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Teks -- Genesis 2:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
2:1 The heavens and the earth were completed with everything that was in them. 2:2 By the seventh day God finished the work that he had been doing, and he ceased on the seventh day all the work that he had been doing. 2:3 God blessed the seventh day and made it holy because on it he ceased all the work that he had been doing in creation.
The Creation of Man and Woman
2:4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created– when the Lord God made the earth and heavens. 2:5 Now no shrub of the field had yet grown on the earth, and no plant of the field had yet sprouted, for the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was no man to cultivate the ground. 2:6 Springs would well up from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground. 2:7 The Lord God formed the man from the soil of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. 2:8 The Lord God planted an orchard in the east, in Eden; and there he placed the man he had formed. 2:9 The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow from the soil, every tree that was pleasing to look at and good for food. (Now the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil were in the middle of the orchard.) 2:10 Now a river flows from Eden to water the orchard, and from there it divides into four headstreams. 2:11 The name of the first is Pishon; it runs through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. 2:12 (The gold of that land is pure; pearls and lapis lazuli are also there). 2:13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it runs through the entire land of Cush. 2:14 The name of the third river is Tigris; it runs along the east side of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates. 2:15 The Lord God took the man and placed him in the orchard in Eden to care for it and to maintain it. 2:16 Then the Lord God commanded the man, “You may freely eat fruit from every tree of the orchard, 2:17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will surely die.” 2:18 The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a companion for him who corresponds to him.” 2:19 The Lord God formed out of the ground every living animal of the field and every bird of the air. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them, and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. 2:20 So the man named all the animals, the birds of the air, and the living creatures of the field, but for Adam no companion who corresponded to him was found. 2:21 So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep, and while he was asleep, he took part of the man’s side and closed up the place with flesh. 2:22 Then the Lord God made a woman from the part he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man. 2:23 Then the man said, “This one at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; this one will be called ‘woman,’ for she was taken out of man.” 2:24 That is why a man leaves his father and mother and unites with his wife, and they become a new family. 2:25 The man and his wife were both naked, but they were not ashamed.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Adam the father of Cain, Abel, Seth and all mankind,the original man created by God,a town on the Jordan at the mouth of the Jabbok (OS)
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Cush a country south of Egypt
 · Eden a place near where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet (NIVsn),son of Joah (Gershon Levi) in King Hezekiah's time,a district along the Euphrates River south of Haran (NIVsn)
 · Euphrates a large river which joins the Tigris river before flowing into the Persian Gulf,a river flowing from eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf
 · Gihon a river in the Garden of Eden,a spring just southeast of Jerusalem
 · Havilah son of Cush son of Ham son of Noah,son of Joktan of Shem,a region encircled by the Pishon River,a place whose exact position is unknown
 · Pishon a river that ran through the Garden of Eden
 · Tigris a major northern and parallel tributary of the Euphrates River


Topik/Tema Kamus: Eden | Fall of man | Tree of the knowledge of good and evil | Creation | God | GARDEN | ADAM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE APOCRYPHA | EVOLUTION | IMPUTATION | ANTHROPOLOGY | GENESIS, 1-2 | GENESIS, 3 | ADAM IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | Marriage | Adam | WOMAN | EVE IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | Eve | ADAM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT | RIVER | selebihnya
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Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Bible Query , Evidence

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Wesley: Gen 2:1-3 - -- We have here, (1.) The settlement of the kingdom of nature, in God's resting from the work of creation, Gen 2:1-2. Where observe, 1. That the creature...

We have here, (1.) The settlement of the kingdom of nature, in God's resting from the work of creation, Gen 2:1-2. Where observe, 1. That the creatures made both in heaven and earth, are the hosts or armies of them, which speaks them numerous, but marshalled, disciplined, and under command. God useth them as his hosts for the defence of his people, and the destruction of his enemies. 2. That the heavens and the earth are finished pieces, and so are all the creatures in them. So perfect is God's work that nothing can be added to it or taken from it, Ecc 3:14. 3. That after the end of the first six days, God ceased from all work of creation. He hath so ended his work, as that though in his providence he worketh hitherto, Joh 5:17. preserving and governing all the creatures, yet he doth not make any new species of creatures. 4. That the eternal God, tho' infinitely happy in himself, yet took a satisfaction in the work of his own hands. He did not rest as one weary, but as one well - pleased with the instances of his own goodness. (2.) The commencement of the kingdom of grace, in the sanctification of the sabbath day, Gen 2:3. He rested on that day, and took a complacency in his creatures, and then sanctified it, and appointed us on that day to rest and take a complacency in the Creator; and his rest is in the fourth commandment made a reason for ours after six days labour. Observe, 1. That the solemn observation of one day in seven as a day of holy rest, and holy work, is the indispensible duty of all those to whom God has revealed his holy sabbaths. 2. That sabbaths are as ancient as the world. 3. That the sabbath of the Lord is truly honourable, and we have reason to honour it; honour it for the sake of its antiquity, its great author, and the sanctification of the first sabbath by the holy God himself, and in obedience to him, by our first parents in innocency.

Wesley: Gen 2:4-7 - -- In these verses, 1. Here is a name given to the Creator, which we have not yet met with, Jehovah. The LORD in capital letters, is constantly used in o...

In these verses, 1. Here is a name given to the Creator, which we have not yet met with, Jehovah. The LORD in capital letters, is constantly used in our English translation, for Jehovah. This is that great and incommunicable name of God, which speaks his having his being of himself, and his giving being to all things. It properly means, He that was, and that is, and that is to come. 2. Further notice taken of the production of plants and herbs, because they were made to be food for man. 3. A more particular account of the creation of man, Gen 2:7. Man is a little world, consisting of heaven and earth, soul and body. Here we have all account of the original of both, and the putting of both together: The Lord God, the great fountain of being and power, formed man. Of the other creatures it is said, they were created and made; but of man, that he was formed, which notes a gradual process in the work with great accuracy and exactness. To express the creation of this new thing, he takes a new word: a word (some think) borrowed from the potter's forming his vessel upon the wheel. The body of man is curiously wrought. And the soul takes its rise from the breath of heaven. It came immediately from God; he gave it to be put into the body, Ecc 12:7 as afterwards he gave the tables of stone of his own writing to be put into the ark. 'Tis by it that man is a living soul, that is, a living man. The body would be a worthless, useless carcase, if the soul did not animate it.

Wesley: Gen 2:8-15 - -- Man consisting of body and soul, a body made out of the earth, and a rational immortal soul, we have in these verses the provision that was made for t...

Man consisting of body and soul, a body made out of the earth, and a rational immortal soul, we have in these verses the provision that was made for the happiness of both. That part of man, which is allied to the world of sense, was made happy, for he was put in the paradise of God; that part which is allied to the world of spirits was well provided for, for he was taken into covenant with God. Here we have, A description of the garden of Eden, which was intended for the palace of this prince. The inspired penman in this history writing for the Jews first, and calculating his narratives from the infant state of the church, describes things by their outward sensible appearances, and leaves us, by farther discoveries of the divine light, to be led into the understanding of the mysteries couched under them. Therefore he doth not so much insist upon the happiness of Adam's mind, as upon that of his outward estate. The Mosaic history, as well as the Mosaic law, has rather the patterns of heavenly things, than the heavenly things themselves, Heb 9:23. Observe, (1.) The place appointed for Adam's residence was a garden; not an ivory house. As clothes came in with sin, so did houses. The heaven was the roof of Adam's house, and never was any roof so curiously cieled and painted: the earth was his floor, and never was any floor so richly inlaid: the shadow of the trees was his retirement, and never were any rooms so finely hung: Solomon's in all their glory were not arrayed like them. (2.) The contrivance and furniture of this garden was the immediate work of God's wisdom and power. The Lord God planted this garden, that is, he had planted it, upon the third day when the fruits of the earth were made. We may well suppose it to be the most accomplished place that ever the sun saw, when the All - sufficient God himself designed it to be the present happiness of his beloved creature. (3.) The situation of this garden was extremely sweet; it was in Eden, which signifies delight and pleasure. The place is here particularly pointed out by such marks and bounds as were sufficient when Moses wrote, to specify the place to those who knew that country; but now it seems the curious cannot satisfy themselves concerning it. Let it be our care to make sure a place in the heavenly paradise, and then we need not perplex ourselves with a search after the place of the earthly paradise. (4.) The trees wherewith this garden was planted. [1.] It had all the best and choicest trees in common with the rest of the ground.

Wesley: Gen 2:8-15 - It was beautified with every tree that was pleasant to the sight It was enriched with every tree that yielded fruit grateful to the taste, and useful to the body. But, [2.] It had two extraordinary trees peculiar to...

It was enriched with every tree that yielded fruit grateful to the taste, and useful to the body. But, [2.] It had two extraordinary trees peculiar to itself, on earth there were not their like. 1.

Wesley: Gen 2:8-15 - There was the tree of life in the midst of the garden Which was not so much a natural means to preserve or prolong life; but was chiefly intended to be a sign to Adam, assuring him of the continuance of l...

Which was not so much a natural means to preserve or prolong life; but was chiefly intended to be a sign to Adam, assuring him of the continuance of life and happiness upon condition of his perseverance in innocency and obedience. 2.

Wesley: Gen 2:8-15 - There was the tree of the knowledge of good and evil So called, not because it had any virtue to beget useful knowledge, but because there was an express revelation of the will of God concerning this tre...

So called, not because it had any virtue to beget useful knowledge, but because there was an express revelation of the will of God concerning this tree, so that by it he might know good and evil. What is good? It is good not to eat of this tree: what is evil? To eat of this tree. The distinction between all other moral good and evil was written in the heart of man; but this, which resulted from a positive law, was written upon this tree. And in the event it proved to give Adam an experimental knowledge of good by the loss of it, and of evil by the sense of it. (5.) The rivers wherewith this garden was watered, Gen 2:10-14. These four rivers, (or one river branched into four streams) contributed much both to the pleasantness and the fruitfulness of this garden. Hiddekel and Euphrates are rivers of Babylon. Havilah had gold and spices and precious stones; but Eden had that which was infinitely better, the tree of life, and communion with God. The command which God gave to man in innocency, and the covenant he than took him into. Hither we have seen God; man's powerful Creator, and his bountiful benefactor; now he appears as his ruler and lawgiver.

Wesley: Gen 2:16-17 - Thou shall die That is, thou shalt lose all the happiness thou hast either in possession or prospect; and thou shalt become liable to death, and all the miseries tha...

That is, thou shalt lose all the happiness thou hast either in possession or prospect; and thou shalt become liable to death, and all the miseries that preface and attend it. This was threatened as the immediate consequence of sin. In the day thou eatest, thou shalt die - Not only thou shalt become mortal, but spiritual death and the forerunners of temporal death shall immediately seize thee.

Wesley: Gen 2:18-20 - It is not good that man This man, should be alone - Though there was an upper world of angels, and a lower world of brutes, yet there being none of the same rank of beings wi...

This man, should be alone - Though there was an upper world of angels, and a lower world of brutes, yet there being none of the same rank of beings with himself, he might be truly said to be alone. And every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air God brought to Adam - Either by the ministry of angels, or by a special instinct that he might name them, and so might give a proof of his knowledge, the names he gave them being expressive of their inmost natures.

Wesley: Gen 2:21-22 - -- This was done upon the sixth day, as was also the placing of Adam in paradise, though it be here mentioned after an account of the seventh day's rest:...

This was done upon the sixth day, as was also the placing of Adam in paradise, though it be here mentioned after an account of the seventh day's rest: but what was said in general, Gen 1:27, that God made man male and female is more distinctly related here, God caused the sleep to fall on Adam, and made it a deep sleep, that so the opening of his side might be no grievance to him: while he knows no sin, God will take care he shall feel no pain.

Wesley: Gen 2:23 - And Adam said, this is now bone of my bones Probably it was revealed to Adam in a vision, when he was asleep, that this lovely creature, now presented to him, was a piece of himself and was to b...

Probably it was revealed to Adam in a vision, when he was asleep, that this lovely creature, now presented to him, was a piece of himself and was to be his companion, and the wife of his covenant - In token of his acceptance of her, he gave her a name, not peculiar to her, but common to her sex; she shall be called woman, Isha, a She - man, differing from man in sex only, not in nature; made of man, and joined to man.

Wesley: Gen 2:24 - -- The sabbath and marriage were two ordinances instituted in innocency, the former for the preservation of the church, the latter for the preservation o...

The sabbath and marriage were two ordinances instituted in innocency, the former for the preservation of the church, the latter for the preservation of mankind. It appears by Mat 19:4-5, that it was God himself who said here, a man must leave all his relations to cleave to his wife; but whether he spake it by Moses or by Adam who spake, Gen 2:23 is uncertain: It should seem they are the words of Adam in God's name, laying down this law to all his posterity. The virtue of a divine ordinance, and the bonds of it, are stronger even than those of nature. See how necessary it is that children should take their parents consent with them in their marriage; and how unjust they are to their parents, as well as undutiful, if they marry without it; for they rob them of their right to them, and interest in them, and alienate it to another fraudulently and unnaturally.

Wesley: Gen 2:25 - -- They were both naked, they needed no cloaths for defence against cold or heat, for neither could be injurious to them: they needed none for ornament. ...

They were both naked, they needed no cloaths for defence against cold or heat, for neither could be injurious to them: they needed none for ornament. Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Nay, they needed none for decency, they were naked, and had no reason to be ashamed. They knew not what shame was, so the Chaldee reads it. Blushing is now the colour of virtue, but it was not the colour of innocency.

JFB: Gen 2:1 - the heavens The firmament or atmosphere.

The firmament or atmosphere.

JFB: Gen 2:1 - host A multitude, a numerous array, usually connected in Scripture with heaven only, but here with the earth also, meaning all that they contain.

A multitude, a numerous array, usually connected in Scripture with heaven only, but here with the earth also, meaning all that they contain.

JFB: Gen 2:1 - were finished Brought to completion. No permanent change has ever since been made in the course of the world, no new species of animals been formed, no law of natur...

Brought to completion. No permanent change has ever since been made in the course of the world, no new species of animals been formed, no law of nature repealed or added to. They could have been finished in a moment as well as in six days, but the work of creation was gradual for the instruction of man, as well, perhaps, as of higher creatures (Job 38:7).

JFB: Gen 2:2 - and he rested on the seventh day Not to repose from exhaustion with labor (see Isa 40:28), but ceased from working, an example equivalent to a command that we also should cease from l...

Not to repose from exhaustion with labor (see Isa 40:28), but ceased from working, an example equivalent to a command that we also should cease from labor of every kind.

JFB: Gen 2:3 - blessed and sanctified the seventh day A peculiar distinction put upon it above the other six days, and showing it was devoted to sacred purposes. The institution of the Sabbath is as old a...

A peculiar distinction put upon it above the other six days, and showing it was devoted to sacred purposes. The institution of the Sabbath is as old as creation, giving rise to that weekly division of time which prevailed in the earliest ages. It is a wise and beneficent law, affording that regular interval of rest which the physical nature of man and the animals employed in his service requires, and the neglect of which brings both to premature decay. Moreover, it secures an appointed season for religious worship, and if it was necessary in a state of primeval innocence, how much more so now, when mankind has a strong tendency to forget God and His claims?

JFB: Gen 2:4 - These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth The history or account of their production. Whence did Moses obtain this account so different from the puerile and absurd fictions of the heathen? Not...

The history or account of their production. Whence did Moses obtain this account so different from the puerile and absurd fictions of the heathen? Not from any human source, for man was not in existence to witness it; not from the light of nature or reason, for though they proclaim the eternal power and Godhead by the things which are made, they cannot tell how they were made. None but the Creator Himself could give this information, and therefore it is through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God (Heb 11:3).

JFB: Gen 2:5-6 - rain, mist (See on Gen 1:11).

(See on Gen 1:11).

JFB: Gen 2:7 - -- Here the sacred writer supplies a few more particulars about the first pair.

Here the sacred writer supplies a few more particulars about the first pair.

JFB: Gen 2:7 - formed Had FORMED MAN OUT OF THE DUST OF THE GROUND. Science has proved that the substance of his flesh, sinews, and bones, consists of the very same element...

Had FORMED MAN OUT OF THE DUST OF THE GROUND. Science has proved that the substance of his flesh, sinews, and bones, consists of the very same elements as the soil which forms the crust of the earth and the limestone that lies embedded in its bowels. But from that mean material what an admirable structure has been reared in the human body (Psa 139:14).

JFB: Gen 2:7 - the breath of life Literally, of lives, not only animal but spiritual life. If the body is so admirable, how much more the soul with all its varied faculties.

Literally, of lives, not only animal but spiritual life. If the body is so admirable, how much more the soul with all its varied faculties.

JFB: Gen 2:7 - breathed into his nostrils the breath of life Not that the Creator literally performed this act, but respiration being the medium and sign of life, this phrase is used to show that man's life orig...

Not that the Creator literally performed this act, but respiration being the medium and sign of life, this phrase is used to show that man's life originated in a different way from his body--being implanted directly by God (Ecc 12:7), and hence in the new creation of the soul Christ breathed on His disciples (Joh 20:22).

JFB: Gen 2:8 - Eden Was probably a very extensive region in Mesopotamia, distinguished for its natural beauty and the richness and variety of its produce. Hence its name,...

Was probably a very extensive region in Mesopotamia, distinguished for its natural beauty and the richness and variety of its produce. Hence its name, signifying "pleasantness." God planted a garden eastward, an extensive park, a paradise, in which the man was put to be trained under the paternal care of his Maker to piety and usefulness.

JFB: Gen 2:9 - tree of life So called from its symbolic character as a sign and seal of immortal life. Its prominent position where it must have been an object of daily observati...

So called from its symbolic character as a sign and seal of immortal life. Its prominent position where it must have been an object of daily observation and interest, was admirably fitted to keep man habitually in mind of God and futurity.

JFB: Gen 2:9 - tree of the knowledge of good and evil So called because it was a test of obedience by which our first parents were to be tried, whether they would be good or bad, obey God or break His com...

So called because it was a test of obedience by which our first parents were to be tried, whether they would be good or bad, obey God or break His commands.

JFB: Gen 2:15 - put the man into the garden of Eden to dress it Not only to give him a pleasant employment, but to place him on his probation, and as the title of this garden, the garden of the Lord (Gen 13:10; Eze...

Not only to give him a pleasant employment, but to place him on his probation, and as the title of this garden, the garden of the Lord (Gen 13:10; Eze 28:13), indicates, it was in fact a temple in which he worshipped God, and was daily employed in offering the sacrifices of thanksgiving and praise.

JFB: Gen 2:17 - thou shalt not eat of it . . . thou shalt surely die No reason assigned for the prohibition, but death was to be the punishment of disobedience. A positive command like this was not only the simplest and...

No reason assigned for the prohibition, but death was to be the punishment of disobedience. A positive command like this was not only the simplest and easiest, but the only trial to which their fidelity could be exposed.

JFB: Gen 2:18 - it is not good for the man to be alone In the midst of plenty and delights, he was conscious of feelings he could not gratify. To make him sensible of his wants,

In the midst of plenty and delights, he was conscious of feelings he could not gratify. To make him sensible of his wants,

JFB: Gen 2:19 - God brought unto Adam Not all the animals in existence, but those chiefly in his immediate neighborhood to be subservient to his use.

Not all the animals in existence, but those chiefly in his immediate neighborhood to be subservient to his use.

JFB: Gen 2:19 - whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof His powers of perception and intelligence were supernaturally enlarged to know the characters, habits, and uses of each species that was brought to hi...

His powers of perception and intelligence were supernaturally enlarged to know the characters, habits, and uses of each species that was brought to him.

JFB: Gen 2:20 - but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him The design of this singular scene was to show him that none of the living creatures he saw were on an equal footing with himself, and that while each ...

The design of this singular scene was to show him that none of the living creatures he saw were on an equal footing with himself, and that while each class came with its mate of the same nature, form, and habits, he alone had no companion. Besides, in giving names to them he was led to exercise his powers of speech and to prepare for social intercourse with his partner, a creature yet to be formed.

JFB: Gen 2:21 - deep sleep Probably an ecstasy or trance like that of the prophets, when they had visions and revelations of the Lord, for the whole scene was probably visible t...

Probably an ecstasy or trance like that of the prophets, when they had visions and revelations of the Lord, for the whole scene was probably visible to the mental eye of Adam, and hence his rapturous exclamation.

JFB: Gen 2:21 - took one of his ribs "She was not made out of his head to surpass him, nor from his feet to be trampled on, but from his side to be equal to him, and near his heart to be ...

"She was not made out of his head to surpass him, nor from his feet to be trampled on, but from his side to be equal to him, and near his heart to be dear to him."

JFB: Gen 2:23 - Woman In Hebrew, "man-ess."

In Hebrew, "man-ess."

JFB: Gen 2:24 - one flesh The human pair differed from all other pairs, that by peculiar formation of Eve, they were one. And this passage is appealed to by our Lord as the div...

The human pair differed from all other pairs, that by peculiar formation of Eve, they were one. And this passage is appealed to by our Lord as the divine institution of marriage (Mat 19:4-5; Eph 5:28). Thus Adam appears as a creature formed after the image of God--showing his knowledge by giving names to the animals, his righteousness by his approval of the marriage relation, and his holiness by his principles and feelings, and finding gratification in the service and enjoyment of God.

Clarke: Gen 2:1 - And all the host of them And all the host of them - The word host signifies literally an army, composed of a number of companies of soldiers under their respective leaders; ...

And all the host of them - The word host signifies literally an army, composed of a number of companies of soldiers under their respective leaders; and seems here elegantly applied to the various celestial bodies in our system, placed by the Divine wisdom under the influence of the sun. From the original word צבא tsaba , a host, some suppose the Sabeans had their name, because of their paying Divine honors to the heavenly bodies. From the Septuagint version of this place, πας ὁ κοσμος αυτων, all their ornaments, we learn the true meaning of the word κοσμος, commonly translated world, which signifies a decorated or adorned whole or system. And this refers to the beautiful order, harmony, and regularity which subsist among the various parts of creation. This translation must impress the reader with a very favorable opinion of these ancient Greek translators; had they not examined the works of God with a philosophic eye, they never could have given this turn to the original.

Clarke: Gen 2:2 - On the Seventh day God ended, etc. On the Seventh day God ended, etc. - It is the general voice of Scripture that God finished the whole of the creation in six days, and rested the se...

On the Seventh day God ended, etc. - It is the general voice of Scripture that God finished the whole of the creation in six days, and rested the seventh! giving us an example that we might labor six days, and rest the seventh from all manual exercises. It is worthy of notice that the Septuagint, the Syriac, and the Samaritan, read the sixth day instead of the seventh; and this should be considered the genuine reading, which appears from these versions to have been originally that of the Hebrew text. How the word sixth became changed into seventh may be easily conceived from this circumstance. It is very likely that in ancient times all the numerals were signified by letters, and not by words at full length. This is the case in the most ancient Greek and Latin MSS., and in almost all the rabbinical writings. When these numeral letters became changed for words at full length, two letters nearly similar might be mistaken for each other; ו vau stands for six, ז zain for seven; how easy to mistake these letters for each other when writing the words at full length, and so give birth to the reading in question.

Clarke: Gen 2:3 - And God blessed the seventh day And God blessed the seventh day - The original word ברך barach , which is generally rendered to bless, has a very extensive meaning. It is frequ...

And God blessed the seventh day - The original word ברך barach , which is generally rendered to bless, has a very extensive meaning. It is frequently used in Scripture in the sense of speaking good of or to a person; and hence literally and properly rendered by the Septuagint ευλογησεν, from ευ, good or well, and λεγω, I speak. So God has spoken well of the Sabbath, and good to them who conscientiously observe it. Blessing is applied both to God and man: when God is said to bless, we generally understand by the expression that he communicates some good; but when man is said to bless God, we surely cannot imagine that he bestows any gifts or confers any benefit on his Maker. When God is said to bless, either in the Old or New Testament, it signifies his speaking good To man; and this comprises the whole of his exceeding great and precious promises. And when man is said to bless God, it ever implies that he speaks good Of him, for the giving and fulfillment of his promises. This observation will be of general use in considering the various places where the word occurs in the sacred writings. Reader, God blesses thee when by his promises he speaks good To thee; and thou dost bless him when, from a consciousness of his kindness to thy body and soul, thou art thankful to him, and speakest good of his name

Clarke: Gen 2:3 - Because that in it he had rested Because that in it he had rested - שבת shabath , he rested; hence Sabbath, the name of the seventh day, signifying a day of rest - rest to the b...

Because that in it he had rested - שבת shabath , he rested; hence Sabbath, the name of the seventh day, signifying a day of rest - rest to the body from labor and toil, and rest to the soul from all worldly care and anxieties. He who labors with his mind by worldly schemes and plans on the Sabbath day is as culpable as he who labors with his hands in his accustomed calling. It is by the authority of God that the Sabbath is set apart for rest and religious purposes, as the six days of the week are appointed for labor. How wise is this provision! It is essentially necessary, not only to the body of man, but to all the animals employed in his service: take this away and the labor is too great, both man and beast would fail under it. Without this consecrated day religion itself would fail, and the human mind, becoming sensualized, would soon forget its origin and end. Even as a political regulation, it is one of the wisest and most beneficent in its effects of any ever instituted. Those who habitually disregard its moral obligation are, to a man, not only good for nothing, but are wretched in themselves, a curse to society, and often end their lives miserably. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 20:8; See Clarke’ s note on Exo 23:12; See Clarke’ s note on Exo 24:16; and See Clarke’ s note on Exo 31:13; to which the reader is particularly desired to refer

As God formed both the mind and body of man on principles of activity, so he assigned him proper employment; and it is his decree that the mind shall improve by exercise, and the body find increase of vigor and health in honest labor. He who idles away his time in the six days is equally culpable in the sight of God as he who works on the seventh. The idle person is ordinarily clothed with rags, and the Sabbath-breakers frequently come to an ignominious death. Reader, beware.

Clarke: Gen 2:4 - In the day that the Lord God made, etc. In the day that the Lord God made, etc. - The word יהוה Yehovah is for the first time mentioned here. What it signifies see the note on Exo 3...

In the day that the Lord God made, etc. - The word יהוה Yehovah is for the first time mentioned here. What it signifies see the note on Exo 34:5, Exo 34:6. Wherever this word occurs in the sacred writings we translate it Lord, which word is, through respect and reverence, always printed in capitals. Though our English term Lord does not give the particular meaning of the original word, yet it conveys a strong and noble sense. Lord is a contraction of the Anglo-Saxon, Hlaford , afterwards written Loverd , and lastly Lord, from bread ; hence our word loaf, and ford , to supply, to give out. The word, therefore, implies the giver of bread, i.e., he who deals out all the necessaries of life. Our ancient English noblemen were accustomed to keep a continual open house, where all their vassals, and all strangers, had full liberty to enter and eat as much as they would; and hence those noblemen had the honorable name of lords, i.e., the dispensers of bread. There are about three of the ancient nobility who still keep up this honorable custom, from which the very name of their nobility is derived. We have already seen, Gen 1:1, with what judgment our Saxon ancestors expressed Deus, the Supreme Being, by the term God; and we see the same judgment consulted by their use of the term Lord to express the word Dominus , by which terms the Vulgate version, which they used, expresses Elohim and Jehovah, which we translate Lord God. God is the good Being, and Lord is the dispenser of bread, the giver of every good and perfect gift, who liberally affords the bread that perisheth to every man, and has amply provided the bread that endures unto eternal life for every human soul. With what propriety then does this word apply to the Lord Jesus, who is emphatically called the bread of life; the bread of God which cometh down from heaven, and which is given for the life of the world! Joh 6:33, Joh 6:48, Joh 6:51. What a pity that this most impressive and instructive meaning of a word in such general use were not more extensively known, and more particularly regarded! See the postscript to the general preface. I know that Mr. H. Tooke has endeavored to render this derivation contemptible; but this has little weight with me. I have traced it through the most accredited writers in Saxony and on Saxon affairs, and I am satisfied that this and this only, is its proper etymology and derivation.

Clarke: Gen 2:5 - Every plant of the field before it was in the earth Every plant of the field before it was in the earth - It appears that God created every thing, not only perfect as it respects its nature, but also ...

Every plant of the field before it was in the earth - It appears that God created every thing, not only perfect as it respects its nature, but also in a state of maturity, so that every vegetable production appeared at once in full growth; and this was necessary that man, when he came into being, might find every thing ready for his use.

Clarke: Gen 2:6 - There went up a mist There went up a mist - This passage appears to have greatly embarrassed many commentators. The plain meaning seems to be this, that the aqueous vapo...

There went up a mist - This passage appears to have greatly embarrassed many commentators. The plain meaning seems to be this, that the aqueous vapours, ascending from the earth, and becoming condensed in the colder regions of the atmosphere, fell back upon the earth in the form of dews, and by this means an equal portion of moisture was distributed to the roots of plants, etc. As Moses had said, Gen 2:5, that the Lord had not caused it to rain upon the earth, he probably designed to teach us, in Gen 2:6, how rain is produced, viz., by the condensation of the aqueous vapors, which are generally through the heat of the sun and other causes raised to a considerable height in the atmosphere, where, meeting with cold air, the watery particles which were before so small and light that they could float in the air, becoming condensed, i.e., many drops being driven into one, become too heavy to be any longer suspended, and then, through their own gravity, fall down in the form which we term rain.

Clarke: Gen 2:7 - God formed man of the dust God formed man of the dust - In the most distinct manner God shows us that man is a compound being, having a body and soul distinctly, and separatel...

God formed man of the dust - In the most distinct manner God shows us that man is a compound being, having a body and soul distinctly, and separately created; the body out of the dust of the earth, the soul immediately breathed from God himself. Does not this strongly mark that the soul and body are not the same thing? The body derives its origin from the earth, or as עפר aphar implies, the dust; hence because it is earthly it is decomposable and perishable. Of the soul it is said, God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; נשמת חיים nishmath chaiyim , the breath of Lives, i.e., animal and intellectual. While this breath of God expanded the lungs and set them in play, his inspiration gave both spirit and understanding.

Clarke: Gen 2:8 - A garden eastward in Eden A garden eastward in Eden - Though the word עדן Eden signifies pleasure or delight, it is certainly the name of a place. See Gen 4:16; 2Ki 19:...

A garden eastward in Eden - Though the word עדן Eden signifies pleasure or delight, it is certainly the name of a place. See Gen 4:16; 2Ki 19:12; Isa 37:12; Eze 27:23; Amo 1:5. And such places probably received their name from their fertility, pleasant situation, etc. In this light the Septuagint have viewed it, as they render the passage thus: Εφυτευσεν ὁ Θεος παραδεισον εν Εδεν, God planted a paradise in Eden. Hence the word paradise has been introduced into the New Testament, and is generally used to signify a place of exquisite pleasure and delight. From this the ancient heathens borrowed their ideas of the gardens of the Hesperides, where the trees bore golden fruit; the gardens of Adonis, a word which is evidently derived from the Hebrew עדן Eden ; and hence the origin of sacred gardens or enclosures dedicated to purposes of devotion, some comparatively innocent, others impure. The word paradise is not Greek; in Arabic and Persian it signifies a garden, a vineyard, and also the place of the blessed. The Mohammedans say that God created the Jennet al Ferdoos , the garden of paradise, from light, and the prophets and wise men ascend thither. Wilmet places it after the root farada , to separate, especially a person or place, for the purposes of devotion, but supposes it to be originally a Persian word, vox originis Persicae quam in sua lingua conservarunt Armeni . As it is a word of doubtful origin, its etymology is uncertain.

Clarke: Gen 2:9 - Every tree that is pleasant to the sight, etc. Every tree that is pleasant to the sight, etc. - If we take up these expressions literally, they may bear the following interpretation: the tree ple...

Every tree that is pleasant to the sight, etc. - If we take up these expressions literally, they may bear the following interpretation: the tree pleasant to the sight may mean every beautiful tree or plant which for shape, color, or fragrance, delights the senses, such as flowering shrubs, etc

Clarke: Gen 2:9 - And good for food And good for food - All fruit-bearing trees, whether of the pulpy fruits, as apples, etc., or of the kernel or nut kind, such as dates, and nuts of ...

And good for food - All fruit-bearing trees, whether of the pulpy fruits, as apples, etc., or of the kernel or nut kind, such as dates, and nuts of different sorts, together with all esculent vegetables

Clarke: Gen 2:9 - The tree of life The tree of life - חיים chaiyim ; of lives, or life-giving tree, every medicinal tree, herb, and plant, whose healing virtues are of great con...

The tree of life - חיים chaiyim ; of lives, or life-giving tree, every medicinal tree, herb, and plant, whose healing virtues are of great consequence to man in his present state, when through sin diseases of various kinds have seized on the human frame, and have commenced that process of dissolution which is to reduce the body to its primitive dust

Clarke: Gen 2:9 - Yet by the use of these trees of life Yet by the use of these trees of life - those different vegetable medicines, the health of the body may be preserved for a time, and death kept at a...

Yet by the use of these trees of life - those different vegetable medicines, the health of the body may be preserved for a time, and death kept at a distance. Though the exposition given here may be a general meaning for these general terms, yet it is likely that this tree of life which was placed in the midst of the garden was intended as an emblem of that life which man should ever live, provided he continued in obedience to his Maker. And probably the use of this tree was intended as the means of preserving the body of man in a state of continual vital energy, and an antidote against death. This seems strongly indicated from Gen 3:22

Clarke: Gen 2:9 - And the tree of knowledge of good and evil And the tree of knowledge of good and evil - Considering this also in a merely literal point of view, it may mean any tree or plant which possessed ...

And the tree of knowledge of good and evil - Considering this also in a merely literal point of view, it may mean any tree or plant which possessed the property of increasing the knowledge of what was in nature, as the esculent vegetables had of increasing bodily vigor; and that there are some ailments which from their physical influence have a tendency to strengthen the understanding and invigorate the rational faculty more than others, has been supposed by the wisest and best of men; yet here much more seems intended, but what is very difficult to be ascertained. Some very eminent men have contended that the passage should be understood allegorically! and that the tree of the knowledge of good and evil means simply that prudence, which is a mixture of knowledge, care, caution, and judgment, which was prescribed to regulate the whole of man’ s conduct. And it is certain that to know good and evil, in different parts of Scripture, means such knowledge and discretion as leads a man to understand what is fit and unfit, what is not proper to be done and what should be performed. But how could the acquisition of such a faculty be a sin? Or can we suppose that such a faculty could be wanting when man was in a state of perfection? To this it may be answered: The prohibition was intended to exercise this faculty in man that it should constantly teach him this moral lesson, that there were some things fit and others unfit to be done, and that in reference to this point the tree itself should be both a constant teacher and monitor. The eating of its fruit would not have increased this moral faculty, but the prohibition was intended to exercise the faculty he already possessed. There is certainly nothing unreasonable in this explanation, and viewed in this light the passage loses much of its obscurity. Vitringa, in his dissertation Deuteronomy arbore prudentiae in Paradiso, ejusque mysterio , strongly contends for this interpretation. See more on Gen 3:6 (note).

Clarke: Gen 2:10 - A river went out of Eden, etc. A river went out of Eden, etc. - It would astonish an ordinary reader, who should be obliged to consult different commentators and critics on the si...

A river went out of Eden, etc. - It would astonish an ordinary reader, who should be obliged to consult different commentators and critics on the situation of the terrestrial Paradise, to see the vast variety of opinions by which they are divided. Some place it in the third heaven, others in the fourth; some within the orbit of the moon, others in the moon itself; some in the middle regions of the air, or beyond the earth’ s attraction; some on the earth, others under the earth, and others within the earth; some have fixed it at the north pole, others at the south; some in Tartary, some in China; some on the borders of the Ganges, some in the island of Ceylon; some in Armenia, others in Africa, under the equator; some in Mesopotamia, others in Syria, Persia, Arabia, Babylon, Assyria, and in Palestine; some have condescended to place it in Europe, and others have contended it either exists not, or is invisible, or is merely of a spiritual nature, and that the whole account is to be spiritually understood! That there was such a place once there is no reason to doubt; the description given by Moses is too particular and circumstantial to be capable of being understood in any spiritual or allegorical way. As well might we contend that the persons of Adam and Eve were allegorical, as that the place of their residence was such

The most probable account of its situation is that given by Hadrian Reland. He supposes it to have been in Armenia, near the sources of the great rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Phasis, and Araxes. He thinks Pison was the Phasis, a river of Colchis, emptying itself into the Euxine Sea, where there is a city called Chabala, the pronunciation of which is nearly the same with that of Havilah, or חוילה Chavilah , according to the Hebrew, the vau ו being changed in Greek to beta β . This country was famous for gold, whence the fable of the Golden Fleece, attempted to be carried away from that country by the heroes of Greece. The Gihon he thinks to be the Araxes, which runs into the Caspian Sea, both the words having the same signification, viz., a rapid motion. The land of Cush, washed by the river, he supposes to be the country of the Cussaei of the ancients. The Hiddekel all agree to be the Tigris, and the other river Phrat, or פרת Perath , to be the Euphrates. All these rivers rise in the same tract of mountainous country, though they do not arise from one head.

Clarke: Gen 2:12 - -- There is bdellium ( בדלח bedolach ) and the onyx stone, אבן השהם eben hashshoham - Bochart thinks that the bedolach or bdellium mean...

There is bdellium ( בדלח bedolach ) and the onyx stone, אבן השהם eben hashshoham - Bochart thinks that the bedolach or bdellium means the pearl-oyster; and shoham is generally understood to mean the onyx, or species of agate, a precious stone which has its name from ονυξ a man’ s nail, to the color of which it nearly approaches. It is impossible to say what is the precise meaning of the original words; and at this distance of time and place it is of little consequence.

Clarke: Gen 2:15 - Put him into the garden - to dress it, and to keep it Put him into the garden - to dress it, and to keep it - Horticulture, or gardening, is the first kind of employment on record, and that in which man...

Put him into the garden - to dress it, and to keep it - Horticulture, or gardening, is the first kind of employment on record, and that in which man was engaged while in a state of perfection and innocence. Though the garden may be supposed to produce all things spontaneously, as the whole vegetable surface of the earth certainly did at the creation, yet dressing and tilling were afterwards necessary to maintain the different kinds of plants and vegetables in their perfection, and to repress luxuriance. Even in a state of innocence we cannot conceive it possible that man could have been happy if inactive. God gave him work to do, and his employment contributed to his happiness; for the structure of his body, as well as of his mind, plainly proves that he was never intended for a merely contemplative life.

Clarke: Gen 2:17 - Of the tree of the knowledge - thou shalt not eat Of the tree of the knowledge - thou shalt not eat - This is the first positive precept God gave to man; and it was given as a test of obedience, and...

Of the tree of the knowledge - thou shalt not eat - This is the first positive precept God gave to man; and it was given as a test of obedience, and a proof of his being in a dependent, probationary state. It was necessary that, while constituted lord of this lower world, he should know that he was only God’ s vicegerent, and must be accountable to him for the use of his mental and corporeal powers, and for the use he made of the different creatures put under his care. The man from whose mind the strong impression of this dependence and responsibility is erased, necessarily loses sight of his origin and end, and is capable of any species of wickedness. As God is sovereign, he has a right to give to his creatures what commands he thinks proper. An intelligent creature, without a law to regulate his conduct, is an absurdity; this would destroy at once the idea of his dependency and accountableness. Man must ever feel God as his sovereign, and act under his authority, which he cannot do unless he have a rule of conduct. This rule God gives: and it is no matter of what kind it is, as long as obedience to it is not beyond the powers of the creature who is to obey. God says: There is a certain fruit-bearing tree; thou shalt not eat of its fruit; but of all the other fruits, and they are all that are necessary, for thee, thou mayest freely, liberally eat. Had he not an absolute right to say so? And was not man bound to obey

Clarke: Gen 2:17 - Thou shalt surely die Thou shalt surely die - מות תמות moth tamuth ; Literally, a death thou shalt die; or, dying thou shalt die. Thou shalt not only die spiritu...

Thou shalt surely die - מות תמות moth tamuth ; Literally, a death thou shalt die; or, dying thou shalt die. Thou shalt not only die spiritually, by losing the life of God, but from that moment thou shalt become mortal, and shalt continue in a dying state till thou die. This we find literally accomplished; every moment of man’ s life may be considered as an act of dying, till soul and body are separated. Other meanings have been given of this passage, but they are in general either fanciful or incorrect.

Clarke: Gen 2:18 - It is not good that the man should be alone It is not good that the man should be alone - לבדו lebaddo ; only himself. I will make him a help meet for him; עזר כנגדו ezer kenegd...

It is not good that the man should be alone - לבדו lebaddo ; only himself. I will make him a help meet for him; עזר כנגדו ezer kenegdo , a help, a counterpart of himself, one formed from him, and a perfect resemblance of his person. If the word be rendered scrupulously literally, it signifies one like, or as himself, standing opposite to or before him. And this implies that the woman was to be a perfect resemblance of the man, possessing neither inferiority nor superiority, but being in all things like and equal to himself. As man was made a social creature, it was not proper that he should be alone; for to be alone, i.e. without a matrimonial companion, was not good. Hence we find that celibacy in general is a thing that is not good, whether it be on the side of the man or of the woman. Men may, in opposition to the declaration of God, call this a state of excellence and a state of perfection; but let them remember that the word of God says the reverse.

Clarke: Gen 2:19 - Out of the ground, etc. Out of the ground, etc. - Concerning the formation of the different kinds of animals, see the preceding chapter, Genesis 1 (note).

Out of the ground, etc. - Concerning the formation of the different kinds of animals, see the preceding chapter, Genesis 1 (note).

Clarke: Gen 2:20 - And Adam gave names to all cattle And Adam gave names to all cattle - Two things God appears to have had in view by causing man to name all the cattle, etc. 1. To show him with what ...

And Adam gave names to all cattle - Two things God appears to have had in view by causing man to name all the cattle, etc. 1. To show him with what comprehensive powers of mind his Maker had endued him; and 2. To show him that no creature yet formed could make him a suitable companion. And that this twofold purpose was answered we shall shortly see; for

1.    Adam gave names; but how? From an intimate knowledge of the nature and properties of each creature. Here we see the perfection of his knowledge; for it is well known that the names affixed to the different animals in Scripture always express some prominent feature and essential characteristic of the creatures to which they are applied. Had he not possessed an intuitive knowledge of the grand and distinguishing properties of those animals, he never could have given them such names. This one circumstance is a strong proof of the original perfection and excellence of man, while in a state of innocence; nor need we wonder at the account. Adam was the work of an infinitely wise and perfect Being, and the effect must resemble the cause that produced it

2.    Adam was convinced that none of these creatures could be a suitable companion for him, and that therefore he must continue in the state that was not good, or be a farther debtor to the bounty of his Maker; for among all the animals which he had named there was not found a help meet for him. Hence we read,

Clarke: Gen 2:21 - The Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, etc. The Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, etc. - This was neither swoon nor ecstasy, but what our translation very properly terms a deep s...

The Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, etc. - This was neither swoon nor ecstasy, but what our translation very properly terms a deep sleep

Clarke: Gen 2:21 - And he took one of his ribs And he took one of his ribs - It is immaterial whether we render צלע tsela a rib, or a part of his side, for it may mean either: some part of ...

And he took one of his ribs - It is immaterial whether we render צלע tsela a rib, or a part of his side, for it may mean either: some part of man was to be used on the occasion, whether bone or flesh it matters not; though it is likely, from verse Gen 2:23, that a part of both was taken; for Adam, knowing how the woman was formed, said, This is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my bone. God could have formed the woman out of the dust of the earth, as he had formed the man; but had he done so, she must have appeared in his eyes as a distinct being, to whom he had no natural relation. But as God formed her out of a part of the man himself, he saw she was of the same nature, the same identical flesh and blood, and of the same constitution in all respects, and consequently having equal powers, faculties, and rights. This at once ensured his affection, and excited his esteem.

Clarke: Gen 2:23 - Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, etc. Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, etc. - There is a very delicate and expressive meaning in the original which does not appear in our version...

Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, etc. - There is a very delicate and expressive meaning in the original which does not appear in our version. When the different genera of creatures were brought to Adam, that he might assign them their proper names, it is probable that they passed in pairs before him, and as they passed received their names. To this circumstance the words in this place seem to refer. Instead of this now is זאת הפאם zoth happaam , we should render more literally this turn, this creature, which now passes or appears before me, is flesh of my flesh, etc. The creatures that had passed already before him were not suitable to him, and therefore it was said, For Adam there was not a help meet found, Gen 2:20; but when the woman came, formed out of himself, he felt all that attraction which consanguinity could produce, and at the same time saw that she was in her person and in her mind every way suitable to be his companion. See Parkhurst, sub voce

Clarke: Gen 2:23 - She shall be called Woman She shall be called Woman - A literal version of the Hebrew would appear strange, and yet a literal version is the only proper one. איש ish si...

She shall be called Woman - A literal version of the Hebrew would appear strange, and yet a literal version is the only proper one. איש ish signifies man, and the word used to express what we term woman is the same with a feminine termination, אשה ishshah , and literally means she-man. Most of the ancient versions have felt the force of the term, and have endeavored to express it as literally as possible. The intelligent reader will not regret to see some of them here. The Vulgate Latin renders the Hebrew virago , which is a feminine form of vir , a man. Symmachus uses ανδρις, andris , a female form of ανηρ, aner , a man. Our own term is equally proper when understood. Woman has been defined by many as compounded of wo and man, as if called man’ s wo because she tempted him to eat the forbidden fruit; but this is no meaning of the original word, nor could it be intended, as the transgression was not then committed. The truth is, our term is a proper and literal translation of the original, and we may thank the discernment of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors for giving it. The Anglo-Saxon word, of which woman is a contraction, means the man with the womb. A very appropriate version of the Hebrew אשה ishshah , rendered by terms which signify she-man, in the versions already specified. Hence we see the propriety of Adam’ s observation: This creature is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my bones; therefore shall she be called Womb-Man, or female man, because she was taken out of man. See Verstegan. Others derive it from the Anglo-Saxon words for man’ s wife or she-man. Either may be proper, the first seems the most likely.

Clarke: Gen 2:24 - Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother - There shall be, by the order of God, a more intimate connection formed between the man and w...

Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother - There shall be, by the order of God, a more intimate connection formed between the man and woman, than can subsist even between parents and children

Clarke: Gen 2:24 - And they shall be one flesh And they shall be one flesh - These words may be understood in a twofold sense 1.    These two shall be one flesh, shall be considere...

And they shall be one flesh - These words may be understood in a twofold sense

1.    These two shall be one flesh, shall be considered as one body, having no separate or independent rights, privileges, cares, concerns, etc., each being equally interested in all things that concern the marriage state

2.    These two shall be for the production of one flesh; from their union a posterity shall spring, as exactly resembling themselves as they do each other

Our Lord quotes these words, Mat 19:5, with some variation from this text: They Twain shall be one flesh. So in Mar 10:8. St. Paul quotes in the same way, 1Co 6:16, and in Eph 5:31. The Vulgate Latin, the Septuagint, the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Samaritan, all read the word Two. That this is the genuine reading I have no doubt. The word שניהם sheneyhem , they two or both of them, was, I suppose, omitted at first from the Hebrew text, by mistake, because it occurs three words after in the following verse, or more probably it originally occurred in Gen 2:24, and not in Gen 2:25; and a copyist having found that he had written it twice, in correcting his copy, struck out the word in Gen 2:24 instead of Gen 2:25. But of what consequence is it? In the controversy concerning polygamy, it has been made of very great consequence. Without the word, some have contended a man may have as many wives as he chooses, as the terms are indefinite, They shall be, etc., but with the word, marriage is restricted. A man can have in legal wedlock but One wife at the same time

We have here the first institution of marriage, and we see in it several particulars worthy of our most serious regard

1.    God pronounces the state of celibacy to be a bad state, or, if the reader please, not a good one; and the Lord God said, It is not good for man to be alone. This is God’ s judgment. Councils, and fathers, and doctors, and synods, have given a different judgment; but on such a subject they are worthy of no attention. The word of God abideth for ever

2.    God made the woman for the man, and thus he has shown us that every son of Adam should be united to a daughter of Eve to the end of the world. See on 1Co 7:3 (note). God made the woman out of the man, to intimate that the closest union, and the most affectionate attachment, should subsist in the matrimonial connection, so that the man should ever consider and treat the woman as a part of himself: and as no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and supports it, so should a man deal with his wife; and on the other hand the woman should consider that the man was not made for her, but that she was made for the man, and derived, under God, her being from him; therefore the wife should see that she reverence her husband, Eph 5:33

Gen 2:23, Gen 2:24 contain the very words of the marriage ceremony: This is flesh of my flesh, and bone of my bone, therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. How happy must such a state be where God’ s institution is properly regarded, where the parties are married, as the apostle expresses it, in the Lord; where each, by acts of the tenderest kindness, lives only to prevent the wishes and contribute in every possible way to the comfort and happiness of the other! Marriage might still be what it was in its original institution, pure and suitable; and in its first exercise, affectionate and happy; but how few such marriages are there to be found! Passion, turbulent and irregular, not religion; custom, founded by these irregularities, not reason; worldly prospects, originating and ending in selfishness and earthly affections, not in spiritual ends, are the grand producing causes of the great majority of matrimonial alliances. How then can such turbid and bitter fountains send forth pure and sweet waters? See the ancient allegory of Cupid and Psyche, by which marriage is so happily illustrated, explained in the notes on Mat 19:4-6.

Clarke: Gen 2:25 - They were both naked, etc. They were both naked, etc. - The weather was perfectly temperate, and therefore they had no need of clothing, the circumambient air being of the sam...

They were both naked, etc. - The weather was perfectly temperate, and therefore they had no need of clothing, the circumambient air being of the same temperature with their bodies. And as sin had not yet entered into the world, and no part of the human body had been put to any improper use, therefore there was no shame, for shame can only arise from a consciousness of sinful or irregular conduct

Even in a state of innocence, when all was perfection and excellence, when God was clearly discovered in all his works, every place being his temple, every moment a time of worship, and every object an incitement to religious reverence and adoration - even then, God chose to consecrate a seventh part of time to his more especial worship, and to hallow it unto his own service by a perpetual decree. Who then shall dare to reverse this order of God? Had the religious observance of the Sabbath been never proclaimed till the proclamation of the law on Mount Sinai, then it might have been conjectured that this, like several other ordinances, was a shadow which must pass away with that dispensation; neither extending to future ages, nor binding on any other people. But this was not so. God gave the Sabbath, his first ordinance, to man, (see the first precept, Gen 2:17), while all the nations of the world were seminally included in him, and while he stood the father and representative of the whole human race; therefore the Sabbath is not for one nation, for one time, or for one place. It is the fair type of heaven’ s eternal day - of the state of endless blessedness and glory, where human souls, having fully regained the Divine image, and become united to the Centre and Source of all perfection and excellence, shall rest in God, unutterably happy through the immeasurable progress of duration! Of this consummation every returning Sabbath should at once be a type, a remembrancer, and a foretaste, to every pious mind; and these it must be to all who are taught of God

Of this rest, the garden of Eden, that paradise of God formed for man, appears also to have been a type and pledge; and the institution of marriage, the cause, bond, and cement of the social state, was probably designed to prefigure that harmony, order, and blessedness which must reign in the kingdom of God, of which the condition of our first parents in the garden of paradise is justly supposed to have been an expressive emblem. What a pity that this heavenly institution should have ever been perverted! that, instead of becoming a sovereign help to all, it is now, through its prostitution to animal and secular purposes, become the destroyer of millions! Reader, every connection thou formest in life will have a strong and sovereign influence on thy future destiny. Beware! an unholy cause, which from its peculiar nature must be ceaselessly active in every muscle, nerve, and passion, cannot fail to produce incessant effects of sin, misery, death, and perdition. Remember that thy earthly connections, no matter of what kind, are not formed merely for time, whatsoever thou mayest intend, but also for eternity. With what caution there fore shouldst thou take every step in the path of life! On this ground, the observations made in the preceding notes are seriously recommended to thy consideration.

Calvin: Gen 2:1 - Thus the heavens and the earth were finished 1.Thus the heavens and the earth were finished 100 Moses summarily repeats that in six days the fabric of the heaven and the earth was completed. The...

1.Thus the heavens and the earth were finished 100 Moses summarily repeats that in six days the fabric of the heaven and the earth was completed. The general division of the world is made into these two parts, as has been stated at the commencement of the first chapter. But he now adds, all the host of them, by which he signifies that the world was furnished with all its garniture. This epilogue, moreover, with sufficient clearness entirely refutes the error of those who imagine that the world was formed in a moment; for it declares that all end was only at length put to the work on the sixth day. Instead of host we might not improperly render the term abundance; 101 for Moses declares that this world was in every sense completed, as if the whole house were well supplied and filled with its furniture. The heavens without the sun, and moon, and stars, would be an empty and dismantled palace: if the earth were destitute of animals, trees, and plants, that barren waste would have the appearance of a poor and deserted house. God, therefore, did not cease from the work of the creation of the world till he had completed it in every part, so that nothing should be wanting to its suitable abundance.

Calvin: Gen 2:2 - And he rested on the seventh day 2.And he rested on the seventh day The question may not improperly be put, what kind of rest this was. For it is certain that inasmuch as God sustain...

2.And he rested on the seventh day The question may not improperly be put, what kind of rest this was. For it is certain that inasmuch as God sustains the world by his power, governs it by his providence, cherishes and even propagates all creatures, he is constantly at work. Therefore that saying of Christ is true, that the Father and he himself had worked from the beginning hitherto, 102 because, if God should but withdraw his hand a little, all things would immediately perish and dissolve into nothing, as is declared in Psa 104:29 103 And indeed God is rightly acknowledged as the Creator of heaven and earth only whilst their perpetual preservation is ascribed to him. 104 The solution of the difficulty is well known, that God ceased from all his work, when he desisted from the creation of new kinds of things. But to make the sense clearer, understand that the last touch of God had been put, in order that nothing might be wanting to the perfection of the world. And this is the meaning of the words of Moses, From all his work which he had made; for he points out the actual state of the work as God would have it to be, as if he had said, then was completed what God had proposed to himself. On the whole, this language is intended merely to express the perfection of the fabric of the world; and therefore we must not infer that God so ceased from his works as to desert them, since they only flourish and subsist in him. Besides, it is to be observed, that in the works of the six days, those things alone are comprehended which tend to the lawful and genuine adorning of the world. It is subsequently that we shall find God saying, Let the earth bring forth thorns and briers, by which he intimates that the appearance of the earth should be different from what it had been in the beginning. But the explanation is at hand; many things which are now seen in the world are rather corruptions of it than any part of its proper furniture. For ever since man declined from his high original, it became necessary that the world should gradually degenerate from its nature. We must come to this conclusion respecting the existence of fleas, caterpillars, and other noxious insects. In all these, I say, there is some deformity of the world, which ought by no means to be regarded as in the order of nature, since it proceeds rather from the sin of man than from the hand of God. Truly these things were created by God, but by God as an avenger. In this place, however, Moses is not considering God as armed for the punishment of the sins of men; but as the Artificer, the Architect, the bountiful Father of a family, who has omitted nothing essential to the perfection of his edifice. At the present time, when we look upon the world corrupted, and as if degenerated from its original creation, let that expression of Paul recur to our mind, that the creature is liable to vanity, not willingly, but through our fault, (Rom 8:20,) and thus let us mourn, being admonished of our just condemnation.

Calvin: Gen 2:3 - And God blessed the seventh day // Which God created and made 3.And God blessed the seventh day It appears that God is here said to bless according to the manner of men, because they bless him whom they highly e...

3.And God blessed the seventh day It appears that God is here said to bless according to the manner of men, because they bless him whom they highly extol. Nevertheless, even in this sense, it would not be unsuitable to the character of God; because his blessing sometimes means the favor which he bestows upon his people, as the Hebrews call that man the blessed of God, who, by a certain special favor, has power with God. (See Gen 24:31.) Enter thou blessed of God. Thus we may be allowed to describe the day as blessed by him which he has embraced with love, to the end that the excellence and dignity of his works may therein be celebrated. Yet I have no doubt that Moses, by adding the word sanctified, wished immediately to explain what he had said, and thus all ambiguity is removed, because the second word is exegetical of the former. For קדש ( kadesh,) with the Hebrews, is to separate from the common number. God therefore sanctifies the seventh day, when he renders it illustrious, that by a special law it may be distinguished from the rest. Whence it also appears, that God always had respect to the welfare of men. I have said above, that six days were employed in the formation of the world; not that God, to whom one moment is as a thousand years, had need of this succession of time, but that he might engage us in the consideration of his works. He had the same end in view in the appointment of his own rest, for he set apart a day selected out of the remainder for this special use. Wherefore, that benediction is nothing else than a solemn consecration, by which God claims for himself the meditations and employments of men on the seventh day. This is, indeed, the proper business of the whole life, in which men should daily exercise themselves, to consider the infinite goodness, justice, power, and wisdom of God, in this magnificent theater of heaven and earth. But, lest men should prove less sedulously attentive to it than they ought, every seventh day has been especially selected for the purpose of supplying what was wanting in daily meditation. First, therefore, God rested; then he blessed this rest, that in all ages it might be held sacred among men: or he dedicated every seventh day to rest, that his own example might be a perpetual rule. The design of the institution must be always kept in memory: for God did not command men simply to keep holiday every seventh day, as if he delighted in their indolence; but rather that they, being released from all other business, might the more readily apply their minds to the Creator of the world. Lastly, that is a sacred rest, 105 which withdraws men from the impediments of the world, that it may dedicate them entirely to God. But now, since men are so backward to celebrate the justice, wisdom, and power of God, and to consider his benefits, that even when they are most faithfully admonished they still remain torpid, no slight stimulus is given by God’s own example, and the very precept itself is thereby rendered amiable. For God cannot either more gently allure, or more effectually incite us to obedience, than by inviting and exhorting us to the imitation of himself. Besides, we must know, that this is to be the common employment not of one age or people only, but of the whole human race. Afterwards, in the Law, a new precept concerning the Sabbath was given, which should be peculiar to the Jews, and but for a season; because it was a legal ceremony shadowing forth a spiritual rest, the truth of which was manifested in Christ. Therefore the Lord the more frequently testifies that he had given, in the Sabbath, a symbol of sanctification to his ancient people. 106 Therefore when we hear that the Sabbath was abrogated by the coming of Christ, we must distinguish between what belongs to the perpetual government of human life, and what properly belongs to ancient figures, the use of which was abolished when the truth was fulfilled. Spiritual rest is the mortification of the flesh; so that the sons of God should no longer live unto themselves, or indulge their own inclination. So far as the Sabbath was a figure of this rest, I say, it was but for a season; but inasmuch as it was commanded to men from the beginning that they might employ themselves in the worship of God, it is right that it should continue to the end of the world.

Which God created and made 107 Here the Jews, in their usual method, foolishly trifle, saying, that God being anticipated in his work by the last evening, left certain animals imperfect, of which kind are fauns and satyrs, as though he had been one of the ordinary class of artifices who have need of time. Ravings so monstrous prove the authors of them to have been delivered over to a reprobate mind, as a dreadful example of the wrath of God. As to the meaning of Moses, some take it thus: that God created his Works in order to make them, inasmuch as from the time he gave them being, he did not withdraw his hand from their preservation. But this exposition is harsh. Nor do I more willingly subscribe to the opinion of those who refer the word make to man, whom God placed over his works, that he might apply them to use, and in a certain sense perfect them by his industry. I rather think that the perfect form of God’s works is here noted; as if he had said God so created his works that nothing should be wanting to their perfection; or the creation has proceeded to sucks a point, that the work is in all respects perfect.

Calvin: Gen 2:4 - These are the generations 4.These are the generations 108 The design of Moses was deeply to impress upon our minds the origin of the heaven and the earth, which he designate...

4.These are the generations 108 The design of Moses was deeply to impress upon our minds the origin of the heaven and the earth, which he designates by the word generation. For there have always been ungrateful and malignant men, who, either by feigning, that the world was eternal or by obliterating the memory of the creations would attempt to obscure the glory of God. Thus the devil, by his guile, turns those away from God who are more ingenious and skillful than others in order that each may become a god unto himself. Wherefore, it is not a superfluous repetition which inculcates the necessary fact, that the world existed only from the time when it was created since such knowledge directs us to its Architect and Author. Under the names of heaven and earth, the whole is, by the figure synecdochee, included. Some of the Hebrews thinks that the essential name of God is here at length expressed by Moses, because his majesty shines forth more clearly in the completed world. 109

Calvin: Gen 2:5 - And every plant 5.And every plant This verse is connected with the preceding, and must be read in continuation with it; for he annexes the plants and herbs to the ea...

5.And every plant This verse is connected with the preceding, and must be read in continuation with it; for he annexes the plants and herbs to the earth, as the garment with which the Lord has adorned it, lest its nakedness should appear as a deformity. The noun שיה ( sicah, 110) which we translate plant, sometimes signifies trees, as below, (Gen 21:15 111) Therefore, some in this place translate it shrub, to which I have no objection. Yet the word plant is not unsuitable; because in the former place, Moses seems to refer to the genus, and here to the species. 112 But although he has before related that the herbs were created on the third day, yet it is not without reason that here again mention is made of them, in order that we may know that they were then produced, preserved, and propagated, in a manner different from that which we perceive at the present day. For herbs and trees are produced from seed; or grafts are taken from another roots or they grow by putting forth shoots: in all this the industry and the hand of man are engaged. But, at that time, the method was different: God clothed the earth, not in the same manner as now, (for there was no seed, no root, no plant, which might germinate,) but each suddenly sprung into existence at the command of God, and by the power of his word. They possessed durable vigor, so that they might stand by the force of their own nature, and not by that quickening influence which is now perceived, not by the help of rain, not by the irrigation or culture of man; but by the vapor with which God watered the earth. For he excludes these two things, the rain whence the earth derives moisture, that it may retain its native sap; and human culture, which is the assistant of nature. When he says, that God had ‘not yet caused it to rain,’ he at the same time intimates that it is God who opens and shuts the cataracts of heaven, and that rain and drought are in his hand.

Calvin: Gen 2:7 - And the Lord God formed man // And breathed into his nostrils // Man became a living soul 7.And the Lord God formed man He now explains what he had before omitted in the creation of man, that his body was taken out of the earth. He had sai...

7.And the Lord God formed man He now explains what he had before omitted in the creation of man, that his body was taken out of the earth. He had said that he was formed after the image of God. This is incomparably the highest nobility; and, lest men should use it as an occasion of pride, their first origin is placed immediately before them; whence they may learn that this advantage was adventitious; for Moses relates that man had been, in the beginning, dust of the earth. Let foolish men now go and boast of the excellency of their nature! Concerning other animals, it had before been said, Let the earth produce every living creature; 113 but, on the other hand, the body of Adam is formed of clay, and destitute of sense; to the end that no one should exult beyond measure in his flesh. He must be excessively stupid who does not hence learn humility. That which is afterwards added from another quarter, lays us under just so much obligation to God. Nevertheless, he, at the same time, designed to distinguish man by some mark of excellence from brute animals: for these arose out of the earth in a moment; but the peculiar dignity of man is shown in this, that he was gradually formed. For why did not God command him immediately to spring alive out of the earth, unless that, by a special privilege, he might outshine all the creatures which the earth produced?

And breathed into his nostrils 114 Whatever the greater part of the ancients might think, I do not hesitate to subscribe to the opinion of those who explain this passage of the animal life of man; and thus I expound what they call the vital spirits by the word breath. Should any one object, that if so, no distinction would be made between man and other living creatures, since here Moses relates only what is common alike to all: I answer, though here mention is made only of the lower faculty of the soul, which imparts breath to the body, and gives it vigor and motion: this does not prevent the human soul from having its proper rank, and therefore it ought to be distinguished from others. 115 Moses first speaks of the breath; he then adds, that a soul was given to man by which he might live, and be endued with sense and motion. Now we know that the powers of the human mind are many and various. Wherefore, there is nothing absurd in supposing that Moses here alludes only to one of them; but omits the intellectual part, of which mention has been made in the first chapter. Three gradations, indeed, are to be noted in the creation of man; that his dead body was formed out of the dust of the earth; that it was endued with a soul, whence it should receive vital motion; and that on this soul God engraved his own image, to which immortality is annexed.

Man became a living soul 116 I take נפש ( nepesh,) for the very essence of the soul: but the epithet living suits only the present place, and does not embrace generally the powers of the soul. For Moses intended nothing more than to explain the animating of the clayey figure, whereby it came to pass that man began to live. Paul makes an antithesis between this living soul and the quickening spirit which Christ confers upon the faithful, (1Co 15:45,) for no other purpose than to teach us that the state of man was not perfected in the person of Adam; but it is a peculiar benefit conferred by Christ, that we may be renewed to a life which is celestial, whereas before the fall of Adams man’s life was only earthly, seeing it had no firm and settled constancy.

Calvin: Gen 2:8 - And the Lord God planted // In Eden 8.And the Lord God planted 117 Moses now adds the condition and rule of living which were given to man. And, first, he narrates in what part of the w...

8.And the Lord God planted 117 Moses now adds the condition and rule of living which were given to man. And, first, he narrates in what part of the world he was placed, and what a happy and pleasant habitation was allotted to him. Moses says, that God had planted accommodating himself, by a simple and uncultivated style, to the capacity of the vulgar. For since the majesty of God, as it really is, cannot be expressed, the Scripture is wont to describe it according to the manner of men. God, then, had planted Paradise in a place which he had especially embellished with every variety of delights, with abounding fruits and with all other most excellent gifts. For this reason it is called a garden, on account of the elegance of its situation, and the beauty of its form. The ancient interpreter has not improperly translated it Paradise; 118 because the Hebrews call the more highly cultivated gardens פרדסים ( Pardaisim, 119) and Xenophon pronounces the word to be Persian, when he treats of the magnificent and sumptuous gardens of kings. That region which the Lord assigned to Adam, as the firstborn of mankind, was one selected out of the whole world.

In Eden That Jerome improperly translates this, from the beginning, 120 is very obvious: because Moses afterwards says, that Cain dwelt in the southern region of this place. Moreover it is to be observed, that when he describes paradise as in the east, he speaks in reference to the Jews, for he directs his discourse to his own people. Hence we infer, in the first place, that there was a certain region assigned by God to the first man, in which he might have his home. I state this expressly, because there have been authors who would extend this garden over all regions of the world. Truly, I confess, that if the earth had not been cursed on account of the sin of man, the whole — as it had been blessed from the beginning — would have remained the fairest scene both of fruitfulness and of delight; that it would have been, in short, not dissimilar to Paradise, when compared with that scene of deformity which we now behold. But when Moses here describes particularly the situation of the region, they absurdly transfer what Moses said of a certain particular place to the whole world. It is not indeed doubtful (as I just now hinted) that God would choose the most fertile and pleasant place, the first-fruits (so to speak) of the earth, as his gift to Adam, whom he had dignified with the honor of primogeniture among men, in token of his special favor. Again, we infer, that this garden was situated on the earth, not as some dream in the air; for unless it had been a region of our world, it would not have been placed opposite to Judea, towards the east. We must, however, entirely reject the allegories of Origin, and of others like him, which Satan, with the deepest subtlety, has endeavored to introduce into the Church, for the purpose of rendering the doctrine of Scripture ambiguous and destitute of all certainty and firmness. It may be, indeed, that some, impelled by a supposed necessity, have resorted to an allegorical sense, because they never found in the world such a place as is described by Moses: but we see that the greater part, through a foolish affectation of subtleties, have been too much addicted to allegories. As it concerns the present passage, they speculate in vain, and to no purpose, by departing from the literal sense. For Moses has no other design than to teach man that he was formed by God, with this condition, that he should have dominion over the earth, from which he might gather fruit, and thus learn by daily experience that the world was subject unto him. What advantage is it to fly in the air, and to leave the earth, where God has given proof of his benevolence towards the human race? But some one may say, that to interpret this of celestial bliss is more skillful. I answer, since the eternal inheritance of man is in heaven, it is truly right that we should tend thither; yet must we fix our foot on earth long enough to enable us to consider the abode which God requires man to use for a time. For we are now conversant with that history which teaches us that Adam was, by Divine appointment, an inhabitant of the earth, in order that he might, in passing through his earthly life, meditate on heavenly glory; and that he had been bountifully enriched by the Lord with innumerable benefits, from the enjoyment of which he might infer the paternal benevolence of God. Moses, also, will hereafter subjoin that he was commanded to cultivate the fields and permitted to eat certain fruits: all which things neither suit the circle of the moon, nor the aerial regions. But although we have said, that the situation of Paradise lay between the rising of the sun and Judea, yet something more definite may be required respecting that region. They who contend that it was in the vicinity of Mesopotamia, rely on reasons not to be despised; because it is probable that the sons of Eden were contiguous to the river Tigris. But as the description of it by Moses will immediately follow, it is better to defer the consideration of it to that place. The ancient interpreter has fallen into a mistake in translating the proper name Eden by the word pleasure. 121 I do not indeed deny that the place was so called from its delights; but it is easy to infer that the name was imposed upon the place to distinguish it from others.

Calvin: Gen 2:9 - And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow // The tree of life also 9.And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow The production here spoken of belongs to the third day of the creation. But Moses expressly declare...

9.And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow The production here spoken of belongs to the third day of the creation. But Moses expressly declares the place to have been richly replenished with every kind of fruitful trees, that there might be a full and happy abundance of all things. This was purposely done by the Lord, to the end that the cupidity of man might have the less excuse if, instead of being contented with such remarkable affluence, sweetness, and variety, it should (as really happened) precipitate itself against the commandment of God. The Holy Spirit also designedly relates by Moses the greatness of Adam’s happiness, in order that his vile intemperance might the more clearly appear, which such superfluity was unable to restrain from breaking forth upon the forbidden fruit. And certainly it was shameful ingratitude, that he could not rest in a state so happy and desirable: truly, that was more than brutal lust which bounty so great was not able to satisfy. No corner of the earth was then barren, nor was there even any which was not exceedingly rich and fertile: but that benediction of God, which was elsewhere comparatively moderate, had in this place poured itself wonderfully forth. For not only was there an abundant supply of food, but with it was added sweetness for the gratification of the palate, and beauty to feast the eyes. Therefore, from such benignant indulgence, it is more than sufficiently evident, how inexplicable had been the cupidity of man.

The tree of life also It is uncertain whether he means only two individual trees, or two kinds of trees. Either opinion is probable, but the point is by no means worthy of contention; since it is of little or no concern to us, which of the two is maintained. There is more importance in the epithets, which were applied to each tree from its effect, and that not by the will of man but of God. 122 He gave the tree of life its name, not because it could confer on man that life with which he had been previously endued, but in order that it might be a symbol and memorial of the life which he had received from God. For we know it to be by no means unusual that God should give to us the attestation of his grace by external symbols. 123 He does not indeed transfer his power into outward signs; but by them he stretches out his hand to us, because, without assistance, we cannot ascend to him. He intended, therefore, that man, as often as he tasted the fruit of that tree, should remember whence he received his life, in order that he might acknowledge that he lives not by his own power, but by the kindness of God alone; and that life is not (as they commonly speak) an intrinsic good, but proceeds from God. Finally, in that tree there was a visible testimony to the declaration, that ‘in God we are, and live, and move.’ But if Adams hitherto innocent, and of an upright nature, had need of monitory signs to lead him to the knowledge of divine grace, how much more necessary are signs now, in this great imbecility of our nature, since we have fallen from the true light? Yet I am not dissatisfied with what has been handed down by some of the fathers, as Augustine and Eucherius, that the tree of life was a figure of Christ, inasmuch as he is the Eternal Word of God: it could not indeed be otherwise a symbol of life, than by representing him in figure. For we must maintain what is declared in the first chapter of John (Joh 1:1,) that the life of all things was included in the Word, but especially the life of men, which is conjoined with reason and intelligence. Wherefore, by this sign, Adam was admonished, that he could claim nothing for himself as if it were his own, in order that he might depend wholly upon the Son of God, and might not seek life anywhere but in him. But if he, at the time when he possessed life in safety, had it only as deposited in the word of God, and could not otherwise retain it, than by acknowledging that it was received from Him, whence may we recover it, after it has been lost? Let us know, therefore, that when we have departed from Christ, nothing remains for us but death.

I know that certain writers restrict the meaning of the expression here used to corporeal life. They suppose such a power of quickening the body to have been in the tree, that it should never languish through age; but I say, they omit what is the chief thing in life, namely, the grace of intelligence; for we must always consider for what end man was formed, and what rule of living was prescribed to him. Certainly, for him to live, was not simply to have a body fresh and lively, but also to excel in the endowments of the soul.

Concerning the tree of knowledge of good and evil, we must hold, that it was prohibited to man, not because God would have him to stray like a sheep, without judgment and without choice; but that he might not seek to be wiser than became him, nor by trusting to his own understanding, cast off the yoke of God, and constitute himself an arbiter and judge of good and evil. His sin proceeded from an evil conscience; whence it follows, that a judgment had been given him, by which he might discriminate between virtues and vices. Nor could what Moses relates be otherwise true, namely, that he was created in the image of God; since the image of God comprises in itself the knowledge of him who is the chief good. Thoroughly insane, therefore, and monsters of men are the libertines, who pretend that we are restored to a state of innocence, when each is carried away by his own lust without judgment. We now understand what is meant by abstaining from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; namely, that Adam might not, in attempting one thing or another, rely upon his own prudence; but that, cleaving to God alone, he might become wise only by his obedience. Knowledge is here, therefore, taken disparagingly, in a bad sense, for that wretched experience which man, when he departed from the only fountain of perfect wisdom, began to acquire for himself. And this is the origin of freewill, that Adam wished to be independent, 124 and dared to try what he was able to do.

Calvin: Gen 2:10 - And a river went out 10.And a river went out Moses says that one river flowed to water the garden, which afterwards would divide itself into four heads. It is sufficientl...

10.And a river went out Moses says that one river flowed to water the garden, which afterwards would divide itself into four heads. It is sufficiently agreed among all, that two of these heads are the Euphrates and the Tigris; for no one disputes that הידקל ( Hiddekel) is the Tigris. But there is a great controversy respecting the other two. Many think, that Pison and Gihon are the Ganges and the Nile; the error, however, of these men is abundantly refuted by the distance of the positions of these rivers. Persons are not wanting who fly across even to the Danube; as if indeed the habitation of one man stretched itself from the most remote part of Asia to the extremity of Europe. But since many other celebrated rivers flow by the region of which we are speaking, there is greater probability in the opinion of those who believe that two of these rivers are pointed out, although their names are now obsolete. Be this as it may, the difficulty is not yet solved. For Moses divides the one river which flowed by the garden into four heads. Yet it appears, that the fountains of the Euphrates and the Tigris were far distant from each other. From this difficulty, some would free themselves by saying, that the surface of the globe may have been changed by the deluge; and, therefore, they imagine it might have happened that the courses of the rivers were disturbed and changed, and their springs transferred elsewhere; a solution which appears to me by no means to be accepted. For although I acknowledge that the earth, from the time that it was accursed, became reduced from its native beauty to a state of wretched defilement, and to a garb of mourning, and afterwards was further laid waste in many places by the deluge; still, I assert, it was the same earth which had been created in the beginning. Add to this, that Moses (in my judgment) accommodated his topography to the capacity of his age. Yet nothing is accomplished, unless we find that place where the Tigris and Euphrates proceed from one river. Observe, first, that no mention is made of a spring or fountain, but only that it is said, there was one river. But the four heads I understand to mean, both the beginnings from which the rivers are produced, and the mouths 125 by which they discharge themselves into the sea. Now the Euphrates was formerly so joined by confluence with the Tigris, that it might justly be said, one river was divided into four heads; especially if what is manifest to all be conceded, that Moses does not speak acutely, nor in a philosophical manner, but popularly, so that every one least informed may understand him. Thus, in the first chapter, he called the sun and moon two great luminaries; not because the moon exceeded other planets in magnitude, but because, to common observation, it seemed greater. Add further, that he seems to remove all doubt when he says, that the river had four heads, because it was divided from that place. What does this mean, except that the channels were divided, out of one confluent stream, either above or below Paradise? I will now submit a plan to view, that the readers may understand where I think Paradise was placed by Moses. 126


Pliny indeed relates, in his Sixth Book, that the Euphrates was so stopped in its course by the Orcheni, that it could not flow into the sea, except through the Tigris. 127 And Pomponius Mela, in his Third Book, denies that it flowed by any given outlet, as other rivers, but says that it failed in its course. Nearchus, however, (whom Alexander had made commander of his fleet, and who, under his sanction, had navigated all these regions,) reckons the distance from the mouth of the Euphrates to Babylon, three thousand three hundred stadia. 128 But he places the mouths of the Tigris at the entrance of Susiana; in which region, returning from that long and memorable voyage, he met the king with his fleet, as Adrian relates in his Eighth Book of the Exploits of Alexander. This statement Strabo also confirms by his testimony in his Fifteenth Book. Nevertheless, wherever the Euphrates either submerges or mingles its stream, it is certain, that it and the Tigris, below the point of their confluence, are again divided. Adrian, however, in his Seventh Book, writes that not one channel only of the Euphrates runs into the Tigris, but also many rivers and ditches, because waters naturally descend from higher to lower ground. With respect to the confluence, which I have noted in the plate, the opinion of some was, that it had been effected be the labor of the Praefect Cobaris, lest the Euphrates, by its precipitate course, should injure Babylon. But he speaks of it as of a doubtful matter. It is more credible, that men, by art and industry, followed the guidance of Nature in forming ditches, when they saw the Euphrates any where flowing of its own accord from the higher ground into the Tigris. Moreover, if confidence is placed in Pomponius Mela, Semiramis conducted the Tigris and Euphrates into Mesopotamia, which was previously dry; a thing by no means credible. There is more truth in the statement of Strabo, — a diligent and attentive writer, — in his Eleventh Book, that at Babylon these two rivers unite: and then, that each is carried separately, in its own bed, into the Red Sea. 129 He understands that junction to have taken place above Babylon, not far from the town Massica, as we read in the Fifth Book of Pliny. Thence one river flows through Babylon, the other glides by Seleucia, two of the most celebrated and opulent cities. If we admit this confluence, by which the Euphrates was mixed with the Tigris, to have been natural, and to have existed from the beginning, all absurdity is removed. If there is anywhere under heaven a region preeminent in beauty, in the abundance of all kinds of fruit, in fertility, in delicacies, and in other gifts, that is the region which writers most celebrate. Wherefore, the eulogies with which Moses commends Paradise are such as properly belong to a tract of this description. And that the region of Eden was situated in those parts is probable from Isa 37:12 Eze 27:23. Moreover, when Moses declares that a river went forth, I understand him as speaking of the flowing of the stream; as if he had said, that Adam dwelt on the bank of the river, or in that land which was watered on both sides if you choose to take Paradise for both banks of the river. However, it makes no great difference whether Adam dwelt below the confluent stream towards Babylon and Seleucia, or in the higher part; it is enough that he occupied a well-watered country. How the river was divided into four heads is not difficult to understand. For there are two rivers which flow together into one, and then separate in different directions; thus, it is one at the point of confluence, but there are two heads 130 in its upper channels, and two towards the sea; afterwards, they again begin to be more widely separated.

The question remains concerning the names Pison and Gihon. For it does not seem consonant with reason, to assign a double name to each of the rivers. But it is nothing new for rivers to change their names in their course, especially where there is any special mark of distinction. The Tigris itself (by the authority of Pliny) is called Diglito near its source; but after it has formed many channels, and again coalesces, it takes the name of Pasitigris. There is, therefore, no absurdity in saying, that after its confluence it had different names. Further there is some such affinity between Pasin and Pison, as to render it not improbable, that the name Pasitigris is a vestige of the ancient appellation. In the Fifth Book of Quintus Curtius, concerning the Exploits of Alexander, where mention is made of Pasitigris, some copies read, that it was called by the inhabitants Pasin. Nor do the other circumstances, by which Moses describes three of these rivers, in accord with this supposition. Pison surrounds 131 the land of Havila, where gold is produced. Surrounding is rightly attributed to the Tigris, on account of its winding course below Mesopotamia. The land of Havila, in my judgment, is here taken for a region adjoining Persia. For subsequently, in the twenty-fifth chapter (Gen 25:1,) Moses relates, that the Ishmaelites dwelt from Havila unto Shur, which is contiguous to Egypt, and through which the road lies into Assyria. Havila, as one boundary, is opposed to Shur as another, and this boundary Moses places near Egypt, on the side which lies towards Assyria. Whence it follows, that Havila (the other boundary) extends towards Susia and Persia. For it is necessary that it should lie below Assyria towards the Persian Sea; besides, it is placed at a great distance from Egypt; because Moses enumerates many nations which dwelt between these boundaries. 132 Then it appears that the Nabathaeans, 133 of whom mention is there made, were neighbors to the Persian. Every thing which Moses asserts respecting gold and precious stones is most applicable to this district. 134

The river Gihon still remains to be noticed, which, as Moses declares, waters the land of Chus. All interpreters translate this word Ethiopia; but the country of the Midianites, and the conterminous country of Arabia, are included under the same name by Moses; for which reason, his wife is elsewhere called an Ethiopian woman. Moreover, since the lower course of the Euphrates tends toward that region, I do not see why it should be deemed absurd, that it there receives the name of Gihon. And thus the simple meaning of Moses is, that the garden of which Adam was the possessor was well watered, the channel of a river passing that way, which was afterwards divided into four heads. 135

Calvin: Gen 2:15 - And the Lord God took the man 15.And the Lord God took the man Moses now adds, that the earth was given to man, with this condition, that he should occupy himself in its cultivati...

15.And the Lord God took the man Moses now adds, that the earth was given to man, with this condition, that he should occupy himself in its cultivation. Whence it follows that men were created to employ themselves in some work, and not to lie down in inactivity and idleness. This labor, truly, was pleasant, and full of delight, entirely exempt from all trouble and weariness; since however God ordained that man should be exercised in the culture of the ground, he condemned in his person, all indolent repose. Wherefore, nothing is more contrary to the order of nature, than to consume life in eating, drinking, and sleeping, while in the meantime we propose nothing to ourselves to do. Moses adds, that the custody of the garden was given in charge to Adam, to show that we possess the things which God has committed to our hands, on the condition, that being content with a frugal and moderate use of them, we should take care of what shall remain. Let him who possesses a field, so partake of its yearly fruits, that he may not suffer the ground to be injured by his negligence; but let him endeavor to hand it down to posterity as he received it, or even better cultivated. Let him so feed on its fruits that he neither dissipates it by luxury, nor permits to be marred or ruined by neglect. Moreover, that this economy, and this diligence, with respect to those good things which God has given us to enjoy, may flourish among us; let every one regard himself as the steward of God in all things which he possesses. Then he will neither conduct himself dissolutely, nor corrupt by abuse those things which God requires to be preserved.

Calvin: Gen 2:16 - And the Lord God commanded // Of every tree 16.And the Lord God commanded Moses now teaches, that man was the governor of the world, with this exception, that he should, nevertheless, be subjec...

16.And the Lord God commanded Moses now teaches, that man was the governor of the world, with this exception, that he should, nevertheless, be subject to God. A law is imposed upon him in token of his subjection; for it would have made no difference to God, if he had eaten indiscriminately of any fruit he pleased. Therefore the prohibition of one tree was a test of obedience. And in this mode, God designed that the whole human race should be accustomed from the beginning to reverence his Deity; as, doubtless, it was necessary that man, adorned and enriched with so many excellent gifts, should be held under restraint, lest he should break forth into licentiousness. There was, indeed, another special reason, to which we have before alluded, lest Adam should desire to be wise above measure; but this is to be kept in mind as God’s general design, that he would have men subject to his authority. Therefore, abstinence from the fruit of one tree was a kind of first lesson in obedience, that man might know he had a Director and Lord of his life, on whose will he ought to depend, and in whose commands he ought to acquiesce. And this, truly, is the only rule of living well and rationally, that men should exercise themselves in obeying God. It seems, however, to some as if this did not accord with the judgment of Paul, when he teaches, that the law was not made for the righteous, (1Ti 1:9.) For if it be so, then, when Adam was yet innocent and upright, he had no need of a law. But the solution is ready. For Paul is not there writing controversially; but from the common practice of life, he declares, that they who freely run, do not require to be compelled by the necessity of law; as it is said, in the common proverb, that ‘Good laws spring from bad manners.’ In the meantime, he does not deny that God, from the beginning, imposed a law upon man, for the purpose of maintaining the right due to himself. Should any one bring, as an objection, another statement of Paul, where he asserts that the “law is the minister of death,” (2Co 3:7,) I answer, it is so accidentally, and from the corruption of our nature. But at the time of which we speak, a precept was given to man, whence he might know that God ruled over him. These minute things, however I lightly pass over. What I have before said, since it is of far greater moment, is to be frequently recalled to memory, namely, that our life will then be rightly ordered, if we obey God, and if his will be the regulator of all our affections.

Of every tree To the end that Adam might the more willingly comply, God commends his own liberality. ‘Behold,’ he says, ‘I deliver into thy hand whatever fruits the earth may produce, whatever fruits every kind of tree may yield: from this immense profusion and variety I except only one tree.’ Then, by denouncing punishment, he strikes terror, for the purpose of confirming the authority of the law. So much the greater, then, is the wickedness of man, whom neither that kind commemoration of the gifts of God, nor the dread of punishment, was able to retain in his duty.

But it is asked, what kind of death God means in this place? It appears to me, that the definition of this death is to be sought from its opposite; we must, I say, remember from what kind of life man fell. He was, in every respect, happy; his life, therefore, had alike respect to his body and his soul, since in his soul a right judgment and a proper government of the affections prevailed, there also life reigned; in his body there was no defect, wherefore he was wholly free from death. His earthly life truly would have been temporal; yet he would have passed into heaven without death, and without injury. Death, therefore, is now a terror to us; first, because there is a kind of annihilation, as it respects the body; then, because the soul feels the curse of God. We must also see what is the cause of death, namely alienation from God. Thence it follows, that under the name of death is comprehended all those miseries in which Adam involved himself by his defection; for as soon as he revolted from God, the fountain of life, he was cast down from his former state, in order that he might perceive the life of man without God to be wretched and lost, and therefore differing nothing from death. Hence the condition of man after his sin is not improperly called both the privation of life, and death. The miseries and evils both of soul and body, with which man is beset so long as he is on earth, are a kind of entrance into death, till death itself entirely absorbs him; for the Scripture everywhere calls those dead who, being oppressed by the tyranny of sin and Satan, breath nothing but their own destruction. Wherefore the question is superfluous, how it was that God threatened death to Adam on the day in which he should touch the fruit, when he long deferred the punishment? For then was Adam consigned to death, and death began its reign in him, until supervening grace should bring a remedy.

Calvin: Gen 2:18 - It is not good that the man should be alone // I will make him an help // Meet for him 18.It is not good that the man should be alone 136 Moses now explains the design of God in creating the woman; namely, that there should be human bei...

18.It is not good that the man should be alone 136 Moses now explains the design of God in creating the woman; namely, that there should be human beings on the earth who might cultivate mutual society between themselves. Yet a doubt may arise whether this design ought to be extended to progeny, for the words simply mean that since it was not expedient for man to be alone, a wife must be created, who might be his helper. I, however, take the meaning to be this, that God begins, indeed, at the first step of human society, yet designs to include others, each in its proper place. The commencement, therefore, involves a general principle, that man was formed to be a social animal. 137 Now, the human race could not exist without the woman; and, therefore, in the conjunction of human beings, that sacred bond is especially conspicuous, by which the husband and the wife are combined in one body, and one soul; as nature itself taught Plato, and others of the sounder class of philosophers, to speak. But although God pronounced, concerning Adam, that it would not be profitable for him to be alone, yet I do not restrict the declaration to his person alone, but rather regard it as a common law of man’s vocation, so that every one ought to receive it as said to himself, that solitude is not good, excepting only him whom God exempts as by a special privilege. Many think that celibacy conduces to their advantage, 138 and therefore, abstain from marriage, lest they should be miserable. Not only have heathen writers defined that to be a happy life which is passed without a wife, but the first book of Jerome, against Jovinian, is stuffed with petulant reproaches, by which he attempts to render hallowed wedlock both hateful and infamous. To these wicked suggestions of Satan let the faithful learn to oppose this declaration of God, by which he ordains the conjugal life for man, not to his destruction, but to his salvation.

I will make him an help It may be inquired, why this is not said in the plural number, Let us make, as before in the creation of man. Some suppose that a distinction between the two sexes is in this manner marked, and that it is thus shown how much the man excels the woman. But I am better satisfied with an interpretation which, though not altogether contrary, is yet different; namely, since in the person of the man the human race had been created, the common dignity of our whole nature was without distinction, honored with one eulogy, when it was said, Let us make man; nor was it necessary to be repeated in creating the woman, who was nothing else than an accession to the man. Certainly, it cannot be denied, that the woman also, though in the second degree, was created in the image of God; whence it follows, that what was said in the creation of the man belongs to the female sex. Now, since God assigns the woman as a help to the man, he not only prescribes to wives the rule of their vocation to instruct them in their duty, but he also pronounces that marriage will really prove to men the best support of life. We may therefore conclude, that the order of nature implies that the woman should be the helper of the man. The vulgar proverb, indeed, is, that she is a necessary evil; but the voice of God is rather to be heard, which declares that woman is given as a companion and an associate to the man, to assist him to live well. I confess, indeed, that in this corrupt state of mankind, the blessing of God, which is here described, is neither perceived nor flourishes; but the cause of the evil must be considered, namely, that the order of nature, which God had appointed, has been inverted by us. For if the integrity of man had remained to this day such as it was from the beginning, that divine institution would be clearly discerned, and the sweetest harmony would reign in marriage; because the husband would look up with reverence to God; the woman in this would be a faithful assistant to him; and both, with one consent, would cultivate a holy, as well as friendly and peaceful intercourse. Now, it has happened by our fault, and by the corruption of nature, that this happiness of marriage has, in a great measure, perished, or, at least, is mixed and infected with many inconveniences. Hence arise strifes, troubles, sorrows, dissensions, and a boundless sea of evils; and hence it follows, that men are often disturbed by their wives, and suffer through them many discouragements. Still, marriage was not capable of being so far vitiated by the depravity of men, that the blessing which God has once sanctioned by his word should be utterly abolished and extinguished. Therefore, amidst many inconveniences of marriage, which are the fruits of degenerate nature, some residue of divine good remains; as in the fire apparently smothered, some sparks still glitter. On this main point hangs another, that women, being instructed in their duty of helping their husbands, should study to keep this divinely appointed order. It is also the part of men to consider what they owe in return to the other half of their kind, for the obligation of both sexes is mutual, and on this condition is the woman assigned as a help to the man, that he may fill the place of her head and leader. One thing more is to be noted, that, when the woman is here called the help of the man, no allusion is made to that necessity to which we are reduced since the fall of Adam; for the woman was ordained to be the man’s helper, even although he had stood in his integrity. But now, since the depravity of appetite also requires a remedy, we have from God a double benefit: but the latter is accidental.

Meet for him 139 In the Hebrew it is כנגדו ( kenegedo,) “as if opposite to,” or “over against him.” כ ( Caph) in that language is a note of similitude. But although some of the Rabbies think it is here put as an affirmative, yet I take it in its general sense, as though it were said that she is a kind of counterpart, (ἀντίστοικον, or ἀντίστροφον; 140) for the woman is said to be opposite to or over against the man, because she responds to him. But the particle of similitude seems to me to be added because it is a form of speech taken from common usage. 141 The Greek translators have faithfully rendered the sense, Κατ᾿’ αὐτόν; 142 and Jerome, “Which may be like him,” 143 for Moses intended to note some equality. And hence is refitted the error of some, who think that the woman was formed only for the sake of propagation, and who restrict the word “good,” which had been lately mentioned, to the production of offspring. They do not think that a wife was personally necessary for Adam, because he was hitherto free from lust; as if she had been given to him only for the companion of his chamber, and not rather that she might be the inseparable associate of his life. Wherefore the particle כ ( caph) is of importance, as intimating that marriage extends to all parts and usages of life. The explanation given by others, as if it were said, Let her be ready to obedience, is cold; for Moses intended to express more, as is manifest from what follows.

Calvin: Gen 2:19 - And out of the ground the Lord God formed, etc 19.And out of the ground the Lord God formed, etc 144 This is a more ample exposition of the preceding sentence, for he says that, of all the animals...

19.And out of the ground the Lord God formed, etc 144 This is a more ample exposition of the preceding sentence, for he says that, of all the animals, when they had been placed in order, not one was found which might be conferred upon and adapted to Adam; nor was there such affinity of nature, that Adam could choose for himself a companion for life out of any one species. Nor did this occur through ignorance, for each species had passed in review before Adam, and he had imposed names upon them, not rashly but from certain knowledge; yet there was no just proportion between him and them. Therefore, unless a wife had been given him of the same kind with himself, he would have remained destitute of a suitable and proper help. Moreover, what is here said of God’s bringing the animals to Adam 145 signifies nothing else than that he endued them with the disposition to obedience, so that they would voluntarily offer themselves to the man, in order that he, having closely inspected them, might distinguish them by appropriate names, agreeing with the nature of each. This gentleness towards man would have remained also in wild beasts, if Adam, by his defection from God, had not lost the authority he had before received. But now, from the time in which he began to be rebellious against God, he experienced the ferocity of brute animals against himself; for some are tamed with difficulty, others always remain unsubdued, and some, even of their own accord, inspire us with terror by their fierceness. Yet some remains of their former subjection continue to the present time, as we shall see in the second verse of the ninth chapter (Gen 9:2.) Besides, it is to be remarked that Moses speaks only of those animals which approach the nearest to man, for the fishes live as in another world. As to the names which Adam imposed, I do not doubt that each of them was founded on the best reason; but their use, with many other good things, has become obsolete.

Calvin: Gen 2:21 - And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall, etc 21.And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall, etc Although to profane persons this method of forming woman may seem ridiculous, and some of these ...

21.And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall, etc Although to profane persons this method of forming woman may seem ridiculous, and some of these may say that Moses is dealing in fables, yet to us the wonderful providence of God here shines forth; for, to the end that the conjunction of the human race might be the more sacred he purposed that both males and females should spring from one and the same origin. Therefore he created human nature in the person of Adam, and thence formed Eve, that the woman should be only a portion of the whole human race. This is the import of the words of Moses which we have had before, (Gen 1:28,) “God created man... he made them male and female.” In this manner Adam was taught to recognize himself in his wife, as in a mirror; and Eve, in her turn, to submit herself willingly to her husband, as being taken out of him. But if the two sexes had proceeded from different sources, there would have been occasion either of mutual contempt, or envy, or contentions. And against what do perverse men here object? ‘The narration does not seem credible, since it is at variance with custom.’ As if, indeed, such an objection would have more color than one raised against the usual mode of the production of mankind, if the latter were not known by use and experience. 146 But they object that either the rib which was taken from Adam had been superfluous, or that his body had been mutilated by the absence of the rib. To either of these it may be answered, that they find out a great absurdity. If, however, we should say that the rib out of which he would form another body had been prepared previously by the Creator of the world, I find nothing in this answer which is not in accordance with Divine Providence. Yet I am more in favor of a different conjecture, namely, that something was taken from Adam, in order that he might embrace, with greater benevolence, a part of himself. He lost, therefore, one of his ribs; but, instead of it, a far richer reward was granted him, since he obtained a faithful associate of life; for he now saw himself, who had before been imperfect, rendered complete in his wife. 147 And in this we see a true resemblance of our union with the Son of God; for he became weak that he might have members of his body endued with strength. In the meantime, it is to be noted, that Adam had been plunged in a sleep so profound, that he felt no pain; and further, that neither had the rupture been violent, nor was any want perceived of the lost rib, because God so filled up the vacuity with flesh, that his strength remained unimpaired; only the hardness of bone was removed. Moses also designedly used the word built, 148 to teach us that in the person of the woman the human race was at length complete, which had before been like a building just begun. Others refer the expression to the domestic economy, as if Moses would say that legitimate family order was then instituted, which does not differ widely from the former exposition.

Calvin: Gen 2:22 - And brought her, etc 22.And brought her, etc Moses now relates that marriage was divinely instituted, which is especially useful to be known; for since Adam did not take ...

22.And brought her, etc Moses now relates that marriage was divinely instituted, which is especially useful to be known; for since Adam did not take a wife to himself at his own will, but received her as offered and appropriated to him by God, the sanctity of marriage hence more clearly appears, because we recognize God as its Author. The more Satan has endeavored to dishonor marriage, the more should we vindicate it from all reproach and abuse, that it may receive its due reverence. Thence it will follow that the children of God may embrace a conjugal life with a good and tranquil conscience, and husbands and wives may live together in chastity and honor. The artifice of Satan in attempting the defamation of marriage was twofold: first, that by means of the odium attached to it he might introduce the pestilential law of celibacy; and, secondly, that married persons might indulge themselves in whatever license they pleased. Therefore, by showing the dignity of marriage, we must remove superstition, lest it should in the slightest degree hinder the faithful from chastely using the lawful and pure ordinance of God; and further, we must oppose the lasciviousness of the flesh, in order that men may live modestly with their wives. But if no other reason influenced us, yet this alone ought to be abundantly sufficient, that unless we think and speak honorably of marriage, reproach is attached to its Author and Patron, for such God is here described as being by Moses.

Calvin: Gen 2:23 - And Adam said, etc // This is now bone of, etc 23.And Adam said, etc It is demanded whence Adam derived this knowledge since he was at that time buried in deep sleep. If we say that his quickness ...

23.And Adam said, etc It is demanded whence Adam derived this knowledge since he was at that time buried in deep sleep. If we say that his quickness of perception was then such as to enable him by conjecture to form a judgment, the solution would be weak. But we ought not to doubt that God would make the whole course of the affair manifest to him, either by secret revelation or by his word; for it was not from any necessity on God’s part that He borrowed from man the rib out of which he might form the woman; but he designed that they should be more closely joined together by this bonds which could not have been effected unless he had informed them of the fact. Moses does not indeed explain by what means God gave them this information; yet unless we would make the work of God superfluous, we must conclude that its Author revealed both the fact itself and the method and design of its accomplishment. The deep sleep was sent upon Adam, not to hide from him the origin of his wife, but to exempt him from pain and trouble, until he should receive a compensation so excellent for the loss of his rib.

This is now bone of, etc 149 In using the expression הפעם ( hac vice,) Adam indicates that something had been wanting to him; as if he had said, Now at length I have obtained a suitable companion, who is part of the substance of my flesh, and in whom I behold, as it were, another self. And he gives to his wife a name taken from that of man, 150 that by this testimony and this mark he might transmit a perpetual memorial of the wisdom of God. A deficiency in the Latin language has compelled the ancient interpreter to render אשה ( ishah,) by the word virago. It is, however, to be remarked, that the Hebrew term means nothing else than the female of the man.

Calvin: Gen 2:24 - Therefore shall a man leave // They shall be one flesh 24.Therefore shall a man leave It is doubted whether Moses here introduces God as speaking, or continues the discourse of Adam, or, indeed, has added...

24.Therefore shall a man leave It is doubted whether Moses here introduces God as speaking, or continues the discourse of Adam, or, indeed, has added this, in virtue of his office as teacher, in his own person. 151 The last of these is that which I most approve. Therefore, after he has related historically what God had done, he also demonstrates the end of the divine institution. The sum of the whole is, that among the offices pertaining to human society, this is the principal, and as it were the most sacred, that a man should cleave unto his wife. And he amplifies this by a superadded comparison, that the husband ought to prefer his wife to his father. But the father is said to be left not because marriage severs sons from their fathers, or dispenses with other ties of nature, for in this way God would be acting contrary to himself. While, however, the piety of the son towards his father is to be most assiduously cultivated and ought in itself to be deemed inviolable and sacred, yet Moses so speaks of marriage as to show that it is less lawful to desert a wife than parents. Therefore, they who, for slight causes, rashly allow of divorces, violate, in one single particular, all the laws of nature, and reduce them to nothing. If we should make it a point of conscience not to separate a father from his son, it is a still greater wickedness to dissolve the bond which God has preferred to all others.

They shall be one flesh 152 Although the ancient Latin interpreter has translated the passage ‘in one flesh,’ yet the Greek interpreters have expressed it more forcibly: ‘They two shall be into one flesh,’ and thus Christ cites the place in Mat 19:5. But though here no mention is made of two, yet there is no ambiguity in the sense; for Moses had not said that God has assigned many wives, but only one to one man; and in the general direction given, he had put the wife in the singular number. It remains, therefore, that the conjugal bond subsists between two persons only, whence it easily appears, that nothing is less accordant with the divine institution than polygamy. Now, when Christ, in censuring the voluntary divorces of the Jews, adduces as his reason for doing it, that ‘it was not so in the beginning,’ (Mat 19:5,) he certainly commands this institution to be observed as a perpetual rule of conduct. To the same point also Malachi recalls the Jews of his own time:

‘Did he not make them one from the beginning? and yet the Spirit was abounding in him.’ 153 (Mal 2:15.)

Wherefore, there is no doubt that polygamy is a corruption of legitimate marriage.

Calvin: Gen 2:25 - They were both naked 25.They were both naked That the nakedness of men should be deemed indecorous and unsightly, while that of cattle has nothing disgraceful, seems litt...

25.They were both naked That the nakedness of men should be deemed indecorous and unsightly, while that of cattle has nothing disgraceful, seems little to agree with the dignity of human nature. We cannot behold a naked man without a sense of shame; yet at the sight of an ass, a dog, or an ox, no such feeling will be produced. Moreover, every one is ashamed of his own nakedness, even though other witnesses may not be present. Where then is that dignity in which we excel? The cause of this sense of shame, to which we are now alluding, Moses will show in the next chapter. He now esteems it enough to say, that in our uncorrupted nature, there was nothing but what was honorable; whence it follows, that whatsoever is opprobrious in us, must be imputed to our own fault, since our parents had nothing in themselves which was unbecoming until they were defiled with sin.

Defender: Gen 2:1 - finished The strong emphasis in these verses on the completion of all of God's creating and making activity is a clear refutation of both ancient evolutionary ...

The strong emphasis in these verses on the completion of all of God's creating and making activity is a clear refutation of both ancient evolutionary pantheism and modern evolutionary materialism, which seek to explain the origin and development of all things in terms of natural processes and laws innate to the universe. Creation is complete, not continuing (except in miracles, of course; if evolution takes place at all, it would require continuing miraculous intervention in the present laws of nature)."

Defender: Gen 2:2 - ended his work This statement of completed creation anticipates the modern scientific laws of thermodynamics. The First Law states essentially the same truth: the un...

This statement of completed creation anticipates the modern scientific laws of thermodynamics. The First Law states essentially the same truth: the universe is not now being created but is being conserved, with neither matter nor energy being created or destroyed. On the Second Law (the universal law of increasing disorder) see Gen 3:17, note; and Gen 1:1, note."

Defender: Gen 2:3 - sanctified it God's "rest" on the seventh day is not continuing; the verb is in the past tense - "rested," not "is resting." His blessing and hallowing of the seven...

God's "rest" on the seventh day is not continuing; the verb is in the past tense - "rested," not "is resting." His blessing and hallowing of the seventh day could not apply to this present age of sin and death, but only to the "very good" world He had just completed.

Nevertheless, this "hallowing" of every seventh day was for man's benefit (Mar 2:27) and was obviously intended as a permanent human institution. This institution is not controlled by the heavenly bodies which mark days, months, seasons and years, but by the physical and spiritual need of all men for a weekly day of rest and worship in thankfulness for God's great gift of creation and (later) for His even greater gift of salvation. The Sabbath (literally rest) day was incorporated in the Mosaic covenant with Israel in a special way, but its use preceded Israel and will continue eternally (Isa 66:23). However, the emphasis is on a seventh day, not necessarily Saturday. Since Christ's resurrection, in fact, most Christians have identified their weekly cycle as centering on the first day of the week. The age-long, worldwide observance of the week is not contingent on the movements of the sun and moon (like the day, the month and the year) but is rather mute testimony to its primeval establishment as a memorial of God's literal seven-day creation week."

Defender: Gen 2:4 - generations "Generations" (Hebrew toledoth) is the word from which the book of Genesis gets its name. In the Septuagint it is rendered by the Greek genesis, which...

"Generations" (Hebrew toledoth) is the word from which the book of Genesis gets its name. In the Septuagint it is rendered by the Greek genesis, which in Mat 1:1 is translated "generation." This is the first occurrence of the formula which marks the key subdivisions of the book: "These are the generations of ...." The others are at Gen 5:1; Gen 6:9; Gen 10:1; Gen 11:10, Gen 11:27; Gen 25:19; Gen 36:1, Gen 36:9; Gen 37:2.

In all except this first one, the name of a specific patriarch is attached. Parallels with the terminology of the ancient Babylonian tablets indicate that these names are actually the signatures of the original writers of the particular tablets. That is, each of these primeval patriarchs kept the narrative records of his own generations, inscribing them on stone or clay tablets and then appending his name at the end when he was ready to turn over the tablets and the task of writing the toledoth to the next in line. These tablets eventually came into Moses' possession, who wrote the last section of Genesis (Gen 37:3), obtaining the information from "the sons of Jacob" (Exo 1:1), as well as organizing and editing all the rest under divine inspiration, so that the entire collection finally became, in effect, the first of the five books of Moses. Since the first tablet (Genesis 1:1-2:4a) tells of events prior to the existence of any witness to record them, God Himself either wrote this section directly or specifically revealed it to Adam. It describes the generations of no person but rather those of the cosmos itself.

Defender: Gen 2:4 - in the day As per the ancient Babylonian practice, the next tablet, beginning at Gen 2:4, keys in to the previous one by a phrase which both associates with the ...

As per the ancient Babylonian practice, the next tablet, beginning at Gen 2:4, keys in to the previous one by a phrase which both associates with the preceding histories and initiates the new narrative. The "day" of this verse does not necessarily refer to the entire creation week, as day-age theory advocates allege. It more likely refers to the first day of that week when God created the earth and the heavens, as just stated in Gen 2:4, and then proceeded also to "make" them through the rest of the six days."

Defender: Gen 2:5 - before it grew This statement clearly teaches the fact of a mature creation, or creation of apparent age. The first plants did not grow from seeds but were created f...

This statement clearly teaches the fact of a mature creation, or creation of apparent age. The first plants did not grow from seeds but were created full grown."

Defender: Gen 2:6 - rain upon the earth The primeval hydrological cycle was subterranean rather than atmospheric (see note on Gen 1:7). The absence of rain was a consequence of the water vap...

The primeval hydrological cycle was subterranean rather than atmospheric (see note on Gen 1:7). The absence of rain was a consequence of the water vapor above the firmament and the uniform temperature which it maintained over the earth. Rain today is dependent on the global circulation of the atmosphere, transporting water evaporated from the ocean inland to condense and precipitate on the lands. This circulation is driven by worldwide temperature differences in the atmosphere and would be impossible to attain with the global warmth sustained by the canopy.

Defender: Gen 2:6 - mist The "mist" was not a river, as some writers think, as the Hebrew word simply means water vapor (Job 36:27); it refers merely to the local daily cycle ...

The "mist" was not a river, as some writers think, as the Hebrew word simply means water vapor (Job 36:27); it refers merely to the local daily cycle of evaporation and condensation occasioned by the day/night temperature cycle."

Defender: Gen 2:7 - dust of the ground Man's body was formed out of the "elements of the earth," the same materials (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.) from which both plants and the bodies of...

Man's body was formed out of the "elements of the earth," the same materials (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.) from which both plants and the bodies of the animals had been formed (Gen 1:12, Gen 1:24). This unity of physical composition is a fact of modern science long anticipated by Scripture.

Defender: Gen 2:7 - breath of life Though animals also possess the "breath" (Hebrew neshimah; - Gen 7:22) and the "soul" (Hebrew nephesh; - Gen 1:24), man's breath (same word as spirit)...

Though animals also possess the "breath" (Hebrew neshimah; - Gen 7:22) and the "soul" (Hebrew nephesh; - Gen 1:24), man's breath (same word as spirit) and soul were imparted to him by God directly , rather than indirectly, as imparted to the animals.

Defender: Gen 2:7 - living soul Evolution is again refuted at this point. If man's body had been derived from an animal's body by any kind of evolutionary process, he would already h...

Evolution is again refuted at this point. If man's body had been derived from an animal's body by any kind of evolutionary process, he would already have possessed the nephesh, rather than "becoming a living soul" when God gave him the breath of life."

Defender: Gen 2:8 - Eden Eden was evidently a region somewhere east of where Adam first received consciousness, so that he could watch as God "planted" a beautiful garden ther...

Eden was evidently a region somewhere east of where Adam first received consciousness, so that he could watch as God "planted" a beautiful garden there for his home. Though this was to be his base, he was actually instructed to "subdue" and "rule" the whole earth (Gen 1:26-28). This verse is a summary, with Gen 2:9-14 going back to give more details concerning Adam's home."

Defender: Gen 2:9 - tree of life The "tree of life" was an actual tree, with real fruit (Gen 3:22; Rev 22:2) whose properties would have enabled even mortal men to live indefinitely. ...

The "tree of life" was an actual tree, with real fruit (Gen 3:22; Rev 22:2) whose properties would have enabled even mortal men to live indefinitely. Though modern scientists may have difficulty in determining the nature of such a remarkable food, they also have been unable so far even to determine the basic physiological cause of aging and death. Thus it is impossible to say scientifically that no chemical substance could exist which might stabilize all metabolic processes and thereby prevent aging.

Defender: Gen 2:9 - tree of knowledge The same cautions apply to any discussions of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which likewise was genuinely physical. It is concei...

The same cautions apply to any discussions of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which likewise was genuinely physical. It is conceivable that the fruit contained substances capable of catalyzing physiological decay processes in the body, perhaps affecting even the genetic system. Whether or not this was the case, a "knowledge" of evil would necessarily follow its eating, since evil is fundamentally rejection of God's Word. Man had abundant knowledge of good already since everything God had made was "very good" (Gen 1:31), but disobedience would itself constitute an experimental knowledge of evil."

Defender: Gen 2:10 - out of Eden The geography described in these verses obviously corresponds to nothing in the present world, although some of the names sound familiar. The Noahic F...

The geography described in these verses obviously corresponds to nothing in the present world, although some of the names sound familiar. The Noahic Flood was so cataclysmic in its effects (2Pe 3:6) that the primeval geography was obliterated, with the post-Flood continents and oceans being completely different.

The similarity of certain names (Ethiopia, Euphrates) is best explained in terms of the ascription by Noah or his sons of these names to postdiluvian features which reminded them of antediluvian geographic features, just as the explorers of America often gave European names to American sites."

Defender: Gen 2:11 - four heads The rivers described in this section could not have derived their waters from rainfall (Gen 2:5), and so must have been fed by artesian springs, or co...

The rivers described in this section could not have derived their waters from rainfall (Gen 2:5), and so must have been fed by artesian springs, or controlled fountains from the great deep. This implies a network of subterranean pressurized reservoirs and channels fed from the primeval seas and energized by the earth's internal heat (see note on Gen 1:9, Gen 1:10)."

Defender: Gen 2:12 - is good The present tense in which this description is written indicates it to be an eye-witness account, and thus most likely a record originally from Adam h...

The present tense in which this description is written indicates it to be an eye-witness account, and thus most likely a record originally from Adam himself. However, the past tense in Gen 2:10 "went" may suggest that at the time when Adam actually wrote it, the garden of Eden was no longer there.

Defender: Gen 2:12 - bdellium The "bdellium" was evidently a precious gum, likened to the bread from heaven sent to the Israelites in the wilderness (Num 11:7)."

The "bdellium" was evidently a precious gum, likened to the bread from heaven sent to the Israelites in the wilderness (Num 11:7)."

Defender: Gen 2:15 - keep it The ideal world, both before the entrance of sin and after the removal of sin (Rev 22:3) is not one of idleness and frolic, but one of serious activit...

The ideal world, both before the entrance of sin and after the removal of sin (Rev 22:3) is not one of idleness and frolic, but one of serious activity and service. Adam was placed in an ideal environment and circumstances, so he had no excuse for rejecting God's love and authority."

Defender: Gen 2:17 - not eat of it For true fellowship with God (having been created in His image), man must be free to reject that fellowship. The restriction imposed here by God is th...

For true fellowship with God (having been created in His image), man must be free to reject that fellowship. The restriction imposed here by God is the simplest, most straightforward test that could be devised for determining man's volitional response to God's love. There was only one minor restraint placed on Adam's freedom and, with an abundance of delicious fruit of all types available, there was no justification for his desiring the one forbidden fruit. Nevertheless, he did have a choice, and so was a free moral agent, capable of accepting or rejecting God's will.

Defender: Gen 2:17 - die "Thou shalt surely die" could be rendered, "Dying, thou shalt die!" In the very day that he would experimentally come to "know evil" through disobeyin...

"Thou shalt surely die" could be rendered, "Dying, thou shalt die!" In the very day that he would experimentally come to "know evil" through disobeying God's Word, he would die spiritually, being separated from God's direct fellowship. Adam would also begin to die physically, with the initiation of decay processes in his body ultimately causing his physical death."

Defender: Gen 2:18 - meet for him The events described here all took place on the sixth day of the creation week after which God pronounced all things very good. All the animals had be...

The events described here all took place on the sixth day of the creation week after which God pronounced all things very good. All the animals had been created "male and female" (Gen 6:19) and instructed to "multiply on the earth" (Gen 1:24), but man still needed a "helper like him" (literal meaning)."

Defender: Gen 2:19 - God formed A better, and quite legitimate, translation is "had formed." Thus there is no contradiction with the order of creation in Genesis 1 (animals before ma...

A better, and quite legitimate, translation is "had formed." Thus there is no contradiction with the order of creation in Genesis 1 (animals before man). The first chapter of Genesis gives a summary of the events on all six days of creation; the second chapter provides more details of certain events of the sixth day.

Defender: Gen 2:19 - the name thereof The animals named by Adam included only birds, domesticable animals, and the smaller wild animals that would live near him. It would be possible for h...

The animals named by Adam included only birds, domesticable animals, and the smaller wild animals that would live near him. It would be possible for him to name about 3,000 of the basic kinds of these animals in about five hours (one every six seconds), and this would be adequate both to acquaint Adam with those animals and also to show clearly that there were none who were sufficiently like him to provide companionship for him. This is still further proof that man did not evolve from any of the animals, even those that were most directly associated with him."

Defender: Gen 2:20 - not found As far as fossil evidence is concerned, many fossils of true men have been found (Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon, etc.) as well as fossils of true apes. The ...

As far as fossil evidence is concerned, many fossils of true men have been found (Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon, etc.) as well as fossils of true apes. The so-called hominids (Australopithecus, Homo erectus, etc.) are fragmentary and controversial even among evolutionists and can all be interpreted either as extinct apes or degenerated men."

Defender: Gen 2:21 - deep sleep The "deep sleep" was not simply an anesthetized state to prevent pain, since there was as yet no pain in the world. It was most likely ordained as a p...

The "deep sleep" was not simply an anesthetized state to prevent pain, since there was as yet no pain in the world. It was most likely ordained as a primeval picture of the future death of the second Adam, whose sacrificial death would result in the formation of His bride (2Co 11:2; Eph 5:30).

Defender: Gen 2:21 - ribs The "rib" was actually the "side" of Adam (the Hebrew tsela occurs thirty-five times in the Old Testament and is nowhere else translated "rib"). The s...

The "rib" was actually the "side" of Adam (the Hebrew tsela occurs thirty-five times in the Old Testament and is nowhere else translated "rib"). The side contained both "bone" and "flesh" (Gen 2:23), but it may be that both are implied in the blood that would necessarily flow from the opened side. The "life of the flesh is in the blood" (Gen 9:4; Lev 17:11) and a primeval blood "transfusion" would more perfectly fit the event as a type of the opened side of Christ on the cross (Joh 19:34-36). Even if the operation did actually extract a rib from Adam, this would not suggest that men should have one less rib than women, since "acquired characteristics" are not hereditable."

Defender: Gen 2:22 - made he a woman This remarkable record of the formation of the first woman could hardly have been invented by human imagination. Neither can it be interpreted in the ...

This remarkable record of the formation of the first woman could hardly have been invented by human imagination. Neither can it be interpreted in the context of theistic evolution, even if one could interpret the formation of Adam's body from the dust in evolutionary terms. Its historicity is confirmed in the New Testament (1Ti 2:13; 1Co 11:8). All other men have been born of woman, but the first woman was made from man."

Defender: Gen 2:24 - one flesh The literal historicity of this event and its primary importance in human life are confirmed by both the Apostle Paul (Eph 5:30-31) and the Lord Jesus...

The literal historicity of this event and its primary importance in human life are confirmed by both the Apostle Paul (Eph 5:30-31) and the Lord Jesus Christ (Mat 19:3-9; Mar 10:2-12). Although men and women through the ages have corrupted this divine institution in many ways (adultery, divorce, polygamy, homosexuality, etc.), "from the beginning it was not so" (Mat 19:8). The institution of the home is the first and most basic human institution and was intended to be monogamous and permanent until death. It is significant that cultures of all times and sorts have acknowledged the superiority of monogamy, even though they have not always practiced it. Such an awareness could not be a product of evolution since it does not characterize most animals, and thus can only be explained in terms of this primeval creation and revelation. Furthermore, the fact that it took place at the very beginning of creation, rather than billions of years after the beginning, was confirmed by the Lord Jesus Christ Himself (Mar 10:6)."

Defender: Gen 2:25 - not ashamed The lack of shame at nakedness was not because of a hardened conscience, as is true today, but because the physiological differences of Adam and Eve h...

The lack of shame at nakedness was not because of a hardened conscience, as is true today, but because the physiological differences of Adam and Eve had been divinely created in accordance with God's purpose. They had been brought together by God with the express commandment to "be fruitful and multiply" (Gen 1:28). At this time they were still without sin and thus without consciousness of moral guilt. Later, however, their sin brought an awareness that the springs of human life had been poisoned, both in themselves and in their progeny. This discovery made them painfully aware of their reproductive organs, and they were then "ashamed.""

TSK: Gen 2:1 - Thus // host Thus : Gen 2:4, Gen 1:1, Gen 1:10; Exo 20:11, Exo 31:17; 2Ki 19:15; 2Ch 2:12; Neh 9:6; Job 12:9; Psa 89:11-13, Psa 104:2, Psa 136:5-8, Psa 146:6; Isa ...

TSK: Gen 2:2 - And on // seventh day God // rested And on : Gen 1:31; Exo 20:11, Exo 23:12, Exo 31:17; Deu 5:14; Isa 58:13; Joh 5:17; Heb 4:4 seventh day God : The LXX, Syriac, and the Samaritan Text r...

And on : Gen 1:31; Exo 20:11, Exo 23:12, Exo 31:17; Deu 5:14; Isa 58:13; Joh 5:17; Heb 4:4

seventh day God : The LXX, Syriac, and the Samaritan Text read the sixth day, which is probably the true reading; as ו [Strong’ s H2053], which stands for six, might easily be changed into ז , which denotes seven.

rested : Or, rather, ceased, as the Hebrew word is not opposed to weariness, but to action; as the Divine Being can neither know fatigue, nor stand in need of rest.

TSK: Gen 2:3 - blessed // created and made blessed : Exo 16:22-30, Exo 20:8-11, Exo 23:12, Exo 31:13-17, Exo 34:21, Exo 35:2, Exo 35:3; Lev 23:3, Lev 25:2, Lev 25:3; Deu 5:12-14; Neh 9:14, Neh ...

TSK: Gen 2:4 - the generations // Lord the generations : Gen 1:4, Gen 5:1, Gen 10:1, Gen 11:10, Gen 25:12, Gen 25:19, Gen 36:1, Gen 36:9; Exo 6:16; Job 38:28; Psa 90:1, Psa 90:2 Lord : Exo ...

TSK: Gen 2:5 - plant // had not // to till plant : Gen 1:12; Psa 104:14 had not : Job 5:10, Job 38:26-28; Psa 65:9-11, Psa 135:7; Jer 14:22; Mat 5:45; Heb 6:7 to till : Gen 3:23, Gen 4:2, Gen 4...

TSK: Gen 2:6 - there went up a mist there went up a mist : or, a mist which went up, Gen 2:6

there went up a mist : or, a mist which went up, Gen 2:6

TSK: Gen 2:7 - formed man // of the dust // dust // and breathed // nostrils // a living formed man : Psa 100:3, Psa 139:14, Psa 139:15; Isa 64:8 of the dust : Heb. the dust of, etc dust : Gen 3:19, Gen 3:23; Job 4:19, Job 33:6; Psa 103:14...

TSK: Gen 2:8 - a garden // eastward // put the a garden : Gen 13:10; Eze 28:13, Eze 31:8, Eze 31:9; Joe 2:3 eastward : Gen 3:24, Gen 4:16; 2Ki 19:12; Eze 27:23, Eze 31:16, Eze 31:18 put the : Gen 2...

TSK: Gen 2:9 - every // tree of life // tree of knowledge every : Eze 31:8, Eze 31:9, Eze 31:16, Eze 31:18 tree of life : Gen 3:22; Pro 3:18, Pro 11:30; Eze 47:12; Joh 6:48; Rev 2:7, Rev 22:2, Rev 22:14 tree ...

TSK: Gen 2:10 - a river // Eden a river : Psa 46:4; Rev 22:1 Eden : Eden denotes pleasure or delight; but was certainly the name of a place, and was, most probably, situated in Armen...

a river : Psa 46:4; Rev 22:1

Eden : Eden denotes pleasure or delight; but was certainly the name of a place, and was, most probably, situated in Armenia, near the sources of the great rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Phasis, and Araxes.

TSK: Gen 2:11 - Havilah Havilah : Gen 10:7, Gen 10:29, Gen 25:18; 1Sa 15:7

TSK: Gen 2:12 - onyx Bdellium is a transparent aromatic gum. The onyx is a precious stone, so called from a Greek word signifying a man’ s nail, to the colour of whi...

Bdellium is a transparent aromatic gum. The onyx is a precious stone, so called from a Greek word signifying a man’ s nail, to the colour of which it nearly approaches.

Num 11:7

onyx : Exo 28:20, Exo 39:13; Job 28:16; Eze 28:13

TSK: Gen 2:13 - Gihon // Ethiopia Gihon : The Araxes, which runs into the Caspian sea. Ethiopia : Heb. Cush, The country of the ancient Cussaei. Gen 10:6; Isa 11:11

Gihon : The Araxes, which runs into the Caspian sea.

Ethiopia : Heb. Cush, The country of the ancient Cussaei. Gen 10:6; Isa 11:11

TSK: Gen 2:14 - Hiddekel // toward the east of // Euphrates Hiddekel : Dan 10:4, The Tigris toward the east of : or, eastward to, Gen 10:11, Gen 10:22, Gen 25:18 Euphrates : Gen 15:18; Deu 1:7, Deu 11:24; Rev 9...

Hiddekel : Dan 10:4, The Tigris

toward the east of : or, eastward to, Gen 10:11, Gen 10:22, Gen 25:18

Euphrates : Gen 15:18; Deu 1:7, Deu 11:24; Rev 9:14

TSK: Gen 2:15 - the man // put the man : or, Adam, Gen 2:2; Job 31:33 put : Gen 2:8; Psa 128:2; Eph 4:28

the man : or, Adam, Gen 2:2; Job 31:33

put : Gen 2:8; Psa 128:2; Eph 4:28

TSK: Gen 2:16 - God // thou mayest freely eat God : 1Sa 15:22 thou mayest freely eat : Heb. eating thou shalt eat, Gen 2:9, Gen 3:1, Gen 3:2; 1Ti 4:4, 1Ti 6:17

God : 1Sa 15:22

thou mayest freely eat : Heb. eating thou shalt eat, Gen 2:9, Gen 3:1, Gen 3:2; 1Ti 4:4, 1Ti 6:17

TSK: Gen 2:17 - of the tree // surely // thou shalt surely die of the tree : Gen 2:9, Gen 3:1-3, Gen 3:11, Gen 3:17, Gen 3:19 surely : Gen 3:3, Gen 3:4, Gen 3:19, Gen 20:7; Num 26:65; Deu 27:26; 1Sa 14:39, 1Sa 14:...

TSK: Gen 2:18 - good // I will // meet for him good : Gen 1:31, Gen 3:12; Rth 3:1; Pro 18:22; Ecc 4:9-12; 1Co 7:36 I will : Gen 3:12; 1Co 11:7-12; 1Ti 2:11-13; 1Pe 3:7 meet for him : Heb. as before...

good : Gen 1:31, Gen 3:12; Rth 3:1; Pro 18:22; Ecc 4:9-12; 1Co 7:36

I will : Gen 3:12; 1Co 11:7-12; 1Ti 2:11-13; 1Pe 3:7

meet for him : Heb. as before him

TSK: Gen 2:19 - And out // brought // Adam And out : Gen 1:20-25 brought : Gen 2:22, Gen 2:23, Gen 1:26, Gen 1:28, Gen 6:20, Gen 9:2; Psa 8:4-8 Adam : or, the man, Gen 2:15

And out : Gen 1:20-25

brought : Gen 2:22, Gen 2:23, Gen 1:26, Gen 1:28, Gen 6:20, Gen 9:2; Psa 8:4-8

Adam : or, the man, Gen 2:15

TSK: Gen 2:20 - gave names to // but gave names to : Heb. called but : Gen 2:18

gave names to : Heb. called

but : Gen 2:18

TSK: Gen 2:21 - -- Gen 15:12; 1Sa 26:12; Job 4:13, Job 33:15; Pro 19:15; Dan 8:18

TSK: Gen 2:22 - made // brought made : Heb. builded, Psa 127:1; 1Ti 2:13 brought : Gen 2:19; Pro 18:22, Pro 19:14; Heb 13:4

made : Heb. builded, Psa 127:1; 1Ti 2:13

brought : Gen 2:19; Pro 18:22, Pro 19:14; Heb 13:4

TSK: Gen 2:23 - bone // flesh // Woman // taken // Man bone : Gen 29:14; Jdg 9:2; 2Sa 5:1, 2Sa 19:13; Eph 5:30 flesh : Gen 2:24 Woman : Heb. Isha , 1Co 11:8, 1Co 11:9 taken : 1Co 11:8 Man : Heb. Ish

bone : Gen 29:14; Jdg 9:2; 2Sa 5:1, 2Sa 19:13; Eph 5:30

flesh : Gen 2:24

Woman : Heb. Isha , 1Co 11:8, 1Co 11:9

taken : 1Co 11:8

Man : Heb. Ish

TSK: Gen 2:24 - leave // cleave // and they shall be one flesh leave : Gen 24:58, Gen 24:59, Gen 31:14, Gen 31:15; Psa 45:10 cleave : Lev 22:12, Lev 22:13; Deu 4:4, Deu 10:20; Jos 23:8; Psa 45:10; Pro 12:4, Pro 31...

leave : Gen 24:58, Gen 24:59, Gen 31:14, Gen 31:15; Psa 45:10

cleave : Lev 22:12, Lev 22:13; Deu 4:4, Deu 10:20; Jos 23:8; Psa 45:10; Pro 12:4, Pro 31:10; Act 11:23

and they shall be one flesh : The LXX, Vulgate, Syriac, Arabic, and Samaritan read, ""they two;""as is also read in several of the Parallel Passages. Mal 2:14-16; Mat 19:3-9; Mar 10:6-12; Rom 7:2; 1Co 6:16, 1Co 6:17, 1Co 7:2-4, 1Co 7:10; 1Co 7:11; Eph 5:28-31; 1Ti 5:14; 1Pe 3:1-7

TSK: Gen 2:25 - naked // ashamed naked : Gen 3:7, Gen 3:10, Gen 3:11 ashamed : Exo 32:25; Psa 25:3, Psa 31:17; Isa 44:9, Isa 47:3, Isa 54:4; Jer 6:15, Jer 17:13; Eze 16:61; Joe 2:26; ...

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 2:1 - hosts hosts for their multitude, variety, order, power, and subjection to the Lord of hosts. Particularly the host of heaven in Scripture (which is its o...

hosts for their multitude, variety, order, power, and subjection to the Lord of hosts. Particularly the host of heaven in Scripture (which is its own best interpreter) signifies both the stars, as Deu 4:19 17:3 Isa 34:4 ; and the angels, as 1Ki 22:19 2Ch 18:18 Luk 2:13 ; who from these words appear to have been created within the compass of the first six days, which also is probable from Col 1:16,17 . But it is no wonder that the Scripture saith so little concerning angels, because it was written for the use of men, not of angels; and God would hereby take us off from curious and impertinent speculations, and teach us to employ our thoughts about necessary and useful things.

Poole: Gen 2:2 - God ended his work // He rested God ended his work or rather had ended or finished, for so the Hebrew word may be rendered, as all the learned know, and so it must be rendered...

God ended his work or rather had ended or

finished, for so the Hebrew word may be rendered, as all the learned know, and so it must be rendered, else it doth not agree with the former chapter, which expressly saith that all these works were done within six days.

He rested not for his own need and refreshment, for he

is never weary, Isa 40:28 ; but for our example and instruction, that we might keep that day as a day of religious rest.

Poole: Gen 2:3 - God blessed the seventh day // Which God created and made God blessed the seventh day by conferring special honours and privileges upon it above all other days, that it should be a day of solemn rest and rej...

God blessed the seventh day by conferring special honours and privileges upon it above all other days, that it should be a day of solemn rest and rejoicing and celebration of God and his works, and a day of God’ s bestowing singular and the best blessings upon his servants and worshippers. He separated it from common use and worldly employments, and consecrated it to the worship of God, that it should be accounted a holy day, and spent in holy works and solemn exercises of religion. Some conceive that the sabbath was not actually blessed and sanctified at and from this time, but only in the days of Moses, which they pretend to be here related by way of anticipation. But this opinion hath no foundation in the text or context, but rather is confuted from them; for as soon as the sacred penman had said that God had

ended his work and rested, & c., he adds immediately in words of the same tense, that God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it And if we compare this place with Exo 20:8-11 , we shall find that Moses there speaks of God’ s blessing and sanctifying of the sabbath, not as an action then first done, but as that which God had done formerly upon the creation of the world, to the end that men might celebrate the praises of God for that glorious work, which as it was agreeable to the state of innocency, so was it no less proper and necessary a duty for the first ages of the world after the fall, than it was for the days of Moses, and for the succeeding generations. Because he would have the memory of that glorious work of creation, from which he then rested, preserved through all generations.

Which God created and made either,

1. Created in making, i.e. made by way of creation; or rather,

2. Created out of nothing, and afterwards out of that created matter

made or formed divers things, as the beasts out of the earth, the fishes out of the water. He useth these two words possibly to show that God’ s wisdom, power, and goodness was manifest, not only in that which he brought out of mere nothing, but also in those things which he wrought out of matter altogether unfit for so great works.

Poole: Gen 2:4 - In the day i.e. These things mentioned in Ge 1 are a true and full relation of their generations, i.e. of their original or beginnings. In the day not stric...

i.e. These things mentioned in Ge 1 are a true and full relation of their generations, i.e. of their original or beginnings.

In the day not strictly so called, but largely taken for the time, as it is Gen 2:17 Rth 4:5 Luk 19:42 2Co 6:2 .

Poole: Gen 2:5 - Before it was in the earth // Before it grew Before it was in the earth i.e. when as yet there were no plants, nor so much as seeds of them, there. Before it grew to wit, out of the earth, as ...

Before it was in the earth i.e. when as yet there were no plants, nor so much as seeds of them, there.

Before it grew to wit, out of the earth, as afterwards they did by God’ s appointment.

The two great means of the growth of plants and herbs, viz. rain from heaven, and the labour of man, were both lacking, to show that they were now brought forth by God’ s almighty power and word.

Poole: Gen 2:6 - There went up // a mist There went up from time to time, by God’ s appointment, a vapour, or cloud, which going up into the air, was turned into rain, and fell do...

There went up from time to time, by God’ s appointment, a vapour, or cloud, which going up into the air, was turned into rain, and fell down again to the earth from whence it arose; whereby the earth was softened, and disposed both to the nourishment of those plants or trees that were created, and to the production of new plants in a natural and ordinary way. But these words may be otherwise understood, the copulative and , here rendered but being put for the disjunctive

or, as it is Exo 21:15,17 Job 6:22 8:3 , and in other places. Or, the negative particle not may be understood out of the foregoing clause, as it is usual in the Hebrew language, as Psa 1:5 9:17 44:19 50:8 Isa 28:27,28 . And so these words may be joined with the foregoing, and both translated in this manner,

There was no rain, nor a man to till the ground, or (or

nor , for both come to one thing) so much as

a mist which went up from the earth, and watered (as afterwards was usual and natural) the whole face of the ground

Poole: Gen 2:7 - Into his nostrils // The breath of life // Man // became a living soul Into his nostrils and by that door into the head and whole man. This is an emphatical phrase, sufficiently implying that the soul of man was of a qui...

Into his nostrils and by that door into the head and whole man. This is an emphatical phrase, sufficiently implying that the soul of man was of a quite differing nature and higher extraction and original than the souls of beasts, which together with their bodies are said to be brought forth by the earth, Gen 1:24 .

The breath of life Heb. of lives; either to show the continuance of this breath or soul, both in this life and in the life to come; or to note the various degrees or kinds of life which this one breath worketh in us; the life of plants, in growth and nourishment; the life of beasts, in sense and motion; and the life of a man, in reason and understanding.

Man who before this was but a dull lump of clay, or a comely statue,

became a living soul i.e. a living man: the soul being oft put for the whole man, as Gen 12:5,13 46:15,18 1Pe 3:20 , &c.

Poole: Gen 2:8 - Eastward // Eden // There he put the man whom he had formed He had planted viz. on the third day, when he made the plants and trees to grow out of the ground, a place of the choicest plants and fruits, most ...

He had planted viz. on the third day, when he made the plants and trees to grow out of the ground, a place of the choicest plants and fruits, most beautiful and pleasant.

Eastward from the place where Moses writ, and the Israelites afterwards dwelt.

Eden here is the name of a place, not that Eden near Damascus in Syria, of which see Amo 1:5 ; but another Eden in Mesopotamia or Chaldea, of which see Gen 4:16 2Ki 19:12 Isa 37:12 Eze 27:23 . There are many and tedious disputes about the place of this Paradise; of which he that listeth may see my Latin Synopsis. It may suffice to know that which is evident, that it was in or near to Mesopotamia, in the confluence of Euphrates and Tigris.

There he put the man whom he had formed to wit, in another place.

Poole: Gen 2:9 - The tree of life // In the midst of the garden // The tree of knowledge of good and evil The tree of life so called, either symbolically, and sacramentally, because it was a sign and seal of that life which man had received from God, and ...

The tree of life so called, either symbolically, and sacramentally, because it was a sign and seal of that life which man had received from God, and of his continual enjoyment of it upon condition of his obedience; or, effectively, because God had planted in it a singular virtue for the support of nature, prolongation of life, and the prevention of all diseases, infirmities, and decays through age.

In the midst of the garden or, within the garden, as Tyrus said to be in the midst of the seas, Eze 28:2 , though it was but just within it.

The tree of knowledge of good and evil so called with respect, either,

1. To God, who thereby would prove and make known man’ s good or evil, his obedience and happiness, or his rebellion and misery; or rather,

2. To man, who by the use of it would know, to his cost, how great and good things he did enjoy, and might have kept by his obedience, and how evil and bitter the fruits of his disobedience were to himself and all his posterity. So it seems to be an ironical denomination: q.d. You thirsted after more knowledge, which also the devil promised you; and you have got what you desired, more knowledge, even dear-bought experience.

Poole: Gen 2:10 - A river // Eden A river or, rivers, by a common enallage. Eden the country in which Paradise was; where those rivers either arose from one spring, or met togeth...

A river or, rivers, by a common enallage.

Eden the country in which Paradise was; where those rivers either arose from one spring, or met together in one channel.

From the garden, it was divided into four principal rivers, concerning which there are now many disputes. But it is no wonder if the rise and situation of these rivers be not now certainly known, because of the great changes, which in so long time might happen in this as well as in other rivers, partly by earthquakes, and principally by the general deluge. And yet Euphrates and Tigris, the chief of these rivers, whereof the other two are branches, are discovered by some learned men to have one and the same original or spring, and that in a most pleasant part of Armenia, where they conceive Paradise was. See my Latin Synopsis.

Poole: Gen 2:11 - Pison // That is it which compasseth // This whole land of Havilah Pison an eminent branch of the river Tigris, probably that called by others Pasi-tigris, or Piso-tigris. That is it which compasseth i.e. with many...

Pison an eminent branch of the river Tigris, probably that called by others Pasi-tigris, or Piso-tigris.

That is it which compasseth i.e. with many windings and turnings passed through; as this word is used, Jos 15:3 Mat 23:15 .

This whole land of Havilah either that which is in those parts of Arabia which is towards Mesopotamia, so called from Havilah the issue of Cham, Gen 10:7 ; or that which is nigh Persia, and in the borders of India, so called from another Havilah of the posterity of Shem, Gen 10:29 . To either of these following the description agrees well.

Poole: Gen 2:12 - Good // Bdellium // The onyx stone Good i.e. better than ordinary. Bdellium which signifies either a precious gum, of which see Num 11:7 , or gems and pearls. Once for all observe, t...

Good i.e. better than ordinary.

Bdellium which signifies either a precious gum, of which see Num 11:7 , or gems and pearls. Once for all observe, that many of the Hebrew words or names of stones, trees, birds, and beasts, are even to the Hebrew doctors and others, both ancient and modern interpreters, of uncertain signification, and that without any considerable inconvenience to us, who are free from the obligations which the Jews were formerly under of procuring such stones, and abstaining in their diet from such beasts and birds as then were sufficiently known to them; and if any were doubtful, they had one safe course, to abstain from them.

The onyx stone a kind of precious stone, of which see Exo 25:7 28:9,20 .

Poole: Gen 2:13 - Gihon // Ethiopia Gihon not that river in the land of Israel, so called, 1Ki 1:33 2Ch 32:30 ; but another of the same name, which in Hebrew signifies, the branch of a...

Gihon not that river in the land of Israel, so called, 1Ki 1:33 2Ch 32:30 ; but another of the same name, which in Hebrew signifies, the branch of a greater river: here it is a branch either of Euphrates, as most think, or of Tigris, as some late writers conceive.

Ethiopia not that country in Africa above Egypt, commonly so called; but either Arabia, which in Scripture is frequently called

Cush or Ethiopia of which, See Poole on "2Ki 19:9" , See Poole on "Job 28:19" , See Poole on "Eze 29:10" , See Poole on "Eze 30:8" , See Poole on "Eze 30:9" , See Poole on "Hab 3:7" .

Or rather a country adjoining to India and Persia, with which Cush is joined, Eze 38:5 ; see also Isa 11:11 Eze 27:10 ; and about which place the Ethiopians are seated by Herod. 1. 7, Homer, Hesiod, and others. Of which see my Latin Synopsis.

Poole: Gen 2:14 - Hiddekel Hiddekel i.e. Tigris or an eminent branch of it. See Dan 10:4 .

Hiddekel i.e. Tigris or an eminent branch of it. See Dan 10:4 .

Poole: Gen 2:15 - Put him // and to keep it Put him i.e. commanded and inclined him to go. To prune, dress, and order the trees and herbs of the garden, and to keep it from the annoyance of b...

Put him i.e. commanded and inclined him to go. To prune, dress, and order the trees and herbs of the garden,

and to keep it from the annoyance of beasts, which being unreasonable creatures, and allowed the use of herbs, might easily spoil the beauty of it.

Poole: Gen 2:16 - Thou mayest freely eat God commanded the woman too, (as appears both from the permission for eating herbs and fruits given to her, together with her husband, Gen 1:28,29 ,...

God commanded the woman too, (as appears both from the permission for eating herbs and fruits given to her, together with her husband, Gen 1:28,29 , and from Gen 3:1-3 , and from Eve’ s punishment), and that either immediately, or by Adam, whom God enjoined to inform her thereof.

Thou mayest freely eat without offence to me, or hurt to thyself. The words in Hebrew have the form of a command, but are only a permission or indulgence, as 1Co 10:25,27 .

Poole: Gen 2:17 - -- With a threefold death. 1. Spiritual, by the guilt and power of sin: at that instant thou shalt be dead in trespasses and sins, Eph 2:1 . 2. Tempo...

With a threefold death.

1. Spiritual, by the guilt and power of sin: at that instant thou shalt be dead in trespasses and sins, Eph 2:1 .

2. Temporal, or the death of the body, which shall then begin in thee, by decays, infirmities, terrors, dangers, and other harbingers of death.

3. Eternal, which shall immediately succeed the other.

Poole: Gen 2:18 - The Lord God said // Not good // Meet for him The Lord God said or, had said, to wit, upon the sixth day, on which the woman was made, Gen 1:27,28 . Not good not convenient either for my pur...

The Lord God said or, had said, to wit, upon the sixth day, on which the woman was made, Gen 1:27,28 .

Not good not convenient either for my purpose of the increase of mankind, or for man’ s personal comfort, or for the propagation of his kind.

Meet for him a most emphatical phrase, signifying thus much, one correspondent to him, suitable both to his nature and necessity, one

altogether like to him in shape and constitution, disposition and affection; a second self; or one to be at hand and near to him, to stand continually before him, familiarly to converse with him, to be always ready to succour, serve, and comfort him; or one whose eye, respect, and care, as well as desire, Gen 3:16 , should be to him, whose business it shall be to please and help him.

Poole: Gen 2:19 - Brought them unto Adam // That was the name thereof Brought them unto Adam either by winds, or angels, or by their own secret instinct, by which storks, and cranes, and swallows change their places wit...

Brought them unto Adam either by winds, or angels, or by their own secret instinct, by which storks, and cranes, and swallows change their places with the season; partly to own their subjection to him; partly that man, being re-created with their prospect, might adore and praise the Maker of them, and withal be sensible of his want of a meet companion, and so the better prepared to receive God’ s mercy therein; and partly for the reason here following.

To see, or, make a discovery; not to God, who knew it already, but to all future generations, who would hereby understand the deep wisdom and knowledge of their first parent.

That was the name thereof to wit, in the primitive or Hebrew language. And this was done for the manifestation both of man’ s dominion over the creatures, and of the largeness of his understanding; it being an act of authority to give names, and an effect of vast knowledge to give convenient names to all the creatures, which supposeth an exact acquaintance with their natures.

Poole: Gen 2:20 - -- But though, in giving them names, he considered their several natures and perfections, it was evident to himself, as well as to the Lord, that none of...

But though, in giving them names, he considered their several natures and perfections, it was evident to himself, as well as to the Lord, that none of them was an help meet for him.

Poole: Gen 2:21 - Quest // Answ 1. God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam that he, who was without sin, might feel no pain in the taking away of his rib. And in this sleep some t...

1. God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam that he, who was without sin, might feel no pain in the taking away of his rib. And in this sleep some think Adam was in an ecstasy, wherein he saw what was done, together with the reason and mystery of it.

2. He took one of his ribs together with the flesh upon it, Gen 2:23 ; or, one of his sides, for the Hebrew word signifieth a side as well as a rib, which may be taken synecdochically, for a part of one of his sides, viz. a rib and the flesh upon it; or, for one part out of each of his sides; as if the two ribs clothed with flesh were taken out of the man, because he saith, Gen 2:23 ,

This is bone of my bones, not, of my bone. The woman was taken out of this part, not out of the higher or lower parts, to show that she is neither to be her husband’ s mistress, to usurp authority over him, 1Ti 2:12 ; nor yet to be his slave, to be abused, despised, or trampled under his feet; but to be kindly treated, and used like a companion, with moderation, respect, and affection.

Quest. How could a rib be taken from Adam, but it must be either superfluous in Adam, while it was in him, or defective afterwards, both which reflect upon the Creator?

Answ 1. It was no superfluity, but a conveniency, if Adam had at first one rib extraordinary put into him for this purpose.

2. If Adam lost a rib upon so glorious an occasion, it was but a scar or badge of honour, and no disparagement either to him or to his Creator.

3. Either God created him a new rib, or hardened the flesh to the nature and use of a rib, and so there was no defect in him.

3. He closed up the flesh together with another bone or rib, instead of that rib and flesh which he took away from him, which was easy for God to do.

Poole: Gen 2:22 - -- From some place at a little distance, whither he first carried her, that for the decency of the action he might bring her thence; a bride to a bride...

From some place at a little distance, whither he first carried her, that for the decency of the action he might bring her thence; a bride to a bridegroom to be married to him: the great God being pleased to act the part of a father to give his daughter and workmanship to him, thereby both teaching parents their duty of providing marriages for their children, and children their duty of expecting their parents’ consent in marriage.

Poole: Gen 2:23 - And Adam said // Quest // Answ // This is now And Adam said Quest. How knew he this? Answ Either, 1. By his own observation; for though it be said that he was asleep till the rib was taken ...

And Adam said

Quest. How knew he this?

Answ Either,

1. By his own observation; for though it be said that he was asleep till the rib was taken out and restored, yet he might awake as soon as ever that was done, the reason of his sleep ceasing, and so might see the making of the woman. Or,

2. By the revelation of God, who put these words into Adam’ s mouth, to whom therefore these words of Adam are ascribed, Mat 19:5 .

This is now or, for this time the woman is made of my bones, &c.; but for the time to come the woman as well as the man shall be produced another way, to wit, by generation. Made of my rib and flesh; i.e. God hath provided me a meet help and wife, not out of the brute creatures, but nearer hand, a part of my own body, and of the same nature with myself.

Poole: Gen 2:24 - Shall a man leave his father and his mother These are the words of Moses by Divine instinct, or his inference from Adam’ s words. Shall a man leave his father and his mother in regard o...

These are the words of Moses by Divine instinct, or his inference from Adam’ s words.

Shall a man leave his father and his mother in regard of habitation and society, but not as to natural duty and affection; and in conjugal relation and highest affection, even above what they owe to their parents, they two (as it is in the Samaritan, Syriac, and Arabic translations, and Mat 19:5 ) shall be esteemed by themselves and others to be as entirely and inseparably united, and shall have as intimate and universal commmunion, as if they were one person, one soul, one body. And this first institution shows the sinfulness of divorces, and polygamy, however God might upon a particular reason for a time dispense with his own institution, or remit the punishment due to the violators of it.

Poole: Gen 2:25 - -- To wit, of their nakedness, as having no guilt, nor cause of shame, no filthy or evil inclinations in their bodies, no sinful concupiscence or impur...

To wit, of their nakedness, as having no guilt, nor cause of shame, no filthy or evil inclinations in their bodies, no sinful concupiscence or impure motions in their souls, but spotless innocency and perfection, which must needs exclude shame.

PBC: Gen 2:17 - for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die // thou shalt surely die But, Satan said to Eve "thou shalt not surely die" {Ge 3:4} Adam immediately lost fellowship with God but Adam may have thought after he had lived a h...

But, Satan said to Eve "thou shalt not surely die" {Ge 3:4} Adam immediately lost fellowship with God but Adam may have thought after he had lived a hundred years "you know I’ve escaped the other part of that judgment" -when 500 years had passed he said "Ah, I know I’m free- I’ve escaped that other part of the judgment, I lost fellowship with God but I’m going to live forever" and he may have felt good when he was 900 years old but the bible says that he "...lived nine hundred and thirty years:" in Ge 5:5 "..and he died!"

Beloved, God is true- Satan’s a liar. God is true -he (Adam) died. In Ec 8:11 "Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil."

488

"for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die"

-may have regard to more deaths than one; not only a corporeal one, which in some sense immediately took place, man became at once a mortal creature, who otherwise continuing in a state of innocence, and by eating of the tree of life, he was allowed to do, would have lived an immortal life; of the eating of which tree, by sinning he was debarred, his natural life not now to be continued long, at least not for ever; he was immediately arraigned, tried, and condemned to death, was found guilty of it, and became obnoxious to it, and death at once began to work in him; sin sowed the seeds of it in his body, and a train of miseries, afflictions, and diseases, began to appear, which at length issued in death. Moreover, a spiritual or moral death immediately ensued; he lost his original righteousness, in which he was created; the image of God in him was deformed; the powers and faculties of his soul were corrupted, and he became dead in sins and trespasses; the consequence of which, had it not been for the interposition of a surety and Saviour, who engaged to make satisfaction to law and justice, must have been eternal death, or an everlasting separation from God, to him and all his posterity; for the wages of sin is death, even death eternal, Ro 6:23. GILL

"thou shalt surely die"

Under law Adam was, as is evident; but not under the moral law, which an innocent being could not even have understood. The commandment to him was simply not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: the terms’, not, "This do and thou shalt live," but "Do this, and thou shalt die." He had not to seek a better place, but enjoy the place he had. ENT

Ge 2:17 "But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."

But, Satan said to Eve "thou shalt not surely die" {Ge 3:4} Adam immediately lost fellowship with God but Adam may have thought after he had lived a hundred years "you know I’ve escaped the other part of that judgment" -when 500 years had passed he said "Ah, I know I’m free- I’ve escaped that other part of the judgment, I lost fellowship with God but I’m going to live forever" and he may have felt good when he was 900 years old but the bible says that he "...lived nine hundred and thirty years:" in Ge 5:5 "..and he died!"

Beloved, God is true- Satan’s a liar. God is true -he (Adam) died. In Ec 8:11 "Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil."

488

"for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die"

-may have regard to more deaths than one; not only a corporeal one, which in some sense immediately took place, man became at once a mortal creature, who otherwise continuing in a state of innocence, and by eating of the tree of life, he was allowed to do, would have lived an immortal life; of the eating of which tree, by sinning he was debarred, his natural life not now to be continued long, at least not for ever; he was immediately arraigned, tried, and condemned to death, was found guilty of it, and became obnoxious to it, and death at once began to work in him; sin sowed the seeds of it in his body, and a train of miseries, afflictions, and diseases, began to appear, which at length issued in death. Moreover, a spiritual or moral death immediately ensued; he lost his original righteousness, in which he was created; the image of God in him was deformed; the powers and faculties of his soul were corrupted, and he became dead in sins and trespasses; the consequence of which, had it not been for the interposition of a surety and Saviour, who engaged to make satisfaction to law and justice, must have been eternal death, or an everlasting separation from God, to him and all his posterity; for the wages of sin is death, even death eternal, Ro 6:23. GILL

"thou shalt surely die"

Under law Adam was, as is evident; but not under the moral law, which an innocent being could not even have understood. The commandment to him was simply not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: the terms’, not, "This do and thou shalt live," but "Do this, and thou shalt die." He had not to seek a better place, but enjoy the place he had. ENT

Haydock: Gen 2:1 - Furniture Furniture, ornaments or militia, whether we understand the Angels, or the stars, which observe a regular order and obey God. (Menochius)

Furniture, ornaments or militia, whether we understand the Angels, or the stars, which observe a regular order and obey God. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 2:2 - He rested // Seventh day He rested, &c. That is, he ceased to make any new kinds of things. Though, as our Lord tells us, John v. 17. He still worketh, viz. by conserving...

He rested, &c. That is, he ceased to make any new kinds of things. Though, as our Lord tells us, John v. 17. He still worketh, viz. by conserving and governing all things, and creating souls. (Challoner) ---

Seventh day . This day was commanded, Exodus xx. 8, to be kept holy by the Jews, as it had probably been from the beginning. Philo says, it is a the festival of the universe, and Josephus asserts, there is no town which does not acknowledge the religion of the sabbath. But this point is controverted, and whether the ancient patriarchs observed the seventh day, or some other, it is certain they would not fail, for any long time, to shew their respect for God's worship, and would hardly suffer a whole week to elapse without meeting to sound forth his praise. The setting aside of stated days for this purpose, is agreeable to reason, and to the practise of all civilized nations. As the Hebrews kept Saturday holy, in honour of God's rest, so we keep the first day of the week, by apostolic tradition, to thank God for the creation of the world on that day, and much more for the blessings which we derive from the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and the sending down of the Holy Ghost, which have given it a title above all other days. (Haydock) On the seventh day, at the beginning of this verse, must be taken exclusively, as God finished his work on the 6th, whence the same Septuagint and Syriac have here on the 6th day. (Haydock) ---

But the Hebrew and all the other versions agree with the Vulgate. (Calmet) ---

The similarity of ver. 6 and ver. 7 in Hebrew may have given rise to this variation. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 2:4 - Day Day. Not that all things were made in one day: but God formed in succession; first, heaven and earth, then the ornaments of both. Every plant, &c...

Day. Not that all things were made in one day: but God formed in succession; first, heaven and earth, then the ornaments of both. Every plant, &c. which on the first day did not spring up, (as water covered the surface of the earth ,) on the 3d, by the command of God, without having any man to plant, or rain to water them, pushed forth luxuriantly, and manifested the power of the Creator. (Haydock) ---

Thus Christ founded his Church by his own power, and still gives her increase; but requires of his ministers to co-operate with him, as a gardener must now take care of the plants which originally grew without man's aid. (Du Hamel) ---

By observing that all natural means were here wanting for the production of plants, God asserts his sole right to the work, and confounds the Egyptian system, which attributed plants, &c. to the general warmth of the earth alone. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 2:7 - Breath of life Breath of life or a soul, created out of nothing, and infused into the body to give it life. (Haydock)

Breath of life or a soul, created out of nothing, and infused into the body to give it life. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 2:8 - Of pleasure // From the beginning Of pleasure, Hebrew Eden, which may be either the name of a country, as chap. iv. 16, or it may signify pleasure, in which sense Symmachus and St. ...

Of pleasure, Hebrew Eden, which may be either the name of a country, as chap. iv. 16, or it may signify pleasure, in which sense Symmachus and St. Jerome have taken it. ---

From the beginning, or on the 3d day, when all plants were created, Hebrew mikedem, may also mean towards the east, as the Septuagint have understood it, though the other ancient interpreters agree with St. Jerome. Paradise lay probably to the east of Palestine, or of that country where Moses wrote. The precise situation cannot be ascertained. Calmet places it in Armenia, others near Babylon, &c. Some assert that this beautiful garden is still in being, the residence of Henoch and Elias. But God will not permit the curiosity of man to be gratified by the discovery of it, chap. iii. 24. How great might be its extent we do not know. If the sources of the Ganges, Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates, be not now changed, and if these be the rivers which sprung from the fountains of Paradise, (both which are points undecided) the garden must have comprised a great part of the world, (Haydock), as the Ganges rises in Judea [India?], and the Nile about the middle of Africa. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Gen 2:9 - The tree of life The tree of life. So called, because it had that quality, that by eating of the fruit of it, man would have been preserved in a constant state of he...

The tree of life. So called, because it had that quality, that by eating of the fruit of it, man would have been preserved in a constant state of health, vigour, and strength, and would not have died at all. The tree of knowledge. To which the deceitful serpent falsely attributed the power of imparting a superior kind of knowledge beyond that which God was pleased to give. (Challoner) ---

Of what species these two wonderful trees were, the learned are not agreed. The tree of knowledge, could not communicate any wisdom to man; but, by eating of its forbidden fruit, Adam dearly purchased the knowledge of evil, to which he was before a stranger. Some say it was the fig-tree, others an apple-tree, Canticle of Canticles viii. 5. But it probably agreed with no species of trees with which we are acquainted, nor was there perhaps any of the same kind in paradise. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Gen 2:10 - A river A river, &c. Moses gives many characteristics of Paradise, inviting us, as it were, to search for it; and still we cannot certainly discover where i...

A river, &c. Moses gives many characteristics of Paradise, inviting us, as it were, to search for it; and still we cannot certainly discover where it is, or whether it exist at all at present, in state of cultivation. We must therefore endeavour to find the mystic Paradise, Heaven and the true Church; the road to which, though more obvious, is too frequently mistaken. See St. Augustine, City of God xiii. 21; Proverbs iii. 18. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 2:15 - To dress it To dress it . Behold God would not endure idleness even in Paradise. (Haydock)

To dress it . Behold God would not endure idleness even in Paradise. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 2:17 - The death The death of the soul, and become obnoxious to that of the body; thou shalt become a mortal and lose all the privileges of innocence. Though Adam li...

The death of the soul, and become obnoxious to that of the body; thou shalt become a mortal and lose all the privileges of innocence. Though Adam lived 930 years after this, he was dying daily; he carried along with him the seeds of death, as we do, from our very conception. He had leave to eat of any fruit in this delicious garden, one only excepted, and this one prohibition makes him more eager to taste of that tree than of all the rest. So we struggle constantly to attain what is forbidden, and covet what is denied, cupimusque negata. God laid this easy command upon Adam, to give him an opportunity of shewing his ready obedience, and to assert his own absolute dominion over him. Eve was already formed, and was apprised of this positive command, (chap. iii. 3.) and therefore, transgressing, is justly punished with her husband. True obedience does not inquire why a thing is commanded, but submits without demur. Would a parent be satisfied with his child, if he should refuse to obey, because he could not discern the propriety of the restraint? If he should forbid him to touch some delicious fruits which he had reserved for strangers, and the child were to eat them, excusing himself very impertinently and blasphemously, with those much abused words of our Saviour, It is not what enters into the mouth that defiles a man, &c. would not even a Protestant parent be enraged and seize the rod, though he could not but see that he was thus condemning his own conduct, in disregarding, on the very same plea, the fasts and days of abstinence, prescribed by the Church and by God's authority? All meats are good, as that fruit most certainly was which Adam was forbidden to eat; though some have foolishly surmised that it was poisonous; but, the crime of disobedience draws on punishment. (Haydock) ---

Even when the sin is remitted, as it was to Adam, the penalty is not of course released, as some have pretended. This also clearly appears in baptized infants, who suffer the penalties due to original sin, as much as those who have not been admitted to the laver of regeneration. (St. Augustine; Worthington; Tirinus, &c.) ---

If on this occasion, Eve had alone transgressed, as she was not the head, her sin would have hurt only herself. But with Adam, the representative of all his posterity, God made a sort of compact, (Osee vi. 7.) giving him to understand, that if he continued faithful, his children should be born in the state of innocence like himself, happy and immortal, to be translated in due time to a happier Paradise, &c. but if he should refuse to obey, his sin should be communicated to all his race, who should be, by nature, children of wrath. ---

(St. Augustine, City of God xvi. 27; Ven. Bede in Luc. 11; &c.) ---

(Haydock) (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 2:20 - Names Names, probably in the Hebrew language, in which the names of things, frequently designate their nature and quality. See Bochart. --- (Calmet)

Names, probably in the Hebrew language, in which the names of things, frequently designate their nature and quality. See Bochart. ---

(Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 2:21 - A deep sleep A deep sleep. Septuagint, "an ecstacy," or mysterious sleep, in which Adam was apprised of the meaning of what was done, and how the Church would be...

A deep sleep. Septuagint, "an ecstacy," or mysterious sleep, in which Adam was apprised of the meaning of what was done, and how the Church would be taken from the side of Christ, expiring on the cross. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 2:23 - Of my flesh // Woman Of my flesh. God did not, therefore, take a rib without flesh, nor perhaps did he replace flesh without a rib in Adam's side, though St. Augustine t...

Of my flesh. God did not, therefore, take a rib without flesh, nor perhaps did he replace flesh without a rib in Adam's side, though St. Augustine thinks he did. These words of Adam are attributed to God, Matthew xix, because they were inspired by him. ---

Woman. As this word is derived from man, so in Hebrew Isha (or Asse ) comes from Iish or Aiss ; Latin vira woman, and virago comes from vir. (Haydock) ---

But we do not find this allusion so sensible in any of the Oriental languages, as in the Hebrew, whence another proof arises of this being the original language. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 2:24 - One flesh One flesh, connected by the closest ties of union, producing children, the blood of both. St. Paul, Ephesians v. 23, discloses to us the mystery of ...

One flesh, connected by the closest ties of union, producing children, the blood of both. St. Paul, Ephesians v. 23, discloses to us the mystery of Christ's union with his church for ever, prefigured by this indissoluble marriage of our first parents. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 2:25 - Not ashamed Not ashamed, because they had not perverted the work of God. Inordinate concupiscence is the effect of sin. (Haydock)

Not ashamed, because they had not perverted the work of God. Inordinate concupiscence is the effect of sin. (Haydock)

Gill: Gen 2:1 - Thus the heavens and the earth were finished // and all the host them Thus the heavens and the earth were finished,.... Perfected and completed in the space of six days, gradually, successively, in the manner before rela...

Thus the heavens and the earth were finished,.... Perfected and completed in the space of six days, gradually, successively, in the manner before related; by the word and power of God they were on the first day created out of nothing, but they were not perfected, beautified, and adorned, and filled, until all the creatures in the were made:

and all the host them, of the heavens and the earth; the host of heavens are the sun, moon, and stars, often so called in Scripture, and also the angels; see Luk 2:13 wherefore this may be considered as a proof of their creation within the above space of time, probably on the first day, though the Jews commonly say on the second; for if all the host of heaven were made at this time, and angels are at least a part of that host, then they must be then made, or otherwise all the host of heaven were not then and there made, as here affirmed: and the host of the earth, or terraqueous globe, are the plants, herbs, and trees, the fowls, fishes, animals, and man; and these are like hosts or armies, very numerous, and at the command of God, and are marshalled and kept in order by him; even some of the smallest of creatures are his army, which are at his beck, and he can make use of to the annoyance of others, as particularly the locusts are called, Joe 2:11.

Gill: Gen 2:2 - And on the seventh day God ended his work, which he had made // he rested on the seventh day from all his works which he had made And on the seventh day God ended his work, which he had made,.... Not that God wrought anything on the seventh day, or finished any part of his work o...

And on the seventh day God ended his work, which he had made,.... Not that God wrought anything on the seventh day, or finished any part of his work on that day, because he could not then be said to rest from all his work, as be is afterwards twice said to do; and because of this seeming difficulty the Septuagint, Samaritan, and Syriac versions, read, "on the sixth day". The two latter versions following the former, which so translated for the sake of Ptolemy king of Egypt, as the Jews say a, that he might not object that God did any work on the sabbath day: and Josephus b observes, that, Moses says the world, and all things in it, were made in those six days, as undoubtedly they were; and were all finished on the sixth day, as appears from the last verse of the preceding chapter; and yet there is no occasion to alter the text, or suppose a various reading. Some, as Aben Ezra observes, take the sense of the word to be, "before the seventh day God ended his work", as they think ב may be rendered, and as it is by Noldius c: or the words may be translated, "in the seventh day, when God had ended", or "finished his work" d, which he had done on the sixth day, then

he rested on the seventh day from all his works which he had made: not as though weary of working, for the Creator of the ends of the earth fainteth not, nor is weary, Isa 40:28 but as having done all his work, and brought it to such perfection, that he had no more to do; not that he ceased from making individuals, as the souls of men, and even all creatures that are brought into the world by generation, may be said to be made by him, but from making any new species of creatures; and much less did he cease from supporting and maintaining the creatures he had made in their beings, and providing everything agreeable for them, and governing them, and overruling all things in the world for ends of his own glory; in this sense he "worketh hitherto", as Christ says, Joh 5:17.

Gill: Gen 2:3 - And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it // because that in it he had rested from all his work, which God created and made And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it,.... A day in which he took delight and pleasure, having finished all his works, and resting from t...

And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it,.... A day in which he took delight and pleasure, having finished all his works, and resting from them, and looking over them as very good; and so he pronounced this day a good and happy day, and "sanctified" or appointed it in his mind to be a day separated from others, for holy service and worship; as it was with the Jews when they became a body of people, both civil and ecclesiastical: or this is all said by way of prolepsis or anticipation, as many things in this chapter are, many names of countries and rivers, by which being called in the times of Moses, are here given them, though they were not called by them so early, nor till many ages after: and according to Jarchi this passage respects future time, when God "blessed" this day with the manna, which descended on all the days of the week, an omer for a man, and on the sixth day double food; and he "sanctified" it with the manna which did not descend at all on that day: besides, these words may be read in a parenthesis, as containing an account of a fact that was done, not at the beginning of the world, and on the first seventh day of it; but of what had been done in the times of Moses, who wrote this, after the giving of the law of the sabbath; and this being given through his hands to the people of Israel, he takes this opportunity here to insert it, and very pertinently, seeing the reason why God then, in the times of Moses, blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it, was, because he had rested on that day from all his works, Exo 20:11 and the same reason is given here, taken plainly out of that law which he had delivered to them:

because that in it he had rested from all his work, which God created and made; which shows, that this refers not to the same time when God blessed and hallowed the seventh day, which was done in the times of Moses, but to what had been long before, and was then given as a reason enforcing it; for it is not here said, as in the preceding verse, "he rested", but "had rested", even from the foundation of the world, when his works were finished, as in Heb 4:3 even what "he created to make" e, as the words may be here rendered; which he created out of nothing, as he did the first matter, in order to make all things out of it, and put them in that order, and bring them to that perfection he did.

Gill: Gen 2:4 - These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created // in the day that the Lord God made the earth, and the heavens These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created,.... That is, the above account, delivered in the preceding chapter, i...

These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created,.... That is, the above account, delivered in the preceding chapter, is a history of the production of the heavens and earth, and of all things in them; the creation of them being a kind of generation, and the day of their creation a sort of birthday; see Gen 5:1.

in the day that the Lord God made the earth, and the heavens; meaning not any particular day, not the first day, in which the heavens and the earth were created; but referring to the whole time of the six days, in which everything in them, and relating to them, were made. Here another name is added to God, his name "Jehovah", expressive of his being and perfections, particularly his eternity and immutability, being the everlasting and unchangeable "I am", which is, and was, and is to come: this name, according to the Jews, is not to be pronounced, and therefore they put the points of "Adonai", directing it so to be read; and these two names, "Jehovah Elohim", or "Adonai" and "Elohim", with them make the full and perfect name of God, and which they observe is here very pertinently given him, upon the perfection and completion of his works.

Gill: Gen 2:5 - And every plant of the field, before it was in the earth // and every herb of the field before it grew // for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth // and there was not a man to till the ground And every plant of the field, before it was in the earth,.... That is, God made it, even he who made the heavens and the earth; for these words depend...

And every plant of the field, before it was in the earth,.... That is, God made it, even he who made the heavens and the earth; for these words depend upon the preceding, and are in close connection with them; signifying that the plants of the field, which were made out of the earth on the third day, were made before any were planted in it, or any seed was sown therein from whence they could proceed, and therefore must be the immediate production of divine power:

and every herb of the field before it grew: those at once sprung up in perfection out of the earth, before there were any that budded forth, and grew up by degrees to perfection, as herbs do now:

for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth: so that the production of plants and herbs in their first formation could not be owing to that; since on the third day, when they were made, there was no sun to exhale and draw up the waters into the clouds, in order to be let down again in showers of rain:

and there was not a man to till the ground; who was not created till the sixth day, and therefore could have no concern in the cultivation of the earth, and of the plants and herbs in it; but these were the produce of almighty power, without the use of any means: some Jewish writers f, by the plant and herb of the field, mystically understand the first and second Messiah, for they sometimes feign two; see Isa 4:2.

Gill: Gen 2:6 - But there went up a mist from the earth // and watered the whole face of the ground But there went up a mist from the earth,.... After the waters had been drained off from it, and it was warmed by the body of light and heat created on...

But there went up a mist from the earth,.... After the waters had been drained off from it, and it was warmed by the body of light and heat created on the first day, which caused a vapour, which went up as a mist, and descended:

and watered the whole face of the ground; or earth, and so supplied the place of rain, until that was given: though rather the words may be rendered disjunctively, "or there went up" g; that is, before a mist went up, when as yet there was none; not so much as a mist to water the earth, and plants and herbs were made to grow; and so Saadiah reads them negatively, "nor did a mist go up"; there were no vapours exhaled to form clouds, and produce rain, and yet the whole earth on the third day was covered with plants and herbs; and this is approved of by Kimchi and Ben Melech.

Gill: Gen 2:7 - And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground // And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life // and man became a living soul And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground,.... Not of dry dust, but, as Josephus h says, of red earth macerated, or mixed with water; the ...

And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground,.... Not of dry dust, but, as Josephus h says, of red earth macerated, or mixed with water; the like notion Hesiod i has; or out of clay, as in Job 33:6 hence a word is made use of, translated "formed", which is used of the potter that forms his clay into what shape he pleases: the original matter of which man was made was clay; hence the clay of Prometheus k with the Heathens; and God is the Potter that formed him, and gave him the shape he has, see Isa 64:8, there are two "jods", it is observed, in the word, which is not usual; respecting, as Jarchi thinks, the formation of man for this world, and for the resurrection of the dead; but rather the two fold formation of body and soul, the one is expressed here, and the other in the following clause: and this, as it shows the mighty power of God in producing such a creature out of the dust of the earth, so it serves to humble the pride of man, when he considers he is of the earth, earthy, dust, and ashes, is dust, and to dust he must return.

And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; which in that way entered into his body, and quickened it, which before was a lifeless lump of clay, though beautifully shapen: it is in the plural number, the "breath of lives" l, including the vegetative, sensitive, and rational life of man. And this was produced not with his body, as the souls of brutes were, and was produced by the breath of God, as theirs were not; nor theirs out of the earth, as his body was: and these two different productions show the different nature of the soul and body of man, the one is material and mortal, the other immaterial and immortal:

and man became a living soul; or a living man, not only capable of performing the functions of the animal life, of eating, drinking, walking, &c. but of thinking, reasoning, and discoursing as a rational creature.

Gill: Gen 2:8 - And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden // and there he put the man whom he had formed And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden,.... Or "had planted" m, for this was not now done after the formation of man, but before; and so t...

And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden,.... Or "had planted" m, for this was not now done after the formation of man, but before; and so the word translated "eastward" may be rendered, as it is by some, "before" n: for the plain meaning is, that God had planted a garden before he made man, even on the third day, when all herbs, and plants, and trees were produced out of the earth. The whole world was as a garden, in comparison of what it is now since the fall: what then must this spot of ground, this garden be, which was separated and distinguished from the rest, and the more immediate plantation of God, and therefore is called the garden of the Lord, Gen 13:10 and which Plato o calls διος κηπος, "Jove's garden?" This garden was planted in the country of Eden, so called very probably from its being a very pleasant and delightful country; and though it is not certain, and cannot be said exactly where it was, yet it seems to be a part of Mesopotamia, since it is more than once mentioned with Haran, which was in that country, 2Ki 19:12 and since it was by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, when they were become one stream, which ran through this country, and parted again at this garden; and the country there, as Herodotus p says, is the most fruitful he ever saw; and it seems to be much better to place it here than in Armenia, where the fountain of these rivers is said to be: so Tournefort q thinks it lay in the country, or plain of the three churches (or Ejmiadzit), in Armenia, about twenty French leagues distant from the heads of Euphrates and Araxes, and near as many from the Phasis, a country exceeding pleasant and fruitful. A very learned man r is of opinion, that the garden of Eden was in the land of Judea to the east, by the lake of Gennesaret or Tiberias, and the lake of Asphaltites, called the Dead sea, and takes in, in its compass, the famous valley, or the great plain, and the plains of Jericho, and great part of Galilee, and all that tract which Jordan flows by, from Gennesaret to the country of Sodom; and he takes the river Jordan to be יאר עדן, "the river of Eden", from whence it has its name of Jordan; and Gennesaret he interprets as if it was גן שר, "Gansar", the garden of the prince, that is, of Adam, the prince of all mankind. He argues from the situation of the place, and the pleasantness and fruitfulness of it, the balsam of Jericho, and other odoriferous plants that grew there, and what are called the apples of paradise: and it must be owned, that this country abounded with gardens and orchards: it is mentioned in the Jewish Misnah, where the commentators s say, it was a country in the land of Israel, in which were many gardens and orchards, that produced excellent fruit; and the fruits of Gennesaret are spoken of in the Talmud t as exceeding sweet: and with this agrees the account Josephus u gives of it, that it is"wonderful in nature and goodness, and through its fertility refuses no plant; everything is set here; the temper of the air suits with different things; here grow nuts, and more winter fruit; and there palms, which are nourished with heat, and near them figs and olives, which require a softer air--not only it produces apples of different sorts, beyond belief, but long preserves them; and indeed the most excellent of fruit; grapes and figs it furnishes with for ten months, without intermission, and other fruit throughout the whole year, growing old, with them.''And it may be further observed, that it is asked by the Jewish Rabbins, why it is called Genesar? and the answer is, because גניסרים, "the gardens of princes"; these are the kings who have gardens in the midst of it: another reason is given, because it belonged to Naphtali, a portion in the midst of it, as it is said, and of "Naphtali a thousand princes", 1Ch 12:34. w And it is worthy of remark, that Strabo calls Jericho, which was within this tract, "the paradise of balsam" x; and there, and hereabout, as Diodorus Siculus y, and Justin z relate, grew this aromatic plant, and nowhere else; it was not to be found in any other part of the world. And it appears from Scripture, that if the plain of Jordan was not the garden of Eden, it is said to be, "as the garden of the Lord", Gen 13:10 and if the "caph" or "as" is not a note of similitude, but of reality, as it sometimes is, it proves it to be the very place; and the above learned writer takes it to be not comparative, but illative, as giving a reason why it was so well watered, because it was the garden of the Lord: and the Jews have some notion of this, for they say, if that the garden of Eden is in the land of Israel, Bethshean is the door of it, or entrance into it; the gloss gives this reason, because the fruits were sweeter than any other a; and this was near, at the entrance of the great plain before mentioned; and before which was this place, as Josephus says b: and if the garden of Eden was in those parts, it may be observed, that where the first Adam first dwelt, and where he sinned and fell, Christ the second Adam frequently was; here he conversed much, taught his doctrines, wrought his miracles; and even here he appeared after his resurrection from the dead. But the opinions of men about this place are very many, and there is scarce any country in the whole world but one or another has placed the garden of Eden in it; nay, some have assigned a place for it out of the earth, in the eighth sphere. Such a garden undoubtedly there was somewhere, and it is said to be placed "eastward", either in the eastern part of the country of Eden, see Gen 4:16 or to the east of the desert where Moses was when he wrote; or to the east of Judea, as Mesopotamia was: and if this garden was in Judea, the place assigned for it by the above learned person, it was in the eastern part of that country; see Num 32:19. This garden was an emblem either of the church of Christ on earth, which is a garden enclosed, surrounded with divine power, and distinguished with divine grace; a small spot in comparison of the world; is of Jehovah's planting, and is his property; and is an Eden to his people, where they enjoy much spiritual pleasure and delight: or however of the place and state of the happiness of the saints in the other world, often called a paradise in allusion to this, Luk 23:43 and which is of God's planting, and therefore called the paradise of God, and is an Eden, where are pleasures for evermore: and this seems to be what the Jews mean when they say c, that the garden of Eden, or paradise, was created before the world was; which is no other than what Christ says of it in other words, Mat 25:34.

and there he put the man whom he had formed; not as soon as he had planted the garden, but as soon as he had made man; and from hence it is generally concluded, that man was made without the garden, and brought from the place where he was formed, and put into it; and which some say was near Damascus: but be it where it will, it is most probable that it was not far from the garden; though there seems no necessity for supposing him to be made out of it; for the putting him into it may signify the appointing and ordering him to be there, and fixing and settling him in it, for the ends and uses mentioned, see Gen 2:15. (After the global destruction of Noah's flood, it is doubtful that the location of the Garden of Eden could be determined with any degree of certainty today. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 2:9 - And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food // the tree of life also in the midst of the garden // and the tree of knowledge of good and evil And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food,.... That is, out of the ground of the gar...

And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food,.... That is, out of the ground of the garden of Eden; and this was done on the third day, when the whole earth brought forth grass, herbs, and trees: but a peculiar spot of ground was fixed on for man, and stocked with trees of all sorts for his use, not only to bear fruit, which would be suitable and agreeable food for him, but others also, which would yield him delight to look at; such as the tall cedars for their loftiness, spreading branches and green leaves, with many others; so that not only there were trees to gratify the senses of tasting and smelling, but that of sight; and such a sightly goodly tree to look at was the tree of knowledge, Gen 3:6. These trees may be an emblem of the saints, the trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, and made to grow by him through the influence of his Spirit and grace; and whom he plants in his gardens, the churches, and transplants into the heavenly paradise, and are often compared to palm trees, cedars, olive trees, pomegranates, &c.

the tree of life also in the midst of the garden; set there as in the most excellent place, where it might be most conspicuous, and to be come at; for before Adam sinned, as there was no prohibition of his eating of it, so there was no obstruction to it; and as he had a grant to eat of it, with the other trees, it was designed for his use, to support and maintain his natural life, which would have been continued, had he persisted in his obedience and state of innocence, and very probably by means of this chiefly: hence the son of Sirach calls it the tree of immortality,"The knowledge of the commandments of the Lord is the doctrine of life: and they that do things that please him shall receive the fruit of the tree of immortality.'' (Sirach 19:19)and it might be also a sign, token, and symbol to him of his dependence on God; that he received his life from him; and that this was preserved by his blessing and providence, and not by his own power and skill; and that this would be continued, provided he transgressed not the divine law: and it seems to have a further respect, even to eternal life; by Christ; for though it might not be a symbol of that life to Adam in his state of innocence, yet it became so after his fall: hence Christ is sometimes signified by the tree of life, Pro 3:18 who is not only the author of natural and spiritual life, but the giver of eternal life; the promise of it is in him, and the blessing itself; he has made way for it by his obedience, sufferings, and death, and is the way unto it; it is in his gift, and he bestows it on all his people, and it will lie greatly in the enjoyment of him. The situation of this tree in the midst of the garden well agrees with him who is in the midst of his church and people, Rev 1:13 stands open, is in sight, and is accessible to them all now, who may come to him, and partake of the fruits and blessings of his grace, which are many, constant, and durable, Rev 22:2 and who will be seen and enjoyed by all, to all eternity:

and the tree of knowledge of good and evil; so called, either with respect to God, who by it tried man, when he had made him, whether he would be good or evil; but this he foreknew: rather therefore with respect to man, not that the eating the fruit of it could really give him such knowledge, nor did he need it; for by the law of nature inscribed on his heart, he knew the difference between good and evil, and that what God commanded was good, and what he forbid was evil: but either it had its name from the virtue Satan ascribed to it, Gen 3:5 or from the sad event following on man's eating the fruit of it, whereby he became experimentally sensible of the difference between good and evil, between obedience and disobedience to the will of God; he found by sad experience what good he had lost, or might have enjoyed, and what evil he had brought on himself and his posterity, he might have avoided. What this tree was is not certain; there are various conjectures about it, and nothing else can be come at concerning it. Some take it to be the fig tree, as Jarchi, and some in Aben Ezra on Gen 3:6 because fig leaves were at hand, and immediately made use of on eating the fruit of it; some the vine, and particularly the black grape, as in the book of Zohar d; others, as Baal Hatturim on Gen 1:29 the pome citron, or citron apple tree e; others, the common apple, as the author of the old Nizzechon f, and which is the vulgar notion; evil and an apple being called by the same Latin word "malum": in the Talmud g, some say it was the vine, some the fig tree, and others wheat h: the Mahometans say it was a tree, called by the Africans by the name of Musa i.

Gill: Gen 2:10 - And a river went out of Eden to water the garden // and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads And a river went out of Eden to water the garden,.... Before man was created, as Aben Ezra observes, this river went out of Eden and watered it on eve...

And a river went out of Eden to water the garden,.... Before man was created, as Aben Ezra observes, this river went out of Eden and watered it on every side; but what river is here meant, is hard to say. It is more generally thought to be the river Euphrates, when that and the Tigris met, and became one stream or river, and as such entered and passed through Eden; and as it was parted into four rivers afterwards, in two of which they retained their names: the learned Reland k thinks, this river is now lost; but the learned writer before referred to thinks, as has been observed, that it is the river Jordan; see note on Gen 2:8 and which, as Pliny l says, was a very pleasant river:

and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads; after it had passed through Eden, and the garden in it, watering it, it divided into four parts or heads of water, or four chief principal rivers, hereafter mentioned; and which circumstance the above writer thinks makes it the more probable to be the river Jordan, which and with the four rivers are spoken of together by the son of Sirach, in the Apocrypha:"25 He filleth all things with his wisdom, as Phison and as Tigris in the time of the new fruits. 26 He maketh the understanding to abound like Euphrates, and as Jordan in the time of the harvest. 27 He maketh the doctrine of knowledge appear as the light, and as Geon in the time of vintage.'' (Sirach 24)of which in the following verses. This river may be an emblem of the everlasting love of God, that pure river of water of life, which springs from the throne of God, and of the Lamb, from divine sovereignty, and not from the faith, love, and obedience of man; that river, the streams whereof make glad the city of God, and which water the garden, the church, revive its plants, and make it fruitful and delightful; the four heads or branches of which are eternal election of God, particular redemption by Christ, regeneration and sanctification by the Spirit, and eternal life and happiness, as the free gift of God through Christ; see Psa 46:4.

Gill: Gen 2:11 - The name of the first is Pison // that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold The name of the first is Pison,.... Not the river Nile in Egypt, as Jarchi, who thinks it is derived from "Pashah", which signifies to increase, expan...

The name of the first is Pison,.... Not the river Nile in Egypt, as Jarchi, who thinks it is derived from "Pashah", which signifies to increase, expand, and diffuse, as that does at certain times, and spreads itself over the land of Egypt, or from "Pishten", linen, which grows there, Isa 19:9 nor the river Ganges in India, as Josephus m, and others; for the country where it is afterwards said to run agrees with neither Egypt nor India: rather it seems to be the same river, which is the Phasis of Pliny n, and Strabo o, and the Physcus of Xenophon p, and the Hyphasis of Philostorgius q, a river in Armenia, and about Colchis; and which is sometimes called Pasitigris, being a branch of that river, and mixed with, or arising from channels, drawn from Tigris, Euphrates, and other waters r.

that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; this country had its name from Havilah, one of the sons of Cush, Gen 10:7 who very probably seated himself near his brother Seba, from whom came the Sabeans, who inhabited one part of Arabia; and Havilah, it is plain, was before Egypt, in the way to Assyria, and bordered upon the Ishmaelites, who inhabited Arabia Deserta, Gen 25:16. So that it seems to be a country in Arabia, near unto, or a part of Cush or Arabia Cusea, and near to Seba or Arabia Felix: and so Strabo, among the nations of the Arabians, and along with the Nabatheans, places the Chaulotaeans s, who seem to be no other than the posterity of Havilah: according to the learned Reland t, it is the same with Colchis, a part of Scythia, and Phasis is well known to be a river of Colchis; and which runs into Pontus, as appears from Pliny u and includes Scythia, as Justin w says; and then it must have its name from Havilah, the son of Joktan, Gen 10:29 and in either of these countries there was gold, and an abundance of it, and of the best, as follows:(After the global destruction of Noah's flood, it is doubtful that the location of these rivers could be determined with any degree of certainty today. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 2:12 - And the gold of that land is good // there is the bdellium, and the onyx stone And the gold of that land is good,.... Arabia was famous for gold: Diodorus Siculus x speaks of gold in Arabia, called "apyrus", which is not melted b...

And the gold of that land is good,.... Arabia was famous for gold: Diodorus Siculus x speaks of gold in Arabia, called "apyrus", which is not melted by fire out of small filings, as other; but as soon as dug is said to be pure gold, and that in the size of chestnuts, and of such a flaming colour, that the most precious stones are set in it by artificers for ornament: and in Colchis and Scythia, as Strabo y relates, there are rivers which produce gold; and from whence came the fable of the golden fleece, the Argonauts went to Colchis for:

there is the bdellium, and the onyx stone; the first of these is either an aromatic gum; the tree, according to Pliny z, is black, and is of the size of an olive tree, has the leaf of an oak, and its fruit is like capers; it is found in Arabia, India, Media, and Babylon; but the best, according to him, is in Bactriana, and, next to that, the bdellium of Arabia: or else it is a precious stone, and which the Jewish writers a commonly take to be crystal; and, according to Solinus b, the best crystal is in Scythia. Bochart c would have it that the pearl is meant, because of its whiteness and roundness, for which the manna is compared to it, Num 11:7 and the rather because of the pearl fishery at Catipha, taking Havilah to be that part of Arabia which lies upon the Persian gulf. The latter, the onyx, is a precious stone, which has its name from its being of the colour of a man's nail; and, according to Pliny d, the onyx marble is found in the mountains of Arabia, and the ancients thought it was nowhere else; and he speaks elsewhere of the Arabian onyx precious stone, and of the sardonyx, as in the same country e; and some think that is here meant; though the word is sometimes by the Septuagint rendered the emerald; and the best of these, according to Solinus f and Pliny g, were in Scythia. (After the global destruction of Noah's flood, it is doubtful that the location of these places could be determined with degree of certainty today. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 2:13 - And the name of the second river is Gihon // The same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia And the name of the second river is Gihon,.... There was one of this name in the land of Israel, which, or a branch of it, flowed near Jerusalem, 1Ki...

And the name of the second river is Gihon,.... There was one of this name in the land of Israel, which, or a branch of it, flowed near Jerusalem, 1Ki 1:33 this Aben Ezra suggests is here meant, and which favours the notion of the above learned man, that the garden of Eden was in the land of Israel. Josephus h takes it to be the river Nile, as do many others; it seems to have been a branch of the river Euphrates or Tigris, on the eastern side, as Phison was on the west; and so Aben Ezra says it came from the south east. The learned Reland i will have it to be the river Araxes: it has its name, according to Jarchi, from the force it goes with, and the noise it makes. And it seems to have its name from גוח, which signifies to come forth with great force, as this river is said to do, when it pours itself into the Baltic sea.

The same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia; either Ethiopia above Egypt; and this favours the notion of those who take Gihon to be the Nile: for Pausanias k says, that it was commonly reported that the Nile was Euphrates, which disappearing in a marsh, rose up above Ethiopia, and became the Nile, and so washed that country, and is thought to agree very well with the Mosaic account: or else that Cush or Ethiopia, which bordered on Midian, and was a part of Arabia, and may be called Arabia Chusea, often meant by Cush in Scripture. Reland l thinks the country of the Cossaeans or Cussaeans, a people bordering on Media, the country of Kuhestan, a province of Persia, is intended. (After the global destruction of Noah's flood, it is doubtful that the location of these rivers could be determined with any degree of certainty today. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 2:14 - The name of the third river is Hiddekel // that is it which goeth towards the east of Assyria // and the fourth river is Euphrates The name of the third river is Hiddekel,.... A river which ran by Shushan in Persia, and retained its name in the times of Daniel, Dan 10:4 where it i...

The name of the third river is Hiddekel,.... A river which ran by Shushan in Persia, and retained its name in the times of Daniel, Dan 10:4 where it is called the great river; and it seems it bears the same name now among the Persians; at least it did an hundred and fifty years ago, when Rauwolff m travelled in those parts. The Targum of Jonathan here calls it Diglath, the same with the Diglito of Pliny n; and according to him it is called Tigris, from its swiftness, either from the tiger, a swift creature, or from גרא, "to dart", in the Chaldee language; and so Curtius o says, that in the Persian language they call a dart "tigris": and with this agrees the word "Hiddekel", which in the Hebrew language signifies sharp and swift, as a polished arrow is; and Jarchi says it is so called, because its waters are sharp and swift: though this is contradicted by some modern travellers p who say it is a slower stream than the Euphrates, and is not only very crooked, and full of meanders, but also choked up with islands, and great banks of stone:

that is it which goeth towards the east of Assyria: a country which had its name from Ashur, a son of Shem, Gen 10:11 it became a famous kingdom and monarchy, Nineveh was the metropolis of it, which was built on the river Tigris or Hiddekel; and, as before observed, it ran by Shushan in Persia; and so, as Diodorus Siculus q says, it passed through Media into Mesopotamia; and which very well agrees with its being, according to Moses, one of the rivers of Eden. Twelve miles up this river, from Mosul, near which Nineveh once stood, lies an island, called the island of Eden, in the heart of the Tigris, about ten English miles in circuit, and is said to be undoubtedly a part of paradise r:

and the fourth river is Euphrates: or "Phrat", as in the Hebrew tongue. Reland s seems rightly to judge, that the syllable "eu", prefixed to it, is the Persian "au" or "cu", which in that language signifies "water"; so that "Euphrates" is no other than "the water of Phrat", so called from the fruitfulness of it; for its waters, as Jarchi says, fructify, increase, and fatten the earth; and who rightly observes that these names, and so those of other rivers, and of the countries here mentioned, are named by a prolepsis or anticipation, these being the names they bore when Moses wrote; unless it may be thought to be the Hebrew הוא, "Hu, the, that Phrat"; and which the Greeks have made an "eu" of. (After the global destruction of Noah's flood, it is doubtful that the location of these rivers could be determined with any degree of certainty today. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 2:15 - And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden // to dress it, and to keep it And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden,.... This is observed before in Gen 2:8 and is here repeated to introduce what foll...

And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden,.... This is observed before in Gen 2:8 and is here repeated to introduce what follows; and is to be understood not of a corporeal assumption, by a divine power lifting him up from the place where he was, and carrying him into another; rather of a manuduction, or taking him by the hand and leading him thither; so Onkelos renders it, he "led" him, that is, he ordered and directed him thither: hence Jarchi paraphrases it, he took him with good words, and persuaded him to go thither: the place from whence he is supposed by some to be taken was near Damascus, where he is by them said to be created; or the place where the temple was afterwards built, as say the Jewish writers: the Targum of Jonathan is,"the Lord God took the man from the mount of Service, the place in which he was created, and caused him to dwell in the garden of Eden.''And elsewhere t it is said,"the holy blessed God loved the first Adam with an exceeding great love, for he created him out of a pure and holy place; and from what place did he take him? from the place of the house of the sanctuary, and brought him into his palace, as it is said, Gen 2:15 "and the Lord God took", &c.''though no more perhaps is intended by this expression, than that God spoke to him or impressed it on his mind, and inclined him to go, or stay there:

to dress it, and to keep it; so that it seems man was not to live an idle life, in a state of innocence; but this could not be attended with toil and labour, with fatigue and trouble, with sorrow and sweat, as after his fall; but was rather for his recreation and pleasure; though what by nature was left to be improved by art, and what there was for Adam to do, is not easy to say: at present there needed no ploughing, nor sowing, nor planting, nor watering, since God had made every tree pleasant to the sight, good for food, to grow out of it; and a river ran through it to water it: hence in a Jewish tract u, before referred to, it is said, that his work in the garden was nothing else but to study in the words of the law, and to keep or observe the way of the tree of life: and to this agree the Targums of Jonathan and of Jerusalem,"and he placed him in the garden of Eden, to serve in the law, and keep the commands of it.''And in another tract w it is said,"God brought Adam the law, Job 28:27 and "he put him in the garden of Eden"; that is, the garden of the law, "to dress it", to do the affirmative precepts of the law, "and to keep it", the negative precepts:''though Aben Ezra interprets this service of watering the garden, aud keeping wild beasts from entering into it. And indeed the word may be rendered to "till", as well as to dress, as it is in Gen 3:23 and by Ainsworth here; so Milton x expresses it; and some have thought Adam was to have planted and sowed, had he continued in the garden.

Gill: Gen 2:16 - And the Lord God commanded the man // saying, of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat And the Lord God commanded the man,.... Over whom he had power and authority; and he had a right to command him what he pleased, being his Creator, be...

And the Lord God commanded the man,.... Over whom he had power and authority; and he had a right to command him what he pleased, being his Creator, benefactor, and preserver; and this is to be understood not of man only, but of the woman also, whose creation, though related afterwards, yet was before this grant to eat of all the trees of the garden but one, and the prohibition of the fruit of that; for that she was in being, and present at this time, seems manifest from Gen 3:2.

saying, of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: a very generous, large, and liberal allowance this: or "in eating thou mayest eat" y; which was giving full power, and leaving them without any doubt and uncertainty about their food; which they might freely take, and freely eat of, wherever they found it, or were inclined to, even of any, and every tree in the garden, excepting one, next forbidden.

Gill: Gen 2:17 - But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil // thou shalt not eat of it // for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die; But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil,.... Of the name of this tree, and the reasons of it; see Gill on Gen 2:9. thou shalt not eat of it; ...

But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil,.... Of the name of this tree, and the reasons of it; see Gill on Gen 2:9.

thou shalt not eat of it; not that this tree had any efficacy in it to increase knowledge, and improve in science and understanding, as Satan suggested God knew; and therefore forbid the eating of it out of envy to man, which the divine Being is capable of; or that there was anything hurtful in it to the bodies of men, if they had eaten of it; or that it was unlawful and evil of itself, if it had not been expressly prohibited: but it was, previous to this injunction, a quite indifferent thing whether man ate of it or not; and therefore was pitched upon as a trial of man's obedience to God, under whose government he was, and whom it was fit he should obey in all things; and since he had a grant of all the trees of the garden but this, it was the greater aggravation of his offence that he should not abstain from it:

for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die; or "in dying, die" z; which denotes the certainty of it, as our version expresses it; and may have regard to more deaths than one; not only a corporeal one, which in some sense immediately took place, man became at once a mortal creature, who otherwise continuing in a state of innocence, and by eating of the tree of life, he was allowed to do, would have lived an immortal life; of the eating of which tree, by sinning he was debarred, his natural life not now to be continued long, at least not for ever; he was immediately arraigned, tried, and condemned to death, was found guilty of it, and became obnoxious to it, and death at once began to work in him; sin sowed the seeds of it in his body, and a train of miseries, afflictions, and diseases, began to appear, which at length issued in death. Moreover, a spiritual or moral death immediately ensued; he lost his original righteousness, in which he was created; the image of God in him was deformed; the powers and faculties of his soul were corrupted, and he became dead in sins and trespasses; the consequence of which, had it not been for the interposition of a surety and Saviour, who engaged to make satisfaction to law and justice, must have been eternal death, or an everlasting separation from God, to him and all his posterity; for the wages of sin is death, even death eternal, Rom 6:23. So the Jews a interpret this of death, both in this world and in the world to come.

Gill: Gen 2:18 - And the Lord God said // it is not good that man should be alone // I will made him an help meet for him And the Lord God said,.... Not at the same time he gave the above direction and instruction to man, how to behave according to his will, but before th...

And the Lord God said,.... Not at the same time he gave the above direction and instruction to man, how to behave according to his will, but before that, even at the time of the formation of Adam and which he said either to him, or with himself: it was a purpose or determination in his own mind, and may be rendered, as it is by many, he "had said" b, on the sixth day, on which man was created:

it is not good that man should be alone; not pleasant and comfortable to himself, nor agreeable to his nature, being a social creature; nor useful to his species, not being able to propagate it; nor so much for the glory of his Creator:

I will made him an help meet for him; one to help him in all the affairs of life, not only for the propagation of his species, but to provide things useful and comfortable for him; to dress his food, and take care of the affairs of the family; one "like himself" c, in nature, temper, and disposition, in form and shape; or one "as before him" d, that would be pleasing to his sight, and with whom he might delightfully converse, and be in all respects agreeable to him, and entirely answerable to his case and circumstances, his wants and wishes.

Gill: Gen 2:19 - And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air // brought them unto Adam // to see what he would call them // and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air,.... Or "had formed them" e on the fifth and sixth days;...

And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air,.... Or "had formed them" e on the fifth and sixth days; and these were formed two and two, male and female, in order to continue their species; whereas man was made single, and had no companion of the same nature with him: and while in these circumstances, God

brought them unto Adam; or "to the man" f; either by the ministry of angels, or by a kind of instinct or impulse, which brought them to him of their own accord, as to the lord and proprietor of them, who, as soon as he was made, had the dominion of all the creatures given him; just as the creatures at the flood went in unto Noah in the ark; and as then, so now, all creatures, fowl and cattle, came, all but the fishes of the sea: and this was done

to see what he would call them; what names he would give to them; which as it was a trial of the wisdom of man, so a token of his dominion over the creatures, it being an instance of great knowledge of them to give them apt and suitable names, so as to distinguish one from another, and point at something in them that was natural to them, and made them different from each other; for this does not suppose any want of knowledge in God, as if he did this to know what man would do, he knew what names man would give them before he did; but that it might appear he had made one superior to them all in wisdom and power, and for his pleasure, use, and service; and therefore brings them to him, to put them into his hands, and give him authority over them; and being his own, to call them by what names he pleased:

and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof; it was always afterwards called by it, by him and his posterity, until the confusion of languages, and then every nation called them as they thought proper, everyone in their own language: and as there is a good deal of reason to believe, that the Hebrew language was the first and original language; or however that eastern language, of which the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, are so many dialects; it was this that he spoke, and in it gave names to the creatures suitable to their nature, or agreeable to some property or other observed in them: and Bochart g has given us many instances of creatures in the Hebrew tongue, whose names answer to some character or another in them: some think this was done by inspiration; and Plato says, that it seemed to him that that nature was superior to human, that gave names to things; and that this was not the work of vain and foolish man, but the first names were appointed by the gods h; and so Cicero i asks, who was the first, which with Pythagoras was the highest wisdom, who imposed names on all things?

Gill: Gen 2:20 - And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowls of the air, and to every beast of the field // but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowls of the air, and to every beast of the field,.... As they came before him, and passed by him, payin...

And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowls of the air, and to every beast of the field,.... As they came before him, and passed by him, paying as it were their homage to him, their lord and owner:

but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him; and perhaps this might be one reason of their being brought unto him, that he might become sensible that there was none among all the creatures of his nature, and that was fit to be a companion of his; and to him must this be referred, and not to God; not as if God looked out an help meet for him among the creatures, and could find none; but, as Aben Ezra observes, man could not find one for himself; and this made it the more grateful and acceptable to him, when God had formed the woman of him, and presented her before him.

Gill: Gen 2:21 - And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept // and he took one of his ribs // and closed up the flesh instead thereof And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept,.... This was not a common and natural sleep that Adam fell into, occasioned by a...

And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept,.... This was not a common and natural sleep that Adam fell into, occasioned by any weariness of the animal spirits, in viewing the creatures as they passed by him, and in examining them, and giving them suitable and proper names; but it was supernatural, and from the Lord, his power and providence, who caused it to fall upon him: it was not a drowsiness, nor a slumber, but a sound sleep: his senses were so locked up by it, that he perceived not anything that was done to him; and it seems to have been on purpose, that he might feel no pain, while the operation was made upon him, as well as that it might appear that he had no hand in the formation of the woman; and that he might be the more surprised at the sight of her, just awaking out of sleep, to see so lovely an object, so much like himself, and made out of himself, and in so short a time as while he was taking a comfortable nap:

and he took one of his ribs; with the flesh along with it: men have commonly, as anatomists k observe, twelve ribs on a side; it seems by this, that Adam had thirteen. The Targum of Jonathan is,"and he took one of his ribs; that is, the thirteenth rib of his right side:''but our English poet l takes it to be one of the left side, and also a supernumerary one m. God made an opening in him, and took it out, without putting him to any pain, and without any sensation of it: in what manner this was done we need not inquire; the power of God was sufficient to perform it; Adam was asleep when it was done, and saw it not, and the manner of the operation is not declared:

and closed up the flesh instead thereof: so that there was no opening left, nor any wound made, or a scar appeared, or any loss sustained, but what was made up by an increase of flesh, or by closing up the flesh; and that being hardened like another rib, and so answered the same purpose. (Adam probably had the same number of ribs as we do today. Otherwise the genetic code for creation of an extra rib would cause at least some people today to have thirteen ribs. I know of no such case. Also, we know that acquired characteristics cannot be passed on to the next generation. A man who loses both legs in an accident, usually has children who have two legs. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 2:22 - And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he woman // and brought her unto the man And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he woman,.... It is commonly observed, and pertinently enough, that the woman was not made fr...

And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he woman,.... It is commonly observed, and pertinently enough, that the woman was not made from the superior part of man, that she might not be thought to be above him, and have power over him; nor from any inferior part, as being below him, and to be trampled on by him; but out of his side, and from one of his ribs, that she might appear to be equal to him; and from a part near his heart, and under his arms, to show that she should be affectionately loved by him, and be always under his care and protection: and she was not "created" as things were, out of nothing, nor "formed" as Adam was, out of the dust of the earth, being in the same form as man; but "made" out of refined and quickened dust, or the flesh and bones of man, and so in her make and constitution fine and lovely; or "built" n, as the word signifies, which is used, because she is the foundation of the house or family, and the means of building it up: or rather to denote the singular care and art used, and fit proportion observed in the make of her:

and brought her unto the man: from the place where the rib had been carried, and she was made of it; or he brought her, as the parent of her, at whose dispose she was, and presented her to Adam as his spouse, to be taken into a conjugal relation with him, and to be loved and cherished by him; which, as it affords a rule and example to be followed by parents and children, the one to dispose of their children in marriage, and the other to have the consent of their parents in it; as well as it is a recommendation of marriage, as agreeable to the divine will, and to be esteemed honourable, being of God: so it was a type of the marriage of Christ, the second Adam, between him and his church, which sprung from him, from his side; and is of the same nature with him, and was presented by his divine Father to him, who gave her to him; and he received her to himself as his spouse and bride; see Eph 5:29.

Gill: Gen 2:23 - And Adam said, this is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh // she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man And Adam said, this is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh,.... Of "his bones", because made out of a pair of his ribs, as some think, one on ...

And Adam said, this is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh,.... Of "his bones", because made out of a pair of his ribs, as some think, one on each side, and therefore expressed in the plural number, "and of his flesh", a part of which was taken with the rib; this Adam knew, either being awake while she was made, though asleep when the rib was taken out; or by divine revelation, by an impress of it on his mind; or it might have been declared to him in a dream, while asleep, when, being in an ecstasy or trance, this whole affair was represented unto him: and this was "now" done, just done, and would be done no more in like manner; "this time" o, this once, as many render it; so it was, but hereafter the woman was to be produced in the way of generation, as man:

she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man: her name was "Ishah", because taken from "Ish", as "vira" in Latin from "vir", and "woman" in our language from "man".

Gill: Gen 2:24 - Therefore shall a man leave his father, and his mother // and shall cleave unto his wife // and they shall be one flesh Therefore shall a man leave his father, and his mother,.... These are thought by some to be the words of Moses, inferring from the above fact, what ou...

Therefore shall a man leave his father, and his mother,.... These are thought by some to be the words of Moses, inferring from the above fact, what ought to be among men; and by others, the words of Adam under divine inspiration, as the father of mankind instructing his sons what to do, and foretelling what would be done in all succeeding ages: though they rather seem to be the words of God himself, by whom marriage was now instituted; and who here gives direction about it, and declares the case and circumstance of man upon it, and how he would and should behave: and thus our Lord Jesus Christ, quoting these words, makes them to be the words of him that made man, male and female, and supplies and prefaces them thus, and said, "for this cause", &c. Mat 19:5 so Jarchi paraphrases them,"the Holy Ghost said so:''not that a man upon his marriage is to drop his affections to his parents, or be remiss in his obedience to them, honour of them, and esteem for then, or to neglect the care of them, if they stand in need of his assistance; but that he should depart from his father's house, and no more dwell with him, or bed and board in his house; but having taken a wife to himself, should provide an habitation for him and her to dwell together: so all the three Targums interpret it, of quitting "the house of his father, and his mother's bed":

and shall cleave unto his wife; with a cordial affection, taking care of her, nourishing and cherishing her, providing all things comfortable for her, continuing to live with her, and not depart from her as long as they live: the phrase is expressive of the near union by marriage between man and wife; they are, as it were, glued together, and make but one; which is more fully and strongly expressed in the next clause:

and they shall be one flesh; that is, "they two", the man and his wife, as it is supplied and interpreted by Christ, Mat 19:5 and so here in the Targum of Jonathan, and in the Septuagint and Samaritan versions: the union between them is so close, as if they were but one person, one soul, one body; and which is to be observed against polygamy, unlawful divorces, and all uncleanness, fornication, and adultery: only one man and one woman, being joined in lawful wedlock, have a right of copulation with each other, in order to produce a legitimate offspring, partaking of the same one flesh, as children do of their parents, without being able to distinguish the flesh of the one from the other, they partake of: and from hence it appears to be a fabulous notion, that Cecrops, the first king of Athens, was the first institutor of matrimony and joiner of one man to one woman; whence he was said to be "biformis" p, and was called διφυης; unless, as some q have thought, that he and Moses were one and the same who delivered out the first institution of marriage, which is this.

Gill: Gen 2:25 - And they were both naked, the man and his wife // and were not ashamed And they were both naked, the man and his wife,.... Were as they were created, having no clothes on them, and standing in need of none, to shelter the...

And they were both naked, the man and his wife,.... Were as they were created, having no clothes on them, and standing in need of none, to shelter them from the heat or cold, being in a temperate climate; or to conceal any parts of their bodies from the sight of others, there being none of the creatures to guard against on that account:

and were not ashamed; having nothing in them, or on them, or about them, that caused shame; nothing sinful, defective, scandalous or blameworthy; no sin in their nature, no guilt on their consciences, or wickedness in their hands or actions; and particularly they were not ashamed of their being naked, no more than children are to see each other naked, or we are to behold them: besides, they were not only alone, and none to behold them; but their being naked was no disgrace to them, but was agreeably to their nature; and they were not sensible that there was any necessity or occasion to cover themselves, nor would they have had any, had they continued in their innocent state: moreover, there was not the least reason to be ashamed to appear in such a manner, since they were but one flesh. The Jerusalem Targum is,"they knew not what shame was,''not being conscious of any sin, which sooner or later produces shame. Thus Plato r describes the first men, who, he says, were produced out of the earth; and for whom the fertile ground and trees brought forth fruit of all kind in abundance of themselves, without any agriculture; that these were γυμνοι και αρρωτοι, "naked and without any covering"; and so Diodories Siculus s says, the first of men were naked and without clothing. The word here used sometimes signifies wise and cunning; it is rendered "subtle" first verse of the next chapter: and here the Targum of Jonathan is,"they were both wise, Adam and his wife, but they continued not in their glory;''the next thing we hear of is their fall.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Gen 2:1 Heb “and all the host of them.” Here the “host” refers to all the entities and creatures that God created to populate the worl...

NET Notes: Gen 2:2 The Hebrew term שָׁבַּת (shabbat) can be translated “to rest” (“and he rested”) but ...

NET Notes: Gen 2:3 Heb “for on it he ceased from all his work which God created to make.” The last infinitive construct and the verb before it form a verbal ...

NET Notes: Gen 2:4 See the note on the phrase “the heavens and the earth” in 1:1; the order here is reversed, but the meaning is the same.

NET Notes: Gen 2:5 The last clause in v. 5, “and there was no man to cultivate the ground,” anticipates the curse and the expulsion from the garden (Gen 3:23...

NET Notes: Gen 2:6 Here is an indication of fertility. The water would well up from the earth (אֶרֶץ, ’erets) and water all the surfa...

NET Notes: Gen 2:7 The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often translated “soul,” but the word usually ...

NET Notes: Gen 2:8 The perfect verbal form here requires the past perfect translation since it describes an event that preceded the event described in the main clause.

NET Notes: Gen 2:9 The expression “tree of the knowledge of good and evil” must be interpreted to mean that the tree would produce fruit which, when eaten, g...

NET Notes: Gen 2:10 Or “branches”; Heb “heads.” Cf. NEB “streams”; NASB “rivers.”

NET Notes: Gen 2:11 Heb “it is that which goes around.”

NET Notes: Gen 2:12 Or “onyx.”

NET Notes: Gen 2:13 Cush. In the Bible the Hebrew word כּוּשׁ (kush, “Kush”) often refers to Ethiopia (so KJV, CEV), but h...

NET Notes: Gen 2:14 Heb “Asshur” (so NEB, NIV).

NET Notes: Gen 2:15 Note that man’s task is to care for and maintain the trees of the orchard. Not until after the fall, when he is condemned to cultivate the soil,...

NET Notes: Gen 2:16 The word “fruit” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied as the direct object of the verb “eat.” Presumably the only part of...

NET Notes: Gen 2:17 The Hebrew text (“dying you will die”) does not refer to two aspects of death (“dying spiritually, you will then die physically̶...

NET Notes: Gen 2:18 The Hebrew expression כְּנֶגְדּוֹ (kÿnegdo) literally means “according to...

NET Notes: Gen 2:19 The imperfect verb form is future from the perspective of the past time narrative.

NET Notes: Gen 2:20 Heb “there was not found a companion who corresponded to him.” The subject of the third masculine singular verb form is indefinite. Withou...

NET Notes: Gen 2:21 Heb “closed up the flesh under it.”

NET Notes: Gen 2:22 The Hebrew verb is בָּנָה (banah, “to make, to build, to construct”). The text states that the Lord Go...

NET Notes: Gen 2:23 This poetic section expresses the correspondence between the man and the woman. She is bone of his bones, flesh of his flesh. Note the wordplay (paron...

NET Notes: Gen 2:24 Heb “and they become one flesh.” The perfect with vav consecutive carries the same habitual or characteristic nuance as the preceding verb...

NET Notes: Gen 2:25 The imperfect verb form here has a customary nuance, indicating a continuing condition in past time. The meaning of the Hebrew term בּ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the ( a ) host of them. ( a ) That is, the innumerable abundance of creatures in heaven and ear...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he ( b ) rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. ( b ) For he...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:3 And God blessed the seventh day, and ( c ) sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made. ( c ) Appoin...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:5 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to ( d ) rain ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:7 And the LORD God formed man ( e ) [of] the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. ( e )...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in ( f ) Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. ( f ) This was the name of a place, as some th...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the ( g ) tree of life also in the midst ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:11 The name of the first [is] Pison: that [is] it which compasseth the whole land ( i ) of Havilah, where [there is] gold; ( i ) Havilah is a country ad...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to ( k ) dress it and to keep it. ( k ) God would not have man idle, though as yet...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:16 And the LORD God ( l ) commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: ( l ) So that man might know there was a sovere...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely ( m ) die. ( m...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought [them] unto ( n ) Adam to see what he would...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a ( o ) woman, and brought her unto the man. ( o ) Signifying that mankind was perfect, w...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:24 Therefore shall a man leave ( p ) his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. ( p ) So marriage requires ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 2:25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ( q ) ashamed. ( q ) For before sin entered, all things were honest and comely.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Gen 2:1-3 - --After six days, God ceased from all works of creation. In miracles, he has overruled nature, but never changed its settled course, or added to it. God...

MHCC: Gen 2:4-7 - --Here is a name given to the Creator, " Jehovah." Where the word " LORD" is printed in capital letters in our English Bibles, in the original it is "...

MHCC: Gen 2:8-14 - --The place fixed upon for Adam to dwell in, was not a palace, but a garden. The better we take up with plain things, and the less we seek things to gra...

MHCC: Gen 2:15 - --After God had formed Adam, he put him in the garden. All boasting was thereby shut out. Only he that made us can make us happy; he that is the Former ...

MHCC: Gen 2:16-17 - --Let us never set up our own will against the holy will of God. There was not only liberty allowed to man, in taking the fruits of paradise, but everla...

MHCC: Gen 2:18-25 - --Power over the creatures was given to man, and as a proof of this he named them all. It also shows his insight into the works of God. But though he wa...

Matthew Henry: Gen 2:1-3 - -- We have here, I. The settlement of the kingdom of nature, in God's resting from the work of creation, Gen 2:1, Gen 2:2. Here observe, 1. The creatur...

Matthew Henry: Gen 2:4-7 - -- In these verses, I. Here is a name given to the Creator which we have not yet met with, and that is Jehovah - the LORD, in capital letters, which ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 2:8-15 - -- Man consisting of body and soul, a body made out of the earth and a rational immortal soul the breath of heaven, we have, in these verses, the provi...

Matthew Henry: Gen 2:16-17 - -- Observe here, I. God's authority over man, as a creature that had reason and freedom of will. The Lord God commanded the man, who stood now as a pub...

Matthew Henry: Gen 2:18-20 - -- Here we have, I. An instance of the Creator's care of man and his fatherly concern for his comfort, Gen 2:18. Though God had let him know that he wa...

Matthew Henry: Gen 2:21-25 - -- Here we have, I. The making of the woman, to be a help-meet for Adam. This was done upon the sixth day, as was also the placing of Adam in paradise,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:1-3 - -- The Sabbath of Creation. - "Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." צבא here denotes the totality of the beings...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:4 - -- The historical account of the world, which commences at the completion of the work of creation, is introduced as the "History of the heavens and the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:5-6 - -- The account in vv. 5-25 is not a second, complete and independent history of the creation, nor does it contain mere appendices to the account in Gen...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:7 - -- "Then Jehovah God formed man from dust of the ground." עפר is the accusative of the material employed ( Ewald and Gesenius ). The Vav consec. ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:8-9 - -- The abode, which God prepared for the first man, was a "garden in Eden," also called "the garden of Eden"(Gen 2:15; Gen 3:23-24; Joe 2:3), or Eden (...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:10-14 - -- "And there was a river going out of Eden, to water the garden; and from thence it divided itself, and became four heads;" i.e., the stream took its ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:15-17 - -- After the preparation of the garden in Eden God placed the man there, to dress it and to keep it. ינּיחהוּ not merely expresses removal thith...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:18-22 - -- Creation of the Woman. - As the creation of the man is introduced in Gen 1:26-27, with a divine decree, so here that of the woman is preceded by the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 2:23-25 - -- The design of God in the creation of the woman is perceived by Adam, as soon as he awakes, when the woman is brought to him by God. Without a revela...

Constable: Gen 1:1--11:27 - --I. PRIMEVAL EVENTS 1:1--11:26 Chapters 1-11 provide an introduction to the Book of Genesis, the Pentateuch, and ...

Constable: Gen 1:1--2:4 - --A. The story of creation 1:1-2:3 God created the entire universe and then formed and filled it in six da...

Constable: Gen 2:1-3 - --4. The seventh day 2:1-3 "2:1-3 echoes 1:1 by introducing the same phrases but in reverse order: he created,' God,' heavens and earth' reappear as hea...

Constable: Gen 2:4--5:1 - --B. What became of the creation 2:4-4:26 Moses described what happened to the creation by recording signi...

Constable: Gen 2:4--4:1 - --1. The garden of Eden 2:4-3:24 This story has seven scenes that a change in actors, situations o...

Constable: Gen 2:4-17 - --The creation of man 2:4-17 2:4 Having related the creation of the universe as we know it, God next inspired Moses to explain for his readers what beca...

Constable: Gen 2:18-25 - --The creation of woman 2:18-25 2:18 Adam's creation was not complete because he lacked a "helper" who corresponded to him. This deficiency led God to p...

Guzik: Gen 2:1-25 - Creation Completed; Adam in the Garden of Eden Genesis 2 - Creation Completed; Adam in the Garden of Eden A. The completion of creation. 1. (1-3) The seventh day of creation. Thus the heavens ...