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Teks -- Exodus 8:1-32 (NET)

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Konteks
8:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord: “Release my people in order that they may serve me! 8:2 But if you refuse to release them, then I am going to plague all your territory with frogs. 8:3 The Nile will swarm with frogs, and they will come up and go into your house, in your bedroom, and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading troughs. 8:4 Frogs will come up against you, your people, and all your servants.”’” 8:5 The Lord spoke to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the canals, and over the ponds, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt. 8:7 The magicians did the same with their secret arts and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt too. 8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray to the Lord that he may take the frogs away from me and my people, and I will release the people that they may sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have the honor over me– when shall I pray for you, your servants, and your people, for the frogs to be removed from you and your houses, so that they will be left only in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.” And Moses said, “It will be as you say, so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God. 8:11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people; they will be left only in the Nile.” 8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to the Lord because of the frogs that he had brought on Pharaoh. 8:13 The Lord did as Moses asked– the frogs died out of the houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14 The Egyptians piled them in countless heaps, and the land stank. 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart and did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted.
The Third Blow: Gnats
8:16 The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the ground, and it will become gnats throughout all the land of Egypt.’” 8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his hand with his staff, he struck the dust of the ground, and it became gnats on people and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout all the land of Egypt. 8:18 When the magicians attempted to bring forth gnats by their secret arts, they could not. So there were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19 The magicians said to Pharaoh, “It is the finger of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted.
The Fourth Blow: Flies
8:20 The Lord said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and position yourself before Pharaoh as he goes out to the water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, “Release my people that they may serve me! 8:21 If you do not release my people, then I am going to send swarms of flies on you and on your servants and on your people and in your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground they stand on. 8:22 But on that day I will mark off the land of Goshen, where my people are staying, so that no swarms of flies will be there, that you may know that I am the Lord in the midst of this land. 8:23 I will put a division between my people and your people. This sign will take place tomorrow.”’” 8:24 The Lord did so; a thick swarm of flies came into Pharaoh’s house and into the houses of his servants, and throughout the whole land of Egypt the land was ruined because of the swarms of flies. 8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.” 8:26 But Moses said, “That would not be the right thing to do, for the sacrifices we make to the Lord our God would be an abomination to the Egyptians. If we make sacrifices that are an abomination to the Egyptians right before their eyes, will they not stone us? 8:27 We must go on a three-day journey into the desert and sacrifice to the Lord our God, just as he is telling us.” 8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you so that you may sacrifice to the Lord your God in the desert. Only you must not go very far. Do pray for me.” 8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out from you and pray to the Lord, and the swarms of flies will go away from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal falsely again by not releasing the people to sacrifice to the Lord.” 8:30 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord, 8:31 and the Lord did as Moses asked– he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people. Not one remained! 8:32 But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also and did not release the people.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Goshen a region in Egypt,a region of Egypt in the eastern part of the Nile delta,a town in the hill country of Judah
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Nile a river that flows north through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time


Topik/Tema Kamus: Moses | Plague | Animals | PLAGUES, THE TEN | GENESIS, 1-2 | Egyptians | Judgments | Sin | Rulers | Quotations and Allusions | Lies and Deceits | Prophecy | PLAGUES OF EGYPT | FROG | Frogs | Lice | FLY, FLIES | Flies | Fly | Intercession | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 8:2 - All thy borders All the land that is within thy borders.

All the land that is within thy borders.

Wesley: Exo 8:3 - The River Nile. Under which are comprehended all other rivers and waters.

Nile. Under which are comprehended all other rivers and waters.

Wesley: Exo 8:9 - Glory over me That is, I yield to thee.

That is, I yield to thee.

Wesley: Exo 8:10 - And he said, To morrow - Why not immediately? Probably he hoped that this night they would go away of themselves, and then he should get clear of the plague, without ...

morrow - Why not immediately? Probably he hoped that this night they would go away of themselves, and then he should get clear of the plague, without being obliged either to God or Moses. However, Moses joins issue with him upon it.

Wesley: Exo 8:10 - Be it according to thy word It shall be done just when thou wouldst have it done, that thou mayst know, that whatever the magicians pretend to, there is none like unto the Lord o...

It shall be done just when thou wouldst have it done, that thou mayst know, that whatever the magicians pretend to, there is none like unto the Lord our God - None has such a command as he has over all creatures, nor is any so ready to forgive those that humble themselves before him. The great design both of judgments and mercies, is to convince us that there is none like the Lord our God; none so wise, so mighty, so good; no enemy so formidable, no friend so desirable, so valuable.

Wesley: Exo 8:15 - But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart Observe he did it himself, not God, any otherwise than by not hindering.

Observe he did it himself, not God, any otherwise than by not hindering.

Wesley: Exo 8:17 - -- The frogs were produced out of the waters, but the lice out of the dust of the earth; for out of any part of the creation God can fetch a scourge wher...

The frogs were produced out of the waters, but the lice out of the dust of the earth; for out of any part of the creation God can fetch a scourge wherewith to correct those that rebel against him.

Wesley: Exo 8:18 - And the magicians did so That is, endeavoured to do so.

That is, endeavoured to do so.

Wesley: Exo 8:19 - This is the finger of God The power of God. The devil's agents, when God permitted them, could do great things; but when he laid an embargo upon them, they could do nothing. Th...

The power of God. The devil's agents, when God permitted them, could do great things; but when he laid an embargo upon them, they could do nothing. The magicians inability in this instance shewed whence they had their ability in the former instances, and that they had no power against Moses but what was given them from above.

Wesley: Exo 8:19 - But Pharaoh's heart was hardened By himself and the devil.

By himself and the devil.

Wesley: Exo 8:20 - Rise up early Those that would bring great things to pass for God and their generation must rise early, and redeem time in the morning. Pharaoh was early up at his ...

Those that would bring great things to pass for God and their generation must rise early, and redeem time in the morning. Pharaoh was early up at his superstitious devotions to the river; and shall we be for more sleep, and more slumber, when any service is to be done which would pass well in our account in the great day?

Wesley: Exo 8:21 - Flies Or insects of various kinds; not only flies, but gnats, wasps, hornets; and those probably more pernicious than the common ones were.

Or insects of various kinds; not only flies, but gnats, wasps, hornets; and those probably more pernicious than the common ones were.

Wesley: Exo 8:22 - Know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth In every part of it. Swarms of flies, which seem to us to fly at random, shall be manifestly under the conduct of an intelligent mind. Hither they sha...

In every part of it. Swarms of flies, which seem to us to fly at random, shall be manifestly under the conduct of an intelligent mind. Hither they shall go, saith Moses, and thither they shall come, and the performance is punctual according to this appointment; and both compared amount to a demonstration, that he that said it, and he that did it, was the same, even a being of infinite power and wisdom.

Wesley: Exo 8:23 - A division A wall of partition.

A wall of partition.

Wesley: Exo 8:24 - There came a grievous swarm of flies The prince of the power of the air has gloried in being Beel - zebub, the god of flies; but here it is proved that even in that he is a pretender, and...

The prince of the power of the air has gloried in being Beel - zebub, the god of flies; but here it is proved that even in that he is a pretender, and an usurper; for even with swarms of flies God fights against his kingdom and prevails.

Wesley: Exo 8:26 - The abomination of the Egyptians That which they abominate to see killed, because they worshipped them as gods.

That which they abominate to see killed, because they worshipped them as gods.

Wesley: Exo 8:27 - As he shall command us For he has not yet told us what sacrifices to offer.

For he has not yet told us what sacrifices to offer.

Wesley: Exo 8:28 - Ye shall not go very far away Not so far but that he might fetch them back again. It is likely he suspected that if once they left Egypt, they would never come back; and therefore ...

Not so far but that he might fetch them back again. It is likely he suspected that if once they left Egypt, they would never come back; and therefore when he is forced to consent that they shall go, yet he is not willing they should go out of his reach. See how ready God is to accept sinners submissions. Pharaoh only says, Intreat for me - Moses promises immediately, I will intreat the Lord for thee; and that he might see what the design of the plague was, not to bring him to ruin, but to repentance.

Wesley: Exo 8:32 - But Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also Still it is his own act and deed, not God's.

Still it is his own act and deed, not God's.

JFB: Exo 8:1 - the Lord spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh The duration of the first plague for a whole week must have satisfied all that it was produced not by any accidental causes, but by the agency of omni...

The duration of the first plague for a whole week must have satisfied all that it was produced not by any accidental causes, but by the agency of omnipotent power. As a judgment of God, however, it produced no good effect, and Moses was commanded to wait on the king and threaten him, in the event of his continued obstinacy, with the infliction of a new and different plague. As Pharaoh's answer is not given, it may be inferred to have been unfavorable, for the rod was again raised.

JFB: Exo 8:2 - I will smite all thy borders with frogs Those animals, though the natural spawn of the river, and therefore objects familiar to the people, were on this occasion miraculously multiplied to a...

Those animals, though the natural spawn of the river, and therefore objects familiar to the people, were on this occasion miraculously multiplied to an amazing extent, and it is probable that the ova of the frogs, which had been previously deposited in the mire and marshes, were miraculously brought to perfection at once.

JFB: Exo 8:3 - bedchamber . . . bed Mats strewed on the floor as well as more sumptuous divans of the rich.

Mats strewed on the floor as well as more sumptuous divans of the rich.

JFB: Exo 8:3 - ovens Holes made in the ground and the sides of which are plastered with mortar.

Holes made in the ground and the sides of which are plastered with mortar.

JFB: Exo 8:3 - kneading-troughs Those used in Egypt were bowls of wicker or rush work. What must have been the state of the people when they could find no means of escape from the co...

Those used in Egypt were bowls of wicker or rush work. What must have been the state of the people when they could find no means of escape from the cold, damp touch and unsightly presence of the frogs, as they alighted on every article and vessel of food!

JFB: Exo 8:5-6 - -- Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, &c. The miracle consisted in the reptiles leaving their marshes at the very time he commanded ...

Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, &c. The miracle consisted in the reptiles leaving their marshes at the very time he commanded them.

JFB: Exo 8:7 - the magicians did so with their enchantments Required no great art to make the offensive reptiles appear on any small spot of ground. What they undertook to do already existed in abundance all ar...

Required no great art to make the offensive reptiles appear on any small spot of ground. What they undertook to do already existed in abundance all around. They would better have shown their power by removing the frogs.

JFB: Exo 8:8-15 - Pharaoh called, . . . Intreat the Lord, that he may take away the frogs from me The frog, which was now used as an instrument of affliction, whether from reverence or abhorrence, was an object of national superstition with the Egy...

The frog, which was now used as an instrument of affliction, whether from reverence or abhorrence, was an object of national superstition with the Egyptians, the god Ptha being represented with a frog's head. But the vast numbers, together with their stench, made them an intolerable nuisance so that the king was so far humbled as to promise that, if Moses would intercede for their removal, he would consent to the departure of Israel, and in compliance with this appeal, they were withdrawn at the very hour named by the monarch himself. But many, while suffering the consequences of their sins, make promises of amendment and obedience which they afterwards forget; and so Pharaoh, when he saw there was a respite, was again hardened [Exo 8:15].

JFB: Exo 8:16 - smite the dust of the land, &c. Aaron's rod, by the direction of Moses, who was commanded by God, was again raised, and the land was filled with gnats, mosquitoes--that is the proper...

Aaron's rod, by the direction of Moses, who was commanded by God, was again raised, and the land was filled with gnats, mosquitoes--that is the proper meaning of the original term. In ordinary circumstances they embitter life in Eastern countries, and therefore the terrible nature of this infliction on Egypt may be imagined when no precautions could preserve from their painful sting. The very smallness and insignificance of these fierce insects made them a dreadful scourge. The magicians never attempted any imitation, and what neither the blood of the river nor the nuisance of the frogs had done, the visitation of this tiny enemy constrained them to acknowledge "this is the finger of God"--properly "gods," for they spoke as heathens.

JFB: Exo 8:20-24 - Rise up early . . . Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water, &c. Pharaoh still appearing obdurate, Moses was ordered to meet him while walking on the banks of the Nile and repeat his request for the liberation of Is...

Pharaoh still appearing obdurate, Moses was ordered to meet him while walking on the banks of the Nile and repeat his request for the liberation of Israel, threatening in case of continued refusal to cover every house from the palace to the cottage with swarms of flies--while, as a proof of the power that accomplished this judgment, the land of Goshen should be exempted from the calamity. The appeal was equally vain as before, and the predicted evil overtook the country in the form of what was not "flies," such as we are accustomed to, but divers sorts of flies (Psa 78:45), the gad fly, the cockroach, the Egyptian beetle, for all these are mentioned by different writers. They are very destructive, some of them inflicting severe bites on animals, others destroying clothes, books, plants, every thing. The worship of flies, particularly of the beetle, was a prominent part of the religion of the ancient Egyptians. The employment of these winged deities to chastise them must have been painful and humiliating to the Egyptians while it must at the same time have strengthened the faith of the Israelites in the God of their fathers as the only object of worship.

JFB: Exo 8:25-32 - Pharaoh called for Moses, . . . Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land, &c. Between impatient anxiety to be freed from this scourge and a reluctance on the part of the Hebrew bondsmen, the king followed the course of expedienc...

Between impatient anxiety to be freed from this scourge and a reluctance on the part of the Hebrew bondsmen, the king followed the course of expediency; he proposed to let them free to engage in their religious rites within any part of the kingdom. But true to his instructions, Moses would accede to no such arrangement; he stated a most valid reason to show the danger of it, and the king having yielded so far as to allow them a brief holiday across the border, annexed to this concession a request that Moses would entreat with Jehovah for the removal of the plague. He promised to do so, and it was removed the following day. But no sooner was the pressure over than the spirit of Pharaoh, like a bent bow, sprang back to its wonted obduracy, and, regardless of his promise, he refused to let the people depart.

Clarke: Exo 8:1 - Let my people go Let my people go - God, in great mercy to Pharaoh and the Egyptians, gives them notice of the evils he intended to bring upon them if they continued...

Let my people go - God, in great mercy to Pharaoh and the Egyptians, gives them notice of the evils he intended to bring upon them if they continued in their obstinacy. Having had therefore such warning, the evil might have been prevented by a timely humiliation and return to God.

Clarke: Exo 8:2 - If thou refuse If thou refuse - Nothing can be plainer than that Pharaoh had it still in his power to have dismissed the people, and that his refusal was the mere ...

If thou refuse - Nothing can be plainer than that Pharaoh had it still in his power to have dismissed the people, and that his refusal was the mere effect of his own wilful obstinacy

Clarke: Exo 8:2 - With frogs With frogs - צפרדעים tsepardeim . This word is of doubtful etymology: almost all interpreters, both ancient and modern, agree to render it ...

With frogs - צפרדעים tsepardeim . This word is of doubtful etymology: almost all interpreters, both ancient and modern, agree to render it as we do, though some mentioned by Aben Ezra think the crocodile is meant; but these can never weigh against the conjoint testimony of the ancient versions. Parkhurst derives the word from צפר tsaphar , denoting the brisk action, or motion of the light, and ידע yada , to feel, as they seem to feel or rejoice in the light, croaking all the summer months, yet hiding themselves in the winter. The Arabic name for this animal is very nearly the same with the Hebrew zafda , where the letters are the same, the ר resch being omitted. It is used as a quadriliteral root in the Arabic language, to signify froggy, or containing frogs: see Golius. But the true etymology seems to be given by Bochart, who says the word is compounded of zifa , a bank, and rada , mud, because the frog delights in muddy or marshy places; and that from these two words the noun zafda is formed, the re being dropped. In the Batrocho myomachia of Homer, the frog has many of its epithets from this very circumstance. Hence Λιμνοχαρις, delighting in the lake; Βορβοροκοιτης, lying or engendering in the mud; Πηλευς, and Πηλβατης, belonging to the mud, walking in the mud, etc., etc

A frog is in itself a very harmless animal; but to most people who use it not as an article of food, exceedingly loathsome. God, with equal ease, could have brought crocodiles, bears, lions, or tigers to have punished these people and their impious king, instead of frogs, lice, flies, etc. But had he used any of those formidable animals, the effect would have appeared so commensurate to the cause, that the hand of God might have been forgotten in the punishment; and the people would have been exasperated without being humbled. In the present instance he shows the greatness of his power by making an animal, devoid of every evil quality, the means of a terrible affliction to his enemies. How easy is it, both to the justice and mercy of God, to destroy or save by means of the most despicable and insignificant of instruments! Though he is the Lord of hosts he has no need of powerful armies, the ministry of angels, or the thunderbolts of justice, to punish a sinner or a sinful nation; the frog or the fly in his hands is a sufficient instrument of vengeance.

Clarke: Exo 8:3 - The river shall bring forth frogs abundantly The river shall bring forth frogs abundantly - The river Nile, which was an object of their adoration, was here one of the instruments of their puni...

The river shall bring forth frogs abundantly - The river Nile, which was an object of their adoration, was here one of the instruments of their punishment. The expression, bring forth abundantly, not only shows the vast numbers of those animals, which should now infest the land, but it seems also to imply that all the spawn or ova of those animals which were already in the river and marshes, should be brought miraculously to a state of perfection. We may suppose that the animals were already in an embryo existence, but multitudes of them would not have come to a state of perfection had it not been for this miraculous interference. This supposition will appear the more natural when it is considered that the Nile was remarkable for breeding frogs, and such other animals as are principally engendered in such marshy places as must be left in the vicinity of the Nile after its annual inundations

Clarke: Exo 8:3 - Into thine ovens Into thine ovens - In various parts of the east, instead of what we call ovens they dig a hole in the ground, in which they insert a kind of earthen...

Into thine ovens - In various parts of the east, instead of what we call ovens they dig a hole in the ground, in which they insert a kind of earthen pot, which having sufficiently heated, they stick their cakes to the inside, and when baked remove them and supply their places with others, and so on. To find such places full of frogs when they came to heat them, in order to make their bread, must be both disgusting and distressing in the extreme.

Clarke: Exo 8:5 - Stretch forth thine hand - over the streams, over the rivers Stretch forth thine hand - over the streams, over the rivers - The streams and rivers here may refer to the grand divisions of the Nile in the Lower...

Stretch forth thine hand - over the streams, over the rivers - The streams and rivers here may refer to the grand divisions of the Nile in the Lower Egypt, which were at least seven, and to the canals by which these were connected; as there were no other streams, etc., but what proceeded from this great river.

Clarke: Exo 8:6 - The frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt The frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt - In some ancient writers we have examples of a similar plague. The Abderites, according to Orosius...

The frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt - In some ancient writers we have examples of a similar plague. The Abderites, according to Orosius, and the inhabitants of Paeonia and Dardania, according to Athenaeus, were obliged to abandon their country on account of the great numbers of frogs by which their land was infested.

Clarke: Exo 8:7 - The magicians did so The magicians did so - A little juggling or dexterity of hand might have been quite sufficient for the imitation of this miracle, because frogs in a...

The magicians did so - A little juggling or dexterity of hand might have been quite sufficient for the imitation of this miracle, because frogs in abundance had already been produced; and some of these kept in readiness might have been brought forward by the magicians, as proofs of their pretended power and equality in influence to Moses and Aaron.

Clarke: Exo 8:9 - Glory over me Glory over me - התפאר עלי hithpaer alai . These words have greatly puzzled commentators in general; and it is not easy to assign their tru...

Glory over me - התפאר עלי hithpaer alai . These words have greatly puzzled commentators in general; and it is not easy to assign their true meaning. The Septuagint render the words thus: Ταξαι προς με ποτε, etc., Appoint unto me when I shall pray, etc. The constitue mihi quando of the Vulgate is exactly the same; and in this sense almost all the versions understood this place. This countenances the conjectural emendation of Le Clerc, who, by the change of a single letter, reading התבאר hithbaer for התפאר hithpaer , gives the same sense as that in the ancient versions. Houbigant, supposing a corruption in the original, amends the reading thus: אתה באר עלי attah baar alai - Dic mihi quo tempore , etc., "Tell me when thou wishest me to pray for thee,"etc., which amounts to the same in sense with that proposed by Le Clerc. Several of our English versions preserve the same meaning; so in the Saxon Heptateuch; so in Becke’ s Bible, 1549, "And Moses sayed unto Pharaoh, Appoint thou the time unto me."This appears to be the genuine import of the words, and the sense taken in this way is strong and good. We may conceive Moses addressing Pharaoh in this way: "That thou mayest be persuaded that Jehovah alone is the inflicter of these plagues, appoint the time when thou wouldst have the present calamity removed, and I will pray unto God, and thou shalt plainly see from his answer that this is no casual affliction, and that in continuing to harden thy heart and resist thou art sinning against God."Nothing could be a fuller proof that this plague was supernatural than the circumstance of Pharaoh’ s being permitted to assign himself the time of its being removed, and its removal at the intercession of Moses according to that appointment. And this is the very use made of it by Moses himself, Exo 8:10, when he says, Be it according to thy word: that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the Lord our God; and that, consequently, he might no longer trust in his magicians, or in his false gods.

Clarke: Exo 8:14 - They gathered them together upon heaps They gathered them together upon heaps - The killing of the frogs was a mitigation of the punishment; but the leaving them to rot in the land was a ...

They gathered them together upon heaps - The killing of the frogs was a mitigation of the punishment; but the leaving them to rot in the land was a continual proof that such a plague had taken place, and that the displeasure of the Lord still continued. The conjecture of Calmet is at least rational: he supposes that the plague of flies originated from the plague of frogs; that the former deposited their ova in the putrid masses, and that from these the innumerable swarms afterwards mentioned were hatched. In vindication of this supposition it may be observed, that God never works a miracle when the end can be accomplished by merely natural means; and in the operations of Divine providence we always find that the greatest number of effects possible are accomplished by the fewest causes. As therefore the natural means for this fourth plague had been miraculously provided by the second, the Divine Being had a right to use the instruments which he had already prepared

Clarke: Exo 8:16 - Smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice Smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice - If the vermin commonly designated by this name be intended, it must have been a very dreadful ...

Smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice - If the vermin commonly designated by this name be intended, it must have been a very dreadful and afflicting plague to the Egyptians, and especially to their priests, who were obliged to shave the hair off every part of their bodies, and to wear a single tunic, that no vermin of this kind might be permitted to harbor about them. See Herod. in Euterp., c. xxxvii., p. 104, edit. Gale. Of the nature of these insects it is not necessary to say much. The common louse is very prolific. In the space of twelve days a full-grown female lays one hundred eggs, from which, in the space of six days, about fifty males and as many females are produced. In eighteen days these young females are at their full growth, each of which may lay one hundred eggs, which will be all hatched in six days more. Thus, in the course of six weeks, the parent female may see 5,000 of its own descendants! So mightily does this scourge of indolence and filthiness increase

But learned men are not agreed on the signification of the original word כנים kinnim , which different copies of the Septuagint render σκνιφες, σκνιπες, and σκνηπες, gnats; and the Vulgate renders sciniphes , which signifies the same

Mr. Harmer supposes he has found out the true meaning in the word tarrentes, mentioned by Vinisauf, one of our ancient English writers; who, speaking of the expedition of King Richard I. to the Holy Land, says, that "while the army were marching from Cayphas to Caesarea, they were greatly distressed every night by certain worms called tarrentes, which crept on the ground, and occasioned a very burning heat by most painful punctures; for, being armed with stings, they conveyed a poison which quickly occasioned those who were wounded by them to swell, and was attended with the most acute pain."All this is far fetched. Bochart has endeavored to prove that the כנים kinnim of the text may mean lice in the common acceptation of the term, and not gnats. 1. Because those in question sprang from the dust of the earth, and not from the waters. 2. Because they were both on men and cattle, which cannot be spoken of gnats. 3. Because their name comes from the radix כון kun , which signifies to make firm, fix, establish, which can never agree to gnats, flies, etc., which are ever changing their place, and are almost constantly on the wing. 4. Because כנה kinnah is the term by which the Talmudists express the louse, etc. See his Hierozoicon, vol. ii., c. xviii., col. 571. The circumstance of their being in man and in beast agrees so well with the nature of the acarus sanguisugus , commonly called the tick, belonging to the seventh order of insects called Aptera , that I am ready to conclude this is the insect meant. This animal buries both its sucker and head equally in man or beast; and can with very great difficulty be extracted before it is grown to its proper size, and filled with the blood and juices of the animal on which it preys. When fully grown, it has a glossy black oval body: not only horses, cows, and sheep are infested with it in certain countries, but even the common people, especially those who labor in the field, in woods, etc. I know no insect to which the Hebrew term so properly applies. This is the fixed, established insect, which will permit itself to be pulled in pieces rather than let go its hold; and this is literally באדם ובבהמה baadam ubabbehemah , in man and in beast, burying its trunk and head in the flesh of both. In woodland countries I have seen many persons as well as cattle grievously infested with these insects.

Clarke: Exo 8:18 - The magicians did so The magicians did so - That is, They tried the utmost of their skill, either to produce these insects or to remove this plague; but they could not, ...

The magicians did so - That is, They tried the utmost of their skill, either to produce these insects or to remove this plague; but they could not, no juggling could avail here, because insects must be produced which would stick to and infix themselves in man and beast, which no kind of trick could possibly imitate; and to remove them, as some would translate the passage, was to their power equally impossible. If the magicians even acted by spiritual agents, we find from this case that these agents had assigned limits, beyond which they could not go; for every agent in the universe is acting under the direction or control of the Almighty.

Clarke: Exo 8:19 - This is the finger of God This is the finger of God - That is, The power and skill of God are here evident. Probably before this the magicians supposed Moses and Aaron to be ...

This is the finger of God - That is, The power and skill of God are here evident. Probably before this the magicians supposed Moses and Aaron to be conjurers, like themselves; but now they are convinced that no man could do these miracles which these holy men did, unless God were with him. God permits evil spirits to manifest themselves in a certain way, that men may see that there is a spiritual world, and be on their guard against seduction. He at the same time shows that all these agents are under his control, that men may have confidence in his goodness and power

Clarke: Exo 8:21 - Swarms of flies upon thee Swarms of flies upon thee - It is not easy to ascertain the precise meaning of the original word הערב hearob ; as the word comes from ערב ...

Swarms of flies upon thee - It is not easy to ascertain the precise meaning of the original word הערב hearob ; as the word comes from ערב arab , he mingled, it may be supposed to express a multitude of various sorts of insects. And if the conjecture be admitted that the putrid frogs became the occasion of this plague, (different insects laying their eggs in the bodies of those dead animals, which would soon be hatched, see on Exo 8:14 (note)), then the supposition that a multitude of different hinds of insects is meant, will seem the more probable. Though the plague of the locusts was miraculous, yet God both brought it and removed it by natural means; see Exo 10:13-19

Bochart, who has treated this subject with his usual learning and ability, follows the Septuagint, explaining the original by κυνομυια, the dog-fly; which must be particularly hateful to the Egyptians, because they held dogs in the highest veneration, and worshipped Anubis under the form of a dog. In a case of this kind the authority of the Septuagint is very high, as they translated the Pentateuch in the very place where these plagues happened. But as the Egyptians are well known to have paid religious veneration to all kinds of animals and monsters, whence the poet: -

Omnigenumque deum monstra, et latrator Anubis

I am inclined to favor the literal construction of the word: for as ערב ereb , Exo 12:38, expresses that mixed multitude of different kinds of people who accompanied the Israelites in their departure from Egypt; so here the same term being used, it may have been designed to express a multitude of different kinds of insects, such as flies, wasps, hornets, etc., etc. The ancient Jewish interpreters suppose that all kinds of beasts and reptiles are intended, such as wolves, lions, bears, serpents, etc. Mr. Bate thinks the raven is meant, because the original is so understood in other places; and thus he translates it in his literal version of the Pentateuch: but the meaning already given is the most likely. As to the objection against this opinion drawn from Exo 8:31, there remained not one, it can have very little weight, when it is considered that this may as well be spoken of one of any of the different kinds, as of an individual of one species.

Clarke: Exo 8:22 - I will sever in that day I will sever in that day - הפליתי hiphleythi , has been translated by some good critics, I will miraculously separate; so the Vulgate: Faciam...

I will sever in that day - הפליתי hiphleythi , has been translated by some good critics, I will miraculously separate; so the Vulgate: Faciam mirabilem , "I will do a marvellous thing."And the Septuagint, παραδοξασω, I will render illustrious the land of Goshen in that day; and this he did, by exempting that land, and its inhabitants the Israelites, from the plagues by which he afflicted the land of Egypt.

Clarke: Exo 8:23 - And I will put a division And I will put a division - פדת peduth , a redemption, between my people and thy people; God hereby showing that he had redeemed them from those...

And I will put a division - פדת peduth , a redemption, between my people and thy people; God hereby showing that he had redeemed them from those plagues to which he had abandoned the others.

Clarke: Exo 8:24 - The land was corrupted The land was corrupted - Every thing was spoiled, and many of the inhabitants destroyed, being probably stung to death by these venomous insects. Th...

The land was corrupted - Every thing was spoiled, and many of the inhabitants destroyed, being probably stung to death by these venomous insects. This seems to be intimated by the psalmist, "He sent divers sorts of flies among them, which Devoured them,"Psa 78:45

In ancient times, when political, domestic, and personal cleanliness was but little attended to, and offal of different kinds permitted to corrupt in the streets and breed vermin, flies multiplied exceedingly, so that we read in ancient authors of whole districts being laid waste by them; hence different people had deities, whose office it was to defend them against flies. Among these we may reckon Baalzebub, the fly-god of Ekron; Hercules, muscarum abactor , Hercules, the expeller of flies, of the Romans; the Muagrus of the Eleans, whom they invoked against pestilential swarms of flies; and hence Jupiter, the supreme god of the heathens, had the epithets of Απομυιος and Μυωδης, because he was supposed to expel flies, and defend his worshippers against them. See Dodd.

Clarke: Exo 8:25 - Sacrifice to your God in the land Sacrifice to your God in the land - That is, Ye shall not leave Egypt, but I shall cause your worship to be tolerated here.

Sacrifice to your God in the land - That is, Ye shall not leave Egypt, but I shall cause your worship to be tolerated here.

Clarke: Exo 8:26 - We shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians We shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians - That is, The animals which they hold sacred, and will not permit to be slain, are those which ...

We shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians - That is, The animals which they hold sacred, and will not permit to be slain, are those which our customs require us to sacrifice to our God; and should we do this in Egypt the people would rise in a mass, and stone us to death. Perhaps few people were more superstitious than the Egyptians. Almost every production of nature was an object of their religious worship: the sun, moon, planets, stars, the river Nile, animals of all sorts, from the human being to the monkey, dog, cat, and ibis, and even the onions and leeks which grew in their gardens. Jupiter was adored by them under the form of a ram, Apollo under the form of a crow, Bacchus under that of a goat, and Juno under that of a heifer. The reason why the Egyptians worshipped those animals is given by Eusebius, viz., that when the giants made war on the gods, they were obliged to take refuge in Egypt, and assume the shapes or disguise themselves under different kinds of animals in order to escape. Jupiter hid himself in the body of a ram, Apollo in that of a crow, Bacchus in a goat, Diana in a cat, Juno in a white heifer, Venus in a fish, and Mercury in the bird ibis; all which are summoned up by Ovid in the following lines: -

Duxque gregis fit Jupiter -

Delius in corvo, proles Semeleia capro

Fele soror Phoebi, nivea Saturnia vacca

Pisce Venus latuit, Cyllenius ibidis alis

Metam., l. v., fab. v., 1. 326

How the gods fled to Egypt’ s slimy soil

And hid their heads beneath the banks of Nile

How Typhon from the conquer’ d skies pursue

Their routed godheads to the seven-mouth’ d flood

Forced every god, his fury to escape

Some beastly form to take, or earthly shape

Jove, so she sung, was changed into a ram

From whence the horns of Libyan Ammon came

Bacchus a goat, Apollo was a crow

Phoebe a cat, the wife of Jove a cow

Whose hue was whiter than the falling snow

Mercury, to a nasty ibis turn’ d

The change obscene, afraid of Typhon mourn’ d

While Venus from a fish protection craves

And once more plunges in her native wave

- Maynwaring

These animals therefore became sacred to them on account of the deities, who, as the fable reports, had taken refuge in them. Others suppose that the reason why the Egyptians would not sacrifice or kill those creatures was their belief in the doctrine of the metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls; for they feared lest in killing an animal they should kill a relative or a friend. This doctrine is still held by the Hindoos.

Clarke: Exo 8:27 - And sacrifice to the Lord - as he shall command us And sacrifice to the Lord - as he shall command us - It is very likely that neither Moses nor Aaron knew as yet in what manner God would be worshipp...

And sacrifice to the Lord - as he shall command us - It is very likely that neither Moses nor Aaron knew as yet in what manner God would be worshipped; and they expected to receive a direct revelation from him relative to this subject, when they should come into the wilderness.

Clarke: Exo 8:28 - I will let you go only ye shall not go very far away I will let you go only ye shall not go very far away - Pharaoh relented because the hand of God was heavy upon him; but he was not willing to give u...

I will let you go only ye shall not go very far away - Pharaoh relented because the hand of God was heavy upon him; but he was not willing to give up his gain. The Israelites were very profitable to him; they were slaves of the state, and their hard labor was very productive: hence he professed a willingness, first to tolerate their religion in the land, (Exo 8:25); or to permit them to go into the wilderness, so that they went not far away, and would soon return. How ready is foolish man, when the hand of God presses him sore, to compound with his Maker! He will consent to give up some sins, provided God will permit him to keep others

Clarke: Exo 8:28 - Entreat for me Entreat for me - Exactly similar to the case of Simon Magus, who, like Pharaoh, fearing the Divine judgments, begged an interest in the prayers of P...

Entreat for me - Exactly similar to the case of Simon Magus, who, like Pharaoh, fearing the Divine judgments, begged an interest in the prayers of Peter, Act 8:24.

Clarke: Exo 8:31 - The Lord did according to the word of Moses The Lord did according to the word of Moses - How powerful is prayer! God permits his servant to prescribe even the manner and time in which he shal...

The Lord did according to the word of Moses - How powerful is prayer! God permits his servant to prescribe even the manner and time in which he shall work

Clarke: Exo 8:31 - He removed the swarms He removed the swarms - Probably by means of a strong wind, which swept them into the sea.

He removed the swarms - Probably by means of a strong wind, which swept them into the sea.

Clarke: Exo 8:32 - Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also - See Exo 8:15. This hardening was the mere effect of his self-determining obstinacy. He preferred his ...

Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also - See Exo 8:15. This hardening was the mere effect of his self-determining obstinacy. He preferred his gain to the will and command of Jehovah, and God made his obstinacy the means of showing forth his own power and providence in a supereminent degree

1.    As every false religion proves there is a true one, as a copy, however marred or imperfect, shows there was an original from which it was taken, so false miracles prove that there were genuine miracles, and that God chooses at particular times, for the most important purposes, to invert the established order of nature, and thus prove his omnipotence and universal agency. That the miracles wrought at this time were real we have the fullest proof. The waters, for instance, were not turned into blood in appearance merely, but were really thus changed. Hence the people could not drink of them; and as blood in a very short time, when exposed to the air, becomes putrid, so did the bloody waters; therefore all the fish that were in the river died

2.    No human power or ingenuity could produce such frogs as annoyed the land of Egypt. This also was a real, not an imaginary, plague. Innumerable multitudes of these animals were produced for the purpose; and the heaps of their dead carcasses, which putrefied and infected the land, at once demonstrated the reality of the miracle

3.    The lice both on man and beast through the whole land, and the innumerable swarms of flies, gave such proofs of their reality as to put the truth of these miracles out of question for ever. It was necessary that this point should be fully proved, that both the Egyptians and Israelites might see the finger of God in these awful works

4.    To superficial observers only do "Moses and the magicians appear to be nearly matched."The power of God was shown in producing and removing the plagues. In certain cases the magicians imitated the production of a plague, but they had no power to remove any. They could not seem to remove the bloody color, nor the putrescency from the waters through which the fish were destroyed, though they could imitate the color itself; they could not remove the frogs, the lice, or swarms of flies, though they could imitate the former and latter; they could by dexterity of hand or diabolic influence produce serpents, but they could not bring one forward that could swallow up the rod of Aaron. In every respect they fall infinitely short of the power and wonderful energy evidenced in the miracles of Moses and Aaron. The opposition therefore of those men served only as a foil to set off the excellence of that power by which these messengers of God acted

5.    The courage, constancy, and faith of Moses are worthy of the most serious consideration. Had he not been fully satisfied of the truth and certainty of his Divine mission, he could not have encountered such a host of difficulties; had he not been certain of the issue, he could not have preserved amidst so many discouraging circumstances; and had he not had a deep acquaintance with God, his faith in every trial must have necessarily failed. So strong was this grace in him that he could even pledge his Maker to the performance of works concerning which he had not as yet consulted him! He therefore let Pharaoh fix the very time on which he would wish to have the plague removed; and when this was done, he went to God by faith and prayer to obtain this new miracle; and God in the most exact and circumstantial manner fulfilled the word of his servant

6.    From all this let us learn that there is a God who worketh in the earth; that universal nature is under his control; that he can alter, suspend, counteract, or invert its general laws whensoever he pleases; and that he can save or destroy by the most feeble and most contemptible instruments. We should therefore deeply reverence his eternal power and Godhead, and look with respect on every creature he has made, as the meanest of them may in his hand, become the instrument of our salvation or our ruin

7.    Let us not imagine that God has so bound himself to work by general laws, that those destructions cannot take place which designate a particular providence. Pharaoh and the Egyptians are confounded, afflicted, routed, and ruined, while the land of Goshen and the Israelites are free from every plague! No blood appears in their streams; no frogs, lice, nor flies, in all their borders! They trusted in the true God, and could not be confounded. Reader, how secure mayest thou rest if thou hast this God for thy friend! He was the Protector and Friend of the Israelites through the blood of that covenant which is the very charter of thy salvation: trust in and pray to him as Moses did, and then Satan and his angels shall be bruised under thy feet, and thou shalt not only be preserved from every plague, but be crowned with his loving kindness and tender mercy. He is the same to-day that he was yesterday, and shall continue the same for ever. Hallelujah, the Lord God omnipotent reigneth!

Calvin: Exo 8:1 - And the Lord spake 1.And the Lord spake Again, as if the matter were only now begun, God demands of Pharaoh His own peculiar right, viz., that His people should serve H...

1.And the Lord spake Again, as if the matter were only now begun, God demands of Pharaoh His own peculiar right, viz., that His people should serve Him, but out of the land of Egypt, that His worship might be separate and pure from all defilement, for He desired (as was before said) by this separation of His people to condemn the superstitions of the Egyptians. Meanwhile there was no excuse for the tyrant, when, with sacrilegious boldness, he presumed to deprive God of His just honor. Therefore, in refusing to let them go, he was declared not only to be cruel, but also a despiser of God. Threatening is also added, that at least he may, however unwillingly, be driven to obey; for thus must the stubborn be dealt with, who never are brought to duty except when forced by fear or punishment. Indeed, God sometimes also threatens His own servants, in order to stimulate their laziness; but especially is He more severe towards the perverse and disobedient. Thus is it said, (Psa 18:26,)

“With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure; and with the froward thou wilt shew thyself froward.”

This is the reason why He sanctions His command with threats 92 when He addresses Pharaoh. In this second plague there are, besides, two things to be remarked by us; for, first, God shews that the Egyptians had hitherto held their lives by a precarious tenure, as it were, because He had protected them from the incursion of frogs by His special mercy. We know that Egypt, on account of its many marshes, and the sluggish and almost stagnant Nile, was full of frogs and venomous animals; now, when great multitudes of them come forth suddenly, cover the surface of the fields, penetrate even to the houses and bed-chambers, and finally ascend even into the royal palace, it plainly appears that they were before only restrained by God’s hand, and thus that the God of the Hebrews was the guardian and keeper of that kingdom. Secondly, God chose not only to inflict a punishment upon the Egyptians, but to expose them to mockery by its ignominious nature; nor can we doubt but that their pain must have been much embittered by this contumely, when they saw that they were thus evil-entreated not by some victorious army, but by filthy reptiles; and besides this, that their calamity had its origin in the Nile, which enriched their country with so many advantages. But let us learn from this history that there are many deaths mixed up with our life, and that it is not otherwise lengthened out to us, except as God restrains the dangers which everywhere beset us; and again, although He may not openly strike us with lightning from heaven, nor arm his angels for the destruction of men, still, at His slightest nod, all creatures are ready to execute this judgments; and, therefore, we must ascribe it to His kindness and long-suffering, if the wicked do not perish at each moment. Finally, if we are ever galled by ignominy or disgrace, let us remember that this happens designedly, that the shame itself may mortify our pride.

Calvin: Exo 8:5 - And the Lord spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron 5.And the Lord spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron It is questionable whether God thus enjoined Moses in a continuous address, or whether He waited unti...

5.And the Lord spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron It is questionable whether God thus enjoined Moses in a continuous address, or whether He waited until Pharaoh contumaciously despised His command. It is probable, indeed, that after Pharaoh had paid no attention to the threats, the execution of the punishment was commanded. Meantime, we must recollect what I before said, that Moses moved not even a finger; but, as he had been commanded, transferred the active measures to his inferior minister, that thus Pharaoh might be treated more contemptuously. It was thus that he overwhelmed the whole land, as it were, by a breath. But although in this way God cast down the fierce tyrant in his swelling pride to be trampled beneath their feet, still the wickedness of the magicians did not rest. Thus was it requisite that the servants of God should be exercised by constant contests one after another.

Calvin: Exo 8:8 - Then Pharaoh called for Moses 8.Then Pharaoh called for Moses Pharaoh at last appears to be softened, and to lay aside some of his fierceness; but it will soon appear that he was ...

8.Then Pharaoh called for Moses Pharaoh at last appears to be softened, and to lay aside some of his fierceness; but it will soon appear that he was not really tamed. It may indeed have been that, seized with terror, he seriously took refuge in cries for pardon; but that he lied to God, and to himself, is plain from his very inconstancy; because, as soon as a reprieve was granted, he returned to his natural disposition, nay, he effectively manifested that his malice was only repressed by fear, since it presently began to vent itself again. Thus do hypocrites, when they are beneath God’s afflicting hand, or tremble under the apprehension of His chastenings, humbly and submissively implore His mercy; but when the evil has been withdrawn for a little while, this short truce puffs up their hearts, as if they had attained an eternal peace. The Prophet complains in the psalm, that thus also it happened with the Jews,

“When he slew them, then they sought him; and they returned and inquired early after God; and they remembered that God was their rock, and the high God their redeemer; nevertheless, they did but flatter him with their mouth, and they lied unto him with their tongues; for their heart was not right with him, neither were they steadfast in his covenant.” (Psa 78:34.)

In fine, this is a disease common to all hypocrites, that, having found by experience their frowardness to be destructive to them, they feign penitence for the sake of obtaining pardon, because they cannot escape the judgments of God; but, when they fancy themselves escaped, they hasten back to the same pride, they kick against God, and even wantonly insult him; in a word, it is only their trouble that humbles them and that only for a short time. But although Pharaoh’s fear extorted this from him, that he sought for Moses to entreat for him, and was anxious to appease God, yet was it a token of his deceitful and double mind, that he made it, as it were, a bargain, that the frogs should be taken away before he let the people go. His impiety, therefore, lay concealed in his heart, so long as he thought that he could not defy God with impunity; but, relying confidently on impunity, he manifested his deceit and perfidy. Although it was not with any sincere feeling of repentance that he now humbly speaks of Jehovah by name, yet it shews that the stoutness of his spirit was broken, of which mention was made before, when he inquired in mockery, “Who is the Lord?”

Calvin: Exo 8:9 - And Moses said unto Pharaoh 9.And Moses said unto Pharaoh Commentators differ as to the meaning of this passage. They are too speculative who expound it, that this honor was gra...

9.And Moses said unto Pharaoh Commentators differ as to the meaning of this passage. They are too speculative who expound it, that this honor was granted to Pharaoh, that he should fix the time in which Moses was to pray. Again, there is a flatness in the exposition, that Pharaoh might glory because the frogs were to die. Those who expound it, that Pharaoh should be freed from the frogs, so that he might glory in safety, express part of the meaning, but not the whole. It rather appears to me that there is an implied antithesis between the perverse boasting, wherewith Pharaoh had exulted, and that pious glowing which he ought to seek for in the mercy of God; as if Moses had said, “Thus far you have exalted yourself improperly, trusting in your power, and afterwards when bewitched by the enchantments; now rather glory, because you have an intercessor and patron to plead for you to God.” For it was needful that the arrogance, which had so falsely elevated him, that he dared to contend with God, should be crushed, and that no hope should be left him, save in the mercy of God. But to “glory over” Moses, means that he should seek his glory in the advocacy of Moses, and should account it a very great happiness that he should deign to interpose for his reconciliation with God. For the particle על , 93 is often so taken. Yet Moses by no means wished to detract at all from the glory of God; but (as I have lately said) desiring to humble the pride of the haughty king, he told him that nothing would be better and more glorious for him than to have a good hope of pardon, when he had obtained as his advocate the servant of the living God, whom he so cordially hated. He only affirms that the frogs should “remain in the river;” as much as to say that they should be content with their ordinary habitation and bounds; for we know that frogs, although they sometimes jump out on the bank, still do not go far from the water, because they are nourished by humidity. Thus he hints that they were let loose by God’s command to cover the ground, and that it was still in His power, if He chose, that they should invade the fields and houses again in new multitudes; and that it must be ascribed to His blessing, if they kept themselves in the waters, and did not make incursions beyond their own boundaries.

Calvin: Exo 8:10 - And he said, Tomorrow 10.And he said, Tomorrow If you refer this to Moses, there is ambiguity in the sense; but, it being probable that they were Pharaoh’s words, I thin...

10.And he said, Tomorrow If you refer this to Moses, there is ambiguity in the sense; but, it being probable that they were Pharaoh’s words, I think that he is asking for a respite till tomorrow, before he lets the people go. For they fall into an absurdity, who think that he asked Moses to drive away the frogs by his prayers on the morrow, as if Pharaoh went quietly to sleep, and put off the remedy of the evil. There is, then, no pretence for understanding it, that Pharaoh, as if his mind were quite tranquil and unmoved, desired to have his land delivered from the frogs on the following day: but rather it means, that if he be released from this difficulty, he promises the discharge of the people, but yet suspends it till the next day, for the purpose of deceit. For there was no other reason for this procrastination, except that, having obtained what he wanted, he might depart from his engagement, as he actually did; but Moses, satisfied with this promise, undertakes to bring it about that God should disperse the frogs; and this, I doubt not, was performed on the same day. For this was the cause of the tyrant’s changing his determination, that, by the interposition of the night, his fear departed. And, certainly, it is gathered from the following words, that the frogs were soon after removed; for it is said that Moses and Aaron prayed after they had gone out; which would be but little in accordance with the notion, that the next day was waited for. It is not by any rash or presumptuous impulse that Moses affirms that Pharaoh should obtain his desire; because it appears from his success that he was assured of its being God’s will. Thus often are the prophets, although no spoken revelation may intervene, directed nevertheless by the secret inspiration of the Spirit. In this confidence, also, Moses declares that Pharaoh should know that there is none other God to be compared with the God of Israel. This, moreover, is the true knowledge of God, when whatsoever lifts itself up to obscure His glory, is reduced to its proper level, and every high thing yields or is cast down, so that He alone may be exalted.

Calvin: Exo 8:15 - Blot when Pharaoh saw 15.Blot when Pharaoh saw Hence it appears that the wretched tyrant, like a winding serpent, twisted and turned his mind to crooked counsels; for when...

15.Blot when Pharaoh saw Hence it appears that the wretched tyrant, like a winding serpent, twisted and turned his mind to crooked counsels; for when he was trembling beneath the present feeling of God’s power, he dared not obstinately resist any longer; he only sought a little breathing time; now, being freed from fear, he returns to his former contumacy. But this is a sign of a perverse and crooked disposition, not to submit willingly, but to pay only a temporary deference, when necessity is more than usually urgent. God foreknew, and had foretold to Moses, that this perfidy was hidden in the recesses of his heart; but he was willing to bring it to light, and therefore remitted the punishment; and hence was the opportunity for dissembling.

Calvin: Exo 8:16 - And the Lord said unto Moses 16.And the Lord said unto Moses In this place again, as before, Aaron is commanded to act as the inferior of Moses in punishing the tyrant; and this ...

16.And the Lord said unto Moses In this place again, as before, Aaron is commanded to act as the inferior of Moses in punishing the tyrant; and this as being more ignominious than as if Moses alone had been employed. The nature of this third plague is very remarkable. God troubles Egypt not only with frogs, but with lice; for although the Hebrews are not entirely agreed as to the כנם , kinim, yet they admit that they were little animals or insects, which produced shame together with annoyance even to the meanest of men. We see then how magnificently God trampled upon the pride of Egypt, by inflicting a punishment full of affront and disgrace; for although it would have been painful to sink under a powerful and warlike enemy, yet was it far more sad to be basely destroyed by lice. Nor can we doubt that God prepared such an army as this, principally that He might openly manifest how easily He can bring to nought in derision all earthly strength and power. And surely, unless the Egyptians had been something more than stupid and beside themselves, this calculation would have come into their minds; what would hereafter happen, if the Maker of heaven and earth should apply Himself to their destruction with all His might, when they perceived themselves to be wasted away in this almost ludicrous contest with Him? But let us learn from this history, that all creatures are ready at God’s lightest command, whenever He chooses to make use of them to chastise His enemies; and again, that no animal is so vile and contemptible as not to have the power of doing injury when God employs it; and, finally, that reprobates obtain this at last by their proud doings, viz., that they are, with the greatest infamy, made to yield to the worms themselves, or to lice.

Calvin: Exo 8:18 - And the magicians did so 18.And the magicians did so They “did” is here put for “they tried to do;” for they did not succeed, as presently appears. They are therefore...

18.And the magicians did so They “did” is here put for “they tried to do;” for they did not succeed, as presently appears. They are therefore said to have done, what they in vain attempted, or what they essayed, but without success. And in this way God took away from Pharaoh whatever excuse remained, under pretext of being deceived; for although he had previously himself sought for these deceptions, still his obstinacy was not without color of excuse, as long as the magicians rivaled Moses in the contention; but when he sees their art fail, he professedly sets himself in opposition to God. Although it was not with reference to him alone that God restrained these impostors, but He exposes them to the ridicule of all, in order to assert altogether for Himself alone the glory of perfect power. Hence we gather how well, according to His inestimable wisdom, He represses whatever license He for a time permits to the ministers of Satan; for when, by bearing with their audacity, He has sufficiently proved the faith of His people, He compels them to stop abruptly, as it were, that they may sink in confusion, and “proceed no further,” as Paul says, when recounting this history. (2Ti 3:9.)

Calvin: Exo 8:19 - Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh 19.Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh It is probable that they were reproved harshly, because they had come to a stop in their rivalry with the ser...

19.Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh It is probable that they were reproved harshly, because they had come to a stop in their rivalry with the servants of God; wherefore they excuse themselves by saying, that there is no more room for their wisdom and magical arts. We gather from hence that they had so been able to delude by their sorceries, that they thought themselves very good and praiseworthy artificers of deception. For on no other account had the people accounted them wise than because they had themselves first attained this confidence; therefore they oppose the finger of God to their subtlety and skill, as much as to say, that there is no longer any question as to the excellence of their art, but that whatever could be required from astrologers and masters of juggling, was now brought to nought by the extraordinary power of God. They do indeed contradict themselves; because what could have been their object in contending with Moses and Aaron, except they had boasted that God was on their side? But if they had been acting under the auspices of God, how ridiculous was it to confess that those, whom they had before opposed, were their superiors, and to accord them the praise of the victory, because they were endued with power from God? We see then how infatuated they were with all their cunning. But in the meantime we must recollect what I have lately glanced at, that they not only led others into error, but were also deceived, because they thought there was some science in the deceptions of their magic; as now-a-days we see that the fortune-tellers and other impostors, who call themselves judicial astrologers, so pride themselves in their follies, as to have no hesitation in taking the first rank amongst the learned. Besides, ambition itself impelled the magicians to say, that God wrought by the hand of Moses; for they were ashamed to confess that any human being excelled them in wisdom. But the confession was extorted from them, that they might greatly magnify the glory of the one true God, and at the same time bear witness to the legitimate vocation of Moses; for if the power of God is manifested conspicuously in Moses, it follows that he is a true and divine Prophet. But, because He does not equally work in them, but brings their efforts to confusion, it may thence be concluded that they are enemies of God. That they should have contended unsuccessfully, and have been foiled in the midst of their attempts, was sufficient to restrain their vanity; but this was much worse, that they should make out God to be the enemy of their art. It is true that they spoke this inconsiderately, because they only wished to consult their own fame, and to defend the false honors of their learning; but it pleased God thus to convict them, so that Pharaoh should perceive that he had entered into contention with the living God, and not with two ordinary men. As to the form of expression, it is clearly metaphorical; for in Luke’s Gospel the Spirit is called “the finger of God,” (Luk 11:20;) as likewise, in many passages, the same Spirit is intended by “the hand of God.” Still, we must mark the reason, lest any unlearned person should take it literally, as if the Spirit, who truly is Eternal God, were but some portion of the Divinity. 94 But since the magicians were compelled at length to recognise God’s power in the miracle, our folly will be worse than base if this same consideration does not obtain with us. Although it becomes us to acknowledge the hand of God in two ways; for neither when He acts by means, (as it is called,) does He detract from Himself at all; and, therefore, His hand may be seen with the eyes of faith in the whole course of nature; but, since He stirs up our indifference by miracles, therein it shines forth more conspicuously. Because, however, we shall soon see that the magicians did not therefore repent of their folly, let us learn sincerely and cordially to humble ourselves beneath God’s powerful hand, as soon as it appears. That Pharaoh, when deserted by the magicians, did not cease at all from his obstinacy, is a proof to us that, however wickedness may seek for its support in different directions, still the corruption is implanted within, which is of itself at enmity with God.

Calvin: Exo 8:20 - And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early 20.And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early As Pharaoh advances in daring rashness, so does God on the other hand proceed to restrain his impetuos...

20.And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early As Pharaoh advances in daring rashness, so does God on the other hand proceed to restrain his impetuosity by opposing impediments. This is what the wicked at length obtain by long and multiplied contention, that having received many wounds they perish by various torments. With respect to the command that Moses should meet Pharaoh, when he shall go down in the morning to the river-side for his pleasure, it is uncertain whether God would have the tyrant encountered in public, because the palace was difficult of access; although it seems probable to me, that a place was chosen in which the proceeding would be more manifest, and where the voice of His messenger would be more clearly heard. Therefore, that nothing might be done secretly, Moses proclaims in open day, before the whole multitude, that judgment of God, which immediately afterwards took effect. But here no mention is made of the rod, as in the former plagues; because God sometimes makes use of external instruments, that we may know that all creatures are in His hand, and are wielded according to His will; but sometimes acts independently of them, that we may know that He needs no such assistance. This varied mode of action demonstrates that He subjects all things to His empire as He pleases, and yet that He is contented with His own power. This plague has some affinity to the two previous ones, inasmuch as its infliction is attended with ignominy, which may put the tyrant to shame. The Hebrew word ערב , 95 g narob, means the same as the Latin “ examen insectorum, ” a swarm of insects. Many interpreters think that there was a mixture of various kinds; and this I do not reject, since it is probable that their foul odour was multiplied, so as almost to suffocate the tyrant. Those who explain it as describing bears, lions, tigers, wolves, and other wild beasts, depart without any reason from the genuine meaning of the word.

Calvin: Exo 8:22 - And I will sever 22.And I will sever Although this had not been expressly declared as yet, still it must be extended to the other plagues; for it is certain, that whe...

22.And I will sever Although this had not been expressly declared as yet, still it must be extended to the other plagues; for it is certain, that when God inflicted punishment on the Egyptians, He did not proceed promiscuously against all men; and, therefore, that His chosen people, in whose behalf He acted, were free from all inconvenience. But now perhaps for the first time this distinction is made more evident to Pharaoh, whereas before the peculiar grace of God had not been known to him. From hence, however, it was more than plain, that mercies and punishments were in the power of the one God of Israel, so that He might spare His own people, and treat them kindly and paternally, whilst, on the other hand, He exercised vengeance against His enemies. Wherefore He adds, “to the end thou mayest know that I am the Lord God in the midst of the earth.” There is all implied antithesis here, which casts down all idols, and exalts the God of Israel alone. But although “the earth” may be here taken for the whole habitable globe, it will be properly confined to Egypt, as if God affirmed that He was supreme in the midst of Egypt, or everywhere throughout all Egypt, which means the same. The expression which follows, although somewhat harsh, yet contains no ambiguity. God is said to have “put a redemption between his people and the Egyptians; 96 because, as if He had erected barriers, or set up a fence to preserve one corner in safety, He had withholden His favor from the whole surrounding district. Moreover, because the word פלה , 97 phelo, signifies to be admirable, or to be concealed, some interpreters translate it, “I will render admirable 98 the land of Goshen;” but I have preferred following the more usual rendering which appears to be most appropriate. Lastly, it is to be observed that time for repentance is again given to Pharaoh, so that, if he were curable, he might prevent the punishment denounced against him: for God might have sent the insects at the moment; but He assigns the morrow, to prove the wickedness of the tyrant.

Calvin: Exo 8:25 - And Pharaoh called for Moses 25.And Pharaoh called for Moses Pharaoh imagines that he is granting a great thing, if the Israelites are permitted to offer sacrifice to God in Egyp...

25.And Pharaoh called for Moses Pharaoh imagines that he is granting a great thing, if the Israelites are permitted to offer sacrifice to God in Egypt. He and all his people should have humbly embraced the worship of God, and casting away their superstitions should have sought to Moses as their instructor in sincere piety. He departs from none of their common vices; he does not renounce his idols nor forsake his former errors; but only permits God to be worshipped in one part of his kingdom. But this is customary with the reprobate, to think that they have sufficiently done their duty, when they yield ever so little to God. Hence it arises, that when they are conquered and compelled, still they would not hesitate to detract somewhat from the rights of God; nay, if they might do so with impunity, they would willingly rob Him of all. And in fact as long as fortune 99 is propitious, and they enjoy a state of prosperity and safety, they deprive God, as much as may be, of all His glory; but when the power of resisting fails them, they so descend to submission as to defraud Him of half His due honor. God had commanded a free departure to be conceded to His people; Pharaoh does not obey this command, but endeavors to satisfy God in another way, viz., by not forbidding them to offer sacrifice in Egypt. This sin, which was common in all ages, is now-a-days too clearly manifest. Our Pharaohs would altogether extinguish God’s glory, and this they madly set themselves to compass; but when reduced to extremities, if there be no further use in professedly contending with Him, they maim and mutilate His worship by a fictitious course, which they call a reformation. Hence arose that mixture of light and darkness, which was named “the Interim” 100 Nor do the enemies of the truth cease to obtrude thus ridiculously upon God their empty and unreal expiation’s.

Calvin: Exo 8:26 - And Moses said 26.And Moses said The word כון , 101 kon, which Moses here uses, has a wide signification; for the Hebrews say of whatever they do not approve,...

26.And Moses said The word כון , 101 kon, which Moses here uses, has a wide signification; for the Hebrews say of whatever they do not approve, that it is not right ( rectum.) Therefore almost all the interpreters agree in this, that Pharaoh demanded what was by no means equitable, because he would have exposed the Israelites to be stoned by his people. If this opinion be admitted, we must read the passage connectedly, that it was not in accordance with reason, that the Israelites should sacrifice in Egypt in a strange manner, because the novelty would not be tolerated. There are two clauses in the sentence; one, that it was not right for them to offer in Egypt a sacrifice to God, which was abominable to the inhabitants themselves, or to offer a profane sacrifice of the abominations of the heathen; the other, that there was a danger of the Israelites being stoned, if they provoked the Egyptians by a ceremony, which was detestable to them. As to the second clause, there is no doubt that “the abomination of the Egyptians” is taken actively for the sacrifices which they abominate. The same seems to be the meaning of the first clause; for it would be harsh to interpret the same forms of expression differently within a few words of each other; except that the name of Jehovah, put in opposition as it is to “the abomination,” seems to require a passive signification. For Moses says emphatically, that “it is not right to sacrifice the abomination of Egypt to Jehovah the God of Israel.” If this view be adopted, “the abomination” will be the profanation of true and pure worship, wherewith the sacred ceremonies of the Egyptians were defiled; as much as to say, that it was unlawful to mix up the worship of the true God with such sacrilege. And, in fact, Moses seems to contend with a twofold argument; first, that it was not right, secondly, that it was not expedient. Take this, then, as the first reason, that a sacrifice which should. be polluted by the abominations of Egypt, would neither be lawful nor pleasing to God; the second will follow after, that the Egyptians would not tolerate it; because they would conceive both themselves and their gods to be grievously insulted, if their accustomed mode of sacrificing should be violated. This interpretation is fuller, and contains fuller doctrine, if Moses, first of all, was solicitous as to the honor of God, and did not regard the advantage of the people only; and in this sentiment, that the true God could not be duly worshipped unless when separated from all idols, there is nothing forced. But, since in the same verse “the abomination of the Egyptians” is taken actively, it will be well, in order that the construction may be more easy, to expound it thus in both places. Then the sense of the first clause will be, it is not consistent to expose the worship of our God to the reproaches and sneers of the Gentiles; which would be the case, if the Egyptians should see us honoring a sacrificial ceremony which they abominate. I do not, indeed, assent to their opinion, who will not admit the passage to consist of two clauses, but read it connectedly thus — that it was not right to do this, because the Egyptians would stone the Israelites. For Moses not only had regard to what was best for the people, but primarily to what would please God, viz., that His holy name should not be profaned. I see no foundation in reason for restraining, as is usually done, the word “abomination” to the animals of sacrifice; and, therefore, I extend it to the whole operation of sacrificing. 102

Calvin: Exo 8:27 - We will go three days’ journey 27.We will go three days’ journey This is the conclusion that no change must be made in God’s command, but that His injunction must be obeyed sim...

27.We will go three days’ journey This is the conclusion that no change must be made in God’s command, but that His injunction must be obeyed simply, and without exception. Nor is there little praise due to the firmness of Moses, who so boldly and unreservedly rejected the pretended moderation of the tyrant, because it would have somewhat interfered with the will of God. He therefore declares that the Israelites would do no otherwise than as God had prescribed.

Calvin: Exo 8:28 - And Pharaoh said, I will let you go 28.And Pharaoh said, I will let you go When he sees that his delays and shifts avail him nothing, he professes entire obedience; not that he then pro...

28.And Pharaoh said, I will let you go When he sees that his delays and shifts avail him nothing, he professes entire obedience; not that he then proposed to deceive and lie, because he was prevented by fear; but only, because overwhelmed with a present sense of his calamity, he dared not raise his crest against God. Therefore (as I said before) he did not so much wish designedly to conciliate and frustrate Moses by falsehood, as he deceived himself. For we must observe that (like one who has a wolf by the ears) he was constrained to promise the dismissal of the people, whom he retained to his own great injury. And this is why he commends himself to their prayers, for necessity urged him to implore God’s pardon and peace: although it might have been that he desired craftily to engage their affection to himself under the pretext of religion. For by this anxious precaution for himself, he betrays his want of confidence. Finally, by requesting their prayers, he, as it were, throws out a rope by which he may draw them back to himself when the sacrifice was over.

Calvin: Exo 8:29 - And Moses said, Behold I go out from thee 29.And Moses said, Behold I go out from thee Moses does not reply to this demand, because he knew that the design of God was otherwise; and God had j...

29.And Moses said, Behold I go out from thee Moses does not reply to this demand, because he knew that the design of God was otherwise; and God had justly left him in ignorance as to what He did not yet wish him to know. There is, then, no reason why Moses should be accused of bad faith when he faithfully fulfilled the charge committed to him; although he was silent as to what he was not ordered to declare, even as to that which God wished to be concealed from the tyrant. But the holy Prophet, aroused to pious indignation by the king’s perfidy, does not immediately remove the plague, but waits till the morrow; and moreover, denounces with severity that, if he should persist in deceit, its punishment awaited him. This great magnanimity he had derived from the miracles, for, having experienced in them the unconquerable power of God, he had no cause for fear. For it was an act of extraordinary boldness openly and before the tyrant’s face to reproach him for his falsehoods, and at the same time to threaten him with punishment unless he desisted from them. But we said before that Moses had not acted from the workings of his own mind, when he promised Pharaoh what he asked, but that he had spoken thus confidently from special impulse. For the general promise in which God affirms that He will grant the prayers of His servants, must not be applied to particular cases, so that they should expect to obtain this or that in a specified manner, unless they have some peculiar testimony from the word or the Spirit of God.

Calvin: Exo 8:31 - And the Lord did according to the word of Moses 31.And the Lord did according to the word of Moses “The word” here may be expounded either of the answer, or the prayer, of Moses. The former ple...

31.And the Lord did according to the word of Moses “The word” here may be expounded either of the answer, or the prayer, of Moses. The former pleases me best, viz., that by the result God proved that He ratified what Moses had said, whom He had made the proclaimer of His judgment; but if any one prefer to refer it to his prayer, let him retain his opinion. When he adds that the “heart of the king was hardened at this time also,” he aggravates the crime of his obstinacy, since there was no bound to his rebellion under such a series of punishments, by which even an iron heart should have been corrected.

Defender: Exo 8:23 - a division The remaining miracles not only were utterly beyond the abilities of either men or demons to perform or imitate, but also further demonstrated by this...

The remaining miracles not only were utterly beyond the abilities of either men or demons to perform or imitate, but also further demonstrated by this divinely ordained selectivity the true God behind the miracles. Each judgment, in fact, in some way "mocked" the impotent gods of Egypt."

TSK: Exo 8:1 - Go // Let my Go : Jer 1:17-19, Jer 15:19-21; Eze 2:6, Eze 2:7 Let my : Exo 3:12, Exo 3:18, Exo 5:1, Exo 7:16

TSK: Exo 8:2 - refuse // frogs refuse : Exo 7:14, Exo 9:2 frogs : The Hebrew tzephardêim is evidently the same with the Arabic zafda , Chaldaic oordeânaya , and Syriac oo...

refuse : Exo 7:14, Exo 9:2

frogs : The Hebrew tzephardêim is evidently the same with the Arabic zafda , Chaldaic oordeânaya , and Syriac oordeai , all of which denote frogs, as almost all interpreters, both ancient and modern, agree to render it; Bochart conceives, from tzifa , a bank, and rada , mud, because of delighting in muddy and marshy places. Psa 78:45, Psa 105:30; Rev 16:13, Rev 16:14

TSK: Exo 8:3 - -- kneading troughs, or, dough, Exo 12:34

kneading troughs, or, dough, Exo 12:34

TSK: Exo 8:4 - -- Psa 107:40; Isa 19:11, Isa 19:22, Isa 23:9; Dan 4:37; Act 12:22, Act 12:23

TSK: Exo 8:5 - -- Exo 7:19

TSK: Exo 8:6 - and the frogs and the frogs : Whether the frog among the Egyptians was an object of reverence or abhorrence is uncertain. It might have been both at the same time,...

and the frogs : Whether the frog among the Egyptians was an object of reverence or abhorrence is uncertain. It might have been both at the same time, as many objects are known to have been among particular nations; for proof of which see the very learned Jacob Bryant, on the Plagues of Egypt , pp. 31-34. Lev 11:12; Psa 78:45, Psa 105:30; Rev 16:13

TSK: Exo 8:7 - -- Exo 7:11, Exo 7:22; Deu 13:1-3; Mat 24:24; 2Th 2:9-11; 2Ti 3:8; Rev 13:14

TSK: Exo 8:8 - Entreat // and I will Entreat : Exo 5:2, Exo 9:28, Exo 10:17; Num 21:7; 1Sa 12:19; 1Ki 13:6; Act 8:24 and I will : Exo 8:25-28, Exo 10:8-11, Exo 10:24-27, Exo 12:31, Exo 12...

TSK: Exo 8:9 - Glory over me // when // to destroy Glory over me : or, Have this honour over me, Jdg 7:2; 1Ki 18:25; Isa 10:15 when : or, against when to destroy : Heb. to cut of, Exo 8:13

Glory over me : or, Have this honour over me, Jdg 7:2; 1Ki 18:25; Isa 10:15

when : or, against when

to destroy : Heb. to cut of, Exo 8:13

TSK: Exo 8:10 - To morrow // there is none To morrow : or, against to-morrow, Pro 27:1; Jam 4:14 there is none : Exo 9:14, Exo 9:29, Exo 15:11; Deu 32:31, Deu 33:26; 2Sa 7:22; 1Ch 17:20; Psa 9:...

TSK: Exo 8:11 - -- Exo 8:3, Exo 8:9

TSK: Exo 8:12 - -- Exo 8:8, Exo 8:30, Exo 9:33, Exo 10:18, Exo 32:11; 1Sa 12:23; Eze 36:37; Jam 5:16-18

TSK: Exo 8:13 - -- Deu 34:10-12

TSK: Exo 8:14 - and the and the : Exo 8:24, Exo 7:21; Isa 34:2; Eze 39:11; Joe 2:20

TSK: Exo 8:15 - saw // he hardened saw : Exo 14:5; Ecc 8:11; Isa 26:10; Jer 34:7-11; Hos 6:4 he hardened : Exo 4:21, Exo 7:4, Exo 7:13, Exo 7:14; Pro 29:1; Zec 7:11, Zec 7:12; Heb 3:8, ...

TSK: Exo 8:16 - Stretch // lice Stretch : Exo 8:5, Exo 8:17 lice : The word kinnim is rendered by the LXX σκιφες , σκιπες , or σκνηφες , and by the Vulgate...

Stretch : Exo 8:5, Exo 8:17

lice : The word kinnim is rendered by the LXX σκιφες , σκιπες , or σκνηφες , and by the Vulgate sciniphes , Gnats; and Mr. Harmer supposes he has found out the true meaning in the word tarrentes , a species of worm. Bochart, however, seems to have proved that lice, and not gnats, are meant; because:

1.    They sprang from the dust, and not from the waters;

2.    They were on both man and beast, which cannot be said of gnats;

3.    Their name is derived from koon , to make firm, fix, establish, which cannot agree with gnats, flies, etc., which are ever changing place, and almost constantly on the wing;

4.    The term kinnah is used by the Talmudists to express the louse.

This insect must have been a very dreadful and afflicting plague to the Egyptians, and especially to the priests, who were obliged to shave all their hair off, and to wear a single linen tunic, to prevent vermin harbouring about them.

TSK: Exo 8:17 - lice in man lice in man : Psa 105:31; Isa 23:9; Act 12:23

lice in man : Psa 105:31; Isa 23:9; Act 12:23

TSK: Exo 8:18 - the magicians // they could the magicians : Exo 7:11 they could : Exo 9:11; Gen 41:8; Isa 19:12, Isa 47:12, Isa 47:13; Dan 2:10, Dan 2:11, Dan 4:7, Dan 5:8; Luk 10:18; 2Ti 3:8, 2...

TSK: Exo 8:19 - This is // and Pharaoh’ s This is : 1Sa 6:3, 1Sa 6:9; Psa 8:3; Dan 2:10, Dan 2:11, Dan 2:19; Mat 12:28; Luk 11:20; Joh 11:47; Act 4:16 and Pharaoh’ s : Exo 8:15

TSK: Exo 8:20 - lo // Let my lo : Exo 7:15 Let my : Exo 8:1

lo : Exo 7:15

Let my : Exo 8:1

TSK: Exo 8:21 - swarms swarms : or, a mixture of noisome beasts, etc. The word arov is rendered κυνομυια , kunomuia , the dog-fly, by the LXX (who are followe...

swarms : or, a mixture of noisome beasts, etc. The word arov is rendered κυνομυια , kunomuia , the dog-fly, by the LXX (who are followed by the learned Bochart), which must have been particularly hateful to the Egyptians, because they held dogs in the highest veneration, under which form they worshipped Anubis. Psa 78:45, Psa 105:31; Isa 7:18

TSK: Exo 8:22 - sever // know // midst sever : Exo 9:4, Exo 9:6, Exo 9:26, Exo 10:23, Exo 11:6, Exo 11:7, Exo 12:13; Mal 3:18 know : Exo 8:10, Exo 7:17; Eze 30:19 midst : Psa 74:12, Psa 110...

TSK: Exo 8:23 - a division // to morrow a division : Heb. a redemption to morrow : or, by to-morrow

a division : Heb. a redemption

to morrow : or, by to-morrow

TSK: Exo 8:24 - there // the land // corrupted there : Exo 8:21; Psa 78:45, Psa 105:31 the land : How intolerable a plague of flies can prove, is evident from the fact that whole districts have bee...

there : Exo 8:21; Psa 78:45, Psa 105:31

the land : How intolerable a plague of flies can prove, is evident from the fact that whole districts have been laid waste by them. The inhabitants have been forced to quit their cities, not being able to stand against the flies and gnats with which they were pestered. Hence different people had deities whose office it was to defend them against flies. Among these may be reckoned Baalzebub, the fly-god of Ekron; Hercules, muscarum abactor , Hercules the expeller of flies; and hence Jupiter had the titles of απομυιος , μυιαγρος , μυιοχορος , because he was supposed to expel flies, and especially clear his temples of these insects. See Bryant. Exo 8:14

corrupted : or destroyed

TSK: Exo 8:25 - -- Exo 8:8, Exo 9:27, Exo 10:16, Exo 12:31; Rev 3:9

TSK: Exo 8:26 - It is not // we shall // the abomination It is not : Exo 3:18; 2Co 6:14-17 we shall : Gen 43:32, Gen 46:34; Deu 7:25, Deu 7:26, Deu 12:30, Deu 12:31; Ezr 9:1; Isa 44:19 the abomination : i.e....

It is not : Exo 3:18; 2Co 6:14-17

we shall : Gen 43:32, Gen 46:34; Deu 7:25, Deu 7:26, Deu 12:30, Deu 12:31; Ezr 9:1; Isa 44:19

the abomination : i.e. The animals which they worshipped; for an account of which, see note on Exo 9:3. 1Ki 11:5-7; 2Ki 23:13

TSK: Exo 8:27 - three days’ // as he shall three days’ : Exo 3:18, Exo 5:1 as he shall : Exo 3:12, Exo 10:26, Exo 34:11; Lev 10:1; Mat 28:20

three days’ : Exo 3:18, Exo 5:1

as he shall : Exo 3:12, Exo 10:26, Exo 34:11; Lev 10:1; Mat 28:20

TSK: Exo 8:28 - I will // entreat I will : Hos 10:2 entreat : Exo 8:8, Exo 8:29, Exo 9:28, Exo 10:17; 1Ki 13:6; Ezr 6:10; Ecc 6:10; Act 8:24

TSK: Exo 8:29 - to morrow // deal to morrow : Exo 8:10 deal : Exo 8:8, Exo 8:15; Psa 66:3 *marg. Psa 78:34-37; Jer 42:20, Jer 42:21; Act 5:3, Act 5:4; Gal 6:7

TSK: Exo 8:30 - entreated entreated : Exo 8:12, Exo 9:33; Jam 5:16

entreated : Exo 8:12, Exo 9:33; Jam 5:16

TSK: Exo 8:32 - -- Exo 8:15, Exo 4:21, Exo 7:13, Exo 7:14; Isa 63:17; Act 28:26, Act 28:27; Rom 2:5; Jam 1:13, Jam 1:14

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 8:2 - -- All thy land which is within thy borders; a synecdoche; so that word is used also Exo 10:4,19 1Ki 1:3 Psa 147:14 Jer 15:13 . So the gate and the ...

All thy land which is within thy borders; a synecdoche; so that word is used also Exo 10:4,19 1Ki 1:3 Psa 147:14 Jer 15:13 . So the gate and the wall are put for the city to which they belong, Gen 22:17 Amo 1:7,10,14 .

Poole: Exo 8:3 - The river // Into thy bed-chamber The river under which are comprehended all other rivers, streams, and ponds, as appears from Exo 8:5 . But the river Nilus is mentioned, because God ...

The river under which are comprehended all other rivers, streams, and ponds, as appears from Exo 8:5 . But the river Nilus is mentioned, because God would make that an instrument of their misery in which they most gloried, Eze 29:3 , and to which they gave divine honours, and which was the instrument of their cruelty against the Israelites, Exo 1:22 .

Into thy bed-chamber either because God made the doors and windows to fly open, which it is easy to believe concerning God, seeing that this hath been many times done by evil angels; or because whensoever men entered into any house, or any room of their house, which their occasions would oft force them to do, the frogs, being always at their heels in great numbers, would go in with them. This plague was worse than the former, because it was more constant and more general; for the former was only in the waters, and did only molest them when they went to drink or use the water; but this infected all liquors, and all places, and at all times, and annoyed all their senses with their filthy substance, and shape, and noise, and stink, and mingled themselves with their meats, and sauces, and drinks, and crawling into their beds made them restless. And many of them probably were of a more ugly shape and infectious nature than ordinary.

Poole: Exo 8:4 - -- Not upon the Israelites, whom he hereby exempts from the number of Pharaoh’ s people and subjects, and owns them for his peculiar people. The f...

Not upon the Israelites, whom he hereby exempts from the number of Pharaoh’ s people and subjects, and owns them for his peculiar people. The frogs did not only invade their houses, but assault their persons, which is not strange, considering that they were armed with a Divine commission and power.

Poole: Exo 8:5 - The Lord spake unto Moses The Lord spake unto Moses by inward instinct or suggestion to his mind; for He was now in the king’ s presence.

The Lord spake unto Moses by inward instinct or suggestion to his mind; for He was now in the king’ s presence.

Poole: Exo 8:7 - -- Nor was it hard for the devil to produce them out of their own spawn, and the slime of the river.

Nor was it hard for the devil to produce them out of their own spawn, and the slime of the river.

Poole: Exo 8:9 - Glory over me // When shall I entreat for thee? Glory over me: as I have gloried over thee in laying first my commands, and then my plagues upon thee, so now lay thy commands upon me for the time o...

Glory over me: as I have gloried over thee in laying first my commands, and then my plagues upon thee, so now lay thy commands upon me for the time of my praying; and if I do not what thou requirest, I am content thou shouldst insult over me, punish me. Or, glory , or boast thyself of , or concerning me , as one that thy God’ s power can do that for thee which all thy magicians cannot, of whom therefore thou now seest thou canst not glory nor boast, as thou hast hitherto done.

When shall I entreat for thee? Appoint me what time thou pleasest. Hereby he knew that the hand and glory of God would be more conspicuous in it. And this was no presumption in Moses, because he had a large commission, Exo 7:1 ; and also had particular direction from God in all that he said or did in these matters.

Poole: Exo 8:10 - Answ Why not presently? Answ 1. Because he hoped ere that time they might be removed, either by natural causes or by chance, and so he should not need ...

Why not presently?

Answ 1. Because he hoped ere that time they might be removed, either by natural causes or by chance, and so he should not need the favour of Moses or his God.

2. Because he thought it a hard and long work to remove so vast a number of frogs, and that Moses might use divers ceremonies, as the magicians did, in his addresses to God, which would require some considerable time.

Poole: Exo 8:12 - Moses cried unto the Lord Or, as the place is fitly rendered by others, because of the word, or matter of, or about the frogs which he had given or propounded to Pharaoh ....

Or, as the place is fitly rendered by others, because of the word, or matter of, or about the frogs which he had given or propounded to Pharaoh . Because he had given his word both for the thing and the time of it, he prayed more earnestly lest God should be dishonoured, and Pharaoh have occasion of triumph. The Hebrew verbs to put and to give are frequently exchanged, as appears by comparing 1Ki 10:9 , with 2Ch 9:8 ; and Isa 42:1 , with Mat 12:18 .

Moses cried unto the Lord: though he was assured that the frogs would depart at his word, yet he would use the means appointed by God for the accomplishment of it.

Poole: Exo 8:13 - -- A short speech for they died and were removed out of, &c, as appears from the next verse; it being frequent in the Hebrew tongue under one verb ex...

A short speech for they died and were removed out of, &c, as appears from the next verse; it being frequent in the Hebrew tongue under one verb expressed to understand another agreeable to it. See examples in the Hebrew, Gen 43:33,34 Ex 18:12 25:2 Pro 25:22 .

Poole: Exo 8:14 - -- Doubtless they cast them into their rivers, or pits, &c., though that be not here mentioned. God would not instantly and wholly take them away, both...

Doubtless they cast them into their rivers, or pits, &c., though that be not here mentioned. God would not instantly and wholly take them away, both to convince them of the truth of the miracle, and to make them more sensible of this judgment, and more fearful of bringing another upon themselves.

Poole: Exo 8:16 - Lice God, it seems, gave him no warning, because he showed himself in the very last plague to be both perfidious and incorrigible. Others think he was fo...

God, it seems, gave him no warning, because he showed himself in the very last plague to be both perfidious and incorrigible. Others think he was forewarned, though that be not here expressed.

Lice so the Hebrew word is rendered by all the Jewish and most other interpreters. But it is probable that what is said of the locusts, Exo 10:14 , was true of these, that they were much more loathsome and troublesome than ordinary.

Poole: Exo 8:17 - The dust // All the dust of the land The dust was not fit matter to produce lice, and therefore shows this work to be Divine and miraculous. All the dust of the land i.e. a great part ...

The dust was not fit matter to produce lice, and therefore shows this work to be Divine and miraculous.

All the dust of the land i.e. a great part of it, the word all being commonly so understood in Scripture.

Poole: Exo 8:18 - Did so Did so i.e. endeavoured to do so. Thus to enter , Mat 7:13 , is put for striving to enter, Luk 13:24 . Thus men are said to deliver , Gen 37:21 ; ...

Did so i.e. endeavoured to do so. Thus to enter , Mat 7:13 , is put for striving to enter, Luk 13:24 . Thus men are said to deliver , Gen 37:21 ; to fight , Jos 24:9 ; to return , Jos 10:15 ; when they only attempted or endeavoured to do so. And therefore when it is said in any of the plagues that the magicians did so , it is not to be understood that they really did the same thing, but that they endeavoured to do so, and that they did something which looked like it.

It was as easy for them to produce lice as frogs, but God hindered them, partly to confound them and their devilish arts, and to show that what they did before was only by his permission; and partly to convince Pharaoh and the Egyptians of their vanity in trusting to such impotent magicians, and in opposing that God who could control and confound them when he pleased.

Poole: Exo 8:19 - The finger is put either synecdochically for the hand // Of God // He hearkened not unto them The finger is put either synecdochically for the hand as it is Exo 31:18 Psa 8:3 144:1 ; or metaphorically for the power or virtue, as Luk 11:20 , co...

The finger is put either synecdochically for the hand as it is Exo 31:18 Psa 8:3 144:1 ; or metaphorically for the power or virtue, as Luk 11:20 , compared with Mat 12:28 .

Of God of that supreme God, whom both the Egyptians and other heathen idolaters acknowledged as superior to all men, and idols, and devils. This they said, lest they should be thought inferior to Moses and Aaron in magical art. But hereby they own the sovereign God to be on Israel’ s side; and yet, like the devils, they proceed to fight against him.

He hearkened not unto them either to his magicians, of whom he last spake; or rather to Moses and Aaron, as the following words show. For relatives oft belong to the remoter antecedents, as Gen 9:13 1Sa 7:17 Mar 2:13 .

Poole: Exo 8:21 - Swarms of flies Swarms of flies Heb. a mixture of insects or flies, as appears from Psa 78:45 , which were of various kinds, as bees, wasps, gnats, hornets, &c, in...

Swarms of flies Heb. a mixture of insects or flies, as appears from Psa 78:45 , which were of various kinds, as bees, wasps, gnats, hornets, &c, infinite in their numbers, and doubtless larger and more venomous and pernicious than the common ones were.

Poole: Exo 8:22 - -- Either, 1. Of the whole earth, and consequently of Egypt, that I am not only the Lord of Israel, but of thee and thy dominions too. God is here spo...

Either,

1. Of the whole earth, and consequently of Egypt, that I am not only the Lord of Israel, but of thee and thy dominions too. God is here spoken of after the manner of earthly princes, who use to reside in the midst of their kingdoms, that they may more conveniently rule and influence them. Or rather,

2. Of Goshen; the words being properly thus rendered, that I the Lord am in the midst of that land to wit, the land of Goshen now spoken of, to defend and preserve it. For God is said to be in the midst of them whom he protects, Deu 7:21 23:14 Jos 3:10 Psa 46:5 ; and not to be in the midst of others whom he forsakes, and designs or threatens to destroy, Num 14:42 Deu 1:42 31:17 . Compare Exo 33:3 , with Exo 34:9 .

Poole: Exo 8:23 - A division // Tomorrow shall this sign be A division Heb. a redemption or deliverance , i.e. a token or mean of deliverance, by a metonomy; a wall of partition, by which I will preserve th...

A division Heb. a redemption or deliverance , i.e. a token or mean of deliverance, by a metonomy; a wall of partition, by which I will preserve the Israelites, whilst I destroy the Egyptians.

Tomorrow shall this sign be This he saith, partly to gain the more belief to himself in what he now did or should timber speak in God’ s name to them; and partly to warn them of their danger, and make their disobedience more inexcusable.

Poole: Exo 8:24 - The Lord did so // A grievous swarm of flies // The land The Lord did so immediately by his own word, and not by Moses’ s rod, lest the Egyptians should think it was a magician’ s wand, and. that ...

The Lord did so immediately by his own word, and not by Moses’ s rod, lest the Egyptians should think it was a magician’ s wand, and. that all Moses’ s works were done by the power of the devil.

A grievous swarm of flies Heb. a heavy mixture of flies. Heavy , i.e. either great, as this Hebrew word is used, Gen 41:31 Isa 32:2 , or mischievous and troublesome; or rather, numerous, as it is taken, Gen 1:9 Num 11:14 1Ki 3:9 , compared with 2Ch 1:10 .

The land i.e. either the fruits or products of the land; or rather, the inhabitants of the land, as the word land is taken, Gen 41:36 1Sa 27:9 many of the people were poisoned or stung to death by them, as appears from Psa 78:45. See also /APC Wis 16:9 .

Poole: Exo 8:26 - It is not meet // The abomination of the Egyptians It is not meet Heb. not right , neither in God’ s eyes, who hath appointed us the place as well as the thing; nor in the Egyptians’ eyes,...

It is not meet Heb. not right , neither in God’ s eyes, who hath appointed us the place as well as the thing; nor in the Egyptians’ eyes, as it follows.

The abomination of the Egyptians that which the Egyptians abhor to kill, or to see killed; as not only Scripture, but profane authors, as Diodorus, and Tully, and Juvenal, witness, because they worshipped them as gods, as is notoriously known. Their fear was just; for when once a Roman had but killed a cat, though imprudently, the people tumultuously met together, and beset his house, and killed him in spite of the king and his princes, who used their utmost power and diligence to prevent it.

Poole: Exo 8:27 - -- For we know not what kind or number of sacrifices to offer to him till we come thither.

For we know not what kind or number of sacrifices to offer to him till we come thither.

Haydock: Exo 8:1 - Gessen Gessen, where the Hebrews dwelt. The Egyptians who lived among them would not, however, escape this plague.

Gessen, where the Hebrews dwelt. The Egyptians who lived among them would not, however, escape this plague.

Haydock: Exo 8:3 - Frogs Frogs, not by a new creation; but the spawn was miraculously brought to maturity. (Calmet) --- Angels, or a divine instinct, brought them to infest...

Frogs, not by a new creation; but the spawn was miraculously brought to maturity. (Calmet) ---

Angels, or a divine instinct, brought them to infest all places; and thus they became a more grievous plague than that of blood. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 8:4 - Servants Servants. The Abderites and Dardanians were formerly obliged to abandon their country by such a plague. (Orosius iii. 23; Pliny, Natural History vi...

Servants. The Abderites and Dardanians were formerly obliged to abandon their country by such a plague. (Orosius iii. 23; Pliny, Natural History viii. 29.) (Calmet) ---

Here the Samaritan copy adds, that Moses delivered this message to Pharao. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 8:7 - Frogs Frogs, few in number, and brought by the ministry of devils. (Menochius)

Frogs, few in number, and brought by the ministry of devils. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 8:8 - Pray ye to the Lord Pray ye to the Lord, &c. By this it appears, that though the magicians, by the help of the devil, could bring frogs, yet they could not take these a...

Pray ye to the Lord, &c. By this it appears, that though the magicians, by the help of the devil, could bring frogs, yet they could not take these away: God being pleased to abridge in this the power of Satan. So we see they could not afterwards produce the lesser insects; and in this restraint of the power of the devil, were forced to acknowledge the finger of God .

Haydock: Exo 8:9 - A time A time. Moses thus prevents the king from attributing their departure to natural causes. Pharao was perhaps inclined to suspect this would be the c...

A time. Moses thus prevents the king from attributing their departure to natural causes. Pharao was perhaps inclined to suspect this would be the case, and therefore had a mind to wait till the morrow. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 8:14 - Corrupted Corrupted. This helped to produce the ensuing plague of flies, &c. (Calmet) --- The Egyptians might then recollect the putrid carcasses of the chil...

Corrupted. This helped to produce the ensuing plague of flies, &c. (Calmet) ---

The Egyptians might then recollect the putrid carcasses of the children, whom they had drowned. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 8:15 - Pharao hardened his own heart // Perdition is from thyself Pharao hardened his own heart. By this we see that Pharao was himself the efficient cause of his heart being hardened, and not God. See the same re...

Pharao hardened his own heart. By this we see that Pharao was himself the efficient cause of his heart being hardened, and not God. See the same repeated in ver. 32, Pharao hardened his heart at this time also; likewise chap. ix. 7, 35, and chap. xiii. 15. (Challoner) ---

This is the constant doctrine of the holy fathers, St. Augustine, ser. 88, de Temp. q. 18, 28, 36; St. Basil, orat., "that god is not the author of evil;" St. Chrysostom, hom. 67, in John; &c. Hence Origen, periar. 3, says, "The Scripture sheweth manifestly that Pharao was hardened by his own will; for God said to him, thou wouldst not: if thou wilt not dismiss Israel ." Even the priests of the Philistines were so well convinced of this, that they said, (1 Kings vi. 6,) Why do you harden your hearts? God therefore hardened them only by not absolutely hindering their wickedness, and by punishing them with less severity, as they did not deserve to be corrected like dear children, Hebrews xii. ---

Perdition is from thyself, Osee xii. 9. Thus God cast Pharao into the sea, by permitting, not by forcing, him to enter, Exodus xv. 4. How shocking must then the blasphemous doctrine of Zuinglius, (Ser. de Provid. 5,) Calvin, (Instit. viii. 17,) &c., appear, who attribute every wicked deed to God, though they pretend at the same time that he is not unjust, even when he commands and impels a man to commit murder or adultery! Idem facinus puta adulterium....quantum Dei est auctoris, motoris, impulsoris opus est, crimen non est; quantum hominis est, crimen ac scelus est. (Zuinglius, sup.) The light of reason may suffice to confute such absurdity. (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 8:16 - Sciniphs Sciniphs, or Cinifs, Hebrew Cinnim, small flying insects, very troublesome both to men and beasts. (Challoner) --- Like midges. (Origen, hom. 4....

Sciniphs, or Cinifs, Hebrew Cinnim, small flying insects, very troublesome both to men and beasts. (Challoner) ---

Like midges. (Origen, hom. 4.) Others think they were lice. (Bochart.) Pharao is not forewarned of this plague.

Haydock: Exo 8:18 - Practiced, fecerunt Practiced, fecerunt; the same expression as ver. 7: whence some argue, that the former were delusions, not real changes. (Haydock) --- God was plea...

Practiced, fecerunt; the same expression as ver. 7: whence some argue, that the former were delusions, not real changes. (Haydock) ---

God was pleased to shew here the vanity of their attempts, and the imbecility of the devil, who could not even bring a single animalcule or insect, though he had before appeared to work great wonders. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Exo 8:19 - Finger Finger, the spirit, (Luke xi. 20; compare Matthew xii. 28,) or power of God, Isaias xl. 12. The magicians here confess, that Moses is something mo...

Finger, the spirit, (Luke xi. 20; compare Matthew xii. 28,) or power of God, Isaias xl. 12. The magicians here confess, that Moses is something more than themselves. (Calmet) ---

Thus God interferes, whenever a contest of miracles, real or apparent, might lead any sincere seeker astray. He caused the priests of Baal to be confounded; (3 Kings xix,) and Simon Magus, flying in the air, was hurled down at the prayer of St. Peter. (Hegesip.) Cyrola, the Arian patriarch, attempting to deceive the people, by giving sight to a man whom he bribed to feign himself blind; and Calvin, who wished to have the honour of raising a man to life, at Geneva, by the like imposition, were both deservedly covered with confusion; while, of those unhappy men who joined in the collusion, one lost his sight, and the other his life. (Gregory of Tours, ii. Hist. 3; Bolsec.) On such occasions, we are admonished to be on our guard, and to adhere to the old religion. (Deuteronomy xiii.; Matthew xxiv.) (Worthington) ---

The magicians, though fully convinced, were not still converted.

Haydock: Exo 8:21 - Flies Flies. Hebrew earob. Septuagint, "dog-flies." Some include under this plague all sorts of wild beasts. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] ii. 13; Wisdom...

Flies. Hebrew earob. Septuagint, "dog-flies." Some include under this plague all sorts of wild beasts. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] ii. 13; Wisdom xi. 9, 16, 18.) Insects are very troublesome, and the pagans honoured Jupiter with the title of Apomuios, because he delivered them from flies. Beelzebub, "the god-fly," got his name for the same reason, 4 Kings i. 1. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 8:23 - Be Be. Here again the Samaritan copy observes, that Moses told this to Pharao. (Haydock)

Be. Here again the Samaritan copy observes, that Moses told this to Pharao. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 8:24 - The Lord // Corrupted The Lord, without the intervention of the rod, lest any inherent power might be supposed to rest in it. (Menochius) --- Corrupted, ravaged; men an...

The Lord, without the intervention of the rod, lest any inherent power might be supposed to rest in it. (Menochius) ---

Corrupted, ravaged; men and beasts being destroyed by their bite or sting. (Psalm lxxvii. 45; Wisdom xvi. 9.)

Haydock: Exo 8:26 - The abominations The abominations, &c. That is, the things they worship for gods: oxen, rams, &c. It is the usual style of the Scriptures to call all idols and false...

The abominations, &c. That is, the things they worship for gods: oxen, rams, &c. It is the usual style of the Scriptures to call all idols and false gods, abominations; to signify how much the people of God ought to detest and abhor them. (Challoner) ---

The Egyptians adored the stars, and even the vilest creatures, on account of some advantage which they derived from them. (Cicero, N. Deor. i.) They sometimes sacrificed animals; though, at first, "they offered only prayer and incense." (Macrobius, Satur. i. 7; Genesis xliii. 16.) Their belief in the transmigration of souls, perhaps, induced them to abstain from the immolation of beasts. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 8:32 - Hardened Hardened. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Pharao hardened his heart for this time also." (Menochius)

Hardened. Hebrew and Septuagint, "Pharao hardened his heart for this time also." (Menochius)

Gill: Exo 8:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, thus saith the Lord, let my people go, that they may serve me And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Either whilst the plague upon the waters continued, or immediately upon the removal of it: go unto Pharaoh, and ...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Either whilst the plague upon the waters continued, or immediately upon the removal of it:

go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, thus saith the Lord, let my people go, that they may serve me; mentioning neither time nor place, where, when, and how long they should serve him, for which their dismission was required, but insist on it in general.

Gill: Exo 8:2 - And if thou refuse to let them go // I will smite all thy borders with frogs And if thou refuse to let them go,.... Will not obey the orders: I will smite all thy borders with frogs; he gives him warning of the blow before h...

And if thou refuse to let them go,.... Will not obey the orders:

I will smite all thy borders with frogs; he gives him warning of the blow before he strikes, which shows his clemency and goodness, his patience and longsuffering; and this he did, not only that he might have time and space for repentance, and thereby avoid the blow; but that when it came, he might be sensible it was not by chance, or owing to second causes, but was from the Lord himself.

I will smite all thy borders with frogs: fill the whole land of Egypt with them, to the utmost borders thereof on every side. Some q say the word signifies a large Egyptian fish, which in the Arabic tongue is called Altamsach, that is, a crocodile, with which the Nile abounded; but such a creature could not invade and attack them in the manner as is after related.

Gill: Exo 8:3 - And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly // which shall go up and come into thine house // and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed // and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people // and into thy ovens // and into thy kneadingtroughs And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly,.... The river Nile; and though water, and watery places, naturally produce these creatures, yet not ...

And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly,.... The river Nile; and though water, and watery places, naturally produce these creatures, yet not in such vast quantities as to cover a whole country, and so large an one as Egypt, and this done at once, immediately; for they were all produced instantaneously, and in one day were spread all over the nation, and removed the next: and besides what follows is equally miraculous:

which shall go up and come into thine house; which though they may come up out of rivers, and be upon the banks and the meadows adjacent, yet are never known to come into houses, and especially into bedchambers and other places after mentioned, being not a bold but timorous creature, and shuns the sight and company of men; but these came even into the royal palace, nor could his guards keep them out:

and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed; and by their leaping upon him, and croaking in his ears, disturb his rest:

and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people both nobles and common people, and not only get into their houses, but upon their persons, on their hands when about their business, on their laps, and into their bosoms, as they sat; which must be very offensive and troublesome to them, what with their ugly shape, croaking noise and filthy smell, and the disagreeable touch of them, leaping on them, and even upon their food, and all vessels used for the same, which must make it very nauseous and distasteful to them:

and into thy ovens; where they baked their bread, and would be now hindered from the use of them:

and into thy kneadingtroughs; where they kneaded their dough, and made it into loaves, and prepared it for the oven; or the "dough" r itself, which they leaped upon and licked, and made it loathsome for use.

Gill: Exo 8:4 - And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy servants. And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy servants. No doubt by the interposition of divine power and providence, an...

And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy servants. No doubt by the interposition of divine power and providence, and it may be by the ministry of angels; so that let them use what care, caution, and diligence they would, there was no keeping them out; but they came upon all the people of the land, high and low, rich and poor, and upon the king's ministers, courtiers, and nobles, and the king himself not excepted; though by this particular enumeration of him, his people, and servants, the children of Israel may be thought to be exempted from this plague, as R. Japhez observes; though Aben Ezra dislikes his remark, but it seems to be just.

Gill: Exo 8:5 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // say unto Aaron, stretch forth thy hand with thy rod // over the streams, over the rivers and over the ponds // and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... By a secret impulse upon his mind, for he was now in the presence of Pharaoh, who had refused to let Israel go: ...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... By a secret impulse upon his mind, for he was now in the presence of Pharaoh, who had refused to let Israel go:

say unto Aaron, stretch forth thy hand with thy rod; for Aaron carried the rod, and he was the minister of Moses, who was appointed a god to him; and be was to speak and to do whatever he ordered him from the Lord:

over the streams, over the rivers and over the ponds; the seven streams of the river of Nile, and over the canals cut out of it, and over all places where there was a collection of water for any use for man or beast:

and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt; out of the streams, rivers, and ponds, immediately.

Gill: Exo 8:6 - And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt // and the frogs came and covered the land of Egypt And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt,.... That is, towards the waters of the Nile, and towards all places where any water was; fo...

And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt,.... That is, towards the waters of the Nile, and towards all places where any water was; for it was not possible he could stretch out his hand over all the waters that were in every place:

and the frogs came and covered the land of Egypt: they came up at once, and in such multitudes everywhere, that the whole land was full of them; this was done on the twenty fifth of Adar, or February, the same day the former plague ceased; so Artapanus s, the Heathen historian says, that Moses by his rod produced frogs, locusts, and lice. And the story which Heraclides Lembus t tells seems to be hammered out of this account of Moses, that in Paeonia and Dardania such a number of frogs fell from heaven, as filled the public roads and private houses; at first the inhabitants killed them, and keeping their houses shut, bore it patiently some time; but when it signified nothing, and their household goods were covered with them, and they found them boiled and roasted with their food, and lay in such heaps that they could not tread for them, and were so distressed with the smell of the dead ones, they forsook their country.

Gill: Exo 8:7 - And the magicians did so with their enchantments // and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt And the magicians did so with their enchantments, &c. By their secret wiles and juggling tricks: and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt, that ...

And the magicians did so with their enchantments, &c. By their secret wiles and juggling tricks:

and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt, that is, some few, as a proof of their art and skill, and to show that Moses and Aaron did but what they could do; but what they did either were only in appearance, deceiving the sight of Pharaoh and his people, or real frogs were brought to them by the help of devils, but not in such numbers: and besides, this was adding to the plague, and not diminishing it; had they done anything to the purpose, they should have removed it at once, or destroyed the frogs; but that they could not do, of which Pharaoh being sensible, he therefore entreated for the removal of them by Moses and Aaron. To this plague there seems to be some reference at the pouring out of the sixth vial, Rev 16:13.

Gill: Exo 8:8 - Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron // and said, entreat the Lord, that he may take away the frogs from me and from my people // and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the Lord Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron,.... He sent for them: and said, entreat the Lord, that he may take away the frogs from me and from my peop...

Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron,.... He sent for them:

and said, entreat the Lord, that he may take away the frogs from me and from my people; he begins now to know the Lord, whom he knew not before, by the judgments he executed on him, to acknowledge his hand in those judgments, and tacitly to own that none else could remove them; and his proud heart was so far humbled, as to beg the favour of Moses and Aaron to intercede with the Lord to cause this plague to cease, which was intolerable: and it may be observed from other instances in history, somewhat similar to this, that whole cities and countries have been deserted by their inhabitants on a like occasion, as those of Paeonia and Dardania, in the account above given; and Justin reports u of the Abderites, a people of Thrace, that because of the multitude of frogs and mice, were obliged to leave their native country, and seek new habitations; and Diodorus Siculus w and Aelianus x relate much the same of a people called Autariatae; and Varro y affirms, that in a city in France, the inhabitants of it were drove away by frogs; which instances, as they show how very distressing such a calamity is, so they serve to illustrate and confirm the truth of the divine history, cavilled at by infidels, when anything is related in it exceeding the common and ordinary course of things:

and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the Lord; as had been frequently required of him, Exo 5:1.

Gill: Exo 8:9 - And Moses said unto Pharaoh, glory over me // when shall I entreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in this river only And Moses said unto Pharaoh, glory over me,.... If thou canst; take every advantage against me of lessening my glory, and increasing thine own; or vau...

And Moses said unto Pharaoh, glory over me,.... If thou canst; take every advantage against me of lessening my glory, and increasing thine own; or vaunt or boast thyself against me, as the phrase is rendered, Jdg 7:2 or take this honour and glory to thyself over me, by commanding me, and fixing a time to pray for thee, and I will obey thy orders; which agrees with the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate Latin versions, and the paraphrase of Onkelos, "appoint", or "order for me"; that is, when I shall pray for thee; or do me this honour, to believe me in the sight of the people, to declare before them that thou dost believe that upon my prayer for thee this plague shall be removed:

when shall I entreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in this river only? Moses agreed to entreat the Lord for him as he desired, but leaves it with him to fix the time for doing it; and this he did, that it might appear that the removal of the frogs, as well as the bringing of them, would not be owing to chance or to any natural cause, but to the Lord himself; and though Moses had no direction from the Lord for this, that is recorded, yet he might presume upon it, since he was made a god to Pharaoh, and had power to do as he pleased; and also he knew the mind and will of God, and might have now a secret impulse upon his spirit, signifying it to him: and besides, he had the faith of miracles, and strongly believed that God would work this by him, and at whatsoever time should be fixed.

Gill: Exo 8:10 - And he said, tomorrow // and he said, be it according to thy word // that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the Lord our God And he said, tomorrow,.... Which according to Bishop Usher was the twenty sixth day of Adar, or February. It may seem strange that Pharaoh, and his pe...

And he said, tomorrow,.... Which according to Bishop Usher was the twenty sixth day of Adar, or February. It may seem strange that Pharaoh, and his people, being so greatly distressed with this plague, should not desire that the Lord would be entreated to do it immediately, and not put it off to another day: two reasons are usually given; one is, he might hope that it would by that time go off of itself, and then he should not be beholden to the Lord, nor to Moses; and the other is, that he thought an affair of this kind could not be done immediately, but that it required time for making the intercession, and performing rites and ceremonies, which he supposed might be used, as were by his magicians; and it might be now the evening of the day, and therefore deferred it till tomorrow:

and he said, be it according to thy word, as if he had said, it shall be done as thou hast desired, and at the time fixed:

that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the Lord our God; that can send plagues, and remove them at his pleasure, which the deities he worshipped, and the magicians he employed, could not do.

Gill: Exo 8:11 - And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people // they shall remain in the river only And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people,.... Signifying there should be a full and clear...

And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people,.... Signifying there should be a full and clear riddance of them:

they shall remain in the river only; the river Nile.

Gill: Exo 8:12 - And Moses and Aaron went from Pharaoh // and Moses cried unto the Lord // because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh And Moses and Aaron went from Pharaoh,.... To the place where they used to pray to the Lord, and meet with him, and receive messages from him; this th...

And Moses and Aaron went from Pharaoh,.... To the place where they used to pray to the Lord, and meet with him, and receive messages from him; this they did the same day the plague was inflicted, the day before the morrow came when the frogs were to be removed:

and Moses cried unto the Lord: prayed unto him with great fervency, and with a loud voice, most fervently entreating that the frogs might be removed on the morrow, as he had promised, that so he might not be covered with shame and confusion before Pharaoh; his faith of the miracle being wrought did not hinder the use of prayer to God for it:

because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh; as an army: or "put upon" z him, as a judgment on him; or rather the sense is, as it may be rendered, "because of the business of the frogs, which he had proposed or promised to Pharaoh" a; that is, for the taking of them away, he had proposed to Pharaoh to fix the time when he should entreat the Lord for the removal of them; and he having fixed on the morrow, Moses promised it should be done according to his word; and now he is importunate with the Lord, that it may be done as he had promised.

Gill: Exo 8:13 - And the Lord did according to the word of Moses // and the frogs died out of the houses, and out of the villages, and out of the fields And the Lord did according to the word of Moses,.... He heard his prayers, and fulfilled what he had promised Pharaoh: and the frogs died out of th...

And the Lord did according to the word of Moses,.... He heard his prayers, and fulfilled what he had promised Pharaoh:

and the frogs died out of the houses, and out of the villages, and out of the fields; the word for "villages" signifies "courts" b, and may be so rendered here; and the sense is, that they not only died out of their dwelling houses, but out of their courtyards, and even out of their gardens, orchards, and fields, so that there were none near them to give any manner of trouble and offence. And their dying, and remaining dead upon the spot, were clear proofs that they were real frogs that were produced, and not in appearance only, as the frogs of the magicians might be; God could have caused them to return to the river from whence they came, or have annihilated them, or removed them out of sight in an instant; but the killing of them, and letting them lie dead, proved the truth of the miracle, and gave apparent evidence of it both ways, both in the bringing and removing them.

Gill: Exo 8:14 - And they gathered them together upon heaps // and the land stank And they gathered them together upon heaps,.... Swept them up, and laid them in heaps out of the way: and the land stank; with the stench of the de...

And they gathered them together upon heaps,.... Swept them up, and laid them in heaps out of the way:

and the land stank; with the stench of the dead frogs, which was another proof and evidence of the reality of the miracle; and that dead frogs will cause such an ill smell appears from the above account of what befell the inhabitants of Paeonia and Dardania, unless that should be the same with this, only the names of places and some circumstances altered; See Gill on Exo 8:16.

Gill: Exo 8:15 - But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite // and hearkened not unto them // as the Lord had said But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite,.... From his affliction, as the Targum of Jonathan adds; the plague was removed, and he found himself and...

But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite,.... From his affliction, as the Targum of Jonathan adds; the plague was removed, and he found himself and his people at ease: or there was a "breathing" c; before he and his people were so oppressed, that they could scarce breathe, but now being delivered from the judgment on them with which they were straitened, were enlarged and at liberty, and in easy circumstances: he hardened his heart; See Gill on Exo 7:14.

and hearkened not unto them; to Moses and Aaron, to let the children of Israel go, as they had required, and he had promised:

as the Lord had said; had foretold that he would not hearken to them, nor let Israel go as yet.

Gill: Exo 8:16 - And the Lord said unto Moses // say unto Aaron, stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land // that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt And the Lord said unto Moses,.... On the twenty seventh day of the month, according to Bishop Usher, the same day the flogs were removed; no warning i...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... On the twenty seventh day of the month, according to Bishop Usher, the same day the flogs were removed; no warning is given him of the next plague, at least there is no account of any:

say unto Aaron, stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land; in some one part of the land, that place nearest to him where there was a quantity of dust; for it cannot be imagined that he should smite all the dust of the land in every part of it, but smiting one part served for the whole:

that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt: not gnats, as some, nor flies, as others, but lice, though perhaps not of the common and ordinary sort, but new and extraordinary, and it may be of different sorts, suitable to different creatures.

Gill: Exo 8:17 - And they did so // for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod // and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man and in beast // all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt And they did so,.... As follows: for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod; as directed and ordered: and smote the dust of the earth, and it...

And they did so,.... As follows:

for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod; as directed and ordered:

and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man and in beast; which shows it was a miraculous operation, since lice do not usually spring from dust, but thrive in the sweat of bodies, and the nastiness of them, through sloth and idleness; and moreover, this was like the creation of man at first, which was out of the dust of the earth, and alike the effect of almighty power:

all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt; that is, the greatest part of it, not that every atom of dust became lice, nor was the land of Goshen, in which the Israelites dwelt, infected with this plague, unless where any of the Egyptians were; though Dr. Lightfoot d thinks, that lice were in Goshen as in other parts of Egypt, there being no severing between Goshen and Egypt mentioned until the next plague; and since Israel had partook of many of the sins of Egypt, they must partake of some of her punishments; and he thinks this is the reason that the plague of lice is not reckoned among the plagues of Egypt in Psa 78:44 because it was common to Israel, and to the Egyptians, and which is the sense of Aben Ezra on Exo 7:24. The account that Artapanus e, the Heathen historian, gives of this plague, is this;"Moses smote the earth with a rod, and produced a certain flying animal, which greatly distressed the Egyptians, and raised ulcers in their bodies, which no physicians could cure.''And so Origen f describes this creature as"having wings and flying in the air, but so subtile and minute as to escape the eye, unless very sharp sighted; but when it lights upon a body, it stings most bitterly, so that what a man cannot see flying, he feels stinging.''Both seem to design the gnat, but this sort of vermin do not stick in and abide with men or beasts, as these here are said to do, but buzz about and bite, and then are gone.

Gill: Exo 8:18 - And the magicians did so with their enchantments, to bring forth lice // but they could not // so there were lice upon man and upon beast And the magicians did so with their enchantments, to bring forth lice,.... They made use of their magical art, and juggling tricks they were masters o...

And the magicians did so with their enchantments, to bring forth lice,.... They made use of their magical art, and juggling tricks they were masters of, to produce the like sort of creatures, or at least to make such appear, or seem to appear, to the eyes of men:

but they could not; God would not suffer them to do it, to impose upon Pharaoh, and deceive him and the Egyptians any longer; and a stop is put to them, when such small and despicable creatures were produced, the more to put them to shame and confusion, and to show that what they did before was not real, and that what they did in appearance was only by divine permission:

so there were lice upon man and upon beast; these lay in great numbers on both, biting and distressing them in a most terrible manner; for as the magicians could not produce such creatures, it was not in their power to remove them.

Gill: Exo 8:19 - Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, this is the finger of God // and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them // as the Lord had said Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, this is the finger of God,.... This is to be ascribed to a power superior to human, to a divine power; so long a...

Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, this is the finger of God,.... This is to be ascribed to a power superior to human, to a divine power; so long as they could do something similar, or impose upon the senses of men, and make them believe they did the like, they would not acknowledge divine omnipotence; but when they no longer could deceive the sight of Pharaoh and the Egyptian, then they own the effects of a superior power: and this they did partly to detract from the power of Moses and Aaron, because they would not have them pass for more skilful persons in the magic art than themselves; and therefore suggest, that this was done not by virtue of any human skill and art, but by the power of the Supreme Being; and partly to detract from the honour of the God of Israel; for they do not say this is the finger of Jehovah, whom they accounted, as Dr. Lightfoot g observes, as a petty trivial god, but this is the finger of Elohim, the Supreme Deity. It is conjectured by some h, that in memory of this plague the Egyptian priests scrape their whole bodies, lest there should be a louse or any unclean thing on them when they worship their gods, as Herodotus i relates:

and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; either not unto the magicians owning the hand of God, and his divine power in the plague inflicted; or to Moses and Aaron demanding the dismission of the people of Israel, which latter seems to be confirmed by the usual phrase, as follows:

as the Lord had said; see Exo 7:4.

Gill: Exo 8:20 - And the Lord said unto Moses, rise up early in the morning // and stand before Pharaoh // lo, he cometh forth to the water // and say unto him, thus saith the Lord, let my people go, that they may serve me And the Lord said unto Moses, rise up early in the morning,.... Of the day following, the twenty eight of Adar, or February, according to Bishop Usher...

And the Lord said unto Moses, rise up early in the morning,.... Of the day following, the twenty eight of Adar, or February, according to Bishop Usher; this was the fittest time to meet with Pharaoh, and the most likely to make impressions on him:

and stand before Pharaoh: meet him as he comes along, and stop him, and stand before him as having something to say to him; this was using great boldness and freedom with a king; but as Moses was ordered to do it by the King of kings, it became him to obey him:

lo, he cometh forth to the water; See Gill on Exo 7:15.

and say unto him, thus saith the Lord, let my people go, that they may serve me; which had often been required before, but to no purpose, and in case of refusal he is threatened as follows.

Gill: Exo 8:21 - Else, if thou wilt not let my people go // behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee // and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses // and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of the swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are Else, if thou wilt not let my people go,.... But remainest obstinate and inflexible: behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee; the word used i...

Else, if thou wilt not let my people go,.... But remainest obstinate and inflexible:

behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee; the word used is generally thought to signify a "mixture", and is interpreted by many a mixture of various creatures; the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it a mixture of wild beasts, and so Josephus k understands it of all sorts of beasts, of many forms, and such as were never seen before; according to Jarchi, all sorts of evil beasts are meant, as serpents and scorpions, mixed together; and so Aben Ezra says it signifies evil beasts mixed together, as lions, wolves, bears, and leopards; but it is not likely the houses should be filled with these, or the ground covered with them, as after related: and besides, they would soon have destroyed, all the inhabitants of the land, since as it follows they are said to be upon them; rather a mixture of insects is intended; the Septuagint; version renders it the "dog fly", and so Philo the Jew l; which, as Pliny m says, is very troublesome, to dogs especially, about their ears, and this version Bochart n approves of:

and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses; they should be sent unto and settle first on his own person, and also on his ministers and courtiers, and upon all his subjects in general, and get into their houses, and be very troublesome guests there:

and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of the swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are; their number would be so very great.

Gill: Exo 8:22 - And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell // that no swarms of flies shall be there // to the end thou mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell,.... Distinguish it from other parts of the land of Egypt: that no swarms...

And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell,.... Distinguish it from other parts of the land of Egypt:

that no swarms of flies shall be there; which was a very wonderful thing, and so the word may be rendered. "I will marvellously sever or separate" o, and so the Targum of Jonathan, "I will do wonders or miracles in that day": as they were to make such a difference in one part of the country from another, and so near as Goshen was to the place where Pharaoh lived, and to bound and limit such sort of creatures as flies, which move swiftly from place to place, and particularly to keep the land of Goshen clear of them; when, as Bishop Patrick observes, it was a country that abounded with cattle, whose dung is apt to breed flies:

to the end thou mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth; he is God over all the earth, and rules as a King in the midst of it, and does whatsoever he pleases in it; see Psa 74:12 and in the midst of the land of Goshen where his people dwelt, and over whom he was King in a peculiar manner, and took a peculiar care of them, to protect and defend them; and which must the more vex and distress the Egyptians, when they saw the Israelites clear of those plagues they were afflicted with.

Gill: Exo 8:23 - And I will put a division between my people and thy people // tomorrow shall this sign be And I will put a division between my people and thy people,.... Or, a "redemption" p; for by distinguishing them in his providence from the Egyptians,...

And I will put a division between my people and thy people,.... Or, a "redemption" p; for by distinguishing them in his providence from the Egyptians, he might be said to redeem or deliver them; thus God makes a difference between his chosen people and the rest of the world, through his Son's redemption of them by his blood, out of every kindred, tongue, people, and nation:

tomorrow shall this sign be: which, according to Bishop Usher, must be the twenty nineth day of Adar or February.

Gill: Exo 8:24 - And the Lord did so // into the house of Pharaoh, and into the houses of his servants, and into all the land of Egypt // the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies And the Lord did so,.... And this he did immediately of himself without any means; not by the rod of Aaron, to let the Egyptians see that there was no...

And the Lord did so,.... And this he did immediately of himself without any means; not by the rod of Aaron, to let the Egyptians see that there was nothing in that rod, that it had no magic virtue in it, and what was done by it was from the Lord himself, who could as well inflict plagues without it as with it; see Psa 105:31 and there came a grievous swarm of flies; or a "heavy" q one, which was both very numerous, and very troublesome and distressing:

into the house of Pharaoh, and into the houses of his servants, and into all the land of Egypt: into the palace of Pharaoh, and into the palaces of his nobles, ministers, and courtiers, and into the dwelling places of all his subjects, throughout the whole land, excepting the land of Goshen:

the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies; Josephus r says, the land lay neglected and uncultivated by the husbandmen; it may be, the air was infected by the flies, which produced a pestilence that took off many of the inhabitants; so among the Eleans, as Pliny s reports, a multitude of flies produced a pestilence; however, it is certain many of the inhabitants of Egypt perished by them; they might sting them to death, suck their blood, and poison them with their envenomed stings; see Psa 78:45.

Gill: Exo 8:25 - and said, go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land He and his people not being able to endure this plague of flies any longer; and we read in profane history of such creatures being so troublesome, tha...

He and his people not being able to endure this plague of flies any longer; and we read in profane history of such creatures being so troublesome, that people have been obliged to quit their habitations, and seek for new ones; so Pausanias t relates of the inhabitants of Myus, that such a number of flies rose out of the lake, that the men were obliged to leave the city, and go to Miletus; so Aelian u reports, that the inhabitants of Megara were driven from thence by a multitude of flies, as were the inhabitants of Phaselis by wasps, which creatures also might be in this mixture of insects:

and said, go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land; that is, in the land of Goshen, in the place where they were; he was willing to allow them the liberty of sacrificing to their God, which it seems they had before; but then he would not consent they should go out of the land to do it.

Gill: Exo 8:26 - And Moses said, it is not meet so to do // for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the Lord our God // lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us And Moses said, it is not meet so to do,.... It being the command and will of God that they should go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sac...

And Moses said, it is not meet so to do,.... It being the command and will of God that they should go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice there; and besides it was dangerous, the Egyptians might be provoked by their sacrifices to fall upon them, and kill them:

for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the Lord our God; by which Moses is not to be understood as calling the idols of Egypt an abomination, as being so to God and to all good men, that were not idolaters; for though they were, Moses would scarcely call them so before Pharaoh, when he could have made use of another word as well; but his meaning is, that the Israelites would sacrifice that which would be an abomination, and very detestable to the Egyptians for them to do. And so the Targum of Jonathan;"for the sheep, which are the idols of the Egyptians, we shall take and offer before the Lord our God.''Herodotus w says, it was not accounted with the Egyptians lawful to sacrifice any creature but swine, and male oxen, and calves, such as were clean; but nevertheless, as after these times the Egyptians did offer such creatures as oxen, sheep, and goats, at least some of them did, Bishop Patrick thinks this may only refer to the rites and ceremonies of sacrificing, and to the qualities and condition of the beasts that were offered, about which the Egyptians in later ages were very curious; however, be it which it will, something might be done which would displease the Egyptians, and therefore it was best to sacrifice out of their land:

lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us? rise up in a body in great wrath, and fall upon us and slay us, by taking up stones and casting at us, or by some means or another dispatch us while offering; just as Pilate mingled the blood of the Galilaeans with their sacrifices, Luk 13:1 and the Egyptians were a people that greatly resented any indignity done to their deities, and would prosecute it with great wrath and fury; as appears from an instance which Diodorus Siculus x reports he was an eyewitness of, as that a certain Roman having killed a cat, (which is an Egyptian deity,) the mob rose about his house, so that neither the princes sent by the king of Egypt to entreat them, nor the common dread of the Roman name, could deliver the man from punishment, though he did it imprudently, and not on purpose.

Gill: Exo 8:27 - We will go three days' journey into the wilderness // and sacrifice unto the Lord our God, as he shall command us We will go three days' journey into the wilderness,.... As was first insisted on, and from which demand they should not depart: and sacrifice unto ...

We will go three days' journey into the wilderness,.... As was first insisted on, and from which demand they should not depart:

and sacrifice unto the Lord our God, as he shall command us; both what sacrifices shall be offered, and the manner in which they shall be done, both which seemed for the present in a good measure undetermined and unknown; and therefore it was possible, and very probable, that in one or the other they should give offence to the Egyptians, should they sacrifice among them, being at all events resolved to do as the Lord should command them.

Gill: Exo 8:28 - And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness // only you shall not go very far away // entreat for me And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness,.... He does not say three days, though as he allowe...

And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness,.... He does not say three days, though as he allowed them to go into the wilderness and sacrifice, they could not go and come again in less time; nor would Moses have accepted of the grant, as it seems by what follows he had, if he had obliged them to less time:

only you shall not go very far away; his meaning is, as Aben Ezra observes, that they should go no further than three days' journey; he was jealous that this was only an excuse to get entirely out of his dominions, and never return more. He might have heard of their claim to the land of Canaan, and of their talk, and hope, and expectation, of going and settling there; and so understood this motion of theirs, to have leave to go into the wilderness for three days, to sacrifice to the Lord, was only a pretence; that their real intention was to proceed on in their journey to Canaan; however, being in this great distress, he made as if he was willing to grant what they desired, and very importunately urged they would pray he might be delivered from this plague:

entreat for me; the words seem to be spoken in haste, and with great eagerness and vehemence.

Gill: Exo 8:29 - And Moses said, behold, I go out from thee // and I will entreat the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh // from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow // but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more, in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord And Moses said, behold, I go out from thee,.... Directly, immediately, to the place where he was wont to meet the Lord, and receive orders and instruc...

And Moses said, behold, I go out from thee,.... Directly, immediately, to the place where he was wont to meet the Lord, and receive orders and instructions from him:

and I will entreat the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh; for as he sent them, he only could remove them, and he could do the one as easily as he did the other:

from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow; that there might be a thorough and clear riddance of them from him and all his subjects, and out of every part of his kingdom; which should be done, and was done on the morrow, that is, on the thirtieth day of Adar, answering to part of our February, and part of our March, so that this must be about the middle of March:

but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more, in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord; as in the plague of frogs, refusing to let them go when it was past; which Moses calls an illusion, a mocking of them, and dealing deceitfully, to which he here refers; see Exo 8:15.

Gill: Exo 8:30 - And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the Lord. And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the Lord. He did as he promised he would, and prayed to the Lord to remove the flies from Pharaoh and h...

And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the Lord. He did as he promised he would, and prayed to the Lord to remove the flies from Pharaoh and his people.

Gill: Exo 8:31 - And the Lord did according to the word of Moses // and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people // there remained not one And the Lord did according to the word of Moses,.... Did as he entreated him to do, as follows: and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, fr...

And the Lord did according to the word of Moses,.... Did as he entreated him to do, as follows:

and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; by what means is not said, whether by destroying them at once, as the frogs, or by driving them away with a wind, as the locusts afterwards:

there remained not one; the meaning is not, not one swarm of flies, but not one fly, there was not one left; which looks as if it was in the latter way that they were removed, since, if in the former, they would have remained, though dead, as the frogs did, for a little while.

Gill: Exo 8:32 - And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also // neither would he let the people go And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also,.... As he did before, when he found the plague was removed, and the flies were gone: neither woul...

And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also,.... As he did before, when he found the plague was removed, and the flies were gone:

neither would he let the people go; through pride and covetousness, being loath to have the number of those under his dominion so much diminished, and to lose so large a branch of his revenues arising from the labour of these people.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 8:1 Beginning with 8:1, the verse numbers through 8:32 in English Bibles differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 8:1 ET = 7:26 HT, 8:...

NET Notes: Exo 8:2 This word for frogs is mentioned in the OT only in conjunction with this plague (here and Pss 78:45, 105:30). R. A. Cole (Exodus [TOTC], 91) suggests ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:3 This verse lists places the frogs will go. The first three are for Pharaoh personally – they are going to touch his private life. Then the text ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:4 The word order of the Hebrew text is important because it shows how the plague was pointedly directed at Pharaoh: “and against you, and against ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:5 After the instructions for Pharaoh (7:25-8:4), the plague now is brought on by the staff in Aaron’s hand (8:5-7). This will lead to the confront...

NET Notes: Exo 8:6 The noun is singular, a collective. B. Jacob notes that this would be the more natural way to refer to the frogs (Exodus, 260).

NET Notes: Exo 8:7 In these first two plagues the fact that the Egyptians could and did duplicate them is ironic. By duplicating the experience, they added to the misery...

NET Notes: Exo 8:8 Here also the imperfect tense with the vav (ו) shows the purpose of the release: “that they may sacrifice.”

NET Notes: Exo 8:9 Or “survive, remain.”

NET Notes: Exo 8:10 Heb “according to your word” (so NASB).

NET Notes: Exo 8:12 The verb is an unusual choice if it were just to mean “brought on.” It is the verb שִׂים (sim, “place,...

NET Notes: Exo 8:13 Heb “and the frogs died.”

NET Notes: Exo 8:14 The word “heaps” is repeated: חֳמָרִם הֳמָרִם (khomari...

NET Notes: Exo 8:15 The end of the plague revealed clearly God’s absolute control over Egypt’s life and deities – all at the power of the man who prayed...

NET Notes: Exo 8:16 The noun is כִּנִּים (kinnim). The insect has been variously identified as lice, gnats, ticks, flies, ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:17 Heb “man,” but in the generic sense of “humans” or “people” (also in v. 18).

NET Notes: Exo 8:18 The report of what the magicians did (or as it turns out, tried to do) begins with the same words as the report about the actions of Moses and Aaron &...

NET Notes: Exo 8:19 Heb “and the heart of Pharaoh became hard.” This phrase translates the Hebrew word חָזַק (khazaq; see S. R. ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:20 Heb “And Yahweh said.”

NET Notes: Exo 8:21 Or perhaps “the land where they are” (cf. NRSV “the land where they live”).

NET Notes: Exo 8:22 Or “of the earth” (KJV, ASV, NAB).

NET Notes: Exo 8:23 Heb “this sign will be tomorrow.”

NET Notes: Exo 8:24 The Hebrew word תִּשָּׁחֵת (tishakhet) is a strong word; it is the Niphal imperfect of ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:25 After the plague is inflicted on the land, then Pharaoh makes an appeal. So there is the familiar confrontation (vv. 25-29). Pharaoh’s words to ...

NET Notes: Exo 8:26 The interrogative clause has no particle to indicate it is a question, but it is connected with the conjunction to the preceding clause, and the meani...

NET Notes: Exo 8:27 The form is the imperfect tense. It could be future: “as he will tell us,” but it also could be the progressive imperfect if this is now w...

NET Notes: Exo 8:28 “Do” has been supplied here to convey that this somewhat unexpected command is tacked onto Pharaoh’s instructions as his ultimate co...

NET Notes: Exo 8:29 The Piel infinitive construct after lamed (ל) and the negative functions epexegetically, explaining how Pharaoh would deal falsely – ̶...

NET Notes: Exo 8:31 Heb “according to the word of Moses” (so KJV, ASV).

NET Notes: Exo 8:32 This phrase translates the Hebrew word כָּבֵד (kaved); see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 53.

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:2 And if thou refuse to let [them] go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with ( a ) frogs: ( a ) There is nothing so weak that God cannot use it to ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:6 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of ( b ) Egypt. ( b ) But Goshen, where God's ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:8 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, ( c ) Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:13 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs ( d ) died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields. ( d ) In thi...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:18 And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they ( e ) could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast. ( e ) Go...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:19 Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This [is] ( f ) the finger of God: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:26 And Moses said, It is not meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice the ( g ) abomination of the Egyptians to the LORD our God: lo, shall we sacrifice the...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:28 And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not ( h ) go very far away: intreat f...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:29 And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will intreat the LORD that the swarms [of flies] may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and fro...

Geneva Bible: Exo 8:32 And Pharaoh ( k ) hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go. ( k ) Where God does not give faith, no miracles can prev...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Exo 8:1-15 - --Pharaoh is plagued with frogs; their vast numbers made them sore plagues to the Egyptians. God could have plagued Egypt with lions, or bears, or wolve...

MHCC: Exo 8:16-19 - --These lice were produced out of the dust of the earth; out of any part of the creation God can fetch a scourge, with which to correct those who rebel ...

MHCC: Exo 8:20-32 - --Pharaoh was early at his false devotions to the river; and shall we be for more sleep and more slumber, when any service to the Lord is to be done? Th...

Matthew Henry: Exo 8:1-15 - -- Pharaoh is here first threatened and then plagued with frogs, as afterwards, in this chapter, with lice and flies, little despicable inconsiderable ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 8:16-19 - -- Here is a short account of the plague of lice. It does not appear that any warning was given of it before. Pharaoh's abuse of the respite granted to...

Matthew Henry: Exo 8:20-32 - -- Here is the story of the plague of flies, in which we are told, I. How it was threatened, like that of frogs, before it was inflicted. Moses is dire...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 8:1-6 - -- The plague of Frogs, or the second plague, also proceeded from the Nile, and had its natural origin in the putridity of the slimy Nile water, where...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 8:7-9 - -- This miracle was also imitated by the Egyptian augurs with their secret arts, and frogs were brought upon the land by them. But if they were able to...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 8:10-15 - -- The king appointed the following day, probably because he hardly thought it possible for so great a work to be performed at once. Moses promised tha...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 8:16-17 - -- The Gnats, or the third plague. - The כּנּם , or כּנּים (also כּנּם , probably an old singular form, Ewald , §163 f ), were not " lic...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 8:18-19 - -- " The magicians did so with their enchantments (i.e., smote the dust with rods), to bring forth gnats, but could not ."The cause of this inability ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 8:20-32 - -- As the Egyptian magicians saw nothing more than the finger of God in the miracle which they could not imitate, that is to say, the work of some deit...

Constable: Exo 1:1--15:22 - --I. THE LIBERATION OF ISRAEL 1:1--15:21 "The story of the first half of Exodus, in broad summary, is Rescue. The ...

Constable: Exo 5:1--11:10 - --B. God's demonstrations of His sovereignty chs. 5-11 God permitted the conflict between Moses and Pharao...

Constable: Exo 7:14--8:20 - --4. The first three plagues 7:14-8:19 Psalm 78:43 places the scene of the plagues in northern Egypt near Zoan. The plagues were penal; God sent them to...

Constable: Exo 8:20--9:13 - --5. The fourth, fifth, and sixth plagues 8:20-9:12 "As the Egyptian magicians saw nothing more than the finger of God in the miracle which they could n...

Guzik: Exo 8:1-32 - Plagues Upon Egypt Exodus 8 - Plagues Upon Egypt A. The second plague: Frogs. 1. (1-4) The warning of the second plague. And the LORD spoke to Moses, "Go to Pha...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Exo 8:10 Q: In Ex 8:10, why did Pharaoh ask Moses to remove the frogs tomorrow and not today? A: Perhaps because the day was late, but even so they could hav...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 8:1, Frogs are sent; Exo 8:8, Pharaoh sues to Moses, who by prayer removes them away; Exo 8:16, The dust is turned into lice, which t...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 8 God sends Moses to Pharaoh that he might let the people go, Exo 8:1 . He threatens his denial with a judgment of frogs, Exo 8:2-4 . Aaron...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 8:1-15) The plague of frogs. (Exo 8:16-19) The plague of lice. (Exo 8:20-32) The plague of flies.

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Three more of the plagues of Egypt are related in this chapter, I. That of the frogs, which is, 1. Threatened (Exo 8:1-4). 2. Inflicted (Exo 8:5...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 8 In this chapter Pharaoh is threatened with the plague of frogs, in case he refused to let Israel go, which accordingly was...

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