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Teks -- Exodus 5:1-23 (NET)

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Konteks
Opposition to the Plan of God
5:1 Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘Release my people so that they may hold a pilgrim feast to me in the desert.’” 5:2 But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord that I should obey him by releasing Israel? I do not know the Lord, and I will not release Israel!” 5:3 And they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go a three-day journey into the desert so that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God, so that he does not strike us with plague or the sword.” 5:4 The king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you cause the people to refrain from their work? Return to your labor!” 5:5 Pharaoh was thinking, “The people of the land are now many, and you are giving them rest from their labor.” 5:6 That same day Pharaoh commanded the slave masters and foremen who were over the people: 5:7 “You must no longer give straw to the people for making bricks as before. Let them go and collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you must require of them the same quota of bricks that they were making before. Do not reduce it, for they are slackers. That is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work harder for the men so they will keep at it and pay no attention to lying words!” 5:10 So the slave masters of the people and their foremen went to the Israelites and said, “Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am not giving you straw. 5:11 You go get straw for yourselves wherever you can find it, because there will be no reduction at all in your workload.’” 5:12 So the people spread out through all the land of Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13 The slave masters were pressuring them, saying, “Complete your work for each day, just like when there was straw!” 5:14 The Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave masters had set over them were beaten and were asked, “Why did you not complete your requirement for brickmaking as in the past– both yesterday and today?” 5:15 The Israelite foremen went and cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you treating your servants this way? 5:16 No straw is given to your servants, but we are told, ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are even being beaten, but the fault is with your people.” 5:17 But Pharaoh replied, “You are slackers! Slackers! That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the Lord.’ 5:18 So now, get back to work! You will not be given straw, but you must still produce your quota of bricks!” 5:19 The Israelite foremen saw that they were in trouble when they were told, “You must not reduce the daily quota of your bricks.” 5:20 When they went out from Pharaoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron standing there to meet them, 5:21 and they said to them, “May the Lord look on you and judge, because you have made us stink in the opinion of Pharaoh and his servants, so that you have given them an excuse to kill us!”
The Assurance of Deliverance
5:22 Moses returned to the Lord, and said, “Lord, why have you caused trouble for this people? Why did you ever send me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused trouble for this people, and you have certainly not rescued them!”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Hebrew a person descended from Heber; an ancient Jew; a Hebrew speaking Jew,any Jew, but particularly one who spoke the Hebrew language
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time


Topik/Tema Kamus: Brick | Moses | Rulers | GENESIS, 1-2 | Oppression | Egyptians | Israel | Bondage | Straw | Cruelty | Servant | LIBRARIES | Petition | TASKMASTER | God | TALE | Complaint | Arts and Crafts | Doubting | Taskmasters | selebihnya
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Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Exo 5:1 - Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Let my people go Moses, in treating with the elders of Israel, is directed to call God the God of their fathers; but, in treating with Pharaoh, they call him the God o...

Moses, in treating with the elders of Israel, is directed to call God the God of their fathers; but, in treating with Pharaoh, they call him the God of Israel, and it is the first time we find him called so in scripture. He is called the God of Israel, the person, Gen 33:20, but here it is Israel the people. They are just beginning to be formed into a people when God is called their God.

Wesley: Exo 5:1 - Let my people go They were God's people, and therefore Pharaoh ought not to detain them in bondage. And he expected services and sacrifices from them, and therefore th...

They were God's people, and therefore Pharaoh ought not to detain them in bondage. And he expected services and sacrifices from them, and therefore they must have leave to go where they could freely exercise their religion, without giving offence to, or receiving offence from, the Egyptians.

Wesley: Exo 5:2 - Who is the Lord that I should obey his voice? Being summoned to surrender, he thus hangs out the flag of defiance. Who is Jehovah? I neither know him nor care for him; neither value nor fear him. ...

Being summoned to surrender, he thus hangs out the flag of defiance. Who is Jehovah? I neither know him nor care for him; neither value nor fear him. It is a hard name that he never heard of before, but he resolves it shall be no bugbear to him. Israel was now a despised, oppressed people, and by the character they bore he makes his estimate of their God, and concludes that he made no better figure among the gods, than his people did among the nations.

Wesley: Exo 5:3 - We pray thee, let us go three days journey into the desert And that on a good errand, and unexceptionable: we will sacrifice to the Lord our God - As other people do to theirs; lest if we quite cast off his wo...

And that on a good errand, and unexceptionable: we will sacrifice to the Lord our God - As other people do to theirs; lest if we quite cast off his worship, he fall upon us - With one judgment or other, and then Pharaoh will lose his vassals.

Wesley: Exo 5:5 - The people are many Therefore your injury to me is the greater, in attempting to make them rest from their labours.

Therefore your injury to me is the greater, in attempting to make them rest from their labours.

Wesley: Exo 5:6 - The task masters, were Egyptians, the officers were Israelites employed under them.

masters, were Egyptians, the officers were Israelites employed under them.

Wesley: Exo 5:7 - Straw To mix with the clay, or to burn the brick with.

To mix with the clay, or to burn the brick with.

Wesley: Exo 5:8 - They are idle The cities they built for Pharaoh, were witnesses for them that they were not idle; yet he thus basely misrepresents them, that he might have a preten...

The cities they built for Pharaoh, were witnesses for them that they were not idle; yet he thus basely misrepresents them, that he might have a pretence to increase their burdens.

Wesley: Exo 5:9 - Vain words Those of Moses and Aaron.

Those of Moses and Aaron.

Wesley: Exo 5:14 - In thy own people For if they had given us straw, we should have fulfilled our task.

For if they had given us straw, we should have fulfilled our task.

Wesley: Exo 5:21 - The Lord look upon you, and judge They should have humbled themselves before God, but instead of that they fly in the face of their best friends. Those that are called to public servic...

They should have humbled themselves before God, but instead of that they fly in the face of their best friends. Those that are called to public service for God and their generation, must expect to be tried not only by the threats of proud enemies, but by the unjust and unkind censures of unthinking friends.

Wesley: Exo 5:21 - To put a sword in their hand to slay us To give them the occasion they have long sought for.

To give them the occasion they have long sought for.

Wesley: Exo 5:22 - -- He expostulated with him. He knew not how to reconcile the providence with the promise, and the commission he had received. Is this God's coming down ...

He expostulated with him. He knew not how to reconcile the providence with the promise, and the commission he had received. Is this God's coming down to deliver Israel? Must I who hoped to be a blessing to them become a scourge to them? By this attempt to get them out of the pit, they are but sunk the farther into it.

Wesley: Exo 5:22 - Wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people Even when God is coming towards his people in ways of mercy, yet sometimes he takes such methods that they may think themselves but ill - treated: whe...

Even when God is coming towards his people in ways of mercy, yet sometimes he takes such methods that they may think themselves but ill - treated: when they think so, they should go to God by prayer, and that is the way to have better treatment in God's good time.

Wesley: Exo 5:22 - Why is it that thou hast sent me Pharaoh has done evil to this people, and not one step seems to be taken towards their deliverance. It cannot but sit very heavy upon the spirits of t...

Pharaoh has done evil to this people, and not one step seems to be taken towards their deliverance. It cannot but sit very heavy upon the spirits of those whom God employs for him, to see that their labour doth no good, and much more to see that it doth hurt, eventually, though not designedly.

JFB: Exo 5:1 - Moses and Aaron went in As representatives of the Hebrews, they were entitled to ask an audience of the king, and their thorough Egyptian training taught them how and when to...

As representatives of the Hebrews, they were entitled to ask an audience of the king, and their thorough Egyptian training taught them how and when to seek it.

JFB: Exo 5:1 - and told Pharaoh When introduced, they delivered a message in the name of the God of Israel. This is the first time He is mentioned by that national appellation in Scr...

When introduced, they delivered a message in the name of the God of Israel. This is the first time He is mentioned by that national appellation in Scripture. It seems to have been used by divine direction (Exo 4:2) and designed to put honor on the Hebrews in their depressed condition (Heb 11:16).

JFB: Exo 5:2 - And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord Rather "Jehovah." Lord was a common name applied to objects of worship; but Jehovah was a name he had never heard of. Pharaoh estimated the character ...

Rather "Jehovah." Lord was a common name applied to objects of worship; but Jehovah was a name he had never heard of. Pharaoh estimated the character and power of this God by the abject and miserable condition of the worshippers and concluded that He held as low a rank among the gods as His people did in the nation. To demonstrate the supremacy of the true God over all the gods of Egypt, was the design of the plagues.

JFB: Exo 5:2 - I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go As his honor and interest were both involved he determined to crush this attempt, and in a tone of insolence, or perhaps profanity, rejected the reque...

As his honor and interest were both involved he determined to crush this attempt, and in a tone of insolence, or perhaps profanity, rejected the request for the release of the Hebrew slaves.

JFB: Exo 5:3 - The God of the Hebrews hath met with us Instead of being provoked into reproaches or threats, they mildly assured him that it was not a proposal originating among themselves, but a duty enjo...

Instead of being provoked into reproaches or threats, they mildly assured him that it was not a proposal originating among themselves, but a duty enjoined on them by their God. They had for a long series of years been debarred from the privilege of religious worship, and as there was reason to fear that a continued neglect of divine ordinances would draw down upon them the judgments of offended heaven, they begged permission to go three days' journey into the desert--a place of seclusion--where their sacrificial observances would neither suffer interruption nor give umbrage to the Egyptians. In saying this, they concealed their ultimate design of abandoning the kingdom, and by making this partial request at first, they probably wished to try the king's temper before they disclosed their intentions any farther. But they said only what God had put in their mouths (Exo 3:12, Exo 3:18), and this "legalizes the specific act, while it gives no sanction to the general habit of dissimulation" [CHALMERS].

JFB: Exo 5:4 - Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works? &c. Without taking any notice of what they had said, he treated them as ambitious demagogues, who were appealing to the superstitious feelings of the peop...

Without taking any notice of what they had said, he treated them as ambitious demagogues, who were appealing to the superstitious feelings of the people, to stir up sedition and diffuse a spirit of discontent, which spreading through so vast a body of slaves, might endanger the peace of the country.

JFB: Exo 5:6 - Pharaoh commanded It was a natural consequence of the high displeasure created by this interview that he should put additional burdens on the oppressed Israelites.

It was a natural consequence of the high displeasure created by this interview that he should put additional burdens on the oppressed Israelites.

JFB: Exo 5:6 - taskmasters Egyptian overseers, appointed to exact labor of the Israelites.

Egyptian overseers, appointed to exact labor of the Israelites.

JFB: Exo 5:6 - officers Hebrews placed over their brethren, under the taskmasters, precisely analogous to the Arab officers set over the Arab Fellahs, the poor laborers in mo...

Hebrews placed over their brethren, under the taskmasters, precisely analogous to the Arab officers set over the Arab Fellahs, the poor laborers in modern Egypt.

JFB: Exo 5:7 - Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick The making of bricks appears to have been a government monopoly as the ancient bricks are nearly all stamped with the name of a king, and they were fo...

The making of bricks appears to have been a government monopoly as the ancient bricks are nearly all stamped with the name of a king, and they were formed, as they are still in Lower Egypt, of clay mixed with chopped straw and dried or hardened in the sun. The Israelites were employed in this drudgery; and though they still dwelt in Goshen and held property in flocks and herds, they were compelled in rotation to serve in the brick quarries, pressed in alternating groups, just as the fellaheen, or peasants, are marched by press gangs in the same country still.

JFB: Exo 5:7 - let them go and gather straw for themselves The enraged despot did not issue orders to do an impracticable thing. The Egyptian reapers in the corn harvest were accustomed merely to cut off the e...

The enraged despot did not issue orders to do an impracticable thing. The Egyptian reapers in the corn harvest were accustomed merely to cut off the ears and leave the stalk standing.

JFB: Exo 5:8 - tale An appointed number of bricks. The materials of their labor were to be no longer supplied, and yet, as the same amount of produce was exacted daily, i...

An appointed number of bricks. The materials of their labor were to be no longer supplied, and yet, as the same amount of produce was exacted daily, it is impossible to imagine more aggravated cruelty--a perfect specimen of Oriental despotism.

JFB: Exo 5:12 - So the people were scattered It was an immense grievance to the laborers individually, but there would be no hindrance from the husbandmen whose fields they entered, as almost all...

It was an immense grievance to the laborers individually, but there would be no hindrance from the husbandmen whose fields they entered, as almost all the lands of Egypt were in the possession of the crown (Gen 47:20).

JFB: Exo 5:13-19 - And the taskmasters hasted them . . . officers . . . beaten As the nearest fields were bared and the people had to go farther for stubble, it was impossible for them to meet the demand by the usual tale of bric...

As the nearest fields were bared and the people had to go farther for stubble, it was impossible for them to meet the demand by the usual tale of bricks. "The beating of the officers is just what might have been expected from an Eastern tyrant, especially in the valley of the Nile, as it appears from the monuments, that ancient Egypt, like modern China, was principally governed by the stick" [TAYLOR]. "The mode of beating was by the offender being laid flat on the ground and generally held by the hands and feet while the chastisement was administered" [WILKINSON]. (Deu 25:2). A picture representing the Hebrews on a brick field, exactly as described in this chapter, was found in an Egyptian tomb at Thebes.

JFB: Exo 5:20-21 - they met Moses . . . The Lord look upon you, and judge Thus the deliverer of Israel found that this patriotic interference did, in the first instance, only aggravate the evil he wished to remove, and that ...

Thus the deliverer of Israel found that this patriotic interference did, in the first instance, only aggravate the evil he wished to remove, and that instead of receiving the gratitude, he was loaded with the reproaches of his countrymen. But as the greatest darkness is immediately before the dawn, so the people of God are often plunged into the deepest affliction when on the eve of their deliverance; and so it was in this case.

Clarke: Exo 5:1 - And afterward Moses and Aaron went And afterward Moses and Aaron went - This chapter is properly a continuation of the preceding, as the succeeding is a continuation of this; and to p...

And afterward Moses and Aaron went - This chapter is properly a continuation of the preceding, as the succeeding is a continuation of this; and to preserve the connection of the facts they should be read together

How simply, and yet with what authority, does Moses deliver his message to the Egyptian king! Thus saith Jehovah, God of Israel, Let my people go. It is well in this, as in almost every other case where יהוה Jehovah occurs, to preserve the original word: our using the word Lord is not sufficiently expressive, and often leaves the sense indistinct.

Clarke: Exo 5:2 - Who is the Lord Who is the Lord - Who is Jehovah, that I should obey his voice? What claims has he on me? I am under no obligation to him. Pharaoh spoke here under ...

Who is the Lord - Who is Jehovah, that I should obey his voice? What claims has he on me? I am under no obligation to him. Pharaoh spoke here under the common persuasion that every place and people had a tutelary deity, and he supposed that this Jehovah might be the tutelary deity of the Israelites, to whom he, as an Egyptian, could be under no kind of obligation. It is not judicious to bring this question as a proof that Pharaoh was an atheist: of this the text affords no evidence.

Clarke: Exo 5:3 - Three days’ journey Three days’ journey - The distance from Goshen to Sinai; see Exo 3:18

Three days’ journey - The distance from Goshen to Sinai; see Exo 3:18

Clarke: Exo 5:3 - And sacrifice unto the Lord And sacrifice unto the Lord - Great stress is laid on this circumstance. God required sacrifice; no religious acts which they performed could be acc...

And sacrifice unto the Lord - Great stress is laid on this circumstance. God required sacrifice; no religious acts which they performed could be acceptable to him without this. He had now showed them that it was their indispensable duty thus to worship him, and that if they did not they might expect him to send the pestilence - some plague or death proceeding immediately from himself, or the sword - extermination by the hands of an enemy. The original word דבר deber , from בדר dabar , to drive off, draw under, etc., which we translate pestilence from the Latin pestis , the plague, signifies any kind of disease by which an extraordinary mortality is occasioned, and which appears from the circumstances of the case to come immediately from God. The Israelites could not sacrifice in the land of Egypt, because the animals they were to offer to God were held sacred by the Egyptians; and they could not omit this duty, because it was essential to religion even before the giving of the law. Thus we find that Divine justice required the life of the animal for the life of the transgressor, and the people were conscious, if this were not done, that God would consume them with the pestilence or the sword. From the foundation of the world the true religion required sacrifice. Before, under, and after the law, this was deemed essential to salvation. Under the Christian dispensation Jesus is the lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world; and being still the Lamb newly slain before the throne, no man cometh unto the Father but by him

"In this first application to Pharaoh, we observe,"says Dr. Dodd, "that proper respectful submission which is due from subjects to their sovereign. They represent to him the danger they should be in by disobeying their God, but do not so much as hint at any punishment that would follow to Pharaoh."

Clarke: Exo 5:4 - Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron - He hints that the Hebrews are in a state of revolt, and charges Moses and Aaron as being ringleaders of the sedit...

Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron - He hints that the Hebrews are in a state of revolt, and charges Moses and Aaron as being ringleaders of the sedition. This unprincipled charge has been, in nearly similar circumstances, often repeated since. Men who have labored to bring the mass of the common people from ignorance, irreligion, and general profligacy of manners, to an acquaintance with themselves and God, and to a proper knowledge of their duty to him and to each other, have been often branded as being disaffected to the state, and as movers of sedition among the people! See Clarke on Exo 5:17 (note)

Clarke: Exo 5:4 - Let the people Let the people - תפריעו taphriu , from פרע para , to loose or disengage, which we translate to let, from the Anglo-Saxon lettan , to hind...

Let the people - תפריעו taphriu , from פרע para , to loose or disengage, which we translate to let, from the Anglo-Saxon lettan , to hinder. Ye hinder the people from working. Get ye to your burdens. "Let religion alone, and mind your work."The language not only of tyranny, but of the basest irreligion also.

Clarke: Exo 5:5 - The people of the land now are many The people of the land now are many - The sanguinary edict had no doubt been long before repealed, or they could not have multiplied so greatly.

The people of the land now are many - The sanguinary edict had no doubt been long before repealed, or they could not have multiplied so greatly.

Clarke: Exo 5:6 - The task-masters of the people and their officers The task-masters of the people and their officers - The task-masters were Egyptians, (see Clarke on Exo 1:11 (note)), the officers were Hebrews; see...

The task-masters of the people and their officers - The task-masters were Egyptians, (see Clarke on Exo 1:11 (note)), the officers were Hebrews; see Clarke below Exo 5:14 (note). But it is probable that the task-masters Exo 1:11, who are called שרי מסים sarey missim , princes of the burdens or taxes, were different from those termed taskmasters here, as the words are different; נגשים nogesim signifies exactors or oppressors - persons who exacted from them an unreasonable proportion either of labor or money

Clarke: Exo 5:6 - Officers Officers - שטרים shoterim ; those seem to have been an inferior sort of officers, who attended on superior officers or magistrates to execute...

Officers - שטרים shoterim ; those seem to have been an inferior sort of officers, who attended on superior officers or magistrates to execute their orders. They are supposed to have been something like our sheriffs.

Clarke: Exo 5:7 - Straw to make brick Straw to make brick - There have been many conjectures concerning the use of straw in making bricks. Some suppose it was used merely for burning the...

Straw to make brick - There have been many conjectures concerning the use of straw in making bricks. Some suppose it was used merely for burning them, but this is unfounded. The eastern bricks are often made of clay and straw kneaded together, and then not burned, but thoroughly dried in the sun. This is expressly mentioned by Philo in his life of Moses, who says, describing the oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, that some were obliged to work in clay for the formation of bricks, and others to gather straw for the same purpose, because straw is the bond by which the brick is held together, πλινθου γαρ αχορα δεσμος - Phil. Oper., edit. Mang., vol. ii., p. 86. And Philo’ s account is confirmed by the most intelligent travelers. Dr. Shaw says that the straw in the bricks still preserves its original color, which is a proof that the bricks were never burned. Some of these are still to be seen in the cabinets of the curious; and there are several from ancient Babylon now before me, where the straw which was amalgamated with the clay is still perfectly visible. From this we may see the reason of the complaint made to Pharaoh, Exo 5:16 : the Egyptians refused to give the necessary portion of straw for kneading the bricks, and yet they required that the full tale or number of bricks should be produced each day as they did when all the necessary materials were brought to hand; so the people were obliged to go over all the cornfields, and pluck up the stubble, which they were obliged to substitute for straw. See Exo 5:12.

Clarke: Exo 5:8 - And the tale of the bricks And the tale of the bricks - Tale signifies the number, from the Anglo-Saxon to number, to count, etc

And the tale of the bricks - Tale signifies the number, from the Anglo-Saxon to number, to count, etc

Clarke: Exo 5:8 - For they be idle; therefore they cry - Let us go and sacrifice For they be idle; therefore they cry - Let us go and sacrifice - Thus their desire to worship the true God in a proper manner was attributed to thei...

For they be idle; therefore they cry - Let us go and sacrifice - Thus their desire to worship the true God in a proper manner was attributed to their unwillingness to work; a reflection which the Egyptians (in principle) of the present day cast on these who, while they are fervent in spirit serving the Lord, are not slothful in business. See Clarke below Exo 5:17 (note).

Clarke: Exo 5:14 - And the officers - were beaten And the officers - were beaten - Probably bastinadoed; for this is the common punishment in Egypt to the present day for minor offenses. The manner ...

And the officers - were beaten - Probably bastinadoed; for this is the common punishment in Egypt to the present day for minor offenses. The manner of it is this: the culprit lies on his belly, his legs being turned up behind erect, and the executioner gives him so many blows on the soles of the feet with a stick. This is a very severe punishment, the sufferer not being able to walk for many weeks after, and some are lamed by it through the whole of their lives.

Clarke: Exo 5:16 - The fault is in thine own people The fault is in thine own people - חטאת chatath , the sin, is in thy own people. 1st. Because they require impossibilities; and 2dly, because t...

The fault is in thine own people - חטאת chatath , the sin, is in thy own people. 1st. Because they require impossibilities; and 2dly, because they punish us for not doing what cannot be performed.

Clarke: Exo 5:17 - Ye are idle - therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice Ye are idle - therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice - It is common for those who feel unconcerned about their own souls to attribute the reli...

Ye are idle - therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice - It is common for those who feel unconcerned about their own souls to attribute the religious earnestness of others, who feel the importance of eternal things, to idleness or a disregard of their secular concerns. Strange that they cannot see there is a medium! He who has commanded them to be diligent in business, has also commanded them to be fervent in spirit, serving the Lord. He whose diligence in business is not connected with a true religious fervor of spirit, is a lover of the world; and whatever form he may have he has not the power of godliness, and therefore is completely out of the road to salvation.

Clarke: Exo 5:19 - Did see that they were in evil case Did see that they were in evil case - They saw that they could neither expect justice nor mercy; that their deliverance was very doubtful, and their...

Did see that they were in evil case - They saw that they could neither expect justice nor mercy; that their deliverance was very doubtful, and their case almost hopeless.

Clarke: Exo 5:21 - The Lord look upon you, and judge The Lord look upon you, and judge - These were hasty and unkind expressions; but the afflicted must be allowed the privilege of complaining; it is a...

The Lord look upon you, and judge - These were hasty and unkind expressions; but the afflicted must be allowed the privilege of complaining; it is all the solace that such sorrow can find; and if in such distress words are spoken which should not be justified, yet the considerate and benevolent will hear them with indulgence. God is merciful; and the stroke of this people was heavier even than their groaning

Clarke: Exo 5:21 - Put a sword in their hand Put a sword in their hand - Given them a pretense which they had not before, to oppress us even unto death.

Put a sword in their hand - Given them a pretense which they had not before, to oppress us even unto death.

Clarke: Exo 5:22 - And Moses returned unto the Lord And Moses returned unto the Lord - This may imply, either that there was a particular place into which Moses ordinarily went to commune with Jehovah...

And Moses returned unto the Lord - This may imply, either that there was a particular place into which Moses ordinarily went to commune with Jehovah; or it may mean that kind of turning of heart and affection to God, which every pious mind feels itself disposed to practice in any time or place. The old adage will apply here: "A praying heart never lacks a praying place."Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people? - It is certain that in this address Moses uses great plainness of speech. Whether the offspring of a testy impatience and undue familiarity, or of strong faith which gave him more than ordinary access to the throne of his gracious Sovereign, it would be difficult to say. The latter appears to be the most probable, as we do not find, from the succeeding chapter, that God was displeased with his freedom; we may therefore suppose that it was kept within due bounds, and that the principles and motives were all pure and good. However, it should be noted, that such freedom of speech with the Most High should never be used but on very special occasions, and then only by his extraordinary messengers.

Clarke: Exo 5:23 - He hath done evil to this people He hath done evil to this people - Their misery is increased instead of being diminished

He hath done evil to this people - Their misery is increased instead of being diminished

Clarke: Exo 5:23 - Neither hast thou delivered thy people at all Neither hast thou delivered thy people at all - The marginal reading is both literal and correct: And delivering thou hast not delivered. Thou hast ...

Neither hast thou delivered thy people at all - The marginal reading is both literal and correct: And delivering thou hast not delivered. Thou hast begun the work by giving us counsels and a commission, but thou hast not brought the people from under their bondage. Thou hast signified thy pleasure relative to their deliverance, but thou hast not brought them out of the hands of their enemies

1. It is no certain proof of the displeasure of God that a whole people, or an individual, may be found in a state of great oppression and distress; nor are affluence and prosperity any certain signs of his approbation. God certainly loved the Israelites better than he did the Egyptians; yet the former were in the deepest adversity, while the latter were in the height of prosperity. Luther once observed, that if secular prosperity were to be considered as a criterion of the Divine approbation, then the grand Turk must be the highest in the favor of God, as he was at that time the most prosperous sovereign on the earth. An observation of this kind, on a case so obvious, was really well calculated to repress hasty conclusions drawn from these external states, and to lay down a correct rule of judgment for all such occasions

2. In all our addresses to God we should ever remember that we have sinned against him, and deserve nothing but punishment from his hand. We should therefore bow before him with the deepest humiliation of soul, and take that caution of the wise man, "Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God; for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy words be few,"Ecc 5:2. There is the more need to attend to this caution, because many ignorant though well-meaning people use very improper, not to say indecent, freedoms in their addresses to the throne of grace. With such proceedings God cannot be well pleased; and he who has not a proper impression of the dignity and excellence of the Divine Nature, is not in such a disposition as it is essentially necessary to feel in order to receive help from God. He who knows he has sinned, and feels that he is less than the least of all God’ s mercies, will pray with the deepest humility, and even rejoice before God with trembling. A solemn Awe of the Divine Majesty is not less requisite to successful praying, than faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. When we have such a commission as that of Moses, we may make use of his freedom of speech; but till then, the publican’ s prayer will best suit the generality of those who are even dignified by the name of Christian - Lord, be merciful to me, a Sinner!

Calvin: Exo 5:1 - And afterwards Moses and Aaron went in 1.And afterwards Moses and Aaron went in Moses here begins to set forth how many and how great were the proofs of God’s power displayed in the deli...

1.And afterwards Moses and Aaron went in Moses here begins to set forth how many and how great were the proofs of God’s power displayed in the deliverance of his people. For, since the pride, the madness, and the obstinacy of the king were indomitable, every door was closed, until broken down miraculously, and by various means. It was, indeed, possible for God to overwhelm him at once, by a single nod, so that he should even fall down dead at the very sight of Moses; but, as we have already briefly stated, and he will himself presently declare, He, in the first place, chose more clearly to lay open His power; for if Pharaoh had either voluntarily yielded, or had been overcome without effort, the glory of the victory would not have been so illustrious. In the second place, He wished this monument to exist of His singular love towards His elect people; for by contending so perseveringly and so forcibly against the obstinacy of this most powerful king, He gave no doubtful proof of his love towards his Church. In the third place, He wished to accustom His servants in all ages to patience, lest they should faint in their minds, if He does not immediately answer their prayers, and, at every moment, relieve them from their distresses. In the fourth place, He wished to shew that, against all the strivings and devices of Satan, against the madness of the ungodly, and all worldly hinderances, His hand must always prevail; and to leave us no room to doubt, but that whatever we see opposing us will at length be overcome by him. In the fifth place, By detecting the illusions of Satan and the magicians, He would render His Church more wary, that she might carefully watch against such devices, and that her faith might continue invincible against all the machinations of error. Finally, He would convince Pharaoh and the Egyptians, that their folly was not to be excused by any pretense of ignorance; and, at the same time, by this example, He would shew us how horrible a darkness possesses the minds of the reprobate, when He has deprived them of the light of his Spirit. These things must be attentively observed in the course of the narrative, if we desire to profit by it.

Since it is difficult to obtain access to kings, who deign not to admit to their presence any of the lower orders, Moses and Aaron must have been endued with no ordinary confidence, when they boldly approached Pharaoh. For it was a disagreeable message, and one very likely to give offense, that he should permit the people to take three days’ journey beyond the bounds of Egypt; since a suspicion must unquestionably arise that, being thus dismissed, they would no longer remain his subjects, and that thus a part of the land would be emptied of its inhabitants. Still Moses and Aaron do not fear to deliver God’s command, in which there was this additional annoyance to the proud and sensitive ears of the king, viz., that they attributed the glory of Deity to the God of Israel alone; for, by calling Him Jehovah, they imply that the gods worshipped in Egypt were false, and invented by the imaginations of man. We have said elsewhere that there was no deceit in the pretext that God called his people into the wilderness to hold a feast, although He does not reveal His counsel to the tyrant; for it was really His pleasure that a sacrifice of thanksgiving should be offered to Himself on Mount Sinai, and that they should be thus separated from the polluted nation with which they were mixed up; and, assuredly, He wished to arouse the tyrant’s wrath, by ignominiously condemning the whole of Egypt, as not capable of pure worship. For He was obliged by no law to declare openly their deliverance; but that He might draw forth from the mind of the tyrant the venom of his impiety, He asked for nothing connected with the advantage of His people, but merely demanded the worship which was due to Himself. The word which Moses uses means properly to hold a feast, but also embraces whatever is connected with it; and, therefore, by synecdoche, it is taken here, as also in other passages, for the solemn worship of God. 66

Calvin: Exo 5:2 - And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord? 2.And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord? It is scarcely credible that there should be such madness in a mortal as, by thus wantonly scorning God, to fly,...

2.And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord? It is scarcely credible that there should be such madness in a mortal as, by thus wantonly scorning God, to fly, as it were, in the face of heaven! 67 But we must observe, that the tyrant being devoted to idolatries, thus insulted the God of Israel, that he might manifest his great piety towards his false gods. For his mockery, in scornfully bandying back the name of Jehovah, must be referred to the words of Moses, as much as to say, Why do you bring against me this unknown phantom under the title of the eternal God, as though we had no god of our own? Thus Pilate, when Christ said, “To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth,” asks ironically, and not without mockery, “What is truth?” 68 (Joh 18:37.) In short, Pharaoh did not conceive himself to be dishonoring the Deity, when he rejected this false ( prodigiosum) God, as he thought. Yet his error did not avail to justify him, since it arose from insane audacity and contempt of God. Admit that he was unwilling that any should depreciate his idols, and that he thus imagined himself to perform a religious duty; still it was an act of very gross impiety, so carelessly to repudiate the name of the true God, and even to assail it with mockery. We may remark a like madness in all idolaters. Being intoxicated by their errors they boldly mock at God, and deign not to make inquiries about Him. The cry of the Papists now-a-days is, that we are imposing a new God on the world; and, applauding themselves in their wildest ravings, they do not hesitate to condemn our whole doctrine as impious; not because they are persuaded that they are themselves worshipping God aright; but they are willfully blind, that they may elude, with impunity, the sacred majesty of God, and stupify their consciences, and preserve to themselves their death-like slumber. They seem to themselves to be sharp-witted and facetious, when they are scoffing at the novelty of our doctrine; though its truth would be plain enough, if they would only open their eyes. The Epicureans, too, (of which pestilent sect the world is now full,) although they foam and rage against God, still invariably take refuge in some cloud, under which their detestable madness may be concealed: for they pretend that amidst such a multitude of opinions, it is scarcely possible to discern who is God, or what He commands. Still, however, this is their constant object, viz., that they may have nothing to do with God, and yet may conceal by jests the shame of their impiety; as if it were free for them to reject what they are willfully ignorant of. But after Pharaoh had indirectly derided the message of Moses, as a ludicrous affair, he more openly and more contemptuously vents his pride, implying that he cares not for that God, with whose name Moses and Aaron would frighten him.

Calvin: Exo 5:3 - And they said, The God of the Hebrews 3.And they said, The God of the Hebrews Moses and Aaron proceed with their message; neither does the pride of the tyrant decrease or weaken their cou...

3.And they said, The God of the Hebrews Moses and Aaron proceed with their message; neither does the pride of the tyrant decrease or weaken their courage in proclaiming the glory of the One true God, who had peculiarly attached Himself to them. And, certainly, this is the attribute of faith, to trample upon everything that exalteth itself on earth; since the truth of God is superior to all human greatness. Nor could they more effectually refute that profane and impious word, “I know not the Lord,” than by again asseverating that the true God is the Protector of their nation, and that this had been disclosed to them in an open manifestation of Himself. The threatening, which they added, admonishes Pharaoh that his rebellion would not be unpunished, if he kept back the people from the worship of God; for if He would take vengeance on the people which was retained against their will, how could he escape with impunity, who professedly entered into contention with God? When, then, they declare that some calamity would befall them unless they obeyed the call of God, they intimate that Pharaoh must beware of some greater visitation.

Calvin: Exo 5:4 - And the king of Egypt said unto them 4.And the king of Egypt said unto them It is surprising that the king, in the excess of his arrogance, did not more cruelly entreat these servants of...

4.And the king of Egypt said unto them It is surprising that the king, in the excess of his arrogance, did not more cruelly entreat these servants of God, whom he accounted the ringleaders of sedition. But he was undoubtedly restrained by God from proceeding at once to destroy them. By his pertinacity in resisting their departure, he will more clearly shew by and bye how important to his interests he considered it that the people should remain in Egypt; how comes it then that he is contented with verbal reproof, and refrains from shedding their blood, if it were not that God protected his servants under the shield of His defense? He harshly reproves them, indeed, and condemns them to the same labors, by which the rest of the people were oppressed; but since it is notorious that moderate rigor never satisfies tyrants, we conclude that they were preserved under the guardianship of God, and would otherwise have died a hundred times over. But let us learn from his accusation against them, as the promoters of rebellion, to bear patiently, after their example, calumnies and false imputations; only, in reliance on God’s command, let us be fully conscious that we are unjustly accused. The next verse, wherein he says, that “the people of the land are now many,” is intended to aggravate their guilt; both because they would inflict a deeper injury on the public, than as if they had withheld a few from their work; and also, because, by inflaming a large number of people, they would bring greater danger on the country.

Calvin: Exo 5:6 - And Pharaoh commanded 6.And Pharaoh commanded We shall more clearly perceive, as the narrative proceeds, that these taskmasters and officers were taken from amongst the ch...

6.And Pharaoh commanded We shall more clearly perceive, as the narrative proceeds, that these taskmasters and officers were taken from amongst the children of Israel, although we have before read that some were Egyptians. But, as tyrants are ingenious in securing their own interests, Pharaoh in his subtlety wished to provide that none should escape, but that all alike should be brought in turn to the labor. For some, in such a multitude, might have evaded the Egyptians; but, when the charge was given to the Israelites, their familiar knowledge would prevent any from escaping. Besides, it is probable that with these taskmasters was deposited the straw, which they distributed either to parties of ten, or to individuals; he therefore doubles the work in this way, by commanding them to gather the straw with which the bricks were made. But, according to the proverb, that “the edicts of kings are monosyllables,” Moses shews the vehemence of the tyranny by the brevity of the command. But this passage teaches us, that when God has begun to regard us for the purpose of relieving our troubles, He sometimes takes occasion to increase the pressure of our burdens. Thus, when God had engaged to be the deliverer of the Israelites, their trouble became greater, by the tyrant adding to their ordinary tasks that of gathering the straw for themselves. For thus it pleases God to prove the faith of His people; and thus is it expedient to lift up to Him their minds, which are too much set on earth, whilst they do not immediately perceive the fruit of the grace promised to them, nay, whilst they feel that nothing else is brought them by God’s favour, except that their condition becomes worse. It is very useful for us to ponder this, that we may more patiently and calmly bear to be excited to the love and desire of heavenly blessings, by crosses and adversities. Now-a-days the Gospel procures hatred for many, deprives others of their pleasures, degrades others from their honours, brings to others the loss of their goods, sentences others to prison, others to exile, and endangers the life of some; in a word, the more God exerts His power, the more is Satan’s rage excited on the other side, and the wicked become more fiercely cruel. This offense would greatly shake us, unless we knew, from the admonition of this example, that the inestimable grace, which is offered us in Christ, ought to be so valued by us, that in comparison with it, riches, honours, and all that men seek after, should be accounted nothing; and that we should find no difficulty in despising inconveniences of whatever kind.

Calvin: Exo 5:9 - Let there more work be laid upon the men 9.Let there more work be laid upon the men Although Pharaoh knew that he was cruelly entreating the unhappy Israelites, who ought, as strangers, to b...

9.Let there more work be laid upon the men Although Pharaoh knew that he was cruelly entreating the unhappy Israelites, who ought, as strangers, to be hospitably and kindly received, yet he says that they were abusing their idleness, and were revolting because he indulged them too much. Thus, when tyranny has lost all regard for justice, there are no bounds to its harshness; and so far from being moved to pity by complaints, they only aggravate its cruelty. And these are the means by which its flatterers inflame it more, viz., that its subjects will never be quiet unless they faint under the weight of their burdens; that this is the best receipt for governing them, so to oppress them that they dare not open their mouths; if they cry, or murmur, that they should be oppressed the more, 69 till they grow hardened, and, as it were, callous to their bondage. They, therefore, relax not their contumelies and cruelties until the wretched people have altogether succumbed. Pharaoh insults them still more wantonly, when he says that he imposes heavier burdens upon them, that “they may not regard vain words.” But what are these, except that they ask permission to worship God? His impiety, therefore, bursts forth in the midst of his tyrannical insolence; nor does he only mean to utter a blasphemy against God, but he is instigated by the wiles of Satan to undermine the faith of the Church. By a similar impulse, Rabshakeh proclaimed that Hezekiah deceived the people by “vain words,” when he bade them trust in the living God. (Isa 36:5.) Nor does Satan cease to employ the same machination against the faithful, as if all that God promises was deceit and vanity.

Calvin: Exo 5:12 - So the people were scattered abroad 12.So the people were scattered abroad This circumstance proves how bitterly they were afflicted, and what labor beyond their strength was imposed up...

12.So the people were scattered abroad This circumstance proves how bitterly they were afflicted, and what labor beyond their strength was imposed upon them. In order to make bricks, at least, they should have remained in a particular spot, but straw is not supplied to them for the purpose; they are obliged, therefore, to disperse here and there, and to gather stubble instead of straw in the distant parts of Egypt. They could not do both; it was then in fact just to procure a false pretext, which he might catch at as the ground of their condemnation: as now we often see the enemies of Christ inventing the most insupportable torments, by which the unhappy Church may be driven to deny the faith. For it was the design of Pharaoh to drive Moses and Aaron far away, that they might never agitate any more for the departure of the people; and if he had obtained this wish, he would doubtless have remitted some part of his abominable cruelty; but, because they did not cease, he wished to extort from the people by bitter sufferings, that they should send them away themselves, or refuse even to lend an ear to the commands of God. For although he must have been perfectly conscious that there was no reason to accuse the people of idleness, but that the tale of bricks was not delivered, because the poor wretches, who had been hardly able before to perform half their labor, were now incapable, by the utmost exertion, to bear their burdens, and therefore sees that they are altogether overwhelmed by them; yet still he reproaches them with reveling in idleness, in order that they may turn away from Moses, and renounce and abandon the hope presented to them from on high. And, because he can only torment them more by killing them outright, he commands their officers to be beaten, that by their punishment the whole people might be in greater dread. Finally, those whom he saw standing too firmly, he determined to drive at last to despair. He is deaf to every excuse of the officers; for when he had once made up his mind to crush the people until he had destroyed in them all recollection of God, there is no more feeling or pity in him than in a stone.

Calvin: Exo 5:19 - And the officers of the children of Israel did see 19.And the officers of the children of Israel did see Some take the Hebrew word רע 70, rang, for “grief,” but refer it to the people; as tho...

19.And the officers of the children of Israel did see Some take the Hebrew word רע 70, rang, for “grief,” but refer it to the people; as though it were said, “the officers did see the people sorrowful, when they informed them of the command of the king.” But the simpler sense, in my opinion, will be, that they saw no remedy for their evil case, and that they could not be delivered from the cruel bondage in which they were. Some also explain it, that the officers themselves felt, from their own experience, after they had been so inhumanly repulsed by the king, how unhappy was their condition. But if I must choose either meaning, I should prefer what I have above stated, that they themselves sympathized with the public calamity, whilst they could see no hope of deliverance. Unless, perhaps, it would be better thus to take it, — that, when they came into the people’s presence, they were themselves of sad countenance, and looked upon them with looks cast down by sorrow and shame, because they brought the cruel edict for doubling their labour. And certainly I willingly embrace this meaning, that when they were forced to promulgate the command of the king, their countenances betrayed their sorrow, because they could not evade the necessity of being the ministers of his ungodly tyranny and cruelty. For Moses adds immediately after, that they delivered the edict. Hence, then, their mournful aspect, because they unwillingly oppressed their brethren, whose troubles they would have preferred to lighten. The sum of the matter is, that their case was altogether desperate; because the officers themselves conveyed this message of the unchangeable cruelty of the tyrant, and by the agitation of their countenances bore witness that no mitigation could be hoped for.

Calvin: Exo 5:20 - And they met Moses 20.And they met Moses Some translate it, 71 “they met together with Moses,” taking the particle את , eth, for “together with;” but it is ...

20.And they met Moses Some translate it, 71 “they met together with Moses,” taking the particle את , eth, for “together with;” but it is more in accordance with the context that the officers and some part of the elders or people encountered Moses and Aaron as they returned from Pharaoh. An accidental meeting is indicated, from whence it arose that their minds were still more exasperated against the Lord’s servants. That blind grief is here described which, with a fury akin to madness, aroused the Israelites to unfounded anger against the innocent, who had deserved nothing of the kind. It is not indeed wonderful that they were so brutalized by the weight of their sorrows as to lose all sense of justice, and were even so completely driven out of their minds, as unreasonably to vent their indignation against the ministers of their deliverance; for this not unfrequently happens; but although it may be too common a fault, yet are not they free from the accusation of ingratitude who are carried away thus inconsiderately by the force of their passions; nay, we should learn from this example how carefully we ought to restrain our grief, which, if indulged, parts company both with reason and with kindness. For what could be more unjust than because Pharaoh is tyrannical and cruel to lay the blame on Moses and Aaron? But; this outbreak arose from want of faith; because they measure the favor of God by their immediate success. They had lately thanked God for their promised redemption; now, as if they had been deceived, they accuse Moses and Aaron. Hence we gather how wavering was their faith, which vanishes at once upon so slight a cause. If the calling of Moses had not been ratified by miracles, they might have taken occasion to be angry from their ill success; but now, when they had experimentally known that God was the author of the whole proceeding, it is an act of perversity and falsehood to accuse Moses of rashness; and thus they do injustice not only to a mortal man, but to God their deliverer — an injustice which is doubled by the blasphemous abuse of His name, when they speak of Him as the promoter of a bad cause. For the expression, “the Lord — judge,” is, as it were, to impose upon Him the law by which He must condemn Himself. On this account intemperate grief is still more to be watched against, which, whilst it bursts out immoderately against men, does not even spare God. They did not indeed think that they were reproaching God and rejecting His loving-kindness; for the excess of their passion had transported them out of themselves. Meantime we must mark the source of the evil, namely, that they were impatient, because God did not immediately complete what He had promised, but deferred it for a time; and again, because they sought to be exempted from every evil. Thus they preferred rotting, as it were, in their miseries, to suffering some little inconvenience for the hope of the favor of God. And this cowardice is natural to almost all of us, that we prefer to be without God’s help rather than to suffer under the cross, whilst He leads us to salvation gradually, and sometimes by a circuitous path. Nothing indeed is sweeter than to hear that our afflictions are regarded by God, and that He will come to our relief in tribulation; but if God’s favor awakens the wrath of the ungodly against us, we shall be prepared to abandon all His promises rather than purchase the hopes they afford at so great a price. In the meantime, we see how kindly God contended with the intemperate and corrupt conduct of His people. For certainly by reproaching Moses and Aaron so rudely, the Israelites rejected (as far as in them lay) that message respecting their deliverance which they at first had greedily received; and yet He ceased not to carry on His work even to the end.

Calvin: Exo 5:22 - And Moses returned 22.And Moses returned This return unto the Lord is here used in a bad sense for forsaking his office; for Moses is not related to have either calmly ...

22.And Moses returned This return unto the Lord is here used in a bad sense for forsaking his office; for Moses is not related to have either calmly prayed, or, as in a difficult emergency, to have humbly sought counsel of the Lord; but, leaving the men with whom he had to do, to have gone back in disgust to God, to demand his dismissal. He returned, then, to God, that the whole undertaking might be abandoned, as though he had never been sent. This is what the words convey, since he openly expostulates with God, because He had permitted His people to be more cruelly entreated, though He had promised them deliverance. At first sight, his madness would seem to be greater than that of the whole people, because he directly and openly accuses God as the author of all the evil which Pharaoh had inflicted; yet I doubt not but that he rather sorrowfully recounted the complaints of the people than spoke his own sentiments. Still his bitterness is not altogether excusable, when he repents of his vocation, and is indignant, because an unsuccessful charge had been intrusted to him. But when he accuses the slackness of God in redeeming His people, it is made apparent how deep is the darkness which had taken possession of his mind. He had been forewarned in good time of the hardness of Pharaoh’s heart; he had heard that he would not yield until crushed by God’s mighty hand; now, forgetting of all, he marvels that their redemption is not complete. The same thing often occurs to us, that the doctrine of faith and hope, which in peaceful times shines brightly in our hearts and echoes from our tongue, is altogether lost when we come to serious conflict. Wherefore we ought to devote ourselves with greater goodwill to its study, that even in the most trying circumstances the recollection of it may be our support.

Defender: Exo 5:7 - make brick Sun-dried mud bricks, both with and without straw, have been found by archaeologists in Egypt."

Sun-dried mud bricks, both with and without straw, have been found by archaeologists in Egypt."

TSK: Exo 5:1 - and told // a feast and told : 1Ki 21:20; Psa 119:46; Eze 2:6; Jon 3:3, Jon 3:4; Mat 10:18, Mat 10:28; Act 4:29 a feast : Exo 10:9; Isa 25:6; 1Co 5:8

TSK: Exo 5:2 - Who // I know not // neither Who : Exo 3:19; 2Ki 18:35; 2Ch 32:15, 2Ch 32:19; Job 21:15; Psa 10:4, Psa 12:4, Psa 14:1 I know not : 1Sa 2:12; Joh 16:3; Rom 1:28; 2Th 1:8 neither : ...

TSK: Exo 5:3 - The God // lest he The God : Exo 3:18 lest he : Deu 28:21; 2Ki 17:25; 2Ch 30:8; Ezr 7:23; Eze 6:11; Zec 14:16-19

TSK: Exo 5:4 - wherefore // let // burdens wherefore : Jer 38:4; Amo 7:10; Luk 23:2; Act 16:20, Act 16:21, Act 24:5 let : Taphreeoo , from pard , to loose, disengage; and which we render le...

wherefore : Jer 38:4; Amo 7:10; Luk 23:2; Act 16:20, Act 16:21, Act 24:5

let : Taphreeoo , from pard , to loose, disengage; and which we render let, from the Anglo-Saxon lettan , to hinder. Ye hinder the people from their work: ""Get you unto your burdens.""""Let religion alone and mind your work.""The language not only of tyranny, but of thoughtless irreligion.

burdens : Exo 1:11

TSK: Exo 5:5 - -- Exo 1:7-11; Pro 14:28

TSK: Exo 5:6 - taskmasters // officers taskmasters : Nogesim , literally, exactors, oppressors. These taskmasters were Egyptians (Exo 1:11), but the officers were Hebrews. Exo 5:14. Exo ...

taskmasters : Nogesim , literally, exactors, oppressors. These taskmasters were Egyptians (Exo 1:11), but the officers were Hebrews. Exo 5:14. Exo 5:10, Exo 5:13, Exo 5:15, Exo 5:19, Exo 1:11; Pro 12:10

officers : Shoterim , from the Arabic saytara , to overlook, superintend, seems to denote, as musaytar in Arabic also does, overseers, superintendents. They may have been somewhat like the chiefs of trades, who are found in every city in the East; where every trade has a head, who is entrusted with authority over them, and is in some measure answerable for them to Government. Compare Exo 2:14. Num 11:16; Deu 1:15, Deu 16:18; Jos 8:33, Jos 24:1, Jos 24:4; 2Ch 26:11

TSK: Exo 5:7 - straw straw : The straw was mixed with clay, in order to make the bricks. This is expressly affirmed by Philo ( vit. Mos. ) who was himself a native of Alex...

straw : The straw was mixed with clay, in order to make the bricks. This is expressly affirmed by Philo ( vit. Mos. ) who was himself a native of Alexandria, in Egypt. He says, describing the oppression of the Israelites, that some were obliged to work in clay, and others to gather straw for the formation of bricks, πλινθου γαρ αχυρα δεσμος , because straw is the binding of the brick. Philo’ s account is confirmed by Dr. Shaw, who says that ""some of the Egyptian pyramids are made of brick, the composition whereof is only a mixture of clay, mud, and straw, slightly blended and kneaded together, and afterwards baked in the sun. The straw, which keeps the bricks together, and still preserves its original colour, seems to be a proof that these bricks were never burnt or made in kilns.""The same materials are now used for building in Egypt. Mr. Baumgarten says, ""The houses are for the most part of bricks that are only hardened by the heat of the sun, and mixed with straw to make them firm.""Gen 24:25; Jdg 19:19

TSK: Exo 5:8 - tale // ye shall lay tale : Tale denotes number, from the Anglo-Saxon taellan , to number, count, etc. ye shall lay : Psa 106:41

tale : Tale denotes number, from the Anglo-Saxon taellan , to number, count, etc.

ye shall lay : Psa 106:41

TSK: Exo 5:9 - Let there more work be laid upon the men // vain words Let there more work be laid upon the men : Heb. Let the work be heavy upon the men vain words : 2Ki 18:20; Job 16:3; Jer 43:2; Zec 1:6; Mal 3:14; Eph ...

Let there more work be laid upon the men : Heb. Let the work be heavy upon the men

vain words : 2Ki 18:20; Job 16:3; Jer 43:2; Zec 1:6; Mal 3:14; Eph 5:6

TSK: Exo 5:10 - taskmasters taskmasters : Exo 1:11; Pro 29:12

taskmasters : Exo 1:11; Pro 29:12

TSK: Exo 5:11 - not ought not ought : Exo 5:13, Exo 5:14

not ought : Exo 5:13, Exo 5:14

TSK: Exo 5:12 - stubble stubble : Exo 15:7; Isa 5:24, Isa 47:14; Joe 2:5; Nah 1:10; Oba 1:18; 1Co 3:12

TSK: Exo 5:13 - daily tasks daily tasks : Heb. a matter of a day in his day

daily tasks : Heb. a matter of a day in his day

TSK: Exo 5:17 - -- Mat 26:8; Joh 6:27; 2Th 3:10, 2Th 3:11

TSK: Exo 5:18 - yet shall ye deliver yet shall ye deliver : Eze 18:18; Dan 2:9-13

yet shall ye deliver : Eze 18:18; Dan 2:9-13

TSK: Exo 5:19 - evil case evil case : Deu 32:36; Ecc 4:1, Ecc 5:8

evil case : Deu 32:36; Ecc 4:1, Ecc 5:8

TSK: Exo 5:21 - The Lord // our savour // to be abhorred The Lord : Exo 4:31, Exo 6:9; Gen 16:5 our savour : Ecc 10:1; Joe 2:20; 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16 to be abhorred : Heb. to stink, Gen 34:30; 1Sa 13:4, 1Sa 27...

The Lord : Exo 4:31, Exo 6:9; Gen 16:5

our savour : Ecc 10:1; Joe 2:20; 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16

to be abhorred : Heb. to stink, Gen 34:30; 1Sa 13:4, 1Sa 27:12; 2Sa 10:6; 1Ch 19:6

TSK: Exo 5:22 - returned // why is it returned : Exo 17:4; 1Sa 30:6; Psa 73:25; Jer 12:1 why is it : Num 11:14, Num 11:15; 1Ki 19:4, 1Ki 19:10; Jer 20:7; Hab 2:3

TSK: Exo 5:23 - in thy name // neither hast thou delivered in thy name : Psa 118:26; Jer 11:21; Joh 5:43 neither hast thou delivered : Heb. delivering, thou hast not delivered, Isa 26:17, Isa 26:18, Isa 28:16;...

in thy name : Psa 118:26; Jer 11:21; Joh 5:43

neither hast thou delivered : Heb. delivering, thou hast not delivered, Isa 26:17, Isa 26:18, Isa 28:16; Heb 10:36, Heb 10:37

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 5:1 - Moses and Aaron went in Moses and Aaron went in and with them some of the elders of Israel, as may seem from Exo 3:18 , though here only the two chiefs be mentioned. Or, be...

Moses and Aaron went in and with them some of the elders of Israel, as may seem from Exo 3:18 , though here only the two chiefs be mentioned. Or, because Moses did not seem to be satisfied with the assistance of the elders before offered him, Exo 3:18 , God was pleased to give him a more acceptable assistant in their stead, even Aaron his brother, Exo 4:14 . Told Pharaoh: either both successively told him; or Aaron did it immediately, and with his tongue, Moses by his interpreter, and by his command. Or, offer a sacrifice, as they express it, Exo 5:3 and Exo 10:9 . For both went together, and a good part of many sacrifices was spent in feasting before the Lord and unto the honour of the Lord. See Deu 12:6,7,11,12 .

Poole: Exo 5:2 - -- I am the sovereign lord of Egypt, and I own no superior here.

I am the sovereign lord of Egypt, and I own no superior here.

Poole: Exo 5:3 - Hath met with us // Lest he fall upon us Hath met with us i.e. hath appeared to us lately, and laid this command upon us. Others, is called upon us , i.e. his name is called upon us, or we ...

Hath met with us i.e. hath appeared to us lately, and laid this command upon us. Others, is called upon us , i.e. his name is called upon us, or we are called by his name. But why should Moses so solemnly tell that to Pharaoh which all the people knew, to wit, that the Hebrews did worship the God of the Hebrews? And our translation is confirmed by comparing this with Exo 3:18 , where this very message is prescribed.

Lest he fall upon us lest he punish, either us, if we disobey his command, or thee, if thou hinderest us from obeying it: but this latter they only imply, as being easily gathered from the former.

Poole: Exo 5:4 - -- Either, 1. Ye, the elders of Israel, who are here come with Moses and Aaron : see Exo 5:1 . Or, 2. Ye, Moses and Aaron So far am I from granting...

Either,

1. Ye, the elders of Israel, who are here come with Moses and Aaron : see Exo 5:1 . Or,

2. Ye, Moses and Aaron So far am I from granting the liberty which you desire for the people, that as a just punishment upon you for your seditious attempt, I command you also to go with the rest, and to take your share in their burdens, and to perform the task which shall be required of you. And that so cruel a tyrant did not proceed further against them, must be ascribed to the mighty power of God, who governs the spirits and restrains the hands of the greatest kings when he pleaseth.

Poole: Exo 5:5 - -- Ver. 5. The Israelites in this land are very numerous, and therefore it were a madness in me to permit them all to meet and go together as you desir...

Ver. 5. The Israelites in this land are very numerous, and therefore it were a madness in me to permit them all to meet and go together as you desire, which may tend to the ruin of my whole kingdom, and probably it is designed by you to that purpose. Or, therefore your injury to me is the greater, in attempting to rob me of the benefit of their labours. This I prefer, because it suits best with the following words.

Poole: Exo 5:6 - task-masters // officers The task-masters were Egyptians, and the officers were Israelites, under-officers to them, Exo 5:14,15,19 .

The

task-masters were Egyptians, and the

officers were Israelites, under-officers to them, Exo 5:14,15,19 .

Poole: Exo 5:7 - -- The straw was used either to mingle with the clay, that’ it might not be too brittle; or to cover the clay when it was formed into bricks, tha...

The straw was used either to mingle with the clay, that’ it might not be too brittle; or to cover the clay when it was formed into bricks, that the heat of the sun might not dry them too much, which might easily be done in that hot country; or for fuel, either wholly or in part, to burn their bricks with, straw being abundant there, and much used for that purpose.

Poole: Exo 5:9 - -- The words of Moses and Aaron, which are vain or false, i.e. which they falsely pretend to come from God, when it is only an ill design of their own ...

The words of Moses and Aaron, which are vain or false, i.e. which they falsely pretend to come from God, when it is only an ill design of their own to advance themselves by raising sedition.

Poole: Exo 5:12 - All the land of Egypt All the land of Egypt i.e. all that part of it; which is a very usual synecdoche.

All the land of Egypt i.e. all that part of it; which is a very usual synecdoche.

Poole: Exo 5:16 - -- i.e. The Egyptian task-masters, who, by sending us abroad to gather straw, hinder us from doing the work which they require; and so they are both un...

i.e. The Egyptian task-masters, who, by sending us abroad to gather straw, hinder us from doing the work which they require; and so they are both unjust and unreasonable. They charge the task-masters, not the king, either in civility and duty, casting his fault upon the instruments; or because they did not know, or at best not believe, that this was the king’ s act. Others, Thy people , i.e. the Egyptians, make themselves guilty , and will bring the vengeance of God upon them for their cruelty.

Poole: Exo 5:19 - Did see that they were in evil case Did see that they were in evil case or, looked upon them with sadness , or with an evil eye , i.e. with a sorrowful and angry countenance, as those...

Did see that they were in evil case or, looked upon them with sadness , or with an evil eye , i.e. with a sorrowful and angry countenance, as those that could obtain no relaxation for themselves or for their brethren.

Poole: Exo 5:20 - They They i.e. the officers who went to pour out their complaints to Pharaoh, Exo 5:15

They i.e. the officers who went to pour out their complaints to Pharaoh, Exo 5:15

Poole: Exo 5:21 - -- To give them what they have long sought and thirsted after, to wit, an occasion to destroy and root us out.

To give them what they have long sought and thirsted after, to wit, an occasion to destroy and root us out.

Poole: Exo 5:22 - -- Moses returned unto the Lord, to expostulate with him, and pray to him. To the people he saith nothing, but meekly passeth by their severe censures,...

Moses returned unto the Lord, to expostulate with him, and pray to him. To the people he saith nothing, but meekly passeth by their severe censures, as forced from them by intolerable oppression; and because their minds being now imbittered and exasperated, they were incapable of admonition. Wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people, by giving occasion to their greater bondage? He expostulates the matter with God, not from pride and arrogance, as one that would censure and condemn his actions, but from zeal for God’ s glory, and his people’ s happiness, as one that would prevail with God to relieve them; though it must be confessed that Moses exceeded his bounds, being transported with grief and passion, which the gracious God was pleased to pass by.

Poole: Exo 5:23 - In thy name // Neither hast thou delivered thy people In thy name not of my own head, but by thy command and commission. Neither hast thou delivered thy people according to thy promise and mine, and th...

In thy name not of my own head, but by thy command and commission.

Neither hast thou delivered thy people according to thy promise and mine, and thy people’ s just expectation.

Haydock: Exo 5:1 - Went in alone // Pharao // Sacrifice Went in alone. Aaron was substituted instead of the ancients, chap. iii. 16. --- Pharao Amasis, Cenchres, or Amenophis. (Usher.) --- Sacrifice...

Went in alone. Aaron was substituted instead of the ancients, chap. iii. 16. ---

Pharao Amasis, Cenchres, or Amenophis. (Usher.) ---

Sacrifice, which is the principal part of a religious festival. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 5:2 - The Lord The Lord. Is there anyone above me?

The Lord. Is there anyone above me?

Haydock: Exo 5:3 - Upon us Upon us. They include themselves in the common danger, in case of disobedience; and they admonish the king respectfully, that there is no resisting ...

Upon us. They include themselves in the common danger, in case of disobedience; and they admonish the king respectfully, that there is no resisting the God of the Hebrews with impunity.

Haydock: Exo 5:4 - Get you Get you. He knew not that Moses had been so long absent; and if he had known, he would not probably have treated him more mildly. (Haydock)

Get you. He knew not that Moses had been so long absent; and if he had known, he would not probably have treated him more mildly. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 5:5 - Increased Increased, the edict against children being abrogated. (Menochius) --- He insists upon their labour being so intense and toilsome, as to thin their...

Increased, the edict against children being abrogated. (Menochius) ---

He insists upon their labour being so intense and toilsome, as to thin their ranks.

Haydock: Exo 5:6 - Overseers Overseers, natives of Egypt, who had under them some Hebrews for task-masters, as the people were more willing to obey them, ver. 14.

Overseers, natives of Egypt, who had under them some Hebrews for task-masters, as the people were more willing to obey them, ver. 14.

Haydock: Exo 5:7 - Straw Straw, beaten small and mixed with clay, to make brick and mortar. See Ezechiel xiii. 11, 15; Chardin, Perse ii. p. 76.

Straw, beaten small and mixed with clay, to make brick and mortar. See Ezechiel xiii. 11, 15; Chardin, Perse ii. p. 76.

Haydock: Exo 5:8 - Idle Idle. Thus the impious speak of those who consecrate any part of their time to the service of God: and thus Protestants often condemn the holy-days ...

Idle. Thus the impious speak of those who consecrate any part of their time to the service of God: and thus Protestants often condemn the holy-days prescribed by the Catholic Church!

Haydock: Exo 5:9 - Lying words Lying words, alluding to the proposals of Moses. (Haydock) -- Let them not spend their time in idle conversation. (Calmet)

Lying words, alluding to the proposals of Moses. (Haydock) -- Let them not spend their time in idle conversation. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 5:12 - Straw Straw. While some continued at the works, (Menochius) others went about the fields to gather up every grain of chaff and piece of straw which they c...

Straw. While some continued at the works, (Menochius) others went about the fields to gather up every grain of chaff and piece of straw which they could find.

Haydock: Exo 5:14 - And they And they, the officers of the children of Israel, established over their brethren, as the Hebrew more clearly insinuates, were scourged, or bastina...

And they, the officers of the children of Israel, established over their brethren, as the Hebrew more clearly insinuates, were scourged, or bastinadoed on the soles of the feet, as smaller faults are commonly punished in the East; (Calmet) or they were beaten also with rods, ver. 16. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 5:16 - Withal Withal. Hebrew, "the fault is in thy own people," who require impossibilities. (Calmet) --- They throw the blame upon the king's officers, (Menoch...

Withal. Hebrew, "the fault is in thy own people," who require impossibilities. (Calmet) ---

They throw the blame upon the king's officers, (Menochius) though it was his own. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 5:21 - Kill us Kill us. You are the occasion of our more cruel treatment. You have made the king have a bad opinion of us. Hebrew, "you have made our savour to b...

Kill us. You are the occasion of our more cruel treatment. You have made the king have a bad opinion of us. Hebrew, "you have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharao." So Jacob said, (Genesis xxxiv. 30,) you have made me stink or become odious. Those who attempt to do a kindness, unsuccessfully, often experience a similar ingratitude, chap. xiv. 11. (Menochius) It does not appear from the original, whether the officers or Moses was coming from the king's presence. They met in some appointed place. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 5:22 - Wherefore Wherefore. These are not words of anger, but of earnest prayer. (St. Augustine, q. 14.) Moses does not attempt to satisfy the exasperated officers...

Wherefore. These are not words of anger, but of earnest prayer. (St. Augustine, q. 14.) Moses does not attempt to satisfy the exasperated officers, but commits the whole to God. (Menochius) ---

In great undertakings, there are commonly many difficulties; which ought not to discourage us. (Tirinus)

Gill: Exo 5:1 - And afterwards Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh // thus saith the Lord God of Israel // let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness And afterwards Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh,.... Whose name, some say, was Cenchres, others Amenophis, according to Manetho and Chaeremon...

And afterwards Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh,.... Whose name, some say, was Cenchres, others Amenophis, according to Manetho and Chaeremon h; See Gill on Exo 3:10 went into Pharaoh's palace, and being introduced by the proper officer at court for that purpose, addressed him in the following manner:

thus saith the Lord God of Israel: as ambassadors of him, who is King of kings, and Lord of lords; and so Artapanus i, the Heathen, says that the Egyptian king, hearing that Moses was come, sent for him to know wherefore he was come, who told him, that the Lord of the world commanded him to let the Jews go, as it follows here:

let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness; in the wilderness of Sinai or Arabia, at Horeb there, where they might keep it more freely and safely, without being disturbed by the Egyptians, and without giving any offence to them; and the demand is just; they were the people of God, and therefore he claims them, and service from them was due to him; and Pharaoh had no right to detain them, and what is required was but their reasonable service they owed to their God. This feast was to be held, not for themselves, but to God, which chiefly consisted in offering sacrifice, as is after explained; the entire dismission of them is not at once demanded, only to go a little while into the wilderness, and keep a feast there to the Lord; though it was not intended they should return, but it was put in this form to try Pharaoh, and that he might be the more inexcusable in refusing to grant what was so reasonable.

Gill: Exo 5:2 - And Pharaoh said, who is the Lord // that I should obey his voice, to let Israel go // I know not the Lord // neither will I let Israel go And Pharaoh said, who is the Lord,.... Jehovah, they made mention of, which, whether he took it for the name of a deity, or of a king, whose ambassado...

And Pharaoh said, who is the Lord,.... Jehovah, they made mention of, which, whether he took it for the name of a deity, or of a king, whose ambassadors they declared themselves to be, was a name he had never heard of before; and this being expressed and pronounced, shows that this name is not ineffable, or unlawful to be pronounced, as say the Jews:

that I should obey his voice, to let Israel go? he knew of no superior monarch to him, whose orders he was obliged to obey in any respect, and particularly in this, the dismission of the people of Israel out of his land, though it was but for a short time:

I know not the Lord; who this Jehovah is, that made this demand, and required Israel's dismission. The Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"I have not found the name of Jehovah written in the book of angels, I am not afraid of him.''An Egyptian book, in which, the paraphrast supposes, were written the names of gods and of angels; and no such name being there, he was the more bold and insolent:

neither will I let Israel go; determining he would pay no regard to such an unknown Deity, or King, be he who he would.

Gill: Exo 5:3 - And they said, the God of the Hebrews hath met with us // let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert // and sacrifice unto the Lord our God // lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword And they said, the God of the Hebrews hath met with us,.... Perceiving that the name Jehovah was unknown to him, and treated by him in a scornful mann...

And they said, the God of the Hebrews hath met with us,.... Perceiving that the name Jehovah was unknown to him, and treated by him in a scornful manner, they leave it out, and only say, "the God of the Hebrews": a people that dwelt in his country, he well knew by this name, and could not be ignorant that their God was different from his; and it was he that had met Moses and Aaron; they did not seek to him to be sent on this errand, but he appeared to them as he did to Moses at Horeb, and to Aaron in Egypt. Some render it, "the God of the Hebrews is called upon us" f; his name was called upon them, or they were called by his name; they were his servants and worshippers, and therefore under obligation to attend to what he enjoined them:

let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert: a request which was made in a very humble and modest manner, and not at all extravagant, nor anything dangerous and disadvantageous to him; for now they speak as of themselves, and therefore humbly entreat him; they do not ask to be wholly and for ever set free, only to go for three days; they do not propose to meet and have their rendezvous in any part of his country, much less in his metropolis, where he night fear they would rise in a body, and seize upon his person and treasure, only to go into the wilderness, to Mount Sinai there. And hence it appears, that the distance between Egypt and Mount Sinai was three days' journey, to go the straightest way, as Aben Ezra observes:

and sacrifice unto the Lord our God: which is what was meant by keeping a feast; some sacrifices the people, as well as the priests, feasted on; this was not a civil, but a religious concern:

lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword: this they urge as a reason to have their request granted, taken from the danger they should be exposed unto, should they not be allowed to go and offer sacrifice to God; though by this they might suggest both loss and danger to Pharaoh, in order to stir him up the more to listen to their request; for should they be smitten with pestilence, or the sword, he would lose the benefit of their bond service, which would be a considerable decline in his revenues; and besides, if God would be so displeased with the Israelites for not going, and not sacrificing, when they were detained, how much more displeased would he be with Pharaoh and the Egyptians for hindering them?

Gill: Exo 5:4 - And the king of Egypt said to them // wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works // get you unto your burdens And the king of Egypt said to them,.... For he was not struck dumb, as Artapanus g, afore cited writer, says: wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let...

And the king of Egypt said to them,.... For he was not struck dumb, as Artapanus g, afore cited writer, says:

wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works? as they did when they gathered them together, and wrought signs before them; which Pharaoh it seems had heard of, and had got their names very readily:

get you unto your burdens; meaning not Moses and Aaron, ordering them to go about their private and family business, but the people they represented, and on whose account they came; and it is highly probable the elders of the people, at least some of them, were with them, to whom these words might be more particularly directed. See Exo 3:18.

Gill: Exo 5:5 - And Pharaoh said, behold, the people of the land now are many // and you make them rest from their burdens And Pharaoh said, behold, the people of the land now are many,.... So that if some were taken off, as suggested, there were enough of them to do busin...

And Pharaoh said, behold, the people of the land now are many,.... So that if some were taken off, as suggested, there were enough of them to do business and so he cared not; but if allowed to go, they might mutiny and rebel, and give a great deal of trouble to quell them; or it may be, the sense is, they were very numerous, and too numerous already, and if they were took off of their work, and allowed to go a feasting, they would be more so, which agrees with the next clause:

and you make them rest from their burdens; which was the way to make them more numerous still, and to frustrate the design of laying burdens upon them, which was originally intended to hinder the multiplication of them, Exo 1:9.

Gill: Exo 5:6 - And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people // and their officers // saying And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people,.... Who were Egyptians, and whom Pharaoh sent for the same day, to give them orders ...

And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people,.... Who were Egyptians, and whom Pharaoh sent for the same day, to give them orders to oppress them yet more and more, so far was he from complying with their request:

and their officers; who were Israelites, and were under the taskmasters, and accountable to them for each man's work that they had the inspection and care of:

saying, as follows.

Gill: Exo 5:7 - Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick // as heretofore // let them go and gather straw for themselves Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick,.... Whether this was given and used to mix with the clay, as is done in some places h, that the ...

Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick,.... Whether this was given and used to mix with the clay, as is done in some places h, that the bricks made thereof might be firmer and stronger, or to burn them with in the furnaces, or to cover them from the heat of the sun, that they might not dry too soon and crack, is not easy to determine; though it is said that the unburnt bricks of Egypt formerly were, and still are made of clay mixed with straw. The Egyptian pyramid of unburnt brick, Dr. Pococke i observes, seems to be made of the earth brought by the Nile, being of a sandy black earth, with some pebbles and shells in it; it is mixed up with chopped straw, in order to bind the clay together, as they now make unburnt bricks in Egypt, and many other eastern parts, which they use very much in their buildings. He says he found some of these bricks (of the pyramid) thirteen inches and a half long, six inches and a half broad, and four inches thick; and others fifteen inches long, seven broad, and four inches three quarters thick. But be the straw for what use it will, it had been dealt out to them by proper persons to be used in one way or another; but now it was forbidden to be given them:

as heretofore it had been done:

let them go and gather straw for themselves; out of the fields where it lay, after the corn had been reaped and gathered in, or in barns, where it had been threshed; to do which must take up a good deal of their time, and especially if the straw lay at any distance, or was hard to be come at.

Gill: Exo 5:8 - And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, you shall lay upon them // you shall not diminish ought thereof // for they be idle // therefore they cry, let us go and sacrifice to our God And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, you shall lay upon them,.... Oblige them to make and bring in the same number of bricks th...

And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, you shall lay upon them,.... Oblige them to make and bring in the same number of bricks they used to do, when straw was brought to them and given them; by which it appears, that their daily task was such a number of bricks:

you shall not diminish ought thereof; not make any abatement of the number of bricks, in consideration of their loss of time and their labour in going to fetch straw from other places:

for they be idle; and want to be indulged in a lazy disposition, which ought by no means to be connived at:

therefore they cry, let us go and sacrifice to our God; suggesting, that this request and cry of theirs did not proceed from a religious principle, or the great veneration they had for their God, but from the sloth and idleness they were addicted to.

Gill: Exo 5:9 - Let there more work be laid upon the men // that they may labour therein // and let them not regard vain words Let there more work be laid upon the men,.... Instead of lessening it, let it be increased, or "be heavy" k upon them, that it may oppress and afflict...

Let there more work be laid upon the men,.... Instead of lessening it, let it be increased, or "be heavy" k upon them, that it may oppress and afflict them and keep them down, and weaken their strength and their spirits, and diminish them:

that they may labour therein; and have no leisure time to spend in idleness and sloth:

and let them not regard vain words; or "words of falsehood" l and lies, such as were spoken by Moses and Aaron, promising them liberty and deliverance from their bondage, which he was determined never to grant, and so eventually make such words to appear to be vain and empty, falsehood and lies.

Gill: Exo 5:10 - And the taskmasters of the people went out // and their officers // and they spake to the people, saying, thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw And the taskmasters of the people went out,.... From the presence of Pharaoh, out of his court, to the respective places where they were set to see th...

And the taskmasters of the people went out,.... From the presence of Pharaoh, out of his court, to the respective places where they were set to see that the Israelites did their work:

and their officers; the officers of the Israelites, who were under the taskmasters, and answerable to them for the work of the people, and their tale of bricks:

and they spake to the people, saying, thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw; that is, any longer, as he had used to do.

Gill: Exo 5:11 - Go ye, get ye straw, where you can find it // yet not ought of your work shall be diminished Go ye, get ye straw, where you can find it,.... Before it was provided by the king, and brought to the brickkilns, but now they are bid to go and fetc...

Go ye, get ye straw, where you can find it,.... Before it was provided by the king, and brought to the brickkilns, but now they are bid to go and fetch it themselves, and get it where they could, whether in fields or barns; and if they were obliged to pay for it out of their labour; it was a greater oppression still:

yet not ought of your work shall be diminished; they were to do the same work, and make the same number of bricks, as when straw was brought and given them; and no allowance made for waste of time in seeking, or expenses in procuring straw, which was very hard upon them.

Gill: Exo 5:12 - So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt // to gather stubble instead of straw So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt,.... That part of it where they dwelt: to gather stubble instead of straw; str...

So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt,.... That part of it where they dwelt:

to gather stubble instead of straw; straw not being easy to come at, they were obliged to gather stubble that was left in the fields, after the corn was gathered in. Ben Melech observes, that the word signifies small straw, or small sticks of wood, and Kimchi m, and if so, this must be to burn the bricks with in the furnaces.

Gill: Exo 5:13 - And the taskmasters hasted them // saying, fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw And the taskmasters hasted them, Kept them tight and close to their work, and were urgent on them to make quick dispatch of it: saying, fulfil your...

And the taskmasters hasted them, Kept them tight and close to their work, and were urgent on them to make quick dispatch of it:

saying, fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw; they insisted upon it, that they did the same business at the brickkilns, made the same number of bricks every day, as they used to do when they had straw at hand. See Exo 5:11.

Gill: Exo 5:14 - And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them // were beaten // and demanded, wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick, both yesterday and today, as heretofore And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them,.... This makes it clear, not only that the taskmasters and ...

And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them,.... This makes it clear, not only that the taskmasters and officers were different persons, but that the one were Egyptians appointed by Pharaoh, and the other were Israelites, of the better sort of them, who were set over the poorer sort by the taskmasters, to look after them, and take an account of their work, and the tale of their bricks, and give it in to the taskmasters; now these

were beaten by the taskmasters, either with a cane, stick, or cudgel, or with whips and scourges, because there was a deficiency in their accounts, and the full tale of bricks was not given in:

and demanded, wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick, both yesterday and today, as heretofore? the first day they were deficient they took no notice of it, did not call them to an account for it, but this being the case the second day, they not only expostulated with them about it, but beat them for it, which was hard usage. They had no need to ask them the reason of it, which they knew very well, and must be sensible that the men could not do the same work, and be obliged to spend part of their time in going about for straw or stubble; or the same number of men make the same tale of bricks, when some of them were employed to get straw for the rest, and to beat those officers for a deficiency through such means was cruel.

Gill: Exo 5:15 - Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh // saying, wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh,.... Made their complaints to him, perhaps with tears in their eyes, being use...

Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh,.... Made their complaints to him, perhaps with tears in their eyes, being used so very ill. They little thought it was by Pharaoh's orders; they supposed he knew nothing of it, and therefore hoped to have their grievances redressed by him, but were mistaken:

saying, wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants? so they call themselves, they living in his country, and being under his jurisdiction, though not properly his subjects; however, he had made them his slaves, and so indeed even bondservants.

Gill: Exo 5:16 - There is no straw given unto thy servants // and they say to us, make brick // and, behold, thy servants are beaten There is no straw given unto thy servants,.... As used to be, which they supposed Pharaoh knew nothing of, and by which it appears that the order give...

There is no straw given unto thy servants,.... As used to be, which they supposed Pharaoh knew nothing of, and by which it appears that the order given by Pharaoh, Exo 5:6 was not given in the hearing of the officers, only to the taskmasters, and by them to be made known to the officers, though indeed both are there mentioned, and both represent this to the people, Exo 5:10.

and they say to us, make brick, though they had no straw to make or burn it with:

and, behold, thy servants are beaten; because the same number of bricks is not made as heretofore, but the fault is in thine own people; the taskmasters, who sent the people abroad to get straw or stubble themselves, and therefore could not make the same bricks as before; or "thy people sin" n, the guilt is theirs: or by thy people are meant the Israelites, whom they call Pharaoh's people to gain favour with him; and then the sense is, either "sin" is imputed "to thy people" o, the blame is laid upon them, or punishment is inflicted on them without cause, sin being often put for punishment; they are wrongfully charged with a fault, and wrongfully punished.

Gill: Exo 5:17 - But he said, ye are idle, ye are idle // therefore ye say, let us go and do sacrifice to the Lord But he said, ye are idle, ye are idle,.... Instead of expressing indignation at the taskmasters, and relieving the officers and the people, he insults...

But he said, ye are idle, ye are idle,.... Instead of expressing indignation at the taskmasters, and relieving the officers and the people, he insults them in a flouting sarcastic way, charging them with sloth and idleness; and which, for the certainty of it, or, however, to show how strongly persuaded and fully assured he was of the truth of it, repeats it, and gives the following as a proof of it:

therefore ye say, let us go and do sacrifice to the Lord; suggesting that it was not so much the service and honour of God they regarded, as that they might have a leisure day from work and labour.

Gill: Exo 5:18 - Go therefore now, and work // for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks Go therefore now, and work,.... Go about your business, attend to your work, even you officers, as well as your people; work yourselves, as well as se...

Go therefore now, and work,.... Go about your business, attend to your work, even you officers, as well as your people; work yourselves, as well as see that your people do theirs, and do not trouble me with such impertinent applications:

for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks; the usual number of bricks, as the Vulgate Latin version has it; though in Exo 5:8, it is rendered in that version the measure of bricks, and so another word is translated by them, Exo 5:14, and perhaps both may be intended, both number and measure; that is, that it was expected and insisted on that they delivered the full number of bricks they used to make, and these of full measure; for bricks were made of different measures, as Vitruvius p observes; some among the bricks were of two hands' breadth, others of four, and a third sort of five. See Gill on Exo 5:7.

Gill: Exo 5:19 - And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case // after it was said, ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of your daily task And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case,.... In a bad condition and circumstances, and that there was no likeli...

And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case,.... In a bad condition and circumstances, and that there was no likelihood of their getting out of them, since Pharaoh treated them after this manner; they saw not only that the common people were in a bad condition, in great bondage, misery, and distress, to be obliged to get straw to make brick, and carry in their full tale as before; but that they themselves were in a bad situation, since for the deficiency in their people they were like to be beaten for it from time to time:

after it was said, ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of your daily task; after this had been said and confirmed by Pharaoh, they had no hope of things being better with them, but looked upon their unhappy lot as irretrievable.

Gill: Exo 5:20 - And they met Moses and Aaron // who stood in the way as they came forth from Pharaoh And they met Moses and Aaron,.... The officers of the children of Israel, who had been with their complaints to Pharaoh: who stood in the way as th...

And they met Moses and Aaron,.... The officers of the children of Israel, who had been with their complaints to Pharaoh:

who stood in the way as they came forth from Pharaoh; they, had placed themselves in a proper situation, that they might meet them when they came out, and know what success they had, and which they were extremely desirous of hearing; by which they might judge in what temper Pharaoh was, and what they might for the future expect from him in consequence of their embassy.

Gill: Exo 5:21 - And they said unto them, the Lord look upon you and judge // because you have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh // and in the eyes of his servants // to put a sword in their hands to slay us And they said unto them, the Lord look upon you and judge,.... Or, "will look upon you and judge" q; and so it is either a prediction of what would be...

And they said unto them, the Lord look upon you and judge,.... Or, "will look upon you and judge" q; and so it is either a prediction of what would be done to them, or an imprecation on them that God would take notice of their conduct, and punish them, or at least chastise them for acting the part they had, if not wickedly, yet imprudently:

because you have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh; or to "stink" r; they were become vile, abominable, and hateful to him, he could not bear the sight of them, and treated them as the filth and offscouring of all things; they had lost their good name, credit, and reputation with him; for leave being asked for them to go three days' journey into the wilderness, to offer sacrifice, and keep a feast, they were looked upon as a parcel of idle slothful fellows:

and in the eyes of his servants; not the taskmasters only, but his nobles, counsellors, and courtiers:

to put a sword in their hands to slay us; a proverbial expression, signifying that they by their conduct had exposed them to the utmost danger, and had given their enemies an occasion against them, and an opportunity of destroying their whole nation, under a pretence of disobedience and disloyalty.

Gill: Exo 5:22 - And Moses returned unto the Lord // and said, Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people // why is it that thou hast sent me And Moses returned unto the Lord,.... Bishop Patrick thinks, that this not only intimates that the Lord had appeared to Moses since he came into Egypt...

And Moses returned unto the Lord,.... Bishop Patrick thinks, that this not only intimates that the Lord had appeared to Moses since he came into Egypt, but that there was some settled place where he appeared, and where he might resort to him on all occasions, and therefore is said to return to him; though it may signify no more, than that, instead of staying to give an answer to the officers, which he might be at a loss to do, he went to God, to the throne of grace, by prayer, as he was wont to do in cases of difficulty:

and said, Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people? or afflicted them, and suffered them to be thus afflicted; which to ascribe to God was right, whatever were the means or instruments; for all afflictions are of him, and who has always wise reasons for what he does, as he now had; to try the faith and patience of his people; to make the Egyptians more odious to them, and so take them off from following their manners, customs, rites, and superstitions, and make them more desirous of departing from thence to the land of Canaan, nor seek a return to Egypt again; and that his vengeance on the Egyptians for such cruelty and inhumanity might appear the more just, and his power might be seen in the plagues he inflicted on them, and in the deliverance of his people when reduced to the utmost extremity:

why is it that thou hast sent me? he seems to wish he had never been sent, and could be glad to be recalled, something of the same disposition still remaining in him as when first called; since no end was answered by his mission, no deliverance wrought, yea, the people were more afflicted and oppressed than before; and therefore he was at a loss how to account for it that he should be sent at all, seeing nothing came of it to the good of the people.

Gill: Exo 5:23 - For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name // he hath done evil to this people // neither hast thou delivered thy people at all For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name,.... Had he come in his own name, it needed not be wondered at if he should not succeed, but coming i...

For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name,.... Had he come in his own name, it needed not be wondered at if he should not succeed, but coming in the name of God, it might have been expected he would, and that Pharaoh would have been prevailed upon, or obliged to use the people well, and let them go; but instead of that:

he hath done evil to this people; afflicted and oppressed them more than ever: see Exo 5:7, &c.

neither hast thou delivered thy people at all; there was not the least thing done towards their deliverance, their affliction was not at all mitigated, but increased: Moses expected that God would have made a beginning as soon as he had delivered his message to Pharaoh; that his mind would have been disposed in favour of the people, and he would have made their bondage lighter and easier, if he did not dismiss them at once; but, instead of that, more work was laid upon them, and their burdens were heavier: now this was a stumbling and a temptation to Moses, to wish he had never been sent; but if he had called to mind, which he seems to have forgotten, that Pharaoh would not let the people go at first, until all the wonders were wrought he had given him power to do, Exo 4:2 it would have relieved him, and removed his objections, and put a stop to his expostulation with God, who gives an answer to them in the following chapter, without expressing any displeasure at them.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 5:1 The verb חָגַג (khagag) means to hold a feast or to go on a pilgrim feast. The Arabic cognate of the noun form is haj, b...

NET Notes: Exo 5:2 This absolute statement of Pharaoh is part of a motif that will develop throughout the conflict. For Pharaoh, the Lord (Yahweh) did not exist. So he s...

NET Notes: Exo 5:3 The last clause of this verse is rather unexpected here: “lest he meet [afflict] us with pestilence or sword.” To fail to comply with the ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:4 The clause is a rhetorical question. Pharaoh is not asking them why they do this, but rather is accusing them of doing it. He suspects their request i...

NET Notes: Exo 5:5 Heb “And Pharaoh said.” This is not the kind of thing that Pharaoh is likely to have said to Moses, and so it probably is what he thought ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:6 In vv. 6-14 the second section of the chapter describes the severe measures by the king to increase the labor by decreasing the material. The emphasis...

NET Notes: Exo 5:7 The jussive יֵלְכוּ (yelÿkhu) and its following sequential verb would have the force of decree and not ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:8 Or “loafers.” The form נִרְפִּים (nirpim) is derived from the verb רָ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:9 The words of Moses are here called “lying words” (דִבְרֵי־שָׁק...

NET Notes: Exo 5:10 The construction uses the negative particle combined with a subject suffix before the participle: אֵינֶנּ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:11 The tense in this section could be translated as having the nuance of possibility: “wherever you may find it,” or the nuance of potential ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:12 The verb וַיָּפֶץ (vayyafets) is from the hollow root פּוּץ (puts) and m...

NET Notes: Exo 5:13 כַּלּוּ (kallu) is the Piel imperative; the verb means “to finish, complete” in the sense of fil...

NET Notes: Exo 5:14 The idioms for time here are found also in 3:10 and 5:7-8. This question no doubt represents many accusations shouted at Israelites during the period ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:15 The imperfect tense should be classified here with the progressive imperfect nuance, because the harsh treatment was a present reality.

NET Notes: Exo 5:16 The word rendered “fault” is the basic OT verb for “sin” – וְחָטָאת (v&#...

NET Notes: Exo 5:17 Or “loafers.” The form נִרְפִּים (nirpim) is derived from the verb רָ...

NET Notes: Exo 5:18 B. Jacob is amazed at the wealth of this tyrant’s vocabulary in describing the work of others. Here, תֹכֶן (tokhen...

NET Notes: Exo 5:19 The clause “when they were told” translates לֵאמֹר (le’mor), which usually simply means “s...

NET Notes: Exo 5:20 Moses and Aaron would not have made the appeal to Pharaoh that these Hebrew foremen did, but they were concerned to see what might happen, and so they...

NET Notes: Exo 5:21 Heb “to put a sword in their hand to kill us.” The infinitive construct with the lamed (לָתֶת, latet) signif...

NET Notes: Exo 5:22 The demonstrative pronoun serves for emphasis in the question (see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 24, §118). This second question continues Moses...

NET Notes: Exo 5:23 Heb “your people.” The pronoun (“them”) has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons here, to avoid redundancy.

Geneva Bible: Exo 5:1 And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told ( a ) Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may ( b ) hold a feast u...

Geneva Bible: Exo 5:5 And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now [are] many, and ye ( c ) make them rest from their burdens. ( c ) As though you would rebel.

Geneva Bible: Exo 5:6 And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their ( d ) officers, saying, ( d ) Who were of the Israelites, and had charge ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 5:9 ( e ) Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard ( f ) vain words. ( e ) The more cruelly the ty...

Geneva Bible: Exo 5:21 And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Exo 5:1-9 - --God will own his people, though poor and despised, and will find a time to plead their cause. Pharaoh treated all he had heard with contempt. He had n...

MHCC: Exo 5:10-23 - --The Egyptian task-masters were very severe. See what need we have to pray that we may be delivered from wicked men. The head-workmen justly complained...

Matthew Henry: Exo 5:1-2 - -- Moses and Aaron, having delivered their message to the elders of Israel, with whom they found good acceptance, are now to deal with Pharaoh, to whom...

Matthew Henry: Exo 5:3-9 - -- Finding that Pharaoh had no veneration at all for God, Moses and Aaron next try whether he had any compassion for Israel, and become humble suitors ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 5:10-14 - -- Pharaoh's orders are here put in execution; straw is denied, and yet the work not diminished. 1. The Egyptian task-masters were very severe. Pharaoh...

Matthew Henry: Exo 5:15-23 - -- It was a great strait that the head-workmen were in, when they must either abuse those that were under them or be abused by those that were over the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:1-2 - -- Pharaoh's Answer to the Request of Moses and Aaron. - Exo 5:1-5. When the elders of Israel had listened with gladness and gratitude to the communica...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:3 - -- The messengers founded their request upon the fact that the God of the Hebrews had met them ( נקרא , vid., Exo 3:18), and referred to the punish...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:4-5 - -- But Pharaoh would hear nothing of any worship. He believed that the wish was simply an excuse for procuring holidays for the people, or days of rest...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:6-8 - -- As Pharaoh possessed neither fear of God ( εὐσέβεια ) nor fear of the gods, but, in the proud security of his might, determined to keep...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:9-11 - -- " Let the work be heavy (press heavily) upon the people, and they shall make with it (i.e., stick to their work), and not look at lying words ."By...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:12 - -- ק לקשׁשׁ : "to gather stubble for straw;"not "stubble for , in the sense of instead of straw,"for ל is not equivalent to תּחת but to ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:13 - -- בּיומו יום דּבר , the quantity fixed for every day, " just as when the straw was (there),"i.e., was given out for the work.

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:14-18 - -- As the Israelites could not do the work appointed them, their overlookers were beaten by the Egyptian bailiffs; and when they complained to the king...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:19-20 - -- When the Israelitish overlookers saw that they were in evil ( בּרע as in Psa 10:6, i.e., in an evil condition), they came to meet Moses and Aaron...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 5:21-23 - -- " Jehovah look upon you and judge "(i.e., punish you, because) " ye have made the smell of us to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, "i.e...

Constable: Exo 1:1--15:22 - --I. THE LIBERATION OF ISRAEL 1:1--15:21 "The story of the first half of Exodus, in broad summary, is Rescue. The ...

Constable: Exo 5:1--11:10 - --B. God's demonstrations of His sovereignty chs. 5-11 God permitted the conflict between Moses and Pharao...

Constable: Exo 5:1--6:2 - --1. Pharaoh's response to Moses and Aaron's initial request 5:1-6:1 5:1-9 At Moses and Aaron's first audience with Pharaoh they simply presented God's ...

Guzik: Exo 5:1-23 - Moses Meets Pharaoh; Israel's Burdens Are Increased Exodus 5 - Moses Meets Pharaoh; Israel's Burdens Are Increased A. Pharaoh's receives Moses and Aaron and responds with a command. 1. (1-3) Moses ask...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Exo 5:2 Q: In Ex 5:2, who was the Pharaoh of Egypt and when was the Exodus? A: The Pharaoh who died here was probably Thutmose III. His chief queen was Hats...

Bible Query: Exo 5:2 Q: In Ex 5:2, was this the same Pharaoh as the one in Ex 15? A: According to The Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.115-116, it was not th...

Bible Query: Exo 5:3 Q: In Ex 5:3, Ex 8:26-27, and Ex 10:26, was Moses just making up reasons to have to leave? A: Scripture does not say whether God told Moses to give ...

Bible Query: Exo 5:6 Q: In Ex 5:6, why did they use straw to make bricks? A: Straw made the bricks stronger, because the clay clinging to the straw would be less likely ...

Bible Query: Exo 5:6-7 Q: In Ex 5:6-7, how did the Israelites cope with having to gather their own straw? A: First you must understand that straw was important to make str...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 5:1, Pharaoh chides Moses and Aaron for their message; Exo 5:6, He increases the Israelites’ task; Exo 5:15, He checks their compla...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 5 Moses and Aaron entreateth Pharaoh to let the people go, Exo 5:1 . Pharaoh’ s blasphemous refusal, Exo 5:2 . Chides Moses and Aaron ...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 5:1-9) Pharaoh's displeasure, He increases the tasks of the Israelites. (Exo 5:10-23) The sufferings of the Israelites, Moses' complaint to God.

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Moses and Aaron are here dealing with Pharaoh, to get leave of him to go and worship in the wilderness. I. They demand leave in the name of God (E...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 5 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 5 Moses and Aaron go in to Pharaoh, and desire leave for the children of Israel to go into the wilderness three days' journe...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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