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Teks -- Galatians 3:1-29 (NET)

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Konteks
Justification by Law or by Faith?
3:1 You foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed as crucified! 3:2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law or by believing what you heard? 3:3 Are you so foolish? Although you began with the Spirit, are you now trying to finish by human effort? 3:4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing?– if indeed it was for nothing. 3:5 Does God then give you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law or by your believing what you heard? 3:6 Just as Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, 3:7 so then, understand that those who believe are the sons of Abraham. 3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel to Abraham ahead of time, saying, “All the nations will be blessed in you.” 3:9 So then those who believe are blessed along with Abraham the believer. 3:10 For all who rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law.” 3:11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous one will live by faith. 3:12 But the law is not based on faith, but the one who does the works of the law will live by them. 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us (because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”) 3:14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.
Inheritance Comes from Promises and not Law
3:15 Brothers and sisters, I offer an example from everyday life: When a covenant has been ratified, even though it is only a human contract, no one can set it aside or add anything to it. 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his descendant. Scripture does not say, “and to the descendants,” referring to many, but “and to your descendant,” referring to one, who is Christ. 3:17 What I am saying is this: The law that came four hundred thirty years later does not cancel a covenant previously ratified by God, so as to invalidate the promise. 3:18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise, but God graciously gave it to Abraham through the promise. 3:19 Why then was the law given? It was added because of transgressions, until the arrival of the descendant to whom the promise had been made. It was administered through angels by an intermediary. 3:20 Now an intermediary is not for one party alone, but God is one. 3:21 Is the law therefore opposed to the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that was able to give life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. 3:22 But the scripture imprisoned everything and everyone under sin so that the promise could be given– because of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ– to those who believe.
Sons of God Are Heirs of Promise
3:23 Now before faith came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 3:27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female– for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to the promise.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Galatian inhabitant(s) of Galatia.
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Greek the language used by the people of Greece
 · Jews the people descended from Israel


Topik/Tema Kamus: Covenant | Salvation | Judaism | GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE | Faith | Minister | Works | Abraham | James, Epistle of | Justification | LAW OF MOSES | PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 6 | QUOTATIONS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | LAW IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | PAULINE THEOLOGY | Quotations and Allusions | Adoption | Jesus, The Christ | INSPIRATION, 1-7 | HOLY SPIRIT, 2 | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Gal 3:1 - Who did bewitch you? Who did bewitch you? ( tis humas ebaskaneṅ ). Somebody "fascinated"you. Some aggressive Judaizer (Gal 5:7), some one man (or woman). First aorist a...

Who did bewitch you? ( tis humas ebaskaneṅ ).

Somebody "fascinated"you. Some aggressive Judaizer (Gal 5:7), some one man (or woman). First aorist active indicative of baskainō , old word kin to phaskō (baskō ), to speak, then to bring evil on one by feigned praise or the evil eye (hoodoo), to lead astray by evil arts. Only here in the N.T. This popular belief in the evil eye is old (Deu 28:54) and persistent. The papyri give several examples of the adjective abaskanta , the adverb abaskantōs (unharmed by the evil eye), the substantive baskania (witchcraft).

Robertson: Gal 3:1 - Before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth crucified Before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth crucified ( hois kat' ophthalmous Iēsous Christos proegraphē estaurōmenos ). Literally, "to...

Before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth crucified ( hois kat' ophthalmous Iēsous Christos proegraphē estaurōmenos ).

Literally, "to whom before your very eyes Jesus Christ was portrayed as crucified."Second aorist passive indicative of prographō , old verb to write beforehand, to set forth by public proclamation, to placard, to post up. This last idea is found in several papyri (Moulton and Milligan’ s Vocabulary ) as in the case of a father who posted a proclamation that he would no longer be responsible for his son’ s debts. Graphō was sometimes used in the sense of painting, but no example of prographō with this meaning has been found unless this is one. With that idea it would be to portray, to picture forth, a rendering not very different from placarding. The foolish Galatians were without excuse when they fell under the spell of the Judaizer. Estaurōmenos is perfect passive participle of stauroō , the common verb to crucify (from stauros , stake, cross), to put on the cross (Mat 20:19), same form as in 1Co 2:2.

Robertson: Gal 3:2 - This only This only ( touto monon ). Paul strikes at the heart of the problem. He will show their error by the point that the gifts of the Spirit came by the h...

This only ( touto monon ).

Paul strikes at the heart of the problem. He will show their error by the point that the gifts of the Spirit came by the hearing of faith, not by works of the law.

Robertson: Gal 3:3 - Are ye now perfected in the flesh? Are ye now perfected in the flesh? ( nun sarki epiteleisthė ). Rather middle voice as in 1Pe 5:9, finishing of yourselves. There is a double contra...

Are ye now perfected in the flesh? ( nun sarki epiteleisthė ).

Rather middle voice as in 1Pe 5:9, finishing of yourselves. There is a double contrast, between enarxamenoi (having begun) and epiteleisthe (finishing) as in 2Co 8:6; Phi 1:6, and also between "Spirit"(pneumati ) and flesh (sarki ). There is keen irony in this thrust.

Robertson: Gal 3:4 - Did ye suffer? Did ye suffer? ( epathetė ). Second aorist active indicative of paschō , to experience good or ill. But alone, as here, it often means to suffer ...

Did ye suffer? ( epathetė ).

Second aorist active indicative of paschō , to experience good or ill. But alone, as here, it often means to suffer ill (tosauta , so many things). In North Galatia we have no record of persecutions, but we do have records for South Galatia (Act 14:2, Act 14:5, Act 14:19, Act 14:22).

Robertson: Gal 3:4 - If it be indeed in vain If it be indeed in vain ( ei ge kai eikēi ). On eikēi see note on 1Co 15:2; note on Gal 4:11. Paul clings to hope about them with alternative f...

If it be indeed in vain ( ei ge kai eikēi ).

On eikēi see note on 1Co 15:2; note on Gal 4:11. Paul clings to hope about them with alternative fears.

Robertson: Gal 3:5 - Supplieth Supplieth ( epichorēgōn ). It is God. See note on 2Co 9:10 for this present active participle. Cf. Phi 1:19; 2Pe 1:5.

Supplieth ( epichorēgōn ).

It is God. See note on 2Co 9:10 for this present active participle. Cf. Phi 1:19; 2Pe 1:5.

Robertson: Gal 3:5 - Worketh miracles Worketh miracles ( energōn dunameis ). On the word energeō see note on 1Th 2:13; note on 1Co 12:6. It is a great word for God’ s activitie...

Worketh miracles ( energōn dunameis ).

On the word energeō see note on 1Th 2:13; note on 1Co 12:6. It is a great word for God’ s activities (Phi 2:13). "In you"(Lightfoot) is preferable to "among you"for en humin (1Co 13:10; Mat 14:2). The principal verb for "doeth he it"(poiei ) is not expressed. Paul repeats the contrast in Gal 3:2 about "works of the law"and "the hearing of faith."

Robertson: Gal 3:6 - It was reckoned unto him for righteousness It was reckoned unto him for righteousness ( elogisthē eis dikaiosunēn ). First aorist passive indicative of logizomai . See note on 1Co 13:5 for...

It was reckoned unto him for righteousness ( elogisthē eis dikaiosunēn ).

First aorist passive indicative of logizomai . See note on 1Co 13:5 for this old word. He quotes Gen 15:6 and uses it at length in Rom 4:3. to prove that the faith of Abraham was reckoned "for"(eis , good Koiné[28928]š idiom though more common in lxx because of the Hebrew) righteousness before he was circumcised. James (Jam 2:23) quotes the same passage as proof of Abraham’ s obedience to God in offering up Isaac (beginning to offer him). Paul and James are discussing different episodes in the life of Abraham. Both are correct.

Robertson: Gal 3:7 - The same are sons of Abraham The same are sons of Abraham ( houtoi huioi eisin Abraham ). "These are."This is Paul’ s astounding doctrine to Jews that the real sons of Abrah...

The same are sons of Abraham ( houtoi huioi eisin Abraham ).

"These are."This is Paul’ s astounding doctrine to Jews that the real sons of Abraham are those who believe as he did, "they which be of faith"(hoi ek pisteōs ), a common idiom with Paul for this idea (Gal 3:9; Rom 3:26; Rom 4:16; Rom 14:23), those whose spiritual sonship springs out of (ek ) faith, not out of blood. John the Baptist denounced the Pharisees and Sadducees as vipers though descendants of Abraham (Mat 3:7; Luk 3:7) and Jesus termed the Pharisees children of the devil and not spiritual children of Abraham (not children of God) in Joh 8:37-44.

Robertson: Gal 3:8 - Foreseeing Foreseeing ( proidousa ). Second aorist active participle of prooraō . The Scripture is here personified. Alone in this sense of "sight,"but common...

Foreseeing ( proidousa ).

Second aorist active participle of prooraō . The Scripture is here personified. Alone in this sense of "sight,"but common with legei or eipen (says, said) and really in Gal 3:22 "hath shut up"(sunekleisen ).

Robertson: Gal 3:8 - Would justify Would justify ( dikaioi ). Present active indicative, "does justify."

Would justify ( dikaioi ).

Present active indicative, "does justify."

Robertson: Gal 3:8 - Preached the gospel beforehand Preached the gospel beforehand ( proeuēggelisato ). First aorist middle indicative of proeuaggelizomai with augment on a though both pro and ...

Preached the gospel beforehand ( proeuēggelisato ).

First aorist middle indicative of proeuaggelizomai with augment on a though both pro and eu before it in composition. Only instance in N.T. It occurs in Philo. and Schol. Soph. This Scripture announced beforehand the gospel on this point of justification by faith. He quotes the promise to Abraham in Gen 12:3; Gen 18:18, putting panta ta ethnē (all the nations) in Gen 18:18 for pāsai hai phulai (all the tribes) of the earth. It is a crucial passage for Paul’ s point, showing that the promise to Abraham included all the nations of the earth. The verb eneulogeō (future passive here) occurs in the lxx and here only in N.T. (not Act 3:25 in correct text).

Robertson: Gal 3:8 - In thee In thee ( en soi ). "As their spiritual progenitor"(Lightfoot).

In thee ( en soi ).

"As their spiritual progenitor"(Lightfoot).

Robertson: Gal 3:9 - With With ( sun ). Along with, in fellowship with.

With ( sun ).

Along with, in fellowship with.

Robertson: Gal 3:9 - The faithful The faithful ( tōi pistōi ). Rather, "the believing"(cf. Gal 3:6).

The faithful ( tōi pistōi ).

Rather, "the believing"(cf. Gal 3:6).

Robertson: Gal 3:10 - Under a curse Under a curse ( hupo kataran ). Picture of the curse hanging over them like a Damocles’ blade. Cf. Rom 3:9 "under sin"(huph' hamartian ). The ...

Under a curse ( hupo kataran ).

Picture of the curse hanging over them like a Damocles’ blade. Cf. Rom 3:9 "under sin"(huph' hamartian ). The word for "curse"(katara ) is an old one (kata , down, ara , imprecation), often in lxx, in N.T. only here and Gal 3:13; Jam 3:10; 2Pe 2:14. Paul quotes Deu 27:26, the close of the curses on Mt. Ebal. He makes a slight explanatory modification of the lxx changing logois to gegrammenois en tōi bibliōi . The idea is made clearer by the participle (gegrammenois ) and bibliōi (book). The curse becomes effective only when the law is violated.

Robertson: Gal 3:10 - Cursed Cursed ( epikataratos ). Verbal adjective from epikataraomai , to imprecate curses, late word, common in lxx. In N.T. only here and Gal 3:13, but in ...

Cursed ( epikataratos ).

Verbal adjective from epikataraomai , to imprecate curses, late word, common in lxx. In N.T. only here and Gal 3:13, but in inscriptions also (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , p. 96). The emphasis is on "continueth"(emmenei ) and "all"(pāsin ).

Robertson: Gal 3:11 - In the sight of God In the sight of God ( para tōi theōi ). By the side of (para ) God, as God looks at it, for the simple reason that no one except Jesus has ever ...

In the sight of God ( para tōi theōi ).

By the side of (para ) God, as God looks at it, for the simple reason that no one except Jesus has ever kept all the law, God’ s perfect law.

Robertson: Gal 3:12 - The law is not of faith The law is not of faith ( ho nomos ouk estin ek pisteōs ). Law demands complete obedience and rests not on mercy, faith, grace.

The law is not of faith ( ho nomos ouk estin ek pisteōs ).

Law demands complete obedience and rests not on mercy, faith, grace.

Robertson: Gal 3:13 - Redeemed us Redeemed us ( hēmas exēgorasen ). First aorist active of the compound verb exagorazō (Polybius, Plutarch, Diodorus), to buy from, to buy back...

Redeemed us ( hēmas exēgorasen ).

First aorist active of the compound verb exagorazō (Polybius, Plutarch, Diodorus), to buy from, to buy back, to ransom. The simple verb agorazō (1Co 6:20; 1Co 7:23) is used in an inscription for the purchase of slaves in a will (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , p. 324). See also Gal 4:5; Col 4:5; Eph 5:16. Christ purchased us from the curse of the law (ek tēs kataras tou nomou ). "Out from (ek repeated) under (hupo in Gal 3:10) the curse of the law."

Robertson: Gal 3:13 - Having become a curse for us Having become a curse for us ( genomenos huper hēmōn katara ). Here the graphic picture is completed. We were under (hupo ) a curse, Christ beca...

Having become a curse for us ( genomenos huper hēmōn katara ).

Here the graphic picture is completed. We were under (hupo ) a curse, Christ became a curse over (huper ) us and so between us and the overhanging curse which fell on him instead of on us. Thus he bought us out (ek ) and we are free from the curse which he took on himself. This use of huper for substitution is common in the papyri and in ancient Greek as in the N.T. (Joh 11:50; 2Co 5:14.).

Robertson: Gal 3:13 - That hangeth on a tree That hangeth on a tree ( ho kremamenos epi xulou ). Quotation from Deu 21:23 with the omission of hupo theou (by God). Since Christ was not cursed ...

That hangeth on a tree ( ho kremamenos epi xulou ).

Quotation from Deu 21:23 with the omission of hupo theou (by God). Since Christ was not cursed by God. The allusion was to exposure of dead bodies on stakes or crosses (Jos 10:26). Xulon means wood, not usually tree, though so in Luk 23:31 and in later Greek. It was used of gallows, crosses, etc. See note on Act 5:30; note on Act 10:39; and note on 1Pe 2:24. On the present middle participle from the old verb kremannumi , to hang, see Mat 18:6; Act 5:30.

Robertson: Gal 3:14 - That upon the Gentiles That upon the Gentiles ( hina eis ta ethnē ). Final clause (hina and genētai , aorist middle subjunctive).

That upon the Gentiles ( hina eis ta ethnē ).

Final clause (hina and genētai , aorist middle subjunctive).

Robertson: Gal 3:14 - That we might receive That we might receive ( hina labōmen ). Second final clause coordinate with the first as in 2Co 9:3. So in Christ we all (Gentile and Jew) obtain t...

That we might receive ( hina labōmen ).

Second final clause coordinate with the first as in 2Co 9:3. So in Christ we all (Gentile and Jew) obtain the promise of blessing made to Abraham, through faith.

Robertson: Gal 3:15 - After the manner of men After the manner of men ( kata anthrōpon ). After the custom and practice of men, an illustration from life.

After the manner of men ( kata anthrōpon ).

After the custom and practice of men, an illustration from life.

Robertson: Gal 3:15 - Though it be but a man’ s covenant, yet when it hath been confirmed Though it be but a man’ s covenant, yet when it hath been confirmed ( homōs anthrōpou kekurōmenēn diathēkēn ). Literally, "Yet a man...

Though it be but a man’ s covenant, yet when it hath been confirmed ( homōs anthrōpou kekurōmenēn diathēkēn ).

Literally, "Yet a man’ s covenant ratified."On Diathēkē as both covenant and will see note on Mat 26:28; note on 1Co 11:25; note on 2Co 3:6; notes on Heb 9:16. On kuroō , to ratify, to make valid, see note on 2Co 2:8. Perfect passive participle here, state of completion, authoritative confirmation.

Robertson: Gal 3:15 - Maketh it void Maketh it void ( athetei ). See note on Gal 2:21 for this verb. Both parties can by agreement cancel a contract, but not otherwise.

Maketh it void ( athetei ).

See note on Gal 2:21 for this verb. Both parties can by agreement cancel a contract, but not otherwise.

Robertson: Gal 3:15 - Addeth thereto Addeth thereto ( epidiatassetai ). Present middle indicative of the double compound verb epidiatassomai , a word found nowhere else as yet. But inscr...

Addeth thereto ( epidiatassetai ).

Present middle indicative of the double compound verb epidiatassomai , a word found nowhere else as yet. But inscriptions use diatassomai , diataxis , diatagē , diatagma with the specialized meaning to "determine by testamentary disposition"(Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , p. 90). It was unlawful to add (epi ) fresh clauses or specifications (diataxeis ).

Robertson: Gal 3:16 - But as of one But as of one ( all' hōs Ephesians' henos ). But as in the case of one.

But as of one ( all' hōs Ephesians' henos ).

But as in the case of one.

Robertson: Gal 3:16 - Which is Christ Which is Christ ( hos estin Christos ). Masculine relative agreeing with Christos though sperma is neuter. But the promise to Abraham uses sperma...

Which is Christ ( hos estin Christos ).

Masculine relative agreeing with Christos though sperma is neuter. But the promise to Abraham uses sperma as a collective substantive and applies to all believers (both Jews and Gentiles) as Paul has shown in Gal 3:7-14, and as of course he knew full well Here Paul uses a rabbinical refinement which is yet intelligible. The people of Israel were a type of the Messiah and he gathers up the promise in its special application to Christ. He does not say that Christ is specifically referred to in Gen 13:15 or Gen 17:7.

Robertson: Gal 3:17 - Now this I say Now this I say ( touto de legō ). Now I mean this. He comes back to his main point and is not carried afield by the special application of sperma ...

Now this I say ( touto de legō ).

Now I mean this. He comes back to his main point and is not carried afield by the special application of sperma to Christ.

Robertson: Gal 3:17 - Confirmed beforehand by God Confirmed beforehand by God ( prokekurōmenēn hupo tou theou ). Perfect passive participle of prokuroō , in Byzantine writers and earliest use h...

Confirmed beforehand by God ( prokekurōmenēn hupo tou theou ).

Perfect passive participle of prokuroō , in Byzantine writers and earliest use here. Nowhere else in N.T. The point is in pro and hupo tou theou (by God) and in meta (after) as Burton shows.

Robertson: Gal 3:17 - Four hundred and thirty years after Four hundred and thirty years after ( meta tetrakosia kai triakonta etē ). Literally, "after four hundred and thirty years."This is the date in Exo...

Four hundred and thirty years after ( meta tetrakosia kai triakonta etē ).

Literally, "after four hundred and thirty years."This is the date in Exo 12:40 for the sojourn in Egypt (cf. Gen 15:13). But the lxx adds words to include the time of the patriarchs in Canaan in this number of years which would cut the time in Egypt in two. Cf. Act 7:6. It is immaterial to Paul’ s argument which chronology is adopted except that "the longer the covenant had been in force the more impressive is his statement"(Burton).

Robertson: Gal 3:17 - Doth not disannul Doth not disannul ( ouk akuroi ). Late verb akuroō , in N.T. only here and Mat 15:6; Mar 7:13 (from a privative and kuros , authority). On katarg...

Doth not disannul ( ouk akuroi ).

Late verb akuroō , in N.T. only here and Mat 15:6; Mar 7:13 (from a privative and kuros , authority). On katargēsai see 1Co 1:28; 1Co 2:61Co 15:24, 1Co 15:26.

Robertson: Gal 3:18 - The inheritance The inheritance ( hē klēronomia ). Old word from klēronomos , heir (kleros , lot, nemomai , to distribute). See Mat 21:38; Act 7:5. This came t...

The inheritance ( hē klēronomia ).

Old word from klēronomos , heir (kleros , lot, nemomai , to distribute). See Mat 21:38; Act 7:5. This came to Israel by the promise to Abraham, not by the Mosaic law. So with us, Paul argues.

Robertson: Gal 3:18 - Hath granted Hath granted ( kecharistai ). Perfect middle indicative of charizomai . It still holds good after the law came.

Hath granted ( kecharistai ).

Perfect middle indicative of charizomai . It still holds good after the law came.

Robertson: Gal 3:19 - What then is the law? What then is the law? ( ti oun ho nomoṡ ). Or, why then the law? A pertinent question if the Abrahamic promise antedates it and holds on afterwards...

What then is the law? ( ti oun ho nomoṡ ).

Or, why then the law? A pertinent question if the Abrahamic promise antedates it and holds on afterwards.

Robertson: Gal 3:19 - It was added because of transgressions It was added because of transgressions ( tōn parabaseōn charin prosetethē ). First aorist passive of prostithēmi , old verb to add to. It is ...

It was added because of transgressions ( tōn parabaseōn charin prosetethē ).

First aorist passive of prostithēmi , old verb to add to. It is only in apparent contradiction to Gal 3:15., because in Paul’ s mind the law is no part of the covenant, but a thing apart "in no way modifying its provisions"(Burton). Charin is the adverbial accusative of charis which was used as a preposition with the genitive as early as Homer, in favour of, for the sake of. Except in 1Jo 3:12 it is post-positive in the N.T. as in ancient Greek. It may be causal (Luk 7:47; 1Jo 3:12) or telic (Tit 1:5, Tit 1:11; Jud 1:16). It is probably also telic here, not in order to create transgressions, but rather "to make transgressions palpable"(Ellicott), "thereby pronouncing them to be from that time forward transgressions of the law"(Rendall). Parabasis , from parabainō , is in this sense a late word (Plutarch on), originally a slight deviation, then a wilful disregarding of known regulations or prohibitions as in Rom 2:23.

Robertson: Gal 3:19 - Till the seed should come Till the seed should come ( achris an elthēi to sperma ). Future time with achris an and aorist subjunctive (usual construction). Christ he means...

Till the seed should come ( achris an elthēi to sperma ).

Future time with achris an and aorist subjunctive (usual construction). Christ he means by to sperma as in Gal 3:16.

Robertson: Gal 3:19 - The promise hath been made The promise hath been made ( epēggeltai ). Probably impersonal perfect passive rather than middle of epaggellomai as in 2 Maccabees 4:27.

The promise hath been made ( epēggeltai ).

Probably impersonal perfect passive rather than middle of epaggellomai as in 2 Maccabees 4:27.

Robertson: Gal 3:19 - Ordained through angels Ordained through angels ( diatageis di' aggelōn ). Second aorist passive participle of diatassō (see note on Mat 11:1). About angels and the gi...

Ordained through angels ( diatageis di' aggelōn ).

Second aorist passive participle of diatassō (see note on Mat 11:1). About angels and the giving of the law see Deuteronomy 33:2 (lxx); Act 7:38, Act 7:52; Heb 2:2; Josephus ( Ant. XV. 5. 3).

Robertson: Gal 3:19 - By the hand of a mediator By the hand of a mediator ( en cheiri mesitou ). En cheiri is a manifest Aramaism or Hebraism and only here in the N.T. It is common in the lxx. Me...

By the hand of a mediator ( en cheiri mesitou ).

En cheiri is a manifest Aramaism or Hebraism and only here in the N.T. It is common in the lxx. Mesitēs , from mesos is middle or midst, is a late word (Polybius, Diodorus, Philo, Josephus) and common in the papyri in legal transactions for arbiter, surety, etc. Here of Moses, but also of Christ (1Ti 2:5; Heb 8:6; Heb 9:15; Heb 12:24).

Robertson: Gal 3:20 - Is not a mediator of one Is not a mediator of one ( henos ouk estin ). That is, a middleman comes in between two. The law is in the nature of a contract between God and the J...

Is not a mediator of one ( henos ouk estin ).

That is, a middleman comes in between two. The law is in the nature of a contract between God and the Jewish people with Moses as the mediator or middleman.

Robertson: Gal 3:20 - But God is one But God is one ( ho de theos heis estin ). There was no middleman between God and Abraham. He made the promise directly to Abraham. Over 400 interpre...

But God is one ( ho de theos heis estin ).

There was no middleman between God and Abraham. He made the promise directly to Abraham. Over 400 interpretations of this verse have been made!

Robertson: Gal 3:21 - Against the promises Against the promises ( kata tōn epaggeliōn ). A pertinent question again. Far from it (mē genoito ).

Against the promises ( kata tōn epaggeliōn ).

A pertinent question again. Far from it (mē genoito ).

Robertson: Gal 3:21 - Which could make alive Which could make alive ( ho dunamenos zōopoiēsai ). First aorist active infinitive of zōopoieō , late compound (zōos , alive, poieō , to ...

Which could make alive ( ho dunamenos zōopoiēsai ).

First aorist active infinitive of zōopoieō , late compound (zōos , alive, poieō , to make) verb for which see note on 1Co 15:22. Spiritual life, he means, here and hereafter.

Robertson: Gal 3:21 - Verily Verily ( ontōs ). "Really"(cf. Mar 11:32; Luk 24:34). Condition and conclusion (an ēn ) of second class, determined as unfulfilled. He had alrea...

Verily ( ontōs ).

"Really"(cf. Mar 11:32; Luk 24:34). Condition and conclusion (an ēn ) of second class, determined as unfulfilled. He had already said that Christ died to no purpose in that case (Gal 2:21).

Robertson: Gal 3:22 - Hath shut up Hath shut up ( sunekleisen ). Did shut together. First aorist active indicative of sunkleiō , old verb to shut together, on all sides, completely a...

Hath shut up ( sunekleisen ).

Did shut together. First aorist active indicative of sunkleiō , old verb to shut together, on all sides, completely as a shoal of fish in a net (Luk 5:6). So Gal 3:23; Rom 11:32.

Robertson: Gal 3:22 - Under sin Under sin ( hupo hamartian ). See hupo kataran in Gal 3:10. As if the lid closed in on us over a massive chest that we could not open or as prisone...

Under sin ( hupo hamartian ).

See hupo kataran in Gal 3:10. As if the lid closed in on us over a massive chest that we could not open or as prisoners in a dungeon. He uses ta panta (the all things), the totality of everything. See Rom 3:10-19; Rom 11:32.

Robertson: Gal 3:22 - That That ( hina ). God’ s purpose, personifying scripture again.

That ( hina ).

God’ s purpose, personifying scripture again.

Robertson: Gal 3:22 - Might be given Might be given ( dothēi ). First aorist passive subjunctive of didōmi with hina .

Might be given ( dothēi ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of didōmi with hina .

Robertson: Gal 3:23 - Before faith came Before faith came ( pro tou elthein tēn pistin ). "Before the coming (second aorist active infinitive of erchomai , definite event) as to the Faith...

Before faith came ( pro tou elthein tēn pistin ).

"Before the coming (second aorist active infinitive of erchomai , definite event) as to the Faith"(note article, meaning the faith in Gal 3:22 made possible by the historic coming of Christ the Redeemer), the faith in Christ as Saviour (Gal 3:22).

Robertson: Gal 3:23 - We were kept in ward under the law We were kept in ward under the law ( huper nomon ephrouroumetha ). Imperfect passive of phroureō , to guard (from phrouros , a guard). See note on ...

We were kept in ward under the law ( huper nomon ephrouroumetha ).

Imperfect passive of phroureō , to guard (from phrouros , a guard). See note on Act 9:24; note on 2Co 11:32. It was a long progressive imprisonment.

Robertson: Gal 3:23 - Unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed Unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed ( eis tēn mellousan pistin apokaluphthēnai ). "Unto the faith (Gal 3:22 again) about to be rev...

Unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed ( eis tēn mellousan pistin apokaluphthēnai ).

"Unto the faith (Gal 3:22 again) about to be revealed."Mellō and the first aorist passive infinitive (regular idiom).

Robertson: Gal 3:24 - Our tutor unto Christ Our tutor unto Christ ( paidagōgos humōn eis Christon ). See note on 1Co 4:15 for the only other N.T. example of this old and common word for the...

Our tutor unto Christ ( paidagōgos humōn eis Christon ).

See note on 1Co 4:15 for the only other N.T. example of this old and common word for the slave employed in Greek and Roman families of the better class in charge of the boy from about six to sixteen. The paedagogue watched his behaviour at home and attended him when he went away from home as to school. Christ is our Schoolmaster and the law as paedagogue kept watch over us till we came to Christ.

Robertson: Gal 3:24 - That we might be justified by faith That we might be justified by faith ( hina ek pisteōs dikaiōthōmen ). This is the ultimate purpose of the law as paedagogue.

That we might be justified by faith ( hina ek pisteōs dikaiōthōmen ).

This is the ultimate purpose of the law as paedagogue.

Robertson: Gal 3:24 - Now that faith is come Now that faith is come ( elthousēs tēs pisteōs ). Genitive absolute, "the faith (the time of the faith spoken of in Gal 3:23) having come."

Now that faith is come ( elthousēs tēs pisteōs ).

Genitive absolute, "the faith (the time of the faith spoken of in Gal 3:23) having come."

Robertson: Gal 3:24 - Under a tutor Under a tutor ( hupo paidagōgon ). The pedagogue is dismissed. We are in the school of the Master.

Under a tutor ( hupo paidagōgon ).

The pedagogue is dismissed. We are in the school of the Master.

Robertson: Gal 3:26 - For ye are all sons of God For ye are all sons of God ( pantes gar huioi theou este ). Both Jews and Gentiles (Gal 3:14) and in the same way "through faith in Christ Jesus"(dia...

For ye are all sons of God ( pantes gar huioi theou este ).

Both Jews and Gentiles (Gal 3:14) and in the same way "through faith in Christ Jesus"(dia tēs pisteōs en Christōi Iēsou ). There is no other way to become "sons of God"in the full ethical and spiritual sense that Paul means, not mere physical descendants of Abraham, but "sons of Abraham,""those by faith"(Gal 3:7). The Jews are called by Jesus "the sons of the Kingdom"(Mat 8:12) in privilege, but not in fact. God is the Father of all men as Creator, but the spiritual Father only of those who by faith in Christ Jesus receive "adoption"(huiothesia ) into his family (Gal 3:5; Rom 8:15, Rom 8:23). Those led by the Spirit are sons of God (Rom 8:14).

Robertson: Gal 3:27 - Were baptized into Christ Were baptized into Christ ( eis Christon ebaptisthēte ). First aorist passive indicative of baptizō . Better, "were baptized unto Christ"in refer...

Were baptized into Christ ( eis Christon ebaptisthēte ).

First aorist passive indicative of baptizō . Better, "were baptized unto Christ"in reference to Christ.

Robertson: Gal 3:27 - Did put on Christ Did put on Christ ( Christon enedusasthe ). First aorist middle indicative of enduō (̇nō ). As a badge or uniform of service like that of the...

Did put on Christ ( Christon enedusasthe ).

First aorist middle indicative of enduō (̇nō ). As a badge or uniform of service like that of the soldier. This verb is common in the sense of putting on garments (literally and metaphorically as here). See further in Paul (Rom 13:14; Col 3:9.; Eph 4:22-24; Eph 6:11, Eph 6:14). In 1Th 5:8 Paul speaks of "putting on the breastplate of righteousness."He does not here mean that one enters into Christ and so is saved by means of baptism after the teaching of the mystery religions, but just the opposite. We are justified by faith in Christ, not by circumcision or by baptism. But baptism was the public profession and pledge, the soldier’ s sacramentum , oath of fealty to Christ, taking one’ s stand with Christ, the symbolic picture of the change wrought by faith already (Rom 6:4-6).

Robertson: Gal 3:28 - There can be neither There can be neither ( ouk eni ). Not a shortened form of enesti , but the old lengthened form of en with recessive accent. So ouk eni means "the...

There can be neither ( ouk eni ).

Not a shortened form of enesti , but the old lengthened form of en with recessive accent. So ouk eni means "there is not"rather than "there cannot be,"a statement of a fact rather than a possibility, as Burton rightly shows against Lightfoot.

Robertson: Gal 3:28 - One man One man ( heis ). No word for "man"in the Greek, and yet heis is masculine, not neuter hen . "One moral personality"(Vincent). The point is that "i...

One man ( heis ).

No word for "man"in the Greek, and yet heis is masculine, not neuter hen . "One moral personality"(Vincent). The point is that "in Christ Jesus"race or national distinctions ("neither Jew nor Greek") do not exist, class differences ("neither bond nor free,"no proletarianism and no capitalism) vanish, sex rivalry ("no male and female") disappears. This radical statement marks out the path along which Christianity was to come in the sphere (en ) and spirit and power of Christ. Candour compels one to confess that this goal has not yet been fully attained. But we are on the road and there is no hope on any way than on "the Jesus Road."

Robertson: Gal 3:29 - If ye are Christ’ s If ye are Christ’ s ( ei de humeis Christou ). This is the test, not the accident of blood, pride of race or nation, habiliments or environment ...

If ye are Christ’ s ( ei de humeis Christou ).

This is the test, not the accident of blood, pride of race or nation, habiliments or environment of dress or family, whether man or woman. Thus one comes to belong to the seed of Abraham and to be an heir according to promise.

Vincent: Gal 3:1 - Foolish Foolish ( ἀνόητοι ) See on Luk 24:25. In N.T. and lxx always in an active sense. See Luk 24:25; Rom 1:14; 1Ti 6:9; Tit 3:3. Νοῦς...

Foolish ( ἀνόητοι )

See on Luk 24:25. In N.T. and lxx always in an active sense. See Luk 24:25; Rom 1:14; 1Ti 6:9; Tit 3:3. Νοῦς is used by Paul mainly with an ethical reference, as the faculty of moral judgment . See on Rom 7:23. Ἀνόητος therefore indicates a folly which is the outgrowth of a moral defect. Paul is not alluding to a national characteristic of the Galatians.

Vincent: Gal 3:1 - Hath bewitched Hath bewitched ( ἐβάσκανεν ) N.T.o . In Class. with accusative, to slander , malign ; with dative, to envy , grudge , use ...

Hath bewitched ( ἐβάσκανεν )

N.T.o . In Class. with accusative, to slander , malign ; with dative, to envy , grudge , use ill words to another , bewitch by spells . For the verb in lxx, see Deu 28:54, Deu 28:56; Sir. 14:6, 8. The noun βασκανία (not in N.T.) in lxx, Wisd. 4:12 ( the bewitching ); 4 Macc. 1:26 ( the evil eye ); 4 Macc. 2:15 ( slander ). See also Plato, Phaedo , 95 B ( evil eye ). The adjective βάσκανος (not in N.T.) appears in lxx, Pro 23:6; Pro 28:22 ( having an evil eye ); Sir. 14:3; 18:18; 37:11 ( envious ). See also Aristoph. Knights , 103; Plut . 571 ( slanderous , a calumniator ). Ignatius ( Rom . iii.) uses it of grudging the triumph of martyrdom. The two ideas of envy or malice and the evil eye combine in the Lat. invidere , to look maliciously . The ὀφθαλμὸς evil eye is found Mar 7:22. Paul's metaphor here is: who hath cast an evil spell upon you? Chrysostom, followed by Lightfoot, thinks that the passage indicates, not only the baleful influence on the Galatians, but also the envious spirit of the false teachers who envy them their liberty in Christ. This is doubtful.

Vincent: Gal 3:1 - Before whose eyes Before whose eyes ( οἷς κατ ' ὀφθαλμοὺς ) The Greek is stronger: unto whom , over against your very eyes . The...

Before whose eyes ( οἷς κατ ' ὀφθαλμοὺς )

The Greek is stronger: unto whom , over against your very eyes . The phrase κατ ' ὀφθαλμοὺς N.T.o , but quite frequent in lxx. Comp. κατὰ πρόσωπον to the face , Gal 2:11.

Vincent: Gal 3:1 - Hath been evidently set forth Hath been evidently set forth ( προεγράφη ) The different explanations turn on the meaning assigned to προ : either formerly , or ...

Hath been evidently set forth ( προεγράφη )

The different explanations turn on the meaning assigned to προ : either formerly , or openly , publicly . Thus openly portrayed . The use of προγράφειν in this sense is more than doubtful. Previously written . In favor of this is the plain meaning in two of the three other N.T. passages where it occurs: Rom 15:4; Eph 3:3. Was posted up , placarded . It is the usual word to describe public notices or proclamations. The more probable sense combines the first and third interpretations. Rend. openly set forth . This suits before whose eyes , and illustrates the suggestion of the evil eye in bewitched . Who could have succeeded in bringing you under the spell of an evil eye, when directly before your own eyes stood revealed the crucified Christ?

Vincent: Gal 3:1 - Crucified among you Crucified among you ( ἐν ὑμῖν ἐσταυρωμένος ) Ἑν ὑμῖν among you is omitted in the best texts. Crucifi...

Crucified among you ( ἐν ὑμῖν ἐσταυρωμένος )

Ἑν ὑμῖν among you is omitted in the best texts. Crucified emphatically closes the sentence. Christ was openly set forth as crucified .

Vincent: Gal 3:2 - This only This only I will convince you of your error by this one point. Do you owe the gifts of the Spirit to the works of the law, or to the message of f...

This only

I will convince you of your error by this one point. Do you owe the gifts of the Spirit to the works of the law, or to the message of faith?

Vincent: Gal 3:2 - Received ye, etc Received ye, etc. The answer lies in the question. You cannot deny that you received the gifts of the Spirit by the message of faith.

Received ye, etc.

The answer lies in the question. You cannot deny that you received the gifts of the Spirit by the message of faith.

Vincent: Gal 3:2 - The hearing of faith The hearing of faith ( ἀκοῆς πίστεως ) See on Gal 1:23. For hearing , render message . So, often in N.T. See Mat 4:24; Mat 14...

The hearing of faith ( ἀκοῆς πίστεως )

See on Gal 1:23. For hearing , render message . So, often in N.T. See Mat 4:24; Mat 14:6; Joh 12:38. lxx, 1Sa 2:24; 2Sa 13:30; Tob. 10:13; Hab 3:2.

Vincent: Gal 3:3 - So foolish So foolish Explained by what follows. Has your folly reached such a pitch as to reverse the true order of things? Comp. 1Co 15:46.

So foolish

Explained by what follows. Has your folly reached such a pitch as to reverse the true order of things? Comp. 1Co 15:46.

Vincent: Gal 3:3 - Having begun Having begun ( ἐναρξάμενοι ) Po . Comp. Phi 1:6; 2Co 8:6. Having commenced your Christian life. The verb is common in Class. in th...

Having begun ( ἐναρξάμενοι )

Po . Comp. Phi 1:6; 2Co 8:6. Having commenced your Christian life. The verb is common in Class. in the sense of the beginning a sacrifice or other religious ceremony; but it is not likely that any such figurative suggestion is attached to it here, as Lightfoot.

Vincent: Gal 3:3 - In the Spirit In the Spirit ( πνεύματι ) Or, by means of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit, as the inspirer and regulator of the life.

In the Spirit ( πνεύματι )

Or, by means of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit, as the inspirer and regulator of the life.

Vincent: Gal 3:3 - Are ye made perfect Are ye made perfect ( ἐπιτελεῖσθε ) The word is found in connection with ἀνάρχεσθαι to begin , in 2Co 8:6; Phi 1:...

Are ye made perfect ( ἐπιτελεῖσθε )

The word is found in connection with ἀνάρχεσθαι to begin , in 2Co 8:6; Phi 1:6. The A.V. and Rev. render here in the passive voice. The active voice, always in N.T. with the object expressed, means to bring to completion . See Rom 15:28; 2Co 7:1; Phi 1:6; Heb 8:5. The passive only 1Pe 5:9. It is true that the verb in the middle voice is not found in either N.T. or lxx; but it is not uncommon in Class. and answers better to the middle ἀναρξάμενοι having begun . It implies more than bringing to an end; rather to a consummation . Rend.: having begun in the spirit are ye coming to completion in the flesh? The last phrase has an ironical tinge, suggesting the absurdity of expecting perfection on the Jewish basis of legal righteousness. The present tense indicates that they have already begun upon this attempt.

Vincent: Gal 3:3 - The flesh The flesh The worldly principle or element of life, represented by the legal righteousness of the Jew.

The flesh

The worldly principle or element of life, represented by the legal righteousness of the Jew.

Vincent: Gal 3:4 - Have ye suffered Have ye suffered ( ἐπάθετε ) Or, did ye suffer . The exact sense is doubtful. By some it is held that the reference is to sufferi...

Have ye suffered ( ἐπάθετε )

Or, did ye suffer . The exact sense is doubtful. By some it is held that the reference is to sufferings endured by the Galatian Christians either through heathen persecutions or Judaising emissaries. There is, however, no record in this Epistle or elsewhere of the Galatians having suffered special persecutions on account of their Christian profession. Others take the verb in a neutral sense, have ye experienced , or with a definite reference to the experience of benefits. In this neutral sense it is used in Class. from Homer down, and is accordingly joined with both κακῶς evilly , and εὖ well . Paul habitually used it in the sense of suffering evil, and there is no decisive instance, either in N.T. or lxx, of the neutral sense. In Class., where it is used of the experience of benefits, it is always accompanied by some qualifying word. When it stands alone it signifies to suffer evil . The evidence on the whole makes very strongly for the meaning suffer ; in which case the reference is, probably, to the annoyances suffered from Judaising Christians. It must be said, on the other hand, that a reference to such annoyances seems far-fetched. If we could translate did ye experience (so Weizsäcker, Lipsius, Sieffert), the reference would be to the impartation of the gifts of the Spirit.

Vincent: Gal 3:4 - In vain In vain ( εἰκῇ ) So that ye have fallen from the faith and missed the inheritance of suffering and the rich fruitage of your spiritual ...

In vain ( εἰκῇ )

So that ye have fallen from the faith and missed the inheritance of suffering and the rich fruitage of your spiritual gifts. See Mat 5:10-12; Rom 8:17; 2Co 4:17.

Vincent: Gal 3:4 - If it be yet in vain If it be yet in vain ( εἴ γε καὶ εἰκῇ ) The A.V. misses the force of the particles. Καὶ should be closely joined wit...

If it be yet in vain ( εἴ γε καὶ εἰκῇ )

The A.V. misses the force of the particles. Καὶ should be closely joined with εἰκῇ , with the sense of really . If , that is , it be really in vain .

Vincent: Gal 3:5 - Therefore Therefore ( οὖν ) Resumes the thought of Gal 3:2 (Gal 3:3, Gal 3:4 being, practically, parenthetical), in order to adduce the example of A...

Therefore ( οὖν )

Resumes the thought of Gal 3:2 (Gal 3:3, Gal 3:4 being, practically, parenthetical), in order to adduce the example of Abraham as a proof of justification by faith. The thought of Gal 3:2 is further emphasized. The gift of the Spirit, and the bestowment of miraculous powers, is a purely divine operation in believers, which is not merited by legal works, but can be received and experienced only through the message of faith.

Vincent: Gal 3:5 - He that ministereth He that ministereth ( ὁ ἐπιχορηγῶν ) Or supplieth . See 2Co 9:10; Col 2:19; 2Pe 1:5. The idea of abundant supply (Lightfoot),...

He that ministereth ( ὁ ἐπιχορηγῶν )

Or supplieth . See 2Co 9:10; Col 2:19; 2Pe 1:5. The idea of abundant supply (Lightfoot), if conveyed at all, resides, not in the preposition ἐπὶ , which indicates direction , but in the simple verb, which is used of abundant, liberal supply. He that ministereth is God.

Vincent: Gal 3:5 - Worketh Worketh ( ἐνεργῶν ) See on 1Th 2:13.

Worketh ( ἐνεργῶν )

See on 1Th 2:13.

Vincent: Gal 3:5 - Miracles Miracles ( δυνάμεις ) See on Mat 11:20. Either miracles , as Mar 6:2; 1Co 12:10, or miraculous powers , as 1Co 12:6; Phi 2:13; Eph ...

Miracles ( δυνάμεις )

See on Mat 11:20. Either miracles , as Mar 6:2; 1Co 12:10, or miraculous powers , as 1Co 12:6; Phi 2:13; Eph 2:2. The analogy of these latter passages favors the second meaning.

Vincent: Gal 3:5 - Among you Among you ( ἐν ὑμῖν ) So, if δυνάμεις is explained as miracles . If miraculous powers , render in you.

Among you ( ἐν ὑμῖν )

So, if δυνάμεις is explained as miracles . If miraculous powers , render in you.

Vincent: Gal 3:6 - Even as Even as ( καθὼς ) The answer to the question of Gal 3:5 is so obvious that it is not given. Paul proceeds at once to the illustration - th...

Even as ( καθὼς )

The answer to the question of Gal 3:5 is so obvious that it is not given. Paul proceeds at once to the illustration - the argument for the righteousness of faith furnished in the justification of Abraham. The spiritual gifts come through the message of faith, even as Abraham believed, etc.

Vincent: Gal 3:6 - Believed God Believed God ( ἐπιστευσεν τῷ θεῷ ) See on Rom 4:5. Believed God's promise that he should become the father of many natio...

Believed God ( ἐπιστευσεν τῷ θεῷ )

See on Rom 4:5. Believed God's promise that he should become the father of many nations. See Rom 4:18-21. The reference is not to faith in the promised Messiah.

Vincent: Gal 3:6 - It was accounted to him for righteousness It was accounted to him for righteousness ( ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην ) See on Rom 4:5. Ἑις doe...

It was accounted to him for righteousness ( ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην )

See on Rom 4:5. Ἑις does not mean instead of , but as . His faith was reckoned as righteousness - as something which it really was since all possibilities of righteousness are included in faith.

Vincent: Gal 3:7 - Know ye Know ye ( γινώσκετε ) Imperative. It may also be rendered as indicative, ye know , but the imperative is livelier, and the statemen...

Know ye ( γινώσκετε )

Imperative. It may also be rendered as indicative, ye know , but the imperative is livelier, and the statement in the verse is one of the points which the writer is trying to prove.

Vincent: Gal 3:7 - They which are of faith They which are of faith ( οἱ ἐκ πίστεως ) Ἑκ πίστεως from or out of faith , is found with the verb to justi...

They which are of faith ( οἱ ἐκ πίστεως )

Ἑκ πίστεως from or out of faith , is found with the verb to justify (Rom 3:26, Rom 3:30; Rom 5:1): with other verbs, as live (Rom 1:17); eat (Rom 14:23): with the noun δικαιοσύνη righteousness (Rom 1:17; Rom 9:30; Rom 10:6): with other nouns, as promise (Gal 3:22), law (Gal 3:12). For parallels to the phrase οἱ ἐκ πίστεως , see Rom 3:26; Rom 4:16; Rom 14:23; Gal 3:9. It denotes believers as sprung from , or receiving their spiritual condition from that which specially characterizes them. Comp. οἱ ἐξ ἐριθίας they who are of faction , Rom 2:8; οἱ ἐκ νόμου they who are of the law , Rom 4:14; ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας he who is of the truth , Joh 18:37.

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - The scripture The scripture ( ἡ γραφὴ ) See on 1Ti 5:18. The particular passage cited below. See on Mar 12:10; see on Joh 2:22; see on Joh 5:47 foo...

The scripture ( ἡ γραφὴ )

See on 1Ti 5:18. The particular passage cited below. See on Mar 12:10; see on Joh 2:22; see on Joh 5:47 footnote.

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - Foreseeing Foreseeing ( προΐδοῦσα ) The passage of Scripture is personified. Comp. hath concluded , Gal 3:22. The Jews had a formula of refe...

Foreseeing ( προΐδοῦσα )

The passage of Scripture is personified. Comp. hath concluded , Gal 3:22. The Jews had a formula of reference, " What did the Scripture see?"

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - Would justify Would justify ( δικαιοῖ ) Better justifieth . The present tense. The time foreseen was the Christian present. Comp. 1Co 3:13; Mat 26:2.

Would justify ( δικαιοῖ )

Better justifieth . The present tense. The time foreseen was the Christian present. Comp. 1Co 3:13; Mat 26:2.

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - Preached before the gospel Preached before the gospel ( προευηγγελίσατο ) N.T.o . An awkward translation. Better, preached the gospel before-hand .

Preached before the gospel ( προευηγγελίσατο )

N.T.o . An awkward translation. Better, preached the gospel before-hand .

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - All nations All nations ( πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ) From Gen 18:18; comp. Gen 22:18, lxx. Gen 12:3 reads πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ all the ...

All nations ( πάντα τὰ ἔθνη )

From Gen 18:18; comp. Gen 22:18, lxx. Gen 12:3 reads πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ all the tribes . Τὰ ἔθνη was the collective term by which all non-Jews were denoted, and is more suitable to Paul's Gentile audience.

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - Shall be blessed Shall be blessed ( ἐνευλογηθήσονται ) In N.T. only here. lxx, Gen 12:3; Gen 18:18; Gen 22:18; Gen 26:4; Sir. 44:21. The bless...

Shall be blessed ( ἐνευλογηθήσονται )

In N.T. only here. lxx, Gen 12:3; Gen 18:18; Gen 22:18; Gen 26:4; Sir. 44:21. The blessing is the messianic blessing of which the Gentiles are to partake - the imparting of the Spirit as the new life principle and the pledge of future blessedness in Christ. This blessing Abraham shared on the ground of his faith, and believers shall share it as the true spiritual children of Abraham.

Vincent: Gal 3:8 - In thee In thee ( ἐν σοὶ ) Not, through thy posterity , Christ , but in the fact that thou art blessed is involved the blessedness of th...

In thee ( ἐν σοὶ )

Not, through thy posterity , Christ , but in the fact that thou art blessed is involved the blessedness of the Gentiles through faith, in so far as they shall be justified by faith, and through justification receive the Holy Spirit.

Vincent: Gal 3:9 - With With ( σὺν ) Not = like or as, but in fellowship with . Believers are regarded as homogeneous with Abraham, and as thus sharing the b...

With ( σὺν )

Not = like or as, but in fellowship with . Believers are regarded as homogeneous with Abraham, and as thus sharing the blessing which began in him.

Vincent: Gal 3:9 - Faithful Faithful ( πιστῷ ) Or believing , as Act 16:1; 2Co 11:15; 1Ti 5:16. Those who are of the faith are one in blessing with him whose chara...

Faithful ( πιστῷ )

Or believing , as Act 16:1; 2Co 11:15; 1Ti 5:16. Those who are of the faith are one in blessing with him whose characteristic was faith.

Vincent: Gal 3:10 - Under the curse Under the curse ( ὑπὸ κατάραν ) Better, under curse . There is no article. The phrase is general = accursed . Comp. ὑφ ' ...

Under the curse ( ὑπὸ κατάραν )

Better, under curse . There is no article. The phrase is general = accursed . Comp. ὑφ ' ἁμαρτίαν under sin , Rom 3:9. The specific character of the curse is not stated. It is not merely the wrath of God as it issues in final destruction (Meyer); but it represents a condition of alienation from God, caused by violation of his law, with all the penalty which accrues from it, either in this life or the next.

Vincent: Gal 3:10 - Cursed Cursed ( ἐπικατάρατος ) Only here and Gal 3:13. o Class. In lxx, see Gen 3:14, Gen 3:17; Deu 27:16-20; Isa 65:20; Wisd. 3:12; 14:...

Cursed ( ἐπικατάρατος )

Only here and Gal 3:13. o Class. In lxx, see Gen 3:14, Gen 3:17; Deu 27:16-20; Isa 65:20; Wisd. 3:12; 14:8, etc.

Vincent: Gal 3:10 - Continueth - in Continueth - in ( ἐμμένει ) The expression is figurative, the book of the law being conceived as a prescribed district or domain, in w...

Continueth - in ( ἐμμένει )

The expression is figurative, the book of the law being conceived as a prescribed district or domain, in which one remains or out of which he goes. Comp. continue in the faith , Act 14:22; in the covenant , Heb 13:9; in the things which thou hast learned , 2Ti 3:14.

Vincent: Gal 3:11 - But But ( δὲ ) Better, now . The δὲ continues the argument, adding the scripture testimony.

But ( δὲ )

Better, now . The δὲ continues the argument, adding the scripture testimony.

Vincent: Gal 3:11 - By the law By the law ( ἐν νόμῳ ) Rather, in the sphere of the law; thus corresponding with continueth in , Gal 3:10.

By the law ( ἐν νόμῳ )

Rather, in the sphere of the law; thus corresponding with continueth in , Gal 3:10.

Vincent: Gal 3:11 - The just shall live by faith The just shall live by faith ( ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται ) Better, the righteous . Quoted from Hab 2:4, and...

The just shall live by faith ( ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται )

Better, the righteous . Quoted from Hab 2:4, and appears in Rom 1:17, and Heb 10:28. The lxx has μοῦ my , either after δίκαιος , " my righteous one shall live, etc.," or after πίστεως , " by my faith or faithfulness."

Vincent: Gal 3:13 - Hath redeemed Hath redeemed ( ἐξηγόρασεν ) Po . Better redeemed . Comp. Gal 4:5; Eph 5:16; Col 4:5. In lxx once, Dan 2:8. See on Col 4:5.

Hath redeemed ( ἐξηγόρασεν )

Po . Better redeemed . Comp. Gal 4:5; Eph 5:16; Col 4:5. In lxx once, Dan 2:8. See on Col 4:5.

Vincent: Gal 3:13 - Us Us Referring specially to Jews.

Us

Referring specially to Jews.

Vincent: Gal 3:13 - Being made a curse Being made a curse ( γενόμενος κατάρα ) Better, having become . See on Gal 2:20.

Being made a curse ( γενόμενος κατάρα )

Better, having become . See on Gal 2:20.

Vincent: Gal 3:13 - It is written It is written From lxx of Deu 21:23, with the omission of ὑπὸ θεοῦ by God after cursed . Paul, as Lightfoot justly says, instin...

It is written

From lxx of Deu 21:23, with the omission of ὑπὸ θεοῦ by God after cursed . Paul, as Lightfoot justly says, instinctively omits these words, since Christ was in no sense accursed by God in his crucifixion. The statement does not refer to Christ's enduring the curse in our stead, but solely to the attitude in which the law placed Christ by subjecting him to the death of a malefactor. The law satisfied its demand upon him, and thus thrust him out of the pale of the legal economy. We, by our fellowship with him, are likewise cast out, and therefore are no longer under curse.

Vincent: Gal 3:13 - Upon a tree Upon a tree ( ἐπὶ ξύλου ) Originally wood , timber . In later Greek, a tree . In Class. used of a gallows (Aristoph. Frog...

Upon a tree ( ἐπὶ ξύλου )

Originally wood , timber . In later Greek, a tree . In Class. used of a gallows (Aristoph. Frogs , 736). Often of the stocks (Aristoph. Clouds , 592; Lysistr . 680; Knights , 367). So Act 16:24. Of the cross , Act 5:30; Act 10:39; 1Pe 2:24. Ignatius ( Smyrn . i.) says that Christ was nailed up for our sakes - of which fruit are we. That is, the cross is regarded as a tree, and Christians as its fruit. Comp. Trall . ii. See the interesting remarks of Lightfoot on the symbolism of the tree of life in Paradise (Apostolic Fathers, Part II, Vol. II., page 291).

Vincent: Gal 3:14 - That That ( ἵνα ) Marking the purpose of Christ in redeeming from the curse of the law.

That ( ἵνα )

Marking the purpose of Christ in redeeming from the curse of the law.

Vincent: Gal 3:14 - That we might receive, etc That we might receive, etc. The second ἵνα is parallel with the first. The deliverance from the curse results not only in extending to th...

That we might receive, etc.

The second ἵνα is parallel with the first. The deliverance from the curse results not only in extending to the Gentiles the blessing promised to Abraham, but in the impartation of the Spirit to both Jews and Gentiles through faith. The εὐλογία blessing is not God's gift of justification as the opposite of the curse; for in Gal 3:10, Gal 3:11, justification is not represented as the opposite of the curse, but as that by which the curse is removed and the blessing realized. The content of the curse is death , Gal 3:13. The opposite of the curse is life . The subject of the promise is the life which comes through the Spirit. See Joh 7:39; Act 2:17, Act 2:38, Act 2:39; Act 10:45, Act 10:47; Act 15:7, Act 15:8; Rom 5:5; Rom 8:2, Rom 8:4, Rom 8:6, Rom 8:11; Eph 1:13.

Vincent: Gal 3:15 - After the manner of men After the manner of men ( κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ) According to human analogy; reasoning as men would reason in ordinary affairs. The ph...

After the manner of men ( κατὰ ἄνθρωπον )

According to human analogy; reasoning as men would reason in ordinary affairs. The phrase is peculiar to Paul. See Rom 3:5; 1Co 3:3; 1Co 9:8; 1Co 15:32; Gal 1:11. Comp. ἀνθρώπινος as a man , Rom 6:19.

Vincent: Gal 3:15 - Though it be - yet Though it be - yet The A.V. and Rev. give the correct sense, but the order of the Greek is peculiar. Ὅμως yet properly belongs to ου...

Though it be - yet

The A.V. and Rev. give the correct sense, but the order of the Greek is peculiar. Ὅμως yet properly belongs to οὐδεὶς no man : " Though a man's covenant yet no man disannulleth it." But ὅμως is taken out of its natural place, and put at the beginning of the clause, before ἀνθρώπου , so that the Greek literally reads: " Yet a man's covenant confirmed no one disannulleth, etc." A similar displacement occurs 1Co 14:7.

Vincent: Gal 3:15 - Covenant Covenant ( διαθήκην ) Not testament . See on Mat 26:28, and see on Heb 9:16.

Covenant ( διαθήκην )

Not testament . See on Mat 26:28, and see on Heb 9:16.

Vincent: Gal 3:15 - Confirmed Confirmed ( κεκυρωμένην ) Po . See 2Co 2:8. In lxx, Gen 23:20; Lev 25:30; 4 Macc. 7:9. From κῦρος supreme power . Hence th...

Confirmed ( κεκυρωμένην )

Po . See 2Co 2:8. In lxx, Gen 23:20; Lev 25:30; 4 Macc. 7:9. From κῦρος supreme power . Hence the verb carries the sense of authoritative confirmation, in this case by the contracting parties.

Vincent: Gal 3:15 - Disannulleth Disannulleth ( ἀθετεῖ ) See on bring to nothing , 1Co 1:19. Rev. maketh void .

Disannulleth ( ἀθετεῖ )

See on bring to nothing , 1Co 1:19. Rev. maketh void .

Vincent: Gal 3:15 - Addeth thereto Addeth thereto ( ἐπιδιατάσσεται ) N.T.o . Adds new specifications or conditions to the original covenant, which is contrary to ...

Addeth thereto ( ἐπιδιατάσσεται )

N.T.o . Adds new specifications or conditions to the original covenant, which is contrary to law. Comp. ἐπιδιαθήκη a second will or codicil , Joseph B . J . 2:2, 3; Ant . 17:9, 4. The doctrine of the Judaisers, while virtually annulling the promise, was apparently only the imposing of new conditions. In either case it was a violation of the covenant.

Vincent: Gal 3:16 - The promises The course of thought is as follows. The main point is that the promises to Abraham continue to hold for Christian believers (Gal 3:17). It might be ...

The course of thought is as follows. The main point is that the promises to Abraham continue to hold for Christian believers (Gal 3:17). It might be objected that the law made these promises void. After stating that a human covenant is not invalidated or added to by any one, he would argue from this analogy that a covenant of God is not annulled by the law which came afterwards. But before reaching this point, he must call attention to the fact that the promises were given, not to Abraham only, but to his descendants. Hence it follows that the covenant was not a mere temporary contract, made to last only up to the time of the law. Even a man's covenant remains uncancelled and without additions. Similarly, God's covenant-promises to Abraham remain valid; and this is made certain by the fact that the promises were given not only to Abraham but to his seed; and since the singular, seed , is used, and not seeds , it is evident that Christ is meant.

The promises ( αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι )

Comp. Rom 9:4. The promise was given on several occasions.

Vincent: Gal 3:16 - Were made Were made ( ἐρρέθησαν ) Rend. were spoken .

Were made ( ἐρρέθησαν )

Rend. were spoken .

Vincent: Gal 3:16 - To his seed To his seed ( τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ ) Emphatic, as making for his conclusion in Gal 3:17. There can be no disannulling by th...

To his seed ( τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ )

Emphatic, as making for his conclusion in Gal 3:17. There can be no disannulling by the law of a promise made not only to Abraham, but to his seed .

Vincent: Gal 3:16 - Not - to seeds Not - to seeds ( οὐ - τοῖς σπέρμασιν ) He means that there is significance in the singular form of expression, as pointing ...

Not - to seeds ( οὐ - τοῖς σπέρμασιν )

He means that there is significance in the singular form of expression, as pointing to the fact that one descendant (seed) is intended - Christ. With regard to this line of argument it is to be said, 1. The original promise referred to the posterity of Abraham generally , and therefore applies to Christ individually only as representing these: as gathering up into one all who should be incorporated with him. 2. The original word for seed in the O.T., wherever it means progeny , is used in the singular, whether the progeny consists of one or many. In the plural it means grains of seed , as 1Sa 8:15. It is evident that Paul's argument at this point betrays traces of his rabbinical education (see Schoettgen, Horae Hebraicae , Vol. I., page 736), and can have no logical force for nineteenth century readers. Even Luther says: " Zum stiche zu schwach."

Vincent: Gal 3:16 - Of many Of many ( ἐπὶ πολλῶν ) Apparently a unique instance of the use of ἐπὶ with the genitive after a verb of speaking. The sens...

Of many ( ἐπὶ πολλῶν )

Apparently a unique instance of the use of ἐπὶ with the genitive after a verb of speaking. The sense appears in the familiar phrase " to speak upon a subject," many being conceived as the basis on which the speaking rests. Similarly ἐφ ' ἑνός of one .

Vincent: Gal 3:17 - And this I say And this I say ( τοῦτο δὲ λέγω ) Now I mean this. Not strictly the conclusion from Gal 3:15, Gal 3:16, since Paul does not use t...

And this I say ( τοῦτο δὲ λέγω )

Now I mean this. Not strictly the conclusion from Gal 3:15, Gal 3:16, since Paul does not use this phrase in drawing a conclusion (comp. 1Co 1:12, and τοῦτο δέ φημι , 1Co 7:29; 1Co 15:50). It is rather the application, for which the way was prepared in Gal 3:16, of the analogy of Gal 3:15 to the inviolable stability of God's covenant.

Vincent: Gal 3:17 - Four hundred and thirty years after Four hundred and thirty years after Bengel remarks: " The greatness of the interval increases the authority of the promise."

Four hundred and thirty years after

Bengel remarks: " The greatness of the interval increases the authority of the promise."

Vincent: Gal 3:17 - To make of none effect To make of none effect ( καταργῆσαι ) See on Rom 3:3.

To make of none effect ( καταργῆσαι )

See on Rom 3:3.

Vincent: Gal 3:18 - Gave In the analogy of Gal 3:15 there was contemplated the double possibility of invalidation or addition . With relation to God's promise, the Judaise...

In the analogy of Gal 3:15 there was contemplated the double possibility of invalidation or addition . With relation to God's promise, the Judaisers insisted on addition ; since, while they preached faith in the promise and in its fulfillment in Christ, they made the inheritance of the promise dependent upon the fulfilling of the law. Paul, on the other hand, holds that the Judaistic addition involves invalidation . Salvation must rest either upon the promise or upon the law. The Judaiser said, upon the promise and the law. For God gave the inheritance to Abraham by promise. It has been shown that the law did not abrogate the promise. Hence, if the inheritance be of the law it is no more of the promise. Comp. Rom 4:14.

Gave ( κεχάρισται )

Freely bestowed as a gracious gift. See on Luk 7:21.

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - Wherefore then serveth the law? Wherefore then serveth the law? ( τί οὖν ὁ νόμος ) Lit. what then is the law , or, why then the law? What i...

Wherefore then serveth the law? ( τί οὖν ὁ νόμος )

Lit. what then is the law , or, why then the law? What is its meaning and object? A natural question of an objector, since, according to Paul's reasoning, salvation is of promise and not of law.

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - It was added It was added ( προσετέθη ) Comp. παρεισῆλθεν came in beside , Rom 5:20. Not as an addition to the promise, which is ...

It was added ( προσετέθη )

Comp. παρεισῆλθεν came in beside , Rom 5:20. Not as an addition to the promise, which is contrary to Gal 3:18, but as a temporary, intermediate institution, in which only a subordinate purpose of God was expressed.

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - Because of transgressions Because of transgressions ( τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν ) In order to set upon already existing sins the stamp of positive trans...

Because of transgressions ( τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν )

In order to set upon already existing sins the stamp of positive transgression of law. Comp. Rom 4:5; Rom 5:13. Note the article, the transgressions, summing them up in one mass. Not, in order to give the knowledge of sins. This, it is true, would follow the revelation of sins as transgressions of law (Rom 3:20; Rom 7:13); but, 1. the phrase because of transgressions does not express that thought with sufficient definiteness. If that had been his meaning, Paul would probably have written τῆς ἀπιγνώσεως τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν on account of the knowledge of transgressions . 2. He meant to describe the office of the law as more than giving the knowledge of sins. Its office was, in revealing sin as positive transgression, to emphasize the objective, actual, contrary fact of righteousness according to the divine ideal, and to throw sin into contrast with that grand ideal.

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - The seed The seed Christ, whose advent was to introduce the fulfillment of the promise (Gal 3:16).

The seed

Christ, whose advent was to introduce the fulfillment of the promise (Gal 3:16).

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - Ordained Ordained ( διαταγεὶς ) The verb means to arrange , appoint , prescribe . Of appointing the twelve, Mat 11:1; of enjoining certa...

Ordained ( διαταγεὶς )

The verb means to arrange , appoint , prescribe . Of appointing the twelve, Mat 11:1; of enjoining certain acts, Luk 8:55; Luk 17:10; 1Co 7:17; of the decree of Claudius, Act 18:2. Here, describing the form or mode in which the law was added; the arrangement made for giving it.

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - By angels By angels ( δἰ ἀγγέλων ) Better, through angels as agents and intermediaries. Comp. εἰς διαταγὰς ἀγγέλω...

By angels ( δἰ ἀγγέλων )

Better, through angels as agents and intermediaries. Comp. εἰς διαταγὰς ἀγγέλων with reference to arrangements of angels ; or as it was ordained by angels , Act 7:53. The tradition of the giving of the law through angels appears first in Deu 33:2 (but comp. lxx and the Hebrew). See Heb 2:2; Act 7:53. In the later rabbinical schools great importance was attached to this tradition, and it was not without influence in shaping the doctrine of angelic mediation which formed one of the elements of the Colossian heresy. Josephus ( Ant . 15:5, 3) relates that Herod excited the Jews to battle by a speech, in which he said that they had learned the holiest of laws from God through angels. It is a general O.T. idea that in great theophanies God appears surrounded with a heavenly host. See Hab 3:8; Isa 66:15; Zec 14:5; Joe 3:11. The idea of an angelic administration is also familiar. See Exo 23:20; Exo 32:34; Exo 33:14; Isa 63:9; Jos 5:14. The agency of angels indicates the limitations of the older dispensation; its character as a dispensation of the flesh.

Vincent: Gal 3:19 - In the hand of a mediator In the hand of a mediator ( ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου ) Ἑν χειρὶ by the agency of . A Hebraism. In this sense, not e...

In the hand of a mediator ( ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου )

Ἑν χειρὶ by the agency of . A Hebraism. In this sense, not elsewhere in N.T. See lxx, Gen 38:20 Lev 16:21. In the hand of Moses , Lev 26:46; Num 4:37, Num 4:41, Num 4:45, Num 4:49. Comp. σὺν χειρὶ ἀγγέλου with the hand of the angel , Act 7:35. For μεσίτης mediator , see on 1Ti 2:5, and comp. Heb 8:6; Heb 9:15; Heb 12:24. It is a later Greek word signifying also umpire , arbitrator , and appears in lxx only in Job 9:33. The mediator here is Moses, who is often so designated by rabbinical writers. The object is not (as Meyer) to enable the reader to realize the glory of the law in the dignity and formal solemnity of its ordination, but to indicate the inferior, subordinate position held by the law in comparison with the promise , not the gospel . A glorification of the law cannot be intended, since if that were contemplated in the mention of angels and the mediator, the statement would tend to the disparagement of the promise which was given without a mediator. Paul, in the section Gal 3:6-9, Gal 3:7, aims to show that the law does not, as the Judaisers assume, stand in a relation to the divine plan of salvation as direct and positive as does the promise, and that it has not, like the promise and its fulfillment, an eternal significance. On the contrary, it has only a transitory value. This estimate of the law does not contradict Paul's assertions in Rom 7:12-25. In representing the law as subordinate and temporary he does not impugn it as a divine institution.

Vincent: Gal 3:20 - Now a mediator is not a mediator of one Now a mediator is not a mediator of one ( ὁ δὲ μεσίτης ἐνὸς οὐκ ἔστιν ) Observe, 1. Δὲ is explanator...

Now a mediator is not a mediator of one ( ὁ δὲ μεσίτης ἐνὸς οὐκ ἔστιν )

Observe, 1. Δὲ is explanatory , not antithetic. The verse illustrates the conception of mediator. 2. The article, the mediator, has a generic force: the mediator according to the general and proper conception of his function. Comp. the apostle (2Co 12:12); the shepherd, the good (Joh 10:11). 3. Ἑνὸς of one , is to be explained by the following εἷς , so that it is masculine and personal. We are not to supply party or law . The meaning is: the conception of mediator does not belong to an individual considered singly. One is not a mediator of his single self, but he is a mediator between two contracting parties; in this case between God and the people of Israel, as Lev 26:46; thus differing from Christ, who is called the mediator of a new covenant (Heb 8:6; Heb 9:15; Heb 12:24). The new covenant, the gospel, was not a contract. Accordingly Gal 3:20 serves to define the true conception of a mediator, and through this definition to make clearer the difference between the law, which required a mediator, and the promise, which is the simple expression of God's will. The very idea of mediation supposes two parties. The law is of the nature of a contract between God and the Jewish people. The validity of the contract depends on its fulfillment by both parties. Hence it is contingent, not absolute.

Vincent: Gal 3:20 - But God is one But God is one ( ὁ δὲ θεὸς εἷς ἀστίν ) God does not need a mediator to make his promise valid. His promise is not of...

But God is one ( ὁ δὲ θεὸς εἷς ἀστίν )

God does not need a mediator to make his promise valid. His promise is not of the nature of a contract between two parties. His promise depends on his own individual decree. He dealt with Abraham singly and directly, without a mediator. The dignity of the law is thus inferior to that of the promise.

Vincent: Gal 3:21 - Against the promises Against the promises ( κατὰ τῶν ἐπαγγελιῶν ) Does it follow from the difference between the law and the promises that th...

Against the promises ( κατὰ τῶν ἐπαγγελιῶν )

Does it follow from the difference between the law and the promises that they are in antagonism? Paul supposes this objection on the part of a Jewish Christian.

Vincent: Gal 3:21 - God forbid God forbid ( μὴ γένοιτο ) See on Rom 3:4. This could only be true in case the law gave life , for life must come either through the...

God forbid ( μὴ γένοιτο )

See on Rom 3:4. This could only be true in case the law gave life , for life must come either through the promises or through the law. If the law is against the promises, and makes them invalid, it follows that life must come through the law, and therefore righteousness, without which there is no life, would verily (ὄντως ), just as the Judaisers claim, be through the law.

Vincent: Gal 3:21 - By the law By the law Tisch., Rev. T., Weiss, retain ἐκ νόμου from , resulting from the law . WH. read ἐν νόμῳ in the la...

By the law

Tisch., Rev. T., Weiss, retain ἐκ νόμου from , resulting from the law . WH. read ἐν νόμῳ in the law . The meaning is substantially the same with either reading: in the one case proceeding from, in the other residing in the law.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - The scripture But it is not true that the law gives life, for the law, according to scripture, condemned all alike. The scripture ( ἡ γραφὴ ) Script...

But it is not true that the law gives life, for the law, according to scripture, condemned all alike.

The scripture ( ἡ γραφὴ )

Scripture is personified. See on Gal 3:8.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - Hath concluded Hath concluded ( συνέκλεισεν ) Better, hath shut up , as a jailer. Only in Paul, with the exception of Luk 5:6. Frequent in lxx...

Hath concluded ( συνέκλεισεν )

Better, hath shut up , as a jailer. Only in Paul, with the exception of Luk 5:6. Frequent in lxx. Not included with others , but confined as within an enclosure, as Luk 5:6, of the net enclosing the fish. Comp. Exo 14:3; Jos 6:1; 1 Macc. 4:31. Scripture, in its divine utterances on the universality and guilt of sin, is conceived as a jailer who shuts all up in sin as in a prison. Comp. Rom 3:10-19; Rom 11:32.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - All All ( τὰ πάντα ) Neuter, all things collectively : = all men . For the neuter in a similar comprehensive sense, see 1Co 1:27; ...

All ( τὰ πάντα )

Neuter, all things collectively : = all men . For the neuter in a similar comprehensive sense, see 1Co 1:27; Col 1:20; Eph 1:10.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - That That ( ἵνα ) In order that. That which is represented through a personification as the act of Scripture, is the act of God, according to a...

That ( ἵνα )

In order that. That which is represented through a personification as the act of Scripture, is the act of God, according to a definite purpose that the promise should be inherited by believers only, through faith in Jesus Christ.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - The promise The promise ( ἡ ἐπαγγελία ) That is, the thing promised; the inheritance , Gal 3:18.

The promise ( ἡ ἐπαγγελία )

That is, the thing promised; the inheritance , Gal 3:18.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - By faith By faith ( ἐκ πίστεως ) Const. with the promise , not with might be given . The promised gift which is the result of faith. ...

By faith ( ἐκ πίστεως )

Const. with the promise , not with might be given . The promised gift which is the result of faith. The false teachers claimed that it was the result of works.

Vincent: Gal 3:22 - To them that believe To them that believe ( τοῖς πιστεύουσιν ) Not tautological. Even the Judaisers held that salvation was intended for believers,...

To them that believe ( τοῖς πιστεύουσιν )

Not tautological. Even the Judaisers held that salvation was intended for believers, but also that legal obedience was its procuring cause; against which Paul asserts that it is simply for those that believe .

Vincent: Gal 3:23 - Faith But the office of the law as a jailer was designed to be only temporary, until the time when faith should come. It was to hold in custody those who w...

But the office of the law as a jailer was designed to be only temporary, until the time when faith should come. It was to hold in custody those who were subjected to sin, so that they should not escape the consciousness of their sins and of their liability to punishment.

Faith ( τὴν πίστιν )

The subjective faith in Christ which appropriates the promise. See on Gal 1:23.

Vincent: Gal 3:23 - We were kept We were kept ( ἐφρουρούμεθα ) Better, kept in ward , continuing the figure in shut up , Gal 3:22. The imperfect tense ind...

We were kept ( ἐφρουρούμεθα )

Better, kept in ward , continuing the figure in shut up , Gal 3:22. The imperfect tense indicates the continued activity of the law as a warder.

Vincent: Gal 3:23 - Under the law Under the law ( ὑπὸ νόμον ) Const. with were kept in ward , not with shut up . We were shut up with the law as a warder, ...

Under the law ( ὑπὸ νόμον )

Const. with were kept in ward , not with shut up . We were shut up with the law as a warder, not for protection, but to guard against escape. Comp. Wisd. 17:15. The figure of the law as pedagogue (Gal 3:24) is not anticipated. The law is conceived, not as the prison, but as the warder, the Lord or despot, the power of sin (see 1Co 15:56; Romans 7), by whom those who belong to sin are kept under lock and key - under moral captivity, without possibility of liberation except through faith.

Vincent: Gal 3:23 - Shut up unto the faith Shut up unto the faith ( συνκλειόμενοι εἰς τὴν πίστιν ) Εἰς unto or for expresses the object of keeping...

Shut up unto the faith ( συνκλειόμενοι εἰς τὴν πίστιν )

Εἰς unto or for expresses the object of keeping in ward. It is not temporal, until , which is a rare usage in N.T., but with a view to our passing into the state of faith .

Vincent: Gal 3:23 - Which should afterwards be revealed Which should afterwards be revealed ( μέλλουσαν - ἀποκαλυφθῆναι ) The position of μέλλουσαν emphasizes ...

Which should afterwards be revealed ( μέλλουσαν - ἀποκαλυφθῆναι )

The position of μέλλουσαν emphasizes the future state of things to which the earlier conditions pointed. The faith was first revealed at the coming of Christ and the gospel.

Vincent: Gal 3:24 - Wherefore Wherefore ( ὥστε ) Better, so that . Theological consequence of the previous statements.

Wherefore ( ὥστε )

Better, so that . Theological consequence of the previous statements.

Vincent: Gal 3:24 - Our schoolmaster Our schoolmaster ( παιδαγωγὸς ἡμῶν ) Our. Paul speaks as a Jew of Jews especially. Schoolmaster (παιδαγωγὸς P)...

Our schoolmaster ( παιδαγωγὸς ἡμῶν )

Our. Paul speaks as a Jew of Jews especially. Schoolmaster (παιδαγωγὸς P) is an error. The word means an overseer or guardian . See on 1Co 4:15. Tutor (Rev.) is defensible on the ground of etymology, tueri to look upon , thence to guard . In civil law a tutor is a person legally appointed for the care of the person and property of a minor. So Bacon ( Adv . of Learning , ii. 19): " the first six kings being in truth as tutors of the state of Rome in the infance thereof." The later use of the word, however, in the sense of instructor , has so completely supplanted the earlier, that the propriety of the Revisers' rendering is questionable. The law is here represented, not as one who conducts to the school of Christ; for Christ is not represented here as a teacher, but as an atoner; but rather as an overseer or guardian , to keep watch of those committed to its care, to accompany them with its commands and prohibitions, and to keep them in a condition of dependence and restraint, thus continually bringing home to them the consciousness of being shut up in sins, and revealing sin as positive transgression.

Vincent: Gal 3:26 - For ye are all the children of God For ye are all the children of God ( πάντες γὰρ υἱοὶ θεοῦ ἐστὲ ) Better, ye are all sons of God. Note 1. The c...

For ye are all the children of God ( πάντες γὰρ υἱοὶ θεοῦ ἐστὲ )

Better, ye are all sons of God. Note 1. The change of person, ye are. Comp. we , our , us , Gal 3:23, Gal 3:24, Gal 3:25. He now addresses the Galatians, who were mostly Gentiles, and includes all Christians, Jewish and Gentile. 2. The emphasis is on sons of God rather than on all ; for his object is to show that, after the coming of faith, they are no more under the care of a guardian. Ὑιοὶ signifies sons of full age (comp. Gal 4:1) who have outgrown the surveillance of the guardian; so that sons is emphasized as against children . Paul describes Christians both as τέκνα θεοῦ children of God (Rom 8:16, Rom 8:21; Rom 9:8; Phi 2:15), and υἱοὶ θεοῦ sons of God (Rom 8:14, Rom 8:19; Rom 9:26). Both τέκνον and υἱός signify a relation based on parentage. The common distinction between τέκνον as emphasizing natural relationship, and υἱός as marking legal or ethical status, should not be pressed. In lxx both words are applied ethically to Israel as God's beloved people. See Isa 30:1; Wisd. 16:21; Joe 2:23; Zec 9:13; and Isa 63:6; Deu 14:1; Wisd. 9:7; 12:19. John never uses υἱός to describe the relation of Christians to God; but he attaches both the ethical relation and that of conferred privilege, as well as that of birth, to τέκνον . See Joh 1:12; 1Jo 3:1, 1Jo 3:10; Joh 1:13; Joh 3:3, Joh 3:7; 1Jo 3:9; 1Jo 4:7; 1Jo 5:1, 1Jo 5:4, 1Jo 5:18. Paul often regards the Christian relation from a legal point of view as υἱοθεσία adoption , a word used only by him. See Rom 8:14, Rom 8:17, we have both υἱοὶ and τέκνα , and both in the ethical sense. In Rom 9:8; Eph 5:1, the ethical sense. 3. In Christ Jesus . Const. with faith . The article before πίστεως faith may point back to the faith previously mentioned, or may have, as so often, a possessive force, your faith.

Vincent: Gal 3:27 - Were baptized into Christ Were baptized into Christ ( εἰς Χριστὸν ἐβαπτίσθητε ) See on Mat 28:19. Not in relation to Christ (Meyer), but i...

Were baptized into Christ ( εἰς Χριστὸν ἐβαπτίσθητε )

See on Mat 28:19. Not in relation to Christ (Meyer), but into spiritual union and communion with him. Comp. Rom 6:3 (see note); 1Co 12:12, 1Co 12:13, 1Co 12:27. Paul here conceives baptism, not as a mere symbolical transaction, but as an act in which believers are put into mystical union with the crucified and risen Lord. Comp. Rom 6:3-11.

Vincent: Gal 3:27 - put on Christ (You) put on Christ ( Χριστὸν ἐνεδύσασθε ) The phrase only here and Rom 13:14. The figurative use of the verb occurs only ...

(You) put on Christ ( Χριστὸν ἐνεδύσασθε )

The phrase only here and Rom 13:14. The figurative use of the verb occurs only once in the Gospels, Luk 24:49, but often in Paul, 1Co 15:53; Eph 4:24; Col 3:10, Col 3:12, etc. Chrysostom ( Hom . xiii. on Ephesians) remarks, " We say of friends, one puts on the other, meaning thereby much love and unceasing fellowship." In lxx quite often in the figurative sense, as Jdg 6:34; 1Ch 12:18; 2Ch 6:41; Job 8:22; Job 29:14; Psa 108:1-13 :18. Similarly in class., Plato, Rep . 620, of Thersites putting on the form of a monkey: Xen. Cyr . ii. 1, 13, of insinuating one's self into the minds of hearers. So the Lat. induere : Cicero, De Off . iii. 10, 43, to assume the part of a judge: Tac. Ann . xvi. 28, to take on the part of a traitor or enemy. To put on Christ implies making his character, feelings and works our own. Thus Chrysostom: " If Christ is Son of God, and thou hast put him on, having the Son in thyself and being made like unto him, thou hast been brought into one family and one nature." And again: " He who is clothed appears to be that with which he is clothed."

Vincent: Gal 3:28 - There is With this putting on of Christ, the distinctions of your ordinary social relations - of nation, condition, sex - vanish. Comp. Rom 10:12; 1Co 12:13; ...

With this putting on of Christ, the distinctions of your ordinary social relations - of nation, condition, sex - vanish. Comp. Rom 10:12; 1Co 12:13; Col 3:11.

There is ( ἔνι )

Only in Paul (1Co 6:5; Col 3:11) and Jam 1:17. Ἔνι is the abbreviation of ἔνεστι there is in or among .

Vincent: Gal 3:28 - Male or female Male or female ( ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ) Comp. Mat 19:4. He said " Jew nor Greek" ; " bond nor free." Here he says " male and ...

Male or female ( ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ )

Comp. Mat 19:4. He said " Jew nor Greek" ; " bond nor free." Here he says " male and (καὶ ) female" ; perhaps because political and social distinctions are alterable, while the distinction of sex is unalterable, though absorbed in the new relation to Christ. Yet see Col 3:11, where we find, " not Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision."

Vincent: Gal 3:28 - Ye are all one Ye are all one One moral personality. The individual differences are merged in the higher unity into which all are raised by their common life in...

Ye are all one

One moral personality. The individual differences are merged in the higher unity into which all are raised by their common life in Christ. This is the one new man , Eph 2:15.

Vincent: Gal 3:29 - Abraham's seed Abraham's seed As being one with Christ. See Gal 3:7, Gal 3:16. In Romans 4 Paul shows that Abraham was justified by faith, and was thus constitu...

Abraham's seed

As being one with Christ. See Gal 3:7, Gal 3:16. In Romans 4 Paul shows that Abraham was justified by faith, and was thus constituted the spiritual father of all believers in Christ, whether circumcised or uncircumcised. The purpose of God in making the inheritance of the promise dependent on faith was that the promise might be sure to all the seed. Abraham, he says, is " the father of us all " (Rom 4:16). This spiritual paternity does away with the current Jewish notion of physical paternity. Physical relationship with Abraham is of no significance in the economy of salvation. The apostle " discovers the basis of Christian universalism in the very life of him in whose person theocratic particularism was founded. He has demonstrated the existence of a time when he represented Gentilism, or, to speak more properly, mankind in general; and it was during this period, when he was not yet a Jew, but simply a man, that he received salvation" (Godet).

Wesley: Gal 3:1 - O thoughtless Galatians He breaks in upon them with a beautiful abruptness.

He breaks in upon them with a beautiful abruptness.

Wesley: Gal 3:1 - Who hath bewitched you Thus to contradict both your own reason and experience.

Thus to contradict both your own reason and experience.

Wesley: Gal 3:1 - Before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been as evidently set forth By our preaching, as if he had been crucified among you.

By our preaching, as if he had been crucified among you.

Wesley: Gal 3:2 - This only would I learn of you That is, this one argument might convince you. Did ye receive the witness and the fruit of the Spirit by performing the works of the law, or by hearin...

That is, this one argument might convince you. Did ye receive the witness and the fruit of the Spirit by performing the works of the law, or by hearing of and receiving faith?

Wesley: Gal 3:3 - Are ye so thoughtless As not to consider what you have yourselves experienced? Having begun in the Spirit - Having set out under the light and power of the Spirit by faith,...

As not to consider what you have yourselves experienced? Having begun in the Spirit - Having set out under the light and power of the Spirit by faith, do ye now, when ye ought to be more spiritual, and more acquainted with the power of faith, expect to be made perfect by the flesh? Do you think to complete either your justification or sanctification, by giving up that faith, and depending on the law, which is a gross and carnal thing when opposed to the gospel?

Wesley: Gal 3:4 - Have ye suffered Both from the zealous Jews and from the heathens.

Both from the zealous Jews and from the heathens.

Wesley: Gal 3:4 - So many things For adhering to the gospel.

For adhering to the gospel.

Wesley: Gal 3:4 - In vain So as to lose all the blessings which ye might have obtained, by enduring to the end.

So as to lose all the blessings which ye might have obtained, by enduring to the end.

Wesley: Gal 3:4 - If it be yet in vain As if he had said, I hope better things, even that ye will endure to the end.

As if he had said, I hope better things, even that ye will endure to the end.

Wesley: Gal 3:5 - And, at the present time, Doth he that ministereth the gift of the Spirit to you, and worketh miracles among you, do it by the works of the law That is, in confirmation of his preaching justification by works, or of his preaching justification by faith?

That is, in confirmation of his preaching justification by works, or of his preaching justification by faith?

Wesley: Gal 3:6 - -- Doubtless in confirmation of that grand doctrine, that we are justified by faith, even as Abraham was. The Apostle, both in this and in the epistle to...

Doubtless in confirmation of that grand doctrine, that we are justified by faith, even as Abraham was. The Apostle, both in this and in the epistle to the Romans, makes great use of the instance of Abraham: the rather, because from Abraham the Jews drew their great argument, as they do this day, both for their own continuance in Judaism, and for denying the gentiles to be the church of God. Gen 15:6

Wesley: Gal 3:7 - -- Know then that they who are partakers of his faith, these, and these only, are the sons of Abraham, and therefore heirs of the promises made to him.

Know then that they who are partakers of his faith, these, and these only, are the sons of Abraham, and therefore heirs of the promises made to him.

Wesley: Gal 3:8 - And the scripture That is, the Holy Spirit, who gave the scripture. Foreseeing that God would justify the gentiles also by faith, declared before - So great is the exce...

That is, the Holy Spirit, who gave the scripture. Foreseeing that God would justify the gentiles also by faith, declared before - So great is the excellency and fulness of the scripture, that all the things which can ever be controverted are therein both foreseen and determined.

Wesley: Gal 3:8 - In or through thee As the father of the Messiah, shall all the nations be blessed. Gen 12:3

As the father of the Messiah, shall all the nations be blessed. Gen 12:3

Wesley: Gal 3:9 - So then all they, and they only, who are of faith Who truly believe.

Who truly believe.

Wesley: Gal 3:9 - Are blessed with faithful Abraham Receive the blessing as he did, namely, by faith.

Receive the blessing as he did, namely, by faith.

Wesley: Gal 3:10 - -- They only receive it.

They only receive it.

Wesley: Gal 3:10 - For as many as are of the works of the law As God deals with on that footing, only on the terms the law proposes, are under a curse; for it is written, Cursed is every one who continueth not in...

As God deals with on that footing, only on the terms the law proposes, are under a curse; for it is written, Cursed is every one who continueth not in all the things which are written in the law.

Wesley: Gal 3:10 - Who continueth not in all the things So it requires what no man can perform, namely, perfect, uninterrupted, and perpetual obedience. Deu 27:26

So it requires what no man can perform, namely, perfect, uninterrupted, and perpetual obedience. Deu 27:26

Wesley: Gal 3:11 - But that none is justified by his obedience to the law in the sight of God Whatever may be done in the sight of man, is farther evident from the words of Habakkuk, The just shall live by faith - That is, the man who is accoun...

Whatever may be done in the sight of man, is farther evident from the words of Habakkuk, The just shall live by faith - That is, the man who is accounted just or righteous before God, shall continue in a state of acceptance, life, and salvation, by faith. This is the way God hath chosen. Hab 2:4.

Wesley: Gal 3:12 - And the law is not of faith But quite opposite to it: it does not say, Believe; but, Do. Lev 18:5

But quite opposite to it: it does not say, Believe; but, Do. Lev 18:5

Wesley: Gal 3:13 - Christ Christ alone. The abruptness of the sentence shows an holy indignation at those who reject so great a blessing.

Christ alone. The abruptness of the sentence shows an holy indignation at those who reject so great a blessing.

Wesley: Gal 3:13 - Hath redeemed us Whether Jews or gentiles, at an high price.

Whether Jews or gentiles, at an high price.

Wesley: Gal 3:13 - From the curse of the law The curse of God, which the law denounces against all transgressors of it.

The curse of God, which the law denounces against all transgressors of it.

Wesley: Gal 3:13 - Being made a curse for us Taking the curse upon himself, that we might be delivered from it, willingly submitting to that death which the law pronounces peculiarly accursed. De...

Taking the curse upon himself, that we might be delivered from it, willingly submitting to that death which the law pronounces peculiarly accursed. Deu 21:23.

Wesley: Gal 3:14 - That the blessing of Abraham The blessing promised to him.

The blessing promised to him.

Wesley: Gal 3:14 - Might come on the gentiles Also.

Also.

Wesley: Gal 3:14 - That we Who believe, whether Jews or gentiles.

Who believe, whether Jews or gentiles.

Wesley: Gal 3:14 - Might receive the promise of the Spirit Which includes all the other promises.

Which includes all the other promises.

Wesley: Gal 3:14 - Through faith Not by works; for faith looks wholly to the promise.

Not by works; for faith looks wholly to the promise.

Wesley: Gal 3:15 - I speak after the manner of men I illustrate this by a familiar instance, taken from the practice of men. Though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be once legally confirmed, non...

I illustrate this by a familiar instance, taken from the practice of men. Though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be once legally confirmed, none - No, not the covenanter himself, unless something unforeseen occur, which cannot be the case with God. Disannulleth, or addeth thereto - Any new conditions.

Wesley: Gal 3:16 - Now the promises were made to Abraham and his seed Several promises were made to Abraham; but the chief of all, and which was several times repeated, was that of the blessing through Christ.

Several promises were made to Abraham; but the chief of all, and which was several times repeated, was that of the blessing through Christ.

Wesley: Gal 3:16 - He That is, God. Saith not, And to seeds, as of many - As if the promise were made to several kinds of seed.

That is, God. Saith not, And to seeds, as of many - As if the promise were made to several kinds of seed.

Wesley: Gal 3:16 - But as of one That is, one kind of seed, one posterity, one kind of sons. And to all these the blessing belonged by promise.

That is, one kind of seed, one posterity, one kind of sons. And to all these the blessing belonged by promise.

Wesley: Gal 3:16 - Which is Christ including all that believe in him. Gen 22:18.

including all that believe in him. Gen 22:18.

Wesley: Gal 3:17 - And this I say What I mean is this.

What I mean is this.

Wesley: Gal 3:17 - The covenant which was before confirmed of God By the promise itself, by the repetition of it, and by a solemn oath, concerning the blessing all nations. Through Christ, the law which was four hund...

By the promise itself, by the repetition of it, and by a solemn oath, concerning the blessing all nations. Through Christ, the law which was four hundred and thirty years after - Counting from the time when the promise was first made to Abraham, Gen 12:2-3. Doth not disannul, so as to make the promise of no effect - With regard to all nations, if only the Jewish were to receive it; yea, with regard to them also, if it was by works, so as to supersede it, and introduce another way of obtaining the blessing.

Wesley: Gal 3:18 - And again This is a new argument. The former was drawn from the time, this from the nature, of the transaction. If the eternal inheritance be obtained by keepin...

This is a new argument. The former was drawn from the time, this from the nature, of the transaction. If the eternal inheritance be obtained by keeping the law, it is no more by virtue of the free promise - These being just opposite to each other. But it is by promise. Therefore it is not by the law.

Wesley: Gal 3:19 - It The ceremonial law.

The ceremonial law.

Wesley: Gal 3:19 - Was added To the promise.

To the promise.

Wesley: Gal 3:19 - Because of transgressions Probably, the yoke of the ceremonial law was inflicted as a punishment for the national sin of idolatry, Exo 32:1, at least the more grievous parts of...

Probably, the yoke of the ceremonial law was inflicted as a punishment for the national sin of idolatry, Exo 32:1, at least the more grievous parts of it; and the whole of it was a prophetic type of Christ. The moral law was added to the promise to discover and restrain transgressions, to convince men of their guilt, and need of the promise, and give some check to sin. And this law passeth not away; but the ceremonial law was only introduced till Christ, the seed to or through whom the promise was made, should come.

Wesley: Gal 3:19 - And it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator It was not given to Israel, like the promise to Abraham, immediately from God himself; but was conveyed by the ministry of angels to Moses, and delive...

It was not given to Israel, like the promise to Abraham, immediately from God himself; but was conveyed by the ministry of angels to Moses, and delivered into his hand as a mediator between God and them, to remind them of the great Mediator.

Wesley: Gal 3:20 - Now the mediator is not a mediator of one There must be two parties, or there can be no mediator between them; but God who made the free promise to Abraham is only one of the parties. The othe...

There must be two parties, or there can be no mediator between them; but God who made the free promise to Abraham is only one of the parties. The other, Abraham, was not present at the time of Moses. Therefore in the promise Moses had nothing to do. The law, wherein he was concerned, was a transaction of quite another nature.

Wesley: Gal 3:21 - -- Will it follow from hence that the law is against, opposite to, the promises of God? By no means. They are well consistent. But yet the law cannot giv...

Will it follow from hence that the law is against, opposite to, the promises of God? By no means. They are well consistent. But yet the law cannot give life, as the promise doth.

Wesley: Gal 3:21 - If there had been a law which could have given life Which could have entitled a sinner to life, God would have spared his own Son, and righteousness, or justification. with all the blessings consequent ...

Which could have entitled a sinner to life, God would have spared his own Son, and righteousness, or justification. with all the blessings consequent upon it, would have been by that law.

Wesley: Gal 3:22 - But, on the contrary, the scripture wherein that law is written hath concluded all under sin Hath shut them up together, (so the word properly signifies,) as in a prison, under sentence of death, to the end that all being cut off from expectin...

Hath shut them up together, (so the word properly signifies,) as in a prison, under sentence of death, to the end that all being cut off from expecting justification by the law, the promise might be freely given to them that believe.

Wesley: Gal 3:23 - But before faith That is, the gospel dispensation. Came, we were kept - As in close custody.

That is, the gospel dispensation. Came, we were kept - As in close custody.

Wesley: Gal 3:23 - Under the law The Mosaic dispensation.

The Mosaic dispensation.

Wesley: Gal 3:23 - Shut up unto the faith which was to be revealed Reserved and prepared for the gospel dispensation.

Reserved and prepared for the gospel dispensation.

Wesley: Gal 3:24 - Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster unto Christ It was designed to train us up for Christ. And this it did both by its commands, which showed the need we had of his atonement; and its ceremonies, wh...

It was designed to train us up for Christ. And this it did both by its commands, which showed the need we had of his atonement; and its ceremonies, which all pointed us to him.

Wesley: Gal 3:25 - But faith That is, the gospel dispensation. Being come, we are no longer under that schoolmaster - The Mosaic dispensation.

That is, the gospel dispensation. Being come, we are no longer under that schoolmaster - The Mosaic dispensation.

Wesley: Gal 3:26 - For ye Christians.

Christians.

Wesley: Gal 3:26 - Are all adult sons of God And so need a schoolmaster no longer.

And so need a schoolmaster no longer.

Wesley: Gal 3:27 - For as many of you as have testified your faith by being baptized in the name of Christ, have put on Christ Have received him as your righteousness, and are therefore sons of God through him.

Have received him as your righteousness, and are therefore sons of God through him.

Wesley: Gal 3:28 - There is neither Jew nor Greek That is, there is no difference between them; they are equally accepted through faith.

That is, there is no difference between them; they are equally accepted through faith.

Wesley: Gal 3:28 - There is neither male nor female Circumcision being laid aside, which was peculiar to males, and was designed to put a difference, during that dispensation, between Jews and gentiles.

Circumcision being laid aside, which was peculiar to males, and was designed to put a difference, during that dispensation, between Jews and gentiles.

Wesley: Gal 3:29 - If ye are Christ's That is, believers in him.

That is, believers in him.

JFB: Gal 3:1 - that ye should not obey the truth Omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

Omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

JFB: Gal 3:1 - bewitched Fascinated you so that you have lost your wits. THEMISTIUS says the Galatians were naturally very acute in intellect. Hence, Paul wonders they could b...

Fascinated you so that you have lost your wits. THEMISTIUS says the Galatians were naturally very acute in intellect. Hence, Paul wonders they could be so misled in this case.

JFB: Gal 3:1 - you Emphatical. "You, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been graphically set forth (literally, in writing, namely, by vivid portraiture in preaching) am...

Emphatical. "You, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been graphically set forth (literally, in writing, namely, by vivid portraiture in preaching) among you, crucified" (so the sense and Greek order require rather than English Version). As Christ was "crucified," so ye ought to have been by faith "crucified with Christ," and so "dead to the law" (Gal 2:19-20). Reference to the "eyes" is appropriate, as fascination was supposed to be exercised through the eyes. The sight of Christ crucified ought to have been enough to counteract all fascination.

JFB: Gal 3:2 - -- "Was it by the works of the law that ye received the Spirit (manifested by outward miracles, Gal 3:5; Mar 16:17; Heb 2:4; and by spiritual graces, Gal...

"Was it by the works of the law that ye received the Spirit (manifested by outward miracles, Gal 3:5; Mar 16:17; Heb 2:4; and by spiritual graces, Gal 3:14; Gal 4:5-6; Eph 1:13), or by the hearing of faith?" The "only" implies, "I desire, omitting other arguments, to rest the question on this alone"; I who was your teacher, desire now to "learn" this one thing from you. The epithet "Holy" is not prefixed to "Spirit" because that epithet is a joyous one, whereas this Epistle is stern and reproving [BENGEL].

JFB: Gal 3:2 - hearing of faith Faith consists not in working, but in receiving (Rom 10:16-17).

Faith consists not in working, but in receiving (Rom 10:16-17).

JFB: Gal 3:3 - begun The Christian life (Phi 1:6).

The Christian life (Phi 1:6).

JFB: Gal 3:3 - in the Spirit Not merely was Christ crucified "graphically set forth" in my preaching, but also "the Spirit" confirmed the word preached, by imparting His spiritual...

Not merely was Christ crucified "graphically set forth" in my preaching, but also "the Spirit" confirmed the word preached, by imparting His spiritual gifts. "Having thus begun" with the receiving His spiritual gifts, "are ye now being made perfect" (so the Greek), that is, are ye seeking to be made perfect with "fleshly" ordinances of the law? [ESTIUS]. Compare Rom 2:28; Phi 3:3; Heb 9:10. Having begun in the Spirit, that is, the Holy Spirit ruling your spiritual life as its "essence and active principle" [ELLICOTT], in contrast to "the flesh," the element in which the law works [ALFORD]. Having begun your Christianity in the Spirit, that is, in the divine life that proceeds from faith, are ye seeking after something higher still (the perfecting of your Christianity) in the sensuous and the earthly, which cannot possibly elevate the inner life of the Spirit, namely, outward ceremonies? [NEANDER]. No doubt the Galatians thought that they were going more deeply into the Spirit; for the flesh may be easily mistaken for the Spirit, even by those who have made progress, unless they continue to maintain a pure faith [BENGEL].

JFB: Gal 3:4 - Have ye suffered so many things Namely, persecution from Jews and from unbelieving fellow countrymen, incited by the Jews, at the time of your conversion.

Namely, persecution from Jews and from unbelieving fellow countrymen, incited by the Jews, at the time of your conversion.

JFB: Gal 3:4 - in vain Fruitlessly, needlessly, since ye might have avoided them by professing Judaism [GROTIUS]. Or, shall ye, by falling from grace, lose the reward promis...

Fruitlessly, needlessly, since ye might have avoided them by professing Judaism [GROTIUS]. Or, shall ye, by falling from grace, lose the reward promised for all your sufferings, so that they shall be "in vain" (Gal 4:11; 1Co 15:2, 1Co 15:17-19, 1Co 15:29-32; 2Th 1:5-7; 2Jo 1:8)?

JFB: Gal 3:4 - yet Rather, "If it be really (or 'indeed') in vain" [ELLICOTT]. "If, as it must be, what I have said, 'in vain,' is really the fact" [ALFORD]. I prefer un...

Rather, "If it be really (or 'indeed') in vain" [ELLICOTT]. "If, as it must be, what I have said, 'in vain,' is really the fact" [ALFORD]. I prefer understanding it as a mitigation of the preceding words. I hope better things of you, for I trust you will return from legalism to grace; if so, as I confidently expect, you will not have "suffered so many things in vain" [ESTIUS]. For "God has given you the Spirit and has wrought mighty works among you" (Gal 3:5; Heb 10:32-36) [BENGEL].

JFB: Gal 3:5 - He . . . that ministereth Or "supplieth," God (2Co 9:10). He who supplied and supplies to you the Spirit still, to the present time. These miracles do not prove grace to be in ...

Or "supplieth," God (2Co 9:10). He who supplied and supplies to you the Spirit still, to the present time. These miracles do not prove grace to be in the heart (Mar 9:38-39). He speaks of these miracles as a matter of unquestioned notoriety among those addressed; an undesigned proof of their genuineness (compare 1Co. 12:1-31).

JFB: Gal 3:5 - worketh miracles among you Rather, "IN you," as Gal 2:8; Mat 14:2; Eph 2:2; Phi 2:13; at your conversion and since [ALFORD].

Rather, "IN you," as Gal 2:8; Mat 14:2; Eph 2:2; Phi 2:13; at your conversion and since [ALFORD].

JFB: Gal 3:5 - doeth he it by the works of the law That is, as a consequence resulting from (so the Greek) the works of the law (compare Gal 3:2). This cannot be because the law was then unknown to you...

That is, as a consequence resulting from (so the Greek) the works of the law (compare Gal 3:2). This cannot be because the law was then unknown to you when you received those gifts of the Spirit.

JFB: Gal 3:6 - -- The answer to the question in Gal 3:5 is here taken for granted, It was by the hearing of faith: following this up, he says, "Even as Abraham believed...

The answer to the question in Gal 3:5 is here taken for granted, It was by the hearing of faith: following this up, he says, "Even as Abraham believed," &c. (Gen 15:4-6; Rom 4:3). God supplies unto you the Spirit as the result of faith, not works, just as Abraham obtained justification by faith, not by works (Gal 3:6, Gal 3:8, Gal 3:16; Gal 4:22, Gal 4:26, Gal 4:28). Where justification is, there the Spirit is, so that if the former comes by faith, the latter must also.

JFB: Gal 3:7 - they which are of faith As the source and starting-point of their spiritual life. The same phrase is in the Greek of Rom 3:26.

As the source and starting-point of their spiritual life. The same phrase is in the Greek of Rom 3:26.

JFB: Gal 3:7 - the same These, and these alone, to the exclusion of all the other descendants of Abraham.

These, and these alone, to the exclusion of all the other descendants of Abraham.

JFB: Gal 3:7 - children Greek, "sons" (Gal 3:29).

Greek, "sons" (Gal 3:29).

JFB: Gal 3:8 - And Greek, "Moreover."

Greek, "Moreover."

JFB: Gal 3:8 - foreseeing One great excellency of Scripture is, that in it all points liable ever to be controverted, are, with prescient wisdom, decided in the most appropriat...

One great excellency of Scripture is, that in it all points liable ever to be controverted, are, with prescient wisdom, decided in the most appropriate language.

JFB: Gal 3:8 - would justify Rather, "justifieth." Present indicative. It is now, and at all times, God's one way of justification.

Rather, "justifieth." Present indicative. It is now, and at all times, God's one way of justification.

JFB: Gal 3:8 - the heathen Rather, "the Gentiles"; or "the nations," as the same Greek is translated at the end of the verse. God justifieth the Jews, too, "by faith, not by wor...

Rather, "the Gentiles"; or "the nations," as the same Greek is translated at the end of the verse. God justifieth the Jews, too, "by faith, not by works." But he specifies the Gentiles in particular here, as it was their case that was in question, the Galatians being Gentiles.

JFB: Gal 3:8 - preached before the gospel "announced beforehand the Gospel." For the "promise" was substantially the Gospel by anticipation. Compare Joh 8:56; Heb 4:2. A proof that "the old fa...

"announced beforehand the Gospel." For the "promise" was substantially the Gospel by anticipation. Compare Joh 8:56; Heb 4:2. A proof that "the old fathers did not look only for transitory promises" [Article VII, Church of England]. Thus the Gospel, in its essential germ, is older than the law though the full development of the former is subsequent to the latter.

JFB: Gal 3:8 - In thee Not "in thy seed," which is a point not here raised; but strictly "in thee," as followers of thy faith, it having first shown the way to justification...

Not "in thy seed," which is a point not here raised; but strictly "in thee," as followers of thy faith, it having first shown the way to justification before God [ALFORD]; or "in thee," as Father of the promised seed, namely, Christ (Gal 3:16), who is the Object of faith (Gen 22:18; Psa 72:17), and imitating thy faith (see on Gal 3:9).

JFB: Gal 3:8 - all nations Or as above, "all the Gentiles" (Gen 12:3; Gen 18:18; Gen 22:18).

Or as above, "all the Gentiles" (Gen 12:3; Gen 18:18; Gen 22:18).

JFB: Gal 3:8 - be blessed An act of grace, not something earned by works. The blessing of justification was to Abraham by faith in the promise, not by works. So to those who fo...

An act of grace, not something earned by works. The blessing of justification was to Abraham by faith in the promise, not by works. So to those who follow Abraham, the father of the faithful, the blessing, that is, justification, comes purely by faith in Him who is the subject of the promise.

JFB: Gal 3:9 - they And they alone.

And they alone.

JFB: Gal 3:9 - of faith (See on Gal 3:7, beginning).

(See on Gal 3:7, beginning).

JFB: Gal 3:9 - with Together with.

Together with.

JFB: Gal 3:9 - faithful Implying what it is in which they are "blessed together with him," namely, faith, the prominent feature of his character, and of which the result to a...

Implying what it is in which they are "blessed together with him," namely, faith, the prominent feature of his character, and of which the result to all who like him have it, is justification.

JFB: Gal 3:10 - -- Confirmation of Gal 3:9. They who depend on the works of the law cannot share the blessing, for they are under the curse "written," Deu 27:26, Septuag...

Confirmation of Gal 3:9. They who depend on the works of the law cannot share the blessing, for they are under the curse "written," Deu 27:26, Septuagint. PERFECT obedience is required by the words, "in all things." CONTINUAL obedience by the word, "continueth." No man renders this obedience (compare Rom 3:19-20). It is observable, Paul quotes Scripture to the Jews who were conversant with it, as in Epistle to the Hebrews, as said or spoken; but to the Gentiles, as written. So Matthew, writing for Jews, quotes it as "said," or "spoken"; Mark and Luke, writing for Gentiles, as "written" (Mat 1:22; Mar 1:2; Luk 2:22-23) [TOWNSON].

JFB: Gal 3:11 - by the law Greek, "IN the law." Both in and by are included. The syllogism in this verse and Gal 3:12, is, according to Scripture, "The just shall live by faith....

Greek, "IN the law." Both in and by are included. The syllogism in this verse and Gal 3:12, is, according to Scripture, "The just shall live by faith." But the law is not of faith, but of doing, or works (that is, does not make faith, but works, the conditional ground of justifying). Therefore "in," or "by the law, no man is justified before God" (whatever the case may be before men, Rom 4:2) --not even if he could, which he cannot, keep the law, because the Scripture element and conditional mean of justification is faith.

JFB: Gal 3:11 - The just shall live by faith (Rom 1:17; Hab 2:4). Not as BENGEL and ALFORD, "He who is just by faith shall live." The Greek supports English Version. Also the contrast is between...

(Rom 1:17; Hab 2:4). Not as BENGEL and ALFORD, "He who is just by faith shall live." The Greek supports English Version. Also the contrast is between "live by faith" (namely, as the ground and source of his justification), and "live in them," namely, in his doings or works (Gal 3:12), as the conditional element wherein he is justified.

JFB: Gal 3:12 - doeth Many depended on the law although they did not keep it; but without doing, saith Paul, it is of no use to them (Rom 2:13, Rom 2:17, Rom 2:23; Rom 10:5...

Many depended on the law although they did not keep it; but without doing, saith Paul, it is of no use to them (Rom 2:13, Rom 2:17, Rom 2:23; Rom 10:5).

JFB: Gal 3:13 - -- Abrupt exclamation, as he breaks away impatiently from those who would involve us again in the curse of the law, by seeking justification in it, to "C...

Abrupt exclamation, as he breaks away impatiently from those who would involve us again in the curse of the law, by seeking justification in it, to "Christ," who "has redeemed us from its curse." The "us" refers primarily to the Jews, to whom the law principally appertained, in contrast to "the Gentiles" (Gal 3:14; compare Gal 4:3-4). But it is not restricted solely to the Jews, as ALFORD thinks; for these are the representative people of the world at large, and their "law" is the embodiment of what God requires of the whole world. The curse of its non-fulfilment affects the Gentiles through the Jews; for the law represents that righteousness which God requires of all, and which, since the Jews failed to fulfil, the Gentiles are equally unable to fulfil. Gal 3:10, "As many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse," refers plainly, not to the Jews only, but to all, even Gentiles (as the Galatians), who seek justification by the law. The Jews' law represents the universal law which condemned the Gentiles, though with less clear consciousness on their part (Rom. 2:1-29). The revelation of God's "wrath" by the law of conscience, in some degree prepared the Gentiles for appreciating redemption through Christ when revealed. The curse had to be removed from off the heathen, too, as well as the Jews, in order that the blessing, through Abraham, might flow to them. Accordingly, the "we," in "that we might receive the promise of the Spirit," plainly refers to both Jews and Gentiles.

JFB: Gal 3:13 - redeemed us Bought us off from our former bondage (Gal 4:5), and "from the curse" under which all lie who trust to the law and the works of the law for justificat...

Bought us off from our former bondage (Gal 4:5), and "from the curse" under which all lie who trust to the law and the works of the law for justification. The Gentile Galatians, by putting themselves under the law, were involving themselves in the curse from which Christ has redeemed the Jews primarily, and through them the Gentiles. The ransom price He paid was His own precious blood (1Pe 1:18-19; compare Mat 20:28; Act 20:28; 1Co 6:20; 1Co 7:23; 1Ti 2:6; 2Pe 2:1; Rev 5:9).

JFB: Gal 3:13 - being made Greek, "having become."

Greek, "having become."

JFB: Gal 3:13 - a curse for us Having become what we were, in our behalf, "a curse," that we might cease to be a curse. Not merely accursed (in the concrete), but a curse in the abs...

Having become what we were, in our behalf, "a curse," that we might cease to be a curse. Not merely accursed (in the concrete), but a curse in the abstract, bearing the universal curse of the whole human race. So 2Co 5:21, "Sin for us," not sinful, but bearing the whole sin of our race, regarded as one vast aggregate of sin. See Note there. "Anathema" means "set apart to God," to His glory, but to the person's own destruction. "Curse," an execration.

JFB: Gal 3:13 - written (Deu 21:23). Christ's bearing the particular curse of hanging on the tree, is a sample of the "general" curse which He representatively bore. Not tha...

(Deu 21:23). Christ's bearing the particular curse of hanging on the tree, is a sample of the "general" curse which He representatively bore. Not that the Jews put to death malefactors by hanging; but after having put them to death otherwise, in order to brand them with peculiar ignominy, they hung the bodies on a tree, and such malefactors were accursed by the law (compare Act 5:30; Act 10:39). God's providence ordered it so that to fulfil the prophecy of the curse and other prophecies, Jesus should be crucified, and so hang on the tree, though that death was not a Jewish mode of execution. The Jews accordingly, in contempt, call Him Tolvi, "the hanged one," and Christians, "worshippers of the hanged one"; and make it their great objection that He died the accursed death [TRYPHO, in Justin Martyr, p. 249] (1Pe 2:24). Hung between heaven and earth as though unworthy of either!

JFB: Gal 3:14 - -- The intent of "Christ becoming a curse for us"; "To the end that upon the Gentiles the blessing of Abraham (that is, promised to Abraham, namely, just...

The intent of "Christ becoming a curse for us"; "To the end that upon the Gentiles the blessing of Abraham (that is, promised to Abraham, namely, justification by faith) might come in Christ Jesus" (compare Gal 3:8).

JFB: Gal 3:14 - that we might receive the promise of the Spirit The promised Spirit (Joe 2:28-29; Luk 24:49). This clause follows not the clause immediately preceding (for our receiving the Spirit is not the result...

The promised Spirit (Joe 2:28-29; Luk 24:49). This clause follows not the clause immediately preceding (for our receiving the Spirit is not the result of the blessing of Abraham coming on the Gentiles), but "Christ hath redeemed us," &c.

JFB: Gal 3:14 - through faith Not by works. Here he resumes the thought in Gal 3:2. "The Spirit from without, kindles within us some spark of faith Whereby we lay hold of Christ, a...

Not by works. Here he resumes the thought in Gal 3:2. "The Spirit from without, kindles within us some spark of faith Whereby we lay hold of Christ, and even of the Spirit Himself, that He may dwell within us" [FLACIUS].

JFB: Gal 3:15 - I speak after the manner of men I take an illustration from a merely human transaction of everyday occurrence.

I take an illustration from a merely human transaction of everyday occurrence.

JFB: Gal 3:15 - but a man's covenant Whose purpose it is far less important to maintain.

Whose purpose it is far less important to maintain.

JFB: Gal 3:15 - if it be confirmed When once it hath been ratified.

When once it hath been ratified.

JFB: Gal 3:15 - no man disannulleth "none setteth aside," not even the author himself, much less any second party. None does so who acts in common equity. Much less would the righteous G...

"none setteth aside," not even the author himself, much less any second party. None does so who acts in common equity. Much less would the righteous God do so. The law is here, by personification, regarded as a second person, distinct from, and subsequent to, the promise of God. The promise is everlasting, and more peculiarly belongs to God. The law is regarded as something extraneous, afterwards introduced, exceptional and temporary (Gal 3:17-19, Gal 3:21-24).

JFB: Gal 3:15 - addeth None addeth new conditions "making" the covenant "of none effect" (Gal 3:17). So legal Judaism could make no alteration in the fundamental relation be...

None addeth new conditions "making" the covenant "of none effect" (Gal 3:17). So legal Judaism could make no alteration in the fundamental relation between God and man, already established by the promises to Abraham; it could not add as a new condition the observance of the law, in which case the fulfilment of the promise would be attached to a condition impossible for man to perform. The "covenant" here is one of free grace, a promise afterwards carried into effect in the Gospel.

JFB: Gal 3:16 - -- This verse is parenthetical. The covenant of promise was not "spoken" (so Greek for "made") to Abraham alone, but "to Abraham and his seed"; to the la...

This verse is parenthetical. The covenant of promise was not "spoken" (so Greek for "made") to Abraham alone, but "to Abraham and his seed"; to the latter especially; and this means Christ (and that which is inseparable from Him, the literal Israel, and the spiritual, His body, the Church). Christ not having come when the law was given, the covenant could not have been then fulfilled, but awaited the coming of Him, the Seed, to whom it was spoken.

JFB: Gal 3:16 - promises Plural, because the same promise was often repeated (Gen 12:3, Gen 12:7; Gen 15:5, Gen 15:18; Gen 17:7; Gen 22:18), and because it involved many thing...

Plural, because the same promise was often repeated (Gen 12:3, Gen 12:7; Gen 15:5, Gen 15:18; Gen 17:7; Gen 22:18), and because it involved many things; earthly blessings to the literal children of Abraham in Canaan, and spiritual and heavenly blessings to his spiritual children; but both promised to Christ, "the Seed" and representative Head of the literal and spiritual Israel alike. In the spiritual seed there is no distinction of Jew or Greek; but to the literal seed, the promises still in part remain to be fulfilled (Rom 11:26). The covenant was not made with "many" seeds (which if there had been, a pretext might exist for supposing there was one seed before the law, another under the law; and that those sprung from one seed, say the Jewish, are admitted on different terms, and with a higher degree of acceptability, than those sprung from the Gentile seed), but with the one seed; therefore, the promise that in Him "all the families of the earth shall be blessed" (Gen 12:3), joins in this one Seed, Christ, Jew and Gentile, as fellow heirs on the same terms of acceptability, namely, by grace through faith (Rom 4:13); not to some by promise, to others by the law, but to all alike, circumcised and uncircumcised, constituting but one seed in Christ (Rom 4:16). The law, on the other hand, contemplates the Jews and Gentiles as distinct seeds. God makes a covenant, but it is one of promise; whereas the law is a covenant of works. Whereas the law brings in a mediator, a third party (Gal 3:19-20), God makes His covenant of promise with the one seed, Christ (Gen 17:7), and embraces others only as they are identified with, and represented by, Christ.

JFB: Gal 3:16 - one . . . Christ Not in the exclusive sense, the man Christ Jesus, but "Christ" (Jesus is not added, which would limit the meaning), including His people who are part ...

Not in the exclusive sense, the man Christ Jesus, but "Christ" (Jesus is not added, which would limit the meaning), including His people who are part of Himself, the Second Adam, and Head of redeemed humanity. Gal 3:28-29 prove this, "Ye are all ONE in Christ Jesus" (Jesus is added here as the person is indicated). "And if ye be Christ's, ye are Abraham's SEED, heirs according to the promise."

JFB: Gal 3:17 - this I say "this is what I mean," by what I said in Gal 3:15.

"this is what I mean," by what I said in Gal 3:15.

JFB: Gal 3:17 - continued . . . of God "ratified by God" (Gal 3:15).

"ratified by God" (Gal 3:15).

JFB: Gal 3:17 - in Christ Rather, "unto Christ" (compare Gal 3:16). However, Vulgate and the old Italian versions translate as English Version. But the oldest manuscripts omit ...

Rather, "unto Christ" (compare Gal 3:16). However, Vulgate and the old Italian versions translate as English Version. But the oldest manuscripts omit the words altogether.

JFB: Gal 3:17 - the law which was Greek, "which came into existence four hundred thirty years after" (Exo 12:40-41). He does not, as in the case of "the covenant," add "enacted by God"...

Greek, "which came into existence four hundred thirty years after" (Exo 12:40-41). He does not, as in the case of "the covenant," add "enacted by God" (Joh 1:17). The dispensation of "the promise" began with the call of Abraham from Ur into Canaan, and ended on the last night of his grandson Jacob's sojourn in Canaan, the land of promise. The dispensation of the law, which engenders bondage, was beginning to draw on from the time of his entrance into Egypt, the land of bondage. It was to Christ in him, as in his grandfather Abraham, and his father Isaac, not to him or them as persons, the promise was spoken. On the day following the last repetition of the promise orally (Gen 46:1-6), at Beer-sheba, Israel passed into Egypt. It is from the end, not from the beginning of the dispensation of promise, that the interval of four hundred thirty years between it and the law is to be counted. At Beer-sheba, after the covenant with Abimelech, Abraham called on the everlasting God, and the well was confirmed to him and his seed as an everlasting possession. Here God appeared to Isaac. Here Jacob received the promise of the blessing, for which God had called Abraham out of Ur, repeated for the last time, on the last night of his sojourn in the land of promise.

JFB: Gal 3:17 - cannot Greek, "doth not disannul."

Greek, "doth not disannul."

JFB: Gal 3:17 - make . . . of none effect The promise would become so, if the power of conferring the inheritance be transferred from it to the law (Rom 4:14).

The promise would become so, if the power of conferring the inheritance be transferred from it to the law (Rom 4:14).

JFB: Gal 3:18 - the inheritance All the blessings to be inherited by Abraham's literal and spiritual children, according to the promise made to him and to his Seed, Christ, justifica...

All the blessings to be inherited by Abraham's literal and spiritual children, according to the promise made to him and to his Seed, Christ, justification and glorification (Gal 4:7; Rom 8:17; 1Co 6:9).

JFB: Gal 3:18 - but God, &c. The Greek order requires rather, "But to Abraham it was by promise that God hath given it." The conclusion is, Therefore the inheritance is not of, or...

The Greek order requires rather, "But to Abraham it was by promise that God hath given it." The conclusion is, Therefore the inheritance is not of, or from the law (Rom 4:14).

JFB: Gal 3:19 - -- "Wherefore then serveth the law?" as it is of no avail for justification, is it either useless, or contrary to the covenant of God? [CALVIN].

"Wherefore then serveth the law?" as it is of no avail for justification, is it either useless, or contrary to the covenant of God? [CALVIN].

JFB: Gal 3:19 - added To the original covenant of promise. This is not inconsistent with Gal 3:15, "No man addeth thereto"; for there the kind of addition meant, and theref...

To the original covenant of promise. This is not inconsistent with Gal 3:15, "No man addeth thereto"; for there the kind of addition meant, and therefore denied, is one that would add new conditions, inconsistent with the grace of the covenant of promise. The law, though misunderstood by the Judaizers as doing so, was really added for a different purpose, namely, "because of (or as the Greek, 'for the sake of') the transgressions," that is, to bring out into clearer view the transgressions of it (Rom 7:7-9); to make men more fully conscious of their "sins," by being perceived as transgressions of the law, and so to make them long for the promised Saviour. This accords with Gal 3:23-24; Rom 4:15. The meaning can hardly be "to check transgressions," for the law rather stimulates the corrupt heart to disobey it (Rom 5:20; Rom 7:13).

JFB: Gal 3:19 - till the seed During the period up to the time when the seed came. The law was a preparatory dispensation for the Jewish nation (Rom 5:20; Greek, "the law came in a...

During the period up to the time when the seed came. The law was a preparatory dispensation for the Jewish nation (Rom 5:20; Greek, "the law came in additionally and incidentally"), intervening between the promise and its fulfilment in Christ.

JFB: Gal 3:19 - come (Compare "faith came," Gal 3:23).

(Compare "faith came," Gal 3:23).

JFB: Gal 3:19 - the promise (Rom 4:21).

JFB: Gal 3:19 - ordained Greek, "constituted" or "disposed."

Greek, "constituted" or "disposed."

JFB: Gal 3:19 - by angels As the instrumental enactors of the law [ALFORD] God delegated the law to angels as something rather alien to Him and severe (Act 7:53; Heb 2:2-3; com...

As the instrumental enactors of the law [ALFORD] God delegated the law to angels as something rather alien to Him and severe (Act 7:53; Heb 2:2-3; compare Deu 33:2, "He came with ten thousands of saints," that is, angels, Psa 68:17). He reserved "the promise" to Himself and dispensed it according to His own goodness.

JFB: Gal 3:19 - in the hand of a mediator Namely, Moses. Deu 5:5, "I stood between the Lord and you": the very definition of a mediator. Hence the phrase often recurs, "By the hand of Moses." ...

Namely, Moses. Deu 5:5, "I stood between the Lord and you": the very definition of a mediator. Hence the phrase often recurs, "By the hand of Moses." In the giving of the law, the "angels" were representatives of God; Moses, as mediator, represented the people.

JFB: Gal 3:20 - "Now a mediator cannot be of one (but must be of two parties whom he mediates between); but God is one" (not two: owing to His essential unity not admitting of an intervening party between Him and those to be blessed; but as the ONE Sovereign, His own representative, giving the blessing directly by promise to Abraham, and, in its fulfilment, to Christ, "the Seed," without new condition, and without a mediator such as the law had). The conclusion understood is, Therefore a mediator cannot appertain to God; and consequently, the law, with its inseparable appendage of a mediator, cannot be the normal way of dealing of God, the one, and unchangeable God, who dealt with Abraham by direct promise, as a sovereign, not as one forming a compact with another party, with conditions and a mediator attached thereto. God would bring man into immediate communion with Him, and not have man separated from Him by a mediator that keeps back from access, as Moses and the legal priesthood did (Exo 19:12-13, Exo 19:17, Exo 19:21-24; Heb 12:19-24). The law that thus interposed a mediator and conditions between man and God, was an exceptional state limited to the Jews, and parenthetically preparatory to the Gospel, God's normal mode of dealing, as He dealt with Abraham, namely, face to face directly; by promise and grace, and not conditions; to all nations united by faith in the one seed (Eph 2:14, Eph 2:16, Eph 2:18), and not to one people to the exclusion and severance from the ONE common Father, of all other nations. It is no objection to this view, that the Gospel, too, has a mediator (1Ti 2:5). For Jesus is not a mediator separating the two parties in the covenant of promise or grace, as Moses did, but ONE in both nature and office with both God and man (compare "God in Christ," Gal 3:17): representing the whole universal manhood (1Co 15:22, 1Co 15:45, 1Co 15:47), and also bearing in Him "all the fulness of the Godhead." Even His mediatorial office is to cease when its purpose of reconciling all things to God shall have been accomplished (1Co 15:24); and God's ONENESS (Zec 14:9), as "all in all," shall be fully manifested. Compare Joh 1:17, where the two mediators Moses, the severing mediator of legal conditions, and Jesus, the uniting mediator of grace--are contrasted. The Jews began their worship by reciting t...

Moses, the severing mediator of legal conditions, and Jesus, the uniting mediator of grace--are contrasted. The Jews began their worship by reciting the Schemah, opening thus, "Jehovah our God is ONE Jehovah"; which words their Rabbis (as JARCHIUS) interpret as teaching not only the unity of God, but the future universality of His Kingdom on earth (Zep 3:9). Paul (Rom 3:30) infers the same truth from the ONENESS of God (compare Eph 4:4-6). He, as being One, unites all believers, without distinction, to Himself (Gal 3:8, Gal 3:16, Gal 3:28; Eph 1:10; Eph 2:14; compare Heb 2:11) in direct communion. The unity of God involves the unity of the people of God, and also His dealing directly without intervention of a mediator.

JFB: Gal 3:21 - -- "Is the law (which involves a mediator) against the promises of God (which are without a mediator, and rest on God alone and immediately)? God forbid....

"Is the law (which involves a mediator) against the promises of God (which are without a mediator, and rest on God alone and immediately)? God forbid."

JFB: Gal 3:21 - life The law, as an externally prescribed rule, can never internally impart spiritual life to men naturally dead in sin, and change the disposition. If the...

The law, as an externally prescribed rule, can never internally impart spiritual life to men naturally dead in sin, and change the disposition. If the law had been a law capable of giving life, "verily (in very reality, and not in the mere fancy of legalists) righteousness would have been by the law (for where life is, there righteousness, its condition, must also be)." But the law does not pretend to give life, and therefore not righteousness; so there is no opposition between the law and the promise. Righteousness can only come through the promise to Abraham, and through its fulfilment in the Gospel of grace.

JFB: Gal 3:22 - But As the law cannot give life or righteousness [ALFORD]. Or the "But" means, So far is righteousness from being of the law, that the knowledge of sin is...

As the law cannot give life or righteousness [ALFORD]. Or the "But" means, So far is righteousness from being of the law, that the knowledge of sin is rather what comes of the law [BENGEL].

JFB: Gal 3:22 - the scripture Which began to be written after the time of the promise, at the time when the law was given. The written letter was needed SO as PERMANENTLY to convic...

Which began to be written after the time of the promise, at the time when the law was given. The written letter was needed SO as PERMANENTLY to convict man of disobedience to God's command. Therefore he says, "the Scripture," not the "Law." Compare Gal 3:8, "Scripture," for "the God of the Scripture."

JFB: Gal 3:22 - concluded "shut up," under condemnation, as in a prison. Compare Isa 24:22, "As prisoners gathered in the pit and shut up in the prison." Beautifully contrasted...

"shut up," under condemnation, as in a prison. Compare Isa 24:22, "As prisoners gathered in the pit and shut up in the prison." Beautifully contrasted with "the liberty wherewith Christ makes free," which follows, Gal 3:7, Gal 3:9, Gal 3:25-26; Gal 5:1; Isa 61:1.

JFB: Gal 3:22 - all Greek neuter, "the universe of things": the whole world, man, and all that appertains to him.

Greek neuter, "the universe of things": the whole world, man, and all that appertains to him.

JFB: Gal 3:22 - under sin (Rom 3:9, Rom 3:19; Rom 11:32).

JFB: Gal 3:22 - the promise The inheritance promised (Gal 3:18).

The inheritance promised (Gal 3:18).

JFB: Gal 3:22 - by faith of Jesus Christ That is which is by faith in Jesus Christ.

That is which is by faith in Jesus Christ.

JFB: Gal 3:22 - might be given The emphasis is on "given": that it might be a free gift; not something earned by the works of the law (Rom 6:23).

The emphasis is on "given": that it might be a free gift; not something earned by the works of the law (Rom 6:23).

JFB: Gal 3:22 - to them that believe To them that have "the faith of (in) Jesus Christ" just spoken of.

To them that have "the faith of (in) Jesus Christ" just spoken of.

JFB: Gal 3:23 - faith Namely, that just mentioned (Gal 3:22), of which Christ is the object.

Namely, that just mentioned (Gal 3:22), of which Christ is the object.

JFB: Gal 3:23 - kept Greek, "kept in ward": the effect of the "shutting up" (Gal 3:22; Gal 4:2; Rom 7:6).

Greek, "kept in ward": the effect of the "shutting up" (Gal 3:22; Gal 4:2; Rom 7:6).

JFB: Gal 3:23 - unto "with a view to the faith," &c. We were, in a manner, morally forced to it, so that there remained to us no refuge but faith. Compare the phrase, Psa ...

"with a view to the faith," &c. We were, in a manner, morally forced to it, so that there remained to us no refuge but faith. Compare the phrase, Psa 78:50, Margin; Psa 31:8.

JFB: Gal 3:23 - which should afterwards, &c. "which was afterwards to be revealed."

"which was afterwards to be revealed."

JFB: Gal 3:24 - -- "So that the law hath been (that is, hath turned out to be) our schoolmaster (or "tutor," literally, "pedagogue": this term, among the Greeks, meant a...

"So that the law hath been (that is, hath turned out to be) our schoolmaster (or "tutor," literally, "pedagogue": this term, among the Greeks, meant a faithful servant entrusted with the care of the boy from childhood to puberty, to keep him from evil, physical and moral, and accompany him to his amusements and studies) to guide us unto Christ," with whom we are no longer "shut up" in bondage, but are freemen. "Children" (literally, infants) need such tutoring (Gal 4:3).

JFB: Gal 3:24 - might be Rather, "that we may be justified by faith"; which we could not be till Christ, the object of faith, had come. Meanwhile the law, by outwardly checkin...

Rather, "that we may be justified by faith"; which we could not be till Christ, the object of faith, had come. Meanwhile the law, by outwardly checking the sinful propensity which was constantly giving fresh proof of its refractoriness--as thus the consciousness of the power of the sinful principle became more vivid, and hence the sense of need both of forgiveness of sin and freedom from its bondage was awakened--the law became a "schoolmaster to guide us unto Christ" [NEANDER]. The moral law shows us what we ought to do, and so we learn our inability to do it. In the ceremonial law we seek, by animal sacrifices, to answer for our not having done it, but find dead victims no satisfaction for the sins of living men, and that outward purifying will not cleanse the soul; and that therefore we need an infinitely better Sacrifice, the antitype of all the legal sacrifices. Thus delivered up to the judicial law, we see how awful is the doom we deserve: thus the law at last leads us to Christ, with whom we find righteousness and peace. "Sin, sin! is the word heard again and again in the Old Testament. Had it not there for centuries rung in the ear, and fastened on the conscience, the joyful sound, "grace for grace," would not have been the watchword of the New Testament. This was the end of the whole system of sacrifices" [THOLUCK].

JFB: Gal 3:25 - -- "But now that faith is come," &c. Moses the lawgiver cannot bring us into the heavenly Canaan though he can bring us to the border of it. At that poin...

"But now that faith is come," &c. Moses the lawgiver cannot bring us into the heavenly Canaan though he can bring us to the border of it. At that point he is superseded by Joshua, the type of Jesus, who leads the true Israel into their inheritance. The law leads us to Christ, and there its office ceases.

JFB: Gal 3:26 - children Greek, "sons."

Greek, "sons."

JFB: Gal 3:26 - by Greek, "through faith." "Ye all" (Jews and Gentiles alike) are no longer "children" requiring a tutor, but SONS emancipated and walking at liberty.

Greek, "through faith." "Ye all" (Jews and Gentiles alike) are no longer "children" requiring a tutor, but SONS emancipated and walking at liberty.

JFB: Gal 3:27 - baptized into Christ (Rom 6:3).

(Rom 6:3).

JFB: Gal 3:27 - have put on Christ Ye did, in that very act of being baptized into Christ, put on, or clothe yourselves with, Christ: so the Greek expresses. Christ is to you the toga v...

Ye did, in that very act of being baptized into Christ, put on, or clothe yourselves with, Christ: so the Greek expresses. Christ is to you the toga virilis (the Roman garment of the full-grown man, assumed when ceasing to be a child) [BENGEL]. GATAKER defines a Christian, "One who has put on Christ." The argument is, By baptism ye have put on Christ; and therefore, He being the Son of God, ye become sons by adoption, by virtue of His Sonship by generation. This proves that baptism, where it answers to its ideal, is not a mere empty sign, but a means of spiritual transference from the state of legal condemnation to that of living union with Christ, and of sonship through Him in relation to God (Rom 13:14). Christ alone can, by baptizing with His Spirit, make the inward grace correspond to the outward sign. But as He promises the blessing in the faithful use of the means, the Church has rightly presumed, in charity, that such is the case, nothing appearing to the contrary.

JFB: Gal 3:28 - -- There is in this sonship by faith in Christ, no class privileged above another, as the Jews under the law had been above the Gentiles (Rom 10:12; 1Co ...

There is in this sonship by faith in Christ, no class privileged above another, as the Jews under the law had been above the Gentiles (Rom 10:12; 1Co 12:13; Col 3:11).

JFB: Gal 3:28 - bond nor free Christ alike belongs to both by faith; whence he puts "bond" before "free." Compare Note, see on 1Co 7:21-22; Eph 6:8.

Christ alike belongs to both by faith; whence he puts "bond" before "free." Compare Note, see on 1Co 7:21-22; Eph 6:8.

JFB: Gal 3:28 - neither male nor female Rather, as Greek, "there is not male and female." There is no distinction into male and female. Difference of sex makes no difference in Christian pri...

Rather, as Greek, "there is not male and female." There is no distinction into male and female. Difference of sex makes no difference in Christian privileges. But under the law the male sex had great privileges. Males alone had in their body circumcision, the sign of the covenant (contrast baptism applied to male and female alike); they alone were capable of being kings and priests, whereas all of either sex are now "kings and priests unto God" (Rev 1:6); they had prior right to inheritances. In the resurrection the relation of the sexes shall cease (Luk 20:35).

JFB: Gal 3:28 - one Greek, "one man"; masculine, not neuter, namely "one new man" in Christ (Eph 2:15).

Greek, "one man"; masculine, not neuter, namely "one new man" in Christ (Eph 2:15).

JFB: Gal 3:29 - and heirs The oldest manuscripts omit "and." Christ is "Abraham's seed" (Gal 3:16): ye are "one in Christ" (Gal 3:28), and one with Christ, as having "put on Ch...

The oldest manuscripts omit "and." Christ is "Abraham's seed" (Gal 3:16): ye are "one in Christ" (Gal 3:28), and one with Christ, as having "put on Christ" (Gal 3:27); therefore YE are "Abraham's seed," which is tantamount to saying (whence the "and" is omitted), ye are "heirs according to the promise" (not "by the law," Gal 3:18); for it was to Abraham's seed that the inheritance was promised (Gal 3:16). Thus he arrives at the same truth which he set out with (Gal 3:7). But one new "seed" of a righteous succession could be found. One single faultless grain of human nature was found by God Himself, the source of a new and imperishable seed: "the seed" (Psa 22:30) who receive from Him a new nature and name (Gen 3:15; Isa 53:10-11; Joh 12:24). In Him the lineal descent from David becomes extinct. He died without posterity. But He lives and shall reign on David's throne. No one has a legal claim to sit upon it but Himself, He being the only living direct representative (Eze 21:27). His spiritual seed derive their birth from the travail of His soul, being born again of His word, which is the incorruptible seed (Joh 1:12; Rom 9:8; 1Pe 1:23).

Clarke: Gal 3:1 - O foolish Galatians O foolish Galatians - O infatuated people; you make as little use of reason as those who have none; you have acted in this business as those do who ...

O foolish Galatians - O infatuated people; you make as little use of reason as those who have none; you have acted in this business as those do who are fascinated - they are led blindly and unresistingly on to their own destruction

Clarke: Gal 3:1 - That ye should not obey the truth That ye should not obey the truth - This clause is wanting in ABD*FG, some others, the Syriac, Erpenian, Coptic, Sahidic, Itala, Vulgate MS., and in...

That ye should not obey the truth - This clause is wanting in ABD*FG, some others, the Syriac, Erpenian, Coptic, Sahidic, Itala, Vulgate MS., and in the most important of the Greek and Latin fathers. Of the clause Professor White says, Certissime delenda , "It should certainly be expunged."There are several various readings on this verse, from which it appears that the verse in the best ancient MSS. and versions was read thus: O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you? Before whose eyes Jesus Christ crucified hath been plainly set forth

Clarke: Gal 3:1 - Among you? Among you? - Εν ὑμιν is wanting in ABC, several others, the Syriac, Erpenian, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate MS., one copy o...

Among you? - Εν ὑμιν is wanting in ABC, several others, the Syriac, Erpenian, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate MS., one copy of the Itala, and in several of the fathers. The words appear to disturb the sense, and have obliged commentators to have recourse to a sort of technical meaning; viz. "The doctrine of the Gospel had been so fully preached among these people that it might be said Jesus Christ had been crucified among them; so fully had his sufferings been detailed, and the design of them pointed out."

Clarke: Gal 3:2 - Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law - This may refer to the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, which were very common in the apostolic Churc...

Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law - This may refer to the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, which were very common in the apostolic Church. Did ye receive these extraordinary gifts in consequence of your circumcision, and observing the Mosaic precepts? or was it by the hearing of the Gospel, prescribing faith in Christ crucified? It may also refer to the spirit of adoption, and consequently to their sonship.

Clarke: Gal 3:3 - Having begun in the Spirit Having begun in the Spirit - Having received a spiritual religion, which refined and purified your hearts; and having received the Holy Spirit of Go...

Having begun in the Spirit - Having received a spiritual religion, which refined and purified your hearts; and having received the Holy Spirit of God, by which ye were endued with various miraculous influences; and the spirit of adoption, by which he were assured of the remission of sins, and incorporation with the family of God

Clarke: Gal 3:3 - Are ye now made perfect by the flesh? Are ye now made perfect by the flesh? - Are ye seeking to complete that spiritual religion, and to perfect these spiritual gifts, by the carnal rite...

Are ye now made perfect by the flesh? - Are ye seeking to complete that spiritual religion, and to perfect these spiritual gifts, by the carnal rite of circumcision? It appears that by the Spirit, here, not only the Holy Spirit, but his gifts, are to be understood; and by the flesh, illud membrum in quo circumcisio peragitur ; and, by a metonymy, circumcision itself.

Clarke: Gal 3:4 - Have ye suffered so many things in vain? Have ye suffered so many things in vain? - Have ye received and lost so much good? The verb πασχων, as compounded with ευ, well, or κα...

Have ye suffered so many things in vain? - Have ye received and lost so much good? The verb πασχων, as compounded with ευ, well, or κακως, ill, and often without either, signifies to suffer pain or loss, or to possess and enjoy. In such a case the man is considered as the patient, and the good or ill acts upon him. Though it is possible that the Galatians had suffered some persecution for the truth of Christ, yet it is as likely that the apostle refers to the benefits which they had received. Ye have received faith, the pardon of your sins, the gift of the Holy Spirit, and with it many extraordinary gifts and graces; and have ye suffered the loss of all these things? Have ye received all these in vain? if yet in vain - if it be credible that ye have sacrificed so many excellent benefits for an imaginary good.

Clarke: Gal 3:5 - He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit - The apostle means himself: he had been the means of conveying the Holy Spirit to them, and by that...

He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit - The apostle means himself: he had been the means of conveying the Holy Spirit to them, and by that Spirit he wrought miracles among them; and he did all this, not as a Jew, (for as such he had no power), but he did all as a believer in Christ. The word επιχορηγων, which we translate ministereth, is very emphatic, and signifies leading up the chorus, bringing up one after another, adding grace to grace, benefit to benefit; so that it appears that they had not only some, but many benefits; God, by means of his apostle, having greatly enriched them with various spiritual blessings.

Clarke: Gal 3:6 - Abraham believed God Abraham believed God - This is quoted from Gen 15:6 (note); and St. Paul produces it, Rom 4:3-5 (note). Abraham, while even uncircumcised, believed ...

Abraham believed God - This is quoted from Gen 15:6 (note); and St. Paul produces it, Rom 4:3-5 (note). Abraham, while even uncircumcised, believed in God, and his faith was reckoned to him for justification; and Abraham is called the father of the faithful, or, of believers. If, then, he was justified without the deeds of the law, he was justified by faith; and if he was justified by faith, long before the law was given then the law is not necessary to salvation

It is remarkable that the Jews themselves maintained that Abraham was saved by faith. Mehilta, in Yalcut Simeoni, page 1, fol. 69, makes this assertion: "It is evident that Abraham could not obtain an inheritance either in this world or in the world to come, but by faith."

Clarke: Gal 3:8 - The Scripture, foreseeing The Scripture, foreseeing - See the notes on Rom 4:3-16 (note). As God intended to justify the heathen through faith, he preached the Gospel that co...

The Scripture, foreseeing - See the notes on Rom 4:3-16 (note). As God intended to justify the heathen through faith, he preached the Gospel that contains the grand display of the doctrine of salvation by faith, before, to Abraham, while he was in his heathen state; and thus he is called the father of believers: therefore it must refer to them who shall believe the same Gospel among the Gentiles; and, as the door of faith was open to all the Gentiles, consequently the promise was fulfilled: In thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.

Clarke: Gal 3:9 - They which be of faith They which be of faith - All who believe, as Abraham has believed, are made partakers of Abraham’ s blessings.

They which be of faith - All who believe, as Abraham has believed, are made partakers of Abraham’ s blessings.

Clarke: Gal 3:10 - As many as are of the works of the law As many as are of the works of the law - All that seek salvation by the performance of the works of the law are under the curse, because it is impos...

As many as are of the works of the law - All that seek salvation by the performance of the works of the law are under the curse, because it is impossible for them to come up to the spiritual meaning and intent of the law; and the law pronounces them cursed that continue not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. Hence, every Jew is necessarily under the curse of God’ s broken law; and every sinner is under the same curse, though he be not a Jew, who does not take refuge in the salvation provided for him by the Gospel. It is worthy of remark that no printed copy of the Hebrew Bible preserves the word כל col , All, in Deu 27:26, which answers to the apostle’ s word πασι, all, here. St. Jerome says that the Jews suppressed it, lest it should appear that they were bound to perform all things that are written in the book of the law. Of the genuineness of the reading there is no cause to doubt: it exists in six MSS. of Kennicott and De Rossi, in the Samaritan text, in several copies of the Targum, in the Septuagint, and in the quotation made here by the apostle, in which there is no variation either in the MSS. or in the versions.

Clarke: Gal 3:11 - But that no man is justified by the law But that no man is justified by the law - By the observance of the law, suppose he had even continued in all things that are written in it to do the...

But that no man is justified by the law - By the observance of the law, suppose he had even continued in all things that are written in it to do them, is evident; for the Prophet Habakkuk, Hab 2:4, has declared, under the direct influence of the Spirit of God, The just shall live by faith; or, he who is just by faith shall live: therefore this justification comes not by works, or the observance of the law, but by faith.

Clarke: Gal 3:12 - And the law is not of faith And the law is not of faith - It promises no forgiveness to believing, but requires obedience. It is not, What do you believe? but, What have you do...

And the law is not of faith - It promises no forgiveness to believing, but requires obedience. It is not, What do you believe? but, What have you done? The man that doeth them perfectly, at all times, and in all places, he shall live in them; but if in any case he fails, he forfeits his life. See the notes on Rom 1:17, etc.

Clarke: Gal 3:13 - Christ hath redeemed us Christ hath redeemed us - Εξηγορασεν· Hath bought us with a price; viz. his blood, or life

Christ hath redeemed us - Εξηγορασεν· Hath bought us with a price; viz. his blood, or life

Clarke: Gal 3:13 - Being made a curse for us Being made a curse for us - Being made an atonement for our sins; for whatever was offered as an atonement for sin was considered as bearing the pun...

Being made a curse for us - Being made an atonement for our sins; for whatever was offered as an atonement for sin was considered as bearing the punishment due to sin, and the person who suffered for transgression was considered as bearing the curse in his body; therefore, in the same day in which a criminal was executed it was ordered that his body should be buried, that the land might not be polluted, because he that was hanged, which was the case with every heinous culprit, was considered accursed of God, Deu 21:22, Deu 21:23; hence the necessity of removing the accursed Thing out of sight.

Clarke: Gal 3:14 - That the blessing of Abraham That the blessing of Abraham - That is, justification or the pardon of sin, with all other blessings consequent on it, such as peace with God, spiri...

That the blessing of Abraham - That is, justification or the pardon of sin, with all other blessings consequent on it, such as peace with God, spiritual life, and eternal glory

Clarke: Gal 3:14 - Might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ Might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ - So we find that he was made a curse for us, that the blessings promised to Abraham might be given ...

Might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ - So we find that he was made a curse for us, that the blessings promised to Abraham might be given to them who believe on him, as having been made a curse; i.e. an expiatory victim for them

Clarke: Gal 3:14 - The promise of the Spirit The promise of the Spirit - The spirit of adoption, sonship with God; and the Spirit of God to attest that sonship. And all this was through faith. ...

The promise of the Spirit - The spirit of adoption, sonship with God; and the Spirit of God to attest that sonship. And all this was through faith. Hence, from the beginning God had purposed that salvation should be through faith, and never expected that any soul of man should be justified by the works of the law; and only gave that law that the exceeding sinfulness of sin might appear, and that man might be prepared to welcome the Gospel, which proclaimed salvation to a lost world through the atoning passion and death of Christ.

Clarke: Gal 3:15 - I speak after the manner of men I speak after the manner of men - I am about to produce an example taken from civil transactions. If it be confirmed - If an agreement or bond be si...

I speak after the manner of men - I am about to produce an example taken from civil transactions. If it be confirmed - If an agreement or bond be signed, sealed, and witnessed, and, in this country, being first duly stamped

Clarke: Gal 3:15 - No man disannulleth No man disannulleth - It stands under the protection of the civil law, and nothing can be legally erased or added.

No man disannulleth - It stands under the protection of the civil law, and nothing can be legally erased or added.

Clarke: Gal 3:16 - Now to Abraham and his seed Now to Abraham and his seed - The promise of salvation by faith was made to Abraham and his posterity

Now to Abraham and his seed - The promise of salvation by faith was made to Abraham and his posterity

Clarke: Gal 3:16 - He saith not, And to seeds He saith not, And to seeds - It was one particular kind of posterity which was intended: but as of one - which is Christ; i.e. to the spiritual head...

He saith not, And to seeds - It was one particular kind of posterity which was intended: but as of one - which is Christ; i.e. to the spiritual head, and all believers in him, who are children of Abraham, because they are believers, Gal 3:7. But why does the apostle say, not of seeds, as of many? To this it is answered, that Abraham possessed in his family two seeds, one natural, viz. the members of his own household; and the other spiritual, those who were like himself because of their faith. The promises were not of a temporal nature; had they been so, they would have belonged to his natural seed; but they did not, therefore they must have belonged to the spiritual posterity. And as we know that promises of justification, etc., could not properly be made to Christ in himself, hence we must conclude his members to be here intended, and the word Christ is put here for Christians. It is from Christ that the grace flows which constitutes Christians. Christians are those who believe after the example of Abraham; they therefore are the spiritual seed. Christ, working in and by these, makes them the light and salt of the world; and through them, under and by Christ, are all the nations of the earth blessed. This appears to be the most consistent interpretation, though every thing must be understood of Christ in the first instance, and then of Christians only through him.

Clarke: Gal 3:17 - Confirmed before of God in Christ Confirmed before of God in Christ - i.e. The promise of justification, etc., made to believers in Christ Jesus, who are the spiritual seed of Christ...

Confirmed before of God in Christ - i.e. The promise of justification, etc., made to believers in Christ Jesus, who are the spiritual seed of Christ, as they are children of Abraham, from the similitude of their faith. Abraham believed in God, and it was reckoned to him for justification; the Gentiles believed in Christ, and received justification. Probably the word Christ is to be taken, both here and in the preceding verse, for Christians, as has already been hinted. However it be taken, the sense is plainly the same; the promise of salvation must necessarily be to them who believe in Christ, for he is the promised seed, Gen 3:15, through whom every blessing is derived on mankind; and through his spiritual seed - the true Christians, the conquests of the cross are daily spreading over the face of the earth. The present unparalleled dispersion of the sacred writings, in all the regular languages of the universe, is a full proof that all the nations of the earth are likely to be blessed through them; but they have nothing but what they have received from and through Christ

Clarke: Gal 3:17 - Four hundred and thirty years after Four hundred and thirty years after - God made a covenant with Abraham that the Messiah should spring from his posterity. This covenant stated that ...

Four hundred and thirty years after - God made a covenant with Abraham that the Messiah should spring from his posterity. This covenant stated that justification should be obtained by faith in the Messiah. The Messiah did not come till 1911 years after the making of this covenant, and the law was given 430 years after the covenant with Abraham, therefore the law, which was given 1481 years before the promise to Abram could be fulfilled, (for so much time elapsed between the giving of the law and the advent of Christ), could not possibly annul the Abrahamic covenant. This argument is absolute and conclusive. Let us review it. The promise to Abraham respects the Messiah, and cannot be fulfilled but in him. Christians say the Messiah is come, but the advent of him whom they acknowledge as the Messiah did not take place till 1911 years after the covenant was made, therefore no intermediate transaction can affect that covenant. But the law was an intermediate transaction, taking place 430 years after the covenant with Abraham, and could neither annul nor affect that which was not to have its fulfillment till 1481 years after. Justification by faith is promised in the Abrahamic covenant, and attributed to that alone, therefore it is not to be expected from the law, nor can its works justify any, for the law in this respect cannot annul or affect the Abrahamic covenant. But suppose ye say that the law, which was given 430 years after the covenant with Abraham, has superseded this covenant, and limited and confined its blessings to the Jews; I answer: This is impossible, for the covenant most specifically refers to the Messiah, and takes in, not the Jewish people only, but all nations; for it is written, In thy seed - the Messiah and his spiritual progeny, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. This universal blessedness can never be confined, by any figure of speech, or by any legal act, to the Jewish people exclusively; and, as the covenant was legally made and confirmed, it cannot be annulled, it must therefore remain in reference to its object

In opposition to us, the Jews assert that the Messiah is not yet come; then we assert, on that ground, that the promise is not yet fulfilled; for the giving of the law to one people cannot imply the fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant, because that extends to all nations. However, therefore, the case be argued, the Jewish cause derives no benefit from it; and the conclusion still recurs, salvation cannot be attained by the works of the law, forasmuch as the covenant is of faith; and he only, as your prophets declare, who is justified by faith, shall live, or be saved. Therefore we still conclude that those who are only under the law are under the curse; and, as it says, he that doeth these things shall live in them, and he that sinneth shall die, there is no hope of salvation for any man from the law of Moses. And the Gospel of Jesus Christ, proclaiming salvation by faith to a sinful and ruined world, is absolutely necessary, nor can it be superseded by any other institution, whether human or Divine

How we arrive at the sum of 430 years may be seen in the note on Exo 12:40 (note). Dr. Whitby also gives a satisfactory view of the matter. "The apostle refers to the promise made, Gen 12:3, since from that only are the 430 years to be computed, for then Abraham was 75 years old, Gen 12:4; from thence to the birth of Isaac, which happened when Abraham was 100 years old, (Gen 21:5), 25 years; from his birth to the birth of Jacob, 60 years, for Isaac was 60 years old when Rebecca bare him, Gen 25:26. From Jacob’ s birth to the descent into Egypt, 130 years, as he said to Pharaoh, Gen 47:9. The abode of him and his posterity in Egypt was 215 years; so that, with their sojourning in Canaan, was 430 years;"the sum given here, and in Exo 12:40 (note).

Clarke: Gal 3:18 - For if the inheritance be of the law For if the inheritance be of the law - See the preceding arguments, in which this is proved.

For if the inheritance be of the law - See the preceding arguments, in which this is proved.

Clarke: Gal 3:19 - Wherefore then serveth the law? Wherefore then serveth the law? - If the law does not annul the Abrahamic covenant, and cannot confer salvation on its votaries, why did God give it...

Wherefore then serveth the law? - If the law does not annul the Abrahamic covenant, and cannot confer salvation on its votaries, why did God give it? This was a very natural objection, and must arise in the mind of any Jew who had paid attention to the apostle’ s reasoning

Clarke: Gal 3:19 - It was added because of transgressions It was added because of transgressions - It was given that we might know our sinfulness, and the need we stood in of the mercy of God. The law is th...

It was added because of transgressions - It was given that we might know our sinfulness, and the need we stood in of the mercy of God. The law is the right line, the straight edge, that determines the obliquity of our conduct. See the notes on Rom 4:15 (note); and especially on Rom 5:20 (note), where this subject is largely discussed, and the figure explained

Clarke: Gal 3:19 - Till the seed should come Till the seed should come - The law was to be in force till the advent of the Messiah. After that it was to cease

Till the seed should come - The law was to be in force till the advent of the Messiah. After that it was to cease

Clarke: Gal 3:19 - It was ordained by angels It was ordained by angels - The ministry of angels was certainly used in giving the law; see Psa 68:17; Act 7:53; and Heb 2:2; but they were only in...

It was ordained by angels - The ministry of angels was certainly used in giving the law; see Psa 68:17; Act 7:53; and Heb 2:2; but they were only instruments for transmitting; Moses was the mediator between God and the people, Deu 5:5.

Clarke: Gal 3:20 - A mediator is not a mediator of one A mediator is not a mediator of one - As a mediator, μεσιτης, signifies a middle person, there must necessarily be two parties, between whom...

A mediator is not a mediator of one - As a mediator, μεσιτης, signifies a middle person, there must necessarily be two parties, between whom he stands, and acts in reference to both, as he is supposed to have the interests of both equally at heart

This verse is allowed to be both obscure and difficult; and it is certain that there is little consent among learned men and critics in their opinions concerning it. Rosenmuller thinks that the opinion of Nosselt is to be preferred to all others

He first translates the words ὁ δε μεσιτης ἑνος ουκ εστιν thus: But he (viz. Moses) is not the mediator of that one race of Abraham, viz. the Christians; for ἑνος relates to the σπερμα ᾡ επηγγελται, the seed that should come, Gal 3:19, of which he said, ὡς εφ ἑνος, as of one, Gal 3:16. If Paul had written ὁ δε μεσιτης του ἑνος εκεινου ουκ εστι, he is not the mediator of one, no person would have had any doubt that σπερματος, seed, ought to be supplied after ἑνος, of one, Gal 3:19-20. The same mode of speaking Paul uses, Rom 5:17; ὁ δε, but he, ὁ for αυτος, Mat 12:3, Mat 12:11, Mat 12:39, ὁ δε ειπεν, but he said. Though Moses was the Mediator between God and the Israelites, yet he was not the mediator between God and that one seed which was to come; viz. the Gentiles who should believe in Christ

Clarke: Gal 3:20 - But God is one But God is one - He is the one God, who is the Father of the spirits of all flesh; the God of the Gentiles as well as the God of the Jews. That this...

But God is one - He is the one God, who is the Father of the spirits of all flesh; the God of the Gentiles as well as the God of the Jews. That this is St. Paul’ s meaning is evident from his use of the same words in other places, 1Ti 2:5 : ἑις γαρ Θεος, etc., for there is one God, and one mediator between God and man, that is, there is only one God and one mediator for the whole human race; Eph 4:5, Eph 4:6 : One Lord, one faith, one baptism, εἱς Θεος και πατηρ παντων, One God and Father of All. The sense of the whole is: Moses was the mediator of one part of Abraham’ s seed, viz. the Israelites; but of the other seed, the Gentiles, he was certainly not the mediator; for the mediator of that seed, according to the promise of God, and covenant made with Abraham, is Christ

Though Nosselt has got great credit for this interpretation, it was given in substance long before him by Dr. Whitby, as may be seen in the following words: "But this mediator (Moses) was only the mediator of the Jews, and so was only the mediator of one party, to whom belonged the blessings of Abraham, Gal 3:8, Gal 3:14. But God, who made the promise that in one should all the families of the earth be blessed, Is One; the God of the other party, the Gentiles, as well as of the Jews, επειπερ εἱς ὁ Θεος, seeing he is One God, who will justify the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through faith, Rom 3:30."This exposition is so plain, and so well supported by the different scriptures already quoted, that there can be but small, if any, doubt of its propriety. The clause has been translated thus: "Now a mediator supposes two parties, of which God is but one."

Clarke: Gal 3:21 - Is the law then against the promises of God? Is the law then against the promises of God? - Is it possible that the intervention of the law, in reference to one part of the Abrahamic seed, shou...

Is the law then against the promises of God? - Is it possible that the intervention of the law, in reference to one part of the Abrahamic seed, should annul the promise made to the other? It is impossible

Clarke: Gal 3:21 - For if there had been a law, etc. For if there had been a law, etc. - If any law or rule of life could have been found out that would have given life - saved sinners from death, and ...

For if there had been a law, etc. - If any law or rule of life could have been found out that would have given life - saved sinners from death, and made them truly happy, then righteousness- justification, should have been by that law.

Clarke: Gal 3:22 - But the scripture hath concluded But the scripture hath concluded - All the writings of the prophets have uniformly declared that men are all sinners, and the law declares the same ...

But the scripture hath concluded - All the writings of the prophets have uniformly declared that men are all sinners, and the law declares the same by the continual sacrifices which it prescribes. All, therefore have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; and, being tried and found guilty, συνεκλεισεν ἡ γραφη, the Scripture hath shut them up - put them in prison, and locked them up, till the time should come in which the sentence of the law should be executed upon them: (See Rom 3:9-20, and the notes there; and particularly Rom 11:32 (note), where the apostle uses the same metaphor, and which in the note is particularly explained.) That the promise of justification, by faith of Jesus Christ, might be given to them that believe.

Clarke: Gal 3:23 - But before faith came But before faith came - Before the Gospel was published

But before faith came - Before the Gospel was published

Clarke: Gal 3:23 - We were kept under the law, shut up We were kept under the law, shut up - Εφρουρουμεθα· We were kept as in a strong hold, συγκεκλεισμενοι, locked up, unt...

We were kept under the law, shut up - Εφρουρουμεθα· We were kept as in a strong hold, συγκεκλεισμενοι, locked up, unto the faith - the religion of the Lord Jesus, which should afterwards be revealed. Here the same metaphor is used as above, and for its explanation I must refer the reader to the same place, Rom 11:32 (note).

Clarke: Gal 3:24 - The law was our schoolmaster The law was our schoolmaster - Ὁ νομος παιδαγωγος ἡμων γεγονεν εις Χριστον· The law was our pedagogue un...

The law was our schoolmaster - Ὁ νομος παιδαγωγος ἡμων γεγονεν εις Χριστον· The law was our pedagogue unto Christ. The παιδαγωγος, pedagogue, is not the schoolmaster, but the servant who had the care of the children to lead them to and bring them back from school, and had the care of them out of school hours. Thus the law did not teach us the living, saving knowledge; but, by its rites and ceremonies, and especially by its sacrifices, it directed us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith. This is a beautiful metaphor, and highly illustrative of the apostle’ s doctrine. See the note on Rom 10:4, where this figure is farther explained.

Clarke: Gal 3:25 - But, after that faith is come But, after that faith is come - When Christ was manifested in the flesh, and the Gospel was preached, we were no longer under the pedagogue; we came...

But, after that faith is come - When Christ was manifested in the flesh, and the Gospel was preached, we were no longer under the pedagogue; we came to Christ, learned of him, became wise unto salvation, had our fruit unto holiness, and the end eternal life

It is worthy of remark that, as ὁ νομος, the Law, is used by St. Paul to signify, not only the law, properly so called, but the whole of the Mosaic economy, so ἡ πιστις, the Faith, is used by him to express, not merely the act of believing in Christ, but the whole of the Gospel.

Clarke: Gal 3:26 - For ye, who have believed the Gospel, are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus For ye, who have believed the Gospel, are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus - But no man is a child of God by circumcision, nor by an...

For ye, who have believed the Gospel, are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus - But no man is a child of God by circumcision, nor by any observance of the Mosaic law.

Clarke: Gal 3:27 - As many of you as have been baptized into Christ As many of you as have been baptized into Christ - All of you who have believed in Christ as the promised Messiah, and received baptism as a public ...

As many of you as have been baptized into Christ - All of you who have believed in Christ as the promised Messiah, and received baptism as a public proof that ye had received Christ as your Lord and Savior, have put on Christ - have received his Spirit, and entered into his interests, and copied his manners. To put on, or to be clothed with one, is to assume the person and character of that one; and they who do so are bound to act his part, and to sustain the character which they have assumed. The profession of Christianity is an assumption of the character of Christ; he has left us an example that we should follow his steps, and we should, as Christians, have that mind in us which was in him. See the notes on Rom 6:3, Rom 6:4; and especially those on Rom 13:14 (note), where this phrase is farther explained.

Clarke: Gal 3:28 - There is neither Jew nor Greek There is neither Jew nor Greek - Ἑλλην, Greek, is put here for εθνικος, heathen. Under the Gospel all distinctions are done away, as...

There is neither Jew nor Greek - Ἑλλην, Greek, is put here for εθνικος, heathen. Under the Gospel all distinctions are done away, as either helping or hindering; all are equally welcome to Christ, and all have an equal need of him; all persons of all sects, and conditions, and sexes, who believe in him, become one family through him; they are one body, of which he is the head

Clarke: Gal 3:28 - Neither male nor female Neither male nor female - With great reason the apostle introduces this. Between the privileges of men and women there was a great disparity among t...

Neither male nor female - With great reason the apostle introduces this. Between the privileges of men and women there was a great disparity among the Jews. A man might shave his head, and rend his clothes in the time of mourning; a woman was not permitted to do so. A man might impose the vow of nasirate upon his son; a woman could not do this on her daughter. A man might be shorn on account of the nasirate of his father; a woman could not. A man might betroth his daughter; a woman had no such power. A man might sell his daughter; a woman could not. In many cases they were treated more like children than adults; and to this day are not permitted to assemble with the men in the synagogues, but are put up in galleries, where they can scarcely see, nor can they be seen. Under the blessed spirit of Christianity, they have equal rights, equal privileges, and equal blessings; and, let me add, they are equally useful.

Clarke: Gal 3:29 - And if ye be Christ’ s And if ye be Christ’ s - Or, as several good MSS. read, If ye be one in Christ. If ye have all received justification through his blood, and th...

And if ye be Christ’ s - Or, as several good MSS. read, If ye be one in Christ. If ye have all received justification through his blood, and the mind that was in him, then are ye Abraham’ s seed; ye are that real, spiritual posterity of Abraham, that other seed, to whom the promises were made; and then heirs, according to that promise, being fitted for the rest that remains for the people of God, that heavenly inheritance which was typified by the earthly Canaan, even to the Jews

1.    The Galatians, it appears, had begun well, and for a time run well, but they permitted Satan to hinder, and they stopped short of the prize. Let us beware of those teachers who would draw us away from trusting in Christ crucified. By listening to such the Galatians lost their religion

2.    The temptation that leads us astray may be as sudden as it is successful. We may lose in one moment the fruit of a whole life! How frequently is this the case, and how few lay it to heart! A man may fall by the means of his understanding, as well as by means of his passions

3.    How strange is it that there should be found any backslider! that one who once felt the power of Christ should ever turn aside! But it is still stranger that any one who has felt it, and given in his life and conversation full proof that he has felt it, should not only let it slip, but at last deny that he ever had it, and even ridicule a work of grace in the heart! Such instances have appeared among men

4.    The Jewish covenant, the sign of which was circumcision, is annulled, though the people with whom it was made are still preserved, and they preserve the rite or sign. Why then should the covenant be annulled? This question admits a twofold answer

1.    This covenant was designed to last only for a time, and when that time came, having waxed old, it vanished away

2.    It was long before that void, through want of the performance of the conditions

The covenant did not state merely, ye shall be circumcised, and observe all the rites and ceremonies of the law; but, ye shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength, and your neighbor as yourself. This condition, which was the very soul of the covenant, was universally broken by that people. Need they wonder, therefore, that God has cast then off? Jesus alone can restore them, and him they continue to reject. To us the new covenant says the same things: Ye shall love the Lord, etc.; if we do not so, we also shall be cut off. Take heed, lest he who did not spare the natural branches, spare not thee; therefore, make a profitable use of the goodness and severity of God.

Calvin: Gal 3:1 - O foolish Galatians // Before whose eyes // Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth 1.O foolish Galatians. An expostulation is here interwoven — I should rather say, inserted — amidst his doctrinal statements. Some will wonder th...

1.O foolish Galatians. An expostulation is here interwoven — I should rather say, inserted — amidst his doctrinal statements. Some will wonder that he did not delay it to the close of the Epistle, but the very serious nature of the errors which he has brought forward unquestionably roused him to a burst of passion. When we hear that the Son of God, with all his benefits, is rejected, that his death is esteemed as nothing, what pious mind would not break out into indignation? He therefore declares that those who allowed themselves to be involved in so heinous a crime must have beenἀνόητοι, that is, “disordered in mind.” He accuses them not only of having suffered themselves to be deceived, but of having been carried away by some sort of magical enchantment, 54 which is a still more serious charge. He insinuates that their fall partook more of madness than of folly.

Some think that Paul refers to the temper of the nation, that, being sprung from barbarians, it was more difficult to train them; but I rather think that he refers to the subject itself. It looks like something supernatural, that, after enjoying the gospel in such clearness, they should be affected by the delusions of Satan. He does not merely say that they were “bewitched” and “disordered in mind,” because they did not obey the truth; but because, after having received instruction so clear, so full, so tender, and so powerful, they immediately fell away. Erasmus has chosen to interpret the words, “that ye should not believe the truth.” I am not quite prepared to set aside that rendering, but would prefer the word obey, because Paul does not charge them with having, from the outset, rejected the gospel, but with not having persevered in obedience.

Before whose eyes. This is intended, as I have already hinted, to express an aggravation; for, the better opportunities they had of knowing Christ, the more heinous was the criminality of forsaking him. Such, he tells them, was the clearness of his doctrine, that it was not naked doctrine, but the express, living image of Christ. 55 They had known Christ in such a manner, that they might be almost said to have seen him.

Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth. Augustine’s interpretation of the wordπροεγράφη, (“hath been set forth,”) is harsh, and inconsistent with Paul’s design. He makes it to signify that Christ was to be thrust out from possession. Others propose a different phrase, ( proscriptus,) which, if used in the sense of “openly proclaimed,” would not be inapplicable. The Greeks, accordingly, borrow from this verb the wordπρογράμματα, to denote boards on which property intended to be sold was published, so as to be exposed to the view of all. But the participle, painted, is less ambiguous, and, in my own opinion, is exceedingly appropriate. To shew how energetic his preaching was, Paul first compares it to a picture, which exhibited to them, in a lively manner, the image of Christ.

But, not satisfied with this comparison, he adds, Christ hath been crucified among you, intimating that the actual sight of Christ’s death could not have affected them more powerfully than his own preaching. The view given by some, that the Galatians had “crucified to themselves (Heb 6:6) the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame;” that they had withdrawn from the purity of the gospel; or, at least, had lent their ear, and given their confidence, to impostors who crucified him, — appears to me overstrained. The meaning therefore is, that Paul’s doctrine had instructed them concerning Christ in such a manner as if he had been exhibited to them in a picture, nay, “crucified among them.” Such a representation could not have been made by any eloquence, or by “enticing words of man’s wisdom,” (1Co 2:4,) had it not been accompanied by that power of the Spirit, of which Paul has treated largely in both the Epistles to the Corinthians.

Let those who would discharge aright the ministry of the gospel learn, not merely to speak and declaim, but to penetrate into the consciences of men, to make them see Christ crucified, and feel the shedding of his blood. 56 When the Church has painters such as these, she no longer needs the dead images of wood and stone, she no longer requires pictures; both of which, unquestionably, were first admitted to Christian temples when the pastors had become dumb and been converted into mere idols, or when they uttered a few words from the pulpit in such a cold and careless manner, that the power and efficacy of the ministry were utterly extinguished.

Calvin: Gal 3:2 - This one I wish to learn from you // Faith 2.This one I wish to learn from you He now proceeds to support his cause by additional arguments. The first is drawn from their experience, for he re...

2.This one I wish to learn from you He now proceeds to support his cause by additional arguments. The first is drawn from their experience, for he reminds them in what manner the gospel was introduced among themselves. When they heard the gospel, they received the Spirit. It was not to the law, therefore, but to faith, that they owed the reception of this benefit. This same argument is employed by Peter in the defense which he makes to his brethren for having baptized uncircumcised persons. (Act 10:47.) Paul and Barnabas followed the same course in the debate which they maintained at Jerusalem on this subject. (Act 15:2.) There was therefore manifest ingratitude in not submitting to the doctrine, by means of which they had received the Holy Spirit. The opportunity which he gives them to reply is expressive not of doubt, but of greater confidence: for their convictions, founded on their own experience, forced them to acknowledge that it was true.

Faith is here put, by a figure of speech, for the gospel, which is elsewhere called “the law of faith,” (Rom 3:27,) because it exhibits to us the free grace of God in Christ, without any merit of works. The Spirit means here, I think, the grace of regeneration, which is common to all believers; though I have no objection to understand it as referring to the peculiar gifts by which the Lord, at that period, honored the preaching of the gospel. 57

It may be objected, that the Spirit was not, in this respect, given to all. But, it was enough for Paul’s purpose, that the Galatians knew that the power of the Holy Spirit in his Church had accompanied Paul’s doctrine, and that believers were variously endowed with the gifts of the Spirit for general edification. It may likewise be objected, that those gifts were not infallible signs of adoption, and so do not apply to the present question. I reply, that it was enough that the Lord had confirmed the doctrine of Paul by the visible gifts of his Spirit. A still simpler view of the case is, that they had been distinguished by the ordinary privilege of adoption, before those impostors had brought forward their additions. “In whom,” says he to the Ephesians,

“ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation; in whom also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise.” (Eph 1:13.)

Calvin: Gal 3:3 - Are ye so foolish? 3.Are ye so foolish? Commentators are not agreed as to what he means by the Spirit and by the flesh. He alludes, in my opinion, to what he had sai...

3.Are ye so foolish? Commentators are not agreed as to what he means by the Spirit and by the flesh. He alludes, in my opinion, to what he had said about the Spirit. As if he had said, “As the doctrine of the gospel brought to you the Holy Spirit, the commencement of your course was spiritual; but now ye have fallen into a worse condition, and may be said to have fallen from the Spirit into the flesh.” The flesh denotes either outward and fading flyings, such as ceremonies are, particularly when they are separated from Christ; or it denotes dead and fading doctrine. There was a strange inconsistency between their splendid commencement and their future progress.

Calvin: Gal 3:4 - Have ye suffered so many things? 4.Have ye suffered so many things? This is another argument. Having suffered so many things in behalf of the gospel, would they now, in an instant, l...

4.Have ye suffered so many things? This is another argument. Having suffered so many things in behalf of the gospel, would they now, in an instant, lose it all? Nay, he puts it in the way of reproach, if they were willing to lose the advantage of so many illustrious struggles which they had made for the faith. If the true faith had not been delivered to them by Paul, it was rash to suffer anything in defense of a bad cause; but they had experienced the presence of God amidst their persecutions. Accordingly, he charges the false apostles with ill-will in depriving the Galatians of such valuable ornaments. But to mitigate the severity of this complaint, he adds, if it be yet in vain; thus inspiring their minds with the expectation of something better, and rousing them to the exercise of repentance. For the intention of all chastisement is, not to drive men to despair, but to lead them to a better course.

Calvin: Gal 3:5 - He therefore that ministereth 5.He therefore that ministereth. He is not now speaking of the grace of regeneration, but of the other gifts of the Spirit; for a subject different f...

5.He therefore that ministereth. He is not now speaking of the grace of regeneration, but of the other gifts of the Spirit; for a subject different from the preceding one is manifestly introduced. He warns them that all the gifts of the Holy Spirit, in which they excelled, are the fruits of the gospel, of that gospel which had been preached among them by his own lips. Their new teachers deprived them of those gifts when they left the gospel, and fled to another kind of doctrine. In proportion to the value which they attached to those gifts, to which the apostle here adds miracles, they ought the more carefully and resolutely to adhere to the gospel.

Calvin: Gal 3:6 - Believed God Having appealed to facts and experience, he now gives quotations from Scripture. And first, he brings forward the example of Abraham. Arguments drawn...

Having appealed to facts and experience, he now gives quotations from Scripture. And first, he brings forward the example of Abraham. Arguments drawn from examples are not always so conclusive, but this is one of the most powerful, because neither in the subject nor in the person is there any ground of exception. There is no variety of roads to righteousness, and so Abraham is called “the father of all them that believe,” (Rom 4:11,) because he is a pattern adapted to all; nay, in his person has been laid down to us the universal rule for obtaining righteousness.

6. Even as Abraham. We must here supply some such phrase as but rather; for, having put a question, he resolved instantly to cut off every ground of hesitation. At least the phrase “ even as, ” (καθὼς,) refers only to the verse immediately preceding, to the “ministration of the Spirit and of miracles by the hearing of faith;” as if he had said, that, in the grace bestowed on them, a similarity might be found to the case of Abraham.

Believed God. By this quotation he proves both here, and in the 4th chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, that men are justified by faith, because the faith of Abraham was accounted to him, for righteousness. (Rom 4:3.) We must here inquire briefly, first, what Paul intends by faith; secondly, what is righteousness; and thirdly, why faith is represented to be a cause of justification. Faith does not mean any kind of conviction which men may have of the truth of God; for though Cain had a hundred times exercised faith in God when denouncing punishment against him, this had nothing to do with obtaining righteousness. Abraham was justified by believing, because, when he received from God a promise of fatherly kindness, he embraced it as certain. Faith therefore has a relation and respect to such a divine promise as may enable men to place their trust and confidence in God.

As to the word righteousness, we must attend to the phraseology of Moses. When he says, that

“he believed in the Lord,
and he counted it to him for righteousness,” (Gen 15:6,)

he intimates that that person is righteous who is reckoned as such in the sight of God. Now, since men have not righteousness dwelling within themselves, they obtain this by imputation; because God holds their faith as accounted for righteousness. We are therefore said to be “justified by faith,” (Rom 3:28,) not because faith infuses into us a habit or quality, but because we are accepted by God.

But why does faith receive such honor as to be entitled a cause of our justification? First, we must observe, that it is merely an instrumental cause; for, strictly speaking, our righteousness is nothing else than God’s free acceptance of us, on which our salvation is founded. But as the Lord testifies his love and grace in the gospel, by offering to us that righteousness of which I have spoken, so we receive it by faith. And thus, when we ascribe to faith a man’s justification, we are not treating of the principal cause, but merely pointing out the way in which men arrive at true righteousness. For this righteousness is not a quality which exists in men, but is the mere gift of God, and is enjoyed by faith only; and not even as a reward justly due to faith, but because we receive by faith what God freely gives. All such expressions as the following are of similar import: We are “justified freely by his grace.” (Rom 3:24.) Christ is our righteousness. The mercy of God is the cause of our righteousness. By the death and resurrection of Christ, righteousness has been procured for us. Righteousness is bestowed on us through the gospel. We obtain righteousness by faith.

Hence appears the ridiculousness of the blunder of attempting to reconcile the two propositions, that we are justified by faith, and that we are justified at the same time by works; for he who is “just by faith” (Hab 2:4 Heb 10:38) is poor and destitute of personal righteousness, and relies on the grace of God alone. And this is the reason why Paul, in the Epistle to the Romans, concludes that Abraham, having obtained righteousness by faith, had no right to glory before God. (Rom 4:2.) For it is not said that faith was imputed to him for a part of righteousness, but simply for righteousness; so that his faith was truly his righteousness. Besides, faith looks at nothing but the mercy of God, and a dead and risen Christ. All merit of works is thus excluded from being the cause of justification, when the whole is ascribed to faith. For faith, — so far as it embraces the undeserved goodness of God, Christ with all his benefits, the testimony of our adoption which is contained in the gospel, — is universally contrasted with the law, with the merit of works, and with human excellence. The notion of the sophists, that it is contrasted with ceremonies alone, will presently be disproved, with little difficulty, from the context. Let us therefore remember, that those who are righteous by faith, are righteous out of themselves, that is, in Christ.

Hence, too, we obtain a refutation of the idle cavilling of certain persons who evade Paul’s reasoning. Moses they tell us, gives the name of righteousness to goodness; and so means nothing more than that Abraham was reckoned a good man, because he believed God. Giddy minds of this description, raised up in our time by Satan, endeavor, by indirect slanders, to undermine the certainty of Scripture. Paul knew that Moses was not there giving lessons to boys in grammar, but was speaking of a decision which God had pronounced, and very properly viewed the word righteousness in a theological sense. For it is not in that sense in which goodness is mentioned with approbation among men, that we are accounted righteous in the sight of God, but only where we render perfect obedience to the law. Righteousness is contrasted with the transgression of the law, even in its smallest point; and because we have it not from ourselves, it is freely given to us by God.

But here the Jews object that Paul has completely tortured the words of Moses to suit his own purpose; for Moses does not here treat of Christ, or of eternal life, but only mentions an earthly inheritance. The Papists are not very different from the Jews; for, though they do not venture to inveigh against Paul, they entirely evade his meaning. Paul, we reply, takes for granted, what Christians hold to be a first principle, that whatever promises the Lord made to Abraham were appendages of that first promise,

“I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.”
(Gen 15:1.)

When Abraham received the promise,

“In multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the sea-shore” (Gen 22:17,)

he did not limit his view to that word, but included it in the grace of adoption as a part of the whole, and, in the same manner, every other promise was viewed by him as a testimony of God’s fatherly kindness, which tended to strengthen his hope of salvation. Unbelievers differ from the children of God in this respect, that, while they enjoy in common with them the bounties of Providence, they devour them like cattle, and look no higher. The children of God, on the other hand, knowing that all their blessings have been sanctified by the promises, acknowledge God in them as their Father. They are often directed, in this way, to the hope of eternal life; for they begin with the faith of their adoption, which is the foundation of the whole. Abraham was not justified merely because he believed that God would “multiply his seed,” (Gen 22:17,) but because he embraced the grace of God, trusting to the promised Mediator, in whom, as Paul elsewhere declares, “all the promises of God are yea and amen.” (2Co 1:20.)

Calvin: Gal 3:7 - Know ye therefore 7.Know ye therefore, or, ye know; for both readings are equally agreeable to the Greek terminationγινώσκετε. But it matters little which ...

7.Know ye therefore, or, ye know; for both readings are equally agreeable to the Greek terminationγινώσκετε. But it matters little which is preferred, for the meaning is the same, only that the old translation, ( know ye,) which I have followed, is more energetic. 58 He says that those “are of faith,” who have relinquished all confidence in works, and rely on the promise of God alone. It is on the authority of Paul himself that we give this interpretation; for in the Epistle to the Romans he thus writes:

“To him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is accounted for righteousness.” (Rom 4:4.)

To be of faith, therefore, is to rest their righteousness and hope of salvation on the mercy of God. That such are the children of God he concludes from the preceding statement; for if Abraham was justified by faith those who wish to be his children must likewise abide firmly by faith. He has omitted one remark, which will be readily supplied, that there is no place in the church for any man who is not a son of Abraham.

Calvin: Gal 3:8 - The scripture foreseeing 8.The scripture foreseeing. What he had said in a general manner is now applied expressly to the Gentiles; for the calling of the Gentiles was a new ...

8.The scripture foreseeing. What he had said in a general manner is now applied expressly to the Gentiles; for the calling of the Gentiles was a new and extraordinary occurrence. Doubts existed as to the manner in which they should be called. Some thought that they were required “to be circumcised and to keep the law,” (Act 15:24,) and that otherwise they were shut out from having a share in the covenant. But Paul shews, on the other hand, that by faith they arrive at the blessing, and by faith they must be “in grafted” (Rom 11:17,) into the family of Abraham. How does he prove this? Because it is said, In thee shall all nations be blessed. These words unquestionably recall that all must be blessed in the same manner as Abraham; for he is the model, nay, the rule, to be universally observed. Now, he obtained the blessing by faith, and in the same manner must it be obtained by all.

Calvin: Gal 3:9 - Faithful Abraham 9.Faithful Abraham. This expression is very emphatic. They are blessed, not with Abraham as circumcised, nor as entitled to boast of the works of th...

9.Faithful Abraham. This expression is very emphatic. They are blessed, not with Abraham as circumcised, nor as entitled to boast of the works of the law, nor as a Hebrew, nor as relying on his own excellence, but with Abraham, who by faith alone obtained the blessing; for no personal quality is here taken into the account, but faith alone. The word Blessing is variously employed in Scripture: but here it signifies Adoption into the inheritance of eternal life.

Calvin: Gal 3:10 - For as many as are of the works of the law 10.For as many as are of the works of the law. The argument is drawn from the contradictory nature of the two schemes; for the same fountain does not...

10.For as many as are of the works of the law. The argument is drawn from the contradictory nature of the two schemes; for the same fountain does not yield both hot and cold. The law holds all living men under its curse; and from the law, therefore, it is in vain to expect a blessing. They are declared to be of the works of the law who place their trust for salvation in those works; for such modes of expression must always be interpreted by the state of the question. Now, we know that the controversy here relates to righteousness. All who wish to be justified by the works of the law are declared to be liable to the curse. But how does he prove this? The sentence of the law is, that all who have transgressed any part of the law are cursed. Let us now see if there be any living man who fulfils the law. But no such person, it is evident, has been, or ever can be found. All to a man are here condemned. The minor and the conclusion are wanting, for the entire syllogism would run thus: “Whoever has come short in any part of the law is cursed; all are held chargeable with this guilt; therefore all are cursed.” This argument of Paul would not stand, if we had sufficient strength to fulfill the law; for there would then be a fatal objection to the minor proposition. Either Paul reasons badly, or it is impossible for men to fulfill the law.

An antagonist might now object: “I admit that all transgressors are accursed; what then? Men will be found who keep the law; for they are free to choose good or evil.” But Paul places here beyond controversy, what the Papists at this day hold to be a detestable doctrine, that men are destitute of strength to keep the law. And so he concludes boldly that all are cursed, because all have been commanded to keep the law perfectly; which implies that in the present corruption of our nature the power of keeping it perfectly is wanting. Hence we conclude that the curse which the law pronounces, though, in the phrase of logicians, it is accidental, is here perpetual and inseparable from its nature. The blessing which it offers to us is excluded by our depravity, so that the curse alone remains.

Calvin: Gal 3:11 - But that no man, is justified by the law // The just shall live by faith 11.But that no man, is justified by the law. He again argues from a comparison of contradictory schemes. “If we are justified by faith, it is not b...

11.But that no man, is justified by the law. He again argues from a comparison of contradictory schemes. “If we are justified by faith, it is not by the law: but we are justified by faith therefore it is not by the law.” The minor is proved by a passage from Habakkuk, which is also quoted in the Epistle to the Romans. (Hab 2:4; Rom 1:17.) The major is proved by the difference in the methods of justification. The law justifies him who fulfils all its precepts, while faith justifies those who are destitute of the merit of works, and who rely on Christ alone. To be justified by our own merit, and to be justified by the grace of another, are two schemes which cannot be reconciled: one of them must be overturned by the other. Such is the amount of the argument: let us now attend to the separate clauses.

The just shall live by faith. As we had occasion to expound this passage where it occurs in the Epistle to the Romans, it will be unnecessary to repeat the exposition of it here. The prophet evidently describes a proud confidence in the flesh as contrasted with true faith. He declares, that “the just shall live;” by which he means, not that they are supported for a short period, and liable to be overwhelmed by an approaching storm; but that they shall continue to live, and that, even amidst the most imminent danger, their life shall be preserved. There is therefore no weight in the scornful reproaches of our adversaries, who allege that the prophet there employs the word Faith in a wider acceptation than Paul does in this passage. By Faith he evidently means the exercise of a calm, steady conscience, relying on God alone; so that Paul’s quotation is properly applied.

Calvin: Gal 3:12 - And the law is not of faith // But the man who shall do these things 12.And the law is not of faith. The law evidently is not contrary to faith; otherwise God would be unlike himself; but we must return to a principle ...

12.And the law is not of faith. The law evidently is not contrary to faith; otherwise God would be unlike himself; but we must return to a principle already noticed, that Paul’s language is modified by the present aspect of the case. The contradiction between the law and faith lies in the matter of justification. You will more easily unite fire and water, than reconcile these two statements, that men are justified by faith, and that they are justified by the law. “The law is not of faith;” that is, it has a method of justifying a man which is wholly at variance with faith.

But the man who shall do these things The difference lies in this, that man, when he fulfils the law, is reckoned righteous by a legal righteousness, which he proves by a quotation from Moses. (Lev 18:5.) Now, what is the righteousness of faith? He defines it in the Epistle to the Romans,

“If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead,
thou shalt be saved.” (Rom 10:9.)

And yet it does not follow from this, that faith is inactive, or that it sets believers free from good works. For the present question is not, whether believers ought to keep the law as far as they can, (which is beyond all doubt,) but whether they can obtain righteousness by works, which is impossible. But since God promises life to the doers of the law, why does Paul affirm that they are not righteous? The reply to this objection is easy. There are none righteous by the works of the law, because there are none who do those works. We admit that the doers of the law, if there were any such, are righteous; but since that is a conditional agreement, all are excluded from life, because no man performs that righteousness which he ought. We must bear in memory what I have already stated, that to do the law is not to obey it in part, but to fulfill everything which belongs to righteousness; and all are at the greatest distance from such perfection.

Calvin: Gal 3:13 - Christ hath redeemed us // It is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree 13.Christ hath redeemed us. The apostle had made all who are under the law subject to the curse; from which arose this great difficulty, that the Jew...

13.Christ hath redeemed us. The apostle had made all who are under the law subject to the curse; from which arose this great difficulty, that the Jews could not free themselves from the curse of the law. Having stated this difficulty, he meets it, by shewing that Christ hath made us free, which still farther aids his purpose. If we are saved, because we have been freed from the curse of the law, then righteousness is not by the law. He next points out the manner in which we are made free.

It is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree. Now, Christ hung upon the cross, therefore he fell under that curse. But it is certain that he did not suffer that punishment on his own account. It follows, therefore, either that he was crucified in vain, or that our curse was laid upon him, in order that we might be delivered from it. Now, he does not say that Christ was cursed, but, which is still more, that he was a curse, — intimating, that the curse “of all men 59 was laid upon him” (Isa 53:6.) If any man think this language harsh, let him be ashamed of the cross of Christ, in the confession of which we glory. It was not unknown to God what death his own Son would die, when he pronounced the law, “He that is hanged is accursed of God.” (Deu 21:23.)

But how does it happen, it will be asked, that a beloved Son is cursed by his Father? We reply, there are two things which must be considered, not only in the person of Christ, but even in his human nature. The one is, that he was the unspotted Lamb of God, full of blessing and of grace; the other is, that he placed himself in our room, and thus became a sinner, and subject to the curse, not in himself indeed, but in us, yet in such a manner, that it became necessary for him to occupy our place. He could not cease to be the object of his Father’s love, and yet he endured his wrath. For how could he reconcile the Father to us, if he had incurred his hatred and displeasure? We conclude, that he “did always those things that pleased” (Joh 8:29) his Father. Again, how would he have freed us from the wrath of God, if he had not transferred it from us to himself? Thus, “he was wounded for our transgressions,” (Isa 53:5,) and had to deal with God as an angry judge. This is the foolishness of the cross, (1Co 1:18,) and the admiration of angels, (1Pe 1:12,) which not only exceeds, but swallows up, all the wisdom of the world.

Calvin: Gal 3:14 - That the blessing of Abraham // The promise of the Spirit 14.That the blessing of Abraham. Having said that “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law” he now applies that statement more closely ...

14.That the blessing of Abraham. Having said that “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law” he now applies that statement more closely to his purpose. The promised blessing of Abraham is founded on this, and flows from it to the Gentiles. If the Jews must be delivered from the law, in order to become the heirs of Abraham, what shall hinder the Gentiles from obtaining the same benefit? And if that blessing is found in Christ alone, it is faith in Christ which alone brings it into our possession.

The promise of the Spirit appears to me to mean, agreeably to a Hebrew idiom, a spiritual promise. Although that promise relates to the New Testament, “I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh,” (Joe 2:28,) yet, in this passage, Paul refers to another subject. The spirit is here contrasted with all outward things, not with ceremonies merely, but with lineal descent, so as to leave no room for diversity of rank. From the nature of the promise, he proves that Jews differ nothing from Gentiles; because, if it is spiritual, it is received by faith alone.

Calvin: Gal 3:15 - I speak after the manner of men // Though it be but a man’s covenant 15.I speak after the manner of men. By this expression he intended to put them to the blush. It is highly disgraceful and base that the testimony of ...

15.I speak after the manner of men. By this expression he intended to put them to the blush. It is highly disgraceful and base that the testimony of God should have less weight with us than that of a mortal man. In demanding that the sacred covenant of God shall receive not less deference than is commonly yielded to ordinary human transactions, he does not place God on a level with men. The immense distance between God and men is still left for their consideration.

Though it be but a man’s covenant. This is an argument from the less to the greater. Human contracts are admitted on all hands to be binding: how much more what God has established? The Greek wordδιαθήκη, here used, signifies more frequently, what the Latin versions here render it, ( testamentum,) a testament; but sometimes too, a covenant, though in this latter sense the plural number is more generally employed. It is of little importance to the present passage, whether you explain it covenant or testament. The case is different with the Epistle to the Hebrews, where the apostle unquestionably alludes to testaments, (Heb 9:16;) but here I prefer to take it simply for the covenant which God made. The analogy from which the apostle argues, would not apply so strictly to a testament as to a covenant. The apostle appears to reason from human bargains to that solemn covenant into which God entered with Abraham. If human bargains be so firm that they can receive no addition, how much more must this covenant remain inviolable?

Calvin: Gal 3:16 - Now to Abraham, and his seed // He saith not, And to seeds 16.Now to Abraham, and his seed. Before pursuing his argument, he introduces an observation about the substance of the covenant, that it rests on Chr...

16.Now to Abraham, and his seed. Before pursuing his argument, he introduces an observation about the substance of the covenant, that it rests on Christ alone. But if Christ be the foundation of the bargain, it follows that it is of free grace; and this too is the meaning of the word promise. As the law has respect to men and to their works, so the promise has respect to the grace of God and to faith.

He saith not, And to seeds To prove that in this place God speaks of Christ, he calls attention to the singular number as denoting some particular seed. I have often been astonished that Christians, when they saw this passage so perversely tortured by the Jews, did not make a more determined resistance; for all pass it slightly as if it were an indisputed territory. And yet there is much plausibility in their objection. Since the word seed is a collective noun, Paul appears to reason inconclusively, when he contends that a single individual is denoted by this word, under which all the descendants of Abraham are comprehended in a passage already quoted, “In multiplying I will multiply thy seed, זרע ( zerang,) or זרעך ( zargnacha,) as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea-shore.” (Gen 22:17.) Having, as they imagine, detected the fallacy of the argument, they treat us with haughty triumph.

I am the more surprised that our own writers should have been silent on this head, as we have abundant means of repelling their slander. Among Abraham’s own sons a division began, for one of the sons was cut off from the family. “In Isaac shall thy seed be called.” (Gen 21:12.) Consequently Ishmael is not included in the reckoning. Let us come a step lower. Do the Jews allow that the posterity of Esau are the blessed seed? nay, it will be maintained that their father, though the first-born, was struck off. And how many nations have sprung from the stock of Abraham who have no share in this “calling?” The twelve patriarchs, at length, formed twelve heads, not because they were descended from the line of Abraham, but because they had been appointed by a particular election of God. Since the ten tribes were carried away, (Hos 9:17,) how many thousands have so degenerated that they no longer hold a name among the seed of Abraham? Lastly, a trial was made of the tribe of Judah, that the real succession to the blessing might be transmitted among a small people. And this had been predicted by Isaiah,

“Though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea,
yet a remnant of them shall return.” (Isa 10:22.)

Hitherto I have said nothing which the Jews themselves do not acknowledge. Let them answer me then; how comes it that the thirteen tribes sprung from the twelve patriarchs were the seed of Abraham, in preference to Ishmaelites and Edomites? Why do they exclusively glory in that name, and set aside the others as a spurious seed? They will, no doubt, boast that they have obtained it by their own merit; but Scripture, on the contrary, asserts that all depends on the calling of God; for we must constantly return to the privilege conveyed in these words, “In Isaac shall thy seed be called.” (Gen 21:12.) The uninterrupted succession to this privilege must have been in force until Christ; for, in the person of David, the Lord afterwards brought back by recovery, as we might say, the promise which had been made to Abraham. In proving, therefore, that this prediction applies to a single individual, Paul does not make his argument rest on the use of the singular number. He merely shews that the word seed must denote one who was not only descended from Abraham according to the flesh, but had been likewise appointed for this purpose by the calling of God. If the Jews deny this, they will only make themselves ridiculous by their obstinacy.

But as Paul likewise argues from these words, that a covenant had been made in Christ, or to Christ, let us inquire into the force of that expression,

“In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.”
(Gen 22:18.)

The Jews taunt the apostle with making a comparison, as if the seed of Abraham were to be quoted as an example in all disastrous omens and prayers; while, on the contrary, to curse in Sodom or Israel is to employ the name of Sodom or Israel in forms of cursing. This, I own, is sometimes the case, but not always; for to bless one’s self in God has quite a different meaning, as the Jews themselves admit. Since, therefore, the phrase is ambiguous, denoting sometimes a cause and sometimes a comparison, wherever, it occurs, it must be explained by the context. We have ascertained, then, that we are all cursed by nature, and that the blessing of Abraham has been promised to all nations. Do all indiscriminately reach it? Certainly not, but those only who are “gathered” (Isa 66:8) to the Messiah; for when, under His government and direction, they are collected into one body, they then become one people. Whoever then, laying disputing aside, shall inquire into the truth, will readily acknowledge that the words here signify not a mere comparison but a cause; and hence it follows that Paul had good ground for saying, that the covenant was made in Christ, or in reference to Christ.

Calvin: Gal 3:17 - The law which was four hundred and thirty years after 17.The law which was four hundred and thirty years after. If we listen to Origen and Jerome and all the Papists, there will be little difficulty in r...

17.The law which was four hundred and thirty years after. If we listen to Origen and Jerome and all the Papists, there will be little difficulty in refuting this argument. Paul reasons thus: “A promise was given to Abraham four hundred and thirty years before the publication of the law; therefore the law which came after could not disannul the promise; and hence he concludes that ceremonies are not necessary.” But it may be objected, the sacraments were given in order to preserve the faith, and why should Paul separate them from the promise? He does so separate them, and proceeds to argue on the matter. The ceremonies themselves are not so much considered by him as something higher, — the effect of justification which was attributed to them by false apostles, and the obligation on the conscience. From ceremonies, accordingly, he takes occasion to discuss the whole subject of faith and works. If the point in dispute had no connection with obtaining righteousness, with the merit of works, or with ensnaring the conscience, ceremonies would be quite consistent with the promise.

What, then, is meant by this disannulling of the promise, against which the apostle contends? The impostors denied that salvation is freely promised to men, and received by faith, and, as we shall presently see, urged the necessity of works in order to merit salvation. I return to Paul’s own language. “The law,” he says, “is later than the promise, and therefore does not revoke it; for a covenant once sanctioned must remain perpetually binding.” I again repeat, if you do not understand that the promise is free, there will be no force in the statement; for the law and the promise are not at variance but on this single point, that the law justifies a man by the merit of works, and the promise bestows righteousness freely. This is made abundantly clear when he calls it a covenant founded on Christ.

But here we shall have the Papists to oppose us, for they will find a ready method of evading this argument. “We do not require,” they will say, “that the old ceremonies shall be any longer binding; let them be laid out of the question; nevertheless a man is justified by the moral law. For this law, which is as old as the creation of man, went before God’s covenant with Abraham; so that Paul’s reasoning is either frivolous, or it holds against ceremonies alone.” I answer, Paul took into account what was certainly true, that, except by a covenant with God, no reward is due to works. Admitting, then, that the law justifies, yet before the law men could not merit salvation by works, because there was no covenant. All that I am now affirming is granted by the scholastic theologians: for they maintain that works are meritorious of salvation, not by their intrinsic worth, but by the acceptance of God, (to use their own phrase,) and on the ground of a covenant. Consequently, where no divine covenant, no declaration of acceptance is found, — no works will be available for justification: so that Paul’s argument is perfectly conclusive. He tells us that God made two covenants with men; one through Abraham, and another through Moses. The former, being founded on Christ, was free; and therefore the law, which came after, could not enable men to obtain salvation otherwise than by grace, for then, “it would make the promise of none effect.” That this is the meaning appears clearly from what immediately follows.

Calvin: Gal 3:18 - If the inheritance be of the law 18.If the inheritance be of the law. His opponents might still reply, that nothing was farther from their intention than to weaken or disannul God’...

18.If the inheritance be of the law. His opponents might still reply, that nothing was farther from their intention than to weaken or disannul God’s covenant. To deprive them of every kind of subterfuge, he comes forward with the assertion, that salvation by the law, and salvation by the promise of God, are wholly inconsistent with each other. Who will dare to explain this as applying to ceremonies alone, while Paul comprehends under it whatever interferes with a free promise? Beyond all doubt, he excludes works of every description. “For,” says he to the Romans,

“if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void,
and the promise made of none effect.” (Rom 4:14.)

Why so? Because salvation would be suspended on the condition of satisfying the law; and so he immediately concludes:

“Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace, in order that the promise might be sure to all the seed.” (Rom 4:16.)

Let us carefully remember the reason why, in comparing the promise with the law, the establishment of the one overturns the other. The reason is, that the promise has respect to faith, and the law to works. Faith receives what is freely given, but to works a reward is paid. And he immediately adds, God gave it to Abraham, not by requiring some sort of compensation on his part, but by free promise; for if you view it as conditional, the word gave, (κεχάρισται,) would be utterly inapplicable.

Calvin: Gal 3:19 - Till the seed should come // Ordained by angels When we are told that the law has no influence in obtaining justification, various suggestions immediately arise, that it must be either useless, or ...

When we are told that the law has no influence in obtaining justification, various suggestions immediately arise, that it must be either useless, or opposed to God’s covenant, or something of that sort. Nay, it might occur, why should we not say of the law, what Jeremiah says of the New Testament, (Jer 31:31,) that it was given at a later period, in order to supply the weakness of the former doctrine? Objections of this kind must be answered, if Paul wished to satisfy the Galatians. First, then, he inquires, — what is the use of the law? Having come after the promise, it appears to have been intended to supply its defects; and there was room at least for doubting, whether the promise would have been effectual, if it had not been aided by the law. Let it be observed, that Paul does not speak of the moral law only, but of everything connected with the office held by Moses. That office, which was peculiar to Moses, consisted in laying down a rule of life and ceremonies to be observed in the worship of God, and in afterwards adding promises and threatenings. Many promises, no doubt, relating to the free mercy of God and to Christ, are to be found in his writings; and these promises belong to faith. But this must be viewed as accidental, and altogether foreign to the inquiry, so far as a comparison is made between the law and the doctrine of grace. Let it be remembered, that the amount of the question is this: When a promise had been made, why did Moses afterwards add that new condition, “If a man do, he shall live in them;” and, “Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them?” (Lev 18:5; Deu 27:26.) Was it to produce something better and more perfect?

19. Because of transgressions. The law has manifold uses, but Paul confines himself to that which bears on his present subject. He did not propose to inquire in how many ways the law is of advantage to men. It is necessary to put readers on their guard on this point; for very many, I find, have fallen into the mistake of acknowledging no other advantage belonging to the law, but what is expressed in this passage. Paul himself elsewhere speaks of the precepts of the law as profitable for doctrine and exhortations. (2Ti 3:16.) The definition here given of the use of the law is not complete, and those who refuse to make any other acknowledgment in favor of the law do wrong. Now, what is the import of the phrase, because of transgressions ? It agrees with the saying of philosophers, that “The law was made for restraining evil-doers,” and with the old proverb, “From bad manners have sprung good laws.” But Paul’s meaning is more extensive than the words may seem to convey. He means that the law was published in order to make known transgressions, and in this way to compel men to acknowledge their guilt. As men naturally are too ready to excuse themselves, so, until they are roused by the law, their consciences are asleep.

“Until the law,” says Paul, “sin was in the world:
but sin is not imputed where there is no law.” (Rom 5:13.)

The law came and roused the sleepers, for this is the true preparation for Christ. “By the law is the knowledge of sin.” (Rom 3:20.) Why?

“That Sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful.” (Rom 7:13.)

Thus, “the law was added because of transgressions,” in order to reveal their true character, or, as he tells the Romans, that it might make them to abound. (Rom 5:20.)

This passage has tortured the ingenuity of Origen, but to no purpose. If God summon consciences to his tribunal, that those qualities in their transgression, which would otherwise give them pleasure, may humble them by a conviction of guilt, — if he shake off the listlessness which overwhelmed all dread of his judgment-seat, — if he drag to light; sin, which lurked like a thief in the den of hypocrisy, — what is there in all this that can be reckoned absurd? But it may be objected: “As the law is the rule of a devout and holy life, why is it said to be added ‘because of transgressions,’ rather than ‘because of obedience?’” I answer, however much it may point out true righteousness, yet, owing to the corruption of our nature, its instruction tends only to increase transgressions, until the Spirit of regeneration come, who writes it on the heart; and that Spirit is not given by the law, but is received by faith. This saying of Paul, let the reader remember, is not of a philosophical or political character, but expresses a purpose of the law, with which the world had been always unacquainted.

Till the seed should come. If it has respect to seed, it must be to that on which the blessing has been pronounced, and therefore it does not interfere with the promise. The word till, (ἄχρις οὗ,) signifies so long as the seed is expected: and hence it follows, that it must have been intended to occupy not the highest, but a subordinate rank. It was given in order to rouse men to the expectation of Christ. But was it necessary that it should last only until the coming of Christ? For if so, it follows that it is now abolished. The whole of that administration, I reply, was temporal, and was given for the purpose of preserving among the ancient people an attachment to the faith of Christ. And yet I do not admit that, by the coming of Christ, the whole law was abolished. The apostle did not intend this, but merely that the mode of administration, which for a time had been introduced, must receive its accomplishment in Christ, who is the fulfillment of the promise. 60 But on this subject we shall have occasion to speak more fully afterwards.

Ordained by angels. The circumstance, that it was delivered through angels, tends to the commendation of the law. This is declared by Stephen (Act 7:53) also, who says, that they had “received the law, (εἰς διαταγὰς ἀγγέλων,) into the dispositions of angels.” The interpretation given by some, that Moses and Aaron, and the priests, are the angels here meant, is more ingenious than solid. Nor is it wonderful that angels, by whom God bestows on us some of the smallest of his blessings, should have been intrusted also with this office of attending as witnesses at the promulgation of the law.

===In the hand of a Mediator === Hand usually signifies ministration; but as angels were ministers in giving the law, I consider “the hand of the Mediator” to denote the highest rank of service. The Mediator was at the head of the embassy, and angels were united with him as his companions. Some apply this expression to Moses, as marking a comparison between Moses and Christ; but I agree rather with the ancient expositors, who apply it to Christ himself. 61 This view, it will be found, agrees better with the context, though I differ from the ancients likewise as to the meaning of the word. Mediator does not, as they imagine, signify here one who makes reconciliation, which it does in these words,

“There is one Mediator between God and men,
the man Christ Jesus,” (1Ti 2:5,)

— but an ambassador employed in promulgating a law.

We are thus to understand, that, since the beginning of the world, God has held no intercourse with men, but through the agency of his eternal Wisdom or Son. Hence Peter says, that the holy prophets spake by the “Spirit of Christ,” (1Pe 1:11,) and Paul makes him the leader of the people in the wilderness. (1Co 10:4.) And certainly the Angel who appeared to Moses, (Exo 3:2,) can be no other person; for he claims to himself the peculiar and essential name of God, which is never applied to creatures. As he is the Mediator of reconciliation, by whom we are accepted of God, — the Mediator of intercession, who opens up for us a way to “call on the Father,” (1Pe 1:17,) — so he has always been the Mediator of all doctrine, because by him God has always revealed himself to men. And this he intended to state expressly, for the purpose of informing the Galatians, that he who is the foundation of the covenant of grace, held also the highest rank in the giving of the law.

Calvin: Gal 3:20 - Now, a mediator is not a mediator of one 20.Now, a mediator is not a mediator of one Some are disposed to philosophize on this expression, and would make Paul’s meaning to be, that the two...

20.Now, a mediator is not a mediator of one Some are disposed to philosophize on this expression, and would make Paul’s meaning to be, that the twofold nature of Christ is not one in essence. But that Paul is here speaking of the contracting parties, no man of sound judgment entertains a doubt. And so they commonly expound it, that there is no room for a Mediator, unless when one of the parties has a matter to transact with the other. But why that statement should have been introduced they leave undetermined, though the passage manifestly deserves the most careful attention. There may, perhaps, be an Anticipation (πρόληψις) of some wicked thought that might arise about a change of the divine purpose. Some one might say, “As men, when they change their mind about their covenants, are wont to retract them, so has it happened with the covenants of God.” If you take this to be the meaning, then, in the former clause, Paul would acknowledge that men, who occupy one side of this contract, are unsteady and changeable, while God nevertheless remains the same, is consistent with himself, and partakes not of the unsteadiness of men.

But when I take a closer view of the whole subject, I rather think that it marks a difference between Jews and Gentiles. Christ is not the Mediator of one, because, in respect of outward character, there is a diversity of condition among those with whom, through his mediation, God enters into covenant. But Paul asserts that we have no right to judge in this manner of the covenant of God, as if it contradicted itself, or varied according to the diversities of men. The words are now clear. As Christ formerly reconciled God to the Jews in making a covenant, so now he is the Mediator of the Gentiles. The Jews differ widely from the Gentiles; for circumcision and ceremonies have erected “the middle wall of partition between them.” (Eph 2:14.) They were “nigh” to God, (Eph 2:13,) while the Gentiles were “afar off;” but still God is consistent with himself. This becomes evident, when Christ brings those who formerly differed among themselves to one God, and makes them unite in one body. God is one, because he always continues to be like himself, and, with unvarying regularity, holds fixed and unalterable the purpose which he has once made. 62

Calvin: Gal 3:21 - Is the law then against the promises of God? // For if there had been a law given 21.Is the law then against the promises of God? The certainty and steadiness of the divine purpose being admitted, we are bound equally to conclude t...

21.Is the law then against the promises of God? The certainty and steadiness of the divine purpose being admitted, we are bound equally to conclude that its results are not contrary to each other. Still there was a difficulty to be resolved, arising from the apparent contradiction between the Law and the covenant of grace. This is, perhaps, an exclamation. Dreading no farther contradiction, now that the point is settled, Paul concludes, that the former arguments have placed it beyond a doubt, and exclaims: “Who will now dare to imagine a disagreement between the law and the promises?” And yet this does not prevent Paul from proceeding to remove the difficulties that might still arise.

Before answering the question, he expresses, in his usual manner, a high disdain of such folly; thus intimating the strong abhorrence with which pious men must regard whatever brings reproach on the Divine character. But another instance of high address, which claims our notice, is found in this turn of expression. He charges his adversaries with the offense of making God contradict himself. For from him the Law and the promises have evidently proceeded: whoever then alleges any contradiction between them blasphemes against God: but they do contradict each other, if the Law justifies. Thus does Paul most dexterously retort upon his adversaries the charge which they falsely and calumniously brought against him.

For if there had been a law given. The reply is (what is called) indirect, and does not plainly assert an agreement between the law and the promises, but contains all that is necessary to remove the contradiction. At first sight, you would say that this sentence departs from the context, and has nothing to do with the solution of the question; but this is not the case. The law would be opposed to the promises, if it had the power of justifying; for there would be two opposite methods of justifying a man, two separate roads towards the attainment of righteousness. But Paul refuses to the law such a power; so that the contradiction is removed. I would admit, says he, that righteousness is obtained by the law, if salvation were found in it. But what?

Calvin: Gal 3:22 - The Scripture hath concluded // That the promise by faith 22.The Scripture hath concluded. By the word Scripture is chiefly intended the law itself. It “hath concluded all under sin,” and therefore, inst...

22.The Scripture hath concluded. By the word Scripture is chiefly intended the law itself. It “hath concluded all under sin,” and therefore, instead of giving, it takes away righteousness from all. The reasoning is most powerful. “You seek righteousness in the law: but the law itself, with the whole of Scripture, leaves nothing to men but condemnation; for all men, with their works, are pronounced to be unrighteous: who then shall live by the law?” He alludes to these words,

“He who shall do these things, shall live in them.” (Lev 18:5.)

Shut out by it, says he, from life through guilt, in vain should we seek salvation by the law. — The word translated all (τὰ πάντα) signifies all things, and conveys more than if he had said all men; for it embraces not only men, but every thing which they possess or can accomplish.

That the promise by faith. There is no remedy but to throw away the righteousness of works, and betake ourselves to the faith of Christ. The result is certain. If works come into judgment, we are all condemned; therefore we obtain, by the faith of Christ, a free righteousness. This sentence is full of the highest consolation. It tells us that, wherever we hear ourselves condemned in Scripture, there is help provided for us in Christ, if we betake ourselves to him. We are lost, though God were silent: why then does he so often pronounce that we are lost? It is that we may not perish by everlasting destruction, but, struck and confounded by such a dreadful sentence, may by faith seek Christ, through whom we “pass from death into life.” (1Jo 3:14.) By a figure of speech, (μετωνυμία,) in which the thing containing is put for the thing contained, the promise denotes that which is promised.

Calvin: Gal 3:23 - Before faith came // Faith 23.Before faith came. The question proposed is now more fully defined. He explains at great length the use of the law, and the reason why it was temp...

23.Before faith came. The question proposed is now more fully defined. He explains at great length the use of the law, and the reason why it was temporal; for otherwise it would have appeared to be always unreasonable that a law should be delivered to the Jews, from which the Gentiles were excluded. If there be but one church consisting of Jews and Gentiles, why is there a diversity in its government? Whence is this new liberty derived, and on what authority does it rest, since the fathers were under subjection to the law? He therefore informs us, that the distinction is such as not to interrupt the union and harmony of the church.

We must again remind the reader that Paul does not treat exclusively of ceremonies, or of the moral law, but embraces the whole economy by which the Lord governed his people under the Old Testament. It became a subject of dispute whether the form of government instituted by Moses had any influence in obtaining righteousness. Paul compares this law first to a prison, and next to a schoolmaster. Such was the nature of the law, as both comparisons plainly show, that it could not have been in force beyond a certain time.

Faith denotes the full revelation of those things which, during the darkness of the shadows of the law, were dimly seen; for he does not intend to say that the fathers, who lived under the law, did not possess faith. The faith of Abraham has already come under our notice, and other instances are quoted by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. (Heb 11:0.) The doctrine of faith, in short, is attested by Moses and all the prophets: but, as faith was not then clearly manifested, so the time of faith is an appellation here given, not in an absolute, but in a comparative sense, to the time of the New Testament. That this was his meaning is evident from what he immediately adds, that they were shut up under the faith which should afterwards be revealed; for this implies that those who were under the custody of the law were partakers of the same faith. The law did not restrain them from faith; but, that they might not wander from the fold of faith, it kept possession of themselves. There is an elegant allusion, too, to what he had formerly said, that “the scripture hath concluded all under sin.” They were besieged on every hand by the curse, but this siege was counteracted by an imprisonment which protected them from the curse; so that the imprisonment by the law is here proved to have been highly generous in its character.

Faith was not yet revealed, not because the fathers wanted light, but because they had less light than we have. The ceremonies might be said to shadow out an absent Christ, but to us he is represented as actually present, and thus while they had the mirror, we have the substance. Whatever might be the amount of darkness under the law, the fathers were not ignorant of the road in which they ought to walk. Though the dawn is not equal to the splendor of noon, yet, as it is sufficient to direct a journey, travelers do not wait till the sun is fully risen. Their portion of light resembled the dawn, which was enough to preserve them from all error, and guide them to everlasting blessedness.

Calvin: Gal 3:24 - Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster // That we might be justified by faith 24.Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster This is the second comparison, which still more clearly expresses Paul’s design. A schoolmaster is not ap...

24.Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster This is the second comparison, which still more clearly expresses Paul’s design. A schoolmaster is not appointed for the whole life, but only for childhood, as the etymology of the Greek wordπαιδαγωγός implies. 63 Besides, in training a child, the object is to prepare him, by the instructions of childhood, for maturer years. The comparison applies in both respects to the law, for its authority was limited to a particular age, and its whole object was to prepare its scholars in such a manner, that, when its elementary instructions were closed, they might make progress worthy of manhood. And so he adds, that it was our schoolmaster (εἰς Χριστὸν) unto Christ. The grammarian, when he has trained a boy, delivers him into the hands of another, who conducts him through the higher branches of a finished education. In like manner, the law was the grammar of theology, which, after carrying its scholars a short way, handed them over to faith to be completed. Thus, Paul compares the Jews to children, and us to advanced youth.

But a question arises, what was the instruction or education of this schoolmaster? First, the law, by displaying the justice of God, convinced them that in themselves they were unrighteous; for in the commandments of God, as in a mirror, they might see how far they were distant from true righteousness. They were thus reminded that righteousness must be sought in some other quarter. The promises of the law served the same purpose, and might lead to such reflections as these: “If you cannot obtain life by works but by fulfilling the law, some new and different method must be sought. Your weakness will never allow you to ascend so high; nay, though you desire and strive ever so much, you will fall far short of the object.” The threatenings, on the other hand, pressed and entreated them to seek refuge from the wrath and curse of God, and gave them no rest till they were constrained to seek the grace of Christ.

Such too, was the tendency of all the ceremonies; for what end did sacrifices and washings serve but to keep the mind continually fixed on pollution and condemnation? When a man’s uncleanness is placed before his eyes, when the unoffending animal is held forth as the image of his own death, how can he indulge in sleep? How can he but be roused to the earnest cry for deliverance? Beyond all doubt, ceremonies accomplished their object, not merely by alarming and humbling the conscience, but by exciting them to the faith of the coming Redeemer. In the imposing services of the Mosaic ritual, every thing that was presented to the eye bore an impress of Christ. The law, in short, was nothing else than an immense variety of exercises, in which the worshippers were led by the hand to Christ.

That we might be justified by faith. He has already said that the law is not perfect, when he compared it to the training of childhood; but it would make men perfect if it bestowed upon them righteousness. What remains but that faith shall take its place? And so it does, when we, who are destitute of a righteousness of our own, are clothed by it with the righteousness of Christ. Thus is the saying accomplished, “he hath filled the hungry with good things.” (Luk 1:53.)

Calvin: Gal 3:25 - But after that faith is come 25.But after that faith is come. This phrase has been already considered. It denotes the brighter revelation of grace after that “the vail of the t...

25.But after that faith is come. This phrase has been already considered. It denotes the brighter revelation of grace after that “the vail of the temple was rent in twain,” (Mat 27:51,) which, we know, was effected by the manifestation of Christ. He affirms that, under the reign of Christ, there is no longer any childhood which needs to be placed under a schoolmaster, and that, consequently, the law has resigned its office, — which is another application of the comparison. There were two things which he had undertaken to prove, — that the law is a preparation for Christ, and that it is temporal. But here the question is again put, Is the law so abolished that we have nothing to do with it? I answer, the law, so far as it is a rule of life, a bridle to keep us in the fear of the Lord, a spur to correct the sluggishness of our flesh, — so far, in short, as it is

“profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that believers may be instructed in every good work,” (2Ti 3:16,)

— is as much in force as ever, and remains untouched.

In what respect, then, is it abolished? Paul, we have said, looks at the law as possessing certain qualities, and those qualities we shall enumerate. It annexes to works a reward and a punishment; that is, it promises life to those who keep it, and curses all transgressors. Meanwhile, it requires from man the highest perfection and most exact obedience. It makes no abatement, gives no pardon, but calls to a severe reckoning the smallest offenses. It does not openly exhibit Christ and his grace, but points him out at a distance, and only when hidden by the covering of ceremonies. All such qualities of the law, Paul tells us, are abolished; so that the office of Moses is now at an end, so far as it differs in outward aspect from a covenant of grace.

Calvin: Gal 3:26 - For ye are all the children of God 26.For ye are all the children of God. It would be unjust, and in the highest degree unreasonable, that the law should hold believers in perpetual sl...

26.For ye are all the children of God. It would be unjust, and in the highest degree unreasonable, that the law should hold believers in perpetual slavery. This is proved by the additional argument, that they are the children of God. It would not be enough to say that we are no longer children, unless it were added that we are freemen; for in slaves age makes no alteration. The fact of their being the children of God proves their freedom. How? By faith in Christ Jesus; for

“as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name.”
(Joh 1:12.)

Since, then, by faith we have obtained adoption, by faith likewise we have obtained our freedom.

Calvin: Gal 3:27 - As many of you as have been baptized 27.As many of you as have been baptized. The greater and loftier the privilege is of being the children of God, the farther is it removed from our se...

27.As many of you as have been baptized. The greater and loftier the privilege is of being the children of God, the farther is it removed from our senses, and the more difficult to obtain belief. He therefore explains, in a few words, what is implied in our being united, or rather, made one with the Son of God; so as to remove all doubt, that what belongs to him is communicated to us. He employs the metaphor of a garment, when he says that the Galatians have put on Christ; but he means that they are so closely united to him, that, in the presence of God, they bear the name and character of Christ, and are viewed in him rather than in themselves. This metaphor or similitude, taken from garments, occurs frequently, and has been treated by us in other places.

But the argument, that, because they have been baptized, they have put on Christ, appears weak; for how far is baptism from being efficacious in all? Is it reasonable that the grace of the Holy Spirit should be so closely linked to an external symbol? Does not the uniform doctrine of Scripture, as well as experience, appear to confute this statement? I answer, it is customary with Paul to treat of the sacraments in two points of view. When he is dealing with hypocrites, in whom the mere symbol awakens pride, he then proclaims loudly the emptiness and worthlessness of the outward symbol, and denounces, in strong terms, their foolish confidence. In such cases he contemplates not the ordinance of God, but the corruption of wicked men. When, on the other hand, he addresses believers, who make a proper use of the symbols, he then views them in connection with the truth — which they represent. In this case, he makes no boast of any false splendor as belonging to the sacraments, but calls our attention to the actual fact represented by the outward ceremony. Thus, agreeably to the Divine appointment, the truth comes to be associated with the symbols.

But perhaps some person will ask, Is it then possible that, through the fault of men, a sacrament shall cease to bear a figurative meaning? The reply is easy. Though wicked men may derive no advantage from the sacraments, they still retain undiminished their nature and force. The sacraments present, both to good and to bad men, the grace of God. No falsehood attaches to the promises which they exhibit of the grace of the Holy Spirit. Believers receive what is offered; and if wicked men, by rejecting it, render the offer unprofitable to themselves, their conduct cannot destroy the faithfulness of God, or the true meaning of the sacrament. 64 With strict propriety, then, does Paul, in addressing believers, say, that when they were baptized, they “put on Christ;” just as, in the Epistle to the Romans, he says,

“that we have been planted together into his death,
so as to be also partakers of his resurrection.”
(Rom 6:5.)

In this way, the symbol and the Divine operation are kept distinct, and yet the meaning of the sacraments is manifest; so that they cannot be regarded as empty and trivial exhibitions; and we are reminded with what base ingratitude they are chargeable, who, by abusing the precious ordinances of God, not only render them unprofitable to themselves, but turn them to their own destruction!

Calvin: Gal 3:28 - There is neither Jew nor Greek 28.There is neither Jew nor Greek. The meaning is, that there is no distinction of persons here, and therefore it is of no consequence to what nation...

28.There is neither Jew nor Greek. The meaning is, that there is no distinction of persons here, and therefore it is of no consequence to what nation or condition any one may belong: nor is circumcision any more regarded than sex or civil rank. And why? Because Christ makes them all one. Whatever may have been their former differences, Christ alone is able to unite them all. Ye are one: the distinction is now removed. The apostle’s object is to shew that the grace of adoption, and the hope of salvation, do not depend on the law, but are contained in Christ alone, who therefore is all. Greek is here put, as usual, for Gentile, and one department for the whole class.

Calvin: Gal 3:29 - Then are ye Abraham’s seed 29.Then are ye Abraham’s seed. This is not intended to convey the idea, that to be a child of Abraham is better than to be a member of Christ, — ...

29.Then are ye Abraham’s seed. This is not intended to convey the idea, that to be a child of Abraham is better than to be a member of Christ, — but to repress the pride of the Jews, who gloried in their privilege, as if they alone were the people of God. They reckoned no distinction higher than to belong to the race of Abraham; and this very distinction he makes to be common to all who believe in Christ. The conclusion rests on this argument, that Christ is the blessed seed, in whom, as we have said, all the children of Abraham are united. He proves this by the universal offer of the inheritance to them all, from which it follows, that the promise includes them among the children. It deserves notice, that, wherever faith is mentioned, it is always his relation to the promise.

Defender: Gal 3:1 - foolish Galatians Unlike most of his other epistles, Galatians includes no prayer requests from Paul, nor any commendations of the church and its ministry. Paul had pre...

Unlike most of his other epistles, Galatians includes no prayer requests from Paul, nor any commendations of the church and its ministry. Paul had preached the doctrines of salvation by grace and Christian liberty so clearly and effectively when he had first established these churches that it was hard for him to understand how they could so quickly and easily be led into false doctrine. This is a problem today as well. Professing Christians are being "tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine" (Eph 4:14), not only with legalism but also with evolutionism, emotionalism, libertinism, and many other unscriptural heresies. Many, like the Galatians, have been "bewitched" by clever persuasion into such deceptions. The Greek word for "bewitched" is used only this once in the New Testament, and does not necessarily refer to witchcraft. The connotation is "fascinated" or "deceived.""

Defender: Gal 3:6 - righteousness Paul here was referring to Gen 15:6, as he also did in Rom 4:3, and as James did in Jam 2:23. Thus, as he repeatedly stresses, the doctrine of justifi...

Paul here was referring to Gen 15:6, as he also did in Rom 4:3, and as James did in Jam 2:23. Thus, as he repeatedly stresses, the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ, accompanied by the corollary truth of having Christ's perfect righteousness imputed to us while He is made sin for us and bears our penalty, is not merely a divine afterthought following the failure of Israel under the law. It was the very means by which Abraham, the patriarchal father of Israel, was saved and which continues to apply today."

Defender: Gal 3:7 - children of Abraham Abraham is not merely the ancestral father of the nation of Israel but also of all those people of every nation and every age who come to the true God...

Abraham is not merely the ancestral father of the nation of Israel but also of all those people of every nation and every age who come to the true God of creation (compare Gen 15:5), through faith in His Son Jesus Christ (note Joh 8:56-58 concerning Abraham's understanding of the coming day of Christ)."

Defender: Gal 3:8 - scripture God's original promise to Abraham, quoted here from Gen 12:3, required the coming of Christ into the world to redeem the world for its fulfillment. Si...

God's original promise to Abraham, quoted here from Gen 12:3, required the coming of Christ into the world to redeem the world for its fulfillment. Since the promise was with reference to "all nations," and due to the fact that this was long before Israel became a nation, Abraham surely understood the promise to be of universal scope. Abraham thus believed this very early form of the gospel and was justified by faith many years before God gave him the sign of circumcision as a token of the covenant (Gen 17:9-14).

Defender: Gal 3:8 - justify the heathen "Heathen" is the same as "nations" and "Gentiles." God's Word, as given to Abraham, indicated that all nations would be justified by faith (at this ti...

"Heathen" is the same as "nations" and "Gentiles." God's Word, as given to Abraham, indicated that all nations would be justified by faith (at this time, there was as yet no distinction between Jews and Gentiles). This was a unique revelation in a day when all the world's nations had already drifted away from monotheism and creationism and were relying on "works" to achieve whatever they may have understood as "salvation" or "justification.""

Defender: Gal 3:10 - it is written It was impossible, of course, for any Israelite or any one else to keep "all" the commandments of the law (Jam 2:10), and therefore they were all unde...

It was impossible, of course, for any Israelite or any one else to keep "all" the commandments of the law (Jam 2:10), and therefore they were all under the "curse" of the law (Deu 27:26). All men were already under God's universal curse because of sin (Gen 3:17-20), but now the curse becomes more explicit because the definition of sin has become more explicit. No one in Israel could any longer offer the excuse that they did not know what sin was because the law as given to Moses had spelled it out quite clearly. "What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin but by the law" (Rom 7:7)."

Defender: Gal 3:11 - just shall live by faith In defense of his thesis, Paul not only argues from Genesis but also from the prophets, here quoting from Hab 2:4 (Rom 1:17; Heb 10:38). Martin Luther...

In defense of his thesis, Paul not only argues from Genesis but also from the prophets, here quoting from Hab 2:4 (Rom 1:17; Heb 10:38). Martin Luther made this great verse, with its doctrine of justification by faith, the watchword of the Reformation."

Defender: Gal 3:12 - that doeth them This citation is from Lev 18:5, again reminding the Christians that if they were determined to submit to Jewish legalism, they would be obligated not ...

This citation is from Lev 18:5, again reminding the Christians that if they were determined to submit to Jewish legalism, they would be obligated not only to assent to the law but to do it and do all of it. This could earn salvation for them, theoretically, if they could do all the laws, but they could not. Only Christ could fulfill all the law (Mat 5:17), so it is imperative that we receive His righteousness by imputation, and this can only be received through faith."

Defender: Gal 3:13 - a curse for us Christ has borne the curse for us, both the Adamic curse and the Mosaic curse, even to the extent of the very form of His death, being executed by han...

Christ has borne the curse for us, both the Adamic curse and the Mosaic curse, even to the extent of the very form of His death, being executed by hanging on a tree, as specified and prophesied (Deu 21:22, Deu 21:23; Psa 22:1, Psa 22:6, Psa 22:16)."

Defender: Gal 3:16 - to thy seed In his theological argument concerning the Abrahamic covenant, Paul almost unconsciously makes an exceedingly strong affirmation of the verbal inspira...

In his theological argument concerning the Abrahamic covenant, Paul almost unconsciously makes an exceedingly strong affirmation of the verbal inspiration of the Old Testament Scriptures, basing his argument not just on one word, but one letter, "seed" instead of "seeds." Thus the promised "Seed" was not the nation Israel, but the one Person who alone could fulfill the great promises made to Abraham, namely, Christ (Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18)."

Defender: Gal 3:17 - four hundred and thirty years The 430 years from the Abrahamic promise until the giving of the law to Moses and the 430 years of Israel's extended stay in Egypt parallel each other...

The 430 years from the Abrahamic promise until the giving of the law to Moses and the 430 years of Israel's extended stay in Egypt parallel each other, provided that the reference to "the covenant" here in Gal 3:17 refers to the final ratification of this covenant, as confirmed to Jacob just as he and his family were leaving Canaan for Egypt (Gen 46:1-4). This seems quite reasonable in the current context of Paul's argument; see also the comments on Act 7:6, note; and Gen 15:13, note."

Defender: Gal 3:19 - till the seed should come Therefore the law would have fulfilled its primary function once the promised Seed came to fulfill it (Mat 5:17). It was foolish for the Galatians to ...

Therefore the law would have fulfilled its primary function once the promised Seed came to fulfill it (Mat 5:17). It was foolish for the Galatians to want to return to legalistic bondage (Gal 3:1).

Defender: Gal 3:19 - ordained by angels The account of the giving of the law through Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:9-25) makes no mention of angels, although it does record the prolonged s...

The account of the giving of the law through Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:9-25) makes no mention of angels, although it does record the prolonged sounding of a trumpet. Apparently a mighty host of angels was present. Deu 33:2 mentions "ten thousands of saints" as "the Lord came from Sinai" (Psa 68:17; Act 7:53)."

Defender: Gal 3:22 - all under sin The law "was added because of transgressions" (Gal 3:19) to make it clear what sin is - a transgression of the character and will of God. When people ...

The law "was added because of transgressions" (Gal 3:19) to make it clear what sin is - a transgression of the character and will of God. When people understand the nature of sin, it soon becomes clear that all people are sinners (Rom 3:10, Rom 3:12, Rom 3:23), and all need to come to Christ for forgiveness and salvation."

Defender: Gal 3:24 - schoolmaster A "schoolmaster" (Greek paidagogos) was a person (often a slave) who was delegated as tutor and guardian for young boys until they came of age (usuall...

A "schoolmaster" (Greek paidagogos) was a person (often a slave) who was delegated as tutor and guardian for young boys until they came of age (usually about 18 years of age). It was a temporary, and not very prestigious, position. When the son entered on all the privileges of adult sonship, the schoolmaster's responsibilities were finished. Paul compares this domestic relationship to the spiritual relationships when Christ replaces the law as the controlling basis of our lives."

Defender: Gal 3:27 - baptized into Christ When we have been immersed into the spiritual body of Christ, then He becomes our spiritual identity (Rom 6:3; 1Co 12:13)."

When we have been immersed into the spiritual body of Christ, then He becomes our spiritual identity (Rom 6:3; 1Co 12:13)."

Defender: Gal 3:28 - all one in Christ Although national identity, economic status, marital relationship and other such distinctions are very real in the divine economy, our position in Chr...

Although national identity, economic status, marital relationship and other such distinctions are very real in the divine economy, our position in Christ is completely independent of any such matters. Every Christian is saved simply through faith in Christ and will be rewarded as a Christian simply in relation to what he or she has done in proportion to light and opportunities given, as well as motives (1Co 3:11-15)."

TSK: Gal 3:1 - Foolish // who // ye // Jesus Christ Foolish : Gal 3:3; Deu 32:6; 1Sa 13:13; Mat 7:26; Luk 24:25; Eph 5:15; 1Ti 6:4 *marg. who : Gal 1:6, Gal 4:9, Gal 5:7, Gal 5:8; Mat 24:24; Act 8:9-11;...

TSK: Gal 3:2 - Received // by the hearing Received : Gal 3:5, Gal 3:14; Act 2:38, Act 8:15, Act 10:44-47, Act 11:15-18, Act 15:8, Act 19:2-6; 1Co 12:7-13; 2Co 11:4; Eph 1:13, Eph 1:14; Heb 2:4...

TSK: Gal 3:3 - having having : Gal 4:7-10, Gal 5:4-8, Gal 6:12-14; Heb 7:16-19, Heb 9:2, Heb 9:9, Heb 9:10

TSK: Gal 3:4 - ye // so many ye : Eze 18:24; Heb 6:4-6, Heb 10:32-39; 2Pe 2:20-22; 2Jo 1:8 so many : or, so great

ye : Eze 18:24; Heb 6:4-6, Heb 10:32-39; 2Pe 2:20-22; 2Jo 1:8

so many : or, so great

TSK: Gal 3:5 - that // worketh // by the works that : Gal 3:2; 2Co 3:8 worketh : Act 14:3, Act 14:9, Act 14:10, Act 19:11, Act 19:12; Rom 15:19; 1Co 1:4, 1Co 1:5; 2Co 10:4, 2Co 12:12, 2Co 13:3 by t...

TSK: Gal 3:6 - as // accounted as : Gal 3:9; Gen 15:6; Rom 4:3-6, Rom 4:9, Rom 4:10,Rom 4:21, Rom 4:22, Rom 9:32, Rom 9:33; Jam 2:23 accounted : or, imputed, Rom 4:6, Rom 4:11, Rom ...

TSK: Gal 3:7 - Know // they Know : Psa 100:3; Luk 21:31; Heb 13:23 they : Gal 3:26-29; Joh 8:39; Rom 4:11-16, Rom 4:24, Rom 9:7, Rom 9:8

TSK: Gal 3:8 - the scripture // foreseeing // God // preached // In the scripture : Gal 3:22, Gal 4:30; Joh 7:38, Joh 7:42, Joh 19:37; Rom 9:17; 2Ti 3:15-17 foreseeing : Act 15:15-18 God : Rom 3:28-30, Rom 9:30 preache...

TSK: Gal 3:9 - -- Gal 3:7, Gal 3:8, Gal 3:14, Gal 3:29, Gal 4:28; Rom 4:11, Rom 4:16, Rom 4:24

TSK: Gal 3:10 - as many // under // Cursed as many : Gal 3:11; Gal 2:16; Luk 18:9-13; Rom 4:15, Rom 7:9-13, Rom 8:7 under : Deu 11:26-28, Deu 29:20; Isa 43:28; Mat 25:41 Cursed : Deu 27:26; Jer...

TSK: Gal 3:11 - that // The just that : Gal 2:16; 1Ki 8:46; Job 9:3, Job 40:4, Job 42:6; Psa 19:12, Psa 130:3, Psa 130:4, Psa 143:2; Ecc 7:20; Isa 6:5, Isa 53:6, Isa 64:6; Jam 3:2; 1J...

TSK: Gal 3:12 - the law // The man the law : Rom 4:4, Rom 4:5, Rom 4:14, Rom 4:16, Rom 9:30-32, Rom 10:5, Rom 10:6, Rom 11:6 The man : Lev 18:5; Neh 9:29; Eze 20:11, Eze 20:13; Mat 19:1...

TSK: Gal 3:13 - redeemed // being // for // Cursed redeemed : Gal 3:10, Gal 4:5; Isa 55:5-7, Isa 55:10-12; Dan 9:24, Dan 9:26; Zec 13:7; Mat 26:28; Rom 3:24-26, Rom 4:25, Rom 8:3, Rom 8:4; 2Co 5:21; Ep...

TSK: Gal 3:14 - the blessing // through // might the blessing : Gal 3:6-9, Gal 3:29; Gen 12:2, Gen 12:3; Isa 41:8, Isa 51:2, Isa 51:3; Rom 4:3-17 through : Gal 3:16; Gen 22:18; Isa 49:6, Isa 52:10; L...

TSK: Gal 3:15 - I speak // it be // covenant I speak : Rom 6:19; 1Co 15:32 it be : Heb 9:17 covenant : or, testament

I speak : Rom 6:19; 1Co 15:32

it be : Heb 9:17

covenant : or, testament

TSK: Gal 3:16 - to // which to : Gal 3:8; Gen 12:3, Gen 12:7, Gen 13:15, Gen 13:16, Gen 15:5, Gen 17:7, Gen 17:8, Gen 21:12, Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18, Gen 26:3, Gen 26:4, Gen 28:13; ...

TSK: Gal 3:17 - this // the covenant // which // cannot // that it // none this : Gal 5:16; 1Co 1:12, 1Co 7:29, 1Co 10:19; 2Co 9:6; Eph 4:17; Col 2:4 the covenant : Gen 15:18, Gen 17:7, Gen 17:8, Gen 17:19; Luk 1:68-79; Joh 1...

TSK: Gal 3:18 - if // but if : Gal 3:10,Gal 3:12, Gal 3:26, Gal 3:29, Gal 2:21; Rom 4:13-16, Rom 8:17 but : Gal 3:16; Psa 105:6-12, Psa 105:42; Mic 7:18-20; Luk 1:54, Luk 1:55,...

TSK: Gal 3:19 - then // It was added // till // by // in then : Rom 3:1, Rom 3:2, Rom 7:7-13 It was added : Gal 3:21-24; Deu 4:8, Deu 4:9; Psa 147:19, Psa 147:20; Luk 16:31; Joh 5:45-47, Joh 15:22; Rom 2:13;...

then : Rom 3:1, Rom 3:2, Rom 7:7-13

It was added : Gal 3:21-24; Deu 4:8, Deu 4:9; Psa 147:19, Psa 147:20; Luk 16:31; Joh 5:45-47, Joh 15:22; Rom 2:13; Rom 3:19, Rom 3:20, Rom 4:15, Rom 5:20,Rom 5:21, Rom 7:7-13; 1Ti 1:8, 1Ti 1:9

till : Gal 3:16, Gal 3:25, Gal 4:1-4

by : Deu 33:2; Act 7:53; Heb 2:2, Heb 2:5

in : Exo 20:19-22, Exo 24:1-12, Exo 34:27-35; Lev 15:32; Deu 5:5, Deu 5:22-33; Deu 9:13-20,Deu 9:25-29, Deu 18:15-19; Psa 106:23; Joh 1:17; Act 7:38; The Apostle, having just before been speaking of the promise made to Abraham, and representing that as the rule of our justification, and not the law, lest they should think he derogated too much from the law, and thereby rendered it useless - he thence takes occasion to discourse of the design and tendency of it, and to acquaint us for what purposes it was given.

TSK: Gal 3:20 - a mediator is // but a mediator is : Job 9:33; Act 12:20; 1Ti 2:5 but : Gal 3:17; Gen 15:18, Gen 17:1, Gen 17:2; Deu 6:4; Rom 3:29

TSK: Gal 3:21 - the law // God forbid // for // righteousness the law : Mat 5:17-20; Rom 3:31, Rom 7:7-13 God forbid : Gal 2:17; Rom 3:4, Rom 3:6 for : Gal 2:19, Gal 2:21; Rom 3:20 righteousness : Rom 3:21, Rom 3...

TSK: Gal 3:22 - concluded // that // to concluded : Gal 3:8-10,Gal 3:23; Psa 143:2; Rom 3:9-20,Rom 3:23, Rom 5:12, Rom 5:20, Rom 11:32 that : Gal 3:14, Gal 3:17, Gal 3:29; Rom 4:11-16, Rom 5...

TSK: Gal 3:23 - faith came // under // the faith faith came : Gal 3:19, Gal 3:24, Gal 3:25, Gal 4:1-4; Heb 12:2 under : Gal 4:4, Gal 4:5, Gal 4:21, Gal 5:18; Rom 3:19, Rom 6:14, Rom 6:15; 1Co 9:20,1C...

TSK: Gal 3:24 - the law // justified the law : Gal 3:25, Gal 2:19, Gal 4:2, Gal 4:3; Mat 5:17, Mat 5:18; Act 13:38, Act 13:39; Rom 3:20-22, Rom 7:7-9, Rom 7:24, Rom 7:25; Rom 10:4; Col 2:...

TSK: Gal 3:25 - faith // we faith : Gal 3:23 we : Gal 4:1-6; Rom 6:14, Rom 7:4; Heb 7:11-19, Heb 8:3-13, Heb 10:15-18

TSK: Gal 3:26 - -- Gal 4:5, Gal 4:6; Joh 1:12, Joh 1:13, Joh 20:17; Rom 8:14-17; 2Co 6:18; Eph 1:5, Eph 5:1; Phi 2:15; Heb 2:10-15; 1Jo 3:1, 1Jo 3:2; Rev 21:7

TSK: Gal 3:27 - as many // put as many : Mat 28:19, Mat 28:20; Mar 16:15, Mar 16:16; Act 2:38, Act 8:36-38, Act 9:18, Act 16:15, Act 16:31-33; Rom 6:3, Rom 6:4; 1Co 12:13; Col 2:10-...

TSK: Gal 3:28 - neither // male // for neither : Gal 5:6; Rom 1:16, Rom 2:9, Rom 2:10, Rom 3:29, Rom 3:30, Rom 4:11, Rom 4:12, Rom 9:24, Rom 10:12-15; 1Co 7:19; 1Co 12:13; Eph 3:5-10; Col 3...

TSK: Gal 3:29 - Christ’ s // Abraham’ s // heirs Christ’ s : Gal 5:24; 1Co 3:23, 1Co 15:23; 2Co 10:7 Abraham’ s : Gal 3:7, Gal 3:16, Gal 3:28, Gal 4:22-31; Gen 21:10-12; Rom 4:12, Rom 4:16-...

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Poole: Gal 3:1 - O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you? // bewitched // That ye should not obey the truth // Before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you Gal 3:1-5 Paul asketh what had moved the Galatians to depend on the law, having already received the Spirit through faith. Gal 3:6-9 As Abraham ...

Gal 3:1-5 Paul asketh what had moved the Galatians to depend on the

law, having already received the Spirit through faith.

Gal 3:6-9 As Abraham was justified by faith, so they who are of

faith inherit his blessing.

Gal 3:10-12 The law brought men under a curse, and could not justify.

Gal 3:13,14 Christ hath freed us from the curse, and laid open the

blessing to all believers.

Gal 3:15-18 Supposing that the law justified, God’ s covenant with

Abraham would be void.

Gal 3:19-22 But the law was only a temporary provision against sin till

Christ’ s coming, and in no wise contrary to God’ s promises.

Gal 3:23,24 Serving as a schoolmaster to prepare men for Christ.

Gal 3:25-29 But faith being come the law is at an end, and all

believers are, without distinction, become children of

God, and heirs of the promise.

O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you? The apostle beginneth the further pursuit of the argument he was upon, with a smart reprehension of them, as men of no understanding, and bewitched. The word translated

bewitched signifies vitiating the eyes, or spoiling the sight, so as that men cannot discern an obvious object in a due position. The meaning is: Who hath seduced you, who hath so corrupted your understanding that your actions are as unaccountable as the effects of witchcraft?

That ye should not obey the truth: the word translated obey, signifies also to believe: in general it signifies to be persuaded; which may refer either to an assent to the truth, or obedience to the precepts of the gospel.

Before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you whenas Christ hath been plainly preached before you, and his death, with the blessed end and effects of it, hath been so made known amongst you, as if you had seen him crucified. Or else Christ may be said to be crucified amongst them, because it was in their time, so as they could not but hear of it, and there was no more reason for them to doubt of the truth of the thing, than if he had been crucified in their country.

Poole