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Teks -- Numbers 31:1-54 (NET)

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Konteks
The Midianite War
31:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 31:2 “Exact vengeance for the Israelites on the Midianites– after that you will be gathered to your people.” 31:3 So Moses spoke to the people: “Arm men from among you for the war, to attack the Midianites and to execute the Lord’s vengeance on Midian. 31:4 You must send to the battle a thousand men from every tribe throughout all the tribes of Israel.” 31:5 So a thousand from every tribe, twelve thousand armed for battle in all, were provided out of the thousands of Israel.
Campaign Against the Midianites
31:6 So Moses sent them to the war, one thousand from every tribe, with Phinehas son of Eleazar the priest, who was in charge of the holy articles and the signal trumpets. 31:7 They fought against the Midianites, as the Lord commanded Moses, and they killed every male. 31:8 They killed the kings of Midian in addition to those slain– Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba– five Midianite kings. They also killed Balaam son of Beor with the sword. 31:9 The Israelites took the women of Midian captives along with their little ones, and took all their herds, all their flocks, and all their goods as plunder. 31:10 They burned all their towns where they lived and all their encampments. 31:11 They took all the plunder and all the spoils, both people and animals. 31:12 They brought the captives and the spoils and the plunder to Moses, to Eleazar the priest, and to the Israelite community, to the camp on the plains of Moab, along the Jordan River across from Jericho. 31:13 Moses, Eleazar the priest, and all the leaders of the community went out to meet them outside the camp.
The Death of the Midianite Women
31:14 But Moses was furious with the officers of the army, the commanders over thousands and commanders over hundreds, who had come from service in the war. 31:15 Moses said to them, “Have you allowed all the women to live? 31:16 Look, these people through the counsel of Balaam caused the Israelites to act treacherously against the Lord in the matter of Peor– which resulted in the plague among the community of the Lord! 31:17 Now therefore kill every boy, and kill every woman who has had sexual intercourse with a man. 31:18 But all the young women who have not had sexual intercourse with a man will be yours.
Purification After Battle
31:19 “Any of you who has killed anyone or touched any of the dead, remain outside the camp for seven days; purify yourselves and your captives on the third day, and on the seventh day. 31:20 You must purify each garment and everything that is made of skin, everything made of goat’s hair, and everything made of wood.” 31:21 Then Eleazar the priest said to the men of war who had gone into the battle, “This is the ordinance of the law that the Lord commanded Moses: 31:22 ‘Only the gold, the silver, the bronze, the iron, the tin, and the lead, 31:23 everything that may stand the fire, you are to pass through the fire, and it will be ceremonially clean, but it must still be purified with the water of purification. Anything that cannot withstand the fire you must pass through the water. 31:24 You must wash your clothes on the seventh day, and you will be ceremonially clean, and afterward you may enter the camp.’”
The Distribution of Spoils
31:25 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 31:26 “You and Eleazar the priest, and all the family leaders of the community, take the sum of the plunder that was captured, both people and animals. 31:27 Divide the plunder into two parts, one for those who took part in the war– who went out to battle– and the other for all the community. 31:28 “You must exact a tribute for the Lord from the fighting men who went out to battle: one life out of five hundred, from the people, the cattle, and from the donkeys and the sheep. 31:29 You are to take it from their half-share and give it to Eleazar the priest for a raised offering to the Lord. 31:30 From the Israelites’ half-share you are to take one portion out of fifty of the people, the cattle, the donkeys, and the sheep– from every kind of animal– and you are to give them to the Levites, who are responsible for the care of the Lord’s tabernacle.” 31:31 So Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the Lord commanded Moses. 31:32 The spoil that remained of the plunder which the fighting men had gathered was 675,000 sheep, 31:33 72,000 cattle, 31:34 61,000 donkeys, 31:35 and 32,000 young women who had never had sexual intercourse with a man. 31:36 The half-portion of those who went to war numbered 337,500 sheep; 31:37 the Lord’s tribute from the sheep was 675. 31:38 The cattle numbered 36,000; the Lord’s tribute was 72. 31:39 The donkeys were 30,500, of which the Lord’s tribute was 61. 31:40 The people were 16,000, of which the Lord’s tribute was 32 people. 31:41 So Moses gave the tribute, which was the Lord’s raised offering, to Eleazar the priest, as the Lord commanded Moses. 31:42 From the Israelites’ half-share that Moses had separated from the fighting men, 31:43 there were 337,500 sheep from the portion belonging to the community, 31:44 36,000 cattle, 31:45 30,500 donkeys, 31:46 and 16,000 people. 31:47 From the Israelites’ share Moses took one of every fifty people and animals and gave them to the Levites who were responsible for the care of the Lord’s tabernacle, just as the Lord commanded Moses. 31:48 Then the officers who were over the thousands of the army, the commanders over thousands and the commanders over hundreds, approached Moses 31:49 and said to him, “Your servants have taken a count of the men who were in the battle, who were under our authority, and not one is missing. 31:50 So we have brought as an offering for the Lord what each man found: gold ornaments, armlets, bracelets, signet rings, earrings, and necklaces, to make atonement for ourselves before the Lord.” 31:51 Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold from them, all of it in the form of ornaments. 31:52 All the gold of the offering they offered up to the Lord from the commanders of thousands and the commanders of hundreds weighed 16,750 shekels. 31:53 Each soldier had taken plunder for himself. 31:54 So Moses and Eleazar the priest received the gold from the commanders of thousands and commanders of hundreds and brought it into the tent of meeting as a memorial for the Israelites before the Lord.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Balaam the son of Beor,son of Beor of Pethor on the Euphrates River
 · Beor the father of the prophet Balaam.,father of Bela king of Edom,father of Balaam the prophet
 · Eleazar a son of Eliud; the father of Matthan; an ancestor of Jesus.,a chief priest; son of Aaron,son of Abinadab; caretaker of the Ark at Kiriath-Jearim,son of Dodo the Ahohite; one of David's military elite,son of Mahli the Levite,a priest who participated in the dedication of the wall,a priest under Ezra; son of Phinehas,a layman of the Parosh clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Evi a king of Midian killed by Moses
 · Hur a man who was a special assistant to Moses and Aaron,a king of Midian killed by Moses,son of Caleb and Ephrathah; father of Salma; elder of Bethlehem
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jericho a town five miles west of the Jordan and 15 miles northeast of Jerusalem,a town of Benjamin 11 km NW of the mouth of the Jordan River
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Levites relating to Levi and the priesthood given to him,a tribal name describing people and ceremonies as sacred
 · Midian resident(s) of the region of Midian
 · Midianite resident(s) of the region of Midian
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Peor a mountain in Moab NW of Mt. Nebo,a place near Mount Peor where God punished Israel for idolatry
 · Phinehas son of Eleazar; a chief priest, Phinehas I,a priest; son of Eli; Phinehas II,father of Eleazar, a priest on duty in the days of Ezra
 · Reba a king of Midian killed by Moses
 · Rekem a king of Midian killed by Moses,son of Hebron of Judah,a town of Benjamin whose exact location is unknown
 · Zur a king of Midian killed by Moses,son of Jeiel of Benjamin


Topik/Tema Kamus: Balaam | Moses | ABEL-SHITTIM | Israel | Midianites | Wars of the Lord, The Book of the | BOOTY | Armies | Spoils | Priest | SLAVE; SLAVERY | Servant | Sanitation | War | Captive | METALS | Levites | Jericho | TAX; TAXING | Liberality | selebihnya
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Wesley: Num 31:3 - Avenge ye the Lord For the affront which they offered to God, by their own idolatry and lewdness, and by seducing God's people into rebellion against him. God's great ca...

For the affront which they offered to God, by their own idolatry and lewdness, and by seducing God's people into rebellion against him. God's great care was to avenge the Israelites, Num 31:2, and Moses's chief desire was to avenge God rather than himself or the people.

Wesley: Num 31:5 - Twelve thousand God would send no more, though it is apparent the Midianites were numerous and strong, because he would exercise their trust in him, and give them an ...

God would send no more, though it is apparent the Midianites were numerous and strong, because he would exercise their trust in him, and give them an earnest of their Canaanitish conquests.

Wesley: Num 31:6 - Them and Phinehas Who had the charge not of the army, as general, (an office never committed to a priest in all the Old Testament) but of the holy instruments, and was ...

Who had the charge not of the army, as general, (an office never committed to a priest in all the Old Testament) but of the holy instruments, and was sent to encourage, and quicken, them in their enterprize.

Wesley: Num 31:6 - The holy instruments The holy breast - plate, wherein was the Urim and Thummim, which was easily carried, and very useful in war upon many emergent occasions.

The holy breast - plate, wherein was the Urim and Thummim, which was easily carried, and very useful in war upon many emergent occasions.

Wesley: Num 31:7 - All the males Namely all who lived in those parts, for colonies of them, were sent forth to remoter places, which therefore had no hand either in their former sin, ...

Namely all who lived in those parts, for colonies of them, were sent forth to remoter places, which therefore had no hand either in their former sin, or in this present ruling. And herein they did according to God's own order concerning such people, Deu 20:13, only their fault was, that they did not consider the special reason which they had to involve the women in the destruction.

Wesley: Num 31:13 - Without the camp Partly to put respect upon them, and congratulate with them for their happy success; and partly to prevent the pollution of the camp by the untimely e...

Partly to put respect upon them, and congratulate with them for their happy success; and partly to prevent the pollution of the camp by the untimely entrance of the warriors into it.

Wesley: Num 31:17 - The little ones Which they were forbidden to do to other people, Deu 20:14, except the Canaanites, to whom this people had equaled themselves by their horrid crimes, ...

Which they were forbidden to do to other people, Deu 20:14, except the Canaanites, to whom this people had equaled themselves by their horrid crimes, and therefore it is not strange, nor unjust, that God, the supreme Lord of all mens lives, who as he gives them, so may take them away when he pleaseth, did equal them in the punishment.

Wesley: Num 31:17 - Every woman Partly for punishment, because the guilt was general, and though some of them only did prostitute themselves to the Israelites, yet the rest made them...

Partly for punishment, because the guilt was general, and though some of them only did prostitute themselves to the Israelites, yet the rest made themselves accessary by their consent or approbation; and partly, for prevention of the like mischief from such an adulterous generation.

Wesley: Num 31:20 - Your raiment Namely, your spoil and prey.

Namely, your spoil and prey.

Wesley: Num 31:20 - All work All which had contracted some ceremonial uncleanness either from the dead bodies which wore them, or the tents or houses where they were, in which suc...

All which had contracted some ceremonial uncleanness either from the dead bodies which wore them, or the tents or houses where they were, in which such dead bodies lay, or from the touch of the Israelitish soldiers, who were legally defiled by the slaughters they made.

Wesley: Num 31:27 - Two parts The congregation hath some share, because the warriors went in the name of all, and because all having been injured by the Midianites, all were to hav...

The congregation hath some share, because the warriors went in the name of all, and because all having been injured by the Midianites, all were to have some share in the reparations: but the warriors who were but 12000, have a far greater share than their brethren, because they underwent greater pains and dangers.

Wesley: Num 31:29 - An heave-offering In thankfulness to God for their preservation and good success.

In thankfulness to God for their preservation and good success.

Wesley: Num 31:30 - One of fifty Whereas the former part was one of five hundred; the reason of the difference is, partly, because this was taken out of the peoples portion, whose haz...

Whereas the former part was one of five hundred; the reason of the difference is, partly, because this was taken out of the peoples portion, whose hazards being less than the others, their gains also in all reason were to be less: partly because this was to be distributed into more hands, the Levites being now numerous, whereas the priests were but few.

Wesley: Num 31:50 - An atonement For their error noted, Num 31:14-16, and withal for a memorial, or by way of gratitude for such a stupendous assistance and deliverance. We should nev...

For their error noted, Num 31:14-16, and withal for a memorial, or by way of gratitude for such a stupendous assistance and deliverance. We should never take any thing to ourselves in war or trade, of which we cannot in faith consecrate a part to God, who hates robbery for burnt-offerings. But when God has remarkably preserved and succeeded us, he expects we should make some particular return of gratitude to him.

JFB: Num 31:1-2 - the Lord spake unto Moses, Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites A semi-nomad people, descended from Abraham and Keturah, occupying a tract of country east and southeast of Moab, which lay on the eastern coast of th...

A semi-nomad people, descended from Abraham and Keturah, occupying a tract of country east and southeast of Moab, which lay on the eastern coast of the Dead Sea. They seem to have been the principal instigators of the infamous scheme of seduction, planned to entrap the Israelites into the double crime of idolatry and licentiousness [Num 25:1-3, Num 25:17-18] by which, it was hoped, the Lord would withdraw from that people the benefit of His protection and favor. Moreover, the Midianites had rendered themselves particularly obnoxious by entering into a hostile league with the Amorites (Jos 13:21). The Moabites were at this time spared in consideration of Lot (Deu 2:9) and because the measure of their iniquities was not yet full. God spoke of avenging "the children of Israel" [Num 31:2]; Moses spoke of avenging the Lord [Num 31:3], as dishonor had been done to God and an injury inflicted on His people. The interests were identical. God and His people have the same cause, the same friends, and the same assailants. This, in fact, was a religious war, undertaken by the express command of God against idolaters, who had seduced the Israelites to practise their abominations.

JFB: Num 31:3 - Arm some of yourselves This order was issued but a short time before the death of Moses. The announcement to him of that approaching event [Num 31:2] seems to have accelerat...

This order was issued but a short time before the death of Moses. The announcement to him of that approaching event [Num 31:2] seems to have accelerated, rather than retarded, his warlike preparations.

JFB: Num 31:5 - there were delivered That is, drafted, chosen, an equal amount from each tribe, to prevent the outbreak of mutual jealousy or strife. Considering the numerical force of th...

That is, drafted, chosen, an equal amount from each tribe, to prevent the outbreak of mutual jealousy or strife. Considering the numerical force of the enemy, this was a small quota to furnish. But the design was to exercise their faith and animate them to the approaching invasion of Canaan.

JFB: Num 31:6 - Moses sent . . . Eleazar the priest, to the war Although it is not expressly mentioned, it is highly probable that Joshua was the general who conducted this war. The presence of the priest, who was ...

Although it is not expressly mentioned, it is highly probable that Joshua was the general who conducted this war. The presence of the priest, who was always with the army (Deu 20:2), was necessary to preside over the Levites, who accompanied the expedition, and to inflame the courage of the combatants by his sacred services and counsels.

JFB: Num 31:6 - holy instruments As neither the ark nor the Urim and Thummim were carried to the battlefield till a later period in the history of Israel, the "holy instruments" must ...

As neither the ark nor the Urim and Thummim were carried to the battlefield till a later period in the history of Israel, the "holy instruments" must mean the "trumpets" (Num 10:9). And this view is agreeable to the text, by simply changing "and" into "even," as the Hebrew particle is frequently rendered.

JFB: Num 31:7 - they slew all the males This was in accordance with a divine order in all such cases (Deu 20:13). But the destruction appears to have been only partial--limited to those who ...

This was in accordance with a divine order in all such cases (Deu 20:13). But the destruction appears to have been only partial--limited to those who were in the neighborhood of the Hebrew camp and who had been accomplices in the villainous plot of Baal-peor (Num 25:1-3), while a large portion of the Midianites were absent on their pastoral wanderings or had saved themselves by flight. (Compare Jdg 6:1).

JFB: Num 31:8 - the kings of Midian So called, because each was possessed of absolute power within his own city or district; called also dukes or princes of Sihon (Jos 13:21), having bee...

So called, because each was possessed of absolute power within his own city or district; called also dukes or princes of Sihon (Jos 13:21), having been probably subject to that Amorite ruler, as it is not uncommon in the East to find a number of governors or pachas tributary to one great king.

JFB: Num 31:8 - Zur Father of Cozbi (Num 25:15).

Father of Cozbi (Num 25:15).

JFB: Num 31:8 - Balaam also . . . they slew with the sword This unprincipled man, on his dismissal from Balak, set out for his home in Mesopotamia (Num 24:25). But, either diverging from his way to tamper with...

This unprincipled man, on his dismissal from Balak, set out for his home in Mesopotamia (Num 24:25). But, either diverging from his way to tamper with the Midianites, he remained among them without proceeding farther, to incite them against Israel and to watch the effects of his wicked counsel; or, learning in his own country that the Israelites had fallen into the snare which he had laid and which he doubted not would lead to their ruin, he had, under the impulse of insatiable greed, returned to demand his reward from the Midianites. He was an object of merited vengeance. In the immense slaughter of the Midianitish people--in the capture of their women, children, and property and in the destruction of all their places of refuge--the severity of a righteous God fell heavily on that base and corrupt race. But, more than all others, Balaam deserved and got the just reward of his deeds. His conduct had been atrociously sinful, considering the knowledge he possessed, and the revelations he had received, of the will of God. For any one in his circumstances to attempt defeating the prophecies he had himself been the organ of uttering, and plotting to deprive the chosen people of the divine favor and protection, was an act of desperate wickedness, which no language can adequately characterize.

JFB: Num 31:13 - Moses, and Eleazar the priest, . . . went forth to meet them without the camp Partly as a token of respect and congratulation on their victory, partly to see how they had executed the Lord's commands, and partly to prevent the d...

Partly as a token of respect and congratulation on their victory, partly to see how they had executed the Lord's commands, and partly to prevent the defilement of the camp by the entrance of warriors stained with blood.

JFB: Num 31:14-18 - And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host The displeasure of the great leader, though it appears the ebullition of a fierce and sanguinary temper, arose in reality from a pious and enlightened...

The displeasure of the great leader, though it appears the ebullition of a fierce and sanguinary temper, arose in reality from a pious and enlightened regard to the best interests of Israel. No order had been given for the slaughter of the women, and in ancient war they were commonly reserved for slaves. By their antecedent conduct, however, the Midianitish women had forfeited all claims to mild or merciful treatment; and the sacred character, the avowed object of the war (Num 31:2-3), made their slaughter necessary without any special order. But why "kill every male among the little ones"? It was designed to be a war of extermination, such as God Himself had ordered against the people of Canaan, whom the Midianites equalled in the enormity of their wickedness.

JFB: Num 31:19-24 - abide without the camp seven days: whosoever hath killed any person . . . purify both yourselves and your captives Though the Israelites had taken the field in obedience to the command of God, they had become defiled by contact with the dead. A process of purificat...

Though the Israelites had taken the field in obedience to the command of God, they had become defiled by contact with the dead. A process of purification was to be undergone, as the law required (Lev 15:13; Num 19:9-12), and this purifying ceremony was extended to dress, houses, tents, to everything on which a dead body had lain, which had been touched by the blood-stained hands of the Israelitish warriors, or which had been the property of idolaters. This became a standing ordinance in all time coming (Lev 6:28; Lev 11:33; Lev 15:12).|| 04690||1||15||0||@Take the sum of the prey that was taken==--that is, of the captives and cattle, which, having been first lumped together according to ancient usage (Exo 15:9; Jdg 5:30), were divided into two equal parts: the one to the people at large, who had sustained a common injury from the Midianites and who were all liable to serve: and the other portion to the combatants, who, having encountered the labors and perils of war, justly received the largest share. From both parts, however, a certain deduction was taken for the sanctuary, as a thank offering to God for preservation and for victory. The soldiers had greatly the advantage in the distribution; for a five-hundredth part only of their half went to the priest, while a fiftieth part of the congregation's half was given to the Levites.|| 04697||1||16||0||@the booty, being the rest of the prey which the men of war had caught==--Some of the captives having been killed (Num 31:17) and part of the cattle taken for the support of the army, the total amount of the booty remaining was in the following proportions:

Prey Total Amount Half to Soldiers Deducted to God Half to Congregation Deducted to Levites

Sheep 675,000 337,500 675 337,500 6,750

Beeves 72,000 36,000 72 36,000 720

Asses 61,000 30,500 61 30,500 610

Persons 32,000 16,000 32 16,000 320

JFB: Num 31:48-54 - officers . . . said . . . there lacketh not one man of us A victory so signal, and the glory of which was untarnished by the loss of a single Israelitish soldier, was an astonishing miracle. So clearly betoke...

A victory so signal, and the glory of which was untarnished by the loss of a single Israelitish soldier, was an astonishing miracle. So clearly betokening the direct interposition of Heaven, it might well awaken the liveliest feelings of grateful acknowledgment to God (Psa 44:2-3). The oblation they brought for the Lord "was partly an atonement" or reparation for their error (Num 31:14-16), for it could not possess any expiatory virtue, and partly a tribute of gratitude for the stupendous service rendered them. It consisted of the "spoil," which, being the acquisition of individual valor, was not divided like the "prey," or livestock, each soldier retaining it in lieu of pay; it was offered by the "captains" alone, whose pious feelings were evinced by the dedication of the spoil which fell to their share. There were jewels to the amount of 16,750 shekels, equal to £87,869 16s. 5d. sterling.

Clarke: Num 31:2 - Gathered unto thy people Gathered unto thy people - Where? Not in the grave surely. Moses was gathered with none of them, his burial-place no man ever knew. "But being gathe...

Gathered unto thy people - Where? Not in the grave surely. Moses was gathered with none of them, his burial-place no man ever knew. "But being gathered unto one’ s people means dying."It does imply dying, but it does not mean this only. The truth is, God considers all those who are dead to men in a state of conscious existence in another world. Therefore he calls himself the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob; now God is not the God of the dead, but of the living; because all Live to Him, whether dead to men or not. Moses therefore was to be gathered to his people - to enter into that republic of Israel which, having died in the faith, fear, and love of God, were now living in a state of conscious blessedness beyond the confines of the grave. See the note on Gen 25:8, and Gen 49:33 (note).

Clarke: Num 31:3 - Avenge the Lord of Midian Avenge the Lord of Midian - It was God’ s quarrel, not their own, that they were now to take up. These people were idolaters; idolatry is an of...

Avenge the Lord of Midian - It was God’ s quarrel, not their own, that they were now to take up. These people were idolaters; idolatry is an offense against God; the civil power has no authority to meddle with what belongs to Him, without especial directions, certified in the most unequivocal way. Private revenge, extension of territory, love of plunder, were to have no place in this business; the Lord is to be avenged; and through Him the children of Israel, (Num 31:2), because their souls as well as their bodies had been well nigh ruined by their idolatry.

Clarke: Num 31:6 - A thousand of every tribe A thousand of every tribe - Twelve thousand men in the whole. And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar; some think he was made general in this expedition, b...

A thousand of every tribe - Twelve thousand men in the whole. And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar; some think he was made general in this expedition, but this is not likely. The ark and its contents must proceed to this battle, because the battle was the Lord’ s, and he dwelt between the cherubim over the ark; and Phinehas, who had before got a grant in the eternal priesthood, was chosen to accompany the ark in place of his father Eleazar, who was probably now too far advanced in years to undergo the fatigue. Who then was general? Joshua, without doubt, though not here mentioned, because the battle being the Lord’ s, he alone is to have the supreme direction, and all the glory. Besides, it was an extraordinary war, and not conducted on the common principle, for we do not find that peace was offered to the Midianites, and that they refused it; see Deu 20:10, etc. In such a case only hostilities could lawfully commence; but they were sinners against God; the cup of their iniquity was full, and God thought proper to destroy them. Though a leader there certainly was, and Joshua was probably that leader, yet because God, for the above reason, was considered as commander-in-chief, therefore no one else is mentioned; for it is evident that the sole business of Phinehas was to take care of the holy instruments and to blow with the trumpet.

Clarke: Num 31:8 - Balaam - they slew with the sword Balaam - they slew with the sword - This man had probably committed what St. John calls the sin unto death - a sin which God punishes with temporal ...

Balaam - they slew with the sword - This man had probably committed what St. John calls the sin unto death - a sin which God punishes with temporal death, while at the same time he extends mercy to the soul. See the remarks at Num 24:25 (note).

Clarke: Num 31:17 - Kill every male among the little ones Kill every male among the little ones - For this action I account simply on the principle that God, who is the author and supporter of life, has a r...

Kill every male among the little ones - For this action I account simply on the principle that God, who is the author and supporter of life, has a right to dispose of it when and how he thinks proper; and the Judge of all the earth can do nothing but what is right. Of the women killed on this occasion it may be safely said, their lives were forfeited by their personal transgressions; and yet even in this case there can be little doubt that God showed mercy to their souls. The little ones were safely lodged; they were taken to heaven and saved from the evil to come.

Clarke: Num 31:23 - The water of separation The water of separation - The water in which the ashes of the red heifer were mingled; See Num 8:7 (note), Num 19:2 (note), etc. Garments, whether o...

The water of separation - The water in which the ashes of the red heifer were mingled; See Num 8:7 (note), Num 19:2 (note), etc. Garments, whether of cloth or skins, were to be washed. Gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead, to pass through the fire, probably to be melted down.

Clarke: Num 31:28 - And levy a tribute unto the Lord - one soul of five hundred, etc. And levy a tribute unto the Lord - one soul of five hundred, etc. - The person to be employed in the Lord’ s service, under the Levites - the c...

And levy a tribute unto the Lord - one soul of five hundred, etc. - The person to be employed in the Lord’ s service, under the Levites - the cattle either for sacrifice, or for the use of the Levites, Num 31:30. Some monsters have supposed that one out of every five hundred of the captives was offered in sacrifice to the Lord! but this is abominable. When God chose to have the life of a man, he took it in the way of justice, as in the case of Midianites above, but never in the way of sacrifice.

Clarke: Num 31:32 - The booty The booty - It appears from the enumeration here that the Israelites, in this war against the Midianites, took 32,000 female prisoners, 61,000 asses...

The booty - It appears from the enumeration here that the Israelites, in this war against the Midianites, took 32,000 female prisoners, 61,000 asses, 72,000 beeves, 675,000 sheep and small cattle; besides the immense number of males who fell in battle, and the women and children who were slain by the Divine command, Num 31:17. And it does not appear that in this expedition, a single man of Israel fell! This was naturally to be expected, because the battle was the Lord’ s, Num 31:49

As the booty was divided into two equal parts, Num 31:22, one for the soldiers employed in the expedition, and the other for those who, being equally willing to be employed, were ordered to stay in the camp; so each of the parties in this booty was to give a certain proportion to the Lord. The soldiers to give to the Lord one out of every five hundred persons, beeves, asses, and sheep, Num 31:28. The people, who by staying at home risked nothing, and had no fatigue, were to give one out of fifty of the above, Num 31:30. The booty, its divisions among the soldiers and people, the proportion given by each to the Lord and to the Levites, will be seen in one view by the following table, which I copy from Houbigant

Total of sheep - 675,00

To the soldiers - 337,50

To the Lord from the soldiers - 67

To the people - 337,50

To the Levites from the people - 6,75

Total of beeves - 72, 0

To the soldiers - 36,00

To the Lord from the soldiers - 7

To the people - 36,00

To the Levites from the people - 72

Total of asses - 1,00

To the soldiers - 30,50

To the Lord from the soldiers - 6

To the people - 30,50

To the Levites from the people - 61

Total of persons - 32,00

To the soldiers.. 16,00

To the Lord from the soldiers - 3

To the Levites from the people - 32

To the people - 16,00

In this table the booty is equally divided between the people and the soldiers; a five-hundredth part being given to the Lord, and a fiftieth part to the Levites.

Clarke: Num 31:50 - We have - brought an oblation for the Lord We have - brought an oblation for the Lord - So it appears there was a great deal of booty taken which did not come into the general account; and of...

We have - brought an oblation for the Lord - So it appears there was a great deal of booty taken which did not come into the general account; and of this the soldiers, of their own will, made a very extensive offering to God, because he had preserved them from falling in battle. That not one man should have been slain is a most extraordinary circumstance, and powerfully marks the peculiar superintendence of God’ s especial providence. The Midianites must certainly have made some resistance; but that was ineffectual, because it was against the Lord. When any nation undertakes a crusade against those whom they are pleased to call the Lord’ s enemies, let them bring from the contest this proof of their Divine mission, viz., that not one man of them is either lost or missing; and then, and not till then, shall we believe that God hath sent them

Clarke: Num 31:50 - To make an atonement for our souls To make an atonement for our souls - That is, to make an acknowledgment to God for the preservation of their lives. The gold offered on this occasio...

To make an atonement for our souls - That is, to make an acknowledgment to God for the preservation of their lives. The gold offered on this occasion amounted to 16,750 shekels, equal to 37,869, 16s. 5d. of our money. See the note on Exo 25:39, where the true value of the shekel is given, and a rule laid down to reduce it to English money.

Calvin: Num 31:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses 1.And the Lord spake unto Moses Amongst the other prerogatives which God conferred upon His Church, this one is celebrated, that He armed the godly ...

1.And the Lord spake unto Moses Amongst the other prerogatives which God conferred upon His Church, this one is celebrated, that He armed the godly “to execute vengeance upon the heathen, — to execute upon them the judgment that is written,” (Psa 149:7) and although the Spirit declares that this should happen under the kingdom of Christ, still He refers to ancient examples, one of which, well worthy of remembrance, is here recorded. The Midianites had organized a wicked conspiracy for the destruction of God’s people: and God, in undertaking to punish this cruel act of theirs, gave a striking proof of His paternal favor towards the Israelites; whilst this grace is doubled by His constituting them the ministers of his judgment. This passage, therefore, shews us how anxious God was for the welfare of His elect people, when He so set Himself against their enemies, as if He would make common cause in all respects with them. At the same time we must observe this additional favor towards them, that although the Israelites themselves were not without blame, He still deigned to appoint them as judges of the Midianites. Inasmuch, however, as He everywhere prohibits His people from indulging the lust of vengeance, we must not forget the distinction between men’s vengeance and His own. He would have His servants, by patiently bearing injuries, overcome evil with good; while, at the same time, He by no means abdicates His own power, but still reserves to Himself the right of inflicting punishment. Nay, Paul, desiring to exhort believers to long-suffering, recalls them to the principle, that God takes upon Himself the office of avenging. 203 Since, then, God is at liberty to execute vengeance, not only by Himself, but also by His ministers, as we have already seen, these two things are not inconsistent with each other, that the passions of the godly are laid under restraint by the Word, that they should not, when injured, seek for vengeance, or retaliate the evils they have received, and still that they are the just and legitimate executioners of God’s vengeance, when the sword is put into their hands. It remains, that whosoever is called to this office, should punish crime with honest zeal, as the minister of God, and not as acting in his own private cause. God here intrusted the office of vengeance upon His people, but by no means in order that they might indulge the lust of their nature: for their feeling ought to have been this, that they should have been ready to pardon the Midianites, 204 and still that they should heartily bestir themselves to inflict punishment upon them.

That, whilst God so severely judged the Midianites, he spared the Moabites, was for the sake of Lot, who was the founder of their race. But I have already frequently reminded my readers that, when God’s judgments surpass our understanding, we should, in sober humility, give glory to His secret, and to us incomprehensible, wisdom: for those who, in this respect, seek to know more than is fitting, elevate themselves too high, in order to plunge with head-long audacity into a profound abyss, in which, at length, all their senses must be overwhelmed. Why was He not at liberty to remit the punishment of the Moabites, and at the same time to repay to the Midianites the recompense which was their due? Besides, it was only for a time that he pardoned the Moabites, until their obstinacy should render them inexcusable, after they had not only abused his forbearance, but tyrannically afflicted their brethren, by whom they had been treated with kindness.

Moreover, God desired, whilst Moses was still alive, again to testify by this final act His love towards His people, in order that they might more cheerfully advance to the possession of the promised land: for this was no feeble encouragement, when they saw that God spontaneously put Himself forward to avenge them. At the same time it was expedient for Moses that, at the very moment of his death, he should feel, by a fresh instance, what care God took for the welfare of the people. For he was able joyfully to leave them in God’s keeping, whose hand he had so recently seen put forth to fulfill to the utmost His gracious purposes towards them. To the same effect were the words, “Thou shalt be gathered unto thy people,” which were undoubtedly spoken as a consolation in death. It was also a reason for making haste; for if the dearth of the holy Prophet had been waited for, perhaps the Israelites would not have dared to attack, with arms in their hands, a peaceful nation, from whom there was no peril or inconvenience impending. But so great was the authority of Moses over them, that they were more ready to obey his bidding than that of any other person.

Although it is said indifferently of the reprobate as well as believers, that they are gathered or congregated to their fathers by death, still this expression shews that men are born for immortality; for it would not be appropriate to say this of the brute animals, whose death is their final destruction, inasmuch as they are without the hope of another life.

Calvin: Num 31:3 - And Moses spake unto the people 3.And Moses spake unto the people There is no doubt but that Moses delivered the commands which he had received from God; although, therefore, it is ...

3.And Moses spake unto the people There is no doubt but that Moses delivered the commands which he had received from God; although, therefore, it is stated 205 that only ten thousand went forth to the war, yet the facts themselves demonstrate that the number, as well as the mode of warfare, was prescribed by God. And assuredly it would have been inconsiderate of Moses to attack so great a people with so small a band; and thus he would have deservedly incurred the penalty of his rashness, if he had attempted it of his own accord; still, when God’s command had preceded, he happily concluded the matter, which had been properly and rightly undertaken. Nor can it be questioned but that God desired by this test to prove the faith of His people. For, according to human apprehension, it was folly to endanger themselves without cause; and the objection was obvious that it was by no means advisable, when six hundred thousand men were at hand, to restrict to so few the office of waging such a perilous war. Just, therefore, as God afterwards destroyed the great army of the Midianites by only four hundred men under the guidance of Gideon, so also under the hand of Moses He sent forth only a single thousand from every tribe for the destruction of that nation. The tribe of Zebulon alone could have furnished five times as many soldiers as God took from the whole people. Thus, then, they proved their faith, when in reliance on the aid of God alone, they did not hesitate boldly to rush forward against their enemies. And the event itself more fully illustrated God’s grace than as if they had fought with all their forces, for then it would have been believed that the Midianites were overwhelmed by the infinite multitude of men. As, therefore, the people testified their obedience by prompt compliance, so they experienced in the result that there is nothing better than to submit ourselves to God, and to leave the prospect of success so completely in His hand, as that our confidence may depend solely upon him.

Lest either of the tribes should boast itself against the others, they were each of them commanded to give the same number of soldiers. Moreover, Phinehas was sent with them, not so much that he might engage personally with the enemy, or be their General, as that he might rule and control their minds as God’s messenger and interpreter. They were to be kept in the fear of God, and to be elevated to the expectation of victory, and therefore God’s priest was their leader, so that the war might be a holy one; and the same was the object of the silver trumpets, with which, in obedience to the Lw, as we have elsewhere seen, 206 the Levites were accustomed to sound, that it might be manifest that their battles were not fought without the will and authority of heaven. Amongst “the holy instruments,” some commentators, in my opinion rightly, include the Ark of the Covenant.

Calvin: Num 31:7 - And they warred against the Midianites 7.And they warred against the Midianites It was a signal example of obedience, that 12,000 men did not refuse to engage in a war which was full of da...

7.And they warred against the Midianites It was a signal example of obedience, that 12,000 men did not refuse to engage in a war which was full of danger, when it was reasonable for them to object that it was not right for them to be exposed to butchery, as it were, whilst the people sat idly in the camp, who by their great numbers and with little trouble would have routed and overcome the enemy. It was therefore no common proof of piety, that they obeyed God’s command, and sought for no pretext to cover their cowardice. God, too, shewed by the result that He did not rashly expose His servants to danger; for it is in His power to rescue those whom He takes under His protection, from a hundred deaths. From hence also we are taught that there is no surer means of safety than to follow whither He leads. What Moses afterwards adds, tends to render praise to their perseverance, with one exception, they were right in killing all the males, even to the kings, whom Moses relates to have been slain in the general slaughter; and especially that they inflicted punishment on Balaam, who by his cunning and his snares, had endeavored to destroy the people of God. They were right, too, in spoiling the whole land; nor did they act with less propriety and discretion in razing all the cities and towns, which might have been a temptation to the timid and inactive to take up their abode there; for, as we have seen before, all hindrances were to be taken away, so that the people might advance freely and without incumbrance into the land of Canaan; else, when there was an opportunity of repose, many would have willingly foregone the promised inheritance. Hence the cities were consumed by fire, lest they should afford any hold for those who were willing to stay. Thus far the selected soldiers faithfully performed their duty: in one respect they failed, in that, under the impulse either of avarice or lust, they preserved the women alive: on which point we shall see more presently.

Calvin: Num 31:11 - And they took all the spoil 11.And they took all the spoil It was a sign both of their disinterestedness and modesty, that they brought the booty, which they had taken in the ar...

11.And they took all the spoil It was a sign both of their disinterestedness and modesty, that they brought the booty, which they had taken in the ardor of battle, to Moses and Eleazar; nor was it a mere empty and pompous ceremony, as many boastingly parade the wealth which they desire to keep to themselves; but their intention was, to acquiesce in the determination of Moses as to its distribution. For, when Moses soon afterwards allots half of it to the people, they are so far from rebelling against his decision, that they do not even murmur. It is clear, then, that in this respect they were no less submissive than they had been when, at the outset, they took up arms, and boldly went forth to battle, whilst the rest were quietly reposing out of the reach of the darts.

Calvin: Num 31:14 - And Moses was wroth with the officers 14.And Moses was wroth with the officers A successful issue usually obtains pardon for any errors in performance, nay, in a manner covers them, so th...

14.And Moses was wroth with the officers A successful issue usually obtains pardon for any errors in performance, nay, in a manner covers them, so that they are not taken into account; but, although the army brought with it many causes of congratulation, still Moses does not forbear from severely reproving their single fault. By this example we are taught that, whilst we give praise to virtuous actions, we are not to approve of anything which deserves reprehension. The anger of Moses might appear to us inhumane, when he severely reproves his soldiers because they had not treated the female sex with the greatest cruelty; but it is not our business to canvass the judgments of God, before whose tribunal we must all hereafter stand. Although, therefore, they may be repugnant to our own feelings, still we must rest assured that, even where they may seem to be excessive, He nevertheless tempers the most severe punishments with the most perfect equity; yea, that although He may for a time overlook, or at any rate not so severely punish, the same sin in the Moabites which He sorely avenged upon the Midiantes, there is still a most just cause for this distinction, although it may be hidden in His own breast. It is not our part to murmur against Him, lest He should absolve Himself by condemning our blasphemous audacity and temerity.

The Israelites sinned, in that, when they were only the ministers of God’s vengeance, it rested not in their own discretion to relax any part of it. And this is worthy of observation, that those who are armed with the sword, must not go out of the way on either side one tittle, but faithfully execute whatever God prescribes. By the praise which: is given to the anger of Moses, the imagination of the Stoics is refuted, with whom indifference 207 (ἀπάθεια) is the highest of virtues. But rather are we to labor that all our affections should proceed from a good motive, and that they should be kept under such restraint, that they may contain no ebullition of carnal passion, but that spiritual zeal may preside in them. Moses, however, gives the reason why the women were no more to be spared than the men, viz., because they had prostituted themselves in order to lay deadly snares for the Israelites. As regards the little ones, the same reasoa did not affect them, inasmuch as they were guilty of no crime; yet is it not doubtful but that God justly desired that the very name of this wicked and irrecoverable nation should be utterly blotted out; just as He afterwards gave over to destruction the nations of Canaan, together with their offspring. The question, however, arises by what means the women, who “had not known a man,” were to be distinguished from virgins. The Jews, according to their custom, invent a fable 208 in reply, whereas it is probable that the decision was only come to on the ground of their age.

Calvin: Num 31:19 - And do ye abide without the camp seven days 19.And do ye abide without the camp seven days We have elsewhere seen, 209 that, if any one had touched a dead body, he was accounted unclean. Moses,...

19.And do ye abide without the camp seven days We have elsewhere seen, 209 that, if any one had touched a dead body, he was accounted unclean. Moses, by now extending the ceremony of expiation to lawful homicide, intimates how carefully we ought to abstain from shedding human blood. It was required of the Israelites that they should strenuously advance through the midst of carnage; but, inasmuch as it is in a manner contrary to the order of nature that men should be killed by men, as if they were raging against their own bowels, God would have some vestiges of humanity preserved even in just punishments, so as to put a restraint upon all cruelty in the abstract. Nor is it without cause that Scripture, even in commending heroic bravery, uses this form of expression, that “they have polluted their hands with blood,” who have slain any of their enemies, i.e., in order that we may abhor all acts of homicide, as being repugnant to the preservation of the human race. Although, therefore, the Israelites had slain the Midianites not only justly, but by God’s command, still, lest they should accustom themselves to the indiscriminate shedding of blood, they are commanded to purify themselves on the third and the seventh day, before they returned to the camp, so that their pollution should not infect the people. The reason for purifying the booty was different, viz., because the uncleanness of their vessels indicated how detestable was this people, whose very utensils, until they were purified either by fire or water, defiled every one by the mere touch. Lest, however, the soldiers should refuse to obey, or should comply unwillingly, Eleazar reminds them that nothing more was required of them than the observance of an old injunction. Nor is it to be doubted but that Moses designedly resigned the office of teaching to his nephew, because the interpretation of the law was hereafter to be sought from the mouth of the priest

Calvin: Num 31:25 - And the Lord spake unto Moses 25.And the Lord spake unto Moses A most equitable distribution of the booty is here described, in which the law of proportion was so well observed th...

25.And the Lord spake unto Moses A most equitable distribution of the booty is here described, in which the law of proportion was so well observed that, whilst the soldiers were not defrauded of the reward of their labor, at the same time some advantage accrued to the rest of the people in whose name the war was carried on. The share of the multitude was indeed small, for the same proportion was awarded to the 12,000 as to the remaining 600,000. But, since the booty had been already won by the soldiers in right of their victory, it ought not to have been a cause of complaint to the people who had not borne arms, that they received an honorary gift, although it might be of little value. And assuredly it would have been a shame that those who remained in the camp should be altogether without any part of the spoil, as if they had been convicted of cowardice, whereas it did not depend on themselves that they had not taken part with their brethren in the conquest of the enemy. For it was from no want of courage that they had escaped the burden and the perils of war, but they had modestly allowed the general glory to be appropriated by a few, because it had so pleased God. But, whilst it was just that some of the fruits of the victory should be communicated to all, so it. was no less right that the fuller and more liberal reward should be received by those who had borne the whole brunt of the war.

It appears to some that David pursued the same rule, when he distributed the spoil equally amongst his followers who had gone down to the battle, and those who had stood by the baggage. (1Sa 30:24.) In my opinion, however, what David then decided was very different; for if the portion of those who remained with the baggage had been equal with that of those who were actually engaged, it would have been far more advantageous to remain out of the reach of the weapons. For, when a battle is fought, only a few men out of a large army are generally left with the baggage, and thus half the booty would have accrued to a few idlers. The partition, therefore, which is there mentioned, must have been an equal distribution to each individual; and very justly did David enjoin that those who remained stationed in the camp should have a full share of the spoil, lest 210 the condition of those should be dissimilar who were under the operation of the same rule. But in this case the actual warriors are justly rewarded above those who quietly attended to their own domestic cares.

Calvin: Num 31:28 - And levy a tribute unto the Lord 28.And levy a tribute unto the Lord God now requires a tribute, or holy oblation, out of the spoil from both parties, but in unequal portions, the pe...

28.And levy a tribute unto the Lord God now requires a tribute, or holy oblation, out of the spoil from both parties, but in unequal portions, the people paying ten times more than the soldiers. There was a twofold reason and object for this tribute; for it was not fair that the Levites alone should be sent away empty, as if their condition were worse than that of the rest, because they were occupied in the service of God, and in taking care of the holy things. But the part which He assigns to them, God commands to be offered to Himself, that men may not only regard equity amongst each other, but that religion may stand in the foremost place; for nothing can be more unreasonable than that the rights of men should be maintained inviolate, whilst God himself is overlooked. In order, then, to testify their piety, the offering was enjoined, as if God claimed for Himself the glory of the victory in taking this fiftieth and five-hundredth portion. But, inasmuch as He has no want of anything, having full satisfaction in Himself alone, the Levites are substituted in His stead, that they may receive some reward for their ministry.

Again, we perceive that God dealt more liberally with the soldiers than with the rest of the multitude; nor is this a matter of surprise, for, since He had laid a greater burden upon them, it was just that they should be enriched by more fruits of the victory, for He heaps blessings upon blessings according to His pleasure.

From this distribution we also gather that it depends upon His ordinance that some should be richer than others; for, if there were no such thing as property, there would be no test of justice and integrity.

Calvin: Num 31:37 - And the Lord’s tribute of the sheep 37.And the Lord’s tribute of the sheep The greatness of the victory is shewn by the result, since such an abundance of cattle could only have been ...

37.And the Lord’s tribute of the sheep The greatness of the victory is shewn by the result, since such an abundance of cattle could only have been collected from a wide and populous country. It is probable that it was not very fertile, and consequently only live stock, and not corn and wine, are enumerated as amongst their wealth. Still, we may conjecture that it was famous for pastures, since barren mountains could not have fed so many oxen, and goats, and sheep, and camels; besides, it is most evident, from the number of young women, that the men who were slain were more in number than their conquerors who had been sent to the battle; for suppose they each of them had an unmarried daughter, they would have almost three times outnumbered the 12,000 Israelites. Hence, again, it is manifest that the victory was effected by Divine power. It may, however, seem strange that, although the nation was almost destroyed, nevertheless their posterity existed some little time afterwards, as if new Midianites had been begotten from the ashes of their sires. For it was not a very long time that elapsed between this slaughter and the time of Gideon, when they again dared voluntarily to attack the Israelites, and in reliance on their multitude, to rush into the very heart of Canaan; nay, they had already brought all the neighboring nations into subjection. How this could have happened, since the Scriptures do not inform us, it only remains for us to make the conjecture, that many of them, as is often the case in a season of confusion, fled elsewhere, and soon afterwards returned into the land, which was now unoccupied. For the sudden irruption of the Israelites was like a storm which soon passed away; nor was flight a difficult thing for this unsettled and wandering nation. It might also have been the case, that many immigrants from various quarters flowed into the land, when stripped of its inhabitants; or even that the Israelites, having performed their work but slackly, sounded the recall sooner than they ought, and that God afterwards punished their remissness. At any rate, we are taught by this example that the wicked sprout up like foul and noxious weeds, so that, though often cut down, they soon cover the ground again.

Calvin: Num 31:48 - And the officers which were over the thousands 48.And the officers which were over the thousands We have here an example of signal gratitude, that the leaders of the army, when they saw that none ...

48.And the officers which were over the thousands We have here an example of signal gratitude, that the leaders of the army, when they saw that none of their men were lost, consecrated their spoils of gold and silver to the Lord. By the offering of the first-fruits, they had already sufficiently testified their piety and obedience; nor, indeed, after they had faithfully complied with God’s command, could anything more have been expected from them; hence does their liberality deserve so much the more praise, when they lay themselves under the obligation of a new and extraordinary vow. At the same time, Moses magnifies God’s special blessing in bringing them all back safely to a man from this great battle. Surely, since their spoils must have been driven from many villages, it was strange that some few of them at least had not been slain in their very passage from one place to another. Hence, therefore, it was more than ever manifest that the war was thus successfully concluded under the guidance of God, who had protected the 12,000 men. Hence the incredible goodness of God towards his people is here celebrated, as well as the pious profession of the officers, when it is expressly stated that, having mustered their forces, they had found them all safe, so that there could be no doubt nor question about the grace of God. In acknowledgment, therefore, of His wondrous power in the preservation of the soldiers, they offer as the price of their redemption whatever gold and silver they had taken among the spoils. Moses records the sum, so that it may more clearly appear that, in the performance of this act of homage, it was no trifling amount of gain that they despised, for its amount is more than 10,500 livres of French money. 211

But what becomes of the soldiers? whilst these vows are being paid for their safety, they quietly enjoy their plunder: for there is an implied comparison here, when Moses, after having praised the centurions and tribunes, presently adds the exception, that “the spoil which each man had taken was his own.” It is, indeed, amazing that the soldiers, as if they had conquered by themselves, and for themselves alone, should have been so ill-conditioned and mean, as not to imitate this laudable example. And, in truth, it often happens, that the multitude indulges its meanness without shame, as well because it is ignorant of what true nobility is, as because the crowd conceals the disgrace. Meanwhile, those in office are reminded to take care, that the higher the dignity may be to which they are called, the more eminent should their virtues be.

Calvin: Num 31:51 - And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold 51.And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold It was fitting that this should be added, lest any should suppose that Eleazar made a profit by the...

51.And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold It was fitting that this should be added, lest any should suppose that Eleazar made a profit by the liberality of others. Moses, therefore, relates, that whatever gold was offered, was faithfully laid up as an ornament for the sanctuary. When it is said, “for a memorial for the children of Israel,” it may be taken either actively or passively; viz., either that the gift may be a monument of their gratitude, or that it might conciliate favor for the people in the eyes of God; as if that offering of expiation brought before God, and represented, all those who thus professed themselves to be preserved by His grace. I prefer the latter sense myself, i.e., that this memorial was set before His eyes, in order that God might hereafter also be favorable to His people.

Defender: Num 31:7 - Midianites The Midianites were a group of nomadic tribes descended from Abraham through his wife, Keturah (Gen 25:1-4). This particular tribe was apparently clos...

The Midianites were a group of nomadic tribes descended from Abraham through his wife, Keturah (Gen 25:1-4). This particular tribe was apparently closely allied with the Moabites and participated with the Moabites in the seduction of Israel into fornication and idolatry (Num 25:6, Num 25:16-18)."

Defender: Num 31:8 - Balaam The sad end of Balaam indicates that no one, regardless of his great spiritual gifts, is immune from falling if he forsakes God's revealed will for hi...

The sad end of Balaam indicates that no one, regardless of his great spiritual gifts, is immune from falling if he forsakes God's revealed will for his own temporal advantage. Balaam knew God and had the gift of prophecy. Even in his self-willed compromise he was given marvelous revelations, uttering amazing prophecies that would be brought to fulfillment by God many centuries later. Yet, frustrated in his desire to advance his own position and wealth, and to promote his own people against God's chosen people, he then counseled the Moabites to tempt the Israelites into adultery and idolatry with the Moabite women (Num 25:1-5; Num 31:16). He apparently sought to destroy by seduction those whom he could not destroy by might."

TSK: Num 31:2 - Avenge // the Midianites // gathered Avenge : Num 31:3, Num 25:17, Num 25:18; Deu 32:35; Jdg 16:24, Jdg 16:28-30; Psa 94:1-3; Isa 1:24; Nah 1:2; Luk 21:22; Rom 12:19, Rom 13:4; 1Th 4:6; H...

TSK: Num 31:3 - Arm some // avenge the Lord Arm some : Exo 17:9-13 avenge the Lord : It was God’ s quarrel, not their own, that they were now to take up. These people were idolaters, and h...

Arm some : Exo 17:9-13

avenge the Lord : It was God’ s quarrel, not their own, that they were now to take up. These people were idolaters, and had seduced the Israelites to practise the same abominations. Idolatry is an offence against God; and the civil power has no authority to meddle with what belongs to Him, without especial directions, certified, as in this case, in the most unequivocal manner. Private revenge, ambition, or avarice were to have no place in this business: Jehovah is to be avenged; and through Him, the children of Israel (Num 31:2), because they were nearly ruined by their idolatries. If Jehovah, instead of punishing sinners by earthquakes, pestilence, or famine,is pleased expressly to command any person or people to avenge his cause, this commission justifies, nay sanctifies, war, massacre, or devastation. Though none at present shew such a commission, yet the Israelites could; and it is therefore absurd to censure Moses, Joshua, and Israel, for the dreadful slaughter made by them. God himself passed sentence of condemnation, and employed them merely as ministers of his vengeance; and unless it could be proved that the criminals did not deserve their doom, or that God had no right to punish his rebellious creatures, such objectors only shew their enmity to God by becoming the unsolicited advocates of his enemies. Num 25:11, Num 25:13; Exo 17:16; Lev 26:25; Jdg 5:2, Jdg 5:23; 2Ki 9:7, 2Ki 10:30; Jer 46:10; Jer 50:28

TSK: Num 31:4 - Of every tribe a thousand // a thousand Of every tribe a thousand : Heb. A thousand of a tribe, a thousand of a tribe a thousand : Lev 26:8; Jdg 7:2; 1Sa 14:6

Of every tribe a thousand : Heb. A thousand of a tribe, a thousand of a tribe

a thousand : Lev 26:8; Jdg 7:2; 1Sa 14:6

TSK: Num 31:6 - a thousand // Phinehas // the holy instruments // to blow a thousand : Twelve thousand in all - a small number in proportion to all Israel, or to the forces which they had to encounter. As they were under ...

a thousand : Twelve thousand in all - a small number in proportion to all Israel, or to the forces which they had to encounter. As they were under the conduct of captains of thousands and hundreds, they probably had no general; for Phinehas seems to have accompanied them simply to take charge of ""the holy instruments;""probably the ark and silver trumpets.

Phinehas : Num 25:7-13

the holy instruments : Num 14:44, Num 33:20-22; Exo 25:9; Jos 6:4-6, Jos 6:13-15; 1Sa 4:4, 1Sa 4:5, 1Sa 4:17, 1Sa 14:18; 1Sa 23:9; 2Sa 11:11

to blow : Num 10:8, Num 10:9; 2Ch 13:12-15

TSK: Num 31:7 - all // the males all : Deu 20:13, Deu 20:14; Jdg 21:11; 1Sa 27:9; 1Ki 11:15, 1Ki 11:16 the males : Jdg 6:1, Jdg 6:2, Jdg 6:33

TSK: Num 31:8 - the kings // Zur // Balaam the kings : Num 22:4; Jos 13:21, Jos 13:22 Zur : Num 25:15, Num 25:18 Balaam : Num 22:10, Num 24:25; Jos 13:22; Psa 9:16, Psa 10:2; 1Ti 6:9, 1Ti 6:10;...

TSK: Num 31:9 - -- Num 31:15, Num 31:16; Deu 20:14; 2Ch 28:5, 2Ch 28:8-10

TSK: Num 31:10 - -- Jos 6:24; 1Sa 30:1; 1Ki 9:16; Isa 1:7; Rev 18:8

TSK: Num 31:11 - -- Deu 20:14; Jos 8:2

TSK: Num 31:12 - the plains of Moab the plains of Moab : Num 22:1

the plains of Moab : Num 22:1

TSK: Num 31:13 - went forth // without the camp went forth : Gen 14:17; 1Sa 15:12, 1Sa 30:21 without the camp : Num 31:12, Num 31:22-24, Num 5:2, Num 19:11

went forth : Gen 14:17; 1Sa 15:12, 1Sa 30:21

without the camp : Num 31:12, Num 31:22-24, Num 5:2, Num 19:11

TSK: Num 31:14 - wroth // battle wroth : Num 12:3; Exo 32:19, Exo 32:22; Lev 10:16; 1Sa 15:13, 1Sa 15:14; 1Ki 20:42; 2Ki 13:19; Eph 4:26 battle : Heb. host of war

TSK: Num 31:15 - -- Deu 2:34, Deu 20:13, Deu 20:16-18; Jos 6:21, Jos 8:25, Jos 10:40, Jos 11:14; 1Sa 15:3; Psa 137:8, Psa 137:9; Jer 48:10; Eze 9:6

TSK: Num 31:16 - these caused // in the matter // and there these caused : Num 24:14, Num 25:1-3; Pro 23:27; Ecc 7:26; 2Pe 2:15; Rev 2:14 in the matter : Num 25:18; Deu 4:3; Jos 22:17 and there : Num 25:9

these caused : Num 24:14, Num 25:1-3; Pro 23:27; Ecc 7:26; 2Pe 2:15; Rev 2:14

in the matter : Num 25:18; Deu 4:3; Jos 22:17

and there : Num 25:9

TSK: Num 31:17 - kill every male // him kill every male : The sword of war should spare women and children, as incapable of resisting; but the sword of justice knows no distinction, except t...

kill every male : The sword of war should spare women and children, as incapable of resisting; but the sword of justice knows no distinction, except that of guilty or not guilty, or more or less guilty. This was the execution of a righteous sentence upon a guilty nation, in which the women were the greatest criminals; and it may safely be said, that their lives were forfeited by their personal transgressions. With respect to the execution of the male infants, who cannot be supposed to have been guilty, God, the author and supporter of life, who has a right to dispose of it when and how he thinks proper, commanded it; and ""shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?""Jdg 21:11, Jdg 21:12

him : Heb. a male

TSK: Num 31:18 - keep alive for yourselves keep alive for yourselves : It has been groundlessly asserted, that Moses here authorised the Israelites to make concubines of the whole number of fem...

keep alive for yourselves : It has been groundlessly asserted, that Moses here authorised the Israelites to make concubines of the whole number of female children; and an insidious objection against his writings has been grounded upon this monstrous supposition. But the whole tenor of the law, and especially a statute recorded in Deu 21:10-14, proves most decisively to the contrary. They were merely permitted to possess them as female slaves, educating them in their families, and employing them as domestics; for the laws concerning fornication, concubinage, and marriage, were in full force, and prohibited an Israelite even from marrying a captive, without delays and previous formalities; and if he afterwards divorced her, he was to set here at liberty, ""because he had humbled her.""Lev 25:44; Deu 20:14, Deu 21:10-14; 2Ch 28:8-10; Isa 14:2

TSK: Num 31:19 - abide abide : Though the Israelites had acted by the commission of God, yet they had contracted pollution by touching the dead; and the spoil having been us...

abide : Though the Israelites had acted by the commission of God, yet they had contracted pollution by touching the dead; and the spoil having been used by idolaters, must also be purified in the prescribed manner. Num 5:2, Num 19:11-22; 1Ch 22:8

TSK: Num 31:20 - raiment // that is made raiment : Num 19:14-16, Num 19:22; Gen 35:2; Exo 19:10 that is made : Heb. instrument, or, vessel

raiment : Num 19:14-16, Num 19:22; Gen 35:2; Exo 19:10

that is made : Heb. instrument, or, vessel

TSK: Num 31:21 - -- Num 30:16

TSK: Num 31:23 - abide // it shall be purified // ye shall make abide : Isa 43:2; Zec 13:9; Mal 2:2, Mal 2:3; Mat 3:11; 1Co 3:13; 1Pe 1:7, 1Pe 4:12; Rev 3:18 it shall be purified : Num 8:7, Num 19:9, Num 19:17 ye s...

TSK: Num 31:24 - -- Num 19:19; Lev 11:25, Lev 14:9, Lev 15:13

TSK: Num 31:26 - that was taken that was taken : Heb. of the captivity, Num 31:26

that was taken : Heb. of the captivity, Num 31:26

TSK: Num 31:27 - two parts two parts : Jos 22:8; 1Sa 30:4, 1Sa 30:24, 1Sa 30:25; Psa 68:12

TSK: Num 31:28 - levy // one soul levy : Gen 14:20; Jos 6:19, Jos 6:24; 2Sa 8:11, 2Sa 8:12; 1Ch 18:11, 1Ch 26:26, 1Ch 26:27; Pro 3:9, Pro 3:10; Isa 18:7, Isa 23:18, Isa 60:9; Mat 22:21...

TSK: Num 31:29 - an heave an heave : Num 18:26; Exo 29:27; Deu 12:12, Deu 12:19

TSK: Num 31:30 - one portion // flocks // and give // keep the one portion : Num 31:42-47 flocks : or, goats and give : Num 31:28, Num 18:24-28; 1Co 9:13, 1Co 9:14 keep the : Num 3:7, Num 3:8, Num 3:25, Num 3:31, ...

TSK: Num 31:32 - the booty the booty : It appears from the enumeration here, that the Israelites, in this war with the Midianites, took 32,000 female prisoners, 61,000 asses, 72...

the booty : It appears from the enumeration here, that the Israelites, in this war with the Midianites, took 32,000 female prisoners, 61,000 asses, 72,000 beeves, and 675,000 sheep and small cattle; besides the immense number of males who fell in battle, and the women and children who were slain by the divine command (Num 31:17). This booty was divided into equal parts, by which partition a far larger share was justly given to the warriors employed on the expedition, who were only 12,000, than to those, who being equally willing to go, were ordered to stay in the camp. Each party was to give a certain proportion to Jehovah, as their sovereign, in grateful acknowledgment that to him they owed their success. The soldiers to give to the Lord one out of every five hundred persons, beeves, asses, and sheep (Num 31:28), and the people, who by staying at home risked nothing, and had no fatigue, were to give one out of fifty of each of the above to the Levites, who were far more numerous than the priests (Num 31:30). The booty, its division among the soldiers and people, and the proportion given by each to the Lord and to the Levites, will be seen at one view by the following table:

>
Offering
Types
To SoldiersTo
God
To PeopleTo LevitesTotal
Offerings
Sheep 337,500 675 337,500 6,750 675,000
Beeves 36,000 72 36,000 720 72,000
Asses 30,500 61 30,500 610 61,000
Persons 16,000 32 16,000 320 32,000
It does not appear that a single ox, sheep, or ass, was required by Moses as his portion; or that there was any given to him by the people; and though he had a family as well as others, yet no provision was made for them above the common lot of Levites!

TSK: Num 31:41 - Eleazar Eleazar : Num 31:29-31, Num 18:8, Num 18:19; Mat 10:10; 1Co 9:10-14; Gal 6:6; 1Ti 5:17; Heb 7:4-6, Heb 7:9-12

TSK: Num 31:47 - the Levites // kept the charge the Levites : Num 18:21-24; Deu 12:17-19; Luk 10:1-8; 1Th 5:12, 1Th 5:13 kept the charge : Num 31:30; Psa 134:1; Isa 56:10, Isa 56:11

TSK: Num 31:49 - charge // lacketh charge : Heb. hand lacketh : 1Sa 30:18, 1Sa 30:19; Psa 72:14; Joh 18:9

charge : Heb. hand

lacketh : 1Sa 30:18, 1Sa 30:19; Psa 72:14; Joh 18:9

TSK: Num 31:50 - therefore brought // an oblation // gotten // an atonement therefore brought : The officers of the army having mustered their men, found they had not lost a man in the contest with Midian! Penetrated with gra...

therefore brought : The officers of the army having mustered their men, found they had not lost a man in the contest with Midian! Penetrated with gratitude for this most remarkable interposition of Providence in their favour, they now offer to Jehovah the golden jewels which they had found among the spoil, to the amount of 16,750 shekels, equal to £37,869, 16s. 5d. of our money.

an oblation : Psa 107:15, Psa 107:21, Psa 107:22, Psa 116:12, Psa 116:17

gotten : Heb. found

an atonement : Exo 30:12, Exo 30:15, Exo 30:16; Lev 17:11

TSK: Num 31:51 - -- Num 7:2-6

TSK: Num 31:52 - offering offering : Heb. heave-offering, Num 31:52

offering : Heb. heave-offering, Num 31:52

TSK: Num 31:53 - -- Deu 20:14

TSK: Num 31:54 - a memorial a memorial : Num 16:40; Exo 30:16; Jos 4:7; Psa 18:49, Psa 103:1, Psa 103:2, Psa 115:1, Psa 145:7; Zec 6:14; Luk 22:19; Act 10:4

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Num 31:2 - -- Of the Midianites, for their malicious designs and practices against Israel, both by hiring Balaam to curse them, and by sending their women to ensl...

Of the Midianites, for their malicious designs and practices against Israel, both by hiring Balaam to curse them, and by sending their women to enslave them. The Moabites also were guilty, but God out of his own good pleasure, and in kindness to Lot, was pleased to spare them, the rather, because the measure of their iniquity was not yet full.

Poole: Num 31:3 - avenge the Israelites For the affront and injury which they offered to God, partly by their own idolatry and lewdness, and partly by seducing God’ s people into rebe...

For the affront and injury which they offered to God, partly by their own idolatry and lewdness, and partly by seducing God’ s people into rebellion against him. God’ s great care was to

avenge the Israelites Num 31:2 , and Moses’ s chief desire was to avenge God rather than himself or the people. Withal he doth hereby insinuate, that God and his people have the same cause, the same friends and enemies.

Poole: Num 31:5 - A thousand of every tribe A thousand of every tribe to prevent emulations or divisions. God would send no more, though it is apparent that the Midianites were numerous and str...

A thousand of every tribe to prevent emulations or divisions. God would send no more, though it is apparent that the Midianites were numerous and strong, because he would try and exercise their trust in him, and because he would hereby give them an earnest of their Canaanitish conquests.

Poole: Num 31:6 - Phinehas // the holy instruments // And the trumpets Phinehas had the charge not of the army, as general, (an office never committed to any priest in all the Old Testament,) but of the holy instruments...

Phinehas had the charge not of the army, as general, (an office never committed to any priest in all the Old Testament,) but of

the holy instruments & c. as is here expressed, and was also sent to encourage, and quicken, and confirm them in their good enterprise. It is not here mentioned who was the general, whether Joshua, as some think, because he is not named amongst those who went out to meet the returning host, though that might be for other reasons, or some other prince, nor is it worth while to determine. The holy instruments ; either,

1. The ark, with the things belonging to it, which before the building of the temple they did sometimes carry into the war for the encouragement of their army. See Num 14:44 Jos 6:9 1Sa 4:4 14:18 . But why then is it thus ambiguously expressed, seeing in all the other places it is called by its proper name? Nor is the ark ever so called in Scripture. Or,

2. The trumpets, as it here follows, the words being thus to be read, the holy instruments that is, the trumpets ; for and is ofttimes put exegetically for that is , or to wit , as Gen 13:15 1Ch 21:12 , compared with 2Sa 24:13 Zec 1:4 9:9 , &c. Or rather,

3. The holy breastplate, wherein was the Urim and Thummim, which was easily carried and used, and very useful in war upon many emergent occasions. See 1Sa 23:9 30:7 .

And the trumpets which were to be used in war as well as in the service of the tabernacle. See Num 10:9 2Ch 13:12 .

Poole: Num 31:7 - -- Namely, all whom they took in that war, or all who lived in those parts; for it is probable (and was then very usual) some colonies of them were sen...

Namely, all whom they took in that war, or all who lived in those parts; for it is probable (and was then very usual) some colonies of them were sent forth to remoter places, which therefore had no hand either in their former sin, or ill this present ruin, of whom we read after this, Jud 6 . And herein they did according to God’ s own order concerning such people, Deu 20:13 ; only their fault was, that they did not consider the special reason and great obligation which they had to involve the women in the destruction, for which reason Moses blames them afterward, Num 31:15,16 .

Poole: Num 31:8 - The kings // Zur // Balaam also // Object // Answ The kings called dukes or princes of Sihon, Jos 13:21 , because they were subject to him while he lived, but upon his death they resumed their king...

The kings called dukes or princes of Sihon, Jos 13:21 , because they were subject to him while he lived, but upon his death they resumed their kingly power.

Zur the father of Cozbi , Num 25:15 .

Balaam also

Object. He was gone and returned to his own place, Num 24:25 , which was Aram or Mesopotamia, Num 23:7 .

Answ Either he did go thitherward, but in his journey made some stay in Midian, where he was overtaken by Divine vengeance; or understanding the success of his wicked counsel left with Balaam, in the sin and slaughter of the Israelites, he returned, partly to enjoy the reputation and reward of his counsel which he had lost before, and partly to employ his hellish arts against Israel, now they were, as he thought, forsaken by their God, and exposed to his malice. Here Balaam dies the death of the wicked, and not of the righteous, as he desired, Num 23:10 .

Poole: Num 31:10 - -- Partly, to blot out the name and memory of so lewd and vile a people; partly, lest any of the Israelites should be tempted to settle there, and so b...

Partly, to blot out the name and memory of so lewd and vile a people; partly, lest any of the Israelites should be tempted to settle there, and so be discouraged in their progress to Canaan; and partly, lest they should be possessed by other people who might prove as bad neighbours to them as these would have been.

Poole: Num 31:13 - -- Partly to put respect upon them, and congratulate with them for their happy success; and partly to prevent the pollution of the camp by the untimely...

Partly to put respect upon them, and congratulate with them for their happy success; and partly to prevent the pollution of the camp by the untimely entrance of the warriors into it.

Poole: Num 31:14 - -- Because they had spared those who were most criminal, and who by the law of God and of nature were worthy of death.

Because they had spared those who were most criminal, and who by the law of God and of nature were worthy of death.

Poole: Num 31:17 - Among the little ones // Every woman that hath known man Among the little ones which they were forbidden to do to other people, Deu 20:14 , except the Canaanites, to whom this people had equalled themselves...

Among the little ones which they were forbidden to do to other people, Deu 20:14 , except the Canaanites, to whom this people had equalled themselves by their horrid crimes; and therefore it is not strange, nor unjust, that God, the supreme Lord of all men’ s lives, who as he gives them, so may take them away when he pleaseth, did equal them in the punishment.

Every woman that hath known man partly for punishment, because the guilt was general, and though some of them only did prostitute themselves to the Israelites, yet the rest made themselves accessory by their consent, or concurrence, or approbation; and partly for prevention of the like mischief from such an adulterous generation.

Poole: Num 31:18 - Not known a man // Keep alive for yourselves Not known a man to wit, carnally : See Poole "Ge 4:1 19:8 Lev 18:22. Keep alive for yourselves either to sell them as slaves to others, or to u...

Not known a man to wit, carnally : See Poole "Ge 4:1 19:8 Lev 18:22.

Keep alive for yourselves either to sell them as slaves to others, or to use them as servants to yourselves, or to marry them, when you have prepared and instructed them.

Poole: Num 31:19 - Seven days // Purify Seven days according to the law, Lev 15:13 Num 19:11,12 . Purify with the water of sprinkling, Num 19:9 .

Seven days according to the law, Lev 15:13 Num 19:11,12 .

Purify with the water of sprinkling, Num 19:9 .

Poole: Num 31:20 - All your raiment All your raiment to wit, your spoil and prey. See Lev 8:15 14:49 . All these things had contracted some ceremonial uncleanness, either from the dead ...

All your raiment to wit, your spoil and prey. See Lev 8:15 14:49 . All these things had contracted some ceremonial uncleanness, either from the dead bodies which wore them, or the tents or houses where they were, in which such dead bodies lay, or from the touch of the Israelitish soldiers, who were legally defiled by the slaughters they made.

Poole: Num 31:27 - -- The congregation hath some share, because the warriors went in the name of all, and because all having been injured by the Midianites, all were to h...

The congregation hath some share, because the warriors went in the name of all, and because all having been injured by the Midianites, all were to have some share in the reparations; but the warriors, who were but 12,000, have a far greater share than others of their brethren, because they underwent greater pains and dangers.

Poole: Num 31:28 - One soul One soul i.e. one person, as it follows here and Num 31:30 .

One soul i.e. one person, as it follows here and Num 31:30 .

Poole: Num 31:30 - One portion of fifty One portion of fifty whereas the former part was one of five hundred: the reason of the difference is, partly because this was taken out of the peopl...

One portion of fifty whereas the former part was one of five hundred: the reason of the difference is, partly because this was taken out of the people’ s portion, whose hazards being less than the others, their gains also in all reason were to be less; partly because this was to be distributed into more hands, the Levites being now numerous, when the priests were but few.

Poole: Num 31:32 - The rest of the prey The rest of the prey all which was now left of the prey. It is so expressed because they took more, but some of the persons were since killed, Num 31...

The rest of the prey all which was now left of the prey. It is so expressed because they took more, but some of the persons were since killed, Num 31:17 , and some of the cattle was spent for the necessary provisions of the army.

Poole: Num 31:41 - -- Either now upon his consulting of God in the case, or formerly in general rules and laws for such occasions, such as Num 18:8 .

Either now upon his consulting of God in the case, or formerly in general rules and laws for such occasions, such as Num 18:8 .

Poole: Num 31:50 - -- For their error, noted, Num 31:14-16 , and withal for a memorial as it is said Num 31:54 , or by way of gratitude for such a stupendous assistance...

For their error, noted, Num 31:14-16 , and withal

for a memorial as it is said Num 31:54 , or by way of gratitude for such a stupendous assistance and deliverance, as appears from the word therefore in the beginning of this verse, and from Num 31:49 .

Haydock: Num 31:1 - The sin of Phogor The sin of Phogor. The sin committed in the worship of Beelphegor. (Challoner) --- Many of the prostitutes had returned home, being terrified at...

The sin of Phogor. The sin committed in the worship of Beelphegor. (Challoner) ---

Many of the prostitutes had returned home, being terrified at the slaughter of their queen, Cozbi. (Haydock)

Haydock: Num 31:2 - Madianites Madianites. The five princes, (ver. 8) had joined Sehon, in his attack upon the Hebrews, Josue xiii. 21. They had united with the Moabites against ...

Madianites. The five princes, (ver. 8) had joined Sehon, in his attack upon the Hebrews, Josue xiii. 21. They had united with the Moabites against them, and had been most active in perverting the people of God. They had even the wicked Balaam still among them, who was bent upon destruction; so that God saw the measure of their crimes was full, their provocations unsufferable, and he was pleased to let Moses be witness of their just punishment. This he would effect with a very small force, ver. 5. (Haydock) ---

This war of religion was terminated about a month before the death of Moses.

Haydock: Num 31:6 - Trumpets Trumpets. These are the holy vessels just specified, though some believe that he carried the ark, which was done in some wars, Josue vi. 1., and 1...

Trumpets. These are the holy vessels just specified, though some believe that he carried the ark, which was done in some wars, Josue vi. 1., and 1 Kings iv. 5. Priests always sounded the trumpet, Deuteronomy xx. 2. Phinees was appointed general of this expedition to reward him for his zeal against the fornicators. (Calmet) ---

Or Josue headed the army, as he did on other occasions, though his name be not here specified. The tribe of Levi was not obliged to go to battle, and therefore only twelve tribes send each 1000. Josue had been elected general by God, so that it was not necessary to mention his name. (Salien)

Haydock: Num 31:8 - Recem // Sur // Balaam Recem; by which name Petra, the capital of Arabia Petrea, is known. This petty king probably took his title from this city, over which he presided. ...

Recem; by which name Petra, the capital of Arabia Petrea, is known. This petty king probably took his title from this city, over which he presided. (Calmet) ---

All the five had been, perhaps, tributary to Sehon, Josue xiii. 21. (Haydock) ---

Sur, the wretched parent of Cozbi, chap. xxv. 15. (Calmet) ---

Balaam. Some think he was a native of Madian, though he had resided in Mesopotamia. He had either stopped in this country, or hearing of the calamities of the Hebrews, had returned to receive the reward of his pernicious counsel. Thus he was overtaken by God's just judgment, and he fell into the pit which his avarice had dug for him, chap. xxiv. 25. (Haydock) ---

Probably he was busy with his incantations; for this sort of men is generally cowardly. He had no sword, chap. xxii. 29. (Salien)

Haydock: Num 31:9 - Possessions Possessions. Literally, "all that they could, they plundered." It seems they did not advance very far into the country; or many saved themselves by...

Possessions. Literally, "all that they could, they plundered." It seems they did not advance very far into the country; or many saved themselves by flight; for we find the Madianites soon powerful enough to enslave the Hebrews, Judges vi. 1.

Haydock: Num 31:10 - Castles Castles. Hebrew tiroth, means also, "palaces, or shepherds' huts." (Calmet)

Castles. Hebrew tiroth, means also, "palaces, or shepherds' huts." (Calmet)

Haydock: Num 31:13 - Camp Camp. They had sent news of their victory, and of the plunder which they were bringing to the camp, (Haydock) to be divided equally among their fell...

Camp. They had sent news of their victory, and of the plunder which they were bringing to the camp, (Haydock) to be divided equally among their fellow soldiers, when they were met by Moses, &c., who came to congratulate with them, and to examine how they executed their commission, as well as to admonish them to be purified before they entered the camp, ver. 19. (Calmet)

Haydock: Num 31:15 - Women Women. They had received no positive orders respecting them, and it was customary to spare their lives. But these dissolute women had rendered them...

Women. They had received no positive orders respecting them, and it was customary to spare their lives. But these dissolute women had rendered themselves unworthy of such indulgence, (Calmet) and the sight of them raised the just indignation of Moses, who was afraid lest their manners should corrupt the victors. (Haydock)

Haydock: Num 31:17 - Of children Of children. Women and children, ordinarily speaking, were not to be killed in war, Deuteronomy xx. 14. But the great lord of life and death was pl...

Of children. Women and children, ordinarily speaking, were not to be killed in war, Deuteronomy xx. 14. But the great lord of life and death was pleased to order it otherwise in the present case, in detestation of the wickedness of this people, who by the counsel of Balaam, had sent their women amongst the Israelites on purpose to draw them from God. (Challoner) ---

Only those who were under twelve would be thus reserved; and as their tender minds might yet receive the impressions of virtue, by a proper education, they might, one day, be married by some of the Hebrews. The boys were all slain, either because they might be inclined to resent the injury done to their relations, or because they were all consecrated to Beelphegor; the first-born to be his priests, the rest to be victims, if necessary, to avert any evil. For "the heathens in cold blood," says Paine, "offered their children in sacrifice to Baalpeor." It was on this account, that the killing of all the first-born in Egypt, was felt so terribly, as the people could not lawfully approach their gods. (Forbes) ---

Moses did not reserve the girls for the purpose of debauchery, as Paine ignorantly pretends; for that was contrary to his own laws, nor did he wantonly kill the innocent, which he also strictly forbade, and which he would have been still more afraid to do, if he had been an impostor. But he preserved the lives of those girls who might be presumed innocent, and who might live to do good, while he took the revenge of the Lord (ver. 3,) upon the rest. (Haydock)

Haydock: Num 31:19 - Shall be Shall be. Hebrew, "purify yourselves and your captives on the," &c. The girls, and all the booty, might probably be rendered unclean by the presenc...

Shall be. Hebrew, "purify yourselves and your captives on the," &c. The girls, and all the booty, might probably be rendered unclean by the presence of a corpse, &c., chap xix. 14.

Haydock: Num 31:23 - Expiation Expiation, with which even the vessels which had been through the fire, were to be purified, or washed, as the Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., observe. (Ca...

Expiation, with which even the vessels which had been through the fire, were to be purified, or washed, as the Hebrew, Septuagint, &c., observe. (Calmet) ---

Moses perhaps gave this ordinance by word of mouth, on this occasion, (Menochius) though something similar be prescribed before, Leviticus vi. 28., xi. 33, and xv. 12.

Haydock: Num 31:27 - Equally Equally. Those who had been in battle, had about a 50th part more than the rest. They gave the first-fruits to the priests, while those in the camp...

Equally. Those who had been in battle, had about a 50th part more than the rest. They gave the first-fruits to the priests, while those in the camp presented theirs to the Levites. Other rules were afterwards observed. See 1 Kings xxx. 24., and 2 Machabees viii. 28. The Rabbins assign the greatest share to the king, (Selden, Jur. vi. 16,) and Homer gives the largest portion to the general; after which the rest was equally divided, and even the absent partook. The gods were not forgotten. So also among the Hebrews, Syrians, &c., the general make an equal division. David assigns a part of the booty for sacred uses, 1 Paralipomenon xxvi. 26. See Exodus xv. 9. (Calmet)

Haydock: Num 31:32 - Spoil Spoil. Hebrew, "the remains of the spoil," which had not been consumed by the 12,000. (Calmet)

Spoil. Hebrew, "the remains of the spoil," which had not been consumed by the 12,000. (Calmet)

Haydock: Num 31:41 - Fruits Fruits. Hebrew, "a heave-offering to," &c., ver. 29.

Fruits. Hebrew, "a heave-offering to," &c., ver. 29.

Haydock: Num 31:49 - Wanting Wanting. Septuagint, "all were unanimous," (Origen,) and "all answered to their names." Thus God was pleased to shew, that his Providence had direc...

Wanting. Septuagint, "all were unanimous," (Origen,) and "all answered to their names." Thus God was pleased to shew, that his Providence had directed the battle. (Haydock)

Haydock: Num 31:50 - Garters // Tablets // Bracelets // Chains // His own Garters. Septuagint, "bracelets," put on the arm, 2 Kings i. 10. Sometimes the Eastern nations wore large precious rings on their legs. --- Tablet...

Garters. Septuagint, "bracelets," put on the arm, 2 Kings i. 10. Sometimes the Eastern nations wore large precious rings on their legs. ---

Tablets. Hebrew tsamid, an ornament of the hand, Genesis xxiv. 22. The armillæ, or viriliæ, were worn by men near the shoulder. ---

Bracelets, ( dextralia ) for the right hand, Ecclesiasticus xxi. 14. Hebrew hagil, means an ear-ring, Ezechiel xvi. 12. ---

Chains of gold and silver interlaced, worn round the neck. (St. Jerome, ep. ad Marcel.) The Madianites went to battle in their richest attire, (Judges vi. 21,) as did also the Persians; (Bellon. 2,) and the Turks do so still, (Calmet) being descended from Ismael, the half brother of Madian, who both settled in Arabia. (Haydock)

His own. Gold, and such ornaments as might easily be concealed by the soldiers, where not required to be brought to the common stock to be equally divided. (Calmet) ---

There were 840,000 head of living creatures, including the 32,000 virgins, which were distributed. The gold, which was voluntarily presented to the Lord, amounted to above five talents. (Salien, B.C. 1470.) ---

The princes made a voluntary offering of their gold, but the common soldiers retained what each man had gotten. (Du Hamel)

Gill: Num 31:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... After the plague upon Israel for their fornication and idolatry, into which they were drawn by the daughters of Moa...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... After the plague upon Israel for their fornication and idolatry, into which they were drawn by the daughters of Moab and Midian, and after the sum of the people was taken in the plains of Moab, and various laws given or repeated, and a little before the death of Moses:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Num 31:2 - Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites // afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites,.... For the injury they had done them, by sending their daughters among them, who enticed them to com...

Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites,.... For the injury they had done them, by sending their daughters among them, who enticed them to commit uncleanness with them, and then drew them into the worship of their idols, which brought the wrath of God upon them, and for which 24,000 persons were slain. Now, though the Moabites had a concern in this affair as well as the Midianites, yet they were spared; which some think was for the sake of Lot, from whom they descended; but why not the Midianites for the sake of Abraham, whose offspring they were by Keturah? Jarchi says, they were spared because of Ruth, who was to spring from them; and so she might, and yet vengeance be taken on great numbers of them: but the truer reason seems to be, either because the sin of the Moabites was not yet full, and they were reserved for a later punishment; or rather because they were not the principal actors in the above affair; but the Midianites, who seem to have advised Balak at first to send for Balaam to curse Israel, and who harboured that soothsayer after he had been dismissed by Balak, and to whom he gave his wicked counsel, and which they readily followed, and industriously pursued:

afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people; or die, see Num 27:13, it being some satisfaction to him to see the good land, as he did from Abarim, and the Israelites avenged on their enemies before his death.

Gill: Num 31:3 - And Moses spake unto the people, saying // arm some of yourselves unto the war // and let them go against the Midianites, and avenge the Lord of Midian And Moses spake unto the people, saying,.... In obedience to the divine command; this must be supposed to be spoken to the heads or princes of the tri...

And Moses spake unto the people, saying,.... In obedience to the divine command; this must be supposed to be spoken to the heads or princes of the tribes:

arm some of yourselves unto the war: not the whole body of the militia, 600,000 men and upwards, only some of them, and these choice and select men; and, according to the Jewish writers, good men, who, detesting the sins of lewdness and idolatry, would more strictly and severely avenge themselves on the Midianites for drawing their brethren into those sins, whereby they fell; and so Jarchi calls them righteous men:

and let them go against the Midianites, and avenge the Lord of Midian: what the Lord calls the vengeance of the Israelites, Moses calls the vengeance of the Lord, because they were the Lord's people, and his cause and theirs the same: and because the sins they were drawn into by the Midianites were not only against themselves, and to their prejudice, but against the Lord and to the dishonour of his name.

Gill: Num 31:4 - Of every tribe a thousand // throughout all the tribes of Israel // shall ye send to the war Of every tribe a thousand,.... So that the whole number of those that were armed were 12,000 as after given: throughout all the tribes of Israel; t...

Of every tribe a thousand,.... So that the whole number of those that were armed were 12,000 as after given:

throughout all the tribes of Israel; this is observed, as Jarchi thinks, to comprehend the tribe of Levi, which in some cases was left out of the account:

shall ye send to the war; to fight with Midian.

Gill: Num 31:5 - So they were delivered out of the thousands of Israel // a thousand of every tribe, twelve thousand armed for war So they were delivered out of the thousands of Israel,.... Several thousands very probably offered themselves voluntarily to go to the war, or however...

So they were delivered out of the thousands of Israel,.... Several thousands very probably offered themselves voluntarily to go to the war, or however were summoned together on this account, and out of them the following number was delivered of picked and chosen men:

a thousand of every tribe, twelve thousand armed for war; which was but a small number to go against so considerable a nation and people; but this was done to show that the war was of the Lord, he would fight the battle, and give them victory, it being the same to him to do it with few as with many; and to encourage the people of Israel to believe the Lord would give them success against their many and powerful enemies in the land of Canaan, on the borders of which they now were.

Gill: Num 31:6 - And Moses sent them to the war // a thousand of every tribe, them and Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest to the war // and he went with the holy instruments, and the trumpets to blow in his hand And Moses sent them to the war,.... Being mustered and armed: a thousand of every tribe, them and Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest to the wa...

And Moses sent them to the war,.... Being mustered and armed:

a thousand of every tribe, them and Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest to the war; which looks as if Phinehas was the general of this army; for Moses went not to the war, and no mention is made of Joshua, nor might it be proper for him, he being the successor of Moses, who was quickly to die; but it seems rather that there was no one person that had the command of the whole, but every captain commanded his own company; since, when Moses met them, and was angry with them for sparing the women, he does not address anyone as the chief commander, but all the officers, Num 31:14, however, it was very proper and prudent to send Phinehas with them, both on account of his office as a priest, to encourage the people, and because of his extraordinary zeal against the Midianites for what they had done, as appears by his slaying a prince of Simeon and a Midianitish princess in their uncleanness:

and he went with the holy instruments, and the trumpets to blow in his hand; by "the holy instruments", Aben Ezra understands the ark with what appertained to it, which in later times used to be carried out when the Israelites went to war, Jos 6:4, and Jarchi interprets them of the ark and plate of gold z which was upon the forehead of the high priest; but what had Phinehas to do with this, who was but a common priest? though the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"with the Urim and Thummim of holiness, to inquire by them;''and it appears, that sometimes a son of an high priest was intrusted with the ephod, to which the breastplate was fastened, which had the Urim and Thummim on it, and made use thereof to inquire by, as in the times of David, 1Sa 23:6, but it is the opinion of some learned men, and they may be in the right, that these instruments are no other than the trumpets, and who suppose the "vau" is not copulative, but explanative, so Ben Gersom, and read the words thus, "with the holy instruments, even", or, "that is, the trumpets" a, the silver trumpets ordered to be made, Num 10:2 one of which was far the journey of the camps, and also to blow an alarm for war, and which was done by the priests; and so the Targum of Jonathan adds here,"to cause the camp of Israel to rest, and to cause it to go;''that is, to direct it when it should stop, and when it should move.

Gill: Num 31:7 - And they warred against the Midianites, as the Lord commanded Moses // and they slew all the males And they warred against the Midianites, as the Lord commanded Moses,.... Whether the Midianites came out against them with an army, and there was a pi...

And they warred against the Midianites, as the Lord commanded Moses,.... Whether the Midianites came out against them with an army, and there was a pitched battle between them, is not certain; however the Israelites committed acts of hostility upon them, by entering their cities, plundering their houses, and slaying the inhabitants of them; the Targum of Jonathan is,"they warred against Midian, and surrounded it in the three corners of it, as the Lord commanded Moses;''for, as Maimonides b observes from tradition,"when they besiege a city to take it, they do not surround it in the four corners of it, but in the three corners of it, and leave a place to flee out, that everyone that would might escape for his life, as it is said, "and they warred against Midian, as the Lord commanded Moses"; by report, or from tradition, it is learnt that so he commanded him;''that is, in such a manner to besiege a city; but for this there is only tradition, for it is not mentioned among the rules after directed to in such a case, Deu 20:10,

and they slew all the males; which fell into their hands; for, no doubt, there were multitudes that made their escape, since in later times we read of the Midianites, as a very powerful people, and very distressing to Israel, Jdg 6:1 these, as Aben Ezra observes, they slew, were such as were grown up, for as for their little ones, them they spared and carried captive, Num 31:9.

Gill: Num 31:8 - And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were slain // Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian // Balaam also, the son of Beor, they slew with the sword And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were slain,.... Besides the males of the common people, they slew their kings, who wer...

And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were slain,.... Besides the males of the common people, they slew their kings, who were petty kings or princes, perhaps under the king of Moab, or had reassumed their titles and government after the death of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who, in his time, were called dukes of Sihon, Jos 13:21, namely:

Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian; the Targum of Jonathan says of Zur, this is Balak, which is not probable; it is more likely, what Aben Ezra observes, that he was the father of Cosbi, whom Phinehas slew, Num 25:15.

Balaam also, the son of Beor, they slew with the sword; so that he died not a natural death, but a violent one, not such an one as he desired, the death of the righteous, but of bloody and deceitful men, who do not live out half their days; for if the Jewish writers c are to be credited, he was but thirty four years of age when he was slain, which is not quite half the age of man, that being seventy, Psa 90:10, it appears by this that he was among the Midianites at the time of this war; either he stayed here till this time, when he went from Balak with an intention to go into his own country; or he had returned hither, being either sent for, by the princes of Midian, on this occasion; or, as some say, as Aben Ezra observes, that he came to Midian after he returned to his place, on hearing the plague that came upon Israel through his counsel, to receive the money of the elders of Midian for it; and so Chaskuni.

Gill: Num 31:9 - And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives // and their little ones // and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all their flocks // and all their goods And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives,.... The word "all" is not in the original text, nor should it be supplied; for if a...

And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives,.... The word "all" is not in the original text, nor should it be supplied; for if all had been taken, and carried captive, and put to death, as those were afterwards, how could there have been such an increase of the Midianites as there was in some time after this? see Jdg 6:1 but the meaning is, that as many as fell into their hands they took and carried captive:

and their little ones; both male and female:

and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all their flocks; their oxen and their sheep, and also their asses, as appears by the following account:

and all their goods: in their houses, their wealth and substance, gold, silver, &c.

Gill: Num 31:10 - And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt // and all their goodly castles with fire And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt, &c. ) So far as they went into the country, which, perhaps, might not be the whole land of Midian:...

And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt, &c. ) So far as they went into the country, which, perhaps, might not be the whole land of Midian:

and all their goodly castles with fire; which were either the palaces of their princes and nobles, or such like great personages; or they were fortified places, for the security of their cities and country: the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan interpret them of their houses of worship, their temples, and their altars.

Gill: Num 31:11 - And they took all the spoil And they took all the spoil,.... In their cities and castles; and all the prey, both of men and of beasts; all sorts of cattle, oxen, sheep, and asses...

And they took all the spoil,.... In their cities and castles; and all the prey, both of men and of beasts; all sorts of cattle, oxen, sheep, and asses.

Gill: Num 31:12 - unto Moses and Eleazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the children of Israel // unto the camp at the plains of Moab, which are by Jordan near Jericho The women and children, who were the captives, and the beasts which were the prey, and the gold, silver, &c. which were the spoil: unto Moses and E...

The women and children, who were the captives, and the beasts which were the prey, and the gold, silver, &c. which were the spoil:

unto Moses and Eleazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the children of Israel; that is, they were bringing the above persons things unto them, returning from the war with Midian:

unto the camp at the plains of Moab, which are by Jordan near Jericho: see Num 22:1, but they were stopped, and were not admitted into the camp until seven days after.

Gill: Num 31:13 - And Moses and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation // went forth to meet them without the camp And Moses and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation,.... Attended, no doubt, with a proper retinue: went forth to meet them w...

And Moses and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation,.... Attended, no doubt, with a proper retinue:

went forth to meet them without the camp; partly to do honour to them, and to congratulate them on their victory, and partly to hinder them going into the camp directly, until they were purified; see Gen 14:17.

Gill: Num 31:14 - And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host // with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host,.... The general officers who had the command of the army, for there does not appear to be anyone th...

And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host,.... The general officers who had the command of the army, for there does not appear to be anyone that was one general over the whole, otherwise the displeasure would have fallen upon him:

with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle; rather "with" should be left out, not being in the text; and these captains only explain who the officers were, and these were one hundred and thirty two, as Aben Ezra observes; twelve who were captains over thousands, and were more properly the general officers; and one hundred and twenty over so many hundreds, into which the whole were subdivided.

Gill: Num 31:15 - And Moses said unto them, have ye saved all the women alive? And Moses said unto them, have ye saved all the women alive? Which either had been reported to him, or he concluded, by seeing so many with them; and ...

And Moses said unto them, have ye saved all the women alive? Which either had been reported to him, or he concluded, by seeing so many with them; and this question is put, not for information, but by way of reproof, and as chiding them for what they had done; for they might have received orders from him to put them to death, when he sent them out; and if so, there was the more reason to be angry with them; or he might conclude they would have done this of themselves, knowing what instruments of mischief these women had been to Israel.

Gill: Num 31:16 - Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam // to commit trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor // and there was a plague among the congregation of the Lord Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam,.... Who advised the Midianites to send their women into the camp of Israel...

Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam,.... Who advised the Midianites to send their women into the camp of Israel, and allure them to uncleanness, and so draw them into idolatry, which counsel they followed and it succeeded; for, by this means, they were brought

to commit trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor; by worshipping Baalpeor, the god of the Moabites and Midianites; whereby they transgressed the commandment of God, which forbid them having and worshipping any other gods besides him, and is a sin highly offensive to him, being greatly derogatory to his honour and glory:

and there was a plague among the congregation of the Lord; for that sin; and in that plague died 24,000 persons, Num 25:9.

Gill: Num 31:17 - Now therefore kill every male among the little ones // and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him Now therefore kill every male among the little ones,.... Which they had taken and brought captives, Num 31:9. and kill every woman that hath known ...

Now therefore kill every male among the little ones,.... Which they had taken and brought captives, Num 31:9.

and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him; who might be such, at least many of them, who had lain with Israelitish men; and as the adulterers had been put to death, so now the adulteresses; or they were ordered to, be slain, even all of them, lest they should entice the children of Israel to uncleanness, and so to idolatry again: now these were known to be such, either by conjecture at their age, or rather, through the examination of matrons, unless it can be thought, as it is by some, that it was by divine revelation.

Gill: Num 31:18 - But all the women children // that have not known a man by lying with him // keep for yourselves But all the women children,.... The females among the little ones: that have not known a man by lying with him; which might be pretty clear, and ea...

But all the women children,.... The females among the little ones:

that have not known a man by lying with him; which might be pretty clear, and easily concluded, from their age:

keep for yourselves; either to be handmaids to them, or to be married among them when grown up, and become proselytes, and initiated into their religion.

Gill: Num 31:19 - And do ye abide without the camp seven days // whosoever hath killed any person // and whosoever hath touched any slain // purify both yourselves and your captives, on the third and on the seventh day And do ye abide without the camp seven days..... Which was the time that anyone that touched a dead body remained unclean, Num 19:11, whosoever hat...

And do ye abide without the camp seven days..... Which was the time that anyone that touched a dead body remained unclean, Num 19:11,

whosoever hath killed any person; as most of them if not all must have done; all the males of Midian that fell into their hands being slain by them, that were men grown:

and whosoever hath touched any slain; as they must to strip them of their garments, and take their spoil from them:

purify both yourselves and your captives, on the third and on the seventh day; which were the days appointed for the purification of such that were polluted by touching dead bodies, Num 19:11 and their captives, which were the female little ones; (for as for the women, and males among the little ones, they were ordered to be slain;) though they were Heathens, yet inasmuch as they were to be for the service of the Israelites, and to be brought up in their religion, they were to be purified also; to which purpose is the note of Jarchi;"not that the Gentiles receive uncleanness and need sprinkling, but as ye are the children of the covenant, so your captives, when they come into the covenant, and are defiled, need sprinkling.''

Gill: Num 31:20 - And purify all your raiment // and all that is made of skins // and all work of goats' hair And purify all your raiment,.... By washing them; and this may intend not so much their own wearing apparel, as the raiment they took off of the dead ...

And purify all your raiment,.... By washing them; and this may intend not so much their own wearing apparel, as the raiment they took off of the dead bodies of the Midianites, since the person that touched a dead body was not obliged to wash his clothes, but the clean person that sprinkled the water of purification on him, Num 19:19, some render the words, "purify yourselves" d, "together with the raiment", &c. which seems to be the best version of them:

and all that is made of skins; of any sort of creatures, as the covering of tents, shoes, bottles, &c. see Lev 11:32.

and all work of goats' hair; such as the covering of tents was also made of: and this, according to Jarchi and other Jewish writers e includes vessels made of the horns, hoofs, and bones of these creatures: and all things made of wood; as beds, cups, dishes, &c. all which might be purified by washing; see Lev 15:12.

Gill: Num 31:21 - And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war, which went to the battle // this is the ordinance of the law, which the Lord commanded Moses And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war, which went to the battle,.... To all the soldiers, officers, and common men: this is the ordinance...

And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war, which went to the battle,.... To all the soldiers, officers, and common men:

this is the ordinance of the law, which the Lord commanded Moses; concerning the purification of unclean persons and things, hereby confirming what Moses had said.

Gill: Num 31:22 - Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead. Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead. These are excepted, and, though unclean, are not to be purified by washing,...

Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead. These are excepted, and, though unclean, are not to be purified by washing, but in another way, by fire, as follows; all these metals were well known in those early times, and were made use of for instruments and vessels of various sorts.

Gill: Num 31:23 - Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make it go through the fire // and it shall be clean // nevertheless, it shall be purified with the water of separation // and all that abideth not the fire // ye shall make go through the water Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make it go through the fire,.... Either through the smoke of the fire, and so be purified by suffumigati...

Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make it go through the fire,.... Either through the smoke of the fire, and so be purified by suffumigation; or be put into the fire itself, where though they might be melted as the above things, yet not consumed as raiment, and vessels of skins, goats' hair, and wood, would be:

and it shall be clean; accounted so:

nevertheless, it shall be purified with the water of separation; with the water mixed with the ashes of the red heifer burnt, and sprinkled on it; see Num 19:9.

and all that abideth not the fire; without being consumed, as whatsoever is of wood, &c.

ye shall make go through the water; dip them in it, and rinse them there with a quantity sufficient; which the Targum of Jonathan says is forty seahs of water.

Gill: Num 31:24 - And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day // and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye shall come into the camp And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day,.... As the leper did, Lev 14:9, and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye shall come into the camp...

And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day,.... As the leper did, Lev 14:9,

and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye shall come into the camp; into the camp of Israel, into the camp of the Levites, and into the camp of God, the tabernacle.

Gill: Num 31:25 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... After the purification of the soldiers, their captives, and spoil: saying; as follows.

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... After the purification of the soldiers, their captives, and spoil:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Num 31:26 - Take the sum of the prey that was taken, both of man and beast // thou, and Eleazar the priest, and the chief fathers of the congregation Take the sum of the prey that was taken, both of man and beast,.... The number of the females that were taken captive and spared, and of the cattle, t...

Take the sum of the prey that was taken, both of man and beast,.... The number of the females that were taken captive and spared, and of the cattle, the sheep, oxen, and asses:

thou, and Eleazar the priest, and the chief fathers of the congregation; who were all men of authority and character, and fit to be employed in such service, and of whose capacity and fidelity there could be no doubt.

Gill: Num 31:27 - And divide the prey into two parts // between them that took the war upon them, and went out to battle // and between all the congregation And divide the prey into two parts,.... Into two equal parts, both the number of the people and of the cattle, when taken: between them that took t...

And divide the prey into two parts,.... Into two equal parts, both the number of the people and of the cattle, when taken:

between them that took the war upon them, and went out to battle; the soldiers; and by this it appears that they went voluntarily and cheerfully:

and between all the congregation; so that the part of them that went to battle, and of those that stayed in the camp, were alike, and which in process of time became a statute and ordinance, 1Sa 30:24.

Gill: Num 31:28 - And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war, which went out to battle // one soul of five hundred // and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war, which went out to battle,.... That is, out of the part of the prey which was divided to them: o...

And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war, which went out to battle,.... That is, out of the part of the prey which was divided to them:

one soul of five hundred, both "of the persons"; or one woman of five hundred, as the Targum of Jonathan:

and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep; that is, one out of five hundred, of each of them also.

Gill: Num 31:29 - And take it of their half // and give it unto Eleazar the priest for an heave offering of the Lord And take it of their half,.... Of the half part of the prey divided to the soldiers: and give it unto Eleazar the priest for an heave offering of t...

And take it of their half,.... Of the half part of the prey divided to the soldiers:

and give it unto Eleazar the priest for an heave offering of the Lord; by way of thanksgiving for the success and victory, God had given them, by means of which so much booty had fallen into their hands.

Gill: Num 31:30 - And of the children of Israel's half, thou shall take one portion of fifty // of the persons // of the beeves, of the asses, and of the sheep, of all manner of beasts // and give them unto the Levites, which keep the charge of the tabernacle of the Lord And of the children of Israel's half, thou shall take one portion of fifty,.... Which was abundantly more than what was taken out of the part of the s...

And of the children of Israel's half, thou shall take one portion of fifty,.... Which was abundantly more than what was taken out of the part of the soldiers; and the reason of it is plain and easy to be discerned; the soldiers had taken much pains, and gone through much fatigue, as well as had hazarded their lives, and therefore less was to be taken from them; and besides the tribute levied out of their half was to be given to the priests, who were not so numerous as the Levites, among whom the part out of the half of the congregation was to be distributed:

of the persons; of the women, as the Targums of Jonathan, one of fifty out of them was to be given to the Levites to be their handmaids, or to be taken in marriage by them, or their sons, when fit for it:

of the beeves, of the asses, and of the sheep, of all manner of beasts; of oxen, asses, sheep, and goats, one out of fifty of each of these sorts were to be taken. Aben Ezra observes, no mention is made of camels, being but few, and no part taken:

and give them unto the Levites, which keep the charge of the tabernacle of the Lord; for these being employed in the service of the tabernacle, came in for their share of the tribute levied unto the Lord.

Gill: Num 31:31 - And Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the Lord commanded Moses. And Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the Lord commanded Moses. Took an account of the booty, divided it equally between the soldiers and the congre...

And Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the Lord commanded Moses. Took an account of the booty, divided it equally between the soldiers and the congregation of Israel, and levied a part out of each as a tribute for the Lord, which was given to the priests and Levites.

Gill: Num 31:32-47 - And the booty, being the rest of the prey which the men of war had caught And the booty, being the rest of the prey which the men of war had caught,.... The remainder of it, besides what they had eaten in their return from t...

And the booty, being the rest of the prey which the men of war had caught,.... The remainder of it, besides what they had eaten in their return from the war, and during their seven days' stay without the camp: from hence to the end of Num 31:47 is only an account of the prey or booty taken, which in general were 675,000 sheep, 72,000 beeves or oxen, 61,000 asses, and 32,000 females who had never known man; the half out of these, which fell to the share of the soldiers, were 337,500 sheep, 36,000 beeves or oxen, 30,500 asses, and 16,000 females, out of which were given as an heave offering to the Lord six hundred and seventy five sheep, seventy two beeves or oxen, sixty one asses, and thirty two women: the half divided unto the children of Israel consisted of 337,500 sheep, 36,000 beeves or oxen, 30,500 asses, and 16,000 women, out of which one in fifty, both of women and cattle, were given to the Levites; what that amounted to is not expressed, but may be easily reckoned.

Gill: Num 31:48 - And the officers which were over thousands of the host And the officers which were over thousands of the host,.... Over the twelve thousand, of which the host or army consisted: namely, the captains of tho...

And the officers which were over thousands of the host,.... Over the twelve thousand, of which the host or army consisted: namely, the captains of thousands, and the captains of hundreds, came near unto Moses; of their own accord, without being sent, or required to do what they did.

Gill: Num 31:49 - And they said unto Moses // thy servants have taken the sum of the men of war which are under our charge // and there lacketh not one man of us And they said unto Moses,.... Gave the following relation to him, which is a very surprising one: thy servants have taken the sum of the men of war...

And they said unto Moses,.... Gave the following relation to him, which is a very surprising one:

thy servants have taken the sum of the men of war which are under our charge; since the war with Midian was over, they had mustered the several companies under their command, such as had thousands, and those that had hundreds:

and there lacketh not one man of us; which is a most amazing and unheard of thing, that in waging war with a whole nation, slaying all their males, sacking and burning so many cities, plundering the inhabitants of their substance, taking and carrying off such a vast number of captives, yet not one should fall by the sword of the enemy, or by any disease or accident whatever, but all to a man should return to the camp of Israel again; this is not to be paralleled in any history.

Gill: Num 31:50 - We have therefore brought an oblation to the Lord // what every man hath gotten // of jewels of gold // vessels of gold // chains // and bracelets // rings // ear rings // and tablets // to make an atonement for our souls before the Lord We have therefore brought an oblation to the Lord,.... A freewill offering, out of the spoil, over and above the tribute levied out of the half that c...

We have therefore brought an oblation to the Lord,.... A freewill offering, out of the spoil, over and above the tribute levied out of the half that came unto them:

what every man hath gotten: or "found" f, in the houses, and upon the bodies of the slain, or of such that were taken captives:

of jewels of gold either such as were set in gold; or rather, as the words may be rendered:

vessels of gold g, as dishes, cups, spoons, and the like:

chains; which were wore about the neck, or upon the arm, as Aben Ezra:

and bracelets; for the hand, as the same writer, see Gen 24:22,

rings; for the finger:

ear rings; for the ear, as we render it, the word signifies something round:

and tablets; which, according to the Targum of Jonathan, were ornaments that hung down between the breasts:

to make an atonement for our souls before the Lord; not only this offering was brought as a token of gratitude and thankfulness, for sparing of everyone of their lives, and giving them such success and victory, and so large a spoil of the enemy; but also to expiate any sins they had been guilty of in going out, and coming in, and particularly for sparing the women they should have put to death, for which Moses was wroth with them, Num 31:14.

Gill: Num 31:51 - And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of them // even all wrought jewels And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of them,.... For it seems the several things before mentioned were all of gold: even all wrought jew...

And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of them,.... For it seems the several things before mentioned were all of gold:

even all wrought jewels; or "vessels of work" h or wrought vessels, or instruments, "chains, bracelets", &c. which were all of gold, and curiously wrought.

Gill: Num 31:52 - And all the gold of the offering that they offered up to the Lord // even of the captains of thousands, and the captains of hundreds // was 16,750 shekels And all the gold of the offering that they offered up to the Lord,.... The whole amount, weight, and value of it put together: even of the captains...

And all the gold of the offering that they offered up to the Lord,.... The whole amount, weight, and value of it put together:

even of the captains of thousands, and the captains of hundreds, and perhaps of every common soldier, who might contribute his part, though it is not mentioned, but included in the oblation of the officers:

was 16,750 shekels; which, according to the calculation of a very learned man i, were 7,780 ounces, four drachms, two scruples, and thirty five grains.

Gill: Num 31:53 - For the men of war had taken spoil, every man for himself. For the men of war had taken spoil, every man for himself. And which he kept for himself, and did not deliver in with the prey or booty, which was bro...

For the men of war had taken spoil, every man for himself. And which he kept for himself, and did not deliver in with the prey or booty, which was brought to Moses and Eleazar, the sum of which was taken by them; and this seems to confirm what has been hinted, that, as each soldier had taken spoil for himself, so everyone contributed his quota towards this freewill offering to the Lord.

Gill: Num 31:54 - And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands and of hundreds // and brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation // for a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands and of hundreds,.... Which they so freely and generously offered: and b...

And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands and of hundreds,.... Which they so freely and generously offered:

and brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation; and laid it up in some chamber there:

for a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord: in remembrance of the signal victory these men obtained, and of the singular care of divine Providence in protecting them, that not one was lost in the expedition; and of their sense of gratitude and thankfulness for the favours granted them, and to put the children of Israel in mind for their imitation, when favoured with mercies from the Lord.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Num 31:1 This lengthy chapter records the mobilization of the troops (vv. 1-5), the war itself (vv. 6-13), the death of the captive women (vv. 14-18), the puri...

NET Notes: Num 31:2 This would be the last major enterprise that Moses would have to undertake. He would soon die and “be gathered to his people” as Aaron was...

NET Notes: Num 31:3 Heb “give.”

NET Notes: Num 31:4 Some commentators argue that given the size of the nation (which they reject) the small number for the army is a sign of the unrealistic character of ...

NET Notes: Num 31:6 It is not clear what articles from the sanctuary were included. Tg. Ps.-J. adds (interpretively) “the Urim and Thummim.”

NET Notes: Num 31:7 Many modern biblical scholars assume that this passage is fictitious. The text says that they killed every male, but Judges accounts for the Midianite...

NET Notes: Num 31:8 And what was Balaam doing among the Midianites? The implication is strong. This pagan diviner had to submit to the revealed will of God in the oracles...

NET Notes: Num 31:10 The ban applied to the encampments and forts of this group of Midianite tribes living in the region of Moab.

NET Notes: Num 31:12 For the location of Jericho see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

NET Notes: Num 31:15 The verb is the Piel perfect of the word חָיָה (khayah, “to live”). In the Piel stem it must here mean ̶...

NET Notes: Num 31:17 Heb “every woman who has known [a] man by lying with a man.”

NET Notes: Num 31:18 Many contemporary scholars see this story as fictitious, composed by the Jews during the captivity. According to this interpretation, the spoils of wa...

NET Notes: Num 31:20 These verses are a reminder that taking a life, even if justified through holy war, still separates one from the holiness of God. It is part of the vi...

NET Notes: Num 31:23 Purification by fire is unique to this event. Making these metallic objects “pass through the fire” was not only a way of purifying (burni...

NET Notes: Num 31:26 The idiom here is “take up the head,” meaning take a census, or count the totals.

NET Notes: Num 31:28 The verb is the Hiphil, “you shall cause to be taken up.” The perfect with vav (ו) continues the sequence of the instructions. This ...

NET Notes: Num 31:32 Heb “had plundered.”

NET Notes: Num 31:35 Here again we encounter one of the difficulties of the book, the use of the large numbers. Only twelve thousand soldiers fought the Midianites, but th...

NET Notes: Num 31:38 The word “numbered” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Num 31:40 Heb “soul.”

NET Notes: Num 31:42 Heb “the men who were fighting.”

NET Notes: Num 31:49 Heb “in our hand.”

NET Notes: Num 31:50 The expression here may include the idea of finding protection from divine wrath, which is so common to Leviticus, but it may also be a thank offering...

NET Notes: Num 31:52 Or about 420 imperial pounds.

NET Notes: Num 31:54 The purpose of the offering was to remind the Lord to remember Israel. But it would also be an encouragement for Israel as they remembered the great v...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:3 And Moses spake unto the people, saying, Arm some of yourselves unto the war, and let them go ( a ) against the Midianites, and avenge the LORD of Mid...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:6 And Moses sent them to the war, a thousand of [every] tribe, them and ( b ) Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, with the holy instrume...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:8 And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were slain; [namely], Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:12 And they brought the ( d ) captives, and the prey, and the spoil, unto Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the children of Isr...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:15 And Moses said unto them, Have ye saved all the ( e ) women alive? ( e ) As though he said, you should have spared none.

Geneva Bible: Num 31:16 Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD ( f ) in the matter of Peor, and there...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:17 Now therefore kill every male among the ( g ) little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him. ( g ) That is, all the boy chi...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:23 Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make [it] go through the fire, and it shall be clean: nevertheless it shall be ( h ) purified with the w...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:28 And levy a tribute unto the LORD of the ( k ) men of war which went out to battle: one soul of five hundred, [both] of the persons, and of the beeves,...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:30 And of the children of Israel's half, thou shalt take ( l ) one portion of fifty, of the persons, of the beeves, of the asses, and of the flocks, of a...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:37 And the ( m ) LORD'S tribute of the sheep was six hundred and threescore and fifteen. ( m ) This is the portion that the soldiers gave to the Lord.

Geneva Bible: Num 31:40 And ( n ) the persons [were] sixteen thousand; of which the LORD'S tribute [was] thirty and two persons. ( n ) Meaning, of the maids, or virgins who ...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:42 And of the children of Israel's ( o ) half, which Moses divided from the men that warred, ( o ) Of that part which was given to them in dividing the ...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:47 Even of the ( p ) children of Israel's half, Moses took one portion of fifty, [both] of man and of beast, and gave them unto the Levites, which kept t...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:50 ( q ) We have therefore brought an oblation for the LORD, what every man hath gotten, of jewels of gold, chains, and bracelets, rings, earrings, and t...

Geneva Bible: Num 31:53 ([For] the men of war had taken spoil, every man for ( r ) himself.) ( r ) And gave no portion to their captains.

Geneva Bible: Num 31:54 And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands and of hundreds, and brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation, [...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Num 31:1-6 - --All who, without commission from God, dare to execute private revenge, and who, from ambition, covetousness, or resentment, wage war and desolate king...

MHCC: Num 31:7-12 - --The Israelites slew the Kings of Midian. They slew Balaam. God's overruling providence brought him thither, and their just vengeance found him. Had he...

MHCC: Num 31:13-18 - --The sword of war should spare women and children; but the sword of justice should know no distinction, but that of guilty or not guilty. This war was ...

MHCC: Num 31:19-24 - --The Israelites had to purify themselves according to the law, and to abide without the camp seven days, though they had not contracted any moral guilt...

MHCC: Num 31:25-47 - --Whatever we have, God justly claims a part. Out of the people's share God required one in fifty, but out of the soldiers' share only one in five hundr...

MHCC: Num 31:48-54 - --The success of the Israelites had been very remarkable, so small a company overcoming such multitudes, but it was still more wonderful that not one wa...

Matthew Henry: Num 31:1-6 - -- Here, I. The Lord of hosts gives orders to Moses to make war upon the Midianites, and his commission no doubt justified this war, though it will not...

Matthew Henry: Num 31:7-12 - -- Here is, 1. The descent which this little army of Israelites made, under the divine commission, conduct, and command, upon the country of Midian. Th...

Matthew Henry: Num 31:13-24 - -- We have here the triumphant return of the army of Israel from the war with Midian, and here, I. They were met with great respect, Num 31:13. Moses h...

Matthew Henry: Num 31:25-47 - -- We have here the distribution of the spoil which was taken in this expedition against Midian. God himself directed how it should be distributed, and...

Matthew Henry: Num 31:48-54 - -- Here is a great example of piety and devotion in the officers of the army, the colonels, that are called captains of thousands, and the inferior o...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:1-2 - -- The Campaign . - After the people of Israel had been mustered as the army of Jehovah, and their future relation to the Lord had been firmly establi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:3-6 - -- To carry out this revenge, Moses had 1000 men of each tribe delivered ( ימּסרוּ , see at Num 31:16) from the families ( alaphim , see Num 1:16...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:7-10 - -- Of the campaign itself, the results are all that is recorded. No doubt it terminated with a great battle, in which the Midianites were taken unaware...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:11-12 - -- All this booty ( shalal , booty in goods), and all the prey in man and beast ( malkoach ), was brought by the conquerors to Moses and Eleazar and ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:13-18 - -- Treatment of the Prisoners . - When Moses went out to the front of the camp with Eleazar and the princes of the congregation to meet the returning ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:19-20 - -- Purification of the Warriors, the Prisoners, and the Booty . - Moses commanded the men of war to remain for seven days outside the camp of the cong...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:21-24 - -- To this end Eleazar, whose duty it was as high priest to see that the laws of purification were properly observed, issued fuller instructions with r...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:25-30 - -- Distribution of the Booty . - God directed Moses, with Eleazar and the heads of the fathers' houses ("fathers"for "fathers' houses:"see at Exo 6:14...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:31-47 - -- The booty, viz., "the rest of the booty, which the men of war had taken,"i.e., all the persons taken prisoners that had not been put to death, and a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Num 31:48-54 - -- Sacred Oblations of the Officers . - When the officers reviewed the men of war who were "in their hand,"i.e., who had fought the battle under their...

Constable: Num 26:1--36:13 - --II. Prospects of the younger generation in the land chs. 26--36 The focus of Numbers now changes from the older ...

Constable: Num 26:1--32:42 - --A. Preparations for entering the Promised Land from the east chs. 26-32 The first section of this second...

Constable: Num 31:1-54 - --Moses' last campaign ch. 31 The writer now recorded the fulfillment of God's instructions to Moses that Israel should destroy the Midianites (25:16-18...

Guzik: Num 31:1-54 - Vengeance on Midian Numbers 31 - Vengeance on Midian A. The command to destroy the Midianites and its fulfillment. 1. (1-2) God commands Israel to take vengeance on the...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) NUMBERS. This book is so called because it contains an account of the enumeration and arrangement of the Israelites. The early part of it, from the fi...

JFB: Numbers (Garis Besar) MOSES NUMBERING THE MEN OF WAR. (Num. 1:1-54) THE ORDER OF THE TRIBES IN THEIR TENTS. (Num. 2:1-34) THE LEVITES' SERVICE. (Num. 3:1-51) OF THE LEVITE...

TSK: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) The book of Numbers is a book containing a series of the most astonishing providences and events. Every where and in every circumstance God appears; ...

TSK: Numbers 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Num 31:1, The Midianites are spoiled, and Balaam slain; Num 31:13, Moses is wroth with the officers, for saving the women alive; Num 31:1...

Poole: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) FOURTH BOOK OF MOSES, CALLED NUMBERS THE ARGUMENT This Book giveth us a history of almost forty years travel of the children of Israel through th...

Poole: Numbers 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 31 God commanded Moses, before he die, to avenge Israel of the Midianites, Num 31:1,2 . he chooses twelve thousand men, and Phineas: the ki...

MHCC: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) This book is called NUMBERS from the several numberings of the people contained in it. It extends from the giving of the law at Sinai, till their arri...

MHCC: Numbers 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Num 31:1-6) War with Midian. (Num 31:7-12) Balaam slain. (Num 31:13-18) Those slain who caused sin. (Num 31:19-24) Purification of the Israelites....

Matthew Henry: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Fourth Book of Moses, Called Numbers The titles of the five books of Moses, which we use in our Bib...

Matthew Henry: Numbers 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) This chapter belongs to " the book of the wars of the Lord," in which it is probable it was inserted. It is the history of a holy war, a war with ...

Constable: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title the Jews used in their Hebrew Old Testament for this book...

Constable: Numbers (Garis Besar) Outline I. Experiences of the older generation in the wilderness chs. 1-25 A. Preparations f...

Constable: Numbers Numbers Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan. The Land of the Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1979. ...

Haydock: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. This fourth Book of Moses is called Numbers , because it begins with the numbering of the people. The Hebrews, from its first words...

Gill: Numbers (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO NUMBERS This book has its name from the account it gives of the "numbers" of the children of Israel, twice taken particularly; whic...

Gill: Numbers 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO NUMBERS 31 This chapter contains an order to make war upon Midian, which was accordingly done, Num 31:1, but Moses was wroth, becau...

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