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Teks -- 1 Corinthians 11:1-34 (NET)

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Konteks
11:1 Be imitators of me, just as I also am of Christ.
Women’s Head Coverings
11:2 I praise you because you remember me in everything and maintain the traditions just as I passed them on to you. 11:3 But I want you to know that Christ is the head of every man, and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Christ. 11:4 Any man who prays or prophesies with his head covered disgraces his head. 11:5 But any woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered disgraces her head, for it is one and the same thing as having a shaved head. 11:6 For if a woman will not cover her head, she should cut off her hair. But if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, she should cover her head. 11:7 For a man should not have his head covered, since he is the image and glory of God. But the woman is the glory of the man. 11:8 For man did not come from woman, but woman from man. 11:9 Neither was man created for the sake of woman, but woman for man. 11:10 For this reason a woman should have a symbol of authority on her head, because of the angels. 11:11 In any case, in the Lord woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. 11:12 For just as woman came from man, so man comes through woman. But all things come from God. 11:13 Judge for yourselves: Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 11:14 Does not nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a disgrace for him, 11:15 but if a woman has long hair, it is her glory? For her hair is given to her for a covering. 11:16 If anyone intends to quarrel about this, we have no other practice, nor do the churches of God.
The Lord’s Supper
11:17 Now in giving the following instruction I do not praise you, because you come together not for the better but for the worse. 11:18 For in the first place, when you come together as a church I hear there are divisions among you, and in part I believe it. 11:19 For there must in fact be divisions among you, so that those of you who are approved may be evident. 11:20 Now when you come together at the same place, you are not really eating the Lord’s Supper. 11:21 For when it is time to eat, everyone proceeds with his own supper. One is hungry and another becomes drunk. 11:22 Do you not have houses so that you can eat and drink? Or are you trying to show contempt for the church of God by shaming those who have nothing? What should I say to you? Should I praise you? I will not praise you for this! 11:23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, 11:24 and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” 11:25 In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 11:26 For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. 11:27 For this reason, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 11:28 A person should examine himself first, and in this way let him eat the bread and drink of the cup. 11:29 For the one who eats and drinks without careful regard for the body eats and drinks judgment against himself. 11:30 That is why many of you are weak and sick, and quite a few are dead. 11:31 But if we examined ourselves, we would not be judged. 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned with the world. 11:33 So then, my brothers and sisters, when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 11:34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you assemble it does not lead to judgment. I will give directions about other matters when I come.
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Robertson: 1Co 11:1 - Imitators of me Imitators of me ( mimētai mou ). In the principle of considerate love as so clearly shown in chapters 1 Corinthians 8-10 and in so far as (kathōs...

Imitators of me ( mimētai mou ).

In the principle of considerate love as so clearly shown in chapters 1 Corinthians 8-10 and in so far as (kathōs ) Paul is himself an imitator of Christ. The preacher is a leader and is bound to set an example or pattern (tupos ) for others (Tit 2:7). This verse clearly belongs to the preceding chapter and not to chapter 11.

Robertson: 1Co 11:2 - Hold fast the traditions Hold fast the traditions ( tas paradoseis katechete ). Hold down as in 1Co 15:2. Paradosis (tradition) from paradidōmi (paredōka , first aori...

Hold fast the traditions ( tas paradoseis katechete ).

Hold down as in 1Co 15:2. Paradosis (tradition) from paradidōmi (paredōka , first aorist active indicative) is an old word and merely something handed on from one to another. The thing handed on may be bad as in Mat 15:2. (which see) and contrary to the will of God (Mar 7:8.) or it may be wholly good as here. There is a constant conflict between the new and the old in science, medicine, law, theology. The obscurantist rejects all the new and holds to the old both true and untrue. New truth must rest upon old truth and is in harmony with it.

Robertson: 1Co 11:3 - But I would have you know But I would have you know ( thelō de humas eidenai ). But I wish you to know, censure in contrast to the praise in 1Co 11:2.

But I would have you know ( thelō de humas eidenai ).

But I wish you to know, censure in contrast to the praise in 1Co 11:2.

Robertson: 1Co 11:3 - The head of Christ is God The head of Christ is God ( kephalē tou Christou ho theos ). Rather, God is the head of Christ, since kephalē is anarthrous and predicate.

The head of Christ is God ( kephalē tou Christou ho theos ).

Rather, God is the head of Christ, since kephalē is anarthrous and predicate.

Robertson: 1Co 11:4 - Having his head covered Having his head covered ( kata kephalēs echōn ). Literally, having a veil (kalumma understood) down from the head (kephalēs ablative after ...

Having his head covered ( kata kephalēs echōn ).

Literally, having a veil (kalumma understood) down from the head (kephalēs ablative after kata as with kata in Mar 5:13; Act 27:14). It is not certain whether the Jews at this time used the tallith , "a four-corned shawl having fringes consisting of eight threads, each knotted five times"(Vincent) as they did later. Virgil ( Aeneid iii., 545) says: "And our heads are shrouded before the altar with a Phrygian vestment."The Greeks (both men and women) remained bareheaded in public prayer and this usage Paul commends for the men.

Robertson: 1Co 11:5 - With her head unveiled With her head unveiled ( akatakaluptōi tēi kephalēi ). Associative instrumental case of manner and the predicative adjective (compound adjectiv...

With her head unveiled ( akatakaluptōi tēi kephalēi ).

Associative instrumental case of manner and the predicative adjective (compound adjective and feminine form same as masculine), "with the head unveiled."Probably some of the women had violated this custom. "Amongst Greeks only the hetairai , so numerous in Corinth, went about unveiled; slave-women wore the shaven head - also a punishment of the adulteress"(Findlay). Cf. Num 5:18.

Robertson: 1Co 11:5 - One and the same thing as if she were shaven One and the same thing as if she were shaven ( hen kai to auto tēi exurēmenēi ). Literally, "One and the same thing with the one shaven"(associ...

One and the same thing as if she were shaven ( hen kai to auto tēi exurēmenēi ).

Literally, "One and the same thing with the one shaven"(associative instrumental case again, Robertson, Grammar , p. 530). Perfect passive articular participle of the verb xuraō , later form for the old xureō . It is public praying and prophesying that the Apostle here has in mind. He does not here condemn the act, but the breach of custom which would bring reproach. A woman convicted of adultery had her hair shorn (Isa 7:20). The Justinian code prescribed shaving the head for an adulteress whom the husband refused to receive after two years. Paul does not tell Corinthian Christian women to put themselves on a level with courtesans.

Robertson: 1Co 11:6 - Let her also be shorn Let her also be shorn ( kai keirasthō ). Aorist middle imperative of keirō , to shear (as sheep). Let her cut her hair close. A single act by the...

Let her also be shorn ( kai keirasthō ).

Aorist middle imperative of keirō , to shear (as sheep). Let her cut her hair close. A single act by the woman.

Robertson: 1Co 11:6 - If it is a shame If it is a shame ( ei de aischron ). Condition of first class assumed to be true. Aischron is old adjective from aischos , bareness, disgrace. Clea...

If it is a shame ( ei de aischron ).

Condition of first class assumed to be true. Aischron is old adjective from aischos , bareness, disgrace. Clearly Paul uses such strong language because of the effect on a woman’ s reputation in Corinth by such conduct that proclaimed her a lewd woman. Social custom varied in the world then as now, but there was no alternative in Corinth.

Robertson: 1Co 11:6 - To be shorn or shaven To be shorn or shaven ( to keirasthai kai xurasthai ). Articular infinitives subject of copula estin understood, keirasthai first aorist middle, ...

To be shorn or shaven ( to keirasthai kai xurasthai ).

Articular infinitives subject of copula estin understood, keirasthai first aorist middle, xurasthai present middle. Note change in tense.

Robertson: 1Co 11:6 - Let her be veiled Let her be veiled ( katakaluptesthō ). Present middle imperative of old compound katȧkaluptō , here alone in N.T. Let her cover up herself with...

Let her be veiled ( katakaluptesthō ).

Present middle imperative of old compound katȧkaluptō , here alone in N.T. Let her cover up herself with the veil (down, kata , the Greek says, the veil hanging down from the head).

Robertson: 1Co 11:7 - The image and glory of God The image and glory of God ( eikōn kai doxa theou ). Anarthrous substantives, but definite. Reference to Gen 1:27 whereby man is made directly in t...

The image and glory of God ( eikōn kai doxa theou ).

Anarthrous substantives, but definite. Reference to Gen 1:27 whereby man is made directly in the image (eikōn ) of God. It is the moral likeness of God, not any bodily resemblance. Ellicott notes that man is the glory (doxa ) of God as the crown of creation and as endowed with sovereignty like God himself.

Robertson: 1Co 11:7 - The glory of the man The glory of the man ( doxa andros ). Anarthrous also, man’ s glory. In Genesis 2:26 the lxx has anthrōpos (Greek word for both male and fem...

The glory of the man ( doxa andros ).

Anarthrous also, man’ s glory. In Genesis 2:26 the lxx has anthrōpos (Greek word for both male and female), not anēr (male) as here. But the woman (gunē ) was formed from the man (anēr ) and this priority of the male (1Co 11:8) gives a certain superiority to the male. On the other hand, it is equally logical to argue that woman is the crown and climax of all creation, being the last.

Robertson: 1Co 11:9 - For the woman For the woman ( dia tēn gunaika ). Because of (dia with accusative case) the woman. The record in Genesis gives the man (anēr ) as the origin ...

For the woman ( dia tēn gunaika ).

Because of (dia with accusative case) the woman. The record in Genesis gives the man (anēr ) as the origin (ek ) of the woman and the reason for (dia ) the creation (ektisthē , first aorist passive of ktizō , old verb to found, to create, to form) of woman.

Robertson: 1Co 11:10 - Ought Ought ( opheilei ). Moral obligation therefore (dia touto , rests on woman in the matter of dress that does not (ouk opheilei in 1Co 11:7) rest on ...

Ought ( opheilei ).

Moral obligation therefore (dia touto , rests on woman in the matter of dress that does not (ouk opheilei in 1Co 11:7) rest on the man.

Robertson: 1Co 11:10 - To have a sign of authority To have a sign of authority ( exousian echein ). He means sēmeion exousias (symbol of authority) by exousian , but it is the sign of authority of...

To have a sign of authority ( exousian echein ).

He means sēmeion exousias (symbol of authority) by exousian , but it is the sign of authority of the man over the woman. The veil on the woman’ s head is the symbol of the authority that the man with the uncovered head has over her. It is, as we see it, more a sign of subjection (hypotagēs , 1Ti 2:10) than of authority (exousias ).

Robertson: 1Co 11:10 - Because of the angels Because of the angels ( dia tous aggelous ). This startling phrase has caused all kinds of conjecture which may be dismissed. It is not preachers tha...

Because of the angels ( dia tous aggelous ).

This startling phrase has caused all kinds of conjecture which may be dismissed. It is not preachers that Paul has in mind, nor evil angels who could be tempted (Gen 6:1.), but angels present in worship (cf. 1Co 4:9; Psa 138:1) who would be shocked at the conduct of the women since the angels themselves veil their faces before Jehovah (Isa 6:2).

Robertson: 1Co 11:11 - Howbeit Howbeit ( plēn ). This adversative clause limits the preceding statement. Each sex is incomplete without (chōris , apart from, with the ablative ...

Howbeit ( plēn ).

This adversative clause limits the preceding statement. Each sex is incomplete without (chōris , apart from, with the ablative case) the other.

Robertson: 1Co 11:11 - In the Lord In the Lord ( en Kuriōi ). In the sphere of the Lord, where Paul finds the solution of all problems.

In the Lord ( en Kuriōi ).

In the sphere of the Lord, where Paul finds the solution of all problems.

Robertson: 1Co 11:12 - Of Of ( ek )

Of ( ek )

Robertson: 1Co 11:12 - - by - by ( dia ). Ever since the first creation man has come into existence by means of (dia with genitive) the woman. The glory and dignity of motherh...

- by ( dia ).

Ever since the first creation man has come into existence by means of (dia with genitive) the woman. The glory and dignity of motherhood. Cf. The Fine Art of Motherhood by Ella Broadus Robertson.

Robertson: 1Co 11:13 - Is it seemly? Is it seemly? ( prepon estiṉ ). Periphrastic present indicative rather than prepei . See note on Mat 3:15. Paul appeals to the sense of propriety a...

Is it seemly? ( prepon estiṉ ).

Periphrastic present indicative rather than prepei . See note on Mat 3:15. Paul appeals to the sense of propriety among the Corinthians.

Robertson: 1Co 11:14 - Nature itself Nature itself ( hē phusis autē ). He reenforces the appeal to custom by the appeal to nature in a question that expects the affirmative answer (o...

Nature itself ( hē phusis autē ).

He reenforces the appeal to custom by the appeal to nature in a question that expects the affirmative answer (oude ). Phusis , from old verb phuō , to produce, like our word nature (Latin natura ), is difficult to define. Here it means native sense of propriety (cf. Rom 2:14) in addition to mere custom, but one that rests on the objective difference in the constitution of things.

Robertson: 1Co 11:15 - Have long hair Have long hair ( komāi ). Present active subjunctive of komaō (from komē , hair), old verb, same contraction (̇aēîāi ) as the indicat...

Have long hair ( komāi ).

Present active subjunctive of komaō (from komē , hair), old verb, same contraction (̇aēîāi ) as the indicative (aei ̂ āi ), but subjunctive here with ean in third class condition. Long hair is a glory to a woman and a disgrace to a man (as we still feel). The long-haired man! There is a papyrus example of a priest accused of letting his hair grow long and of wearing woollen garments.

Robertson: 1Co 11:15 - For a covering For a covering ( anti peribolaiou ). Old word from periballō to fling around, as a mantle (Heb 1:12) or a covering or veil as here. It is not in ...

For a covering ( anti peribolaiou ).

Old word from periballō to fling around, as a mantle (Heb 1:12) or a covering or veil as here. It is not in the place of a veil, but answering to (anti , in the sense of anti in Joh 1:16), as a permanent endowment (dedotai , perfect passive indicative).

Robertson: 1Co 11:16 - Contentious Contentious ( philoneikos ). Old adjective (philos , neikos ), fond of strife. Only here in N.T. If he only existed in this instance, the disputati...

Contentious ( philoneikos ).

Old adjective (philos , neikos ), fond of strife. Only here in N.T. If he only existed in this instance, the disputatious brother.

Robertson: 1Co 11:16 - Custom Custom ( sunētheian ). Old word from sunēthēs (sun , ēthos ), like Latin consuetudo , intercourse, intimacy. In N.T. only here and 1Co ...

Custom ( sunētheian ).

Old word from sunēthēs (sun , ēthos ), like Latin consuetudo , intercourse, intimacy. In N.T. only here and 1Co 8:7 which see. "In the sculptures of the catacombs the women have a close-fitting head-dress, while the men have the hair short"(Vincent).

Robertson: 1Co 11:17 - This This ( touto ). Probably the preceding one about the head-dress of women, and transition to what follows.

This ( touto ).

Probably the preceding one about the head-dress of women, and transition to what follows.

Robertson: 1Co 11:17 - I praise you not I praise you not ( ouk epainō ). In contrast to the praise in 1Co 11:2.

I praise you not ( ouk epainō ).

In contrast to the praise in 1Co 11:2.

Robertson: 1Co 11:17 - For the better For the better ( eis to kreisson ). Neuter articular comparative of kratus , but used as comparative of kalos , good. Attic form kreitton .

For the better ( eis to kreisson ).

Neuter articular comparative of kratus , but used as comparative of kalos , good. Attic form kreitton .

Robertson: 1Co 11:17 - For the worse For the worse ( eis to hēsson ). Old comparative from hēka , softly, used as comparative of kakos , bad. In N.T. only here and 2Co 12:15.

For the worse ( eis to hēsson ).

Old comparative from hēka , softly, used as comparative of kakos , bad. In N.T. only here and 2Co 12:15.

Robertson: 1Co 11:18 - First of all First of all ( prōton men ). There is no antithesis (deuteron de , secondly, or epeita de , in the next place) expressed. This is the primary reaso...

First of all ( prōton men ).

There is no antithesis (deuteron de , secondly, or epeita de , in the next place) expressed. This is the primary reason for Paul’ s condemnation and the only one given.

Robertson: 1Co 11:18 - When ye come together in the church When ye come together in the church ( sunerchomenōn hēmōn en ekklēsiāi ). Genitive absolute. Here ekklēsia has the literal meaning of a...

When ye come together in the church ( sunerchomenōn hēmōn en ekklēsiāi ).

Genitive absolute. Here ekklēsia has the literal meaning of assembly.

Robertson: 1Co 11:18 - Divisions Divisions ( schismata ). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive huparchein in indirect discourse. Old word for cleft, rent, from schiz...

Divisions ( schismata ).

Accusative of general reference with the infinitive huparchein in indirect discourse. Old word for cleft, rent, from schizō . Example in papyri for splinter of wood. See note on 1Co 1:10. Not yet formal cleavages into two or more organizations, but partisan divisions that showed in the love-feasts and at the Lord’ s Supper.

Robertson: 1Co 11:18 - Partly Partly ( meros ti ). Accusative of extent (to some part) like panta in 1Co 10:33. He could have said ek merous as in 1Co 13:9. The rumours of str...

Partly ( meros ti ).

Accusative of extent (to some part) like panta in 1Co 10:33. He could have said ek merous as in 1Co 13:9. The rumours of strife were so constant (I keep on hearing, akouō ).

Robertson: 1Co 11:19 - Must be Must be ( dei einai ). Since moral conditions are so bad among you (cf. chapters 1 to 6). Cf. Mat 18:7.

Must be ( dei einai ).

Since moral conditions are so bad among you (cf. chapters 1 to 6). Cf. Mat 18:7.

Robertson: 1Co 11:19 - Heresies Heresies ( haireseis ). The schisms naturally become factions or parties. Cf. strifes (erides ) in 1Co 1:11. See Act 15:5 for haireseis , a choos...

Heresies ( haireseis ).

The schisms naturally become factions or parties. Cf. strifes (erides ) in 1Co 1:11. See Act 15:5 for haireseis , a choosing, taking sides, holding views of one party, heresy (our word). "Heresy is theoretical schism, schism practical heresy."Cf. Tit 3:10; 2Pe 2:1. In Paul only here and Gal 5:20.

Robertson: 1Co 11:19 - That That ( hina ). God’ s purpose in these factions makes the proved ones (hoi dokimoi ) become manifest (phaneroi ). "These haireseis are a...

That ( hina ).

God’ s purpose in these factions makes the proved ones (hoi dokimoi ) become manifest (phaneroi ). "These haireseis are a magnet attracting unsound and unsettled minds"(Findlay). It has always been so. Instance so-called Christian Science, Russellism, New Thought, etc., today.

Robertson: 1Co 11:20 - To eat the Lord’ s Supper To eat the Lord’ s Supper ( Kuriakon deipnon phagein ). Kuriakos , adjective from Kurios , belonging to or pertaining to the Lord, is not just a...

To eat the Lord’ s Supper ( Kuriakon deipnon phagein ).

Kuriakos , adjective from Kurios , belonging to or pertaining to the Lord, is not just a biblical or ecclesiastical word, for it is found in the inscriptions and papyri in the sense of imperial (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , p. 358), as imperial finance, imperial treasury. It is possible that here the term applies both to the Agapē or Love-feast (a sort of church supper or club supper held in connection with, before or after, the Lord’ s Supper) and the Eucharist or Lord’ s Supper. Deipnon , so common in the Gospels, only here in Paul. The selfish conduct of the Corinthians made it impossible to eat a Lord’ s Supper at all.

Robertson: 1Co 11:21 - Taketh before Taketh before ( prolambanei ). Before others. Old verb to take before others. It was conduct like this that led to the complete separation between th...

Taketh before ( prolambanei ).

Before others. Old verb to take before others. It was conduct like this that led to the complete separation between the Love-feast and the Lord’ s Supper. It was not even a common meal together (Koinéon deipnon ), not to say a Lord’ s deipnon . It was a mere grab-game.

Robertson: 1Co 11:21 - This one is hungry This one is hungry ( hos de peināi ). Demonstrative hos . Nothing is left for him at the love-feast.

This one is hungry ( hos de peināi ).

Demonstrative hos . Nothing is left for him at the love-feast.

Robertson: 1Co 11:21 - Another is drunken Another is drunken ( hos de methuei ). Such disgusting conduct was considered shameful in heathen club suppers. "Hungry poor meeting intoxicated rich...

Another is drunken ( hos de methuei ).

Such disgusting conduct was considered shameful in heathen club suppers. "Hungry poor meeting intoxicated rich, at what was supposed to be a supper of the Lord"(Robertson and Plummer). On methuō , to be drunk, see Mat 24:49; Act 2:15.

Robertson: 1Co 11:22 - What? Have ye not houses? What? Have ye not houses? ( Mē gar oikias ouk echete̱ ) The double negative (mē̇̇ouk ) in the single question is like the idiom in 1Co 9:4. w...

What? Have ye not houses? ( Mē gar oikias ouk echete̱ )

The double negative (mē̇̇ouk ) in the single question is like the idiom in 1Co 9:4. which see. Mē expects a negative answer while ouk negatives the verb echete . "For do you fail to have houses?"Paul is not approving gluttony and drunkenness but only expressing horror at their sacrilege (despising, kataphroneite ) of the church of God.

Robertson: 1Co 11:22 - That have not That have not ( tous mē echontas ). Not those without houses, but those who have nothing, "the have-nots"(Findlay) like 2Co 8:12, in contrast with ...

That have not ( tous mē echontas ).

Not those without houses, but those who have nothing, "the have-nots"(Findlay) like 2Co 8:12, in contrast with hoi echontes "the haves"(the men of property).

Robertson: 1Co 11:22 - What shall I say to you? What shall I say to you? ( ti eipō humiṉ ) Deliberative subjunctive that well expresses Paul’ s bewilderment.

What shall I say to you? ( ti eipō humiṉ )

Deliberative subjunctive that well expresses Paul’ s bewilderment.

Robertson: 1Co 11:23 - For I received of the Lord For I received of the Lord ( ego gar parelabon apo tou Kuriou ). Direct claim to revelation from the Lord Jesus on the origin of the Lord’ s Sup...

For I received of the Lord ( ego gar parelabon apo tou Kuriou ).

Direct claim to revelation from the Lord Jesus on the origin of the Lord’ s Supper. Luke’ s account (Luk 22:17-20) is almost identical with this one. He could easily have read 1 Corinthians before he wrote his Gospel. See note on 1Co 15:3 for use of both parelabon and paredōka . Note para in both verbs. Paul received the account from (parȧ̇apo ) the Lord and passed it on from himself to them, a true paradosis (tradition) as in 1Co 11:2.

Robertson: 1Co 11:23 - He was betrayed He was betrayed ( paredideto ). Imperfect passive indicative (irregular form for paredidoto , Robertson, Grammar , p. 340). Same verb as paredōka ...

He was betrayed ( paredideto ).

Imperfect passive indicative (irregular form for paredidoto , Robertson, Grammar , p. 340). Same verb as paredōka (first aorist active indicative just used for "I delivered").

Robertson: 1Co 11:24 - When he had given thanks When he had given thanks ( eucharistēsas ). First aorist active participle of eucharisteō from which word our word Eucharist comes, common late...

When he had given thanks ( eucharistēsas ).

First aorist active participle of eucharisteō from which word our word Eucharist comes, common late verb (see note on 1Co 1:14).

Robertson: 1Co 11:24 - Which is for you Which is for you ( to huper humōn ). Klōmenon (broken) of the Textus Receptus (King James Version) is clearly not genuine. Luke (Luk 22:19) has...

Which is for you ( to huper humōn ).

Klōmenon (broken) of the Textus Receptus (King James Version) is clearly not genuine. Luke (Luk 22:19) has didomenon (given) which is the real idea here. As a matter of fact the body of Jesus was not broken (Joh 19:36). The bread was broken, but not the body of Jesus.

Robertson: 1Co 11:24 - In remembrance of me In remembrance of me ( eis tēn emēn anamnēsin ). The objective use of the possessive pronoun emēn . Not my remembrance of you, but your remem...

In remembrance of me ( eis tēn emēn anamnēsin ).

The objective use of the possessive pronoun emēn . Not my remembrance of you, but your remembrance of me. Anamnēsis , from anamimnēskō , to remind or to recall, is an old word, but only here in N.T. save Luk 22:19 which see.

Robertson: 1Co 11:25 - After supper After supper ( meta to deipnēsai ). Meta and the articular aorist active infinitive, "after the dining"(or the supping) as in Luk 22:20.

After supper ( meta to deipnēsai ).

Meta and the articular aorist active infinitive, "after the dining"(or the supping) as in Luk 22:20.

Robertson: 1Co 11:25 - The new covenant The new covenant ( hē kainē diathēkē ). For diathēkē see note on Mat 26:28. For kainos see Luk 5:38 and note on Luk 22:20. The positi...

The new covenant ( hē kainē diathēkē ).

For diathēkē see note on Mat 26:28. For kainos see Luk 5:38 and note on Luk 22:20. The position of estin before en tōi haimati (in my blood) makes it a secondary or additional predicate and not to be taken just with diathēkē (covenant or will).

Robertson: 1Co 11:25 - As oft as ye drink it As oft as ye drink it ( hosakis an pinēte ). Usual construction for general temporal clause of repetition (an and the present subjunctive with ho...

As oft as ye drink it ( hosakis an pinēte ).

Usual construction for general temporal clause of repetition (an and the present subjunctive with hosakis ). So in 1Co 11:26.

Robertson: 1Co 11:26 - Till he come Till he come ( achri hou elthēi ). Common idiom (with or without an ) with the aorist subjunctive for future time (Robertson, Grammar , p. 975). ...

Till he come ( achri hou elthēi ).

Common idiom (with or without an ) with the aorist subjunctive for future time (Robertson, Grammar , p. 975). In Luk 22:18 we have heōs hou elthēi . The Lord’ s Supper is the great preacher (kataggellete ) of the death of Christ till his second coming (Mat 26:29).

Robertson: 1Co 11:27 - Unworthily Unworthily ( anaxiōs ). Old adverb, only here in N.T., not genuine in 1Co 11:29. Paul defines his meaning in 1Co 11:29. He does not say or imply th...

Unworthily ( anaxiōs ).

Old adverb, only here in N.T., not genuine in 1Co 11:29. Paul defines his meaning in 1Co 11:29. He does not say or imply that we ourselves must be "worthy"(axioi ) to partake of the Lord’ s Supper. No one would ever partake on those terms. Many pious souls have abstained from observing the ordinance through false exegesis here.

Robertson: 1Co 11:27 - Shall be guilty Shall be guilty ( enochos estai ). Shall be held guilty as in Mat 5:21. which see. Shall be guilty of a crime committed against the body and blood of...

Shall be guilty ( enochos estai ).

Shall be held guilty as in Mat 5:21. which see. Shall be guilty of a crime committed against the body and blood of the Lord by such sacrilege (cf. Heb 6:6; Heb 10:29).

Robertson: 1Co 11:28 - Let a man prove himself Let a man prove himself ( dokimazetō anthrōpos heauton ). Test himself as he would a piece of metal to see if genuine. Such examination of one...

Let a man prove himself ( dokimazetō anthrōpos heauton ).

Test himself as he would a piece of metal to see if genuine. Such examination of one’ s motives would have made impossible the disgraceful scenes in 1Co 11:20.

Robertson: 1Co 11:29 - If he discern not the body If he discern not the body ( mē diakrinōn to sōma ). So-called conditional use of the participle, "not judging the body."Thus he eats and drink...

If he discern not the body ( mē diakrinōn to sōma ).

So-called conditional use of the participle, "not judging the body."Thus he eats and drinks judgment (krima ) on himself. The verb diȧkrinō is an old and common word, our dis-cri-minate , to distinguish. Eating the bread and drinking the wine as symbols of the Lord’ s body and blood in death probes one’ s heart to the very depths.

Robertson: 1Co 11:30 - And not a few sleep And not a few sleep ( kai koimōntai hikanoi ). Sufficient number (hikanoi ) are already asleep in death because of their desecration of the Lord&#...

And not a few sleep ( kai koimōntai hikanoi ).

Sufficient number (hikanoi ) are already asleep in death because of their desecration of the Lord’ s table. Paul evidently had knowledge of specific instances. A few would be too many.

Robertson: 1Co 11:31 - But if we discerned ourselves But if we discerned ourselves ( ei de heautous diekrinomen ). This condition of the second class, determined as unfulfilled, assumes that they had no...

But if we discerned ourselves ( ei de heautous diekrinomen ).

This condition of the second class, determined as unfulfilled, assumes that they had not been judging themselves discriminatingly, else they would not be judged (ekrinometha ). Note distinction in the two verbs.

Robertson: 1Co 11:32 - Ye are chastened of the Lord Ye are chastened of the Lord ( hupo tou Kuriou paideuometha ). On this sense of paideuō , from pais , child, to train a child (Act 7:22), to discip...

Ye are chastened of the Lord ( hupo tou Kuriou paideuometha ).

On this sense of paideuō , from pais , child, to train a child (Act 7:22), to discipline with words (2Ti 2:25), to chastise with scourges see note on Luk 23:16 (Heb 12:7), and so by afflictions as here (Heb 12:6). Hupo tou Kuriou can be construed with krinomenoi instead of with paideuometha .

Robertson: 1Co 11:32 - With the world With the world ( sun tōi kosmōi ). Along with the world. Afflictions are meant to separate us from the doom of the wicked world. Final use of hin...

With the world ( sun tōi kosmōi ).

Along with the world. Afflictions are meant to separate us from the doom of the wicked world. Final use of hina mē here with katakrithōmen (first aorist passive subjunctive).

Robertson: 1Co 11:33 - Wait one for another Wait one for another ( allēlous ekdechesthe ). As in Joh 5:3; Act 17:16. That is common courtesy. Wait in turn. Vulgate has invicem expectate .

Wait one for another ( allēlous ekdechesthe ).

As in Joh 5:3; Act 17:16. That is common courtesy. Wait in turn. Vulgate has invicem expectate .

Robertson: 1Co 11:34 - At home At home ( en oikōi ). If so hungry as all that (1Co 11:22).

At home ( en oikōi ).

If so hungry as all that (1Co 11:22).

Robertson: 1Co 11:34 - The rest The rest ( ta loipa ). He has found much fault with this church, but he has not told all.

The rest ( ta loipa ).

He has found much fault with this church, but he has not told all.

Robertson: 1Co 11:34 - I will set in order I will set in order ( diataxomai ). Not even Timothy and Titus can do it all.

I will set in order ( diataxomai ).

Not even Timothy and Titus can do it all.

Robertson: 1Co 11:34 - Whensoever I come Whensoever I come ( hōs an elthō ). Common idiom for temporal clause of future time (conjunction like hōs with an and aorist subjunctive el...

Whensoever I come ( hōs an elthō ).

Common idiom for temporal clause of future time (conjunction like hōs with an and aorist subjunctive elthō ).

Vincent: 1Co 11:1 - Followers Followers ( μιμηταί ) Lit., imitators , as Rev. This verse belongs to the closing section of ch. 10.

Followers ( μιμηταί )

Lit., imitators , as Rev. This verse belongs to the closing section of ch. 10.

Vincent: 1Co 11:2 - Ordinances - delivered Ordinances - delivered ( παραδόσεις - παρέδωκα ) There is a play of two hundred words, both being derived from παραδ...

Ordinances - delivered ( παραδόσεις - παρέδωκα )

There is a play of two hundred words, both being derived from παραδίδωμι to give over . Ordinances is a faulty rendering. Better, Rev., traditions . By these words Paul avoids any possible charge of imposing his own notions upon the Church. He delivers to them what had been delivered to him. Compare 1Ti 1:11; 2Th 2:15.

Vincent: 1Co 11:4 - Having his head covered Having his head covered ( κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων ) Lit., having something hanging down from his head . Referring t...

Having his head covered ( κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων )

Lit., having something hanging down from his head . Referring to the tallith , a four-cornered shawl having fringes consisting of eight threads, each knotted five times, and worn over the head in prayer. It was placed upon the worshipper's head at his entrance into the synagogue. The Romans, like the Jews, prayed with the head veiled. So Aeneas: " And our heads are shrouded before the altar with a Phrygian vestment" (Virgil, " Aeneid," iii., 545). The Greeks remained bareheaded during prayer or sacrifice, as indeed they did in their ordinary outdoor life. The Grecian usage, which had become prevalent in the Grecian churches, seems to have commended itself to Paul as more becoming the superior position of the man.

Vincent: 1Co 11:5 - Her head uncovered Her head uncovered Rev., unveiled . The Greek women rarely appeared in public, but lived in strict seclusion. Unmarried women never quitted thei...

Her head uncovered

Rev., unveiled . The Greek women rarely appeared in public, but lived in strict seclusion. Unmarried women never quitted their apartments, except on occasions of festal processions, either as spectators or participants. Even after marriage they were largely confined to the gynaeconitis or women's rooms . Thus Euripides: " As to that which brings the reproach of a bad reputation upon her who remains not at home, giving up the desire of this, I tarried in my dwelling" (" Troades," 649). And Menander: " The door of the court is the boundary fixed for the free woman." The head-dress of Greek women consisted of nets, hair-bags, or kerchiefs, sometimes covering the whole head. A shawl which enveloped the body was also often thrown over the head, especially at marriages or funerals. This costume the Corinthian women had disused in the christian assemblies, perhaps as an assertion of the abolition of sexual distinctions, and the spiritual equality of the woman with the man in the presence of Christ. This custom was discountenanced by Paul as striking at the divinely ordained subjection of the woman to the man. Among the Jews, in ancient times, both married and unmarried women appeared in public unveiled. The later Jewish authorities insisted on the use of the veil.

Vincent: 1Co 11:5 - All one as if she were shaven All one as if she were shaven Which would be a sign either of grief or of disgrace. The cutting off of the hair is used by Isaiah as a figure of ...

All one as if she were shaven

Which would be a sign either of grief or of disgrace. The cutting off of the hair is used by Isaiah as a figure of the entire destruction of a people by divine retribution. Isa 7:20 Among the Jews a woman convicted of adultery had her hair shorn, with the formula: " Because thou hast departed from the manner of the daughters of Israel, who go with their head covered, therefore that has befallen thee which thou hast chosen." According to Tacitus, among the Germans an adulteress was driven from her husband's house with her head shaved; and the Justinian code prescribed this penalty for an adulteress, whom, at the expiration of two years, her husband refused to receive again. Paul means that a woman praying or prophesying uncovered puts herself in public opinion on a level with a courtesan.

Vincent: 1Co 11:6 - Shorn or shaven Shorn or shaven ( κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι ) To have the hair cut close, or to be entirely shaved as with a razor.

Shorn or shaven ( κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι )

To have the hair cut close, or to be entirely shaved as with a razor.

Vincent: 1Co 11:7 - Image and glory Image and glory ( εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα ) For image , see on Rev 13:14. Man represents God's authority by his position as the ruler...

Image and glory ( εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα )

For image , see on Rev 13:14. Man represents God's authority by his position as the ruler of the woman. In the case of the woman, the word image is omitted, although she, like the man, is the image of God. Paul is expounding the relation of the woman, not to God, but to man.

Vincent: 1Co 11:10 - Power on her head Power on her head ( ἐξουσίαν ) Not in the primary sense of liberty or permission , but authority . Used here of the symbol of...

Power on her head ( ἐξουσίαν )

Not in the primary sense of liberty or permission , but authority . Used here of the symbol of power, i.e., the covering upon the head as a sign of her husband's authority. So Rev., a sign of authority .

Vincent: 1Co 11:10 - Because of the angels Because of the angels The holy angels, who were supposed by both the Jewish and the early Christian Church to be present in worshipping assemblie...

Because of the angels

The holy angels, who were supposed by both the Jewish and the early Christian Church to be present in worshipping assemblies. More, however, seems to be meant than " to avoid exciting disapproval among them." The key-note of Paul's thought is subordination according to the original divine order. Woman best asserts her spiritual equality before God, not by unsexing herself, but by recognizing her true position and fulfilling its claims, even as do the angels, who are ministering as well as worshipping spirits (Heb 1:4). She is to fall in obediently with that divine economy of which she forms a part with the angels, and not to break the divine harmony, which especially asserts itself in worship, where the angelic ministers mingle with the earthly worshippers; nor to ignore the example of the holy ones who keep their first estate, and serve in the heavenly sanctuary.

Vincent: 1Co 11:14 - Nature Nature ( φύσις ) The recognized constitution of things. In this case the natural distinction of the woman's long hair.

Nature ( φύσις )

The recognized constitution of things. In this case the natural distinction of the woman's long hair.

Vincent: 1Co 11:16 - Custom Custom Not the custom of contentiousness, but that of women speaking unveiled. The testimonies of Tertullian and Chrysostom show that these injun...

Custom

Not the custom of contentiousness, but that of women speaking unveiled. The testimonies of Tertullian and Chrysostom show that these injunctions of Paul prevailed in the churches. In the sculptures of the catacombs the women have a close-fitting head-dress, while the men have the hair short.

Vincent: 1Co 11:17 - I declare I declare ( παραγγέλλω ) Wrong. It means in the New Testament only command . See on Luk 5:14; see on Act 1:4.

I declare ( παραγγέλλω )

Wrong. It means in the New Testament only command . See on Luk 5:14; see on Act 1:4.

Vincent: 1Co 11:18 - In the church In the church ( ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ ) See on Mat 16:18. Not the church edifice , a meaning which the word never has in the New Testame...

In the church ( ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ )

See on Mat 16:18. Not the church edifice , a meaning which the word never has in the New Testament, and which appears first in patristic writings. The marginal rendering of the Rev. is better: in congregation .

Vincent: 1Co 11:19 - Heresies Heresies ( αἱρἐσεις ) See on 2Pe 2:1. In Paul only here and Gal 5:20. Better, parties or factions , as the result of the divisions...

Heresies ( αἱρἐσεις )

See on 2Pe 2:1. In Paul only here and Gal 5:20. Better, parties or factions , as the result of the divisions.

Vincent: 1Co 11:20 - This is not This is not ( οὐκ ἔστιν ) Rev., correctly, it is not possible .

This is not ( οὐκ ἔστιν )

Rev., correctly, it is not possible .

Vincent: 1Co 11:20 - The Lord's Supper The Lord's Supper ( κυριακὸν δεῖπνον ) The emphasis is on Lord's . Δεῖπνον supper , represented the principal meal ...

The Lord's Supper ( κυριακὸν δεῖπνον )

The emphasis is on Lord's . Δεῖπνον supper , represented the principal meal of the day, answering to the late dinner. The Eucharist proper was originally celebrated as a private expression of devotion, and in connection with a common, daily meal, an agape or love-feast . In the apostolic period it was celebrated daily. The social and festive character of the meal grew largely out of the gentile institution of clubs or fraternities, which served as savings-banks, mutual-help societies, insurance offices, and which expressed and fostered the spirit of good-fellowship by common festive meals, usually in gardens, round an altar of sacrifice. The communion-meal of the first and second centuries exhibited this character in being a feast of contribution, to which each brought his own provision. It also perpetuated the Jewish practice of the college of priests for the temple-service dining at a common table on festivals or Sabbaths, and of the schools of the Pharisees in their ordinary life.

Indications of the blending of the eucharistic celebration with a common meal are found here, Act 2:42; Act 20:7, and more obscurely, Act 27:35.

Vincent: 1Co 11:21 - Taketh before other Taketh before other Not waiting for the coming of the poor to participate.

Taketh before other

Not waiting for the coming of the poor to participate.

Vincent: 1Co 11:22 - Them that have not Them that have not Not, that have not houses , but absolutely, the poor . In thus shaming their poorer comrades they imitated the heathen. Xe...

Them that have not

Not, that have not houses , but absolutely, the poor . In thus shaming their poorer comrades they imitated the heathen. Xenophon relates of Socrates that, at feasts of contribution, where some brought much and others little, Socrates bade his attendant either to place each small contribution on the table for the common use, or else to distribute his share of the same to each. And so those who had brought much were ashamed not to partake of that which was placed for general use, and not, in return, to place their own stock on the table (" Memorabilia," iii., 14, 1).

Vincent: 1Co 11:23 - I received I received ( ἐγὼ παρέλαβον ) I is emphatic, giving the weight of personal authority to the statement. The question whether Pa...

I received ( ἐγὼ παρέλαβον )

I is emphatic, giving the weight of personal authority to the statement. The question whether Paul means that he received directly from Christ, or mediately through the apostles or tradition, turns on a difference between two prepositions. Strictly, ἀπὸ from or of , with the Lord , would imply the more remote source, from the Lord, through the apostles; but Paul does not always observe the distinction between this and παρά , from the preposition of the nearer source (see Greek, Col 1:7; Col 3:24); and this latter preposition compounded with the verb received , the emphatic I , and the mention of the fact itself, are decisive of the sense of an immediate communication from Christ to Paul.

Vincent: 1Co 11:23 - Also Also ( καὶ ) Important as expressing the identity of the account of Jesus with his own.

Also ( καὶ )

Important as expressing the identity of the account of Jesus with his own.

Vincent: 1Co 11:23 - He was betrayed He was betrayed ( παρεδίδετο ) Imperfect tense, and very graphic. He was being betrayed . He instituted the Eucharist while Hi...

He was betrayed ( παρεδίδετο )

Imperfect tense, and very graphic. He was being betrayed . He instituted the Eucharist while His betrayal was going on .

Vincent: 1Co 11:24 - Had given thanks Had given thanks ( εὐχαριστής ) Eucharistesas . Hence in post-apostolic and patristic writers, Eucharist was the technical term ...

Had given thanks ( εὐχαριστής )

Eucharistesas . Hence in post-apostolic and patristic writers, Eucharist was the technical term for the Lord's Supper as a sacrifice of thanksgiving for all the gifts of God, especially for the " unspeakable gift," Jesus Christ. By some of the fathers of the second century the term was sometimes applied to the consecrated elements. The formula of thanksgiving cited in " The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" is, for the cup first, 'We give thanks to Thee, our Father, for the holy vine of David Thy servant, which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus, Thy servant: to Thee be the glory forever." And for the bread: " We give thanks to Thee, our Father, for the life and knowledge which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus Thy servant: to Thee be the glory forever. As this broken bread was scattered upon the mountains and, gathered together, became one, so let Thy Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Thy Kingdom, for Thine is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ forever."

Vincent: 1Co 11:24 - Brake Brake Bengel says: " The very mention of the breaking involves distribution and refutes the Corinthian plan - every man his own" (1Co 11:21).

Brake

Bengel says: " The very mention of the breaking involves distribution and refutes the Corinthian plan - every man his own" (1Co 11:21).

Vincent: 1Co 11:24 - Do Do ( ποιεῖε ) Be doing or continue doing .

Do ( ποιεῖε )

Be doing or continue doing .

Vincent: 1Co 11:24 - In remembrance In remembrance ( εἰς ) Strictly, for or with a view to , denoting purpose. These words do not occur in Matthew and Mark. Paul's acc...

In remembrance ( εἰς )

Strictly, for or with a view to , denoting purpose. These words do not occur in Matthew and Mark. Paul's account agrees with Luke's. Remembrance implies Christ's bodily absence in the future.

Vincent: 1Co 11:25 - After supper After supper Only Luke records this detail. It is added to mark the distinction between the Lord's Supper and the ordinary meal.

After supper

Only Luke records this detail. It is added to mark the distinction between the Lord's Supper and the ordinary meal.

Vincent: 1Co 11:25 - Testament Testament ( διαθήκη ) Rev., correctly, covenant . See on Mat 26:28. The Hebrew word is derived from a verb meaning to cut . Hence th...

Testament ( διαθήκη )

Rev., correctly, covenant . See on Mat 26:28. The Hebrew word is derived from a verb meaning to cut . Hence the connection of dividing the victims with the ratification of a covenant. See Gen 15:9-18. A similar usage appears in the Homeric phrase ὅρκια πιστὰ ταμεῖν , lit., to cut trustworthy oaths , whence the word oaths is used for the victims sacrificed in ratification of a covenant or treaty. See Homer, " Iliad," ii., 124; 3. 73, 93. So the Latin foedus ferire " to kill a league," whence our phrase to strike a compact . In the Septuagint proper, where it occurs nearly three hundred times, διαθήκη , in all but four passages, is the translation of the Hebrew word for covenant ( berith ). In those four it is used to render brotherhood and words of the covenant . In Philo it has the same sense as in the Septuagint, and covenant is its invariable sense in the New Testament.

Vincent: 1Co 11:26 - Ye do shew Ye do shew ( καταγγέλλετε ) Rev., better, proclaim . It is more than represent or signify . The Lord's death is preached in t...

Ye do shew ( καταγγέλλετε )

Rev., better, proclaim . It is more than represent or signify . The Lord's death is preached in the celebration of the Eucharist. Compare Exo 13:8, thou shalt shew . In the Jewish passover the word Haggadah denoted the historical explanation of the meaning of the passover rites given by the father to the son. Dr. Schaff says of the eucharistic service of the apostolic age: " The fourteenth chapter of first Corinthians makes the impression - to use an American phrase - of a religions meeting thrown open . Everybody who had a spiritual gift, whether it was the gift of tongues, of interpretation, of prophecy, or of sober, didactic teaching, had a right to speak, to pray, and to sing. Even women exercised their gifts" (" Introduction to the Didache" ). See, further, on 1Co 14:33.

Vincent: 1Co 11:27 - Unworthily Unworthily ( ἀναξίως ) Defined by " not discerning the Lord's body," 1Co 11:29.

Unworthily ( ἀναξίως )

Defined by " not discerning the Lord's body," 1Co 11:29.

Vincent: 1Co 11:27 - Guilty Guilty ( ἔνοχος ) See on Mar 3:29; see on Jam 2:10.

Guilty ( ἔνοχος )

See on Mar 3:29; see on Jam 2:10.

Vincent: 1Co 11:28 - So So After self-examination and consequent knowledge of his spiritual state.

So

After self-examination and consequent knowledge of his spiritual state.

Vincent: 1Co 11:29 - Unworthily Unworthily Omit.

Unworthily

Omit.

Vincent: 1Co 11:29 - Damnation Damnation ( κρῖμα ) See on Mar 16:16; see on Joh 9:39. This false and horrible rendering has destroyed the peace of more sincere and earne...

Damnation ( κρῖμα )

See on Mar 16:16; see on Joh 9:39. This false and horrible rendering has destroyed the peace of more sincere and earnest souls than any other misread passage in the New Testament. It has kept hundreds from the Lord's table. Κρῖμα is a temporary judgment, and so is distinguished from κατάκριμα condemnation , from which this temporary judgment is intended to save the participant. The distinction appears in 1Co 11:32 (see note). The A.V. of the whole passage, 1Co 11:28-34, is marked by a confusion of the renderings of κρίνειν to judge and its compounds.

Vincent: 1Co 11:29 - Not discerning Not discerning ( μὴ διακρίνων ) Rev., if he discern not , bringing out the conditional force of the negative particle. The ...

Not discerning ( μὴ διακρίνων )

Rev., if he discern not , bringing out the conditional force of the negative particle. The verb primarily means to separate , and hence to make a distinction , discriminate . Rev., in margin, discriminating . Such also is the primary meaning of discern ( discernere to part or separate ), so that discerning implies a mental act of discriminating between different things. So Bacon: " Nothing more variable than voices, yet men can likewise discern these personally." This sense has possibly become a little obscured in popular usage. From this the transition is easy and natural to the sense of doubting , disputing , judging , all of these involving the recognition of differences. The object of the discrimination here referred to, may, I think, be regarded as complex. After Paul's words (1Co 11:20, 1Co 11:22), about the degradation of the Lord's Supper, the discrimination between the Lord's body and common food may naturally be contemplated; but further, such discernment of the peculiar significance and sacredness of the Lord's body as shall make him shrink from profanation and shall stimulate him to penitence and faith.

Vincent: 1Co 11:29 - The Lord's body The Lord's body Omit Lord's and read the body . This adds force to discerning .

The Lord's body

Omit Lord's and read the body . This adds force to discerning .

Vincent: 1Co 11:30 - Weak and sickly Weak and sickly Physical visitations on account of profanation of the Lord's table.

Weak and sickly

Physical visitations on account of profanation of the Lord's table.

Vincent: 1Co 11:30 - Many sleep Many sleep ( κοιμῶνται ἱκανοί ) The word for many means, primarily, adequate , sufficient . See on Rom 15:23. Rev., not...

Many sleep ( κοιμῶνται ἱκανοί )

The word for many means, primarily, adequate , sufficient . See on Rom 15:23. Rev., not a few hardly expresses the ominous shading of the word: quite enough have died. Sleep . Better, are sleeping . Here simply as a synonym for are dead , without the peculiar restful sense which christian sentiment so commonly conveys into it. See on Act 7:60; see on 2Pe 3:4.

Vincent: 1Co 11:31 - We would judge We would judge ( διεκρίνομεν ) An illustration of the confusion in rendering referred to under 1Co 11:29. This is the same word as ...

We would judge ( διεκρίνομεν )

An illustration of the confusion in rendering referred to under 1Co 11:29. This is the same word as discerning in 1Co 11:29, but the A.V. recognizes no distinction between it, and judged (ἐκρινόμεθα ) immediately following. Render, as Rev., if we discerned ourselves ; i.e., examined and formed a right estimate.

Vincent: 1Co 11:31 - We should not be judged We should not be judged ( οὐκ ἀν ἐκρινόμεθα ) By God. Here judged is correct. A proper self-examination would save us fr...

We should not be judged ( οὐκ ἀν ἐκρινόμεθα )

By God. Here judged is correct. A proper self-examination would save us from the divine judgment.

Vincent: 1Co 11:32 - When we are judged When we are judged ( κρινόμενοι ) Correct. The same word as the last. With this construe by the Lord ; not with chastened . The...

When we are judged ( κρινόμενοι )

Correct. The same word as the last. With this construe by the Lord ; not with chastened . The antithesis to judging ourselves is thus preserved. So Rev., in margin.

Vincent: 1Co 11:32 - Condemned Condemned ( κατακριθῶμεν ) Signifying the final condemnatory judgment; but in 1Co 11:29 the simple κρῖμα temporary judgme...

Condemned ( κατακριθῶμεν )

Signifying the final condemnatory judgment; but in 1Co 11:29 the simple κρῖμα temporary judgment , is made equivalent to this. See note.

Vincent: 1Co 11:33 - Tarry Tarry ( ἐκδέχεσθε ) In the usual New-Testament sense, as Joh 5:3; Act 17:16; though in some cases the idea of expectancy is emphas...

Tarry ( ἐκδέχεσθε )

In the usual New-Testament sense, as Joh 5:3; Act 17:16; though in some cases the idea of expectancy is emphasized, as Heb 10:13; Heb 11:10; Jam 5:7. Some render receive ye one another, in contrast with despising the poorer guests; but this is not according to New-Testament usage.

Vincent: 1Co 11:34 - Will I set in order Will I set in order ( διατάξομαι ) Referring to outward, practical arrangements. See on Mat 11:1, and compare 1Co 9:14; 1Co 16:1; Gal...

Will I set in order ( διατάξομαι )

Referring to outward, practical arrangements. See on Mat 11:1, and compare 1Co 9:14; 1Co 16:1; Gal 3:19.

Wesley: 1Co 11:2 - I praise you The greater part of you.

The greater part of you.

Wesley: 1Co 11:3 - I would have you know He does not seem to have given them any order before concerning this.

He does not seem to have given them any order before concerning this.

Wesley: 1Co 11:3 - The head of every man Particularly every believer. Is Christ, and the head of Christ is God - Christ, as he is Mediator, acts in all things subordinately to his Father. But...

Particularly every believer. Is Christ, and the head of Christ is God - Christ, as he is Mediator, acts in all things subordinately to his Father. But we can no more infer that they are not of the same divine nature, because God is said to be the head of Christ, than that man and woman are not of the same human nature, because the man is said to be the head of the woman.

Wesley: 1Co 11:4 - Every man praying or prophesying Speaking by the immediate power of God.

Speaking by the immediate power of God.

Wesley: 1Co 11:4 - With his head And face.

And face.

Wesley: 1Co 11:4 - Covered Either with a veil or with long hair.

Either with a veil or with long hair.

Wesley: 1Co 11:4 - Dishonoureth his head St. Paul seems to mean, As in these eastern nations veiling the head is a badge of subjection, so a man who prays or prophesies with a veil on his hea...

St. Paul seems to mean, As in these eastern nations veiling the head is a badge of subjection, so a man who prays or prophesies with a veil on his head, reflects a dishonour on Christ, whose representative he is.

Wesley: 1Co 11:5 - But every woman Who, under an immediate impulse of the Spirit, (for then only was a woman suffered to speak in the church,) prays or prophesies without a veil on her ...

Who, under an immediate impulse of the Spirit, (for then only was a woman suffered to speak in the church,) prays or prophesies without a veil on her face, as it were disclaims subjection, and reflects dishonour on man, her head. For it is the same, in effect, as if she cut her hair short, and wore it in the distinguishing form of the men. In those ages, men wore their hair exceeding short, as appears from the ancient statues and pictures.

Wesley: 1Co 11:6 - Therefore if a woman is not covered If she will throw off the badge of subjection, let her appear with her hair cut like a man's. But if it be shameful far a woman to appear thus in publ...

If she will throw off the badge of subjection, let her appear with her hair cut like a man's. But if it be shameful far a woman to appear thus in public, especially in a religious assembly, let her, for the same reason, keep on her veil.

Wesley: 1Co 11:7 - A man indeed ought not to veil his head, because he is the image of God In the dominion he bears over the creation, representing the supreme dominion of God, which is his glory. But the woman is only matter of glory to the...

In the dominion he bears over the creation, representing the supreme dominion of God, which is his glory. But the woman is only matter of glory to the man, who has a becoming dominion over her. Therefore she ought not to appear, but with her head veiled, as a tacit acknowledgment of it.

Wesley: 1Co 11:8 - The man is not In the first production of nature.

In the first production of nature.

Wesley: 1Co 11:10 - For this cause also a woman ought to be veiled in the public assemblies, because of the angels Who attend there, and before whom they should be careful not to do anything indecent or irregular.

Who attend there, and before whom they should be careful not to do anything indecent or irregular.

Wesley: 1Co 11:11 - Nevertheless in the Lord Jesus, there is neither male nor female Neither is excluded; neither is preferred before the other in his kingdom.

Neither is excluded; neither is preferred before the other in his kingdom.

Wesley: 1Co 11:12 - And as the woman was at first taken out of the man, so also the man is now, in the ordinary course of nature, by the woman; but all things are of God The man, the woman, and their dependence on each other.

The man, the woman, and their dependence on each other.

Wesley: 1Co 11:13 - Judge of yourselves For what need of more arguments if so plain a case? Is it decent for a woman to pray to God - The Most High, with that bold and undaunted air which sh...

For what need of more arguments if so plain a case? Is it decent for a woman to pray to God - The Most High, with that bold and undaunted air which she must have, when, contrary to universal custom, she appears in public with her head uncovered?

Wesley: 1Co 11:14 - -- For a man to have long hair, carefully adjusted, is such a mark of effeminacy as is a disgrace to him.

For a man to have long hair, carefully adjusted, is such a mark of effeminacy as is a disgrace to him.

Wesley: 1Co 11:15 - Given her Originally, before the arts of dress were in being.

Originally, before the arts of dress were in being.

Wesley: 1Co 11:16 - We have no such custom here, nor any of the other churches of God The several churches that were in the apostles' time had different customs in things that were not essential; and that under one and the same apostle,...

The several churches that were in the apostles' time had different customs in things that were not essential; and that under one and the same apostle, as circumstances, in different places, made it convenient. And in all things merely indifferent the custom of each place was of sufficient weight to determine prudent and peaceable men. Yet even this cannot overrule a scrupulous conscience, which really doubts whether the thing be indifferent or no. But those who are referred to here by the apostle were contentious, not conscientious, persons.

Wesley: 1Co 11:18 - In the church In the public assembly.

In the public assembly.

Wesley: 1Co 11:18 - I hear there are schisms among you; and I partly believe it That is, I believe it of some of you. It is plain that by schisms is not meant any separation from the church, but uncharitable divisions in it; for t...

That is, I believe it of some of you. It is plain that by schisms is not meant any separation from the church, but uncharitable divisions in it; for the Corinthians continued to be one church; and, notwithstanding all their strife and contention, there was no separation of any one party from the rest, with regard to external communion. And it is in the same sense that the word is used, 1Co 1:10; 1Co 12:25; which are the only places in the New Testament, beside this, where church schisms are mentioned. Therefore, the indulging any temper contrary to this tender care of each other is the true scriptural schism. This is, therefore, a quite different thing from that orderly separation from corrupt churches which later ages have stigmatized as schisms; and have made a pretence for the vilest cruelties, oppressions, and murders, that have troubled the Christian world. Both heresies and schisms are here mentioned in very near the same sense; unless by schisms be meant, rather, those inward animosities which occasion heresies; that is, outward divisions or parties: so that whilst one said, "I am of Paul," another, "I am of Apollos," this implied both schism and heresy. So wonderfully have later ages distorted the words heresy and schism from their scriptural meaning. Heresy is not, in all the Bible, taken for "an error in fundamentals," or in anything else; nor schism, for any separation made from the outward communion of others. Therefore, both heresy and schism, in the modern sense of the words, are sins that the scripture knows nothing of; but were invented merely to deprive mankind of the benefit of private judgment, and liberty of conscience.

Wesley: 1Co 11:19 - There must be heresies Divisions.

Divisions.

Wesley: 1Co 11:19 - Among you In the ordinary course of things; and God permits them, that it may appear who among you are, and who are not, upright of heart.

In the ordinary course of things; and God permits them, that it may appear who among you are, and who are not, upright of heart.

Wesley: 1Co 11:20 - Therefore That is, in consequence of those schisms.

That is, in consequence of those schisms.

Wesley: 1Co 11:20 - It is not eating the Lord's supper That solemn memorial of his death; but quite another thing.

That solemn memorial of his death; but quite another thing.

Wesley: 1Co 11:21 - -- For in eating what ye call the Lord's supper, instead of all partaking of one bread, each person brings his own supper, and eats it without staying fo...

For in eating what ye call the Lord's supper, instead of all partaking of one bread, each person brings his own supper, and eats it without staying for the rest. And hereby the poor, who cannot provide for themselves, have nothing; while the rich eat and drink to the full just as the heathens use to do at the feasts on their sacrifices.

Wesley: 1Co 11:22 - Have ye not houses to eat and drink your common meals in? or do ye despise the church of God Of which the poor are both the larger and the better part. Do ye act thus in designed contempt of them?

Of which the poor are both the larger and the better part. Do ye act thus in designed contempt of them?

Wesley: 1Co 11:23 - I received By an immediate revelation.

By an immediate revelation.

Wesley: 1Co 11:24 - This is my body, which is broken for you That is, this broken bread is the sign of my body, which is even now to be pierced and wounded for your iniquities. Take then, and eat of, this bread,...

That is, this broken bread is the sign of my body, which is even now to be pierced and wounded for your iniquities. Take then, and eat of, this bread, in an humble, thankful, obediential remembrance of my dying love; of the extremity of my sufferings on your behalf, of the blessings I have thereby procured for you, and of the obligations to love and duty which I have by all this laid upon you.

Wesley: 1Co 11:25 - After supper Therefore ye ought not to confound this with a common meal.

Therefore ye ought not to confound this with a common meal.

Wesley: 1Co 11:25 - Do this in remembrance of me The ancient sacrifices were in remembrance of sin: this sacrifice, once offered, is still represented in remembrance of the remission of sins.

The ancient sacrifices were in remembrance of sin: this sacrifice, once offered, is still represented in remembrance of the remission of sins.

Wesley: 1Co 11:26 - Ye show forth the Lord's death Ye proclaim, as it were, and openly avow it to God, and to all the world.

Ye proclaim, as it were, and openly avow it to God, and to all the world.

Wesley: 1Co 11:26 - Till he come In glory.

In glory.

Wesley: 1Co 11:27 - Whosoever shall eat this bread unworthily That is, in an unworthy, irreverent manner; without regarding either Him that appointed it, or the design of its appointment. Shall be guilty of profa...

That is, in an unworthy, irreverent manner; without regarding either Him that appointed it, or the design of its appointment. Shall be guilty of profaning that which represents the body and blood of the Lord.

Wesley: 1Co 11:28 - But let a man examine himself Whether he know the nature and the design of the institution, and whether it be his own desire and purpose throughly to comply therewith.

Whether he know the nature and the design of the institution, and whether it be his own desire and purpose throughly to comply therewith.

Wesley: 1Co 11:29 - For he that eateth and drinketh so unworthily as those Corinthians did, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself Temporal judgments of various kinds, 1Co 11:30.

Temporal judgments of various kinds, 1Co 11:30.

Wesley: 1Co 11:29 - Not distinguishing the sacred tokens of the Lord's body From his common food.

From his common food.

Wesley: 1Co 11:30 - For this cause Which they had not observed.

Which they had not observed.

Wesley: 1Co 11:30 - Many sleep In death.

In death.

Wesley: 1Co 11:31 - If we would judge ourselves As to our knowledge, and the design with which we approach the Lord's table.

As to our knowledge, and the design with which we approach the Lord's table.

Wesley: 1Co 11:31 - We should not be thus judged That is, punished by God.

That is, punished by God.

Wesley: 1Co 11:32 - -- When we are thus judged, it is with this merciful design, that we may not be finally condemned with the world.

When we are thus judged, it is with this merciful design, that we may not be finally condemned with the world.

Wesley: 1Co 11:33 - The rest The other circumstances relating to the Lord's supper.

The other circumstances relating to the Lord's supper.

JFB: 1Co 11:1 - followers Greek, "imitators."

Greek, "imitators."

JFB: 1Co 11:1 - of Christ Who did not please Himself (Rom 15:3); but gave Himself, at the cost of laying aside His divine glory, and dying as man, for us (Eph 5:2; Phi 2:4-5). ...

Who did not please Himself (Rom 15:3); but gave Himself, at the cost of laying aside His divine glory, and dying as man, for us (Eph 5:2; Phi 2:4-5). We are to follow Christ first, and earthly teachers only so far as they follow Christ.

JFB: 1Co 11:2 - -- Here the chapter ought to begin.

Here the chapter ought to begin.

JFB: 1Co 11:2 - ye remember me in all things In your general practice, though in the particular instances which follow ye fail.

In your general practice, though in the particular instances which follow ye fail.

JFB: 1Co 11:2 - ordinances Greek, "traditions," that is, apostolic directions given by word of mouth or in writing (1Co 11:23; 1Co 15:3; 2Th 2:15). The reference here is mainly ...

Greek, "traditions," that is, apostolic directions given by word of mouth or in writing (1Co 11:23; 1Co 15:3; 2Th 2:15). The reference here is mainly to ceremonies: for in 1Co 11:23, as to the LORD'S SUPPER, which is not a mere ceremony, he says, not merely, "I delivered unto you," but also, "I received of the Lord"; here he says only, "I delivered to you." Romanists argue hence for oral traditions. But the difficulty is to know what is a genuine apostolic tradition intended for all ages. Any that can be proved to be such ought to be observed; any that cannot, ought to be rejected (Rev 22:18). Those preserved in the written word alone can be proved to be such.

JFB: 1Co 11:3 - -- The Corinthian women, on the ground of the abolition of distinction of sexes in Christ, claimed equality with the male sex, and, overstepping the boun...

The Corinthian women, on the ground of the abolition of distinction of sexes in Christ, claimed equality with the male sex, and, overstepping the bounds of propriety, came forward to pray and prophesy without the customary head-covering of females. The Gospel, doubtless, did raise women from the degradation in which they had been sunk, especially in the East. Yet, while on a level with males as to the offer of, and standing in grace (Gal 3:28), their subjection in point of order, modesty, and seemliness, is to be maintained. Paul reproves here their unseemliness as to dress: in 1Co 14:34, as to the retiring modesty in public which becomes them. He grounds his reproof here on the subjection of woman to man in the order of creation.

JFB: 1Co 11:3 - the head An appropriate expression, when he is about to treat of woman's appropriate headdress in public.

An appropriate expression, when he is about to treat of woman's appropriate headdress in public.

JFB: 1Co 11:3 - of every man . . . Christ (Eph 5:23).

JFB: 1Co 11:3 - of . . . woman . . . man (1Co 11:8; Gen 3:16; 1Ti 2:11-12; 1Pe 3:1, 1Pe 3:5-6).

JFB: 1Co 11:3 - head of Christ is God (1Co 3:23; 1Co 15:27-28; Luk 3:22, Luk 3:38; Joh 14:28; Joh 20:17; Eph 3:9). "Jesus, therefore, must be of the same essence as God: for, since the ma...

(1Co 3:23; 1Co 15:27-28; Luk 3:22, Luk 3:38; Joh 14:28; Joh 20:17; Eph 3:9). "Jesus, therefore, must be of the same essence as God: for, since the man is the head of the woman, and since the head is of the same essence as the body, and God is the head of the Son, it follows the Son is of the same essence as the Father" [CHRYSOSTOM]. "The woman is of the essence of the man, and not made by the man; so, too, the Son is not made by the Father, but of the essence of the Father" [THEODORET, t. 3, p. 171].

JFB: 1Co 11:4 - praying In public (1Co 11:17).

In public (1Co 11:17).

JFB: 1Co 11:4 - prophesying Preaching in the Spirit (1Co 12:10).

Preaching in the Spirit (1Co 12:10).

JFB: 1Co 11:4 - having That is, if he were to have: a supposed case to illustrate the impropriety in the woman's case. It was the Greek custom (and so that at Corinth) for m...

That is, if he were to have: a supposed case to illustrate the impropriety in the woman's case. It was the Greek custom (and so that at Corinth) for men in worship to be uncovered; whereas the Jews wore the Talith, or veil, to show reverence before God, and their unworthiness to look on Him (Isa 6:2); however, MAIMONIDES [Mishna] excepts cases where (as in Greece) the custom of the place was different.

JFB: 1Co 11:4 - dishonoureth his head Not as ALFORD, "Christ" (1Co 11:3); but literally, as "his head" is used in the beginning of the verse. He dishonoreth his head (the principal part of...

Not as ALFORD, "Christ" (1Co 11:3); but literally, as "his head" is used in the beginning of the verse. He dishonoreth his head (the principal part of the body) by wearing a covering or veil, which is a mark of subjection, and which makes him look downwards instead of upwards to his Spiritual Head, Christ, to whom alone he owes subjection. Why, then, ought not man to wear the covering in token of his subjection to Christ, as the woman wears it in token of her subjection to man? "Because Christ is not seen: the man is seen; so the covering of him who is under Christ is not seen; of her who is under the man, is seen" [BENGEL]. (Compare 1Co 11:7).

JFB: 1Co 11:5 - woman . . . prayeth . . . prophesieth This instance of women speaking in public worship is an extraordinary case, and justified only by the miraculous gifts which such women possessed as t...

This instance of women speaking in public worship is an extraordinary case, and justified only by the miraculous gifts which such women possessed as their credentials; for instance, Anna the prophetess and Priscilla (so Act 2:18). The ordinary rule to them is: silence in public (1Co 14:34-35; 1Ti 2:11-12). Mental receptivity and activity in family life are recognized in Christianity, as most accordant with the destiny of woman. This passage does not necessarily sanction women speaking in public, even though possessing miraculous gifts; but simply records what took place at Corinth, without expressing an opinion on it, reserving the censure of it till 1Co 14:34-35. Even those women endowed with prophecy were designed to exercise their gift, rather in other times and places, than the public congregation.

JFB: 1Co 11:5 - dishonoureth . . . head In that she acts against the divine ordinance and the modest propriety that becomes her: in putting away the veil, she puts away the badge of her subj...

In that she acts against the divine ordinance and the modest propriety that becomes her: in putting away the veil, she puts away the badge of her subjection to man, which is her true "honor"; for through him it connects her with Christ, the head of the man. Moreover, as the head-covering was the emblem of maiden modesty before man (Gen 24:65), and conjugal chastity (Gen 20:16); so, to uncover the head indicated withdrawal from the power of the husband, whence a suspected wife had her head uncovered by the priest (Num 5:18). ALFORD takes "her head" to be man, her symbolical, not her literal head; but as it is literal in the former clause, it must be so in the latter one.

JFB: 1Co 11:5 - all one as if . . . shaven As woman's hair is given her by nature, as her covering (1Co 11:15), to cut it off like a man, all admit, would be indecorous: therefore, to put away ...

As woman's hair is given her by nature, as her covering (1Co 11:15), to cut it off like a man, all admit, would be indecorous: therefore, to put away the head-covering, too, like a man, would be similarly indecorous. It is natural to her to have long hair for her covering: she ought, therefore, to add the other (the wearing of a head-covering) to show that she does of her own will that which nature itself teaches she ought to do, in token of her subjection to man.

JFB: 1Co 11:6 - -- A woman would not like to be "shorn" or (what is worse) "shaven"; but if she chooses to be uncovered (unveiled) in front, let her be so also behind, t...

A woman would not like to be "shorn" or (what is worse) "shaven"; but if she chooses to be uncovered (unveiled) in front, let her be so also behind, that is, "shorn."

JFB: 1Co 11:6 - a shame An unbecoming thing (compare 1Co 11:13-15). Thus the shaving of nuns is "a shame."

An unbecoming thing (compare 1Co 11:13-15). Thus the shaving of nuns is "a shame."

JFB: 1Co 11:7-9 - -- Argument, also, from man's more immediate relation to God, and the woman's to man.

Argument, also, from man's more immediate relation to God, and the woman's to man.

JFB: 1Co 11:7-9 - he is . . . image . . . glory of God Being created in God's "image," first and directly: the woman, subsequently, and indirectly, through the mediation of man. Man is the representative o...

Being created in God's "image," first and directly: the woman, subsequently, and indirectly, through the mediation of man. Man is the representative of God's "glory" this ideal of man being realized most fully in the Son of man (Psa 8:4-5; compare 2Co 8:23). Man is declared in Scripture to be both the "image," and in the "likeness," of God (compare Jam 3:9). But "image" alone is applied to the Son of God (Col 1:15; compare Heb 1:3). "Express image," Greek, "the impress." The Divine Son is not merely "like" God, He is God of God, "being of one substance (essence) with the Father." [Nicene Creed].

JFB: 1Co 11:7-9 - woman . . . glory of . . . man He does not say, also, "the image of the man." For the sexes differ: moreover, the woman is created in the image of God, as well as the man (Gen 1:26-...

He does not say, also, "the image of the man." For the sexes differ: moreover, the woman is created in the image of God, as well as the man (Gen 1:26-27). But as the moon in relation to the sun (Gen 37:9), so woman shines not so much with light direct from God, as with light derived from man, that is, in her order in creation; not that she does not in grace come individually into direct communion with God; but even here much of her knowledge is mediately given her through man, on whom she is naturally dependent.

JFB: 1Co 11:8 - is of . . . of Takes his being from ("out of") . . . from: referring to woman's original creation, "taken out of man" (compare Gen 2:23). The woman was made by God m...

Takes his being from ("out of") . . . from: referring to woman's original creation, "taken out of man" (compare Gen 2:23). The woman was made by God mediately through the man, who was, as it were, a veil or medium placed between her and God, and therefore, should wear the veil or head-covering in public worship, in acknowledgement of this subordination to man in the order of creation. The man being made immediately by God as His glory, has no veil between himself and God [FABER STAPULENSIS in BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:9 - Neither Rather, "For also"; Another argument: The immediate object of woman's creation. "The man was not created for the sake of the woman; but the woman for ...

Rather, "For also"; Another argument: The immediate object of woman's creation. "The man was not created for the sake of the woman; but the woman for the sake of the man" (Gen 2:18, Gen 2:21-22). Just as the Church, the bride, is made for Christ; and yet in both the natural and the spiritual creations, the bride, while made for the bridegroom, in fulfilling that end, attains her own true "glory," and brings "shame" and "dishonor" on herself by any departure from it (1Co 11:4, 1Co 11:6).

JFB: 1Co 11:10 - power on her head The kerchief: French couvre chef, head-covering, the emblem of "power on her head"; the sign of her being under man's power, and exercising delegated ...

The kerchief: French couvre chef, head-covering, the emblem of "power on her head"; the sign of her being under man's power, and exercising delegated authority under him. Paul had before his mind the root-connection between the Hebrew terms for "veil" (radid), and "subjection" (radad).

JFB: 1Co 11:10 - because of the angels Who are present at our Christian assemblies (compare Psa 138:1, "gods," that is, angels), and delight in the orderly subordination of the several rank...

Who are present at our Christian assemblies (compare Psa 138:1, "gods," that is, angels), and delight in the orderly subordination of the several ranks of God's worshippers in their respective places, the outward demeanor and dress of the latter being indicative of that inward humility which angels know to be most pleasing to their common Lord (1Co 4:9; Eph 3:10; Ecc 5:6). HAMMOND quotes CHRYSOSTOM, "Thou standest with angels; thou singest with them; thou hymnest with them; and yet dost thou stand laughing?" BENGEL explains, "As the angels are in relation to God, so the woman is in relation to man. God's face is uncovered; angels in His presence are veiled (Isa 6:2). Man's face is uncovered; woman in His presence is to be veiled. For her not to be so, would, by its indecorousness, offend the angels (Mat 18:10, Mat 18:31). She, by her weakness, especially needs their ministry; she ought, therefore, to be the more careful not to offend them."

JFB: 1Co 11:11 - -- Yet neither sex is insulated and independent of the other in the Christian life [ALFORD]. The one needs the other in the sexual relation; and in respe...

Yet neither sex is insulated and independent of the other in the Christian life [ALFORD]. The one needs the other in the sexual relation; and in respect to Christ ("in the Lord"), the man and the woman together (for neither can be dispensed with) realize the ideal of redeemed humanity represented by the bride, the Church.

JFB: 1Co 11:12 - -- As the woman was formed out of (from) the man, even so is man born by means of woman; but all things (including both man and woman) are from God as th...

As the woman was formed out of (from) the man, even so is man born by means of woman; but all things (including both man and woman) are from God as their source (Rom 11:36; 2Co 5:18). They depend mutually each on the other, and both on him.

JFB: 1Co 11:13 - -- Appeal to their own sense of decorum.

Appeal to their own sense of decorum.

JFB: 1Co 11:13 - a woman . . . unto God By rejecting the emblem of subjection (the head-covering), she passes at one leap in praying publicly beyond both the man and angels [BENGEL].

By rejecting the emblem of subjection (the head-covering), she passes at one leap in praying publicly beyond both the man and angels [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:14 - -- The fact that nature has provided woman, and not man, with long hair, proves that man was designed to be uncovered, and woman covered. The Nazarite, h...

The fact that nature has provided woman, and not man, with long hair, proves that man was designed to be uncovered, and woman covered. The Nazarite, however, wore long hair lawfully, as being part of a vow sanctioned by God (Num 6:5). Compare as to Absalom, 2Sa 14:26, and Act 18:18.

JFB: 1Co 11:15 - her hair . . . for a covering Not that she does not need additional covering. Nay, her long hair shows she ought to cover her head as much as possible. The will ought to accord wit...

Not that she does not need additional covering. Nay, her long hair shows she ought to cover her head as much as possible. The will ought to accord with nature [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:16 - -- A summary close to the argument by appeal to the universal custom of the churches.

A summary close to the argument by appeal to the universal custom of the churches.

JFB: 1Co 11:16 - if any . . . seem The Greek also means "thinks" (fit) (compare Mat 3:9). If any man chooses (still after all my arguments) to be contentious. If any be contentious and ...

The Greek also means "thinks" (fit) (compare Mat 3:9). If any man chooses (still after all my arguments) to be contentious. If any be contentious and thinks himself right in being so. A reproof of the Corinthians' self-sufficiency and disputatiousness (1Co 1:20).

JFB: 1Co 11:16 - we Apostles: or we of the Jewish nation, from whom ye have received the Gospel, and whose usages in all that is good ye ought to follow: Jewish women vei...

Apostles: or we of the Jewish nation, from whom ye have received the Gospel, and whose usages in all that is good ye ought to follow: Jewish women veiled themselves when in public, according to TERTULLIAN [ESTIUS]. The former explanation is best, as the Jews are not referred to in the context: but he often refers to himself and his fellow apostles, by the expression, "we--us" (1Co 4:9-10).

JFB: 1Co 11:16 - no such custom As that of women praying uncovered. Not as CHRYSOSTOM, "that of being contentious." The Greek term implies a usage, rather than a mental habit (Joh 18...

As that of women praying uncovered. Not as CHRYSOSTOM, "that of being contentious." The Greek term implies a usage, rather than a mental habit (Joh 18:39). The usage of true "churches (plural: not, as Rome uses it, 'the Church,' as an abstract entity; but 'the churches,' as a number of independent witnesses) of God" (the churches which God Himself recognizes), is a valid argument in the case of external rites, especially, negatively, for example, Such rites were not received among them, therefore, ought not to be admitted among us: but in questions of doctrine, or the essentials of worship, the argument is not valid [SCLATER] (1Co 7:17; 1Co 14:33).

JFB: 1Co 11:16 - neither Nor yet. Catholic usage is not an infallible test of truth, but a general test of decency.

Nor yet. Catholic usage is not an infallible test of truth, but a general test of decency.

JFB: 1Co 11:17 - in this Which follows.

Which follows.

JFB: 1Co 11:17 - I declare Rather, "I enjoin"; as the Greek is always so used. The oldest manuscripts read literally "This I enjoin (you) not praising (you)."

Rather, "I enjoin"; as the Greek is always so used. The oldest manuscripts read literally "This I enjoin (you) not praising (you)."

JFB: 1Co 11:17 - that Inasmuch as; in that you, &c. Here he qualifies his praise (1Co 11:2). "I said that I praised you for keeping the ordinances delivered to you; but I m...

Inasmuch as; in that you, &c. Here he qualifies his praise (1Co 11:2). "I said that I praised you for keeping the ordinances delivered to you; but I must now give injunction in the name of the Lord, on a matter in which I praise you not; namely, as to the Lord's Supper (1Co 11:23; 1Co 14:37).

JFB: 1Co 11:17 - not for the better Not so as to progress to what is better.

Not so as to progress to what is better.

JFB: 1Co 11:17 - for the worse So as to retrograde to what is worse. The result of such "coming together" must be "condemnation" (1Co 11:34).

So as to retrograde to what is worse. The result of such "coming together" must be "condemnation" (1Co 11:34).

JFB: 1Co 11:18 - first of all In the first place. The "divisions" (Greek, "schisms") meant, are not merely those of opinion (1Co 1:10), but in outward acts at the love-feasts (Agap...

In the first place. The "divisions" (Greek, "schisms") meant, are not merely those of opinion (1Co 1:10), but in outward acts at the love-feasts (Agapæ), (1Co 11:21). He does not follow up the expression, "in the first place," by "in the second place." But though not expressed, a second abuse was in his mind when he said, "In the first place," namely, THE ABUSE OF SPIRITUAL GIFTS, which also created disorder in their assemblies [ALFORD], (1Co 12:1; 1Co 14:23, 1Co 14:26, 1Co 14:33, 1Co 14:40).

JFB: 1Co 11:18 - in the church Not the place of worship; for ISIDORE OF PELUSIUM denies that there were such places specially set apart for worship in the apostles' times [Epistle, ...

Not the place of worship; for ISIDORE OF PELUSIUM denies that there were such places specially set apart for worship in the apostles' times [Epistle, 246.2]. But, "in the assembly" or "congregation"; in convocation for worship, where especially love, order, and harmony should prevail. The very ordinance instituted for uniting together believers in one body, was made an occasion of "divisions" (schisms).

JFB: 1Co 11:18 - partly He hereby excepts the innocent. "I am unwilling to believe all I hear, but some I cannot help believing" [ALFORD]: while my love is unaffected by it [...

He hereby excepts the innocent. "I am unwilling to believe all I hear, but some I cannot help believing" [ALFORD]: while my love is unaffected by it [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:19 - heresies Not merely "schisms" or "divisions" (1Co 11:18), which are "recent dissensions of the congregation through differences of opinion" [AUGUSTINE, Con. Cr...

Not merely "schisms" or "divisions" (1Co 11:18), which are "recent dissensions of the congregation through differences of opinion" [AUGUSTINE, Con. Crescon. Don. 2.7, quoted by TRENCH, Greek Synonyms of the New Testament], but also "heresies," that is, "schisms which have now become inveterate"; "Sects" [CAMPBELL, vol. 2, pp. 126, 127]: so Act 5:17; Act 15:5 translate the same Greek. At present there were dissensions at the love-feasts; but Paul, remembering Jesus' words (Mat 18:7; Mat 24:10, Mat 24:12; Luk 17:1) foresees "there must be (come) also" matured separations, and established parties in secession, as separatists. The "must be" arises from sin in professors necessarily bearing its natural fruits: these are overruled by God to the probation of character of both the godly and the ungodly, and to the discipline of the former for glory. "Heresies" had not yet its technical sense ecclesiastically, referring to doctrinal errors: it means confirmed schisms. ST. AUGUSTINE'S rule is a golden rule as regards questions of heresy and catholicity: "In doubtful questions, liberty; in essentials, unity; in all things, charity."

JFB: 1Co 11:19 - that . . . approved may be made manifest Through the disapproved (reprobates) becoming manifested (Luk 2:35; 1Jo 2:19).

Through the disapproved (reprobates) becoming manifested (Luk 2:35; 1Jo 2:19).

JFB: 1Co 11:20 - When . . . therefore Resuming the thread of discourse from 1Co 11:18.

Resuming the thread of discourse from 1Co 11:18.

JFB: 1Co 11:20 - this is not to Rather, "there is no such thing as eating the LORD'S Supper"; it is not possible where each is greedily intent only on devouring "HIS OWN supper," and...

Rather, "there is no such thing as eating the LORD'S Supper"; it is not possible where each is greedily intent only on devouring "HIS OWN supper," and some are excluded altogether, not having been waited for (1Co 11:33), where some are "drunken," while others are "hungry" (1Co 11:21). The love-feast usually preceded the Lord's Supper (as eating the Passover came before the Lord's Supper at the first institution of the latter). It was a club-feast, where each brought his portion, and the rich, extra portions for the poor; from it the bread and wine were taken for the Eucharist; and it was at it that the excesses took place, which made a true celebration of the Lord's Supper during or after it, with true discernment of its solemnity, out of the question.

JFB: 1Co 11:21 - one taketh before other The rich "before" the poor, who had no supper of their own. Instead of "tarrying for one another" (1Co 11:33); hence the precept (1Co 12:21, 1Co 12:25...

The rich "before" the poor, who had no supper of their own. Instead of "tarrying for one another" (1Co 11:33); hence the precept (1Co 12:21, 1Co 12:25).

JFB: 1Co 11:21 - his own supper "His own" belly is his God (Phi 3:19); "the Lord's Supper," the spiritual feast, never enters his thoughts.

"His own" belly is his God (Phi 3:19); "the Lord's Supper," the spiritual feast, never enters his thoughts.

JFB: 1Co 11:21 - drunken The one has more than is good for him, the other less [BENGEL].

The one has more than is good for him, the other less [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:22 - What! Greek, "For."

Greek, "For."

JFB: 1Co 11:22 - houses (compare 1Co 11:34) --"at home." That is the place to satiate the appetite, not the assembly of the brethren [ALFORD].

(compare 1Co 11:34) --"at home." That is the place to satiate the appetite, not the assembly of the brethren [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Co 11:22 - despise ye the church of God The congregation mostly composed of the poor, whom "God hath chosen," however ye show contempt for them (Jam 2:5); compare "of God" here, marking the ...

The congregation mostly composed of the poor, whom "God hath chosen," however ye show contempt for them (Jam 2:5); compare "of God" here, marking the true honor of the Church.

JFB: 1Co 11:22 - shame them that have not Namely, houses to eat and drink in, and who, therefore, ought to have received their portion at the love-feasts from their wealthier brethren.

Namely, houses to eat and drink in, and who, therefore, ought to have received their portion at the love-feasts from their wealthier brethren.

JFB: 1Co 11:22 - I praise you not Resuming the words (1Co 11:17).

Resuming the words (1Co 11:17).

JFB: 1Co 11:23 - -- His object is to show the unworthiness of such conduct from the dignity of the holy supper.

His object is to show the unworthiness of such conduct from the dignity of the holy supper.

JFB: 1Co 11:23 - I Emphatic in the Greek. It is not my own invention, but the Lord's institution.

Emphatic in the Greek. It is not my own invention, but the Lord's institution.

JFB: 1Co 11:23 - received of the Lord By immediate revelation (Gal 1:12; compare Act 22:17-18; 2Co 12:1-4). The renewal of the institution of the Lord's Supper by special revelation to Pau...

By immediate revelation (Gal 1:12; compare Act 22:17-18; 2Co 12:1-4). The renewal of the institution of the Lord's Supper by special revelation to Paul enhances its solemnity. The similarity between Luke's and Paul's account of the institution, favors the supposition that the former drew his information from the apostle, whose companion in travel he was. Thus, the undesigned coincidence is a proof of genuineness.

JFB: 1Co 11:23 - night The time fixed for the Passover (Exo 12:6): though the time for the Lord's Supper is not fixed.

The time fixed for the Passover (Exo 12:6): though the time for the Lord's Supper is not fixed.

JFB: 1Co 11:23 - betrayed With the traitor at the table, and death present before His eyes, He left this ordinance as His last gift to us, to commemorate His death. Though abou...

With the traitor at the table, and death present before His eyes, He left this ordinance as His last gift to us, to commemorate His death. Though about to receive such an injury from man, He gave this pledge of His amazing love to man.

JFB: 1Co 11:24 - brake The breaking of the bread involves its distribution and reproves the Corinthian mode at the love-feast, of "every one taking before other his own supp...

The breaking of the bread involves its distribution and reproves the Corinthian mode at the love-feast, of "every one taking before other his own supper."

JFB: 1Co 11:24 - my body . . . broken for you "given" (Luk 22:19) for you (Greek, "in your behalf"), and "broken," so as to be distributed among you. The oldest manuscripts omit "broken," leaving ...

"given" (Luk 22:19) for you (Greek, "in your behalf"), and "broken," so as to be distributed among you. The oldest manuscripts omit "broken," leaving it to be supplied from "brake." The two old versions, Memphitic and Thebaic, read from Luke, "given." The literal "body" could not have been meant; for Christ was still sensibly present among His disciples when He said, "This is My body." They could only have understood Him symbolically and analogically: As this bread is to your bodily health, so My body is to the spiritual health of the believing communicant. The words, "Take, eat," are not in the oldest manuscripts.

JFB: 1Co 11:24 - in remembrance of me (See on 1Co 11:25).

(See on 1Co 11:25).

JFB: 1Co 11:25 - when he had supped Greek, "after the eating of supper," namely, the Passover supper which preceded the Lord's Supper, as the love-feast did subsequently. Therefore, you ...

Greek, "after the eating of supper," namely, the Passover supper which preceded the Lord's Supper, as the love-feast did subsequently. Therefore, you Corinthians ought to separate common meals from the Lord's Supper [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:25 - the new testament Or "covenant." The cup is the parchment-deed, as it were, on which My new covenant, or last will is written and sealed, making over to you all blessin...

Or "covenant." The cup is the parchment-deed, as it were, on which My new covenant, or last will is written and sealed, making over to you all blessings here and hereafter.

JFB: 1Co 11:25 - in my blood Ratified by MY blood: "not by the blood of goats and calves" (Heb 9:12).

Ratified by MY blood: "not by the blood of goats and calves" (Heb 9:12).

JFB: 1Co 11:25 - as oft as Greek, "as many times soever": implying that it is an ordinance often to be partaken of.

Greek, "as many times soever": implying that it is an ordinance often to be partaken of.

JFB: 1Co 11:25 - in remembrance of me Luke (Luk 22:19) expresses this, which is understood by Matthew and Mark. Paul twice records it (1Co 11:24 and here) as suiting his purpose. The old s...

Luke (Luk 22:19) expresses this, which is understood by Matthew and Mark. Paul twice records it (1Co 11:24 and here) as suiting his purpose. The old sacrifices brought sins continually to remembrance (Heb 10:1, Heb 10:3). The Lord's Supper brings to remembrance Christ and His sacrifice once for all for the full and final remission of sins.

JFB: 1Co 11:26 - For In proof that the Lord's Supper is "in remembrance" of Him.

In proof that the Lord's Supper is "in remembrance" of Him.

JFB: 1Co 11:26 - show Announce publicly. The Greek does not mean to dramatically represent, but "ye publicly profess each of you, the Lord has died FOR ME" [WAHL]. This wor...

Announce publicly. The Greek does not mean to dramatically represent, but "ye publicly profess each of you, the Lord has died FOR ME" [WAHL]. This word, as "is" in Christ's institution (1Co 11:24-25), implies not literal presence, but a vivid realization, by faith, of Christ in the Lord's Supper, as a living person, not a mere abstract dogma, "bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh" (Eph 5:30; compare Gen 2:23); and ourselves "members of His body, of His flesh, and of His bones," "our sinful bodies made clean by His body (once for all offered), and our souls washed through His most precious blood" [Church of England Prayer Book]. "Show," or "announce," is an expression applicable to new things; compare "show" as to the Passover (Exo 13:8). So the Lord's death ought always to be fresh in our memory; compare in heaven, Rev 5:6. That the Lord's Supper is in remembrance of Him, implies that He is bodily absent, though spiritually present, for we cannot be said to commemorate one absent. The fact that we not only show the Lord's death in the supper, but eat and drink the pledges of it, could only be understood by the Jews, accustomed to such feasts after propitiatory sacrifices, as implying our personal appropriation therein of the benefits of that death.

JFB: 1Co 11:26 - till he come When there shall be no longer need of symbols of His body, the body itself being manifested. The Greek expresses the certainly of His coming. Rome tea...

When there shall be no longer need of symbols of His body, the body itself being manifested. The Greek expresses the certainly of His coming. Rome teaches that we eat Christ present corporally, "till He come" corporally; a contradiction in terms. The showbread, literally, "bread of the presence," was in the sanctuary, but not in the Holiest Place (Heb 9:1-8); so the Lord's Supper in heaven, the antitype to the Holiest Place, shall be superseded by Christ's own bodily presence; then the wine shall be drunk "anew" in the Father's kingdom, by Christ and His people together, of which heavenly banquet, the Lord's Supper is a spiritual foretaste and specimen (Mat 26:29). Meantime, as the showbread was placed anew, every sabbath, on the table before the Lord (Lev 24:5-8); so the Lord's death was shown, or announced afresh at the Lord's table the first day of every week in the primitive Church. We are now "priests unto God" in the dispensation of Christ's spiritual presence, antitypical to the HOLY PLACE: the perfect and eternal dispensation, which shall not begin till Christ's coming, is antitypical to the HOLIEST PLACE, which Christ our High Priest alone in the flesh as yet has entered (Heb 9:6-7); but which, at His coming, we, too, who are believers, shall enter (Rev 7:15; Rev 21:22). The supper joins the two closing periods of the Old and the New dispensations. The first and second comings are considered as one coming, whence the expression is not "return," but "come" (compare, however, Joh 14:3).

JFB: 1Co 11:27 - eat and drink So one of the oldest manuscripts reads. But three or four equally old manuscripts, the Vulgate and CYPRIAN, read, "or." Romanists quote this reading i...

So one of the oldest manuscripts reads. But three or four equally old manuscripts, the Vulgate and CYPRIAN, read, "or." Romanists quote this reading in favor of communion in one kind. This consequence does not follow. Paul says, "Whosoever is guilty of unworthy conduct, either in eating the bread, or in drinking the cup, is guilty of the body and blood of Christ." Impropriety in only one of the two elements, vitiates true communion in both. Therefore, in the end of the verse, he says, not "body or blood," but "body and blood." Any who takes the bread without the wine, or the wine without the bread, "unworthily" communicates, and so "is guilty of Christ's body and blood"; for he disobeys Christ's express command to partake of both. If we do not partake of the sacramental symbol of the Lord's death worthily, we share in the guilt of that death. (Compare "crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh," Heb 6:6). Unworthiness in the person, is not what ought to exclude any, but unworthily communicating: However unworthy we be, if we examine ourselves so as to find that we penitently believe in Christ's Gospel, we may worthily communicate.

JFB: 1Co 11:28 - examine Greek, "prove" or "test" his own state of mind in respect to Christ's death, and his capability of "discerning the Lord's body" (1Co 11:29, 1Co 11:31)...

Greek, "prove" or "test" his own state of mind in respect to Christ's death, and his capability of "discerning the Lord's body" (1Co 11:29, 1Co 11:31). Not auricular confession to a priest, but self-examination is necessary.

JFB: 1Co 11:28 - so After due self-examination.

After due self-examination.

JFB: 1Co 11:28 - of . . . of In 1Co 11:27, where the receiving was unworthily, the expression was, "eat this bread, drink . . . cup" without "of." Here the "of" implies due circum...

In 1Co 11:27, where the receiving was unworthily, the expression was, "eat this bread, drink . . . cup" without "of." Here the "of" implies due circumspection in communicating [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Co 11:28 - let him eat His self-examination is not in order that he may stay away, but that he may eat, that is, communicate.

His self-examination is not in order that he may stay away, but that he may eat, that is, communicate.

JFB: 1Co 11:29 - damnation A mistranslation which has put a stumbling-block in the way of many in respect to communicating. The right translation is "judgment." The judgment is ...

A mistranslation which has put a stumbling-block in the way of many in respect to communicating. The right translation is "judgment." The judgment is described (1Co 11:30-32) as temporal.

JFB: 1Co 11:29 - not discerning Not duty judging: not distinguishing in judgment (so the Greek: the sin and its punishment thus being marked as corresponding) from common food, the s...

Not duty judging: not distinguishing in judgment (so the Greek: the sin and its punishment thus being marked as corresponding) from common food, the sacramental pledges of the Lord's body. Most of the oldest manuscripts omit "Lord's" (see 1Co 11:27). Omitting also "unworthily," with most of the oldest manuscripts, we must translate, "He that eateth and drinketh, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself, IF he discern not the body" (Heb 10:29). The Church is "the body of Christ" (1Co 12:27). The Lord's body is His literal body appreciated and discerned by the soul in the faithful receiving, and not present in the elements themselves.

JFB: 1Co 11:30 - weak . . . sickly He is "weak" who has naturally no strength: "sickly," who has lost his strength by disease [TITTMANN, Greek Synonyms of the New Testament].

He is "weak" who has naturally no strength: "sickly," who has lost his strength by disease [TITTMANN, Greek Synonyms of the New Testament].

JFB: 1Co 11:30 - sleep Are being lulled in death: not a violent death; but one the result of sickness, sent as the Lord's chastening for the individual's salvation, the mind...

Are being lulled in death: not a violent death; but one the result of sickness, sent as the Lord's chastening for the individual's salvation, the mind being brought to a right state on the sick bed (1Co 11:31).

JFB: 1Co 11:31 - if we would judge ourselves Most of the oldest manuscripts, read "But," not "For." Translate also literally "If we duly judged ourselves, we should not be (or not have been) judg...

Most of the oldest manuscripts, read "But," not "For." Translate also literally "If we duly judged ourselves, we should not be (or not have been) judged," that is, we should escape (or have escaped) our present judgments. In order to duly judge or "discern [appreciate] the Lord's body," we need to "duly judge ourselves." A prescient warning against the dogma of priestly absolution after full confession, as the necessary preliminary to receiving the Lord's Supper.

JFB: 1Co 11:32 - chastened (Rev 3:19).

JFB: 1Co 11:32 - with the world Who, being bastards, are without chastening (Heb 12:8).

Who, being bastards, are without chastening (Heb 12:8).

JFB: 1Co 11:33 - tarry one for another In contrast to 1Co 11:21. The expression is not, "Give a share to one another," for all the viands brought to the feast were common property, and, the...

In contrast to 1Co 11:21. The expression is not, "Give a share to one another," for all the viands brought to the feast were common property, and, therefore, they should "tarry" till all were met to partake together of the common feast of fellowship [THEOPHYLACT].

JFB: 1Co 11:34 - if any . . . hunger So as not to be able to "tarry for others," let him take off the edge of his hunger at home [ALFORD] (1Co 11:22).

So as not to be able to "tarry for others," let him take off the edge of his hunger at home [ALFORD] (1Co 11:22).

JFB: 1Co 11:34 - the rest "the other questions you asked me as to the due celebration of the Lord's Supper." Not other questions in general; for he does subsequently set in ord...

"the other questions you asked me as to the due celebration of the Lord's Supper." Not other questions in general; for he does subsequently set in order other general questions in this Epistle.

Clarke: 1Co 11:1 - Be ye followers of me Be ye followers of me - This verse certainly belongs to the preceding chapter, and is here out of all proper place and connection.

Be ye followers of me - This verse certainly belongs to the preceding chapter, and is here out of all proper place and connection.

Clarke: 1Co 11:2 - That ye remember me in all things That ye remember me in all things - It appears that the apostle had previously given them a variety of directions relative to the matters mentioned ...

That ye remember me in all things - It appears that the apostle had previously given them a variety of directions relative to the matters mentioned here; that some had paid strict attention to them, and that others had not; and that contentions and divisions were the consequences, which he here reproves and endeavors to rectify. While Paul and Apollos had preached among them, they had undoubtedly prescribed every thing that was necessary to be observed in the Christian worship: but it is likely that those who joined in idol festivals wished also to introduce something relative to the mode of conducting the idol worship into the Christian assembly, which they might think was an improvement on the apostle’ s plan.

Clarke: 1Co 11:3 - The head of every man is Christ The head of every man is Christ - The apostle is speaking particularly of Christianity and its ordinances: Christ is the Head or Author of this reli...

The head of every man is Christ - The apostle is speaking particularly of Christianity and its ordinances: Christ is the Head or Author of this religion; and is the creator, preserver, and Lord of every man. The man also is the lord or head of the woman; and the Head or Lord of Christ, as Mediator between God and man, is God the Father. Here is the order - God sends his Son Jesus Christ to redeem man; Christ comes and lays down his life for the world; every man who receives Christianity confesses that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father; and every believing woman will acknowledge, according to Gen 3:16, that God has placed her in a dependence on and subjection to the man. So far there is no difficulty in this passage.

Clarke: 1Co 11:4 - Praying, or prophesying Praying, or prophesying - Any person who engages in public acts in the worship of God, whether prayer, singing, or exhortation: for we learn, from t...

Praying, or prophesying - Any person who engages in public acts in the worship of God, whether prayer, singing, or exhortation: for we learn, from the apostle himself, that προφητευειν, to prophesy, signifies to speak unto men to edification, exhortation, and comfort, 1Co 14:3. And this comprehends all that we understand by exhortation, or even preaching

Clarke: 1Co 11:4 - Having his head covered Having his head covered - With his cap or turban on, dishonoreth his head; because the head being covered was a sign of subjection; and while he was...

Having his head covered - With his cap or turban on, dishonoreth his head; because the head being covered was a sign of subjection; and while he was employed in the public ministration of the word, he was to be considered as a representative of Christ, and on this account his being veiled or covered would be improper. This decision of the apostle was in point blank hostility to the canons of the Jews; for they would not suffer a man to pray unless he was veiled, for which they gave this reason. "He should veil himself to show that he is ashamed before God, and unworthy with open face to behold him."See much in Lightfoot on this point.

Clarke: 1Co 11:5 - But every woman that prayeth, etc. But every woman that prayeth, etc. - Whatever may be the meaning of praying and prophesying, in respect to the man, they have precisely the same mea...

But every woman that prayeth, etc. - Whatever may be the meaning of praying and prophesying, in respect to the man, they have precisely the same meaning in respect to the woman. So that some women at least, as well as some men, might speak to others to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. And this kind of prophesying or teaching was predicted by Joel, Joe 2:28, and referred to by Peter, Act 2:17. And had there not been such gifts bestowed on women, the prophecy could not have had its fulfillment. The only difference marked by the apostle was, the man had his head uncovered, because he was the representative of Christ; the woman had hers covered, because she was placed by the order of God in a state of subjection to the man, and because it was a custom, both among the Greeks and Romans, and among the Jews an express law, that no woman should be seen abroad without a veil. This was, and is, a common custom through all the east, and none but public prostitutes go without veils. And if a woman should appear in public without a veil, she would dishonor her head - her husband. And she must appear like to those women who had their hair shorn off as the punishment of whoredom, or adultery

Tacitus informs us, Germ. 19, that, considering the greatness of the population, adulteries were very rare among the Germans; and when any woman was found guilty she was punished in the following way: accisis crinibus, nudatam coram propinquis expellit domo maritus ; "having cut off her hair, and stripped her before her relatives, her husband turned her out of doors."And we know that the woman suspected of adultery was ordered by the law of Moses to be stripped of her veil, Num 5:18. Women reduced to a state of servitude, or slavery, had their hair cut off: so we learn from Achilles Tatius. Clitophon says, concerning Leucippe, who was reduced to a state of slavery: πεπραται, δεδουλεὺºεν, γην εσκαψεν, σεσυληται της κεφαλης το καλλος, την κουραν ὁρᾳς· lib. viii. cap. 6, "she was sold for a slave, she dug in the ground, and her hair being shorn off, her head was deprived of its ornament,"etc. It was also the custom among the Greeks to cut off their hair in time of mourning. See Euripides in Alcest., ver. 426. Admetus, ordering a common mourning for his wife Alcestis, says: πενθος γυναικος της δε κοινουσθαι λεγω, κουρᾳ ξυρηκει και μελαμπεπλῳ στολῃ· "I order a general mourning for this woman! let the hair be shorn off, and a black garment put on."Propriety and decency of conduct are the points which the apostle seems to have more especially in view. As a woman who dresses loosely or fantastically, even in the present day, is considered a disgrace to her husband, because suspected to be not very sound in her morals; so in those ancient times, a woman appearing without a veil would be considered in the same light.

Clarke: 1Co 11:6 - For if the woman be not covered For if the woman be not covered - If she will not wear a veil in the public assemblies, let her be shorn - let her carry a public badge of infamy: b...

For if the woman be not covered - If she will not wear a veil in the public assemblies, let her be shorn - let her carry a public badge of infamy: but if it be a shame - if to be shorn or shaven would appear, as it must, a badge of infamy, then let her be covered - let her by all means wear a veil. Even in mourning it was considered disgraceful to be obliged to shear off the hair; and lest they should lose this ornament of their heads, the women contrived to evade the custom, by cutting off the ends of it only. Euripides, in Orest., ver. 128, speaking of Helen, who should have shaved her head on account of the death of her sister Clytemnestra, says: ειδετε παρ ακρας ὡς απεθρισεν τριχας, σωζουσα καλλος, εστι δε ἡ παλαι γυνη : "see how she cuts off only the very points of her hair, that she may preserve her beauty, and is just the same woman as before."See the note on 1Co 11:5

In Hindostan a woman cuts off her hair at the death of her husband, as a token of widowhood; but this is never performed by a married woman, whose hair is considered an essential ornament. The veil of the Hindoo women is nothing more than the garment brought over the face, which is always very carefully done by the higher classes of women when they appear in the streets. - Ward’ s Customs.

Clarke: 1Co 11:7 - A man indeed ought not to cover his head A man indeed ought not to cover his head - He should not wear his cap or turban in the public congregation, for this was a badge of servitude, or an...

A man indeed ought not to cover his head - He should not wear his cap or turban in the public congregation, for this was a badge of servitude, or an indication that he had a conscience overwhelmed with guilt; and besides, it was contrary to the custom that prevailed, both among the Greeks and Romans

Clarke: 1Co 11:7 - He is the image and glory of God He is the image and glory of God - He is God’ s vicegerent in this lower world; and, by the authority which he has received from his Master, he...

He is the image and glory of God - He is God’ s vicegerent in this lower world; and, by the authority which he has received from his Master, he is his representative among the creatures, and exhibits, more than any other part of the creation, the glory and perfections of the Creator

Clarke: 1Co 11:7 - But the woman is the glory of the man But the woman is the glory of the man - As the man is, among the creatures, the representative of the glory and perfections of God, so that the fear...

But the woman is the glory of the man - As the man is, among the creatures, the representative of the glory and perfections of God, so that the fear of him and the dread of him are on every beast of the field, etc.; so the woman is, in the house and family, the representative of the power and authority of the man. I believe this to be the meaning of the apostle; and that he is speaking here principally concerning power and authority, and skill to use them. It is certainly not the moral image of God, nor his celestial glory, of which he speaks in this verse.

Clarke: 1Co 11:8 - For, the man is not of the woman For, the man is not of the woman - Bishop Pearce translates ου γαρ εστιν ανηρ εκ γυναικος, αλλα γυνη εξ ανδρ...

For, the man is not of the woman - Bishop Pearce translates ου γαρ εστιν ανηρ εκ γυναικος, αλλα γυνη εξ ανδρος, thus: "For the man doth not Belong to the woman, but the woman to the man."And vindicates this sense of εκ, by its use in 1Co 12:15. If the foot shall say, ουκ ειμι εκ του σωματος, I am not of the body, i.e. I do not belong to the body. He observes that as the verb εστιν is in the present tense, and will not allow that we should understand this verse of something that is past, γαρ, for, in the following verse, which is unnoticed by our translators, will have its full propriety and meaning, because it introduces a reason why the woman belongs to the man and not the man to the woman. His meaning is, that the man does not belong to the woman, as if she was the principal; but the woman belongs to the man in that view.

Clarke: 1Co 11:9 - Neither was the man created, etc. Neither was the man created, etc. - Και γαρ ουκ εκτισθη· for the man was not created upon the woman’ s account. The reason i...

Neither was the man created, etc. - Και γαρ ουκ εκτισθη· for the man was not created upon the woman’ s account. The reason is plain from what is mentioned above; and from the original creation of woman she was made for the man, to be his proper or suitable helper.

Clarke: 1Co 11:10 - For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels - There are few portions in the sacred writings that have given rise ...

For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels - There are few portions in the sacred writings that have given rise to such a variety of conjectures and explanations, and are less understood, than this verse, and 1Co 15:29. Our translators were puzzled with it; and have inserted here one of the largest marginal readings found any where in their work; but this is only on the words power on her head, which they interpret thus: that is, a covering, in sign that she is under the power of her husband. But, admitting this marginal reading to be a satisfactory solution so far as it goes, it by no means removes all the difficulty. Mr. Locke ingenuously acknowledged that he did not understand the meaning of the words; and almost every critic and learned man has a different explanation. Some have endeavored to force out a meaning by altering the text. The emendation of Mr. Toup, of Cornwall, is the most remarkable: he reads εξιουσα, going out, instead of εξουσιαν, power; wherefore the woman, when she goes out, should have a veil on her head. Whatever ingenuity there may appear in this emendation, the consideration that it is not acknowledged by any MS., or version, or primitive writer, is sufficient proof against it. Dr. Lightfoot, Schoettgen, and Bishop Pearce, have written best on the subject, in which they allow that there are many difficulties. The latter contends

1.    That the original should be read, Wherefore the woman ought to have A power upon her head, that is, the power of the husband over the wife; the word power standing for the sign or token of that power which was a covering or veil. Theophylact explains the word, το του εξουσιαζεσθαι συμβολον, τουτεστι, το καλυμμα, "the symbol of being under power, that is, a veil, or covering."And Photius explains it thus: της υποταγης συμβολον το επι της κεφαλης καλυμμα φερειν ; to wear a veil on the head is a symbol of subjection. It is no unusual thing, in the Old and New Testament, for the signs and tokens of things to be called by the names of the things themselves, for thus circumcision is called the covenant, in Gen 17:10, Gen 17:13, though it was only the sign of it

2.    The word angels presents another difficulty. Some suppose that by these the apostle means the fallen angels, or devils; others, the governors of the Church; and others, those who were deputed among the Jews to espouse a virgin in the name of a lover. All these senses the learned bishop rejects, and believes that the apostle uses the word angels, in its most obvious sense, for the heavenly angels; and that he speaks according to the notion which then prevailed among Jews, that the holy angels interested themselves in the affairs of men, and particularly were present in their religious assemblies, as the cherubim, their representation, were present in their temple. Thus we read in Ecc 5:6 : Neither say thou before the Angel, it was an error; and in 1Ti 5:21 : I charge thee before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect Angels, etc. Parallel to these is what Agrippa says in his oration to the Jews, Josephus, War, b. ii. chap. 16: I protest before God, your holy temple, and all the Angels of heaven, etc. All which passages suppose, or were spoken to those who supposed, that the angels know what passes here upon earth. The notion, whether just or not, prevailed among the Jews; and if so, St. Paul might speak according to the common opinion

3.    Another difficulty lies in the phrase δια τουτο, wherefore, which shows that this verse is a conclusion from what the apostle was arguing before; which we may understand thus: that his conclusion, from the foregoing argument, ought to have the more weight, upon account of the presence, real or supposed, of the holy angels, at their religious meetings. See Bishop Pearce, in loc

The learned bishop is not very willing to allow that the doctrine of the presence of angelic beings in religious assemblies is legitimate; but what difficulty can there be in this, if we take the words of the apostle in another place: Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation? Heb 1:14. And perhaps there is no time in which they can render more essential services to the followers of God than when they are engaged in Divine ordinances. On the whole, the bishop’ s sense of the passage and paraphrase stands thus: "And because of this superiority in the man, I conclude that the woman should have on her head a veil, the mark of her husband’ s power over her, especially in the religious assemblies, where the angels are supposed to be invisibly present.

The ancient versions make little alteration in the common reading, and the MSS. leave the verse nearly as it stands in the common printed editions. The Armenian has a word that answers to umbram , a shade or covering. The Ethiopic, her head should be veiled. The common editions of the Vulgate have potestatem , power; but in an ancient edition of the Vulgate, perhaps one of the first, if not the first, ever printed, 2 vols. fol., sine ulla nota anni, etc.: the verse stands thus: Ideo debet mulier velamen habere super caput suum: et propter angelos . My old MS. translation seems to have been taken from a MS. which had the same reading: Wherefore the woman schal haue a veyl on her heuyd; and for aungels . Some copies of the Itala have also velamen , a veil

In his view of this text, Kypke differs from all others; and nothing that so judicious a critic advances should be lightly regarded

1.    He contends that εξουσιαν occurs nowhere in the sense of veil, and yet he supposes that the word καλυμμα, veil is understood, and must in the translation of the passage be supplied

2.    He directs that a comma be placed after εξουσιαν, and that it be construed with οφειλει, ought; after which he translates the verse thus: Propterea mulier potestati obnoxia est, ita ut velamen in capite habeat propter angelos ; On this account the woman is subject to power, so that she should have a veil on her head, because of the angels

3.    He contends that both the Latins and Greeks use debere and οφειλειν elegantly to express that to which one is obnoxious or liable. So Horace: -

Tu, nisi venti

Debes ludibrium, cave

Carm. lib. i. Od. xiv. ver. 15

Take heed lest thou owe a laughing stock to the winds; i.e. lest thou become the sport of the winds; for to these thou art now exposing thyself

So Dionys. Hal. Ant. lib. iii., page 205: Και πολλην οφειλοντες αισχυνην απηλθον εκ της αγορας· They departed from the market, exposed to great dishonor. So Euripides, Οφειλω σοι βλαβην· I am exposed to thy injury

4.    He contends that the words taken in this sense agree perfectly with the context, and with δια τουτο, wherefore, in this verse, "Because the man was not created for the woman, but the woman for the man, therefore she is subject to his authority, and should have a veil on her head as a token of that subjection; and particularly before the holy angels, who are present in the congregations of the saints.

For Dr. Lightfoot’ s opinion, that by angels we are to understand the paranymphs, or messengers who came on the part of others, to look out for proper spouses for their friends, I must refer to his works, vol. ii. fol., p. 772. The reader has now before him every thing that is likely to cast light on this difficult subject, and he must either adopt what he judges to be best, or else think for himself

After all, the custom of the Nazarite may cast some light upon this place. As Nazarite means one who has separated himself by vow to some religious austerity, wearing his own hair, etc.; so a married woman was considered a Nazarite for life; i.e. separated from all others, and joined to one husband, who is her lord: and hence the apostle, alluding to this circumstance, says, The woman ought to have power on her head, i.e. wear her hair and veil, for her hair is a proof of her being a Nazarite, and of her subjection to her husband, as the Nazarite was under subjection to the Lord, according to the rule or law of his order. See notes on Num 6:5-7 (note).

Clarke: 1Co 11:11 - Neither is the man without the woman Neither is the man without the woman - The apostle seems to say: I do not intimate any disparagement of the female sex, by insisting on the necessit...

Neither is the man without the woman - The apostle seems to say: I do not intimate any disparagement of the female sex, by insisting on the necessity of her being under the power or authority of the man; for they are both equally dependent on each other, in the Lord, εν Κυριῳ : but instead of this reading, Theodoret has εν τῳ κοσμῳ, in the world. Probably the apostle means that the human race is continued by an especial providence of God. Others think that he means that men and women equally make a Christian society, and in it have equal rights and privileges.

Clarke: 1Co 11:12 - For as the woman is of the man For as the woman is of the man - For as the woman was first formed out of the side of man, man has ever since been formed out of the womb of the wom...

For as the woman is of the man - For as the woman was first formed out of the side of man, man has ever since been formed out of the womb of the woman; but they, as all other created things, are of God.

Clarke: 1Co 11:13 - Judge in yourselves Judge in yourselves - Consider the subject in your own common sense, and then say whether it be decent for a woman to pray in public without a veil ...

Judge in yourselves - Consider the subject in your own common sense, and then say whether it be decent for a woman to pray in public without a veil on her head? The heathen priestesses prayed or delivered their oracles bare-headed or with dishevelled hair, non comptae mansere comae , as in the case of the Cumaean Sibyl, Aen. vi., ver. 48, and otherwise in great disorder: to be conformed to them would be very disgraceful to Christian women. And in reference to such things as these, the apostle appeals to their sense of honor and decency.

Clarke: 1Co 11:14 - Doth not - nature - teach you, that, if a man have long hair Doth not - nature - teach you, that, if a man have long hair - Nature certainly teaches us, by bestowing it, that it is proper for women to have lon...

Doth not - nature - teach you, that, if a man have long hair - Nature certainly teaches us, by bestowing it, that it is proper for women to have long hair; and it is not so with men. The hair of the male rarely grows like that of a female, unless art is used, and even then it bears but a scanty proportion to the former. Hence it is truly womanish to have long hair, and it is a shame to the man who affects it. In ancient times the people of Achaia, the province in which Corinth stood, and the Greeks in general, were noted for their long hair; and hence called by Homer, in a great variety of places, καρηκομοωντες Αχαιοι, the long-haired Greeks, or Achaeans. Soldiers, in different countries, have been distinguished for their long hair; but whether this can be said to their praise or blame, or whether Homer uses it always as a term of respect, when he applies it to the Greeks, I shall not wait here to inquire. Long hair was certainly not in repute among the Jews. The Nazarites let their hair grow, but it was as a token of humiliation; and it is possible that St. Paul had this in view. There were consequently two reasons why the apostle should condemn this practice: -

1.    Because it was a sign of humiliation

2.    Because it was womanish

After all it is possible that St. Paul may refer to dressed, frizzled and curled hair, which shallow and effeminate men might have affected in that time, as they do in this. Perhaps there is not a sight more ridiculous in the eye of common sense than a high-dressed, curled, cued, and powdered head, with which the operator must have taken considerable pains, and the silly patient lost much time and comfort in submitting to what all but senseless custom must call an indignity and degradation. Hear nature, common sense, and reason, and they will inform you, that if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him.

Clarke: 1Co 11:15 - But if a woman have long hair But if a woman have long hair - The Author of their being has given a larger proportion of hair to the head of women than to that of men; and to the...

But if a woman have long hair - The Author of their being has given a larger proportion of hair to the head of women than to that of men; and to them it is an especial ornament, and may in various cases serve as a veil

It is a certain fact that a man’ s long hair renders him contemptible, and a woman’ s long hair renders her more amiable. Nature and the apostle speak the same language; we may account for it as we please.

Clarke: 1Co 11:16 - But if any man seem to be contentious But if any man seem to be contentious - Ει δε τις δοκει φιλονεικος ειναι· If any person sets himself up as a wrangler ...

But if any man seem to be contentious - Ει δε τις δοκει φιλονεικος ειναι· If any person sets himself up as a wrangler - puts himself forward as a defender of such points, that a woman may pray or teach with her head uncovered, and that a man may, without reproach, have long hair; let him know that we have no such custom as either, nor are they sanctioned by any of the Churches of God, whether among the Jews or the Gentiles. We have already seen that the verb δοκειν, which we translate to seem, generally strengthens and increases the sense. From the attention that the apostle has paid to the subject of veils and hair, it is evident that it must have occasioned considerable disturbance in the Church of Corinth. They have produced evil effects in much later times.

Clarke: 1Co 11:17 - Now in this - I praise you not Now in this - I praise you not - In the beginning of this epistle the apostle did praise them for their attention in general to the rules he had lai...

Now in this - I praise you not - In the beginning of this epistle the apostle did praise them for their attention in general to the rules he had laid down, see 1Co 11:2; but here he is obliged to condemn certain irregularities which had crept in among them, particularly relative to the celebration of the Lord’ s Supper. Through some false teaching which they had received, in the absence of the apostle, they appear to have celebrated it precisely in the same way the Jews did their passover. That, we know, was a regular meal, only accompanied with certain peculiar circumstances and ceremonies: two of these ceremonies were, eating bread, solemnly broken, and drinking a cup of wine called the cup of blessing. Now, it is certain that our Lord has taken these two things, and made them expressive of the crucifixion of his body, and the shedding of his blood, as an atonement for the sins of mankind. The teachers which had crept into the Corinthian Church appear to have perverted the whole of this Divine institution; for the celebration of the Lord’ s Supper appears to have been made among them a part of an ordinary meal. The people came together, and it appears brought their provisions with them; some had much, others had less; some ate to excess, others had scarcely enough to suffice nature. One was hungry, and the other was drunken, μεθυει, was filled to the full; this is the sense of the word in many places of Scripture. At the conclusion of this irregular meal they appear to have done something in reference to our Lord’ s institution, but more resembling the Jewish passover. These irregularities, connected with so many indecencies, the apostle reproves; for, instead of being benefited by the Divine ordinance, they were injured; they came together not for the better, but for the worse.

Clarke: 1Co 11:18 - There be divisions among you There be divisions among you - They had σχισματα, schisms, among them: the old parties were kept up, even in the place where they assembled...

There be divisions among you - They had σχισματα, schisms, among them: the old parties were kept up, even in the place where they assembled to eat the Lord’ s Supper. The Paulians, the Kephites, and the Apollonians, continued to be distinct parties; and ate their meals separately, even in the same house.

Clarke: 1Co 11:19 - There must be also heresies There must be also heresies - Αἱρεσεις· Not a common consent of the members of the Church, either in the doctrines of the Gospel, or in...

There must be also heresies - Αἱρεσεις· Not a common consent of the members of the Church, either in the doctrines of the Gospel, or in the ceremonies of the Christian religion. Their difference in religious opinion led to a difference in their religious practice, and thus the Church of God, that should have been one body, was split into sects and parties. The divisions and the heresies sprung out of each other. I have spoken largely on the word heresy in Act 5:17 (note), to which place I beg leave to refer the reader.

Clarke: 1Co 11:20 - This is not to eat the Lord’ s Supper This is not to eat the Lord’ s Supper - They did not come together to eat the Lord’ s Supper exclusively, which they should have done, and...

This is not to eat the Lord’ s Supper - They did not come together to eat the Lord’ s Supper exclusively, which they should have done, and not have made it a part of an ordinary meal.

Clarke: 1Co 11:21 - Every one taketh before - his own supper Every one taketh before - his own supper - They had a grand feast, though the different sects kept in parties by themselves; but all took as ample a...

Every one taketh before - his own supper - They had a grand feast, though the different sects kept in parties by themselves; but all took as ample a supper as they could provide, (each bringing his own provisions with him), before they took what was called the Lord’ s Supper. See on 1Co 11:17 (note).

Clarke: 1Co 11:22 - Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? - They should have taken their ordinary meal at home, and have come together in the church to celebrate t...

Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? - They should have taken their ordinary meal at home, and have come together in the church to celebrate the Lord’ s Supper

Clarke: 1Co 11:22 - Despise ye the church of God Despise ye the church of God - Ye render the sacred assembly and the place contemptible by your conduct, and ye show yourselves destitute of that re...

Despise ye the church of God - Ye render the sacred assembly and the place contemptible by your conduct, and ye show yourselves destitute of that respect which ye owe to the place set apart for Divine worship

Clarke: 1Co 11:22 - And shame them that have not? And shame them that have not? - Τους μη εχοντας, Them that are poor; not them who had not victuals at that time, but those who are so ...

And shame them that have not? - Τους μη εχοντας, Them that are poor; not them who had not victuals at that time, but those who are so poor as to be incapable of furnishing themselves as others had done. See the note on Mat 13:12.

Clarke: 1Co 11:23 - I have received of the Lord I have received of the Lord - It is possible that several of the people at Corinth did receive the bread and wine of the eucharist as they did the p...

I have received of the Lord - It is possible that several of the people at Corinth did receive the bread and wine of the eucharist as they did the paschal bread and wine, as a mere commemoration of an event. And as our Lord had by this institution consecrated that bread and wine, not to be the means of commemorating the deliverance from Egypt, and their joy on the account, but their deliverance from sin and death by his passion and cross; therefore the apostle states that he had received from the Lord what he delivered; viz. that the eucharistic bread and wine were to be understood of the accomplishment of that of which the paschal lamb was the type - the body broken for them, the blood shed for them

Clarke: 1Co 11:23 - The Lord Jesus - took bread The Lord Jesus - took bread - See the whole of this account, collated with the parallel passages in the four Gospels, amply explained in my Discours...

The Lord Jesus - took bread - See the whole of this account, collated with the parallel passages in the four Gospels, amply explained in my Discourse on the Eucharist, and in the notes on Matthew 26.

Clarke: 1Co 11:24 - This do in remembrance of me This do in remembrance of me - The papists believe the apostles were not ordained priests before these words. Si quis dixerit, illis verbis, hoc fac...

This do in remembrance of me - The papists believe the apostles were not ordained priests before these words. Si quis dixerit, illis verbis, hoc facite in meam commemorationem, Christum non instituisse apostolos sacerdotes, anathema sit : "If any one shall say that in these words, ‘ This do in remembrance of me,’ Christ did not ordain his apostles priests, let him be accursed."Conc. Trid. Sess. 22. Conc. 2. And he that does believe such an absurdity, on such a ground, is contemptible.

Clarke: 1Co 11:26 - Ye do show the Lord’ s death Ye do show the Lord’ s death - As in the passover they showed forth the bondage they had been in, and the redemption they had received from it;...

Ye do show the Lord’ s death - As in the passover they showed forth the bondage they had been in, and the redemption they had received from it; so in the eucharist they showed forth the sacrificial death of Christ, and the redemption from sin derived from it.

Clarke: 1Co 11:27 - Whosoever shall eat - and drink - unworthily Whosoever shall eat - and drink - unworthily - To put a final end to controversies and perplexities relative to these words and the context, let the...

Whosoever shall eat - and drink - unworthily - To put a final end to controversies and perplexities relative to these words and the context, let the reader observe, that to eat and drink the bread and wine in the Lord’ s Supper unworthily, is to eat and drink as the Corinthians did, who ate it not in reference to Jesus Christ’ s sacrificial death; but rather in such a way as the Israelites did the passover, which they celebrated in remembrance of their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. Likewise, these mongrel Christians at Corinth used it as a kind of historical commemoration of the death of Christ; and did not, in the whole institution, discern the Lord’ s body and blood as a sacrificial offering for sin: and besides, in their celebration of it they acted in a way utterly unbecoming the gravity of a sacred ordinance. Those who acknowledge it as a sacrificial offering, and receive it in remembrance of God’ s love to them in sending his Son into the world, can neither bring damnation upon themselves by so doing, nor eat nor drink unworthily. See our translation of this verse vindicated at the end of the chapter, (1Co 11:34)

Shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. If he use it irreverently, if he deny that Christ suffered unjustly, (for of some such persons the apostle must be understood to speak), then he in effect joins issue with the Jews in their condemnation and crucifixion of the Lord Jesus, and renders himself guilty of the death of our blessed Lord. Some, however, understand the passage thus: is guilty, i.e. eats and drinks unworthily, and brings on himself that punishment mentioned 1Co 11:30.

Clarke: 1Co 11:28 - Let a man examine himself Let a man examine himself - Let him try whether he has proper faith in the Lord Jesus; and whether he discerns the Lord’ s body; and whether he...

Let a man examine himself - Let him try whether he has proper faith in the Lord Jesus; and whether he discerns the Lord’ s body; and whether he duly considers that the bread and wine point out the crucified body and spilt blood of Christ.

Clarke: 1Co 11:29 - Eateth and drinketh damnation Eateth and drinketh damnation - Κριμα, Judgment, punishment; and yet this is not unto damnation, for the judgment or punishment inflicted upon...

Eateth and drinketh damnation - Κριμα, Judgment, punishment; and yet this is not unto damnation, for the judgment or punishment inflicted upon the disorderly and the profane was intended for their emendation; for in 1Co 11:32, it is said, then we are judged, κρινομενοι, we are chastened, παιδευομεθα, corrected as a father does his children, that we should not be condemned with the world.

Clarke: 1Co 11:30 - For this cause For this cause - That they partook of this sacred ordinance without discerning the Lord’ s body; many are weak and sickly: it is hard to say wh...

For this cause - That they partook of this sacred ordinance without discerning the Lord’ s body; many are weak and sickly: it is hard to say whether these words refer to the consequences of their own intemperance or to some extraordinary disorders inflicted immediately by God himself. That there were disorders of the most reprehensible kind among these people at this sacred supper, the preceding verses sufficiently point out; and after such excesses, many might be weak and sickly among them, and many might sleep, i.e. die; for continual experience shows us that many fall victims to their own intemperance. How ever, acting as they did in this solemn and awful sacrament, they might have "provoked God to plague them with divers diseases and sundry kinds of death."Communion service.

Clarke: 1Co 11:31 - If we would judge ourselves If we would judge ourselves - If, having acted improperly, we condemn our conduct and humble ourselves, we shall not be judged, i.e. punished for th...

If we would judge ourselves - If, having acted improperly, we condemn our conduct and humble ourselves, we shall not be judged, i.e. punished for the sin we have committed.

Clarke: 1Co 11:32 - But when we are judged But when we are judged - See on 1Co 11:29 (note).

But when we are judged - See on 1Co 11:29 (note).

Clarke: 1Co 11:33 - When ye come together to eat When ye come together to eat - The Lord’ s Supper, tarry one for another - do not eat and drink in parties as ye have done heretofore; and do n...

When ye come together to eat - The Lord’ s Supper, tarry one for another - do not eat and drink in parties as ye have done heretofore; and do not connect it with any other meal.

Clarke: 1Co 11:34 - And if any man hunger And if any man hunger - Let him not come to the house of God to eat an ordinary meal, let him eat at home - take that in his own house which is nece...

And if any man hunger - Let him not come to the house of God to eat an ordinary meal, let him eat at home - take that in his own house which is necessary for the support of his body before he comes to that sacred repast, where he should have the feeding of his soul alone in view

Clarke: 1Co 11:34 - That ye come not together unto condemnation That ye come not together unto condemnation - That ye may avoid the curse that must fall on such worthless communicants as those above mentioned; an...

That ye come not together unto condemnation - That ye may avoid the curse that must fall on such worthless communicants as those above mentioned; and that ye may get that especial blessing which every one that discerns the Lord’ s body in the eucharist must receive

Clarke: 1Co 11:34 - The rest will I set in order, etc. The rest will I set in order, etc. - All the other matters relative to this business, to which you have referred in your letter, I will regulate whe...

The rest will I set in order, etc. - All the other matters relative to this business, to which you have referred in your letter, I will regulate when I come to visit you; as, God permitting, I fully design. The apostle did visit them about one year after this, as is generally believed

I Have already been so very particular in this long and difficult chapter, that I have left neither room nor necessity for many supplementary observations. A few remarks are all that is requisite

1.    The apostle inculcates the necessity of order and subjection, especially in the Church. Those who are impatient of rule, are generally those who wish to tyrannize. And those who are loudest in their complaints against authority, whether civil or ecclesiastical, are those who wish to have the power in their own hands, and would infallibly abuse it if they had. They alone who are willing to obey, are capable of rule; and he who can rule well, is as willing to obey as to govern. Let all be submissive and orderly; let the woman know that the man is head and protector; let the man know that Christ is his head and redeemer, and the gift of God’ s endless mercy for the salvation of a lost world

2.    The apostle insisted on the woman having her head covered in the Church or Christian assembly. If he saw the manner in which Christian women now dress, and appear in the ordinances of religion, what would he think? What would he say? How could he even distinguish the Christian from the infidel? And if they who are in Christ are new creatures, and the persons who ordinarily appear in religious assemblies are really new creatures (as they profess in general to be) in Christ, he might reasonably inquire: If these are new creatures, what must have been their appearance when they were old creatures. Do we dress to be seen? And do we go to the house of God to exhibit ourselves? Wretched is that man or woman who goes to the house of God to be seen by any but God himself

3.    The Lord’ s Supper may be well termed the feast of charity; how unbecoming this sacred ordinance to be the subject of dispute, party spirit, and division! Those who make it such must answer for it to God. Every man who believes in Christ as his atoning sacrifice should, as frequently as he can, receive the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper. And every minister of Christ is bound to administer it to every man who is seeking the salvation of his soul, as well as to all believers. Let no man dare to oppose this ordinance; and let every man receive it according to the institution of Christ

4.    Against the fidelity of our translation of 1Co 11:27 of this chapter, Whosoever shall eat this bread, And drink this cup unworthily, several popish writers have made heavy complaints, and accused the Protestants of wilful corruption; as both the Greek and Vulgate texts, instead of και and et , And, have η and vel , Or: Whosoever shall eat this bread, Or drink this cup. As this criticism is made to countenance their unscriptural communion in one kind, it may be well to examine the ground of the complaint. Supposing even this objection to be valid, their cause can gain nothing by it while the 26th and 28th verses stand, both in the Greek text and Vulgate, as they now do: For as often as ye eat this bread, And drink this cup, etc. Let him eat of that bread, And drink of that cup. But although η, Or, be the reading of the common printed text, και And, is the reading of the Codex Alexandrinus, and the Codex Claromontanus, two of the best MSS. in the world: as also of the Codex Lincolniensis, 2, and the Codex Petavianus, 3, both MSS. of the first character: it is also the reading of the ancient Syriac, all the Arabic, the Coptic, the margin of the later Syriac, the Ethiopic, different MSS. of the Vulgate, and of one in my own possession; and of Clemens Chromatius, and Cassiodorus. Though the present text of the Vulgate has vel , Or, yet this is a departure from the original editions, which were all professedly taken from the best MSS. In the famous Bible with out date, place, or printer’ s name, 2 vols. fol., two columns, and forty-five lines in each, supposed by many to be the first Bible ever printed, the text stands thus: Itaque quicunque manducaverit panem, Et biberit calicem , etc.; Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread And drink this cup, etc.: here is no vel , Or. The Bible printed by Fust, 1462, the first Bible with a date, has the same reading. Did the Protestants corrupt these texts? In the editio princeps of the Greek Testament, printed by the authority of Cardinal Ximenes at Complutum, and published by the authority of Pope Leo X., though η, Or, stands in the Greek text; yet, in the opposite column, which contains the Vulgate, and in the opposite line, Et , and, is found, and not Vel , or; though the Greek text would have authorized the editor to have made this change: but he conscientiously preserved the text of his Vulgate. Did the Protestants corrupt this Catholic text also? Indeed, so little design had any of those who differed from the Romish Church to make any alteration here, that even Wiclif, having a faulty MS. of the Vulgate by him, which read vel instead of et, followed that faulty MS. and translated, And so who ever schal ete the breed or drinke the cup

    That και, And, is the true reading, and not η, or, both MSS. and versions sufficiently prove: also that et , not vels is the proper reading in the Vulgate, those original editions formed by Roman Catholics, and one of them by the highest authority in the papal Church, fully establish: likewise those MSS., versions, fathers, and original editions, must be allowed to be, not only competent, but also unsuspected and incontrovertible witnesses

    But as this objection to our translation is brought forward to vindicate the withholding the cup from the laity in the Lord’ s Supper, it may be necessary to show that without the cup there can be no eucharist. With respect to the bread, our Lord had simply said, Take, eat, this is my body; but concerning the cup, he says Drink ye all of this; for as this pointed out the very essence of the institution, viz. the blood of atonement, it was necessary that each should have a particular application of it, therefore he says, Drink ye All of This. By this we are taught that the cup is essential to the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper; so that they who deny the cup to the people, sin against God’ s institution; and they who receive not the cup, are not partakers of the body and blood of Christ. If either could without mortal prejudice be omitted, it might be the bread; but the cup as pointing out the blood poured out, i.e. the life, by which alone the great sacrificial act is performed, and remission of sins procured, is absolutely indispensable. On this ground it is demonstrable, that there is not a popish priest under heaven, who denies the cup to the people, (and they all do this), that can be said to celebrate the Lord’ s Supper at all; nor is there one of their votaries that ever received the holy sacrament. All pretension to this is an absolute farce so long as the cup, the emblem of the atoning blood, is denied. How strange is it that the very men who plead so much for the bare, literal meaning of this is my body, in the preceding verse, should deny all meaning to drink ye all of this cup, in this verse! And though Christ has, in the most positive manner, enjoined it, they will not permit one of the laity to taste it! See the whole of this argument, at large, in my Discourse on the Nature and Design of the Eucharist.

Calvin: 1Co 11:1 - Imitators of me 1.Imitators of me From this it appears, how absurdly chapters are divided, inasmuch as this sentence is disjoined from what goes before, with which i...

1.Imitators of me From this it appears, how absurdly chapters are divided, inasmuch as this sentence is disjoined from what goes before, with which it ought to have been connected, and is joined to what follows, with which it has no connection. Let us view this, then, as the close of the preceding chapter. Paul had there brought forward his own example in confirmation of his doctrine. Now, in order that the Corinthians may understand that this would be becoming in them, he exhorts them to imitate what he had done, even as he had imitated Christ

Here there are two things to be observed — first, that he prescribes nothing to others that he had not first practiced himself; and, secondly, that he directs himself and others to Christ as the only pattern of right acting. For while it is the part of a good teacher to enjoin nothing in words but what he is prepared to practice in action, he must not, at the same time, be so austere, as straightway to require from others everything that he does himself, as is the manner of the superstitious. For everything that they contract a liking for they impose also upon others, and would have their own example to be held absolutely as a rule. The world is also, of its own accord, inclined to a misdirected imitation, (κακοζηλίαν) 610 and, after the manner of apes, strive to copy whatever they see done by persons of great influence. We see, however how many evils have been introduced into the Church by this absurd desire of imitating all the actions of the saints, without exception. Let us, therefore, maintain so much the more carefully this doctrine of Paul — that we are to follow men, provided they take Christ as their grand model, (πρωτότυπον,) that the examples of the saints may not tend to lead us away from Christ, but rather to direct us to him.

Calvin: 1Co 11:2 - NO PHRASE 2.=== Now I praise you === He passes on now to another subject-to instruct the Corinthians, what decorum ought to be observed in the sacred assembli...

2.=== Now I praise you === He passes on now to another subject-to instruct the Corinthians, what decorum ought to be observed in the sacred assemblies. For as a man’s dress or gesture has in some cases the effect of disfiguring, and in others of adorning him, so all actions are set off to advantage by decorum, and are vitiated by the want of it. Much, therefore, depends upon decorum (τὸ πρεπον,) 611 and that not merely for securing for our actions gracefulness and beauty, but also to accustom our minds to propriety. While this is true in a general way as to everything, it holds especially as to sacred things; 612 for what contempt, and, eventually, what barbarism will be incurred, if we do not preserve dignity in the Church, by conducting ourselves honorably and becomingly? Hence he prescribes some things that are connected with public order, by which sacred assemblies are rendered honorable. But in order to prepare them the more for obedience, he commends, in the outset, their obedience in the past, inasmuch as they observed his ordinances; for inasmuch as he had begotten that Church to the Lord, (1Co 4:15,) he had delivered to them a certain system, by which it was to be governed. By retaining this, the Corinthians gave reason to hope, that they would also in future be docile.

It is surprising, however, that, while he now bestows upon them this commendation, he had previously blamed them for many things. Nay more, if we consider the state of the Church, such as has been previously described, they were far from deserving this praise. I answer, that there were some that were infected with those vices which he had previously reproved, and indeed, some with one, others with another; but, in the meantime, the form which he had prescribed to them had been retained by the entire body. For there is nothing of inconsistency in saying, that very many sins, and of various kinds, prevail among a particular people — some cheating, others plundering — some envying, others quarrelling, and another class guilty of fornication — while, at the same time, in respect of the public form of the Church, the institutions of Christ and his Apostles are maintained.

This will appear more clearly when we come to see what Paul means by παραδόσεις; (traditions;) 613 and independently of this, it is necessary to speak of this word, for the purpose of replying to Papists, who arm themselves with this passage for the purpose of defending their traditions. It is a common maxim among them, that the doctrine of the Apostles consists partly of writings and partly of traditions. Under this second department they include not merely certain foolish superstitions, and puerile ceremonies, with which they are stuffed, but also all kinds of gross abomination, directly contrary to the plain word of God, and their tyrannical laws, which are mere torments to men’s consciences. In this way there is nothing that is so foolish, nothing so absurd — in fine, nothing so monstrous, as not to have shelter under this pretext, and to be painted over with this varnish. As Paul, therefore, makes mention here of traditions, they seize, as they are accustomed to do, upon this little word, with the view of making Paul the author of all those abominations, which we set aside by plain declaration of Scripture.

I do not deny, that there were certain traditions 614 of the Apostles that were not committed to writing, but I do not admit that they were parts of doctrine, or related to things necessary for salvation. What then? They were connected with order and government. For we know that every Church has liberty to frame for itself a form of government that is suitable and profitable for it, because the Lord has not prescribed anything definite. Thus Paul, the first founder of the Corinthian Church, had also framed for its regulation pious and seemly enactments — that all things might be done decently and in order, as he afterwards enjoins. (1Co 14:40.) But what has this to do with those silly trifles of ceremonies, which are to be seen in Popery? 615 What has it to do with a worse than Jewish superstition? What has it to do with a tyranny worthy of Phalaris, 616 by which they torture miserable consciences? What has it to do with so many monstrous rites of idolatry? For the foundation of all right enactment was this: to observe the moderation that Paul made use of — not to compel persons to follow their enactments, 617 while, in the meantime, contriving everything that might strike their fancy, but to require that they should be imitated, in so far as they are imitators of Christ But now, after having had the audacity to criticize everything agreeably to their own humor, to demand obedience from all is exceedingly absurd. Farther, we must know that Paul commends their obedience in the past, in order that he may render them docile also for the time to come.

Calvin: 1Co 11:3 - But I would have you know 3.But I would have you know It is an old proverb: “Evil manners beget good laws.” 618 As the rite here treated of had not been previously called ...

3.But I would have you know It is an old proverb: “Evil manners beget good laws.” 618 As the rite here treated of had not been previously called in question, Paul had given no enactment respecting it. 619 The error of the Corinthians was the occasion of his showing, what part it was becoming to act in this matter. With the view of proving, that it is an unseemly thing for women to appear in a public assembly with their heads uncovered, and, on the other hand, for men to pray or prophesy with their heads covered, he sets out with noticing the arrangements that are divinely established.

He says, that as Christ is subject to God as his head, so is the man subject to Christ, and the woman to the man We shall afterwards see, how he comes to infer from this, that women ought to have their heads covered. Let us, for the present, take notice of those four gradations which he points out. God, then, occupies the first place: Christ holds the second place. How so? Inasmuch as he has in our flesh made himself subject to the Father, for, apart from this, being of one essence with the Father, he is his equal. Let us, therefore, bear it in mind, that this is spoken of Christ as mediator. He is, I say, inferior to the Father, inasmuch as he assumed our nature, that he might be the first-born among many brethren.

There is somewhat more of difficulty in what follows. Here the man is placed in an intermediate position between Christ and the woman, so that Christ is not the head of the woman. Yet the same Apostle teaches us elsewhere, (Gal 3:28,) that in Christ there is neither male nor female. Why then does he make a distinction here, which in that passage he does away with? I answer, that the solution of this depends on the connection in which the passages occur. When he says that there is no difference between the man and the woman, he is treating of Christ’s spiritual kingdom, in which individual distinctions 620 are not regarded, or made any account of; for it has nothing to do with the body, and has nothing to do with the outward relationships of mankind, but has to do solely with the mind — on which account he declares that there is no difference, even between bond and free. In the meantime, however, he does not disturb civil order or honorary distinctions, which cannot be dispensed with in ordinary life. Here, on the other hand, he reasons respecting outward propriety and decorum — which is a part of ecclesiastical polity. Hence, as regards spiritual connection in the sight of God, and inwardly in the conscience, Christ is the head of the man and of the woman without any distinction, because, as to that, there is no regard paid to male or female; but as regards external arrangement and political decorum, the man follows Christ and the woman the man, so that they are not upon the same footing, but, on the contrary, this inequality exists. Should any one ask, what connection marriage has with Christ, I answer, that Paul speaks here of that sacred union of pious persons, of which Christ is the officiating priest, 621 and He in whose name it is consecrated.

Calvin: 1Co 11:4 - Every man praying // Prophesying 4.Every man praying Here there are two propositions. The first relates to the man, the other to the woman He says that the man commits an offen...

4.Every man praying Here there are two propositions. The first relates to the man, the other to the woman He says that the man commits an offense against Christ his head, if he prays or prophesies with his head covered. Why so? Because he is subject to Christ, with this understanding, that he is to hold the first place in the government of the house — for the father of the family is like a king in his own house. Hence the glory of God shines forth in him, in consequence of the authority with which he is invested. If he covers his head, he lets himself down from that preeminence which God had assigned to him, so as to be in subjection. Thus the honor of Christ is infringed upon. For example, 622 If the person whom the prince has appointed as his lieutenant, does not know how to maintain his proper station, 623 and instead of this, exposes his dignity to contempt on the part of persons in the lowest station, does he not bring dishonor upon his prince? In like manner, if the man does not keep his own station — if he is not subject to Christ in such a way as to preside over his own family with authority, he obscures, to that extent, the glory of Christ, which shines forth in the well regulated order of marriage. The covering, as we shall see ere long, is an emblem of authority intermediate and interposed.

Prophesying I take here to mean — declaring the mysteries of God for the edification of the hearers, (as afterwards in 1Co 14:3,) as praying means preparing a form of prayer, and taking the lead, as it were, of all the people — which is the part of the public teacher, 624 for Paul is not arguing here as to every kind of prayer, but as to solemn prayer in public. Let us, however, bear in mind, that in this matter the error is merely in so far as decorum is violated, and the distinction of rank which God has established, is broken in upon. For we must not be so scrupulous as to look upon it as a criminal thing for a teacher to have a cap on his head, when addressing the people from the pulpit. Paul means nothing more than this — that it should appear that the man has authority, and that the woman is under subjection, and this is secured when the man uncovers his head in the view of the Church, though he should afterwards put on his cap again from fear of catching cold. In fine, the one rule to be observed here is το πρέπον decorum If that is secured, Paul requires nothing farther.

Calvin: 1Co 11:5 - Every woman praying or prophesying // For it is all one as if she were shaven 5.Every woman praying or prophesying Here we have the second proposition — that women ought to have their heads covered when they pray or pr...

5.Every woman praying or prophesying Here we have the second proposition — that women ought to have their heads covered when they pray or prophesy; otherwise they dishonor their head For as the man honors his head by showing his liberty, so the woman, by showing her subjection. Hence, on the other hand, if the woman uncovers her head, she shakes off subjection — involving contempt of her husband. It may seem, however, to be superfluous for Paul to forbid the woman to prophesy with her head uncovered, while elsewhere he wholly

prohibits women from speaking in the Church.
(1Ti 2:12.)

It would not, therefore, be allowable for them to prophesy even with a covering upon their head, and hence it follows that it is to no purpose that he argues here as to a covering. It may be replied, that the Apostle, by here condemning the one, does not commend the other. For when he reproves them for prophesying with their head uncovered, he at the same time does not give them permission to prophesy in some other way, but rather delays his condemnation of that vice to another passage, namely in 1Co 14:34. In this reply there is nothing amiss, though at the same time it might suit sufficiently well to say, that the Apostle requires women to show their modesty — not merely in a place in which the whole Church is assembled, but also in any more dignified assembly, either of matrons or of men, such as are sometimes convened in private houses.

For it is all one as if she were shaven He now maintains from other considerations, that it is unseemly for women to have their heads bare. Nature itself, says he, abhors it. To see a woman shaven is a spectacle that is disgusting and monstrous. Hence we infer that the woman has her hair given her for a covering Should any one now object, that her hair is enough, as being a natural covering, Paul says that it is not, for it is such a covering as requires another thing to be made use of for covering it And hence a conjecture is drawn, with some appearance of probability — that women who had beautiful hair were accustomed to uncover their heads for the purpose of showing off their beauty. It is not, therefore, without good reason that Paul, as a remedy for this vice, sets before them the opposite idea — that they be regarded as remarkable for unseemliness, rather than for what is an incentive to lust. 625

Calvin: 1Co 11:7 - The man ought not to cover his head, because he is the image // The woman is the glory of the man 7.The man ought not to cover his head, because he is the image The same question may now be proposed respecting the image, as formerly respecting th...

7.The man ought not to cover his head, because he is the image The same question may now be proposed respecting the image, as formerly respecting the head. For both sexes were created in the image of God, and Paul exhorts women no less than men to be formed anew, according to that image. The image, however, of which he is now speaking, relates to the order of marriage, and hence it belongs to the present life, and is not connected with conscience. The simple solution is this — that he does not treat here of innocence and holiness, which are equally becoming in men and women, but of the distinction, which God has conferred upon the man, so as to have superiority over the woman. In this superior order of dignity the glory of God is seen, as it shines forth in every kind of superiority.

The woman is the glory of the man There is no doubt that the woman is a distinguished ornament of the man; for it is a great honor that God has appointed her to the man as the partner of his life, and a helper to him, 626 and has made her subject to him as the body is to the head. For what Solomon affirms as to a careful wife — that she is a crown to her husband, (Pro 12:4,) is true of the whole sex, if we look to the appointment of God, which Paul here commends, showing that the woman was created for this purpose — that she might be a distinguished ornament of the man.

Calvin: 1Co 11:8 - For the man is not from the woman 8.For the man is not from the woman He establishes by two arguments the pre-eminence, which he had assigned to men above women. The first is, tha...

8.For the man is not from the woman He establishes by two arguments the pre-eminence, which he had assigned to men above women. The first is, that as the woman derives her origin from the man, she is therefore inferior in rank. The second is, that as the woman was created for the sake of the man, she is therefore subject to him, as the work ultimately produced is to its cause. 627 That the man is the beginning of the woman and the end for which she was made, is evident from the law. (Gen 2:18.)

It is not good for a man to be alone. Let us make for him, etc.

Farther,

God took one of Adam’s ribs and formed Eve.
(Gen 2:21.)

Calvin: 1Co 11:10 - For this cause ought the woman to have power // Because of the angels 10.For this cause ought the woman to have power 628 From that authority he draws an argument 629 in favor of outward decorum. “She is subject,” s...

10.For this cause ought the woman to have power 628 From that authority he draws an argument 629 in favor of outward decorum. “She is subject,” says he, “let her then wear a token of subjection.” In the term power, there is an instance of metonymy, 630 for he means a token by which she declares herself to be under the power of her husband; and it is a covering, whether it be a robe, or a veil, 631 or any other kind of covering. 632

It is asked, whether he speaks of married women exclusively, for there are some that restrict to them what Paul here teaches, on the ground that it does not belong to virgins to be under the authority of a husband. It is however a mistake, for Paul looks beyond this — to God’s eternal law, which has made the female sex subject to the authority of men. On this account all women are born, that they may acknowledge themselves inferior in consequence of the superiority of the male sex. Otherwise it were an inconclusive argument that Paul has drawn from nature, in saying that it were not one whit more seemly for a woman to have her head uncovered than to be shaven — this being applicable to virgins also.

Because of the angels This passage is explained in various ways. As the Prophet Mal 2:7 calls priests angels of God, some are of opinion that Paul speaks of them; but the ministers of the word have nowhere that term applied to them by itself — that is, without something being added; and the meaning would be too forced. I understand it, therefore, in its proper signification. But it is asked, why it is that he would have women have their heads covered because of the angels — for what has this to do with them? Some answer: “Because they are present on occasion of the prayers of believers, and on this account are spectators of unseemliness, should there be any on such occasions.” But what need is there for philosophizing with such refinement? We know that angels are in attendance, also, upon Christ as their head, and minister to him. 633 When, therefore, women venture upon such liberties, as to usurp for themselves the token of authority, they make their baseness manifest to the angels. This, therefore, was said by way of amplifying, as if he had said, “If women uncover their heads, not only Christ, but all the angels too, will be witnesses of the outrage.” And this interpretation suits well with the Apostle’s design. He is treating here of different ranks. Now he says that, when women assume a higher place than becomes them, they gain this by it — that they discover their impudence in the view of the angels of heaven.

Calvin: 1Co 11:11 - But neither is the man without the woman 11.But neither is the man without the woman This is added partly as a check upon men, that they may not insult over women; 634 and partly as a consol...

11.But neither is the man without the woman This is added partly as a check upon men, that they may not insult over women; 634 and partly as a consolation to women, that they may not feel dissatisfied with being under subjection. “The male sex (says he) has a distinction over the female sex, with this understanding, that they ought to be connected together by mutual benevolence, for the one cannot do without the other. If they be separated, they are like the mutilated members of a mangled body. Let them, therefore, be connected with each other by the bond of mutual duty.” 635

When he says, in the Lord, he by this expression calls the attention of believers to the appointment of the Lord, while the wicked look to nothing beyond pressing necessity. 636 For profane men, if they can conveniently live unmarried, despise the whole sex, and do not consider that they are under obligations to it by the appointment and decree of God. The pious, on the other hand, acknowledge that the male sex is but the half of the human race. They ponder the meaning of that statement — God created man: male and female created he them (Gen 1:27, and Gen 5:2.) Thus they, of their own accord, acknowledge themselves to be debtors to the weaker sex. Pious women, in like manner, reflect upon their obligation. 637 Thus the man has no standing without the woman, for that would be the head severed from the body; nor has the woman without the man, for that were a body without a head. “Let, therefore, the man perform to the woman the office of the head in respect of ruling her, and let the woman perform to the man the office of the body in respect of assisting him, and that not merely in the married state, but also in celibacy; for I do not speak of cohabitation merely, but also of civil offices, for which there is occasion even in the unmarried state.” If you are inclined rather to refer this to the whole sex in general, I do not object to this, though, as Paul directs his discourse to individuals, he appears to point out the particular duty of each.

Calvin: 1Co 11:12 - As the woman is of the man // But all things of God // Doth not even nature itself 12.As the woman is of the man If this is one of the reasons, why the man has superiority — that the woman was taken out of him, there will be, in l...

12.As the woman is of the man If this is one of the reasons, why the man has superiority — that the woman was taken out of him, there will be, in like manner, this motive to friendly connection — that the male sex cannot maintain and preserve itself without the aid of women. For this remains a settled point — that it is not good for man to be alone (Gen 2:18.) This statement of Paul may, it is true, be viewed as referring to propagation, because human beings are propagated not by men alone, but by men and women; but I understand it as meaning this also — that the woman is a needful help to the man, inasmuch as a solitary life is not expedient for man. This decree of God exhorts us to cultivate mutual intercourse.

But all things of God God is the Source of both sexes, and hence both of them ought with humility to accept and maintain the condition which the Lord has assigned to them. Let the man exercise his authority with moderation, and not insult over the woman who has been given him as his partner. Let the woman be satisfied with her state of subjection, and not take it amiss that she is made inferior to the more distinguished sex. Otherwise they will both of them throw off the yoke of God, who has not without good reason appointed this distinction of ranks. Farther, when it is said that the man and the woman, when they are wanting in their duty to each other, are rebels against the authority of God, the statement is a more serious one than if Paul had said, that they do injury to one another.

Doth not even nature itself He again sets forth nature as the mistress of decorum, and what was at that time in common use by universal consent and custom — even among the Greeks — he speaks of as being natural, for it was not always reckoned a disgrace for men to have long hair. 638 Historical records bear, that in all countries in ancient times, that is, in the first ages, men wore long hair. Hence also the poets, in speaking of the ancients, are accustomed to apply to them the common epithet of unshorn 639 It was not until a late period that barbers began to be employed at Rome — about the time of Africanus the elder. And at the time when Paul wrote these things, the practice of having the hair shorn had not yet come into use in the provinces of Gaul or in Germany. Nay more, it would have been reckoned an unseemly thing for men, no less than for women, to be shorn or shaven; but as in Greece it was reckoned all unbecoming thing for a man to allow his hair to grow long, so that those who did so were remarked as effeminate, he reckons as nature a custom that had come to be confirmed. 640

Calvin: 1Co 11:16 - But if any man seem 16.But if any man seem A contentious person is one whose humor inclines him to stir up disputes, and does not care what becomes of the truth. Of th...

16.But if any man seem A contentious person is one whose humor inclines him to stir up disputes, and does not care what becomes of the truth. Of this description are all who, without any necessity, abolish good and useful customs — raise disputes respecting matters that are not doubtful — who do not yield to reasonings — who cannot endure that any one should be above them. Of this description, also, are those (ἀκοινώνητοι) would be singular persons 641 who, from a foolish affectation, 642 aim at some new and unusual way of acting. Such persons Paul does not reckon worthy of being replied to, inasmuch as contention is a pernicious thing, and ought, therefore, to be banished from the Churches. By this he teaches us, that those that are obstinate and fond of quarrelling, should rather be restrained by authority than confuted by lengthened disputations. For you will never have an end of contentions, if you are disposed to contend with a combative person until you have vanquished him; for though vanquished a hundred times, he would argue still. Let us therefore carefully mark this passage, that we may not allow ourselves to be carried away with needless disputations, provided at the same time we know how to distinguish contentious persons. For we must not always reckon as contentious the man who does not acquiesce in our decisions, or who ventures to contradict us; but when temper and obstinacy show themselves, let us then say with Paul, that contentions are at variance with the custom of the Church 643

Calvin: 1Co 11:17 - NO PHRASE His reproof of the fault previously noticed was but a mild and gentle admonition, because the Corinthians sinned in ignorance, so that it was proper ...

His reproof of the fault previously noticed was but a mild and gentle admonition, because the Corinthians sinned in ignorance, so that it was proper that they should readily be forgiven. Paul, too, had praised them in the outset, because they had faithfully kept his enactments. (1Co 11:2.) Now he begins to reprove them more sharply, because they offended more grievously in some things, and not through ignorance.

17. But, in warning you as to this, I do not praise. 644 For I translate it in this way, because Paul appears to have made the participle and the verb change places. 645 I am also not satisfied with the interpretation of Erasmus, who takes παραγγέλλειν as meaning to command The verb to warn would suit better, but as to this I do not contend. There is an antithesis between this clause and the beginning of this chapter. “While I have praised you, do not think that it is unqualified commendation; for I have something to find fault with, as it is worthy of severe reproof.” This, however, in my opinion, does not refer exclusively to the Lord’s Supper, but also to other faults of which he makes mention. Let this then be taken as a general statement, that the Corinthians are reproved, because they came together not for the better but for the worse. Particular effects of this evil will be brought forward afterwards.

He finds fault with them, then, in the first place, because they come not together for the better, — and secondly, that they come together for the worse The second, it is true, is the more serious, but even the first is not to be endured, for if we consider what is transacted in the Church, there ought never to be a coming together without some fruit. There the doctrine of God is listened to, prayers are offered up, the Sacraments are administered. The fruit of the Word is, when confidence in God and fear of him are increased in us — when progress is made in holiness of life — when we put off more and more the old man, (Col 3:9) — when we advance in newness of life, etc. (Rom 6:4.) The Sacraments have a tendency to exercise us in piety and love. The prayers, too, ought to be of use for promoting all these purposes. In addition to this, the Lord works efficaciously by his Spirit, because he wills not that his ordinances should be vain. Hence if the sacred assemblies are of no benefit to us, and we are not made better by them, it is our ingratitude that is to blame, and therefore we deserve to be reproved. For the effect of our conduct is, that those things, which, from their own nature, and from God’s appointment, ought to have been salutary, become unprofitable.

Then follows the second fault — that they come together for the worse. This is much more criminal, and yet it almost always follows the other, for if we derive no advantage from God’s benefits, he employs this method of punishing our carelessness — that we are made worse by them. It usually happens, too, that negligence gives birth to many corruptions, especially on this account, that those who do not observe the natural use of things usually fall erelong into hurtful inventions. 646

Calvin: 1Co 11:18 - When ye come together in the Church, I hear there are divisions 18.When ye come together in the Church, I hear there are divisions Some take the words divisions and heresies, as referring to that disorder (ἀ...

18.When ye come together in the Church, I hear there are divisions Some take the words divisions and heresies, as referring to that disorder (ἀταξίαν) of which he speaks soon afterwards. I consider them as having a more extensive signification, and certainly it is not likely that he would employ terms so improper and unsuitable for the purpose of exposing that abuse. 647 For as to their alleging that he has expressed himself in more severe terms, with the view of exposing more fully the heinousness of the offense, I would readily grant this, if the meaning corresponded. It is, then, a reproof of a general kind — that they were not of one accord as becomes Christians, but every one was so much taken up with his own interests, that he was not prepared to accommodate himself to others. Hence arose that abuse, as to which we shall see in a little — hence sprung ambition and pride, so that every one exalted himself and despised others — hence sprung carelessness as to edification — hence sprung profanation of the gifts of God.

He says that he partly believes it, that they might not think that he charged them all with this heinous crime, and might accordingly complain, that they were groundlessly accused. In the meantime, however, he intimates that this had been brought to him not by mere vague rumor, but by credible information, such as he could not altogether discredit.

Calvin: 1Co 11:19 - For there must be also heresies 19.For there must be also heresies He had previously spoken of divisions (1Co 11:18.) Now he uses the term heresies, with the view of amplifying t...

19.For there must be also heresies He had previously spoken of divisions (1Co 11:18.) Now he uses the term heresies, with the view of amplifying the more, as we may infer, too, from the word also, for it is added for the sake of amplification. (προς αὔξησιν.) It is well known in what sense the ancients used those two terms, 648 and what distinction they made between Heretics and Schismatics. 649 Heresy they made to consist in disagreement as to doctrine, and schism, on the contrary, in alienation of affection, as when any one withdrew from the Church from envy, or from dislike of the pastors, or from ill nature. It is true, that the Church cannot but be torn asunder by false doctrine, and thus heresy is the root and origin of schism, and it is also true that envy or pride is the mother of almost all heresies, but at the same time it is of advantage to distinguish in this way between these two terms.

But let us see in what sense Paul employs them. I have already expressed my disapprobation of those who explain heresy as meaning the setting up of a separate table, inasmuch as the rich did not partake of their Supper along with the poor; for he had it in view to point out something more hateful. But without mentioning the opinions of others, I take schism and heresy here in the way of less and greater. Schisms, then, are either secret grudges — when we do not see that agreement which ought to subsist among the pious — when inclinations at variance with each other are at work — when every one is mightily pleased with his own way, and finds fault with everything that is done by others. Heresies are when the evil proceeds to such a pitch that open hostility is discovered, and persons deliberately divide themselves into opposite parties. Hence, in order that believers might not feel discouraged on seeing the Corinthians torn with divisions, the Apostle turns round this occasion of offense in an opposite direction, intimating that the Lord does rather by such trials make proof of his people’s constancy. A lovely consolation! “So far, says he, should we be from being troubled, or cast down, when we do not see complete unity in the Church, but on the contrary some threatenings of separation from want of proper agreement, that even if sects should start up, 650 we ought to remain firm and constant. For in this way hypocrites are detected — in this way, on the other hand, the sincerity of believers is tried. For as this gives occasion for discovering the fickleness of those who were not rooted in the Lord’s Word, and the wickedness of those who had assumed the appearance of good men, so the good afford a more signal manifestation of their constancy and sincerity.”

But observe what Paul says — there must be, for he intimates by this expression, that this state of matters does not happen by chance, but by the sure providence of God, because he has it in view to try his people, as gold in the furnace, and if it is agreeable to the mind of God, it is, consequently, expedient. At the same time, however, we must not enter into thorny disputes, or rather into labyrinths as to a fatal necessity. We know that there never will be a time when there will not be many reprobates. We know that they are governed by the spirit of Satan, and are effectually drawn away to what is evil. We know that Satan, in his activity, leaves no stone unturned with the view of breaking up the unity of the Church. From this — not from fate — comes that necessity of which Paul makes mention. 651 We know, also, that the Lord, by his admirable wisdom, turns Satan’s deadly machinations so as to promote the salvation of believers. 652 Hence comes that design of which he speaks — that the good may shine forth more conspicuously; for we ought not to ascribe this advantage to heresies, which, being evil, can produce nothing but what is evil, but to God, who, by his infinite goodness, changes the nature of things, so that those things are salutary to the elect, which Satan had contrived for their ruin. As to Chrysostom’s contending that the particle that (ἴνα) denotes not the cause, but the event, it is of no great moment. For the cause is the secret counsel of God, 653 by which things that are evil are overruled in such a manner, as to have a good issue. We know, in fine, that the wicked are impelled by Satan in such a manner, that they both act and are acted upon with the consent of their wills. 654 Hence they are without excuse.

Calvin: 1Co 11:20 - This is not to eat the Lord’s supper 20.This is not to eat the Lord’s supper He now reproves the abuse that had crept in among the Corinthians as to the Lord’s Supper, in respect of ...

20.This is not to eat the Lord’s supper He now reproves the abuse that had crept in among the Corinthians as to the Lord’s Supper, in respect of their mixing up profane banquets with the sacred and spiritual feast, and that too with contempt of the poor. Paul says, that in this way it is not the Lord’s supper that is partaken of — not that a single abuse altogether set aside the sacred institution of Christ, and reduced it to nothing, but that they polluted the sacrament by observing it in a wrong way. For we are accustomed to say, in common conversation, that a thing is not done at all, if it is not done aright. Now this was no trivial abuse, as we shall afterwards see. If you understand the words is not as meaning, is not allowable, 655 the meaning will amount to the same thing — that the Corinthians were not in a state of preparation for partaking of the Lord’s supper, as being in so divided a state. What I stated a little ago, however, is more simple — that he condemns that profane admixture, which had nothing in it akin to the Lord’s Supper.

Calvin: 1Co 11:21 - For every one of you taketh before others his own supper // And one is hungry 21.For every one of you taketh before others his own supper It is truly wonderful, and next to a miracle, 656 that Satan could have accomplished so m...

21.For every one of you taketh before others his own supper It is truly wonderful, and next to a miracle, 656 that Satan could have accomplished so much in so short a time. We are, however, admonished by this instance, how much antiquity, without reason on its side, can effect, or, in other words, how much influence a long continued custom has, while not sanctioned by a single declaration of the word of God. This, having become customary, was looked upon as lawful. Paul was then at hand to interfere. What then must have been the state of matters after the death of the Apostles? With what liberty Satan must have sported himself. 657 Yet here is the great strength of Papists: “The thing is ancient — it was done long ago — let it, therefore, have the weight of a revelation from heaven.”

It is uncertain, however, what was the origin of this abuse, or what was the occasion of its springing up so soon. Chrysostom is of opinion, that it originated in the love-feasts, 658 (ἀπὸ τῶν ἀγαπῶν) and that, while the rich had been accustomed 659 to bring with them from their houses the means of feasting with the poor indiscriminately and in common, they afterwards began to exclude the poor, and to guzzle over their delicacies by themselves. And, certainly, it appears from Tertullian, that that custom was a very ancient one. 660 Now they gave the name of Agapae 661 to those common entertainments, which they contrived among themselves, as being tokens of fraternal affection, and consisted of alms. Nor have I any doubt, that it took its rise from sacrificial rites commonly observed both by Jews and Gentiles. For I observe that Christians, for the most part, corrected the faults connected with those rites, in such a manner, as to retain at the same time some resemblance. Hence it is probable, that, on observing that both Jews and Gentiles added a feast to their sacrifice, as an appendage to it, but that both of them sinned in respect of ambition, luxury, and intemperance, they instituted 662 a kind of banquet, which might accustom them rather to sobriety and frugality, 663 and might, at the same time, be in accordance with a spiritual entertainment in respect of mutual fellowship. For in it the poor were entertained at the expense of the rich, and the table was open to all. But, whether they had from the very first fallen into this profane abuse, or whether an institution, otherwise not so objectionable, had in this way degenerated in process of time, Paul would have them in no way mix up this spiritual banquet with common feasts. “This, indeed, looks well — that the poor along with the rich partake in common of the provisions that have been brought, and that the rich share of their abundance along with the needy, but nothing ought to have such weight with us as to lead us to profane the holy sacrament.” 664

And one is hungry This was one evil in the case, that while the rich indulged themselves sumptuously, they appeared, in a manner, to reproach the poor for their poverty. The inequality he describes hyperbolically, when he says, that some are drunken and others are hungry, for some had the means of stuffing themselves well, while others had slender fare. Thus the poor were exposed to the derision of the rich, or at least they were exposed to shame. It was, therefore, an unseemly spectacle, and not in accordance with the Lord s supper

Calvin: 1Co 11:22 - Have ye not houses // What shall I say to you? 22.Have ye not houses ? From this we see that the Apostle was utterly dissatisfied with this custom of feasting, even though the abuse formerly menti...

22.Have ye not houses ? From this we see that the Apostle was utterly dissatisfied with this custom of feasting, even though the abuse formerly mentioned had not existed. For, though it seems allowable for the whole Church to partake at one common table, yet this, on the other hand, is wrong — to convert a sacred assembly to purposes foreign to its nature. We know for what exercises a Church should assemble — to hear doctrine, to pour forth prayers, and sing hymns to God, to observe the sacraments, 665 to make confession of their faith, and to engage in pious observances, and other exercises of piety. If anything else is done there, it is out of place. Every one has his own house appointed him for eating and drinking, and hence that is an unseemly thing in a sacred assembly.

What shall I say to you? Having fitly stated the case, he now calls them to consider, whether they are worthy to be praised, for they could not defend an abuse that was so manifest. He presses them still further, by asking — “What else could I do? Will you say that you are unjustly reproved?” Some manuscripts connect the words in this with the verb that follows — in this way: Shall I praise you ? In this I do not praise you 666 The other reading, however, is the more generally received among the Greeks, and it suits better.

Calvin: 1Co 11:23 - I received from the Lord // That night in which he was betrayed Hitherto he has been exposing the abuse; 667 now he proceeds to show what is the proper method of rectifying it. For the institution of Christ is a s...

Hitherto he has been exposing the abuse; 667 now he proceeds to show what is the proper method of rectifying it. For the institution of Christ is a sure rule, so that if you turn aside from it but a very little, you are out of the right course. Hence, as the Corinthians had deviated from this rule, he calls them back to it. It is a passage that ought to be carefully observed, as showing that there is no remedy for correcting and purging out abuses, short of a return to God’s pure institution. Thus the Lord himself — when he was discoursing respecting marriage, (Mat 19:3,) and the Scribes brought forward custom, and also the permission given by Moses — simply brings forward his Father’s institution, as being an inviolable law. When we do this at the present day, the Papists cry out, that we are leaving nothing untouched. 668 We openly demonstrate, that it is not in one point merely that they have degenerated from our Lord’s first institution, but that they have corrupted it in a thousand ways. Nothing is more manifest than that their Mass is diametrically opposed to the sacred Supper of our Lord. I go farther — we show in the plainest manner, that it is full of wicked abominations: hence there is need of reformation. We demand — what it appears Paul had recourse to — that our Lord’s institution be the common rule, to which we agree on both sides to make our appeal. This they oppose with all their might. Mark then the nature of the controversy at this day in reference to the Lord’s Supper.

23.I received from the Lord In these words he intimates, that there is no authority that is of any avail in the Church, but that of the Lord alone. “ I have not delivered to you an invention of my own: I had not, when I came to you, contrived a new kind of Supper, according to my own humor, but have Christ as my authority, from whom I received what I have delivered unto you, in the way of handing it over.” 669 Return, then, to the original source. Thus, bidding adieu to human laws, the authority of Christ will be maintained in its stability.

That night in which he was betrayed This circumstance as to time instructs us as to the design of the sacrament — that the benefit of Christ’s death may be ratified in us. For the Lord might have some time previously committed to the Apostles this covenant-seal, 670 but he waited until the time of his oblation, that the Apostles might see soon after accomplished in reality in his body, what he had represented to them in the bread and the wine Should any one infer from this, that the Supper ought, therefore, to be celebrated at night and after a bodily repast, I answer, that, in what our Lord did, we must consider what there is that he would have to be done by us. It is certain, that he did not mean to institute a kind of nightly festival, like that in honor of Ceres, 671 and farther, that it was not his design to invite his people to come to this spiritual banquet with a well-filled stomach. Such actions of Christ as are not intended for our imitation, should not be reckoned as belonging to his institution. 672 In this way, there is no difficulty in setting aside that subtilty of Papists, by which they shift off 673 what I have already stated as to the duty of maintaining and preserving Christ’s institution in its simplicity. “We will, therefore,” say they, “ not receive the Lord’s Supper except at night, and we will therefore take it — not when fasting, but after having dined.” All this, I say, is mere trifling; for it is easy to distinguish what our Lord did, in order that we might imitate it, or rather what he did with the view of commanding us to do the like.

Calvin: 1Co 11:24 - Having given thanks // Take, eat, this is my body // This is my body // Which is broken for you // Do this in remembrance of me 24.Having given thanks Paul observes elsewhere, that every gift that we receive from the hand of God is sanctified to us by the word and prayer. (1T...

24.Having given thanks Paul observes elsewhere, that every gift that we receive from the hand of God

is sanctified to us by the word and prayer. (1Ti 4:5.)

Accordingly, we nowhere read that the Lord tasted bread along with his disciples, but there is mention made of his giving thanks, (Joh 6:23,) by which example he has assuredly instructed us to do the like. This giving of thanks, however, has a reference to something higher, for Christ gives thanks to the Father for his mercy 674 towards the human race, and the inestimable benefit of redemption; and he invites us, by his example, to raise up our minds as often as we approach the sacred table, to an acknowledgment of the boundless love of God towards us, and to have our minds kindled up to true gratitude. 675

Take, eat, this is my body As Paul designed here to instruct us in a few words as to the right use of the sacrament, it is our duty to consider attentively 676 what he sets before us, and allow nothing to pass unobserved, inasmuch as he says nothing but what is exceedingly necessary to be known, and worthy of the closest attention. In the first place, we must take notice, that Christ here distributes the bread among the Apostles, that all may partake of it in common, and thus every one may receive his portion, that there may be an equal participation among all. Accordingly, when there is not a table in common prepared for all the pious — where they are not invited to the breaking of bread in common, and where, in fine, believers do not mutually participate, it is to no purpose that the name of the Lord s Supper is laid claim to.

But for what purpose 677 are the people called to mass, unless it be that they may come away empty from an unmeaning show? 678 It has, therefore, nothing in unison with the supper. Hence, too, we infer that Christ’s promise is no more applicable to the mass than to the feast of the Salii; 679 for when Christ promises that he will give us his body, he at the same time commands us to take and eat of the bread Hence, unless we obey this command, it is to no purpose that we glory in his promise. To explain this more familiarly in other words — the promise is annexed to the commandment in a conditional way, as it were: hence it has its accomplishment only if the condition also is accomplished. For example, it is written, Call upon me; I will answer thee (Psa 91:15.) It is our part to obey the command of God, that he may accomplish for us what he promises; otherwise we shut ourselves out from the accomplishment of it. 680

What do Papists do? They neglect participation, and consecrate the bread for a totally different purpose, and in the meantime they boast that they have the Lord’s body. While, by a wicked divorce, they

put asunder those things which Christ has joined together,
(Mat 19:6,)

it is manifest that their boasting is vain. Hence, whenever they bring forward the clause — This is my body, we must retort upon them the one that immediately precedes it — Take and eat For the meaning of the words is: “By participating in the breaking of bread, according to the order and observance which I have prescribed, you shall be participants also in my body.” Hence, when an individual eats of it by himself, the promise in that case goes for nothing. Besides, we are taught in these words what the Lord would have us do. Take, says he. Hence those that offer a sacrifice to God have some other than Christ as their authority, for we are not instructed in these words to perform a sacrifice.

But what do Papists say as to their mass? At first they were so impudent as to maintain, that it was truly and properly called a sacrifice. Now, however, they admit that it is indeed a commemorative sacrifice, but in such a way, that the benefit of redemption is, through means of their daily oblation, 681 applied to the living and the dead. However that may be, they present the appearance of a sacrifice. 682 In the first place, there is rashness in this, as being without any command from Christ; but there is a still more serious error involved in it — that, while Christ appointed the Supper for this purpose, that we might take and eat, they pervert it to a totally different use.

This is my body I shall not recount the unhappy contests that have tried the Church in our times as to the meaning of these words. Nay rather, would to God that we could bury the remembrance of them in perpetual oblivion! I shall state, first of all, sincerely and without disguise, and then farther, I shall state freely (as I am wont to do) what my views are. Christ calls the bread his body; for I set aside, without any disputation, that absurd contrivance, that our Lord did not exhibit the bread to the Apostles, but his body, which they beheld with their eyes, for it immediately follows — This cup is the New Testament in my blood Let us regard it then as beyond all controversy that Christ is here speaking of the bread. Now the question is — “In what sense?” That we may elicit the true meaning, we must hold that the expression is figurative; for, assuredly, to deny this is exceedingly dishonest. 683 Why then is the term body applied to the bread? All, I think, will allow that it is for the same reason that John calls the Holy Spirit a dove (Joh 1:32.) Thus far we are agreed. Now the reason why the Spirit was so called was this — that he had appeared in the form of a dove. Hence the name of the Spirit is transferred to the visible sign. Why should we not maintain that there is here a similar instance of metonymy, and that the term body is applied to the bread, as being the sign and symbol of it? If any are of a different opinion they will forgive me; but it appears to me to be an evidence of a contentious spirit, to dispute pertinaciously on this point. I lay it down, then, as a settled point, that there is here a sacramental form of expression, 684 in which the Lord gives to the sign the name of the thing signified.

We must now proceed farther, and inquire as to the reason of the metonymy. Here I reply, that the name of the thing signified is not applied to the sign simply as being a representation of it, but rather as being a symbol of it, 685 by which the reality is presented to us. For I do not allow the force of those comparisons which some borrow from profane or earthly things; for there is a material difference between them and the sacraments of our Lord. The statue of Hercules is called Hercules, but what have we there but a bare, empty representation? On the other hand the Spirit is called a dove, as being a sure pledge of the invisible presence of the Spirit. Hence the bread is Christ s body, because it assuredly testifies, that the body which it represents is held forth to us, or because the Lord, by holding out to us that symbol, gives us at the same time his own body; for Christ is not a deceiver, to mock us with empty representations. 686 Hence it is regarded by me as beyond all controversy, that the reality is here conjoined with the sign; or, in other words, that we do not less truly become participants in Christ’s body in respect of spiritual efficacy, than we partake of the bread.

We must now discuss the manner. Papists hold forth to us their system of transubstantiation: they allege that, when the act of consecration has been gone through, the substance of the bread no longer exists, and that nothing remains but the accidents. 687 To this contrivance we oppose — not merely the plain words of Scripture, but the very nature of the sacraments. For what is the meaning of the supper, if there is no correspondence between the visible sign and the spiritual reality? They would have the sign to be a false and delusive appearance of bread. What then will the thing signified be, but a mere imagination? Hence, if there must be a correspondence between the sign and its reality, it is necessary that the bread be real — not imaginary — to represent Christ’s real body. Besides, Christ’s body is here given us not simply, but as food. Now it is not by any means the color of the bread that nourishes us, but the substance. In fine, if we would have reality in the thing itself, there must be no deception in the sign.

Rejecting then the dream of Papists, let us see in what manner Christ’s body is given to us. Some explain, that it is given to us, when we are made partakers of all the blessings which Christ has procured for us in his body — when, I say, we by faith embrace Christ as crucified for us, and raised up from the dead, and in this way are effectually made partakers of all his benefits. As for those who are of this opinion, I have no objection to their holding such a view. As for myself, I acknowledge, that it is only when we obtain Christ himself, that we come to partake of Christ’s benefits. He is, however, obtained, I affirm, not only when we believe that he was made an offering for us, but when he dwells in us — when he is one with us — when we are members of his flesh, (Eph 5:30,) — when, in fine, we are incorporated with him (so to speak) into one life and substance. Besides, I attend to the import of the words, for Christ does not simply present to us the benefit of his death and resurrection, but the very body in which he suffered and rose again. I conclude, that Christ’s body is really, (as the common expression is,) — that is, truly given to us in the Supper, to be wholesome food for our souls. I use the common form of expression, but my meaning is, that our souls are nourished by the substance of the body, that we may truly be made one with him, or, what amounts to the same thing, that a life-giving virtue from Christ’s flesh is poured into us by the Spirit, though it is at a great distance from us, and is not mixed with us. 688

There now remains but one difficulty — how is it possible that his body, which is in heaven, is given to us here upon earth? Some imagine that Christ’s body is infinite, and is not confined to any one space, but fills heaven and earth, (Jer 23:24,) like his Divine essence. This fancy is too absurd to require refutation. The Schoolmen dispute with more refinement as to his glorious body. Their whole doctrine, however, reduces itself to this — that Christ is to be sought after in the bread, as if he were included in it. Hence it comes, that the minds of men behold the bread with wonderment, and adore it in place of Christ. Should any one ask them whether they adore the bread, or the appearance of it, they will confidently agree that they do not, but, in the mean time, when about to adore Christ, they turn to the bread. They turn, I say, not merely with their eyes, and their whole body, but even with the thoughts of the heart. Now what is this but unmixed idolatry? But that participation in the body of Christ, which, I affirm, is presented to us in the Supper, does not require a local presence, nor the descent of Christ, nor infinite extension, 689 nor anything of that nature, for the Supper being a heavenly action, there is no absurdity in saying, that Christ, while remaining in heaven, is received by us. For as to his communicating himself to us, that is effected through the secret virtue of his Holy Spirit, which can not merely bring together, but join in one, things that are separated by distance of place, and far remote.

But, in order that we may be capable of this participation, we must rise heavenward. Here, therefore, faith must be our resource, when all the bodily senses have failed. When I speak of faith, I do not mean any sort of opinion, resting on human contrivances, as many, boasting of faith on all occasions, run grievously wild on this point. What then? You see bread — nothing more — but you learn that it is a symbol 690 of Christ’s body. Do not doubt that the Lord accomplishes what his words intimate — that the body, which thou dost not at all behold, is given to thee, as a spiritual repast. It seems incredible, that we should be nourished by Christ’s flesh, which is at so great a distance from us. Let us bear in mind, that it is a secret and wonderful work of the Holy Spirit, which it were criminal to measure by the standard of our understanding. “In the meantime, however, drive away gross imaginations, which would keep thee from looking beyond the bread. Leave to Christ the true nature of flesh, and do not, by a mistaken apprehension, extend his body over heaven and earth: do not divide him into different parts by thy fancies, and do not adore him in this place and that, according to thy carnal apprehension. Allow him to remain in his heavenly glory, and aspire thou thither, 691 that he may thence communicate himself to thee.” These few things will satisfy those that are sound and modest. As for the curious, I would have them look somewhere else for the means of satisfying their appetite.

Which is broken for you Some explain this as referring to the distribution of the bread, because it was necessary that Christ’s body should remain entire, as it had been predicted, (Exo 12:46,) A bone of him shall not be broken As for myself — while I acknowledge that Paul makes an allusion to the breaking of bread, yet I understand the word broken as used here for sacrificed — not, indeed, with strict propriety, but at the same time without any absurdity. For although no bone was broken, yet the body itself having been subjected, first of all, to so many tortures and inflictions, and afterwards to the punishment of death in the most cruel form, cannot be said to have been uninjured. This is what Paul means by its being broken This, however, is the second clause of the promise, which ought not to be passed over slightly. For the Lord does not present his body to us simply, and without any additional consideration, but as having been sacrificed for us. The first clause, then, intimates, that the body is presented to us: this second clause teaches us, what advantage we derive from it — that we are partakers of redemption, and the benefit of his sacrifice is applied to us. Hence the Supper is a mirror which represents to us Christ crucified, so that no one can profitably and advantageously receive the supper, but the man who embraces Christ crucified.

Do this in remembrance of me Hence the Supper is a memorial, (μνημόσυνον 692) appointed as a help to our weakness; for if we were sufficiently mindful of the death of Christ, this help would be unnecessary. This is common to all sacraments, for they are helps to our weakness. What is the nature of that remembrance which Christ would have us cherish with regard to him, we shall hear presently. As to the inference, however, which some draw from this — that Christ is not present in the Supper, because a remembrance applies to something that is absent; the answer is easy — that Christ is absent from it in the sense in which the Supper is a commemoration. For Christ is not visibly present, and is not beheld with our eyes, as the symbols are which excite our remembrance by representing him. In short, in order that he may be present with us, he does not change his place, but communicates to us from heaven the virtue of his flesh, as though it were present. 693

Calvin: 1Co 11:25 - The cup, when he had supped // This cup is the New Testament // This do, as often as ye drink 25.The cup, when he had supped The Apostle seems to intimate, that there was some interval of time between the distribution of the bread and that o...

25.The cup, when he had supped The Apostle seems to intimate, that there was some interval of time between the distribution of the bread and that of the cup, and it does not quite appear from the Evangelists whether the whole of the transaction was continuous. 694 This, however, is of no great moment, for it may be that the Lord delivered in the meantime some address, after distributing the bread, and before giving the cup. As, however, he did or said nothing that was not in harmony with the sacrament, we need not say that the administration of it was disturbed or interrupted. I would not, however, render it as Erasmus does — supper, being ended, for, in a matter of so great importance, ambiguity ought to be avoided.

This cup is the New Testament What is affirmed as to the cup, is applicable also to the bread; and thus, by this form of expression, he intimates what he had before stated more briefly — that the bread is the body. For it is so to us, that it may be a testament in his body, that is, a covenant, which has been once confirmed by the offering up of his body, and is now confirmed by eating, when believers feast upon that sacrifice. Accordingly, while Paul and Luke use the words testament in the blood, Matthew and Mark employ the expression blood of the testament, which amounts to the same thing. For the blood was poured out to reconcile us to God, and now we drink of it in a spiritual sense, that we may be partakers of reconciliation. Hence, in the Supper, we have both a covenant, and a confirmatory pledge of the covenant.

I shall speak in the Epistle to the Hebrews, if the Lord shall allow me opportunity, as to the word testament It is well known, however, that sacraments receive that name, from being testimonies to us of the divine will, to confirm 695 it in our minds. For as a covenant is entered into among men with solemn rites, so it is in the same manner that the Lord deals with us. Nor is it without strict propriety that this term is employed; for in consequence of the connection between the word and the sign, the covenant of the Lord is really included in the sacraments, and the term covenant has a reference or relation to us. This will be of no small importance for understanding the nature of the sacraments; for if they are covenants, then they contain promises, by which consciences may be roused up to an assurance of salvation. Hence it follows, that they are not merely outward signs of profession before men, but are inwardly, too, helps to faith.

This do, as often as ye drink Christ, then, has appointed a two-fold sign in the Supper.

What God hath joined together let not man put asunder.
(Mat 19:6.)

To distribute, therefore, the bread without the cup, is to man Christ’s institution. 696 For we hear Christ’s words. As he commands us to eat of the bread, so he commands us to drink of the cup To obey the one half of the command and neglect the other half — what is this but to make sport of his commandment? And to keep back the people from that cup, which Christ sets before all, after first drinking of it, as is done under the tyranny of the Pope — who can deny that this is diabolical presumption? As to the cavil that they bring forward — that Christ spoke merely to the Apostles, and not to the common people — it is exceedingly childish, and is easily refuted from this passage — for Paul here addresses himself to men and women indiscriminately, and to the whole body of the Church. He declares that he

had delivered this to them agreeably to the commandment
of the Lord. (1Co 11:23.)

By what spirit will those pretend to be actuated, who have dared to set aside this ordinance? Yet even at this day this gross abuse is obstinately defended; and what occasion is there for wonder, if they endeavor impudently to excuse, by words and writings, what they so cruelly maintain by fire and sword?

Calvin: 1Co 11:26 - For as often as ye shall eat // Until he come 26.For as often as ye shall eat Paul now adds what kind of remembrance ought to be cherished — that is, with thanksgiving; not that the remembrance...

26.For as often as ye shall eat Paul now adds what kind of remembrance ought to be cherished — that is, with thanksgiving; not that the remembrance consists wholly in confession with the mouth; for the chief thing is, that the efficacy of Christ’s death be sealed in our consciences; but this knowledge should stir us up to a confession in respect of praise, so as to declare before men what we feel inwardly before God. The Supper then is (so to speak) a kind of memorial, which must always remain in the Church, until the last coming of Christ; and it has been appointed for this purpose, that Christ may put us in mind of the benefit of his death, and that we may recognize it 697 before men. Hence it has the name of the Eucharist. 698 If, therefore, you would celebrate the Supper aright, you must bear in mind, that a profession of your faith is required from you. Hence we see how shamelessly those mock God, who boast that they have in the mass something of the nature of the Supper. For what is the mass? They confess (for I am not speaking of Papists, but of the pretended followers of Nicodemus) that it is full of abominable superstitions. By outward gesture they give a pretended approval of them. What kind of showing forth of the death of Christ is this? Do they not rather renounce it?

Until he come As we always need a help of this kind, so long as we are in this world, Paul intimates that this commemoration has been given us in charge, until Christ come to judgment. For as he is not present with us in a visible form, it is necessary for us to have some symbol of his presence, by which our minds may exercise themselves.

Calvin: 1Co 11:27 - Therefore he who shall eat this bread unworthily 27.Therefore he who shall eat this bread unworthily If the Lord requires gratitude from us in the receiving of this sacrament — if he would have us...

27.Therefore he who shall eat this bread unworthily If the Lord requires gratitude from us in the receiving of this sacrament — if he would have us acknowledge his grace with the heart, and publish it with the mouth — that man will not go unpunished, who has put insult upon him rather than honor; for the Lord will not allow his commandment to be despised. Now, if we would catch the meaning of this declaration, we must know what it is to eat unworthily Some restrict it to the Corinthians, and the abuse that had crept in among them, but I am of opinion that Paul here, according to his usual manner, passed on from the particular case to a general statement, or from one instance to an entire class. There was one fault that prevailed among the Corinthians. He takes occasion from this to speak of every kind of faulty administration or reception of the Supper. “ God, ” says he, “ will not allow this sacrament to be profaned without punishing it severely.”

To eat unworthily, then, is to pervert the pure and right use of it by our abuse of it. Hence there are various degrees of this unworthiness, so to speak; and some offend more grievously, others less so. Some fornicator, perhaps, or perjurer, or drunkard, or cheat, (1Co 5:11,) intrudes himself without repentance. As such downright contempt is a token of wanton insult against Christ, there can be no doubt that such a person, whoever he is, receives the Supper to his own destruction. Another, perhaps, will come forward, who is not addicted to any open or flagrant vice, but at the same time not so prepared in heart as became him. As this carelessness or negligence is a sign of irreverence, it is also deserving of punishment from God. As, then, there are various degrees of unworthy participation, so the Lord punishes some more slightly; on others he inflicts severer punishment.

Now this passage gave rise to a question, which some afterwards agitated with too much keenness — whether the unworthy really partake of the Lord’s body? For some were led, by the heat of controversy, so far as to say, that it was received indiscriminately by the good and the bad; and many at this day maintain pertinaciously, and most clamorously, that in the first Supper Peter received no more than Judas. It is, indeed, with reluctance, that I dispute keenly with any one on this point, which is (in my opinion) not an essential one; but as others allow themselves, without reason, to pronounce, with a magisterial air, whatever may seem good to them, and to launch out thunderbolts upon every one that mutters anything to the contrary, we will be excused, if we calmly adduce reasons in support of what we reckon to be true.

I hold it, then, as a settled point, and will not allow myself to be driven from it, that Christ cannot be disjoined from his Spirit. Hence I maintain, that his body is not received as dead, or even inactive, disjoined from the grace and power of his Spirit. I shall not occupy much time in proving this statement. Now in what way could the man who is altogether destitute of a living faith and repentance, having nothing of the Spirit of Christ, 699 receive Christ himself? Nay more, as he is entirely under the influence of Satan and sin, how will he be capable of receiving Christ? While, therefore, I acknowledge that there are some who receive Christ truly in the Supper, and yet at the same time unworthily, as is the case with many weak persons, yet I do not admit, that those who bring with them a mere historical faith, 700 without a lively feeling of repentance and faith, receive anything but the sign. For I cannot endure to maim Christ, 701 and I shudder at the absurdity of affirming that he gives himself to be eaten by the wicked in a lifeless state, as it were. Nor does Augustine mean anything else when he says, that the wicked receive Christ merely in the sacrament, which he expresses more clearly elsewhere, when he says that the other Apostles ate the bread the Lord; but Judas only the bread of the Lord 702

But here it is objected, that the efficacy of the sacraments does not depend upon the worthiness of men, and that nothing is taken away from the promises of God, or falls to the ground, through the wickedness of men. This I acknowledge, and accordingly I add in express terms, that Christ’s body is presented to the wicked no less than to the good, and this is enough so far as concerns the efficacy of the sacrament and the faithfulness of God. For God does not there represent in a delusive manner, to the wicked, the body of his Son, but presents it in reality; nor is the bread a bare sign to them, but a faithful pledge. As to their rejection of it, that does not impair or alter anything as to the nature of the sacrament.

It remains, that we give a reply to the statement of Paul in this passage. “Paul represents the unworthy as guilty, inasmuch as they do not discern the Lord’s body: it follows, that they receive his body.” I deny the inference; for though they reject it, yet as they profane it and treat it with dishonor when it is presented to them, they are deservedly held guilty; for they do, as it were, cast it upon the ground, and trample it under their feet. Is such sacrilege trivial? Thus I see no difficulty in Paul’s words, provided you keep in view what God presents and holds out to the wicked — not what they receive.

Calvin: 1Co 11:28 - But let a man examine himself 28.But let a man examine himself An exhortation drawn from the foregoing threatening. “ If those that eat unworthily are guilty of the body and...

28.But let a man examine himself An exhortation drawn from the foregoing threatening. “ If those that eat unworthily are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, then let no man approach who is not properly and duly prepared. Let every one, therefore, take heed to himself, that he may not fall into this sacrilege through idleness or carelessness.” But now it is asked, what sort of examination, that ought to be to which Paul exhorts us. Papists make it consist in auricular confession. They order all that are to receive the Supper, to examine their life carefully and anxiously, that they may unburden all their sins in the ear of the priest. Such is their preparation! 703 I maintain, however, that this holy examination of which Paul speaks, is widely different from torture. Those persons, 704 after having tortured themselves with reflection for a few hours, and making the priest — such as he is — privy to their vileness, 705 imagine that they have done their duty. It is an examination of another sort that Paul here requires — one of such a kind as may accord with the legitimate use of the sacred Supper.

You see here a method that is most easily apprehended. If you would wish to use aright the benefit afforded by Christ, bring faith and repentance. As to these two things, therefore, the trial must be made, if you would come duly prepared. Under repentance I include love; for the man who has learned to renounce himself, that he may give himself up wholly to Christ and his service, will also, without doubt, carefully maintain that unity which Christ has enjoined. At the same time, it is not a perfect faith or repentance that is required, as some, by urging beyond due bounds, a perfection that can nowhere be found, would shut out for ever from the Supper every individual of mankind. If, however, thou aspirest after the righteousness of God with the earnest desire of thy mind, and, trembled under a view of thy misery, dost wholly lean upon Christ’s grace, and rest upon it, know that thou art a worthy guest to approach the table — worthy I mean in this respect, that the Lord does not exclude thee, though in another point of view there is something in thee that is not as it ought to be. For faith, when it is but begun, makes those worthy who were unworthy.

Calvin: 1Co 11:29 - He who shall eat unworthily, eateth judgment to himself 29.He who shall eat unworthily, eateth judgment to himself He had previously pointed out in express terms the heinousness of the crime, when he said ...

29.He who shall eat unworthily, eateth judgment to himself He had previously pointed out in express terms the heinousness of the crime, when he said that those who should eat unworthily would be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord Now he alarms them, by denouncing punishment; 706 for there are many that are not affected with the sin itself; unless they are struck down by the judgment of God. This, then, he does, when he declares that this food, otherwise health-giving, will turn out to their destruction, and will be converted into poison to those that eat unworthily

He adds the reasons because they distinguish not the Lord’s body, that is, as a sacred thing from a profane. “They handle the sacred body of Christ with unwashed hands, (Mar 7:2,) 707 nay more, as if it were a thing of nought, they consider not how great is the value of it. 708 They will therefore pay the penalty of so dreadful a profanation.” Let my readers keep in mind what I stated a little ago, that the body 709 is presented to them, though their unworthiness deprives them of a participation in it.

Calvin: 1Co 11:30 - For this cause 30.For this cause, etc. After having treated in a general way of unworthy eating, and of the kind of punishment that awaits those who pollute this s...

30.For this cause, etc. After having treated in a general way of unworthy eating, and of the kind of punishment that awaits those who pollute this sacrament, he now instructs the Corinthians as to the chastisement which they were at that time enduring. It is not known whether a pestilence was raging there at that time, or whether they were laboring under other kinds of disease. However it may have been as to this, we infer from Paul’s words, that the Lord had sent some scourge upon them for their correction. Nor does Paul merely conjecture, that it is on that account that they are punished, but he affirms it as a thing that was perfectly well known by him. He says, then, that many lay sick — that many were kept long in a languishing condition, and that many had died, in consequence of that abuse of the Supper, because they had offended God. By this he intimates, that by diseases and other chastisements from God, we are admonished to think of our sins; for God does not afflict us without good reason, for he takes no pleasure in our afflictions.

The subject is a copious and ample one; but let it suffice to advert to it here in a single word. If in Paul’s times an ordinary abuse of the Supper 710 could kindle the wrath of God against the Corinthians, so that he punished them thus severely, what ought we to think as to the state of matters at the present day? We see, throughout the whole extent of Popery, not merely horrid profanations of the Supper, but even a sacrilegious abomination set up in its room. In the first place, it is prostituted to filthy lucre (1Ti 3:8) and merchandise. Secondly, it is maimed, by taking away the use of the cup. Thirdly, it is changed into another aspect, 711 by its having become customary for one to partake of his own feast separately, participation being done away. 712 Fourthly, there is there no explanation of the meaning of the sacrament, but a mumbling that would accord better with a magical incantation, or the detestable sacrifices of the Gentiles, than with our Lord’s institution. Fifthly, there is an endless number of ceremonies, abounding partly with trifles, partly with superstition, and consequently manifest pollutions. Sixthly, there is the diabolical invention of sacrifice, which contains an impious blasphemy against the death of Christ. Seventhly, it is fitted to intoxicate miserable men with carnal confidence, while they present it to God as if it were an expiation, and think that by this charm they drive off everything hurtful, and that without faith and repentance. Nay more, while they trust that they are armed against the devil and death, and are fortified against God by a sure defense, they venture to sin with much more freedom, 713 and become more obstinate. Eighthly, an idol is there adored in the room of Christ. In short, it is filled with all kinds of abomination. 714

Nay even among ourselves, who have the pure administration of the Supper restored to us, 715 in virtue of a return, as it were, from captivity, 716 how much irreverence! How much hypocrisy on the part of many! What a disgraceful mixture, while, without any discrimination, wicked and openly abandoned persons intrude themselves, such as no man of character and decency would admit to common intercourse! 717 And yet after all, we wonder how it comes that there are so many wars, so many pestilences, so many failures of the crop, so many disasters and calamities — as if the cause were not manifest! And assuredly, we must not expect a termination to our calamities, until we have removed the occasion of them, by correcting our faults.

Calvin: 1Co 11:31 - For if we would judge ourselves 31.For if we would judge ourselves Here we have another remarkable statement — that God does not all of a sudden become enraged against us, so as t...

31.For if we would judge ourselves Here we have another remarkable statement — that God does not all of a sudden become enraged against us, so as to inflict punishment immediately upon our sinning, but that, for the most part, it is owing to our carelessness, that he is in a manner constrained to punish us, when he sees that we are in a careless and drowsy state, and are flattering ourselves in our sins. 718 Hence we either avert, or mitigate impending punishment, if we first call ourselves to account, and, actuated by a spirit of repentance, deprecate the anger of God by inflicting punishment voluntarily upon ourselves. 719 In short, believers anticipate, by repentance, the judgment of God, and there is no other remedy, by which they may obtain absolution in the sight of God, but by voluntarily condemning themselves

You must not, however, apprehend, as Papists are accustomed to do, that there is here a kind of transaction between us and God, as if, by inflicting punishment upon ourselves of our own accord, we rendered satisfaction to him, and did, in a manner, redeem ourselves from his hand. We do not, therefore, anticipate the judgment of God, on the ground of our bringing any compensation to appease him. The reason is this — because God, when he chastises us, has it in view to shake us out of our drowsiness, and arouse us to repentance. If we do this of our own accord, there is no longer any reason, why he should proceed to inflict his judgment upon us. If, however, any one, after having begun to feel displeased with himself, and meditate repentance, is, nevertheless, still visited with God’s chastisements, let us know that his repentance is not so valid or sure, as not to require some chastisement to be sent upon him, by which it may be helped forward to a fuller development. Mark how repentance wards off the judgment of God by a suitable remedy — not, however, by way of compensation.

Calvin: 1Co 11:32 - But when we are judged 32.But when we are judged Here we have a consolation that is exceedingly necessary; for if any one in affliction thinks that God is angry with him, h...

32.But when we are judged Here we have a consolation that is exceedingly necessary; for if any one in affliction thinks that God is angry with him, he will rather be discouraged than excited to repentance. Paul, accordingly, says, that God is angry with believers in such a way as not in the meantime to be forgetful of his mercy: nay more, that it is on this account particularly that he punishes them — that he may consult their welfare. It is an inestimable consolation 720 — that the punishments by which our sins are chastened are evidences, not of God’s anger for our destruction, but rather of his paternal love, and are at the same time of assistance towards our salvation, for God is angry with us as his sons, whom he will not leave to perish.

When he says that we may not be condemned with the world, he intimates two things. The first is, that the children of this world, while they sleep on quietly and securely in their delights, 721 are fattened up, like hogs, for the day of slaughter (Jer 12:3.) For though the Lord sometimes invites the wicked, also, to repentance by his chastisements, yet he often passes them over as strangers, 722 and allows them to rush on with impunity, until they have filled up the measure of their final condemnation. (Gen 15:16.) This privilege, therefore, belongs to believers exclusively — that by punishments they are called back from destruction. The second thing is this — that chastisements are necessary remedies for believers, for otherwise they, too, would rush on to everlasting destruction, 723 were they not restrained by temporal punishment.

These considerations should lead us not merely to patience, so as to endure with equanimity the troubles that are assigned to us by God, but also to gratitude, that, giving thanks to God our Father, we may resign ourselves 724 to his discipline by a willing subjection. They are also useful to us in various ways; for they cause our afflictions to be salutary to us, while they train us up for mortification of the flesh, and a pious abasement — they accustom us to obedience to God — they convince us of our own weakness, they kindle up in our minds fervency in prayer — they exercise hope, so that at length whatever there is of bitterness in them is all swallowed up in spiritual joy.

Calvin: 1Co 11:33 - Wherefore, my brethren 33.Wherefore, my brethren From the discussion of a general doctrine, he returns to the particular subject with which he had set out, and comes to thi...

33.Wherefore, my brethren From the discussion of a general doctrine, he returns to the particular subject with which he had set out, and comes to this conclusion, that equality must be observed in the Lord’s Supper, that there may be a real participation, as there ought to be, and that they may not celebrate every one his own supper; and farther, that this sacrament ought not to be mixed up with common feasts.

Calvin: 1Co 11:34 - The rest I will set in order when I come 34.The rest I will set in order when I come It is probable, that there were some things in addition, which it would be of advantage to put into bette...

34.The rest I will set in order when I come It is probable, that there were some things in addition, which it would be of advantage to put into better order, but as they were of less importance, the Apostle delays the correction of them until his coming among them. It may be, at the same time, that there was nothing of this nature; but as one knows better what is necessary when he is present to see, Paul reserves to himself the liberty of arranging matters when present, according as occasion may require. Papists arm themselves against us with this buckler, too, for defending their mass For they interpret this to be the setting in order which Paul here promises — as if he would have taken the liberty 725 of overturning that eternal appointment of Christ, which he here so distinctly approves of! For what resemblance does the mass bear to Christ’s institution? But away with such trifles, as it is certain that Paul speaks only of outward decorum. As this is put in the power of the Church, so it ought to be arranged according to the condition of times, places, and persons.

Defender: 1Co 11:2 - ordinances This word can also be translated "traditions." Before the New Testament Scriptures were written down, the apostles had to provide instructions for gui...

This word can also be translated "traditions." Before the New Testament Scriptures were written down, the apostles had to provide instructions for guidance of the churches and church order."

Defender: 1Co 11:3 - the man The man is not superior to the woman, as God is not superior to Christ, being of the same essence. However, as there is divine order in the relative f...

The man is not superior to the woman, as God is not superior to Christ, being of the same essence. However, as there is divine order in the relative functions of the three persons of the Trinity, so it was appropriate for God to ordain a divine order in the functions of the family (husband, wife, children). God established this pattern in the very beginning when Adam was first formed, then Eve (1Ti 2:13), and then the children (Gen 1:28)."

Defender: 1Co 11:7 - glory of the man This section (1Co 11:2-16) has to do with church order as an extension of the divine order in the basic institution of the family. Women, in keeping w...

This section (1Co 11:2-16) has to do with church order as an extension of the divine order in the basic institution of the family. Women, in keeping with their divinely established subordinate role (subordinate in role, not in importance or essence), appropriately should indicate this by a covering on their heads - the most suitable covering being long hair (1Co 11:15). An additional shawl, hat or other covering, while appropriate, is not necessary. Men, however, in their leadership role, are to leave their heads uncovered in the church (short hair, no hat), as symbolic of their direct openness to their own head, which is Christ. Both men and women are created in God's image (Gen 1:27), but that image is especially transmitted, as it were, from father to son (Gen 5:3). The woman shares the divine image in her father and in her husband, as reflected from the formation of the body of the first woman from that of the first man."

Defender: 1Co 11:8 - not of the woman Ever since Adam, men (and women) have been born of women. But the first woman was made from man (Gen 2:21-24). Here (as in Rom 5:12-19 and other passa...

Ever since Adam, men (and women) have been born of women. But the first woman was made from man (Gen 2:21-24). Here (as in Rom 5:12-19 and other passages) the New Testament draws important doctrinal inferences from a literal acceptance of the creation record in Genesis. The standard evolutionary scenario for the origin of men and women makes no sense in this context. The man and the woman were uniquely created by God, not evolved by chance from ape-like progenitors (1Co 11:9)."

Defender: 1Co 11:10 - the angels Angels are "sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation" (Heb 1:14) and are intensely interested in the progress of the gospel and...

Angels are "sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation" (Heb 1:14) and are intensely interested in the progress of the gospel and the people in the churches (1Pe 1:12; Eph 3:10). Evidently every true church has been assigned one or more angels to try to guard and guide it (note the seven letters from Christ to the churches, recorded in Revelation 2 and 3, each addressed to "the angel of the church" - Rev 2:1). Paul was reminding the women in the Corinthian church to keep the sign of "power" (or "authority") on their heads, in view of the invisible presence of angels observing the church and its congregation."

Defender: 1Co 11:14 - long hair Although there is no specific definition here of how long is "long," the context indicates that there should be a clear distinction between the long, ...

Although there is no specific definition here of how long is "long," the context indicates that there should be a clear distinction between the long, beautiful hair of women and the short hair of men. The modern unisex fad, with men wearing long hair, earrings and other traditionally feminine accoutrements - especially when taken up by professedly Christian men - seems to be one more sign of rebellion against our Creator."

Defender: 1Co 11:30 - many sleep "Sleep" is used as a euphemism for death only in the case of Christians (1Th 4:13; 1Co 15:51). Persistent or unconfessed sin by a Christian, especiall...

"Sleep" is used as a euphemism for death only in the case of Christians (1Th 4:13; 1Co 15:51). Persistent or unconfessed sin by a Christian, especially when hypocritically partaking of the Lord's Supper, risks serious judgment by the Lord, even though not the loss of salvation."

Defender: 1Co 11:31 - judge ourselves Self-judgment is an action encouraged by the Lord's Supper and is far better than being chastened by the Lord. But even the latter is far better than ...

Self-judgment is an action encouraged by the Lord's Supper and is far better than being chastened by the Lord. But even the latter is far better than being judged with the ungodly world."

TSK: 1Co 11:1 - Be ye // even Be ye : 1Co 4:16, 1Co 10:33; Phi 3:17; 1Th 1:6; 2Th 3:9; Heb 6:12 even : Rom 15:2, Rom 15:3; Eph 5:1, Eph 5:2; Phi 2:4, Phi 2:5

TSK: 1Co 11:2 - I praise // that // keep // ordinances I praise : 1Co 11:17, 1Co 11:22; Pro 31:28-31 that : 1Co 4:17, 1Co 15:2 keep : 1Co 7:17; Luk 1:6; 1Th 4:1, 1Th 4:2; 2Th 2:15, 2Th 3:6 ordinances : or,...

I praise : 1Co 11:17, 1Co 11:22; Pro 31:28-31

that : 1Co 4:17, 1Co 15:2

keep : 1Co 7:17; Luk 1:6; 1Th 4:1, 1Th 4:2; 2Th 2:15, 2Th 3:6

ordinances : or, traditions

TSK: 1Co 11:3 - the head of every // and the head of the // and the head of Christ the head of every : Eph 1:22, Eph 1:23, Eph 4:15, Eph 5:23; Phi 2:10,Phi 2:11; Col 1:18, Col 2:10,Col 2:19 and the head of the : Gen 3:16; Eph 5:22, E...

TSK: 1Co 11:4 - or // having or : 1Co 12:10,1Co 12:28, 14:1-25 having : 1Co 11:14; 2Sa 15:30, 2Sa 19:4

or : 1Co 12:10,1Co 12:28, 14:1-25

having : 1Co 11:14; 2Sa 15:30, 2Sa 19:4

TSK: 1Co 11:5 - or // shaven or : Luk 2:36; Act 2:17, Act 21:9 shaven : Deu 21:12

TSK: 1Co 11:6 - but but : Num 5:18; Deu 22:5

TSK: 1Co 11:7 - he is // but he is : Gen 1:26, Gen 1:27, Gen 5:1, Gen 9:6; Psa 8:6; Jam 3:9 but : 1Co 11:3; Gen 3:16

TSK: 1Co 11:8 - -- Gen 2:21, Gen 2:22; 1Ti 2:13

TSK: 1Co 11:9 - the man the man : Gen 2:18, Gen 2:20,Gen 2:23, Gen 2:24

TSK: 1Co 11:10 - power // because power : That is, a covering in sign that she is under the power of her husband. Εξουσια [Strong’ s G1849], appears here to be used for...

power : That is, a covering in sign that she is under the power of her husband. Εξουσια [Strong’ s G1849], appears here to be used for the sign or token of being under power or authority, that is, a veil, as Theophylact (Ecumenius, and Photius) explain; and so one manuscript of the Vulgate, the Sixtine edition, and some copies of the Itala, have velamen . Gen 20:16, Gen 24:64, Gen 24:65

because : Ecc 5:6; Mat 18:10; Heb 1:14

TSK: 1Co 11:11 - -- 1Co 7:10-14, 1Co 12:12-22; Gal 3:28

TSK: 1Co 11:12 - but but : 1Co 8:6; Pro 16:4; Rom 11:36; Heb 1:2, Heb 1:3

TSK: 1Co 11:13 - -- 1Co 10:15; Luk 12:57; Joh 7:24

TSK: 1Co 11:14 - if // it is if : 2Sa 14:26 it is : 1Co 14:35

if : 2Sa 14:26

it is : 1Co 14:35

TSK: 1Co 11:15 - covering covering : or, veil, 1Co 11:15

covering : or, veil, 1Co 11:15

TSK: 1Co 11:16 - seem // such // the churches seem : 1Ti 6:3, 1Ti 6:4 such : Act 21:21, Act 21:24 the churches : 1Co 7:17, 1Co 14:33, 1Co 14:34, 1Co 16:1; 1Th 2:14

TSK: 1Co 11:17 - I praise // that ye I praise : 1Co 11:2, 1Co 11:22; Lev 19:17; Pro 27:5; Rom 13:3; 1Pe 2:14 that ye : 1Co 11:20,1Co 11:34, 1Co 14:23, 1Co 14:26; Isa 1:13, Isa 1:14, Isa 5...

TSK: 1Co 11:18 - I hear // divisions I hear : 1Co 1:10-12, 1Co 3:3, 1Co 5:1, 1Co 6:1 divisions : or, schisms, 1Co 1:10, 1Co 3:3

I hear : 1Co 1:10-12, 1Co 3:3, 1Co 5:1, 1Co 6:1

divisions : or, schisms, 1Co 1:10, 1Co 3:3

TSK: 1Co 11:19 - there // heresies // which there : Mat 18:7; Luk 17:1; Act 20:30; 1Ti 4:1, 1Ti 4:2; 2Pe 2:1, 2Pe 2:2 heresies : or, sects, Act 5:17, Act 15:5, Act 24:5, Act 24:14, Act 26:5, Act...

TSK: 1Co 11:20 - this is not to eat this is not to eat : or, ye cannot eat, 1Co 11:20

this is not to eat : or, ye cannot eat, 1Co 11:20

TSK: 1Co 11:21 - in // and one in : 1Co 11:23-25, 1Co 10:16-18 and one : 2Pe 2:13; Jud 1:12

TSK: 1Co 11:22 - have // or // that have not have : 1Co 11:34 or : 1Co 10:32, 1Co 15:9; Act 20:28; 1Ti 3:5, 1Ti 3:15 that have not : or, that are poor, Pro 17:5; Jam 2:5, Jam 2:6

have : 1Co 11:34

or : 1Co 10:32, 1Co 15:9; Act 20:28; 1Ti 3:5, 1Ti 3:15

that have not : or, that are poor, Pro 17:5; Jam 2:5, Jam 2:6

TSK: 1Co 11:23 - I have // the same // took I have : 1Co 15:3; Deu 4:5; Mat 28:20; Gal 1:1, Gal 1:11, Gal 1:12; 1Th 4:2 the same : Mat 26:2, Mat 26:17, Mat 26:34 took : Mat 26:26-28; Mar 14:22-2...

TSK: 1Co 11:24 - eat // this // in remembrance eat : 1Co 5:7, 1Co 5:8; Psa 22:26, Psa 22:29; Pro 9:5; Son 5:1; Isa 25:6, Isa 55:1-3; Joh 6:53-58 this : 1Co 11:27, 1Co 11:28, 1Co 10:3, 1Co 10:4, 1Co...

TSK: 1Co 11:25 - This // the new This : 1Co 11:27, 1Co 11:28 the new : Luk 22:20; 2Co 3:6, 2Co 3:14; Heb 9:15-20, Heb 13:20

TSK: 1Co 11:26 - ye do show // till ye do show : or, shew ye till : 1Co 4:5, 1Co 15:23; Joh 14:3, Joh 21:22; Act 1:11; 1Th 4:16; 2Th 1:10, 2Th 2:2, 2Th 2:3; Heb 9:28; 2Pe 3:10; 1Jo 2:28;...

TSK: 1Co 11:27 - whosoever // shall be whosoever : 1Co 10:21; Lev 10:1-3; Num 9:10,Num 9:13; 2Ch 30:18-20; Mat 22:11; Joh 6:51, Joh 6:63, Joh 6:64, Joh 13:18-27 shall be : 1Co 11:29

TSK: 1Co 11:28 - let a // and so let a : 1Co 11:31; Psa 26:2-7; Lam 3:40; Hag 1:5, Hag 1:7; Zec 7:5-7; 2Co 13:5; Gal 6:4; 1Jo 3:20,1Jo 3:21 and so : Num 9:10-13; Mat 5:23, Mat 5:24

TSK: 1Co 11:29 - damnation // not damnation : or, judgment, Κριμα [Strong’ s G2917], judgment, or punishment, not damnation, for it was inflicted upon the disorderly and p...

damnation : or, judgment, Κριμα [Strong’ s G2917], judgment, or punishment, not damnation, for it was inflicted upon the disorderly and profane for their amendment. 1Co 11:30,1Co 11:32-34; Rom 13:2 *Gr: Jam 3:1, Jam 5:12 *marg.

not : 1Co 11:24, 1Co 11:27; Ecc 8:5; Heb 5:14

TSK: 1Co 11:30 - many // sleep many : 1Co 11:32; Exo 15:26; Num 20:12, Num 20:24, Num 21:6-9; 2Sa 12:14-18; 1Ki 13:21-24; Psa 38:1-8, Psa 78:30,Psa 78:31, Psa 89:31-34; Amo 3:2; Heb...

TSK: 1Co 11:31 - -- 1Co 11:28; Psa 32:3-5; Jer 31:18-20; Luk 15:18-20; 1Jo 1:9; Rev 2:5, Rev 3:2, Rev 3:3

TSK: 1Co 11:32 - we are // condemned we are : 1Co 11:30; Deu 8:5; Job 5:17, Job 5:18, Job 33:18-30, Job 34:31, Job 34:32; Psa 94:12, Psa 94:13, Psa 118:18; Pro 3:11, Pro 3:12; Isa 1:5; Je...

TSK: 1Co 11:34 - if any // condemnation // will I // when if any : 1Co 11:21, 1Co 11:22 condemnation : or, judgment will I : 1Co 7:17; Tit 1:5 when : 1Co 4:19, 1Co 16:2, 1Co 16:5

if any : 1Co 11:21, 1Co 11:22

condemnation : or, judgment

will I : 1Co 7:17; Tit 1:5

when : 1Co 4:19, 1Co 16:2, 1Co 16:5

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Poole: 1Co 11:1 - -- 1Co 11:3-16 Paul exhorteth the Corinthians to follow him, as he did Christ: 1. He praiseth them for observing the rules he had given them. 2. And fo...

1Co 11:3-16 Paul exhorteth the Corinthians to follow him, as he

did Christ:

1. He praiseth them for observing the rules he had

given them.

2. And forbiddeth men to pray or prophesy with heads

covered, and women with heads uncovered; the

covering of the head being a token of subjection.

1Co 11:17-19 He blameth them for abuses in their religious

assemblies, particularly for their divisions,

1Co 11:20-22 and profanation of the Lord’ s supper.

1Co 11:23-34 He remindeth them of the first institution thereof,

and showeth the danger of partaking of it unworthily.

Interpreters judge, that these words do properly belong to the foregoing chapter, in the last verse of which he had propounded his own example to them; but whether they be applied to that chapter or this, is not much material. They teach us, that the examples of the apostles are part of our rule; yet the modesty of the apostle is remarkable, who requires of his people no further to follow him than as he followed Christ: nor indeed ought any man to require more of those that are under his charge, than to follow him so far forth as he imitates the Lord Jesus Christ.

Poole: 1Co 11:2 - That ye remember me in all things // and keep the ordinances That ye remember me in all things that you remember my doctrine, the precepts and instructions that I gave you; and keep the ordinances: so we tran...

That ye remember me in all things that you remember my doctrine, the precepts and instructions that I gave you;

and keep the ordinances: so we translate it; the Greek word is paradoseiv . The word signifieth any thing that is doctrinally delivered, or taught men, whether it concerns faith or manners. It is thought, that in this text it doth not signify what the apostle had delivered to them with respect to faith, or their moral conversation, but with respect to matters of order, because such is the next instance which the apostle mentioneth, about praying or prophesying with the head covered, or uncovered; and undoubtedly any precepts of that nature from one guided by an infallible Spirit ought to be observed. The apostle doth not command them to keep any traditions, which others should to the end of the world deliver to them, he only praiseth them for keeping those which he had delivered. There is a great question between us and the papists, about the obligation that lieth upon Christians to observe unwritten traditions; that is, such rites and observances as they tell us were apostolical, and the traditions of the primitive church, though they can show us no Scripture for them; but no Christian disputes his obligation to keep apostolical traditions; only we are at a loss to know how to prove those traditions apostolical, of which we find nothing in the writings of the apostles: it is praiseworthy to keep apostolical traditions; but for others, or such as do not appear to us to be so, it is but a work of supererogation: where hath God required any such thing at people’ s hands?

Poole: 1Co 11:3 - that the head of every man is Christ // the Head of the church // The head of the woman is the man // The head of Christ is God The abuse which the apostle is reflecting upon in this and the following verses, is women’ s praying or prophesying with their heads uncovered,...

The abuse which the apostle is reflecting upon in this and the following verses, is women’ s praying or prophesying with their heads uncovered, against which the apostle strongly argues. His argument seems to be this: That the woman in religious services ought to behave herself as a person in subjection to her husband, and accordingly to use such a gesture, as, according to the guise and custom of that country, testified such a subjection; to this purpose he tells us in this verse,

that the head of every man is Christ Christ, considered as God according to his Divine nature, is the Head of all men and women too in the world; but the text seemeth rather to speak of Christ as Mediator: so the apostle tells us, Eph 5:23 , he is

the Head of the church and the New Testament often speaks of Christ in that notion, and of believers as his members: in this sense, by every man, we must understand no more than every Christian, every member of the church.

The head of the woman is the man the man is called the head of the woman, because by God’ s ordinance he is to rule over her, Gen 3:16 ; he hath an excellency above the woman, and a power over her.

The head of Christ is God and God is the Head of Christ, not in respect of his essence and Divine nature, but in respect of his office as Mediator; as the man is the head of the woman, not in respect of a different and more excellent essence and nature, (for they are both of the same nature), but in respect of office and place, as God hath set him over the woman. Nor indeed could those who deny the Divine nature of Christ, easily have brought a text more against their own assertion, than this, which rather proveth, that God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ are equal in nature and essence, than different; for surely the head is not of a different, but the same nature and essence with the members. Nor doth Christ’ s subjection to his Father at all argue an inequality, or difference from him in nature and essence, more than the subjection of subjects to a prince argue any such thing. The apostle then determines this to be the order which God hath set: God is the Head of Christ; Christ is the Head of his church, and every one that is a member of it; and man is the head of the woman, he to whom the woman ought to be subject. as the church is subject to Christ, and Christ is subject to his Father; and from hence he argues as follows.

Poole: 1Co 11:4 - Having his head covered // Dishonoureth his head By every man praying or prophesying some (amongst whom the learned Beza) understand not only he that ministereth in prayer, or in opening and apply...

By every man praying or prophesying some (amongst whom the learned Beza) understand not only he that ministereth in prayer, or in opening and applying the Scriptures, whether from a previous meditation and study of them, or from the extraordinary revelation of the Holy Spirit, which they had in those primitive times; but also all those that were present at those actions. The reason they give is: Because the reason given by the apostle for his assertion, is such as is common to the people, as well as to him that ministereth; and the woman was forbidden to speak in the church, 1Ti 2:12 . But our learned Bishop Hall assures us, he cannot agree with those of this mind. And indeed it is an unreasonable interpretation; for though those who join with others in prayer may be said to pray, yet those that hear one preaching or expounding Scripture, can in no propriety of speech be said to prophesy. Nor is any such usage of the term to be paralleled, neither are the reasons they bring cogent; for though the reason of the precept may concern the people as well as the minister, yet it doth not follow that the rule or precept must necessarily do so too. And although the woman be forbidden to teach in ordinary cases, yet it did not concern those who were immediately and extraordinarily inspired, according to the prophecy, Joe 2:28 , applied, Act 2:17 .

Having his head covered i.e. with a hat or cap, or such covering of the head as is in use in the country wherein he liveth. It is not to be understood of the natural covering of the head, which is our hair; nor yet of any other covering which is necessary for the preservation of life and health; but such a covering as he might spare, and is ornamental to him according to the fashion of the country.

Dishonoureth his head either dishonoureth Christ who is his Head, and whom he ought to represent, and doth as it were make the church the head to Christ, which is subject to him, while by covering his head he declares a subjection in his ministration. Or he dishonoureth his own head, (so many interpret it), to wit, he betrayeth his superiority, lesseneth himself as to that power and dignity which God hath clothed him with, by using a posture which is a token of inferiority and subjection. Interpreters rightly agree, that this and the following verses are to be interpreted from the customs of countries; and all that can be concluded from this verse is, that it is the duty of men employed in Divine ministrations, to look to behave themselves as those who are to represent the Lord Jesus Christ, behaving themselves with a just authority and gravity that becometh his ambassadors, which decent gravity is to be judged from the common opinion and account of the country wherein they live. So as all which this text requires of Christian ministers, is authority and gravity, and what are external ludications of it. Our learned Dr. Lightfoot observeth, that the Jewish priests were wont in the worship of God to veil their heads; so that Christian ministers praying or prophesying with their heads covered, Judaized, which he judgeth the reason of the apostle’ s assertion. The heathens also, both Romans and Grecians, were wont to minister in their sacred things with their heads covered. Some think this was the reason why the Christians used the contrary gesture; but the apostle’ s arguing from the man’ s headship, seemeth to import that the reason of this assertion of the apostle was, because in Corinth the uncovered head was a sign of authority. At this day the Mahometans (or Turks) speak to their superiors covered, and so are covered also in their religious performances. The custom with us in these western parts is quite otherwise; the uncovering of the head is a sign or token of subjection: hence ministers pray and preach with their heads uncovered, to denote their subjection to God and Christ: but yet this custom is not uniform, for in France the Reformed ministers preach with their heads covered; as they pray uncovered, to express their reverence and subjection to God, so they preach covered, as representing Christ, the great Teacher, from whom they derive, and whom they represent. Nothing in this is a further rule to Christians, than that it is the duty of ministers, in praying and preaching, to use postures and habits that are not naturally, nor according to the custom of the place where they live, uncomely and irreverent, and so looked upon. It is only the general observation of decency (which cannot by any be created, but ariseth either from nature, or custom, and prescription) which this text of the apostle maketh to be the duty of all Christians; though as to the Corinthians, he particularly required the man’ s ministering in sacred things with his head uncovered, either to avoid the habit or posture used by Jews and pagans; or for the showing of his dignity and superiority over the woman, (whom we shall by and by find commanded to pray or prophesy covered), or that he represented Christ who was the Head of the church. The uncovering of the head being with them as much a sign of subjection, as it is with us of superiority and pre-eminence.

Poole: 1Co 11:5 - But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth // had four daughters that did prophesy // With her head uncovered // Dishonoureth her head But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth: though the woman be forbidden to teach, and commanded to be in silence, 1Ti 2:12 ; yet that text m...

But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth: though the woman be forbidden to teach, and commanded to be in silence, 1Ti 2:12 ; yet that text must be understood of ordinary women, and in ordinary cases, not concerning such as prophesied from an extraordinary impulse or motion of the Spirit. We read of women prophetesses both in the Old and New Testament; such was Huldah in Josiah’ s time, and Anna, of whom we read Luk 2:36 ; and we read that Philip

had four daughters that did prophesy Act 21:9 .

With her head uncovered: the uncovered head here (as before) must signify not covered with some artificial covering, such as our quoifs, hats, hoods, or veils, &c., or with her own hair, not hanging loose, but artificially used so as to be a covering.

Dishonoureth her head dishonoureth either her husband, who is her political or economical head, for by that habit she behaveth herself as if she were not one in subjection, and seemeth to usurp an undue authority over the man; or her natural head, it being in those places accounted an immodest thing for a woman to appear in public uncovered. It is observed of Rebekah, when she met Isaac, Gen 24:65 : She took a veil, and covered herself. For that is even all one as if she were shaven; for, saith the apostle, yourselves would judge it an uncomely thing for a woman to be shaven; now to pray or to prophesy with the head uncovered, is all one. This last clause will incline us to think, that by the uncovered head in this verse, is not only to be understood uncovered with some other covering besides her hair, but with her hair dishevelled, hanging loose at its length, for else it is not all one to have the head uncovered with a hat, or hood, or quoif, and to be shaven; for the apostle afterward saith, 1Co 11:15 , her hair is given to her for a covering or a veil: so that possibly that which the apostle here reflecteth upon, is women’ s coming into the public assemblies with their hair hanging loosely down, and not decently wound up so as to make a covering for the head; which, we are told, was the practice of those beastly she-priests of Bacchus, who, like frantic persons, performed those pretendedly religious rites with their hair so hanging loose, and were called manades, because they behaved themselves more like mad persons than such as were in the actual use of their reason: something like which, it is most probable, some women in the Christian church at Corinth affected, against which the apostle here argueth.

Poole: 1Co 11:6 - For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn // But if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: nature itself teacheth, that it is a shameful sight to see a woman revealing the mind and wil...

For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: nature itself teacheth, that it is a shameful sight to see a woman revealing the mind and will of God, by an extraordinary pretended revelation, in so indecent a manner, as with her hair all hanging down; let her hair be either shaven off, or at least cut after the manner of men’ s hair, if she will neither tie it up artificially, so as to make it a covering for her head, nor put on a veil to cover her: for though a woman prophesying from an extraordinary impulse, be not under the common law of women not speaking in the public assembly, but keeping silence; yet she is under the law of nature to do no such grave and solemn actions in such a rude manner, that from the light of nature, or the common account of all that live in that place, she should be judged to be irreverent and brutish in her religious action. From this text a question hath been started: Whether Christian women may lawfully go without any other covering upon their heads than their hair? I must confess, I see not how such a question can have any bottom in this text, where the apostle is not speaking of women’ s ordinary habiting themselves, but only when they prayed and prophesied, and (if I mistake not) when they ministered in prayer and prophecy (as was said before). We now have no such prophetesses; so as I think that question about the lawfulness of women’ s going without any other covering upon their heads than their hair, must be determined from other texts, not this, and is best determined from circumstances; for God having given to the woman her hair for a covering and an ornament, I cannot see how it should be simply unlawful; accidentally it may, from the circumstances of pride in her heart that so dresseth herself, or lust and wantonness in others’ hearts; or other circumstances of ill designs and intentions in the woman so dressing herself.

But if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered if nature teacheth us that it is a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, it also teacheth us that it is a shame for her to be uncovered, either with her hair, or some artificial covering; which latter seemeth rather to be meant in this place, because divines think, that the face is that part of the head which the apostle here intendeth should be covered in their religious actions, which is not covered with the hair, but with a veil, &c.

Poole: 1Co 11:7 - For a man indeed ought not to cover his head // Forasmuch as he is the image and glory, of God // But the woman is the glory of the man // This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh For a man indeed ought not to cover his head covering the head being in those countries a token of subjection, a man ought to uphold the power, pre-e...

For a man indeed ought not to cover his head covering the head being in those countries a token of subjection, a man ought to uphold the power, pre-eminence, and authority with which God hath invested him, and not to cover his head, further than it is naturally covered with hair.

Forasmuch as he is the image and glory, of God because he hath a peculiar cause of glorying in God, as he to whom alone he is subject, and therefore ought by no habits or postures to show himself in subjection to others: or because God glorieth in him, as a most excellent piece of his workmanship: God is represented in man. Paul useth to call that one’ s glory wherein he glorieth, 2Co 1:12,14 1Th 2:20 . So David ealleth God his glory and Solomon tells us, Pro 17:6 , that the glory of children are their fathers. So as the apostle here useth a double argument for the man’ s not covering of his head:

1. Because the man is immediately subject to God, and therefore ought not by any habits, or civil rites, to show his natural subjection to men, that are not by nature his superiors (for we must not think, that the apostle by this argument forbiddeth subjection to natural, economical, or political superiors).

2. Because God glorieth in man.

But the woman is the glory of the man created for the honour of the man, and for his help and assistance, and originally made out of man, so as man may glory of her, as Adam did of Eve, Gen 2:23 ,

This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh The glory of God ought to be revealed and uncovered, manifested to all: the glory of the man ought to be hidden and concealed.

Poole: 1Co 11:8 - -- Here the apostle openeth or proveth what he had before said of the woman’ s being the glory of the man; the woman was made of the man; the m...

Here the apostle openeth or proveth what he had before said of the woman’ s being the glory of the man; the woman was made of the man; the man was not made of a rib taken out of the woman, but the woman was made of a rib taken out of the man; we have the history, Gen 2:21,22 ; and from hence the apostle argueth her subjection to the man.

Poole: 1Co 11:9 - For the man We have this expounded, Gen 2:18 , where God said: It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him God did not first ...

We have this expounded, Gen 2:18 , where God said: It is not good that man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him God did not first create the woman, and then make man a meet help for her; but he first made the man, and then the woman, that she might be a meet help for him. Now it is a rule in reason: That whosoever or whatsoever is made for another person or thing, is less excellent than that person or thing for which the other is made.

For the man signifies to serve and help the man.

Poole: 1Co 11:10 - because of the angels By power on her head is here to be understood (as some think) a covering on her head, in sign that she is under the power of her husband: the thing...

By power on her head is here to be understood (as some think) a covering on her head, in sign that she is under the power of her husband: the thing signified is here put for the sign, as the sign is often put for the thing signified. Thus the ark, which is called, the ark of God’ s strength, Psa 132:8 , is itself called his strength, 1Ch 16:11 . But others here by head do not understand the woman’ s natural head, but her husband, or the man, who is the political head of the woman; and by having power on him, understand her exercising of her power in him, testifying it by covering her head; and think this text well expounded by 1Ti 2:12 , where the apostle forbiddeth the woman to usurp authority over the man. He addeth another reason,

because of the angels By angels here some understand God himself, who by the ministry of angels created man and woman in this order, and put this law upon the woman. Others understand those messengers which the man sent sometimes, by whom the woman was betrothed (but this was a custom only in use amongst the Jews). Others here by angels understand the ministers and officers of the church, who are sometimes in holy writ called angels. Others understand the evil angels, who watch to take advantage to tempt men from objects appearing beautiful to unchaste thoughts, &c. But the most and best interpreters understand here by angels, the good angels; for the apostle would hardly have spoken of devils under the notion of angels, especially speaking to deter persons from actions; and so it teaches us, that the good angels, who are ministering spirits for the good of God’ s elect, at all times have a special minstration, or at least are more particularly present, in the assemblies of people for religious worship, observing the persons, carriage, and demeanour; the sense of which ought to awe all persons attending those services, from any indecent and unworthy behaviour.

Poole: 1Co 11:11 - -- Lest the man, upon the apostle’ s discourse of his pre-eminence and dignity over the woman, should wax proud and insolent, and carry himself to...

Lest the man, upon the apostle’ s discourse of his pre-eminence and dignity over the woman, should wax proud and insolent, and carry himself too imperiously, the apostle addeth this, that they both stand in need of each other’ s help, so as neither of them could well be without the other, either as to matters that concern God, or that concern the world; the Lord so ordering and disposing it, that they should be mutual helps one to another. Or else the sense is, they are equal in the Lord as to a state of grace, in Christ there is neither male nor female: though there be a difference between a man and woman in other things, and the man hath the priority and superiority; yet when we come to consider them as to their spiritual state, and in their spiritual reference, there is no difference.

Poole: 1Co 11:12 - -- The man hath a priority to the woman, being first created, and a superiority over her upon that account, she being made for him, not he for her, thi...

The man hath a priority to the woman, being first created, and a superiority over her upon that account, she being made for him, not he for her, this is indeed the man’ s advantage; but on the other side, since the creation of the first man, all men are by the woman, who conceives them in her womb, suckles them at her breasts, is concerned in their education while children, and dandled upon her knees; the man therefore hath no reason to despise and too much to trample upon the woman: and all these things are of God by the wise ordering and disposing of God; so as neither hath the man, by reason of his prerogative, in being first created, and the end for which the woman was created, any cause to insult and triumph over the woman; neither hath the woman any cause, by reason of her prerogative, that the man is by her, any cause to triumph over the man; but both of them ought to look upon themselves as having their prerogatives from God, and in the use of them to behave themselves according to the will of God, behaving themselves in their respective stations as it is the will of God they should behave themselves, the woman being subject to the man, and testifying such subjection by all the signs of it, and the man carrying himself towards the woman as he who is the image and glory of God.

Poole: 1Co 11:13 - -- No man is truly and thoroughly convinced of an error, till he be convicted by his own conscience. It is therefore very usual in holy writ for God, b...

No man is truly and thoroughly convinced of an error, till he be convicted by his own conscience. It is therefore very usual in holy writ for God, by his sacred penmen, to make appeals unto men’ s own consciences, and put them to judge within themselves, to examine a thing by their own reason, and according to the dictates of that to give sentence for or against themselves. The thing as to which he would have them judge within themselves, and accordingly pronounce sentence, was, whether it were a decent thing for women to pray to God with their hair all hanging loose about their shoulders, or without any veil, or covering for their head and face.

Poole: 1Co 11:14 - nature He tells them, that they could not judge this as a thing comely, for nature itself taught them, that it is a shame for a man to wear long hair. By ...

He tells them, that they could not judge this as a thing comely, for nature itself taught them, that it is a shame for a man to wear long hair. By

nature here some understand the law of nature, according to which it would have an intrinsic evil in it, which it is plain it hath not; for then neither must the Nazarites have used it, (as they did), neither would it be lawful for the sake of men’ s health or life. Others understand by nature the law of nations; but neither is this true, for in many nations men wear hair at the utmost length. Others understand common sense, or the light and judgment of that natural reason which since the fall is left in man; but this must be the same in all men, and we know that all men do not judge this shameful. Others therefore by nature here understand a common custom, which (as they say) maketh as it were a second nature; so the term is taken, Rom 11:24 : but it cannot so signify here; for there neither is, nor ever was, such a universal custom in any place, that none in it wore long hair. Others by nature here understand natural inclination; but neither can this be the sense, for there is in some men, as well as in women, a natural propension and inclination to wear their hair at excessive lengths. Others here by nature understand the difference of the sex, as they take this word to be used, Rom 1:26 ; the distinction of the sexes teacheth us this: and this seemath to be the most probable sense of this text. The apostle arguing, that as the male and female sex are artificially distinguished by garments, and it was the will of God they should be so, so they should also be distinguished by the wearing of their hair; and it was no less shame for a man to wear his hair like a woman, than to wear garments like a woman.

Poole: 1Co 11:15 - But // given her her hair for a covering But he saith, if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her Long hair is comely for the woman, and accounted to her for a beauty or ornament, for ...

But he saith, if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her Long hair is comely for the woman, and accounted to her for a beauty or ornament, for God hath

given her her hair for a covering There have been books written about the lawfulness or unlawfulness of men’ s wearing long hair, and the due or undue lengths of men’ s hair, the substance of which were too much to transcribe here. That which in these verses seemeth to be commended to us, as the will of God in this matter, is:

1. That men and women should so order their hair, as by it to preserve the distinction of sexes.

2. That men should not wear their hair after the manner of women, either dishevelled, or curled, and tricked up about their heads, which speaks too much of an unmanly and effeminate temper, much more was what became not Christians. And if this be forbidden men, as to the use of their own hair, they stand concerned to consider whether it be lawful for them thus to wear and adorn themselves with the hair of other men and women.

Poole: 1Co 11:16 - If any man seem to be contentious // We have no such custom // neither If any man seem to be contentious if any man hath a mind to quarrel out of a love to show his wit in discoursing what may be said on the other side, ...

If any man seem to be contentious if any man hath a mind to quarrel out of a love to show his wit in discoursing what may be said on the other side, or out of a desire to hold up a party, and contradict us.

We have no such custom of women’ s praying or prophesying with their heads uncovered, or men’ s praying or prophesying with their heads covered; or we have no such custom of contending for these little frivolous things;

neither any of the churches of God and good Christians, in their practices, ought, in things of this nature, to have an eye and regard to the custom of their own church, and also of other Christian churches. Thus the apostle closeth this discourse, and proceedeth in the next verses to tax other abuses which were crept into this famous church.

Poole: 1Co 11:17 - Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not // That ye come together not for the better, but for the worse Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not I come now to another thing of greater consequence, as to which I must much blame you; I am so f...

Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not I come now to another thing of greater consequence, as to which I must much blame you; I am so far from being able to commend or approve of what you do, that I must for it smartly reflect upon you.

That ye come together not for the better, but for the worse that when you meet in your church assemblies, for the performance of your religious duties, to pray, preach, hear, or receive the holy sacrament, you so meet and behave yourselves, as your meeting tends to the increase of your sin, rather than to the increase of your grace, and the promoting the work of God in yourselves and the souls of others.

Poole: 1Co 11:18 - In the church In the church here, must signify the religious assembly; for at this time there were no temples built for Christians, but they met in private houses,...

In the church here, must signify the religious assembly; for at this time there were no temples built for Christians, but they met in private houses, as the iniquity of those times would bear: yet others think the place is here meant where the church was wont to meet, and say, that the Christians had a certain stated place, though in a private house, where they used to meet. But it is not very probable that they should, in the midst of heathens, be so quiet and secure as to meet either constantly, or ordinarily, in any one certain and stated place, so denominated. What schisms, or divisions, the apostle meaneth, he expoundeth in the following verses; either they quarrelled about meats, or drinks, or their order in sitting down, or the time when they should begin, or did not stay till they were all met.

Poole: 1Co 11:19 - There must be // Heresies // That they which are approved may be made manifest among you There must be it is not simply and absolutely necessary that there should be such divisions amongst you, (they are caused from the free acts of men&#...

There must be it is not simply and absolutely necessary that there should be such divisions amongst you, (they are caused from the free acts of men’ s corrupt wills), but yet these things do not fall out by chance, but through the providence of God, who hath so immutably ordered and decreed, to suffer Satan to show his malice, and men to discover the lusts and corruptions of their own hearts.

Heresies: though heresy be a term that, by ecclesiastical usage, is restrained to signify perverse opinions in matter of doctrine, as to which men are stubborn and tenacious; yet it is manifest, that the word is not natively so to be restrained, neither can it reasonably be here so interpreted, but signifies the same thing with schisms and divisions before mentioned: for though (as will appear from 1Co 15:1-58 ) there were corrupt opinions amongst them in matters of doctrine, yet it is unreasonable to understand the apostle here, as speaking with reference to them, these words being brought as a reason why he was inclined to believe that there were such schisms or divisions amongst them, because there must be heresies.

That they which are approved may be made manifest among you: God hath his wise end in suffering breaches and divisions, that such as are true and sincere Christians, opposing themselves to such violations of charity, might appear to you to be true and sincere, and to have the love of God dwelling, working, and prevailing in them.

Poole: 1Co 11:20 - This is not to eat the Lord’ s supper The Greek words do not necessarily signify into one place, they may as well be translated, for the same thing, and possibly that were the better ...

The Greek words do not necessarily signify into one place, they may as well be translated, for the same thing, and possibly that were the better translation of them in this place; divisions appearing the worse amongst persons that met as one and the same body, and for one and the same grave action, and that such an action as declared them one body, and laid upon them the highest obligation to brotherly love imaginable.

This is not to eat the Lord’ s supper: some words must be here supplied to complete the sense.

This is not to eat; that is, as you do it is indeed not to do it; to eat the Lord’ s supper in an unlawful manner, is not to eat it. It is called the Lord’ s supper, either because he ordained and instituted it, or because it was instituted for the remembrance of his death, 1Co 11:26 Luk 22:19 . Some think that the sacrament of the Lord’ s supper is here meant, and so one would think, by comparing what is here with 1Co 11:23,24 . Others say, that the love feast is here intended, which ordinarily preceded the Lord’ s supper; the reason they give is, because the abuses here mentioned, viz. not staying one for another till the whole church were met, one eating plentifully, another sparingly, some being hungry while others had ate and drank enough, could not be at the Lord’ s supper, where the minister beginneth not till the whole church be assembled, and where there is no such liberal eating and drinking. To this purpose we are told, that by an ancient custom in Greece (within which Corinth was) the rich men offered some things to their idols, (which after that action the poor had for their relief), and made feasts in the idol’ s temples, of which all had a liberty to eat. That the Christians imitated this practice of theirs, and the rich amongst them upon the Lord’ s days made feasts, at which both poor and rich Christians might be, and the poor carried away what was left. But this church growing corrupt every way, and having got teachers to their humours, they at these feasts neglected the poor, inviting only the rich to them, and also exceeding in their provision for their rich guests. These feasts were called feasts of love, or love feasts, either because:

1. Love to God was that which (pretendedly at least) caused them.

2. Or because they were representations of our Lord’ s last supper, in which he first ate the paschal lamb, then instituted what we call the Lord’ s supper; or because they immediately preceded or followed the administration of the Lord’ s supper, from whence the love feast, being immediately before or after it, had also the same name. But if we allow this, we must make the love feasts also Christ’ s institution, and instituted in remembrance of him, neither of which can be proved. The meaning must be: You cannot rightly communicate at the Lord’ s table, when immediately before or after that table, at your love feast, you are guilty of such disorderly actions. In the mean time, only what Christ instituted for remembrance of his death is what the apostle calls the Lord’ s supper.

Poole: 1Co 11:21 - -- There was at this time in most of the Christian church a Jewish party, viz. such as were converted from Judaism to Christianity, and had a tang of t...

There was at this time in most of the Christian church a Jewish party, viz. such as were converted from Judaism to Christianity, and had a tang of the old cask, being too tenacious of some Jewish rites. These looked upon the Lord’ s supper as an appurtenance to the passover, immediately after which we know that Christ at first instituted his supper. As therefore Christ did eat the paschal supper before the Lord’ s supper; so they, in imitation of him, though they forbore the paschal lamb, yet would have a supper of their own to precede the Lord’ s supper, and having provided it at home, would bring it to the place where the church was to meet; and their poor brethren contributing nothing to the charge of that supper, they would not stay for them, but took this their own supper: so it came to pass, that the poorer Christians were hungry, had none or very little share in their feast, while others, the richer part of the church, had too much; for I take our translation of this word, meyuei , to be very hard and uncharitable. Hard, because the word doth not necessarily so signify, only drinking beyond what is strictly necessary, and our translators themselves, Joh 2:10 , render it well drunk. Uncharitable, because it certainly must be very uncharitably presumed of this church of Corinth, that they should suffer persons, at that time actually drunk, to come to the Lord’ s table.

Poole: 1Co 11:22 - What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? // Or despise ye the church of God? // and shame them that have not What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? Hence evidently appears, that these love feasts were kept in the place where the assembly met for th...

What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? Hence evidently appears, that these love feasts were kept in the place where the assembly met for the public worship of God; for the apostle would have them (if they would continue them) kept in their private houses: and he doth not only blame the abuses of these feasts, but the feasts themselves as kept in the place where the church met, or as having in them any pretence to any thing of religion: meet they might, friendly to eat and to drink, but their private houses were the fittest places for that.

Or despise ye the church of God? Or do you despise the place (as some think) where the church of God meeteth, or the people met in that place, by carrying yourselves so disorderly in such a grave assembly; or the poorer part of the church, who, though poorer, are a part of the church, redeemed by the blood of Christ? The next words would incline us to think that the sense; for it followeth,

and shame them that have not that is, that have not estates to contribute to such feasts, and so are forced to go away without any due refreshment.

Poole: 1Co 11:23 - That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread About these love feasts preceding the Lord’ s supper, I have received nothing from the Lord, you have taken the practice up from the Jews or he...

About these love feasts preceding the Lord’ s supper, I have received nothing from the Lord, you have taken the practice up from the Jews or heathens: I do not know that it is unlawful for you civilly to feast, and eat and drink in your private houses; but to come to make such feasts immediately before you religiously eat and drink at the Lord’ s table, I have received no order from the Lord for any such practice. I have told you what I received from the Lord, which is no more than:

That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: see this in the evangelists, Mat 26:26 Mar 14:22 Luk 22:19 ; where all these words are opened. Some think that Paul received this from the Lord by immediate revelation (as it is thought Moses received the history we have in Genesis and part of Exodus, which relates to a time before he was born, or arrived at man’ s estate). Others think that he received it from St. Luke’ s writings (for the words are quoted according to his Gospel). Others think he received it from some other of the apostles. Certain it is, that he did receive it from the Lord; how, is uncertain.

Poole: 1Co 11:24-25 - -- Ver. 24,25. These words we also met with, Luk 22:19,20 , and in the other evangelists’ narration of the institution of the supper. See Poole o...

Ver. 24,25. These words we also met with, Luk 22:19,20 , and in the other evangelists’ narration of the institution of the supper. See Poole on "Luk 22:19" . See Poole on "Luk 22:20" .

Poole: 1Co 11:26 - ye do show From hence it appears, that the bread and wine is not (as papists say) transubstantiated, or turned into the very substance of the flesh and blood o...

From hence it appears, that the bread and wine is not (as papists say) transubstantiated, or turned into the very substance of the flesh and blood of Christ, when the communicants eat it and drink it. It is still the same bread and cup it was. The end of the institution is but to commemorate Christ’ s death; and upon that account the waiting upon God in this ordinance, will be a standing duty incumbent upon Christians, until Christ shall come to judgment. Some think, show ye, is a better translation of the verb, than (as we translate it)

ye do show wherefore so behave yourselves at this ordinance, as those who know what they have to do in it, that is, to show forth the death of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Poole: 1Co 11:27 - unworthily // Shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord Divines agree, that the unworthiness here spoken of, respecteth not the person of the receiver so much as the manner of the receiving; in which sens...

Divines agree, that the unworthiness here spoken of, respecteth not the person of the receiver so much as the manner of the receiving; in which sense, a person that is worthy may receive this ordinance

unworthily: it is variously expounded, without due religion and reverence, without faith and love, without proposing a right end in the action, under the guilt of any known sin not repented of, &c.

Shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord shall incur the guilt of the profanation of this sacred institution; for an abuse offered to a sign, reacheth to that of which it is a sign; as the abuse of a king’ s seal, or picture, is justly accounted an abuse of the king himself, whose seal and picture it is. Some carry it higher; he shall be punished, as if he had crucified Christ, the profanation of Christ’ s ordinance reflecting upon Christ himself.

Poole: 1Co 11:28 - And so let him eat, &c He is to examine himself about his knowledge, whether he rightly understands what Christ is, what the nature of the sacrament is, what he doth in th...

He is to examine himself about his knowledge, whether he rightly understands what Christ is, what the nature of the sacrament is, what he doth in that sacred action; about his faith, love, repentance, new obedience, whether he be such a one as God hath prepared that holy table for; it is the children’ s bread, and not for dogs; a table Christ hath spread for his friends, not for his enemies.

And so let him eat, &c. having so examined himself, not otherwise. Whence it appears, that neither children in age or understanding, nor persons not in the use of their reason, nor unbelievers, nor persons under the guilt of sins not repented of, have any right to the Lord’ s supper: accordingly was the practice of all the primitive churches, and all rightly reformed churches. Whether they ought, if they will presume to come, to be kept away by the officers of the church, and how, and by whom? Whether good Christians may communicate with such at the holy table? And after what previous duty performed? Are questions that belong not to this text.

Poole: 1Co 11:29 - He that eateth and drinketh unworthily // to himself // Not discerning the Lord’ s body He that eateth and drinketh unworthily in the sense before mentioned, either having no remote right or no present right to partake in that ordinance,...

He that eateth and drinketh unworthily in the sense before mentioned, either having no remote right or no present right to partake in that ordinance, being an unbeliever, or a resolved unholy or ignorant person; or irreverently and irreligiously. He

eateth and drinketh krima , damnation or judgment, it is no matter which we translate it; for if he brings God’ s judgments upon him in this life, they will end in eternal damnation, without a timely repentance; but it is

to himself not to him that is at the same table with him, unless he hath been guilty of some neglect of his duty to him.

Not discerning the Lord’ s body and his guilt lieth here, that he doth not discern and distinguish between ordinary and common bread, and that bread which is the representation of the Lord’ s body, but useth the one as carelessly, and with as little preparation and regard to what he doth, as he uses the other.

Poole: 1Co 11:30 - -- You, it may be, are not aware of it, but look upon other causes why so many amongst you are sick, and weak, and die immaturely; but I, as the apostl...

You, it may be, are not aware of it, but look upon other causes why so many amongst you are sick, and weak, and die immaturely; but I, as the apostle of Jesus Christ, (and so know the mind and will of God), assure you, that this your irreverent and irreligious profanation of this holy ordinance, is one great cause of so many among you being sick, and weak, and dying in unripe age. Some think that the word

sleep argues that they were godly, penitent Christians that so died, (for the death of wicked men is hardly called sleeping any where in holy writ), to let us know, that even good people, who yet may be saved, may bring judgments in this life upon themselves, as by the profanation of God’ s name in other ordinances, so more especially by their profanation of it in this ordinance of the supper.

Poole: 1Co 11:31 - -- This word judge in Scripture signifies all parts of judgment, examining, accusing, condemning, &c.: here it signifies accusing ourselves, condemnin...

This word judge in Scripture signifies all parts of judgment, examining, accusing, condemning, &c.: here it signifies accusing ourselves, condemning ourselves; discriminating ourselves, by the renewings of faith and repentance, from unbelievers, impenitent and profane persons: if we would thus judge ourselves, God would not accuse or condemn us.

Poole: 1Co 11:32 - -- Lest they be terrified at what he had said, and look upon their afflictions as indications of God’ s displeasure against them to that degree, t...

Lest they be terrified at what he had said, and look upon their afflictions as indications of God’ s displeasure against them to that degree, that he would not look any more upon them as his children; he tells them, that when God’ s people are afflicted with the evils of this life, sickness, &c., God doth not deal with them so much as a Judge, as a Father, who chasteneth the child whom he loveth, and scourgeth whom he receiveth, Heb 12:6-8 ; and doth it for a good end, to prevent the eternal condemnation of the soul with the impenitent sinners of the world, giving us our hell in this life, that we may escape it in the life to come.

Poole: 1Co 11:33 - -- The apostle concludes this discourse with an exhortation to them, for the time to come to take heed of these irreligious and irreverent behaviours, ...

The apostle concludes this discourse with an exhortation to them, for the time to come to take heed of these irreligious and irreverent behaviours, with relation to the Lord’ s supper; that they should not take the sacrament before the whole church were met together, the rich should stay for the poor, and not receive it in parties, but as one body eat that one bread.

Poole: 1Co 11:34 - -- And if any one hungered, they should not make the place where they met together for the solemn worship of God, a place for eating and drinking at fe...

And if any one hungered, they should not make the place where they met together for the solemn worship of God, a place for eating and drinking at feasts, but eat at home; lest, by these disorderly and irreverent actions, they incurred the displeasure of God, and brought down the judgment of God upon themselves. Lastly, he minds them, that if there were any other things of this nature, which he had not spoken to, he did design suddenly to come to them, and then he would set them in order, by giving them rules about them.

PBC: 1Co 11:24 - -- see PBtop: Communion In this instance, we have a rather extensive teaching from the apostle Paul, concerned about misunderstandings and errors on the...

see PBtop: Communion

In this instance, we have a rather extensive teaching from the apostle Paul, concerned about misunderstandings and errors on the part of the Corinthian church, concerned to establish a clear pattern of how the communion service should be observed. I suggest for your consideration that if we get the spirit of the communion service correct in our minds, we will have set the tone for all other acts of worship we should practice.

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PBC: 1Co 11:31 - -- Observe that divine judgment is provoked when we fail to examine ourselves. We eat the bread and drink the cup unworthily when we fail to examine ours...

Observe that divine judgment is provoked when we fail to examine ourselves. We eat the bread and drink the cup unworthily when we fail to examine ourselves. Self-examination primarily involves a silent but conscious and cognitive recognition of the solemnity of the occasion and the reality that the symbols portray. The nature of the occasion excludes the false notion that personal merit entitles one to participate. Likewise, a personal sense of one’s sinfulness does not disqualify from participation-else, precious saints with honest hearts purified by faith would be compelled to withdraw from the service for conscience sake.

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PBC: 1Co 11:32 - -- See PB: Joh 10:28

See PB: Joh 10:28

Haydock: 1Co 11:2 - I praise you I praise you. That is, a great many of you. (Witham)

I praise you. That is, a great many of you. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 11:3 - The head of a woman is the man // Nec ipsa natura docet vos The head of a woman is the man, &c. To have the head covered at public meetings, is, according to St. Paul, a mark of subjection: The man was create...

The head of a woman is the man, &c. To have the head covered at public meetings, is, according to St. Paul, a mark of subjection: The man was created to be head over the woman, who was made subject to the man, being made of him, of his rib, and the woman made for him, not he for the woman. The man in a special manner, is the image of God, not only by his immortal soul, in which sense also the woman was made to God's image, and likeness, but inasmuch as God gave him a power over all creatures, and so he is called, the glory of God. For these reasons, as well as from a received custom, St. Paul tells every woman, that in prayer or prophesying in public meetings, she must have her head veiled, and covered in testimony of her subjection to man, her head, otherwise she dishonours herself, and her head. This is what he tells her, (ver. 10.) that she ought to have a power over her head, [1] that is, to have a veil or covering, as a mark of man's power over her: and because of the angels, that is, out of a respect to the angels there present. Some understand the priests and ministers of God, called angels, particularly in the Apocalypse. St. Paul adds, that nature [2] having given to women long hair, designed it to be as a natural veil. In fine, he appeals to them, to be judges, whether it be not unbecoming in women to pray without a veil. But he will have men to be uncovered, and not to bear such a mark of subjection, as a veil is, by which a man would dishonour his head, that is, himself, and Christ, who is his head, and who appointed him, when he created him, to be head over the woman. He looks upon it as a dishonour and a disgrace for men to nourish their hair, as women should do. He also calls God the head of Christ, that is, of Christ, as man. Lest he should seem to lessen the condition of women more than necessary, he adds, that the propagation of mankind now depends on the woman, as well as on the man, seeing every man is by the woman. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Debet mulier potestatem habere super caput suum, Greek: exousian, but some Greek copies have Greek: peribolaion, cinctorium, velum.

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Nec ipsa natura docet vos. I do not find an interrogation in the Latin copies, as it is marked in the Greek, Greek: oude didaskei umas. The rest of the text seems to be better connected, if we read it with an interrogation.

Haydock: 1Co 11:4 - Praying or prophesying Praying or prophesying. By prophesying, in this place is meant, reading publicly in the Church, or singing, or explaining some part of the Scripture...

Praying or prophesying. By prophesying, in this place is meant, reading publicly in the Church, or singing, or explaining some part of the Scripture. To have the head covered, or uncovered, is in itself a thing very indifferent. Amongst the Greeks it was the custom always to sacrifice to their idols with heads uncovered; amongst the Romans, the opposite was the fashion, and among the Jews, as well formerly as at present, they always appear in their synagogues with heads covered. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Co 11:10 - A power A power: That is, a veil or covering, as a sign that she is under the power of her husband: and this, the apostle adds, because of the angels, w...

A power: That is, a veil or covering, as a sign that she is under the power of her husband: and this, the apostle adds, because of the angels, who are present in the assemblies of the faithful. (Challoner)

Haydock: 1Co 11:16 - If any man seem to be contentious In this chapter are three instructions: 1. That women must have a veil on their heads at public prayers, to ver. 17. --- 2ndly, he corrects the abuse...

In this chapter are three instructions: 1. That women must have a veil on their heads at public prayers, to ver. 17. ---

2ndly, he corrects the abuses in their banquets of charity, called Agape, to ver. 23. ---

3rdly, he teaches that in the sacrament of the holy Eucharist, is the body and blood of Christ. (Witham)

If any man seem to be contentious about this matter, or any other, we have no such custom, nor hath the Church; that is, says St. John Chrysostom, to have such quarrels and divisions. Or, as others understand it, we have no such custom for women to be in the Church uncovered. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 11:17 - Now this I ordain // Jam non est dominicam cænam manducare, Greek: kuriakon deipnon Now this I ordain, &c. St. Paul found that several abuses had crept in among the Corinthians at their Church meetings, where before the holy mysteri...

Now this I ordain, &c. St. Paul found that several abuses had crept in among the Corinthians at their Church meetings, where before the holy mysteries (though St. John Chrysostom thinks after them) they used to have those charitable suppers, called the Agape. For as our Saviour eat first a common supper with his apostles, before he instituted the holy sacrament, so the Christians in may places brought meats with them, and eat a supper together, in token of that friendship and union, which they had with all their brethren, before they began to celebrate the holy mysteries. It is this supper, which according to the common interpretation St. Paul here (ver. 20.) calls the Lord's supper, [3] (though St. Augustine and some others by the Lord's supper, understand the holy sacrament itself of Christ's body and blood.) The apostle tells them, he hears there are divisions among them at their meetings, which he says will happen, as there must be also heresies, which God permits, that they who are approved, may be made manifest, that is, that on such occasions, the just may shew their fidelity and constancy in their duty to God. The apostle tells them, that it is not now to eat the Lord's supper, that is, there were such abuses among them, that it was not now to imitate the supper, which Christ made with his apostles, or, according to the exposition of St. Augustine, this was not becoming persons, who, before the end of their meetings, were to partake of the divine mysteries. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Jam non est dominicam cænam manducare, Greek: kuriakon deipnon. This expression is used no where else in the New Testament, and it is much more probable, that by it St. Paul signifies those charitable [Agape] suppers, which the Christians had together, in imitation of Christ's supper with his disciples before he instituted the holy mysteries, which was after supper, as St. Paul here says, ver. 25. and St. Luke xxii. The sacrament of the Lord's body and blood has been called the Eucharist, even from the first ages of the Christians religion, as appears by the epistles of St. Ignatius, by St. Irenæus, Tertullian, &c. The late pretended reformers found it called by this name in the Catholic Church. Why then should they, who pretend to nothing but Scripture, affect to give it no name but the Lord's supper, when these words in the Scripture signify a different supper?

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Haydock: 1Co 11:19 - There must be also heresies There must be also heresies: By reason of the pride and perversity of man's heart; not by God's will or appointment; who nevertheless draws good out...

There must be also heresies: By reason of the pride and perversity of man's heart; not by God's will or appointment; who nevertheless draws good out of this evil, manifesting, by that occasion, who are the good and firm Christians, and making their faith more remarkable. (Challoner) ---

Not that God hath directly so appointed, as necessary: this originates in man's malice, and his sole pride, and great abuse of free-will. The providence of God draweth good out of evil, but wo to the man, says the Scripture, by whom scandal cometh, such as sects and heresies. Hence St. Augustine, chap. viii. de vera relig. says: "Let us use heretics not so as to approve their errors, but to make us more wary and vigilant, and more strenuous in defending Catholic doctrine against their deceits."

Haydock: 1Co 11:20 - The Lord's supper The Lord's supper. So the apostle here calls the charity [Agape] feasts observed by the primitive Christians; and reprehends the abuses of the Cor...

The Lord's supper. So the apostle here calls the charity [Agape] feasts observed by the primitive Christians; and reprehends the abuses of the Corinthians on these occasions: which were the more criminal, because these feasts were accompanied with the celebrating the eucharistic sacrifice and sacrament. (Challoner)

Haydock: 1Co 11:21 - Every one taketh before his own supper to eat Every one taketh before his own supper to eat. The sense seems to be, that he took and brought with him, what he designed to eat with others, and gi...

Every one taketh before his own supper to eat. The sense seems to be, that he took and brought with him, what he designed to eat with others, and give at that supper: but as soon as some were met (without staying for others, as he orders them, ver. 33. when he again speaks of these suppers) the rich placing themselves together, began this supper, and did not take with them their poor brethren, who had brought nothing, or had nothing to bring; by this means, one indeed is hungry, and another is drunk, that is, had at least drunk plentifully, while the poor had nothing but shame, and confusion. By this means of eating and drinking without temperance and moderation, they were by no means disposed to receive afterwards the holy Eucharist. He tells such persons that committed these disorders, that if they be so hungry that they cannot fast, they should eat (ver. 34.) before they come from home. We find these Agape forbidden to be made in the Churches, in the 28th canon of the council of Laodicea, a little before the general council of Nice. In St. John Chrysostom's time, and from the first ages, every one received the sacrament of the holy eucharist fasting, as it is probable this was one of the things which St. Paul gave orders about, (ver. 34.) when he came to Corinth. We must not imagine, that because Christ instituted the holy sacrament, and gave it to his apostles after he had supped with them, that the apostles, or the pastors of the Church, their successors, could not order it to be received fasting, and kneeling, for greater reverence and devotion. See St. Augustine on this same subject, in his letter to Januarius, liv. tom. 2. part 2. p. 126. Nov. edit. He says, that though it is evident that apostles did not receive the body and blood of Christ fasting, yet we must not on that account calumniate, or blame the universal Church, in which it is received only by those who are fasting. He says, it is most insolent madness to dispute against what is a custom in the universal Church. (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 11:23 - I have received from the Lord // Which shall be delivered for you // You shall shew the death of the Lord I have received from the Lord. That is, by revelation from Christ, as well as from others, who were present with him, that which also I delivered t...

I have received from the Lord. That is, by revelation from Christ, as well as from others, who were present with him, that which also I delivered to you by word of mouth, &c. Here he speaks of the holy sacrament itself, of the words of consecration, as the evangelists had done, and of the real presence of Christ's body and blood. ---

Which shall be delivered for you. In the common Greek copies, which is broken for you, to wit, on the cross. ---

You shall shew the death of the Lord. As often as you receive, it shall be with a devout and grateful remembrance of his sufferings and death for your sake. He puts every one in mind, that whosoever shall eat this bread, (ver. 27.) so called from the outward appearances, or drink the chalice of the Lord unworthily, shall, by such a sacrilege, be guilty of the body and of the blood of the Lord. And (ver. 29.) that he eateth, and drinketh judgment, or condemnation to himself, not discerning the difference betwixt celestial food and other meats, and not considering it to be truly the body of the Lord. See St. John Chrysostom, hom. xxvii. If the words of our Saviour, this is my body, &c. were to be understood in a metaphorical and figurative sense only, is it probable that St. Paul, writing twenty-four years afterwards, to the new converted Gentiles at Corinth, would have used words, which full as clearly express a true and real presence of Christ's body in the eucharist, without one word to signify that this was to be understood in a figurative sense only? (Witham)

Haydock: 1Co 11:24 - -- Juvenius, a native of Spain, and a priest, who flourished under Constantine the Great, about the year 329, has left us the life of Christ in hexameter...

Juvenius, a native of Spain, and a priest, who flourished under Constantine the Great, about the year 329, has left us the life of Christ in hexameter verse, where speaking of the institution of the eucharist, he says, "Christ taught his disciples, that he delivered to them his own body;" and when he gave them the chalice, "he taught them that he had distributed to them his blood: and said, this blood remits the sins of the people: drink this, it is mine." (Bibl. Max. P. P. T. iv. p. 74) Discipulos docuit proprium se tradere corpus,

Edocuitque suum se divisisse cruorem.

Atque ait: Hic sanguis populi delicta remittit:

Hunc potate meum.

Haydock: 1Co 11:27 - Or drink // Guilty of the body Or drink. Here erroneous translators corrupted the text, by putting and drink (contrary to the original, Greek: e pine ) instead of or drink. ...

Or drink. Here erroneous translators corrupted the text, by putting and drink (contrary to the original, Greek: e pine ) instead of or drink. ---

Guilty of the body, &c. not discerning the body, &c. This demonstrates the real presence of the body and blood of Christ, even to the unworthy communicant; who otherwise could not be guilty of the body and blood of Christ, or justly condemned for not discerning the Lord's body. (Challoner) ---

The real presence in the sacrament is also proved by the enormity of the crime, in its profanation. See St. John Chrysostom, hom. de non contem. ec. and hom. lx. and lxi. ad pop. Antioch. where he shews that the unworthy receiver imitates the Jews in crucifying Jesus, and trampling under foot his sacred blood. Hence the dreadful punishments we read of in verse 27 and 30.

Haydock: 1Co 11:28 - Drink the chalice Drink the chalice. This is not said by way of command, but by way of allowance, viz. where and when it is agreeable to the practice and discipline o...

Drink the chalice. This is not said by way of command, but by way of allowance, viz. where and when it is agreeable to the practice and discipline of the Church. (Challoner)

Haydock: 1Co 11:30-32 - Therefore Therefore in punishment of the sin of receiving unworthily, many are infirm, visited with infirmities, even that bring death, which is meant by tho...

Therefore in punishment of the sin of receiving unworthily, many are infirm, visited with infirmities, even that bring death, which is meant by those words, many sleep. But it is a mercy of God, when he only punishes by sickness, or a corporal death, and does not permit us to perish for ever, or be condemned with this wicked world. To avoid this, let a man prove himself, examine the state of his conscience, especially before he receives the holy sacrament, confess his sins, and be absolved by those to whom Christ left the power of forgiving sins in his name, and by his authority. If we judge ourselves in this manner, we shall not be judged, that is, condemned. (Witham)

Gill: 1Co 11:1 - Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ. &c. These words more properly close the preceding chapter, than begin a new one, and refer to the ...

Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ. &c. These words more properly close the preceding chapter, than begin a new one, and refer to the rules therein laid down, and which the apostle would have the Corinthians follow him in, as he did Christ: that as he sought, both in private and public, and more especially in his ministerial service, to do all things to the glory of God, and not for his own popular applause, in which he imitated Christ, who sought not his own glory, but the glory of him that sent him; so he would have them do all they did in the name of Christ, and to the glory of God by him: and that as he studied to exercise a conscience void of offence to God and man, in doing which he was a follower of Christ, who was holy in his nature, and harmless and inoffensive in his conversation; so he was desirous that they should likewise be blameless, harmless, and without offence until the day of Christ: and that whereas he endeavoured to please men in all things lawful and indifferent, wherein he copied after Christ, who by his affable and courteous behaviour, and humble deportment, sought to please and gratify all with whom he conversed; so he would have them not to mind high things, but condescend to men of low estates, and become all things to all, that they might gain some as he did: and once more, that as he sought not his own pleasure and advantage, but the salvation of others, in imitation of Christ, who pleased not himself, but took upon him, and bore cheerfully, the reproaches of men, that he might procure good for them; so the apostle suggests, that it would be right in them not to seek to have their own wills in every thing, but rather to please their neighbour for good to edification.

Gill: 1Co 11:2 - Now I praise you, brethren // that ye remember me in all things // and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you Now I praise you, brethren,.... The apostle prefaces what he had to say by way of commendation of them; though some think that this is said in an iron...

Now I praise you, brethren,.... The apostle prefaces what he had to say by way of commendation of them; though some think that this is said in an ironical way, because there are many things both in this chapter, and in the following part of this epistle, delivered in a way of reproof; but whoever considers the change of style in 1Co 11:17 will easily see, that this must be spoken seriously here, and is designed to raise the attention to what he was about to say, and to prepare their minds to receive, and take in good part, what he should say by way of rebuke; who could not well be angry when he praised them for what was praiseworthy in them, and reproved them for that which was blamable. The things he commends them for are as follow,

that ye remember me in all things; that is, either that they were mindful of him, though at a distance from them, and had such a veneration for him, and paid such respect to him, and to his judgment, as to write to him to have his sense about any point of doctrine, or case of conscience which had any difficulty in them; or that they bore in memory the doctrines of the Gospel which he had delivered among them; see 1Co 15:2 The Arabic version reads, "that ye remember my sayings and deeds"; the doctrines he preached among them, and the examples he set them:

and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you; meaning, among the rest, if not principally, baptism and the Lord's supper, which he received from Christ, and delivered unto them; see 1Co 11:23 and which they, at least many of them, kept and observed in the faith of Christ, from a principle of love to him, and with a view to his glory, and that as to the form and manner in which they were delivered to them by the apostle, agreeably to the mind of Christ; but was the apostle alive now, would, or could he praise the generality of those that are called Christians on this account? no; neither of these ordinances in common are kept as they were delivered: as to baptism, it is not attended to either as to subject or mode, both are altered, and are different from the original institution; and the Lord's supper is prostituted to the vilest of men; and, what is "monstrum horrendum", is made a test and qualification for employment in civil and military offices under the government.

Gill: 1Co 11:3 - But I would have you to know // that the head of every man is Christ // And the head of the woman is the man // And the head of Christ is God But I would have you to know,.... Though they were mindful of him, and retained in memory many things he had declared among them, and kept the ordinan...

But I would have you to know,.... Though they were mindful of him, and retained in memory many things he had declared among them, and kept the ordinances as delivered to them; yet there were some things in which they were either ignorant, or at least did not so well advert to, and needed to be put in mind of, and better informed about: and as the apostle was very communicative of his knowledge in every point, he fails not to acquaint them with whatsoever might be instructive to their faith, and a direction to their practice:

that the head of every man is Christ; Christ is the head of every individual human nature, as he is the Creator and Preserver of all men, and the donor of all the gifts of nature to them; of the light of nature, of reason, and of all the rational powers and faculties; he is the head of nature to all men, as he is of grace to his own people: and so he is as the Governor of all the nations of the earth, who whether they will or no are subject to him; and one day every knee shall bow to him, and every tongue confess that he is the Lord of all. Moreover, Christ is the head of every believing man; he is generally said to be the head of the church, and so of every man that is a member of it: he is a common public head, a representative one to all his elect; so he was in election, and in the covenant of grace; so he was in time, in his death, burial, resurrection, and ascension to, and entrance into heaven; and so he is now as an advocate and intercessor there: he is the political head of his people, or an head in such sense, as a king is the head of his nation: he is also an economical head, or in such sense an head as an husband is the head of his wife, and as a parent is the head of his family, and as a master is the head of his servants; for all these relations Christ sustains: yea, he is a natural head, or is that to his church, as an human head is to an human body: he is a true and proper head, is of the same nature with his body, is in union to it, communicates life to it, is superior to it, and more excellent than it. He is a perfect head, nothing is wanting in him; he knows all his people, and is sensible of their wants, and does supply them; his eye of love is always on them; his ears are open to their cries; he has a tongue to speak to them, and for them, which he uses; and he smells a sweet savour in them, in their graces and garments, though they are all his own, and perfumed by himself: there are no vicious humours in this head, flowing from thence to the body to its detriment, as from Adam to his posterity, whose head he was; but in Christ is no sin, nothing but grace, righteousness, and holiness, spring from him. There's no deformity nor deficiency in him; all fulness of grace dwells in him to supply the members of his body; he is an one, and only head, and an ever living and everlasting one.

And the head of the woman is the man, The man is first in order in being, was first formed, and the woman out of him, who was made for him, and not he for the woman, and therefore must be head and chief; as he is also with respect to his superior gifts and excellencies, as strength of body, and endowments of mind, whence the woman is called the weaker vessel; likewise with regard to pre-eminence or government, the man is the head; and as Christ is the head of the church, and the church is subject to him, so the husband is the head of the wife, and she is to be subject to him in everything natural, civil, and religious. Moreover, the man is the head of the woman to provide and care for her, to nourish and cherish her, and to protect and defend her against all insults and injuries.

And the head of Christ is God; that is, the Father, not as to his divine nature, for in respect to that they are one: Christ, as God, is equal to his Father, and is possessed of the same divine perfections with him; nor is his Father the head of him, in that sense; but as to his human nature, which he formed, prepared, anointed, upheld, and glorified; and in which nature Christ exercised grace on him, he hoped in him, he believed and trusted in him, and loved him, and yielded obedience to him; he always did the things that pleased him in life; he prayed to him; he was obedient to him, even unto death, and committed his soul or spirit into his hands: and all this he did as to his superior, considered in the human nature, and also in his office capacity as Mediator, who as such was his servant; and whose service he diligently and faithfully performed, and had the character from him of a righteous one; so that God is the head of Christ, as he is man and Mediator, and as such only.

Gill: 1Co 11:4 - Every man praying or prophesying // Having his head covered Every man praying or prophesying,.... This is to be understood of praying and prophesying in public, and not in private; and not to be restrained to t...

Every man praying or prophesying,.... This is to be understood of praying and prophesying in public, and not in private; and not to be restrained to the person that is the mouth of the congregation to God in prayer, or who preaches to the people in the name of God; but to be applied to every individual person that attends public worship, that joins in prayer with the minister, and hears the word preached by him, which is meant by prophesying; for not foretelling future events is here meant, but explaining the word of God, the prophecies of the Old Testament, or any part of Scripture, unless singing of psalms should rather be designed, since that is sometimes expressed by prophesying: so in 1Sa 10:5 "thou shalt meet a company of prophets coming down from the high place, with a psaltery, and a tabret, and a pipe, and a harp before them, and they shall prophesy". The Targum renders it thus, ואנון משבחין, "and they shall sing praise"; upon which Kimchi observes, that it is as if it was said, their prophecy shall be שירות, "songs" and praises to God, spoken by the Holy Ghost. So in 1Sa 19:23 it is said of Saul, that he "went on and prophesied". The Targum is, he went on, ומשבח, "and praised". And again, "he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied". Targum, ושבח, "and praised", or sung praise. Once more, in 1Ch 25:1 it is said of Asaph, and others, that they "should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals"; which Kimchi explains of Asaph's singing vocally, and of his sons playing upon musical instruments.

Having his head covered; which, it seems, was the custom of some of them so to do in attendance on public worship: this they either did in imitation of the Heathens r, who worshipped their deities with their heads covered, excepting Saturn and Hercules, whose solemnities were celebrated with heads unveiled, contrary to the prevailing customs and usages in the worship of others; or rather in imitation of the Jews, who used to veil themselves in public worship, through a spirit of bondage unto fear, under which they were, and do to this day; and with whom it is a rule s, that

"a man might not stand and pray, neither with his girdle on, ולא בראש מגולה, nor with his head uncovered; nor with his feet uncovered.''

Accordingly it is said t of Nicodemus ben Gorion,

"that he went into the school grieved, and נתעטף, "veiled himself", and stood in prayer;''

and a little after that

"that he went into the sanctuary and "veiled" himself, and stood and prayed;''

though the Targum on Jdg 5:2 suggests,

"that the wise men sit in the synagogues, בריש גלי, "with the head uncovered", to teach the people the words of the law;''

and on Jdg 5:9 has these words,

"Deborah in prophecy said, I am sent to praise the Scribes of Israel, who when they were in tribulation did not cease from expounding the law; and so it was beautiful for them to sit in the synagogues, "with the head uncovered", and teach the people the words of the law, and bless and confess before the Lord;''

but it seems that a different custom had now prevailed; now from this Gentile or judaizing practice, the apostle would dissuade them by observing, that such an one that uses it, "dishonoureth his head"; meaning either in a figurative, spiritual, and mystical sense, his head Christ, in token of the liberty received from him, and because he is above in heaven, and clear of all sin, the head must be uncovered in public worship; or otherwise the reverse is suggested of him, which is highly to dishonour him, and is the sense many interpreters give into: rather the reason should be, because Christ, the believer's head, appears for him in heaven, opens a way of access for him, gives him audience and acceptance in his person, and through his blood and righteousness; and therefore should appear with open face and head uncovered, as a token of freedom and boldness; otherwise he dishonours his head as if his blood and sacrifice were not effectual, and his intercession not prevalent: but the natural head, taken in a literal sense, is rather meant; and the sense is, that by covering it, it looks as if he was guilty and ashamed, and in subjection; whereas to appear uncovered expresses freedom, boldness, and superiority, like himself, who is the head of the woman; whereas to be covered, as with a woman's veil or hood, is effeminate, unmanly, and dishonourable.

Gill: 1Co 11:5 - But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth // with her head uncovered // dishonoureth her head // for that is even all one as if she were shaven But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth,.... Not that a woman was allowed to pray publicly in the congregation, and much less to preach or explain...

But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth,.... Not that a woman was allowed to pray publicly in the congregation, and much less to preach or explain the word, for these things were not permitted them: see 1Co 14:34 but it designs any woman that joins in public worship with the minister in prayer, and attends on the hearing of the word preached, or sings the praises of God with the congregation, as we have seen, the word prophesying signifies,

with her head uncovered. It may seem strange from whom the Corinthian women should take up this custom, since the Jewish women were not allowed to go into the streets, or into any open and public place, unveiled u. It was a Jewish law, that they should go out no where bare headed w: yea, it was reckoned scandalous and ignominious to do so. Hence it is said, x שגלוי הראש גנאי להם, "that uncovering of the head is a reproach" to the daughters of Israel: and concerning the adulterous woman, it is represented as said by the priest y,

"thou hast separated from the way of the daughters of Israel; for the way or custom of the daughters of Israel is להיות מכוסות ראשיהן, "to have their heads covered"; but thou hast gone "in the ways of the Gentiles", who walk with head bare.''

So that their it should seem that these Corinthians followed the examples of the Heathens: but then, though it might be the custom of some nations for women to go abroad bare headed; yet at their solemnities, where and when they were admitted, for they were not everywhere and always, they used to attend with their heads veiled and covered z. Mr. Mede takes notice indeed of some Heathen priestesses, who used to perform their religious rites and sacrifices with open face, and their hair hanging down, and locks spreading, in imitation of whom these women at Corinth are thought to act. However, whoever behaved in this uncomely manner, whose example soever she followed, the apostle says,

dishonoureth her head; not her husband, who is her head in a figurative sense, and is dishonoured by her not being covered; as if she was not subject to him, or because more beautiful than he, and therefore shows herself; but her natural head, as appears from the reason given:

for that is even all one as if she were shaven; to be without a veil, or some sort of covering on her head, according to the custom of the country, is the same thing as if her head was shaved; and everyone knows how dishonourable and scandalous it is for a woman to have her head shaved; and if this is the same, then it is dishonourable and scandalous to her to be without covering in public worship. And this shows, that the natural head of the man is meant in the preceding verse, since the natural head of the woman is meant in this.

Gill: 1Co 11:6 - For if the woman be not covered // let her also be shorn // but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven For if the woman be not covered,.... That is, if her head is not covered with some sort of covering, as is the custom of the place where she lives, ...

For if the woman be not covered,.... That is, if her head is not covered with some sort of covering, as is the custom of the place where she lives,

let her also be shorn; let her hair be cut short; let her wear it as men do theirs; and let her see how she will look, and how she will like that, and how she will be looked upon, and liked by others; everybody will laugh at her, and she will be ashamed of herself:

but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven: as it is accounted in all civilized nations: the very Heathens a speak of it as a thing abominable, and of which there should not be one single dreadful example: then let her be covered; with a veil, or any sort of covering in common use.

Gill: 1Co 11:7 - For a man indeed ought not to cover his head // forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God // but the woman is the glory of the man For a man indeed ought not to cover his head,.... The Ethiopic version adds, "whilst he prays"; which is a proper interpretation of the words, though ...

For a man indeed ought not to cover his head,.... The Ethiopic version adds, "whilst he prays"; which is a proper interpretation of the words, though a wrong version; for the apostle's meaning is not, that a man should not have his head covered at any time, but whilst he is in public worship, praying, prophesying, or singing of psalms: the reason is,

forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God. The apostle speaks of man here as in his first creation, in his state of innocence before his fall; but now he has sinned and defaced this image, and come short of this glory; which lay partly in his body being made after the exemplar of the body of Christ, the idea of which God had in his eternal mind, and according to which he shaped the body of Adam: and partly in his soul, in that righteousness and holiness, wisdom and knowledge, and all other excellent gifts in which it was formed. So the Jews b say, the understanding is כבוד השם "the glory of God". And it chiefly lay in the power and dominion he had over all the creatures, and even over the woman when made; at least this is principally respected here, in which there is such a shine and representation of the glory and majesty, power and dominion of God; and therefore man ought to worship him with his head uncovered, where this image and glory of God is most illustriously displayed: not but that the woman, is the image and glory of God also, and was made as man, after his image and likeness, with respect to internal qualities, as righteousness, holiness, knowledge, &c. and with regard to her power over the other creatures, though in subjection to man; but yet man was first originally and immediately the image and glory of God, the woman only secondarily and mediately through man. The man is more perfectly and conspicuously the image and glory of God, on account of his more extensive dominion and authority:

but the woman is the glory of the man; being made out of him, and for his help and assistance, and to be a crown of honour and glory to him. The apostle speaks the sense, and in the language of the Jews. The words in Isa 44:13. "After the figure of a man, according to the beauty of a man", are by the Targum rendered, "after the likeness of a man, after the glory of a woman"; and the note of a famous c interpreter of theirs upon the last clause is, "this is the woman", שהיא תפארת בעלה "who is the glory of her husband"; but why is she to be covered for this reason, when the man is to be uncovered? it is to be observed, that it is in the presence and worship of God that the one is to be uncovered, and the other covered; the one being the glory of God, and therefore to be uncovered before him; and the other the glory of man, and therefore to be covered before God; and especially, since being first in the transgression, she who is man's glory has been the means of his shame and disgrace. The Jews seem to make this the reason of the difference; they ask d,

"why does a man go out with his head uncovered, and a woman with her head covered? it is answered, it is like to one that has committed a sin, and he is ashamed of the children of men, therefore she goes וראשה מכוסה, "with her head covered".''

Gill: 1Co 11:8 - For the man is not of the woman // but the woman of the man For the man is not of the woman,.... In the present state of things, and according to the ordinary course of generation and propagation of mankind, ma...

For the man is not of the woman,.... In the present state of things, and according to the ordinary course of generation and propagation of mankind, man is of the woman, though not without the means of man; he is conceived in her, bore by her, and born of her; but the apostle respects the original formation of man, as he was immediately made by God out of the dust of the earth, before the woman was in being, and so not of her:

but the woman of the man; she was made out of his rib, and took both her name and nature from him; God was the author, and man the matter of her being; her original under God, is owing to him; and therefore as he was first in being, he must be superior to her: this serves to prove all that has been as yet said; as that man is the head of the woman, the woman is the glory of man, what he may glory in as being from him; and therefore there should be this difference in their appearance at public worship.

Gill: 1Co 11:9 - Neither was the man created for the woman // but the woman for the man Neither was the man created for the woman,.... To be subservient to her; for she was not in being when he was created; and though it is the proper bus...

Neither was the man created for the woman,.... To be subservient to her; for she was not in being when he was created; and though it is the proper business of man to provide for, take care of, and defend the woman, as the weaker vessel, yet these were not the original ends of his creation; he was made for God, for his service and glory:

but the woman for the man; to be an help meet for him, who was already created; to be a companion and associate of his, both in religious worship and in civil life; and for the procreation and education of children.

Gill: 1Co 11:10 - For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head // because of the angels For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head,.... The generality of interpreters, by power, understand the veil, or covering on the woman'...

For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head,.... The generality of interpreters, by power, understand the veil, or covering on the woman's head, as a sign of the man's power over her, and her subjection to him; which Dr. Hammond endeavours to confirm, by observing that the Hebrew word רדיד, which signifies a woman's veil, or hood, comes from a root which signifies power and dominion; but in that he is mistaken, for the word is derived not from רדה, to rule, govern, or exercise power and authority, but from רדד, to expand, stretch out, or draw over, as a woman's veil is drawn over her head and face. The Greek word εξουσια more properly signifies the power she had of putting on and off her covering as she pleased, according as times, places, and persons; made it necessary:

because of the angels; various are the senses given of these words, some taking them in a proper, others in a figurative sense: some in a proper sense of angels, and these either good or bad. Tertullian e understands them of evil angels, and that a woman should cover her head in time of worship, lest they should lust after her; though much rather the reason should be, lest they should irritate and provoke lust in others: but it is better to understand them of good angels, who attend the assemblies of the saints, and observe the air and behaviour of the worshippers; wherefore women should cover their heads with respect to them, and not give offence to those pure spirits, by an indecent appearance: it is agreeable to the notions of the Jews, that angels attend public prayers, and at the expounding of the word; they often speak f of an angel, הממונה על התפלות "that is appointed over prayers"; hence g Tertullian seems to have took his notion of an angel of prayer: and of angels being present at expounding of the Scriptures, take the following story h;

"it happened to Rabban Jochanan ben Zaccai, that he was riding upon an ass, and as he was journeying, R. Eleazar ben Arach was leading an ass after him; he said to him, Rabbi, teach me one chapter in the work of Mercavah (Ezekiel's vision); he replied to him, not so have I taught you, nor in the Mercavah a single man, unless he was a wise man by his own industry; he answered him, Rabbi, give me leave to say one thing before thee, which thou hast taught me; immediately Rabban Jochanan ben Zaccai alighted from his ass and "veiled himself", and sat upon a stone under an olive tree; he said to him, Rabbi, why dost thou alight off from the ass? he replied, is it possible that thou shouldst expound in the work of Mercavah, and the Shekinah be with us, ומלאכי השרת מלוין אותנו, "and the ministering angels join us", and I ride upon an ass?''

And a little after,

"R. Joshua and R. Jose the priest were walking on the road, they said, yea, let us expound in the work of Mercavah; R. Joshua opened and expounded, and that day was the solstice of Tammuz, and the heavens were thickened with clouds, and there appeared the form of a bow in the cloud, "and the ministering angels gathered together", ובאין לשמוע, "and came to hear": as the children of men gather together, and come to see the rejoicings of the bridegroom and bride.''

Moreover, this veiling of the woman in public worship because of angels, may be an imitation of the good angels, who when they sung the praises of God, and adored and glorified his perfections, covered their faces and their feet with their wings, Isa 6:1. Many understanding these words in a figurative sense, and in this also they are not agreed; some by angels think young men are meant, who, for their gracefulness and comeliness, are compared to angels; others good men in general, that attend religious worship; others ministers of the word, called angels often in the book of the Revelations; which last seems to be most agreeable of any of these senses; and the women were to cover their heads, that they might not offend either of these, or stir up any impure desires in them; see Ecc 5:6 but as these words follow the account given of the creation of the woman from the man, and for his sake; this may have no reference to her conduct in public worship, but to the power she had of using her covering, or taking it off, or putting it on, at the time of her espousals to a man; which was sometimes done by proxy, or messengers, whom the Jews call שלוחים, "angels" i; their canon is,

"a man may espouse (a wife) by himself, ובשלוחו, "or by his angel", or messenger; and a woman may be espoused by herself, or by her angel, or messenger:''

wherefore because of these angels, or messengers, that came to espouse her to such, she had power over her head to take off her veil, and show herself, if she thought fit; or to keep it on, as expressing her modesty; or just as she pleased, when she by them was espoused to a man, for whose sake she was made; which sense, after Dr. Lightfoot, many learned men have given into, and seems probable.

Gill: 1Co 11:11 - Nevertheless, neither is the man without the woman // so neither the woman without the man in the Lord Nevertheless, neither is the man without the woman,.... This is said, partly to repress the pride and insolence of man, that he might not be too much ...

Nevertheless, neither is the man without the woman,.... This is said, partly to repress the pride and insolence of man, that he might not be too much elated with himself, and his superiority over the woman, and look with any degree of disdain and contempt upon her, and treat her with indifference and neglect; and partly to comfort the woman, that she might not be dejected with the condition and circumstances in which she was, since the one is not without the other; nor can they be so truly comfortable and happy, as not the man without the woman, who was made for an help meet for him,

so neither the woman without the man in the Lord. The phrase "in the Lord" is added, to show that it is the will of God, and according to his ordination and appointment, that the one should not be without the other; or it may design that lawful conjunction and copulation, of one man and one woman together, according to the will of the Lord, which distinguishes it from all other impure mixtures and copulations. The Arabic version reads it, "in the religion of the Lord"; and the sense is, that the one is not without the other in religious worship, and in the enjoyment of religious privileges; that though the woman may not pray publicly and expound the Scriptures, yet she may join in prayer, and hear the word preached, sing the praises of God, and enjoy all ordinances; for in Christ no distinction of sex is regarded, men and women are all one in him, and equally regenerated, justified, and pardoned, and will be glorified together.

Gill: 1Co 11:12 - For as the woman is of the man // even so is the man also by the woman // but all things of God For as the woman is of the man,.... Originally; so Eve was of Adam, made out of one of his ribs: even so is the man also by the woman; now man is b...

For as the woman is of the man,.... Originally; so Eve was of Adam, made out of one of his ribs:

even so is the man also by the woman; now man is born of a woman, he is conceived of one, and brought into the world by one. This is the way in which mankind is propagated, the species preserved, continued, and increased; and therefore there is no reason why the woman should be despised, or the man should be lifted up with himself above her, since they are so dependent upon, and so useful to each other:

but all things of God. The Arabic version reads it, "all creatures are of God"; which is true, but not the truth of these words, which are to be restrained to the subject of the discourse; as that both the man and the woman are of God; they are made by him, and after his image and likeness; that the man is the glory of God, and the woman the glory of the man; the authority of the man over the woman, and the subjection of the woman to the man, are of God, and according to his constitution and appointment; as also that the woman should be of the man, and for his sake, and that the man should be by the woman, and neither should be without the other: these are not things of human constitution, but are settled by the wise counsel of God, and therefore to be cheerfully submitted to, as the best order of things.

Gill: 1Co 11:13 - Judge in yourselves // is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered Judge in yourselves,.... The apostle having gone through a variety of reasoning and arguments, showing the superiority of the man to the woman, by whi...

Judge in yourselves,.... The apostle having gone through a variety of reasoning and arguments, showing the superiority of the man to the woman, by which he would prove, that the one should be covered, and the other uncovered, returns to his subject again, and appeals to the common sense and understanding of the Corinthians, and makes them themselves judges of the matter; suggesting that the thing was so clear, and he so certain of what he had advanced being right, that he leaves it with them, not doubting but that they would, upon a little reflection within themselves, join with him in this point:

is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered? in you judgment you can never think so, however pleasing and gratifying such a sight may be, to the lust of the flesh, and to the lust of the eye; he does not mention prophesying, only instances in praying; but it is to be understood of one, as of another; and his meaning is, that it is an uncomely thing in a woman to appear in public service with her head uncovered, whether it be in joining in the public prayers, or in singing of psalms, or in hearing the word expounded; and though the apostle does not put the case of the man's praying to God, or prophesying in his name with his head covered, yet his sense is the same of that, as of the woman's.

Gill: 1Co 11:14 - Doth not even nature itself teach you // that if a man have long hair it is a shame unto him Doth not even nature itself teach you,.... By nature is either meant, the law and light of nature, reason in man, common sense, or rather custom, whic...

Doth not even nature itself teach you,.... By nature is either meant, the law and light of nature, reason in man, common sense, or rather custom, which is second nature; and which, in this case, must be restrained to the Greeks and Jews; for though among the Grecians the men cut their hair, and did not suffer it to grow long, as also did the Jews, yet there were many nations k who did not, even at that time, observe such a rule or custom; but as the Jews and Greeks were the persons chiefly, if not solely, known to the Corinthians, the apostle signifies, that the usages of these people might direct and inform them in this matter:

that if a man have long hair it is a shame unto him; he looks unmanly and womanish, and exposes himself to ridicule and contempt.

Gill: 1Co 11:15 - But if a woman have long hair // it is a glory to her // for her hair is given her for a covering But if a woman have long hair,.... And wears it, without cutting it, as men do: it is a glory to her; it is comely and beautiful; it is agreeable t...

But if a woman have long hair,.... And wears it, without cutting it, as men do:

it is a glory to her; it is comely and beautiful; it is agreeable to her sex, she looks like herself; it becomes and adorns her:

for her hair is given her for a covering; not instead of a covering for her head, or any other part of her body, so that she needs no other: we read indeed of the daughter of Nicodemus ben Gorion, that she was obliged to make use of her hair for a covering in such a sense l;

"it happened to R. Jochanan ben Zaccai that he rode upon an ass, and went out of Jerusalem, and his disciples went after him; he saw a young woman gathering barley corns out of the dung of the Arabian cattle; when she saw him, נתעטפה בשערה, "she covered herself with her hair", and stood before him:''

but this covering was made use of, not of choice, but by force, through her poverty, she having no other; this was not the custom of the nation, nor was the hair given to women for a covering in this sense, nor used by them as such, unless by Eve before the fall; but is rather an indication that they want another covering for their head, it not being so decent that their long hair should be seen. The Jewish women used to esteem it an immodest thing for their hair to be seen, and therefore they took care, as much as possible, to hide it under another covering;

"one woman, whose name was Kimchith, had seven sons, and they all ministered in the high priesthood; the wise men said unto her, what hast thou done, that thou art so worthy? she replied to them, all my days the beams of my house never saw קלעי שערי, "the plaits of my hair" m;''

that is, they were never seen by any person, even within her house.

Gill: 1Co 11:16 - But if any man seem to be contentious // we have no such custom, nor the churches of God But if any man seem to be contentious,.... That is, if anyone will not be satisfied with reasons given, for men's praying and prophesying with their h...

But if any man seem to be contentious,.... That is, if anyone will not be satisfied with reasons given, for men's praying and prophesying with their heads uncovered, and women's praying and prophesying with their heads covered; but will go on to raise objections, and continue carping and cavilling, showing that they contend not for truth, but victory, can they but obtain it any way; for my part, as if the apostle should say, I shall not think it worth my while to continue the dispute any longer; enough has been said to satisfy any wise and good man, anyone that is serious, thoughtful, and modest; and shall only add,

we have no such custom, nor the churches of God; meaning, either that men should appear covered, and women uncovered in public service, and which should have some weight with all those that have any regard to churches and their examples; or that men should be indulged in a captious and contentious spirit; a man that is always contending for contention sake, and is continually cavilling and carping at everything that is said and done in churches, and is always quarrelling with one person or another, or on account of one thing or another, and is constantly giving uneasiness, is not fit to be a church member; nor ought he to be suffered to continue in the communion of the church, to the disturbance of the peace of it. This puts me in mind of a passage in the Talmud n.

"The Rabbans teach, that after the departure of R. Meir, R. Judah said to his disciples, do not let the disciples of R. Meir enter here, מפני שקנתרנין הן, "because they are contentious".''

Gill: 1Co 11:17 - Now in this that I declare unto you // I praise you not // that you come together // not for the better // but for the worse