaim. They were akin, perhaps, to the Hebrews, as Abraham's sojourn in Ur, and the name "Chesed," a nephew of Abraham, imply. The three bands were probably in order to attack the three separate thousands of Job's camels (Job 1:3).

JFB: Job 1:19 - a great wind from the wilderness South of Job's house. The tornado came the more violently over the desert, being uninterrupted (Isa 21:1; Hos 13:15).

South of Job's house. The tornado came the more violently over the desert, being uninterrupted (Isa 21:1; Hos 13:15).

JFB: Job 1:19 - the young men Rather, "the young people"; including the daughters (so in Rth 2:21).

Rather, "the young people"; including the daughters (so in Rth 2:21).

JFB: Job 1:20 - Job arose Not necessarily from sitting. Inward excitement is implied, and the beginning to do anything. He had heard the other messages calmly, but on hearing o...

Not necessarily from sitting. Inward excitement is implied, and the beginning to do anything. He had heard the other messages calmly, but on hearing of the death of his children, then he arose; or, as EICHORN translates, he started up (2Sa 13:31). The rending of the mantle was the conventional mark of deep grief (Gen 37:34). Orientals wear a tunic or shirt, and loose pantaloons; and over these a flowing mantle (especially great persons and women). Shaving the head was also usual in grief (Jer 41:5; Mic 1:16).

JFB: Job 1:21 - Naked (1Ti 6:7). "Mother's womb" is poetically the earth, the universal mother (Ecc 5:15; Ecc 12:7; Psa 139:15). Job herein realizes God's assertion (Job 1...

(1Ti 6:7). "Mother's womb" is poetically the earth, the universal mother (Ecc 5:15; Ecc 12:7; Psa 139:15). Job herein realizes God's assertion (Job 1:8) against Satan's (Job 1:11). Instead of cursing, he blesses the name of JEHOVAH (Hebrew). The name of Jehovah, is Jehovah Himself, as manifested to us in His attributes (Isa 9:6).

JFB: Job 1:22 - nor charged God foolishly Rather, "allowed himself to commit no folly against God" [UMBREIT]. Job 2:10 proves that this is the meaning. Not as Margin "attributed no folly to Go...

Rather, "allowed himself to commit no folly against God" [UMBREIT]. Job 2:10 proves that this is the meaning. Not as Margin "attributed no folly to God." Hasty words against God, though natural in the bitterness of grief, are folly; literally, an "insipid, unsavory" thing (Job 6:6; Jer 23:13, Margin). Folly in Scripture is continually equivalent to wickedness. For when man sins, it is himself, not God, whom he injures (Pro 8:36). We are to submit to trials, not because we see the reasons for them, nor yet as though they were matters of chance, but because God wills them, and has a right to send them, and has His own good reasons in sending them.

Clarke: Job 1:1 - In the land of Uz In the land of Uz - This country was situated in Idumea, or the land of Edom, in Arabia Petraea, of which it comprised a very large district. See th...

In the land of Uz - This country was situated in Idumea, or the land of Edom, in Arabia Petraea, of which it comprised a very large district. See the preface

Clarke: Job 1:1 - Whose name was Job Whose name was Job - The original is איוב Aiyob ; and this orthography is followed by the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. From the Vulgate we bor...

Whose name was Job - The original is איוב Aiyob ; and this orthography is followed by the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. From the Vulgate we borrow Job, not very dissimilar from the Ιωβ Iob of the Septuagint. The name signifies sorrowful, or he that weeps. He is supposed to have been called Jobab. See more in the preface

Clarke: Job 1:1 - Perfect and upright Perfect and upright - תם וישר tam veyashar ; Complete as to his mind and heart, and Straight or Correct as to his moral deportment

Perfect and upright - תם וישר tam veyashar ; Complete as to his mind and heart, and Straight or Correct as to his moral deportment

Clarke: Job 1:1 - Feared God Feared God - Had him in continual reverence as the fountain of justice, truth, and goodness

Feared God - Had him in continual reverence as the fountain of justice, truth, and goodness

Clarke: Job 1:1 - Eschewed evil Eschewed evil - סר מרע sar mera , departing from, or avoiding evil. We have the word eschew from the old French eschever , which signifies to ...

Eschewed evil - סר מרע sar mera , departing from, or avoiding evil. We have the word eschew from the old French eschever , which signifies to avoid. All within was holy, all without was righteous; and his whole life was employed in departing from evil, and drawing nigh to God. Coverdale translates an innocent and vertuous man, soch one as feared God, an eschued evell. From this translation we retain the word eschew.

Clarke: Job 1:3 - His substance also was seven thousand sheep His substance also was seven thousand sheep - A thousand, says the Chaldee, for each of his sons. Three thousand camels: a thousand for each of his ...

His substance also was seven thousand sheep - A thousand, says the Chaldee, for each of his sons. Three thousand camels: a thousand for each of his daughters. Five hundred yoke of oxen for himself. And five hundred she-asses for his wife. Thus the Targum divides the substance of this eminent man

Clarke: Job 1:3 - A very great household A very great household - עבדה רבה מאד abuddah rabbah meod , "a very great estate."The word עבדה abuddah refers chiefly to husbandr...

A very great household - עבדה רבה מאד abuddah rabbah meod , "a very great estate."The word עבדה abuddah refers chiefly to husbandry, including all manner of labor in the field, with cattle, and every description of servants

Clarke: Job 1:3 - The greatest of all the men of the East The greatest of all the men of the East - He was more eminent than any other person in that region in wisdom, wealth, and piety. He was the chief em...

The greatest of all the men of the East - He was more eminent than any other person in that region in wisdom, wealth, and piety. He was the chief emir of that district.

Clarke: Job 1:4 - Feasted in their houses, every one his day Feasted in their houses, every one his day - It is likely that a birthday festival is here intended. When the birthday of one arrived, he invited hi...

Feasted in their houses, every one his day - It is likely that a birthday festival is here intended. When the birthday of one arrived, he invited his brothers and sisters to feast with him; and each observed the same custom.

Clarke: Job 1:5 - When the days of their feasting were gone about When the days of their feasting were gone about - At the conclusion of the year, when the birthday of each had been celebrated, the pious father app...

When the days of their feasting were gone about - At the conclusion of the year, when the birthday of each had been celebrated, the pious father appears to have gathered them all together, that the whole family might hold a feast to the Lord, offering burnt-offerings in order to make an atonement for sins of all kinds, whether presumptuous or committed through ignorance. This we may consider as a general custom among the godly in those ancient times

Clarke: Job 1:5 - And cursed God in their hearts And cursed God in their hearts - וברכו אלהים uberechu Elohim . In this book, according to most interpreters, the verb ברך barach s...

And cursed God in their hearts - וברכו אלהים uberechu Elohim . In this book, according to most interpreters, the verb ברך barach signifies both to bless and to curse; and the noun אלהים Elohim signifies the true God, false gods, and great or mighty. The reason why Job offered the burnt-offerings appears to have been this: in a country where idolatry flourished, he thought it possible that his children might, in their festivity, have given way to idolatrous thoughts, or done something prescribed by idolatrous rites; and therefore the words may be rendered thus: It may be that my children have blessed the gods in their hearts. Others think that the word ברך barach should be understood as implying farewell, bidding adieu - lest my children have bidden adieu to God, that is, renounced him, and cast off his fear. To me this is very unlikely. Mr. Mason Good contends that the word should be understood in its regular and general sense, to bless; and that the conjunction ו vau should be translated nor. "Peradventure my sons may have sinned, nor blessed God in their hearts."This version he supports with great learning. I think the sense given above is more plain, and less embarrassed. They might have been guilty of some species of idolatry. This is possible even among those called Christians, in their banquets; witness their songs to Bacchus, Venus, etc., which are countless in number, and often sung by persons who would think themselves injured, not to be reputed Christians. Coverdale, in his translation, (1535), renders the passage thus: Peradventure my sonnes have done some offense, and have been unthankful to God in their hertes.

Clarke: Job 1:5 - Thus did Job continually Thus did Job continually - At the end of every year, when all the birthday festivals had gone round.

Thus did Job continually - At the end of every year, when all the birthday festivals had gone round.

Clarke: Job 1:6 - There was a day when the sons of God There was a day when the sons of God - All the versions, and indeed all the critics, are puzzled with the phrase sons of God; בני האלהים b...

There was a day when the sons of God - All the versions, and indeed all the critics, are puzzled with the phrase sons of God; בני האלהים beney haelohim , literally, sons of the God, or sons of the gods. The Vulgate has simply filii dei , sons of God. The Septuagint, οἱ αγγελοι του θεου, the angels of God. The Chaldee, כתי מלאכיא kittey malachaiya , troops of angels. The Syriac retains the Hebrew words and letters, only leaving out the demonstrative ה he in the word האלהים haelohim , thus, (Syriac) baney Elohim . The Arabic nearly copies the Hebrew also, (Arabic) banoa Iloheem ; to which, if we give not the literal translation of the Hebrew, we may give what translation we please. Coverdale (1535) translates it, servauntes of God. The Targum supposes that this assembly took place on the day of the great atonement, which occurred once each year. And there was a day of judgment in the beginning of the year; and the troops of angels came, that they might stand in judgment before the Lord. But what are we to make of this whole account? Expositions are endless. That of Mr. Peters appears to me to be at once the most simple and the most judicious: "The Scripture speaks of God after the manner of men, for there is a necessity of condescending to our capacities, and of suiting the revelation to our apprehension. As kings, therefore, transact their most important affairs in a solemn council or assembly, so God is pleased to represent himself as having his council likewise; and as passing the decrees of his providence in an assembly of his holy angels. We have here, in the case of Job, the same grand assembly held, as was before in that of Ahab, 1 Kings 22:6-23; the same host of heaven, called here the sons of God, presenting themselves before Jehovah, as in the vision of Micaiah they are said to stand on his right hand and on his left. A wicked spirit appearing among them, here called Satan or the adversary, and there a lying spirit; both bent on mischief, and ready to do all the hurt they were permitted to do; for both were under the control of his power. The imagery is just the same; and the only difference is in the manner of the relation. That mentioned above, Micaiah, as a prophet, and in the actual exercise of his prophetic office, delivers, as he received it, in a vision. "I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, and all the Host of Heaven standing by him, on his right hand and on his left, and there came forth a Lying Spirit, and stood Before the Lord, and said,"1Ki 22:19-22. The other, as a historian, interweaves it with his history; and tells us, in his plain narrative style, "There was a day when the sons of God came to Present themselves Before the Lord, and Satan came also among them."And this he delivers in the same manner as he does, There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job

"The things delivered to us by these two inspired writers are the same in substance, equally high, and above the reach of human sight and knowledge; but the manner of delivering them is different, each as suited best to his particular purpose. This, then is the prophetical way of representing things, as to the manner of doing them, which, whether done exactly in the same manner, concerns us not to know; but which are really done: and God would have them described as done in this manner, to make the more lively and lasting impression on us. At the same time, it must not be forgotten that representations of this kind are founded in a well-known and established truth, viz., the doctrine of good and bad angels, a point revealed from the beginning, and without a previous knowledge of which, the visions of the prophets could scarcely be intelligible."See Gen 28:10-15

Clarke: Job 1:6 - And Satan came also And Satan came also - This word also is emphatic in the original, השטן hassatan , the Satan, or the adversary; translated by the Septuagint ο...

And Satan came also - This word also is emphatic in the original, השטן hassatan , the Satan, or the adversary; translated by the Septuagint ὁ Διαβολος . The original word is preserved by the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic; indeed, in each of them the word signifies an adversary. St. Peter, 1Pe 5:8, plainly refers to this place; and fully proves that השטן hassatan , which he literally translates ὁ αντιδικος, the Adversary, is no other than ὁ Διαβολος, the Devil, or chief of bad demons, which he adds to others by way of explanation. There are many διαμονες, demons, mentioned in Scripture, but the word Satan or devil is never found in the originals of the Old and New Testaments in the plural number. Hence we reasonably infer, that all evil spirits are under the government of One chief, the Devil, who is more powerful and more wicked than the rest. From the Greek Διαβολος comes the Latin Diabolus , the Spanish Diablo , the French Diable , the Italian Diavolo , the German Teuffel , the Dutch Duivel , the Anglo-Saxon and the English Devil, which some would derive from the compound The - Evil; ὁ πονηρος, the evil one, or wicked one

It is now fashionable to deny the existence of this evil spirit; and this is one of what St. John (Rev 2:24) calls τα βαθη του σατανα, the depths of Satan; as he well knows that they who deny his being will not be afraid of his power and influence; will not watch against his wiles and devices; will not pray to God for deliverance from the evil one; will not expect him to be trampled down under their feet, who has no existence; and, consequently, they will become an easy and unopposing prey to the enemy of their souls. By leading men to disbelieve and deny his existence, he throws them off their guard; and is then their complete master, and they are led captive by him at his will. It is well known that, among all those who make any profession of religion, those who deny the existence of the devil are they who pray little or none at all; and are, apparently, as careless about the existence of God as they are about the being of a devil. Piety to God is with them out of the question; for those who do not pray, especially in private, (and I never met with a devil-denier who did), have no religion of any kind, whatsoever pretensions they may choose to make.

Clarke: Job 1:7 - From going to and fro in the earth From going to and fro in the earth - The translation of the Septuagint is curious: Περιελθων την γην και εμπεριπατησα...

From going to and fro in the earth - The translation of the Septuagint is curious: Περιελθων την γην και εμπεριπατησας την ὑπ ουρανον, παρειμι ; "Having gone round the earth, and walked over all that is under heaven, I am come hither."The Chaldee says, "I am come from going round the earth to examine the works of the children of men; and from walking through it."Coverdale, who generally hits the sense, translates thus: I have gone aboute the londe ond walked thorow it. Mr. Good has it, from roaming round the earth, and walking about it

St. Peter, as has been already stated, 1Pe 5:8, refers to this: "Be sober, be vigilant; for your Adversary the Devil Goeth About, as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour."I rather think, with Coverdale, that ארץ arets here signifies rather that land, than the habitable globe. The words are exceedingly emphatic; and the latter verb התהלך hithhallech being in the hithpael conjugation shows how earnest and determined the devil is in his work: he sets himself to walk; he is busily employed in it; he is seeking the destruction of men; and while they sleep, he wakes - while they are careless, he is alert. The spirit of this saying is often expressed by the simple inhabitants of the country: when they perceive a man plotting mischief, and frequent in transgression, they say, The devil is Busy with him.

Clarke: Job 1:8 - Hast thou considered my servant Job Hast thou considered my servant Job - Literally, Hast thou placed thy heart on my servant Job? Hast thou viewed his conduct with attention, whilst t...

Hast thou considered my servant Job - Literally, Hast thou placed thy heart on my servant Job? Hast thou viewed his conduct with attention, whilst thou wert roaming about, seeking whom thou mightest devour? viz., the careless, prayerless, and profligate in general.

Clarke: Job 1:9 - Doth Job fear God for naught? Doth Job fear God for naught? - Thou hast made it his interest to be exemplary in his conduct: for this assertion Satan gives his reasons in what im...

Doth Job fear God for naught? - Thou hast made it his interest to be exemplary in his conduct: for this assertion Satan gives his reasons in what immediately follows.

Clarke: Job 1:10 - Hast not thou made a hedge about him Hast not thou made a hedge about him - Thou hast fortified him with spikes and spears. Thou hast defended him as by an unapproachable hedge. He is a...

Hast not thou made a hedge about him - Thou hast fortified him with spikes and spears. Thou hast defended him as by an unapproachable hedge. He is an object of thy peculiar care; and is not exposed to the common trials of life.

Clarke: Job 1:11 - But put forth thine hand But put forth thine hand - Shoot the dart of poverty and affliction against him

But put forth thine hand - Shoot the dart of poverty and affliction against him

Clarke: Job 1:11 - And he will curse thee to thy face And he will curse thee to thy face - אם לא על פניך יברכך im lo al paneycha yebarechecca , "If he will not bless thee to thy appearan...

And he will curse thee to thy face - אם לא על פניך יברכך im lo al paneycha yebarechecca , "If he will not bless thee to thy appearances."He will bless thee only in proportion to the temporal good thou bestowest upon him; to the providential and gracious appearances or displays of thy power in his behalf. If thou wilt be gracious, he will be pious. The exact maxim of a great statesman, Sir Robert Walpole: Every man has his price. "But you have not bought such a one?""No, because I would not go up to his price. He valued himself at more than I thought him worth; and I could get others cheaper, who, in the general muster, would do as well."No doubt Sir R. met with many such; and the devil many more. But still God has multitudes that will neither sell their souls, their consciences, nor their country, for any price; who, though God should slay them, will nevertheless trust in him; and be honest men, howsoever tempted by the devil and his vicegerents. So did Job; so have done thousands; so will all do, in whose hearts Christ dwells by faith.

Clarke: Job 1:12 - All that he hath is in thy power All that he hath is in thy power - Satan cannot deprive a man even of an ass, a sheep, or a pig, but by especial permission of God. His power and ma...

All that he hath is in thy power - Satan cannot deprive a man even of an ass, a sheep, or a pig, but by especial permission of God. His power and malice are ever bounded, and under control

Clarke: Job 1:12 - So Satan went forth So Satan went forth - The Targum adds, with authority from the presence of the Lord.

So Satan went forth - The Targum adds, with authority from the presence of the Lord.

Clarke: Job 1:13 - There was a day There was a day - The first day of the week, says the Targum. It no doubt refers to one of those birthday festivals mentioned before.

There was a day - The first day of the week, says the Targum. It no doubt refers to one of those birthday festivals mentioned before.

Clarke: Job 1:14 - The asses feeding beside them The asses feeding beside them - אתנות athonoth , the she-asses, which appear to have been more domesticated, as of more worth and use than the...

The asses feeding beside them - אתנות athonoth , the she-asses, which appear to have been more domesticated, as of more worth and use than the others, both for their milk and their work.

Clarke: Job 1:15 - And the Sabeans fell And the Sabeans fell - The Vulgate alone understands this of a people. The Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic, understand it as implying a marauding par...

And the Sabeans fell - The Vulgate alone understands this of a people. The Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic, understand it as implying a marauding party. The Chaldee says, "Lilith, queen of Zamargad, rushed suddenly upon them, and carried them away."The Sabeans mentioned here are supposed to have been the same with those who were the descendants of Abraham by Keturah, whose son Jokshan begat Sheba. The sons of Keturah were sent by Abraham into the east, Gen 25:6, and inhabited Arabia Deserta, on the east of the land of Uz. Hordes of predatory banditti were frequent in those countries and continue so to the present day. They made sudden incursions, and carried off men, women, children, cattle, and goods of every description; and immediately retired to the desert, whither it was in vain to pursue them.

Clarke: Job 1:16 - The fire of God is fallen The fire of God is fallen - Though the fire of God may mean a great, a tremendous fire, yet it is most natural to suppose lightning is meant; for as...

The fire of God is fallen - Though the fire of God may mean a great, a tremendous fire, yet it is most natural to suppose lightning is meant; for as thunder was considered to be the voice of God, so lightning was the fire of God. And as the prince of the power of the air was permitted now to arm himself with this dreadful artillery of heaven, he might easily direct the zigzag lightning to every part of the fields where the sheep were feeding, and so destroy the whole in a moment.

Clarke: Job 1:17 - The Chaldeans made out three bands The Chaldeans made out three bands - The Chaldeans inhabited each side of the Euphrates near to Babylon, which was their capital. They were also mix...

The Chaldeans made out three bands - The Chaldeans inhabited each side of the Euphrates near to Babylon, which was their capital. They were also mixed with the wandering Arabs, and lived like them on rapine. They were the descendants of Chesed, son of Nahor and brother of Huz, from whom they had their name Casdim, which we translate Chaldeans. They divided themselves into three bands, in order the more speedily and effectually to encompass, collect, and drive off the three thousand camels: probably they mounted the camels and rode off.

Clarke: Job 1:19 - A great wind from the wilderness A great wind from the wilderness - Here was another proof of the influence of the prince of the power of the air. What mischief might he not do with...

A great wind from the wilderness - Here was another proof of the influence of the prince of the power of the air. What mischief might he not do with this tremendous agent, were he not constantly under the control of the Almighty! He seems to have directed four different currents, which, blowing against the four corners or sides of the house, crushed it together, and involved all within in one common ruin.

Clarke: Job 1:20 - Rent his mantle Rent his mantle - Tearing the garments, shaving or pulling off the hair of the head, throwing dust or ashes on the head, and fitting on the ground, ...

Rent his mantle - Tearing the garments, shaving or pulling off the hair of the head, throwing dust or ashes on the head, and fitting on the ground, were acts by which immoderate grief was expressed. Job must have felt the bitterness of anguish when he was told that, in addition to the loss of all his property, he was deprived of his ten children by a violent death. Had he not felt this most poignantly, he would have been unworthy of the name of man

Clarke: Job 1:20 - Worshipped Worshipped - Prostrated himself; lay all along upon the ground, with his face in the dust.

Worshipped - Prostrated himself; lay all along upon the ground, with his face in the dust.

Clarke: Job 1:21 - Naked came I out of my mother’ s womb Naked came I out of my mother’ s womb - I had no earthly possessions when I came into the world; I cannot have less going out of it. What I hav...

Naked came I out of my mother’ s womb - I had no earthly possessions when I came into the world; I cannot have less going out of it. What I have the Lord gave: as it was his free gift, he has a right to resume it when he pleases; and I owe him gratitude for the time he has permitted me to enjoy this gift

Clarke: Job 1:21 - Naked shall I return thither Naked shall I return thither - Whither? Not to his mother’ s womb surely; nor does he call the earth his mother in this place. In the first cla...

Naked shall I return thither - Whither? Not to his mother’ s womb surely; nor does he call the earth his mother in this place. In the first clause of the verse he speaks without a metaphor, and in the latter he speaks in reference to the ground on which he was about to fall. As I came out of my mother’ s womb destitute of the earthly possessions, so shall I return שמה shammah , There; i.e., to the earth on which he was now falling. That mother earth was a common expression in different nations, I allow; but I believe no such metaphor was now in the mind of Job

Clarke: Job 1:21 - The Lord gave The Lord gave - The Chaldee has, "The Word of the Lord, מימרא דיי meymera dayai , gave; and the Word of the Lord and the house of his judgm...

The Lord gave - The Chaldee has, "The Word of the Lord, מימרא דיי meymera dayai , gave; and the Word of the Lord and the house of his judgment, have taken away!"Word is used here personally, as in many other places of all the Targums

Clarke: Job 1:21 - Blessed be the name of the Lord Blessed be the name of the Lord - The following is a fine paraphrase on the sentiment in this verse: - "Good when he gives, supremely good; Nor less...

Blessed be the name of the Lord - The following is a fine paraphrase on the sentiment in this verse: -

"Good when he gives, supremely good;
Nor less when he denies

Afflictions from his sovereign hand,
Are blessings in disguise.

Seeing I have lost my temporal goods, and all my domestic comforts, may God alone be all my portion! The Vulgate, Septuagint, and Coverdale, add, The Lord hath done as he pleased.

Clarke: Job 1:22 - In all this Job sinned not In all this Job sinned not - He did not give way to any action, passion, or expression, offensive to his Maker. He did not charge God with acting un...

In all this Job sinned not - He did not give way to any action, passion, or expression, offensive to his Maker. He did not charge God with acting unkindly towards him, but felt as perfectly satisfied with the privation which the hand of God had occasioned, as he was with the affluence and health which that hand had bestowed. This is the transaction that gave the strong and vivid colouring to the character of Job; in this, and in this alone, he was a pattern of patience and resignation. In this Satan was utterly disappointed; he found a man who loved his God more than his earthly portion. This was a rare case, even in the experience of the devil. He had seen multitudes who bartered their God for money, and their hopes of blessedness in the world to come for secular possessions in the present. He had been so often successful in this kind of temptation, that he made no doubt he should succeed again. He saw many who, when riches increased, set their hearts on them, and forgot God. He saw many also who, when deprived of earthly comforts, blasphemed their Maker. He therefore inferred that Job, in similar circumstances, would act like the others; he was disappointed. Reader, has he, by riches or poverty, succeeded with thee? Art thou pious when affluent, and patient and contented when in poverty

That Job lived after the giving of the law, seems to me clear from many references to the rites and ceremonies instituted by Moses. In Job 1:5, we are informed that he sanctified his children, and offered burnt-offerings daily to the morning for each of them. This was a general ordinance of the law, as we may see, Lev 9:7 : "Moses said unto Aaron, Go unto the altar, and offer thy sin-offering and thy burnt-offering, and make an atonement for thyself and for the people."Lev 9:22 : "And Aaron lifted up his hands towards the people, and blessed them, and came down from offering the burnt-offering.

This sort of offering, we are told above, Job offered continually; and this also was according to the law, Exo 29:42 : "This shall be a continual burnt-offering throughout your generations."See also Num 28:3, Num 28:6, Num 28:10, Num 28:15, Num 28:24, Num 28:31

This custom was observed after the captivity, Ezr 3:5 : "They offered the continual burnt-offering: and of every one that offered a freewill-offering."See also Neh 10:33. Ezekiel, who prophesied during the captivity, enjoins this positively, Eze 46:13-15 : "Thou shalt daily prepare a burnt-offering unto the Lord; thou shalt prepare it every morning.

Job appears to have thought that his children might have sinned through ignorance, or sinned privately; and it was consequently necessary to make the due sacrifices to God in order to prevent his wrath and their punishment; he therefore offered the burnt-offering, which was prescribed by the law in cases of sins committed through ignorance. See the ordinances Leviticus 4:1-35; Lev 5:15-19, and particularly Num 15:24-29. I think it may be fairly presumed that the offerings which Job made for his children were in reference to these laws

The worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as being the most prevalent and most seductive idolatry, was very expressly forbidden by the law, Deu 4:19 : "Take heed, lest thou lift up thine eyes to heaven; and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them."Job purges himself from this species of idolatry, Job 31:26-28 : "If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness, and my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand: this also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge; for I should have denied the God that is above.

He clears himself also from adultery in reference to the law enacted against that sin, Job 31:9-12 : "If mine heart have been deceived by a woman, or if I have laid wait at my neighbor’ s door; then let my wife grind to another: for this is a heinous crime; yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges."See the law against this sin, Exo 20:14, Exo 20:17 : "Thou shalt not commit adultery: thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’ s wife."Lev 20:10 : "The man that committeth adultery with another man’ s wife shall surely be put to death;"see Deu 22:22. And for the judge’ s office in such cases, see Deu 17:9-12 : "Thou shalt come unto the priests and Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days; and they shall show thee the sentence of judgment."1Sa 2:25 : "If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him.

The following will, I think, be considered an evident allusion to the passage of the Red Sea, and the destruction of the proud Egyptian king: Job 26:11, Job 26:12 : "The pillars of heaven tremble, and are astonished at his reproof. He divideth the sea with his power; and by his understanding he smiteth through the proud."These, with several others that might be adduced, are presumptive proofs that the writer of this book lived after the giving and establishment of the law, if not much later, let Job himself live when he might. See other proofs in the notes.

Defender: Job 1:1 - land of Uz The land of Uz is mentioned in Lam 4:21 as home to the "daughter of Edom." Edom was the same as Esau, brother of Jacob, who later moved into the regio...

The land of Uz is mentioned in Lam 4:21 as home to the "daughter of Edom." Edom was the same as Esau, brother of Jacob, who later moved into the region, around the southern end of the Dead Sea. It was probably originally named after Uz, the grandson of Seir the Horite (Gen 36:20-21, Gen 36:28), who gave his own name to Mount Seir, in the land of Edom. He, in turn, may have been named after Uz, the grandson of the patriarch, Shem (Gen 10:21-23). Alternatively, the latter may himself have first settled this region.

Defender: Job 1:1 - Job Job was a real person, as confirmed in both Old and New Testaments (Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20; Jam 5:11), despite the contention of religious liberals that...

Job was a real person, as confirmed in both Old and New Testaments (Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20; Jam 5:11), despite the contention of religious liberals that he was only a mythological character. The entire context of Job's narrative is clearly in the patriarchal age, probably the time of Abraham or earlier. Jacob had a grandson named Job (Gen 46:13) and there are several Jobabs in the Bible (Gen 36:33), but all of these clearly lived after the time of this Job. Some have suggested that Job was either Shem or Melchizedek, but these are speculations. Job's narrative stands all alone, probably the oldest book of the Bible, except for the first eleven chapters of Genesis.

Defender: Job 1:1 - perfect and upright Job was the world's most righteous and godly man since Noah and before Daniel (Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20). This introductory statement was twice confirmed ...

Job was the world's most righteous and godly man since Noah and before Daniel (Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20). This introductory statement was twice confirmed by God Himself (Job 1:8; Job 2:3). He was also "the greatest of all the men of the east" (Job 1:3), probably the most wealthy and influential man in all the nations of the region."

Defender: Job 1:5 - offered burnt offerings Even though Job was "perfect and upright" (Job 1:1), he was careful to offer sacrificial offerings regularly, both for himself and his family, recogni...

Even though Job was "perfect and upright" (Job 1:1), he was careful to offer sacrificial offerings regularly, both for himself and his family, recognizing that their sins, whether willful sins or sins done in ignorance, required sacrifice of innocent substitutes and the shedding of blood as an atonement. This was obviously before the giving of the Mosaic law and establishment of the Levitical offerings, so Job was acting in accord with earlier revelation (Job 23:12). Note also that, in the patriarchal system of the age before Moses, Job was acting as the priestly mediator for his family before the Lord."

Defender: Job 1:6 - sons of God This remarkable vision can only have been given to Job (or the author of Job's record) by special revelation after his sufferings and subsequent resto...

This remarkable vision can only have been given to Job (or the author of Job's record) by special revelation after his sufferings and subsequent restoration. The angels are called "sons of God" (Hebrew bene elohim) because they had no parents, but were directly created by God (Gen 6:2; Job 2:1; Job 38:7). Adam was called "the son of God" (Luk 3:38) for the same reason.

Defender: Job 1:6 - Satan This is the Bible's earliest identification of Satan by name, assuming the traditional antiquity of the book of Job (compare 1Ch 21:1). The name Satan...

This is the Bible's earliest identification of Satan by name, assuming the traditional antiquity of the book of Job (compare 1Ch 21:1). The name Satan means "accuser" or "adversary," and he is "the accuser of our brethren" (Rev 12:10); this recorded attack on Job is typical of Satan's attacks. Note also that, despite his primeval rebellion and fall (Eze 28:13-17), he was still able to go among the other sons of God, to make his accusations before God."

Defender: Job 1:7 - walking up and down "The devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour" (1Pe 5:8). On this occasion, he was seeking the most righteous man in the ea...

"The devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour" (1Pe 5:8). On this occasion, he was seeking the most righteous man in the earth, hoping to defeat God's plan for mankind by tempting such a man to reject His Creator and Savior."

Defender: Job 1:12 - in thy power Satan here is proposing a scientific experiment, testing Job's professed faith in God by causing him to suffer great loss. God is allowing it, at leas...

Satan here is proposing a scientific experiment, testing Job's professed faith in God by causing him to suffer great loss. God is allowing it, at least in Job's case, knowing that Job's faith will not fail, thus demonstrating to "the principalities and powers in the heavenly places ... the manifold wisdom of God" (Eph 3:10)."

Defender: Job 1:22 - sinned not It is evident from this verse that questioning God, or blaming him, when circumstances go against a believer, is sin. Job suffered probably more than ...

It is evident from this verse that questioning God, or blaming him, when circumstances go against a believer, is sin. Job suffered probably more than anyone in history (except Christ), yet he continued to trust in God. With the greatest wealth in the whole region, he suddenly became the poorest man; with a wonderful family of ten children, he suddenly lost them all. Nevertheless, his faith persevered."

TSK: Job 1:1 - Uz // Job // perfect // one Uz : Gen 10:23, Gen 22:20, Gen 22:21, Huz, Gen 36:28; 1Ch 1:17, 1Ch 1:42; Jer 25:20; Lam 4:21 Job : Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20; Jam 5:11 perfect : Job 1:8, ...

TSK: Job 1:2 - seven sons seven sons : Job 13:13; Est 5:11; Psa 107:38, Psa 127:3-5, Psa 128:3

TSK: Job 1:3 - substance // seven // household // greatest // men // of the east substance : or, cattle, Gen 12:5, Gen 13:6, Gen 34:23; 2Ch 32:29 seven : Job 42:12; Gen 12:16; Num 31:32-34; Jdg 6:5; 1Sa 25:2; 2Ki 3:4; Pro 10:22 hou...

substance : or, cattle, Gen 12:5, Gen 13:6, Gen 34:23; 2Ch 32:29

seven : Job 42:12; Gen 12:16; Num 31:32-34; Jdg 6:5; 1Sa 25:2; 2Ki 3:4; Pro 10:22

household : or, husbandry, 2Ch 26:10

greatest : Job 29:9, Job 29:10, Job 29:25

men : Heb. sons, Jdg 6:3, Jdg 7:12, Jdg 8:10; 1Ki 4:30

of the east : Gen 25:6, Gen 29:1; Num 23:7

TSK: Job 1:4 - sent and called sent and called : Psa 133:1; Heb 13:1

sent and called : Psa 133:1; Heb 13:1

TSK: Job 1:5 - sanctified // rose up // offered // according // It may be // cursed // in their hearts // Thus // continually sanctified : Job 41:25; Gen 35:2, Gen 35:3; Exo 19:10; 1Sa 16:5; Neh 12:30; Joh 11:55 rose up : Gen 22:3; Psa 5:3; Ecc 9:10 offered : Job 42:8; Gen 8:...

TSK: Job 1:6 - Now // the sons // came to // Satan // came also // among them Now : Job 2:1 the sons : Job 38:7; Dan 3:25; Luk 3:38 came to : Psa 103:20; Mat 18:10 Satan : Heb. the adversary, 1Ki 22:19; 1Ch 21:1; Zec 3:1; Rev 12...

Now : Job 2:1

the sons : Job 38:7; Dan 3:25; Luk 3:38

came to : Psa 103:20; Mat 18:10

Satan : Heb. the adversary, 1Ki 22:19; 1Ch 21:1; Zec 3:1; Rev 12:9, Rev 12:10

came also : Joh 6:70

among them : Heb. in the midst of them

TSK: Job 1:7 - Whence // From going Whence : Job 2:2; 2Ki 5:25 From going : Zec 1:10, Zec 1:11, Zec 6:7; Mat 12:43; 1Pe 5:8; Rev 12:9, Rev 12:12-17, Rev 20:8

TSK: Job 1:8 - considered // my servant // none // a perfect // upright // one // escheweth considered : Heb. set thy heart on, Job 2:3, Job 34:14; Eze 40:4 my servant : Num 12:7, Num 12:8; Psa 89:20; Isa 42:1 none : Num 12:3; 1Ki 4:30, 1Ki 4...

TSK: Job 1:9 - Doth Job Doth Job : Job 1:21, Job 2:10, Job 21:14, Job 21:15; Mal 1:10; Mat 16:26; 1Ti 4:8, 1Ti 6:6

TSK: Job 1:10 - an hedge // about // thou hast blessed // substance an hedge : Gen 15:1; Deu 33:27; 1Sa 25:16; Psa 5:12, Psa 34:7, Psa 80:12; Isa 5:2, Isa 5:5; Zec 2:5, Zec 2:8; 1Pe 1:5 about : Gen 39:5; Deu 28:2-6; Ps...

TSK: Job 1:11 - But put // touch // and he will curse thee But put : Job 1:12, Job 2:5; Isa 5:25 touch : Job 4:5, Job 19:21; Gen 26:11; Psa 105:15; Zec 2:8 and he will curse thee : Heb. if he curse thee not, J...

But put : Job 1:12, Job 2:5; Isa 5:25

touch : Job 4:5, Job 19:21; Gen 26:11; Psa 105:15; Zec 2:8

and he will curse thee : Heb. if he curse thee not, Job 1:5, Job 1:21, Job 2:9; Isa 8:21; Mal 3:13, Mal 3:14; Rev 16:9, Rev 16:11, Rev 16:21

TSK: Job 1:12 - Behold // power // only // So Satan Behold : 1Ki 22:23; Luk 8:32, Luk 22:31, Luk 22:32; Joh 19:11; 2Co 12:7 power : Heb. hand, Gen 16:6; Jer 38:5; Joh 3:35, Joh 3:36 only : Job 2:4-6; Ps...

TSK: Job 1:13 - when when : Job 1:4; Pro 27:1; Ecc 9:12; Luk 12:19, Luk 12:20, Luk 17:27-29, Luk 21:34

TSK: Job 1:14 - messenger messenger : 1Sa 4:17; 2Sa 15:13; Jer 51:31

messenger : 1Sa 4:17; 2Sa 15:13; Jer 51:31

TSK: Job 1:15 - Sabeans // and I only Sabeans : Gen 10:7, Gen 10:28, Gen 25:3; Psa 72:10; Isa 45:14; Eze 23:42; Joe 3:8 and I only : Job 1:16, Job 1:17, Job 1:19; 1Sa 22:20, 1Sa 22:21

TSK: Job 1:16 - there came // The fire of God there came : Gen 19:24; Lev 9:24; 1Ki 18:38; 2Ki 1:10, 2Ki 1:12, 2Ki 1:14; Amo 7:4; Rev 13:13 The fire of God : or, A great fire, Exo 9:28; 1Sa 14:15 ...

there came : Gen 19:24; Lev 9:24; 1Ki 18:38; 2Ki 1:10, 2Ki 1:12, 2Ki 1:14; Amo 7:4; Rev 13:13

The fire of God : or, A great fire, Exo 9:28; 1Sa 14:15 *marg.

TSK: Job 1:17 - The Chaldeans // fell // I only am The Chaldeans : Gen 11:28; Isa 23:13; Hab 1:6 fell : Heb. rushed I only am : Job 1:15; 2Sa 1:3

The Chaldeans : Gen 11:28; Isa 23:13; Hab 1:6

fell : Heb. rushed

I only am : Job 1:15; 2Sa 1:3

TSK: Job 1:18 - there came // Thy sons // eating there came : Job 6:2, Job 6:3, Job 16:14, Job 19:9, Job 19:10, Job 23:2; Isa 28:19; Jer 51:31; Lam 1:12; Amo 4:6-11 Thy sons : Job 1:4, Job 1:13, Job ...

TSK: Job 1:19 - a great // from // it fell // they are dead a great : Jer 4:11, Jer 4:12; Eph 2:2 from : Heb. from aside, etc it fell : Jdg 16:30; 1Ki 20:30; Mat 7:27; Luk 13:1-5; Act 28:4 they are dead : Gen 3...

a great : Jer 4:11, Jer 4:12; Eph 2:2

from : Heb. from aside, etc

it fell : Jdg 16:30; 1Ki 20:30; Mat 7:27; Luk 13:1-5; Act 28:4

they are dead : Gen 37:32, Gen 37:33, Gen 42:36; 2Sa 18:33

TSK: Job 1:20 - rent // mantle // fell rent : Gen 37:29, Gen 37:34; Ezr 9:3 mantle : or robe fell : Deu 9:18; 2Sa 12:16-20; 2Ch 7:3; Mat 26:39; 1Pe 5:6

rent : Gen 37:29, Gen 37:34; Ezr 9:3

mantle : or robe

fell : Deu 9:18; 2Sa 12:16-20; 2Ch 7:3; Mat 26:39; 1Pe 5:6

TSK: Job 1:21 - Naked came // the Lord gave // taken away // blessed Naked came : Gen 3:19; Psa 49:17; Ecc 5:15, Ecc 12:7; 1Ti 6:7 the Lord gave : Job 2:10; Gen 30:2; Ecc 5:19; Lam 3:38; Jam 1:17 taken away : Gen 45:5; ...

TSK: Job 1:22 - In all this // charged God foolishly In all this : Job 2:10; Jam 1:4, Jam 1:12; 1Pe 1:7 charged God foolishly : or, attributed folly to God, Job 34:10, Job 34:18, Job 34:19, Job 40:4-8; R...

In all this : Job 2:10; Jam 1:4, Jam 1:12; 1Pe 1:7

charged God foolishly : or, attributed folly to God, Job 34:10, Job 34:18, Job 34:19, Job 40:4-8; Rom 9:20

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Poole: Job 1:3 - She-asses // The greatest // Of all the men of the east Camels in these parts were very numerous, as is manifest from Jud 7:12 1Ch 5:21 , and from the plain testimonies of Aristotle and Pliny, and very us...

Camels in these parts were very numerous, as is manifest from Jud 7:12 1Ch 5:21 , and from the plain testimonies of Aristotle and Pliny, and very useful, and proper both for carrying of burdens in these hot and dry countries, as being able to endure thirst much better than other creatures, and for service in war.

She-asses were preferred before he-asses, as serving for the same uses as they did, and for breeding and milk also; but he-asses also may be included in this expression, which is of the feminine gender, because the greatest part of them (from which the denomination is usually taken) were she-asses.

The greatest i.e. one of the richest.

Of all the men of the east to wit, that lived in those parts; such general expressions being commonly understood with such limitations.

Poole: Job 1:4 - His sons went and feasted // Every one his day His sons went and feasted to testify and maintain their brotherly love. Every one his day not every day of the week and of the year; which would ha...

His sons went and feasted to testify and maintain their brotherly love.

Every one his day not every day of the week and of the year; which would have been burdensome and tedious to them all, and gross luxury and epicurism, which holy Job would not have permitted; but each his appointed day, whether his birthday, or the first day of the month, or any other set time, it matters not.

Poole: Job 1:5 - When the days of their feasting were gone about // Job sent and sanctified them // Rose up early in the morning // It may be that my sons have sinned // And cursed God // In their hearts // This did Job continually When the days of their feasting were gone about when each of them had had his turn, which peradventure came speedily, though not immediately one afte...

When the days of their feasting were gone about when each of them had had his turn, which peradventure came speedily, though not immediately one after another; and there was some considerable interval before their next feasting time.

Job sent and sanctified them i.e. he exhorted and commanded them to sanctify themselves for the following work, to wit, by purifying themselves from all ceremonial and moral pollution, as the manner then was, Exo 19:10 , and by preparing themselves by true repentance for all their sins, and particularly such as they had committed in their time of feasting and jollity, and by fervent prayers to make their peace with God by sacrifice.

Rose up early in the morning thereby showing his ardent zeal in God’ s service, and his impatience till God was reconciled to him and to his children.

It may be that my sons have sinned: his zeal for God’ s glory, and his true love to his children, made him jealous; for which he had cause enough from the corruption of man’ s nature, the frailty and folly of youth, the many temptations which attend upon feasting and jollity, and the easiness of sliding from lawful to forbidden delights.

And cursed God not in the grossest manner and highest degree, which it is not probable either that they should do, now especially when they had no provocation to do it, as being surrounded with blessings and comforts which they were actually enjoying, and not yet exercised with any affliction, or that Job should suspect it concerning them; but despised and dishonoured God; for both Hebrew and Greek words signifying cursing, are sometimes used to note only reviling, or detracting, or speaking evil, or setting light by a person. Thus what is called cursing one’ s father or mother , Exo 21:17 , is elsewhere called setting light by them , as Deu 27:16 Eze 22:7 . See also 2Pe 2:10 Jud 1:8 , and many other places.

In their hearts by slight and low thoughts of God, by neglecting or forgetting to give God the praise and glory of the mercies which by his favour they enjoyed, by taking more hearty delight in their feasts and jollity than in the service and fruition of God; for these and such-like distempers of heart are most usual in times of prosperity and jollity, as appears by common experience, and by the many Divine cautions we have against them, as Deu 6:11,12 Ho 2:8 , and elsewhere. And these miscarriages, though inward and secret, Job calls by such a hard name as usually signifies cursing, by way of aggravation of their sin, which peradventure they were too apt to slight as a small and trivial miscarriage.

This did Job continually i.e. it was his constant course at the end of every feasting time.

Poole: Job 1:6 - There was a day // The sons of God // Before the Lord // Satan came also among them There was a day i.e. a certain time appointed by God. The sons of God i.e. the holy angels, so called Job 38:7 Dan 3:25,28 , because of their creat...

There was a day i.e. a certain time appointed by God.

The sons of God i.e. the holy angels, so called Job 38:7 Dan 3:25,28 , because of their creation by God, as Adam also was, Luk 3:38 , and for their great resemblance of him in power, and dignity, and holiness, and for their filial affection and obedience to him.

Before the Lord i.e. before his throne, to receive his commands, and to give him an account of their negotiations. Compare 1Ki 22:19 Zec 4:14 Luk 1:19 . But you must not think that these things were really done, and that Satan was mixed with the holy angels, or admitted into the presence of God in heaven, to maintain such discourses as this with the blessed God, or that he had formal commission and leave to do what follows; but it is only a parabolical representation of that great truth, that God by his wise and holy providence doth govern all the actions of men and devils to his own ends; it being usual with the great God to condescend to our shallow capacities, and to express himself, as the Jews phrase it, in the language of the sons of men, i.e. in such manner as men use to speak and may understand.

Satan came also among them being forced to come, and give up his account.

Poole: Job 1:7 - From going to and fro in the earth God being here represented as Judge, rightly begins with an inquiry, as the ground of his further proceedings, as he did Gen 3:9 4:9 . From going t...

God being here represented as Judge, rightly begins with an inquiry, as the ground of his further proceedings, as he did Gen 3:9 4:9 .

From going to and fro in the earth where by thy permission I range about, observing with great diligence all the dispositions and actions of men, and working in them and among them as far as I have liberty and opportunity.

Poole: Job 1:8 - -- Hast thou taken notice of him, and his spirit and carriage? and what hast thou to say against him?

Hast thou taken notice of him, and his spirit and carriage? and what hast thou to say against him?

Poole: Job 1:9 - -- i.e. Sincerely and freely, and out of pure love and respect to thee? No. It is policy, not piety, that makes him good; he doth not serve thee, but s...

i.e. Sincerely and freely, and out of pure love and respect to thee? No. It is policy, not piety, that makes him good; he doth not serve thee, but serveth himself of thee, and is a mere mercenary, serving thee for his own ends.

Poole: Job 1:10 - Made a hedge about him // His house Made a hedge about him i.e. defended him by thy special care and providence from all harms and inconveniencies; which is able to oblige and win perso...

Made a hedge about him i.e. defended him by thy special care and providence from all harms and inconveniencies; which is able to oblige and win persons of the worst tempers.

His house his children and servants.

Poole: Job 1:11 - Put forth thine hand // Touch // He will curse thee to thy face Put forth thine hand to wit, in way of justice and severity, as that phrase is used, Isa 5:25 Eze 25:7,13,16 . Touch i.e. afflict or destroy, as th...

Put forth thine hand to wit, in way of justice and severity, as that phrase is used, Isa 5:25 Eze 25:7,13,16 .

Touch i.e. afflict or destroy, as this word is used, Gen 26:11 Rth 2:9 Psa 105:15 Zec 2:8 .

He will curse thee to thy face he who is now so forward to serve and bless thee, will then openly and boldly blaspheme thy name, and reproach thy providence, as unjust and unmerciful to him.

Poole: Job 1:12 - All that he hath is in thy power // Upon himself // From the presence of the Lord All that he hath is in thy power I give thee full power and liberty to deal with his wife, children, servants, and all his estate, whatsoever thy wit...

All that he hath is in thy power I give thee full power and liberty to deal with his wife, children, servants, and all his estate, whatsoever thy wit or malice shall prompt thee to do.

Upon himself his person, body or soul.

From the presence of the Lord i.e. from that place where God was represented as specially present, being forward and greedy to do the mischief which he had permission to do.

Poole: Job 1:14 - -- i.e. Beside the oxen, therefore both were taken away together.

i.e. Beside the oxen, therefore both were taken away together.

Poole: Job 1:15 - The Sabeans // I only am escaped alone to tell thee The Sabeans a people of Arabia, who led a wandering life, and lived by robbery and spoiling of others, as Strabo and other heathen writers note. I o...

The Sabeans a people of Arabia, who led a wandering life, and lived by robbery and spoiling of others, as Strabo and other heathen writers note.

I only am escaped alone to tell thee whom Satan spared no less maliciously than he destroyed the rest, that Job might have speedy and certain intelligence of his calamity.

Poole: Job 1:16 - While he was yet speaking // The fire of God // Is fallen from heaven While he was yet speaking before he could have time to compose his disturbed mind, and to digest his former loss, or indeed to swallow his spittle, a...

While he was yet speaking before he could have time to compose his disturbed mind, and to digest his former loss, or indeed to swallow his spittle, as he expresseth it, Job 7:19 .

The fire of God a terrible flame of fire sent from God in an extraordinary manner, to intimate that both God and men were his enemies, and all things conspired to his ruin.

Is fallen from heaven i.e. from the air, which is oft called heaven, as hath been noted again and again, whereof Satan is the prince, Eph 2:2 .

Poole: Job 1:17 - The Chaldeans // Made out three bands The Chaldeans who also lived upon the spoil, as Xenophon and others observe. Made out three bands that they might come upon them several ways, and ...

The Chaldeans who also lived upon the spoil, as Xenophon and others observe.

Made out three bands that they might come upon them several ways, and nothing might be able to escape them.

Poole: Job 1:18 - -- i.e. Feasting after their manner, and, as Job generally feared and suspected, sinning against God, Job 1:5 , which was a dreadful aggravation of the...

i.e. Feasting after their manner, and, as Job generally feared and suspected, sinning against God, Job 1:5 , which was a dreadful aggravation of the judgment.

Poole: Job 1:19 - From the wilderness // Smote the four corners // The young men From the wilderness whence the fiercest winds came, as having most power in such open places. See Jer 4:11 13:24 . Smote the four corners in which ...

From the wilderness whence the fiercest winds came, as having most power in such open places. See Jer 4:11 13:24 .

Smote the four corners in which the chief strength of the house did consist. It smote these either all together, or rather successively, one immediately after another, being possibly a whirlwind, which comes violently and suddenly, whirling about in a circle, and being driven about by the power of the devil, which is very great.

The young men his sons in their youth, and his daughters also, as appears from the sequel.

Poole: Job 1:20 - Then Job arose from his seat // Rent his mantle // Fell down upon the ground // And worshipped Then Job arose from his seat whereon he was sitting in a disconsolate posture. Rent his mantle to testify his deep sense of and just sorrow for the...

Then Job arose from his seat whereon he was sitting in a disconsolate posture.

Rent his mantle to testify his deep sense of and just sorrow for the heavy hand of God upon him, and his humiliation of himself under his hand. See Gen 37:34 . Shaved his head , i.e. caused the hair of his head to be shaved or cut off, which was then a usual ceremony in mourning, of which see Ezr 9:3 Isa 15:2 22:12 Jer 7:29 41:5 Mic 1:16 .

Fell down upon the ground in way of self-abhorrency, and humiliation, and supplication unto God.

And worshipped to wit, God, who is expressed in the following verse, and who is the only object of religious worship. Instead of cursing God, which Satan said he would do, he adored him, and gave him the glory of his sovereignty, and of his justice, and of his goodness also, in this most severe dispensation.

Poole: Job 1:21 - Naked shall I return thither // Thither // the lower parts of the earth // The Lord hath taken away // The name of the Lord I brought none of these things which I have now lost with me, when I came out of my mother’ s womb into the world but I received them from the ...

I brought none of these things which I have now lost with me, when I came out of my mother’ s womb into the world but I received them from the hand and favour of that God who hath now required his own again. I still have all that substance wherewith I was born, and have lost only things without and beside myself.

Naked shall I return thither I shall be as rich when I die as I was when I was born, and therefore have reason to be contented with my condition, which also is the common lot of all men.

Thither i.e. into my mother’ s womb, which in the former clause is understood properly, but in this figuratively, of the earth, which is our common mother, as it is called by many authors, out of whose belly we were taken, and into which we must return again, Gen 3:19 Ecc 12:7 . And as our mother’ s womb is called

the lower parts of the earth Psa 139:15 , so it is not harsh if reciprocally the lower parts of the earth be called our mother’ s womb. Nor is it strange that the same phrase should be taken both properly and metaphorically in the same verse; for so it is Mat 8:22 , let the dead spiritually bury the dead corporally. See also Lev 26:21,24 Ps 18:26 , &c.

The Lord hath taken away he hath taken away nothing but his own, and what he so gave to me that he reserved the supreme dominion and disposal of in his own hand. So I have no cause to murmur or complain of him. Nor have I reason to fret and rage against the Chaldeans, and Sabeans, and other creatures, who were only God’ s instruments to execute his wise and holy counsel.

The name of the Lord i.e. the Lord; God’ s name being often put for God himself, as Psa 44:5 48:10 Psa 72:18,19 Da 2:19,20 ; as names are put for men, Act 1:15 Rev 3:4 . The sense is, I have no cause to quarrel with God, but much cause to bless and praise him that he did give me such blessings, and suffered me to enjoy them more and longer than I deserved; and that he hath vouchsafed to afflict me, which I greatly needed for my soul’ s good, and which I take as a token of his love and faithfulness to me, and therefore ministering more matter of comfort than grief to me; and that he hath left me the comfort of my wife, and yet is pleased to continue to me the health of my body, and a composed mind, and a heart to submit to his good pleasure; and that he hath reserved and prepared such a felicity for me, whom no Chaldeans or Sabeans, no men nor devils, can take away from me; of which see Job 19:25 .

Poole: Job 1:22 - Job sinned not // Nor charged God foolishly // nor imputed folly to God i.e. Under all these pressures; or, in all that he said or did upon these sad occasions; Job sinned not to wit, in such manner as the devil presag...

i.e. Under all these pressures; or, in all that he said or did upon these sad occasions;

Job sinned not to wit, in such manner as the devil presaged that he would, and as is expressed in the following words. As Christ saith, Joh 9:3 , Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents , to wit, so as you imagine, in an eminent or extraordinary degree. But both here and there human infirmities are excepted, of which Job oft acknowledgeth himself to be guilty. Nor was the question between God and Satan, whether Job had any sin in him, but whether he was a hypocrite, or would blaspheme God; which is here denied and disproved.

Nor charged God foolishly Heb.

nor imputed folly to God i.e. so far was he from blaspheming God, that he did not entertain any dishonourable thought of God, as if he had done any thing unworthy of his infinite wisdom, or justice, or goodness, but heartily approved of and acquiesced in his good pleasure, and in his righteous, though sharp, proceedings against him.

Haydock: Job 1:1 - Hus // Simple Hus. The land of Hus was a part of Edom; as appears from Lamentations iv. 21. --- Simple. That is, innocent, sincere, and without guile, (Challon...

Hus. The land of Hus was a part of Edom; as appears from Lamentations iv. 21. ---

Simple. That is, innocent, sincere, and without guile, (Challoner) in opposition to hypocrites and double dealers. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew Tam, "perfect."

Haydock: Job 1:3 - Sheep // Camels // East Sheep. Hebrew including "goats," which are equally valuable in that country for milk. --- Camels. These animals were used for riding in those bar...

Sheep. Hebrew including "goats," which are equally valuable in that country for milk. ---

Camels. These animals were used for riding in those barren sands, where they can travel for four days without water; and that which is muddy is best for them. ---

East, in the desert Arabia. Septuagint add at the end of the book, that Job was king; and he seems to have been independent, (Calmet) and to have had other kings who acknowledged his authority. (Pineda) (Chap. xxix. 7., &c.) ---

Each city had its own king in the days of Abraham and of Josue. Job, or Jobab, resided at Denaba, Genesis xxxvi. 32. (Calmet)

Haydock: Job 1:4 - His day His day of the week in succession; (Pineda) or each on his birthday, (Genesis xl. 20., and Matthew xiv. 6.; Grotius) or once a month, &c. The daught...

His day of the week in succession; (Pineda) or each on his birthday, (Genesis xl. 20., and Matthew xiv. 6.; Grotius) or once a month, &c. The daughters of Job were probably unmarried.

Haydock: Job 1:5 - Blessed Blessed. For greater horror of the very thought of blasphemy, the Scripture both here and [in] ver. 11, and in the following chapter (ver. 5., and 9...

Blessed. For greater horror of the very thought of blasphemy, the Scripture both here and [in] ver. 11, and in the following chapter (ver. 5., and 9.) uses the word bless, to signify its contrary. (Challoner) (3 Kings xxi. 10.) ---

Thus the Greeks styled the furies Eumenides, "the kind," out of a horror of their real name. Even those who are the best inclined, can hardly speak of God without some want of respect, (Calmet) in the midst of feasts, where the neglect of saying grace is also too common. (Haydock) ---

Septuagint, "they have thought evil against God." Every kind of offence may be included, to which feasting leads. (Menochius)

Haydock: Job 1:6 - The sons of God // Satan also The sons of God. The angels, (Challoner) as the Septuagint express it. (Calmet) --- Satan also, &c. This passage represents to us in a figure, a...

The sons of God. The angels, (Challoner) as the Septuagint express it. (Calmet) ---

Satan also, &c. This passage represents to us in a figure, accommodated to the ways and understandings of men, 1. The restless endeavours of satan against the servants of God. 2. That he can do nothing without God's permission. 3. That God doth not permit him to tempt them above their strength: but assists them by his divine grace in such manner, that the vain efforts of the enemy only serve to illustrate their virtue and increase their merit. (Challoner) ---

A similar prosopopeia occurs, 3 Kings xxii. 19., and Zacharias i. 10. (Calmet) ---

Devils appear not in God's sight, but sometimes in presence of angels, who represent God. (St. Athanasius, q. 8. ad Antioc, (Worthington) or some ancient author.) ---

The good angels can make known their orders to them, Zacharias iii. 1., and Jude 9. Both good and bad spirits may be considered as the ministers of God. (Calmet) ---

They appear in judgment; though the latter could not see the Lord.

Haydock: Job 1:9 - In vain In vain, without recompense. (Haydock)

In vain, without recompense. (Haydock)

Haydock: Job 1:11 - Face Face, like a hypocrite, (Sanctius) or rather curse thee openly, ver. 5. (Haydock)

Face, like a hypocrite, (Sanctius) or rather curse thee openly, ver. 5. (Haydock)

Haydock: Job 1:12 - Hand Hand. God permits evils. (Worthington) --- The devil can do nothing without leave. (Calmet)

Hand. God permits evils. (Worthington) ---

The devil can do nothing without leave. (Calmet)

Haydock: Job 1:15 - Sabeans Sabeans, descended from Abraham, in the desert (Calmet) or happy Arabia. These nations lived on plunder. (Pliny, [Natural History?] vi. 28.) (Meno...

Sabeans, descended from Abraham, in the desert (Calmet) or happy Arabia. These nations lived on plunder. (Pliny, [Natural History?] vi. 28.) (Menochius)

Haydock: Job 1:16 - Heaven Heaven, or the air, where the devils exercise a power, Ephesians ii. 2.

Heaven, or the air, where the devils exercise a power, Ephesians ii. 2.

Haydock: Job 1:17 - Chaldeans Chaldeans. Some copies of the Septuagint read "horsemen." These nations inhabited the other side of the Euphrates, but made frequent incursions to ...

Chaldeans. Some copies of the Septuagint read "horsemen." These nations inhabited the other side of the Euphrates, but made frequent incursions to plunder their neighbours. (Calmet)

Haydock: Job 1:20 - Head Head. Hebrew, torn his hair, and rolled in the dust. (Bochart) (Isaias xv. 2., &c.) (Calmet) --- The fathers oppose this example to the apathy o...

Head. Hebrew, torn his hair, and rolled in the dust. (Bochart) (Isaias xv. 2., &c.) (Calmet) ---

The fathers oppose this example to the apathy of the stoics. (St. Augustine, City of God i. 9.) (Romans i. 31.)

Haydock: Job 1:21 - Thither // Ista terra gentes omnes peperit & resumet demum // Ut ater operiens // As....done Thither. To that earth from which all are taken. (Haydock) --- Ista terra gentes omnes peperit & resumet demum. (Varro.) --- Ut ater operiens. ...

Thither. To that earth from which all are taken. (Haydock) ---

Ista terra gentes omnes peperit & resumet demum. (Varro.) ---

Ut ater operiens. (Pliny, [Natural History?] ii. 63.) See 1 Timothy vi. 7. ---

As....done. Some copies of St. Jerome omit this, which is borrowed from the Septuagint. (Calmet)

Haydock: Job 1:22 - By his lips // God By his lips, is not in Hebrew but occurs [in] chap. ii. 10. --- God. Much less did he blaspheme, as satan had said, ver. 11. He did not consider ...

By his lips, is not in Hebrew but occurs [in] chap. ii. 10. ---

God. Much less did he blaspheme, as satan had said, ver. 11. He did not consider all as the effect of chance, or like a mere philosopher. His thoughts were regulated by religion and the fear of God. (Calmet) ---

The virtue of Job was so much the more wonderful, as he lived among the wicked. (St. Gregory) He bore patiently with the loss of all things: and English Catholics have often imitated him. (Worthington) ---

He might well record his own good actions, the gifts of God, being moved by divine inspiration, like Moses, &c. (St. Gregory)

Gill: Job 1:1 - There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job // and the man was perfect // and upright // and one that feared God // and eschewed evil There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job,.... Of the signification of his name, see the introduction to the book. The place where he dwel...

There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job,.... Of the signification of his name, see the introduction to the book. The place where he dwelt had its name not from Uz, a descendant of Shem, Gen 10:23 but from Uz, a son of Nahor, brother to Abraham, Gen 22:21 unless it can be thought to be so called from Uz, of the children of Seir, in the land of Edom; since we read of the land of Uz along with Edom, or rather of Edom as in the land of Uz, or on the borders of it, Lam 4:21, the Targum calls it the land of Armenia, but rather it is Arabia; and very probably it was one of the Arabias Job lived in, either Petraea or Deserta, probably the latter; of which Uz or Ausitis, as the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin version read it, was a part; the same with the Aesitae of Ptolemy u; and it is said to be near the land of Canaan w, for in Arabia Felix the Sabeans lived; and certain it is that this country was near to the Sabeans and Chaldeans, and to the land of Edom, from whence Eliphaz the Temanite came: and as this very probably was a wicked and an idolatrous place, it was an instance of the distinguishing grace of God, to call Job by his grace in the land of Uz, as it was to call Abraham in Ur of the Chaldeans; and though it might be distressing and afflicting to the good man to live in such a country, as it was to Lot to live in Sodom, yet it was an honour to him, or rather it was to the glory of the grace of God that he was religious here, and continued to be so, see Rev 2:13 and gives an early proof of what the Apostle Peter observed, "that God is no respecter of persons, but, in every nation, he that feareth God, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him"; that is, through Christ, Act 10:34. Job, as he is described by his name and country, so by his sex, "a man"; and this is not so much to distinguish his sex, nor to express the reality of his existence as a man, but to denote his greatness; he was a very considerable, and indeed an extraordinary man; he was a man not only of wealth and riches, but of great power and authority, so the mean and great man are distinguished in Isa 2:9 see the account he gives of himself in Job 29:7, by which it appears he was in great honour and esteem with men of all ranks and degrees, as well as he was a man of great grace, as follows:

and the man was perfect; in the same sense as Noah, Abraham, and Jacob were; not with respect to sanctification, unless as considered in Christ, who is made sanctification to his people; or with regard to the truth, sincerity, and genuineness of it; or in a comparative sense, in comparison of what he once was, and others are; but not so as to be free from sin, neither from the being of it, which no man is clear of in this life, nor from the actings of it in thought, word, and deed, see Job 9:20 or so as to be perfect in grace; for though all grace is seminally implanted at once in regeneration, it opens and increases gradually; there is a perfection of parts, but not of degrees; there is the whole new man, but that is not arrived to the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ; there are all and every grace, but not one perfect, not knowledge, nor faith, nor hope, nor love, nor patience, nor any other: but then, as to justification, every good man is perfect; Christ has completely redeemed his people from all their sins; he has perfectly fulfilled the law in their room and stead; he has fully expiated all their transgressions, he has procured the full remission of them, and brought in a righteousness which justifies them from them all; so that they are free from the guilt of sin, and condemnation by it, and are in the sight of God unblamable, unreproveable, without fault, all fair and perfectly comely; and this was Job's case:

and upright; to whom was shown the uprightness of Christ, or to whom the righteousness of Christ was revealed from faith to faith, and which was put upon him, and he walked in by faith, see Job 33:23, moreover, Job was upright in heart, a right spirit was renewed in him; and though he was not of the nation of Israel, yet he was, in a spiritual sense, an Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile, the truth of grace and the root of the matter being in him, Job 19:28, and he was upright in his walk and conversation before God, and also before men; upright in all his dealings and concerns with them, in every relation he stood, in every office and character he bore:

and one that feared God; not as the devils, who believe and tremble; nor as carnal men, when the judgments of God are in the earth, hide themselves in fear of him; nor as hypocrites, whose fear or devotion is only outward, and is taught by the precept of men; but as children affectionately reverence their parents: Job feared God with a filial and godly fear, which sprung from the grace of God, and was encouraged and increased by his goodness to him, and through a sense of it; it was attended with faith and confidence of interest in him, with an holy boldness and spiritual joy, and true humility; and comprehended the whole of religious worship, both public and private, internal and external:

and eschewed evil, or "departed from it" x; and that with hatred and loathing of it, and indignation at it, which the fear of God engages unto, Pro 8:13, he hated it as every good man does, as being contrary to the nature and will of God, abominable in itself, and bad in its effects and consequences; and he departed from it, not only from the grosser acts of it, but abstained from all appearance of it, and studiously shunned and avoided everything that led unto it; so far was he from indulging to a sinful course of life and conversation, which is inconsistent with the grace and fear of God,

Gill: Job 1:2 - And there were born unto him // seven sons and three daughters And there were born unto him,.... By his wife, in lawful wedlock, who was now living, and after mentioned: seven sons and three daughters; next to ...

And there were born unto him,.... By his wife, in lawful wedlock, who was now living, and after mentioned:

seven sons and three daughters; next to his religious character, his graces, and spiritual blessings, and as the chief of his outward mercies and enjoyments, his children are mentioned; and which are indeed blessings from the Lord, and such as good men, and those that fear the Lord, are sometimes blessed with, see Psa 127:3 and to have a numerous offspring was always esteemed a very great favour and blessing, and as such was reckoned by Job; who, having so many sons, might hope to have his name perpetuated by them, as well as his substance shared among them; and having so many daughters, he might please himself with the thought of marrying them into families, which would strengthen his friendship and alliance with them; just the same number of sons and daughters had Bacchaeus, the third king of Corinth y.

Gill: Job 1:3 - His substance also was seven thousand sheep // and three thousand camels // and five hundred yoke of oxen // and five hundred she asses // and a very great household // so that this man was the greatest of all the men of the east His substance also was seven thousand sheep,.... For which he must have a large pasturage to feed them on, as well as these would produce much wool fo...

His substance also was seven thousand sheep,.... For which he must have a large pasturage to feed them on, as well as these would produce much wool for clothing, and flesh for food; this part of his substance or possessions is mentioned first, as being the largest, and most useful and profitable:

and three thousand camels; creatures fit to carry burdens, and travel with, and were greatly valued on that account, especially in the deserts of Arabia, near to which Job lived; and that not only because they were strong for this purpose, but because they could endure much thirst and want of water for a long time; See Gill on Lev 11:4, it seems by this that Job carried on a commerce, and traded in distant parts, whither he sent the produce of his lands and cattle, and trafficked with them: these camels might not only be he, but she camels also, according to the Septuagint version, which might be kept for breeding, and for their milk: Aristotle observes z, some of the inhabitants of the upper Asia used to have camels, to the number of 3000, the exact number here mentioned; and by the number of these creatures the Arabians estimated their riches and possessions a; and so sheep are by the Greeks called μηλα, as it is thought, from the Arabic word "mala", to be rich b; the riches of other people, and of particular persons, as of Geryon, Atlas, and Polyphemus, are represented as chiefly consisting of their flocks, and also of their herds c, as follows:

and five hundred yoke of oxen; to plough his land with, of which he must have a large quantity to employ such a number in, see 1Ki 19:19

and five hundred she asses; which must be chiefly for their milk; and no doubt but he had a considerable number of he asses also, though not mentioned, which, as well as the others, were used to ride on, and also to plough with, in those countries; it may be rendered only asses as by some, and so may include both: Aristaeus, Philo, and Polyhistor d give the same account of Job's substance in the several articles as here:

and a very great household: this must be understood of his servants only, since his children are before taken notice of; and the same phrase is rendered "great store of servants", Gen 26:14 and in the margin, "husbandry" or "tillage", large fields and farms; and the sense comes to much the same, whether it is taken the one way or the other; if great store of servants, he must have large farms and many fields to employ them in; and if a large husbandry, and much ground for tillage, he must have many servants to manure and cultivate them: now these several articles are mentioned, because, in those times and countries, as has been observed, the substance of men chiefly lay in them, and according to them they were reckoned more or less rich; not but that they had gold and silver also, as Abraham had, Gen 13:1, and so had Job, Job 31:24, but these were the principal things:

so that this man was the greatest of all the men of the east; that lived in Arabia, Chaldea, and other eastern countries; that is, he was a man of the greatest wealth and riches, and of the greatest power and authority, and was had in the greatest honour and esteem: now these temporal blessings are observed, to show that grace and earthly riches are compatible, that they may, and sometimes do, meet in the same person; as also to point at the goodness of God, in bestowing such blessings on this good man, thereby fulfilling the promise made to godliness and godly men, which respects this life, and that which is to come; and they are mentioned chiefly for the sake of the loss of these things after related, whereby the greatness of his loss and of his afflictions would be the more easily perceived, and his patience in bearing them appear the more illustrious; for by how much the greater was his substance, by so much the greater were his losses and trials, and the more remarkable his patience under them.

Gill: Job 1:4 - And his sons went and feasted in their houses, everyone his day // and sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them And his sons went and feasted in their houses, everyone his day,.... It appears by this that Job's sons were grown up to men's estate, that they were ...

And his sons went and feasted in their houses, everyone his day,.... It appears by this that Job's sons were grown up to men's estate, that they were from him, and were for themselves, and carried on a separate business on their own accounts, and had houses of their own, and, perhaps, were married; and being at some distance from each other, they met by appointment at certain times in their own houses, and had friendly and family entertainments in turn; for such were their feasts, not designed for intemperance, luxury, and wantonness, for then they would not have been encouraged, nor even connived at, by Job; but to cherish love and affection, and maintain harmony and unity among themselves, which must be very pleasing to their parent; for a pleasant thing it is for any, and especially for parents, to behold brethren dwelling together in unity, Psa 133:1, besides, these feasts were kept, not in public houses, much less in houses of ill fame, but in their own houses, among themselves, at certain seasons, which they took in turn; and these were either at their time of sheep shearing, which was a time of feasting, 1Sa 25:2, or at the weaning of a child, Gen 21:8, or rather on each of their birthdays, which in those early times were observed, especially those of persons of figure, Gen 40:20, and the rather, as Job's birthday is called his day, as here, Job 3:1,

and sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them; not to make a feast in their turn, but to partake of their entertainment; which, as is commonly observed, showed humanity, kindness, tenderness, and affection in them to their sisters, to invite them to take part with them in their innocent and social recreations, and modesty in their sisters not to thrust themselves into their company, or go without an invitation; these very probably were with Job, and went to the feasts with his leave, being very likely unmarried, or otherwise their husbands would have been invited also.

Gill: Job 1:5 - And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about // that Job sent and sanctified them // and rose up early in the morning // and offered burnt offering according to the number of them all // for Job said, it may be that my sons have sinned // and cursed God in their hearts // thus did Job continually And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about,.... When they had been at each other's houses in turn; when the rotation was ended: so...

And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about,.... When they had been at each other's houses in turn; when the rotation was ended: something like this is practised by the Chinese, who have their co-fraternities, which they call "the brotherhood of the month"; this consists of thirty, according to the number of days therein, and in a circle they go every day to eat at one another's house by turns; if one man has not convenience to receive the fraternity in his own house, he may provide it at another man's, and there are many public houses very well furnished for this purpose e: Job's sons probably began at the elder brother's house, and so went on according to their age, and ended with the younger brother; so when they had gone through the circuit, as the word f signifies, and the revolution was over, and they had done feasting for that season, or that year:

that Job sent and sanctified them; not that he did or could make them holy, by imparting grace, or infusing holiness into them; at most he could only pray for their sanctification, and give them rules, precepts, and instructions about holiness, and exhortations to it; but here it signifies, that being at some distance from them he sent messengers or letters to them to sanctify and prepare themselves for the sacrifices he was about to offer for them; either by some rites and ceremonies, as by washing themselves, and abstinence from their wives, which were sometimes used as preparatory to divine service, Gen 35:2, or by fasting and prayer; or, perhaps, no more is intended by it than an invitation of them to come and attend the solemn sacrifice which he, as the head of the family, would offer for them; so, to sanctify people, is sometimes to invite, to call and gather them to holy service, see Joe 2:15 and so the Targum renders it. "Job sent and invited them:"

and rose up early in the morning of the last of the days of feasting; he took the first opportunity, and that as early as he could; which shows the eagerness of his spirit for the glory of God, and the good of his children, losing no time for his devotion to God, and regard for his family; this being also the fittest time for religious worship and service, see Psa 5:3, and was used for sacrifice, Exo 29:39,

and offered burnt offering according to the number of them all either of his ten children, or only his seven sons, since they only are next mentioned, and were the masters of the feast: this was before the law of the priesthood was in being, which restrained the offering of sacrifice to those in the office of priests, when, before, every head of a family had a right unto it; and this custom of offering sacrifice was before the law of Moses, it was of divine institution, and in use from the time of the fall of man, Gen 3:21, and was by tradition handed down from one to another, and so Job had it; and which was typical of the sacrifice of Christ, to be offered up in the fulness of time for the expiation of sin; and Job, no doubt, by faith in Christ, offered up those burnt offerings for his sons, and one for each of them, thereby signifying, that everyone stood in need of the whole sacrifice of Christ for the atonement of sin, as every sinner does:

for Job said, it may be that my sons have sinned; not merely as in common, or daily sins of infirmity; for Job so full well knew the corruption of human nature, that a day could not pass without sin in thought, word, or deed; but some more notorious or scandalous sin; that, in the midst of their feasting and mirth, they had used some filthy, or frothy, and unsavoury and unbecoming language; had dropped some impure words, or impious jests, or done some actions which would reflect dishonour on God and true religion, and bring an odium on themselves and families: now Job was not certain of this, he had had no instruction or intelligence of it; he only surmised and conjectured it might be so; he was fearful and jealous lest it should: this shows his care and concern, as for the glory of God, so for the spiritual welfare of his children, though they were grown up and gone from him, and is to be considered in favour of his sons; for by this it is evident they were not addicted to any sin, or did not live a vicious course of life; but that they were religious and godly persons; or, otherwise Job would have had no doubt in his mind about their conduct and behaviour: the particular sin he feared they might have been guilty of follows:

and cursed God in their hearts; not in the grossest sense of the expression, so as to deny the being of God, and wish there was none, and conceive blasphemy in their hearts, and utter it with their lips; but whereas to bless God is to think and speak well of him, and ascribe that to him which is his due; so to curse him is to think and speak irreverently of him, and not to attribute to him what belongs unto him; and thus Job might fear that his sons, amidst their feasting, might boast of their plenty, and of the increase of their substance, and attribute it to their own diligence and industry, and not to the providence of God, of which he feared they might speak slightingly and unbecomingly, as persons in such circumstances sometimes do, see Deu 32:15. Mr. Broughton renders it, "and little blessed God in their hearts" not blessing him as they should was interpretatively cursing him; the Hebrew word used properly and primarily signifies to bless g, and then the meaning is, either that his sons had sinned, but took no notice of it, nor were humbled for it, but blessed God, being prosperous and successful, as if they had never sinned at all, see Zec 13:1, Sanctius adds the negative particle "not", as if the meaning was, that they sinned, and did not bless God for their mercies as they should, Deu 8:10, but this is too daring and venturous to make such an addition; though this is favoured by the Targum, as in some copies, which paraphrases it,

and have not prayed in the name of the Lord in their hearts: and because the word is used at parting, and taking a farewell of friends, Cocceius thinks it may be so used here, and the sense to be, that they sinned, and took their leave of God, and departed from him; but rather, as the word Elohim is used of strange gods, of false deities, Exo 18:11. Job's fears might be, lest his sons should have been guilty of any idolatrous action, at least of blessing the gods of the Gentiles in their hearts, since feasting sometimes leads to idolatry, Exo 32:6, but the first sense seems best, with which the Septuagint version agrees,

"it may be my sons in their mind have thought evil things against the Lord:''

thus did Job continually; or "all those days" h; that is, after every such circuit and rotation of feasting, or after every feast day kept by them, he offered sacrifices for them; or every year i, as some interpret the phrase, the feasts, and so the sacrifices, being annual; all this is observed, partly further to describe the piety of Job, his affection for his family, and concern for their spiritual good, and the glory of God, and partly as a leading step to an later event, Job 1:18.

Gill: Job 1:6 - Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord // and Satan came also among them Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord,.... This is generally understood of the angels, as in Job 38:7 wh...

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord,.... This is generally understood of the angels, as in Job 38:7 who may be thought to be so called, because of their creation by the father of spirits, and their likeness to God in holiness, knowledge, and wisdom, and being affectionate and obedient to him; as also on account of the grace of election, and confirmation in Christ bestowed upon them, as well as because, in their embassies and messages to men, they represent God, and so may be called gods, and children of the Most High, for a like reason the civil magistrates are, Psa 82:6 to which may be added, their constituting with the saints the family of God in heaven and earth: these, as they stand before God, and at his right hand and left, as the host of heaven, in which posture Micaiah saw them in vision, 1Ki 22:19, so they may be said to go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth into the several parts of all the world, to do the will and work of God assigned them, Zec 6:5 and then, having done their work, return again, and present themselves before the Lord, to give an account of what they have done, and to receive fresh orders from him, being ready to do his pleasure in everything he shall command them, which is what is here supposed; though some think these were only the company or band of angels which were set as a guard about Job, his person, family, and substance, who now appeared before the Lord, to give an account of him, his affairs, and circumstances, as required of them:

and Satan came also among them; which word signifies an "adversary", as in 1Ki 11:14 but does not design here a man adversary, as there, or one that envied Job's prosperity, as Saadiah Gaon thinks, but an evil spirit, the old serpent, the devil, as in Rev 12:9 who is an implacable and bitter enemy to men, especially to Christ and his people; and so has this name from his hatred of them, and opposition to them: Origen k observes, that this word, translated into the Greek language, is αντικειμενος, an "adversary"; but R. Levi l derives it from שטה, "to decline" or "turn aside"; and so Suidas says m, Satan, in the Hebrew language, is an apostate; and Theodoret n mentions both, that it signifies either an adversary or an apostate; the first derivation is best: knowing the end of the above meeting, that it was with respect to Job, and therefore he came with an intent to contradict what they should say of him, and to accuse him before God; he came among them as one of them, transforming himself into an angel of light, as he sometimes does; or he came, being sent for, and obliged to come to give an account of himself, and of what he had been doing in the world, in order to be reproved and punished: but though the stream of interpreters run this way, I cannot say I am satisfied with it; for, setting aside the passages in this book in question, angels are nowhere called "the sons of God"; for besides, this being denied of them in the sense that Christ is, they are represented as servants, yea, as servants to the sons of God, ministering spirits to the heirs of salvation; they call themselves the fellow servants of the saints, and of their brethren, but do not say that they are sons of the same family, or fellow heirs, or their brethren, Heb 1:5, moreover, they always stand in the presence of God, and behold his face, be they where they will, Mat 18:10 nor is there any particular day assigned them for the service of God; for though they are under the moral law, so far as it is suitable to their nature, yet not under the ceremonial law, to which the observance of days belonged; and besides, they have no rest night nor day, but continually serve God, and glorify him, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty: and if this presentation of themselves to God is supposed to be in heaven, as where else should it be? it is not possible that Satan could come among them; he is fallen from heaven, being cast down from thence, nor can he, nor ever will he, be able to find a place any more there, see Luk 10:18 it seems better therefore to understand this of the people of God, of professors of religion, who, earlier than the times of Job, were distinguished from the men of the world by this character, "the sons of God", Gen 6:2, such that were truly godly being so by adopting grace, and which was made manifest by their regeneration by the Spirit of God, and by their faith in Christ, and all were so by profession: now these assembled themselves together, to present themselves, their bodies and souls, before the Lord, which was but their reasonable service; as to pray unto him, and praise him, to offer sacrifice, and perform every religious exercise enjoined in those times; the apostle uses the like phrase of the saints' social worship, Rom 12:1 now for this there was a "day"; though I very much question whether any sabbath, or much less a seventh day sabbath, was as yet instituted; but inasmuch as men agreed together to call on the name of the Lord, or to worship him in a social way, Gen 4:26 as it was necessary that a place should be appointed to meet at, so a time fixed by consent and agreement; even as now, the seventh day sabbath being abrogated, Christians agree to meet on the first day of the week, called the Lord's day, in imitation of the apostles of Christ; and on one of these days thus fixed and agreed on was the above meeting, at which Satan came among them, as he frequently does in the assembly of the saints, to do what mischief he can; by snatching away the word from inattentive hearers, and by directing the eye to such objects, and putting such things into the mind, as divert from the service of God; or by suggesting to the saints themselves, that what is attended to does not belong to them, with many other things of the like kind: the Targum interprets this day of the day of judgment, at the beginning of the year, and the sons of God of angels, as do other Jewish writers.

Gill: Job 1:7 - And the Lord said unto Satan, whence comest thou // then Satan answered the Lord and said, from going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it And the Lord said unto Satan, whence comest thou?.... This question is put, not as ignorant of the place from whence he came; for the omniscient God k...

And the Lord said unto Satan, whence comest thou?.... This question is put, not as ignorant of the place from whence he came; for the omniscient God knows all persons and things, men and angels, and these good and bad, where they are, from whence they come, and what they do, see Gen 3:9 but it is put either as being angry with him, and resenting his coming among the sons of God, and chiding him for it, as having no proper business there, like the question in Mat 22:12, or rather in order to lead on to another, and to bring out from him what he intended to have expressed by him, of what he had seen and taken notice of in the place from whence he came, and particularly concerning Job: how God and spirits converse together we are not able to say; but no doubt there is a way in which God talks with spirits, even with evil ones, as well as good ones, and in which they speak to him; and so this does not at all affect the reality of this narrative:

then Satan answered the Lord and said, from going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it; this he said as swaggering and boasting, as if he was indeed the God of the whole world, the Prince and King of it, and had and exercised a sovereign dominion over it, and as such had been making a tour through it, and taking a survey of it, see Mat 4:8, and as if he was at full liberty to go where he pleased, and was under no control, when he was in chains of darkness, and could go nowhere, nor do anything, without divine permission; could not touch Job, nor his substance, nor, as in the days of Christ, so much as enter into a herd of swine without leave: likewise this may denote the disquietude and restlessness of this evil spirit, who could not abide long in a place, but moving to and fro, seeking rest, but finding none, Mat 12:43, as also his diligence and indefatigableness in doing and seeking to do mischief, going about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour, taking all opportunities of doing injury, sowing his tares while men are asleep and off their guard, 1Pe 5:8, and so the first word here used signifies a diligent search, and is rendered by some, and particularly by Mr. Broughton, "from searching about the earth" o, "and from walking in it"; and so the Targum,

from going about in the earth, to search the works of the children of men, and from walking in it; and it points at the place of Satan's abode, the earth, with the circumambient air, Eph 2:2 and the extent of his influence, which reaches not to heaven, and to the saints there, out of which he is cast, and can never reenter, but to the earth only, and men on it; and here no place is free from him; he and his angels are roving about everywhere, city and country; public and private places, men's own houses, or the house of God, are not exempt from them; and therefore all here need to watch and pray, lest they enter into temptation, Mat 26:41. Schultens interprets the word of Satan going through the earth with great force and violence, whipping and scourging miserable mortals.

Gill: Job 1:8 - And the Lord said unto Satan, hast thou considered my servant Job // that there is none like him in the earth // a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? And the Lord said unto Satan, hast thou considered my servant Job,.... Or, "hast thou put thine heart on my servant" p; not in a way of love and affec...

And the Lord said unto Satan, hast thou considered my servant Job,.... Or, "hast thou put thine heart on my servant" p; not in a way of love and affection to him, to do him any good or service, there being an original and implacable enmity in this old serpent to the seed of the woman; but rather his heart was set upon him in a way of desire to have him in his hands, to do him all the mischief he could, as the desire of his heart was toward Peter, Luk 22:31 but the sense of the question is, since thou sayest thou hast been walking up and down in the earth, hast thou not taken notice of Job, and cast an eye upon him, and wished in thine heart to have him in thine hands to do him hurt? I know that thou hast; hast thou not contrived in thine heart how to attack him, tempt him, and draw him from my service, and into sins and snares, in order to reproach and accuse him? thou hast, but all in vain; and so it is a sarcasm upon Satan, as well as an expression of indignation at him for such an attempt upon him, and as anticipating his accusation of Job; for it is as if he should further say, I know he is in thine eye, and upon thine heart, now thou art come with a full intent to accuse and charge him; so Jarchi, "lest thou set thine heart", &c. so as "to have a good will to accuse him" he had, but the Lord prevents him, by giving a high character of him, in these and the following words: here he calls him "my servant"; not a servant of men, living according to the lusts and will of men, and their customs and forays of worship, superstition, and idolatry; nor a servant of sin and the lusts of the flesh; nor of Satan, who boasted of the whole earth being his; but the Lord's servant, not only by creation, but by special choice, by redemption, by efficacious grace, and the voluntary surrender of himself to the Lord under the influence of it; and by his cheerful and constant obedience he answered this character; and the Lord here claims his property in him, acknowledges him as his servant, calls him by name, and gives an high and honourable account of him:

that there is none like him in the earth; or "in the land"; in the land of Uz, so Obadiah Sephorno; whatever there were in other countries, there were none in this, being in general idolaters; or in the land of the people of the Heathen nations, as the Targum; or rather in the whole earth, where Satan had been walking: and, very probably, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, were now dead; Job being, as it should seem, between them and the times of Moses; and though there might be many godly persons then living, who were like to him in quality, being partakers of the same divine nature, having the same image of God upon them, and the same graces in them, and a similar experience of divine things, yet not upon an equality with him; he exceeded them all in grace and holiness; and particularly, none came up to him for his patience in suffering affliction, though this was often tried; as Moses excelled others in meekness, and Solomon in wisdom; Job was an eminent saint and servant of the Lord, a father in his family, a pillar in his house, like Saul among the people, taller in grace and the exercise of it; and this is a reason why he could not but be taken notice of by Satan, who has his eye more especially on the most eminent saints, and envies them, and strikes at them; and so the words are by some rendered, "for there is none like him" q; or rather they may be rendered, "but there is none like him" r: and so are opposed to the accusations and charges Satan was come with against him:

a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? See Gill on Job 1:1. Here the character there given is confirmed by the Lord in the express words of it.

Gill: Job 1:9 - Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, doth Job fear God for nought. Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, doth Job fear God for nought. Satan does not deny any part of Job's character, nor directly charge him with an...

Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, doth Job fear God for nought. Satan does not deny any part of Job's character, nor directly charge him with anyone sin; which shows what a holy man Job was, how exact in his life and conversation, that the devil could not allege any one thing against him; nor does he deny that he feared the Lord; nay, he owns it, only suggests there was a private reason for it; and this he dares not affirm, only puts it by way of question, giving an innuendo, which is a wretched way of slander many of his children have learnt from him: he insinuates that Job's fear of God, and serving him, was not "for nought", or "freely" s, it was not out of love to him, or with any regard to his will, or his honour and glory, but from selfish principles, with mercenary views, and for worldly ends and purposes: indeed no man fears and serves the Lord for nought and in vain, he is well paid for it; and godliness has a great gain along with it, the Lord bestows everything, both in a temporal and spiritual way, on them that fear him; so that eventually, and in the issue, they are great gainers by it; and they may lawfully look to these things, in order to encourage them in the service and worship of God, even as Moses had respect to the recompence of reward; when they do not make these, but the will and glory of God, the sole and chief cause and end thereof: but the intimation of Satan is, that Job's fear was merely outward and hypocritical, nor cordial, hearty, and disinterested, but was entirely for his own sake, and for what he got by it; and this he said as if he knew better than God himself, the searcher of hearts, who had before given such an honourable character of him. Sephorno observes, that he supposes that his fear was not a fear of the greatness of God, a reverence of his divine Majesty, but a fear of punishment; or what we call a servile fear, and not a filial one.

Gill: Job 1:10 - Hast not thou made an hedge about him // and about his house // and about all that he hath on every side // thou hast blessed the work of his hands // and his substance is increased in the land Hast not thou made an hedge about him,.... A fence, a wall of protection all around him? he had; he encompassed him about with his love as with a shie...

Hast not thou made an hedge about him,.... A fence, a wall of protection all around him? he had; he encompassed him about with his love as with a shield, a hedge which could not be broken down by men or devils; he surrounded him with his almighty power, that none could hurt him; he guarded him by his providence, he caused his angels to encamp about him; yea, he himself was a wall of fire around him; the Targum interprets it the word of God: so thick was the hedge, so strong the fence, that Satan could not find the least gap to get in at, to do him any injury to his body or mind, without the divine permission; which he envied and was vexed at, and maliciously suggests that this was the motive of Job's fear of the Lord; and indeed it was an obligation upon him to fear him, but not the sole cause of it:

and about his house; not the house in which he dwelt; though Satan could have gladly pulled down that about his ears, as well as that in which his children were; but it designs his family, who were also by Providence protected in their persons and estates, and preserved from the temptations of Satan, at least from being overcome by them, and even at the times of their feasting before mentioned; this fence was about his servants also, so that Satan could not come at and hurt any one that belonged to him, which was a great grief and vexation of mind to him:

and about all that he hath on every side? his sheep, his camels, his oxen, and his asses; for otherwise these would not have escaped the malice and fury of this evil spirit they afterwards felt; but as these were the gifts of the providence of God to Job, they were guarded by his power, that Satan could not hurt them without leave:

thou hast blessed the work of his hands; not only what he himself personally wrought with his own hands, but was done by his servants through his direction, and by his order; the culture of his fields, the feeding and keeping of his flocks and herds; all succeeded well; whatever he did, or was concerned in, prospered:

and his substance is increased in the land; or "broke out" t; like a breach of waters; see 2Sa 5:20; exceeded all bounds; his riches broke forth on the right hand and on the left, and flowed in, so that there were scarce any limits to be set to them; he abounded in them; his sheep brought forth thousands; his oxen, camels, and asses, stood well, and were strong to labour; and his wealth poured in upon him in great plenty; all which was an eyesore to Satan, and therefore would insinuate that this was the sole spring and source of Job's religion, devotion, and obedience.

Gill: Job 1:11 - But put forth thine hand now // and touch all that he hath // and he will curse thee to thy face But put forth thine hand now,.... With draw thine hand of providence, power, and protection, with which thou hast covered and screened him; and, inste...

But put forth thine hand now,.... With draw thine hand of providence, power, and protection, with which thou hast covered and screened him; and, instead of that, "send" u forth thine afflicting hand, not barely in a way of chastisement and correction, but in wrath and vengeance, consuming and destroying all he had; and this he desires might be done now, immediately, without delay, while Job was in the midst of his prosperity; for Satan was in haste to have mischief done to him, being an object of his great hatred and enmity: some, instead of "now", render it, "I pray thee" w, as being an entreaty of Satan, and an importunate one, and which he was eagerly desirous of obtaining; well knowing that no hurt could be done to Job without leave from God, or his doing it himself: the Vulgate Latin version is, "put forth thine hand a little", as if its being exerted but a little, or a small touch of it, would be sufficient to discover Job's hypocrisy; but Satan doubtless knew Job better than this suggests, and that such was his integrity, that a small trial would not affect him; and besides, he immediately adds:

and touch all that he hath; which was not a slight touch, but an heavy one, reaching to all his family and substance, and to his person too, and the health of it at least; as appears by the proviso or saving clause put in by the Lord afterwards, when he gave leave to smite him:

and he will curse thee to thy face; or, if he does not curse thee to thy face x; then, let it be so and so with me, worse than it now is; let me have my full damnation; for the words are an imprecation of the devil, wishing the worst of evils to himself, if Job, in such circumstances, did not "curse" God to his "face"; that is, not only openly and publicly, but impudently; signifying that he would fly in his face, like a man passionate, furious, and enraged, and like those wicked persons, hungry and hardly bestead, that would fret and curse their king and their God, Isa 8:21 or like those men, who, under their pains and sores, blasphemed him that had power over them, Rev 16:10, or like those carnal professors, whose words were stout against God, Mal 3:13 in suchlike passionate expressions Satan insinuates Job would break out against God, murmuring at and complaining of his providence, arraigning his wisdom, righteousness, and holiness, in his dealings with him: or, if "he does not bless thee to thy face" y, as it may be rendered; that is, either he "will bid thee farewell" z, and apostatize from thee; see Gill on Job 1:5 as sometimes nominal professors do, when affliction and tribulation come upon them, they are offended, and drop their profession, Mat 13:21 or, as others, "if he hath not blessed thee to thy face" a; then let it be thus with me, that is, it will be then a clear case, that Job in times past had only blessed God to his face, or outwardly; he had only honoured him with his lips, but his heart was far from him, and his fear towards him taught by the precept of men, as is the character of hypocrites, Isa 29:13 this Satan wickedly insinuates; one of the Targums is,

if he does not provoke thee to the face of thy Word; Ben Melech interprets על פניו "by thy life", and takes it to be the form of an oath.

Gill: Job 1:12 - And the Lord said unto Satan, behold, all that he hath is in thy power // only upon himself put not forth thine hand // so Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord And the Lord said unto Satan, behold, all that he hath is in thy power,.... This he said not as angry and displeased with Job, or as entertaining any ...

And the Lord said unto Satan, behold, all that he hath is in thy power,.... This he said not as angry and displeased with Job, or as entertaining any ill opinion of him through the suggestions of Satan, nor as gratifying that evil spirit; but in order to convince and confound him, and to try the grace of Job, that he might shine the brighter; and it may be observed, that the Lord alone had the sovereign dispose of all that Job had, and that Satan could have no power over him or his, but what was given him:

only upon himself put not forth thine hand; thus the Lord restrained Satan, who could do nothing without his leave, and limits and bounds the present affliction of his servant to his family and estate; reserving his person and the health of it for another temptation and trial:

so Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord; the Targum adds, "with power", authority, liberty of acting; not from his general presence, which is everywhere, from whence there is no going; nor from his gracious presence, in which he had not been; and much less his glorious presence in heaven, from whence he had been cast long ago; but from the place where the sons and people of God worshipped, and where he granted his presence to them, and from conversing with God there: as soon as Satan had got leave, he at once went forth to execute what he had permission to do, glad at heart he had so far succeeded; and eager upon doing all the mischief he could to a man that was the butt of his malice, and the object of his envy and hatred; the sad effects and consequences of which follow.

Gill: Job 1:13 - And there was a day // when his (Job's) sons and daughters were eating, and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house And there was a day,.... Which according to the Targum was the first day of the week, but this is not certain, nor material; nor can it be said whethe...

And there was a day,.... Which according to the Targum was the first day of the week, but this is not certain, nor material; nor can it be said whether it was the day following that, Satan had leave to do what he would with Job's substance, nor how long this was after that; for though Satan was no doubt eager upon it, and in haste to do mischief; yet besides its requiring some time to get the Sabeans and Chaldeans to march out of their own country into Job's, so he would contrive and fix upon the most proper time to answer his ends and purposes, which was

when his (Job's) sons and daughters were eating, and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house; it should rather be rendered, "in the house of their brother, the firstborn"; that is, of Job; for בכור relates not to brethren, but to parents, as Gussetins observes b: this was either the beginning of a new turn, or rotation of their feasting with each other, which might begin with the elder brother; or this was his birthday; see Job 1:4 and this was the day Satan pitched upon to bring all the following calamities and distresses upon Job; partly that they might fall with the greater weight upon him, and more sensibly affect him, coming upon him while his family was feasting; and while he was pleasing himself with the thoughts of having brought up his children to men's and women's estate, and of the affluent circumstances they were in; and of the unity, harmony, and love that subsisted amongst them, of which their present feasting to gether was a proof; and partly that these afflictions might the more look like the judgments of God upon him, just as the men of the old world were eating and drinking when the flood came and destroyed them all, Luk 17:27 and for the same reasons these were all brought upon him in one day, to crush him the more; and that it might be thought the hand of God was in it, in a way of wrath and vengeance, and so irritate him to curse him to his face, which was what Satan aimed at; see Isa 47:8.

Gill: Job 1:14 - And there came a messenger unto Job // and said, the oxen were ploughing // and the asses feeding beside them And there came a messenger unto Job,.... Not a messenger of Satan, as Jarchi, or one of his angels, or evil spirits; though this is a sense which is e...

And there came a messenger unto Job,.... Not a messenger of Satan, as Jarchi, or one of his angels, or evil spirits; though this is a sense which is embraced not only by some Jewish Rabbins, but by several of the ancient Christian writers, as Sanctius on the place observes; and such they suppose the other messengers after mentioned were; but both this and they were servants of Job, who escaped the calamity that came upon the rest of their fellow servants:

and said, the oxen were ploughing: the five hundred yoke of oxen Job had, Job 1:3, which were all out in the fields, and employed in ploughing them; and to plough with such was usual in those times and countries, as it now is in some places; see 1Ki 19:19

and the asses feeding beside them; beside the oxen, where they were ploughing, in pasture ground, adjoining to the arable land; and beside the servants that were ploughing with the oxen: "at their hands" b; as it may be literally rendered, just by them, under their eye and care; or "in their places" c; where they should be, and where they used to feed d; these were the five hundred asses, male and female, reckoned among Job's substance, Job 1:3, which were brought hither to feed, and some for the servants to ride on; this ploughed land being at some distance from Job's house; and others to carry the seed that was was to be sown here: now the situation and employment of these creatures are particularly mentioned, to show that they were in their proper places, and at their proper work; and that what befell them was not owing to the want of care of them, or to the indolence and negligence of the servants.

Gill: Job 1:15 - And the Sabeans fell upon them // and took them away // yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword // and I only am escaped alone to tell thee And the Sabeans fell upon them,.... Or, "Sheba fell" e; that is, as Aben Ezra and Simeon Bar Tzemach supply it, an host of the Sabeans, or a company o...

And the Sabeans fell upon them,.... Or, "Sheba fell" e; that is, as Aben Ezra and Simeon Bar Tzemach supply it, an host of the Sabeans, or a company of them; these were not the descendants of that Sheba that sprung from Ham, Gen 10:7 nor of him that came from Shem, Gen 10:28, but from Sheba, the son of Jokshan, a son of Abraham by Keturah, who with the rest of her sons were sent into the east country, the country of Job; and these Sabeans, who descended from the same, were his near neighbours, Gen 25:3, they were the inhabitants of one of the Arabias, it is generally said Arabia Felix; but that is not likely, since it was a very plentiful country, the inhabitants of which had no need to rob and plunder others; and besides was at a great distance from the place of Job's habitation, and lay to the south, and not the east; though Strabo f indeed says, that the Sabeans inhabited Arabia Felix, and made excursions into Syria, which agrees with these Sabeans; but rather Arabia Deserta, as Spanheim g has abundantly proved, a barren place; hence we read of Sabeans from the wilderness, Eze 23:42, the inhabitants of which lived upon the plunder of others; and these being naturally given to spoil and rapine, were fit persons for Satan to work upon, as he does in the children of disobedience; into whose hearts he put it to make such a descent on Job's fields, and carry off his cattle, as they did; they fell upon his oxen and asses at once and unawares, in a body, in an hostile and furious manner:

and took them away; as a booty; they did not kill them, but drove them off the ground, and led them into their own country for their use and service:

yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; who were ploughing with the oxen, and looking after the asses, and who might make an opposition, though in vain; this was an addition to affliction, that not only his cattle were carried off, but his servants were slain, who were born in his house, or bought with his money:

and I only am escaped alone to tell thee; this single servant was preserved, either by the special providence of God, in kindness to Job, that he might know of a certainty, and exactly, and what had befallen him, and how it came to pass, which men are naturally desirous of; or else, as it is generally thought, through the malice and cunning of Satan, that the tidings might the sooner be brought to him, and more readily be believed by him, and strike him with the greater surprise, a servant of his own running with it, whom he knew, and could believe; and he appearing with the utmost concern of mind, and horror in his countenance.

Gill: Job 1:16 - While he was yet speaking, there came also another // and said, the fire of God is fallen from heaven // and hath burnt up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them // and I only am escaped alone to tell thee While he was yet speaking, there came also another,.... Another messenger, one of Job's servants, from another part of his fields where his sheep were...

While he was yet speaking, there came also another,.... Another messenger, one of Job's servants, from another part of his fields where his sheep were grazing, and was one of those that kept them; he came with another piece of bad news, even before the other had finished his whole account; and the same is observed of all the other messengers that follow: so Satan ordered it, that all Job's afflictions should come upon him at once, and the news of them be brought him as thick and as fast as they could, to surprise him the more into some rash expressions against God; that he might have no intermission, no breathing time; no time for prayer to God to support him under the affliction, and sanctify it unto him; no time for meditation upon, or recollection of, past experiences of divine goodness, or of promises that might have been useful to him; but they came one upon the back of another, to hurry him into some indecent carriage and behaviour towards God, being considered by him as his judgments upon him:

and said, the fire of God is fallen from heaven; which the servant thought, or Satan put it into his mind to say, that it came immediately from God, like that which destroyed Nadab and Abihu and the murmurers in the camp of Israel, Lev 10:2 or, as it is commonly thought, is so called, because a most vehement one, as a vehement flame is called the flame of the Lord, Son 8:6 this being such a fire as was never known, since the fire that came down from heaven and destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities of the plain. I am inclined to think it was a prodigious flash or flashes of lightning; for as thunder is the voice of God, so lightning, which accompanies it, may be called the fire of God; and this agrees with the phraseology of the passage; it comes from heaven, or the air, and falls upon the earth, and strikes creatures and things in it; and which, as it is the effect of natural causes, Satan might be permitted to join them together and effect it; and this was done, and the news of it expressed in such language as to make Job believe that God was against him, and become his enemy, and that the artillery of heaven was employed to his harm, and to the ruin of his substance:

and hath burnt up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; as the fire or lightning which came down from heaven and consumed the captains, and their fifties, in Elijah's time, 2Ki 1:10 and such like effects of lightning are often to be observed, both with respect to men and cattle; these were the 7000 sheep Job was possessed of, Job 1:3 and which were all destroyed at once, with the servants that kept them, excepting one; creatures very productive and very useful both for food and clothing, and also used for sacrifice; and it is thought that Satan's end in the destruction of these was, that Job might conclude from hence that his sacrifices were not acceptable to God, and therefore it was in vain to serve him; which he hoped by this means to bring him to express in a passionate manner to God:

and I only am escaped alone to tell thee; See Gill on Job 1:15.

Gill: Job 1:17 - While he was yet speaking, there came also another // and said, the Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away // yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword, and I only am escaped alone to tell thee While he was yet speaking, there came also another,.... Another messenger from another part of Job's possessions, where his camels were, and this befo...

While he was yet speaking, there came also another,.... Another messenger from another part of Job's possessions, where his camels were, and this before the last messenger had told his story out:

and said, the Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away; these were the 3000 camels, as in Job 1:3 and perhaps they were in three separate companies and places, 1000 in each, and therefore the Chaldeans divided themselves into three bands; or "appointed three heads" f, as it may be rendered; there were three bodies of them under so many leaders and commanders, and this was done, that they might the more easily take them; and they "diffused or spread themselves" g, as the word signifies, upon or about the camels; they surrounded them on all sides, or otherwise, these being swift creatures, would have run away from them: these Chaldeans or Chasdim were the descendants of Chesed, a son of Nahor, who was brother to Abraham, Gen 22:20, who settled in the east country, not far from Job: and this agrees with the character that Xenophon h gives of the Chaldeans, at least some of them, in later times; that they lived upon robbing and plundering others, having no knowledge of agriculture, but got their bread by force of arms; and such as these Satan could easily instigate to come and carry off Job's camels:

yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword, and I only am escaped alone to tell thee; See Gill on Job 1:15.

Gill: Job 1:18 - While he was yet speaking, there came another // and said, thy sons and thy daughters were eating, and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house While he was yet speaking, there came another,.... A servant of one of Job's sons, who was in waiting at the feast before mentioned, and here again re...

While he was yet speaking, there came another,.... A servant of one of Job's sons, who was in waiting at the feast before mentioned, and here again repeated:

and said, thy sons and thy daughters were eating, and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house; See Gill on Job 1:13.

Gill: Job 1:19 - And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness // and smote the four corners of the house // and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead // and I only am escaped alone to tell thee And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness,.... Most probably from the wilderness of Arabia, winds from such places being generally very...

And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness,.... Most probably from the wilderness of Arabia, winds from such places being generally very strong, Jer 4:11 as this was, and is called a "great one", a very strong and blustering one; and being so, and because of the effects of it, and being an uncommon and extraordinary one, as what follows shows, a "behold" is prefixed to the account, exciting attention and wonder:

and smote the four corners of the house; which shows it to be an unusual wind, it blowing from all parts and on all sides; and was either a whirlwind, which whirled about this house; or Satan, with his posse of devils with him, took the advantage of the sweep of it, as it came by this house, and with all their force and strength, might and main, whirled it about it; otherwise Satan has no power to raise winds, and allay them at pleasure; God only creates them, holds them in his fists, and brings them out of his treasures; and this wind blowing from the desert, the devil and his angels took the opportunity, and with such violence whirled it about the house that it fell, as follows:

and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; not upon Job's sons only, but upon his daughters also, the word used takes in both; and Mr. Broughton renders it, "and it fell upon the young folk"; this was the sorest affliction of all, and which Satan reserved to the last, that if the others did not succeed to his wish, this might; and a very trying, grievous one it was, to lose all his children at once in such a manner, and at such a time; his children, which were parts of himself, whom he had taken so much care of in their education, who had been as olive plants about his table, and now brought up to men's and women's estates, comfortably settled in the world, and living in great peace and harmony among themselves, and not one of them left to comfort him under his other afflictions; and these taken away not by any distemper of body, which would have prepared him for the stroke, but by a violent death; and which had the appearance of the hand and judgment, wrath and vengeance of God; and while they were feasting together in mirth and gaiety, however innocent, and not in a serious frame of spirit, or having any serious turn upon their minds for death and eternity, of which they had no thought; had they been in the house of God attending religious worship, or though in their own houses, yet either in their closets praying, or else conversing about spiritual things, with one another, it would have greatly taken off of the affliction; but to be snatched into eternity at once, and in this manner, must be cutting to Job; though there is no reason to think that this was for any sin of theirs, or through any displeasure of God to them, but was permitted purely on Job's account, for the trial of his faith, patience, sincerity, and integrity; and here, as in the former instances, only one servant was spared to bring the sad tidings:

and I only am escaped alone to tell thee; so that all the servants in the house, excepting this, perished in the ruins of it, as well as Job's sons and daughters; see Gill on Job 1:15. It is a notion of some Jewish writers, as Simeon bar Tzemach observes, that each of these messengers, as soon as they had delivered their message, died, and so all that Job had was delivered into the hands of Satan, and nothing left; but this seems contrary to Job 19:16. It may be observed that Aristeas, an Heathen writer, as quoted by Alexander Polyhistor i, another Heathen writer, gives an account of each of these calamities of Job, just in the same order in which they are here. It may be observed from all this, that no character ever so great and high can secure persons from afflictions, even grievous ones; Job had an high and honourable character given and confirmed by God himself, yet so sorely afflicted; and let men be the beloved of God, his chosen and precious, his covenant people, the redeemed of the Lamb, righteous and godly persons, the sons and heirs of God, yet neither nor all of these exempt them from afflictions; and those that befall them are many, frequent, and continued, and come from different quarters, from men good and bad, and from devils, and all by the permission and according to the will of God. And this shows us the uncertainty of all outward enjoyments, gold, silver, cattle, houses, lands, children, friends and relations, all perishing, and sometimes suddenly taken away: and it may be observed, among all Job's losses, he did not lose anything of a spiritual nature, not one spiritual blessing; though he lost all his outward mercies, yet not the God of his mercies; not his covenant interest in him, nor his share in his love, favour, and acceptance, which all still continued; he did not lose his interest in a living Redeemer; his children were all dead, but his Redeemer lived, and he knew it; he did not lose the principle of grace in him, the root of the matter was still with him; nor anyone particular grace, not his faith and confidence in God, nor his hope of eternal life, nor his love and affection to God, and desire after him; nor his patience and humility; nor his integrity, faithfulness, and honesty, which he retained and held fast; nor any of his spiritual riches, which are durable; he had riches in heaven, where thieves cannot break through and steal, a better and a more enduring substance there, an inheritance incorruptible, reserved in the heavens his conduct under all this follows.

Gill: Job 1:20 - Then Job arose // and rent his mantle // and shaved his beard // and fell down upon the ground // and worshipped Then Job arose,.... Either from table, being at dinner, as some think, in his own house; it being the time that his children were feasting in their el...

Then Job arose,.... Either from table, being at dinner, as some think, in his own house; it being the time that his children were feasting in their eldest brother's house; or from the business in which he was employed, which he stopped on hearing this news; or from his seat, or chair of state in which he sat; or rather the phrase only signifies, that he at once, with strength of body, and rigour of mind, which were not lost, as often they are in such cases, went about the following things with great composure and sedateness. It is indeed generally observed, that there is an emphasis to be put on the word "then", which may be as well rendered "and", as if Job sat and heard very sedately, without any perturbation of mind, the loss of his substance; but when tidings were brought him of the death of his children, "then" he arose, as being greatly moved and distressed; but it should be observed till now there was no stop or intermission in the messengers, but before one had done speaking, another came and began to tell his story, and so there was no opportunity, as well as not the occasion, of arising and doing what follows; and which he did, not through the violence of his passion, or excess of grief, but as common and ordinary things, which were used to be done in that country for the loss of relations, and in token of mourning for them:

and rent his mantle; or "cloak" k, as Mr. Broughton; but whether this was an outward garment, as each of these seem to be, if the same with ours, or an interior one, as some think, it is not very material to know; both were rent by Ezra upon a mournful occasion, Ezr 9:3, and it was usual to rend garments for deceased relations, or when they were thought to be so, see Gen 37:29, though some think that this was on the account of the blasphemous thoughts the devil now suggested into his mind, being solicitous to gain his point, and work upon him to curse God; upon which he rent his garment to show his resentment and indignation at the thought of it, as the Jews used to rend their garments at hearing of blasphemy; but the first sense is best:

and shaved his beard; either he himself, or his servant by his orders; and which was done among the eastern nations as a sign of mourning, see Isa 15:2 and among the Greeks, as appears from Homer l; nor was this contrary to the law in Deu 14:1, where another baldness, not of the head, but between the eyes, is forbidden for the dead; besides this was before that law was in being, and, had it been, Job was not bound by it, being not of the Israelitish nation: some, as Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and other Jewish writers, interpret this of his plucking or tearing off the hair of his head; but this neither agrees with the sense of the word here used, which has the signification of shearing or mowing, rather than of tearing or plucking, nor with the firmness and composure of Job's mind, who betrayed not any effeminacy or weakness; and though he showed a natural affection for the loss of his substance, and children, as a man, and did not affect a stoical apathy, and brutal insensibility, yet did not give any extraordinary vent to his passion: he behaved both like a man, and a religious man; he mourned for his dead, but not to excess; he sorrowed not as those without hope, and used the common tokens of it, and rites attending it; which shows that mourning for deceased relations, if done in moderation, is not unlawful, nor complying with the rites and customs of a country, in such cases, provided they are not sinful in themselves, nor contrary to the revealed and declared will of God:

and fell down upon the ground; in veneration of God, of his holiness and justice, and as sensible of his awful hand upon him, and as being humbled under it, and patiently submitting to it; he did not stand up, and curse God to his face, as Satan said he would, but fell upon his face to the ground; he did not curse his King and his God, and look upwards, see Isa 8:21 but prostrated himself to the earth in great humility before him; besides, this may be considered as a prayer gesture, since it follows:

and worshipped; that is, God, for who else should he worship? he worshipped him internally in the exercise of faith, hope, love, humility, patience, &c. and he worshipped him externally by praising him, and praying to him, expressing himself as in the next verse: afflictions, when sanctified, humble good men, cause them to lie low in the dust, and bring them near to God, to the throne of his grace, and instead of arraigning his providence, and finding fault with his dealings, they adore his majesty, and celebrate his perfections.

Gill: Job 1:21 - And said, naked came I out of my mother's womb // and naked shall I return thither // the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away // blessed be the name of the Lord And said, naked came I out of my mother's womb,.... Either literally, where he was conceived and lay, and from whence he came into the world, though h...

And said, naked came I out of my mother's womb,.... Either literally, where he was conceived and lay, and from whence he came into the world, though he afterwards wishes he never had, or had died as soon as he did, Job 3:10, and so it is expressive of his birth, and the circumstance of it; or figuratively, his mother earth, from whence the first man sprang, and so all his posterity with him, being as he of the earth, earthly, see Ecc 12:7, which sense is mentioned by Jarchi and Aben Ezra; but the first sense seems best: the nakedness referred to is not of the mind or soul, being destitute of righteousness and holiness, with which the following clause will by no means agree, but nakedness of body; and therefore as soon as a child is born, one of the first things done to it is to wrap it in clothes provided for it, see Eze 16:4 and also a being without the things of this life; the apostle's words are a proper comment on these, and explain them, and perhaps these are referred to by him, "we brought nothing into this world", 1Ti 6:7, this shows the necessity of the early care of Providence over us, and what reason we have to be thankful for unknown mercies at the time of birth, and in the state of infancy, Psa 22:9 and what obligations children lie under to parents, and what benefits they receive from them at their first entrance into the world, and which they should religiously requite when through old age they stand in need of their assistance, 1Ti 5:4, and this may also serve to abate the pride of man, who will have no reason to boast of his riches, nor of his fine clothes, when he considers his original nakedness; and more especially the use of it may be, and which seems to be the use Job made of it, to make the mind easy under the greatest losses. Job considered he did not bring his substance, his servants, and his children into the world with him; and now they were taken from him, he was but as he was when he came into the world, and not at all the worse; he knew how to be abased, and to abound, and in both was content:

and naked shall I return thither; not into his mother's womb in a literal sense, which was impossible, Joh 3:4, but to the earth, and to the dust of it, Gen 3:19, pointing to it with his finger, on which he now lay; meaning that he should go to the place appointed for him, the grave, the house of all living, Job 30:23, and so the Targum here has it,

to the house of the grave, where he should lie unseen, as in his mother's womb, till the resurrection morn; which would be a kind of a regeneration of him, when he should be delivered up from thence, and enjoy a state of happiness and glory: he should descend into the grave as naked as he was born, respecting not so much the nakedness of his body, as being stripped of all worldly enjoyments, see Ecc 5:15 and he says this in his present view of things; he thought once he should have died in his nest, Job 29:18, in the midst of all his prosperity, and left a large substance to his children; but now all was taken away, and for the present had no hope or expectation of a restoration, as afterwards was; but whereas he was now naked and bare of all, he expected he should continue and die so: or this is said with respect to the common case of men, who it is certain cannot carry anything out of the world with them, either riches or honour, but must leave all behind them, 1Ti 6:7 which may serve to loosen the minds of men from worldly things, not to set their eyes and hearts upon them, nor to put their trust and confidence in them; and good men may part with them, especially at death with pleasure, since they will have no further use of them, and will have a better and a more enduring substance in their stead:

the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; all outward enjoyments, all the good things of this world, are the Lord's, and at his dispose; the earth, and the fulness of it; kingdoms, nations, countries, houses and lands, the beasts of the field, and cattle on a thousand hills; the gold and silver, and all the riches of the earth: and these are the gifts of his providence to the sons of men; nor have they anything but in a way of giving and receiving; and even what they enjoy, through diligence and industry, is owing to the blessing of God; and who gives not in such sort as that he loses his property in what is given; this he still retains, these are talents which he puts into the hands of men to use for themselves and others, and for which they are accountable to him; and they are but stewards, with whom he will hereafter reckon, and therefore has a right to take away when he pleases; and both Job ascribes to God, not only the giving, but the taking away: he does not attribute his losses to second causes, to the Sabeans and Chaldeans, to the fire from heaven, and the wind from the desert, but to God, whose sovereign will and overruling hand were in all; these were but the instruments of Satan, and he had no power but what was given from God; and therefore to the counsel of his will, who suffered it, Job refers it, and for that reason sits down satisfied and quiet. This is all to be understood of temporal things only; for of spiritual things it cannot be said that God gives and takes away; such gifts are without repentance, and are irreversible, Rom 11:29, the Targum is,

"the Word of the Lord hath given, and the Word of the Lord and the house of his judgment hath taken away; the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions add,

as it pleased the Lord, so it is done:''

blessed be the name of the Lord; for all his blessings and mercies; for all the gifts of nature and providence that had been bestowed, which could not be claimed, and of which he knew himself unworthy; and for the continuance of them so long with goodness and mercy had followed him all the days or his life hitherto, and still he had mercies to bless God for; his wife was still with him, he had some servants left, his own life was spared; he continued as yet in health of body, and therefore could sing of mercy as well as judgment; nor is there any state on earth a man can be in, but there is something to bless God for; wherefore the apostle's exhortation will always hold good, "in everything give thanks": 1Th 5:18; besides the name, the nature, the perfections, of God are always the same, and therefore always to be celebrated, and blessing, honour, and glory, are to be ascribed to him continually, in every state and condition of life; wherefore the Arabic version adds, "from henceforth, and for ever"; which agrees with Psa 72:19; and thus Job, instead of cursing God, blesses him, and proves the devil to be a liar, as he was from the beginning; and shows his superiority over him through the power of divine grace; this evil one could not touch him, he was overcome by him, and his designs defeated.

Gill: Job 1:22 - In all this Job sinned not // nor charged God foolishly In all this Job sinned not,.... Not that he was without sin, he was conscious to himself of it, and owns it, Job 9:20; but in all the above things he ...

In all this Job sinned not,.... Not that he was without sin, he was conscious to himself of it, and owns it, Job 9:20; but in all the above things he did or said he sinned not; not in his rending his garments, in shaving his head, and laying himself prostrate on the ground, which were done as common usages in such cases, and not through excess of passion; nor in anything that dropped from his lips, which were ill-becoming the character he bore as a religious man; and though he might be guilty of some failings and imperfections, as the best of men are, even in doing the best of things, yet he sinned not that sin the devil said he would, that is, curse God to his face; there was nothing of this, nor like it, but the reverse of it in all he said and did:

nor charged God foolishly: or "gave not folly to him" m; did not ascribe it to him, did not arraign his wisdom, nor charge him with folly; though there might be some things he could not account for, or see into the reasons of them, he knew the Lord could; he considered that he was a God of knowledge, the only and all wise God, and did all things after the counsel of his will, and to answer the best ends and purposes, and therefore he submitted all to his wisdom; nor did he himself speak foolishly of him, arraigning his justice and holiness, as if he had done wrong to him; he knew there was no unrighteousness in God, nor in any of his ways and works, and that he had a right to do what he would with his own, to give and take it away at his pleasure: he spoke nothing that was "unsavoury" n, as the word signifies; nothing contrary to right reason and true religion; nothing unsuitable unto, or unbecoming him as a man, as a religious man, as in connection with God, a servant of his, and one that feared him. The Arabic version is, "nor blasphemed God"; and the Targum,

neither did he set in order words of blasphemy before God; he did not curse God, as Satan said he would, neither in heart and thought, nor in words; this is a testimony of him given by the Lord himself, the searcher of hearts, and who only could give such a testimony of him; and which, as Cocceius observes, is a proof of the divine authority of this book.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Job 1:1 These two expressions indicate the outcome of Job’s character. “Fearing God” and “turning from evil” also express two co...

NET Notes: Job 1:2 The verb begins the sentence: “and there were born.” This use of the preterite with vav (ו) consecutive, especially after the verb &...

NET Notes: Job 1:3 The expression is literally “sons of the east.” The use of the genitive after “sons” in this construction may emphasize their ...

NET Notes: Job 1:4 Normally cardinal numerals tend to disagree in gender with the numbered noun. In v. 2 “three daughters” consists of the masculine numeral ...

NET Notes: Job 1:5 The imperfect expresses continual action in past time, i.e., a customary imperfect (GKC 315 §107.e).

NET Notes: Job 1:6 The word means “adversary” or with the article “the adversary” – here the superhuman adversary or Satan. The word with t...

NET Notes: Job 1:7 As the words are spoken by Satan, there is no self-condemnation in them. What they signify is the swiftness and thoroughness of his investigation of h...

NET Notes: Job 1:8 The same expressions that appeared at the beginning of the chapter appear here in the words of God. In contrast to that narrative report about Job, th...

NET Notes: Job 1:9 The Hebrew form has the interrogative ה (he) on the adverb חִנָּם (khinnam, “gratis”), a derivat...

NET Notes: Job 1:10 The verb פָּרַץ (parats) means “to break through.” It has the sense of abundant increase, as in breaki...

NET Notes: Job 1:11 See the comments on Job 1:5. Here too the idea of “renounce” may fit well enough; but the idea of actually cursing God may not be out of t...

NET Notes: Job 1:12 So Satan, having received his permission to test Job’s sincerity, goes out from the Lord’s presence. But Satan is bound by the will of the...

NET Notes: Job 1:13 Heb “his”; the referent (Job) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Job 1:14 The use of the verb “to be” with the participle gives emphasis to the continuing of the action in the past (GKC 360 §116.r).

NET Notes: Job 1:15 The pleonasms in the verse emphasize the emotional excitement of the messenger.

NET Notes: Job 1:16 Or “from the sky.” The Hebrew word שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven[s]&...

NET Notes: Job 1:17 Heb “with the edge/mouth of the sword.”

NET Notes: Job 1:19 The word מֵעֵבֶר (me’ever) is simply “from the direction of”; the word עֵ”...

NET Notes: Job 1:20 This last verb is the Hishtaphel of the word חָוָה (khavah; BDB 1005 s.v. שָׁחָה); i...

NET Notes: Job 1:21 Some commentators are troubled by the appearance of the word “Yahweh” on the lips of Job, assuming that the narrator inserted his own name...

NET Notes: Job 1:22 The last clause is difficult to translate. It simply reads, “and he did not give unseemliness to God.” The word תִּ–...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:1 There was a man in the land of ( a ) Uz, whose name [was] Job; and that man was perfect and ( b ) upright, and ( c ) one that feared God, and eschewed...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:3 His ( d ) substance also was seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she asses, and a very gr...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:5 And it was so, when the days of [their] feasting were gone about, that Job sent and ( f ) sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and ( g )...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:6 Now there was a day when the ( k ) sons of God came to present themselves ( l ) before the LORD, and Satan ( m ) came also among them. ( k ) Meaning ...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:7 And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence ( n ) comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, ( o ) From going to and fro in the earth, and from wal...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:9 Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, Doth Job fear God for ( p ) nought? ( p ) He fears you not for your own sake, but for the blessing that he re...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:10 Hast not thou made ( q ) an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? thou hast blessed the work of his hands, a...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:11 But put forth thine hand now, and ( r ) touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to ( s ) thy face. ( r ) This signifies that Satan is not able...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:12 And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath [is] in ( t ) thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from t...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:15 And the ( x ) Sabeans fell [upon them], and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone ...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:16 While he [was] yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The ( y ) fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the ser...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:18 While he [was] yet speaking, there came also another, and said, Thy ( z ) sons and thy daughters [were] eating and drinking wine in their eldest broth...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:20 Then Job arose, and ( a ) rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped, ( a ) Which came not from impatience, ...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:21 And said, Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return ( b ) thither: the LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; ( c ) blessed be ...

Geneva Bible: Job 1:22 In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God ( d ) foolishly. ( d ) But declared that God did all things according to justice and equity.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Job 1:21 - A Libation To Jehovah Sorrow That Worships Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return thither: the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be ...

MHCC: Job 1:1-5 - --Job was prosperous, and yet pious. Though it is hard and rare, it is not impossible for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven. By God's grace...

MHCC: Job 1:6-12 - --Job's afflictions began from the malice of Satan, by the Lord's permission, for wise and holy purposes. There is an evil spirit, the enemy of God, and...

MHCC: Job 1:13-19 - --Satan brought Job's troubles upon him on the day that his children began their course of feasting. The troubles all came upon Job at once; while one m...

MHCC: Job 1:20-22 - --Job humbled himself under the hand of God. He reasons from the common state of human life, which he describes. We brought nothing of this world's good...

Matthew Henry: Job 1:1-3 - -- Concerning Job we are here told, I. That he was a man; therefore subject to like passions as we are. He was Ish , a worthy man, a man of note and...

Matthew Henry: Job 1:4-5 - -- We have here a further account of Job's prosperity and his piety. I. His great comfort in his children is taken notice of as an instance of his pros...

Matthew Henry: Job 1:6-12 - -- Job was not only so rich and great, but withal so wise and good, and had such an interest both in heaven and earth, that one would think the mountai...

Matthew Henry: Job 1:13-19 - -- We have here a particular account of Job's troubles. I. Satan brought them upon him on the very day that his children began their course of feasting...

Matthew Henry: Job 1:20-22 - -- The devil had done all he desired leave to do against Job, to provoke him to curse God. He had touched all he had, touched it with a witness; he who...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:1 - -- 1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil. The lxx ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:2-3 - -- 2, 3 And there were born unto him seven sons and three daughters. His substance also was seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five h...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:4-5 - -- 4, 5 And his sons went and feasted in the house of him whose day it was, and sent and called for their sisters to eat and drink with them. And it ha...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:6 - -- 6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before Jehovah; and Satan came also in the midst of them. The translation "it...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:7 - -- 7 Then Jehovah said to Satan, Whence comest thou? Satan answered Jehovah, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:8 - -- 8 Then said Jehovah to Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job? for there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:9-11 - -- 9-11 Then Satan answered Jehovah, and said, Doth Job fear God for nought? Hast Thou not made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:12 - -- 12 Then Jehovah said to Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy hand; only upon himself put not forth thy hand. And Satan went forth from the pres...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:13-15 - -- 13-15 And it came to pass one day, when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in the house of their eldest brother, that a messen...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:16 - -- The Second Messenger: 16 While he was yet speaking, another came, and said, The fire of God fell from heaven, and set fire to the sheep and servant...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:17 - -- The Third Messenger: 17 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The Chaldeans ranged themselves in three bands, and rushed up...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:18-19 - -- The Fourth Messenger: 18 While he was yet speaking, another also came, and said, Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:20-21 - -- The Conduct of Job: 20, 21 Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped, and said, Naked...

Keil-Delitzsch: Job 1:22 - -- 22 In all this Job sinned not, nor attributed folly to God. In all this, i.e., as the lxx correctly renders it: which thus far had befallen him; Ew...

Constable: Job 1:1--2:13 - --I. PROLOGUE chs. 1--2 The writer composed the prologue and epilogue of this book in prose narrative and the main...

Constable: Job 1:1-5 - --A. Job's Character 1:1-5 Uz (1:1) was probably southeast of the Dead Sea (cf. v...

Constable: Job 1:6--2:11 - --B. Job's Calamities 1:6-2:10 God permitted Satan to test Job twice.23 The first test touched his possess...

Constable: Job 1:6-22 - --1. The first test 1:6-22 These verses reveal that angels ("sons of God," v. 6), including Satan,...

Guzik: Job 1:1-22 - Job Endures His Loss Job 1 - Job Endures His Loss A. Two stages for a great drama: earth and heaven. 1. (1-5) The earthly stage. There was a man in the land of Uz, who...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) JOB A REAL PERSON.--It has been supposed by some that the book of Job is an allegory, not a real narrative, on account of the artificial character of ...

JFB: Job (Garis Besar) THE HOLINESS OF JOB, HIS WEALTH, &c. (Job 1:1-5) SATAN, APPEARING BEFORE GOD, FALSELY ACCUSES JOB. (Job 1:6-12) SATAN FURTHER TEMPTS JOB. (Job 2:1-8)...

TSK: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) A large aquatic animal, perhaps the extinct dinosaur, plesiosaurus, the exact meaning is unknown. Some think this to be a crocodile but from the desc...

TSK: Job 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Job 1:1, The holiness, riches, and religious care of Job for his children; Job 1:6, Satan, appearing before God, by calumniation obtains ...

Poole: Job 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) BOOK OF JOB Some things are to be premised in the general concerning this book before I come to the particulars. 1. That this was no fiction or pa...

MHCC: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) This book is so called from Job, whose prosperity, afflictions, and restoration, are here recorded. He lived soon after Abraham, or perhaps before tha...

MHCC: Job 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Job 1:1-5) The piety and prosperity of Job. (Job 1:6-12) Satan obtains leave to try Job. (Job 1:13-19) The loss of Job's property, and the death of...

Matthew Henry: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Job This book of Job stands by itself, is not connected with any other, and is therefore to...

Matthew Henry: Job 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The history of Job begins here with an account, I. Of his great piety in general (Job 1:1), and in a particular instance (Job 1:5). II. Of his gr...

Constable: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title This book, like many others in the Old Testament, got its name from...

Constable: Job (Garis Besar) Outline I. Prologue chs. 1-2 A. Job's character 1:1-5 B. Job's calamitie...

Constable: Job Job Bibliography Andersen, Francis I. Job. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries series. Leicester, Eng. and Downe...

Haydock: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF JOB. INTRODUCTION. This Book takes its name from the holy man, of whom it treats; who, according to the more probable opinion, was ...

Gill: Job (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO JOB This book, in the Hebrew copies, generally goes by this name, from Job, who is however the subject, if not the writer of it. In...

Gill: Job 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO JOB 1 In this chapter, Job, the subject of the whole book, is described by his native country, by his name, by his religious charac...

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