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Teks -- James 5:1-20 (NET)

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Konteks
Warning to the Rich
5:1 Come now, you rich! Weep and cry aloud over the miseries that are coming on you. 5:2 Your riches have rotted and your clothing has become moth-eaten. 5:3 Your gold and silver have rusted and their rust will be a witness against you. It will consume your flesh like fire. It is in the last days that you have hoarded treasure! 5:4 Look, the pay you have held back from the workers who mowed your fields cries out against you, and the cries of the reapers have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts. 5:5 You have lived indulgently and luxuriously on the earth. You have fattened your hearts in a day of slaughter. 5:6 You have condemned and murdered the righteous person, although he does not resist you.
Patience in Suffering
5:7 So be patient, brothers and sisters, until the Lord’s return. Think of how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the ground and is patient for it until it receives the early and late rains. 5:8 You also be patient and strengthen your hearts, for the Lord’s return is near. 5:9 Do not grumble against one another, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be judged. See, the judge stands before the gates! 5:10 As an example of suffering and patience, brothers and sisters, take the prophets who spoke in the Lord’s name. 5:11 Think of how we regard as blessed those who have endured. You have heard of Job’s endurance and you have seen the Lord’s purpose, that the Lord is full of compassion and mercy. 5:12 And above all, my brothers and sisters, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or by any other oath. But let your “Yes” be yes and your “No” be no, so that you may not fall into judgment.
Prayer for the Sick
5:13 Is anyone among you suffering? He should pray. Is anyone in good spirits? He should sing praises. 5:14 Is anyone among you ill? He should summon the elders of the church, and they should pray for him and anoint him with oil in the name of the Lord. 5:15 And the prayer of faith will save the one who is sick and the Lord will raise him up– and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. 5:16 So confess your sins to one another and pray for one another so that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous person has great effectiveness. 5:17 Elijah was a human being like us, and he prayed earnestly that it would not rain and there was no rain on the land for three years and six months! 5:18 Then he prayed again, and the sky gave rain and the land sprouted with a harvest. 5:19 My brothers and sisters, if anyone among you wanders from the truth and someone turns him back, 5:20 he should know that the one who turns a sinner back from his wandering path will save that person’s soul from death and will cover a multitude of sins.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Elijah a prophet from the 9th century B.C.,a prophet from Tishbe in Gilead to Israel in King Ahab's time,son of Jeroham of Benjamin,a priest of the Harim clan who put away his heathen wife,a layman of the Bani Elam clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Job a man whose story is told in the book of Job,a man from the land of Uz in Edom


Topik/Tema Kamus: Intercession | Patience | Prayer | Afflictions and Adversities | Commandments | AFFLICTION | Suffering | Riches | Elijah | Example | One Another | JAMES, EPISTLE OF | Wicked | Church | Rain | ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, I-V | Agriculture | Jesus, The Christ | Sin | Rich, The | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Jam 5:1 - Come now, ye rich Come now, ye rich ( age nun hoi plousioi ). Exclamatory interjection as in Jam 4:13. Direct address to the rich as a class as in 1Ti 6:17. Apparently...

Come now, ye rich ( age nun hoi plousioi ).

Exclamatory interjection as in Jam 4:13. Direct address to the rich as a class as in 1Ti 6:17. Apparently here James has in mind the rich as a class, whether believer, as in Jam 1:10., or unbeliever, as in Jam 2:1., Jam 2:6. The plea here is not directly for reform, but a warning of certain judgment (Jam 5:1-6) and for Christians "a certain grim comfort in the hardships of poverty"(Ropes) in Jam 5:7-11.

Robertson: Jam 5:1 - Weep and howl Weep and howl ( klausate ololuzontes ). "Burst into weeping (ingressive aorist active imperative of klaiō as in Jam 4:9), howling with grief"(pre...

Weep and howl ( klausate ololuzontes ).

"Burst into weeping (ingressive aorist active imperative of klaiō as in Jam 4:9), howling with grief"(present active participle of the old onomatopoetic verb ololuzō , here only in N.T., like Latin ululare , with which compare alalazō in Mat 5:38.

Robertson: Jam 5:1 - For your miseries For your miseries ( epi tais talaipōriais humōn ). Old word from talaipōros (Rom 7:24) and like talaipōreō in Jam 4:9 (from tlaō to...

For your miseries ( epi tais talaipōriais humōn ).

Old word from talaipōros (Rom 7:24) and like talaipōreō in Jam 4:9 (from tlaō to endure and pōros a callus).

Robertson: Jam 5:1 - That are coming upon you That are coming upon you ( tais eperchomenais ). Present middle participle of the old compound eperchomai to come upon, used here in futuristic pro...

That are coming upon you ( tais eperchomenais ).

Present middle participle of the old compound eperchomai to come upon, used here in futuristic prophetic sense.

Robertson: Jam 5:2 - Riches Riches ( ho ploutos ). Masculine singular, but occasionally neuter to ploutos in nominative and accusative (2Co 8:2). Apparently pleotos fulness ...

Riches ( ho ploutos ).

Masculine singular, but occasionally neuter to ploutos in nominative and accusative (2Co 8:2). Apparently pleotos fulness (from pleos full, pimplēmi to fill). "Wealth."

Robertson: Jam 5:2 - Are corrupted Are corrupted ( sesēpen ). Second perfect active indicative of sēpō (root sap as in sapros , rotten), to corrupt, to destroy, here intransi...

Are corrupted ( sesēpen ).

Second perfect active indicative of sēpō (root sap as in sapros , rotten), to corrupt, to destroy, here intransitive "has rotted."Only here in N.T. On the worthlessness of mere wealth see Mat 6:19, Mat 6:24.

Robertson: Jam 5:2 - Were moth-eaten Were moth-eaten ( sētobrōta gegonen ). "Have become (second perfect indicative of ginomai , singular number, though himatia , neuter plural, trea...

Were moth-eaten ( sētobrōta gegonen ).

"Have become (second perfect indicative of ginomai , singular number, though himatia , neuter plural, treated collectively) moth-eaten"(sētobrōta , late and rare compound from sēs , moth, Mat 6:19. and brōtos , verbal adjective of bibrōskō to eat Joh 6:13. This compound found only here, Job 13:28, Sibyll. Orac. Proem. 64). Rich robes as heirlooms, but moth-eaten. Vivid picture. Witness the 250 "lost millionaires"in the United States in 1931 as compared with 1929. Riches have wings.

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - Are rusted Are rusted ( katiōtai ). Perfect passive indicative (singular for chrusos and arguros are grouped as one) of katioō , late verb (from ios , r...

Are rusted ( katiōtai ).

Perfect passive indicative (singular for chrusos and arguros are grouped as one) of katioō , late verb (from ios , rust) with perfective sense of kata , to rust through (down to the bottom), found only here, Sir. 12:11, Epictetus ( Diss. 4, 6, 14).

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - Rust Rust ( ios ). Poison in Jam 3:8; Rom 3:13 (only N.T. examples of old word). Silver does corrode and gold will tarnish. Dioscorides (V.91) tells about...

Rust ( ios ).

Poison in Jam 3:8; Rom 3:13 (only N.T. examples of old word). Silver does corrode and gold will tarnish. Dioscorides (V.91) tells about gold being rusted by chemicals. Modern chemists can even transmute metals as the alchemists claimed.

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - For a testimony For a testimony ( eis marturion ). Common idiom as in Mat 8:4 (use of eis with accusative in predicate).

For a testimony ( eis marturion ).

Common idiom as in Mat 8:4 (use of eis with accusative in predicate).

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - Against you Against you ( humin ). Dative of disadvantage as in Mar 6:11 (eis marturion autois ) where in the parallel passage (Luk 9:5) we have eis marturion e...

Against you ( humin ).

Dative of disadvantage as in Mar 6:11 (eis marturion autois ) where in the parallel passage (Luk 9:5) we have eis marturion ep' autous . "To you"will make sense, as in Mat 8:4; Mat 10:18, but "against"is the idea here as in Luk 21:13.

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - Shall eat Shall eat ( phagetai ). Future middle (late form from ephagon ) of defective verb esthiō , to eat.

Shall eat ( phagetai ).

Future middle (late form from ephagon ) of defective verb esthiō , to eat.

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - Your flesh Your flesh ( tas sarkas ). The plural is used for the fleshy parts of the body like pieces of flesh (Rev 17:16; Rev 19:18, Rev 19:21). Rust eats like...

Your flesh ( tas sarkas ).

The plural is used for the fleshy parts of the body like pieces of flesh (Rev 17:16; Rev 19:18, Rev 19:21). Rust eats like a canker, like cancer in the body.

Robertson: Jam 5:3 - As fire As fire ( hōs pur ). Editors differ here whether to connect this phrase with phagetai , just before (as Mayor), for fire eats up more rapidly than ...

As fire ( hōs pur ).

Editors differ here whether to connect this phrase with phagetai , just before (as Mayor), for fire eats up more rapidly than rust, or with the following, as Westcott and Hort and Ropes, that is the eternal fire of Gehenna which awaits them (Mat 25:41; Mar 9:44). This interpretation makes a more vivid picture for ethēsaurisate (ye have laid up, first aorist active indicative of thēsaurizō , Mat 6:19 and see Pro 16:27), but it is more natural to take it with phagetai .

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - The hire The hire ( ho misthos ). Old word for wages (Mat 20:8).

The hire ( ho misthos ).

Old word for wages (Mat 20:8).

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - Labourers Labourers ( ergatōn ). Any one who works (ergazomai ), especially agricultural workers (Mat 9:37).

Labourers ( ergatōn ).

Any one who works (ergazomai ), especially agricultural workers (Mat 9:37).

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - Who mowed Who mowed ( tōn amēsantōn ). Genitive plural of the articular first aorist active participle of amaō (from hama , together), old verb, to g...

Who mowed ( tōn amēsantōn ).

Genitive plural of the articular first aorist active participle of amaō (from hama , together), old verb, to gather together, to reap, here only in N.T.

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - Fields Fields ( chōras ). Estates or farms (Luk 12:16).

Fields ( chōras ).

Estates or farms (Luk 12:16).

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - Which is of you kept back by fraud Which is of you kept back by fraud ( ho aphusterēmenos aph' humōn ). Perfect passive articular participle of aphustereō , late compound (simple...

Which is of you kept back by fraud ( ho aphusterēmenos aph' humōn ).

Perfect passive articular participle of aphustereō , late compound (simplex hustereō common as Mat 19:20), to be behindhand from, to fail of, to cause to withdraw, to defraud. Pitiful picture of earned wages kept back by rich Jews, old problem of capital and labour that is with us yet in acute form.

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - The cries The cries ( hai boai ). Old word from which boaō comes (Mat 3:3), here only in N.T. The stolen money "cries out"(krazei ), the workers cry out f...

The cries ( hai boai ).

Old word from which boaō comes (Mat 3:3), here only in N.T. The stolen money "cries out"(krazei ), the workers cry out for vengeance.

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - That reaped That reaped ( tōn therisantōn ). Genitive plural of the articular participle first aorist active of therizō (old verb from theros , summer, M...

That reaped ( tōn therisantōn ).

Genitive plural of the articular participle first aorist active of therizō (old verb from theros , summer, Mat 24:32), to reap, to harvest while summer allows (Mat 6:26).

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - Have entered Have entered ( eiselēluthan ). Perfect active third person plural indicative of eiserchomai , old and common compound, to go or come into. This lat...

Have entered ( eiselēluthan ).

Perfect active third person plural indicative of eiserchomai , old and common compound, to go or come into. This late form is by analogy of the aorist for the usual form in ̇asi .

Robertson: Jam 5:4 - Of the Lord of Sabaoth Of the Lord of Sabaoth ( Kuriou Sabaōth ). "Of the Lord of Hosts,"quotation from Isa 5:9 as in Rom 9:29, transliterating the Hebrew word for "Hosts...

Of the Lord of Sabaoth ( Kuriou Sabaōth ).

"Of the Lord of Hosts,"quotation from Isa 5:9 as in Rom 9:29, transliterating the Hebrew word for "Hosts,"an expression for the omnipotence of God like Pantokratōr (Rev 4:8). God hears the cries of the oppressed workmen even if the employers are deaf.

Robertson: Jam 5:5 - Ye have lived delicately Ye have lived delicately ( etruphēsate ). First aorist (constative, summary) active indicative of truphaō , old verb from truphē (luxurious l...

Ye have lived delicately ( etruphēsate ).

First aorist (constative, summary) active indicative of truphaō , old verb from truphē (luxurious living as in Luk 7:25, from thruptō , to break down, to enervate), to lead a soft life, only here in N.T.

Robertson: Jam 5:5 - Taken your pleasure Taken your pleasure ( espatalēsate ). First aorist (constative) active indicative of spatalaō , late and rare verb to live voluptuously or wanton...

Taken your pleasure ( espatalēsate ).

First aorist (constative) active indicative of spatalaō , late and rare verb to live voluptuously or wantonly (from spatalē , riotous living, wantonness, once as bracelet), in N.T. only here and 1Ti 5:6.

Robertson: Jam 5:5 - Ye have nourished Ye have nourished ( ethrepsate ). First aorist (constative) active indicative of trephō , old verb, to feed, to fatten (Mat 6:26). They are fatteni...

Ye have nourished ( ethrepsate ).

First aorist (constative) active indicative of trephō , old verb, to feed, to fatten (Mat 6:26). They are fattening themselves like sheep or oxen all unconscious of "the day of slaughter"(en hēmerāi sphagēs , definite without the article) ahead of them. For this use of sphagēs see Rom 8:36 (probata sphagēs , sheep for the slaughter, sphagē from sphazō , to slay), consummate sarcasm on the folly of sinful rich people.

Robertson: Jam 5:6 - Ye have condemned Ye have condemned ( katedikasate ). First aorist active indicative of katadikazō , old verb (from katadikē , condemnation, Act 25:15). The rich c...

Ye have condemned ( katedikasate ).

First aorist active indicative of katadikazō , old verb (from katadikē , condemnation, Act 25:15). The rich controlled the courts of justice.

Robertson: Jam 5:6 - Ye have killed the righteous one Ye have killed the righteous one ( ephoneusate ton dikaion ). First aorist active indicative of phoneuō (Jam 2:11; Jam 4:2). "The righteous one"(...

Ye have killed the righteous one ( ephoneusate ton dikaion ).

First aorist active indicative of phoneuō (Jam 2:11; Jam 4:2). "The righteous one"(tōn dikaion ) is the generic use of the singular with article for the class. There is probably no direct reference to one individual, though it does picture well the death of Christ and also the coming death of James himself, who was called the Just (Eus. H.E. ii. 23). Stephen (Act 7:52) directly accuses the Sanhedrin with being betrayers and murderers (prodotai kai phoneis ) of the righteous one (tou dikaiou ).

Robertson: Jam 5:6 - He doth not resist you He doth not resist you ( ouk antitassetai humin ). It is possible to treat this as a question. Present middle indicative of antitassō , for which s...

He doth not resist you ( ouk antitassetai humin ).

It is possible to treat this as a question. Present middle indicative of antitassō , for which see Jam 4:6. Without a question the unresisting end of the victim (ton dikaion ) is pictured. With a question (ouk , expecting an affirmative answer) God or Lord is the subject, with the final judgment in view. There is no way to decide definitely.

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - Be patient therefore Be patient therefore ( makrothumēsate oun ). A direct corollary (oun , therefore) from the coming judgment on the wicked rich (Jam 5:1-6). First ao...

Be patient therefore ( makrothumēsate oun ).

A direct corollary (oun , therefore) from the coming judgment on the wicked rich (Jam 5:1-6). First aorist (constative) active imperative of makrothumeō , late compound (Plutarch, lxx) from makrothumos (makros , thumos , of long spirit, not losing heart), as in Mat 18:26. The appeal is to the oppressed brethren. Catch your wind for a long race (long-tempered as opposed to short-tempered). On the exhortation to patience (hupomonē ) see Jam 1:3., Jam 1:12 and repeated in Jam 5:11. They will need both submission (hupomenō Jam 5:11) and steadfastness (makrothumia Jam 5:10).

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - Until the coming of the Lord Until the coming of the Lord ( heōs tēs parousias ). The second coming of Christ he means, the regular phrase here and in Jam 5:8 for that idea (...

Until the coming of the Lord ( heōs tēs parousias ).

The second coming of Christ he means, the regular phrase here and in Jam 5:8 for that idea (Mat 24:3, Mat 24:37, Mat 24:39; 1Th 2:19, etc.).

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - The husbandman The husbandman ( ho geōrgos ). The worker in the ground (gē , ergō ) as in Mat 21:33.

The husbandman ( ho geōrgos ).

The worker in the ground (gē , ergō ) as in Mat 21:33.

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - Waiteth for Waiteth for ( ekdechetai ). Present middle indicative of ekdechomai , old verb for eager expectation as in Act 17:16.

Waiteth for ( ekdechetai ).

Present middle indicative of ekdechomai , old verb for eager expectation as in Act 17:16.

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - Precious Precious ( timion ). Old adjective from timē (honor, price), dear to the farmer because of his toil for it. See 1Pe 1:19.

Precious ( timion ).

Old adjective from timē (honor, price), dear to the farmer because of his toil for it. See 1Pe 1:19.

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - Being patient over it Being patient over it ( makrothumōn ep' autōi ). Present active participle of makrothumeō just used in the exhortation, picturing the farmer ...

Being patient over it ( makrothumōn ep' autōi ).

Present active participle of makrothumeō just used in the exhortation, picturing the farmer longing and hoping over his precious crop (cf. Luk 18:7 of God).

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - Until it receive Until it receive ( heōs labēi ). Temporal clause of the future with heōs and the second aorist active subjunctive of lambanō , vividly desc...

Until it receive ( heōs labēi ).

Temporal clause of the future with heōs and the second aorist active subjunctive of lambanō , vividly describing the farmer’ s hopes and patience.

Robertson: Jam 5:7 - The early and latter rain The early and latter rain ( pro‹mon kai opsimon ). The word for rain (hueton Act 14:17) is absent from the best MSS. The adjective pro‹mos (fro...

The early and latter rain ( pro‹mon kai opsimon ).

The word for rain (hueton Act 14:17) is absent from the best MSS. The adjective pro‹mos (from prō‹ , early) occurs here only in N.T., though old in the form pro‹mos and prō‹s . See Deu 11:14; Jer 5:24, etc. for these terms for the early rain in October or November for the germination of the grain, and the latter rain (opsimon , from opse , late, here only in N.T.) in April and May for maturing the grain.

Robertson: Jam 5:8 - Ye also Ye also ( kai humeis ). As well as the farmers.

Ye also ( kai humeis ).

As well as the farmers.

Robertson: Jam 5:8 - Stablish Stablish ( stērixate ). First aorist active imperative of stērizō , old verb, (from stērigx , a support) to make stable, as in Luk 22:32; 1Th...

Stablish ( stērixate ).

First aorist active imperative of stērizō , old verb, (from stērigx , a support) to make stable, as in Luk 22:32; 1Th 3:13.

Robertson: Jam 5:8 - Is at hand Is at hand ( ēggiken ). Present perfect active indicative of eggizō , common verb, to draw near (from eggus ), in Jam 4:8, for drawing near. Sam...

Is at hand ( ēggiken ).

Present perfect active indicative of eggizō , common verb, to draw near (from eggus ), in Jam 4:8, for drawing near. Same form used by John in his preaching (Mat 3:2). In 1Pe 4:7 the same word appears to have an eschatological sense as apparently here. How "near"or "nigh"did James mean? Clearly, it could only be a hope, for Jesus had distinctly said that no one knew when he would return.

Robertson: Jam 5:9 - Murmur not Murmur not ( mē stenazete ). Prohibition with mē and the present active imperative of stenazō , old verb, to groan. "Stop groaning against on...

Murmur not ( mē stenazete ).

Prohibition with mē and the present active imperative of stenazō , old verb, to groan. "Stop groaning against one another,"as some were already doing in view of their troubles. In view of the hope of the Second Coming lift up your heads.

Robertson: Jam 5:9 - That ye be not judged That ye be not judged ( hina mē krithēte ). Negative purpose clause with hina mē and the first aorist passive subjunctive of krinō . As alr...

That ye be not judged ( hina mē krithēte ).

Negative purpose clause with hina mē and the first aorist passive subjunctive of krinō . As already indicated (Jam 2:12.; Jam 4:12) and repeated in Jam 5:12. Reminiscence of the words of Jesus in Mat 7:1.

Robertson: Jam 5:9 - Standeth before the doors Standeth before the doors ( pro tōn thurōn hestēken ). Perfect active indicative of histēmi , "is standing now."Again like the language of Je...

Standeth before the doors ( pro tōn thurōn hestēken ).

Perfect active indicative of histēmi , "is standing now."Again like the language of Jesus in Mat 24:33 (epi thurais ) and Mar 13:29. Jesus the Judge is pictured as ready to enter for the judgment.

Robertson: Jam 5:10 - For an example For an example ( hupodeigma ). Late word for the old paradeigma , from hupodeiknumi , to copy under, to teach (Luk 6:47), here for copy to be imitate...

For an example ( hupodeigma ).

Late word for the old paradeigma , from hupodeiknumi , to copy under, to teach (Luk 6:47), here for copy to be imitated as in Joh 13:15, as a warning (Heb 4:11). Here predicate accusative with tous prophētas (the prophets) as the direct object of labete (second aorist active imperative of lambanō ).

Robertson: Jam 5:10 - Of suffering Of suffering ( tēs kakopathias ). Old word from kakopathēs (suffering evil, kakopatheō in Jam 5:13; 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 2:9), here only in N.T.

Of suffering ( tēs kakopathias ).

Old word from kakopathēs (suffering evil, kakopatheō in Jam 5:13; 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 2:9), here only in N.T.

Robertson: Jam 5:10 - Of patience Of patience ( makrothumias ). Like makrothumeō in Jam 5:7. See both makrothumia and hupomonē in 2Co 4:6; Col 1:11 (the one restraint from r...

Of patience ( makrothumias ).

Like makrothumeō in Jam 5:7. See both makrothumia and hupomonē in 2Co 4:6; Col 1:11 (the one restraint from retaliating, the other not easily succumbing).

Robertson: Jam 5:10 - In the name of In the name of ( en tōi onomati ). As in Jer 20:9. With the authority of the Lord (Deissmann, Bible Studies , p. 198).

In the name of ( en tōi onomati ).

As in Jer 20:9. With the authority of the Lord (Deissmann, Bible Studies , p. 198).

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - We call blessed We call blessed ( makarizomen ). Old word (present active indicative of makarizō ), from makarios (happy), in N.T. only here and Luk 1:48. "We f...

We call blessed ( makarizomen ).

Old word (present active indicative of makarizō ), from makarios (happy), in N.T. only here and Luk 1:48. "We felicitate."As in Jam 1:3, Jam 1:12; Dan 12:12.

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - Ye have heard Ye have heard ( ēkousate ). First aorist (constative) active indicative of akouō . As in Mat 5:21, Mat 5:27, Mat 5:33, Mat 5:38, Mat 5:43. Ropes ...

Ye have heard ( ēkousate ).

First aorist (constative) active indicative of akouō . As in Mat 5:21, Mat 5:27, Mat 5:33, Mat 5:38, Mat 5:43. Ropes suggests in the synagogues.

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - Of Job Of Job ( Iōb ). Job did complain, but he refused to renounce God (Job 1:21; Job 2:10; Job 13:15; Job 16:19; Job 19:25.). He had become a stock illu...

Of Job ( Iōb ).

Job did complain, but he refused to renounce God (Job 1:21; Job 2:10; Job 13:15; Job 16:19; Job 19:25.). He had become a stock illustration of loyal endurance.

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - Ye have seen Ye have seen ( eidete ). Second aorist (constative) active indicative of horaō . In Job’ s case.

Ye have seen ( eidete ).

Second aorist (constative) active indicative of horaō . In Job’ s case.

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - The end of the Lord The end of the Lord ( to telos kuriou ). The conclusion wrought by the Lord in Job’ s case (Job 42:12).

The end of the Lord ( to telos kuriou ).

The conclusion wrought by the Lord in Job’ s case (Job 42:12).

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - Full of pity Full of pity ( polusplagchnos ). Late and rare compound (polus , splagchnon ), only here in N.T. It occurs also in Hermas ( Sim. v. 7. 4; Mand. iv...

Full of pity ( polusplagchnos ).

Late and rare compound (polus , splagchnon ), only here in N.T. It occurs also in Hermas ( Sim. v. 7. 4; Mand. iv, 3). "Very kind."

Robertson: Jam 5:11 - Merciful Merciful ( oiktirmōn ). Late and rare adjective (from oikteirō to pity), in N.T. only here and Luk 6:36.

Merciful ( oiktirmōn ).

Late and rare adjective (from oikteirō to pity), in N.T. only here and Luk 6:36.

Robertson: Jam 5:12 - Above all things Above all things ( pro pantōn ). No connection with what immediately precedes. Probably an allusion to the words of Jesus (Mat 5:34-37). It is not ...

Above all things ( pro pantōn ).

No connection with what immediately precedes. Probably an allusion to the words of Jesus (Mat 5:34-37). It is not out of place here. See the same phrase in 1Pe 4:8. Robinson ( Ephesians , p. 279) cites like examples from the papyri at the close of letters. Here it means "But especially"(Ropes).

Robertson: Jam 5:12 - Swear not Swear not ( mē omnuete ). Prohibition of the habit (or to quit doing it if guilty) with mē and the present active imperative of omnuō . The v...

Swear not ( mē omnuete ).

Prohibition of the habit (or to quit doing it if guilty) with mē and the present active imperative of omnuō . The various oaths (profanity) forbidden (mēte , thrice) are in the accusative case after omnuete , according to rule (ouranon , gēn , horkon ). The Jews were wont to split hairs in their use of profanity, and by avoiding God’ s name imagine that they were not really guilty of this sin, just as professing Christians today use "pious oaths"which violate the prohibition of Jesus.

Robertson: Jam 5:12 - Let be Let be ( ētō ). Imperative active third singular of eimi , late form (1Co 16:22) for estō . "Your yea be yea"(and no more). A different form fr...

Let be ( ētō ).

Imperative active third singular of eimi , late form (1Co 16:22) for estō . "Your yea be yea"(and no more). A different form from that in Mat 5:37.

Robertson: Jam 5:12 - That ye fall not under judgment That ye fall not under judgment ( hina mē hupo krisin pesēte ). Negative purpose with hina mē and the second aorist active subjunctive of pip...

That ye fall not under judgment ( hina mē hupo krisin pesēte ).

Negative purpose with hina mē and the second aorist active subjunctive of piptō , to fall. See hina mē krithēte in Jam 5:9. Krisis (from krinō ) is the act of judging rather than the judgment rendered (krima Jam 3:1).

Robertson: Jam 5:13 - Is any suffering? Is any suffering? ( kakopathei tis̱ ). See Jam 5:10 for kakopathia . The verb in N.T. occurs only here and in 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 2:9; 2Ti 4:5. The lively ...

Is any suffering? ( kakopathei tis̱ ).

See Jam 5:10 for kakopathia . The verb in N.T. occurs only here and in 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 2:9; 2Ti 4:5. The lively interrogative is common in the diatribe and suits the style of James.

Robertson: Jam 5:13 - Among you Among you ( en humin ). As in Jam 3:13.

Among you ( en humin ).

As in Jam 3:13.

Robertson: Jam 5:13 - Let him pray Let him pray ( proseuchesthō ). Present middle imperative, "let him keep on praying"(instead of cursing as in Jam 5:12).

Let him pray ( proseuchesthō ).

Present middle imperative, "let him keep on praying"(instead of cursing as in Jam 5:12).

Robertson: Jam 5:13 - Is any cheerful Is any cheerful ( euthumei̱ ). Present active indicative of euthumeō , old verb from euthumos (Act 27:36), in N.T. only here and Act 27:22, Act ...

Is any cheerful ( euthumei̱ ).

Present active indicative of euthumeō , old verb from euthumos (Act 27:36), in N.T. only here and Act 27:22, Act 27:25.

Robertson: Jam 5:13 - Let him sing praise Let him sing praise ( psalletō ). Present active imperative of psallō , originally to twang a chord as on a harp, to sing praise to God whether w...

Let him sing praise ( psalletō ).

Present active imperative of psallō , originally to twang a chord as on a harp, to sing praise to God whether with instrument or without, in N.T. only here, 1Co 14:15; Rom 15:9; Eph 5:19. "Let him keep on making melody."

Robertson: Jam 5:14 - Is any among you sick? Is any among you sick? ( asthenei tis en humiṉ ). Present active indicative of astheneō , old verb, to be weak (without strength), often in N.T. ...

Is any among you sick? ( asthenei tis en humiṉ ).

Present active indicative of astheneō , old verb, to be weak (without strength), often in N.T. (Mat 10:8).

Robertson: Jam 5:14 - Let him call for Let him call for ( proskalesasthō ). First aorist (ingressive) middle imperative of proskaleō . Note change of tense (aorist) and middle (indirec...

Let him call for ( proskalesasthō ).

First aorist (ingressive) middle imperative of proskaleō . Note change of tense (aorist) and middle (indirect) voice. Care for the sick is urged in 1Th 5:14 ("help the sick"). Note the plural here, "elders of the church,"as in Act 20:17; Act 15:6, Act 15:22; Act 21:18; Phi 1:1 (bishops).

Robertson: Jam 5:14 - Let them pray over him Let them pray over him ( proseuxasthōsan ep' auton ). First aorist middle imperative of proseuchomai . Prayer for the sick is clearly enjoined.

Let them pray over him ( proseuxasthōsan ep' auton ).

First aorist middle imperative of proseuchomai . Prayer for the sick is clearly enjoined.

Robertson: Jam 5:14 - Anointing him with oil Anointing him with oil ( aleipsantes elaiōi ). First aorist active participle of aleiphō , old verb, to anoint, and the instrumental case of elai...

Anointing him with oil ( aleipsantes elaiōi ).

First aorist active participle of aleiphō , old verb, to anoint, and the instrumental case of elaion (oil). The aorist participle can be either simultaneous or antecedent with proseuxasthōsan (pray). See the same use of aleiphō elaiōi in Mar 6:13. The use of olive oil was one of the best remedial agencies known to the ancients. They used it internally and externally. Some physicians prescribe it today. It is clear both in Mar 6:13 and here that medicinal value is attached to the use of the oil and emphasis is placed on the worth of prayer. There is nothing here of the pagan magic or of the later practice of "extreme unction"(after the eighth century). It is by no means certain that aleiphō here and in Mar 6:13 means "anoint"in a ceremonial fashion rather than "rub"as it commonly does in medical treatises. Trench (N.T. Synonyms) says: "Aleiphein is the mundane and profane, chriein the sacred and religious, word."At bottom in James we have God and medicine, God and the doctor, and that is precisely where we are today. The best physicians believe in God and want the help of prayer.

Robertson: Jam 5:15 - The prayer of faith The prayer of faith ( hē euchē tēs pisteōs ). Cf. Jam 1:6 for prayer marked by faith.

The prayer of faith ( hē euchē tēs pisteōs ).

Cf. Jam 1:6 for prayer marked by faith.

Robertson: Jam 5:15 - Shall save Shall save ( sōsei ). Future active of sōzō , to make well. As in Mat 9:21.; Mar 6:56. No reference here to salvation of the soul. The medicine...

Shall save ( sōsei ).

Future active of sōzō , to make well. As in Mat 9:21.; Mar 6:56. No reference here to salvation of the soul. The medicine does not heal the sick, but it helps nature (God) do it. The doctor cooperates with God in nature.

Robertson: Jam 5:15 - The sick The sick ( ton kamnonta ). Present active articular participle of kamnō , old verb, to grow weary (Heb 12:3), to be sick (here), only N.T. examples...

The sick ( ton kamnonta ).

Present active articular participle of kamnō , old verb, to grow weary (Heb 12:3), to be sick (here), only N.T. examples.

Robertson: Jam 5:15 - The Lord shall raise him up The Lord shall raise him up ( egerei auton ho kurios ). Future active of egeirō . Precious promise, but not for a professional "faith-healer"who sc...

The Lord shall raise him up ( egerei auton ho kurios ).

Future active of egeirō . Precious promise, but not for a professional "faith-healer"who scoffs at medicine and makes merchandise out of prayer.

Robertson: Jam 5:15 - And if he have committed sins And if he have committed sins ( kan hamartias ēi pepoiēkōs ). Periphrastic perfect active subjunctive (unusual idiom) with kai ean (crasis ka...

And if he have committed sins ( kan hamartias ēi pepoiēkōs ).

Periphrastic perfect active subjunctive (unusual idiom) with kai ean (crasis kan ) in condition of third class. Supposing that he has committed sins as many sick people have (Mar 2:5.; Joh 5:14; Joh 9:2.; 1Co 11:30).

Robertson: Jam 5:15 - It shall be forgiven him It shall be forgiven him ( aphethēsetai autōi ). Future passive of aphiēmi (impersonal passive as in Mat 7:2, Mat 7:7; Rom 10:10). Not in any...

It shall be forgiven him ( aphethēsetai autōi ).

Future passive of aphiēmi (impersonal passive as in Mat 7:2, Mat 7:7; Rom 10:10). Not in any magical way, not because his sickness has been healed, not without change of heart and turning to God through Christ. Much is assumed here that is not expressed.

Robertson: Jam 5:16 - Confess therefore your sins one to another Confess therefore your sins one to another ( exomologeisthe oun allēlois tas hamartias ). Present middle (indirect) of exomologeō . Confession of...

Confess therefore your sins one to another ( exomologeisthe oun allēlois tas hamartias ).

Present middle (indirect) of exomologeō . Confession of sin to God is already assumed. But public confession of certain sins to one another in the meetings is greatly helpful in many ways. This is not confessing to one man like a priest in place of the public confession. One may confess to the pastor without confessing to God or to the church, with little benefit to anybody.

Robertson: Jam 5:16 - Pray for one another Pray for one another ( proseuchesthe huper allēlōn ). Present middle imperative. Keep this up.

Pray for one another ( proseuchesthe huper allēlōn ).

Present middle imperative. Keep this up.

Robertson: Jam 5:16 - That ye may be healed That ye may be healed ( hopōs iathēte ). Purpose clause with hopōs and the first aorist passive subjunctive of iaomai . Probably of bodily he...

That ye may be healed ( hopōs iathēte ).

Purpose clause with hopōs and the first aorist passive subjunctive of iaomai . Probably of bodily healing (Jam 5:14), though iaomai is used also of healing of the soul (Mat 13:15; 1Pe 2:24; Heb 12:13) as Mayor takes it here.

Robertson: Jam 5:16 - Availeth much Availeth much ( polu ischuei ). "Has much force."Present active indicative of ischuō (from ischus , strength).

Availeth much ( polu ischuei ).

"Has much force."Present active indicative of ischuō (from ischus , strength).

Robertson: Jam 5:16 - In its working In its working ( energoumenē ). Probably the present middle participle of energeō as Paul apparently uses it in Gal 5:6; 2Co 4:12; 2Th 2:7, mea...

In its working ( energoumenē ).

Probably the present middle participle of energeō as Paul apparently uses it in Gal 5:6; 2Co 4:12; 2Th 2:7, meaning "when it works."The passive is possible, as is the usual idiom elsewhere. Mayor argues strongly for the passive here, "when it is exercised"(Ropes).

Robertson: Jam 5:17 - Of like passions with us Of like passions with us ( homoiopathēs hēmin ). Associative-instrumental case hēmin as with homoios . This old compound adjective (homoios ...

Of like passions with us ( homoiopathēs hēmin ).

Associative-instrumental case hēmin as with homoios . This old compound adjective (homoios , paschō ), suffering the like with another, in N.T. only here and Act 14:15.

Robertson: Jam 5:17 - He prayed fervently He prayed fervently ( proseuchēi prosēuxato ). First aorist middle indicative of proseuchomai and the instrumental case proseuchēi (cognate...

He prayed fervently ( proseuchēi prosēuxato ).

First aorist middle indicative of proseuchomai and the instrumental case proseuchēi (cognate substantive), after idiom for intensity in classical Greek, like pheugein phugēi , to flee with all speed (figura etymologica ), but particularly frequent in the lxx (Gen 2:17; 31:30) in imitation of the Hebrew infinitive absolute. So Luk 22:15; Joh 3:29; Act 4:17.

Robertson: Jam 5:17 - That it might not rain That it might not rain ( tou mē brexai ). Genitive of the articular infinitive (brexai , first aorist active of brechō , old verb, to moisten, Lu...

That it might not rain ( tou mē brexai ).

Genitive of the articular infinitive (brexai , first aorist active of brechō , old verb, to moisten, Luk 7:38, to rain, Mat 5:45) with negative mē used either for direct purpose, for an object clause as here and Act 3:12; Act 15:20, or even for result.

Robertson: Jam 5:17 - For three years and six months For three years and six months ( eniautous treis kai mēnas hex ). Accusative of extent of time.

For three years and six months ( eniautous treis kai mēnas hex ).

Accusative of extent of time.

Robertson: Jam 5:18 - Gave rain Gave rain ( hueton edōken ). This idiom is in the lxx of God as here of heaven (1 Sam 12:17; 1 Kings 18:1) and also in Act 14:17 instead of ebrexen...

Gave rain ( hueton edōken ).

This idiom is in the lxx of God as here of heaven (1 Sam 12:17; 1 Kings 18:1) and also in Act 14:17 instead of ebrexen of Jam 5:17. Hueton is old word for rain (from huō , to rain), genuine here, but not in Jam 5:7.

Robertson: Jam 5:18 - Brought forth Brought forth ( eblastēsen ). First aorist active of blastanō , old verb, to sprout (intransitive as Mar 4:27), here as occasionally in later Gre...

Brought forth ( eblastēsen ).

First aorist active of blastanō , old verb, to sprout (intransitive as Mar 4:27), here as occasionally in later Greek transitive with accusative karpon .

Robertson: Jam 5:19 - If any one among you do err If any one among you do err ( ean tis en humin planēthēi ). Third-class condition (supposed case) with ean and the first aorist passive subjunc...

If any one among you do err ( ean tis en humin planēthēi ).

Third-class condition (supposed case) with ean and the first aorist passive subjunctive of planaō , old verb, to go astray, to wander (Mat 18:12), figuratively (Heb 5:2).

Robertson: Jam 5:19 - From the truth From the truth ( apo tēs alētheias ). For truth see Jam 1:18; Jam 3:14; Joh 8:32; 1Jo 1:6; 1Jo 3:18. It was easy then, and is now, to be led astr...

From the truth ( apo tēs alētheias ).

For truth see Jam 1:18; Jam 3:14; Joh 8:32; 1Jo 1:6; 1Jo 3:18. It was easy then, and is now, to be led astray from Christ, who is the Truth.

Robertson: Jam 5:19 - And one convert him And one convert him ( kai epistrepsēi tis auton ). Continuation of the third-class condition with the first aorist active subjunctive of epistrepho...

And one convert him ( kai epistrepsēi tis auton ).

Continuation of the third-class condition with the first aorist active subjunctive of epistrephō , old verb, to turn (transitive here as in Luk 1:16., but intransitive often as Act 9:35).

Robertson: Jam 5:20 - Let him know Let him know ( ginōsketō ). Present active imperative third person singular of ginōskō , but Westcott and Hort read ginōskete (know ye) a...

Let him know ( ginōsketō ).

Present active imperative third person singular of ginōskō , but Westcott and Hort read ginōskete (know ye) after B. In either case it is the conclusion of the condition in Jam 5:19.

Robertson: Jam 5:20 - He which converteth He which converteth ( ho epistrepsas ). First aorist active articular participle of epistrephō of Jam 5:19.

He which converteth ( ho epistrepsas ).

First aorist active articular participle of epistrephō of Jam 5:19.

Robertson: Jam 5:20 - From the error From the error ( ek planēs ). "Out of the wandering"of Jam 5:19 (planē , from which planaō is made). See 1Jo 4:6 for contrast between "truth"...

From the error ( ek planēs ).

"Out of the wandering"of Jam 5:19 (planē , from which planaō is made). See 1Jo 4:6 for contrast between "truth"and "error."

Robertson: Jam 5:20 - A soul from death A soul from death ( psuchēn ek thanatou ). The soul of the sinner (hamartōlon ) won back to Christ, not the soul of the man winning him. A few M...

A soul from death ( psuchēn ek thanatou ).

The soul of the sinner (hamartōlon ) won back to Christ, not the soul of the man winning him. A few MSS. have autou added (his soul), which leaves it ambiguous, but autou is not genuine. It is ultimate and final salvation here meant by the future (sōsei ).

Robertson: Jam 5:20 - Shall cover a multitude of sins Shall cover a multitude of sins ( kalupsei plēthos hamartiōn ). Future active of kaluptō , old verb, to hide, to veil. But whose sins (those of...

Shall cover a multitude of sins ( kalupsei plēthos hamartiōn ).

Future active of kaluptō , old verb, to hide, to veil. But whose sins (those of the converter or the converted)? The Roman Catholics (also Mayor and Ropes) take it of the sins of the converter, who thus saves himself by saving others. The language here will allow that, but not New Testament teaching in general. It is apparently a proverbial saying which Resch considers one of the unwritten sayings of Christ (Clem. Al. Paed. iii. 12). It occurs also in 1Pe 4:8, where it clearly means the sins of others covered by love as a veil thrown over them. The saying appears also in Pro 10:12 : "Hatred stirs up strife, but love hides all transgressions"- that is "love refuses to see faults"(Mayor admits). That is undoubtedly the meaning in 1Pe 4:8; Jam 5:20.

Vincent: Jam 5:1 - Go to Go to See on Jam 4:13.

Go to

See on Jam 4:13.

Vincent: Jam 5:1 - Weep and howl Weep and howl ( κλαύσατε ὀλολύζοντες ) Lit., weep, howling. The latter is a descriptive word, ol -ol -uz -o . Only her...

Weep and howl ( κλαύσατε ὀλολύζοντες )

Lit., weep, howling. The latter is a descriptive word, ol -ol -uz -o . Only here in New Testament, and denoting a more demonstrative and passionate expression of grief than weeping.

Vincent: Jam 5:1 - Miseries Miseries ( ταλαιπωρίαις ) Only here and Rom 3:16. See on be afflicted, Jam 4:9.

Miseries ( ταλαιπωρίαις )

Only here and Rom 3:16. See on be afflicted, Jam 4:9.

Vincent: Jam 5:1 - That shall come upon That shall come upon ( ἐπερχομέναις ) Present participle. More correctly, as Rev., that are coming.

That shall come upon ( ἐπερχομέναις )

Present participle. More correctly, as Rev., that are coming.

Vincent: Jam 5:2 - Are corrupted Are corrupted ( σέσηπεν ) Only here in New Testament.

Are corrupted ( σέσηπεν )

Only here in New Testament.

Vincent: Jam 5:2 - Are moth-eaten Are moth-eaten ( σητόβρωτα γέγονεν ) Lit., have become moth-eaten. Only here in New Testament, but compare σκωληκό...

Are moth-eaten ( σητόβρωτα γέγονεν )

Lit., have become moth-eaten. Only here in New Testament, but compare σκωληκόβρωτος , eaten of worms, Act 12:23; and see Mat 6:19, Mat 6:20.

Vincent: Jam 5:3 - Is cankered Is cankered ( κατίωται ) Only here in New Testament, from ἰός , rust, as in the following sentence. Also poison , as Jam 3:8....

Is cankered ( κατίωται )

Only here in New Testament, from ἰός , rust, as in the following sentence. Also poison , as Jam 3:8. The preposition κατά indicates thoroughness, completely rusted.

Vincent: Jam 5:3 - Flesh Flesh ( τὰς σάρκας ) The noun is plural: the fleshy parts of the body. So Sept. (2 Kings 9:36): " the flesh (τὰς σάρκ...

Flesh ( τὰς σάρκας )

The noun is plural: the fleshy parts of the body. So Sept. (2 Kings 9:36): " the flesh (τὰς σάρκας ) of Jezebel." So Rev 19:18.

Vincent: Jam 5:4 - Reaped down Reaped down ( ἀμησάντων ) Only here in New Testament. The primary meaning is to reap corn; also in classical Greek of mowing do...

Reaped down ( ἀμησάντων )

Only here in New Testament. The primary meaning is to reap corn; also in classical Greek of mowing down in battle. The secondary, which some mistake for the primary sense, is to gather, as for harvest. Rev., mowed.

Vincent: Jam 5:4 - Fields Fields ( χώρας ) The more general word, place , for ἀγρός , the ordinary word for a field ; though the usage is warranted by cl...

Fields ( χώρας )

The more general word, place , for ἀγρός , the ordinary word for a field ; though the usage is warranted by classical Greek, and occurs Luk 12:16; Joh 4:35, the only two instances besides this in the New Testament. It implies a larger tract than ἀγρός , as is evident in all the New-Testament passages cited. In two cases it refers to a rich man's estates; and in Joh 4:35, the Lord directs the attention of the disciples to a broad area or series of fields.

Vincent: Jam 5:4 - Crieth Crieth ( κράζει ) An inarticulate cry. Compare Gen 4:10.

Crieth ( κράζει )

An inarticulate cry. Compare Gen 4:10.

Vincent: Jam 5:4 - Lord of Sabaoth Lord of Sabaoth Lord of hosts. The only instance in which the phrase is used by a New-Testament writer. Rom 9:29, is quoted from Isa 1:9.

Lord of Sabaoth

Lord of hosts. The only instance in which the phrase is used by a New-Testament writer. Rom 9:29, is quoted from Isa 1:9.

Vincent: Jam 5:5 - Ye have lived in pleasure Ye have lived in pleasure ( ἐτρυφήσατε ) Only here in New Testament. See on 2Pe 2:13, on the kindred noun τρυφή , riot or ...

Ye have lived in pleasure ( ἐτρυφήσατε )

Only here in New Testament. See on 2Pe 2:13, on the kindred noun τρυφή , riot or revel. Rev., ye have lived delicately.

Vincent: Jam 5:5 - Been wanton Been wanton ( ἐσπαταλήσατε ) Only here and 1Ti 5:6. Ἐτρυφήσατε denotes dainty living: this word, luxurious or ...

Been wanton ( ἐσπαταλήσατε )

Only here and 1Ti 5:6. Ἐτρυφήσατε denotes dainty living: this word, luxurious or prodigal living. Rev., taken your pleasure, is colorless, and is no improvement on the A. V.

Vincent: Jam 5:5 - As in a day of slaughter As in a day of slaughter ( ὡς ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σφαγῆς ) All the best texts reject ὡς , as. The meaning of the passage is d...

As in a day of slaughter ( ὡς ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σφαγῆς )

All the best texts reject ὡς , as. The meaning of the passage is disputed. Some find the key to it in the words last days (Jam 5:3). The phrase day of slaughter is used for a day of judgment, Jer 12:3; 25:34: (Sept.). According to this, the meaning is, the day of judgment, at the supposed near coming of Christ. Others explain that these men are like beasts, which, on the very day of their slaughter, gorge themselves in unconscious security.

Vincent: Jam 5:7 - Be patient Be patient ( μακροθυμήσατε ) From μακρός , long , and θυμός , soul or spirit, but with the sense of strong pass...

Be patient ( μακροθυμήσατε )

From μακρός , long , and θυμός , soul or spirit, but with the sense of strong passion, stronger even than ὀργή , anger, as is maintained by Schmidt (" Synonymik" ), who describes θυμός as a tumultuous welling up of the whole spirit; a mighty emotion which seizes and moves the whole inner man. Hence the restraint implied in μακροθυμία is most correctly expressed by long-suffering, which is its usual rendering in the New Testament. It is a patient holding out under trial; a long-protracted restraint of the soul from yielding to passion, especially the passion of anger. In the New Testament the word and its cognates are sometimes rendered by patient or patience, which conceals the distinction from ὑπομονή , uniformly rendered patience , and signifying persistent endurance, whether in action or suffering. As Trench observes, " ὑπομονή is perseverantia and patientia both in one." Thus Bishop Ellicott: " The brave patience with which the Christian contends against the various hindrances, persecutions, and temptations that befall him in his conflict with the inward and outward world." Ὑπομονή. contains an element of manliness. Thus Plato joins it with the adverb ἀνδρικῶς , in a manly way, and contrasts it with ἀνάνδρως , unmanly, cowardly. Μακροθυμία is exercised toward persons; ὑπομονή , toward things. The former is ascribed to God as an attribute (Luk 18:7; 1Pe 3:20; 2Pe 3:9, 2Pe 3:15), the latter never; for the God of patience (Rom 15:5) is the God who imparts patience to his children. " There can be no resistance to God nor burden upon him, the Almighty, from things. Therefore ὑπομονή cannot find place in him" (Trench). Rev. retains A. V., be patient. The thought links itself naturally with that in the preceding verse: the righteous doth not resist.

Vincent: Jam 5:7 - Therefore Therefore Since things are so. Referring to the condition of things described in the previous passage.

Therefore

Since things are so. Referring to the condition of things described in the previous passage.

Vincent: Jam 5:7 - Brethren Brethren In contrast with the rich just addressed.

Brethren

In contrast with the rich just addressed.

Vincent: Jam 5:7 - Waiteth Waiteth ( ἐκδέχεται ) With expectation. Compare Mat 13:30; Mar 4:27.

Waiteth ( ἐκδέχεται )

With expectation. Compare Mat 13:30; Mar 4:27.

Vincent: Jam 5:7 - The early and latter rain The early and latter rain ( ὑετὸν πρώιμον καὶ ὄψιμον ) Both adjectives only here in New Testament. Ὑετὸ...

The early and latter rain ( ὑετὸν πρώιμον καὶ ὄψιμον )

Both adjectives only here in New Testament. Ὑετὸν , rain, is rejected by all the best texts. The early rain fell in October, November, and December, and extended into January and February. These rains do not come suddenly, but by degrees, so that the farmer can sow his wheat or barley. The rains are mostly from the west or southwest (Luk 12:54), continuing two or three days at a time, and falling mostly in the night. Then the wind shifts to the north or east, and fine weather ensues (Pro 25:23). The latter rains, which are much lighter, fall in March and April. Rain in harvest was regarded as a miracle (1Sa 12:16-18). See Introduction, on James' local allusions.

Vincent: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not Grudge not ( μὴ στενάζετε ) Better, as Rev., murmur not. The verb means to sigh or groan.

Grudge not ( μὴ στενάζετε )

Better, as Rev., murmur not. The verb means to sigh or groan.

Vincent: Jam 5:9 - Standeth before the doors Standeth before the doors In the act of entering.

Standeth before the doors

In the act of entering.

Vincent: Jam 5:10 - Example Example ( ὑπόδειγμα ) See on 2Pe 2:6.

Example ( ὑπόδειγμα )

See on 2Pe 2:6.

Vincent: Jam 5:10 - Of suffering affliction Of suffering affliction ( κακοπαθείας ) Only here in New Testament. The word does not mean the endurance of affliction, but affli...

Of suffering affliction ( κακοπαθείας )

Only here in New Testament. The word does not mean the endurance of affliction, but affliction itself. Hence, Rev., rightly, suffering.

Vincent: Jam 5:10 - The prophets The prophets Compare Mat 5:12.

The prophets

Compare Mat 5:12.

Vincent: Jam 5:11 - Endure Endure ( ὑπομένοντας ) Present participle. But the later texts read ὑπομείναντας , the aorist participle, which e...

Endure ( ὑπομένοντας )

Present participle. But the later texts read ὑπομείναντας , the aorist participle, which endured; referring to the prophets in the past ages. So Rev. On endured and patience , see on Jam 5:7.

Vincent: Jam 5:11 - The end of the Lord The end of the Lord ( τὸ τέλος κυρίου ) A peculiar expression. The happy conclusion to which God brought Job's trials.

The end of the Lord ( τὸ τέλος κυρίου )

A peculiar expression. The happy conclusion to which God brought Job's trials.

Vincent: Jam 5:11 - Very pitiful and of tender mercy Very pitiful and of tender mercy ( πολυσπλαγχνός καὶ οἰκτίρμων ) The former adjective only here in New Testament...

Very pitiful and of tender mercy ( πολυσπλαγχνός καὶ οἰκτίρμων )

The former adjective only here in New Testament; the latter here and Luk 6:36. Rev., full of pity and merciful. Πολυσπλαγχνός is from πολύς , much, and σπλάγχνα , the nobler entrails, used like our heart, as the seat of the emotions Hence the term bowels in the A. V. (Phi 1:8; Col 3:12, etc.). Compare εὔσπλαγχνοι , tender-hearted, Eph 4:32. The distinction between this and οἰκτίρμων , merciful, seems to be that the former denotes the general quality of compassion, while the latter emphasizes the sympathy called out by special cases, being the feeling which is moved to pain at another's suffering.

Vincent: Jam 5:12 - Any other oath Any other oath See the common formulas of swearing, Mat 5:35, Mat 5:36.

Any other oath

See the common formulas of swearing, Mat 5:35, Mat 5:36.

Vincent: Jam 5:13 - Is afflicted Is afflicted ( κακοπαθεῖ ) See on the kindred word κακοπάθεια , suffering, Jam 5:10. Only here and 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 2:9; 2Ti...

Is afflicted ( κακοπαθεῖ )

See on the kindred word κακοπάθεια , suffering, Jam 5:10. Only here and 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 2:9; 2Ti 4:5.

Vincent: Jam 5:13 - Let him sing psalms Let him sing psalms ( ψαλλέτω ) The word means, primarily, to pluck or twitch. Hence of the sharp twang on a bowstring or harp-strin...

Let him sing psalms ( ψαλλέτω )

The word means, primarily, to pluck or twitch. Hence of the sharp twang on a bowstring or harp-string, and so to play upon a stringed instrument. Our word psalm , derived from this, is, properly, a tune played upon a stringed instrument. The verb, however, is used in the New Testament of singing praise generally. See 1Co 14:15; Rom 15:9.

Vincent: Jam 5:15 - The sick The sick ( τὸν κάμνοντα ) Rev. gives, better, the participial force, him that is sick. The word originally means to work. Henc...

The sick ( τὸν κάμνοντα )

Rev. gives, better, the participial force, him that is sick. The word originally means to work. Hence, " him that is laboring under disease."

Vincent: Jam 5:15 - And if he have committed sins And if he have committed sins ( κἃν ἁμαρτίας ᾖ πεποιηκώς ) The Greek gives a shade of meaning which can hard...

And if he have committed sins ( κἃν ἁμαρτίας ᾖ πεποιηκώς )

The Greek gives a shade of meaning which can hardly be transferred neatly into English, representing not merely the fact that the man has sinned, but his condition as a sinner. Literally the words read, if he be having committed sins; i.e., in a state of having committed, and under the moral or physical consequences of transgression.

Vincent: Jam 5:15 - They shall be forgiven They shall be forgiven ( ἀφεθήσεται ) Better, Rev., " it shall be forgiven," supplying the commission as a subject. The verb m...

They shall be forgiven ( ἀφεθήσεται )

Better, Rev., " it shall be forgiven," supplying the commission as a subject. The verb means to send forth or discharge, and is the standard New-Testament word for forgiving. Forgiveness (ἄφεσις ) is a putting or sending away of sins, with a consequent discharge of the sinner; thus differing from τάρεσις (Rom 3:25), which is a passing by of sin, a pretermission as distinguished from a remission. See, farther, on Rom 3:25.

Vincent: Jam 5:16 - Confess Confess ( ἐξομολογεῖσθε ) The preposition ἐξ , forth, out, implies full, frank, open confession, and so in every case of...

Confess ( ἐξομολογεῖσθε )

The preposition ἐξ , forth, out, implies full, frank, open confession, and so in every case of its use in the New Testament. See on Mat 3:6.

Vincent: Jam 5:16 - Faults Faults ( παραπτώματα ) See on Mat 6:14.

Faults ( παραπτώματα )

See on Mat 6:14.

Vincent: Jam 5:16 - The effectual, fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much The effectual, fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much ( πολὺ ἰσχύει δέησις δικαίου ἐνεργουμέν...

The effectual, fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much ( πολὺ ἰσχύει δέησις δικαίου ἐνεργουμένη )

Lit., much availeth (ἰσχύει , is strong ) , the prayer of a righteous man working or operating. The rendering of the A. V., besides being unwarranted by the text, is almost a truism. An effectual prayer is a prayer that avails. The Rev. is at once more correct and more natural: The supplication of a righteous man availeth much in its working.

Vincent: Jam 5:17 - A man A man ( ἄνθρωπος ) The generic word; human like ourselves, this thought being emphasized by the succeeding epithet of like passions....

A man ( ἄνθρωπος )

The generic word; human like ourselves, this thought being emphasized by the succeeding epithet of like passions. See the same expression, Act 14:15.

Vincent: Jam 5:17 - Of like passions Of like passions ( ὁμοιοπαθὴς ) Only here and Act 14:15. There is some danger of a misunderstanding of this rendering, from the lim...

Of like passions ( ὁμοιοπαθὴς )

Only here and Act 14:15. There is some danger of a misunderstanding of this rendering, from the limited and generally bad sense in which the word passions is popularly used. The meaning is rather of like nature and constitution. Rev. puts nature in margin, which would be better in the text.

Vincent: Jam 5:17 - He prayed fervently He prayed fervently ( προσευχῇ προσηύξατο ) Lit., he prayed with prayer. See a similar mode of expression, Genesis 2:17...

He prayed fervently ( προσευχῇ προσηύξατο )

Lit., he prayed with prayer. See a similar mode of expression, Genesis 2:17 (Sept.), ye shall surely die (θανάτῳ ἀποθανεῖσθε ) ; lit., ye shall die with death. Compare Luk 22:15; Joh 3:29; Act 4:17. The addition of the cognate noun gives intenseness to the verb.

Vincent: Jam 5:17 - Hide - sins Hide - sins A familiar Hebrew phrase. See Psa 32:1; Psa 85:2; Pro 10:12.

Hide - sins

A familiar Hebrew phrase. See Psa 32:1; Psa 85:2; Pro 10:12.

Wesley: Jam 5:1 - Come now, ye rich The apostle does not speak this so much for the sake of the rich themselves, as of the poor children of God, who were then groaning under their cruel ...

The apostle does not speak this so much for the sake of the rich themselves, as of the poor children of God, who were then groaning under their cruel oppression.

Wesley: Jam 5:1 - Weep and howl for your miseries which are coming upon you Quickly and unexpectedly. This was written not long before the siege of Jerusalem; during which, as well as after it, huge calamities came on the Jewi...

Quickly and unexpectedly. This was written not long before the siege of Jerusalem; during which, as well as after it, huge calamities came on the Jewish nation, not only in Judea, but through distant countries. And as these were an awful prelude of that wrath which was to fall upon them in the world to come, so this may likewise refer to the final vengeance which will then be executed on the impenitent.

Wesley: Jam 5:2 - -- The riches of the ancients consisted much in large stores of corn, and of costly apparel.

The riches of the ancients consisted much in large stores of corn, and of costly apparel.

Wesley: Jam 5:3 - The canker of them Your perishing stores and motheaten garments.

Your perishing stores and motheaten garments.

Wesley: Jam 5:3 - Will be a testimony against you Of your having buried those talents in the earth, instead of improving them according to your Lord's will.

Of your having buried those talents in the earth, instead of improving them according to your Lord's will.

Wesley: Jam 5:3 - And will eat your flesh as fire Will occasion you as great torment as if fire were consuming your flesh.

Will occasion you as great torment as if fire were consuming your flesh.

Wesley: Jam 5:3 - Ye have laid up treasure in the last days When it is too late; when you have no time to enjoy them.

When it is too late; when you have no time to enjoy them.

Wesley: Jam 5:4 - The hire of your labourers crieth Those sins chiefly cry to God concerning which human laws are silent. Such are luxury, unchastity, and various kinds of injustice. The labourers thems...

Those sins chiefly cry to God concerning which human laws are silent. Such are luxury, unchastity, and various kinds of injustice. The labourers themselves also cry to God, who is just coming to avenge their cause.

Wesley: Jam 5:4 - Of sabaoth Of hosts, or armies.

Of hosts, or armies.

Wesley: Jam 5:5 - Ye have cherished your hearts Have indulged yourselves to the uttermost.

Have indulged yourselves to the uttermost.

Wesley: Jam 5:5 - As in a day of sacrifice Which were solemn feast - days among the Jews.

Which were solemn feast - days among the Jews.

Wesley: Jam 5:6 - Ye have killed the just Many just men; in particular, "that Just One," Act 3:14. They afterwards killed James, surnamed the Just, the writer of this epistle.

Many just men; in particular, "that Just One," Act 3:14. They afterwards killed James, surnamed the Just, the writer of this epistle.

Wesley: Jam 5:6 - He doth not resist you And therefore you are secure. But the Lord cometh quickly, Jam 5:8.

And therefore you are secure. But the Lord cometh quickly, Jam 5:8.

Wesley: Jam 5:7 - The husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit Which will recompense his labour and patience.

Which will recompense his labour and patience.

Wesley: Jam 5:7 - Till he receives the former rain Immediately after sowing.

Immediately after sowing.

Wesley: Jam 5:7 - And the latter Before the harvest.

Before the harvest.

Wesley: Jam 5:8 - Stablish your hearts In faith and patience.

In faith and patience.

Wesley: Jam 5:8 - For the coming of the Lord To destroy Jerusalem.

To destroy Jerusalem.

Wesley: Jam 5:8 - Is nigh And so is his last coming to the eye of a believer.

And so is his last coming to the eye of a believer.

Wesley: Jam 5:9 - Murmur not one against another Have patience also with each other.

Have patience also with each other.

Wesley: Jam 5:9 - The judge standeth before the door Hearing every word, marking every thought.

Hearing every word, marking every thought.

Wesley: Jam 5:10 - Take the prophets for an example Once persecuted like you, even for speaking in the name of the Lord. The very men that gloried in having prophets yet could not bear their message: no...

Once persecuted like you, even for speaking in the name of the Lord. The very men that gloried in having prophets yet could not bear their message: nor did either their holiness or their high commission screen them from suffering.

Wesley: Jam 5:11 - We count them happy that endured That suffered patiently. The more they once suffered, the greater is their present happiness.

That suffered patiently. The more they once suffered, the greater is their present happiness.

Wesley: Jam 5:11 - Ye have seen the end of the Lord The end which the Lord gave him.

The end which the Lord gave him.

Wesley: Jam 5:12 - Swear not However provoked. The Jews were notoriously guilty of common swearing, though not so much by God himself as by some of his creatures. The apostle here...

However provoked. The Jews were notoriously guilty of common swearing, though not so much by God himself as by some of his creatures. The apostle here particularly forbids these oaths, as well as all swearing in common conversation. It is very observable, how solemnly the apostle introduces this command: above all things, swear not - As if he had said, Whatever you forget, do not forget this. This abundantly demonstrates the horrible iniquity of the crime. But he does not forbid the taking a solemn oath before a magistrate. Let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay - Use no higher asseverations in common discourse; and let your word stand firm. Whatever ye say, take care to make it good.

Wesley: Jam 5:14 - Having anointed him with oil This single conspicuous gift, which Christ committed to his apostles, Mar 6:13, remained in the church long after the other miraculous gifts were with...

This single conspicuous gift, which Christ committed to his apostles, Mar 6:13, remained in the church long after the other miraculous gifts were withdrawn. Indeed, it seems to have been designed to remain always; and St. James directs the elders, who were the most, if not the only, gifted men, to administer at. This was the whole process of physic in the Christian church, till it was lost through unbelief. That novel invention among the Romanists, extreme unction, practised not for cure, but where life is despaired of, bears no manner of resemblance to this.

Wesley: Jam 5:15 - And the prayer offered in faith shall save the sick From his sickness; and if any sin be the occasion of his sickness, it shall be forgiven him.

From his sickness; and if any sin be the occasion of his sickness, it shall be forgiven him.

Wesley: Jam 5:16 - Confess your faults Whether ye are sick or in health.

Whether ye are sick or in health.

Wesley: Jam 5:16 - To one another He does not say, to the elders: this may, or may not, be done; for it is nowhere commanded. We may confess them to any who can pray in faith: he will ...

He does not say, to the elders: this may, or may not, be done; for it is nowhere commanded. We may confess them to any who can pray in faith: he will then know how to pray for us, and be more stirred up so to do. And pray one for another, that ye may be healed - Of all your spiritual diseases.

Wesley: Jam 5:17 - Elijah was a man of like passions Naturally as weak and sinful as we are.

Naturally as weak and sinful as we are.

Wesley: Jam 5:17 - And he prayed When idolatry covered the land.

When idolatry covered the land.

Wesley: Jam 5:18 - He prayed again When idolatry was abolished.

When idolatry was abolished.

Wesley: Jam 5:19 - -- As if he had said, I have now warned you of those sins to which you are most liable; and, in all these respects, watch not only over yourselves, but e...

As if he had said, I have now warned you of those sins to which you are most liable; and, in all these respects, watch not only over yourselves, but every one over his brother also. Labour, in particular, to recover those that are fallen.

Wesley: Jam 5:19 - If any one err from the truth Practically, by sin.

Practically, by sin.

Wesley: Jam 5:20 - He shall save a soul Of how much more value than the body! Jam 5:14.

Of how much more value than the body! Jam 5:14.

Wesley: Jam 5:20 - And hide a multitude of sins Which shall no more, how many soever they are, be remembered to his condemnation.

Which shall no more, how many soever they are, be remembered to his condemnation.

JFB: Jam 5:1 - Go to now Come now. A phrase to call solemn attention.

Come now. A phrase to call solemn attention.

JFB: Jam 5:1 - ye rich Who have neglected the true enjoyment of riches, which consists in doing good. James intends this address to rich Jewish unbelievers, not so much for ...

Who have neglected the true enjoyment of riches, which consists in doing good. James intends this address to rich Jewish unbelievers, not so much for themselves, as for the saints, that they may bear with patience the violence of the rich (Jam 5:7), knowing that God will speedily avenge them on their oppressors [BENGEL].

JFB: Jam 5:1 - miseries that shall come Literally, "that are coming upon you" unexpectedly and swiftly, namely, at the coming of the Lord (Jam 5:7); primarily, at the destruction of Jerusale...

Literally, "that are coming upon you" unexpectedly and swiftly, namely, at the coming of the Lord (Jam 5:7); primarily, at the destruction of Jerusalem; finally, at His visible coming to judge the world.

JFB: Jam 5:2 - corrupted About to be destroyed through God's curse on your oppression, whereby your riches are accumulated (Jam 5:4). CALVIN thinks the sense is, Your riches p...

About to be destroyed through God's curse on your oppression, whereby your riches are accumulated (Jam 5:4). CALVIN thinks the sense is, Your riches perish without being of any use either to others or even to yourselves, for instance, your garments which are moth-eaten in your chests.

JFB: Jam 5:2 - garments . . . moth-eaten Referring to Mat 6:19-20.

Referring to Mat 6:19-20.

JFB: Jam 5:3 - is cankered "rusted through" [ALFORD].

"rusted through" [ALFORD].

JFB: Jam 5:3 - rust . . . witness against you In the day of judgment; namely, that your riches were of no profit to any, lying unemployed and so contracting rust.

In the day of judgment; namely, that your riches were of no profit to any, lying unemployed and so contracting rust.

JFB: Jam 5:3 - shall eat your flesh The rust which once ate your riches, shall then gnaw your conscience, accompanied with punishment which shall prey upon your bodies for ever.

The rust which once ate your riches, shall then gnaw your conscience, accompanied with punishment which shall prey upon your bodies for ever.

JFB: Jam 5:3 - as . . . fire Not with the slow process of rusting, but with the swiftness of consuming fire.

Not with the slow process of rusting, but with the swiftness of consuming fire.

JFB: Jam 5:3 - for the last days Ye have heaped together, not treasures as ye suppose (compare Luk 12:19), but wrath against the last days, namely, the coming judgment of the Lord. AL...

Ye have heaped together, not treasures as ye suppose (compare Luk 12:19), but wrath against the last days, namely, the coming judgment of the Lord. ALFORD translates more literally, "In these last days (before the coming judgment) ye laid up (worldly) treasure" to no profit, instead of repenting and seeking salvation (see on Jam 5:5).

JFB: Jam 5:4 - Behold Calling attention to their coming doom as no vain threat.

Calling attention to their coming doom as no vain threat.

JFB: Jam 5:4 - labourers Literally "workmen."

Literally "workmen."

JFB: Jam 5:4 - of you kept back So English Version rightly. Not as ALFORD, "crieth out from you." The "keeping back of the hire" was, on the part OF the rich, virtually an act of "fr...

So English Version rightly. Not as ALFORD, "crieth out from you." The "keeping back of the hire" was, on the part OF the rich, virtually an act of "fraud," because the poor laborers were not immediately paid. The phrase is therefore not, "kept back by you," but "of you"; the latter implying virtual, rather than overt, fraud. James refers to Deu 24:14-15, "At this day . . . give his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it, lest he CRY against thee unto the Lord, and it be sin unto thee." Many sins "cry" to heaven for vengeance which men tacitly take no account of, as unchastity and injustice [BENGEL]. Sins peculiarly offensive to God are said to "cry" to Him. The rich ought to have given freely to the poor; their not doing so was sin. A still greater sin was their not paying their debts. Their greatest sin was not paying them to the poor, whose wages is their all.

JFB: Jam 5:4 - cries of them A double cry; both that of the hire abstractly, and that of the laborers hired.

A double cry; both that of the hire abstractly, and that of the laborers hired.

JFB: Jam 5:4 - the Lord of sabaoth Here only in the New Testament. In Rom 9:29 it is a quotation. It is suited to the Jewish tone of the Epistle. It reminds the rich who think the poor ...

Here only in the New Testament. In Rom 9:29 it is a quotation. It is suited to the Jewish tone of the Epistle. It reminds the rich who think the poor have no protector, that the Lord of the whole hosts in heaven and earth is the guardian and avenger of the latter. He is identical with the "coming Lord" Jesus (Jam 5:7).

JFB: Jam 5:5 - -- Translate, "Ye have luxuriated . . . and wantoned." The former expresses luxurious effeminacy; the latter, wantonness and prodigality. Their luxury wa...

Translate, "Ye have luxuriated . . . and wantoned." The former expresses luxurious effeminacy; the latter, wantonness and prodigality. Their luxury was at the expense of the defrauded poor (Jam 5:4).

JFB: Jam 5:5 - on the earth The same earth which has been the scene of your wantonness, shall be the scene of the judgment coming on you: instead of earthly delights ye shall hav...

The same earth which has been the scene of your wantonness, shall be the scene of the judgment coming on you: instead of earthly delights ye shall have punishments.

JFB: Jam 5:5 - nourished . . . hearts That is glutted your bodies like beasts to the full extent of your hearts' desire; ye live to eat, not eat to live.

That is glutted your bodies like beasts to the full extent of your hearts' desire; ye live to eat, not eat to live.

JFB: Jam 5:5 - as in a day of slaughter The oldest authorities omit "as." Ye are like beasts which eat to their hearts' content on the very day of their approaching slaughter, unconscious it...

The oldest authorities omit "as." Ye are like beasts which eat to their hearts' content on the very day of their approaching slaughter, unconscious it is near. The phrase answers to "the last days," Jam 5:3, which favors ALFORD'S translation there, "in," not "for."

JFB: Jam 5:6 - Ye have condemned . . . the just The Greek aorist expresses, "Ye are accustomed to condemn . . . the just." Their condemnation of Christ, "the Just," is foremost in James' mind. But a...

The Greek aorist expresses, "Ye are accustomed to condemn . . . the just." Their condemnation of Christ, "the Just," is foremost in James' mind. But all the innocent blood shed, and to be shed, is included, the Holy Spirit comprehending James himself, called "the Just," who was slain in a tumult. See my Introduction. This gives a peculiar appropriateness to the expression in this verse, the same "as the righteous (just) man" (Jam 5:16). The justice or righteousness of Jesus and His people is what peculiarly provoked the ungodly great men of the world.

JFB: Jam 5:6 - he doth not resist you The very patience of the Just one is abused by the wicked as an incentive to boldness in violent persecution, as if they may do as they please with im...

The very patience of the Just one is abused by the wicked as an incentive to boldness in violent persecution, as if they may do as they please with impunity. God doth "resist the proud" (Jam 4:6); but Jesus as man, "as a sheep is dumb before the shearers, so He opened not His mouth": so His people are meek under persecution. The day will come when God will resist (literally, "set Himself in array against") His foes and theirs.

JFB: Jam 5:7 - Be patient therefore As judgment is so near (Jam 5:1, Jam 5:3), ye may well afford to be "patient" after the example of the unresisting Just one (Jam 5:6).

As judgment is so near (Jam 5:1, Jam 5:3), ye may well afford to be "patient" after the example of the unresisting Just one (Jam 5:6).

JFB: Jam 5:7 - brethren Contrasted with the "rich" oppressors, Jam 5:1-6.

Contrasted with the "rich" oppressors, Jam 5:1-6.

JFB: Jam 5:7 - unto the coming of the Lord Christ, when the trial of your patience shall cease.

Christ, when the trial of your patience shall cease.

JFB: Jam 5:7 - husbandman waiteth for That is, patiently bears toils and delays through hope of the harvest at last. Its "preciousness" (compare Psa 126:6, "precious seed") will more than ...

That is, patiently bears toils and delays through hope of the harvest at last. Its "preciousness" (compare Psa 126:6, "precious seed") will more than compensate for all the past. Compare the same image, Gal 6:3, Gal 6:9.

JFB: Jam 5:7 - hath long patience for it "over it," in respect to it.

"over it," in respect to it.

JFB: Jam 5:7 - until he receive "until it receive" [ALFORD]. Even if English Version be retained, the receiving of the early and latter rains is not to be understood as the object of...

"until it receive" [ALFORD]. Even if English Version be retained, the receiving of the early and latter rains is not to be understood as the object of his hope, but the harvest for which those rains are the necessary preliminary. The early rain fell at sowing time, about November or December; the latter rain, about March or April, to mature the grain for harvest. The latter rain that shall precede the coming spiritual harvest, will probably be another Pentecost-like effusion of the Holy Ghost.

JFB: Jam 5:8 - coming . . . draweth nigh The Greek expresses present time and a settled state. 1Pe 4:7, "is at hand." We are to live in a continued state of expectancy of the Lord's coming, a...

The Greek expresses present time and a settled state. 1Pe 4:7, "is at hand." We are to live in a continued state of expectancy of the Lord's coming, as an event always nigh. Nothing can more "stablish the heart" amidst present troubles than the realized expectation of His speedy coming.

JFB: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not Rather "Murmur not"; "grumble not." The Greek is literally, "groan": a half-suppressed murmur of impatience and harsh judgment, not uttered aloud or f...

Rather "Murmur not"; "grumble not." The Greek is literally, "groan": a half-suppressed murmur of impatience and harsh judgment, not uttered aloud or freely. Having exhorted them to patience in bearing wrongs from the wicked, he now exhorts them to a forbearing spirit as to the offenses given by brethren. Christians, who bear the former patiently, sometimes are impatient at the latter, though much less grievous.

JFB: Jam 5:9 - lest . . . condemned The best manuscript authorities read, "judged." James refers to Mat 7:1, "Judge not lest ye be judged." To "murmur against one another" is virtually t...

The best manuscript authorities read, "judged." James refers to Mat 7:1, "Judge not lest ye be judged." To "murmur against one another" is virtually to judge, and so to become liable to be judged.

JFB: Jam 5:9 - judge . . . before the door Referring to Mat 24:33. The Greek is the same in both passages, and so ought to be translated here as there, "doors," plural. The phrase means "near a...

Referring to Mat 24:33. The Greek is the same in both passages, and so ought to be translated here as there, "doors," plural. The phrase means "near at hand" (Gen 4:7), which in the oldest interpretations [Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem] is explained, "thy sin is reserved unto the judgment of the world to come." Compare "the everlasting doors" (Psa 24:7, whence He shall come forth). The Lord's coming to destroy Jerusalem is primarily referred to; and ultimately, His coming again visibly to judgment.

JFB: Jam 5:10 - the prophets Who were especially persecuted, and therefore were especially "blessed."

Who were especially persecuted, and therefore were especially "blessed."

JFB: Jam 5:10 - example of suffering affliction Rather, simply, "of affliction," literally, "evil treatment."

Rather, simply, "of affliction," literally, "evil treatment."

JFB: Jam 5:11 - count them happy (Mat 5:10).

JFB: Jam 5:11 - which endure The oldest authorities read, "which have endured," which suits the sense better than English Version: "Those who in past days, like the prophets and J...

The oldest authorities read, "which have endured," which suits the sense better than English Version: "Those who in past days, like the prophets and Job, have endured trials." Such, not those who "have lived in pleasure and been wanton on the earth" (Jam 5:5), are "happy."

JFB: Jam 5:11 - patience Rather, "endurance," answering to "endure": the Greek words similarly corresponding. Distinct from the Greek word for "patience" Jam 5:10. The same wo...

Rather, "endurance," answering to "endure": the Greek words similarly corresponding. Distinct from the Greek word for "patience" Jam 5:10. The same word ought to be translated, "endurance," Jam 1:3. He here reverts to the subject which he began with.

JFB: Jam 5:11 - Job This passage shows the history of him is concerning a real, not an imaginary person; otherwise his case could not be quoted as an example at all. Thou...

This passage shows the history of him is concerning a real, not an imaginary person; otherwise his case could not be quoted as an example at all. Though he showed much of impatience, yet he always returned to this, that he committed himself wholly to God, and at last showed a perfect spirit of enduring submission.

JFB: Jam 5:11 - and have seen (with the eyes of your mind). ALFORD translates from the old and genuine reading, "see also," &c. The old reading is, however, capable of being transl...

(with the eyes of your mind). ALFORD translates from the old and genuine reading, "see also," &c. The old reading is, however, capable of being translated as English Version.

JFB: Jam 5:11 - the end of the Lord The end which the Lord gave. If Job had much to "endure," remember also Job's happy "end." Hence, learn, though much tried, to "endure to the end."

The end which the Lord gave. If Job had much to "endure," remember also Job's happy "end." Hence, learn, though much tried, to "endure to the end."

JFB: Jam 5:11 - that ALFORD and others translate, "inasmuch as," "for."

ALFORD and others translate, "inasmuch as," "for."

JFB: Jam 5:11 - pitiful . . . of tender mercy The former refers to the "feeling"; the latter, to the act. His pity is shown in not laying on the patient endurer more trials than he is able to bear...

The former refers to the "feeling"; the latter, to the act. His pity is shown in not laying on the patient endurer more trials than he is able to bear; His mercy, in His giving a happy "end" to the trials [BENGEL].

JFB: Jam 5:12 - But above all As swearing is utterly alien to the Christian meek "endurance" just recommended.

As swearing is utterly alien to the Christian meek "endurance" just recommended.

JFB: Jam 5:12 - swear not Through impatience, to which trials may tempt you (Jam 5:10-11). In contrast to this stands the proper use of the tongue, Jam 5:13. James here refers ...

Through impatience, to which trials may tempt you (Jam 5:10-11). In contrast to this stands the proper use of the tongue, Jam 5:13. James here refers to Mat 5:34, &c.

JFB: Jam 5:12 - let your yea be yea Do not use oaths in your everyday conversation, but let a simple affirmative or denial be deemed enough to establish your word.

Do not use oaths in your everyday conversation, but let a simple affirmative or denial be deemed enough to establish your word.

JFB: Jam 5:12 - condemnation Literally, "judgment," namely, of "the Judge" who "standeth before the doors" (Jam 5:9).

Literally, "judgment," namely, of "the Judge" who "standeth before the doors" (Jam 5:9).

JFB: Jam 5:13 - afflicted Referring to the "suffering affliction" (Jam 5:10).

Referring to the "suffering affliction" (Jam 5:10).

JFB: Jam 5:13 - let him pray Not "swear" in rash impatience.

Not "swear" in rash impatience.

JFB: Jam 5:13 - merry Joyous in mind.

Joyous in mind.

JFB: Jam 5:13 - sing psalms Of praise. Paul and Silas sang psalms even in affliction.

Of praise. Paul and Silas sang psalms even in affliction.

JFB: Jam 5:14 - let him call for the elders Not some one of the elders, as Roman Catholics interpret it, to justify their usage in extreme unction. The prayers of the elders over the sick would ...

Not some one of the elders, as Roman Catholics interpret it, to justify their usage in extreme unction. The prayers of the elders over the sick would be much the same as though the whole Church which they represent should pray [BENGEL].

JFB: Jam 5:14 - anointing him with oil The usage which Christ committed to His apostles was afterwards continued with laying on of hands, as a token of the highest faculty of medicine in th...

The usage which Christ committed to His apostles was afterwards continued with laying on of hands, as a token of the highest faculty of medicine in the Church, just as we find in 1Co 6:2 the Church's highest judicial function. Now that the miraculous gift of healing has been withdrawn for the most part, to use the sign where the reality is wanting would be unmeaning superstition. Compare other apostolic usages now discontinued rightly, 1Co 11:4-15; 1Co 16:20. "Let them use oil who can by their prayers obtain recovery for the sick: let those who cannot do this, abstain from using the empty sign" [WHITAKER]. Romish extreme unction is administered to those whose life is despaired of, to heal the soul, whereas James' unction was to heal the body. CARDINAL CAJETAN [Commentary] admits that James cannot refer to extreme unction. Oil in the East, and especially among the Jews (see the Talmud, Jerusalem and Babylon), was much used as a curative agent. It was also a sign of the divine grace. Hence it was an appropriate sign in performing miraculous cures.

JFB: Jam 5:14 - in the name of the Lord By whom alone the miracle was performed: men were but the instruments.

By whom alone the miracle was performed: men were but the instruments.

JFB: Jam 5:15 - prayer He does not say the oil shall save: it is but the symbol.

He does not say the oil shall save: it is but the symbol.

JFB: Jam 5:15 - save Plainly not as Rome says, "save" the soul. but heal "the sick": as the words, "the Lord shall raise him up," prove. So the same Greek is translated, "...

Plainly not as Rome says, "save" the soul. but heal "the sick": as the words, "the Lord shall raise him up," prove. So the same Greek is translated, "made (thee) whole," Mat 9:21-22.

JFB: Jam 5:15 - and if . . . sins For not all who are sick are so because of some special sins. Here a case is supposed of one visited with sickness for special sins.

For not all who are sick are so because of some special sins. Here a case is supposed of one visited with sickness for special sins.

JFB: Jam 5:15 - have committed Literally, "be in a state of having committed sins," that is, be under the consequences of sins committed.

Literally, "be in a state of having committed sins," that is, be under the consequences of sins committed.

JFB: Jam 5:15 - they Rather, "it": his having committed sins shall be forgiven him. The connection of sin and sickness is implied in Isa 33:24; Mat 9:2-5; Joh 5:14. The ab...

Rather, "it": his having committed sins shall be forgiven him. The connection of sin and sickness is implied in Isa 33:24; Mat 9:2-5; Joh 5:14. The absolution of the sick, retained in the Church of England, refers to the sins which the sick man confesses (Jam 5:16) and repents of, whereby outward scandal has been given to the Church and the cause of religion; not to sins in their relation to God, the only Judge.

JFB: Jam 5:16 - -- The oldest authorities read, "Confess, THEREFORE," &c. Not only in the particular case of sickness, but universally confess.

The oldest authorities read, "Confess, THEREFORE," &c. Not only in the particular case of sickness, but universally confess.

JFB: Jam 5:16 - faults Your falls and offenses, in relation to one another. The word is not the same as sins. Mat 5:23-24; Luk 17:4, illustrate the precept here.

Your falls and offenses, in relation to one another. The word is not the same as sins. Mat 5:23-24; Luk 17:4, illustrate the precept here.

JFB: Jam 5:16 - one to another Not to the priest, as Rome insists. The Church of England recommends in certain cases. Rome compels confession in all cases. Confession is desirable i...

Not to the priest, as Rome insists. The Church of England recommends in certain cases. Rome compels confession in all cases. Confession is desirable in the case of (1) wrong done to a neighbor; (2) when under a troubled conscience we ask counsel of a godly minister or friend as to how we may obtain God's forgiveness and strength to sin no more, or when we desire their intercessory prayers for us ("Pray for one another"): "Confession may be made to anyone who can pray" [BENGEL]; (3) open confession of sin before the Church and the world, in token of penitence. Not auricular confession.

JFB: Jam 5:16 - that ye may be healed Of your bodily sicknesses. Also that, if your sickness be the punishment of sin, the latter being forgiven on intercessory prayer, "ye may be healed" ...

Of your bodily sicknesses. Also that, if your sickness be the punishment of sin, the latter being forgiven on intercessory prayer, "ye may be healed" of the former. Also, that ye may be healed spiritually.

JFB: Jam 5:16 - effectual Intense and fervent, not "wavering" (Jam 1:6), [BEZA]. "When energized" by the Spirit, as those were who performed miracles [HAMMOND]. This suits the ...

Intense and fervent, not "wavering" (Jam 1:6), [BEZA]. "When energized" by the Spirit, as those were who performed miracles [HAMMOND]. This suits the collocation of the Greek words and the sense well. A righteous man's prayer is always heard generally, but his particular request for the healing of another was then likely to be granted when he was one possessing a special charism of the Spirit. ALFORD translates, "Availeth much in its working." The "righteous" is one himself careful to avoid "faults," and showing his faith by works (Jam 2:24).

JFB: Jam 5:17 - Elias . . . like passions as we Therefore it cannot be said that he was so raised above us as to afford no example applicable to common mortals like ourselves.

Therefore it cannot be said that he was so raised above us as to afford no example applicable to common mortals like ourselves.

JFB: Jam 5:17 - prayed earnestly Literally, "prayed with prayer": Hebraism for prayed intensely. Compare Luk 22:15, "With desire I have desired," that is, earnestly desired. ALFORD is...

Literally, "prayed with prayer": Hebraism for prayed intensely. Compare Luk 22:15, "With desire I have desired," that is, earnestly desired. ALFORD is wrong in saying, Elias' prayer that it might not rain "is not even hinted at in the Old Testament history." In 1Ki 17:1 it is plainly implied, "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word." His prophecy of the fact was according to a divine intimation given to him in answer to prayer. In jealousy for God's honor (1Ki 19:10), and being of one mind with God in his abhorrence of apostasy, he prayed that the national idolatry should be punished with a national judgment, drought; and on Israel's profession of repentance he prayed for the removal of the visitation, as is implied in 1Ki 18:39-42; compare Luk 4:25.

JFB: Jam 5:17 - three years, &c. Compare 1Ki 18:1, "The third year," namely, from Elijah's going to Zarephath; the prophecy (Jam 5:1) was probably about five or six months previously.

Compare 1Ki 18:1, "The third year," namely, from Elijah's going to Zarephath; the prophecy (Jam 5:1) was probably about five or six months previously.

JFB: Jam 5:18 - prayed . . . and That is, "and so." Mark the connection between the prayer and its accomplishment.

That is, "and so." Mark the connection between the prayer and its accomplishment.

JFB: Jam 5:18 - her fruit Her usual and due fruit, heretofore withheld on account of sin. Three and a half years is the time also that the two witnesses prophesy who "have powe...

Her usual and due fruit, heretofore withheld on account of sin. Three and a half years is the time also that the two witnesses prophesy who "have power to shut and open heaven that it rain not."

JFB: Jam 5:19 - -- The blessing of reclaiming an erring sinner by the mutual consent and intercessory prayer just recommended.

The blessing of reclaiming an erring sinner by the mutual consent and intercessory prayer just recommended.

JFB: Jam 5:19 - do err More literally, "be led astray."

More literally, "be led astray."

JFB: Jam 5:19 - the truth The Gospel doctrine and precepts.

The Gospel doctrine and precepts.

JFB: Jam 5:19 - one Literally, "any"; as "any" before. Everyone ought to seek the salvation of everyone [BENGEL].

Literally, "any"; as "any" before. Everyone ought to seek the salvation of everyone [BENGEL].

JFB: Jam 5:20 - Let him The converted.

The converted.

JFB: Jam 5:20 - know For his comfort, and the encouragement of others to do likewise.

For his comfort, and the encouragement of others to do likewise.

JFB: Jam 5:20 - shall save Future. The salvation of the one so converted shall be manifested hereafter.

Future. The salvation of the one so converted shall be manifested hereafter.

JFB: Jam 5:20 - shall hide a multitude of sins Not his own, but the sins of the converted. The Greek verb in the middle voice requires this. Pro 10:12 refers to charity "covering" the sins of other...

Not his own, but the sins of the converted. The Greek verb in the middle voice requires this. Pro 10:12 refers to charity "covering" the sins of others before men; James to one's effecting by the conversion of another that that other's sins be covered before God, namely, with Christ's atonement. He effects this by making the convert partaker in the Christian covenant for the remission of all sins. Though this hiding of sins was included in the previous "shall save," James expresses it to mark in detail the greatness of the blessing conferred on the penitent through the converter's instrumentality, and to incite others to the same good deed.

Clarke: Jam 5:1 - Go to now Go to now - See on Jam 4:13

Go to now - See on Jam 4:13

Clarke: Jam 5:1 - Weep and howl for your miseries Weep and howl for your miseries - St. James seems to refer here, in the spirit of prophecy, to the destruction that was coming upon the Jews, not on...

Weep and howl for your miseries - St. James seems to refer here, in the spirit of prophecy, to the destruction that was coming upon the Jews, not only in Judea, but in all the provinces where they sojourned. He seems here to assume the very air and character of a prophet; and in the most dignified language and peculiarly expressive and energetic images, foretells the desolations that were coming upon this bad people.

Clarke: Jam 5:2 - Your riches are corrupted Your riches are corrupted - Σεσηπε· Are putrefied. The term πλουτος, riches, is to be taken here, not for gold, silver, or precious...

Your riches are corrupted - Σεσηπε· Are putrefied. The term πλουτος, riches, is to be taken here, not for gold, silver, or precious stones, (for these could not putrefy), but for the produce of the fields and flocks, the different stores of grain, wine, and oil, which they had laid up in their granaries, and the various changes of raiment which they had amassed in their wardrobes.

Clarke: Jam 5:3 - Your gold and silver is cankered Your gold and silver is cankered - Instead of helping the poor, and thus honoring God with your substance, ye have, through the principle of covetou...

Your gold and silver is cankered - Instead of helping the poor, and thus honoring God with your substance, ye have, through the principle of covetousness, kept all to yourselves

Clarke: Jam 5:3 - The rust of them shall be a witness against you The rust of them shall be a witness against you - Your putrefied stores, your moth-eaten garments, and your tarnished coin, are so many proofs that ...

The rust of them shall be a witness against you - Your putrefied stores, your moth-eaten garments, and your tarnished coin, are so many proofs that it was not for want of property that you assisted not the poor, but through a principle of avarice; loving money, not for the sake of what it could procure, but for its own sake, which is the genuine principle of the miser. This was the very character given to this people by our Lord himself; he called them φιλαργυροι, lovers of money. Against this despicable and abominable disposition, the whole of the 12th chapter of St. Luke is levelled; but it was their easily besetting sin, and is so to the present day

Clarke: Jam 5:3 - Shall eat your flesh as it were fire Shall eat your flesh as it were fire - This is a very bold and sublime figure. He represents the rust of their coin as becoming a canker that should...

Shall eat your flesh as it were fire - This is a very bold and sublime figure. He represents the rust of their coin as becoming a canker that should produce gangrenes and phagedenous ulcers in their flesh, till it should be eaten away from their bones

Clarke: Jam 5:3 - Ye have heaped treasure together Ye have heaped treasure together - This verse is variously pointed. The word ὡς, like as, in the preceding clause, is left out by the Syriac, a...

Ye have heaped treasure together - This verse is variously pointed. The word ὡς, like as, in the preceding clause, is left out by the Syriac, and some others; and πυρ, fire, is added here from that clause; so that the whole verse reads thus: "Your gold and your silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall consume your flesh. Ye have treasured up Fire against the last days."This is a bold and fine image: instead of the treasures of corn, wine, and oil, rich stuffs, with silver and gold, which ye have been laying up, ye shall find a treasure, a magazine of fire, that shall burn up your city, and consume even your temple. This was literally true; and these solemn denunciations of Divine wrath were most completely fulfilled. See the notes on Matthew 24 (note), where all the circumstances of this tremendous and final destruction are particularly noted

By the last days we are not to understand the day of judgment, but the last days of the Jewish commonwealth, which were not long distant from the date of this epistle, whether we follow the earlier or later computation, of which enough has been spoken in the preface.

Clarke: Jam 5:4 - The hire of the laborers The hire of the laborers - The law, Lev 19:13, had ordered: The wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee all night until the morning, ev...

The hire of the laborers - The law, Lev 19:13, had ordered: The wages of him that is hired shall not abide with thee all night until the morning, every day’ s labor being paid for as soon as ended. This is more clearly stated in another law, Deu 24:15 : At his day thou shalt give him his hire; neither shall the sun go down upon it; - lest he cry against thee unto the Lord, and it be sin unto thee. And that God particularly resented this defrauding of the hireling we see from Mal 3:5 : I will come near to you in judgment, and will be a swift witness against those who oppress the hireling in his wages. And on these laws and threatenings is built what we read in Synopsis Sohar, p. 100, l. 45: "When a poor man does any work in a house, the vapor proceeding from him, through the severity of his work, ascends towards heaven. Wo to his employer if he delay to pay him his wages."To this James seems particularly to allude, when he says: The cries of them who have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of hosts; and the rabbins say, "The vapor arising from the sweat of the hard-worked laborer ascends up before God."Both images are sufficiently expressive

Clarke: Jam 5:4 - The Lord of sabaoth The Lord of sabaoth - St. James often conceives in Hebrew though he writes in Greek. It is well known that יהוה צבאות Yehovah tsebaoth , L...

The Lord of sabaoth - St. James often conceives in Hebrew though he writes in Greek. It is well known that יהוה צבאות Yehovah tsebaoth , Lord of hosts, or Lord of armies, is a frequent appellation of God in the Old Testament; and signifies his uncontrollable power, and the infinitely numerous means he has for governing the world, and defending his followers, and punishing the wicked.

Clarke: Jam 5:5 - Ye have lived in pleasure Ye have lived in pleasure - Ετρυφησατε . Ye have lived luxuriously; feeding yourselves without fear, pampering the flesh

Ye have lived in pleasure - Ετρυφησατε . Ye have lived luxuriously; feeding yourselves without fear, pampering the flesh

Clarke: Jam 5:5 - And been wanton And been wanton - Εσπαταλησατε· Ye have lived lasciviously. Ye have indulged all your sinful and sensual appetites to the uttermost; ...

And been wanton - Εσπαταλησατε· Ye have lived lasciviously. Ye have indulged all your sinful and sensual appetites to the uttermost; and your lives have been scandalous

Clarke: Jam 5:5 - Ye have nourished your hearts Ye have nourished your hearts - Εθρεψατε· Ye have fattened your hearts, and have rendered them incapable of feeling, as in a day of slaug...

Ye have nourished your hearts - Εθρεψατε· Ye have fattened your hearts, and have rendered them incapable of feeling, as in a day of slaughter, ἡμερᾳ σφαγης, a day of sacrifice, where many victims are offered at once, and where the people feast upon the sacrifices; many, no doubt, turning, on that occasion, a holy ordinance into a riotous festival.

Clarke: Jam 5:6 - Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you - Several by τον δικαιον, the just one, understand Jesus Christ, who is...

Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you - Several by τον δικαιον, the just one, understand Jesus Christ, who is so called, Act 3:14; Act 7:52; Act 22:14; but the structure of the sentence, and the connection in which it stands, seem to require that we should consider this as applying to the just or righteous in general, who were persecuted and murdered by those oppressive rich men; and their death was the consequence of their dragging them before the judgment seats, Jam 2:6, where, having no influence, and none to plead their cause, they were unjustly condemned and executed

And he doth not resist you. - In this, as in τον δικαιον, the just, there is an enallege of the singular for the plural number. And in the word ουκ αντιτασσεται, he doth not resist, the idea is included of defense in a court of justice. These poor righteous people had none to plead their cause; and if they had it would have been useless, as their oppressors had all power and all influence, and those who sat on these judgment seats were lost to all sense of justice and right. Some think that he doth not resist you should be referred to God; as if he had said, God permits you to go on in this way at present, but he will shortly awake to judgment, and destroy you as enemies of truth and righteousness.

Clarke: Jam 5:7 - Be patient, therefore Be patient, therefore - Because God is coming to execute judgment on this wicked people, therefore be patient till he comes. He seems here to refer ...

Be patient, therefore - Because God is coming to execute judgment on this wicked people, therefore be patient till he comes. He seems here to refer to the coming of the Lord to execute judgment on the Jewish nation, which shortly afterwards took place

Clarke: Jam 5:7 - The husbandman waiteth The husbandman waiteth - The seed of your deliverance is already sown, and by and by the harvest of your salvation will take place. God’ s coun...

The husbandman waiteth - The seed of your deliverance is already sown, and by and by the harvest of your salvation will take place. God’ s counsels will ripen in due time

Clarke: Jam 5:7 - The early and latter rain The early and latter rain - The rain of seed time; and the rain of ripening before harvest: the first fell in Judea, about the beginning of November...

The early and latter rain - The rain of seed time; and the rain of ripening before harvest: the first fell in Judea, about the beginning of November, after the seed was sown; and the second towards the end of April, when the ears were filling, and this prepared for a full harvest. Without these two rains, the earth would have been unfruitful. These God had promised: I will give you the rain of your land in his due season, the first rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thy oil, Deu 11:14. But for these they were not only to wait patiently, but also to pray, Ask ye of the Lord rain in the time of the latter rain; so shall the Lord make bright clouds, and give them showers of rain, to every one grass in the field; Zec 10:1.

Clarke: Jam 5:8 - Be ye also patient Be ye also patient - Wait for God’ s deliverance, as ye wait for his bounty in providence

Be ye also patient - Wait for God’ s deliverance, as ye wait for his bounty in providence

Clarke: Jam 5:8 - Stablish your hearts Stablish your hearts - Take courage; do not sink under your trials

Stablish your hearts - Take courage; do not sink under your trials

Clarke: Jam 5:8 - The coming of the Lord draweth nigh The coming of the Lord draweth nigh - Ηγγικε· Is at hand. He is already on his way to destroy this wicked people, to raze their city and te...

The coming of the Lord draweth nigh - Ηγγικε· Is at hand. He is already on his way to destroy this wicked people, to raze their city and temple, and to destroy their polity for ever; and this judgment will soon take place.

Clarke: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not Grudge not - Μη στεναζετε· Groan not; grumble not; do not murmur through impatience; and let not any ill treatment which you receive, ...

Grudge not - Μη στεναζετε· Groan not; grumble not; do not murmur through impatience; and let not any ill treatment which you receive, induce you to vent your feelings in imprecations against your oppressors. Leave all this in the hands of God

Clarke: Jam 5:9 - Lest ye be condemned Lest ye be condemned - By giving way to a spirit of this kind, you will get under the condemnation of the wicked

Lest ye be condemned - By giving way to a spirit of this kind, you will get under the condemnation of the wicked

Clarke: Jam 5:9 - The judge standeth before the door The judge standeth before the door - His eye is upon every thing that is wrong in you, and every wrong that is done to you; and he is now entering i...

The judge standeth before the door - His eye is upon every thing that is wrong in you, and every wrong that is done to you; and he is now entering into judgment with your oppressors.

Clarke: Jam 5:10 - Take - the prophets Take - the prophets - The prophets who had spoken to their forefathers by the authority of God, were persecuted by the very people to whom they deli...

Take - the prophets - The prophets who had spoken to their forefathers by the authority of God, were persecuted by the very people to whom they delivered the Divine message; but they suffered affliction and persecution with patience, commending their cause to him who judgeth righteously; therefore, imitate their example.

Clarke: Jam 5:11 - We count them happy which endure We count them happy which endure - According to that saying of our blessed Lord, Blessed are ye when men shall persecute and revile you - for so per...

We count them happy which endure - According to that saying of our blessed Lord, Blessed are ye when men shall persecute and revile you - for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. Mat 5:11, Mat 5:12, etc

Clarke: Jam 5:11 - Ye have heard of the patience of Job Ye have heard of the patience of Job - Stripped of all his worldly possessions, deprived at a stroke of all his children, tortured in body with sore...

Ye have heard of the patience of Job - Stripped of all his worldly possessions, deprived at a stroke of all his children, tortured in body with sore disease, tempted by the devil, harassed by his wife, and calumniated by his friends, he nevertheless held fast his integrity, resigned himself to the Divine dispensations, and charged not God foolishly

Clarke: Jam 5:11 - And have seen the end of the Lord And have seen the end of the Lord - The issue to which God brought all his afflictions and trials, giving him children, increasing his property, len...

And have seen the end of the Lord - The issue to which God brought all his afflictions and trials, giving him children, increasing his property, lengthening out his life, and multiplying to him every kind of spiritual and secular good. This was God’ s end with respect to him; but the devil’ s end was to drive him to despair, and to cause him to blaspheme his Maker. This mention of Job shows him to have been a real person; for a fictitious person would not have been produced as an example of any virtue so highly important as that of patience and perseverance. The end of the Lord is a Hebraism for the issue to which God brings any thing or business

Clarke: Jam 5:11 - The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy - Instead of πολυσπλαγχνος, which we translate very pitiful, and which might be rendered...

The Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy - Instead of πολυσπλαγχνος, which we translate very pitiful, and which might be rendered of much sympathy, from πολυς, much, and σπλαγχνον, a bowel, (because any thing that affects us with commiseration causes us to feel an indescribable emotion of the bowels), several MSS. have πολυευσπλαγχνος, from παλυς, much, ευ, easily, and σ̀€λαγχνον, a bowel, a word not easy to be translated; but it signifies one whose commiseration is easily excited, and whose commiseration is great or abundant.

Clarke: Jam 5:12 - Above all things - swear not Above all things - swear not - What relation this exhortation can have to the subject in question, I confess I cannot see. It may not have been desi...

Above all things - swear not - What relation this exhortation can have to the subject in question, I confess I cannot see. It may not have been designed to stand in any connection, but to be a separate piece of advice, as in the several cases which immediately follow. That the Jews were notoriously guilty of common swearing is allowed on all hands; and that swearing by heaven, earth, Jerusalem, the temple, the altar, different parts of the body, was not considered by them as binding oaths, has been sufficiently proved. Rabbi Akiba taught that "a man might swear with his lips, and annul it in his heart; and then the oath was not binding."See the notes on Mat 5:33, etc., where the subject is considered in great detail

Clarke: Jam 5:12 - Let your yea be yea, etc. Let your yea be yea, etc. - Do not pretend to say yea with your lips, and annul it in your heart; let the yea or the nay which you express be bona f...

Let your yea be yea, etc. - Do not pretend to say yea with your lips, and annul it in your heart; let the yea or the nay which you express be bona fide such. Do not imagine that any mental reservation can cancel any such expressions of obligation in the sight of God

Clarke: Jam 5:12 - Lest ye fall into condemnation Lest ye fall into condemnation - Ἱνα μη ὑπο κρισιν πεσητε· Lest ye fall under judgment. Several MSS. join ὑπο and ...

Lest ye fall into condemnation - Ἱνα μη ὑπο κρισιν πεσητε· Lest ye fall under judgment. Several MSS. join ὑπο and κρισιν together, ὑποκρισιν, and prefix εις, into, which makes a widely different reading: Lest ye fall into hypocrisy. Now, as it is a fact, that the Jews did teach that there might be mental reservation, that would annul the oath, how solemnly soever it was taken; the object of St. James, if the last reading be genuine, and it is supported by a great number of excellent MSS., some versions, and some of the most eminent of the fathers, was to guard against that hypocritical method of taking an oath, which is subversive of all moral feeling, and must make conscience itself callous.

Clarke: Jam 5:13 - Is any among you afflicted? let him pray Is any among you afflicted? let him pray - The Jews taught that the meaning of the ordinance, Lev 13:45, which required the leper to cry, Unclean! u...

Is any among you afflicted? let him pray - The Jews taught that the meaning of the ordinance, Lev 13:45, which required the leper to cry, Unclean! unclean! was, "that thus making known his calamity, the people might be led to offer up prayers to God in his behalf,"Sota, page 685, ed. Wagens. They taught also, that when any sickness or affliction entered a family, they should go to the wise men, and implore their prayers. Bava bathra, fol. 116, 1

In Nedarim, fol. 40, 1, we have this relation: "Rabba, as often as he fell sick, forbade his domestics to mention it for the first day; if he did not then begin to get well, he told his family to go and publish it in the highways, that they who hated him might rejoice, and they that loved him might intercede with God for him.

Clarke: Jam 5:13 - Is any merry? let him sing psalms Is any merry? let him sing psalms - These are all general but very useful directions. It is natural for a man to sing when he is cheerful and happy....

Is any merry? let him sing psalms - These are all general but very useful directions. It is natural for a man to sing when he is cheerful and happy. Now no subject can be more noble than that which is Divine: and as God alone is the author of all that good which makes a man happy, then his praise should be the subject of the song of him who is merry. But where persons rejoice in iniquity, and not in the truth, God and sacred things can never be the subject of their song.

Clarke: Jam 5:14 - Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders - This was also a Jewish maxim. Rabbi Simeon, in Sepher Hachaiyim, said: "What should a man do wh...

Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders - This was also a Jewish maxim. Rabbi Simeon, in Sepher Hachaiyim, said: "What should a man do who goes to visit the sick? Ans. He who studies to restore the health of the body, should first lay the foundation in the health of the soul. The wise men have said, No healing is equal to that which comes from the word of God and prayer. Rabbi Phineas, the son of Chamma, hath said, ‘ When sickness or disease enters into a man’ s family, let him apply to a wise man, who will implore mercy in his behalf.’ "See Schoettgen

St. James very properly sends all such to the elders of the Church, who had power with God through the great Mediator, that they might pray for them

Clarke: Jam 5:14 - Anointing him with oil Anointing him with oil - That St. James neither means any kind of incantation, any kind of miracle, or such extreme unction as the Romish Church pre...

Anointing him with oil - That St. James neither means any kind of incantation, any kind of miracle, or such extreme unction as the Romish Church prescribes, will be sufficiently evident from these considerations

1.    Be was a holy man, and could prescribe nothing but what was holy

2.    If a miracle was intended, it could have been as well wrought without the oil, as with it

3.    It is not intimated that even this unction is to save the sick man, but the prayer of faith, Jam 5:15

4.    What is here recommended was to be done as a natural means of restoring health, which, while they used prayer and supplication to God, they were not to neglect

5.    Oil in Judea was celebrated for its sanative qualities; so that they scarcely ever took a journey without carrying oil with them, (see in the case of the Samaritan), with which they anointed their bodies, healed their wounds, bruises, etc

6.    Oil was and in frequently used in the east as a means of cure in very dangerous diseases; and in Egypt it is often used in the cure of the plague. Even in Europe it has been tried with great success in the cure of dropsy. And pure olive oil is excellent for recent wounds and bruises; and I have seen it tried in this way with the best effects

7.    But that it was the custom of the Jews to apply it as a means of healing, and that St. James refers to this custom, is not only evident from the case of the wounded man ministered to by the good Samaritan, Luk 10:34, but from the practice of the Jewish rabbins. In Midrash Koheleth, fol. 73, 1, it is said: "Chanina, son of the brother of the Rabbi Joshua, went to visit his uncle at Capernaum; he was taken ill; and Rabbi Joshua went to him and anointed him with oil, and he was restored."They had, therefore, recourse to this as a natural remedy; and we find that the disciples used it also in this way to heal the sick, not exerting the miraculous power but in cases where natural means were ineffectual. And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them; Mar 6:13. On this latter place I have supposed that it might have been done symbolically, in order to prepare the way for a miraculous cure: this is the opinion of many commentators; but I am led, on more mature consideration, to doubt its propriety, yet dare not decide. In short, anointing the sick with oil, in order to their recovery, was a constant practice among the Jews. See Lightfoot and Wetstein on Mar 6:13. And here I am satisfied that it has no other meaning than as a natural means of restoring health; and that St. James desires them to use natural means while looking to God for an especial blessing. And no wise man would direct otherwise

8.    That the anointing recommended here by St. James cannot be such as the Romish Church prescribes, and it is on this passage principally that they found their sacrament of extreme unction, is evident from these considerations

1.    St. James orders the sick person to be anointed in reference to his cure; but they anoint the sick in the agonies of death, when there is no prospect of his recovery; and never administer that sacrament, as it is called, while there is any hope of life

2.    St James orders this anointing for the cure of the body, but they apply it for the cure of the soul; in reference to which use of it St. James gives no directions: and what is said of the forgiveness of sins, in Jam 5:15, is rather to be referred to faith and prayer, which are often the means of restoring lost health, and preventing premature death, when natural means, the most skillfully used, have been useless

3.    The anointing with oil, if ever used as a means or symbol in working miraculous cures, was only applied in some cases, perhaps very few, if any; but the Romish Church uses it in every case; and makes it necessary to the salvation of every departing soul. Therefore, St. James’ unction, and the extreme unction of the Romish Church, are essentially different. See below.

Clarke: Jam 5:15 - And the prayer of faith; shall save the sick And the prayer of faith; shall save the sick - That is, God will often make these the means of a sick man’ s recovery; but there often are case...

And the prayer of faith; shall save the sick - That is, God will often make these the means of a sick man’ s recovery; but there often are cases where faith and prayer are both ineffectual, because God sees it will be prejudicial to the patient’ s salvation to be restored; and therefore all faith and prayer on such occasions should be exerted on this ground: "If it be most for thy glory, and the eternal good of this man’ s soul, let him be restored; if otherwise, Lord, pardon, purify him, and take him to thy glory.

Clarke: Jam 5:15 - The Lord shall raise him up The Lord shall raise him up - Not the elders, how faithfully and fervently soever they have prayed

The Lord shall raise him up - Not the elders, how faithfully and fervently soever they have prayed

Clarke: Jam 5:15 - And if he have committed sins And if he have committed sins - So as to have occasioned his present malady, they shall be forgiven him; for being the cause of the affliction it is...

And if he have committed sins - So as to have occasioned his present malady, they shall be forgiven him; for being the cause of the affliction it is natural to conclude that, if the effect be to cease, the cause must be removed. We find that in the miraculous restoration to health, under the powerful hand of Christ, the sin of the party is generally said to be forgiven, and this also before the miracle was wrought on the body: hence there was a maxim among the Jews, and it seems to be founded in common sense and reason, that God never restores a man miraculously to health till he has pardoned his sins; because it would be incongruous for God to exert his miraculous power in saving a body, the soul of which was in a state of condemnation to eternal death, because of the crimes it had committed against its Maker and Judge. Here then it is God that remits the sin, not in reference to the unction, but in reference to the cure of the body, which he is miraculously to effect.

Clarke: Jam 5:16 - Confess your faults one to another Confess your faults one to another - This is a good general direction to Christians who endeavor to maintain among themselves the communion of saint...

Confess your faults one to another - This is a good general direction to Christians who endeavor to maintain among themselves the communion of saints. This social confession tends much to humble the soul, and to make it watchful. We naturally wish that our friends in general, and our religious friends in particular, should think well of us; and when we confess to them offenses which, without this confession, they could never have known, we feel humbled, are kept from self-applause, and induced to watch unto prayer, that we may not increase our offenses before God, or be obliged any more to undergo the painful humiliation of acknowledging our weakness, fickleness, or infidelity to our religious brethren

It is not said, Confess your faults to the Elders that they may forgive them, or prescribe penance in order to forgive them. No; the members of the Church were to confess their faults to each other; therefore auricular confession to a priest, such as is prescribed by the Romish Church, has no foundation in this passage. Indeed, had it any foundation here it would prove more than they wish, for it would require the priest to confess his sins to the people, as well as the people to confess theirs to the priest

Clarke: Jam 5:16 - And pray one for another And pray one for another - There is no instance in auricular confession where the penitent and the priest pray together for pardon; but here the peo...

And pray one for another - There is no instance in auricular confession where the penitent and the priest pray together for pardon; but here the people are commanded to pray for each other that they may be healed

Clarke: Jam 5:16 - The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much - The words δεησις ενεργουμενη signify energetic supplication, or s...

The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much - The words δεησις ενεργουμενη signify energetic supplication, or such a prayer as is suggested to the soul and wrought in it by a Divine energy. When God designs to do some particular work in his Church he pours out on his followers the spirit of grace and supplication; and this he does sometimes when he is about to do some especial work for an individual. When such a power of prayer is granted, faith should be immediately called into exercise, that the blessing may be given: the spirit of prayer is the proof that the power of God is present to heal. Long prayers give no particular evidence of Divine inspiration: the following was a maxim among the ancient Jews, שתפלת צדיקים קצדה the prayers of the righteous are short. This is exemplified in almost every instance in the Old Testament.

Clarke: Jam 5:17 - Elias was a man subject to like passions Elias was a man subject to like passions - This was Elijah, and a consistency between the names of the same persons as expressed in the Old and the ...

Elias was a man subject to like passions - This was Elijah, and a consistency between the names of the same persons as expressed in the Old and the New Testaments should be kept up

The word ὁμοιοπαθης signifies of the same constitution, a human being just as ourselves are. See the same phrase and its explanation in Act 14:15, and the note there. There was some reason to apprehend that because Elijah was translated, that therefore he was more than human, and if so, his example could be no pattern for us; and as the design of St. James was to excite men to pray, expecting the Divine interference whenever that should be necessary, therefore he tells them that Elijah was a man like themselves, of the same constitution, liable to the same accidents, and needing the same supports

Clarke: Jam 5:17 - And he prayed earnestly And he prayed earnestly - Προσευχῃ προσηυξατο· He prayed with prayer; a Hebraism for, he prayed fervently

And he prayed earnestly - Προσευχῃ προσηυξατο· He prayed with prayer; a Hebraism for, he prayed fervently

Clarke: Jam 5:17 - That it might not rain That it might not rain - See this history, 1Ki 17:1, etc

That it might not rain - See this history, 1Ki 17:1, etc

Clarke: Jam 5:17 - And it rained not on the earth And it rained not on the earth - Επι της γης· On that land, viz. the land of Judea; for this drought did not extend elsewhere

And it rained not on the earth - Επι της γης· On that land, viz. the land of Judea; for this drought did not extend elsewhere

Clarke: Jam 5:17 - Three years and six months Three years and six months - This is the term mentioned by our Lord, Luk 4:25; but this is not specified in the original history. In 1Ki 18:1, it is...

Three years and six months - This is the term mentioned by our Lord, Luk 4:25; but this is not specified in the original history. In 1Ki 18:1, it is said, In the third year the word of the Lord came to Elijah, that is, concerning the rain; but this third year is to be computed from the time of his going to live at Zarephath, which happened many days after the drought began, as is plain from this, that he remained at the brook Cherith till it was dried up, and then went to Zarephath, in the country of Zidon; 1Ki 17:7-9. Therefore the three years and six months must be computed from his denouncing the drought, at which time that judgment commenced. Macknight.

Clarke: Jam 5:18 - And he prayed again And he prayed again - This second prayer is not mentioned in the history in express words, but as in 1Ki 18:42, it is said, He cast himself down upo...

And he prayed again - This second prayer is not mentioned in the history in express words, but as in 1Ki 18:42, it is said, He cast himself down upon the earth, and put his face between his knees; that was probably the time of the second praying, namely, that rain might come, as this was the proper posture of prayer.

Clarke: Jam 5:19 - Err from the truth Err from the truth - Stray away from the Gospel of Christ; and one convert him - reclaim him from his error, and bring him back to the fold of Chris...

Err from the truth - Stray away from the Gospel of Christ; and one convert him - reclaim him from his error, and bring him back to the fold of Christ.

Clarke: Jam 5:20 - Let him know Let him know - Let him duly consider, for his encouragement, that he who is the instrument of converting a sinner shall save a soul from eternal dea...

Let him know - Let him duly consider, for his encouragement, that he who is the instrument of converting a sinner shall save a soul from eternal death, and a body from ruin, and shall hide a multitude of sins; for in being the means of his conversion we bring him back to God, who, in his infinite mercy, hides or blots out the numerous sins which he had committed during the time of his backsliding. It is not the man’ s sins who is the means of his conversion, but the sins of the backslider, which are here said to be hidden. See more below

1.    Many are of opinion that the hiding a multitude of sins is here to be understood of the person who converts the backslider: this is a dangerous doctrine, and what the Holy Spirit never taught to man. Were this true it would lead many a sinner to endeavor the reformation of his neighbor, that himself might continue under the influence of his own beloved sins and conversion to a particular creed would be put in the place of conversion to God, and thus the substance be lost in the shadow. Bishop Atterbury, (Ser. vol. i. p. 46), and Scott, (Christian Life, vol. i. p. 368), contend "that the covering a multitude of sins includes also, that the pious action of which the apostle speaks engages God to look with greater indulgence on the character of the person that performs it, and to be less severe in marking what he has done amiss."See Macknight. This from such authorities may be considered doubly dangerous; it argues however great ignorance of God, of the nature of Divine justice, and of the sinfulness of sin. It is besides completely antievangelical; it teaches in effect that something besides the blood of the covenant will render God propitious to man, and that the performance of a pious action will induce God’ s justice to show greater indulgence to the person who performs it, and to be less severe in marking what he has done amiss. On the ground of this doctrine we might confide that, had he a certain quantum of pious acts, we might have all the sins of our lives forgiven, independently of the sacrifice of Christ; for if one pious act can procure pardon for a multitude of sins, what may not be expected from many

2.    The Jewish doctrine, to which it is possible St. James may allude, was certainly more sound than that taught by these Christian divines. They allowed that the man who was the means of converting another had done a work highly pleasing to God, and which should be rewarded; but they never insinuate that this would atone for sin. I shall produce a few examples: -

    In Synopsis Sohzar, p. 47, n. 17, it is said: Great is his excellence who persuades a sick person to turn from his sins. Ibid, p. 92, n. 18: Great is his reward who brings back the pious into the way of the blessed Lord

    Yoma, fol. 87, 1: By his hands iniquity is not committed, who turns many to righteousness; i.e. God does not permit him to fall into sin. What is the reason? Ans. Lest those should be found in paradise, while their instructer is found in hell

    This doctrine is both innocent and godly in comparison of the other. It holds out a motive to diligence and zeal, but nothing farther. In short, if we allow any thing to cover our sins beside the mercy of God in Christ Jesus, We shall err most dangerously from the truth, and add this moreover to the multitude of Our sins, that we maintained that the gift of God could be purchased by our puny acts of comparative righteousness

3.    As one immortal soul is of more worth than all the material creation of God, every man who knows the worth of his own should labor for the salvation of others. To be the means of depriving hell of her expectation, and adding even one soul to the Church triumphant, is a matter of infinite moment; and he who is such an instrument has much reason to thank God that ever he was born. He who lays out his accounts to do good to the souls of men, will ever have the blessing of God in his own. Besides, God will not suffer him to labor in vain, or spend his strength for naught. At first he may see little fruit; but the bread cast upon the waters shall be found after many days: and if he should never see it in this life, he may take for granted that whatsoever he has done for God, in simplicity and godly sincerity, has been less or more effectual

After the last word of this epistle ἁμαρτιων, of sins, some versions add his, others theirs; and one MS. and the later Syriac have Amen. But these additions are of no authority

The subscriptions to this epistle, in the Versions, are the following: The end of the Epistle of James the apostle. - Syriac. The catholic Epistle of James the apostle is ended. - Syriac Philoxenian. The end. - Aethiopic. Praise be to God for ever and ever; and may his mercy be upon us. Amen. - Arabic. The Epistle of James the son of Zebedee, is ended. - Itala, one copy. Nothing. - Coptic. Nothing. - Printed Vulgate. The Epistle of James is ended. - Bib. Vulg. Edit. Eggestein. The Epistle of St. James the apostle is ended. - Complutensian

In the Manuscripts: Of James. - Codex Vaticanus, B. The Epistle of James. - Codex Alexandrinus. The end of the catholic Epistle of James. - Codex Vaticanus, 1210. The catholic Epistle of James the apostle. - A Vienna MS. The catholic Epistle of the holy Apostle James. - An ancient MS. in the library of the Augustins, at Rome. The end of the Epistle of the holy Apostle James, the brother of God. - One of Petavius’ s MSS., written in the thirteenth century. The same is found in a Vatican MS. of the eleventh century. The most ancient MSS. have little or no subscription.

Calvin: Jam 5:1 - Go to now // Weep and howl 1.Go to now. They are mistaken, as I think, who consider that James here exhorts the rich to repentance. It seems to me to be a simple denunciation o...

1.Go to now. They are mistaken, as I think, who consider that James here exhorts the rich to repentance. It seems to me to be a simple denunciation of God’s judgment, by which he meant to terrify them without giving them any hope of pardon; for all that he says tends only to despair. He, therefore, does not address them in order to invite them to repentance; but, on the contrary, he has a regard to the faithful, that they, hearing of the miserable and of the rich, might not envy their fortune, and also that knowing that God would be the avenger of the wrongs they suffered, they might with a calm and resigned mind bear them. 136

But he does not speak of the rich indiscriminately, but of those who, being immersed in pleasures and inflated with pride, thought of nothing but of the world, and who, like inexhaustible gulfs, devoured everything; for they, by their tyranny, oppressed others, as it appears from the whole passage.

Weep and howl, or, Lament, howling. Repentance has indeed its weeping, but being mixed with consolation, it does not proceed to howling. Then James intimates that the heaviness of God’s vengeance will be so horrible and severe on the rich, that they will be constrained to break forth into howling, as though he had said briefly to them, “Woe to you!” But it is a prophetic mode of speaking: the ungodly have the punishment which awaits them set before them, and they are represented as already enduring it. As, then, they were now flattering themselves, and promising to themselves that the prosperity in which they thought themselves happy would be perpetual, he declared that the most grievous miseries were nigh at hand.

Calvin: Jam 5:2 - Your riches 2.Your riches. The meaning may be twofold: — that he ridicules their foolish confidence, because the riches in which they placed their happiness, w...

2.Your riches. The meaning may be twofold: — that he ridicules their foolish confidence, because the riches in which they placed their happiness, were wholly fading, yea, that they could be reduced to nothing by one blast from God — or that he condemns as their insatiable avarice, because they heaped together wealth only for this, that they might perish without any benefit. This latter meaning is the most suitable. It is, indeed, true that those rich men are insane who glory in things so fading as garments, gold, silver, and such things, since it is nothing else than to make their glory subject to rust and moths; and well known is that saying “What is ill got is soon lost;” because the curse of God consumes it all, for it is not right that the ungodly or their heirs should enjoy riches which they have snatched, as it were, by violence from the hand of God.

But as James enumerates the vices of which the rich brought on themselves the calamity which he mentions, the context requires, as I think, that we should say, that what he condemns here is the extreme rapacity of the rich, in retaining everything they could lay hold on, that it might rot uselessly in their chests. For thus it was, that what God had created for the use of men, they destroyed, as though they were the enemies of mankind. 137

But it must be observed, that the vices which he mentions here do not belong to all the rich; for some of them indulge themselves in luxury, some spend much in show and display, and some pinch themselves, and live miserably in their own filth. Let us, then, know that he here reproves some vices in some, and some vices in others. However, all those are generally condemned who unjustly accumulate riches, or who foolishly abuse them. But what James now says, is not only suitable to the rich of extreme tenacity, (such as Euclio of Plautus,) but to those also who delight in pomp and luxury, and yet prefer to heap up riches rather than to employ them for necessary purposes. For such is the malignity of some, that they grudge to others the common sun and air.

Calvin: Jam 5:3 - A witness against you // Ye have heaped treasure together 3.A witness against you. He confirms the explanation I have already given. For God has not appointed gold for rust, nor garments for moths; but, on t...

3.A witness against you. He confirms the explanation I have already given. For God has not appointed gold for rust, nor garments for moths; but, on the contrary, be has designed them as aids and helps to human life. Therefore, even spending without benefit is a witness of inhumanity. The rusting of gold and silver will be, as it were, the occasion of inflaming the wrath of God, so that it will, like fire, consume them.

Ye have heaped treasure together: These words may also admit of two explanations: — that the rich, as they would always live, are never satisfied, but weary themselves in heaping together what may be sufficient to the end of the world, — or, that they heap together the wrath and curse of God for the last day; and this second view I embrace. 138

Calvin: Jam 5:4 - Behold, the hire 4.Behold, the hire. He now condemns cruelty, the invariable companion of avarice. But he refers only to one kind, which, above all others, ought just...

4.Behold, the hire. He now condemns cruelty, the invariable companion of avarice. But he refers only to one kind, which, above all others, ought justly to be deemed odious. For if a humane and a just man, as Solomon says in Pro 12:10, regards the life of his beast, it is a monstrous barbarity, when man feels no pity towards the man whose sweat he has employed for his own benefit. Hence the Lord has strictly forbidden, in the law, the hire of the laborer to sleep with us (Deu 24:15). Besides, James does not refer to laborers in common, but, for the sake of amplifying, he mentions husbandmen and reapers. For what can be more base than that they, who supply us with bread by their labor should be pined through want? And yet this monstrous thing is common; for there are many of such a tyrannical disposition, that they think that the rest of mankind live only for their benefit alone.

But he says that this hire crieth, for whatever men retain either by fraud or by violence, of what belongs to another; it calls for vengeance as it were by a loud voice. We ought to notice what he adds, that the cries of the poor come to the ears of God, so that we may know that the wrong done to them shall not be unpunished. They, therefore, who are oppressed by the unjust ought resignedly to sustain their evils, because they will have God as their defender. And they who have the power of doing wrong ought to abstain from injustice, lest they provoke God against them, who is the protector and patron of the poor. And for this reason also he calls God the Lord of Sabaoth, or of hosts, intimating thereby his power and his might, by which he renders his judgment more dreadful.

Calvin: Jam 5:5 - In pleasure // Ye have nourished your hearts 5.In pleasure. He comes now to another vice, even luxury and sinful gratifications; for they who abound in wealth seldom keep within the bounds of mo...

5.In pleasure. He comes now to another vice, even luxury and sinful gratifications; for they who abound in wealth seldom keep within the bounds of moderation, but abuse their abundance by extreme indulgences. There are, indeed, some rich men, as I have said, who pine themselves in the midst of their abundance. For it was not without reason that the poets have imagined Tantalus to be hungry near a table well furnished. There have ever been Tantalians in the world. But James, as it has been said, does not speak of all rich men. It is enough that we see this vice commonly prevailing among the rich, that they are given too much to luxuries, to pomps and superfluities.

And though the Lord allows them to live freely on what they have, yet profusion ought to be avoided and frugality practiced. For it was not in vain that the Lord by his prophets severely reproved those who slept on beds of ivory, who used precious ointments, who delighted themselves at their feasts with the sound of the harp, who were like fat cows in rich pastures. For all these things have been said for this end, that we may know that moderation ought to be observed, and that extravagance is displeasing to God.

Ye have nourished your hearts. He means that they indulged themselves, not only as far as to satisfy nature, but as far as their cupidity led them. He adds a similitude, as in a day of slaughter, because they were wont in their solemn sacrifices to eat more freely than according to their daily habits. He then says, that the rich feasted themselves every day of their life, because they immersed themselves in perpetual indulgences.

Calvin: Jam 5:6 - Ye have condemned 6.Ye have condemned. Here follows another kind of inhumanity, that the rich by their power oppressed and destroyed the poor and weak. He says by a me...

6.Ye have condemned. Here follows another kind of inhumanity, that the rich by their power oppressed and destroyed the poor and weak. He says by a metaphor that the just were condemned and killed; for when they did not kill them by their own hand, or condemn them as judges, they yet employed the authority which they had to do wrong, they corrupted judgments, and contrived various arts to destroy the innocent, that is, really to condemn and kill them. 139

By adding that the just did not resist them, he intimates that the audacity of the rich was greater; because those whom they oppressed were without any protection. He, however, reminds them that the more ready and prompt would be the vengeance of God, when the poor have no protection from men. But though the just did not resist, because he ought to have patiently endured wrongs, I yet think that their weakness is at the same time referred to, that is he did not resist, because he was unprotected and without any help from men.

Calvin: Jam 5:7 - Be patient therefore // Behold, the husbandman // The precious fruit // The early and the latter rains 7.Be patient therefore. From this inference it is evident that what has hitherto been said against the rich, pertains to the consolation of those who...

7.Be patient therefore. From this inference it is evident that what has hitherto been said against the rich, pertains to the consolation of those who seemed for a time to be exposed to their wrongs with impunity. For after having mentioned the causes of those calamities which were hanging over the rich, and having stated this among others, that they proudly and cruelly ruled over the poor, he immediately adds, that we who are unjustly oppressed, have this reason to be patient, because God would become the judge. For this is what he means when he says, unto the coming of the Lord, that is, that the confusion of things which is now seen in the world will not be perpetual, because the Lord at his coming will reduce things to order, and that therefore our minds ought to entertain good hope; for it is not without reason that the restoration of all things is promised to us at that day. And though the day of the Lord is everywhere called in the Scriptures a manifestation of his judgment and grace, when he succors his people and chastises the ungodly, yet I prefer to regard the expression here as referring to our final deliverance.

Behold, the husbandman. Paul briefly refers to the same similitude in 2Ti 2:6, when he says that the husbandman ought to labor before he gathers the fruit; but James more fully expresses the idea, for he mentions the daily patience of the husbandman, who, after having committed the seed to the earth, confidently, or at least patiently, waits until the time of harvest comes; nor does he fret because the earth does not immediately yield a ripe fruit. He hence concludes, that we ought not to be immoderately anxious, if we must now labor and sow, until the harvest as it were comes, even the day of the Lord.

The precious fruit. He calls it precious, because it is the nourishment of life and the means of sustaining it. And James intimates, that since the husbandman suffers his life, so precious to him, to lie long deposited in the bosom of the earth, and calmly suspends his desire to gather the fruit, we ought not to be too hasty and fretful, but resignedly to wait for the day of our redemption. It is not necessary to specify particularly the other parts of the comparison.

The early and the latter rains. By the two words, early and latter, two seasons are pointed out; the first follows soon after sowing; and the other when the corn is ripening. So the prophets spoke, when they intended to set forth the time for rain, (Deu 28:12; Joe 2:23; Hos 6:3.) And he has mentioned both times, in order more fully to shew that husbandmen are not disheartened by the slow progress of time, but bear with the delay.

Calvin: Jam 5:8 - Stablish your hearts 8.Stablish your hearts. Lest any should object and say, that the time of deliverance was too long delayed, he obviates this objection and says, that ...

8.Stablish your hearts. Lest any should object and say, that the time of deliverance was too long delayed, he obviates this objection and says, that the Lord was at hand, or (which is the same thing) that his coming was drawing nigh. In the meantime, he bids us to correct the softness of the heart, which weakens us, so as not to persevere in hope. And doubtless the time appears long, because we are too tender and delicate. We ought, then, to gather strength that we may become hardened and this cannot be better attained than by hope, and as it were by a realizing view of the near approach of our Lord.

Calvin: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not, 9.Grudge not, or, groan not. As the complaints of many were heard, that they were more severely treated than others, this passage is so explained b...

9.Grudge not, or, groan not. As the complaints of many were heard, that they were more severely treated than others, this passage is so explained by some, as though James bade each to be contented with his own lot, not to envy others, nor grudge if the condition of others was more tolerable. But I take another view; for after having spoken of the unhappiness of those who distress good and quiet men by their tyranny, he now exhorts the faithful to be just towards one another and ready to pass by offenses. That this is the real meaning may be gathered from the reason that is added: Be not querulous one against another; lest ye be condemned. We may, indeed, groan, when any evil torments us; but he means an accusing groan, when one expostulates with the Lord against another. And he declares that thus they would all be condemned, because there is no one who does not offend his brethren, and afford them an occasion of groaning. Now, if everyone complained, they would all have accused one another; for no one was so innocent, that he did not do some harm to others.

God will be the common judge of all. What, then, will be the case, but that every one who seeks to bring judgment on others, must allow the same against himself; and thus all will be given up to the same ruin. Let no one, then, ask for vengeance on others, except he wishes to bring it on his own head. And lest they should be hasty in making complaints of this kind, he declares that the judge was at the door. For as our propensity is to profane the name of God, in the slightest offenses we appeal to his judgment. Nothing is a fitter bridle to check our rashness, than to consider that our imprecations vanish not into air, because God’s judgment is at hand.

Calvin: Jam 5:10 - Take, my brethren, the prophets 10.Take, my brethren, the prophets. The comfort which he brings is not that which is according to the common proverb, that the miserable hope for lik...

10.Take, my brethren, the prophets. The comfort which he brings is not that which is according to the common proverb, that the miserable hope for like companions in evils. That they set before them associates, in whose number it was desirable to be classed; and to have the same condition with them, was no misery. For as we must necessarily feel extreme grief, when any evil happens to us which the children of God have never experienced, so it is a singular consolation when we know that we suffer nothing different from them; nay, when we know that we have to sustain the same yoke with them.

When Job heard from his friends,

“Turn to the saints, can you find any like to thee?”
(Job 5:1,)

it was the voice of Satan, because he wished to drive him to despair. When, on the other hand, the Spirit by the mouth of James designs to raise us up to a good hope, he shews to us all the fore-going saints, who as it were stretch out their hand to us, and by their example encourage us to undergo and to conquer afflictions.

The life of men is indeed indiscriminately subject to troubles and adversities; but James did not bring forward any kind of men for examples, for it would have availed nothing to perish with the multitude; but he chose the prophets, a fellowship with whom is blessed. Nothing so breaks us down and disheartens us as the feeling of misery; it is therefore a real consolation to know that those things commonly deemed evils are aids and helps to our salvation. This is, indeed, what is far from being understood by the flesh; yet the faithful ought to be convinced of this, that they are happy when by various troubles they are proved by the Lord. To convince us of this, James reminds us to consider the end or design of the afflictions endured by the prophets; for as our own evils we are without judgment, being influenced by grief, sorrow, or some other immoderate feelings, as we see nothing under a foggy sky and in the midst of storms, and being tossed here and there as it were by a tempest, it is therefore necessary for us to cast our eyes to another quarter, where the sky is in a manner serene and bright. When the afflictions of the saints are related to us, there is no one who will allow that they were miserable, but, on the contrary, that they were happy.

Then James has done well for us; for he has laid before our eyes a pattern, that we may learn to look at it whenever we are tempted to impatience or to despair: and he takes this principle as granted, that the prophets were blessed in their afflictions, for they courageously sustained them. Since it was so, he concludes that the same judgment ought to be formed of us when afflicted.

And he says, the prophets who have spoken in the name of the Lord; by which he intimates that they were accepted and approved by God. If, then, it had been useful for them to have been free from miseries, doubtless God would have kept them free. But it was otherwise. It hence follows that afflictions are salutary to the faithful. He, therefore, bids them to be taken as an example of suffering affliction. But patience also must be added, which is a real evidence of our obedience. Hence he has joined them both together.

Calvin: Jam 5:11 - The patience of Job // The end of the Lord 11.The patience of Job. Having spoken generally of the prophets, he now refers to an example remarkable above others; for no one, as far as we can le...

11.The patience of Job. Having spoken generally of the prophets, he now refers to an example remarkable above others; for no one, as far as we can learn from histories, has ever been overwhelmed with troubles so hard and so various as Job; and yet he emerged from so deep a gulf. Whosoever, then, will imitate his patience, will no doubt find God’s hand, which at length delivered him, to be the same. We see for what end his history has been written. God suffered not his servant Job to sink, because he patiently endured his afflictions. Then he will disappoint the patience of no one.

If, however, it be asked, Why does the Apostle so much commend the patience of Job, as he had displayed many signs of impatience, being carried away by a hasty spirit? To this I reply, that though he sometimes failed through the infirmity of the flesh, or murmured within himself, yet he ever surrendered himself to God, and was ever willing to be restrained and ruled by him. Though, then, his patience was somewhat deficient, it is yet deservedly commended.

The end of the Lord By these words he intimates that afflictions ought ever to be estimated by their end. For at first God seems to be far away, and Satan in the meantime revels in the confusion; the flesh suggests to us that we are forsaken of God and lost. We ought, then, to extend our view farther, for near and around us there appears no light. Moreover, he has called it the end of the Lord, because it is his work to give a prosperous issue to adversities. If we do our duty in bearing evils obediently, he will by no means be wanting in performing his part. Hope directs us only to the end; God will then shew himself very merciful, how ever rigid and severe he may seem to be while afflicting us. 140

Calvin: Jam 5:12 - But above all things // But let your yea be yea // Lest ye fall into condemnation 12.But above all things. It has been a common vice almost in all ages, to swear lightly and inconsiderately. For so bad is our nature that we do not ...

12.But above all things. It has been a common vice almost in all ages, to swear lightly and inconsiderately. For so bad is our nature that we do not consider what an atrocious crime it is to profane the name of God. For though the Lord strictly commands us to reverence his name, yet men devise various subterfuges, and think that they can swear with impunity. They imagine, then, that there is no evil, provided they do not openly mention the name of God; and this is an old gloss. So the Jews, when they swore by heaven or earth, thought that they did not profane God’s name, because they did not mention it. But while men seek to be ingenious in dissembling with God, they delude themselves with the most frivolous evasions.

It was a vain excuse of this kind that Christ condemned in Mat 5:34. James, now subscribing to the decree of his master, commands us to abstain from these indirect forms of swearing: for whosoever swears in vain and on frivolous occasions, profanes God’s name, whatever form he may give to his words. Then the meaning is, that it is not more lawful to swear by heaven or by the earth, than openly by the name of God. The reason is mentioned by Christ — because the glory of God is everywhere inscribed, and everywhere shines forth. Nay, men take the words, heaven and earth, in their oaths, in no other sense and for no other purpose, than if they named God himself; for by thus speaking they only designate the Worker by his works.

But he says, above all things; because the profanation of God’s name is not a slight offense. The Anabaptists, building on this passage, condemn all oaths, but they only shew their ignorance. For James does not speak of oaths in general, nor does Christ in the passage to which I have referred; but both condemn that evasion which had been devised, when men took the liberty to swear without expressing the name of God, which was a liberty repugnant to the prohibition of the law.

And this is what the words clearly mean, Neither by heaven, neither by the earth. For, if the question had been as to oaths in themselves, to what purpose were these forms mentioned? It then appears evident that both by Christ and by James the puerile astuteness of those is reproved who taught that they could swear with impunity, provided they adopted some circuitous expressions. That we may, then, understand the meaning of James, we must understand first the precept of the law, “Thou shalt not take the name of God in vain. ” It hence appears clear, that there is a right and lawful use of God’s name. Now, James condemns those who did not indeed dare in a direct way to profane God’s name, but endeavored to evade the profanation which the law condemns, by circumlocutions.

But let your yea be yea. He brings the best remedy to correct the vice which he condemns, that is, that they were habitually to keep themselves to truth and faithfulness in all their sayings. For whence is the wicked habit of swearing, except that such is the falsehood of men, that their words alone are not believed? For, if they observed faithfulness, as they ought, in their words, there would have been no necessity of so many superfluous oaths. As, then, the perfidy or levity of men is the fountain from which the vice of swearing flows, in order to take away the vice, James teaches us that the fountain ought to be removed; for the right way of healing is to begin with the cause of illness.

Some copies have, “Let your word (or speech) be, yea, yea; no, no.” The true reading however, is what I have given, and is commonly received; and what he means I have already explained, that is, that we ought to tell the truth, and to be faithful in our words. To the same purpose is what Paul says in 2Co 1:18, that he was not in his preaching yea and nay, but pursued the same course from the beginning.

Lest ye fall into condemnation. There is a different reading, owing to the affinity of the words ὑπὸ κρίσιν and ὑπόκρισιν 141 If you read, “into judgment” or condemnation, the sense will clearly be, that to take God’s name in vain will not be unpunished. But it is not unsuitable to say, “into hypocrisy;” because when simplicity, as it has been already said, prevails among us, the occasion for superfluous oaths is cut off. If, then, fidelity appears in all we say, the dissimulation, which leads us to swear rashly, will be removed.

Calvin: Jam 5:13 - Is any among you afflicted? 13.Is any among you afflicted? he means that there is no time in which God does not invite us to himself. For afflictions ought to stimulate us to pr...

13.Is any among you afflicted? he means that there is no time in which God does not invite us to himself. For afflictions ought to stimulate us to pray; prosperity supplies us with an occasion to praise God. But such is the perverseness of men, that they cannot rejoice without forgetting God, and that when afflicted they are disheartened and driven to despair. We ought, then, to keep within due bounds, so that the joy, which usually makes us to forget God, may induce us to set forth the goodness of God, and that our sorrow may teach us to pray. For he has set the singing of psalms in opposition to profane and unbridled joy; and thus they express their joy who are led, as they ought to be, by prosperity to God.

Calvin: Jam 5:14 - Is any sick among you // The presbyters // Let them pray over him 14.Is any sick among you. As the gift of healing as yet continued, he directs the sick to have recourse to that remedy. It is, indeed, certain that t...

14.Is any sick among you. As the gift of healing as yet continued, he directs the sick to have recourse to that remedy. It is, indeed, certain that they were not all healed; but the Lord granted this favor as often and as far as he knew it would be expedient; nor is it probable that the oil was indiscriminately applied, but only when there was some hope of restoration. For, together with the power there was given also discretion to the ministers, lest they should by abuse profane the symbol. The design of James was no other than to commend the grace of God which the faithful might then enjoy, lest the benefit of it should be lost through contempt or neglect.

For this purpose he ordered the presbyters to be sent for, but the use of the anointing must have been confined to the power of the Holy Spirit.

The Papists boast mightily of this passage, when they seek to pass off their extreme unction. But how different their corruption is from the ancient ordinance mentioned by James I will not at present undertake to shew. Let readers learn this from my Institutes. I will only say this, that this passage is wickedly and ignorantly perverted; when extreme unction is established by it, and is called a sacrament, to be perpetually observed in the Church. I indeed allow that it was used as a sacrament by the disciples of Christ, (for I cannot agree with those who think that it was medicine;) but as the reality of this sign continued only for a time in the Church, the symbol also must have been only for a time. And it is quite evident, that nothing is more absurd than to call that a sacrament which is void and does not really present to us that which it signifies. That the gift of healing was temporary, all are constrained to allow, and events clearly prove: then the sign of it ought not to be deemed perpetual. It hence follows, that they who at this day set anointing among the sacraments, are not the true followers, but the apes of the Apostles, except they restore the effect produced by it, which God has taken away from the world for more than fourteen hundred years. So we have no dispute, whether anointing was once a sacrament; but whether it has been given to be so perpetually. This latter we deny, because it is evident that the thing signified has long ago ceased.

The presbyters, or elders, of the church. I include here generally all those who presided over the Church; for pastors were not alone called presbyters or elders, but also those who were chosen from the people to be as it were censors to protect discipline. For every Church had, as it were, its own senate, chosen from men of weight and of proved integrity. But as it was customary to choose especially those who were endued with gifts more than ordinary, he ordered them to send for the elders, as being those in whom the power and grace of the Holy Spirit more particularly appeared.

Let them pray over him This custom of praying over one was intended to shew, that they stood as it were before God; for when we come as it were to the very scene itself, we utter prayers with more feeling; and not only Elisha and Paul, but Christ himself, roused the ardor of prayer and commended the grace of God by thus praying over persons. (2Kg 4:32; Act 20:10; Joh 11:41.)

Calvin: Jam 5:15 - And if he have committed sins 15. But it must be observed, that he connects a promise with the prayer, lest it should be made without faith. For he who doubts, as one who does no...

15. But it must be observed, that he connects a promise with the prayer, lest it should be made without faith. For he who doubts, as one who does not rightly call on God, is unworthy to obtain anything, as we have seen in Jas 1:5. Whosoever then really seeks to be heard, must be fully persuaded that he does not pray in vain.

As James brings before us this special gift, to which the external rite was but an addition, we hence learn, that the oil could not have been rightly used without faith. But since it appears that the Papists have no certainty as to their anointing, as it is manifest that they have not the gift, it is evident that their anointing is spurious.

And if he have committed sins. This is not added only for the sake of amplifying, as though he had said, that God would give something more to the sick than health of body; but because diseases were very often inflicted on account of sins; and by speaking of their remission he intimates that the cause of the evil would be removed. And we indeed see that David, when afflicted with disease and seeking relief, was wholly engaged in seeking the pardon of his sins. Why did he do this, except that while he acknowledged the effect of his faults in his punishment, he deemed that there was no other remedy, but that the Lord should cease to impute to him his sins?

The prophets are full of this doctrine, that men are relieved from their evils when they are loosed from the guilt of their iniquities. Let us then know that it is the only fit remedy for our diseases and other calamities, when we carefully examine ourselves, being solicitous to be reconciled to God, and to obtain the pardon of our sins.

Calvin: Jam 5:16 - Confess your faults one to another // Availeth much 16.Confess your faults one to another. In some copies the illative particle is given, nor is it unsuitable; for though when not expressed, it must be...

16.Confess your faults one to another. In some copies the illative particle is given, nor is it unsuitable; for though when not expressed, it must be understood. He had said, that sins were remitted to the sick over whom the elders prayed: he now reminds them how useful it is to discover our sins to our brethren, even that we may obtain the pardon of them by their intercession. 142

This passage, I know, is explained by many as referring to the reconciling of offenses; for they who wish to return to favor must necessarily know first their own faults and confess them. For hence it comes, that hatreds take root, yea, and increase and become irreconcilable, because every one perniciously defends his own cause. Many therefore think that James points out here the way of brotherly reconciliation, that is, by mutual acknowledgment of sins. But as it has been said, his object was different; for he connects mutual prayer with mutual confession; by which he intimates that confession avails for this end, that we may be helped as to God by the prayers of our brethren; for they who know our necessities, are stimulated to pray that they may assist us; but they to whom our diseases are unknown are more tardy to bring us help.

Wonderful, indeed, is the folly or the insincerity of the Papists, who strive to build their whispering confession on this passage. For it would be easy to infer from the words of James, that the priests alone ought to confess. For since a mutual, or to speak more plainly, a reciprocal confession is demanded here, no others are bidden to confess their own sins, but those who in their turn are fit to hear the confession of others; but this the priests claim for themselves alone. Then confession is required of them alone. But since their puerilities do not deserve a refutation, let the true and genuine explanation already given be deemed sufficient by us.

For the words clearly mean, that confession is required for no other end, but that those who know our evils may be more solicitous to bring us help.

Availeth much That no one may think that this is done without fruit, that is, when others pray for us, he expressly mentions the benefit and the effect of prayer. But he names expressly the prayer of a righteous or just man; because God does not hear the ungodly; nor is access to God open, except through a good conscience: not that our prayers are founded on our own worthiness, but because the heart must be cleansed by faith before we can present ourselves before God. Then James testifies that the righteous or the faithful pray for us beneficially and not without fruit.

But what does he mean by adding effectual or efficacious? For this seems superfluous; for if the prayer avails much, it is doubtless effectual. The ancient interpreter has rendered it “assiduous;” but this is too forced. For James uses the Greek participle, ἐνεργούμεναι, which means “working.” And the sentence may be thus explained, “It avails much, because it is effectual.” 143 As it is an argument drawn from this principle, that God will not allow the prayers of the faithful to be void or useless, he does not therefore unjustly conclude that it avails much. But I would rather confine it to the present case: for our prayers may properly be said to be ἐνεργούμεναι, working, when some necessity meets us which excites in us earnest prayer. We pray daily for the whole Church, that God may pardon its sins; but then only is our prayer really in earnest, when we go forth to succor those who are in trouble. But such efficacy cannot be in the prayers of our brethren, except they know that we are in difficulties. Hence the reason given is not general, but must be specially referred to the former sentence.

Calvin: Jam 5:17 - Elias was a man 17.Elias was a man. There are innumerable instances in Scripture of what he meant to prove; but he chose one that is remarkable above all others; for...

17.Elias was a man. There are innumerable instances in Scripture of what he meant to prove; but he chose one that is remarkable above all others; for it was a great thing that God should make heaven in a manner subject to the prayers of Elias, so as to obey his wishes. Elias kept heaven shut by his prayers for three years and a half; he again opened it, so that it poured down abundance of rain. Hence appeared the wonderful power of prayer. Well known is this remarkable history, and is found in 1Kg 17:0 and 1Kg 18:0. And though it is not there expressly said, that Elias prayed for drought, it may yet be easily gathered, and that the rain also was given to his prayers.

But we must notice the application of the example. James does not say that drought ought to be sought from the Lord, because Elias obtained it; for we may by inconsiderate zeal presumptuously and foolishly imitate the Prophet. We must then observe the rule of prayer, so that it may be by faith. He, therefore, thus accommodates this example, — that if Elias was heard, so also we shall be heard when we rightly pray. For as the command to pray is common, and as the promise is common, it follows that the effect also will be common.

Lest any one should object and say, that we are far distant from the dignity of Elias, he places him in our own rank, by saying, that he was a mortal man and subject to the same passions with ourselves. For we profit less by the examples of saints, because we imagine them to have been half gods or heroes, who had peculiar intercourse with God; so that because they were heard, we receive no confidence. In order to shake off this heathen and profane superstition, James reminds us that the saints ought to be considered as having the infirmity of the flesh; so that we may learn to ascribe what they obtained from the Lord, not to their merits, but to the efficacy of prayer.

It hence appears how childish the Papists are, who teach men to flee to the protection of saints, because they had been heard by the Lord. For thus they reason, “Because he obtained what he asked as long as he lived in the world, he will be now after death our best patron.” This sort of subtle refinement was altogether unknown to the Holy Spirit. For James on the contrary argues, that as their prayers availed so much, so we ought in like manner to pray at this day according to their example, and that we shall not do so in vain.

Calvin: Jam 5:20 - Let him know // And shall hide a multitude of sins 20.Let him know. I doubt whether this ought rather to have been written, γιςώσκετε, “know ye.” Both ways the meaning however is the sam...

20.Let him know. I doubt whether this ought rather to have been written, γιςώσκετε, “know ye.” Both ways the meaning however is the same. For James recommends to us the correction of our brethren from the effect produced that we may more assiduously attend to this duty. Nothing is better or more desirable than to deliver a soul from eternal death; and this is what he does who restores an erring brother to the right way: therefore a work so excellent ought by no means to be neglected. To give food to the hungry, and drink to the thirsty, we see how much Christ values such acts; but the salvation of the soul is esteemed by him much more precious than the life of the body. We must therefore take heed lest souls perish through our sloth, whose salvation God puts in a manner in our hands. Not that we can bestow salvation on them; but that God by our ministry delivers and saves those who seem otherwise to be nigh destruction.

Some copies have his soul, which makes no change in the sense. I, however, prefer the other reading, for it has more force in it.

And shall hide a multitude of sins. He makes an allusion to a saying of Solomon, rather than a quotation. (Pro 10:12.) Solomon says that love covers sins, as hatred proclaims them. For they who hate burn with the desire of mutual slander; but they who love are disposed to exercise mutual forbearance. Love, then, buries sins as to men. James teaches here something higher, that is, that sins are blotted out before God; as though he had said, Solomon has declared this as the fruit of love, that it covers sins; but there is no better or more excellent way of covering them than when they are wholly abolished before God. And this is done when the sinner is brought by our admonition to the right way: we ought then especially and more carefully to attend to this duty.

END OF THE EPISTLE OF JAMES

Defender: Jam 5:3 - for the last days This section (Jam 5:1-9) is obviously set in the context of "the last days." While it is true that the disparity between rich and poor has always been...

This section (Jam 5:1-9) is obviously set in the context of "the last days." While it is true that the disparity between rich and poor has always been a great problem (and thus any period in church history could have been held to fulfill this prophecy), it also seems true that the problem grows more severe every year. Communism, which all but conquered the world before it suddenly disintegrated, was fueled by intellectuals who took advantage of the feeling of hopelessness in the downtrodden masses, on whose backs had been built the great fortunes of the wealthy classes. The institution of slavery had already contributed to the amassing of wealth by prosperous merchants and landowners in many nations. Even now, despite the development of a superficial democracy in various nations, the reality is that wealth and political influence in greater and more insidious - even conspiratorial - financial empires have concentrated the wealth of the world in the hands of a relatively small number of multi-national power brokers. That this will still be the case in the very last days before Christ returns is evident from the graphic description of the destruction of commercial Babylon in Revelation 18."

Defender: Jam 5:4 - Lord of sabaoth This phrase means "the Lord of hosts." In the New Testament, this appellation of God is used only here and in Rom 9:29 (the latter quoting Isa 1:9). T...

This phrase means "the Lord of hosts." In the New Testament, this appellation of God is used only here and in Rom 9:29 (the latter quoting Isa 1:9). The phrase, "the Lord of hosts," is used very frequently in the Old Testament. The term "hosts" refers to the heavenly hosts of angels in the armies of God."

Defender: Jam 5:5 - day of slaughter In general (the American revolution being one of the few exceptions), those who fight in wars do not profit from them financially, nor do the common p...

In general (the American revolution being one of the few exceptions), those who fight in wars do not profit from them financially, nor do the common people whose lands and lives are devastated by them. The profiteers are, again, the wealthy bankers and other financiers who underwrite them."

Defender: Jam 5:8 - draweth nigh In fact, the great "judge standeth before the door," as it were (Jam 5:9; Rev 3:20; Mar 13:29). Even though a great majority of Christian believers in...

In fact, the great "judge standeth before the door," as it were (Jam 5:9; Rev 3:20; Mar 13:29). Even though a great majority of Christian believers in every nation are among those of whom the rich have taken unjust advantage, the Lord would advise prayerful patience rather than rebellion and retribution. He will make all things right when He comes in judgment."

Defender: Jam 5:11 - patience of Job Many modern theologians have alleged that the book of Job was a great dramatic poem, with Job merely a fictional character concerned with the perennia...

Many modern theologians have alleged that the book of Job was a great dramatic poem, with Job merely a fictional character concerned with the perennial problem of undeserved suffering. James, however, confirms the historicity of Job and his experiences."

Defender: Jam 5:14 - sick The promise of healing in this passage applies only to the special case of one whose sins have brought about the Lord's chastening in the form of sick...

The promise of healing in this passage applies only to the special case of one whose sins have brought about the Lord's chastening in the form of sickness. The word "sick" in this verse means "ill." In Jam 5:13, on the other hand, the word "afflicted" means "suffering trouble" (same as in Jam 5:10; also, the same as "endure hardness" in 2Ti 2:3; see also 2Ti 2:9 and 2Ti 4:5). In such a case of affliction in a believer's life, assuming it is not clearly a specific chastising because of sin, the admonition is: "Let him pray." The Lord, in such cases, will answer in whatever way best serves His greater purpose (note Paul's testimony in 2Co 12:9). However, in cases of divinely imposed illness, when the sick person has injured the body of Christ by his sin (as in 1 Corinthians 11:18-34, especially 1Co 11:30-31), he must first confess his sin to God and to those injured, as represented by the elders of the church, asking them to pray for him. The initiative comes from him rather than the elders.

Defender: Jam 5:14 - oil There is nothing magical in the anointing oil. It could well have been used as merely a soothing ointment to alleviate the suffering (Isa 1:6; Mar 6:1...

There is nothing magical in the anointing oil. It could well have been used as merely a soothing ointment to alleviate the suffering (Isa 1:6; Mar 6:13; Luk 10:34). The oil was merely a spiritual symbol representing God's hoped-for anointing of the sick person by the Holy Spirit in order to bring him back to active service for the Lord. This symbol recalled how priests and kings had been anointed in ancient Israel, symbolizing their divine call to service."

Defender: Jam 5:15 - faith shall save "Save" here means "deliver" from his illness.

"Save" here means "deliver" from his illness.

Defender: Jam 5:15 - sick "Sick" in this verse is different from both "afflicted" in Jam 5:13 and "sick" in Jam 5:14. Used elsewhere in Heb 12:3 and Rev 2:3, it means "wearied....

"Sick" in this verse is different from both "afflicted" in Jam 5:13 and "sick" in Jam 5:14. Used elsewhere in Heb 12:3 and Rev 2:3, it means "wearied." In context, it must refer to the depression induced by the guilt of his sin. This can only be relieved, not by some psychiatric encouragement of his supposed self-worth, but by repentant confession of his specific sin to God (1Jo 1:9), then to the church and its elders. The latter can then pray for him in faith (note that the latter prayer is their prayer, not his - they must have the faith to believe God's promise). If all conditions are met, then "the Lord shall raise him up." Notice that nothing in the context mentions the need for someone with the gift of healing, though one or more of the elders (at least in apostolic times, before the completion of the New Testament) may well have had such a gift (to be used, however, in evangelizing, rather than in a case such as the one described here). The reason why this type of healing does not occur more often today is probably because one or more of the conditions are not met.

Defender: Jam 5:15 - if "If" here means "since." The reason for the illness in such a case is unconfessed sin that has injured the church and its ministry. If the conditions ...

"If" here means "since." The reason for the illness in such a case is unconfessed sin that has injured the church and its ministry. If the conditions have been met for healing, they will also have been met for forgiveness."

Defender: Jam 5:16 - Confess your faults "Faults" is a different word than "sins" in Jam 5:15, which primarily refers to "offenses" or "trespasses." It is used either for offenses against God...

"Faults" is a different word than "sins" in Jam 5:15, which primarily refers to "offenses" or "trespasses." It is used either for offenses against God or against fellow men. The latter are evidently meant here, for the admonition is to confess such offenses to the individual person, or persons, we have offended. Once the offenses are confessed, it then is fitting to pray for whatever healing is needed.

Defender: Jam 5:16 - fervent "Effectual fervent" is one word in the Greek (energeo), meaning "energizing." The one praying such an energizing prayer (therefore, healing prayer) is...

"Effectual fervent" is one word in the Greek (energeo), meaning "energizing." The one praying such an energizing prayer (therefore, healing prayer) is assumed to be "righteous," both in standing before God through faith in Christ and in practice before God, having left no sins of his own unconfessed and made right."

Defender: Jam 5:17 - on the earth This remarkable answer to Elijah's prayer was a providential miracle rather than a miracle of creation. No laws of hydrology or meteorology need to be...

This remarkable answer to Elijah's prayer was a providential miracle rather than a miracle of creation. No laws of hydrology or meteorology need to be superseded in order to produce or withhold rain, but rather a providential ordering and timing of the many factors that control rainfall. While creation miracles are extremely rare today, when we meet God's conditions, providential miracles often occur in answer to prayer."

Defender: Jam 5:20 - save a soul This verse can properly be considered an incentive for soul-winning in general. In context, however, it seems to refer primarily to the particular cas...

This verse can properly be considered an incentive for soul-winning in general. In context, however, it seems to refer primarily to the particular case being discussed - that of a professing Christian whose sin has resulted in divine chastisement in the form of sickness. As long as he persists in his sin, refusing to confess and forsake it, he is in danger of eventually being consigned to physical death (1Co 5:5; 1Co 11:30; 1Ti 1:20). This is probably the "sin unto death" mentioned in 1Jo 5:16. There is, thus, a great need for concerned Christian friends to try diligently to turn him back (convert) from the dangerous course he is traveling. It is even more urgent if his professed faith in Christ was not genuine in the first place. He then needs to be saved not only from physical death but also from eternal, spiritual death."

TSK: Jam 5:1 - Go // ye // weep Go : Jam 4:13 ye : Jam 1:11, Jam 2:6; Deu 8:12-14, Deu 32:15; Neh 9:25, Neh 9:26; Job 20:15-29; Psa 17:14; Psa 49:6-20, Psa 73:3-9, Psa 73:18-20; Pro ...

TSK: Jam 5:2 - Your riches // your garments Your riches : Jer 17:11; Mat 6:19, Mat 6:20; Luk 12:33; 1Pe 1:4 your garments : Jam 2:2; Job 13:28; Psa 39:11; Isa 50:9, Isa 51:8; Hos 5:12

TSK: Jam 5:3 - cankered // a witness // and shall // Ye have // the last cankered : 2Ti 2:17 a witness : Gen 31:48, Gen 31:52; Jos 24:27; Job 16:8 and shall : Jer 19:9; Mic 3:3; Rev 17:16, Rev 20:15, Rev 21:8 Ye have : Deu ...

TSK: Jam 5:4 - the hire // the cries // Lord the hire : Lev 19:13; Deu 24:14, Deu 24:15; Job 24:10,Job 24:11, Job 31:38, Job 31:39; Isa 5:7; Jer 22:13; Hab 2:11; Mal 3:5; Col 4:1 the cries : Gen ...

TSK: Jam 5:5 - have lived // been // as in have lived : 1Sa 25:6, 1Sa 25:36; Job 21:11-15; Psa 17:14, Psa 73:7; Ecc 11:9; Isa 5:11, Isa 5:12; Isa 47:8, Isa 56:12; Amo 6:1, Amo 6:4-6; Luk 16:19,...

TSK: Jam 5:6 - have // and he have : Jam 2:6; Mat 21:38, Mat 23:34, Mat 23:35, Mat 27:20,Mat 27:24, Mat 27:25; Joh 16:2, Joh 16:3; Act 2:22, Act 2:23; Act 3:14, Act 3:15, Act 4:10-...

TSK: Jam 5:7 - Be patient // unto // until Be patient : or, Be long patient, or, Suffer with long patience, Luk 8:15; Rom 2:7, Rom 8:24, Rom 8:25, Rom 15:4; 2Co 6:4, 2Co 6:5; Gal 5:5, Gal 6:9; ...

TSK: Jam 5:8 - ye also // stablish // for ye also : Gen 49:18; Psa 37:7, Psa 40:1-3, Psa 130:5; Lam 3:25, Lam 3:26; Mic 7:7; Hab 2:3; Rom 8:25; Gal 5:22; 1Th 1:10; 2Th 3:5; Heb 10:35-37 stabli...

TSK: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not // lest // the Judge Grudge not : or, Groan not, or, grieve not, Jam 4:11; Lev 19:18; Psa 59:15; Mar 6:19 *marg. 2Co 9:7; Gal 5:14, Gal 5:26; 1Pe 4:9 lest : Mat 6:14, Mat ...

Grudge not : or, Groan not, or, grieve not, Jam 4:11; Lev 19:18; Psa 59:15; Mar 6:19 *marg. 2Co 9:7; Gal 5:14, Gal 5:26; 1Pe 4:9

lest : Mat 6:14, Mat 6:15, Mat 7:1, Mat 7:2

the Judge : Gen 4:7; Mat 24:33; 1Co 4:5, 1Co 10:11; Rev 3:20

TSK: Jam 5:10 - who // for who : Isa 39:8; Jer 23:22, Jer 26:16; Act 3:21; Heb 13:7 for : 2Ch 36:16; Jer 2:30; Mat 5:11, Mat 5:12, Mat 21:34-39, Mat 23:34-37; Luk 6:23, Luk 13:3...

TSK: Jam 5:11 - we count // Ye // and have // the Lord is we count : Jam 1:12; Psa 94:12; Mat 5:10,Mat 5:11, Mat 10:22; Heb 3:6, Heb 3:14, Heb 10:39 Ye : Job 1:21, 22-2:9, Job 2:10, Job 13:15, Job 13:16, Job ...

TSK: Jam 5:12 - above // swear not // but // lest above : 1Pe 4:8; 3Jo 1:2 swear not : Mat 5:33-37, Mat 23:16-22 but : 2Co 1:17-20 lest : Jam 3:1, Jam 3:2; 1Co 11:34

TSK: Jam 5:13 - any among // any merry // let him sing any among : 2Ch 33:12, 2Ch 33:13; Job 33:26; Psa 18:6, Psa 50:15, Psa 91:15, Psa 116:3-5, Psa 118:5; Psa 142:1-3; Lam 3:55, Lam 3:56; Hos 6:1; Jon 2:2...

TSK: Jam 5:14 - for // pray // anointing for : Act 14:23, Act 15:4; Tit 1:5 pray : 1Ki 17:21; 2Ki 4:33, 2Ki 5:11; Act 9:40, Act 28:8 anointing : Mar 6:13, Mar 16:18

TSK: Jam 5:15 - the prayer // if he the prayer : Jam 5:13, Jam 5:16, Jam 1:6; Mat 17:20,Mat 17:21, Mat 21:21, Mat 21:22; Mar 11:22-24, Mar 16:17, Mar 16:18; 1Co 12:28-30 if he : Isa 33:2...

TSK: Jam 5:16 - Confess // pray // that // The effectual // a righteous Confess : Gen 41:9, Gen 41:10; 2Sa 19:19; Mat 3:6, Mat 18:15-17; Luk 7:3, Luk 7:4; Act 19:18 pray : Col 1:9; 1Th 5:17, 1Th 5:23, 1Th 5:25; Heb 13:18 t...

TSK: Jam 5:17 - Elias // subject // and he // earnestly // and it rained not Elias : 1Ki 17:1, Elijah subject : Act 10:26, Act 14:15 and he : Rom 11:2; Rev 11:6 earnestly : or, in prayer and it rained not : Luk 4:25

Elias : 1Ki 17:1, Elijah

subject : Act 10:26, Act 14:15

and he : Rom 11:2; Rev 11:6

earnestly : or, in prayer

and it rained not : Luk 4:25

TSK: Jam 5:18 - -- 1Ki 18:18, 1Ki 18:42-45; Jer 14:22; Act 14:17

TSK: Jam 5:19 - err // and one err : Psa 119:21, Psa 119:118; Pro 19:27; Isa 3:12; 1Ti 6:10,1Ti 6:21; 2Ti 2:18; 2Pe 3:17; Jud 1:11 and one : Jam 5:20; Eze 34:4, Eze 34:16; Mat 18:15...

TSK: Jam 5:20 - that he // shall save // from death // hide that he : Jam 5:19 shall save : Pro 11:30; Rom 11:14; 1Co 9:22; 1Ti 4:16; Phm 1:19 from death : Jam 1:15; Pro 10:2, Pro 11:4; Joh 5:24; Rev 20:6 hide ...

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Poole: Jam 5:1 - Go to now // Ye rich men // Weep and howl // For your miseries that shall come upon you Jam 5:1-6 Wicked rich men are warned of God’ s impending judgment. Jam 5:7-11 The brethren are exhorted to patience, after the example of th...

Jam 5:1-6 Wicked rich men are warned of God’ s impending judgment.

Jam 5:7-11 The brethren are exhorted to patience, after the

example of the prophets and of Job,

Jam 5:12 to abstain from swearing,

Jam 5:13-15 to pray in affliction and sickness, and sing psalms

in prosperity,

Jam 5:16-18 to acknowledge mutually their faults, and to pray for one

another,

Jam 5:19,20 and to endeavour to reclaim sinners.

Go to now: see Jam 4:13 .

Ye rich men he speaks to them not simply as rich, (for riches and grace sometimes may go together), but as wicked, not only wallowing in wealth, but abusing it to pride, luxury, oppression, and cruelty. Against these, either as looking on them as incurable, or upon supposition of their impenitency, he denounceth God’ s judgments; and that whether they were unconverted Jews, vexing the believing Jews; or Gentiles, oppressing the Christian Jews; or Christians in profession and name, who yet were so vile in their practice, as to condemn and kill the just; and that they might more speciously do it, to draw them before the judgment-seats, &c.

Weep and howl to denote the extremity of the calamities coming upon them, in which they should not only weep like men, but howl like wild beasts: see Jer 4:8 Mic 1:8 Joe 1:10,13 .

For your miseries that shall come upon you or, are coming upon you, to signify the certainty and nearness of them. The miseries he means may be both temporal and eternal.

Poole: Jam 5:2 - Your riches are corrupted // garments // And your garments are moth-eaten Your riches are corrupted: either by riches he means the general, and by garments gold and silver, the particulars in which their riches consiste...

Your riches are corrupted: either by riches he means the general, and by

garments gold and silver, the particulars in which their riches consisted; and then being corrupted, is to be taken generally, as comprehending the several ways whereby the several kinds of their riches were spoiled: or else, by riches he understands such things as were liable to corruption, or putrefaction, as corn, wine, oil, which were a great part of their riches.

And your garments are moth-eaten costly garments, in which rich men are wont to pride themselves; and under them may be comprehended all such clothes as may be eaten by worms or moths.

Poole: Jam 5:3 - Your gold and silver is cankered // And the rust of them shall be a witness against you // And shall eat your flesh // As it were fire // Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days Your gold and silver is cankered the most precious and lasting metals; yet even they, with long disuse, canker, and go to decay. Under these, other m...

Your gold and silver is cankered the most precious and lasting metals; yet even they, with long disuse, canker, and go to decay. Under these, other metals in esteem among them may be understood.

And the rust of them shall be a witness against you: by a prosopopoeia, that which properly belongs to living persons is ascribed to dead things, as Hab 2:11 Luk 19:40 . It is as much as if he had said: The rust shall be a certain evidence against you, and which will as effectually convict you, as any living witness could do, of your folly in putting your trust in perishing things, your greediness in hoarding them up, your unmercifulness in not supplying the wants of others, and your unreasonableness in denying the use of them to yourselves, when you had rather let them lie by and perish, than enjoy the comfort of them, or do good with them. The like expression we have, Mar 6:11 .

And shall eat your flesh the rust (the witness of your covetousness and cruelty) which now eats your money, shall hereafter devour yourselves, soul and body, (which he means by flesh ), viz. by procuring and kindling the wrath of God upon you, (compared to fire), and likewise by galling your consciences with a vexatious remembrance of your sin and folly; and so what in the judgment is a witness against you, in hell will be a tormentor to you.

As it were fire as if you had reserved fire in your treasure, as well as treasure in your chests.

Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days: either this may be understood metaphorically, ye have heaped a treasure of wrath for the last days, Rom 2:5 ; or literally, ye have hoarded up your wealth against the last and fatal days, in which God is bringing those judgments upon you which will consume all.

Poole: Jam 5:4 - Behold // The hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields // Which is of you kept back by fraud // Crieth // The Lord of sabaoth Behold this is either a note of demonstration, as Joh 1:29 ; q.d. The case is plain, and cannot be denied; or of excitation; q.d. Seriously consider ...

Behold this is either a note of demonstration, as Joh 1:29 ; q.d. The case is plain, and cannot be denied; or of excitation; q.d. Seriously consider it; or rather, of confirmation, to intimate, that the threatenings here denounced should certainly be made good upon them: see Jud 1:14 .

The hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields the wages of those by whose labour and sweat ye yourselves live and are nourished.

Which is of you kept back by fraud either wholly denied them, or detained from them when due to them, contrary to the law, Lev 19:13 Deu 24:14,15 . Deferring payment is a sort of defrauding, as it bereaves the creditor of the benefit of improvement; and so they are taxed here with injustice, as well as covetousness, in that they lived upon other men’ s labours, and starved the poor to enrich themselves.

Crieth viz. to God for vengeance, as such sins are said to do, which either are so openly and boldly committed, as to dare the justice of God, or so secretly, or securely, that they are like to escape the justice of men, Gen 4:10 18:20,21 . Among others, oppression of the poor is a loud crying sin, Exo 2:23 Job 24:11,12 Hab 2:9,11,12 .

The Lord of sabaoth i. e. the Lord of hosts, as having all the creatures above and below, of all sorts, ranked under him as their great Commander, whose will they are ready to execute. He mentions God by this title, not only for the encouragement of the poor oppressed, whose Patron and Protector he avows himself to be, Exo 22:23,24,27 Pr 23:11 ; but for terror to the powerful oppressors, who think themselves out of the reach of men’ s judgment.

Poole: Jam 5:5 - Ye have lived in pleasure // On the earth // And been wanton // Ye have nourished your hearts // As in a day of slaughter Ye have lived in pleasure luxuriously and deliciously, giving up yourselves to your sensual appetites, Amo 6:4-6 Luk 16:19,25 . On the earth where ...

Ye have lived in pleasure luxuriously and deliciously, giving up yourselves to your sensual appetites, Amo 6:4-6 Luk 16:19,25 .

On the earth where you place your happiness without looking higher, and from whence you fetch your delights, Phi 3:19 .

And been wanton: the same word is used 1Ti 5:6 ; it seems to imply effeminate, lascivious behaviour, as the effect of their riotous living.

Ye have nourished your hearts: either by a Hebrew phrase, ye have nourished your hearts, for ye have nourished yourselves, Est 6:6 Job 10:13 ; or, ye have cheered up and encouraged your hearts in your luxury by pampering your flesh, Luk 12:19and feeding not to the satisfaction of nature, but the inflaming of your lusts.

As in a day of slaughter either securely, and without fear of the destruction coming upon you, as sheep graze quietly, though by and by to be brought to the shambles; or rather, in a day of slaughter, i.e. in a day of solemn feasting, when many beasts were killed in sacrifice, on which they were wont to feast, Pro 7:14 17:1 . They made every day a feasting day, and that, too, lavishing out other men’ s dues upon their own flesh, and sparing from their labourers that they might spend upon their lusts. This he brings to aggravate their sin.

Poole: Jam 5:6 - Ye have condemned and killed // The just // And he doth not resist you Ye have condemned and killed i.e. procured by your wealth and power the passing unrighteous sentences, and thereby the destruction of the just. The ...

Ye have condemned and killed i.e. procured by your wealth and power the passing unrighteous sentences, and thereby the destruction of the just.

The just indefinitely and collectively, the just for any just man, viz. such as were innocent and just in comparison of their persecutors.

And he doth not resist you this notes not only the patience of such in bearing injuries, but their weakness, and being destitute of human help against their adversaries’ power.

Poole: Jam 5:7 - Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord // Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth // Until he receive the early and latter rain Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord viz. to judgment, and that either particular, to avenge the quarrels of innocent sufferer...

Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord viz. to judgment, and that either particular, to avenge the quarrels of innocent sufferers upon their tyrannical persecutors; or rather, to the general judgment, in which a full retribution is to be made both to the just and unjust, Rom 2:5,6 , &c. To which judgment the Scripture calls all to look, especially those that are under oppression and persecution, 2Th 1:6,7 , &c.

Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth which cost him hard labour, and by which he receives great benefit, the sustentation of his life.

Until he receive the early and latter rain the rain soon after the sowing, which caused the corn to spring up; and that before the harvest, which plumped it, and made it fit for reaping, Deu 11:14 Jer 5:24 Hos 6:3 Joe 2:23 .

Poole: Jam 5:8 - Be ye also patient // Stablish your hearts // For the coming of the Lord draweth nigh Be ye also patient viz. in expectation of your harvest, and the fruit of your labours, as the husbandman is in looking for his. Stablish your hearts...

Be ye also patient viz. in expectation of your harvest, and the fruit of your labours, as the husbandman is in looking for his.

Stablish your hearts let your hearts be stedfast in faith and constant in holiness, encouraging yourselves to both by the coming of the Lord.

For the coming of the Lord draweth nigh as before, his coming to the general judgment, which is said to be nigh, because of the certainty of its coming, and the uncertainty of the time when it will come, and because it is continually drawing on, and the whole time of the world’ s duration till then is but short in comparison of the eternity following; and likewise because the particular judgment of every man is nigh at hand. See Phi 4:5 Heb 10:37 .

Poole: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not // One against another // Lest ye be condemned // Behold, the Judge standeth before the door Grudge not Greek: Groan not; the sense may be, either: Envy not one another, (or, as we translate it: Grudge not ), it being the nature of envy to g...

Grudge not Greek: Groan not; the sense may be, either: Envy not one another, (or, as we translate it: Grudge not ), it being the nature of envy to groan at other men’ s good; or, Groan not by way of accusation or complaint to God against others, desiring him to avenge your quarrels, as if you were too good to suffer injuries, or God were unjnst or forgetful of righting you.

One against another brother against brother, Christian against Christian: they were injured not only by rich worldlings and open oppressors, but by their fellow professors, and gave one another mutual cause of sighing and groaning.

Lest ye be condemned lest God punish you all; there being none of you but have given others cause of grief and complaint, as well as others have given you, Mat 7:1 .

Behold, the Judge standeth before the door the Lord Jesus Christ, the Judge of you all, is at hand, Phi 4:5in a readiness either to bring those evils upon you which you wish may fall upon others, or to give you your reward, if through patient continuance in well doing you seek for it, Rom 2:7 . The like phrase we have, Mat 24:33 Mar 13:29 ; or it may allude to Gen 4:7 .

Poole: Jam 5:10 - Take, my brethren, the prophets // Who have spoken in the name of the Lord // For an example of suffering affliction // And of patience Take, my brethren, the prophets as being most eminent among God’ s people, and leaders of them; he intimates that it is an honour to suffer amon...

Take, my brethren, the prophets as being most eminent among God’ s people, and leaders of them; he intimates that it is an honour to suffer among the best.

Who have spoken in the name of the Lord by his command and authority, and so were employed in the highest services in the church, and thereby appeared to be approved of God, and most dear to him.

For an example of suffering affliction: as much as God honoured and loved them, yet they were not exempted from afflictions, but were maligned, traduced, and persecuted by men, 1Ki 18:13 19:14 2Ki 6:31 Amo 7:10 Heb 11:1-40 ; and therefore when they suffered such hard things, it is no shame for you to suffer the like, Mat 5:12 .

And of patience as the example of their sufferings should prevent your discouragement, so the example of their patience should provoke your imitation; God having set them forth as examples of both, that if you suffer the same things, you may suffer with the same minds.

Poole: Jam 5:11 - We count them happy which endure // Which endure // Ye have heard of the patience of Job // And have seen the end of the Lord // The end of the Lord // That the Lord is very pitiful // And of tender mercy We count them happy which endure we ourselves count them happy that endure, and therefore should be patient, and not count ourselves miserable if we ...

We count them happy which endure we ourselves count them happy that endure, and therefore should be patient, and not count ourselves miserable if we endure too.

Which endure viz. patiently and constantly, Mat 5:10,11 .

Ye have heard of the patience of Job for which he was as eminent as for his sufferings; and though some signs of impatience be showed, yet his patience and submission to God being prevalent, and most remarkable to him, that only is taken notice of, and his failings overlooked.

And have seen the end of the Lord: Job’ s patience is heard of, but God’ s end seen: seeing being a clearer way of perception than hearing, is put in this latter clause, because God’ s bounty and recompence was more evident than Job’ s patience.

The end of the Lord the good issue God gave to all Job’ s sufferings, in restoring him to his former state, and doubling his prosperity.

That the Lord is very pitiful full of bowels, Greek; the bowels being the seat of compassion, (in which we feel a stirring when strong affections are working in us), are frequently put to signify the most tender and movable affections, such as mothers have toward their children, Gen 43:30 1Ki 3:26 Isa 43:15 Col 3:12 : this seems to note the affection itself, or God’ s readiness to show mercy, Luk 1:78 .

And of tender mercy: this may imply acts of mercy suitable to a merciful nature, the former mercy within, and this mercy breaking out.

Poole: Jam 5:12 - above all things // Swear not // Neither by heaven, neither by the earth // Neither by any other oath // But let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay // Lest ye fall into condemnation Because it is a great sin to swear upon every slight occasion, and it was very usual among the Jews, and it was the more difficult to bring them off...

Because it is a great sin to swear upon every slight occasion, and it was very usual among the Jews, and it was the more difficult to bring them off from it who were so much accustomed to it; therefore the apostle commands them, that

above all things they should not swear, i.e. should take special care they did not, and watch diligently against a sin so many were addicted to, and into which they might so easily fall.

Swear not all swearing is not forbidden, any more than Mat 5:34 ; (for oaths are made use of by holy men both in the Old and New Testament, Gen 21:23,24 24:3 26:28 1Ki 17:1,2 2Co 1:23 Gal 1:20 ; and the use of an oath is permitted and approved of by God himself, Psa 15:4 Heb 6:16 ); but such oaths as are false, rash, vain, without just cause, or customary and frequent in ordinary discourse, 1Ki 19:2 Jer 5:2 Mat 5:37 .

Neither by heaven, neither by the earth by which the Jews thought they might lawfully swear, as likewise by other creatures, so the name of God were not interposed; not considering that where it is not expressed yet it is implied, Mat 23:20,21 .

Neither by any other oath viz. of the like kind.

But let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay: either:

1. Let your speech be yea, yea, and nay, nay; i.e. by plain affirmations and negations, without the addition of any oath for confirmation, Mat 5:37 : or:

2. Let your yea be yea, and your nay, nay i.e. let your words be in truth and sincerity, your speech seconded by your actions; accustom yourselves to truth and plainness in speaking, and that will take away the occasion of swearing. See the like, 2Co 1:17-19 .

Lest ye fall into condemnation viz. for taking the name of God in vain, Exo 20:7 , which is always done in an unwarrantable oath.

Poole: Jam 5:13 - Is any among you afflicted? // merry // Let him pray // Is any merry? let him sing psalms Is any among you afflicted? either troubled or afflicted in mind, as appears by the opposite being merry or more generally afflicted any way. Not t...

Is any among you afflicted? either troubled or afflicted in mind, as appears by the opposite being

merry or more generally afflicted any way. Not that we need not pray at other times, but when under afflictions God calls us more especially to it, and our own necessities put us upon it.

Let him pray for support, patience, sanctification of afflictions, &c.

Is any merry? let him sing psalms express his mirth in a holy manner, by praising God with psalms or spiritual songs for mercies received from him, 1Co 14:15 Eph 5:19 ; and so keep up his spiritual mirth by a spiritual exercise, lest his cheerfulness degenerate into vanity and frothiness.

Poole: Jam 5:14 - Is any sick? // Let him call for the elders // And let them pray over him // Anointing him with oil // In the name of the Lord Is any sick? Or infirm, though not desperately and incurably. Let him call for the elders especially teaching elders, they being usually best furni...

Is any sick? Or infirm, though not desperately and incurably.

Let him call for the elders especially teaching elders, they being usually best furnished with gifts who labour in the word and doctrine, 1Ti 5:17 . It is in the plural number, either by an enallage for the singular; q.d. Let him send for some or other of the elders; or, because there were in those times usually several elders (an ecclesiastical senate) in each church.

And let them pray over him as it were setting him before God, and presenting him to him, which might be a means to stir up the greater affection and warmth in prayer; see 1Ki 17:21 2Ki 4:33,34 Joh 11:41 Act 20:10 9:40 : or laying on their hands, as Act 28:8 , which yet seems to be for the same end.

Anointing him with oil an outward rite used in those times, in miraculous healing sick persons, which might then be kept up, while the gift whereof it was the symbol continued; but the gift ceasing, it is vainly used. These cures were sometimes wrought only with a word, Act 9:34 14:10 16:18 : sometimes by taking by the hand, or embracing, Act 3:7 20:10 ; sometimes by laying on of hands, Mar 16:18 Act 9:17 ; sometimes by anointing with oil, Mar 6:13 : and so this is not an institution of a sacrament, but a command, that those elders that had the gift of healing, (as many in those days had), being called by the sick to come to them, should (the Spirit of the Lord so directing them) exercise that gift, as well as pray over them.

In the name of the Lord either, calling upon the Lord, and so joining prayer with their anointing; or, in the name, is by the authority of the Lord, from whom they had received that gift.

Poole: Jam 5:15 - And the prayer of faith // Shall save the sick // And the Lord shall raise him up // Raise him up // If he have committed sins // They shall be forgiven him And the prayer of faith i.e. proceeding from faith; the cure is ascribed to prayer, the moral means, and standing ordinance, not to the anointing, wh...

And the prayer of faith i.e. proceeding from faith; the cure is ascribed to prayer, the moral means, and standing ordinance, not to the anointing, which was but ceremonial and temporary; and to faith in prayer, to show that this remedy was effectual only when faith (requisite to the working of miracles) was active, viz. in a certain persuasion that the sick person should be healed.

Shall save the sick restore to health, (if God see it fit, and the health of the body be good for the soul), Mar 10:52 Luk 7:50 18:42 .

And the Lord shall raise him up the elders pray, but the Lord raiseth up, being prayed to in faith.

Raise him up the same as saving before, only the word seems to respect the sick man’ s lying upon his bed, from which he riseth when he is healed, Mar 1:31 .

If he have committed sins if he have by his sins procured his sickness; or, those sins for which particularly God visits him with sickness; sin being often the cause of sickness, Mat 9:2 Joh 5:14 1Co 11:30 , though not always, Joh 9:2 .

They shall be forgiven him God will take away the cause as well as the effect, heal the soul as well as the body, and prayer is the means of obtaining both.

Poole: Jam 5:16 - Confess your faults // One to another // And pray one for another // That ye may be healed // The effectual fervent prayer // Of a righteous man // Availeth much Confess your faults some copies have the illative particle, therefore, in the text, but even without that here seems to be a connexion between this a...

Confess your faults some copies have the illative particle, therefore, in the text, but even without that here seems to be a connexion between this and the former verse: he had said, the sick man’ s sins should be forgiven upon the elders’ praying; and here he adds, that they must be confessed.

One to another either, that ye may be reconciled to one another when offended, or rather, confess when admonished or reproved for sin, or wounded in your consciences with the sense of it: and so this is not meant of auricular confession made to a priest, but such as should be made, though especially to ministers, yet, when need is, even to godly, experienced Christians, for the easing and disburdening men’ s consciences, and getting the help of others’ prayers.

And pray one for another both in other ordinary cases, and chiefly npon occasion of your mutual confessions, and those soul-troubles that prompted you to them.

That ye may be healed not only recover bodily health when sick, but spiritual, when weakened or wounded by sin. Healing is often applied to the soul as well as the body, Mat 13:15 Luk 4:18 Heb 12:13 1Pe 2:24 .

The effectual fervent prayer: our translators use two words (and little enough) to express the significancy of the Greek word in this place: some translate it inwrought; it seems to be a prayer wrought in the soul by the Holy Spirit, and so may imply both the efficiency of God’ s Spirit, (the Spirit of supplications, Zec 12:10 ), and the vehemency of holy affections caused by him in prayer, Rom 8:26 .

Of a righteous man one sincerely righteous, and in a gospel sense; the following instance of Elias shows that it is not to be understood of a man absolutely righteous.

Availeth much is very powerful with God for obtaining what is desired, 1Jo 5:14 ; whereas God heareth not sinners, Pro 15:8,29 .

Poole: Jam 5:17 - Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are // And he prayed earnestly // That it might not rain // And it rained not on the earth // By the space of three years and six months // Question // Answer // three years and six months Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are both of body and mind, natural and moral; and so, though he were righteous, yet he was not perfect...

Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are both of body and mind, natural and moral; and so, though he were righteous, yet he was not perfect; though an eminent prophet, yet but a man.

And he prayed earnestly with that effectual, fervent prayer before mentioned. It is a Hebrew phrase, and notes vehemency, as Luk 22:15 .

That it might not rain this is not expressly mentioned in the history, but this apostle might have it by revelation, or by certain tradition well known in his age. Other passages of the like nature we meet with in the New Testament which are not in the Old: see 1Ti 3:8 Heb 12:21 Jud 1:9 .

And it rained not on the earth or, the land, viz. of the ten tribes, and the places bordering on them, as Sarepta, 1Ki 17:9 Luk 4:25,26 .

By the space of three years and six months: so Luk 4:25 .

Question. How doth this agree with 1Ki 18:1 , where it is said, the word of the Lord came to Elijah in the third year?

Answer. Most probably it was in the midst of the third year from his coming to Sarepta; and he was by the brook Cherith a year. 1Ki 17:7 , where the margin reads it, according to the Hebrew, at the end of days, i.e. the days of a year, as the phrase is often used, Gen 4:3 Jud 17:10 ; so that his time spent in both places may well make up the

three years and six months

Poole: Jam 5:18 - And he prayed again // And the heaven gave rain And he prayed again after the destroying the prophets of Baal. Baal-worship especially gave occasion to his former prayer, which he puts up out of hi...

And he prayed again after the destroying the prophets of Baal. Baal-worship especially gave occasion to his former prayer, which he puts up out of his zeal to God’ s glory, then laid low by the Israelites’ idolatry, and a desire to have them by some exemplary punishment for their sin awakened to repentance. And the destruction of the idolaters, and reformation of the people, who now acknowledged the Lord to be God, might give occasion to this.

And the heaven gave rain i.e. the air or clouds, which had not been for three years before.

Poole: Jam 5:19 - The truth // And one // Convert him The truth the truth of God revealed in the gospel as the complete rule of faith and life: see the gospel called the truth by way of eminency, Jam 1...

The truth the truth of God revealed in the gospel as the complete rule of faith and life: see the gospel called the truth by way of eminency, Jam 1:18 Gal 2:5,14 3:1 5:7 Eph 1:13 1Pe 1:22 .

And one any one, minister or private believer, who may be an instrument in the conversion of others; though one acts by way of authority, the other by way of charity, yet both out of duty.

Convert him viz. ministerially or instrumentally, in subordination to God. The work is his, Eph 2:10 , but often is ascribed to the instruments acting under him, and using means appointed by him, and by which he works, Act 26:18 .

Poole: Jam 5:20 - Of his way // Shall save // A soul // From death // And shall hide a multitude of sins Of his way of his life and actions, which is contrary to the way which God hath prescribed. Shall save men are said to save in the same way as to c...

Of his way of his life and actions, which is contrary to the way which God hath prescribed.

Shall save men are said to save in the same way as to convert, viz. instrumentally.

A soul the soul of him that is thus converted, 1Ti 4:16 : soul for person, as Jam 1:21 .

From death: eternal death, unto which he was hastening while he continued in the error of his way, which led him toward destruction.

And shall hide a multitude of sins in the same sense as before he is said to convert and save his soul, viz. in being instrumental to bring him to faith and repentance, upon which God pardons, i.e. hides his sins, Psa 32:1though not from the eye of his omniscience, yet from the eye of his vindictive justice, and so as not to bring them forth in judgment against him.

PBC: Jam 5:19 - -- See WebbSr: CONVERSION

See WebbSr: CONVERSION

PBC: Jam 5:20 - -- See WebbSr: CONVERSION

See WebbSr: CONVERSION

Haydock: Jam 5:1-6 - Go // You have feasted Go now rich men, &c. In the first six verses, he gives admonitions to those among the Christians who were rich, not to rely on riches, nor value t...

Go now rich men, &c. In the first six verses, he gives admonitions to those among the Christians who were rich, not to rely on riches, nor value themselves on this account. You must look upon your riches and treasures as if they were already putrefied and corrupted, your gold and silver eaten and consumed with rust: and their rust shall rise in testimony and judgment against you, for not making better use of them. As your coin is eaten with rust, so shall your bodies be hereafter as it were eaten and consumed by fire. You heap up to yourselves a treasure in the day of wrath, while through covetousness, and hard heartedness, you defraud labourers of their hire, living at the same time in feasting and luxury, as in the day of slaughter. That is, feasting as men are accustomed to do, on the days when victims are slaughtered, offered, and eaten with great rejoicing. Others expound it, as if you were feeding, and making yourselves fit sacrifices and victims for God's anger and indignation. (Witham) ---

You have feasted, &c. The Greek is, "you have lived in delicacies and debaucheries, and have feasted upon your hearts as for the day of sacrifice:" Greek: Etruphesate, kai espatalesate ethrepsate tas kardias umon os en emera sphages. That is, you have fattened yourselves with good cheer and sensual pleasures, like victims prepared for solemn sacrifice. (Calmet) ---

Others among you have unjustly oppressed, accused, and brought to condemnation the just one, by which seems to be understood just and innocent men, who are divers times deprived of their fortunes, and even of their lives, by the unjust contrivances of powerful wicked men. (Witham)

Haydock: Jam 5:7-11 - Be patient // Behold the judge standeth before the door Be patient, &c. He now in these five following verses turns his discourse from the rich to the poor, exhorting them to patience till the coming of t...

Be patient, &c. He now in these five following verses turns his discourse from the rich to the poor, exhorting them to patience till the coming of the Lord to judgment, which draweth near; his coming to judge every one is at his death. Imitate the patience of the husbandman, waiting for fruit after that the earth hath received the timely and early [1] rain soon after the corn is sown, and again more rain, that comes later to fill the grain before it comes to be ripe. This seems to be the sense by the Greek: others expound it, till he receive the early and latter fruits. (Witham) ---

Behold the judge standeth before the door. This expression is synonymous with that in the foregoing verse. "The coming of the Lord is at hand." This way of speaking is not uncommon in Scripture. Thus God said to Cain: "If thou hast done evil, shall not sin forth with be present at the door?" St. James is here speaking of the approaching ruin of Jerusalem, the destruction of the temple, and the dispersion of the Jews by the Romans. (Calmet) ---

Call to mind for your encouragement the trials and constancy[2] of the prophets: the patience of Job, after which God rewarded him with great blessings and property, and you have seen the end of the Lord; that is, what end the Lord was pleased to give to Job's sufferings. But St. Augustine, Ven. Bede, &c. would have these words, the end of the Lord, to be understood of the death of our Lord Jesus Christ, on the cross, for which God exalted him, &c. (Witham)

Haydock: Jam 5:7 - -- [BIBLIOGRAPHY] Temporaneum et Serotinum. In most Greek manuscripts Greek: ueton proimon kai opsimon, pluviam priorem et posteriorem.

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Temporaneum et Serotinum. In most Greek manuscripts Greek: ueton proimon kai opsimon, pluviam priorem et posteriorem.

Haydock: Jam 5:10 - -- [BIBLIOGRAPHY] Exemplum accipite, exitus mali, et laboris, et patientiæ, Greek: kakopatheias kai makrothumias. There is nothing in the Greek fo...

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Exemplum accipite, exitus mali, et laboris, et patientiæ, Greek: kakopatheias kai makrothumias. There is nothing in the Greek for laboris, which the Latin interpreter may have added to express the full sense.

Haydock: Jam 5:12 - but above all things....swear not but above all things....swear not, &c. This earnest admonition is against all kind of oaths in common conversation, (not against oaths made on just ...

but above all things....swear not, &c. This earnest admonition is against all kind of oaths in common conversation, (not against oaths made on just and necessary occasions) and in the very same words, as our blessed Saviour warned all people against this sin of swearing. (Matthew, chap. v.) How unaccountably is this commandment of God contemned? And what a dreadful account will some day be exacted for so many oaths, curses, and blasphemies, which are now so common, that we may rather wonder at the patience of God and that already exemplary punishments have not fallen upon whole cities and kingdoms for this continued profanation of the holy name of God? (Witham) ---

St. James here repeats the injunctions of our Saviour, not to swear al all. (Matthew v. 34.) See the annotations in that place.

Haydock: Jam 5:14-15 - Is any man sick among you? // Is any man sick? // Let him bring in // And if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him Is any man sick among you? [3] or in danger of death by sickness, let him call, or bring in the priests of the Church, &c. The apostle here enjo...

Is any man sick among you? [3] or in danger of death by sickness, let him call, or bring in the priests of the Church, &c. The apostle here enjoins the constant use of the sacrament, called extreme unction, or the last anointing with oil, instituted, (as were all the sacraments of the Church) by our Saviour Christ, and which is here fully and clearly delivered in plain words, expressing, 1. the persons to whom this sacrament is to be administered; 2. the minister; 3. the form; 4. the matter; 5. the effects. As to the first, is any man sick among you? This sacrament then is to be given to every believing Christian, who is in danger of death by sickness. 2. Bring in the priests, one or more, they are the ministers of this sacrament. The Protestant translation has the elders; yet in their book of common prayer, he who is called in to assist and pray with the sick, is called either the minister, the curate, or the priest, never the elder. Dr. Wells has not changed the word elders in his translation; but in his paraphrase he expounds it of those ministers of the church who are above deacons. 3. And let t hem pray over him. Besides other prayers, the form of this sacrament is by way of prayer, let the Lord forgive thee, &c. 4. Anointing him with oil. The oil with which he is anointed by the priest, is the outward visible sign, and the matter of this sacrament, as water is the matter of baptism. 5. And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man, &c. All the sacraments of the new law have their virtue from the merits of our Saviour, Christ, and therefore must be ministered and received with faith in our Redeemer. (Witham) ---

Is any man sick? &c. The Greek expression in this place is equivalent to, "Is any one dangerously ill amongst you?" Greek: Asthenei tis en umin. The primary intention of this sacrament of extreme unction, is to confer a special grace upon the dying Christian, to strengthen him in his last and dreadful conflict, when the prince of darkness will exert his utmost to ruin his poor soul. But besides this, it was also intended to free man from venial sin, and likewise from mortal, if guilty of any, provided he were contrite and not able to have recourse to the sacrament of penance. But the sacrament of penance being the only regular means of obtaining pardon for mortal sin committed after baptism, a person must first have recourse to this sacrament, if he be able, as necessary preparation for the sacrament of extreme unction. Other effects of this sacrament are, that it lessens the temporal punishment due to sin, and restores health to the worthy receiver, if it be expedient for the good of his soul. (St. Augustine, serm. 215. C. Theol. Petav. Habert. Bailly, &c. de Extrem. Unct.) ---

How great then is the folly of such persons as are afraid to receive this sacrament, imagining it to be the irrevocable sentence of impending dissolution? whereas one of the very effects of this sacrament is to restore health, if it be expedient for the soul; and who would wish for health upon any other conditions? (Haydock) ---

The anathemas pronounced by the council of Trent against those who deny the existence of this sacrament, are sufficient to establish the belief of it in the minds of Catholics. See session 14. canon 1. 2. and 3. of the council of Trent. It may be proper, however, to observe, in confirmation of our belief of this sacrament, that whenever the ancient Fathers have had occasion to speak of extreme unction, they have always attributed to it all the qualities of a sacrament, as St. John Chrysostom who proves from this text of St. James the power which the priest has to forgive sins; (lib. 3. de Sacerdotio.; St. Augustine, ser. 215) not to mention Origen, who wrote at the beginning of the third century, (hom. ii. in Levit.) enumerating the different ways by which sins are forgiven in the new law, says, "That they are remitted when the priest anoint the sick with oil, as is mentioned in St. James." When Decentius, bishop of Eugenium in Italy, in 416, wrote to Innocent I. upon this sacrament, he makes no question whether it was a sacrament, but only consults him concerning the manner of administering; whether a bishop could give it, or whether priests were the only administerers of this sacrament, as St. James says, "Let them call in the priests of the Church;" and whether it could be given to penitents before they had been reconciled by absolution. To the former question, the pope replied there could be no doubt, as St. James could never mean that bishops were excluded as being higher than priests; but that the word presbyter was then used indiscriminately for both bishops and priests. (Haydock) ---

As to the next question, whether penitents could receive this sacrament before absolution, he answered in the negative. "For," says he, "can it be thought that this one sacrament can be given to those who are declared unworthy of receiving the rest?" (Innocent I. in epist. ad Decent. chap. viii.; Habert. de Extre. Unct. ---

If it be objected that mention is not more frequently made of this sacrament in the writings of the ancients, we will answer with Bellarmine, that many of the mysteries were kept secret, to preserve them from the ridicule of the infidels. That in the times of persecution it was more difficult to administer this sacrament and less necessary, as the greatest part of Christians died not by sickness but by martyrdom. (Theo. Petav. de Extre. Unc.) ---

Ven. Bede in Luke ix. speaketh thus: "It is clear that this custom was delivered to the holy Church by the apostles themselves, that the sick should be anointed with oil consecrated by the bishop's blessing." ---

Let him bring in, &c. See here a plain warrant of Scripture for the sacrament of extreme unction, that any controversy against its institution would be against the express words of the sacred text in the plainest terms. (Challoner) ---

And the Lord, by virtue of this sacrament, or if you will, sacramental prayer, shall raise him up, shall give him spiritual strength and vigour to resist the temptations which at that hour are most dangerous. He shall also raise him up, by restoring him his corporal health, when God sees it more expedient for the sick man. ---

And if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him, not merely by prayer, but by this sacrament. (Witham)

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Infirmatur, Greek: asthenei tis; infirmum, Greek: kamnonta, laborantem; alleviabit, Greek: egerei, suscitabit.

Haydock: Jam 5:16 - Confess, therefore, your sins // One to another // Pray for one another Confess, therefore, your sins, &c. Divers interpreters expound this of sacramental confession, though, as the authors of the annotations on the Rhei...

Confess, therefore, your sins, &c. Divers interpreters expound this of sacramental confession, though, as the authors of the annotations on the Rheims Testament observe, this is not certain. The words one to another, may signify that it is not enough to confess to God, but that we must also confess to men, and not to every man, but to those whom God appointed, and to whom he hath given the power of remitting sins in his name. I cannot but observe that no mention at all is made, "in the visitation and communion of the sick," in the Protestant common prayer book, of this comfortable passage out of St. James, of calling in the priests of the Church, of their anointing him with oil... .and that his sins shall be forgiven him. Perhaps having laid aside that sacrament, it seemed to them better to say nothing of those words. But such a confession as is practised by all Catholics, is at least there advised. "The sick person," saith the book of common prayer, "here shall be moved to make a special confession of his sins....After which confession, the priest shall absolve him after this sort. Our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath left power to his Church to absolve all sinners, who truly repent, forgive thee....and by his authority committed to me, I absolve thee from all thy sins, in the name of the Father, " &c. Here is a special confession, or a confession of particular sins; here is a power of forgiving sins in God's name, acknowledged to be given to the Church, and to priests; here are the very same words used by every Catholic priest in the sacrament of penance. This is clearly ordained in their liturgy: how far it is complied with, I know not. (Witham) ---

One to another. That is, to the priests of the Church, whom (ver. 14.) he had ordered to be called for, and brought in to the sick: moreover, to confess to persons who had no power to forgive sins, would be useless. Hence the precept here means that we must confess to men whom God hath appointed, and who, by their ordination and jurisdiction, have receive the power of remitting sins in his name. (Challoner) ---

Pray for one another. Here is recommended prayer in general, as a most necessary Christian duty. He encourages them to it by the example of Elias [Elijah]. (Witham)

Haydock: Jam 5:20 - He who causeth a sinner to be converted He who causeth a sinner to be converted, &c. St. James concludes his epistle with a work of charity, one of the most acceptable to Almighty God, and...

He who causeth a sinner to be converted, &c. St. James concludes his epistle with a work of charity, one of the most acceptable to Almighty God, and most beneficial to our neighbour, when any one becomes instrumental in converting others from their errors, or from a wicked life; for it is only God that can convert the heart. But he who with a true and charitable zeal, animated with the love of God and of his neighbour, makes this the chief business of his life, has this comfort here given him, that this will cover in the sight of God a multitude of sins, which he may have contracted through human frailty. The Church of England, when they modelled the articles of their reformation, received this epistle of James as canonical. They profess to follow the holy Scriptures as the only rule of their belief: they find in the 14th and 15th verses of this chapter these words: "Is any man sick among you? Let him bring in the priests of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil....and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him." In these words they find all that they themselves require, to be a sacrament of the new law; to wit, a precept or injunction, clear and unlimited as to time, a visible sign, with a promise of invisible grace, in remitting sins, the minister of it, and the persons specified who are to receive it. They also found this practised at the time of the reformation by the Universal Church, by all Catholics, both in the east and west, both by the Latin and by the Greek Churches; and that all Christian Churches received it as a sacrament; and yet they thought fit to lay it quite aside, as if it was neither a sacrament nor a holy ceremony, nor a pious custom fit to be retained. They must have judged that they had convincing proofs both to contradict in other things the judgment and belief of the Catholic Church, and also in this particular; as to which latter case, I shall examine the reasons which they bring. I presume it may be needless to insist upon the groundless imagination of Wycliff, and some heretics about that time, who denied this to be a sacrament, fancying it was prescribed by St. James, because the oil of Palestine was a sovereign remedy to cure diseases. If so, any physician, any old woman or nurse to the sick, might have applied oil full as well, if not better than the priests. Calvin, and the reformation writers, give us the following reasons or conjectures, that this anointing, as well as that, (Mark vi. 13.) was only to be used for a time, by those who had the gift of curing diseases miraculously; so that like other miraculous gifts, (as the speaking of tongues, prophesying, &c.) it was but to last during the first planting of the Christian faith. Dr. Fulk, against the Rheims Testament, and Mr. Baxter, &c. affirm boldly, that Christ "appointed his apostles to anoint those with oil whom they cured." And Dr. Hammond says, "that the anointing with oil, was a ceremony used by Christ and his apostles in their miraculous cures." They assert this, as if it was taught by Scripture itself. They are no less positive that this anointing soon ceased, and was laid aside with the gift of miraculous cures, given sometimes to the first Christians at their baptism, or when they received the Holy Ghost in the sacrament of confirmation. Dr. Fulk, besides this, is positive that "the Greek Church, never to this day received this anointing and praying over the sick as a sacrament." These are their arbitrary, groundless, and false expositions, which they bring against a clear text of the holy Scriptures. It might be sufficient to oppose the judgment and authority of the Church to their private judgment. But to answer in short each particular: we find by the evangelists, (Matthew x. 8.; Mark vi. 13.; Luke x. 9.) that Christ gave to his twelve apostles, and afterwards to his seventy-two disciples, in their first mission before his death, (which was only into the cities of Israel) a power of casting out devils, of raising the dead, or curing diseases in his name. And St. Mark tells us, that they cast out many devils, and anointed many sick with oil, and cured them. But when Dr. Fulk and others add, that our Saviour appointed, ordered, or commanded them to anoint with oil those whom they cured, no such thing is said, nor insinuated, neither by St. Mark nor by any of the evangelists, nor any where in the holy Scriptures. And how Dr. Hammond could tell us that this "anointing with oil was a ceremony used by Christ himself," I cannot imagine. As for the apostles and disciples, they might cure many, making use of oil, and many without it by laying hands upon them, by a prayer, or by calling upon the name of Jesus, as the seventy-two disciples returned to him with joy, (Luke x. 17.) saying, Lord, even the devils are subject to us in thy name. Neither is it judge probable by the interpreters that the apostles, in their miraculous cures, were tied up or confined to the use of oil: especially since we find that after Christ's resurrection, in their second mission to all nations, Christ foretells (Matthew xvi. 18.) that they who believe in him, shall have this miraculous gift of healing the sick, but mentions only the laying of hands upon them: they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall be well. Besides had Christ appointed or given orders to his disciples to make use of oil in such miraculous cures, it would scarce have happened but we should have some examples of it in the Acts of the Apostles, where so many miraculous cures are related to have been done by St. Peter, by St. Paul, and others, but no mention of this ceremony of oil. We agree with our adversaries that this gift of miraculous cures, of which St. Paul speaks, (1 Corinthians xii.) was common only for a short time, like the other gifts of the Holy Ghost, which were necessary, as St. Augustine takes notice, at the first planting of the Christian faith; and so that anointing with oil, merely a sit was made use of in miraculous cures of the body, soon ceased, perhaps even before our Saviour's death; but we believe our Saviour appointed water to be the matter of the sacrament of baptism, so he would have oil to be the matter of the sacrament of the sacrament of extreme unction, which he instituted to strengthen the souls of the sick, against the dangers and temptations at the approach of death, and of which St. James here speaks near upon thirty years after Christ's ascension. And the anointing in St. Mark, used in corporal diseases, may be looked upon as a figure of the sacrament of extreme unction in St. James, as the frequent washings or baptisms, as they are called, of the Jews, and especially the baptism of St. John [the Baptist], was a figure of the baptism of Christ. The miraculous gift of healing, as well as other gifts of the Holy Ghost, was often given with the sacraments, which were to be always continued, and not to cease, with those gifts. We may also take notice, that neither they who had this gift of healing, had any command or advice to make use of it to all that were sick, nor were all that were sick ordered to seek for a cure of those who had this gift; whereas here St. James orders every one to send for the priests of the Church to anoint him, and pray over him for spiritual relief. St. Timothy had frequent infirmities, as we read 1 Timothy v. 23. nor yet did St. Paul, who had that gift, cure him. The same St. Paul left Trophimus sick at Miletum. (2 Timothy iv. 20.) Epaphroditus, St. Paul's companion in his labours, was sick, when he had St. Paul with him, even unto death; that is, so as to be at the point of death (Philippians ii. 27.); nor yet did St. Paul, but God, restore him to his health. And if St. James had spoken of a miraculous restoring of corporal health by that anointing, he should rather have said: bring in those who have the gift of healing; for we may reasonably suppose that may had this gift who were not priests, and we have no reason to suppose that all priests had this gift. Our adversaries tell us with great assurance, that this anointing mentioned by St. James was soon laid aside; which, say they, we may gather from the silence of the writers in the three following ages [centuries]. To this merely negative argument the Catholics answer: 1. That it is enough we have the tradition and practise of the Church, witnessed by the writers in the ages [centuries] immediately succeeding. 2. That the greatest part of the writings in those ages [centuries] are not extant. 3. The writers of those times seldom mentioned those things which were sufficiently know among the Christians by daily use, especially what related to the sacraments and mysteries of the Christian religion, which (as it appears by the writings that they were able to preserve) they made it their particular endeavour to conceal from the heathens, who turned them to derision and contempt. In the mean time, had not this anointing been always retained and continued, the ages [centuries] immediately following would not have conspired every where to practise it, and to look upon it as a sacrament. Not to insist on the authority of Origen,[4] in the beginning of the third age [century], hom. ii. in Levit.) who numbering up the different ways by which sins are forgiven in the new law, says, that they were remitted when priests anoint the sick with oil, as in the epistle of St. James; St. John Chrysostom[5] in the end of the fourth age [century], (in his third book de Sacerdotio, tom. i. p. 384. Nov. Ed. Ben. written before the end of the fourth age, about the year 375) says, that priests (and his word expresseth sacrificing priests, not elders) have now a power to remit sins, which he proves from those words in St. James, Is any man sick among you? &c. This shews, as do also Origen's words, that this custom was then continued in the East, in the Greek Church, and that it was believed a sacrament, of which the priests only were the ministers. Innocent I.[6] in his answers to Decentius, bishop of Eugenium, in Italy, at the beginning of the fifth age, in the year 416, calls this anointing and prayer over the sick, set down in St. James' epistle, a sacrament in the same sense as other sacraments in the new law. See Labbe's Councils, tom, ii. p. 1248. And as to what Innocent I. and Ven. Bede relate of a custom by which lay persons, when a priest could not be had, anointed and prayed over a person in danger, it was only to testify their desire of having the sacrament: as it was likewise a pious custom in some places for sinners to make a confession to a layman, not that they them looked upon it as a sacrament, but only that they hoped God would accept of their private devotions and humiliations, when they could not have a priest to administer the sacraments to them. It is needless to mention authors in the following ages [centuries]. St. Gregory (Sacramentarium. fer. 5. in Cœna Dni.) describes the ceremony of blessing oil to be used in the anointing of the sick. Theodore, made archbishop of Canterbury, in the year 668, among other decrees, ordains that sick persons receive the holy unction, set down by St. James. The Capitularia of Charles the great, say that no one, when about to depart out of this world, ought to want the anointing of the sacrament of oil. The same is ordained in the council of Chalons, the year 813, canon 48; by a council at Aix la Chapelle, the year 830, canon 5; by the council of Mayence, in the year 847, canon 26, &c. Now since we find this anointing made use of as a sacrament at least from the fourth age [century], let our adversaries tell us when this anointing prescribed by St. James was left off, and when and how it came to be taken up again. They have no manner of proofs for either; and yet we have a right, as the authors of the annotations on the Rheims Testament observe, to demand clear and convincing proofs in this case, when the Scripture seems so clear for us and against them. Dr. Fulk affirms boldly, that this anointing was never to this day received in the Greek Church as a sacrament. This only shews how little credit is to be given to him. He might have found great reason to doubt of his bold assertion, since neither Photius, in the ninth age [century], nor Michael Cerularius, in the eleventh, ever objected this difference betwixt their Greek and the Latin Church, at a time when they reckoned up even the most minute differences either in doctrine or discipline, so as to find fault with the Latins for shaving their beards. He might have found it by what happened at the time of the council of Lyons, in the thirteenth age [century], when the pope, in his letter to the emperor of Constantinople, wrote that the Latin Church, and all in communion with him, acknowledged seven sacraments, which the Greeks never blamed. He might have observed that same when the Greeks and Armenians came to an union in the council of Florence, in the fifteenth age [century]. The same Dr. Fulk, who wrote about the year 1600, could scarce be ignorant of the ill success the Augsbourg confession met with among the Greeks, to whom, when the Lutherans had sent copies of their faith and of their reformation, Jeremy, the patriarch of Constantinople, with a synod of the Greeks, condemned their articles, and among other points, declared that they held "in the orthodox Catholic Church seven divine sacraments," the same as in the Latin Church, baptism....and the holy oil. Had Dr. Fulk lived a little longer, he must have been more and more ashamed to find other Greek synods condemning him and all the said reformers. For when Cyrillus Lucaris, advanced to the see of Constantinople by the interest of the French Calvinists, began to favour and support the doctrine of the Calvinists, the Greeks in several synods under their patriarchs, (in the years 1639, 1642, 1671, and 1672) condemned Cyril and the new doctrine of the said reformers, and expressly declared that they held seven sacraments. See M. Arnauld, tom. iii. Perpetuite de la Foy; and the dissertations of M. Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 34, and 572, disert. 12, where he shews that all the churches of the East, and all the Christian churches of the world, though separated from the communion and subordination to the Pope, agree with the Latin Church, as to the sacrifice of the Mass, as to the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and as to the seven sacraments. (Witham) ---

If, with holy Scripture, we must allow that charitable persons on earth may prove instrumental, under God, to their neighbour's salvation, why are we to deny this to the saints in heaven, whose charity for man is much greater?

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Origen, in hom. ii, in Levit. (p. 68. Ed. Par. in the year 1574) where he numbers the different ways by which sins are remitted in the new law, and speaking of penance, says, In quo impletur et illud quod Apostolus dicit, Si quis autem infirmatur, vocet presbyteros ecclesiæ.

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

St. John Chrysostom, Greek: iereis....echousin exousian, habent potestatem.

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Innocent I. Pœnitentibus istud infundi non potest, quia genus est Sacramenti, nam quibus reliqua Sacramenta negantur, quomodo unum genus putatur concedi? By charisma, Innocent I. understands, oleum ad ungendum.

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Gill: Jam 5:1 - Go to now, ye rich men // weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you Go to now, ye rich men,.... All rich men are not here designed; there are some rich men who are good men, and make a good use of their riches, and do ...

Go to now, ye rich men,.... All rich men are not here designed; there are some rich men who are good men, and make a good use of their riches, and do not abuse them, as these here are represented; and yet wicked rich men, or those that were the openly profane, are not here intended neither; for the apostle only writes to such who were within the church, and not without, who were professors of religion; and such rich men are addressed here, who, notwithstanding their profession, were not rich towards God, but laid up treasure for themselves, and trusted in their riches, and boasted of the multitude of their wealth; and did not trust in God, and make use of their substance to his glory, and the good of his interest, as they should have done:

weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you; meaning, not temporal calamities that should come upon them at the destruction of Jerusalem, in which the rich greatly suffered by the robbers among themselves, as well as by the Roman soldiers; for the apostle is not writing to the Jews in Judea, and at Jerusalem; but to the Christians of the twelve tribes scattered in the several parts of the world, and who were not distressed by that calamity; but eternal miseries, or the torments of hell are intended, which, unless they repented of their sins, would shortly, suddenly, and unavoidably come upon them, when their present joy and laughter would be turned into howling and weeping.

Gill: Jam 5:2 - Your riches are corrupted // and your garments are moth eaten Your riches are corrupted,.... Either through disuse of them; and so the phrase is expressive of their tenaciousness, withholding that from themselves...

Your riches are corrupted,.... Either through disuse of them; and so the phrase is expressive of their tenaciousness, withholding that from themselves and others which is meet, and which is keeping riches for the owners thereof, to their hurt; or these are corrupted, and are corruptible things, fading and perishing, and will stand in no stead in the day of wrath, and therefore it is great weakness to put any trust and confidence in them:

and your garments are moth eaten; being neither wore by themselves, nor put upon the backs of others, as they should, but laid up in wardrobes, or in chests and coffers, and so became the repast of moths, and now good for nothing.

Gill: Jam 5:3 - Your gold and silver is cankered // and the rust of them shall be a witness against you // And shall eat your flesh as it were fire // ye have heaped treasure together for the last days Your gold and silver is cankered,.... Or grown rusty like iron, by lying long without use; this is not easily and quickly done, but in length of time ...

Your gold and silver is cankered,.... Or grown rusty like iron, by lying long without use; this is not easily and quickly done, but in length of time gold and silver will change, and contract a rustiness; and so this conveys the same idea of hoarding up riches and laying up money, without making use of it in trade, for the support of the poor, and without distributing it to their necessities:

and the rust of them shall be a witness against you: at the day of judgment; which will be a proof that they have not been employed to such services, and for such usefulness, for which they were designed and given.

And shall eat your flesh as it were fire; that is, a remembrance of this, a sense of it impressed upon them, shall be like fire in their bones; shall distress their minds, gnaw their consciences, and be in them the worm that never dies, and the fire that shall never be quenched:

ye have heaped treasure together for the last days; either for many years, as the fool in the Gospel, for the times of old age, the last days of men, for fear they should then want; or for the last days of the world, or of time, as if they thought they should live for ever: the Vulgate Latin version reads, "ye have treasured up wrath for yourselves in the last days"; instead of riches, as they imagined; and that by their covetousness and wickedness, by a wicked disuse of their riches, and an unrighteous detention of them; but this supplement seems to be taken from Rom 2:5 though the sense is confirmed by some copies which connect the phrase, "as it were fire", in the preceding clause, with this, "ye have treasured up as it were fire"; and the Syriac version renders it, "ye have treasured up fire"; the fire of divine wrath; this is the fruit of treasuring up riches in an ill way, and without making a proper use of them.

Gill: Jam 5:4 - Behold the hire of the labourers, which have reaped down your fields // which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth // and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth Behold the hire of the labourers, which have reaped down your fields,.... The wages agreed for by the day, with the labourers in their fields, particu...

Behold the hire of the labourers, which have reaped down your fields,.... The wages agreed for by the day, with the labourers in their fields, particularly their reapers; which one instance serves for many others; and is the rather mentioned, because reaping is a laborious work, and those who are employed in it have nothing to live upon but their hand labour; and especially because they are made use of in cutting down the corn when it is fully ripe, and in great plenty; wherefore, to detain their just wages from them argues great inhumanity and wickedness; and yet this was what was done by rich men:

which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth; unto God for vengeance, as the blood of Abel did; and shows that such an evil, however privately and fraudulently it may be done, will be made public, and is a crying one:

and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth; that is, the Lord of hosts; of angels, and of men; of the host of heaven, and of the inhabitants of the earth; of Jews and Gentiles, and of rich and poor; and who has power to vindicate the cause of the latter against their rich oppressors, and will do it; his ears are open to their cries, he takes notice of them, and regards them, and will take vengeance on those that injure them. The reference is to Deu 24:15.

Gill: Jam 5:5 - Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth // and been wanton // ye have nourished your hearts as in a day of slaughter Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth,.... This is said of other rich men; for all that is here said is not to be understood of the same individuals,...

Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth,.... This is said of other rich men; for all that is here said is not to be understood of the same individuals, but some things of one, and some of another; some made no use of their riches, either for themselves, or others; some did make use of them, and employed the poor, and then would not give them their wages; and others lived a voluptuous and luxurious life, indulged themselves in carnal lusts and pleasures, and gratified the senses by eating, drinking, gaming, and so were dead while they lived. The phrase suggests, that their pleasures were but short lived, but for a season, even while they were on earth; and that hereafter they would not live in pleasure:

and been wanton; through the abundance and plenty of good things, their delicious way of living, and the swing of pleasures which they took; the allusion is to fatted beasts, which being in good pastures, grow fat and wanton:

ye have nourished your hearts as in a day of slaughter, when beasts were slain for some extraordinary entertainment, or for the solemn festivals and sacrifices the Jews, when they lived more deliciously than at other times; and then the sense is, that these rich men fared sumptuously every day; every day was a festival with them; they indulged themselves in intemperance; they ate and drank, not merely what was necessary, and satisfying, and cheering to nature, but to excess, and gorged, and filled themselves in an extravagant manner: the Syriac version, instead of "hearts", reads "bodies" and one copy reads, "your flesh": and the last phrase may be rendered, as it is in the same version, "as unto", or "for the day of slaughter"; and so the Arabic version, "ye have nourished your hearts, as fattened for the day of slaughter": like beasts that are fattened in order to be killed, so were they preparing and fitting up by their sins for destruction.

Gill: Jam 5:6 - Ye have condemned and killed the just // and he doth not resist you Ye have condemned and killed the just,.... Meaning not Christ, the Just One, as some have thought; whom the Jewish sanhedrim condemned as guilty of de...

Ye have condemned and killed the just,.... Meaning not Christ, the Just One, as some have thought; whom the Jewish sanhedrim condemned as guilty of death, and got the sentence passed upon him, and him to be crucified by Pontius Pilate, on the day of slaughter, at the time of the passover, as some connect the last clause of the preceding verse with this; since the apostle is not writing to the Jerusalem Jews, nor to unbelievers, but to professors of religion; though he might say they did it, because their nation did it: but rather this is to be understood of the poor saints, who were just, through the imputation of Christ's righteousness to them, and lived soberly, righteously, and godly, and were harmless and inoffensive in their conversation: who were evil spoken of, censured, and judged, and condemned in a rash and uncharitable manner by their brethren; or were drawn to the judgment seats by the rich, who obtained a judicial process against them, and procured a sentence of condemnation to pass upon them unrighteously; and who killed them, by taking away their good names from them, and by withholding from them their supplies of life, the fruit of their own labour, whereby their lives were embittered and made miserable:

and he doth not resist you; it being neither in his power, nor in his inclination; but takes it patiently, quietly submits, and makes no opposition: or God does not resist you, as yet; he will do it shortly.

Gill: Jam 5:7 - Be patient therefore, brethren // unto the coming of the Lord // behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth // and hath patience for it until he receive the early and latter rain Be patient therefore, brethren,.... The apostle here addresses himself to the poor who were oppressed by the rich men, and these he calls "brethren" o...

Be patient therefore, brethren,.... The apostle here addresses himself to the poor who were oppressed by the rich men, and these he calls "brethren" of whom he was not ashamed; when he does not bestow this title upon the rich, though professors of the same religion: these poor brethren he advises to be patient under their sufferings, to bear them with patience,

unto the coming of the Lord; not to destroy Jerusalem, but either at death, or at the last, judgment; when he will take vengeance on their oppressors, and deliver them from all their troubles, and put them into the possession of that kingdom, and glory, to which they are called; wherefore, in the mean while, he would have them be quiet and easy, not to murmur against God, nor seek to take vengeance on men, but leave it to God, to whom it belongs, who will judge his people:

behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth; ripe fruit, which arises from the seed he sows in the earth; and which may be called "precious", because useful both to man and beast; see Deu 33:14 and between this, and the sowing of the seed, is a considerable time, during which the husbandman waits; and this may be an instruction in the present case:

and hath patience for it until he receive the early and latter rain; the Jews had seldom rains any more than twice a year; the early, or former rain, was shortly after the feast of tabernacles u, in the month Marchesvan, or October, when the seed was sown in the earth; and if it did not rain, they prayed for it, on the third or seventh day of the month w; and the latter rain was in Nisan, or March x, just before harvest; and to this distinction the passage refers.

Gill: Jam 5:8 - Be ye also patient // stablish your hearts Be ye also patient,.... As well as the husbandman, and like him; and wait for the rains and dews of divine grace to fall, and make fruitful, and for t...

Be ye also patient,.... As well as the husbandman, and like him; and wait for the rains and dews of divine grace to fall, and make fruitful, and for the ripe fruit of eternal life; and in the mean while cheerfully and patiently bear all injuries, and oppressions:

stablish your hearts; though the state of the saints is stable, they being fixed in the everlasting love of God, in the covenant of grace, in the hands of Christ, and on the rock of ages; yet their hearts are very unstable, and so are their frames, and the exercise of grace in them, and need establishing, which God's work; which is often done by the means of the word and ordinances; and these the saints should make use of, for the establishing of their hearts: the sense may be, take heart, be of good cheer, do not be dismayed, or faint, or sink under your pressures, but be of good courage, pluck up your spirits, lift up your heads: for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh; when he will render tribulation to them that trouble them, free them from all their sorrows and afflictions, and enter them into the joy of their Lord; which will be either at death, which was not very far off, or at the last day, which was drawing nearer and nearer, and which with God was near; with whom a thousand years are as one day.

Gill: Jam 5:9 - Grudge not one against another, brethren // lest ye be condemned // behold the judge standeth before the door Grudge not one against another, brethren,.... On account of any happiness, temporal or spiritual, which another enjoys; do not inwardly repine at it; ...

Grudge not one against another, brethren,.... On account of any happiness, temporal or spiritual, which another enjoys; do not inwardly repine at it; or secretly sigh and groan in an envious manner at it, though nothing may be said, as the word used signifies; much less complain of, accuse, and condemn one another, or meditate and seek revenge:

lest ye be condemned; hereafter, at the bar of Christ, by the Judge of the whole earth, who is privy to the secret murmurings and grumblings, and the envious sighs and groans of men; see Mat 7:1

behold the judge standeth before the door; there is another that judgeth, who is the Lord, and he is at hand; he is just at the door; a little while and he will come, and not tarry; which may refer not to Christ's coming to destroy Jerusalem, but to his second coming to judgment, which will be quickly; for the Gospel times are the last times; there will be no other age; at the end of this, Christ will come.

Gill: Jam 5:10 - Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord // for an example suffering affliction, and of patience Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord,.... Men who have been highly honoured of God, with a gift of prophesying, or...

Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord,.... Men who have been highly honoured of God, with a gift of prophesying, or foretelling things to come; to whom God revealed his secrets, doing nothing without acquainting them with it; and who were sent forth by him, and prophesied in his name what were made known unto them; and yet, though these were his favourites, they suffered much; as cruel mockings, scourgings, imprisonment, famine, nakedness, and death in various shapes; some being stoned, others sawn asunder, and others killed by the sword; all which they endured with incredible patience. And therefore the apostle proposes them to be taken,

for an example suffering affliction, and of patience; their afflictions were many and great, and yet they were very patient under them; and through faith and patience they went through them, and now inherit the promises; and so are a very proper example and pattern for New Testament saints to follow and copy after.

Gill: Jam 5:11 - Behold, we count them happy which endure // Ye have heard of the patience of Job // And have seen the end of the Lord // that the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy Behold, we count them happy which endure,.... Affliction, with courage, constancy, and patience, and hold out to the end; for such shall be saved; the...

Behold, we count them happy which endure,.... Affliction, with courage, constancy, and patience, and hold out to the end; for such shall be saved; theirs is the kingdom of heaven; they are happy now, and will be so hereafter: the Spirit of God, and of glory, now rests upon them; and it is an honour done them that they are counted worthy to suffer for Christ; and they will be glorified with him to all eternity; the consideration of which may serve to encourage and increase patience.

Ye have heard of the patience of Job; from the account which is given of him, and his patience, in the book that bears his name; how he behaved under every trial, which came one upon the back of another; as the plundering of his substance, the loss of his children, and of the health of his body; and yet in all this Job sinned not, nor murmured against God, nor charged him foolishly, and was a mirror of patience; and though he afterwards let fall some expressions of impatience, yet he was humbled for them, and brought to repentance: this shows, that as the Apostle James, so the Jews, to whom he writes, believed that there had been really such a man as Job; and that the book which bears his name is an authentic piece of holy Scripture, and contains a narrative of matters of fact; or otherwise this reference to him would have been impertinent. How long Job endured the chastenings of the Lord cannot be said. The Jews y say they continued on him twelve months, which they gather from Job 7:3.

And have seen the end of the Lord; that is, the happy end, or exodus, out of all his troubles; which the Lord gave "to him", as the Oriental versions add; for he gave him twice as much as he had before, and blessed his latter end more than his beginning, Job 42:10. Some understand this of the Lord Jesus Christ, both of his great patience in sufferings, in which he is an example to his people, and they would do well to look to, and consider him; and of the end of his sufferings, his glorious resurrection from the dead, and session at the right hand of God, where he is crowned with glory and honour; but the former sense is best:

that the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy; as to Job, so to all his people; his paternal relation to them engages his pity towards them; nor does he willingly afflict them; and when he does, he sympathizes with them; he is afflicted with them, and in his pity redeems them; his heart moves towards them, and he earnestly remembers them, and works deliverance for them in his own time and way; and therefore it becomes them to be patient.

Gill: Jam 5:12 - But above all things, my brethren, swear not // neither by the heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath // But let your yea be yea, and your nay, nay // lest ye fall into condemnation But above all things, my brethren, swear not,.... As impatience should not show itself in secret sighs, groans, murmurings, and repinings, so more esp...

But above all things, my brethren, swear not,.... As impatience should not show itself in secret sighs, groans, murmurings, and repinings, so more especially it should not break forth in rash oaths, or in profane swearing; for of such sort of swearing, and of such oaths, is the apostle to be understood; otherwise an oath is very lawful, when taken in the fear and name of God, and made by the living God, and is used for the confirmation of anything of moment, and in order to put an end to strife; God himself, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and angels, and good men, are in Scripture sometimes represented as swearing: and that the apostle is so to be understood, appears from the form of swearing prohibited,

neither by the heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath; of the like kind; such as are forbidden, and cautioned, and reasoned against by our Lord, in Mat 5:34 to which the apostle manifestly refers; See Gill on Mat 5:34, Mat 5:35, Mat 5:36.

But let your yea be yea, and your nay, nay; that is, whenever there is an occasion for affirming, or denying anything, let it be done nakedly, simply, and absolutely, without any form of oath annexed to it; for whatever addition of that kind is made comes from evil, and tends to it, and is evil:

lest ye fall into condemnation; by the Lord; for either false, or rash, or profane swearing; for he will not suffer it to go unpunished; see Exo 20:7. Some copies read, "lest ye fall into hypocrisy"; or dissimulation, and get into a habit and custom of lying and deceiving, as common swearers do; and so reads the Arabic version.

Gill: Jam 5:13 - Is any among you afflicted // let him pray // Is any merry // let him sing psalms Is any among you afflicted?.... As the people of God generally are; they are commonly a poor, and an afflicted people; at least there are many among t...

Is any among you afflicted?.... As the people of God generally are; they are commonly a poor, and an afflicted people; at least there are many among them that are so, and many are their afflictions: those whom Christ loves, as he did Lazarus, are not free from sicknesses and diseases; and these are rather signs of love than arguments against it; and when this is the case of any of the saints, what is to be done?

let him pray; to God that can save him; in the name of Christ; under the influence of the Spirit; believing in the word of promise. Times of afflictions are proper times for prayer; there is then more especially need of it; and God sometimes lays his afflicting hand upon his people, when they have been negligent of their duty, and he has not heard of them for some time, in order to bring them near to him, to seek his face, pay him a visit, and pour out a prayer before him; see Psa 50:15.

Is any merry? in good heart and spirit, in a good frame of mind, as well as in prosperous circumstances, in soul, body and estate:

let him sing psalms; let him not only be inwardly joyful, as he should be in prosperity, and be thankful to God for his many mercies, temporal and spiritual, he enjoys; but let him express it vocally, and melodiously, by singing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs: not that these are the only persons that are to sing psalms, or this the only time, any more than that afflicted persons are the only ones that are to pray, or the time of affliction the only time of prayer; but as affliction more especially calls for prayer, so spiritual joy, and rejoicing in prosperous seasons, for singing of psalms: weeping, and singing of psalms, were thought, by the Jews, inconsistent. Kimchi, on the title of the third psalm, observes, that their Rabbins say, that when David went up the ascent of the Mount of Olives, he wept; and if he wept, why is this called a psalm? and if a psalm, למה בכה, "why did he weep?"

Gill: Jam 5:14 - Is any sick among you // let him call for the elders of the church // and let them pray over him // anointing him with oil, in the name of the Lord Is any sick among you?.... Which is often the case; the bodies of the saints, as well as others, are liable to a variety of diseases; they are sick, a...

Is any sick among you?.... Which is often the case; the bodies of the saints, as well as others, are liable to a variety of diseases; they are sick, and sometimes nigh unto death, as Epaphroditus was: and then,

let him call for the elders of the church; in allusion to the elders of the congregation of Israel, Lev 4:15. By these may be meant, either the elder members of the church, men of gravity and soundness in the faith, persons of long standing and experience; who have the gift and grace of prayer, and are not only capable of performing that duty, but of giving a word of counsel and advice to the sick. It was a kind of proverbial saying of Aristophanes the grammarian;

"the works of young men, the counsels of middle aged persons, and ευχαι γεροντων, "the prayers of ancient men" z:''

or rather officers of churches are meant, particularly pastors, who are so called in Scripture; these should be sent for in times of sickness, as well as physicians; and rather than they, since their prayers may be the means of healing both soul and body: so in former times, the prophets of God were sent to in times of sickness, for advice and assistance. It is a saying of R. Phinehas ben Chama a that

"whoever has a sick person in his house, let him go to a wise man, and he will seek mercy for him.''

And it follows here,

and let them pray over him; or for him, for the recovery of his health:

anointing him with oil, in the name of the Lord; which some think was only done in a common medicinal way, oil being used much in the eastern countries for most disorders; and so these elders used ordinary medicine, as well as prayer: or rather this refers to an extraordinary gift, which some elders had of healing diseases, as sometimes by touching, and by laying on of hands, or by expressing some words, and so by anointing with oil; see Mar 6:13 which extraordinary gifts being now ceased, the rite or ceremony of anointing with oil ceases in course: however, this passage gives no countenance to the extreme unction of the Papists; that of theirs being attended with many customs and ceremonies, which are not here made mention of; that being used, as is pretended, for the healing of the souls of men, whereas this was used for corporeal healing; that is only performed when life is despaired of, and persons are just going out of the world; whereas this was made use of to restore men to health, and that they might continue longer in it, as follows.

Gill: Jam 5:15 - And the prayer of faith shall save the sick // and the Lord shall raise him up // And if he have committed sins // they shall be forgiven him And the prayer of faith shall save the sick,.... That is, the prayer of the elders, being put up in faith by them, and in which the sick person joins ...

And the prayer of faith shall save the sick,.... That is, the prayer of the elders, being put up in faith by them, and in which the sick person joins by faith; such a prayer is a means of bringing down from God a blessing on the sick man, and of restoring him to his former health:

and the Lord shall raise him up; from his bed of sickness, on which he is laid, and bring him forth to praise his name, and to fear and glorify him.

And if he have committed sins; not that it is a question whether he has or not, for no man lives without sin, nor the commission of it; but the sense is, if he has been guilty of any sins, which God in particular has taken notice of, and on account of which he has laid his chastising hand upon him, in order to bring him to a sense of them, and to acknowledge them; which is sometimes the case, though not always, at the same time that his bodily health is restored:

they shall be forgiven him; he shall have a discovery, and an application of pardoning grace to him: and indeed the removing the sickness or disease may be called the forgiveness of his sins, which is sometimes the sense of this phrase in Scripture, as in 1Ki 8:34.

Gill: Jam 5:16 - Confess your faults one to another // And pray for one another, that ye may be healed // the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much Confess your faults one to another,.... Which must be understood of sins committed against one another; which should be acknowledged, and repentance f...

Confess your faults one to another,.... Which must be understood of sins committed against one another; which should be acknowledged, and repentance for them declared, in order to mutual forgiveness and reconciliation; and this is necessary at all times, and especially on beds of affliction, and when death and eternity seem near approaching: wherefore this makes nothing for auricular confession, used by the Papists; which is of all sins, whereas this is only of such by which men offend one another; that is made to priests, but this is made by the saints to one another, by the offending party to him that is offended, for reconciliation, whereby a good end is answered; whereas there is none by the other, and very often bad consequences follow.

And pray for one another, that ye may be healed; both corporeally and spiritually:

the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much. Not any man's prayer; not the prayer of a profane sinner, for God heareth not sinners; nor of hypocrites and formal professors: but of the righteous man, who is justified by the righteousness of Christ, and has the truth of grace in him, and lives soberly and righteously; for a righteous man often designs a good man, a gracious man, one that is sincere and upright, as Job, Joseph of Arimathea, and others; though not without sin, as the person instanced in the following verse shows; "Elias, who was a man of like passions", but a just man, and his prayer was prevalent: and not any prayer of a righteous man is of avail, but that which is "effectual, fervent"; that has power, and energy, and life in it; which is with the Spirit, and with the understanding, with the heart, even with a true heart, and in faith; and which is put up with fervency, and not in a cold, lukewarm, lifeless, formal, and customary way: it is but one word in the original text; and the Vulgate Latin version renders it, "daily"; that prayer which is constant and continual, and without ceasing, and is importunate; this prevails and succeeds, as the parable of the widow and the unjust judge shows. Some translate the word "inspired": the Spirit of God breathes into men the breath of spiritual life, and they live, and being quickened by him, they breathe; and prayer is the breath of the spiritual man, and is no other than the reverberation of the Spirit of God in him; and such prayer cannot fail of success: it may be rendered "inwrought"; true prayer is not what is written in a book, but what is wrought in the heart, by the Spirit of God; who is the enditer of prayer, who impresses the minds of his people with a sense of their wants, and fills their mouths with arguments, and puts strength into them to plead with God, and makes intercession for them according to the will of God; and such prayer is always heard, and regarded by him: this has great power with God; whatever is asked, believing, is received; God can deny nothing prayed for in this manner; it has great power with Christ, as Jacob had over the angel, when he wrestled with him; and as the woman of Canaan, when she importuned him, on account of her daughter, and would have no denial: such prayer has often been of much avail against Satan, who has been dispossessed by it; even the most stubborn kind of devils have been dislodged by fasting and prayer: it has often been the means of preserving kingdoms and nations, when invaded by enemies, as the instances of Jehoshaphat and Hezekiah show; and of removing judgments from a people, as was often done, through the prayers of Moses, as when fire and fiery serpents were sent among them; and of bringing down blessings as rain from heaven by Elijah; and of delivering particular persons from trouble, as Peter was delivered from prison, through the incessant prayer of the church for him: and this power, and efficacy, and prevalence of prayer, does not arise from any intrinsic worth and merit in it, but from the grace of the Spirit, who influences and endites it, directs to it, and assists in it; and from the powerful mediation, precious blood, and efficacious sacrifice of Christ; and from the promise of God and Christ, who have engaged, that whatever is asked according to the will of God, and in the name of Christ, shall be done. The Jews have had formerly a great notion of prayer: the power of prayer, they say b, is strong; and extol it above all other services: they say c, it is better than good works, or than offerings and sacrifices; and particularly, the prayer of righteous men: says R. Eliezar d.

"to what is תפלתן של צדיקים, "prayer of righteous men" like? it is like a shovel: the sense is, that as the shovel turns the corn on the floor, from one place to another, so prayer turns the holy blessed God from wrath to mercy.''

Gill: Jam 5:17 - Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are // that it might not rain // and it rained not on the earth // by the space of three years and six months Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are,.... The apostle gives an instance of earnest and fervent prayer, and of the efficacy of it in Elia...

Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are,.... The apostle gives an instance of earnest and fervent prayer, and of the efficacy of it in Elias; who is the same with the prophet Elijah, or Elijah the Tishbite; who, by the Septuagint in Mal 4:5 is called Elias, as here, and elsewhere, in the New Testament: of him James says, that he was a "man", contrary to the notion of some of the Jewish writers, who affirm, that Elijah was not born of a father and mother, but was an angel, who was clothed with the four elements of the world e; but he was not only born, but born in sin, as others are, and was by nature no better than others; and he himself confesses that he was no better than his fathers, 1Ki 19:4. And the apostle further observes; concerning him, that be was "subject to like passions as we are"; both in body and soul; he was subject to hunger and weariness, and was fed by ravens, and by the widow of Zarephath, and by an angel; and he was subject to reproach, affliction, and persecution, being charged by Ahab as a troubler of Israel, and persecuted by Jezebel, who sought his life; he was a mortal man, and liable to death, and requested to die, and must have died, had it not been for the wonderful power of God, which translated him, that he should not see death; and he was not free from sinful passions, as impatience, fear, and unbelief, 1Ki 17:20. And he prayed earnestly; or prayed in prayer; an Hebraism: it is said f of one, that צלי צלותיה, "he prayed his prayer"; and of others, that צלאן צלותין, "they prayed prayers"; though the phrase here seems to design something more than bare praying; a praying, not merely externally, or formally, and with the lip only, but with the Spirit, and with the understanding, and with the heart engaged in it, with inwrought prayer. The prophet prayed with much earnestness, with great vehemence and intenseness of Spirit, as this Hebraism denotes; his prayer was fervent, and it was constant, and importunate, and was continued till he had an answer: he may be thought to have prayed each of the seven times he sent his servant to look out for a sign of rain, 1Ki 18:43, he first prayed,

that it might not rain; this is not recorded in express words, but may be gathered from 1Ki 17:1 where he says, "as the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew, nor rain, these years, but according to my word"; so the passage is understood by the Jewish interpreters: the phrase, "before whom I stand", is paraphrased by one of them g thus; before whom I am used to stand, בתפילה, "in prayer"; and it is a common saying with the Jews, there is no standing ever mentioned, but prayer is intended; See Gill on Mat 6:5 And the other phrase, "according to my word", is, by another h, interpreted to this sense, that the rain should not descend naturally, according to the custom of the world, but it should descend when Elijah יתפלל עליו, "prayed for it", and so it was:

and it rained not on the earth: on the land of Israel, which is only meant; it rained in other parts of the world, for the drought in those times was not universal: and this was,

by the space of three years and six months; which exactly agrees with the words of Christ, Luk 4:25 and this was in judgment upon the land of Israel, for the idolatry it was filled with in the times of Ahab: and this instance of prayer is mentioned, not with a view that it should be imitated; we are not to pray for judgments, unless we have a divine order for it, as Elijah had; but to show the efficacy of prayer made according to the will of God.

Gill: Jam 5:18 - And he prayed again // and the heaven gave rain // And the earth brought forth her fruit And he prayed again,.... 1Ki 18:42. Here also is no express mention of his prayer, but it may be concluded from his gestures; and so the Jewish interp...

And he prayed again,.... 1Ki 18:42. Here also is no express mention of his prayer, but it may be concluded from his gestures; and so the Jewish interpreters understand these words, "Elijah went up to the top of Carmel", להתפלל, "to pray, and he cast himself down upon the earth", להתפלל על הגשמים, "to pray for rain; and he put his face between his knees", והתפלל, "and prayed, and said to his servant, go up now, look toward the sea"; and this he said while he was בתפילתו, "in his prayers" i: and the effect of this his prayer was,

and the heaven gave rain; see 1Ki 18:45.

And the earth brought forth her fruit: which for the years past it had not; hence there was a sore famine in the land, 1Ki 18:2. Now the apostle chose to give this example, because it was a common thing for the Jews to ask for rain: we often read of such a doctor, that he prayed for rain, and it came; and of another, that he asked for the rains, and they descended k: and his view is to observe, that the weakness and infirmities of the saints ought not to discourage them from prayer; and that they should be earnest and fervent in it, as was Elias, a man of like passions with themselves.

Gill: Jam 5:19 - Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth // and one convert him Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth,.... Either from Christ, who is the truth, by departing from him, forsaking his ways, worship, and ordin...

Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth,.... Either from Christ, who is the truth, by departing from him, forsaking his ways, worship, and ordinances; or from the Scriptures of truth, not speaking according to them, and embracing notions that are contrary unto them; or from the Gospel, the word of truth, from the doctrine of faith, and from uprightness of life and conversation, after having made a profession of Christianity; for this is to be understood of one who has embraced the Christian religion, become a member of a church, and has walked in the path of truth and holiness, but now fallen into error, either in principle, or in practice, or both:

and one convert him; or turn him from his error, to truth again; for this designs not first conversion, or the turning of a sinner from darkness to light, from the power of Satan to God, and from the evil of a man's heart and ways and from a dependence on his own righteousness, to the Lord Jesus Christ, to look to him for righteousness, life, and salvation, which is wholly and entirely God's work, and not man's; but conversion after backslidings; for a restoration from a fallen condition is sometimes so called, Psa 51:1 and which one brother may be an instrument of to another, by showing him, and setting before him, the evil of his errors, whether in principle or practice; and by instructing him in the doctrines of the Gospel, and in the duties of religion; and by reproving him in meekness, and according to the rules of Christ; which means are sometimes blessed for the gaining of such; and which may be called conversion: and also, this is sometimes done by praying for him; and which seems chiefly to be intended here; for from praying for the healing of the diseases of the body, the apostle proceeds to encourage the saints to pray for one another, for the healing of the diseases of the mind; and suggests, that if prayer avails to the one, it may to the other; and which is the most desirable, and the greatest blessing, as follows.

Gill: Jam 5:20 - Let him know // that he which converteth a sinner from the error of his way // shall save a soul from death // and shall hide a multitude of sins Let him know,.... And observe it for his encouragement: that he which converteth a sinner from the error of his way; who is the instrument of resto...

Let him know,.... And observe it for his encouragement:

that he which converteth a sinner from the error of his way; who is the instrument of restoring a backsliding professor, for such an one is meant by a sinner, and not a profane person; or of turning a poor bewildered believer, who is got out of the way of truth and holiness, into the right way again; or of convincing him of the error of his way, whether it be in point of doctrine, or of duty; and so of bringing him to the fold of Christ again, from whence he has strayed:

shall save a soul from death; not efficiently, but instrumentally, as in 1Ti 4:16 for otherwise Christ is the only Saviour; and he will be the means of saving "a soul", which is of more worth than a world; and that from death, the second death which lies in the separation of the soul from God, and in a sense of his wrath; which apostasy threatens with, and leads unto, if grace prevents not. The Alexandrian copy and others, and the Vulgate Latin version read, "his soul"; but the common reading is more emphatic; the Syriac and Arabic versions render it, "his own soul"; and the Ethiopic version, "himself", as respecting him that is the instrument of the conversion of the other, and not the person converted:

and shall hide a multitude of sins; either "his own", as the same versions read; and then the sense is, he shall be blessed with a discovery and application of the forgiveness of all his sins, though they have been many and great; or rather the sins of the person converted. Sin is only covered by the blood and righteousness of Christ; and thereby it is so covered, as not to be seen by the eye of vindictive justice and in such manner as that the persons of those who are covered therewith are all fair, without fault and unreproveable in the sight of God; and though their sins are many, even a multitude, they are blotted out as a thick cloud, and are abundantly pardoned; yea, all their sins are covered, be they ever so many, for God forgives all trespasses, for Christ's sake; and the blood of Christ cleanses from all sin, and his righteousness justifies from all: and whoever is an instrument of bringing a backslider to a sense of the evil of his ways, and to true repentance for the same; as he, upon such repentance, has his iniquities caused to pass from him, or, in other words, to be covered, as from the sight of God, so from his own; he may be said to be the instrument of this also.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jam 5:1 Or “wail”; Grk “crying aloud.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:3 Or “hoarded up treasure for the last days”; Grk “in the last days.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:5 James’ point seems to be that instead of seeking deliverance from condemnation, they have defied God’s law (fattened your hearts) and made...

NET Notes: Jam 5:6 Literally a series of verbs without connectives, “you have condemned, you have murdered…he does not resist.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:7 Grk “being patient.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:9 The term gates is used metaphorically here. The physical referent would be the entrances to the city, but the author uses the term to emphasize the im...

NET Notes: Jam 5:10 Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:2.

NET Notes: Jam 5:11 An allusion to Exod 34:6; Neh 9:17; Ps 86:15; 102:13; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2.

NET Notes: Jam 5:12 Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:2.

NET Notes: Jam 5:14 Grk “anointing.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:15 Grk “it will be forgiven him.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:16 Or “the fervent prayer of a righteous person is very powerful”; Grk “is very powerful in its working.”

NET Notes: Jam 5:17 Grk “he prayed with prayer” (using a Hebrew idiom to show intensity).

NET Notes: Jam 5:18 Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events.

NET Notes: Jam 5:19 Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:2.

NET Notes: Jam 5:20 Grk “his soul”; the referent (the sinner mentioned at the beginning of the verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:1 Go ( 1 ) to now, [ye] rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon [you]. ( 1 ) He denounces utter destruction to the wicked and pr...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:4 Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reape...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:5 Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have ( b ) nourished your hearts, as in a ( c ) day of slaughter. ( b ) You have pampered...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:7 ( 2 ) Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. ( 3 ) Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath ...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:9 ( 4 ) ( d ) Grudge not one against another, brethren, lest ye be condemned: ( 5 ) behold, the judge standeth before the door. ( 4 ) He commends Chris...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:10 ( 6 ) Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord, for an example of suffering affliction, and of patience. ( 6 ) Becaus...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:11 Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the ( e ) end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:12 ( 7 ) But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let ( f ) your yea be yea;...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:13 ( 8 ) Is any among you afflicted? let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing psalms. ( 8 ) He shows the best remedy against all afflictions, that is, p...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:14 ( 9 ) Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with ( g ) oil in the ( h ) name of ...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:15 And the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed ( i ) sins, they shall be forgiven him. ( i ) ...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:16 ( 10 ) Confess [your] faults one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. ( 11 ) The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man a...

Geneva Bible: Jam 5:19 ( 12 ) Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one ( k ) convert him; ( 12 ) The taking away of an objection: all rebukes are not condemne...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Jam 5:1-6 - --Public troubles are most grievous to those who live in pleasure, and are secure and sensual, though all ranks suffer deeply at such times. All idolize...

MHCC: Jam 5:7-11 - --Consider him that waits for a crop of corn; and will not you wait for a crown of glory? If you should be called to wait longer than the husbandman, is...

MHCC: Jam 5:12-18 - --The sin of swearing is condemned; but how many make light of common profane swearing! Such swearing expressly throws contempt upon God's name and auth...

MHCC: Jam 5:19-20 - --It is no mark of a wise or holy man, to boast of being free from error, or to refuse to acknowledge an error. And there is some doctrinal mistake at t...

Matthew Henry: Jam 5:1-11 - -- The apostle is here addressing first sinners and then saints. I. Let us consider the address to sinners; and here we find James seconding what his g...

Matthew Henry: Jam 5:12-20 - -- This epistle now drawing to a close, the penman goes off very quickly from one thing to another: hence it is that matters so very different are insi...