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Teks -- Isaiah 53:1-12 (NET)

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53:1 Who would have believed what we just heard? When was the Lord’s power revealed through him? 53:2 He sprouted up like a twig before God, like a root out of parched soil; he had no stately form or majesty that might catch our attention, no special appearance that we should want to follow him. 53:3 He was despised and rejected by people, one who experienced pain and was acquainted with illness; people hid their faces from him; he was despised, and we considered him insignificant. 53:4 But he lifted up our illnesses, he carried our pain; even though we thought he was being punished, attacked by God, and afflicted for something he had done. 53:5 He was wounded because of our rebellious deeds, crushed because of our sins; he endured punishment that made us well; because of his wounds we have been healed. 53:6 All of us had wandered off like sheep; each of us had strayed off on his own path, but the Lord caused the sin of all of us to attack him. 53:7 He was treated harshly and afflicted, but he did not even open his mouth. Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block, like a sheep silent before her shearers, he did not even open his mouth. 53:8 He was led away after an unjust trial– but who even cared? Indeed, he was cut off from the land of the living; because of the rebellion of his own people he was wounded. 53:9 They intended to bury him with criminals, but he ended up in a rich man’s tomb, because he had committed no violent deeds, nor had he spoken deceitfully. 53:10 Though the Lord desired to crush him and make him ill, once restitution is made, he will see descendants and enjoy long life, and the Lord’s purpose will be accomplished through him. 53:11 Having suffered, he will reflect on his work, he will be satisfied when he understands what he has done. “My servant will acquit many, for he carried their sins. 53:12 So I will assign him a portion with the multitudes, he will divide the spoils of victory with the powerful, because he willingly submitted to death and was numbered with the rebels, when he lifted up the sin of many and intervened on behalf of the rebels.”
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Wesley: Isa 53:1 - Who Who, not only of the Gentiles, but even of the Jews, will believe the truth of what I say? And this premonition was highly necessary, both to caution ...

Who, not only of the Gentiles, but even of the Jews, will believe the truth of what I say? And this premonition was highly necessary, both to caution the Jews that they should not stumble at this stone, and to instruct the Gentiles that they should not be seduced with their example.

Wesley: Isa 53:1 - The arm The Messiah, called the arm or power of God, because the almighty power of God was seated in him.

The Messiah, called the arm or power of God, because the almighty power of God was seated in him.

Wesley: Isa 53:1 - Revealed Inwardly and with power.

Inwardly and with power.

Wesley: Isa 53:2 - As a root And the reason why the Jews will generally reject their Messiah, is, because he shall not come into the world with secular pomp, but he shall grow up,...

And the reason why the Jews will generally reject their Messiah, is, because he shall not come into the world with secular pomp, but he shall grow up, (or spring up, out of the ground) before him, (before the unbelieving Jews, of whom he spake Isa 53:1, and that in the singular number, as here, who were witnesses of his mean original; and therefore despised him) as a tender plant (small and inconsiderable) and as a root, or branch, grows out of a dry, barren ground.

Wesley: Isa 53:2 - No form His bodily presence shall be mean and contemptible.

His bodily presence shall be mean and contemptible.

Wesley: Isa 53:2 - No beauty This the prophet speaks in the person of the unbelieving Jews.

This the prophet speaks in the person of the unbelieving Jews.

Wesley: Isa 53:2 - We Our people, the Jewish nation.

Our people, the Jewish nation.

Wesley: Isa 53:3 - We hid We scorned to look upon him.

We scorned to look upon him.

Wesley: Isa 53:4 - Yet Our people believed that he was thus punished by the just judgment of God.

Our people believed that he was thus punished by the just judgment of God.

Wesley: Isa 53:5 - Wounded Which word comprehends all his pains and punishments.

Which word comprehends all his pains and punishments.

Wesley: Isa 53:5 - For our iniquities For the guilt of their sins, which he had voluntarily taken upon himself, and for the expiation of their sins, which was hereby purchased.

For the guilt of their sins, which he had voluntarily taken upon himself, and for the expiation of their sins, which was hereby purchased.

Wesley: Isa 53:5 - The chastisement Those punishments by which our peace, our reconciliation to God, was to be purchased, were laid upon him by God's justice with his own consent.

Those punishments by which our peace, our reconciliation to God, was to be purchased, were laid upon him by God's justice with his own consent.

Wesley: Isa 53:5 - Healed By his sufferings we are saved from our sins.

By his sufferings we are saved from our sins.

Wesley: Isa 53:6 - We All mankind.

All mankind.

Wesley: Isa 53:6 - Astray From God.

From God.

Wesley: Isa 53:6 - Have turned In general, to the way of sin, which may well be called a man's own way, because sin is natural to us, inherent in us, born with us; and in particular...

In general, to the way of sin, which may well be called a man's own way, because sin is natural to us, inherent in us, born with us; and in particular, to those several paths, which several men chuse, according to their different opinions, and circumstances.

Wesley: Isa 53:6 - Hath laid Heb. hath made to meet, as all the rivers meet in the sea.

Heb. hath made to meet, as all the rivers meet in the sea.

Wesley: Isa 53:6 - The iniquity Not properly, for he knew no sin; but the punishment of iniquity, as that word is frequently used. That which was due for all the sins of all mankind,...

Not properly, for he knew no sin; but the punishment of iniquity, as that word is frequently used. That which was due for all the sins of all mankind, which must needs be so heavy a load, that if he had not been God as well as man, he must have sunk under the burden.

Wesley: Isa 53:7 - He opened not He neither murmured against God, nor reviled men.

He neither murmured against God, nor reviled men.

Wesley: Isa 53:8 - Taken away Out of this life.

Out of this life.

Wesley: Isa 53:8 - By distress and judgment By oppression and violence. and a pretence of justice.

By oppression and violence. and a pretence of justice.

Wesley: Isa 53:8 - His generation His posterity. For his death shall not be unfruitful; when he is raised from the dead, he shall have a spiritual seed, a numberless multitude of those...

His posterity. For his death shall not be unfruitful; when he is raised from the dead, he shall have a spiritual seed, a numberless multitude of those who shall believe in him.

Wesley: Isa 53:8 - Cut off By a violent death. And this may be added as a reason of the blessing of a numerous posterity conferred upon him, because he was willing to be cut off...

By a violent death. And this may be added as a reason of the blessing of a numerous posterity conferred upon him, because he was willing to be cut off for the transgression of his people.

Wesley: Isa 53:9 - With the wicked This was a farther degree of humiliation. He saith, he made his grave, because this was Christ's own act, and he willingly yielded up himself to death...

This was a farther degree of humiliation. He saith, he made his grave, because this was Christ's own act, and he willingly yielded up himself to death and burial. And that which follows, with the wicked, does not denote the sameness of place, as if he should be buried in the same grave with other malefactors, but the sameness of condition.

Wesley: Isa 53:10 - He God was the principal cause of all his sufferings, tho' mens sins were the deserving cause.

God was the principal cause of all his sufferings, tho' mens sins were the deserving cause.

Wesley: Isa 53:10 - When When thou, O God, shalt have made, thy son a sacrifice, by giving him up to death for the atonement of mens sins. His soul is here put for his life, o...

When thou, O God, shalt have made, thy son a sacrifice, by giving him up to death for the atonement of mens sins. His soul is here put for his life, or for himself.

Wesley: Isa 53:10 - Shall see He shall have a numerous issue of believers reconciled by God, and saved by his death.

He shall have a numerous issue of believers reconciled by God, and saved by his death.

Wesley: Isa 53:10 - Prolong He shall live and reign with God for ever.

He shall live and reign with God for ever.

Wesley: Isa 53:10 - The pleasure God's gracious decree for the salvation of mankind shall be effectually carried on by his ministry and mediation.

God's gracious decree for the salvation of mankind shall be effectually carried on by his ministry and mediation.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - Shall see He shall enjoy.

He shall enjoy.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - The travel The blessed fruit of all his labours, and sufferings.

The blessed fruit of all his labours, and sufferings.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - Satisfied He shall esteem his own and his father's glory, and the salvation of his people, an abundant recompence.

He shall esteem his own and his father's glory, and the salvation of his people, an abundant recompence.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - By his knowledge By the knowledge of him.

By the knowledge of him.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - Justify Acquit them from the guilt of their sins, and all the dreadful consequences thereof. And Christ is said to justify sinners meritoriously, because he p...

Acquit them from the guilt of their sins, and all the dreadful consequences thereof. And Christ is said to justify sinners meritoriously, because he purchases and procures it for us.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - Many An innumerable company of all nations.

An innumerable company of all nations.

Wesley: Isa 53:11 - For For he shall satisfy the justice of God, by bearing the punishment due to their sins.

For he shall satisfy the justice of God, by bearing the punishment due to their sins.

Wesley: Isa 53:12 - I God the father.

God the father.

Wesley: Isa 53:12 - A portion Which is very commodiously supplied out of the next clause.

Which is very commodiously supplied out of the next clause.

Wesley: Isa 53:12 - With the strong God will give him happy success in his glorious undertaking: he shall conquer all his enemies, and set up his universal and everlasting kingdom in the...

God will give him happy success in his glorious undertaking: he shall conquer all his enemies, and set up his universal and everlasting kingdom in the world.

Wesley: Isa 53:12 - Because Because he willingly laid down his life.

Because he willingly laid down his life.

Wesley: Isa 53:12 - Transgressors He prayed upon earth for all sinners, and particularly for those that crucified him, and in heaven he still intercedes for them, by a legal demand of ...

He prayed upon earth for all sinners, and particularly for those that crucified him, and in heaven he still intercedes for them, by a legal demand of those good things which he purchased; by the sacrifice of himself, which, though past, he continually represents to his father, as if it were present.

JFB: Isa 53:1 - report Literally, "the thing heard," referring to which sense Paul says, "So, then, faith cometh by hearing" (Rom 10:16-17).

Literally, "the thing heard," referring to which sense Paul says, "So, then, faith cometh by hearing" (Rom 10:16-17).

JFB: Isa 53:1 - arm Power (Isa 40:10); exercised in miracles and in saving men (Rom 1:16; 1Co 1:18). The prophet, as if present during Messiah's ministry on earth, is dee...

Power (Isa 40:10); exercised in miracles and in saving men (Rom 1:16; 1Co 1:18). The prophet, as if present during Messiah's ministry on earth, is deeply moved to see how few believed on Him (Isa 49:4; Mar 6:6; Mar 9:19; Act 1:15). Two reasons are given why all ought to have believed: (1) The "report" of the "ancient prophets." (2) "The arm of Jehovah" exhibited in Messiah while on earth. In HORSLEY'S view, this will be the penitent confession of the Jews, "How few of our nation, in Messiah's days, believed in Him!"

JFB: Isa 53:2 - tender plant Messiah grew silently and insensibly, as a sucker from an ancient stock, seemingly dead (namely, the house of David, then in a decayed state) (see on ...

Messiah grew silently and insensibly, as a sucker from an ancient stock, seemingly dead (namely, the house of David, then in a decayed state) (see on Isa 11:1).

JFB: Isa 53:2 - shall grow . . . hath Rather, "grew up . . . had."

Rather, "grew up . . . had."

JFB: Isa 53:2 - before him Before Jehovah. Though unknown to the world (Joh 1:11), Messiah was observed by God, who ordered the most minute circumstances attending His growth.

Before Jehovah. Though unknown to the world (Joh 1:11), Messiah was observed by God, who ordered the most minute circumstances attending His growth.

JFB: Isa 53:2 - root That is, sprout from a root.

That is, sprout from a root.

JFB: Isa 53:2 - form Beautiful form: sorrow had marred His once beautiful form.

Beautiful form: sorrow had marred His once beautiful form.

JFB: Isa 53:2 - and when we shall see Rather, joined with the previous words, "Nor comeliness (attractiveness) that we should look (with delight) on Him."

Rather, joined with the previous words, "Nor comeliness (attractiveness) that we should look (with delight) on Him."

JFB: Isa 53:2 - there is Rather, "was." The studied reticence of the New Testament as to His form, stature, color, &c., was designed to prevent our dwelling on the bodily, rat...

Rather, "was." The studied reticence of the New Testament as to His form, stature, color, &c., was designed to prevent our dwelling on the bodily, rather than on His moral beauty, holiness, love, &c., also a providential protest against the making and veneration of images of Him. The letter of P. LENTULUS to the emperor Tiberius, describing His person, is spurious; so also the story of His sending His portrait to Abgar, king of Edessa; and the alleged impression of His countenance on the handkerchief of Veronica. The former part of this verse refers to His birth and childhood; the latter to His first public appearance [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 53:3 - rejected "forsaken of men" [GESENIUS]. "Most abject of men." Literally, "He who ceases from men," that is, is no longer regarded as a man [HENGSTENBERG]. (See ...

"forsaken of men" [GESENIUS]. "Most abject of men." Literally, "He who ceases from men," that is, is no longer regarded as a man [HENGSTENBERG]. (See on Isa 52:14; Isa 49:7).

JFB: Isa 53:3 - man of sorrows That is, whose distinguishing characteristic was sorrows.

That is, whose distinguishing characteristic was sorrows.

JFB: Isa 53:3 - acquainted with Familiar by constant contact with.

Familiar by constant contact with.

JFB: Isa 53:3 - grief Literally, "disease"; figuratively for all kinds of calamity (Jer 6:14); leprosy especially represented this, being a direct judgment from God. It is ...

Literally, "disease"; figuratively for all kinds of calamity (Jer 6:14); leprosy especially represented this, being a direct judgment from God. It is remarkable Jesus is not mentioned as having ever suffered under sickness.

JFB: Isa 53:3 - and we hid . . . faces Rather, as one who causes men to hide their faces from Him (in aversion) [MAURER]. Or, "He was as an hiding of the face before it," that is, as a thin...

Rather, as one who causes men to hide their faces from Him (in aversion) [MAURER]. Or, "He was as an hiding of the face before it," that is, as a thing before which a man covers his face in disgust [HENGSTENBERG]. Or, "as one before whom is the covering of the face"; before whom one covers the face in disgust [GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 53:3 - we The prophet identifying himself with the Jews. See HORSLEY'S view (see on Isa 53:1).

The prophet identifying himself with the Jews. See HORSLEY'S view (see on Isa 53:1).

JFB: Isa 53:3 - esteemed . . . not Negative contempt; the previous words express positive.

Negative contempt; the previous words express positive.

JFB: Isa 53:4 - Surely . . . our griefs Literally, "But yet He hath taken (or borne) our sicknesses," that is, they who despised Him because of His human infirmities ought rather to have est...

Literally, "But yet He hath taken (or borne) our sicknesses," that is, they who despised Him because of His human infirmities ought rather to have esteemed Him on account of them; for thereby "Himself took OUR infirmities" (bodily diseases). So Mat 8:17 quotes it. In the Hebrew for "borne," or took, there is probably the double notion, He took on Himself vicariously (so Isa 53:5-6, Isa 53:8, Isa 53:12), and so He took away; His perfect humanity whereby He was bodily afflicted for us, and in all our afflictions (Isa 63:9; Heb 4:15) was the ground on which He cured the sick; so that Matthew's quotation is not a mere accommodation. See Note 42 of ARCHBISHOP MAGEE, Atonement. The Hebrew there may mean to overwhelm with darkness; Messiah's time of darkness was temporary (Mat 27:45), answering to the bruising of His heel; Satan's is to be eternal, answering to the bruising of his head (compare Isa 50:10).

JFB: Isa 53:4 - carried . . . sorrows The notion of substitution strictly. "Carried," namely, as a burden. "Sorrows," that is, pains of the mind; as "griefs" refer to pains of the body (Ps...

The notion of substitution strictly. "Carried," namely, as a burden. "Sorrows," that is, pains of the mind; as "griefs" refer to pains of the body (Psa 32:10; Psa 38:17). Mat 8:17 might seem to oppose this: "And bare our sicknesses." But he uses "sicknesses" figuratively for sins, the cause of them. Christ took on Himself all man's "infirmities;" so as to remove them; the bodily by direct miracle, grounded on His participation in human infirmities; those of the soul by His vicarious suffering, which did away with the source of both. Sin and sickness are ethically connected as cause and effect (Isa 33:24; Psa 103:3; Mat 9:2; Joh 5:14; Jam 5:15).

JFB: Isa 53:4 - we did esteem him stricken Judicially [LOWTH], namely, for His sins; whereas it was for ours. "We thought Him to be a leper" [JEROME, Vulgate], leprosy being the direct divine j...

Judicially [LOWTH], namely, for His sins; whereas it was for ours. "We thought Him to be a leper" [JEROME, Vulgate], leprosy being the direct divine judgment for guilt (Lev. 13:1-59; Num 12:10, Num 12:15; 2Ch 26:18-21).

JFB: Isa 53:4 - smitten By divine judgments.

By divine judgments.

JFB: Isa 53:4 - afflicted For His sins; this was the point in which they so erred (Luk 23:34; Act 3:17; 1Co 2:8). He was, it is true, "afflicted," but not for His sins.

For His sins; this was the point in which they so erred (Luk 23:34; Act 3:17; 1Co 2:8). He was, it is true, "afflicted," but not for His sins.

JFB: Isa 53:5 - wounded A bodily wound; not mere mental sorrow; literally, "pierced"; minutely appropriate to Messiah, whose hands, feet, and side were pierced (Psa 22:16). T...

A bodily wound; not mere mental sorrow; literally, "pierced"; minutely appropriate to Messiah, whose hands, feet, and side were pierced (Psa 22:16). The Margin, wrongly, from a Hebrew root, translates, "tormented."

JFB: Isa 53:5 - for . . . for (Rom 4:25; 2Co 5:21; Heb 9:28; 1Pe 2:24; 1Pe 3:18) --the cause for which He suffered not His own, but our sins.

(Rom 4:25; 2Co 5:21; Heb 9:28; 1Pe 2:24; 1Pe 3:18) --the cause for which He suffered not His own, but our sins.

JFB: Isa 53:5 - bruised Crushing inward and outward suffering (see on Isa 53:10).

Crushing inward and outward suffering (see on Isa 53:10).

JFB: Isa 53:5 - chastisement Literally, the correction inflicted by a parent on children for their good (Heb 12:5-8, Heb 12:10-11). Not punishment strictly; for this can have plac...

Literally, the correction inflicted by a parent on children for their good (Heb 12:5-8, Heb 12:10-11). Not punishment strictly; for this can have place only where there is guilt, which He had not; but He took on Himself the chastisement whereby the peace (reconciliation with our Father; Rom 5:1; Eph 2:14-15, Eph 2:17) of the children of God was to be effected (Heb 2:14).

JFB: Isa 53:5 - upon him As a burden; parallel to "hath borne" and "carried."

As a burden; parallel to "hath borne" and "carried."

JFB: Isa 53:5 - stripes Minutely prophetical of His being scourged (Mat 27:26; 1Pe 2:24).

Minutely prophetical of His being scourged (Mat 27:26; 1Pe 2:24).

JFB: Isa 53:5 - healed Spiritually (Psa 41:4; Jer 8:22).

Spiritually (Psa 41:4; Jer 8:22).

JFB: Isa 53:6 - -- Penitent confession of believers and of Israel in the last days (Zec 12:10).

Penitent confession of believers and of Israel in the last days (Zec 12:10).

JFB: Isa 53:6 - sheep . . . astray (Psa 119:176; 1Pe 2:25). The antithesis is, "In ourselves we were scattered; in Christ we are collected together; by nature we wander, driven headlon...

(Psa 119:176; 1Pe 2:25). The antithesis is, "In ourselves we were scattered; in Christ we are collected together; by nature we wander, driven headlong to destruction; in Christ we find the way to the gate of life" [CALVIN]. True, also, literally of Israel before its coming restoration (Eze 34:5-6; Zec 10:2, Zec 10:6; compare with Eze 34:23-24; Jer 23:4-5; also Mat 9:36).

JFB: Isa 53:6 - laid "hath made to light on Him" [LOWTH]. Rather, "hath made to rush upon Him" [MAURER].

"hath made to light on Him" [LOWTH]. Rather, "hath made to rush upon Him" [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 53:6 - the iniquity That is, its penalty; or rather, as in 2Co 5:21; He was not merely a sin offering (which would destroy the antithesis to "righteousness"), but "sin fo...

That is, its penalty; or rather, as in 2Co 5:21; He was not merely a sin offering (which would destroy the antithesis to "righteousness"), but "sin for us"; sin itself vicariously; the representative of the aggregate sin of all mankind; not sins in the plural, for the "sin" of the world is one (Rom 5:16-17); thus we are made not merely righteous, but righteousness, even "the righteousness of God." The innocent was punished as if guilty, that the guilty might be rewarded as if innocent. This verse could be said of no mere martyr.

JFB: Isa 53:7 - oppressed LOWTH translates, "It was exacted, and He was made answerable." The verb means, "to have payment of a debt sternly exacted" (Deu 15:2-3), and so to be...

LOWTH translates, "It was exacted, and He was made answerable." The verb means, "to have payment of a debt sternly exacted" (Deu 15:2-3), and so to be oppressed in general; the exaction of the full penalty for our sins in His sufferings is probably alluded to.

JFB: Isa 53:7 - and . . . afflicted Or, and yet He suffered, or bore Himself patiently, &c. [HENGSTENBERG and MAURER]. LOWTH'S translation, "He was made answerable," is hardly admitted b...

Or, and yet He suffered, or bore Himself patiently, &c. [HENGSTENBERG and MAURER]. LOWTH'S translation, "He was made answerable," is hardly admitted by the Hebrew.

JFB: Isa 53:7 - opened not . . . mouth Jer 11:19; and David in Psa 38:13-14; Psa 39:9, prefiguring Messiah (Mat 26:63; Mat 27:12, {ul Mat_27:14; 1Pe 2:23).

Jer 11:19; and David in Psa 38:13-14; Psa 39:9, prefiguring Messiah (Mat 26:63; Mat 27:12, {ul Mat_27:14; 1Pe 2:23).

JFB: Isa 53:8 - -- Rather, "He was taken away (that is, cut off) by oppression and by a judicial sentence"; a hendiadys for, "by an oppressive judicial sentence" [LOWTH ...

Rather, "He was taken away (that is, cut off) by oppression and by a judicial sentence"; a hendiadys for, "by an oppressive judicial sentence" [LOWTH and HENGSTENBERG]. GESENIUS not so well, "He was delivered from oppression and punishment" only by death. English Version also translates, "from . . . from," not "by . . . by." But "prison" is not true of Jesus, who was not incarcerated; restraint and bonds (Joh 18:24) more accord with the Hebrew. Act 8:33; translate as the Septuagint: "In His humiliation His judgment (legal trial) was taken away"; the virtual sense of the Hebrew as rendered by LOWTH and sanctioned by the inspired writer of Acts; He was treated as one so mean that a fair trial was denied Him (Mat 26:59; Mar 14:55-59). HORSLEY translates, "After condemnation and judgment He was accepted."

JFB: Isa 53:8 - who . . . declare . . . generation Who can set forth (the wickedness of) His generation? that is, of His contemporaries [ALFORD on Act 8:33], which suits best the parallelism, "the wick...

Who can set forth (the wickedness of) His generation? that is, of His contemporaries [ALFORD on Act 8:33], which suits best the parallelism, "the wickedness of His generation" corresponding to "oppressive judgment." But LUTHER, "His length of life," that is, there shall be no end of His future days (Isa 53:10; Rom 6:9). CALVIN includes the days of His Church, which is inseparable from Himself. HENGSTENBERG, "His posterity." He, indeed, shall be cut off, but His race shall be so numerous that none can fully declare it. CHYRSOSTOM, &c., "His eternal sonship and miraculous incarnation."

JFB: Isa 53:8 - cut off Implying a violent death (Dan 9:26).

Implying a violent death (Dan 9:26).

JFB: Isa 53:8 - my people Isaiah, including himself among them by the word "my" [HENGSTENBERG]. Rather, JEHOVAH speaks in the person of His prophet, "My people," by the electio...

Isaiah, including himself among them by the word "my" [HENGSTENBERG]. Rather, JEHOVAH speaks in the person of His prophet, "My people," by the election of grace (Heb 2:13).

JFB: Isa 53:8 - was he stricken Hebrew, "the stroke (was laid) upon Him." GESENIUS says the Hebrew means "them"; the collective body, whether of the prophets or people, to which the ...

Hebrew, "the stroke (was laid) upon Him." GESENIUS says the Hebrew means "them"; the collective body, whether of the prophets or people, to which the Jews refer the whole prophecy. But JEROME, the Syriac, and Ethiopiac versions translate it "Him"; so it is singular in some passages; Psa 11:7, His; Job 27:23, Him; Isa 44:15, thereto. The Septuagint, the Hebrew, lamo, "upon Him," read the similar words, lamuth, "unto death," which would at once set aside the Jewish interpretation, "upon them." ORIGEN, who laboriously compared the Hebrew with the Septuagint, so read it, and urged it against the Jews of his day, who would have denied it to be the true reading if the word had not then really so stood in the Hebrew text [LOWTH]. If his sole authority be thought insufficient, perhaps lamo may imply that Messiah was the representative of the collective body of all men; hence the equivocal plural-singular form.

JFB: Isa 53:9 - -- Rather, "His grave was appointed," or "they appointed Him His grave" [HENGSTENBERG]; that is, they intended (by crucifying Him with two thieves, Mat 2...

Rather, "His grave was appointed," or "they appointed Him His grave" [HENGSTENBERG]; that is, they intended (by crucifying Him with two thieves, Mat 27:38) that He should have His grave "with the wicked." Compare Joh 19:31, the denial of honorable burial being accounted a great ignominy (see on Isa 14:19; Jer 26:23).

JFB: Isa 53:9 - and with . . . rich Rather, "but He was with a rich man," &c. GESENIUS, for the parallelism to "the wicked," translates "ungodly" (the effect of riches being to make one ...

Rather, "but He was with a rich man," &c. GESENIUS, for the parallelism to "the wicked," translates "ungodly" (the effect of riches being to make one ungodly); but the Hebrew everywhere means "rich," never by itself ungodly; the parallelism, too, is one of contrast; namely, between their design and the fact, as it was ordered by God (Mat 27:57; Mar 15:43-46; Joh 19:39-40); two rich men honored Him at His death, Joseph of Arimathæa, and Nicodemus.

JFB: Isa 53:9 - in his death Hebrew, "deaths." LOWTH translates, "His tomb"; bamoth, from a different root, meaning "high places," and so mounds for sepulture (Eze 43:7). But all ...

Hebrew, "deaths." LOWTH translates, "His tomb"; bamoth, from a different root, meaning "high places," and so mounds for sepulture (Eze 43:7). But all the versions oppose this, and the Hebrew hardly admits it. Rather translate, "after His death" [HENGSTENBERG]; as we say, "at His death." The plural, "deaths," intensifies the force; as Adam by sin "dying died" (Gen 2:17, Margin); that is, incurred death, physical and spiritual. So Messiah, His substitute, endured death in both senses; spiritual, during His temporary abandonment by the Father; physical, when He gave up the ghost.

JFB: Isa 53:9 - because Rather, as the sense demands (so in Job 16:17), "although He had done no," &c. [HENGSTENBERG], (1Pe 2:20-22; 1Jo 3:5).

Rather, as the sense demands (so in Job 16:17), "although He had done no," &c. [HENGSTENBERG], (1Pe 2:20-22; 1Jo 3:5).

JFB: Isa 53:9 - violence That is, wrong.

That is, wrong.

JFB: Isa 53:10 - -- Transition from His humiliation to His exaltation.

Transition from His humiliation to His exaltation.

JFB: Isa 53:10 - pleased the Lord The secret of His sufferings. They were voluntarily borne by Messiah, in order that thereby He might "do Jehovah's will" (Joh 6:38; Heb 10:7, Heb 10:9...

The secret of His sufferings. They were voluntarily borne by Messiah, in order that thereby He might "do Jehovah's will" (Joh 6:38; Heb 10:7, Heb 10:9), as to man's redemption; so at the end of the verse, "the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in His hand."

JFB: Isa 53:10 - bruise (see Isa 53:5); Gen 3:15, was hereby fulfilled, though the Hebrew word for "bruise," there, is not the one used here. The word "Himself," in Matthew, ...

(see Isa 53:5); Gen 3:15, was hereby fulfilled, though the Hebrew word for "bruise," there, is not the one used here. The word "Himself," in Matthew, implies a personal bearing on Himself of our maladies, spiritual and physical, which included as a consequence His ministration to our bodily ailments: these latter are the reverse side of sin; His bearing on Him our spiritual malady involved with it His bearing sympathetically, and healing, the outward: which is its fruits and its type. HENGSTENBERG rightly objects to MAGEE'S translation, "taken away," instead of "borne," that the parallelism to "carried" would be destroyed. Besides, the Hebrew word elsewhere, when connected with sin, means to bear it and its punishment (Eze 18:20). Matthew, elsewhere, also sets forth His vicarious atonement (Mat 20:28).

JFB: Isa 53:10 - when thou, &c. Rather, as Margin, "when His soul (that is, He) shall have made an offering," &c. In the English Version the change of person is harsh: from Jehovah, ...

Rather, as Margin, "when His soul (that is, He) shall have made an offering," &c. In the English Version the change of person is harsh: from Jehovah, addressed in the second person (Isa 53:10), to Jehovah speaking in the first person in Isa 53:11. The Margin rightly makes the prophet in the name of Jehovah Himself to speak in this verse.

JFB: Isa 53:10 - offering for sin (Rom 3:25; 1Jo 2:2; 1Jo 4:10).

JFB: Isa 53:10 - his seed His spiritual posterity shall be numerous (Psa 22:30); nay, more, though He must die, He shall see them. A numerous posterity was accounted a high ble...

His spiritual posterity shall be numerous (Psa 22:30); nay, more, though He must die, He shall see them. A numerous posterity was accounted a high blessing among the Hebrews; still more so, for one to live to see them (Gen 48:11; Psa 128:6).

JFB: Isa 53:10 - prolong . . . days Also esteemed a special blessing among the Jews (Psa 91:16). Messiah shall, after death, rise again to an endless life (Hos 6:2; Rom 6:9).

Also esteemed a special blessing among the Jews (Psa 91:16). Messiah shall, after death, rise again to an endless life (Hos 6:2; Rom 6:9).

JFB: Isa 53:10 - prosper (Isa 52:13, Margin).

(Isa 52:13, Margin).

JFB: Isa 53:11 - -- Jehovah is still speaking.

Jehovah is still speaking.

JFB: Isa 53:11 - see of the travail He shall see such blessed fruits resulting from His sufferings as amply to repay Him for them (Isa 49:4-5; Isa 50:5, Isa 50:9). The "satisfaction," in...

He shall see such blessed fruits resulting from His sufferings as amply to repay Him for them (Isa 49:4-5; Isa 50:5, Isa 50:9). The "satisfaction," in seeing the full fruit of His travail of soul in the conversion of Israel and the world, is to be realized in the last days (Isa 2:2-4).

JFB: Isa 53:11 - his knowledge Rather, the knowledge (experimentally) of Him (Joh 17:3; Phi 3:10).

Rather, the knowledge (experimentally) of Him (Joh 17:3; Phi 3:10).

JFB: Isa 53:11 - my . . . servant Messiah (Isa 42:1; Isa 52:13).

Messiah (Isa 42:1; Isa 52:13).

JFB: Isa 53:11 - righteous The ground on which He justifies others, His own righteousness (1Jo 2:1).

The ground on which He justifies others, His own righteousness (1Jo 2:1).

JFB: Isa 53:11 - justify Treat as if righteous; forensically; on the ground of His meritorious suffering, not their righteousness.

Treat as if righteous; forensically; on the ground of His meritorious suffering, not their righteousness.

JFB: Isa 53:11 - bear . . . iniquities (Isa 53:4-5), as the sinner's substitute.

(Isa 53:4-5), as the sinner's substitute.

JFB: Isa 53:12 - divide As a conqueror dividing the spoil after a victory (Psa 2:8; Luk 11:22).

As a conqueror dividing the spoil after a victory (Psa 2:8; Luk 11:22).

JFB: Isa 53:12 - him For Him.

For Him.

JFB: Isa 53:12 - with . . . great HENGSTENBERG translates, "I will give Him the mighty for a portion"; so the Septuagint. But the parallel clause, "with the strong," favors English Ver...

HENGSTENBERG translates, "I will give Him the mighty for a portion"; so the Septuagint. But the parallel clause, "with the strong," favors English Version. His triumphs shall be not merely among the few and weak, but among the many and mighty.

JFB: Isa 53:12 - spoil . . . strong (Col 2:15; compare Pro 16:19). "With the great; with the mighty," may mean, as a great and mighty hero.

(Col 2:15; compare Pro 16:19). "With the great; with the mighty," may mean, as a great and mighty hero.

JFB: Isa 53:12 - poured out . . . soul That is, His life, which was considered as residing in the blood (Lev 17:11; Rom 3:25).

That is, His life, which was considered as residing in the blood (Lev 17:11; Rom 3:25).

JFB: Isa 53:12 - numbered with, &c. Not that He was a transgressor, but He was treated as such, when crucified with thieves (Mar 15:28; Luk 22:37).

Not that He was a transgressor, but He was treated as such, when crucified with thieves (Mar 15:28; Luk 22:37).

JFB: Isa 53:12 - made intercession, &c. This office He began on the cross (Luk 23:34), and now continues in heaven (Isa 59:16; Heb 9:24; 1Jo 2:1). Understand because before "He was numbered ...

This office He began on the cross (Luk 23:34), and now continues in heaven (Isa 59:16; Heb 9:24; 1Jo 2:1). Understand because before "He was numbered . . . He bare . . . made intercession." His meritorious death and intercession are the cause of His ultimate triumph. MAURER, for the parallelism, translates, "He was put on the same footing with the transgressors." But English Version agrees better with the Hebrew, and with the sense and fact as to Christ. MAURER'S translation would make a tautology after "He was numbered with the transgressors"; parallelism does not need so servile a repetition. "He made intercession for," &c., answers to the parallel. "He was numbered with," &c., as effect answers to cause, His intercession for sinners being the effect flowing from His having been numbered with them.

Israel converted is compared to a wife (Isa 54:5; Isa 62:5) put away for unfaithfulness, but now forgiven and taken home again. The converted Gentiles are represented as a new progeny of the long-forsaken but now restored wife. The pre-eminence of the Hebrew Church as the mother Church of Christendom is the leading idea; the conversion of the Gentiles is mentioned only as part of her felicity [HORSLEY].

Clarke: Isa 53:1 - Who hath believed our report? Who hath believed our report? - The report of the prophets, of John the Baptist, and Christ’ s own report of himself. The Jews did not receive ...

Who hath believed our report? - The report of the prophets, of John the Baptist, and Christ’ s own report of himself. The Jews did not receive the report, and for this reason he was not manifested to them as the promised Messiah. ‘ He came unto his own, but his own received him not.’ Before the Father he grew up as a tender plant: but to the Jews he was as a root out of a dry ground. ‘ He hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him.’

Clarke: Isa 53:2 - For he shall grow up For he shall grow up - Supposes something to have preceded; as it might be asked, what or who shall ‘ grow up before him,’ etc. As the tr...

For he shall grow up - Supposes something to have preceded; as it might be asked, what or who shall ‘ grow up before him,’ etc. As the translation now stands, no correct answer can be given to this question. The translation then is wrong, the connection broken, and the sense obscured. זרוע zeroa , translated the arm, from the root zara

1.    To sow, or plant; also seed, etc

2.    The limb which reaches from the shoulder to the hand, called the arm; or more properly beginning at the shoulder and ending at the elbow

The translator has given the wrong sense of the word. It would be very improper to say, the arm of the Lord should grow up before him; but by taking the word in its former sense, the connection and metaphor would be restored, and the true sense given to the text. זרע zera signifies, not only the seed of herbs, but children, offspring, or posterity. The same word we find Gen 3:15, where Christ is the Seed promised. See also Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18; Gen 26:4; Gen 28:14. Hence the Seed of the woman, the Seed promised to the patriarchs is, according to Isaiah, the Seed of the Lord, the Child born, and the Son given; and according to St. John, ‘ the Son of God, the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.’ זרע then, in this place, should be understood to mean Jesus Christ, and him alone. To speak here of the manifestation of the arm or power of God would be irregular; but to suppose the text to speak of the manifestation of Jesus Christ would be very proper, as the whole of the chapter is written concerning him, particularly his humiliation and sufferings, and the reception he should meet with from the Jewish nation

"The first verse of this chapter is quoted Joh 12:38, and the former part of the same verse Rom 10:16. But no objection of importance can be brought forward from either of these quotations against the above explanation, as they are quoted to show the unbelief of the Jews in not receiving Christ as the promised Messiah.

He hath no form nor comeliness "He hath no form nor any beauty"-

Ουκ ειδος αυτῳ, ουδε αξιωμα, ἱνα ειδωμεν αυτον· ουδε θεωρια, ἱνα επιθυμωμεν αυτον.

"He hath no form, nor any beauty, that we should regard him; nor is his countenance such that we should desire him.

Symmachus; the only one of the ancients that has translated it rightly.

Clarke: Isa 53:3 - Acquainted with grief Acquainted with grief - For וידוע vidua , familiar with grief, eight MSS. and one edition have וירע veyada , and knowing grief; the Septu...

Acquainted with grief - For וידוע vidua , familiar with grief, eight MSS. and one edition have וירע veyada , and knowing grief; the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate read it ויודע veyodea

We hid as it were our faces from him "As one that hideth his face from us"- For וכמסתר uchemaster , four MSS. (two ancient) have וכמסתיר uchemastir , one MS. ומסתיר umastir . For פנים panim , two MSS. have פניו panaiu ; so likewise the Septuagint and Vulgate. Mourners covered up the lower part of their faces, and their heads, 2Sa 15:30; Eze 29:17; and lepers were commanded by the law, Lev 13:45, to cover their upper lip. From which circumstance it seems that the Vulgate, Aquila, Symmachus, and the Jewish commentators have taken the word נגוע nagua , stricken, in the next verse, as meaning stricken with the leprosy: εν αφῃ οντα, Sym.; αφημενον, Aq.; leprosum, Vulg. So my old MS. Bible. I will insert the whole passage as curious: -

There is not schap to him, ne fairnesse

And we seegen him, and he was not of sigte

And we desiriden him dispisid; and the last of men

Man of souaris and witing infirmitie

And he hid his cheer and despisid

Wherfor ne we settiden bi him

Verili our seeknesse he toke and our sorewis he bair

And we helden him as leprous and smyten of God, and meekid

He forsoth wounded is for our wickednesse

Defoulid is for our hidous gilti

The discipline of our pese upon him

And with his wanne wound we ben helid.

Clarke: Isa 53:4 - -- Surely he Bath borne our griefs "Surely our infirmities he hath borne"- Seven MSS. (two ancient) and three editions have חליינו cholayeynu ...

Surely he Bath borne our griefs "Surely our infirmities he hath borne"- Seven MSS. (two ancient) and three editions have חליינו cholayeynu in the plural number

And carried our sorrows "And our sorrows, he hath carried them"- Seventeen MSS. (two ancient) of Dr. Kennicott’ s, two of De Rossi’ s, and two editions have the word הוא hu , he, before סבלם sebalam , "carrieth them, "in the text; four other MSS. have it in the margin. This adds force to the sense, and elegance to the construction.

Clarke: Isa 53:5 - -- The chastisement of our peace "The chastisement by which our peace is effected"- Twenty-one MSS. and six editions have the word fully and regularly ...

The chastisement of our peace "The chastisement by which our peace is effected"- Twenty-one MSS. and six editions have the word fully and regularly expressed, שלמינו shelomeynu ; pacificationum nostrarum , "our pacification;"that by which we are brought into a state of peace and favor with God. Ar. Montan.

Clarke: Isa 53:6 - The Iniquity of us all The Iniquity of us all - For עון avon , "iniquity,"the ancient interpreters read עונות avonoth , "iniquities,"plural; and so the Vulgate i...

The Iniquity of us all - For עון avon , "iniquity,"the ancient interpreters read עונות avonoth , "iniquities,"plural; and so the Vulgate in MS. Blanchini. And the Lord hath הפגיע בו hiphgia bo , caused to meet in him the iniquities of us all. He was the subject on which all the rays collected on the focal point fell. These fiery rays, which should have fallen on all mankind, diverged from Divine justice to the east, west, north, and south, were deflected from them, and converged in him. So the Lord hath caused to meet in him the punishment due to the iniquities of All.

Clarke: Isa 53:8 - -- And who shall declare his generation "And his manner of life who would declare"- A learned friend has communicated to me the following passages from...

And who shall declare his generation "And his manner of life who would declare"- A learned friend has communicated to me the following passages from the Mishna, and the Gemara of Babylon, as leading to a satisfactory explication of this difficult place. It is said in the former, that before any one was punished for a capital crime, proclamation was made before the prisoner by the public crier, in these words: כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו col mi shioda lo zachoth yabo vayilmad alaiv , "whosoever knows any thing of this man’ s innocence, let him come and declare it. "Tract. Sandhedrim. Surenhus. Part 4 p. 233. On which passage the Gemara of Babylon adds, that "before the death of Jesus this proclamation was made for forty days; but no defense could be found."On which words Lardner observes: "It is truly surprising to see such falsities, contrary to well-known facts."Testimonies, Vol. 1 p. 198. The report is certainly false; but this false report is founded on the supposition that there was such a custom, and so far confirms the account given from the Mishna. The Mishna was composed in the middle of the second century according to Prideaux; Lardner ascribes it to the year of Christ 180

Casaubon has a quotation from Maimonides which farther confirms this account: - Exercitat. in Baronii Annales, Art. lxxvi. Ann. 34. Numbers 119. Auctor est Maimonides in Perek 13 ejus libri ex opere Jad, solitum fieri, ut cum reus, sententiam mortis passus, a loco judicii exibat ducendus ad supplicium, praecedoret ipsum חכרוז κηρυξ, praeco; et haec verba diceret: Ille exit occidendus morte illa, quia transgressus est transgressione illa, in loco illo, tempore illo, et sunt ejus ret testes ille et ille. Qui noverit aliquid ad ejus innoeentiam probandam, veniat, et loquatur pro eo . "It was customary when sentence of death was passed upon a criminal, and he was led out from the seat of judgment to the place of punishment, a crier went before, and spoke as follows: - ‘ This man is going out to suffer death by - because he has transgressed by - such a transgression, in such a place, in such a time; and the witnesses against him are - . He who may know any thing relative to his innocence let him come and speak in his behalf.’

Now it is plain from the history of the four Evangelists, that in the trlal and condemnation of Jesus no such rule was observed; though, according to the account of the Mishna, it must have been in practice at that time, no proclamation was made for any person to bear witness to the innocence and character of Jesus; nor did any one voluntarily step forth to give his attestation to it. And our Savior seems to refer to such a custom, and to claim the benefit of it, by his answer to the high priest, when he asked him of his disciples and of his doctrine: "I spoke openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. Why askest thou me? ask them who heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said,"Joh 18:20, Joh 18:21. This, therefore, was one remarkable instance of hardship and injustice, among others predicted by the prophet, which our Savior underwent in his trial and sufferings

St. Paul likewise, in similar circumstances, standing before the judgment seat of Festus, seems to complain of the same unjust treatment; that no one was called, or would appear, to vindicate his character. "My manner of life ( την βιωσιν μου, דורי dori , ‘ my generation’ ) from my youth, which was at the first among my own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews, who knew me from the beginning, if they would testify; that after the straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee;"Act 26:4, Act 26:5

דור dor signifies age, duration, the time which one man or many together pass in this world, in this place; the course, tenor, or manner of life. The verb דור dor signifies, according to Castell, ordinatam vitam sive aetatem egit, ordinavit, ordine constituit . "He passed a certain course of life, he ordained,"etc. In Arabic, curavit ,administravit , "he took care of, administered to.

Was he stricken "He was smitten to death"- The Septuagint read למות lemaveth , εις θανατον, "to death."And so the Coptic and Saidic Versions, from the Septuagint; MSS. St. Germain de Prez

"Origen, "(Contra Celsum, lib. 1 p. 370, edit. 1733), after having quoted at large this prophecy concerning the Messiah, "tells us, that having once made use of this passage in a dispute against some that were accounted wise among the Jews, one of them replied, that the words did not mean one man, but one people, the Jews, who were smitten of God and dispersed among the Gentiles for their conversion; that he then urged many parts of this prophecy to show the absurdity of this interpretation, and that he seemed to press them the hardest by this sentence, απο των ανομιων του λαου μον ηχθη εις θανατον, ‘ for the iniquity of my people was he smitten to death.’ "Now as Origen, the author of the Hexapla, must have understood Hebrew, we cannot suppose that he would have urged this last quotation as so decisive if the Greek Version had not agreed here with the Hebrew text; nor that these wise Jews would have been at all distressed by this quotation, unless their Hebrew text had read agreeably to εις θανατον, "to death,"on which the argument principally depended; for, by quoting it immediately, they would have triumphed over him, and reprobated his Greek version. This, whenever they could do it, was their constant practice in their disputes with the Christians. Jerome, in his Preface to the Psalms, says, Nuper cum Hebraeo disputans, quaedam pro Domino Salvatore de Psalmis testimonia protulisti: volensque ille te illudere, per sermones fere singulos asserebat, non ita haberi in Hebraeo, ut tu de lxx. opponebas . "Lately disputing with a Hebrew, - thou advancedst certain passages out of the Psalms which bear testimony to the Lord the Savior; but he, to elude thy reasoning, asserted that almost all thy quotations have an import in the Hebrew text different from what they had in the Greek."And Origen himself, who laboriously compared the Hebrew text with the Septuagint, has recorded the necessity of arguing with the Jews from such passages only as were in the Septuagint agreeable to the Hebrew: ἱνα προς Ιουδαιοις διαλεγομενοι μη προφερωμεν αυτοι τα μη κειμενα εν τοις αντιγραφοις αυτων, και ἱνα συγχρησωμεθα τοις φερομενοις παρ εκεινοις . See Epist. ad African. p. 15, 17. Wherefore as Origen had carefully compared the Greek version of the Septuagint with the Hebrew text, and speaks of the contempt with which the Jews treated all appeals to the Greek version where it differed from their Hebrew text; and as he puzzled and confounded the learned Jews by urging upon them the reading εις θανατον, "unto death,"in this place; it seems almost impossible not to conclude, both from Origen’ s argument and the silence of his Jewish adversaries, that the Hebrew text at that time actually had למות lemaveth , "to death,"agreeably to the version of the Septuagint. - Dr. Kennicott.

Clarke: Isa 53:9 - -- With the rich in his death "With the rich man was his tomb"- It may be necessary to introduce Bishop Lowth’ s translation of this verse before ...

With the rich in his death "With the rich man was his tomb"- It may be necessary to introduce Bishop Lowth’ s translation of this verse before we come to his very satisfactory criticisms: -

And his grave was appointed with the wicked

But with the rich man was his tomb

Although he had done no wrong

Neither was there any guile in his mouth

Among the various opinions which have been given on this passage, I have no doubt in giving my assent to that which makes the ב beth in במותיו bemothaiv radical, and renders it excelsa sua . This is mentioned by Aben Ezra as received by some in his time; and has been long since approved by Schindler, Drusius, and many other learned Christian interpreters

The most simple tombs or monuments of old consisted of hillocks of earth heaped up over the grave; of which we have numerous examples in our own country, generally allowed to be of very high antiquity. The Romans called a monument of this sort very properly tumulus; and the Hebrews as properly במות bamoth , "high place,"for that is the form of’ the noun in the singular number; and sixteen MSS. and the two oldest editions express the word fully in this place, במותיו bamothaiv . Tumulus et collem et sepulchrum fuisse significat. Potest enim tumulus sine sepulchro interpretatione collis interdum accipi. Nam et terrae congestio super ossa tumulus dicitur . "Tumulus signifies a sepulcher with a hillock of earth raised over it. The word is sometimes restrained to the bank of earth; for the heaping up of the earth over the bones is named the tumulus."- Servius, Aen. 3:22. And to make the tumulus still more elevated and conspicuous, a pillar or some other ornament was often erected upon it: -

Τυμβον χευαντες, και επι στηλην ερυσαντες,

Πηξαμεν ακροτατῳ τυμβῳ ευηρες ερετμον.

Odyss. sii. 14

"A rising tomb, the silent dead to grace

Fast by the roarings of the main we place

The rising tomb a lofty column bore

And high above it rose the tapering oar.

Pop

The tomb therefore might with great propriety be called the high place. The Hebrews might also call such a tomb במות bamoth , from the situation, for they generally chose to erect them on eminences. The sepulcher of Joseph of Arimathea, in which the body of Christ was laid, was upon a hill, Mount Calvary. See Isa 22:16 (note), and the note there

"It should be observed that the word במותיו bamothaiv is not formed from במות bamoth , the plural of במה bamah , the feminine noun, but from במותים bamothim , the plural of a masculine noun, במות bamoth . This is noted because these two nouns have been negligently confounded with one another, and absurdly reduced to one by very learned men. So Buxtorf, lex. in voc. במה bamah , represents במותי bamotey , though plainly without any pronoun suffixed, as it governs the word ארץ arets following it, as only another form of במות bamoth ; whereas the truth is, that במות bamoth and במותים bamothim are different words, and have through the whole Bible very different significations; במה bamah , whether occurring in the singular or plural number, always signifying a place or places of worship; and במותים bamothim always signifying heights. Thus in Deu 32:13; Isa 58:14; Amo 4:13; and Mic 1:3, במותי ארץ bamothey arets signifies ‘ the heights of the earth;’ Isa 14:14, במותי עב bamothey ab , ‘ the heights of the clouds;’ and in Job 9:8, במותי ים bamothey yam , ‘ the heights of the sea,’ i.e., the high waves of the sea, as Virgil calls a wave praeruptus aqua mons, ‘ a broken mountain of water.’ These being all the places where this word occurs without a suffix, the sense of it seems nearly determined by them. It occurs in other instances with a pronoun suffixed, which confirm this signification. Unluckily, our English Bible has not distinguished the feminine noun במה bamah from the masculine singular noun במות bamoth ; and has consequently always given the signification of the latter to the former, always rendering it a high place; whereas the true sense of the word appears plainly to be, in the very numerous passages in which it occurs, ‘ a place of worship,’ or ‘ a sacred court,’ or ‘ a sacred inclosure;’ whether appropriated to the worship of idols or to that of the true God, for it is used of both, passive. Now as the Jewish graves are shown, from 2Ch 32:33, and Isa 22:16, to have been in high situations, to which may be added the custom of another eastern nation from Osbeck’ s Travels, who says, vol. 1 p. 339, ‘ the Chinese graves are made on the side of hills;’ ‘ his heights’ becomes a very easy metaphor to express ‘ his sepulcher.’ "- Jubb

The exact completion of this prophecy will be fully shown by adding here the several circumstances of the burial of Jesus, collected from the accounts of the evangelists: -

"There was a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, a member of the sanhedrin, and of a respectable character, who had not consented to their counsel and act; he went to Pilate and begged the body of Jesus: and he laid it in his own new tomb, which had been hewn out of the rock, near to the place where Jesus was crucified; having first wound it in fine linen with spices, as the manner of the Jews was to bury the rich and great.

It has been supposed that קברו kibro , his grave, and במתיו bemothaiv , in his death, may have been transposed, as also the prefix ב be originally placed before רשעים reshaim , the wicked. Thus: -

מתיו את ברשעים ויתן
mothaiv eth bireshayim vaiyitten
   
קברו עשיר ואת
kibro ashir veeth

Yea, his death was appointed among the wicked

And with a rich man, his tomb

By these alterations it is supposed the text would be freed from all embarrassment. But see the preceding notes of Bishop Lowth, and the various readings of De Rossi, in loc.

Clarke: Isa 53:10 - To grief "With affliction"- For החלי hecheli , the verb, the construction of which seems to be hard and inelegant in this place, the Vulgate reads בחלי bocholi , in infirmitate, "with infirmity.

When thou shalt make his soul "If his soul shall make"- For תשים tasim , a MS. has תשם tasem , which may be taken passively, "If his soul shall be made"agreeably to some copies of the Septuagint, which have δωται See likewise the Syriac

When thou shalt make his soul an offering To grief "With affliction"- For החלי hecheli , the verb, the construction of which seems to be hard and inelegant in this place, the Vulgate re...

To grief "With affliction"- For החלי hecheli , the verb, the construction of which seems to be hard and inelegant in this place, the Vulgate reads בחלי bocholi , in infirmitate, "with infirmity.

When thou shalt make his soul "If his soul shall make"- For תשים tasim , a MS. has תשם tasem , which may be taken passively, "If his soul shall be made"agreeably to some copies of the Septuagint, which have δωται See likewise the Syriac

When thou shalt make his soul an offering - The word נפש dro nephesh , soul, is frequently used in Hebrew to signify life. Throughout the New Testament the salvation of men is uniformly attributed to the death of Christ

Clarke: Isa 53:10 - He shall see his seed He shall see his seed - True converts, genuine Christians

He shall see his seed - True converts, genuine Christians

Clarke: Isa 53:10 - He shall prolong his days He shall prolong his days - Or this spiritual progeny shall prolong their days, i.e., Christianity shall endure to the end of time

He shall prolong his days - Or this spiritual progeny shall prolong their days, i.e., Christianity shall endure to the end of time

Clarke: Isa 53:10 - And the pleasure of the Lord And the pleasure of the Lord - To have all men saved and brought to the knowledge of the truth

And the pleasure of the Lord - To have all men saved and brought to the knowledge of the truth

Clarke: Isa 53:10 - Shall prosper in his hand Shall prosper in his hand - Shall go on in a state of progressive prosperity; and so completely has this been thus far accomplished, that every succ...

Shall prosper in his hand - Shall go on in a state of progressive prosperity; and so completely has this been thus far accomplished, that every succeeding century has witnessed more Christianity in the world than the preceding, or any former one.

Clarke: Isa 53:11 - -- Shall be satisfied "And be satisfied"- The Septuagint, Vulgate, Sryiac, and a MS. add the conjunction to the verb, וישבע vaigisba Shall my ...

Shall be satisfied "And be satisfied"- The Septuagint, Vulgate, Sryiac, and a MS. add the conjunction to the verb, וישבע vaigisba

Shall my righteous servant justify "Shall my servant justify"- Three MSS., (two of them ancient), omit the word צדיק tsaddik ; it seems to be only an imperfect repetition, by mistake, of the preceding word. It makes a solecism in this place; for according to the constant usage of the Hebrew language, the adjective, in a phrase of this kind, ought to follow the substantive; and צדיק עבדי tsaddik abdi , in Hebrew, would be as absurd as "shall my servant righteous justify,"in English. Add to this, that it makes the hemistich too long.

Clarke: Isa 53:12 - He bare the sin of many He bare the sin of many - רבים rabbim , the multitudes, the many that were made sinners by the offenses of one; i.e., the whole human race; for...

He bare the sin of many - רבים rabbim , the multitudes, the many that were made sinners by the offenses of one; i.e., the whole human race; for all have sinned - all have fallen; and for all that have sinned, and for all that have fallen, Jesus Christ died. The רבים rabbim of the prophet answers to the οἱ πολλοι, of the apostle, Rom 5:15, Rom 5:19. As the πολλοι of the apostle means all that have sinned; so the רבים rabbim of the prophet means those for whom Christ died; i.e., all that have sinned

Clarke: Isa 53:12 - And made intercession for the transgressors And made intercession for the transgressors - For יפגיע yaphgia , in the future, a MS. has הפגיע hiphgia , preterite, rather better, as ...

And made intercession for the transgressors - For יפגיע yaphgia , in the future, a MS. has הפגיע hiphgia , preterite, rather better, as agreeable with the other verbs immediately preceding in the sentence

He made intercession for the transgressors. - This was literally fulfilled at his death, "Father, forgive them; they know not what they do!"Luk 23:34. And to make intercession for transgressors is one part of his mediatorial offlce. Heb 7:25, and Heb 9:24

In this chapter the incarnation, preaching, humiliation, rejection, sufferings, death, atonement, resurrection, and mediation of Jesus Christ are all predicted, together with the prevalence of his Gospel, and the extension of his kingdom through all ages.

Calvin: Isa 53:1 - Who will believe our report? // To whom 1.Who will believe our report? This division, or rather dismemberment, of the chapter, ought to be disregarded; for it ought to have begun with the t...

1.Who will believe our report? This division, or rather dismemberment, of the chapter, ought to be disregarded; for it ought to have begun with the thirteenth verse of the former chapter, and these words ought to be connected with what goes before. 50 Here the Prophet pauses, as it were, in the middle of his discourse; for, having formerly said that the name of Christ would be everywhere proclaimed, and would be revealed to unknown nations, and yet would have so mean an aspect that it might appear as if these things were fabulous, he breaks off his discourse, and exclaims that “Nobody will believe those things.” At the same time, he describes his grief, that men are so unbelieving as to reject their salvation.

Thus, it is a holy complaint made by one who wished that Christ should be known by all, and who, notwithstanding of this, sees that there are few who believe the Gospel, and therefore groans and cries out, “Who hath believed our report?“ Let us therefore groan and complain along with the Prophet, and let us be distressed with grief when we see that our labor is unprofitable, and let us complain before God; for godly ministers must be deeply affected, if they wish to perform their work faithfully. Isaiah declares that there will be few that submit to the Gospel of Christ; for, when he exclaims, “Who will believe the preaching?” he means that of those who hear the Gospel scarcely a hundredth person will be a believer.

Nor does he merely speak of himself alone, but like one who represents all teachers. Although therefore God gives many ministers, few will hold by their doctrine; and what then will happen when there are no ministers? Do we wonder that the greatest blindness reigns there? If cultivated ground is unfruitful, what shall we look for from a soil that is uncultivated and barren? And yet it does not detract anything from the Gospel of Christ, that there are few disciples who receive it; nor does the small number of believers lessen its authority or obscure its infinite glory; but, on the contrary, the loftiness of the mystery is a reason why it scarcely obtains credit in the world. It is reckoned to be folly, because it exceeds all human capacities.

To whom (literally, on whom) is the arm of Jehovah revealed? In this second clause he points out the reason why the number of believers will be so small. It is, because no man can come to God but by an extraordinary revelation of the Spirit. To suppose that by the word “Arm” Christ is meant, is, in my opinion, a mistake. It assigns the cause why there are so few that believe; and that is, that they cannot attain it by the sagacity of their own understanding. This is a remarkable passage, and is quoted by John and Paul for that purpose. “Though Jesus,” said John, “had performed many miracles in their presence, they believed not in him, that the saying of Isaiah the Prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake,

“Lord, who hath believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?”
(Joh 12:37)

And Paul says, “But they do not all believe the Gospel; for Isaiah saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?“ (Rom 10:16) Both of them declare that there will be no reason to wonder, if that which was long ago foretold shall happen; and they do so for the purpose of removing offense which might have arisen from the revolt of that nation, which ought to have acknowledged Christ, but obstinately resisted him.

Isaiah does not include merely the men of his own time, but all posterity to the end of the world; for, so long as the reign of Christ shall endure, this must be fulfilled; and therefore believers ought to be fortified by this passage against such a scandal. These words refute the ignorance of those who think that faith is in the power of every person, because preaching is common to all. Though it is sufficiently evident that all are called to salvation, yet the Prophet expressly states that the external voice is of no avail, if it be not accompanied by a special gift of the Spirit. And whence proceeds the difference, but from the secret election of God, the cause of which is hidden in himself?

Calvin: Isa 53:2 - Yet he shall grow up before him as a twig // In a desert land // He hath no form nor comeliness 2.Yet he shall grow up before him as a twig This verse refers to what was formerly said, that Christ will at first have no magnificence or outward di...

2.Yet he shall grow up before him as a twig This verse refers to what was formerly said, that Christ will at first have no magnificence or outward display among men; but that before God he will nevertheless be highly exalted, and will be held in estimation. Hence we see that we must not judge of the glory of Christ by human view, but must discern by faith what is taught us concerning him by the Holy Scriptures; and therefore the phrase “before him,” is here contrasted with human senses, which cannot comprehend that lofty greatness. Almost the same metaphor was used by the Prophet, (Isa 11:1) when he said, “A branch shall spring out of the stock of Jesse;” for the house of David was like a dry stock, in which no rigor and no comeliness was visible, and on that account is there called not a royal house, but “Jesse,” a name which bore no celebrity. Only the Prophet adds here, —

In a desert land; by which he means that Christ’s power of springing up will not be derived from the sap of the earth, as in trees, but contrary to the ordinary course of nature. They who in this passage speculate about the virgin Mary, and suppose that she is called a desert land, because she conceived by the Holy Ghost, and not by ordinary generation, speak beside the purpose; for the present subject is not the birth of Christ, but his whole reign. He says that it will resemble a twig springing out of a dry soil, which looks as if it could never become large. If we take into account the whole method of establishing his kingdom, and the agency which he employed, and how feeble were its beginnings, and how many foes it encountered, we shall easily understand that all these things were fulfilled as they had been foretold. What sort of men were the Apostles that they should subdue so many kings and nations by the sword of the word? Are they not justly compared to offshoots? Thus the Prophet shows by what means the kingdom of Christ must be set up and established, that we may not judge of it by human conceptions.

He hath no form nor comeliness This must be understood to relate not merely to the person of Christ, who was despised by the world, and was at length condemned to a disgraceful death; but to his whole kingdom, which in the eyes of men had no beauty, no comeliness, no splendor, which, in short, had nothing that could direct or captivate the hearts of men to it by its outward show. Although Christ arose from the dead, yet the Jews always regarded him as a person who had been crucified and disgraced, in consequence of which they haughtily disdained him.

Calvin: Isa 53:3 - Despised and rejected // We hid the face from him 3.Despised and rejected This verse conveys the same statement as the preceding, namely, that Christ will be “rejected” by men, in consequence of ...

3.Despised and rejected This verse conveys the same statement as the preceding, namely, that Christ will be “rejected” by men, in consequence of their beholding in him nothing but grief and infirmity. These things needed to be often repeated to the Jews, that they might not form a false conception of Christ and his kingdom; for, in order to know his glory, we must proceed from his death to his resurrection. Many stumble at his death, as if he had been vanquished and overwhelmed by it; but we ought to contemplate his power and majesty in the resurrection; and if any one choose to begin with the resurrection, he will not follow the order laid down by the Prophet, nor comprehend the Lord’s strength and power.

We hid the face from him Not without reason does he use the first person, we; for he declares that there will be a universal judgment; and no man will ever be able to comprehend it by his own understanding till the Lord correct and form him anew by his Spirit. Although he appears chiefly to censure the Jews, who ought not to have so haughtily rejected the Son of God promised and offered to them, and therefore reckons himself as one of the number, because he was an individual belonging to that nation; yet let us learn from this passage that all men are accursed and condemned for ingratitude in despising Christ, because they do not even consider him to be worthy of being looked at, but turn away their eyes as if from something detestable.

Calvin: Isa 53:4 - Surely he carried our sicknesses // We thought him to be smitten, wounded by God, and afflicted 4.Surely he carried our sicknesses The particle אכן ( aken) is not only a strong affirmation, but is likewise equivalent to for, and assigns a...

4.Surely he carried our sicknesses The particle אכן ( aken) is not only a strong affirmation, but is likewise equivalent to for, and assigns a reason of something which went before, and which might have been thought new and strange; for it is a monstrous thing that he to whom God has given supreme authority over all the creatures should be thus trampled on and scorned; and if the reason were not assigned, it would have been universally pronounced to be ridiculous. The reason, therefore, of the weakness, pains, and shame of Christ is, that “he carried our sicknesses.”

Matthew quotes this prediction, after having related that Christ cured various diseases; though it is certain that he was appointed not to cure bodies, but rather to cure souls; for it is of spiritual disease that the Prophet intends to speak. But in the miracles which Christ performed in curing bodies, he gave a proof of the salvation which he brings to our souls. That healing had therefore a more extensive reference than to bodies, because he was appointed to be the physician of souls; and accordingly Matthew applies to the outward sign what belonged to the truth and reality.

We thought him to be smitten, wounded by God, and afflicted In this second clause he shows how great was the ingratitude and wickedness of the people, who did not know why Christ was so severely afflicted, but imagined that God smote him on account of his own sins, though they knew that he was perfectly innocent, and his innocence was attested even by his judge. (Mat 27:24; Luk 23:4; Joh 18:38) Since therefore they know that an innocent man is punished for sins which he did not commit, why do they not think that it indicated some extraordinary excellence to exist in him? But because they see him wounded and despised, they do not inquire about the cause, and from the event alone, as fools are wont to do, they pronounce judgment. Accordingly, Isaiah complains of the wicked judgment of men, in not considering the cause of Christ’s heavy afflictions; and especially he deplores the dullness of his own nation, because they thought that God was a deadly enemy of Christ, and took no account of their own sins, which were to be expiated in this manner.

Calvin: Isa 53:5 - And he was wounded for our iniquities // The chastisement of our peace // In his wound 5.And he was wounded for our iniquities He again repeats the cause of Christ’s great afflictions, in order to meet the scandal which might have ari...

5.And he was wounded for our iniquities He again repeats the cause of Christ’s great afflictions, in order to meet the scandal which might have arisen from it. The spectacle of the cross alienates many persons from Christ, when they consider what is presented to their eyes, and do not observe the object to be accomplished. But all offense is removed when we know that by his death our sins have been expiated, and salvation has been obtained for us.

The chastisement of our peace. Some think that this is called “the chastisement of peace,” on account of men being careless and stupefied amidst their afflictions, and therefore that it was necessary that Christ should suffer. Others view “peace” as relating to the consciences, that is, that Christ suffered, in order that we might have peaceful consciences; as Paul says that, “being justified by faith through Christ, we have peace with God.” (Rom 5:1) But I take it to denote simply reconciliation. Christ was the price of “our chastisement,” that is, of the chastisement which was due to us. Thus the wrath of God, which had been justly kindled against us, was appeased; and through the Mediator we have obtained “peace,” by which we are reconciled.

We ought to draw from this a universal doctrine, namely, that we are reconciled to God by free grace, because Christ hath paid the price of “our peace.” This is indeed acknowledged by the Papists; but then they limit this doctrine to original sin, as if after baptism there were no longer any room for reconciliation through free grace, but that we must give satisfaction by our merits and works. But the Prophet does not here treat of a single species of pardon, but extends this blessing to the whole course of life; and therefore it cannot be thus undervalued or limited to a particular time, without most heinous sacrilege. Hence also the frivolous distinction of the Papists, between the remission of punishment and the pardon of sin, is easily refuted. They affirm that punishment is not remitted to us, unless it be washed out by satisfactions. But the Prophet openly declares that the punishment of our sins was transferred to him. What, then, do the Papists intend but to be Christ’s equals and companions, and to lay claim to share with him in his authority?

In his wound (or, in his medicine) we have healing. He again directs us to Christ, that we may betake ourselves to his wounds, provided that we wish to regain life. Here the Prophet draws a contrast between us and Christ; for in us nothing call be found but destruction and death; in Christ alone is life and salvation, he alone brought medicine to us, and even procures health by his weakness, and life by his death; for he alone hath pacified the Father, he alone hath reconciled us to him. Here we might bring forward many things about the blessed consequences of Christ’s sufferings, if we had not determined to expound rather than to preach; and therefore let us be satisfied with a plain exposition. Let every one, therefore, draw consolation from this passage, and let him apply the blessed result of this doctrine to his own use; for these words are spoken to all in general, and to individuals in particular.

Calvin: Isa 53:6 - We all, like sheep, have gone astray // Every one hath turned to his own way // And Jehovah hath laid upon him 6.We all, like sheep, have gone astray In order to impress more deeply on our hearts the benefit of the death of Christ, he shows how necessary is th...

6.We all, like sheep, have gone astray In order to impress more deeply on our hearts the benefit of the death of Christ, he shows how necessary is that healing which he formerly mentioned. If we do not perceive our wretchedness and poverty, we shall never know how desirable is that remedy which Christ has brought to us, or approach him with due ardor of affection. As soon as we know that we are ruined, then, aware of our wretchedness, we eagerly run to avail ourselves of the remedy, which otherwise would be held by us in no estimation. In order, therefore, that Christ may be appreciated by us, let every one consider and examine himself, so as to acknowledge that he is ruined till he is redeemed by Christ.

We see that here none are excepted, for the Prophet includes “all.” The whole human race would have perished, if Christ had not brought relief. He does not even except the Jews, whose hearts were puffed up with a false opinion of their own superiority, but condemns them indiscriminately, along with others, to destruction. By comparing them to sheep, he intends not to extenuate their guilt, as if little blame attached to them, but to state plainly that it belongs to Christ to gather from their wanderings those who resembled brute beasts.

Every one hath turned to his own way By adding the term every one, he descends from a universal statement, in which he included all, to a special statement, that every individual may consider in his own mind if it be so; for a general statement produces less effect upon us than to know that it belongs to each of us in particular. Let “every one,” therefore, arouse his conscience, and present himself before the judgment­seat of God, that he may confess his wretchedness. Moreover, what is the nature of this “going astray” the Prophet states more plainly. It is, that every one hath followed the way which he had chosen for himself, that is, hath determined to live according to his own fancy; by which he means that there is only one way of living uprightly, and if any one “turn aside” from it, he can experience nothing but “going astray.”

He does not speak of works only, but of nature itself, which always leads us astray; for, if we could by natural instinct or by our own wisdom, bring ourselves back into the path, or guard ourselves against going astray, Christ would not be needed by us. Thus, in ourselves we all are undone unless Christ (Joh 8:36) sets us free; and the more we rely on our wisdom or industry, the more dreadfully and the more speedily do we draw down destruction on ourselves. And so the Prophet shows what we are before we are regenerated by Christ; for all are involved in the same condemnation. “There is none righteous, none that understandeth, none that seeketh God. All have turned aside, and have become unprofitable. There is none that doeth good; no, not one.” (Psa 14:3) All this is more fully explained by Paul. (Rom 3:10)

And Jehovah hath laid upon him Here we have a beautiful contrast. In ourselves we are scattered; in Christ we are gathered together. By nature we go astray, and are driven headlong to destruction; in Christ we find the course by which we are conducted to the harbor of salvation. Our sins are a heavy load; but they are laid on Christ, by whom we are freed from the load. Thus, when we were ruined, and, being estranged from God, were hastening to hell, Christ took upon him the filthiness of our iniquities, in order to rescue us from everlasting destruction. This must refer exclusively to guilt and punishment; for he was free from sin. (Heb 4:15; 1Pe 2:22) Let every one, therefore, diligently consider his own iniquities, that he may have a true relish of that grace, and may obtain the benefit of the death of Christ.

Calvin: Isa 53:7 - He was punished // As a lamb shall he be led to the slaughter 7.He was punished Here the Prophet applauds the obedience of Christ in suffering death; for if his death had not been voluntary, he would not have be...

7.He was punished Here the Prophet applauds the obedience of Christ in suffering death; for if his death had not been voluntary, he would not have been regarded as having satisfied for our disobedience. “As by one man’s disobedience,” says Paul, “all became sinners, so by one man’s obedience many were made righteous. (Rom 5:19) And elsewhere, “He became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.” (Phi 2:8) This was the reason of his silence at the judgment­seat of Pilate, though he had a just defense to offer; for, having become answerable for our guilt, he wished to submit silently to the sentence, that we might loudly glory in the righteousness of faith obtained through free grace.

As a lamb shall he be led to the slaughter We are here exhorted to patience and meekness, that, following the example of Christ, we may be ready to endure reproaches and cruel assaults, distress and torture. In this sense Peter quotes this passage, showing that we ought to become like Christ our Head, that we may imitate his patience and submissiveness. (1Pe 2:23) In the word lamb there is probably an allusion to the sacrifices under the Law; and in this sense he is elsewhere called “the Lamb of God.” (Joh 1:29)

Calvin: Isa 53:8 - From prison and judgment // Who shall relate his generation? // For he was cut off // For the transgression of my people 8.From prison and judgment There are various ways in which this passage is expounded. Some think that the Prophet continues the argument which he had...

8.From prison and judgment There are various ways in which this passage is expounded. Some think that the Prophet continues the argument which he had already begun to treat, namely, that Christ was smitten by the hand of God, and afflicted, on account of our sins. The Greek translators render it, ἐν τὣ ταπεινώσει αὐτοῦ ἡ κρίσις αὐτοῦ ᾔρθη. “In his humiliation his judgment was taken away.” Others, “He was taken away without delay.” Others explain it, “He was taken away to the cross;“ that is, as soon as Christ was seized, he was dragged to “judgment.” I rather agree with those who think that the Prophet, after having spoken of death, passes to the glory of the resurrection. He intended to meet the thoughts by which the minds of many persons might have been troubled and distressed; for when we see nothing but wounds and shame, we are struck with amazement, because human nature shrinks from such a spectacle.

The Prophet therefore declares that he was taken away; that is, that he was rescued “from prison and judgment” or condemnation, and afterwards was exalted to the highest rank of honor; that no one might think that he was overwhelmed or swallowed up by that terrible and shameful kind of death. For, undoubtedly, he was victorious even in the midst of death, and triumphed over his enemies; and he was so judged that now he has been appointed to be judge of all, as was publicly manifested by his resurrection. (Act 10:42) The same order is followed by the Prophet as by Paul, who, after having declared that Christ was abased even to the cross, adds that, on this account, he was exalted to the very highest honor, and that there was given him a: name to which all things both in heaven and in earth must render obedience and bend the knee. (Phi 2:9)

Who shall relate his generation? This exclamation has been stretched and (I may say) tortured into various meanings. The ancients abused this passage in reasoning against the Arians, when they wished to prove by it Christ’s eternal generation. But they ought to have been satisfied with clearer testimonies of Scripture, that they might not expose themselves to the mockery of heretics, who sometimes take occasion from this to become more obstinate; for it might easily have been objected that the Prophet was not thinking about that subject. Chrysostom views it as relating to the human nature of Christ, that he was miraculously, and not by ordinary generation, conceived in the womb of the virgin; but that is a wide departure from the Prophet’s meaning. Others think that Isaiah kindles into rage against the men of that age who crucified Christ. Others refer it to the posterity which should be born; namely, that Christ’s posterity will be numerous though he die.

But, as דור (dor) signifies “age” or “duration,” I have no doubt that he speaks of the “age” of Christ, and that his meaning is, that Christ, though almost overwhelmed by sicknesses, shall not only be taken from them, but that even his age shall be permanent and eternal; or, in other words, that he shall be unlike those who are indeed rescued from death, but shall afterwards die; for Christ rose from the dead, to live for ever, and, as Paul says, “cannot now die; death shall no longer have dominion over him.” (Rom 6:9) Yet let us remember that the Prophet does not speak of Christ’s person alone, but includes the whole body of the Church, which ought never to be separated from him. We have therefore a striking proof of the perpetuity of the Church. As Christ liveth for ever, so he will not permit his kingdom to perish. The same immortality shall at length be bestowed on each of the members.

For he was cut off This might indeed, at first sight, appear to be absurd, that the death of Christ is the cause and source of our life; but, because he bore the punishment of our sins, we ought therefore to apply to ourselves all the shame that appears in the cross. Yet in Christ the wonderful love of God shines forth, which renders his glory visible to us; so that we ought to be excited to rapturous admiration.

For the transgression of my people He again repeats that the wound was inflicted on him “for the sins of the people;“ and the object is, that we may diligently consider that it was for our sake, and not for his own, that he suffered; for he bore the punishment which we must have endured, if he had not offered this atonement. We ought to perceive in ourselves that guilt of which he bore the accusation and punishment, having offered himself in our name to the Father, 51 that by his condemnation we may be set free.

Calvin: Isa 53:9 - And he laid open to wicked men his grave // And to the rich man his death // Though he did no iniquity // Neither was there deceit in his mouth 9.And he laid open to wicked men his grave Jerome renders it, “And he gave wicked men for burial;” as if the Prophet spake of the punishment by w...

9.And he laid open to wicked men his grave Jerome renders it, “And he gave wicked men for burial;” as if the Prophet spake of the punishment by which the Lord took vengeance for the sin of wicked men, who crucified Christ. But he rather speaks of the death of Christ, and of the fruit of it, and says nothing about that revenge. Others think that the particle את (eth) denotes comparison, in the same manner as the particle כ (caph). “He gave his grave as of wicked men.” Others interpret את (eth) to mean with, and explain “the rich man” to be Joseph of Arimathea, in whose sepulcher Christ was buried. (Mat 27:60; Joh 19:38) But such an interpretation is too unnatural. I rather think that the real meaning is, that God the Father delivered Christ into the hands of wicked men.

And to the rich man his death I consider the singular עשיר (gnashir,) “the rich man,” to be put for the plural עשרים (gnashirim), as is frequently done by Hebrew writers. I see no reason why Oecolampadius rendered it “high places.” 52 By “rich men” he means “violent men;” for men grow haughty and disdainful on account of their riches, and abuse their wealth to savage cruelty. And thus by the terms “wicked men” and “rich men” the same thing, in my opinion, is denoted. He means, therefore, that Christ was exposed to the reproaches, and insolence, and lawless passions of wicked men. For, on the one hand, the Pharisees and priests (Mat 26:66) rush upon him with unbridled rage and foul slander; on the other hand, Pilate, though well aware of his innocence, (Mar 15:14) condemns him in opposition to law and justice; and again, on another hand, the Roman soldiers, ready for every kind of barbarity, cruelly and wickedly execute the cruel and wicked sentence. (Joh 19:16) Who would not conclude that Christ was crushed and “buried” amidst those impious and bloody hands?

I consider the word grave to be here used metaphorically, because wicked and violent men might be said to have overwhelmed him. If it be objected that Christ had an honorable burial, I reply, that burial was the commencement of a glorious resurrection; but at present the Prophet speaks of death, which is often denoted by “the grave.” I consider this, therefore, to be the real meaning, though I wish to leave every person free to form his own opinion.

Though he did no iniquity על (gnal) signifies “because;” but sometimes it is used in the sense of “though,” as in this passage. 53 Here the Prophet applauds the innocence of Christ, not only in order to defend him from slander, but to speak highly of the benefit of his death, that we may not think that he suffered by chance. Though innocent, he suffered by the decree of God; and therefore it was for our sake, and not for his own, that he suffered. He bore the punishment which was due to us.

Neither was there deceit in his mouth In two words he describes the perfect innocence of Christ; namely, that he never offended either in deed or in word. That this cannot be said of any mortal man is universally acknowledged, and hence it follows that it applies to Christ alone.

Calvin: Isa 53:10 - Yet Jehovah was pleased to bruise him // When he shall have offered his soul as a sacrifice // He shall see his seed // He shall prolong his days // And the will of Jehovah shall prosper in his hand 10.Yet Jehovah was pleased to bruise him This illustrates more fully what I formerly stated in few words, that the Prophet, in asserting Christ’s i...

10.Yet Jehovah was pleased to bruise him This illustrates more fully what I formerly stated in few words, that the Prophet, in asserting Christ’s innocence, aims at something more than to defend him from all reproach. The object therefore is, that we should consider the cause, in order to have experience of the effect; for God appoints nothing at random, and hence it follows that the cause of his death is lawful. We must also keep in view the contrast. In Christ there was no fault; why, then, was the Lord pleased that he should suffer? Because he stood in our room, and in no other way than by his death could the justice of God be satisfied.

When he shall have offered his soul as a sacrifice אשם (asham) 54 denotes both sin and the sacrifice which is offered for sin, and is often used in the latter sense in the Scriptures. (Exo 29:14; Eze 45:22) 55 The sacrifice was offered in such a manner as to expiate sin by enduring its punishment and curse. This was expressed by the priests by means of the laying on of hands, as if they threw on the sacrifice the sins of the whole nation. (Exo 29:15) And if a private individual offered a sacrifice, he also laid his hand upon it, as if he threw upon it his own sin. Our sins were thrown upon Christ in such a manner that he alone bore the curse.

On this account Paul also calls him a “curse” or “execration:” “Christ hath redeemed us from the execration of the law, having been made an execration for us.” (Gal 3:13) He likewise calls him “Sin;” “For him who knew no sin hath he made to be sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.” (2Co 5:21) And in another passage, “For what was impossible for the law, inasmuch as it was weak on account of the flesh, God did, by sending his own Son in the likeness of flesh liable to sin, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh, that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us.” (Rom 8:3) What Paul meant by the words “curse” and “sin” in these passages is the same as what the Prophet meant by the word אשם , (asham.) In short, אשם (asham) is equivalent to the Latin word piaculum, 56 an expiatory sacrifice.

Here we have a description of the benefit of Christ’s death, that by his sacrifice sins were expiated, and God was reconciled towards men; for such is the import of this word אשם , (asham.) Hence it follows that nowhere but in Christ is found expiation and satisfaction for sin. In order to understand this better, we must first know that we are guilty before God, so that we may be accursed and detestable in his presence. Now, if we wish to return to a state of favor with him, sin must be taken away. This cannot be accomplished by sacrifices contrived according to the fancy of men. Consequently, we must come to the death of Christ; for in no other way can satisfaction be given to God. In short, Isaiah teaches that sins cannot be pardoned in any other way than by betaking ourselves to the death of Christ. If any person think that this language is harsh and disrespectful to Christ, let him descend into himself, and, after a close examination, let him ponder how dreadful is the judgment of God, which could not be pacified but by this price; and thus the inestimable grace which shines forth in making Christ accursed will easily remove every ground of offense.

He shall see his seed Isaiah means that the death of Christ not only can be no hinderance to his having a seed, but will be the cause of his having offspring; that is, because, by quickening the dead, he will procure a people for himself, whom he will afterwards multiply more and more; and there is no absurdity in giving the appellation of Christ’s seed to all believers, who are also brethren, because they are descended from Christ.

He shall prolong his days To this clause some supply the relative אשר (asher,) “which:” “A seed which shall be long lived.” But I expound it in a more simple manner, “Christ shall not be hindered by his death from prolonging his days, that is, from living eternally.” Some persons, when departing from life, leave children, but children who shall survive them, and who shall live so as to obtain a name only when their fathers are dead. But Christ shall ell joy the society of his children; for he shall not die like other men, but shall obtain eternal life in himself and his children. Thus Isaiah declares that in the head and the members there shall be immortal life.

And the will of Jehovah shall prosper in his hand The word “hand” often denotes “ministry,” as the Lord proclaimed the law “by the hand of Moses.” (Num 36:13) Again, the Lord did this “by the hands of David;“ that is, he made use of David as his minister in that matter. (Ezr 3:10) So also “in the hand of Christ shall prosper the will of God;” that is, the Lord will cause the ministry of Christ to yield its fruit, that it may not be thought that he exposed himself fruitlessly to such terrible sufferings.

These few words contain a very rich doctrine, which every reader may draw from them; but we are satisfied with giving a simple exposition of the text. “Will” is taken in the same acceptation as before; for he makes use of the word חפף (chaphetz) by which he means a kind and generous disposition. Two views of God’s kindness are held up for our admiration in this passage; first, that he spared not his only­begotten Son, but delivered him for us, that he might deliver us from death; and secondly, that he does not suffer his death to be useless and unprofitable, but causes it to yield very abundant, fruit; for the death of Christ would be of no avail to us, if we did not experience its fruit and efficacy.

Calvin: Isa 53:11 - From the labor of his soul he shall see // By his doctrine, or by the knowledge of him // Shall justify many // For he shall bear their iniquities // My righteous servant 11.From the labor of his soul he shall see Isaiah continues the same subject. He declares that Christ, after having suffered, shall obtain the fruit ...

11.From the labor of his soul he shall see Isaiah continues the same subject. He declares that Christ, after having suffered, shall obtain the fruit of his death in the salvation of men. When he says, “He shall see,” we must supply the words, “Fruit and Efficacy.” This is full of the sweetest consolation; for Isaiah could not have better expressed the infinite love of Christ toward us than by declaring that he takes the highest delight in our salvation, and that he rests in it as the fruit of his labors, as he who has obtained his wish rests in that which he most ardently desired; for no person can be said to be satisfied but he who has obtained what he wished so earnestly as to disregard everything else and be satisfied with this alone.

By his doctrine, or by the knowledge of him He now points out the way and method by which we experience the power and efficacy of the death of Christ, and obtain the benefit of it. That method is “the knowledge of him.” I acknowledge that the word דעת (dagnath) may be taken either in an active or a passive sense, as denoting either “the knowledge of him” or “his knowledge.” In whichsoever of these senses it is taken, we shall easily understand the Prophet’s meaning; and the Jews will not be able to practice such impudent sophistry as to prevent us from extorting from them a reluctant acknowledgment of what is here asserted, that Christ. is the only teacher and author of righteousness.

Shall justify many By the word “justify” he points out the effect of this teaching. Thus, men are not only taught righteousness in the school of Christ, but are actually justified. And this is the difference between the righteousness of faith and the righteousness of the Law; for although the Law shows what it is to be righteous, yet Paul affirms that it is impossible that righteousness should be obtained by it, and experience proves the same thing; for the Law is a mirror in which we behold our own unrighteousness. (Rom 3:20.) Now, the doctrine which Christ teaches, as to obtaining righteousness, is nothing else than “the knowledge of him;” and this is faith, when we embrace the benefit of his death and fully rely on him.

Philosophers have laid down many excellent precepts, which, as they imagine, contain righteousness; but they never could bestow it on any man; 57 for who ever obtained by their rules the power of living uprightly? And it is of no advantage to know what is true righteousness, if we are destitute of it. To say nothing about philosophers, the Law itself, which contains the most perfect rule of life, could not (as we have said) bestow this; not that there was any defect in it, for Moses testified (Deu 30:19) that “he had set before them good and evil, life and death;” but that the corruption of our nature is such that the Law could not suffice for procuring righteousness. In like manner Paul teaches (Rom 8:3) that this weakness proceeds “from our flesh,” and not from the Law; for nature prompts us in another direction, and our lusts burst forth with greater violence, like wild and furious beasts, against the command of God. The consequence is, that “the law worketh wrath,” instead of righteousness. (Rom 4:15) The law therefore holds all men as convicted, and, after having made known their sin, renders men utterly inexcusable.

We must therefore seek another way of righteousness, namely, in Christ, whom the law also pointed out as its end. (Rom 10:3.) “The righteousness of the law was of this nature: He who doeth these things shall live by them.” (Lev 18:5; Gal 3:12.) But nobody has done them, and therefore another righteousness is necessary, which Paul also proves (Rom 10:8) by a quotation from Moses himself, “The word is nigh, in thy mouth and in thy heart; that is, the word of faith which we preach.” (Deu 30:14) By this doctrine, therefore, we are justified; not by the bare and simple doctrine, but inasmuch as it exhibits the benefit of the death of Christ, by which atonement is made for our sins, and we are reconciled to God. (Rom 5:10.) For, if we embrace this benefit by faith, we are reckoned righteous before God.

For he shall bear their iniquities The Prophet explains his meaning by pointing out what this doctrine contains; for these two clauses agree well: “he shall justify by his doctrine,” or “by the knowledge of him,” inasmuch as “he shall bear their iniquities.” Having been once made a sacrifice for us, he now invites us by the doctrine of the Gospel, to receive the fruit of his death; and thus the death of Christ is the substance of the doctrine, in order that he may justify us. To this saying of the Prophet Paul fully subscribes; for, after having taught that “Christ was an expiatory sacrifice for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him,” he at the same time adds, “We are ambassadors for Christ, and beseech you, be ye reconciled to God.” (2Co 5:20)

My righteous servant He shows that Christ justifies us, not only as he is God, but also as he is man; for in our flesh he procured righteousness for us. He does not say, “The Son,” but “My servant,” that we may not only view him as God, but may contemplate his human nature, in which he performed that obedience by which we are acquitted before God. The foundation of our salvation is this, that he offered himself as a sacrifice; and, in like manner, he himself declares,

“For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also may be holy.” (Joh 17:19)

Calvin: Isa 53:12 - Therefore will I divide to him a portion // And he shall divide the spoil with the strong // For he poured out his soul to death // And was ranked with transgressors // He bore the sin of many // And prayed for the transgressors 12.Therefore will I divide to him a portion Isaiah again declares what will be the result of the death of Christ. It was necessary that he should add...

12.Therefore will I divide to him a portion Isaiah again declares what will be the result of the death of Christ. It was necessary that he should add this doctrine as to the victory which Christ obtained by his death; for what was formerly stated, that by his death we are reconciled to the Father, would not have sufficiently confirmed our hearts. Here he borrows a comparison from the ordinary form of a triumphal procession held by those who, after having obtained a signal victory, are commonly received and adorned with great pomp and splendor. Thus also Christ, as a valiant and illustrious general, triumphed over the enemies whom he had vanquished.

And he shall divide the spoil with the strong This statement is the same as the preceding, and it is a customary repetition among Hebrew writers. Those whom he formerly called “great” he now calls mighty or “strong.” Those who translate רבים (rabbim) by the word “many,” 58 torture, in my opinion, the Prophet’s meaning. In these two clauses there is only this difference, that in the former God testifies what he gave to Christ, and in the latter he adds that Christ enjoys that benefit, he enjoys it not on his own account, but on ours; 59 for the fruit of this victory comes to us. For us Christ subdued death, the world, and the devil. In a word, the Prophet here applauds the victory which followed the death of Christ; for “although he was crucified through the weakness of the flesh, yet by the power of the Spirit” he rose from the dead, and triumphed over his enemies. (2Co 13:4) Such is the import of the metaphor of “Spoil,” which the Prophet used; for “he ascended on high, that he might lead captivity captive and give gifts to men.” (Psa 68:18; Eph 4:8)

For he poured out his soul to death He now adds that Christ’s humiliation was the beginning of this supreme dominion; as Paul also declares that Christ, “after having blotted out the handwriting which was opposed to us, triumphed on the cross.” (Col 2:14) So far, then, is the shame of the death which Christ died from making any diminution of his glory, that it is the reason why God the Father exalted him to the highest honor.

And was ranked with transgressors He describes also the kind of death; as Paul, when he magnifies “the obedience” of Christ, and says that “he abased himself even to death,” likewise adds, that it was no ordinary death, but the death “of the cross,” that is, accursed and shameful. (Phi 2:8) So in this passage Isaiah, in order to express deeper shame, says that he was ranked among malefactors. But the deeper the shame before men, the greater was the glory of his resurrection by which it was followed.

Mark quotes this passage, when he relates that Christ was crucified between two robbers; for at that time the prediction was most fully accomplished. (Mar 15:28) But the Prophet spoke in general terms, in order to show that Christ did not die an ordinary death. For the purpose of disgracing him the more, those two robbers were added; that Christ, as the most wicked of all, might be placed in the midst of them. This passage is, therefore, most appropriately quoted by Mark as relating to that circumstance.

He bore the sin of many This is added by way of correction, that, when we hear of the shame of Christ’s death, we may not think that it was a blot on the character of Christ, and that our minds may not, by being prejudiced in that manner, be prevented from receiving the victory which he obtained for us, that is, the fruit of his death. He shows, therefore, that this was done in order that he might take our sins upon him; and his object is, that, whenever the death of Christ shall be mentioned, we may at the same time remember the atonement made for us. And this fruit swallows up all the shame of the death of Christ, that his majesty and glory may be more clearly seen than if we only beheld him sitting in heaven; for we have in him a striking and memorable proof of the love of God, when he is so insulted, degraded, and loaded with the utmost disgrace, in order that we, on whom had been pronounced a sentence of everlasting destruction, may enjoy along with him immortal glory.

I have followed the ordinary interpretation, that “he bore the sin of many,” though we might without impropriety consider the Hebrew word רבים (rabbim,) to denote “Great and Noble.” And thus the contrast would be more complete, that Christ, while “he was ranked among transgressors,” became surety for every one of the most excellent of the earth, and suffered in the room of those who hold the highest rank in the world. I leave this to the judgment of my readers. Yet I approve of the ordinary reading, that he alone bore the punishment of many, because on him was laid the guilt of the whole world. It is evident from other passages, and especially from the fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, 60 that “many” sometimes denotes “all.”

And prayed for the transgressors Because the ratification of the atonement, with which Christ has washed us by his death, implies that he pleaded with the Father on our behalf, it was proper that this should be added. For, as in the ancient Law the priest, who “never entered without blood,” at the same time interceded for the people; so what was there shadowed out is fulfilled in Christ. (Exo 30:10; Heb 9:7) First, he offered the sacrifice of his body, and shed his blood, that he might endure the punishment which was due to us; and secondly, in order that the atonement might take effect, he performed the office of an advocate, and interceded for all who embraced this sacrifice by faith; as is evident from that prayer which he left to us, written by the hand of John, “I pray not for these only, but for all who shall believe on me through their word.” (Joh 17:20) If we then belong to their number, let us be fully persuaded that Christ hath suffered for us, that we may now enjoy the benefit of his death.

He expressly mentions “transgressors,” that we may know that we ought to betake ourselves with assured confidence to the cross of Christ, when we are horror­struck by the dread of sin. Yea, for this reason he is held out as our intercessor and advocate; for without his intercession our sins would deter us from approaching to God.

Defender: Isa 53:1 - Who hath believed Verses from Isa 53:1-12 are quoted at least six times in the New Testament, always indicating prophetic fulfillment in Christ more than 700 years late...

Verses from Isa 53:1-12 are quoted at least six times in the New Testament, always indicating prophetic fulfillment in Christ more than 700 years later. This first skeptical and cynical rhetorical question is quoted in Joh 12:38 and Rom 10:16."

Defender: Isa 53:2 - root out of a dry ground The very "tender plant" would one day become the "plant of renown" (Eze 34:29). The "rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isa 11:1) would become "the Branch...

The very "tender plant" would one day become the "plant of renown" (Eze 34:29). The "rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isa 11:1) would become "the Branch of the Lord ... beautiful and glorious" (Isa 4:2).

Defender: Isa 53:2 - no beauty Evidently Jesus, representing all men, was a very average looking man, with no particular beauty of either form or face. His beauty was inward, not ou...

Evidently Jesus, representing all men, was a very average looking man, with no particular beauty of either form or face. His beauty was inward, not outward. There is no description at all of his outward appearance in any of the four gospels."

Defender: Isa 53:3 - we hid Just as Adam and Eve tried to hide from God (Gen 3:8), so we try to hide our rebellious ways from Christ.

Just as Adam and Eve tried to hide from God (Gen 3:8), so we try to hide our rebellious ways from Christ.

Defender: Isa 53:3 - esteemed him not Literally, "we estimated Him as nothing" - the typical reaction of the world to Jesus Christ as our suffering substitute."

Literally, "we estimated Him as nothing" - the typical reaction of the world to Jesus Christ as our suffering substitute."

Defender: Isa 53:4 - our griefs "Griefs" mean "sicknesses" (Mat 8:17). All sickness and pain is ultimately the result of sin, especially the fatal sickness of death itself. By His de...

"Griefs" mean "sicknesses" (Mat 8:17). All sickness and pain is ultimately the result of sin, especially the fatal sickness of death itself. By His death, all pain and sickness and death will finally be removed forever (Rev 21:4, Rev 21:5).

Defender: Isa 53:4 - stricken "Stricken" means "plagued.""

"Stricken" means "plagued.""

Defender: Isa 53:5 - wounded This phrase means literally "thrust through," as with a spear, or spikes, speaking of crucifixion.

This phrase means literally "thrust through," as with a spear, or spikes, speaking of crucifixion.

Defender: Isa 53:5 - bruised This phrase means literally "crushed," as to death (compare Gen 3:15).

This phrase means literally "crushed," as to death (compare Gen 3:15).

Defender: Isa 53:5 - healed Note 1Pe 2:24."

Note 1Pe 2:24."

Defender: Isa 53:6 - like sheep This refers to a "flock of sheep," speaking of corporate sin.

This refers to a "flock of sheep," speaking of corporate sin.

Defender: Isa 53:6 - every one "Every one" has been guilty of personal sin.

"Every one" has been guilty of personal sin.

Defender: Isa 53:6 - hath laid on him This means literally, "laid on with a death-dealing blow," as He died both for the sin of the world and our individual sins (Joh 1:29; Rom 5:12)."

This means literally, "laid on with a death-dealing blow," as He died both for the sin of the world and our individual sins (Joh 1:29; Rom 5:12)."

Defender: Isa 53:7 - was afflicted "Afflicted" means "bowed Himself" - that is, willingly submitted to all the humiliation and suffering - for us.

"Afflicted" means "bowed Himself" - that is, willingly submitted to all the humiliation and suffering - for us.

Defender: Isa 53:7 - as a lamb Here lies the basis for the many New Testament references to Christ as "the Lamb."

Here lies the basis for the many New Testament references to Christ as "the Lamb."

Defender: Isa 53:7 - dumb Note the fulfillment (Luk 23:9) and the applications (Act 8:32, Act 8:35; 1Pe 2:23)."

Note the fulfillment (Luk 23:9) and the applications (Act 8:32, Act 8:35; 1Pe 2:23)."

Defender: Isa 53:8 - declare his generation This phrase means "Who of His generation shall declare for Him?" Even His disciples forsook Him and fled.

This phrase means "Who of His generation shall declare for Him?" Even His disciples forsook Him and fled.

Defender: Isa 53:8 - transgressions of my people He died for "my people" - that is, Israel - showing that the servant in this passage is not Israel, as many have alleged."

He died for "my people" - that is, Israel - showing that the servant in this passage is not Israel, as many have alleged."

Defender: Isa 53:9 - grave with wicked This passage could also be read, "they planned His grave (to be) with the wicked, but it was with a rich man [Joseph of Arimathea] in His death." Once...

This passage could also be read, "they planned His grave (to be) with the wicked, but it was with a rich man [Joseph of Arimathea] in His death." Once He died, God allowed no more wicked eyes to see Him, or hands to touch Him."

Defender: Isa 53:10 - prolong his days Once "His soul" was offered for sin, then the whole theme changes from suffering to triumph just as in Psa 22:30. His days are "prolonged" (even thoug...

Once "His soul" was offered for sin, then the whole theme changes from suffering to triumph just as in Psa 22:30. His days are "prolonged" (even though He had died) and He soon sees the resulting spiritual "seed" (Joh 12:24; Heb 2:10)."

Defender: Isa 53:11 - travail of his soul Note that it was "the travail of His soul," rather than of His suffering body, which produced the seed.

Note that it was "the travail of His soul," rather than of His suffering body, which produced the seed.

Defender: Isa 53:11 - my righteous servant This could better read: "By the knowledge of Him shall my righteousness as the servant" justify many.

This could better read: "By the knowledge of Him shall my righteousness as the servant" justify many.

Defender: Isa 53:11 - bear their iniquities Because He bore our iniquities, we receive His righteousness (2Co 5:21)."

Because He bore our iniquities, we receive His righteousness (2Co 5:21)."

Defender: Isa 53:12 - poured out The blood, the "life of the flesh" (Lev 17:11) was poured out.

The blood, the "life of the flesh" (Lev 17:11) was poured out.

Defender: Isa 53:12 - made intercession "Made" should be read "maketh." Now, Christ "ever liveth to make intercession for them" (Heb 7:25)."

"Made" should be read "maketh." Now, Christ "ever liveth to make intercession for them" (Heb 7:25)."

TSK: Isa 53:1 - Who // report // the // revealed Who : Joh 1:7, Joh 1:12, Joh 12:38; Rom 10:16, Rom 10:17 report : or, doctrine, Heb. hearing the : Isa 51:9, Isa 52:10, Isa 62:8; Rom 1:16; 1Co 1:18, ...

TSK: Isa 53:2 - he shall grow // he hath no he shall grow : Isa 11:1; Jer 23:5; Eze 17:22-24; Zec 6:12; Mar 6:3; Luk 2:7, Luk 2:39, Luk 2:40,Luk 2:51, Luk 2:52; Luk 9:58; Rom 8:3; Phi 2:6, Phi 2...

TSK: Isa 53:3 - despised // a man // we hid as it were our faces from him despised : Isa 49:7, Isa 50:6; Psa 22:6-8, Psa 69:10-12, Psa 69:19, Psa 69:20; Mic 5:1; Zec 11:8, Zec 11:12, Zec 11:13; Mat 26:67, Mat 27:39-44, Mat 2...

TSK: Isa 53:4 - he hath // yet he hath : Isa 53:5, Isa 53:6, Isa 53:11, Isa 53:12; Mat 8:17; Gal 3:13; Heb 9:28; 1Pe 2:24, 1Pe 3:18; 1Jo 2:2 yet : Mat 26:37; Joh 19:7

TSK: Isa 53:5 - But he was // wounded // bruised // the chastisement // stripes But he was : Isa 53:6-8, Isa 53:11, Isa 53:12; Dan 9:24; Zec 13:7; Mat 20:28; Rom 3:24-26, Rom 4:25; Rom 5:6-10,Rom 5:15-21; 1Co 15:3; 2Co 5:21; Eph 5...

But he was : Isa 53:6-8, Isa 53:11, Isa 53:12; Dan 9:24; Zec 13:7; Mat 20:28; Rom 3:24-26, Rom 4:25; Rom 5:6-10,Rom 5:15-21; 1Co 15:3; 2Co 5:21; Eph 5:2; Heb 9:12-15; Heb 10:10,Heb 10:14; 1Pe 3:18

wounded : or, tormented

bruised : Isa 53:10; Gen 3:15

the chastisement : 1Pe 2:24

stripes : Heb. bruise

TSK: Isa 53:6 - All we // his own // laid on him the iniquity of us all All we : Psa 119:176; Mat 18:12-14; Luk 15:3-7; Rom 3:10-19; 1Pe 2:25 his own : Isa 55:7, Isa 56:11; Eze 3:18; Rom 4:25; Jam 5:20; 1Pe 3:18 laid on hi...

All we : Psa 119:176; Mat 18:12-14; Luk 15:3-7; Rom 3:10-19; 1Pe 2:25

his own : Isa 55:7, Isa 56:11; Eze 3:18; Rom 4:25; Jam 5:20; 1Pe 3:18

laid on him the iniquity of us all : Heb. made the iniquities of us all to meet on him, Psa 69:4

TSK: Isa 53:7 - yet // he is yet : Mat 26:63, Mat 27:12-14; Mar 14:61, Mar 15:5; Luk 23:9; Joh 19:9; 1Pe 2:23 he is : Act 8:32, Act 8:33

TSK: Isa 53:8 - who // cut off // was he stricken from prison and from judgment; and, or, by distress and judgment; but, etc. Psa 22:12-21, Psa 69:12; Mat 26:65, Mat 26:66; Joh 19:7 who : Mat 1:1; Act...

from prison and from judgment; and, or, by distress and judgment; but, etc. Psa 22:12-21, Psa 69:12; Mat 26:65, Mat 26:66; Joh 19:7

who : Mat 1:1; Act 8:33; Rom 1:4

cut off : Dan 9:26; Joh 11:49-52

was he stricken : Heb. was the stroke upon him, 1Pe 3:18

TSK: Isa 53:9 - made // death // deceit made : Mat 27:57-60; Mar 15:43-46; Luk 23:50-53; Joh 19:38-42; 1Co 15:4 death : Heb. deaths deceit : 2Co 5:21; Heb 4:15, Heb 7:26; 1Pe 2:22; 1Jo 3:5

TSK: Isa 53:10 - pleased // he hath // when thou shalt make his soul // he shall see // he shall prolong // the pleasure pleased : Isa 42:1; Mat 3:17, Mat 17:5 he hath : Psa 69:26; Zec 13:7; Rom 8:32; Gal 3:13; 1Jo 4:9, 1Jo 4:10 when thou shalt make his soul : or, when h...

TSK: Isa 53:11 - see // by his // justify // bear see : Luk 22:44; Joh 12:24, Joh 12:27-32, Joh 16:21; Gal 4:19; Heb 12:2; Rev 5:9, Rev 5:10; Rev 7:9-17 by his : Joh 17:3; 2Co 4:6; Phi 3:8-10; 2Pe 1:2...

TSK: Isa 53:12 - will I // poured // and he was // he bare // made will I : Isa 49:24, Isa 49:25, Isa 52:15; Gen 3:15; Psa 2:8; Dan 2:45; Mat 12:28, Mat 12:29; Act 26:18; Phi 2:8-11; Col 1:13, Col 1:14, Col 2:15; Heb ...

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Poole: Isa 53:1 - Who hath believed our report? // Who // The arm of the Lord // Revealed Who hath believed our report? the prophet having in the three last verses of the former chapter made a general report concerning the great and wonde...

Who hath believed our report? the prophet having in the three last verses of the former chapter made a general report concerning the great and wonderful humiliation and exaltation of Christ, of which he intended more largely to discourse in this chapter, before he descended to particulars he thought fit to use this preface.

Who not only of the Gentiles, but even of the Jews, will believe the truth-of what I have said and must say? Few or none. The generality of them will never receive nor believe in such a Messias as this. Thus this place is expounded by Christ himself, Joh 12:38 , and by Paul, Rom 10:16 . And this premonition was highly necessary, both to caution the Jews that they should not stumble at this stone, and to instruct the Gentiles that they should not be surprised, nor scandalized, nor seduced with their example.

The arm of the Lord either,

1. The word of God, called the report in the former clause; the doctrine of the gospel, which is expressly called the power of God , 1Co 1:18 , because of that admirable virtue and success which accompanied the preaching of it. Or,

2. The Messiah, who also is called the arm or power of God , 1Co 1:24 ; and that most fitly, because the almighty power of God was both seated in him, and declared and exercised by him in his powerful words and mighty deeds, as Simon for some great works wrought by him was called by the Samaritans the power of God , Act 8:10 .

Revealed not outwardly, for so Christ was revealed and preached to vast numbers, both of Jews and Gentiles, as is evident from this context, arid from divers other places of Scripture; but inwardly and with power to their minds and hearts, of which kind of revelation see Eph 1:17-19 , and compare it with 2Co 4:4 . Thus even Moses, though sufficiently revealed to the eyes and ears of the Jews, yet is said to be unrevealed or hid from their minds and hearts, 2Co 3:14,15 . The sense of the place is, few or none of the Jews will believe the gospel, or receive their Messiah when he comes among them.

Poole: Isa 53:2 - For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground // he shall grow up // before him // as a tender plant // and as a root // out of a dry ground // He hath no form nor comeliness // When we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground and the reason or occasion why the Jews will so generally reject...

For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground and the reason or occasion why the Jews will so generally reject their Messiah, is because he shall not come into the world with secular pomp and power, like an earthly monarch, as they carnally and groundlessly imagined; but

he shall grow up (or, spring up , Heb. ascend , to wit, out of the ground, as it follows, brought forth, and brought up)

before him (before the unbelieving Jews, of whom he spake Isa 53:1 , and that in the singular number, as here, who were witnesses of his mean original; and therefore despised him, according to Christ’ s observation, Joh 4:44 ; or, as others, according to his face , or outward appearance, as he was man; whereby he sufficiently implies that he had another, a far higher, and a Divine nature in him)

as a tender plant ( or, as this very word is translated, Eze 17:4 , a young twig , which is a small and inconsiderable thing,)

and as a root (as Christ is called, Rom 15:12 , and elsewhere; or, as a branch ; the root being put metonymically for the branch growing out of the root, as it is apparently used, where Christ is called the root of Jesse, and of David , Isa 11:10 Rev 5:5 , and in other places, as 2Ch 22:10 )

out of a dry ground out of a mean and barren soil, whose productions are generally poor and contemptible: either,

1. Out of the womb of a virgin; but that was no ground of contempt; or,

2. Of the Jewish nation, which was then poor, and despised, and enslaved; or,

3. Out of the poor, and decayed, and contemptible family, such as the royal family of David was at that time.

He hath no form nor comeliness his bodily presence and condition in the world shall be mean and contemptible.

When we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him when we shall look upon him, expecting to find incomparable beauty and majesty in his countenance, and carriage, and condition, we shall be altogether disappointed, and shall meet with nothing amiable or desirable in him. This the prophet speaketh in the person of the carnal and unbelieving Jews, we, i.e. our people, the Jewish nation.

Poole: Isa 53:3 - He is despised and rejected of men // A man of sorrows // Acquainted with grief // We hid as it were our faces from him // He was despised, and we esteemed him not He is despised and rejected of men accounted as the scum of mankind, as one unworthy of the company and conversation of all men. A man of sorrows w...

He is despised and rejected of men accounted as the scum of mankind, as one unworthy of the company and conversation of all men.

A man of sorrows whose whole life was filled with, and in a manner made up of, an uninterrupted succession of sorrows and sufferings.

Acquainted with grief who had constant experience of and familiar converse with grievous afflictions; for knowledge is oft taken practically, or for experience, as Gen 3:5 2Co 5:21 , and elsewhere.

We hid as it were our faces from him we scorned and loathed to look upon him. Or, as others,

he hid as it were his face from us, as one ashamed to show his face, or to be seen by any men, as persons conscious to themselves of any great deformity do commonly shun the sight of men, as lepers did, Lev 13:45 .

He was despised, and we esteemed him not: here are divers words expressing the same thing, to signify both the utmost degree of contempt, and how strange and wonderful a thing it was, that so excellent a person should be so despised.

Poole: Isa 53:4 - Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows // Yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: and whereas it may seem all unreasonable and incredible thing, that so excellent and glorio...

Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: and whereas it may seem all unreasonable and incredible thing, that so excellent and glorious, and so innocent and just, a person should meet with this usage, it must be known that his griefs and miseries were not laid upon him for his own sake, but wholly and solely for the sake of sinful men, in whose stead he stood, and for whose sins he suffered, as it here follows.

Yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted yet our people, the Jews, were so far from giving him the glory and praise of such a prodigious condescension and compassion, that they made a most perverse construction of it; and so great was their prejudice against him, that they believed that he was thus disgraced and punished, and at last put to death, by the just judgment of God, for his blasphemy and other manifold wickednesses.

Poole: Isa 53:5 - But // He was wounded // For our transgressions // The chastisement of our peace // Was upon him // With his stripes we are healed But but this was a most false and unrighteous sentence. He was wounded which word comprehends all his pains and punishments, and his death among an...

But but this was a most false and unrighteous sentence.

He was wounded which word comprehends all his pains and punishments, and his death among and above the rest.

For our transgressions not by them, which is expressed by another particle, not by the wickedness of the Jews; but for or because of them, as this particle commonly signifies, for the guilt of their sins, which he had voluntarily taken upon himself, and for the expiation of their sins, which was hereby purchased and procured of God for men. Which interpretation is confirmed,

1. By the opposition of this truth to the false opinion mentioned in the foregoing clause, that he was smitten of God for the guilt of his own sins.

2. By the following clause, as we shall see.

3. By the nature of the thing; this being evident from scriptures both from the Old and New Testament, that Christ was not to suffer for his own, but for other men’ s sins. See Dan 9:24,26 .

The chastisement of our peace those punishments by which our peace, i.e. our reconciliation to God, and salvation, or happiness, was to be purchased.

Was upon him was laid upon him by God’ s justice with his own consent.

With his stripes we are healed by his sufferings we are saved from our sins, and from the dreadful effects thereof.

Poole: Isa 53:6 - All we // like sheep // To his own way // Hath laid // The iniquity All we all mankind, the Jews no less than the Gentiles, like sheep which are simple and foolish creatures, and exceeding apt to straggle and lose t...

All we all mankind, the Jews no less than the Gentiles,

like sheep which are simple and foolish creatures, and exceeding apt to straggle and lose themselves, have gone astray from God, and from the way of his precepts, in which he put our first parents, and in which he commanded us to walk.

To his own way in general, to the way and course of sin, which may well be called a man’ s own way , as sins are called men’ s own lusts, Jam 1:14 2Pe 3:3 , and elsewhere, because sin is natural to us, inherent in us, born with us, and very dear to us; and in particular, to those several paths of divers lusts which several men choose and follow, according to their differing opinions, inclinations, occasions, and circumstances.

Hath laid Heb. hath made to meet , as all the rivers meet in the sea.

The iniquity not properly, for so he knew no sin, 2Co 5:21 ; but the punishment of iniquity, as that word is most frequently used, as Gen 4:1:3 Lev 20:17 , &c.; that which was due for all the sins of all his people, whether Jews or Gentiles, which must needs be so great and heavy a lead, that if he had not been God as well as man, he must have sunk under the burden of them. This was actually verified in Christ. And both this and divers other passages here do as manifestly and fully point at Christ, as if they were not a prophetical representation of things to come, but an historical relation of them after they were done. Nor do I see how they can be excused from the fearful wresting of the Scripture that expound these places of the prophet Jeremiah, of any other person but Christ.

Poole: Isa 53:7 - He was oppressed, and he was afflicted // and he was afflicted // Yet he opened not his mouth // Is dumb He was oppressed, and he was afflicted he was sorely punished for our sins. But there is another translation, which seems to be more emphatical, and ...

He was oppressed, and he was afflicted he was sorely punished for our sins. But there is another translation, which seems to be more emphatical, and more agreeable to the Hebrew text; It (to wit, our iniquity last mentioned, or the punishment of all our sins) was exacted or required , (as this word most properly and frequently signifies, of which see my Latin Synopsis. God’ s justice expected and required satisfaction from us for our sins; which, alas! we could not make to him,)

and he was afflicted or punished ; he bore the guilt and punishment of our sins in his body upon the tree, as is said, 1Pe 2 24 ; or, as others render this last word, and he answered , i.e. became our surety, or undertook to pay the debt, and to suffer the law in our stead, and for our sake.

Yet he opened not his mouth he neither murmured against God for causing him to suffer for other men’ s sins, nor reviled men for punishing him without cause, nor used apologies or endeavours to save his own life; but willingly and patiently accepted of the punishment of our iniquity.

Is dumb bears the loss of its fleece or life without any such clamour or resistance as other creatures use in such cases.

Poole: Isa 53:8 - He was taken from prison and from judgment // He was taken away // Who shall declare? // His generation // For the transgression of my people was he stricken He was taken from prison and from judgment: these words are understood either, 1. Of Christ’ s humiliation or suffering; and then the words are...

He was taken from prison and from judgment: these words are understood either,

1. Of Christ’ s humiliation or suffering; and then the words are to be thus rendered,

He was taken away (to wit, out of this life, as this word is used, Psa 31:13 Pro 1:19 , and elsewhere; he was put to death) by distress (or violence , or tyranny , as this word is used with this preposition before it, Psa 107:39 ) and judgment ; by oppression and violence, under a form and pretence of justice. Or rather,

2. Of Christ’ s exaltation, because of the following clause; which is not unseasonably mentioned in the midst of his sufferings, to take off the scandal which might have arisen from Christ’ s sufferings, if there had not been a prospect and assurance of his victoriousness over them, and his glory after them; and so the words may be rendered, He was taken up (or, taken away, freed or delivered) from prison (i.e. from the grave, which being called a house, Job 30:23 , and a pit , in which men are shut up Psa 69:15 , may fitly be called a prison ; or, from distress or affliction , or oppression , from the power and malice of his enemies, and from the torments of his own soul, arising from the sense of men’ s sins and God’ s displeasure) and from judgment , i.e. from all the sufferings and punishments inflicted upon him, either by the unrighteous judgment of men, or by the just judgment of God, punishing him for those sins which he had voluntarily taken upon himself; or, which is the same tiling, from the sentence of condemnation, and all the effects of it; for in this sense judgment is very commonly taken both in Scripture and other authors.

Who shall declare? who can declare it? the future being taken potentially, as it is frequently; no words can sufficiently express it.

His generation either,

1. His age, or the continuance of his life. So the sense is, that he shall not only be delivered from death, and all his punishments, but also shall be restored to an inexpressible or endless life; and to an everlasting kingdom. Thus great interpreters understand it; with whom I cannot comply, because I do not find this Hebrew word to be ever used in Scripture of the continuance of one man’ s life. Or rather,

2. His posterity; and so this word is unquestionably used, Gen 15:16 Exo 20:5 Deu 23:2,3,8 , and in many other places. And so the sense of the place is this, that Christ’ s death shall not be unfruitful, and that when he is raised from the dead, he shall have a spiritual seed, as is promised, Isa 53:10 ; a numberless multitude of those who shall believe in him, and be regenerated and adopted by him into the number of his children, and of the children of God, Joh 1:12 Heb 2:10,13,14 . He was cut off , to wit, by a violent death. And this may be added as a reason, both of his exaltation, and of the blessing of a numerous posterity conferred upon him, because he was willing to be cut off for the transgression of his people; and, as it followeth, Isa 53:10 , made his soul an offering for sin; Christ’ s death being elsewhere declared to be the only way and necessary means of obtaining both these ends. Luk 24:26,46 Joh 12:24,32,33 Php 2 8,9 . But these words may be rendered, although he was cut off , to signify that his death should not hinder these glorious effects.

For the transgression of my people was he stricken: this is repeated again, as it was fit it should be, to prevent men’ s mistakes about and stumbling at the death of Christ, and to assure them that Christ did not die for his own sins, but only for the sins and salvation of his people.

Poole: Isa 53:9 - He made his grave with the wicked // With the rich in his death // In his death He made his grave with the wicked and although he did not die for his own, but only for his people’ s sins, yet he was willing to die like a mal...

He made his grave with the wicked and although he did not die for his own, but only for his people’ s sins, yet he was willing to die like a malefactor, or like a sinner, as all other men are, and to be put into the grave, as they used to be; which was a further degree of his humiliation. He saith, he made his grave , because this was Christ’ s own act, and he willingly yielded up himself to death and burial. And that which follows, with the wicked , doth not note the sameness of place, as if he should be buried in the same grave with ether malefactors, but the sameness of condition; as when David prayeth, Psa 26:9 , Gather not my soul (to wit, by death) with sinners, he doth not mean it of the same grave, but of the same state of the dead.

With the rich in his death: this passage is thought by many to signify that Christ should be buried in the sepulchre of Joseph, who is said to be both rich , Mat 27:57 , and honourable , Mar 15:43 , which they conceive to be intimated as a token of favour and honour showed to him; which to me seems not probable, partly because this disagrees with the former clause, which confessedly speaks of the dishonour which was done to him; and partly because the burial of Christ, whatsoever circumstances it was attended with, is ever mentioned in Scripture as a part of his humiliation, Ac 2 24,27 . And it seems more reasonable, and more agreeable to the usage of the Holy Scripture, that this clause should design the same thing with the former, and that by rich he means the same persons whom he now called wicked , not as if all rich men were or must needs be wicked, but because for the most part they are so; upon which ground riches and rich men do commonly pass under an ill name in Scripture; of which see Psa 37:10 49:6 Luk 6:24 18:24 Jam 1:11 5:1 .

In his death Heb. in or at (or after, as this particle is frequently taken, as hath been already noted) his deaths ; for Christ’ s death might well be called deaths, in the plural number, because he underwent many kinds of death, and many deadly dangers and pains, which are frequently called by the name of death in Scripture, of which instances have been formerly given; and he might say, with no less truth than Paul did, 1Co 15:31 , I die daily , and 2Co 11:23 . I was in deaths oft. Because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth : this some suppose to be added as a reason of the last branch of the foregoing clause, why God so overruled matters by his providence, that Christ should not be buried in the same grave, or in the same ignominious manner, as malefactors were, but in a more honourable manner, in Joseph’ s own tomb. But the last part of the foregoing clause cannot, without violence, be pulled asunder from the former, wherewith it is so closely joined, not only by a conjunction copulative, and, but also by being under the government of the same verb; and therefore this latter clause of the verse, if thus rendered, must be added as the reason of what is said to be done in the former. And so the sense of the place may be thus conceived, This was all the reward of the unspotted innocency of all his words and actions, to be thus ignominiously used. But these words may well be and are otherwise rendered, both by Jewish and Christian interpreters, either thus, although he had done , &c., or rather thus, not for (as these two same particles placed in the very same order are rendered by our translator, and others, Job 16:17 ) any violence (or injury , or iniquity ) which he had done, nor for any deceit which was in his mouth ; not for his own sins, but, as hath been said before, for his people’ s sins; in which translation there is nothing supplied but what is most frequent in Scripture also.

Poole: Isa 53:10 - Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him // He hath put him to grief // When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin // an offering for sin // He shall see his seed // He shall prolong his days // The pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him but although he was perfectly innocent, it pleased God for other just and wise reasons to punish him. He hath ...

Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him but although he was perfectly innocent, it pleased God for other just and wise reasons to punish him.

He hath put him to grief God was the principal Cause of all his sorrows and sufferings, although men’ s sins were the deserving cause.

When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin when thou, O God, shalt make, or have made, thy Son a sacrifice, by giving him up to death for the atonement of men’ s sins. His

soul is here put for his life, or for himself, or his whole human nature, which was sacrificed; his soul being tormented with the sense of God’ s wrath, and his body crucified, and soul and body separated by death. Or the words may be rendered, when his soul shall make , or have made , itself

an offering for sin whereby it may be implied that he did not lay down his life by force, but willingly.

He shall see his seed his death shall be glorious to himself, and highly beneficial to others; for he shall have a numerous issue of believers reconciled to God, and saved by his death.

He shall prolong his days he shall be raised to immortal life, and shall live and reign with God for ever; he shall die no more , Ro 6 9 , and of his kingdom there shall be no end , Luk 1:33 .

The pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand God’ s gracious decree for the redemption and salvation of mankind shall be effectually carried on by his ministry and mediation.

Poole: Isa 53:11 - He shall see // of the travail of his soul // and shall be satisfied // By his knowledge // My righteous servant // holy, and harmless, and undefiled // Many // For he shall bear their iniquities He shall see he shall receive or enjoy, as this word commonly signifies, of the travail of his soul the comfortable and blessed fruit of all his ha...

He shall see he shall receive or enjoy, as this word commonly signifies,

of the travail of his soul the comfortable and blessed fruit of all his hard labours and grievous sufferings,

and shall be satisfied he shall esteem his own and his Father’ s glory, and the salvation of his people, an abundant recompence for all his sufferings.

By his knowledge either,

1. Actively, by that knowledge of God’ s will, and of the way of salvation, which is in him in its highest perfection, and which by him is revealed unto men, and by his Spirit is imprinted in the minds and hearts of his people, so as to produce faith and obedience in them. Or,

2. Passively, by the knowledge of him, as my fear and thy fear are put for the fear of me and of thee , Psa 5:7 Jer 32:40 ; knowledge being here, as it is most frequently in Scripture, taken practically, for that kind of knowledge which worketh faith, and love, and obedience to him. So the sense is the same in both cases.

My righteous servant which title is here given to Christ, partly to vindicate him from those false imputations of wickedness which were fastened upon him by his adversaries, and which found the more belief because of his most grievous and unexampled sufferings both from God and men; and partly to show his fitness for this great work of justifying sinners, because he was exactly

holy, and harmless, and undefiled Heb 7:26 , and

fulfilled all righteousness according to his duty, Mat 3:15 ; and therefore his person and performance must needs be acceptable to God, and effectual for the justification of his people, which was the great design of his coming into the world. Justify acquit them from the guilt of their sins, and all the dreadful consequences thereof; for justification is here opposed to condemnation, as appears from the following clause, and from many other passages in this chapter, and as it is used in all places of Scripture, one, or two at most, excepted, where it is mentioned. And Christ is said to justify sinners meritoriously, because he purchaseth and procureth it for us; as God the Father is commonly said to do it authoritatively, because he accepted the price paid by Christ for it, and the pronunciation of the sentence of absolution is referred to him in the gospel dispensation.

Many which word is seasonably added, partly by way of restriction, to show that Christ will not justify all, but only such as believe in him and obey him; and partly by way of amplification, to declare that this blessed privilege shall not now be, as hitherto it had in a manner been, confined to Judea, and the Jews, but shall be conferred upon an innumerable company of all the nations of the world.

For he shall bear their iniquities for he shall satisfy the justice and law of God for them, by bearing the punishment due to their sins, and therefore by the principles of reason and justice they must be justified or acquitted, otherwise the same debt should be twice required and paid.

Poole: Isa 53:12 - Therefore will I // divide him // A portion // the spoil // He shall divide the spoil with the strong // Because he hath poured out his soul unto death // He was numbered with the transgressors // He bare the sin of many // Made intercession for the transgressors Therefore will I God the Father, the Spectator and Judge of the action or combat, divide him give him his share; or, impart or give to him ; for t...

Therefore will I God the Father, the Spectator and Judge of the action or combat,

divide him give him his share; or, impart or give to him ; for this word is oft used without respect to any distribution or division, as Deu 4:19 29:26 , and elsewhere.

A portion which is very commodiously supplied out of the next clause, where a word which answers to it,

the spoil is expressed. With the great ; or, among the great ; such as the great and mighty potentates of the world use to have after a sharp combat and a glorious victory. Though he be a very mean and obscure person, as to his extraction and outward condition in the world, yet he shall attain to as great a pitch of glory as the greatest monarchs enjoy.

He shall divide the spoil with the strong: the same thing is repeated in other words, after the manner of prophetical writers. The sense of both clauses is, that God will give him, and he shall receive, great and happy success in his glorious undertaking; he shall conquer all his enemies, and lead captivity captive, as is said, Eph 4:8 , and Set up his universal and everlasting kingdom in the world.

Because he hath poured out his soul unto death because he willingly laid down his life in obedience to God’ s command, Joh 10:17,18 , and in order to the redemption of mankind. Death is here called a pouring out of the soul, or life , either because the soul or life, which in living men is contained in the body, is turned out of the body by death; or to signify the manner of Christ’ s death, that it should be with the shedding of his blood, in which the life of man consists, Lev 17:11,14 .

He was numbered with the transgressors he was willing for God’ s glory and for man’ s good to be reproached and punished like a malefactor, in the same manner and place, and betwixt two of them, as is noted with reference to this place, Mar 15:27,28 .

He bare the sin of many which was said Isa 53:11 , and is here repeated to prevent a mistake, and to intimate, that although Christ was numbered with transgressors, and was used accordingly, yet he was no transgressor, nor did submit to and suffer this usage for his own sins, but for the sins of others, the punishment whereof was by his own consent laid upon him.

Made intercession for the transgressors either,

1. By way of satisfaction; he interposed himself between an angry God and sinners, and received those blows in his own body which otherwise must have fallen upon them. Or,

2. In way of petition, as this word is constantly used. He prayed upon earth for all sinners, and particularly for those that crucified him, Luk 23:34 ; and in heaven he still intercedeth for them, not by a humble petition, but by a legal demand of those good things which he purchased for his own people by the sacrifice of himself, which, though past, he continually represents to his Father, as if it were present.

PBC: Isa 53:2 - -- He was a man of sorrow, and acquainted with grief. He was despised and rejected of men. The shepherds found the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lyi...

He was a man of sorrow, and acquainted with grief. He was despised and rejected of men. The shepherds found the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. His reputed father was a poor carpenter, and his mother a poor virgin, both of the house of David, but that royal and illustrious family was reduced and sunk, so that Christ being born of such poor parents, he might be esteemed a root out of the dry ground, and of Galilee, a country of small repute, where nothing good, nothing great, could be expected to come out of it.

He had no form nor comeliness, nothing which one might expect to see in the Immanuel, God with us. They that saw him could see nothing in him more than in another man. Moses, when he was born, was exceeding fair; Ac 7:20; Heb 11:23. David, when he was anointed, was of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look on. But our Lord, in his person, or manner of appearing in the world, had nothing of sensible glory, or that was calculated to meet the expectation of the Jews. His gospel was not preached with the enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in all plainness and simplicity, and his doctrine was objectionable to them, for it exposed their depravity, and robbed them of all their self-righteousness. It was expected that he should live a pleasant life, and have a full enjoyment of all the delights of men, which would fill the expectations of men, and gather crowds of admirers around him. But on the contrary he was a man of sorrow, and acquainted with grief. His life was a life of misery, poverty, and distress, so that he could say, " Foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man hath not where to lay his head;" Lu 9:58. Seeing his poverty, sorrow, deep distress, and humiliation, the prophet says, " Surely, he hath borne our grief’s, and carried our sorrows." Sin had brought the curse on us, that we should eat in sorrow all the days of our lives; Ge 3:17; and our sins were laid on him, and his was a life of sorrow. He was unsettled, had no home, no resting-place, no downy pillows for his head; a man of sorrow and acquainted with grief, through his whole life. He was hated, persecuted, and rejected by men, and treated as one not worthy to live. He was of a tender spirit, and sympathized with the sufferings of humanity, and was among them doing good, healing their sick, giving sight to their blind, and raising their dead, and in return he received their hatred, their mockings, and persecutions, so that it was said he was never known to smile, but that his countenance always showed sorrow and grief. Who can read the life of our Lord and Savior, and witness the conduct of men toward him, and doubt the total depravity of human nature, and that the unpurged heart is wicked above all things? All these sorrows Jesus bore without uttering a word of complaint.

Eld. Gregg Thompson

Haydock: Isa 53:1 - Revealed Revealed. Who could have believed such things? The apostles complain how few were converted, John xii. 38., and Romans x. 16. (Calmet) --- These ...

Revealed. Who could have believed such things? The apostles complain how few were converted, John xii. 38., and Romans x. 16. (Calmet) ---

These would not submit, though the gospel was not against reason. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 53:2 - Plant // Ground // Was // That we Plant. Hebrew also, "suckling child." (Septuagint, &c.) --- Ground. The blessed Virgin [Mary]. (Calmet) --- Was. Septuagint, "he had no appe...

Plant. Hebrew also, "suckling child." (Septuagint, &c.) ---

Ground. The blessed Virgin [Mary]. (Calmet) ---

Was. Septuagint, "he had no appearance nor beauty. But his appearance was abject and deficient above all men; a," &c. ---

That we. Literally, "and we have desired him." Notwithstanding his abject condition, He was the desired of all nations, and by his wounds we are healed. (Haydock) ---

Some assert that the person of Christ was not beautiful, while others think that his wounds prevented it from being discerned. Salmeron would supply a negation from the first number: "We have not desired him."

Haydock: Isa 53:3 - Not Not. The whole life of Christ was spent in the midst of poverty, and contradictions, Hebrews iv. 15. He has thus taught us to despise ourselves.

Not. The whole life of Christ was spent in the midst of poverty, and contradictions, Hebrews iv. 15. He has thus taught us to despise ourselves.

Haydock: Isa 53:4 - Sorrows // Leper // God Sorrows. Healing them by his own afflictions, Matthew viii. 15. Sickness is an effect of sin, which Jesus came to destroy, 1 Peter ii. 24 --- Lepe...

Sorrows. Healing them by his own afflictions, Matthew viii. 15. Sickness is an effect of sin, which Jesus came to destroy, 1 Peter ii. 24 ---

Leper, who was bound to have his face covered, ver. 3., and Leviticus xiii. 45. ---

God. Payva (Def. Trin. iv.) assures us that many Jews were converted by the perusal of this chapter, and particularly of this verse, which may be rendered "as a God wounded and afflicted." (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 53:5 - Healed Healed. He inculcates this important truth repeatedly. Christ nailed the hand-writing that was against us to the cross, Colossians ii. 14. (Haydoc...

Healed. He inculcates this important truth repeatedly. Christ nailed the hand-writing that was against us to the cross, Colossians ii. 14. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 53:6 - Astray Astray. We belong to his fold, chap. xl. 11., John x. 11., and Luke xv. 4.--- Laid. Septuagint, "abandoned him to our sins," as to so many execut...

Astray. We belong to his fold, chap. xl. 11., John x. 11., and Luke xv. 4.--- Laid. Septuagint, "abandoned him to our sins," as to so many executioners; (Calmet) "and he, because he had been abused, opened," &c. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 53:7 - Will Will. The pagans were very attentive that the victim should not make much resistance. ( Macrobius iii. 5.)

Will. The pagans were very attentive that the victim should not make much resistance. ( Macrobius iii. 5.)

Haydock: Isa 53:8 - Judgment // Generation Judgment, or by an unjust and cruel judgment. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "from prison and judgment." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "in humiliation, (Haydoc...

Judgment, or by an unjust and cruel judgment. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "from prison and judgment." (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "in humiliation, (Haydock) or humility, his judgment was taken away," or rescinded, by his glorious resurrection. St. Philip follows this version in explaining this passage to the eunuch, Acts viii. 33. ---

Generation, from his eternal Father or from the Virgin [Mary], his incarnation, life, resurrection, or posterity in the Church. All these may be meant, and are inexplicable. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 53:9 - Death Death. Hebrew, "and he made his grave with the wicked men, and with the rich man, in his death." (Haydock) --- Grave and death seem to be tran...

Death. Hebrew, "and he made his grave with the wicked men, and with the rich man, in his death." (Haydock) ---

Grave and death seem to be transposed; and we might better read, "He was taken up with wicked men in his death, and with a rich man was his sepulchre." This indeed is only a conjecture, but well grounded in the context. See Josue xxiv. 19. (Kennicott) ---

Septuagint, "and I will give the wicked for his grave, and the rich men for his death." (Haydock) ---

The rich man may denote the small number of Jews who embraced the faith. (Calmet) ---

They esteemed themselves rich, and were highly favoured by God; yet they were blinded, (Haydock) and given up to the Romans, in punishment of their deicide, Matthew xxvii. 25. The Church is gathered both from Jews and Gentiles, ver. 10. (Calmet) (St. Jerome) ---

"He will send to hell the wicked," (Chaldean) who slew him. (Menochius) ---

Christ was buried where malefactors were generally, yet honourably, in the tomb of Joseph [of Arimathea]. (Worthington) (Matthew xxvii. 57.)

Haydock: Isa 53:10 - Bruise // Hand Bruise. Septuagint, "to cleanse him from the wound." (Haydock) --- God was pleased that he should satisfy fro our crimes. --- Hand. Christ has ...

Bruise. Septuagint, "to cleanse him from the wound." (Haydock) ---

God was pleased that he should satisfy fro our crimes. ---

Hand. Christ has died for all, and established a Church which shall not perish.

Haydock: Isa 53:12 - Many // Strong // Wicked // Transgressors Many. Even to the ends of the earth, Psalm ii. 8. --- Strong. Demons, Jews, &c. Hebrew, "with the strong" apostles. --- Wicked thieves. Barab...

Many. Even to the ends of the earth, Psalm ii. 8. ---

Strong. Demons, Jews, &c. Hebrew, "with the strong" apostles. ---

Wicked thieves. Barabbas, &c. ---

Transgressors. His executioners. The gospel could not speak plainer. (Calmet)

Gill: Isa 53:1 - Who hath believed our report // and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed Who hath believed our report?.... Or "hearing" a. Not what we hear, but others hear from us; the doctrine of the Gospel, which is a report of the love...

Who hath believed our report?.... Or "hearing" a. Not what we hear, but others hear from us; the doctrine of the Gospel, which is a report of the love, grace, and mercy of God in Christ; of Christ himself, his person, offices, obedience, sufferings, and death, and of free and full salvation by him: it is a good report, a true and faithful one, and to be believed, and yet there are always but few that give credit to it; there were but few in the times of the Prophet Isaiah that believed what he had before reported, or was about to report, concerning the Messiah; and but few in the times of Christ and his apostles, whom the prophet here represented; for to those times are the words applied, Joh 12:38, the Jews had the report first made unto them, and saw the facts that were done, and yet believed not; when Gentile kings, and their subjects, listened with the most profound silence, and heard with the greatest attention and reverence, as in the latter part of the preceding chapter, to which some think this is opposed; wherefore some begin the text with the adversative particle "but". According to the Septuagint and Arabic versions, the words are directed to God the Father, for they render them, "Lord, who hath believed", &c.; and so they are quoted in the above places in the New Testament:

and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed? meaning either the Gospel itself, the power of God unto salvation, hidden from the generality of men; for though externally, yet not internally revealed and made known; which to do is the Lord's work, and is owing to his special grace: or Christ, who is the power of God, by whom all the works of creation, providence, grace, and salvation, are wrought; and by whom the blessings of grace are dispensed; and by whom the Lord upholds all things, and supports his people; and who was not revealed but to a very few, as the true Messiah, as God's salvation, and in them the hope of glory: or else the powerful and efficacious grace of the Spirit, and the exertion and display of it, which is necessary to a true and spiritual believing the Gospel, and the report of it; which, unless it comes with the power and Spirit of God, is ineffectual.

Gill: Isa 53:2 - For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant // and as a root out of a dry ground // he hath no form nor comeliness // and when we shall see him // there is no beauty, that we should desire him For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant,.... Which springs out of the earth without notice; low in its beginning, slow in its growth, liable...

For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant,.... Which springs out of the earth without notice; low in its beginning, slow in its growth, liable to be crushed with the foot, or destroyed with the frost, and no great probability of its coming to any perfection; or rather as a little "sucker", as the word b signifies, which grows out of the root of a tree, at some little distance from it, of which no notice or care is taken, nor anything hoped for from it; and the figure denotes the mean and unpromising appearance of Christ at his incarnation; which is the reason given why the Jews in general disbelieved, rejected, and despised him; for this phrase of "growing up" does not design his exaltation, or rising up from a low to a high estate; but his mean entrance into the world, like that of the springing up of a low and insignificant plant or shrub out of the earth: and the phrase "before him" is to be understood either of God the Father, by whom he was taken notice of, though not by men; and in whose sight he was precious, though despised by men; or his growing up, and the manner of it, or his mean appearance, were all before the Lord, and according to his will: or else it may be understood of Christ himself, and be rendered "before himself", who was meek and lowly, and was mean and low in his own eyes; or rather it may be interpreted of the unbelieving Jew, of any or everyone of them that did not believe the report concerning him: because before him, in the sight of everyone of them, he sprung up in the manner described; unless it can be thought that it would be better rendered "to his face" c; or "to his appearance"; that is, as to his outward appearance, in the external view of him, so he grew up:

and as a root out of a dry ground; or rather, "as a branch from a root out of a dry ground"; agreeably to Isa 11:1, meaning not so much the land of Judea, where he was born; or the country of Galilee, where he was brought up; as the family of David, from whence he sprung, which was reduced to a very low condition when he was born of it; his supposed father being a carpenter, and his real mother a poor virgin in Nazareth, though both of the lineage and house of David; from this passage the ancient Jews d are said to conclude that the Messiah would be born without a father, or the seed of man:

he hath no form nor comeliness; like a poor plant or shrub just crept out of the ground, in a dry and barren soil, ready to wither away as soon as up; has no strength nor straightness, of body; without verdure, leaves, blossom, and fruit things which make plants comely and beautiful. This regards not the countenance of Christ, which probably was comely, as were his types Moses and David; since he is said to be "fairer than the children of men"; and since his human nature was the immediate produce of the Holy Ghost, and without sin: but his outward circumstances; there was no majesty in him, or signs of it; it did not look probable that he would be a tall cedar, or a prince in Israel, much less the Prince Messiah; he was born of mean parents; brought up in a contemptible part of the country; lived in a town out of which no good is said to come; dwelt in a mean cottage, and worked at a trade:

and when we shall see him: as he grows up, and comes into public life and service, declaring himself, or declared by others, to be the Messiah: here the prophet represents the Jews that would live in Christ's time, who would see his person, hear his doctrines, and be witnesses of his miracles, and yet say,

there is no beauty, that we should desire him; or "sightliness" e in him; nothing that looks grand and majestic, or like a king; they not beholding with an eye of faith his glory, as the glory of the only begotten of the Father; only viewing him in his outward circumstances, and so made their estimate of him; they expected the Messiah as a temporal prince, appearing in great pomp and state, to deliver them from the Roman yoke, and restore their nation to its former splendour and glory; and being disappointed herein was the true reason of their unbelief, before complained of, and why they did not desire him, who is the desire of all nations.

Gill: Isa 53:3 - He is despised, and rejected of men // a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief // and we hid as it were our faces from him // he was despised, and we esteemed him not He is despised, and rejected of men,.... Or, "ceaseth from men" f; was not admitted into the company and conversation of men, especially of figure; or...

He is despised, and rejected of men,.... Or, "ceaseth from men" f; was not admitted into the company and conversation of men, especially of figure; or ceased from the class of men, in the opinion of others; he was not reckoned among men, was accounted a worm, and no man; or, if a man, yet not in his senses, a madman, nay, one that had a devil: or "deficient of men"; he had none about him of any rank or figure in life, only some few fishermen, and some women, and publicans, and harlots. The Vulgate Latin version renders it, "the last of men", the most abject and contemptible of mankind; despised, because of the meanness of his birth, and parentage, and education, and of his outward appearance in public life; because of his apostles and audience; because of his doctrines, not agreeably to carnal reason, and his works, some of them being done on the sabbath day, and, as they maliciously suggested, by the help of Satan; and especially because of his ignominious sufferings and death:

a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: or "known by grief" g; he was known by his troubles, notorious for them; these were his constant companions, his familiar acquaintance, with whom he was always conversant; his life was one continued series of sorrow, from the cradle to the cross; in his infancy his life was sought for by Herod, and he was obliged to be taken by his parents, and flee into Egypt; he ate his bread in sorrow, and with the sweat of his brow; he met with much sorrow from the hardness and unbelief of men's hearts, and from the contradiction of sinners against himself, and even much from the frowardness of his own disciples; much from the temptations of Satan, and more from the wrath and justice of God, as the surety of his people; he was exceeding sorrowful in the garden, when his sweat was as it were great drops of blood; and when on the cross, under the hidings of his Father's face, under a sense of divine displeasure for the sins of his people, and enduring the pains and agonies of a shameful and an accursed death; he was made up of sorrows, and grief was familiar to him. Some render it, "broken with infirmity", or "grief" h:

and we hid as it were our faces from him; as one loathsome and abominable as having an aversion to him, and abhorrence of him, as scorning to look at him, being unworthy of any notice. Some render it, "he hid as it were his face from us" i; as conscious of his deformity and loathsomeness, and of his being a disagreeable object, as they said; but the former is best:

he was despised, and we esteemed him not; which is repeated to show the great contempt cast upon him, and the disesteem he was had in by all sorts of persons; professors and profane, high and low, rich poor, rulers and common people, priests, Scribes, and Pharisees; no set or order of men had any value for him; and all this disgrace and dishonour he was to undergo, to repair the loss of honour the Lord sustained by the sin of man, whose surety Christ became.

Gill: Isa 53:4 - Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows // yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows,.... Or "nevertheless", as Gussetius k; notwithstanding the above usage of him; though it is ...

Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows,.... Or "nevertheless", as Gussetius k; notwithstanding the above usage of him; though it is a certain and undoubted truth, that Christ not only assumed a true human nature, capable of sorrow and grief, but he took all the natural sinless infirmities of it; or his human nature was subject to such, as hunger, thirst, weariness, &c.; and to all the sorrow and pain arising from them; the same sorrows and griefs he was liable to as we are, and therefore called ours and hence he had a sympathy with men under affliction and trouble; and, to show his sympathizing spirit, he healed all sorts of bodily diseases; and also, to show his power, he healed the diseases of the soul, by bearing the sins of his people, and making satisfaction for them; since he that could do the one could do the other; wherefore the evangelist applies this passage to the healing of bodily diseases, Mat 8:17, though the principal meaning of the words may be, that all the sorrows and griefs which Christ bore were not for any sins of his own, but for the sins of his people; wherefore these griefs and sorrows signify the punishment of sin, and are put for sins, the cause of them and so the apostle interprets them of Christ's bearing our sins in his own body on the tree, 1Pe 2:24, and the Septuagint and Arabic versions render the words here, "he bears our sins"; and the Targum is,

"wherefore he will entreat for our sins;''

these being laid upon him, as is afterwards said, were bore by him as the surety of his people; and satisfaction being made for them by his sufferings and death, they are carried and taken away, never to be seen any more:

yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted; so indeed he was by the sword of divine justice, which was awaked against him, and with which he was stricken and smitten, as standing in the room of his people; but then it was not for any sin of his own, as the Jews imagined, but for the sins of those for whom he was a substitute; they looked upon all his sorrows and troubles in life, and at death, as the just judgment of God upon him for some gross enormities he had been guilty of; but in this they were mistaken. The Vulgate Latin version is, "we esteemed him as a leprous person"; and so Aquila and Symmachus render the word; and from hence the Jews call the Messiah a leper l; they say,

"a leper of the house of Rabbi is his name''

as it is said, "surely he hath borne our griefs", &c.; which shows that the ancient Jews understood this prophecy of the Messiah, though produced to prove a wrong character of him; and so it is applied unto him in other ancient writings of theirs; See Gill on Mat 8:17. The words are by some rendered, "and we reckoned him the stricken, smitten of God" m, and "humbled"; which version of the words proved the conversion of several Jews in Africa, as Andradius and others relate n; by which they perceived the passage is to be understood not of a mere man, but of God made man, and of his humiliation and sufferings in human nature.

Gill: Isa 53:5 - But he was wounded for our transgressions // he was bruised for our iniquities // the chastisement of our peace was upon him // and with his stripes we are healed But he was wounded for our transgressions,.... Not for any sins of his own, but for ours, for our rebellions against God, and transgressions of his la...

But he was wounded for our transgressions,.... Not for any sins of his own, but for ours, for our rebellions against God, and transgressions of his law, in order to make atonement and satisfaction for them; these were the procuring and meritorious causes of his sufferings and death, as they were taken upon him by him to answer for them to divine justice, which are meant by his being wounded; for not merely the wounds he received in his hands, feet, and side, made by the nails and spear, are meant, but the whole of his sufferings, and especially his being wounded to death, and which was occasionally by bearing the sins of his people; and hereby he removed the guilt from them, and freed them from the punishment due unto them:

he was bruised for our iniquities; as bread corn is bruised by threshing it, or by its being ground in the mill, as the manna was; or as spice is bruised in a mortar, he being broken and crushed to pieces under the weight of sin, and the punishment of it. The ancient Jews understood this of the Messiah; in one place they say o,

"chastisements are divided into three parts, one to David and the fathers, one to our generation, and one to the King Messiah; as it is written, "he was wounded for our transgressions; and bruised for our iniquities":''

and in another place p,

"at that time they shall declare to the Messiah the troubles of Israel in captivity, and the wicked which are among them, that do not mind to know the Lord; he shall lift up his voice, and weep over the wicked among them; as it is said, "he was wounded for our transgressions", &c.''

the chastisement of our peace was upon him; that is, the punishment of our sins was inflicted on him, whereby our peace and reconciliation with God was made by him; for chastisement here does not design the chastisement of a father, and in love, such as the Lord chastises his people with; but an act of vindictive justice, and in wrath, taking vengeance on our sins, of our surety, whereby divine wrath is appeased, justice is satisfied, and peace is made:

and with his stripes we are healed; or "by his stripe" q, or "bruise": properly the black and blue mark of it, so called from the gathering and settling of the blood where the blow is given. Sin is a disease belonging to all men, a natural, hereditary, nauseous, and incurable one, but by the blood of Christ; forgiving sin is a healing of this disease; and this is to be had, and in no other way, than through the stripes and wounds, the blood and sacrifice, of the Son of God. Christ is a wonderful physician; he heals by taking the sicknesses of his people upon himself, by bearing their sins, and being wounded and bruised for them, and by his enduring blows, and suffering death itself for them. The Targum is,

"when we obey his words, our sins will be forgiven us;''

but forgiveness is not through our obedience, but the blood of Christ.

Gill: Isa 53:6 - All we like sheep have gone astray // we have turned everyone to his own way // and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all All we like sheep have gone astray,.... Here the prophet represents all the elect of God, whether Jews or Gentiles; whom he compares to "sheep", not f...

All we like sheep have gone astray,.... Here the prophet represents all the elect of God, whether Jews or Gentiles; whom he compares to "sheep", not for their good qualities, but for their foolishness and stupidity; and particularly for their being subject to go astray from the shepherd, and the fold, and from their good pastures, and who never return of themselves, until they are looked up, and brought back by the shepherd, or owner of them; so the people of God, in a state of nature, are like the silly sheep, they go astray from God, are alienated from the life of him, deviate from the rule of his word, err from the right way, and go into crooked paths, which lead to destruction; and never return of themselves, of their own will, and by their own power, until they are returned, by powerful and efficacious grace, unto the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls; see 1Pe 2:25 where the apostle has a manifest respect to this passage:

we have turned everyone to his own way; and that is an evil one, a dark and slippery one, a crooked one, the end of it is ruin; yet this is a way of a man's own choosing and approving, and in which he delights; and it may not only intend the way of wickedness in general, common to all men in a state of nature, but a particular way of sinning, peculiar to each; some are addicted to one sin, and some to another, and have their own way of committing the same sin; men turn their faces from God, and their backs upon him, and look to their own way, and set their faces towards it, and their hearts on it; and which seems right and pleasing to them, yet the end of it are the ways of death; and so bent are men on these ways, though so destructive, that nothing but omnipotent grace can turn them out of them, and to the Lord; and which is done in consequence of what follows:

and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all; that is, God the Father, against whom we have sinned, from whom we have turned, and whose justice must be satisfied; he has laid on Christ, his own Son, the sins of all his elect ones; which are as it were collected together, and made one bundle and burden of, and therefore expressed in the singular number, "iniquity", and laid on Christ, and were bore by him, even all the sins of all God's elect; a heavy burden this! which none but the mighty God could bear; this was typified by laying of hands, and laying of sins upon the sacrifice, and putting the iniquities of Israel upon the head of the scapegoat, by whom they were bore, and carried away. The words may be rendered, "he made to meet upon him the iniquity of us all" r; the elect of God, as they live in every part of the world, their sins are represented as coming from all quarters, east, west, north, and south; and as meeting in Christ, as they did, when he suffered as their representative on the cross: or "he made to rush, or fall upon him the iniquity of us all" s; our sins, like a large and mighty army, beset him around, and fell upon him in a hostile manner, and were the cause of his death; by which means the law and justice of God had full satisfaction, and our recovery from ruin and destruction is procured, which otherwise must have been the consequence of turning to our own ways; so the ancient Jews understood this of the Messiah. R. Cahana t on these words, "binding his ass's colt to the choice vine", Gen 49:11 says,

"as the ass bears burdens, and the garments of travellers, so the King Messiah will bear upon him the sins of the whole world; as it is said, "the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all",'' Isa 53:6.

Gill: Isa 53:7 - He was oppressed, and he was afflicted // yet he opened not his mouth // so he opened not his mouth He was oppressed, and he was afflicted,.... He was injuriously treated by the Jews; they used him very ill, and handled him very roughly; he was oppre...

He was oppressed, and he was afflicted,.... He was injuriously treated by the Jews; they used him very ill, and handled him very roughly; he was oppressed and afflicted, both in body and mind, with their blows, and with their reproaches; he was afflicted, indeed, both by God and men: or rather it may be rendered, "it was exacted", required, and demanded, "and he answered" u, or "was afflicted"; justice finding the sins of men on him, laid on him by imputation, and voluntarily received by him, as in the preceding verse, demanded satisfaction of him; and he being the surety of his people, was responsible for them, and did answer, and gave the satisfaction demanded: the debt they owed was required, the payment of it was called for, and he accordingly answered, and paid the whole, every farthing, and cancelled the bond; the punishment of the sins of his people was exacted of him, and he submitted to bear it, and did bear it in his own body on the tree; this clearly expresses the doctrine of Christ's satisfaction:

yet he opened not his mouth; against the oppressor that did him the injury, nor murmured at the affliction that was heavy upon him: or, "and he opened not his mouth"; against the justice of God, and the demand that was made upon him, as the surety of his people; he owned the obligation he had laid himself under; he paid the debt, and bore the punishment without any dispute or hesitation: "he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb"; or, "as a sheep to the slaughter, and as an ewe before her shearer" w; these figurative phrases are expressive, not only of the harmlessness and innocence of Christ, as considered in himself, but of his meekness and patience in suffering, and of his readiness and willingness to be sacrificed in the room and stead of his people; he went to the cross without any reluctance, which; when there was any in the sacrifice, it was reckoned a bad omen among the Heathens, yea, such were not admitted to be offered x; but Christ went as willingly to be sacrificed as a lamb goes to the slaughter house, and was as silent under his sufferings as a sheep while under the hands of its shearers; he was willing to be stripped of all he had, as a shorn sheep, and to be slaughtered and sacrificed as a lamb, for the sins of his people:

so he opened not his mouth: not against his enemies, by way of threatening or complaint; nor even in his own defence; nor against the justice of God, as bearing hard upon him, not sparing him, but demanding and having full satisfaction; nor against his people and their sins, for whom he suffered; see 1Pe 2:23.

Gill: Isa 53:8 - He was taken from prison, and from judgment // he was taken by distress and judgment // and who shall declare his generation // for he was cut off out of the land of the living // for the transgression of my people was he stricken He was taken from prison, and from judgment,.... After he had suffered and died, and made satisfaction to divine justice; or after he had been arreste...

He was taken from prison, and from judgment,.... After he had suffered and died, and made satisfaction to divine justice; or after he had been arrested by the justice of God, and was laid in prison, and under a sentence of condemnation, had judgment passed upon him, and that executed too; he was taken in a very little time from the prison of the grave where he lay, and from the state of condemnation into which he was brought, and was acquitted, justified, and declared righteous, and his people in him; a messenger was sent from heaven to roll away the stone, and set him free: though some render it,

he was taken by distress and judgment; that is, his life was taken away in a violent manner, under a pretence of justice; whereas the utmost injustice was done him; a wrong charge was brought against him, false witnesses were suborned, and his life was taken away with wicked hands; which sense seems to be favoured by the quotation in Act 8:32 "in his humiliation his judgment was taken away": he had not common justice done him:

and who shall declare his generation? which is not to be understood of his divine generation, as the Son of God, which is in a way ineffable and inconceivable; nor of his human generation, as the Son of Man, which is unaccountable, being born of a virgin; nor of the duration of his life after his resurrection, he dying no more, but living for ever, which is more probable; nor of the vast number of his spiritual offspring, the fruit of his sufferings, death, and resurrection; but of the age, and men of it, in which he lived, whose barbarity to him, and wickedness they were guilty of, were such as could not be declared by the mouth, or described by the pen of man. The Targum is,

"and the wonderful things which shall be done for us in his days, who can declare?''

for he was cut off out of the land of the living; was not suffered to live, was taken off by a violent death; he was cut off in a judiciary way, as if he had been a malefactor; though lest it should be thought it was for his own sins he was cut off, which is denied, Dan 9:26 it is added,

for the transgression of my people was he stricken; that is, either through the malice and wickedness of the people of the Jews, whom the prophet calls his people, he was stricken, not only with the scourges of the whip, but with death itself, as the efficient cause thereof; or rather because of the transgressions of God's elect, in order to make satisfaction for them, he was stricken by divine justice, and put to death, as the meritorious cause thereof; and so they are the words of God the Father; and this, with the preceding clause, give a reason, showing both why he was taken from the prison of the grave, acquitted, and exalted, and why the wickedness of his age could not be declared; he being stricken and cut off in such a manner, when he was an innocent person; and since it was only for the transgressions of others, even of God's covenant people, the people he chose, and gave to Christ, Mat 1:21.

Gill: Isa 53:9 - And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death // because he had done no violence // neither was any deceit in his mouth And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death,.... These words are generally supposed to refer to a fact that was afterwards d...

And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death,.... These words are generally supposed to refer to a fact that was afterwards done; that Christ, who died with wicked men, as if he himself had been one, was buried in a rich man's grave. Could the words admit of the following transposition, they would exactly agree with it, "and he made his grave with the rich; and with the wicked in his death"; for he died between two thieves, and was buried in the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathaea, a rich man. Or the meaning perhaps in general is, that, after his death, both rich men and wicked men were concerned in his sepulchre, and about his grave; two rich men, Nicodemus and Joseph, in taking down his body from the cross, in embalming it, and in laying it in the tomb of the latter; and wicked men, Roman soldiers, were employed in guarding the sepulchre, that his disciples might not take away the body. Or the sense is, "he" the people, the nation of the Jews, through whose enmity against him he suffered death, "gave", intended, and designed, that "his grave" should be with "the wicked"; and therefore accused him to the Roman governor, and got him condemned capitally, and condemned to a Roman death, crucifixion, that he might be buried where such sort of persons usually were; and then it may be supplied, "but he made it"; that is, God ordered and appointed, in his overruling providence, that it should be "with the rich in his death", as it was. Aben Ezra observes, that the word במתיו, which we translate "in his death", signifies a structure over a grave, "a sepulchral monument"; and then it may be rendered impersonally thus, "his grave was put or placed with the wicked, but his tomb", or sepulchral monument, was "with the rich"; his grave was indeed put under the care and custody of the wicked soldiers; yet a famous tomb being erected over it, at the expense of a rich man, Joseph of Arimathaea, which was designed for himself, made the burial of Christ honourable: which honour was done him,

because he had done no violence: or injury to any man's person or property; had not been guilty of rapine and oppression, theft and robbery; murder and cruelty; he had not been a stirrer up of sedition, an encourager of mobs, riots, and tumults, to the harm of the civil government:

neither was any deceit in his mouth: no false doctrine was delivered by him; he was no deceiver of the people, as he was charged; he did not attempt to seduce them from the true worship of God, or persuade them to believe anything contrary to the law of Moses, and the prophets; he was no enemy to church or state, nor indeed guilty of any manner of sin, nor given to any arts of trick and dissimulation; see 1Pe 2:22. Some render the words, "though" y "he had done no violence", &c. and connect them with the following.

Gill: Isa 53:10 - Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him // he hath put him to grief // when thou shall make his soul an offering for sin // He shall see his seed // he shall prolong his days // And the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him,.... The sufferings of Christ are signified by his being "bruised"; See Gill on Isa 53:5, and as it was foretold...

Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him,.... The sufferings of Christ are signified by his being "bruised"; See Gill on Isa 53:5, and as it was foretold he should have his heel bruised by the serpent, Gen 3:15, but here it is ascribed to the Lord: he was bruised in body, when buffeted and scourged, and nailed to the cross; and was bruised and broken in spirit, when the sins of his people were laid on him, and the wrath of God came upon him for them: the Lord had a hand in his sufferings; he not only permitted them, but they were according to the counsel of his will; they were predetermined by him, Act 2:23, yea, they were pleasing to him, he took a kind of delight and pleasure in them; not in them simply considered as sufferings, but as they were an accomplishment of his purposes, a fulfilment of his covenant and promises, and of the prophecies in his word; and, particularly, as hereby the salvation of his people was brought about; see Joh 10:17,

he hath put him to grief; when he awoke the sword of justice against him; when he spared him not, but delivered him up into the hands of wicked men, and unto death: he was put to grief in the garden, when his soul was exceeding sorrowful; and on the cross, when he was nailed to it, had the weight of his people's sins, and his Father's wrath, on him; and when he hid his face from him, which made him cry out, "my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" or, "hath put him to pain": suffered him to be put to pain, both in body and mind:

when thou shall make his soul an offering for sin: not his soul only, but his body also, even his whole human nature, as in union with his divine Person; for it was he himself that was offered up in the room and stead of his people, to make atonement and satisfaction for their sins, Heb 9:14, or, "when thou shalt make his soul sin" z; so Christ was made by imputation, 2Co 5:21, and when he was so made, or had the sins of his people imputed to him, then was he bruised, and put to pain and grief, in order to finish them, and make an end of them, and make reconciliation for them: or, "when his soul shall make an offering" a "for sin", or "sin" itself; make itself an offering; for Christ offered up himself freely and voluntarily; he gave himself an offering and a sacrifice to God, for a sweetsmelling savour, Eph 5:2, he was altar, sacrifice, and priest.

He shall see his seed; or, "a seed"; a spiritual seed and offspring; a large number of souls, that shall be born again, of incorruptible seed, as the fruit of his sufferings and death; see Joh 12:24, this he presently began to see after his resurrection from the dead, and ascension to heaven; when great numbers were converted among the Jews, and after that multitudes in the Gentile world, and more or less in all ages; ever since has he had a seed to serve him; and so he will in the latter day, and to the end of time:

he shall prolong his days: live long, throughout all ages, to all eternity; though he was dead, he is alive, and lives for evermore; lives to see all the children that the Father gave him, and he has gathered together by his death, when scattered abroad, and see them all born again, and brought to glory. Some connect this with the preceding clause, "he shall see a seed that shall prolong its days" b; for Christ will never want issue, his church will never fail, his seed will endure for ever, Psa 89:29. So the Targum, paraphrasing the words of Christ and his seed,

"they shall see the kingdom of their Messiah; they shall multiply sons and daughters; they shall prolong their days:''

and so Aben Ezra says these words are spoken of the generation that shall return to God, and to the true religion, at the coming of the Messiah.

And the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand; the work of man's redemption, put into the hands of Christ, which he undertook to accomplish; which was with him and before him, when he came into this world, and was his meat and drink to do; this he never left till he had finished it; so that it succeeded and prospered with him: and this may well be called "the pleasure of the Lord"; it was the good pleasure of his will; it was what he purposed and resolved; what his heart was set upon, and was well pleasing to him, as effected by his Son. Likewise the setting up of the kingdom and interest of Christ in the world, and the continuance and increase of it; the ministry of the word, and the success of that as the means thereof, may be also meant; for the Gospel will be preached, and a Gospel church still continued, until all the elect of God are gathered in.

Gill: Isa 53:11 - He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied // By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many // For he shall bear their iniquities He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied,.... "The travail of his soul" is the toil and labour he endured, in working out the s...

He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied,.... "The travail of his soul" is the toil and labour he endured, in working out the salvation of his people; his obedience and death, his sorrows and sufferings; particularly those birth throes of his soul, under a sense of divine wrath, for the allusion is to women in travail; and all the agonies and pains of death which he went through. Now the fruit of all this he sees with inexpressible pleasure, and which gives him an infinite satisfaction; namely, the complete redemption of all the chosen ones, and the glory of the divine perfections displayed therein, as well as his own glory, which follows upon it; particularly this will be true of him as man and Mediator, when he shall have all his children with him in glory; see Heb 12:2. The words are by some rendered, "seeing himself or his soul freed from trouble, he shall be satisfied" c; so he saw it, and found it, when he rose from the dead, and was justified in the Spirit; ascended to his God and Father, was set down at his right hand, and was made glad with his countenance, enjoying to the full eternal glory and happiness with him: and by others this, "after the travail d of his soul, he shall see a seed, and shall be satisfied"; as a woman, after her travail and sharp pains are over, having brought forth a son, looks upon it with joy and pleasure, and is satisfied, and forgets her former pain and anguish; so Christ, after all his sorrows and sufferings, sees a large number of souls regenerated, sanctified, justified, and brought to heaven, in consequence of them, which is a most pleasing and satisfactory sight unto him,

By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; Christ is the servant of the Lord; See Gill on Isa 53:1, Isa 49:3, Isa 52:13. He is said to be "righteous", because of the holiness of his nature, and the righteousness of his life as a man; and because of his faithful discharge of his work and office as Mediator; and because he is the author and bringer in of an everlasting righteousness, by which he justifies his people; that is, acquits and absolves them, pronounces them righteous, and frees them from condemnation and death; he is the procuring and meritorious cause of their justification; his righteousness is the matter of it; in him, as their Head, are they justified, and by him the sentence is pronounced: for this is to be understood not of making men holy and righteous inherently, that is sanctification; nor of a teaching men doctrinally the way and method of justifying men, which is no other than ministers do; but it is a forensic act, a pronouncing and declaring men righteous, as opposed to condemnation: and they are many who are so justified; the many who were ordained to eternal life; the many whose sins Christ bore, and gave his life a ransom for; the many sons that are brought by him to glory. This shows that they are not a few, which serves to magnify the grace of God, exalt the satisfaction and righteousness of Christ, and encourage distressed sinners to look to him for justification of life; and yet they are not all men, for all men have not faith, nor are they saved; though all Christ's spiritual seed and offspring shall be justified, and shall glory: and this is "by" or "through his knowledge"; the knowledge of him, of Christ, which is no other than faith in him, by which a man sees and knows him, and believes in him, as the Lord his righteousness; and this agrees with the New Testament doctrine of justification by faith; which is no other than the manifestation, knowledge, sense, and perception of it by faith.

For he shall bear their iniquities; this is the reason of Christ's justifying many, the ground and foundation of it; he undertook to satisfy for their sins; these, as before observed, were laid on him; being laid on him, he bore them, the whole of them, and all the punishment due to them; whereby he made satisfaction for them, and bore them away, so as they are to be seen no more; and upon this justification proceeds.

Gill: Isa 53:12 - Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great // And he shall divide the spoil with the strong // Because he hath poured out his soul unto death // and made bare // And he was numbered with the transgressors // and he bore the sin on many // And made intercession for the transgressors Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great,.... The great ones of the earth, the kings and princes of the earth: these are the words of God ...

Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great,.... The great ones of the earth, the kings and princes of the earth: these are the words of God the Father, promising Christ that he shall have as great a part or portion assigned him as any of the mighty monarchs of the world, nay, one much more large and ample; that he would make him higher than the kings of the earth, and give him a name above every name in this world, or that to come; and all this in consequence of his sufferings, and as a reward of them; see Phi 2:8 and whereas the Lord's people are his portion, and with which Christ is well pleased, and greatly delighted, Deu 32:9, they may be intended here, at least as a part of the portion which Christ has assigned him. For the words may be rendered e, "therefore will I divide, assign, or give many to him": so the Vulgate Latin version; and which is favoured by the Targum,

"therefore will I divide to him the prey of many people;''

and by the Septuagint version, therefore he shall inherit many, or possess many as his inheritance; so the Arabic version. The elect of God were given to Christ, previous to his sufferings and death, in the everlasting council of peace and covenant of grace, to be redeemed and saved by him; and they are given to him, in consequence of them, to believe in him, to be subject to him, and serve him; and so it denotes a great multitude of persons, both among Jews and Gentiles, that should be converted to Christ, embrace him, profess his Gospel, and submit to his ordinances; and which has been true in fact, and took place quickly after his resurrection and ascension.

And he shall divide the spoil with the strong; or "the strong as a spoil"; that is, he shall spoil principalities and powers, destroy Satan and his angels, and make an entire conquest of all his mighty and powerful enemies. The Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Arabic versions, render the words, "he shall divide the spoil of the strong"; of Satan and his principalities; those they make a spoil of he shall take out of their hands, and possess them as his own. The best comment on this version is Luk 11:22. Or rather the words may be rendered, "he shall have or possess for a spoil or prey very many" f; for the word for "strong" has the signification of a multitude; and so the sense is the same as before, that a great multitude of souls should be taken by Christ, as a prey out of the hands of the mighty, and become his subjects; and so his kingdom would be very large, and he have great honour and glory, which is the thing promised as a reward of his sufferings. Some understand, by the "great" and "strong", the apostles of Christ, to whom he divided the gifts he received when he led captivity captive; to some apostles, some prophets, &c. Eph 4:10, and others the soldiers, among whom his garments were parted; but they are senses foreign from the text.

Because he hath poured out his soul unto death; as water is poured out, Psa 22:14 or rather as the wine was poured out in the libations or drink offerings; for Christ's soul was made an offering for sin, as before; and it may be said with respect to his blood, in which is the life, that was shed or poured out for the remission of sin; of which he was emptied,

and made bare, as the word g signifies, when his hands, feet, and side, were pierced. The phrase denotes the voluntariness of Christ's death, that he freely and willingly laid down his life for his people.

And he was numbered with the transgressors; he never was guilty of any one transgression of the law; he indeed appeared in the likeness of sinful flesh, and was calumniated and traduced as a sinner, and a friend of the worst of them; he was ranked among them, and charged as one of them, yet falsely; though, having all the sins of his people upon him, he was treated, even by the justice and law of God, as if he had been the transgressor, and suffered as if he had been one; of which his being crucified between two thieves was a symbolical representation, and whereby this Scripture was fulfilled, Mar 15:28.

and he bore the sin on many; everyone of their sins, even the sins of all those whose iniquity was laid on him, of the many chosen in him, and justified by him; See Gill on Isa 53:11 where this is given as the reason for their justification; and here repeated as if done, to show the certainty of it; to raise the attention of it, as being a matter of great importance; see 1Pe 2:24.

And made intercession for the transgressors; as he did upon the cross, even for those that were the instruments of his death, Luk 23:34 and as he now does, in heaven, for all those sinners for whom he died; not merely in a petitionary way, but by presenting himself, blood, righteousness, and sacrifice; pleading the merits of these, and calling for, in a way of justice and legal demand, all those blessings which were stipulated in an everlasting covenant between him and his Father, to be given to his people, in consequence of his sufferings and death; see Rom 8:33.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 53:1 Heb “the arm of the Lord.” The “arm of the Lord” is a metaphor of military power; it pictures the Lord as a warrior who bares ...

NET Notes: Isa 53:2 Heb “that we should desire him.” The vav conjunctive prefixed to the imperfect introduces a result clause here. See GKC 504-5 §166.a.

NET Notes: Isa 53:3 The servant is likened to a seriously ill person who is shunned by others because of his horrible disease.

NET Notes: Isa 53:4 The words “for something he had done” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The group now realizes he suffered because of his...

NET Notes: Isa 53:5 Continuing to utilize the imagery of physical illness, the group acknowledges that the servant’s willingness to carry their illnesses (v. 4) res...

NET Notes: Isa 53:6 Elsewhere the Hiphil of פָגַע (paga’) means “to intercede verbally” (Jer 15:11; 36:25) or “to in...

NET Notes: Isa 53:7 This verse emphasizes the servant’s silent submission. The comparison to a sheep does not necessarily suggest a sacrificial metaphor. Sheep were...

NET Notes: Isa 53:8 The Hebrew text reads “my people,” a reading followed by most English versions, but this is problematic in a context where the first perso...

NET Notes: Isa 53:9 If the second line is antithetical, then עַל (’al) is probably causal here, explaining why the servant was buried in a rich ma...

NET Notes: Isa 53:10 The idiomatic and stereotypical language emphasizes the servant’s restoration to divine favor. Having numerous descendants and living a long lif...

NET Notes: Isa 53:11 The circumstantial clause (note the vav [ו] + object + subject + verb pattern) is understood as causal here. The prefixed verb form is either a ...

NET Notes: Isa 53:12 The Hiphil of פָּגַע (paga’) can mean “cause to attack” (v. 6), “urge, plead verbally̶...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:1 Who ( a ) hath believed our report? and to whom is the ( b ) arm of the LORD revealed? ( a ) The prophet shows that very few will receive their preac...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a ( c ) root out of a dry ( d ) ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall se...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:3 He is despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with ( e ) grief: and we hid as it were [our] faces from him; he was despised, an...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried ( f ) our sorrows: yet we did esteem him ( g ) stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. ( f ) That is, t...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:5 But he [was] wounded for our transgressions, [he was] bruised for our iniquities: the ( h ) chastisement for our peace [was] upon him; and with his st...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the ( i ) iniquity of us all. ( i ) Meanin...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he ( k ) opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearer...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:8 He was taken from ( l ) prison and from judgment: ( m ) and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off from the land of the living: for the ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:9 ( n ) And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither [was any] deceit in his mouth. ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put [him] to grief: when ( o ) thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see [his] seed, h...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:11 He shall see of the ( p ) travail of his soul, [and] shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my ( q ) righteous servant justify many; for he shall ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 53:12 Therefore I will divide to him [a portion] with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because ( r ) he hath poured out his soul to...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 53:11-12 - A Libation To Jehovah Marching Orders Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing; go ye out of the midst of her; be ye clean, that bear the vessel...

Maclaren: Isa 53:12 - A Libation To Jehovah The Suffering Servant--VI Therefore will I divide Him a portion with the great, and He shall divide the spoil with the strong; because He hath poured...

MHCC: Isa 53:1-3 - --No where in all the Old Testament is it so plainly and fully prophesied, that Christ ought to suffer, and then to enter into his glory, as in this cha...

MHCC: Isa 53:4-9 - --In these verses is an account of the sufferings of Christ; also of the design of his sufferings. It was for our sins, and in our stead, that our Lord ...

MHCC: Isa 53:10-12 - --Come, and see how Christ loved us! We could not put him in our stead, but he put himself. Thus he took away the sin of the world, by taking it on hims...

Matthew Henry: Isa 53:1-3 - -- The prophet, in the close of the former chapter, had foreseen and foretold the kind reception which the gospel of Christ should find among the Genti...

Matthew Henry: Isa 53:4-9 - -- In these verses we have, I. A further account of the sufferings of Christ. Much was said before, but more is said here, of the very low condition to...

Matthew Henry: Isa 53:10-12 - -- In the foregoing verses the prophet had testified very particularly of the sufferings of Christ, yet mixing some hints of the happy issue of them; h...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:1 - -- But, says the second turn in Isa 53:1-3, the man of sorrows was despised among us, and the prophecy as to his future was not believed. We hear the f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:2 - -- The confession, which follows, grows out of the great lamentation depicted by Zechariah in Zec 12:11. "And he sprang up like a layer-shoot before H...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:3 - -- On the contrary, the impression produced by His appearance was rather repulsive, and, to those who measured the great and noble by a merely worldly ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:4 - -- Those who formerly mistook and despised the Servant of Jehovah on account of His miserable condition, now confess that His sufferings were altogethe...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:5 - -- In Isa 53:5, והוּא , as contrasted with ואנחנוּ , continues the true state of the case as contrasted with their false judgment. "Wherea...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:6 - -- Thus does the whole body of the restored Israel confess with penitence, that it has so long mistaken Him whom Jehovah, as is now distinctly affirmed...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:7 - -- The fourth turn describes how He suffered and died and was buried. "He was ill treated; whilst He suffered willingly, and opened not His mouth, lik...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:8 - -- The description of the closing portion of the life of the Servant of Jehovah is continued in Isa 53:8. "He has been taken away from prison and from...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:9 - -- After this description in Isa 53:7 of the patience with which He suffered, and in Isa 53:8 of the manner in which He died, there follows a retrospec...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:10 - -- The last turn in the prophecy, which commences here, carries out Isa 53:6 still further, and opens up the background of His fate. The gracious coun...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:11 - -- This great work of salvation lies as the great object of His calling in the hand of the deceased and yet eternally living One, and goes on victoriou...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 53:12 - -- The last reward of His thus working after this life for the salvation of sinners, and also of His work in this life upon which the former is founded...

Constable: Isa 40:1--55:13 - --IV. Israel's calling in the world chs. 40--55 This part of Isaiah picks up a theme from chapters 1-39 and develo...

Constable: Isa 49:1--55:13 - --B. God's atonement for Israel chs. 49-55 In the previous section (chs. 40-48), Isaiah revealed that God ...

Constable: Isa 52:13--54:1 - --2. Announcement of salvation 52:13-53:12 The second segment of the section in Isaiah dealing wit...

Constable: Isa 53:1-3 - --The Servant despised 53:1-3 Expositors have called this chapter the holy of holies of Isaiah. It is also the middle chapter in part two of the book (c...

Constable: Isa 53:4-6 - --The Servant wounded 53:4-6 It becomes clear in this stanza of the song that the Servant's sufferings were not His own fault, as onlookers thought. The...

Constable: Isa 53:7-9 - --The Servant cast off 53:7-9 Isaiah continued the sheep metaphor but applied it to the Servant to contrast sinful people and their innocent substitute....

Constable: Isa 53:10-12 - --The Servant satisfied 53:10-12 This final stanza gives the explanation for the Servant's submissive suffering for sinners and so completes the song. 5...

Guzik: Isa 53:1-12 - The Atoning Suffering and Victory of the Messiah Isaiah 53 - The Atoning Suffering and Victory of the Messiah "This chapter foretells the sufferings of the Messiah, the end for which he was to d...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...