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Teks -- Deuteronomy 19:1-21 (NET)

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Konteks
Laws Concerning Manslaughter
19:1 When the Lord your God destroys the nations whose land he is about to give you and you dispossess them and settle in their cities and houses, 19:2 you must set apart for yourselves three cities in the middle of your land that the Lord your God is giving you as a possession. 19:3 You shall build a roadway and divide into thirds the whole extent of your land that the Lord your God is providing as your inheritance; anyone who kills another person should flee to the closest of these cities. 19:4 Now this is the law pertaining to one who flees there in order to live, if he has accidentally killed another without hating him at the time of the accident. 19:5 Suppose he goes with someone else to the forest to cut wood and when he raises the ax to cut the tree, the ax head flies loose from the handle and strikes his fellow worker so hard that he dies. The person responsible may then flee to one of these cities to save himself. 19:6 Otherwise the blood avenger will chase after the killer in the heat of his anger, eventually overtake him, and kill him, though this is not a capital case since he did not hate him at the time of the accident. 19:7 Therefore, I am commanding you to set apart for yourselves three cities. 19:8 If the Lord your God enlarges your borders as he promised your ancestors and gives you all the land he pledged to them, 19:9 and then you are careful to observe all these commandments I am giving you today (namely, to love the Lord your God and to always walk in his ways), then you must add three more cities to these three. 19:10 You must not shed innocent blood in your land that the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance, for that would make you guilty. 19:11 However, suppose a person hates someone else and stalks him, attacks him, kills him, and then flees to one of these cities. 19:12 The elders of his own city must send for him and remove him from there to deliver him over to the blood avenger to die. 19:13 You must not pity him, but purge out the blood of the innocent from Israel, so that it may go well with you.
Laws Concerning Witnesses
19:14 You must not encroach on your neighbor’s property, which will have been defined in the inheritance you will obtain in the land the Lord your God is giving you. 19:15 A single witness may not testify against another person for any trespass or sin that he commits. A matter may be legally established only on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 19:16 If a false witness testifies against another person and accuses him of a crime, 19:17 then both parties to the controversy must stand before the Lord, that is, before the priests and judges who will be in office in those days. 19:18 The judges will thoroughly investigate the matter, and if the witness should prove to be false and to have given false testimony against the accused, 19:19 you must do to him what he had intended to do to the accused. In this way you will purge evil from among you. 19:20 The rest of the people will hear and become afraid to keep doing such evil among you. 19:21 You must not show pity; the principle will be a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, and a foot for a foot.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel


Topik/Tema Kamus: Homicide | Moses | LAW IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | LAW OF MOSES | Witness | Avenger of Blood | DEUTERONOMY | REFUGE, CITIES OF | City | Slander | Refuge | COURTS, JUDICIAL | Evidence | Church | CRIME; CRIMES | Fear of God | PUNISHMENTS | Lies and Deceits | Judge | MURDER | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Deu 19:2 - In the midst of the land Namely, beyond Jordan, as there were three already appointed on this side Jordan: In the midst of the several parts of their land, to which they might...

Namely, beyond Jordan, as there were three already appointed on this side Jordan: In the midst of the several parts of their land, to which they might speedily flee from all the parts of the land.

Wesley: Deu 19:3 - Prepare thee a way Distinguish it by evident marks, and make it plain and convenient, to prevent mistakes and delays.

Distinguish it by evident marks, and make it plain and convenient, to prevent mistakes and delays.

Wesley: Deu 19:8 - Enlarge thy coast As far as Euphrates.

As far as Euphrates.

Wesley: Deu 19:9 - If thou shalt keep all these commandments But the Jewish writers themselves own, that the condition not being performed, the promise of enlarging their coast was not fulfilled, so that there w...

But the Jewish writers themselves own, that the condition not being performed, the promise of enlarging their coast was not fulfilled, so that there was no need for three more cities of refuge. Yet the holy, blessed God, say they, did not command it in vain, for in the day's of Messiah the Prince, they shall be added. They expect it in the letter: but we know, it has in Christ its spiritual accomplishment.

Wesley: Deu 19:9 - For the borders of the Gospel Israel are inlarged according to the promise: and in the Lord our righteousness, refuge is provided for all that by faith fly to him.

Israel are inlarged according to the promise: and in the Lord our righteousness, refuge is provided for all that by faith fly to him.

Wesley: Deu 19:15 - Rise Or be established, accepted, owned as sufficient: it is the same word which in the end of the verse is rendered, be established.

Or be established, accepted, owned as sufficient: it is the same word which in the end of the verse is rendered, be established.

Wesley: Deu 19:16 - A safe witness A single witness, though he speak truth, is not to be accepted for the condemnation of another man, but if he be convicted of false witness, this is s...

A single witness, though he speak truth, is not to be accepted for the condemnation of another man, but if he be convicted of false witness, this is sufficient for his own condemnation.

Wesley: Deu 19:21 - Eye for eye What punishment the law allotted to the accused, if he had been convicted, the same shall the false accuser bear.

What punishment the law allotted to the accused, if he had been convicted, the same shall the false accuser bear.

JFB: Deu 19:2 - Thou shalt separate three cities for thee in the midst of thy land Goelism, or the duty of the nearest kinsmen to avenge the death of a slaughtered relative, being the customary law of that age (as it still is among t...

Goelism, or the duty of the nearest kinsmen to avenge the death of a slaughtered relative, being the customary law of that age (as it still is among the Arabs and other people of the East), Moses incorporated it in an improved form with his legislative code. For the protection of the unintentional homicide, he provided certain cities of refuge--three had been destined for this purpose on the east of Jordan (Deu 4:41; Num 35:11); three were to be invested with the same privilege on the west of that river when Canaan should be conquered.

JFB: Deu 19:2 - in the midst of thy land In such a position that they would be conspicuous and accessible, and equidistant from the extremities of the land and from each other.

In such a position that they would be conspicuous and accessible, and equidistant from the extremities of the land and from each other.

JFB: Deu 19:3 - Thou shalt prepare thee a way The roads leading to them were to be kept in good condition and the brooks or rivers to be spanned by good bridges; the width of the roads was to be t...

The roads leading to them were to be kept in good condition and the brooks or rivers to be spanned by good bridges; the width of the roads was to be thirty-two cubits; and at all the crossroads signposts were to be erected with the words, Mekeleth, Mekeleth, "refuge, refuge," painted on them.

JFB: Deu 19:3 - divide the coasts of thy land . . . into three parts The whole extent of the country from the south to the north. The three cities on each side of Jordan were opposite to each other, "as two rows of vine...

The whole extent of the country from the south to the north. The three cities on each side of Jordan were opposite to each other, "as two rows of vines in a vineyard" (see on Jos 20:7).

JFB: Deu 19:6-7 - Lest the avenger of the blood pursue the slayer, while his heart is hot This verse is a continuation of Deu 19:3 (for Deu 19:4-5, which are explanatory, are in a parenthetical form), and the meaning is that if the kinsman ...

This verse is a continuation of Deu 19:3 (for Deu 19:4-5, which are explanatory, are in a parenthetical form), and the meaning is that if the kinsman of a person inadvertently killed should, under the impulse of sudden excitement and without inquiring into the circumstances, inflict summary vengeance on the homicide, however guiltless, the law tolerated such an act; it was to pass with impunity. But to prevent such precipitate measures, the cities of refuge were established for the reception of the homicide, that "innocent blood might not be shed in thy land" (Deu 19:10). In the case of premeditated murder (Deu 19:11-12), they afforded no immunity; but, if it were only manslaughter, the moment the fugitive was within the gates, he found himself in a safe asylum (Num 35:26-28; Jos 20:6).

JFB: Deu 19:8-9 - And if the Lord thy God enlarge thy coast Three additional sanctuaries were to be established in the event of their territory extending over the country from Hermon and Gilead to the Euphrates...

Three additional sanctuaries were to be established in the event of their territory extending over the country from Hermon and Gilead to the Euphrates (see Gen 15:18; Exo 23:31). But it was obscurely hinted that this last provision would never be carried into effect, as the Israelites would not fulfil the conditions, namely, "that of keeping the commandments, to love the Lord, and walk ever in his ways." In point of fact, although that region was brought into subjection by David and Solomon, we do not find that cities of refuge were established; because those sovereigns only made the ancient inhabitants tributary, instead of sending a colony of Israelites to possess it. The privilege of sanctuary cities, however, was given only for Israelites; and besides, that conquered territory did not remain long under the power of the Hebrew kings.

JFB: Deu 19:14 - Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark, which they of old have set in thine inheritance The state of Palestine in regard to enclosures is very much the same now as it has always been. Though gardens and vineyards are surrounded by dry-sto...

The state of Palestine in regard to enclosures is very much the same now as it has always been. Though gardens and vineyards are surrounded by dry-stone walls or hedges of prickly pear, the boundaries of arable fields are marked by nothing but by a little trench, a small cairn, or a single erect stone, placed at certain intervals. It is manifest that a dishonest person could easily fill the gutter with earth, or remove these stones a few feet without much risk of detection and so enlarge his own field by a stealthy encroachment on his neighbor's. This law, then, was made to prevent such trespasses.

JFB: Deu 19:15 - One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity The following rules to regulate the admission of testimony in public courts are founded on the principles of natural justice. A single witness shall n...

The following rules to regulate the admission of testimony in public courts are founded on the principles of natural justice. A single witness shall not be admitted to the condemnation of an accused person.

Clarke: Deu 19:2 - Thou shalt separate three cities Thou shalt separate three cities - See on Num 35:11 (note), etc.

Thou shalt separate three cities - See on Num 35:11 (note), etc.

Clarke: Deu 19:3 - Thou shalt prepare thee a way Thou shalt prepare thee a way - The Jews inform us that the roads to the cities of refuge were made very broad, thirty-two cubits; and even, so that...

Thou shalt prepare thee a way - The Jews inform us that the roads to the cities of refuge were made very broad, thirty-two cubits; and even, so that there should be no impediments in the way; and were constantly kept in good repair.

Clarke: Deu 19:9 - Shalt thou add three cities more Shalt thou add three cities more - This was afterwards found necessary, and accordingly six cities were appointed, three on either side Jordan. See ...

Shalt thou add three cities more - This was afterwards found necessary, and accordingly six cities were appointed, three on either side Jordan. See Jos 21:1-3, etc. In imitation of these cities of refuge the heathens had their asyla, and the Catholics their privileged altars. See Exo 21:13 (note), Exo 21:14 (note), and Num 35:11 (note), etc.

Clarke: Deu 19:11 - If any man hate his neighbor If any man hate his neighbor - See on Exo 21:13 (note).

If any man hate his neighbor - See on Exo 21:13 (note).

Clarke: Deu 19:14 - Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor’ s landmark Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor’ s landmark - Before the extensive use of fences, landed property was marked out by stones or posts, set up ...

Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor’ s landmark - Before the extensive use of fences, landed property was marked out by stones or posts, set up so as to ascertain the divisions of family estates. It was easy to remove one of these landmarks, and set it in a different place; and thus the dishonest man enlarged his own estate by contracting that of his neighbor. The termini or landmarks among the Romans were held very sacred, and were at last deified

To these termini Numa Pompillus commanded offerings of broth, cakes, and firstfruits, to be made. And Ovid informs us that it was customary to sacrifice a lamb to them, and sprinkle them with its blood: -

Spargitur et caeso communis terminus agno

Fast. lib. ii., ver. 655

And from Tibullus it appears that they sometimes adorned them with flowers and garlands: -

Nam veneror, seu stipes habet desertus inagris

Seu vetus in trivio florida serta lap is

Eleg. lib. i., E. i., ver. 11

"Revere each antique stone bedeck’ d with flowers

That bounds the field, or points the doubtful way.

Grainger

It appears from Juvenal that annual oblations were made to them: -

- Convallem ruris avit

Improbus, aut campum mihi si vicinus ademit

Aut sacrum effodit medio de limite saxum

Quod mea cum vetulo colult puls annua libo

Sat. xvi., ver. 36

"If any rogue vexatious suits advanc

Against me for my known inheritance

Enter by violence my fruitful grounds

Or take the sacred landmark from my bounds

Those bounds which, with procession and with praye

And offer’ d cakes, have been my annual care.

Dryden

In the digests there is a vague law, de termino moto , Digestor. lib. xlvii., Tit. 21, on which Calmet remarks that though the Romans had no determined punishment for those who removed the ancient landmarks; yet if slaves were found to have done it with an evil design, they were put to death; that persons of quality were sometimes exiled when found guilty; and that others were sentenced to pecuniary fines, or corporal punishment.

Clarke: Deu 19:15 - One witness shall not rise up, etc. One witness shall not rise up, etc. - See Num 35:30 (note).

One witness shall not rise up, etc. - See Num 35:30 (note).

Clarke: Deu 19:19 - Then shall ye do unto him as he had thought to have done unto his brother Then shall ye do unto him as he had thought to have done unto his brother - Nothing can be more equitable or proper than this, that if a man endeavo...

Then shall ye do unto him as he had thought to have done unto his brother - Nothing can be more equitable or proper than this, that if a man endeavor to do any injury to or take away the life of another, on detection he shall be caused to undergo the same evil which he intended for his innocent neighbor

Some of our excellent English laws have been made on this very ground. In the 37th of Edw. III., chap. 18, it is ordained that all those who make suggestion shall incur the same pain which the other should have had, if he were attainted, in case his suggestions be found evil. A similar law was made in the 38th of the same reign, chap. 9. By a law of the twelve Tables, a false witness was thrown down the Tarpeian rock. In short, false witnesses have been execrated by all nations.

Clarke: Deu 19:21 - Life - for life, eye for eye, etc. Life - for life, eye for eye, etc. - The operation of such a law as this must have been very salutary: if a man prized his own members, he would nat...

Life - for life, eye for eye, etc. - The operation of such a law as this must have been very salutary: if a man prized his own members, he would naturally avoid injuring those of others. It is a pity that this law were not still in force: it would certainly prevent many of those savage acts which now both disgrace and injure society. I speak this in reference to law generally, and the provision that should be made to prevent and punish ferocious and malevolent offenses. A Christian may always act on the plan of forgiving injuries; and where the public peace and safety may not be affected, he should do so; but if law did not make a provision for the safety of the community by enactment against the profligate, civil society would soon be destroyed.

Calvin: Deu 19:1 - When the Lord thy God hath cut off the nations 1.When the Lord thy God hath cut off the nations. Moses repeats the same precepts which we have just been considering, that, in regard to murders, th...

1.When the Lord thy God hath cut off the nations. Moses repeats the same precepts which we have just been considering, that, in regard to murders, the people should distinguish between inadvertency and crime. With this view, he assigns six cities, wherein those who have proved their innocence before the judges should rest in peace and concealment. In one word, however, he defines who is to be exempt from punishment, viz., he who has killed his neighbor ignorantly, as we have previously seen; and this is just, because the will is the sole source and cause of criminality, and therefore, where there is no malicious feeling, there is no crime. But, lest under the pretext of inadvertency those who are actually guilty should escape, a mark of distinction is added, i.e., that no hatred should have preceded; and of this an instance is given, if two friends should have gone out together into a wood, and, without any quarrel or wrangling, the head of the axe should slip out of the hand of one of them, and strike the other. God, therefore, justly commands that the motive of the crime should be investigated, and shows how it is to be ascertained, viz., if there had been any previous animosity, or if any contention should have arisen. For it is incredible that any one should be so wicked as gratuitously to rush into so abominable a sin. It must be observed, however, that there was no room for this conjecture, except in a doubtful matter; for if any should stab his neighbor with a drawn sword, or should hurl a dart into his bosom, the inquiry would be superfluous, because the guilty intention would be abundantly manifest.

Calvin: Deu 19:14 - NO PHRASE A kind of theft is here condemned which is severely punished by the laws of Rome; 105 for that every one’s property may be secure, it is necessary ...

A kind of theft is here condemned which is severely punished by the laws of Rome; 105 for that every one’s property may be secure, it is necessary that the land-marks set up for the division of fields should remain untouched, as if they were sacred. He who fraudulently removes a landmark is already convicted by this very act, because he disturbs the lawful owner in his quiet possession of the land; 106 whilst he who advances further the boundaries of his own land to his neighbor’s loss, doubles the crime by the deceptive concealment of his theft. Whence also we gather that not only are those thieves, who actually carry away their neighbor’s property, who take his money out of his chest, or who pillage his cellars and granaries, but also those who unjustly possess themselves of his land.

Calvin: Deu 19:16 - If a false witness rise up against any man 16.If a false witness rise up against any man. Because the fear of God does not so prevail in all men, as that they should voluntarily abstain from t...

16.If a false witness rise up against any man. Because the fear of God does not so prevail in all men, as that they should voluntarily abstain from the love of slander, God here appoints the punishment to be inflicted for perjury: for political laws are enacted against the ungodly and disobedient, in order that those who despise God’s judgment should be brought before the tribunal of men. Although perjury is not here ordained to be tried before the judges, unless there should be an accuser, who should complain that he had been unjustly injured by false-witness, still reason dictates, that if any man have been condemned to death by false-witnesses, the judges should not hesitate to make an official inquiry into the matter. Yet, inasmuch as men are generally disposed to assert their own innocence, God has deemed it sufficient to put the case, that if any complaint should be lodged, the judges should diligently investigate it, and if the crime be proved, should inflict the punishment of retaliation ( talionis.) Whence it appears that false-witnesses and murderers stand in the same light before God. By commanding that the inquiry should be made not only by the judges, but also by the priests, as if God Himself were present, He shews that He requires unusual diligence to be used; because a secret crime is not easily detected without the most anxious care.

Defender: Deu 19:2 - three cities There were to be three cities on the east side of Jordan and three on the west side. The "three cities more" (Deu 19:9) were evidently to be added lat...

There were to be three cities on the east side of Jordan and three on the west side. The "three cities more" (Deu 19:9) were evidently to be added later after further expansion of Israel's territory, but no further mention of them is made (Num 35:9-15; Deu 4:41-43)."

Defender: Deu 19:14 - landmark Evidently, even though the children of Israel were to receive their promised inheritance by driving out the Canaanites who then inhabited the land, th...

Evidently, even though the children of Israel were to receive their promised inheritance by driving out the Canaanites who then inhabited the land, they were to divide it up on the basis of ancient "landmarks" already established. These were probably the same as "the border [same Hebrew word] of the Canaanites" (Gen 10:19), established when "by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood" (Gen 10:32)."

TSK: Deu 19:1 - hath cut // succeedest hath cut : Deu 6:10, Deu 7:1, Deu 7:2, Deu 12:1, Deu 12:29, Deu 17:14 succeedest : Heb. inheritest, or possessest, Deu 12:29

hath cut : Deu 6:10, Deu 7:1, Deu 7:2, Deu 12:1, Deu 12:29, Deu 17:14

succeedest : Heb. inheritest, or possessest, Deu 12:29

TSK: Deu 19:2 - separate three cities separate three cities : Unquestionably in imitation of these cities, the heathen had their asyla , and the Roman Catholics their privileged altars, ...

separate three cities : Unquestionably in imitation of these cities, the heathen had their asyla , and the Roman Catholics their privileged altars, and similar traditions seem to obtain in many barbarous nations, for ""the North American Indian nations have most of them either a house or town of refuge, which is a sure asylum to protect a manslayer, or the unfortunate captive, if he once enter it. In almost every Indian nation, there are several towns, which are called old beloved, ancient, holy, or white towns (white being their fixed emblem of peace, friendship, prosperity, happiness, purity, etc.). They seem to have been formerly towns of refuge; for it is not in the memory of the oldest people that human blood was shed in them.""Deu 4:41-43; Exo 21:13; Num 35:10-15; Jos 20:2-7; Heb 6:18

TSK: Deu 19:3 - -- Isa 35:8, Isa 57:14, Isa 62:10; Heb 12:13

TSK: Deu 19:4 - the slayer // in time past the slayer : Deu 4:42; Num 35:15-24 in time past : Heb. from yesterday the third day, Deu 19:6; Gen 31:2; Jos 3:4; 1Ch 11:2; Isa 30:33 *marg.

the slayer : Deu 4:42; Num 35:15-24

in time past : Heb. from yesterday the third day, Deu 19:6; Gen 31:2; Jos 3:4; 1Ch 11:2; Isa 30:33 *marg.

TSK: Deu 19:5 - head // helve // lighteth // he shall flee head : Heb. iron, 2Ki 6:5-7 helve : Heb. wood lighteth : Heb. findeth he shall flee : Num 35:25; Pro 27:12; Isa 32:2

head : Heb. iron, 2Ki 6:5-7

helve : Heb. wood

lighteth : Heb. findeth

he shall flee : Num 35:25; Pro 27:12; Isa 32:2

TSK: Deu 19:6 - the avenger // slay him // not worthy // in time past the avenger : Num 35:12; Jos 20:5; 2Sa 14:7 slay him : Heb. smite him in life not worthy : Deu 21:22; Jer 26:15, Jer 26:16 in time past : Heb. from ye...

the avenger : Num 35:12; Jos 20:5; 2Sa 14:7

slay him : Heb. smite him in life

not worthy : Deu 21:22; Jer 26:15, Jer 26:16

in time past : Heb. from yesterday the third day, Deu 19:4

TSK: Deu 19:8 - -- Deu 11:24, Deu 11:25, Deu 12:20; Gen 15:18-21, Gen 28:14; Exo 23:31, Exo 34:24; 1Ki 4:21; Ezr 4:20

TSK: Deu 19:9 - If thou shalt // then shalt thou If thou shalt : Deu 11:22-25, Deu 12:32 then shalt thou : Jos 20:7, Jos 20:8

If thou shalt : Deu 11:22-25, Deu 12:32

then shalt thou : Jos 20:7, Jos 20:8

TSK: Deu 19:10 - -- Deu 19:13, Deu 21:8; 1Ki 2:31; 2Ki 21:16, 2Ki 24:4; Psa 94:21; Pro 6:17; Isa 59:7; Jer 7:6, Jer 7:7; Joe 3:19; Jon 1:14; Mat 27:4, Mat 27:5

TSK: Deu 19:11 - But if any // mortally But if any : Deu 27:24; Gen 9:6; Exo 21:12-14; Num 35:16-21, Num 35:24; Pro 28:17 mortally : Heb. in life

But if any : Deu 27:24; Gen 9:6; Exo 21:12-14; Num 35:16-21, Num 35:24; Pro 28:17

mortally : Heb. in life

TSK: Deu 19:12 - -- 1Ki 2:5, 1Ki 2:6, 1Ki 2:28-34

TSK: Deu 19:13 - Thine eye // but thou Thine eye : Deu 7:16, Deu 13:8, Deu 25:12; Eze 16:5 but thou : Deu 21:9; Gen 9:6; Lev 24:17, Lev 24:21; Num 35:33, Num 35:34; 2Sa 21:1, 2Sa 21:14; 1Ki...

TSK: Deu 19:14 - shalt not remove shalt not remove : Before the extensive use of fences, landed property was marked out by stones or posts, set up so as to ascertain the divisions of f...

shalt not remove : Before the extensive use of fences, landed property was marked out by stones or posts, set up so as to ascertain the divisions of family estates. It was easy to remove one of these landmarks, and set it in a different place; and thus a dishonest man might enlarge his own estate by contracting that of his neighbour. Hence it was a matter of considerable importance to prevent this crime among the Israelites; among whom, removing them would be equivalent to forging, altering, destroying, or concealing the title-deeds of an estate among us. Accordingly, by the Mosaic law, it was not only prohibited in the commandment against covetousness, but we find a particular curse expressly annexed to it in Deu 27:17. Josephus considers this law a general prohibition, intended not only to protect private property, but also to preserve the boundaries of kingdoms and countries inviolable. Deu 27:17; Job 24:2; Pro 22:28, Pro 23:10; Hos 5:10

TSK: Deu 19:15 - at the mouth at the mouth : Deu 17:6; Num 35:30; 1Ki 21:10, 1Ki 21:13; Mat 18:16, Mat 26:60, Mat 26:61; Joh 8:17; 2Co 13:1; 1Ti 5:19; Heb 10:28; Rev 11:3-7

TSK: Deu 19:16 - a false witness // that which is wrong a false witness : Exo 23:1-7; 1Ki 21:10-13; Psa 27:12, Psa 35:11; Mar 14:55-59; Act 6:13 that which is wrong : or, falling away

a false witness : Exo 23:1-7; 1Ki 21:10-13; Psa 27:12, Psa 35:11; Mar 14:55-59; Act 6:13

that which is wrong : or, falling away

TSK: Deu 19:17 - -- Deu 17:9, Deu 21:5; Mal 2:7; Mat 23:2, Mat 23:3

TSK: Deu 19:18 - diligent diligent : Deu 13:14, Deu 17:4; 2Ch 19:6, 2Ch 19:7; Job 19:16

TSK: Deu 19:19 - Then shall // so shalt Then shall : Pro 19:5, Pro 19:9; Jer 14:15; Dan 6:24 so shalt : Deu 13:5, Deu 17:7, Deu 19:20, Deu 21:20, Deu 21:21, Deu 22:21, Deu 22:24, Deu 24:7

TSK: Deu 19:20 - -- Deu 13:11, Deu 17:7, Deu 17:13, Deu 21:21; Pro 21:11; Rom 13:3, Rom 13:4; 1Ti 5:20

TSK: Deu 19:21 - thine eye // life shall thine eye : Deu 19:13 life shall : Exo 21:23-25; Lev 24:17-21; Mat 5:38, Mat 5:39

thine eye : Deu 19:13

life shall : Exo 21:23-25; Lev 24:17-21; Mat 5:38, Mat 5:39

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Poole: Deu 19:2 - In the midst of thy land In the midst of thy land to wit, beyond Jordan, as there were three already appointed on this side Jordan, Num 35:14 . He saith, in the midst of the...

In the midst of thy land to wit, beyond Jordan, as there were three already appointed on this side Jordan, Num 35:14 . He saith, in the midst of the land , either for in the land , as in the midst of the city , Jer 52:25 , is the same with that in the city , 2Ki 25:19 , or to design the places, that they should be situated in the midst of the several parts of their land, to which they might conveniently and speedily flee from all the parts of the land.

Poole: Deu 19:3 - Thou shalt prepare thee a way // Into three parts Thou shalt prepare thee a way distinguish it by evident marks, and make it plain and convenient, to prevent mistakes and delays. Into three parts n...

Thou shalt prepare thee a way distinguish it by evident marks, and make it plain and convenient, to prevent mistakes and delays.

Into three parts not into more, because it was fit that these places should, as far as it was possible, be at some considerable distance from the friends of the slain person, lest the sight of the manslayer might have provoked their passion, and occasioned his ruin.

Poole: Deu 19:6 - And slay him This verse is to be joined with Deu 19:3 , as is evident, the 4th and 5th verses coming in as a parenthesis, which is usual in Scripture and other a...

This verse is to be joined with Deu 19:3 , as is evident, the 4th and 5th verses coming in as a parenthesis, which is usual in Scripture and other authors.

And slay him which is supposed, but not allowed, as appears from the following words. But the avenger of blood is not to be punished with death for killing the manslayer, in case he found him without the borders of the city of refuge after he had been received there, Num 35:26,27 , because then he was guilty of a new crime, to wit, a contempt of God’ s ordinance, and a gross neglect of the duty of self-preservation, and therefore deserved death from God, who might permit it to be inflicted by the avenger of blood.

Poole: Deu 19:8 - Enlarge thy coast Enlarge thy coast as far as Euphrates. See Gen 15:18 Exo 23:31 Deu 1:7 .

Enlarge thy coast as far as Euphrates. See Gen 15:18 Exo 23:31 Deu 1:7 .

Poole: Deu 19:12 - The elders of his city // Fetch him thence The elders of his city either of the slain person, who were most likely to prosecute the murderer; or of the murderer, because God would oblige even ...

The elders of his city either of the slain person, who were most likely to prosecute the murderer; or of the murderer, because God would oblige even his own fellow citizens to prosecute him to death, that it might appear how hateful murder and the murderer is to God, and ought to be to all men.

Fetch him thence demand him of the elders of the city of refuge, who upon the hearing of the cause and the evidence of the murder were obliged to deliver the offender to justice.

Poole: Deu 19:14 - Thy neighbour’ s land-mark Thy neighbour’ s land-mark by which the several portions of land distributed to several families were distinguished one from another. See Job 24...

Thy neighbour’ s land-mark by which the several portions of land distributed to several families were distinguished one from another. See Job 24:2 Pro 22:28 Hos 5:10 .

Poole: Deu 19:15 - Shall not rise up Shall not rise up or, not stand , or, not be established , accepted, owned as sufficient: it is the same word which in the end of the verse is rend...

Shall not rise up or, not stand , or, not be established , accepted, owned as sufficient: it is the same word which in the end of the verse is rendered be established .

Poole: Deu 19:16 - -- A single witness, though he speak truth, is not to be accepted for the condemnation of another man; but if he be convicted of false witness, this is...

A single witness, though he speak truth, is not to be accepted for the condemnation of another man; but if he be convicted of false witness, this is sufficient for his own condemnation.

Poole: Deu 19:17 - See Poole "Deu 17:9,12" See Poole "Deu 17:9,12" , and observe that the controversies both here and there referred to, and to be determined by the priests and judges, are onl...

See Poole "Deu 17:9,12" , and observe that the controversies both here and there referred to, and to be determined by the priests and judges, are only between man and man, and not doctrines of faith and manners, as the papists for their own advantage pretend.

Poole: Deu 19:20 - Those which remain Those which remain i.e. the rest of the people. See Deu 13:11 17:13 .

Those which remain i.e. the rest of the people. See Deu 13:11 17:13 .

Poole: Deu 19:21 - -- What punishment he intended or the law allotted to the accused, if he had been convicted, the same shall the false accuser bear. Of this law see on ...

What punishment he intended or the law allotted to the accused, if he had been convicted, the same shall the false accuser bear. Of this law see on Exo 21:23 Lev 24:20

Haydock: Deu 19:2 - Cities Cities. These were Hebron, Sichem, and Cades, on the west side of the Jordan, Josue xx. 7. Those on the east were already appointed, chap. iv. 41. ...

Cities. These were Hebron, Sichem, and Cades, on the west side of the Jordan, Josue xx. 7. Those on the east were already appointed, chap. iv. 41. Three others might also have been added, (ver. 8.; Calmet) in case the Hebrews had gotten full possession of the countries as far as the Euphrates. (Haydock) ---

The cities of refuge were not above forty-five miles distant from each other, in the land of Chanaan. Those in Galaad were not so far off, as the territory was smaller. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:3 - Way Way, and keeping all in good repair, with guide-posts at the crossroads, on which Oleaster says moklot, "escape," was written. See Numbers xxxv.

Way, and keeping all in good repair, with guide-posts at the crossroads, on which Oleaster says moklot, "escape," was written. See Numbers xxxv.

Haydock: Deu 19:6 - Grief Grief. The law granted so much to the sudden passion of a relation, who met the man slayer out of the cities of refuge, as not to punish him if he g...

Grief. The law granted so much to the sudden passion of a relation, who met the man slayer out of the cities of refuge, as not to punish him if he gave way to the dictates of vengeance, how unjust soever. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:7 - At equal At equal, &c. This addition is not in Hebrew (Calmet) or the Septuagint, (Haydock) but is conformable to the regulation given, ver. 3. (Calmet)

At equal, &c. This addition is not in Hebrew (Calmet) or the Septuagint, (Haydock) but is conformable to the regulation given, ver. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:8 - And when And when. Septuagint, "but if." This condition was never fulfilled, at all times; (ver. 9,) and therefore the Israelites could blame only themsel...

And when. Septuagint, "but if." This condition was never fulfilled, at all times; (ver. 9,) and therefore the Israelites could blame only themselves, if the promises which God had made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, (Genesis xv., xxvi., xxviii., and xxxv.,) were not realized. (Haydock) ---

Though the country was conquered under David and Solomon, the Israelites did not drive out the former inhabitants, (Calmet) nor did they keep possession for any long time. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 19:12 - His city His city. Strict enquiry was made into the circumstances attending the manslaughter, Numbers xxxv. 12. If the refugee was proved guilty, he was del...

His city. Strict enquiry was made into the circumstances attending the manslaughter, Numbers xxxv. 12. If the refugee was proved guilty, he was delivered up to the next relation of the deceased to be put to death. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 19:13 - Innocent Innocent. Many Latin copies have "guilty blood," noxium. By putting the offender to death, Israel was expiated from the blood which had been shed...

Innocent. Many Latin copies have "guilty blood," noxium. By putting the offender to death, Israel was expiated from the blood which had been shed unjustly. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:14 - Landmarks Landmarks, either which divided the tribes, or the inheritance of individuals. The former were strictly kept up till after the captivity. Those who...

Landmarks, either which divided the tribes, or the inheritance of individuals. The former were strictly kept up till after the captivity. Those who removed the latter were to be scourged for theft, and again for disobeying this law. (Selden, Jur. vi. 3.) Josephus ([Antiquities?] iv. 8) understands that encroachments on the territories of others, which give rise to many wars, are hereby prohibited. (Calmet) ---

So are likewise innovations in religion. The Romans had a superstitious veneration for these landmarks, which they adored under the name of the god Terminus, (Haydock) crowning them with flowers, and offering cakes and sacrifices to them. Spargitur et cœso communis Terminus agno. (Ovid, Fast.) ---

They punished the crime of removing them either with death, banishment, or a fine.

Haydock: Deu 19:15 - One // Stand One would suffice to make an enquiry into the affair, and to oblige the person accused, in pecuniary matters, to take an oath that he owed nothing. ...

One would suffice to make an enquiry into the affair, and to oblige the person accused, in pecuniary matters, to take an oath that he owed nothing. (Maimonides) ---

Stand. This expression was become proverbial, to denote the certainty of a thing, Matthew xviii. 16., and 2 Corinthians xiii. 1. Two witnesses can not so easily carry on a cheat, (Calmet) as was seen in the case of Susanna. [Daniel xiii.] (Haydock) ---

The law is satisfied with moral certainty. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:16 - Transgression Transgression against the law, by apostacy or by idolatry, (Junius) or by any other grievous crime. The person accused might, in this case, be exami...

Transgression against the law, by apostacy or by idolatry, (Junius) or by any other grievous crime. The person accused might, in this case, be examined, but he could not be condemned unless another witness appeared. Demosthenes (contra Aristocrat.) informs us how (Calmet) the Athenians (Haydock) required the witness in criminal matters, to swear on the flesh of a wild boar, ram, and bull, that he spoke the truth, and to utter horrible imprecations against himself and family, if he did otherwise. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:17 - Lord // Judges Lord, in the tabernacle. (Menochius) --- Judges. Hence it appears evidently that the priests were to pass sentence in all difficult questions, as...

Lord, in the tabernacle. (Menochius) ---

Judges. Hence it appears evidently that the priests were to pass sentence in all difficult questions, as well in those which regarded individuals, as in those which attacked the worship of God; since the false accuser is to lose his life or limb, according as he had attempted to injure his neighbour; (ver. 21,) and the Lord ratifies their sentence. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 19:20 - Things Things. This is the design of penal laws, to render justice to the innocent, and to prevent the spreading of a contagious evil, by cutting off the h...

Things. This is the design of penal laws, to render justice to the innocent, and to prevent the spreading of a contagious evil, by cutting off the hopes of impunity. (Grotius, Jur. ii. 10. 9.) ---

"I would cause the criminal's throat to be cut, says Seneca, (de Ira ii.) with the same countenance and mind as I kill serpents and venomous animals."

Haydock: Deu 19:21 - Pity Pity. This regarded the judge, who must act with impartiality. (Worthington) --- The law admits of no mitigation, but inflicts the same punishment...

Pity. This regarded the judge, who must act with impartiality. (Worthington) ---

The law admits of no mitigation, but inflicts the same punishment on the calumniating witness, as he intended should fall upon his brother. (Lyranus; &c.) ---

Some Rabbins (apud Fag.) pretend that this was executed with rigour, only when the innocent had sustained some real injury. See Exodus xxi. 24. (Calmet)

Gill: Deu 19:1 - When the Lord thy God hath cut off the nations whose land the Lord thy God giveth thee // and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their cities, and in their houses When the Lord thy God hath cut off the nations whose land the Lord thy God giveth thee,.... The seven nations of the land of Canaan, whose destruction...

When the Lord thy God hath cut off the nations whose land the Lord thy God giveth thee,.... The seven nations of the land of Canaan, whose destruction was of the Lord for their sins, and whose land was a gift of him that had a right to dispose of it to the children of Israel; see Deu 12:29.

and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their cities, and in their houses; should possess their land in their stead, by virtue of the gift of it to them by the Lord, and inhabit their cities and houses built by them.

Gill: Deu 19:2 - Thou shalt separate three cities for thee in the midst of thy land // which the Lord thy God giveth thee to possess it Thou shalt separate three cities for thee in the midst of thy land,.... From the cities they took possession of and dwelt in; and indeed from the citi...

Thou shalt separate three cities for thee in the midst of thy land,.... From the cities they took possession of and dwelt in; and indeed from the cities of the Levites, which were given to them to inhabit; three were before ordered to be separated from those inhabited by the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, Deu 4:41 but these were to be in the midst of the land of Canaan; see Jos 20:7,

which the Lord thy God giveth thee to possess it: which as it is often mentioned when this land is spoken of, so it carries in it a reason here why this order of the Lord's should be readily complied with, the whole land and all the cities of it being the gift of his to them.

Gill: Deu 19:3 - Thou shalt prepare thee a way // and divide the coasts of thy land, which the Lord thy God giveth thee to inherit, in three parts // that every slayer may flee thither Thou shalt prepare thee a way,.... A road, an highway to those cities: on the first of Adar, or February, the magistrates used to meet, and proclaimed...

Thou shalt prepare thee a way,.... A road, an highway to those cities: on the first of Adar, or February, the magistrates used to meet, and proclaimed, or ordered to be proclaimed, that the ways be repaired r, particularly those leading to the cities of refuge; which was done by making them smooth and plain, so that there was not an hill or dale to be seen; and by building bridges over rivers and brooks, that he might escape who had killed anyone through mistake, and not be hindered, lest the avenger of blood should overtake him and kill him s; and therefore every obstruction was removed out of the way, that there might be a clear course for him; and at the parting of ways, or where two or more ways met, that he might not be at a loss one moment which way to take, "refuge" was written, as Jarchi and other writers observe, upon posts or pillars erected for that purpose: See Gill on Num 35:6,

and divide the coasts of thy land, which the Lord thy God giveth thee to inherit, in three parts; in each of which was to be a city of refuge, and those at an equal distance: so Jarchi observes, that this was done that there might be from the beginning of the border (of the land) unto the first city of the cities of refuge, according to the measure of a journey, that there is from that to the second, and so from the second to the third, and so from the third to the other border of the land of Israel: of the situation of these cities, so as to answer to those on the other side Jordan; see Gill on Num 35:14,

that every slayer may flee thither; to that which is nearest and most convenient for him, that is, who had slain a man unawares, as follows.

Gill: Deu 19:4 - And this is the case of the slayer, which shall flee thither, that he may live // whoso killeth his neighbour ignorantly // whom he hated not in time past And this is the case of the slayer, which shall flee thither, that he may live,.... It was not any slayer that might have protection in these cities, ...

And this is the case of the slayer, which shall flee thither, that he may live,.... It was not any slayer that might have protection in these cities, but such who were thus and thus circumstanced, or whose case was as follows:

whoso killeth his neighbour ignorantly; without intention, as the Targum of Jonathan, did not design it, but was done by him unawares:

whom he hated not in time past; had never shown by words or deeds that he had any hatred of him or enmity to him three days ago; so that if there were no marks of hatred, or proofs of it three days before this happened, it was reckoned an accidental thing, and not done on purpose, as this phrase is usually interpreted; see Exo 21:29.

Gill: Deu 19:5 - As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood // and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree // and the head slippeth from the halve // or the iron from the wood // and lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die // he shall flee unto one of these cities, and live As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood,.... A wood is a place common to men, and cutting down wood a business which any man ...

As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood,.... A wood is a place common to men, and cutting down wood a business which any man might do; whereas a private place, where a man had no right to be, and doing what he had no business with, rendered a case suspicious, and such a man was liable to be taken up when any affair happened of the kind here spoken of; so the Jewish writers observe t,"a wood is a public place for him that hurts and him that is hurt to enter there;''both had a right to go thither, the one as well as the other, he to whom the accident came, and he by whom it came; but they say, a court that belongs to a master of a house (a private court) is excepted, where there is no power or liberty for him that hurts or for him that is hurt to enter. Abba Saul says, What is hewing wood? It is what a man has a right to do, or is in his power; it is what is public and common, and not peculiar to any:

and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree; lifts up the axe and is about to strike with it, in order to cut down the tree pitched upon by him or by his neighbour, or both:

and the head slippeth from the halve; the head of the axe from the handle of it:

or the iron from the wood u; the iron part of the axe, which is properly the head, from the wooden part, which is laid hold on by the hand; and this not being well fastened, slips and falls off as the blow is fetching, or the stroke just ready to be given:

and lighteth upon his neighbour, that he die; hits him in some part as he stands by him, which proves fatal:

he shall flee unto one of these cities, and live; be safe and secure from the avenger of blood; such an one might have the benefit of one of these cities, for, for such they were designed: the rule with the Jews is, what is done by way of descent (i.e. which comes down and lights upon a man, and is not levelled against him, or thrown up at him) he is to be exiled (or to have the benefit of a city of refuge), but what is not by way of descent, he is not to have it. Some think this is spoken of the wood which is cleaved, and not of the wood in which the iron is fixed; but the wise men say it is to be so understood x; in which they are right.

Gill: Deu 19:6 - Lest the avenger of blood pursue the slayer // while his heart is hot // and overtake him, because the way is long, and slay him // whereas he was not worthy of death // inasmuch as he hated him not in time past Lest the avenger of blood pursue the slayer,.... These words are to be connected with Deu 19:3, where it is ordered to prepare the way to the cities o...

Lest the avenger of blood pursue the slayer,.... These words are to be connected with Deu 19:3, where it is ordered to prepare the way to the cities of refuge, and to divide the land into three parts, for the convenience of the slayer to flee thither, lest he that was next of kin, and incensed against the slayer, and determined to avenge what was done, should pursue after him:

while his heart is hot; by reason of the loss of his relation, upon which his passions being raised, his heart becomes inflamed with wrath and anger; which pushes him upon an eager and hasty pursuit of the slayer, before he sits down and coolly considers and deliberates on the affair:

and overtake him, because the way is long, and slay him; wherefore it was proper that everything should be done to make the way to these cities as easy and as short as it could be:

whereas he was not worthy of death; had not committed an action deserving of it, it being done ignorantly and without notice, as follows:

inasmuch as he hated him not in time past; See Gill on Deu 19:4.

Gill: Deu 19:7 - Wherefore I command thee, saying, thou shalt separate three cities for thee. Wherefore I command thee, saying, thou shalt separate three cities for thee. This was to be done immediately, as soon as they were settled in the land...

Wherefore I command thee, saying, thou shalt separate three cities for thee. This was to be done immediately, as soon as they were settled in the land of Canaan, and established in the possession of it, the inhabitants being cut off, or driven out, or however subdued.

Gill: Deu 19:8 - And if the Lord thy God enlarge thy coast // (as he hath sworn unto thy fathers), and give thee all the land which he promised to give unto thy, fathers And if the Lord thy God enlarge thy coast,.... Extend it further than it was upon their first settlement, even carry it as far as the river Euphrates,...

And if the Lord thy God enlarge thy coast,.... Extend it further than it was upon their first settlement, even carry it as far as the river Euphrates, as in the times of Solomon, 1Ki 4:21. Jarchi interprets it of such an enlargement as to give them the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites and Kadmonites:

(as he hath sworn unto thy fathers), and give thee all the land which he promised to give unto thy, fathers: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; see Gen 15:19.

Gill: Deu 19:9 - If thou shalt keep all these commandments to do them, which I command thee this day // to love the Lord thy God // and to walk ever in his ways // and then shall thou add three cities more besides these three If thou shalt keep all these commandments to do them, which I command thee this day,.... A phrase often met with before, and signifies the putting in ...

If thou shalt keep all these commandments to do them, which I command thee this day,.... A phrase often met with before, and signifies the putting in practice the several laws, moral, ceremonial, and judicial, which Moses was now making a repetition of, and enjoining the observance of them by a divine authority:

to love the Lord thy God; which is the source and spring of genuine obedience to the commands of God:

and to walk ever in his ways; noting constancy and perseverance in them; now all this is mentioned as the condition of the enlargement of their coast, which would be the case if a due and constant regard was had to the laws of God:

and then shall thou add three cities more besides these three; three more in the land of Canaan, besides the three now ordered to be separated in it, and besides the three on the other side of Jordan; so that there would have been nine in all, if these had been ever added; but that time never came: the Jews expect the addition of these three cities in the days of the Messiah y but the Messiah is already come, and all those cities, as they were typical of him, have had their accomplishment in him the antitype of them, of which See Gill on Num 35:29.

Gill: Deu 19:10 - That innocent blood be not shed // which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance // so blood be upon thee That innocent blood be not shed,.... As it would be if such a slayer as before described was killed by the avenger of blood, before he could get to on...

That innocent blood be not shed,.... As it would be if such a slayer as before described was killed by the avenger of blood, before he could get to one of these cities of refuge, or supposing that they had not bean appointed, or a sufficient number of them:

which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance; to be enjoyed by them and their children after them, provided they did not defile it by their sins, but observed the commands of the Lord to obey them and

so blood be upon thee; the guilt of innocent blood crying for vengeance, as would be the case if such a man's blood was shed as before described; it seems as if the guilt would rather affect the whole land, for not having a proper provision of "asylums" for such persons, than the avenger of blood.

Gill: Deu 19:11 - But if any man hate his neighbour // and lie in wait for him // and rise up against him // and smite him mortally that he die // in soul or life // and fleeth into one of these cities But if any man hate his neighbour,.... Has conceived enmity in his heart against him, bears him a mortal hatred, and has formed a scheme in his mind t...

But if any man hate his neighbour,.... Has conceived enmity in his heart against him, bears him a mortal hatred, and has formed a scheme in his mind to take away his life:

and lie in wait for him knowing and expecting he will come by in such a way at such a time:

and rise up against him; out of the place where he lay in wait, just at the time he is passing by:

and smite him mortally that he die; or smite him

in soul or life z; in such a part where life is in danger, and the consequence of it is that he dies:

and fleeth into one of these cities; for shelter from the avenger of blood.

Gill: Deu 19:12 - Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence // and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence,.... The Targum of Jonathan is,"the wise men of his city,''the sanhedrim, or court of judi...

Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence,.... The Targum of Jonathan is,"the wise men of his city,''the sanhedrim, or court of judicature, or at least the civil magistrates of that city, to which such a murderer belonged, had a power to send to the city of refuge whither he was fled, and demand the delivering of him up to them, that his case might be tried before them, and it might appear whether he was a proper person to receive the benefit of the city of refuge or not, and if not, to pass sentence of death upon him, and see it executed as follows:

and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die; that is, after the examination and trial of him, and when he is found guilty, and sentence is passed upon him, then he was to be delivered into the hands of the avenger of blood, to be the executioner of that sentence.

Gill: Deu 19:13 - Thine eye shall not pity him // but thou shall put away the guilt of innocent blood from Israel // that it may go well with thee Thine eye shall not pity him,.... This is not said to the avenger of blood, who is not to be supposed to have any pity or compassion on such a person,...

Thine eye shall not pity him,.... This is not said to the avenger of blood, who is not to be supposed to have any pity or compassion on such a person, but to the elders, judges, and civil magistrates of the city to which he belonged, who took cognizance of his case; these were to show him no favour on account of his being a citizen, a neighbour, a relation or friend, or a rich man, or on any account whatever; but without favour or affection were to judge him and put him to death as a murderer; see Num 35:21,

but thou shall put away the guilt of innocent blood from Israel; by which they would be defiled, and be liable to punishment for it; see Num 35:33, the Targum of Jonathan is,"shall put away those that shed innocent blood out of Israel;''put them away by death:

that it may go well with thee; with the whole land and its inhabitants, and with the city particularly, and the magistrates, and men of it, to which the murderer condemned to death belonged, being continued in the enjoyment of all temporal blessings and mercies.

Gill: Deu 19:14 - Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark // which they of old have set in thine inheritance, which thou shall inherit in the land that the Lord thy God giveth thee to possess it Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark,.... By which one man's land is distinguished from another; for so to do is to injure a man's property,...

Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark,.... By which one man's land is distinguished from another; for so to do is to injure a man's property, and alienate his lands to the use of another, which must be a very great evil, and render those that do it obnoxious to a curse, Deu 27:17.

which they of old have set in thine inheritance, which thou shall inherit in the land that the Lord thy God giveth thee to possess it; the land of Canaan: this is thought to refer to the bounds and limits set in the land by Eleazar and Joshua, and those concerned with them at the division of it; when not only the tribes were bounded; and distinguished by certain marks, but every man's estate, and the possession of every family in every tribe which though not as yet done when this law was made, yet, as it respects future times, might be said to be done of old, whenever there was any transgression of it, which it cannot be supposed would be very quickly done; and it is a law not only binding on the inhabitants of the land of Canaan, but all others, it being agreeably to the light and law of nature, and which was regarded among the Heathens, Pro 22:28.

Gill: Deu 19:15 - One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth // at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth,.... Whether capital sins, or pecuniary debts...

One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth,.... Whether capital sins, or pecuniary debts; or whatsoever sins a man may be guilty of whether sins against the first or second table of the law, whether greater or lesser sins, whether in moral or civil things; the Jews except only in the case of a woman suspected of adultery and of beheading the heifer:

at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established; either for acquittance or condemnation; and the witnesses may not, as Jarchi says, write their testimony in a letter, and send it to the sanhedrim, nor may an interpreter stand between the witnesses and the judges; See Gill on Deu 17:6.

Gill: Deu 19:16 - If a false witness rise up against any man // to testify against him If a false witness rise up against any man,.... In a court of judicature: to testify against him: that which is not true of him, let it be in what ...

If a false witness rise up against any man,.... In a court of judicature:

to testify against him: that which is not true of him, let it be in what case it will; Aben Ezra instances in idolatry, but it holds good of any other.

Gill: Deu 19:17 - Then both the men between whom the controversy is // shall stand before the Lord // before the priests and the judges which shall be in those days // then both the men Then both the men between whom the controversy is,.... The man that bears the false witness, and the man against whom it is borne: shall stand befo...

Then both the men between whom the controversy is,.... The man that bears the false witness, and the man against whom it is borne:

shall stand before the Lord; as in the presence of him, the omniscient God, and as represented by judges and civil magistrates, whose vicegerents they are; so it seems to be explained in the next words, which are exegetical of these:

before the priests and the judges which shall be in those days; which shall compose the sanhedrim, or court of judicature; and this seems to confirm it, that by priest and judge, in Deu 17:9 are meant priests and judges; Jarchi says, this Scripture speaks of witnesses, that is, of the false witness that testifies wrong against a man, and another that contradicts his testimony, and teaches that there is no witness by women; and so it is elsewhere said a, an oath of witness is made by men, and not by women; on which it is observed b that a woman is not fit to bear witness, as it is written:

then both the men,.... men and not women; and the above writer remarks further, that it teaches that they ought to bear testimony standing.

Gill: Deu 19:18 - And the judges shall make diligent inquisition // and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother And the judges shall make diligent inquisition,.... Into the case before them, into the nature of the evidence and proof that each witness brings for ...

And the judges shall make diligent inquisition,.... Into the case before them, into the nature of the evidence and proof that each witness brings for or against; so the Targum of Jonathan,"the judges shall interrogate the witness, by whom these things are said, well;''shall thoroughly examine the testimony given, and look carefully into it:

and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; it appears plainly by full evidence that he has testified a falsehood of him.

Gill: Deu 19:19 - Then shall ye do unto him as he had thought to have done unto his brother // so shalt thou put the evil away from among you Then shall ye do unto him as he had thought to have done unto his brother,.... Inflict the same fine or punishment on him he thought to have brought h...

Then shall ye do unto him as he had thought to have done unto his brother,.... Inflict the same fine or punishment on him he thought to have brought his brother under by his false testimony of him; whether any pecuniary fine, or whipping and scourging, or the loss of a member, or the value of it, or death itself; whether stoning, strangling, burning, or killing with the sword: though, in the case of accusing a priest's daughter of adultery, as Jarchi observes, such were not to be burnt, as would have been her case if proved, but strangled:

so shalt thou put the evil away from among you; the evil man that bears a false testimony of his brother, or the guilt of sin which would be incurred by conniving at him.

Gill: Deu 19:20 - And those which remain shall hear, and fear And those which remain shall hear, and fear,.... Those which survive the false witness shall hear of the punishment inflicted on him, and fear to comm...

And those which remain shall hear, and fear,.... Those which survive the false witness shall hear of the punishment inflicted on him, and fear to commit the like sin, lest they should be punished in like manner.

Gill: Deu 19:21 - And thine eye shall not pity // but life shall go for life // eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot And thine eye shall not pity,.... The false witness when convicted; this is directed to the judges, who should not spare such an one through favour or...

And thine eye shall not pity,.... The false witness when convicted; this is directed to the judges, who should not spare such an one through favour or affection, but pronounce a righteous sentence on him, and see it executed, in proportion to the crime, and that according to the law of retaliation:

but life shall go for life; in such a case where the life of a person must have gone, if the falsehood of the testimony had not been discovered, the false witness must suffer death; in other cases, where a member would have been lost, or the price of it paid for, the same penalty was to be inflicted:

eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot; that is, the price of an eye an eye, &c. see Exo 21:23.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Deu 19:1 Heb “the Lord your God.” The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.

NET Notes: Deu 19:2 These three cities, later designated by Joshua, were Kedesh of Galilee, Shechem, and Hebron (Josh 20:7-9).

NET Notes: Deu 19:3 Heb “border.”

NET Notes: Deu 19:4 Heb “yesterday and a third (day)” (likewise in v. 6). The point is that there was no animosity between the two parties at the time of the ...

NET Notes: Deu 19:5 Heb “and live.”

NET Notes: Deu 19:6 Heb “no judgment of death.”

NET Notes: Deu 19:8 Heb “he said to give to your ancestors.” The pronoun has been used in the translation instead for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Deu 19:9 You will add three more cities. Since these are alluded to nowhere else and thus were probably never added, this must be a provision for other cities ...

NET Notes: Deu 19:10 Heb “and blood will be upon you” (cf. KJV, ASV); NRSV “thereby bringing bloodguilt upon you.”

NET Notes: Deu 19:11 Heb “rises against him and strikes him fatally.”

NET Notes: Deu 19:12 The גֹאֵל הַדָּם (go’el haddam, “avenger of blood”) would ordinari...

NET Notes: Deu 19:13 Purge out the blood of the innocent. Because of the corporate nature of Israel’s community life, the whole community shared in the guilt of unav...

NET Notes: Deu 19:14 The Hebrew text includes “to possess it.” This phrase has been left untranslated to avoid redundancy.

NET Notes: Deu 19:15 Heb “may stand.”

NET Notes: Deu 19:16 Or “rebellion.” Rebellion against God’s law is in view (cf. NAB “of a defection from the law”).

NET Notes: Deu 19:17 The appositional construction (“before the Lord, that is, before the priests and judges”) indicates that these human agents represented th...

NET Notes: Deu 19:18 Heb “his brother” (also in the following verse).

NET Notes: Deu 19:19 Heb “you will burn out” (בִּעַרְתָּ, bi’arta). Like a cancer, unavenged ...

NET Notes: Deu 19:21 This kind of justice is commonly called lex talionis or “measure for measure” (cf. Exod 21:23-25; Lev 24:19-20). It is likely that it is t...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:3 Thou shalt ( a ) prepare thee a way, and divide the coasts of thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee to inherit, into three parts, that every ( ...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:5 As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slipp...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:8 And if the LORD thy God ( d ) enlarge thy coast, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, and give thee all the land which he promised to give unto thy fath...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:10 That innocent blood be not shed in thy land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee [for] an inheritance, and ( e ) [so] blood be upon thee. ( e ) Lest y...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:12 Then the ( f ) elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence, and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die. ( f ) The ...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:13 Thine ( g ) eye shall not pity him, but thou shalt put away [the guilt of] innocent blood from Israel, that it may go well with thee. ( g ) Then whoe...

Geneva Bible: Deu 19:17 Then both the men, between whom the controversy [is], shall stand before the ( h ) LORD, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those da...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Deu 19:1-13 - --Here is the law settled between the blood of the murdered, and the blood of the murderer; provision is made, that the cities of refuge should be a pro...

MHCC: Deu 19:14 - --Direction is given to fix landmarks in Canaan. It is the will of God that every one should know his own; and that means should be used to hinder the d...

MHCC: Deu 19:15-21 - --Sentence should never be passed upon the testimony of one witness alone. A false witness should suffer the same punishment which he sought to have inf...

Matthew Henry: Deu 19:1-13 - -- It was one of the precepts given to the sons of Noah that whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed, that is, by the avenger of bl...

Matthew Henry: Deu 19:14-21 - -- Here is a statute for the preventing of frauds and perjuries; for the divine law takes care of men's rights and properties, and has made a hedge abo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 19:1-13 - -- The laws concerning the Cities of Refuge for Unintentional Manslayers are not a mere repetition of the laws given in Num 35:9-34, but rather an admo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 19:14 - -- The prohibition against Removing a Neighbour's Landmark, which his ancestors had placed, is inserted here, not because landmarks were of special imp...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 19:15-16 - -- The Punishment of a False Witness. - To secure life and property against false accusations, Moses lays down the law in Deu 19:15, that one witness o...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 19:17-20 - -- The two men between whom the dispute lay, the accused and the witness, were to come before Jehovah, viz., before the priests and judges who should b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 19:21 - -- The lex talionis was to be applied without reserve (see at Exo 21:23; Lev 24:20). According to Diod. Sic. (i. 77), the same law existed in Egypt ...

Constable: Deu 5:1--26:19 - --IV. MOSES' SECOND MAJOR ADDRESS: AN EXPOSITION OF THE LAW chs. 5--26 ". . . Deuteronomy contains the most compre...

Constable: Deu 12:1--25:19 - --B. An exposition of selected covenant laws 12-25 Moses' homiletical exposition of the law of Israel that...

Constable: Deu 16:18--19:1 - --5. Laws arising from the fifth commandment 16:18-18:22 The fifth commandment is, "Honor your fat...

Constable: Deu 19:1--22:9 - --6. Laws arising from the sixth commandment 19:1-22:8 The sixth commandment is, "You shall not mu...

Constable: Deu 19:1-13 - --Manslaughter 19:1-13 God revealed the law concerning how the Israelites were to deal wit...

Constable: Deu 19:14-21 - --Witnesses 19:14-21 The previous pericope alluded to the need for witnesses, and this one...

Guzik: Deu 19:1-21 - Concerning Criminal Law Deuteronomy 19 - Concerning Criminal Law A. Cities of refuge to be provided. 1. (1-3) Three special cities. When the LORD your God has cut off the...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) DEUTERONOMY, the second law, a title which plainly shows what is the object of this book, namely, a recapitulation of the law. It was given in the for...

JFB: Deuteronomy (Garis Besar) MOSES' SPEECH AT THE END OF THE FORTIETH YEAR. (Deu. 1:1-46) THE STORY IS CONTINUED. (Deu. 2:1-37) CONQUEST OF OG, KING OF BASHAN. (Deu. 3:1-20) AN E...

TSK: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) The book of Deuteronomy marks the end of the Pentateuch, commonly called the Law of Moses; a work every way worthy of God its author, and only less th...

TSK: Deuteronomy 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Deu 19:1, The cities of refuge; Deu 19:4, The privilege thereof for the manslayer; Deu 19:14, The land-mark is not to be removed; Deu 19:...

Poole: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIFTH BOOK of MOSES, CALLED DEUTERONOMY THE ARGUMENT Moses, in the two last months of his life, rehearseth what God had done for them, and their ...

Poole: Deuteronomy 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 19 The rehearsal of the cities of refuge for him that killeth his neighbour ignorantly, Deu 19:1-10 ; but he that hateth and killeth his ne...

MHCC: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) This book repeats much of the history and of the laws contained in the three foregoing books: Moses delivered it to Israel a little before his death, ...

MHCC: Deuteronomy 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Deu 19:1-13) The cities of refuge, The man-slayer, The murderer. (Deu 19:14) Landmarks not to be removed. (Deu 19:15-21) The punishment of false wi...

Matthew Henry: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Fifth Book of Moses, Called Deuteronomy This book is a repetition of very much both of the history ...

Matthew Henry: Deuteronomy 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The laws which Moses had hitherto been repeating and urging mostly concerned the acts of religion and devotion towards God; but here he comes more ...

Constable: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book in the Hebrew Bible was its first two words,...

Constable: Deuteronomy (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction: the covenant setting 1:1-5 II. Moses' first major address: a review...

Constable: Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Bibliography Adams, Jay. Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyt...

Haydock: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY. This Book is called Deuteronomy, which signifies a second law , because it repeats and inculcates the ...

Gill: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO DEUTERONOMY This book is sometimes called "Elleh hadebarim", from the words with which it begins; and sometimes by the Jews "Mishne...

Gill: Deuteronomy 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO DEUTERONOMY 19 This chapter contains an order to separate three cities of refuge in the land of Canaan, for such that killed a man ...

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