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Teks -- Isaiah 6:1-13 (NET)

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Isaiah’s Commission
6:1 In the year of King Uzziah’s death, I saw the sovereign master seated on a high, elevated throne. The hem of his robe filled the temple. 6:2 Seraphs stood over him; each one had six wings. With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and they used the remaining two to fly. 6:3 They called out to one another, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord who commands armies! His majestic splendor fills the entire earth!” 6:4 The sound of their voices shook the door frames, and the temple was filled with smoke. 6:5 I said, “Too bad for me! I am destroyed, for my lips are contaminated by sin, and I live among people whose lips are contaminated by sin. My eyes have seen the king, the Lord who commands armies.” 6:6 But then one of the seraphs flew toward me. In his hand was a hot coal he had taken from the altar with tongs. 6:7 He touched my mouth with it and said, “Look, this coal has touched your lips. Your evil is removed; your sin is forgiven.” 6:8 I heard the voice of the sovereign master say, “Whom will I send? Who will go on our behalf?” I answered, “Here I am, send me!” 6:9 He said, “Go and tell these people: ‘Listen continually, but don’t understand! Look continually, but don’t perceive!’ 6:10 Make the hearts of these people calloused; make their ears deaf and their eyes blind! Otherwise they might see with their eyes and hear with their ears, their hearts might understand and they might repent and be healed.” 6:11 I replied, “How long, sovereign master?” He said, “Until cities are in ruins and unpopulated, and houses are uninhabited, and the land is ruined and devastated, 6:12 and the Lord has sent the people off to a distant place, and the very heart of the land is completely abandoned. 6:13 Even if only a tenth of the people remain in the land, it will again be destroyed, like one of the large sacred trees or an Asherah pole, when a sacred pillar on a high place is thrown down. That sacred pillar symbolizes the special chosen family.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Uzziah a son of Jehoram; the father of Jotham; an ancestor of Jesus.,son and successor of king Amaziah of Judah,son of Uriel of Kohath son of Levi,father of Jonathan, the head of country treasuries under David,a priest of the Harim Clan who put away his heathen wife,son of Zechariah; father of Athaiah of Judah, a returned exile


Topik/Tema Kamus: Isaiah | Vision | Prophets | Seraphim | Minister | God | ANGELS | Israel | Jesus, The Christ | ADORATION | Angel | Fire | ISAIAH, 8-9 | TRADE | Coal | GOD, 2 | Throne | HOLINESS | Sin | Living creatures | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 6:1 - I saw In a vision.

In a vision.

Wesley: Isa 6:1 - The Lord The Divine Majesty as he subsisteth in three persons.

The Divine Majesty as he subsisteth in three persons.

Wesley: Isa 6:1 - His train His royal and judicial robe; for he is represented as a judge.

His royal and judicial robe; for he is represented as a judge.

Wesley: Isa 6:2 - Stood As ministers attending upon their Lord.

As ministers attending upon their Lord.

Wesley: Isa 6:2 - Seraphim An order of holy angels, thus called from fire and burning, which this word properly signifies; to represent either their nature, which is bright and ...

An order of holy angels, thus called from fire and burning, which this word properly signifies; to represent either their nature, which is bright and glorious, subtile, and pure; or their property, of fervent zeal for God's service and glory.

Wesley: Isa 6:2 - Covered Out of profound reverence.

Out of profound reverence.

Wesley: Isa 6:3 - Cried Singing in consort.

Singing in consort.

Wesley: Isa 6:3 - Holy This is repeated thrice, to intimate the Trinity of persons united in the Divine essence.

This is repeated thrice, to intimate the Trinity of persons united in the Divine essence.

Wesley: Isa 6:3 - Glory Of the effects and demonstrations of his glorious holiness, as well as of his power, wisdom, and goodness.

Of the effects and demonstrations of his glorious holiness, as well as of his power, wisdom, and goodness.

Wesley: Isa 6:4 - The posts Together with the door itself. Such violent motions were commonly tokens of God's anger.

Together with the door itself. Such violent motions were commonly tokens of God's anger.

Wesley: Isa 6:4 - Smoak Which elsewhere is a token of God's presence and acceptance, but here of his anger.

Which elsewhere is a token of God's presence and acceptance, but here of his anger.

Wesley: Isa 6:5 - l am I am a great sinner, as many other ways, so particularly by my lips. I am an unclean branch of an unclean tree; besides my own uncleanness, I have bot...

I am a great sinner, as many other ways, so particularly by my lips. I am an unclean branch of an unclean tree; besides my own uncleanness, I have both by my omissions and commissions involved myself in the guilt of their sins.

Wesley: Isa 6:5 - Have seen The sight of this glorious and holy God gives me cause to fear that he is come to judgment against me.

The sight of this glorious and holy God gives me cause to fear that he is come to judgment against me.

Wesley: Isa 6:6 - Flew By God's command.

By God's command.

Wesley: Isa 6:6 - A coal Both a token and an instrument of purification.

Both a token and an instrument of purification.

Wesley: Isa 6:6 - The altar Of burnt-offering.

Of burnt-offering.

Wesley: Isa 6:7 - Laid it So as only to touch my lips, and not to burn them; which God could easily effect.

So as only to touch my lips, and not to burn them; which God could easily effect.

Wesley: Isa 6:7 - Lo This is a sign that I have pardoned and purged the uncleanness of thy lips.

This is a sign that I have pardoned and purged the uncleanness of thy lips.

Wesley: Isa 6:8 - Who To deliver the following message. The change of the number, I and us, is very remarkable; and both being meant of one and the same Lord, do sufficient...

To deliver the following message. The change of the number, I and us, is very remarkable; and both being meant of one and the same Lord, do sufficiently intimate a plurality of persons in the Godhead.

Wesley: Isa 6:9 - Perceive not The Hebrew words are imperative; yet they are not to be taken as a command what the people ought to do, but only as a prediction what they would do. T...

The Hebrew words are imperative; yet they are not to be taken as a command what the people ought to do, but only as a prediction what they would do. The sense is, because you have so long heard my words, and seen my works, to no purpose, and have hardened your hearts, and will not learn nor reform, I will punish you in your own kind, your sin shall be your punishment. I will still continue my word and works to you, but will withdraw my Spirit, so that you shall be as unable, as now you are unwilling, to understand.

Wesley: Isa 6:10 - Fat Stupid and senseless. This making of their hearts fat, is here ascribed to the prophet, as it is ascribed to God in the repetition of this prophecy, J...

Stupid and senseless. This making of their hearts fat, is here ascribed to the prophet, as it is ascribed to God in the repetition of this prophecy, Joh 12:40, because God inflicted this judgment upon them by the ministry of the prophet, partly by way of prediction, foretelling that this would be the effect of his preaching; and partly by withdrawing the light and help of his Spirit.

Wesley: Isa 6:10 - Heavy Make them dull of hearing.

Make them dull of hearing.

Wesley: Isa 6:10 - Lest That they may not be able, as before they were not willing to see.

That they may not be able, as before they were not willing to see.

Wesley: Isa 6:10 - Convert Turn to God.

Turn to God.

Wesley: Isa 6:11 - Lord An abrupt speech, arising from the prophet's great passion and astonishment: how long shall this dreadful judgment last? Until - Until this land be to...

An abrupt speech, arising from the prophet's great passion and astonishment: how long shall this dreadful judgment last? Until - Until this land be totally destroyed, first by the Babylonians, and afterward by the Romans.

Wesley: Isa 6:12 - Removed Hath caused this people to be carried away captive into far countries.

Hath caused this people to be carried away captive into far countries.

Wesley: Isa 6:12 - A forsaking 'Till houses and lands be generally forsaken of their owners.

'Till houses and lands be generally forsaken of their owners.

Wesley: Isa 6:13 - A tenth A small remnant reserved, that number being put indefinitely.

A small remnant reserved, that number being put indefinitely.

Wesley: Isa 6:13 - Return Out of the Babylonish captivity, into their own land.

Out of the Babylonish captivity, into their own land.

Wesley: Isa 6:13 - Eaten That remnant shall be devoured a second time, by the kings of Syria, and afterwards by the Romans.

That remnant shall be devoured a second time, by the kings of Syria, and afterwards by the Romans.

Wesley: Isa 6:13 - Yet Yet there shall be another remnant, not such an one as that which came out of Babylon, but an holy seed, who shall afterwards look upon him whom they ...

Yet there shall be another remnant, not such an one as that which came out of Babylon, but an holy seed, who shall afterwards look upon him whom they have pierced, and mourn over him.

Wesley: Isa 6:13 - When Who when their leaves are cast in winter, have a substance within themselves, a vital principle, which preserves life in the root of the tree, and in ...

Who when their leaves are cast in winter, have a substance within themselves, a vital principle, which preserves life in the root of the tree, and in due time sends it forth into all the branches.

Wesley: Isa 6:13 - The support Of the land or people, which, were it not for the sake of these, should be finally rooted out.

Of the land or people, which, were it not for the sake of these, should be finally rooted out.

JFB: Isa 6:1 - In . . . year . . . Uzziah died Either literal death, or civil when he ceased as a leper to exercise his functions as king [Chaldee], (2Ch 26:19-21). 754 B.C. [CALMET] 758 (Common Ch...

Either literal death, or civil when he ceased as a leper to exercise his functions as king [Chaldee], (2Ch 26:19-21). 754 B.C. [CALMET] 758 (Common Chronology). This is not the first beginning of Isaiah's prophecies, but his inauguration to a higher degree of the prophetic office: Isa 6:9, &c., implies the tone of one who had already experience of the people's obstinacy.

JFB: Isa 6:1 - Lord Here Adonai, Jehovah in Isa 6:5; Jesus Christ is meant as speaking in Isa 6:10, according to Joh 12:41. Isaiah could only have "seen" the Son, not the...

Here Adonai, Jehovah in Isa 6:5; Jesus Christ is meant as speaking in Isa 6:10, according to Joh 12:41. Isaiah could only have "seen" the Son, not the divine essence (Joh 1:18). The words in Isa 6:10 are attributed by Paul (Act 28:25-26) to the Holy Ghost. Thus the Trinity in unity is implied; as also by the thrice "Holy" (Isa 6:3). Isaiah mentions the robes, temple, and seraphim, but not the form of God Himself. Whatever it was, it was different from the usual Shekinah: that was on the mercy seat, this on a throne; that a cloud and fire, of this no form is specified: over that were the cherubim, over this the seraphim; that had no clothing, this had a flowing robe and train.

JFB: Isa 6:2 - stood Not necessarily the posture of standing; rather, were in attendance on Him [MAURER], hovering on expanded wings.

Not necessarily the posture of standing; rather, were in attendance on Him [MAURER], hovering on expanded wings.

JFB: Isa 6:2 - the Not in the Hebrew.

Not in the Hebrew.

JFB: Isa 6:2 - seraphim Nowhere else applied to God's attendant angels; but to the fiery flying (not winged, but rapidly moving) serpents, which bit the Israelites (Num 21:6)...

Nowhere else applied to God's attendant angels; but to the fiery flying (not winged, but rapidly moving) serpents, which bit the Israelites (Num 21:6), called so from the poisonous inflammation caused by their bites. Seraph is to burn; implying the burning zeal, dazzling brightness (2Ki 2:11; 2Ki 6:17; Eze 1:13; Mat 28:3) and serpent-like rapidity of the seraphim in God's service. Perhaps Satan's form as a serpent (nachash) in his appearance to man has some connection with his original form as a seraph of light. The head of the serpent was the symbol of wisdom in Egypt (compare Num 21:8; 2Ki 18:4). The seraphim, with six wings and one face, can hardly be identified with the cherubim, which had four wings (in the temple only two) and four faces (Eze 1:5-12). (But compare Rev 4:8). The "face" and "feet" imply a human form; something of a serpentine form (perhaps a basilisk's head, as in the temples of Thebes) may have been mixed with it: so the cherub was compounded of various animal forms. However, seraph may come from a root meaning "princely," applied in Dan 10:13 to Michael [MAURER]; just as cherub comes from a root (changing m into b), meaning "noble."

JFB: Isa 6:2 - twain Two wings alone of the six were kept ready for instant flight in God's service; two veiled their faces as unworthy to look on the holy God, or pry int...

Two wings alone of the six were kept ready for instant flight in God's service; two veiled their faces as unworthy to look on the holy God, or pry into His secret counsels which they fulfilled (Exo 3:6; Job 4:18; Job 15:15); two covered their feet, or rather the whole of the lower parts of their persons--a practice usual in the presence of Eastern monarchs, in token of reverence (compare Eze 1:11, their bodies). Man's service a fortiori consists in reverent waiting on, still more than in active service for, God.

JFB: Isa 6:3 - -- (Rev 4:8). The Trinity is implied (on "Lord," see on Isa 6:1). God's holiness is the keynote of Isaiah's whole prophecies.

(Rev 4:8). The Trinity is implied (on "Lord," see on Isa 6:1). God's holiness is the keynote of Isaiah's whole prophecies.

JFB: Isa 6:3 - whole earth The Hebrew more emphatically, the fulness of the whole earth is His glory (Psa 24:1; Psa 72:19).

The Hebrew more emphatically, the fulness of the whole earth is His glory (Psa 24:1; Psa 72:19).

JFB: Isa 6:4 - posts of . . . door Rather, foundations of the thresholds.

Rather, foundations of the thresholds.

JFB: Isa 6:4 - house Temple.

Temple.

JFB: Isa 6:4 - smoke The Shekinah cloud (1Ki 8:10; Eze 10:4).

The Shekinah cloud (1Ki 8:10; Eze 10:4).

JFB: Isa 6:5 - undone (Exo 33:20). The same effect was produced on others by the presence of God (Jdg 6:22; Jdg 13:22; Job 42:5-6; Luk 5:8; Rev 1:17).

(Exo 33:20). The same effect was produced on others by the presence of God (Jdg 6:22; Jdg 13:22; Job 42:5-6; Luk 5:8; Rev 1:17).

JFB: Isa 6:5 - lips Appropriate to the context which describes the praises of the lips, sung in alternate responses (Exo 15:20-21; Isa 6:3) by the seraphim: also appropri...

Appropriate to the context which describes the praises of the lips, sung in alternate responses (Exo 15:20-21; Isa 6:3) by the seraphim: also appropriate to the office of speaking as the prophet of God, about to be committed to Isaiah (Isa 6:9).

JFB: Isa 6:5 - seen Not strictly Jehovah Himself (Joh 1:18; 1Ti 6:16), but the symbol of His presence.

Not strictly Jehovah Himself (Joh 1:18; 1Ti 6:16), but the symbol of His presence.

JFB: Isa 6:5 - Lord Hebrew, "JEHOVAH."

Hebrew, "JEHOVAH."

JFB: Isa 6:6 - unto me The seraph had been in the temple, Isaiah outside of it.

The seraph had been in the temple, Isaiah outside of it.

JFB: Isa 6:6 - live coal Literally, "a hot stone," used, as in some countries in our days, to roast meat with, for example, the meat of the sacrifices. Fire was a symbol of pu...

Literally, "a hot stone," used, as in some countries in our days, to roast meat with, for example, the meat of the sacrifices. Fire was a symbol of purification, as it takes the dross out of metals (Mal 3:2-3).

JFB: Isa 6:6 - the altar Of burnt offering, in the court of the priests before the temple. The fire on it was at first kindled by God (Lev 9:24), and was kept continually burn...

Of burnt offering, in the court of the priests before the temple. The fire on it was at first kindled by God (Lev 9:24), and was kept continually burning.

JFB: Isa 6:7 - mouth . . . lips (See on Isa 6:5). The mouth was touched because it was the part to be used by the prophet when inaugurated. So "tongues of fire" rested on the discipl...

(See on Isa 6:5). The mouth was touched because it was the part to be used by the prophet when inaugurated. So "tongues of fire" rested on the disciples (Act 2:3-4) when they were being set apart to speak in various languages of Jesus.

JFB: Isa 6:7 - iniquity Conscious unworthiness of acting as God's messenger.

Conscious unworthiness of acting as God's messenger.

JFB: Isa 6:7 - purged Literally, "covered," that is, expiated, not by any physical effect of fire to cleanse from sin, but in relation to the altar sacrifices, of which Mes...

Literally, "covered," that is, expiated, not by any physical effect of fire to cleanse from sin, but in relation to the altar sacrifices, of which Messiah, who here commissions Isaiah, was in His death to be the antitype: it is implied hereby that it is only by sacrifice sin can be pardoned.

JFB: Isa 6:8 - I . . . us The change of number indicates the Trinity (compare Gen 1:26; Gen 11:7). Though not a sure argument for the doctrine, for the plural may indicate mere...

The change of number indicates the Trinity (compare Gen 1:26; Gen 11:7). Though not a sure argument for the doctrine, for the plural may indicate merely majesty, it accords with that truth proved elsewhere.

JFB: Isa 6:8 - Whom . . . who Implying that few would be willing to bear the self-denial which the delivering of such an unwelcome message to the Jews would require on the part of ...

Implying that few would be willing to bear the self-denial which the delivering of such an unwelcome message to the Jews would require on the part of the messenger (compare 1Ch 29:5).

JFB: Isa 6:8 - Here am I Prompt zeal, now that he has been specially qualified for it (Isa 6:7; compare 1Sa 3:10-11; Act 9:6).

Prompt zeal, now that he has been specially qualified for it (Isa 6:7; compare 1Sa 3:10-11; Act 9:6).

JFB: Isa 6:9 - Hear . . . indeed Hebrew, "In hearing hear," that is, Though ye hear the prophet's warnings again and again, ye are doomed, because of your perverse will (Joh 7:17), no...

Hebrew, "In hearing hear," that is, Though ye hear the prophet's warnings again and again, ye are doomed, because of your perverse will (Joh 7:17), not to understand. Light enough is given in revelation to guide those sincerely seeking to know, in order that they may do, God's will; darkness enough is left to confound the wilfully blind (Isa 43:8). So in Jesus' use of parables (Mat 13:14).

JFB: Isa 6:9 - see . . . indeed Rather, "though ye see again and again," yet, &c.

Rather, "though ye see again and again," yet, &c.

JFB: Isa 6:10 - Make . . . fat (Psa 119:17). "Render them the more hardened by thy warnings" [MAURER]. This effect is the fruit, not of the truth in itself, but of the corrupt stat...

(Psa 119:17). "Render them the more hardened by thy warnings" [MAURER]. This effect is the fruit, not of the truth in itself, but of the corrupt state of their hearts, to which God here judicially gives them over (Isa 63:17). GESENIUS takes the imperatives as futures. "Proclaim truths, the result of which proclamation will be their becoming the more hardened" (Rom 1:28; Eph 4:18); but this does not so well as the former set forth God as designedly giving up sinners to judicial hardening (Rom 11:8; 2Th 2:11). In the first member of the sentence, the order is, the heart, ears, eyes; in the latter, the reverse order, the eyes, ears, heart. It is from the heart that corruption flows into the ears and eyes (Mar 7:21-22); but through the eyes and ears healing reaches the heart (Rom 10:17), [BENGEL]. (Jer 5:21; Eze 12:2; Zec 7:11; Act 7:57; 2Ti 4:4). In Mat 13:15, the words are quoted in the indicative, "is waxed gross" (so the Septuagint), not the imperative, "make fat"; God's word as to the future is as certain as if it were already fulfilled. To see with one's eyes will not convince a will that is opposed to the truth (compare Joh 11:45-46; Joh 12:10-11). "One must love divine things in order to understand them" [PASCAL].

JFB: Isa 6:10 - be healed Of their spiritual malady, sin (Isa 1:6; Psa 103:3; Jer 17:14).

Of their spiritual malady, sin (Isa 1:6; Psa 103:3; Jer 17:14).

JFB: Isa 6:11 - how long Will this wretched condition of the nation being hardened to its destruction continue?

Will this wretched condition of the nation being hardened to its destruction continue?

JFB: Isa 6:11 - until (Isa 5:9) --fulfilled primarily at the Babylonish captivity, and more fully at the dispersion under the Roman Titus.

(Isa 5:9) --fulfilled primarily at the Babylonish captivity, and more fully at the dispersion under the Roman Titus.

JFB: Isa 6:12 - -- (2Ki 25:21).

JFB: Isa 6:12 - forsaking Abandonment of dwellings by their inhabitants (Jer 4:29).

Abandonment of dwellings by their inhabitants (Jer 4:29).

JFB: Isa 6:13 - and it shall return, and . . . be eaten Rather, "but it shall be again given over to be consumed": if even a tenth survive the first destruction, it shall be destroyed by a second (Isa 5:25;...

Rather, "but it shall be again given over to be consumed": if even a tenth survive the first destruction, it shall be destroyed by a second (Isa 5:25; Eze 5:1-5, Eze 5:12), [MAURER and HORSLEY]. In English Version, "return" refers to the poor remnant left in the land at the Babylonish captivity (2Ki 24:14; 2Ki 25:12), which afterwards fled to Egypt in fear (2Ki 25:26), and subsequently returned thence along with others who had fled to Moab and Edom (Jer 40:11-12), and suffered under further divine judgments.

JFB: Isa 6:13 - tell Rather, "terebinth" or "turpentine tree" (Isa 1:29).

Rather, "terebinth" or "turpentine tree" (Isa 1:29).

JFB: Isa 6:13 - substance . . . when . . . cast . . . leaves Rather, "As a terebinth or oak in which, when they are cast down (not 'cast their leaves,' Job 14:7), the trunk or stock remains, so the holy seed (Ez...

Rather, "As a terebinth or oak in which, when they are cast down (not 'cast their leaves,' Job 14:7), the trunk or stock remains, so the holy seed (Ezr 9:2) shall be the stock of that land." The seeds of vitality still exist in both the land and the scattered people of Judea, waiting for the returning spring of God's favor (Rom 11:5, Rom 11:23-29). According to Isaiah, not all Israel, but the elect remnant alone, is destined to salvation. God shows unchangeable severity towards sin, but covenant faithfulness in preserving a remnant, and to it Isaiah bequeaths the prophetic legacy of the second part of his book (the fortieth through sixty-sixth chapters).

JFB: Isa 6:13 - In the Assyrian inscriptions the name of Rezin, king of Damascus, is found among the tributaries of Tiglath-pileser, of whose reign the annals of seventeen years have been deciphered. For the historical facts in this chapter, compare 2Ki. 15:37-16:9. Rezin of Syria and Pekah of Israel, as confederates, advanced against Jerusalem. In the first campaign they "smote Ahaz with a great slaughter" (2Ch 28:5). Their object was probably to unite the three kingdoms against Assyria. Egypt seems to have favored the plan, so as to interpose these confederate kingdoms between her own frontier and Assyria (compare Isa 7:18, "Egypt"; and 2Ki 17:4, Hoshea's league with Egypt). Rezin and Pekah may have perceived Ahaz' inclination towards Assyria rather than towards their own confederacy; this and the old feud between Israel and Judah (1Ki 12:16) occasioned their invasion of Judah. Ahaz, at the second inroad of his enemies (compare 2Ch. 28:1-26 and 2Ki 15:37, with Isa 16:5), smarting under his former defeat, applied to Tiglath-pileser, in spite of Isaiah's warning in this chapter, that he should rather rely on God; that king accordingly attacked Damascus, and slew Rezin (2Ki 16:9); and probably it was at the same time that he carried away part of Israel captive (2Ki 15:29), unless there were two assaults on Pekah That in 2Ki 15:29, the earlier, and that in which Tiglath helped Ahaz subsequently [G. V. SMITH]. Ahaz was saved at the sacrifice of Judah's independe...

That in 2Ki 15:29, the earlier, and that in which Tiglath helped Ahaz subsequently [G. V. SMITH]. Ahaz was saved at the sacrifice of Judah's independence and the payment of a large tribute, which continued till the overthrow of Sennacherib under Hezekiah (Isa 37:37; 2Ki 16:8, 2Ki 16:17-18; 2Ch 28:20). Ahaz' reign began about 741 B.C., and Pekah was slain in 738 [WINER].

Clarke: Isa 6:1 - The Lord The Lord - Fifty-one MSS. of Kennicott’ s, and fifty-four of De Rossi’ s, and one edition; in the 8th verse, (Isa 6:8); forty-four MSS. of...

The Lord - Fifty-one MSS. of Kennicott’ s, and fifty-four of De Rossi’ s, and one edition; in the 8th verse, (Isa 6:8); forty-four MSS. of Kennicott’ s, and forty-six of De Rossi’ s, and one edition; and in the 11th verse (Isa 6:11); thirty-three MSS. of Kennicott’ s, and many of De Rossi’ s, and one edition, for אדני Adonai , "the Lord"read יהוה "Jehovah ,"which is probably the true reading; (compare Isa 6:6); as in many other places, in which the superstition of the Jews has substituted אדני Adonai for יהוה Yehovah . One of my own MSS., a very ancient and large folio, to which the points and the masora have been added by a later hand, has יהוה Yehovah in the 1st and 8th verses, in the teeth of the masora, which orders it in both places to be read אדני Adonai .

Clarke: Isa 6:2 - Above it stood the seraphim Above it stood the seraphim - שרפים seraphim , from שרף seraph , to burn. He saw says Kimchi, the angels as flames of fire, that the dep...

Above it stood the seraphim - שרפים seraphim , from שרף seraph , to burn. He saw says Kimchi, the angels as flames of fire, that the depravity of that generation might be exhibited, which was worthy of being totally burnt up

He covered his feet "He covereth his feet"- By the feet the Hebrews mean all the lower parts of the body. But the people of the East generally wearing long robes, reaching to the ground, and covering the lower parts of the body down to the feet, it may hence have been thought want of respect and decency to appear in public and on solemn occasions with even the feet themselves uncovered. Kempfer, speaking of the king of Persia giving audience, says, Rex in medio supremi atrii cruribus more patrio inflexis sedebat: corpus tunica investiebat flava, ad suras cum staret protensa; discumbentis vero pedes discalceatos pro urbanitate patria operiens . - Amoen. Exot. p. 227. "The king sat on the floor cross-legged, as is the custom of the country. He was covered with a yellow garment, which reached down to the feet when standing, but covered the feet for decency when sitting with his slippers off."Sir John Chardin’ s MS. note on this place of Isaiah is as follows: Grande marque de respect en orient de se cacher les pieds, quand on est assis, et de baisser le visage. Quand le souvrain se monstre en Chine et a Japon, chacun se jette le visage contre terre, et il n’ est pas permis de regarder le roi ; "It is a great mark of respect in the East to cover the feet, and to bow down the head in the presence of the king."

Clarke: Isa 6:3 - Holy, holy, holy Holy, holy, holy - This hymn performed by the seraphim, divided into two choirs, the one singing responsively to the other, which Gregory Nazian., C...

Holy, holy, holy - This hymn performed by the seraphim, divided into two choirs, the one singing responsively to the other, which Gregory Nazian., Carm. 18, very elegantly calls Συμφωνον, αντιφωνον, αγγελων στασιν, is formed upon the practice of alternate singing, which prevailed in the Jewish Church from the time of Moses, whose ode at the Red Sea was thus performed, (see Exo 15:20, Exo 15:21), to that of Ezra, under whom the priests and Levites sung alternately

"O praise Jehovah, for he is gracious

For his mercy endureth for ever;

Ezr 3:11. See De Sac. Poes. Hebr. Prael. xix., at the beginning.

Clarke: Isa 6:5 - Wo is me! for I am undone Wo is me! for I am undone - נדמיתי nidmeythi , I am become dumb. There is something exceedingly affecting in this complaint. I am a man of un...

Wo is me! for I am undone - נדמיתי nidmeythi , I am become dumb. There is something exceedingly affecting in this complaint. I am a man of unclean lips; I cannot say, Holy, holy, holy! which the seraphs exclaim. They are holy; I am not so: they see God, and live; I have seen him, and must die, because I am unholy. Only the pure in heart shall see God; and they only can live in his presence for ever, Reader, lay this to heart; and instead of boasting of thy excellence, and trusting in thy might, or comforting thyself in thy comparative innocence, thou wilt also be dumb before him, because thou hast been a man of unclean lips, and because thou hast still an unclean heart

I am undone "I am struck dumb"- נדמיתי nidmeythi , twenty-eight MSS. (five ancient) and three editions. - I understand it as from דום dum or דמם damam , silere , "to be silent;"and so it is rendered by the Syriac, Vulgate, Symmachus, and by some of the Jewish interpreters, apud Sal. b. Melec. The rendering of the Syriac is תויר אני tavir ani , stupens, attonitus sum , "I am amazed."He immediately gives the reason why he was struck dumb: because he was a man of polluted lips, and dwelt among a people of polluted lips, and was unworthy, either to join the seraphim in singing praises to God, or to be the messenger of God to his people. Compare Exo 4:10; Exo 6:12; Jer 1:6.

Clarke: Isa 6:6 - A live coal A live coal - The word of prophecy, which was put into the mouth of the prophet

A live coal - The word of prophecy, which was put into the mouth of the prophet

Clarke: Isa 6:6 - From off the altar From off the altar - That is, from the altar of burnt-offerings, before the door of the temple, on which the fire that came down at first from heave...

From off the altar - That is, from the altar of burnt-offerings, before the door of the temple, on which the fire that came down at first from heaven (Lev 9:24; 2Ch 7:1) was perpetually burning. It was never to be extinguished, Lev 6:12, Lev 6:13.

Clarke: Isa 6:9 - And he said And he said - לי li , to me, two MSS. and the Syriac. Thirteen MSS. have ראה raah , in the regular form.

And he said - לי li , to me, two MSS. and the Syriac. Thirteen MSS. have ראה raah , in the regular form.

Clarke: Isa 6:10 - -- Make the heart of this people fat "Gross"- The prophet speaks of the event, the fact as it would actually happen, not of God’ s purpose and act...

Make the heart of this people fat "Gross"- The prophet speaks of the event, the fact as it would actually happen, not of God’ s purpose and act by his ministry. The prophets are in other places said to perform the thing which they only foretell: -

"Lo! I have given thee a charge this da

Over the nations, and over the kingdoms

To pluck up, and to pull down

To destroy, and to demolish

To build, and to plant.

Jer 1:10

And Ezekiel says, "When I came to destroy the city,"that is, as it is rendered in the margin of our version, "when I came to prophesy that the city should be destroyed;"Eze 43:3. To hear, and not understand; to see, and not perceive; is a common saying in many languages. Demosthenes uses it, and expressly calls it a proverb: ὡστε το της παροιμιας ὁρωντας μη ὁρᾳν, και ακουοντας μη ακουειν ; Conttra Aristogit. I., sub fin. The prophet, by the bold figure in the sentiment above mentioned, and the elegant form and construction of the sentence, has raised it from a common proverb into a beautiful mashal, and given it the sublime air of poetry

Or the words may be understood thus, according to the Hebrew idiom: "Ye certainly hear, but do not understand; ye certainly see, but do not acknowledge."Seeing this is the case, make the heart of this people fat - declare it to be stupid and senseless; and remove from them the means of salvation, which they have so long abused

There is a saying precisely like this in Aeschylus: -

- - - βλεποντες εβλεπον ματην,

Κλυοντες ουκ ηκουον

Aesch. Prom. Vinct. 456

"Seeing, they saw in vain; and hearing, they did not understand.

And shut "Close up"- השע hasha . This word Sal. ben Melec explains to this sense, in which it is hardly used elsewhere, on the authority of Onkelos. He says it means closing up the eyes, so that one cannot see; that the root is שוע shava , by which word the Targum has rendered the word טח tach , Lev 14:42, וטח את בית vetach eth beith , "and shall plaster the house."And the word טח tach is used in the same sense, Isa 44:18. So that it signifies to close up the eyes by some matter spread upon the lids. Mr. Harmer very ingeniously applies to this passage a practice of sealing up the eyes as a ceremony, or as a kind of punishment used in the East, from which the image may possibly be taken. Observ. 2:278

With their heart "With their hearts"- ובלבבו ubilebabo , fifteen MSS. of Kennicott’ s and fourteen of De Rossi’ s, and two editions, with the Septuagint, Syriac, Chaldee, and Vulgate

And be healed "And I should heal"- ואר פא veer pa , Septuagint, Vulgate. So likewise Mat 13:14; Joh 12:40; Act 28:27.

Clarke: Isa 6:11 - -- Be utterly desolate "Be left"- For תשאה tishaeh , the Septuagint and Vulgate read תשאר tishshaer .

Be utterly desolate "Be left"- For תשאה tishaeh , the Septuagint and Vulgate read תשאר tishshaer .

Clarke: Isa 6:13 - A tenth A tenth - This passage, though somewhat obscure, and variously explained by various interpreters, has, I think, been made so clear by the accomplish...

A tenth - This passage, though somewhat obscure, and variously explained by various interpreters, has, I think, been made so clear by the accomplishment of the prophecy, that there remains little room to doubt of the sense of it. When Nebuchadnezzar had carried away the greater and better part of the people into captivity, there was yet a tenth remaining in the land, the poorer sort left to be vinedressers and husbandmen, under Gedaliah, 2Ki 25:12, 2Ki 25:22, and the dispersed Jews gathered themselves together, and returned to him, Jer 40:12; yet even these, fleeing into Egypt after the death of Gedaliah, contrary to the warning of God given by the prophet Jeremiah, miserably perished there. Again, in the subsequent and more remarkable completion of the prophecy in the destruction of Jerusalem, and the dissolution of the commonwealth by the Romans, when the Jews, after the loss of above a million of men, had increased from the scanty residue that was left of them, and had become very numerous again in their country; Hadrian, provoked by their rebellious behavior, slew above half a million more of them, and a second time almost extirpated the nation. Yet after these signal and almost universal destructions of that nation, and after so many other repeated exterminations and massacres of them in different times and on various occasions since, we yet see, with astonishment, that the stock still remains, from which God, according to his promise frequently given by his prophets, will cause his people to shoot forth again, and to flourish. - L

A tenth, עשיריה asiriyah . The meaning, says Kimchi, of this word is, there shall yet be in the land ten kings from the time of declaring this prophecy. The names of the ten kings are Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Jostah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiachin, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah; then there shall be a general consumption, the people shall be carried into captivity, and Jerusalem shall be destroyed

For בם bam , in them, above seventy MSS., eleven of Kennicott’ s, and thirty-four of De Rossi’ s, read בה bah , in it; and so the Septuagint.

Calvin: Isa 6:1 - In the year that king Uzziah died // I saw the // Sitting upon a throne // And his remotest parts filled the temple 1.In the year that king Uzziah died This is usually the beginning of the sixth chapter; but some think that it is the beginning of the book itself, a...

1.In the year that king Uzziah died This is usually the beginning of the sixth chapter; but some think that it is the beginning of the book itself, and that in collecting the prophecies of Isaiah an error was committed. The reason which they assign is, that the Prophet here declines the office of a teacher, which he would not have refused if he had hitherto discharged it; that he appears to be a mere novice as yet unacquainted with his calling; and besides, that he declares that he has now seen the Lord, and that he has not seen him, before. But such arguments I consider, as I have already noticed, to be too feeble and unsatisfactory; and I reply that it ought not to be thought strange that he was so completely overpowered by this extraordinary vision as to forget that he was a prophet. For there was no feeling in him which was not overpowered by the presence of God, so that, like one who had lost his senses, he willingly plunged himself in darkness, or rather, like one who despaired of life, he of his own accord chose to die. And it is necessary that the godly should be affected in this manner, when the Lord gives them tokens of his presence, that they may be brought low and utterly confounded. Besides, in the person of his servant God intended to strike his rebellious people with alarm; and therefore we need not wonder if he offers an apology for himself under the overwhelming influence of fear, and likewise because he had not felt the weight of his office, as he now felt it, after having beheld an illustrious display of the majesty of God.

But why was not this vision exhibited to him at the beginning? I answer, it was necessary in regard to the time, that he might be more and more confirmed in the discharge of his office. We have an instance of this in the Apostles themselves; for at first they were sent out with an injunction not to pass beyond the limits of Judea, (Mat 10:5;) but after that Christ had risen, he again set them apart in a new and solemn manner, breathed on them, bidding them receive the Holy Ghost, (Joh 20:21;) and not only so, but sending his Spirit from heaven in the forms of tongues of fire, invested them with extraordinary power. (Act 2:3.) Thus, on account of the various changes of times and of kings, it was necessary that Isaiah should be encouraged and again attested by a new vision; that he might be excited to perseverance, and might afterwards proceed with greater cheerfulness in his course; and also that the Jews might perceive his ministry to be supported by heavenly authority.

This appears to me to be a sufficient reason why this vision was not exhibited to him at the very beginning, but after that he had for some time discharged the office of a teacher. That this was not the beginning of the prophecy is evident enough from the consideration that the preface, which we have already examined, is much better adapted for the commencement, and more appropriate than what is contained in this chapter; and every approach having been shut up by the hard-hearted obstinacy of the people, it was proper that he should burst forth in this vehement manner. Besides, it is probable that he had long performed the office of a teacher under King Uzziah, who, I think, was dead before this prediction was published. In short, the Prophet means that it was not till he had commenced his course that God appeared to him.

Some think that death here means leprosy, which undoubtedly was a civil death, when the king was compelled to withdraw from the society of men, and to lay down the reins of government, (2Kg 15:5;) but I choose rather to take death in its literal sense. So then, I think that Isaiah uttered the former predictions during the reign of Uzziah, even after he had been struck with leprosy; and that when he had died, and Jotham had succeeded him, this vision was presented to Isaiah. We know what various commotions are produced by a change of kings, so that we need not wonder that Isaiah had his calling again sealed. But the prophecy itself, which follows, will sufficiently show that he had been a public teacher for some time before he saw the Lord; for it relates that the blinding of the people, whose obstinacy he had experienced to such an extent that he might have been induced to cease from his undertaking, for he saw that he was doing no good. The Lord, therefore, confirms him by this vision, that the opposition may not prevent him from boldly discharging his office, and performing what he undertook at the commandment of God.

I saw the Lord It is asked, How could Isaiah see God who is a Spirit, (Joh 4:24,) and, therefore, cannot be seen with bodily eyes? Nay, more, since the understandings of men cannot rise to his boundless height, how can he be seen in a visible shape? But we ought to be aware that, when God exhibited himself to the view of the Fathers, he never appeared such as he actually is, but such as the capacity of men could receive. Though men may be said to creep on the ground, or at least dwell far below the heavens, there is no absurdity in supposing that God comes down to them in such a manner as to cause some kind of mirror to reflect the rays of his glory. There was, therefore, exhibited to Isaiah such a form as enabled him, according to his capacity, to perceive the inconceivable majesty of God; and thus he attributes to God a throne, a robe, and a bodily appearance.

Hence we learn a profitable doctrine, that whenever God grants any token of his presence, he is undoubtedly present with us, for he does not amuse us by unmeaning shapes, as men wickedly disfigure him by their contrivances. since, therefore, that exhibition was no deceitful representation of the presence of God, Isaiah justly declares that he saw him. In like manner, when it is said that John

saw the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove, (Joh 1:32)

the name of the Holy Spirit is applied to the outward sign, because in the representation there was no deception; and yet he did not see the essence of the Spirit, but had a clear and undoubted proof, so that he could not doubt that the Spirit of God rested on Christ.

Secondly, it is asked, Who was that Lord? John tells us that it was Christ, (Joh 12:41,) and justly, for God never revealed himself to the Fathers but in his eternal Word and only begotten Son. Yet it is wrong, I think, to limit this, as some do, to the person of Christ; for it is indefinitely, on the contrary, that the Prophet calls him God. Nor do their views derive any support from the word אדוני , ( adonai,) which seems particularly to apply to Christ; for it is often applied to God in an absolute and unrestricted manner. In this passage, therefore, God is mentioned indefinitely, and yet it is correctly said that Isaiah saw the glory of Christ, for at that very time he was the image of the invisible God. (Col 1:15.)

Sitting upon a throne He could not have given a better description of God, in regard to place, than in the person of a Judge, that his majesty might strike greater terror into the Jews; for we shall afterwards see the dreadful judgment which the Lord pronounced from his judgment-seat. But lest we should suppose that the Prophet contrived the manner in which he would paint God, we ought to know that he faithfully describes the very form in which God was represented and exhibited to him. It may be questioned whether the Prophet was conducted into the temple, or saw this vision while he was asleep. Though many things are frequently adduced on both sides, which are fitted to leave the matter in doubt, yet it may be conjectured with some probability, that even if he had not been within the temple, this vision might have been presented to him, either in his own house or on a field, in the same manner as to other prophets.

And his remotest parts filled the temple 92 Almost all the commentators understand by this the fringes of his robe, though it may be understood to refer to the extremities of the judgment-seat, giving us to understand that its dimensions were so vast as to extend to every part of the temple. He intends to ascribe to God a venerable aspect, and far beyond any human form. There is great weight in the circumstance that he appeared in the temple; for he had promised that he would meet with his people there, and the people expected his answers from that place, as Solomon had expressly stated at the dedication of it. (1Kg 8:30.) In order, therefore, that the people might understand that those things came from God, on whom they called every day, and on whom they relied with a vain confidence which puffed them up, this vision was exhibited to the Prophet in the temple. To the certainty of what was said it contributed not a little, that he openly proclaimed that the discourse was not pronounced to him by any mortal man, but was a heavenly oracle, uttered by that God whose name they were accustomed disdainfully to hold out as a pretense, whenever they wished to make any extravagant claims; for otherwise this prophecy would have been harsh and repulsive, and needed great confirmation. It was also not uncommon with the Prophets to say that the Lord spake to them from his temple, or from his sanctuary

Calvin: Isa 6:2 - And the seraphim stood upon it // Each one had six wings 2.And the seraphim stood upon it Having declared that God appeared to him full of majesty and of glory, he adds, that God was attended by angels, who...

2.And the seraphim stood upon it Having declared that God appeared to him full of majesty and of glory, he adds, that God was attended by angels, whom the Prophet calls seraphim on account of their fervor. Though the etymology of this word is well known, yet various reasons are adduced. Some think that they are called seraphim because they burn with the love of God; others, because they are swift like fire; others, because they are bright. However that may be, this description holds out to us, as in sunbeams, the brightness of God’s infinite majesty, that we may learn by it to behold and adore his wonderful and overwhelming glory.

Many think that there were two seraphim, as there were two cherubim that encompassed the ark of the testimony. This opinion I willingly adopt, though I do not venture to make any assertion where Scripture is silent. As it is customary with the sacred writers to accommodate their descriptions of God to those outward signs which were commonly used and familiarly known among the godly, it is possible that the Prophet saw a representation of this kind. While I hold this to be a probable conjecture, I leave room for other interpretations which some may be disposed to prefer; for Daniel saw not two angels only, but thousands of thousands of angels. (Dan 7:10.)

Each one had six wings This representation is instructive; for those wings thus arranged contained some mystery which it was the will of the Lord should not remain wholly unknown. The two wings with which the angels fly mean nothing else than their ready and cheerful performance of the commandments of God. On this point the resemblance is so clear and manifest, that it will be at once admitted by all who do not take delight in controversy. The two wings with which they cover their face show plainly enough that even angels cannot endure God’s brightness, and that they are dazzled by it in the same manner as when we attempt to gaze upon the radiance of the sun. And if angels are overwhelmed by the majesty of God, how great will be the rashness of men if they venture to intrude so far! Let us, therefore, learn that our inquiries concerning God ought never to go beyond what is proper and lawful, that our knowledge may soberly and modestly taste what is far above our capacity. And yet the angels do not cover their face in such a manner as not to be favored with beholding God in some degree; for their flight is not at random. In like manner we too ought to look at God, but only so far as our capacity shall enable us.

As to the remaining two wings, which were placed lower, the difficulty is somewhat greater. Some think that the angels covered their feet, that they might not touch the earth, and contract any defilement from it, as human beings like ourselves are wont to do; for in walking we gather filth and dust, and accordingly, so long as we dwell on earth, we are always tainted by some kind of contagion. This reminds believers that they will have no intercourse with angels till they raise themselves high, and are no longer fastened to the earth.

Such is the interpretation given by some expositors. But I rather agree with those who think that the use of those wings was opposite to that of the upper wings; for, as by the upper wings they cover their face, that they may not be overpowered by God’s brightness, so they have also lower wings to conceal them from our view. Now, if it be true that we cannot behold the small and feeble rays of the Divine brightness without being altogether overpowered, how could we gaze upon that unspeakably bright and glorious majesty which lays prostrate all our faculties? Let men learn, therefore, that they are far distant from a perfect knowledge of God, since they cannot even reach to the angels. The latter appears to me to be the more correct exposition, but I do not disapprove of the former.

Calvin: Isa 6:3 - And they cried one to another // Holy, holy, holy, is Jehovah of hosts // The whole earth is full of his glory 3.And they cried one to another It was necessary that all these things should be presented to the Prophet in vision, in order to produce a stronger i...

3.And they cried one to another It was necessary that all these things should be presented to the Prophet in vision, in order to produce a stronger impression on the people, and on Isaiah himself; for the vision was not less necessary to him than to the whole nation, because sharp and painful struggles awaited him, and he could not have boldly announced those events if he had not been previously confirmed. The people also, being warned by this vision how great and how dreadful was the majesty of God, by whom this condemnation was pronounced, had good reason for being alarmed. He who now came forth to public view is God, at the sight of whom the very angels tremble, whose praises they continually and loudly utter, and whom, in a word, they serve and obey; but men, whom he had been pleased to adopt as his children, obstinately and rebelliously opposed him.

Now, when we are informed that the angels are employed in uttering the glory of God, let us know that their example is set before us for imitation; for the most holy service that we can render to him is, to be employed in praising his name. When he associates us with angels, it is in order that, while we sojourn on earth, we may resemble and be joined to the inhabitants of heaven. That the harmony between us and the angels may be in every respect complete, we must take care not only that the praises of God may be sounded by our tongues, but likewise that all the actions of our life may correspond to our professions; and this will only be done if the chief aim of our actions be the glory of God.

Holy, holy, holy, is Jehovah of hosts The ancients quoted this passage when they wished to prove that there are three persons in one essence of the Godhead. I do not disagree with their opinion; but if I had to contend with heretics, I would rather choose to employ stronger proofs; for they become more obstinate, and assume an air of triumph, when inconclusive arguments are brought against them; and they might easily and readily maintain that, in this passage, as in other parts of Scripture, the number “three” denotes perfection. Although, therefore, I have no doubt that the angels here describe One God in Three Persons, (and, indeed, it is impossible to praise God without also uttering the praises of the Father, of the Son, and of the Spirit,) yet I think that it would be better to employ more conclusive passages, lest, in proving an article of our faith, we should expose ourselves to the scorn of heretics. And, indeed, this repetition rather points out unwearied perseverance, as if the Prophet had said, that the angels never cease from their melody in singing the praises of God, as the holiness of God supplies us with inexhaustible reasons for them.

The whole earth is full of his glory Literally it is, the fullness of the whole earth, which might be understood to refer to the fruits, and animals, and manifold riches with which God has enriched the earth, and might convey this meaning, that in the ornaments and great variety of furniture of the world the glory of God shines, because they are so many proofs of a father’s love. But the more simple and natural interpretation is, that the glory of God fills the whole world, or is spread through every region of the earth. There is also, I think, an implied contrast, by which he puts down the foolish boasting of the Jews, who thought that the glory of God was nowhere to be seen but among themselves, and wished to have it shut up within their own temple. But Isaiah shows that it is so far from being confined to so narrow limits, that it fills the whole earth. And to this agrees the prophecy which immediately follows, (verse 10,) about the blinding of the Jews, which opened up for the Gentiles admission into the Church of God; for they occupied that place which the Jews had forsaken and left empty.

Calvin: Isa 6:4 - And the lintels of the posts were moved // And the house was filled with smoke 4.And the lintels of the posts were moved This noise was an indication that it was not a human voice which the Prophet had heard; for no mortal man h...

4.And the lintels of the posts were moved This noise was an indication that it was not a human voice which the Prophet had heard; for no mortal man has a voice so powerful as to be capable of making the lintels and posts shake. Now, the Lord intended not only to establish the authority of his voice over the Prophet, but to confirm it to posterity in all ages, that it might never be forgotten. Let us, therefore, know that this noise confirms at this day the voice of God, that we may tremble whenever he speaks; for if inanimate and dumb creatures are moved, what ought we to do, who feel, smell, taste, and understand, for no other purpose than that we may obey his word in a holy and reverent manner?

And the house was filled with smoke This was the common and ordinary sign which the Lord employed with his ancient people; for we read that, whenever Moses entered into the tabernacle, smoke was wont to be diffused through it in such a manner that the people could not see either Moses or the tabernacle. (Exo 33:9.) The smoke, therefore, which Isaiah describes was not an unusual occurrence; but in the ordinary way God intended to demonstrate that he would display his power in executing judgment on the people.

But it may be asked, Why did God manifest his presence by this sign rather than by any other? This question may be answered in two ways. First, it was always the will of God to repress the insolence of men, in pushing their inquiries about his majesty beyond what is proper; for on this point almost all men are too rash and daring. They wish to rise above the clouds, and to penetrate into the secrets of God, while they do not see what lies at their feet. Hence arises a labyrinth of errors, and when the minds of men have been entangled in it, they adopt false and pretended modes of worship; for when men allow themselves to adopt any false notions about God, there is nothing which they will not venture to attempt against him. It was not without good reason, therefore, that he made use of smoke, in order to remind men of their weakness; and yet he did not intend that they should be blind or stupid, that is, that they should have the stupidity and error which the papists disguise under the name of simplicity; but he forbids us to inquire or search beyond what he has revealed to us in his word; for, as Augustine says, “that is a learned ignorance.” Whenever, therefore, smoke of this kind is mentioned, let us know that it lays a restraint upon us from indulging curiosity in our researches into the purpose of God.

Secondly, this smoke ought to strike terror, as David, when describing an angry and terrible God, says that clouds and darkness are round about him. (Psa 97:2.) This also agrees well with the present passage; for he pronounces a dreadful judgment, namely, the blinding of the Jews. Others think that it indicated the burning by which he consumed the temple; but the view which I have given is more probable.

Calvin: Isa 6:5 - Wo to me! for I am undone // And yet mine eyes have seen the king, Jehovah of hosts // And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips 5.Wo to me! for I am undone The Prophet now relates how powerfully he was affected by that vision; namely that he was so terrified by seeing God; tha...

5.Wo to me! for I am undone The Prophet now relates how powerfully he was affected by that vision; namely that he was so terrified by seeing God; that he expected immediate destruction. He assigns the reason for believing that it is all over with him; because, says he, I am a man of unclean lips

I wonder why Jerome renders it, because I was silent; seeing that there is no ambiguity in the expression. דמה ( damah) does indeed signify to be silent, but here the undoubted mark of a passive verb is added. This passage may likewise be rendered, Wo to me! for I have been reduced to silence. In the Scriptures silence is often taken for death and those who have been buried are said to have been reduced to silence. But as the meaning is the same, I will not dispute much about the translation.

The Prophet therefore means, that he was so terrified as to resemble a dead man. And certainly we need not wonder at this; for the whole man, so far as relates to the flesh, must be reduced to nothing, that it may be renewed according to God. Whence comes it that men live, that is, imagine that they live, and are swelled with vain confidence in their wisdom or strength, but because they know not God? Accordingly, until God reveal himself to us, we do not think that we are men, or rather, we think that we are gods; but when we have seen God, we then begin to feel and know what we are. Hence springs true humility, which consists in this, that a man makes no claims for himself, and depends wholly on God; and therefore on this point the present and similar passages ought to be carefully studied.

It was customary with the godly fathers, whenever they saw God, to break out into these words:

I am gone; I am utterly undone. (Jud 13:22.)

Our life, therefore, until our minds earnestly draw near to God, is a vain delusion; we walk in darkness, and can with difficulty distinguish truth from falsehood; but when we come into the light it is easy to perceive the difference. So when God draws near to us, he brings light with him, that we may perceive our worthlessness, which we could not formerly see, while we entertained a false opinion of ourselves.

And yet mine eyes have seen the king, Jehovah of hosts 93 But does the sight of God bring death to men? For it appears strange that the sight of God or approach to him should take away life, of which he is the source and giver. I reply that this is an accidental result; for it takes place through our fault, and not on account of the nature of God. Death is within us; but we do not perceive it, unless when it is compared with the life of God. This is unquestionably what the Prophet means; for he does not merely say that he is dead, but assigns the reason, because he has unclean lips.

But why does he confine the pollution to the lips ? Was he pure in understanding, or in the other parts of the body? I answer: the Prophet mentions that which he regarded as the most valuable, his tongue, which was consecrated to God; for God had appointed him to be a Prophet. Even though he was in other respects a sinner, yet because the office which he held was holy, this part of his body was sacred; and as it does not correspond to the divine holiness, he confesses that, even in that part which in itself is more holy, he is polluted. Such appears to me to be the true and natural meaning of this passage, in the explanation of which commentators have hitherto been unsuccessful.

And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips This is added by way of explanation; for he includes himself as an individual in the number of the common people, tainted with that pollution which extends to the whole body, and forgets the purity which he had received from God, because it cannot dwell in his presence. Hence it is evident that they are mistaken who imagine that the Prophet spoke under erroneous views; as the common people are wont to contrive a variety of false notions concerning God. For, as I have said, the presence of God and approach to him is the destruction of our flesh; because it shows that we are nothing in ourselves. When he who is conscious of his wretchedness sees God, what can he expect but destruction? For God is our judge, to whom, we know, nothing is concealed or unknown, in whose sight our purity is impure. And if this happened to the Prophet, what ought we to think of ourselves? For what are we in comparison of him? Even if the LORD hath begun to cleanse us, yet we ought to acknowledge our pollution, the remains of which always continue in our flesh. Hence also we ought to draw a universal doctrine, that the lips of all men are impure and polluted, till the Lord has cleansed them; from which it also follows, that human doctrines have an uncleanness which betrays them, and that there is nothing pure but what has come from God.

Calvin: Isa 6:6 - Then flew one of the seraphim to me 6.Then flew one of the seraphim to me The Prophet shows what kind of relief was brought to him, when he was so terrified as to think that he was a de...

6.Then flew one of the seraphim to me The Prophet shows what kind of relief was brought to him, when he was so terrified as to think that he was a dead man; and this confirms what we have already said, that purity of lips comes from God alone; for men can produce nothing of themselves but what is filthy and abominable. If it be objected that it is absurd to say that the Lord now cleansed him, as if his tongue had formerly been impure and profane, though it had been the instrument employed by the Holy Spirit, I have already replied sufficiently to that objection. The Lord had already cleansed him, but according to his degree. The cleansing which is now added is greater; for it has its enlargements and additions, which no man can obtain all at once.

We must not conclude, therefore, that Isaiah’s lips were impure, because they are now cleansed; but we ought to inquire why it is done. It was because the Lord intended to enlarge and extend his favor towards him, and to raise him to higher dignity, that he might have greater influence over the people; and this was rendered necessary by the character of the times, and the change which had taken place in the state.

The fire was taken from the altar, to intimate that it was divine or heavenly; for the law forbade any strange fire to be brought to it, (Lev 10:1,) because in sacred things every human mixture is absolute profanation. By this figure, therefore, Isaiah was taught that all purity flows from God alone.

Calvin: Isa 6:7 - And applying it to my mouth // Lo, this hath touched thy lips 7.And applying it to my mouth 94 We see how God condescends to meet the weakness of human sense. He puts the tongs into the hand of a seraph, that ...

7.And applying it to my mouth 94 We see how God condescends to meet the weakness of human sense. He puts the tongs into the hand of a seraph, that by means of it he may take a coal from the altar and apply it to the Prophet’s mouth. This was, no doubt, done in vision; but by the aid of the outward sign God assisted the Prophet’s understanding. There is no reason to believe that the coal possessed any virtue, as superstitious persons imagine that in the magical arts there is some hidden power. Nothing of this sort is to be found here; for it is God alone who can cleanse our pollution, in whatever part it exists.

Here the angel administered the cleansing, but was not the author of it; so that we must not ascribe to another what belongs to God alone. This is expressly stated by the angel himself, who claims nothing as his own, but bringing forward the sacred pledge which he had received from God, laid it as a sacrament on the lips of the Prophet; not that he could not be cleansed without the coal, but because the visible sign was useful for the confirmation and proof of the fact. And such is the use of sacraments, to strengthen us in proportion to our ignorance; for we are not angels, that can behold the mysteries of God without any assistance, and therefore he raises us to himself by gradual advances.

Lo, this hath touched thy lips He shows that the confirmation which was obtained by the sign was not without effect, but that the blessing signified by it was at the same time bestowed, so that Isaiah knew that he had not been deceived. Hence we may infer, that in the sacraments the reality is given to us along with the sign; for when the Lord holds out a sacrament, he does not feed our eyes with an empty and unmeaning figure, but joins the truth with it, so as to testify that by means of them he acts upon us efficaciously. And this ought to be the more carefully observed, because there are few persons in the present day who understand the true use of sacraments, and because many godly and learned men are engaged in frequent disputes respecting them.

First of all, we ought to believe that the truth must never be separated from the signs, though it ought to be distinguished from them. We perceive and feel a sign, such as the bread which is put into our hands by the minister in the Lord’s Supper; and because we ought to seek Christ in heaven, our thoughts ought to be carried thither. By the hand of the minister he presents to us his body, that it may be actually enjoyed by the godly, who rise by faith to fellowship with him. He bestows it, therefore, on the godly, who raise their thoughts to him by faith; for he cannot deceive.

Unbelievers indeed receive the sign; but because they linger in the world, and do not arrive at Christ’s heavenly kingdom, they have no experience of the truth; for he who has not faith cannot raise his thoughts to God, and therefore cannot partake of Christ. Faith alone opens for us the gate of the kingdom of God; and therefore, whoever wishes to eat the flesh of Christ must be carried by faith to heaven beyond human conception. In short, it is the Spirit of God alone who can make us partakers of that fellowship. And yet it does not follow that the unbelief of men takes anything away from the truth of the sacrament, since God always presents to us a spiritual matter, but wicked men treat it with scorn; just as the grace of God is offered by the gospel, but all do not receive it, though they actually hear it, and are compelled to yield assent to the truth.

Besides, we learn from this passage that the sacraments are never separated from the word. The angel does not here act the part of a dumb man, but, after having given the sign, immediately adds the doctrine, in order to show what was intended by it; for it would have been no sacrament, if doctrine had not been added, from which Isaiah could learn for what purpose the coal was applied to his mouth. Let us therefore learn that the chief part of the sacraments consists in the word, and that without it they are absolute corruptions, such as we see every day in popery, in which the sacraments are turned into stage-plays. The amount of the whole is, that there is nothing to prevent Isaiah, who has been perfectly cleansed, and is free from all pollution, from appearing as God’s representative.

Calvin: Isa 6:8 - Afterwards I heard the voice of the Lord // Whom shall I send? // Who will go for us? // Here am I 8.Afterwards I heard the voice of the Lord The Prophet now begins to discourse about the design of this vision, why God appeared to him with such glo...

8.Afterwards I heard the voice of the Lord The Prophet now begins to discourse about the design of this vision, why God appeared to him with such glorious majesty, in order to ordain him anew as a prophet. It was because he was called to deliver an incredible message about blinding the Jews. On this revolting occasion, therefore, he is more fully assured of his calling, that he may lay aside fear and obey the command of God; for nothing gives greater confidence to pious minds than to know that they obey God. He had also another proof, namely, that the Lord had cleansed him; and this was sufficient to lead him to undertake any task, however difficult.

Whom shall I send? The Prophet represents the Lord as speaking, as if he could not find a man qualified for such a message. Some think that this is intended to reprove the ignorance of the priests and prophets; because, though they are very numerous, still not one of them was qualified to teach. This reason carries some probability, but I would rather view it as referring to the certainty of Isaiah’s calling, as implying that it was not at random, but from choice, that the Lord appointed him. There is here, therefore, a weighty deliberation whom the Lord will be pleased to send; not that he hesitates, but such modes of expression are used on our account, just as these words, I will go down and see. (Gen 18:21.) For God, to whom all things are known, has no need to make any inquiry; but, lest men should think that he acts with precipitation, he thus accommodates himself to the ordinary modes of speaking among men. In like manner, when he asks whom he shall send, the meaning is, that he needs not an ordinary person, but a teacher of uncommon excellence on a subject of the greatest importance. Hence we infer that the authority of Isaiah was confirmed, so that he was reckoned to be not only a prophet, but eminent among the prophets.

Who will go for us? I am rather favorable to the opinion that this passage points to Three Persons in the Godhead, just as we elsewhere read,

Let us create man in our likeness. (Gen 1:26.)

For God talks with himself, and in the plural number; and unquestionably he now holds a consultation with his eternal Wisdom and his eternal Power, that is, with the Son and the Holy Spirit.

Here am I So ready a reply shows how great is that cheerfulness which springs from faith; for he who but lately lay like a dead man dreads no difficulty. Hence we see that the amazement of which we have formerly spoken did not spring from rebellion, in wishing to flee from God, or to refuse the charge which had been laid upon him; but because he needed new grace, that he might know that he would be able to endure the burden. On this account it ought to be observed, that we cannot undertake anything in a proper manner without the evidence of our calling; otherwise we shall pause and hesitate at every step.

Besides, it is a powerful aid to our confidence, when we know that we are not destitute of the necessary gifts, but that God has bestowed them on us, in order that we may be better enabled to discharge our office. Now, this remarkable instance of obedience ought to produce such an effect on our minds that we shall readily and cheerfully undertake any task which he may be pleased to enjoin, and shall never refuse any task, however difficult we may imagine it to be. When the Prophet says, Here am I, the meaning is, that he is ready to obey the commands of God; for this mode of expression is frequently employed in Scripture to denote obedience.

Calvin: Isa 6:9 - Then he said, Go, and tell that people 9.Then he said, Go, and tell that people 95 This shows still more clearly how necessary the vision was, that Isaiah might not all at once fail in his...

9.Then he said, Go, and tell that people 95 This shows still more clearly how necessary the vision was, that Isaiah might not all at once fail in his course. It was a grievous stumblingblock, that he must endure such obstinacy and rebellion in the people of God, and that not only for a year or two, but for more than sixty years. On this account he needed to be fortified, that he might be like a brazen wall against such stubbornness. The Lord, therefore, merely forewarns Isaiah that he will have to do with obstinate men, on whom he will produce little effect; but that so unusual an occurrence must not lead him to take offense, and lose courage, or yield to the rebellion of men; that, on the contrary, he must proceed with unshaken firmness, and rise superior to temptations of this nature. For God gives him due warning beforehand as to the result; as if he had said, “You will indeed teach without any good effect; but do not regret your teaching, for I enjoin it upon you; and do not refrain from teaching, because it yields no advantage; only obey me, and leave to my disposal all the consequences of your labors. I give you all this information in good time, that the event may not terrify you, as if it had been strange and unexpected.” Besides, he is commanded openly to reprove their blind obstinacy, as if he purposely taunted them.

“My labors will do no good; but it matters not to me: it is enough that what I do obtains the approbation of God, to whom my preaching will be a sweet smell, though it bring death to you.”
(2Co 2:15.)

Calvin: Isa 6:10 - Harden the heart of this people // And when they shall be converted // They shall be healed 10.Harden the heart of this people 96 Here the former statement is more fully expressed; for God informs Isaiah beforehand, not only that his labor i...

10.Harden the heart of this people 96 Here the former statement is more fully expressed; for God informs Isaiah beforehand, not only that his labor in teaching will be fruitless, but that by his instruction he will also blind the people, so as to be the occasion of producing greater insensibility and stubbornness, and to end in their destruction. He declares that the people, bereft of reason and understanding, will perish, and there will be no means of obtaining relief; and yet he at the same time affirms that the labors of the Prophet, though they bring death and ruin on the Jews, will be to him an acceptable sacrifice.

This is a truly remarkable declaration; not only because Isaiah here foretold what was afterwards fulfilled under the reign of Christ, but also because it contains a most useful doctrine, which will be of perpetual use in the Church of God; for all who shall labor faithfully in the ministry of the word will be laid under the necessity of meeting with the same result. We too have experienced it more than we could have wished; but it has been shared by all the servants of Christ, and therefore we ought to endure it with greater patience, though it is a very grievous stumbling-block to those who serve God with a pure conscience. Not only does it give great offense, but Satan powerfully excites his followers to raise a dislike of instruction on the pretense of its being not merely useless, but even injurious; that it renders men more obstinate, and leads to their destruction. At the present day, those who have no other reproach to bring against the doctrine of the gospel maintain that the only effect produced by the preaching of it has been, that the world has become worse.

But whatever may be the result, still God assures us that our ministrations are acceptable to him, because we obey his command; and although our labor appear to be fruitless, and men rush forward to their destruction, and become more rebellious, we must go forward; for we do nothing at our own suggestion, and ought to be satisfied with having the approbation of God. We ought, indeed, to be deeply grieved when success does not attend our exertions; and we ought to pray to God to give efficacy to his word. A part of the blame we ought even to lay on ourselves, when the fruits are so scanty; and yet we must not abandon our office, or throw away our weapons. The truth must always be heard from our lips, even though there be no ears to receive it, and though the world have neither sight nor feeling; for it is enough for us that we labor faithfully for the glory of God, and that our services are acceptable to him; and the sound of our voice is not ineffectual, when it renders the world without excuse.

Hence arises a most excellent and altogether invaluable consolation to godly teachers, for supporting their minds against those grievous offenses which daily spring from the obstinacy of men, that, instead of being retarded by it, they may persevere in their duty with unshaken firmness. As it is also a general offense, that the lively word of God, at the hearing of which the whole world ought to tremble, strikes their ears to no purpose, and without any advantage, let weak men learn to fortify themselves by this declaration. We wonder how it is possible that the greater part of men can furiously oppose God; and hence also arises a doubt if it be the heavenly truth of God which is rejected without bringing punishment; for it can hardly be believed that God addresses men for the purpose of exciting their scorn. That our faith may not fail, we ought to employ this support, that the office of teaching was enjoined on Isaiah, on the condition that, in scattering the seed of life, it should yield nothing but death; and that this is not merely a narrative of what once happened, but a prediction of the future kingdom of Christ, as we shall find to be stated shortly afterwards.

We ought also to attend to this circumstance, that Isaiah was not sent to men indiscriminately, but to the Jews. Accordingly, the demonstrative particle הנה , ( hinneh,) behold, is emphatic, and implies that the people whom the Lord had peculiarly chosen for himself do not hear the word, and shut their eyes amidst the clearest light. Let us not wonder, therefore, if we appear to be like persons talking to the deaf, when we address those who boast of the name of God. It is undoubtedly a harsh saying, that God sends a prophet to close the ears, stop up the eyes, and harden the heart of the people; because it appears as if these things were inconsistent with the nature of God, and therefore contradicted his word. But we ought not to think it strange if God punishes the wickedness of men by blinding them in the highest degree. Yet the Prophet shows, a little before, that the blame of this blindness lies with the people; for when he bids them hear, he bears witness that the doctrine is fitted for instructing the people, if they choose to submit to it; that light is given to guide them, if they will but open their eyes. The whole blame of the evil is laid on the people for rejecting the amazing kindness of God; and hence is obtained a more complete solution of that difficulty to which we formerly adverted.

At first sight it seems unreasonable that the Prophets should be represented as making men’s hearts more hardened. They carry in their mouth the word of God, by which, as by a lamp, the steps of men ought to be guided; for this encomium, we know, has been pronounced on it by David. (Psa 119:105.) It is not the duty of the Prophets, therefore, to blind the eyes, but rather to open them. Again, it is called perfect wisdom, (Psa 19:9;) how then does it stupify men and take away their reason? Those hearts which formerly were of brass or iron ought to be softened by it; how then is it possible that it can harden them, as I have already observed? Such blinding and hardening influence does not arise out of the nature of the word, but is accidental, and must be ascribed exclusively to the depravity of man. As dim-sighted people cannot blame the sun for dazzling their eyes with its brightness; and those whose hearing is weak cannot complain of a clear and loud voice which the defect of their ears hinders them from hearing; and, lastly, a man of weak intellect cannot find fault with the difficulty of a subject which he is unable to understand; so ungodly men have no right to blame the word for making them worse after having heard it. The whole blame lies on themselves in altogether refusing it admission; and we need not wonder if that which ought to have led them to salvation become the cause of their destruction. It is right that the treachery and unbelief of men should be punished by meeting death where they might have received life, darkness where they might have had light; and, in short, evils as numerous as the blessings of salvation which they might have obtained. This ought to be carefully observed; for nothing is more customary with men than to abuse the gifts of God, and then not only to maintain that they are innocent, but even to be proud of appearing in borrowed feathers. But they are doubly wicked when they not only do not apply to their proper use, but wickedly corrupt and profane, those gifts which God had bestowed on them.

John quotes this passage as a clear demonstration of the stubbornness of the Jews. He does not indeed absolutely give the very words, but he states the meaning clearly enough.

Therefore, says he, they could not believe, because Isaiah said, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart.
(Joh 12:39 97)

True, this prediction was not the cause of their unbelief, but the Lord foretold it, because he foresaw that they would be such as they are here described. The Evangelist applies to the Gospel what had already taken place under the law, and at the same time shows that the Jews were deprived of reason and understanding, because they were rebels against God. Yet if you inquire into the first cause, we must come to the predestination of God. But as that purpose is hidden from us, we must not too eagerly search into it; for the everlasting scheme of the divine purpose is beyond our reach, but we ought to consider the cause which lies plainly before our eyes, namely, the rebellion by which they rendered themselves unworthy of blessings so numerous and so great.

Paul, too, shows from this passage, on more than one occasion, (Act 28:27; Rom 11:8,) that the whole blame of blindness rests with themselves. They have shut their ears, says he, and closed their eyes. What Isaiah here ascribes to doctrine, Paul traces to the wicked disposition of the nation, which was the cause of their own blindness; and accordingly, I have stated that this was an accidental and not a natural result of the doctrine. In that passage Paul introduces the Spirit as speaking, (Act 28:25;) but John says that Isaiah spake thus of Christ, when he had beheld his glory. (Joh 12:41.) From this it is evident, as we formerly said, that Christ was that God who filled the whole earth with his majesty. Now, Christ is not separate from his Spirit, and therefore Paul had good reason for applying this passage to the Holy Spirit; for although God exhibited to the Prophet the lively image of himself in Christ, still it is certain that whatever he communicated was wholly breathed into him by the power of the Holy Spirit. Now, however ungodly men may bark against us with their reproaches, that our doctrine ought to bear the blame, because the world is made worse by the preaching of it, they gain nothing at all, and take nothing away from the authority of the doctrine; for they must at the same time condemn God himself and the whole of his doctrine. But their calumnies will not hinder his justice from being displayed, or hinder him from vindicating itself, and at the same time vindicating us.

And when they shall be converted 98 Here he expressly declares that he did not send the Prophet because he intended to save the people; but, on the contrary, because he intended to destroy them. But the word of God brings salvation; at least some benefit must arise from the preaching of it, that it may do good to some, though many are deprived of the advantage by their own unbelief. I answer, the subject treated of is the whole body, which had already been condemned and devoted to destruction; for there were always some whom the Lord exempted from the general ruin; to them the word brought salvation, and on them it actually produced its proper effect; but the great body of the people were cut off and perished through obstinate unbelief and rebellion. So, then, we perceive that the word of God is never so destructive that there are not a few who perceive that it brings salvation to them, and feel that it does so in reality.

They shall be healed We ought also to observe from the order and connection of the words, that the first step of healing is repentance. But in the first place, we must understand what he means by the word healing; for he uses it in reference to the chastisements which had been inflicted on the people on account of their sins. Now, the cause of all the evils which we endure is our rebellion against God. When we repent, he is reconciled to us, and the rods with which he chastised us are no longer employed. This is our healing. And this order ought to be carefully observed, from which it is evident what object the Lord has in view in inviting us to himself, and what is the design of the heavenly doctrine, namely, that we may be converted

This is another part of the Gospel, Repent ye. (Mat 3:2.) Then, offering reconciliation he holds out remedies for all diseases, not only of the body but of the soul. And such being the eminent advantage derived from the word of God, if we are not reconciled to God as soon as his word sounds in our ears, we have no right to lay the blame on any other, for it rests wholly with ourselves. Indeed, the Prophet here speaks of it as unnatural and monstrous, that, by the doctrine of the word, the native tendency of which is to heal and soften, men should become insolent and obstinate and altogether incurable. It is undoubtedly true, that when we are drawn inwardly, (Joh 6:44,) it is an extraordinary gift of God, and that the arm of God is not revealed to all, (Isa 53:1;) but by this dreadful punishment of obstinate malice, Isaiah intended to teach, that we ought earnestly to beware of despising when God calls.

Calvin: Isa 6:11 - And I said, How long, O LORD? // Until the houses be without man, and the land become a desolation 11.And I said, How long, O LORD? Although the Prophets are severe in denouncing the wrath of God against men, yet they do not lay aside human feeling...

11.And I said, How long, O LORD? Although the Prophets are severe in denouncing the wrath of God against men, yet they do not lay aside human feelings. It is therefore necessary that they sustain a twofold character; for they must proclaim the judgment of God with high and unshaken courage, so that they would rather choose that the world should be destroyed and utterly ruined than that any part of His glory should be taken away. And yet they are not devoid of feeling, so as to be unmoved by compassion for their brethren, whose destruction their office lays them under the necessity of foretelling. These two feelings, though they appear to be inconsistent, are in full harmony, as appears from the instance of Jeremiah, who at first complains of the hard task assigned him of proclaiming destruction to the people, but afterwards revives his courage, and proceeds boldly in discharging the duties of his office (Jer 1:6.) Such was also the state of Isaiah’s mind; for, being desirous to obey God, he earnestly proclaimed His judgments; and yet he had some regard to the people, which led him to entreat, that if this blindness must come upon them, it might not be permanent. There can be no doubt, that when he thus prayed to God, he was moved with compassion, and desired that so dreadful a punishment should be mitigated.

Natural affections, (στοργαὶ φυσικαὶ,) therefore, ought not to prevent us from performing what is our duty. For instance, there is the natural affection of a husband to a wife, and of a father to a son; but it ought to be checked and restrained, so that we may chiefly consider what is suitable to our calling, and what the Lord commands. This ought to be carefully observed; for when we wish to give loose reins to ourselves, we commonly plead this excuse, that we are willing and ready to do what God requires, but are overpowered by natural affection. But those feelings ought to be restrained in such a manner as not to obstruct our calling; just as they did not hinder the Prophet from proceeding in the discharge of his duty; for to such an extent ought we to acknowledge the authority of the Lord over us, that when he orders and commands, we should forget ourselves and all that belongs to us.

But although the godly anxiety of Isaiah about the salvation of the people is here expressed, still the severity of the punishment is likewise stated, that wicked men may not, as they are wont to do, indulge the hope of some mitigation. Nor can it be doubted that the Prophet was led by a secret impulse from God to ask this, that the stern and dreadful reply which immediately follows might be more fully brought out; from which it is evident what kind of destruction awaits unbelievers, that they will receive no light or moderate punishment, but will be utterly destroyed and cut off.

Until the houses be without man, and the land become a desolation This is an additional aggravation; for it is possible that countries might be wasted, and yet that one city might remain; that even cities might be stormed and laid desolate, and yet very many houses be left. But here the slaughter, he tells us, will be so great, that not only the cities, but even the very houses will be thrown down, and the whole land will be reduced to frightful and lamentable desolation; though even amidst the heaviest calamities some remnant is still left. Though Isaiah said this but once, yet let us understand that it is also spoken to us; for this punishment has been pronounced against all who obstinately disobey God, or who with a stiff neck struggle against his yoke. The more violent their opposition, the more resolutely will the Lord pursue them till they are utterly destroyed.

Calvin: Isa 6:12 - Till the Lord have removed men far away 12.Till the Lord have removed men far away These words contain nothing new, but merely an explanation of the former verse, and a description by other...

12.Till the Lord have removed men far away These words contain nothing new, but merely an explanation of the former verse, and a description by other words of the ruin that shall overtake Judea; namely, that God will send the inhabitants far away. He asserts that those who shall survive the war will not be exempted from punishment, for they will be led into captivity. And next he adds a general clause about the desolation of the land; as if he had said that it would be desolate and bereft of inhabitants, because some would flee away, others would be driven into banishment, and others would perish by the sword. Such is the reward prepared for obstinate and rebellious persons, who add crime to crime, till the indignation of God rise to such a height that it cannot be appeased.

Calvin: Isa 6:13 - Till there shall be in it a tenth // And shall return // As a teil-tree and an oak // When they cast their leaves // So in it shall be substance // The holy seed 13.Till there shall be in it a tenth 99 There is some obscurity in the words; but let us first ascertain the meaning, and then we shall easily find o...

13.Till there shall be in it a tenth 99 There is some obscurity in the words; but let us first ascertain the meaning, and then we shall easily find out what is the signification of the words. There are two ways of explaining this passage. Some explain עשיריה ( asiriyah) to mean decimation; others make it to mean a tenth part, and consider it to be a collective noun. Undoubtedly, the Hebrew word עשירית , ( asirith,) and not עשיריה , ( asiriyah,) denotes a tenth part, though the difference between them is not great. Those who render it decimation think that a truce is promised to the people, because from the reign of Uzziah to the destruction of Jerusalem there would be ten kings; and undoubtedly that is the number of kings, reckoning from Uzziah to Zedekiah. His prophetical doctrine would derive no small support from the circumstance, that he could tell the number of kings who should reign even after his death, and that he described not only the fact itself, but likewise the time, and the day.

Yet I know not if another meaning be not somewhat more appropriate; for the Prophet appears to hold out to the people this consolation, that they will retain some hidden vigor, and will be capable of sprouting out, though they may appear for a time to be entirely dead; just as, when the winter is past, the trees renew their foliage. But as the former exposition carries sufficient probability, I shall therefore explain the whole verse according to the opinion of those who think that mention is here made of ten kings, so as to mean that, when the ten kings shall have completed their reign, the people will be carried into captivity, and then, as by a conflagration, the whole land will be consumed.

At the same time, the reader ought to be aware that whether עשיריה ( asiriyah) be rendered a tenth part, or decimation, it may with the utmost propriety be viewed as referring to the people; and then the meaning will be, Till the people be diminished to a tenth part. He had formerly spoken of a remnant, and a very small remnant, (Isa 1:9,) and afterwards he will speak of it again, (Isa 10:22;) for it was a very small number that remained. It might therefore be naturally viewed as meaning, that out of a thousand there would be left a hundred; out of a hundred, ten; and out of ten, one.

And shall return That is, a change will take place for the better: the Jews will return from captivity to their native country, and the land will assume a new aspect. But this may be thought to be somewhat at variance with what follows; for the Prophet immediately adds, It shall be destruction. How cold comfort will it yield to the people to be restored, if shortly afterwards they shall be again destroyed! Some commentators solve this difficulty, by supposing that Isaiah spoke about the final destruction of the people. But in my opinion he rather means that the destruction will not be complete, but such as happens to trees, when their leaves fall off in the winter, and nothing appears but dead timber; but when spring returns, they bud forth anew: and so also will this people.

לבער ( lebaer) means to burn, 100 and therefore it means here that they will be consumed by a conflagration: but we ought to read it in connection with the metaphor which immediately follows; for Isaiah does not barely mean that it will be consumed, but that it will be consumed like the teil-tree, that is, with the hope of immediate recovery. When Jerome rendered it for exhibition, I know not on what he supposed that opinion to be founded, if it were not that he made a free translation, looking rather to the meaning than to the etymology of the word; for when trees blossom or put forth leaves, their life is again brought forth and displayed; and this meaning will be very appropriate.

As a teil-tree and an oak It appears that Isaiah did not select at random those two kinds of trees; for one of them puts forth its leaves, and likewise sheds them, sooner than the other. So it happened to the tribe of Judah; for first the ten tribes, with the half tribe of Benjamin, were carried into captivity; and thus they who were the first to blossom were likewise the first to decay. This tribe was the latest of all in decaying, not without high expectation of blossoming again; for here the hope of deliverance is held out, and this was different from the captivity of the Israelites. There appears, therefore, to be some appropriateness in this metaphor of the trees; but I would not choose to press it very far.

When they cast their leaves By the phrase, casting of leaves, must be understood that throwing of them down which takes place when trees are stripped of their leaves as of their garment; for trees, in that state of nakedness, appear to be dry and withered; though there remains in them a hidden vigor, through which they are at length quickened by the returning mildness of the season.

So in it shall be substance This is the application of the metaphor, which is exceedingly forcible; for when we see the spiritual grace of God in the very order of nature, we are strongly confirmed. As Paul holds out a likeness of the resurrection in the sowing of corn, which is a daily occurrence, (1Co 15:36,) so in like manner Isaiah in this passage describes the restoration of the Church, by taking a metaphor from trees, which wither at the end of autumn, but again blossom at the return of spring, and put forth new leaves; which could not happen, did they not retain some vigor during the winter, though to outward appearance they are dead. He foretells that a similar event will happen to this people; so that, although during their hard and oppressive captivity they resemble dry timber, and it may be thought that they can never be delivered, still there will always be preserved in them some vigor, by which they shall be supported amidst those calamities, and shall at length come forth and blossom.

This doctrine, we have said, is not peculiar to a single age, and therefore it ought to be carefully observed; for it frequently happens that the Church, amidst the numerous afflictions which she endures, appears to have no strength, and is supposed to be utterly ruined. Whenever this takes place, let us fully believe that, notwithstanding these appearances, there is still some concealed energy, which, though it be not immediately manifest to our eyes, will at length yield its fruit. That energy lies hidden in the word of the Lord, by which alone the Church is sustained.

The holy seed He shows what is that substance, that it consists of a small number of the godly, whom he calls the holy seed; for he means the elect, who would be preserved by the free mercy of God, and thus would survive that captivity. That banishment might be regarded as a cleansing of the Church, by which the Lord took away the ungodly; and when they had been cut off, he collected a people, small in number, but truly consecrated to himself. Some commentators consider this phrase to refer to Christ; but the interpretation appears to be too far-fetched, and it will be more consistent to extend it to all the godly; for the holy seed is the substance of the Church.

Defender: Isa 6:1 - the Lord Adonai is the divine name of God as seen in Isaiah's vision (Isa 6:8, Isa 6:11). However, the Seraphim call Him Jehovah Sabaoth meaning "Lord of hosts...

Adonai is the divine name of God as seen in Isaiah's vision (Isa 6:8, Isa 6:11). However, the Seraphim call Him Jehovah Sabaoth meaning "Lord of hosts.""

Defender: Isa 6:2 - seraphims This is the only reference in the Bible to these angelic beings, perhaps similar in rank to the cherubim, yet different in function. The name seraphim...

This is the only reference in the Bible to these angelic beings, perhaps similar in rank to the cherubim, yet different in function. The name seraphim literally means "burners.""

Defender: Isa 6:3 - Holy, holy, holy The threefold ascription of holiness to the One on the throne suggests His tri-unity."

The threefold ascription of holiness to the One on the throne suggests His tri-unity."

Defender: Isa 6:9 - he said The commission given to Isaiah in Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10 is quoted by Christ (Mat 13:13, Mat 13:14) as a rebuke to the religionists of His own day who were...

The commission given to Isaiah in Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10 is quoted by Christ (Mat 13:13, Mat 13:14) as a rebuke to the religionists of His own day who were making an outward show of religion but had no real understanding of God and His will."

Defender: Isa 6:12 - removed men far away This prophetic warning was given some 150 years in advance of its fulfillment. The Lord always fulfills His Word, even though it may be long in coming...

This prophetic warning was given some 150 years in advance of its fulfillment. The Lord always fulfills His Word, even though it may be long in coming."

TSK: Isa 6:1 - the year // I saw also // sitting // high // his train // filled am 3245, bc 759 the year : 2Ki 15:7, Azariah, 2Ch 26:22, 2Ch 26:23 I saw also : Exo 24:10,Exo 24:11; Num 12:8; Eze 1:1, Eze 1:25-28; Joh 1:18, Joh 12:...

TSK: Isa 6:2 - stood // seraphims // wings // covered his face // his feet // did fly stood : 1Ki 22:19; Job 1:6; Dan 7:10; Zec 3:4; Luk 1:10; Rev 7:11 seraphims : Psa 104:4; Eze 1:4; Heb 1:7 wings : Exo 25:20, Exo 37:9; 1Ki 6:24, 1Ki 6...

TSK: Isa 6:3 - one cried unto another // Holy // the whole earth one cried unto another : Heb. this cried to this, Exo 15:20,Exo 15:21; Ezr 3:11; Psa 24:7-10 Holy : Exo 15:11; Rev 4:8, Rev 4:9, Rev 15:3, Rev 15:4 th...

one cried unto another : Heb. this cried to this, Exo 15:20,Exo 15:21; Ezr 3:11; Psa 24:7-10

Holy : Exo 15:11; Rev 4:8, Rev 4:9, Rev 15:3, Rev 15:4

the whole earth : etc. Heb. his glory is the fulness of the whole earth, Isa 11:9, Isa 11:10, Isa 24:16, Isa 40:5; Num 14:21; Psa 19:1-3, Psa 57:11, Psa 72:19; Hab 2:14; Zec 14:9; Eph 1:18

TSK: Isa 6:4 - posts // door // the house posts : Eze 1:24, Eze 10:5; Amo 9:1 door : Heb. thresholds the house : Exo 40:34; 1Ki 8:10-12; 2Ch 5:13, 2Ch 5:14, 2Ch 6:1; Psa 18:8; Rev 11:19, Rev 1...

posts : Eze 1:24, Eze 10:5; Amo 9:1

door : Heb. thresholds

the house : Exo 40:34; 1Ki 8:10-12; 2Ch 5:13, 2Ch 5:14, 2Ch 6:1; Psa 18:8; Rev 11:19, Rev 15:8

TSK: Isa 6:5 - said I // undone // a man // I dwell // mine eyes said I : Exo 33:20; Jdg 6:22, Jdg 13:22; Job 42:5, Job 42:6; Dan 10:6-8; Hab 3:16; Luk 5:8, Luk 5:9; Rev 1:16, Rev 1:17 undone : Heb. cut off a man : ...

TSK: Isa 6:6 - flew // having // which flew : Isa 6:2; Dan 9:21-23; Heb 1:7, Heb 1:14 having : etc. Heb. and in his hand a live coal, Eze 10:2; Mat 3:11; Act 2:3; Rev 8:3-5 which : Lev 16:1...

flew : Isa 6:2; Dan 9:21-23; Heb 1:7, Heb 1:14

having : etc. Heb. and in his hand a live coal, Eze 10:2; Mat 3:11; Act 2:3; Rev 8:3-5

which : Lev 16:12; Heb 9:22-26, Heb 13:10; Rev 8:3-5

TSK: Isa 6:7 - he laid it upon // thine iniquity he laid it upon : Heb. caused it to touch, Jer 1:9; Dan 10:16 thine iniquity : Isa 43:25, Isa 53:5, Isa 53:10; Mat 9:2; Heb 9:13, Heb 9:14; 1Jo 1:7, 1...

he laid it upon : Heb. caused it to touch, Jer 1:9; Dan 10:16

thine iniquity : Isa 43:25, Isa 53:5, Isa 53:10; Mat 9:2; Heb 9:13, Heb 9:14; 1Jo 1:7, 1Jo 2:1, 1Jo 2:2

TSK: Isa 6:8 - I heard // Whom // us // Then // Here am I I heard : Gen 3:8-10; Deu 4:33-36; Eze 1:24, Eze 10:5; Act 28:25-28 Whom : Exo 4:10-13; 1Ki 22:20; Act 22:21, Act 26:16, Act 26:17 us : Gen 1:26, Gen ...

TSK: Isa 6:9 - Go // Hear ye // indeed // indeed Go : Isa 29:13, Isa 30:8-11; Exo 32:7-10; Jer 15:1, Jer 15:2; Hos 1:9 Hear ye : Isa 43:8, Isa 44:18-20; Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:10; Joh ...

Go : Isa 29:13, Isa 30:8-11; Exo 32:7-10; Jer 15:1, Jer 15:2; Hos 1:9

Hear ye : Isa 43:8, Isa 44:18-20; Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15; Mar 4:12; Luk 8:10; Joh 12:40; Act 28:26, Act 28:27; Rom 11:8

indeed : or, without ceasing, Heb. in hearing

indeed : Heb. in seeing.

TSK: Isa 6:10 - the heart // fat // ears heavy // lest // convert the heart : Isa 29:10, Isa 63:17; Exo 7:3, Exo 10:27, Exo 11:10, Exo 14:17; Deu 2:30; Eze 3:6-11; 2Co 2:16 fat : Deu 32:15; Psa 17:10 ears heavy : Jer...

TSK: Isa 6:11 - Lord // Until the // utterly desolate Lord : Psa 74:10, Psa 90:13, Psa 94:3 Until the : Isa 1:7, Isa 3:26, Isa 24:1-12 utterly desolate : Heb. desolate with desolation

Lord : Psa 74:10, Psa 90:13, Psa 94:3

Until the : Isa 1:7, Isa 3:26, Isa 24:1-12

utterly desolate : Heb. desolate with desolation

TSK: Isa 6:12 - the Lord // a great the Lord : Isa 26:15; 2Ki 25:11, 2Ki 25:21; Jer 15:4, Jer 52:28-30 a great : Jer 4:29, Jer 12:7; Lam 5:20; Rom 11:1, Rom 11:2, Rom 11:15

TSK: Isa 6:13 - But yet // and it shall return // teil tree // substance // so the holy But yet : Isa 1:9, Isa 4:3, Isa 10:20-22; Mat 24:22; Mar 13:20; Rom 11:5, Rom 11:6, Rom 11:16-29 and it shall return : etc. or, when it is returned, a...

But yet : Isa 1:9, Isa 4:3, Isa 10:20-22; Mat 24:22; Mar 13:20; Rom 11:5, Rom 11:6, Rom 11:16-29

and it shall return : etc. or, when it is returned, and hath been broused

teil tree : The teil-tree is the linden or lime-tree, a species very common in Palestine; the leaf of which resembles that of the laurel, and its flower that of the olive. But the original ailah which our translators render the oak (but here distinguished from allon the oak), and Bp. Lowth the ilex in Isa 1:29, Isa 1:30, probably denotes, as Celsius contends, the terebintḣ It is an evergreen of moderate size, but having the top and branches large in proportion to the trunk; leaves, like those of the olive, but green intermixed with red and purple; flowers, like those of the vine, growing in bunches, and purple; fruit, of a ruddy purple, the size of a juniper berry, hanging in clusters, very juicy, and containing a single seed of the size of a grape stone; wood, hard and fibrous, from which a resin distils; with an excresence scattered among the leaves, of the size of a chestnut, of a purple colour, variegated with green and white.

substance : or, stock, or stem, Job 14:7-9

so the holy : Isa 65:8, Isa 65:9; Gen 22:18; Ezr 9:2; Mal 2:15; Joh 15:1-3; Rom 9:5, Rom 11:5, Rom 11:24; Gal 3:16-19, Gal 3:28, Gal 3:29

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Poole: Isa 6:1 - I saw // His train // Filled the temple I saw in a vision or ecstasy. The Lord; either, 1. God the Son, who frequently appeared to the patriarchs and prophets, and that sometimes in the f...

I saw in a vision or ecstasy. The Lord; either,

1. God the Son, who frequently appeared to the patriarchs and prophets, and that sometimes in the form of a man. Or rather,

2. The Divine Majesty as he subsisteth in three persons, as may be gathered both from the plural number us, used of this Lord, Isa 6:8 , and comparing other scriptures; for God the Father is described as sitting upon a throne, Dan 7:9,13 , and elsewhere; and the glory of God here manifested is said to be Christ’ s glory, Joh 12:41 , and the words of the Lord here following are said to be spoken by the Holy Ghost, Act 28:25 . Sitting upon a throne, in the posture of a judge, to hear causes, and give sentence. Lifted up towards the roof of the temple.

His train or, as the word properly signifies, and is here rendered by divers, the skirts or borders of him, or of it, to wit, his royal and judicial robe; for he is represented as a judge.

Filled the temple his glorious robes reached down to the bottom of the temple, and were spread abroad in the temple, which was an evidence of a more than ordinary majesty. The temple may be here taken either,

1. Largely, and so it includes the courts as well as the house, as that word is oft used; or,

2. Strictly, for the house itself, or for that part of the temple in which this vision was exhibited, which may seem to have been the porch, for that was much higher than the other parts.

Poole: Isa 6:2 - Above it stood // the seraphims // Covered his face // Covered his feet // Did fly Above it stood as ministers attending upon their Lord, and waiting to receive and execute his commands, the seraphims certain holy and blessed ange...

Above it stood as ministers attending upon their Lord, and waiting to receive and execute his commands,

the seraphims certain holy and blessed angels, thus called from fire and burning , which this word properly signifies; to represent either,

1. Their nature, which is bright and glorious, subtile, and pure, and spiritual, like fire; or,

2. Their property, of fervent zeal for God’ s service and glory; or,

3. Their office and present employment, which was to execute God’ s vengeance upon the Jews, and to burn them up like dross.

Covered his face out of profound reverence, as being so sensible of the infinite distance between God and him, that he durst not presume to look directly upon him, and judged himself neither able nor worthy to behold the brightness of his glory.

Covered his feet either,

1. His secret parts, which sometimes come under that name, as Deu 28:57 Isa 7:20 36:12 ; of which see more in my Latin Synopsis upon Exo 4:25 . And so this is done for our instruction, to teach us modesty and chastity. Or,

2. Their feet properly so called, as that word is generally used; from which use we should not depart without necessity, which, with submission, seems not to be in this place. And so this may signify a sense of their own natural, though not moral infirmity, and a desire that God would not too severely examine all their ways and actions, which the feet commonly signify, because though they did not swerve from God’ s commands, yet they were not worthy of the acceptation, nor suitable to the dignity of so glorious a Majesty.

Did fly which signifies their great forwardness and expedition in executing God’ s commands. Compare Dan 9:21 .

Poole: Isa 6:3 - One cried unto another // Holy, holy, holy // The whole earth // Full of his glory One cried unto another singing in consort the praises of their Lord. Holy, holy, holy: this is repeated thrice, either, 1. To intimate the Trinity...

One cried unto another singing in consort the praises of their Lord.

Holy, holy, holy: this is repeated thrice, either,

1. To intimate the Trinity of persons united in the Divine essence; or,

2. That he was most eminently and unquestionably holy in his present work of judgment, and in all his ways; such repetitions being very frequent in Scripture, for the greater assurance of the thing, as Jer 7:4 Eze 21:9 .

The whole earth not only Canaan, to which the Jews did vainly and arrogantly confine the presence of God, but all the world; which seems to have a respect to the conversion of the Gentiles, which did accompany the plenary and last execution of this judgment here threatened against the Jewish nation, Isa 6:10 , as is evident by comparing this with Mat 13:14,15 Ac 28:26,27 , and other places of the New Testament.

Full of his glory of the effects and demonstrations of his glorious holiness, as well as of his power, and wisdom, and goodness.

Poole: Isa 6:4 - The posts of the door // Him that cried // Filled with smoke The posts of the door together with the door itself, as if the door was to be removed, and the temple thereby to be exposed to the view and rapine of...

The posts of the door together with the door itself, as if the door was to be removed, and the temple thereby to be exposed to the view and rapine of profane persons. Such violent motions were commonly tokens of God’ s anger.

Him that cried to wit, the angel, which cried; Isa 4:3 .

Filled with smoke which elsewhere is a token of God’ s presence and acceptance, as Exo 40:34 1Ki 8:10 , but here of his anger, as Psa 18:8 , and elsewhere.

Poole: Isa 6:5 - I am a man of unclean lips // I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips // Mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts I am a man of unclean lips I am a great sinner, as many other ways, so particularly by my lips, which being in a special manner consecrated to God by...

I am a man of unclean lips I am a great sinner, as many other ways, so particularly by my lips, which being in a special manner consecrated to God by my prophetical office, should have been entirely devoted to him; but, alas! my speeches, either to God in prayer, or from God in preaching and prophesying to the people, have been mixed and defiled with so much irreverence, dulness, distraction of thoughts and affections, carnal fear, and many other infirmities, that I dread the thoughts of appearing before thy judgment-seat, which I see erected in this place. For Isaiah had been a prophet before this time, Isa 1:1 , and was now called, not in general to his prophetical office, but to the delivery of this special message.

I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips I am an unclean branch of an unclean tree; and besides my own uncleanness, I have both by my omissions and commissions involved myself in the guilt of their sins, and therefore may justly fear to partake with them in their plagues.

Mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts the sight of this glorious and holy God gives me cause to fear that he is come to judgment against me, together with others. Whilst sinners are secure and presumptuous, the holiest persons have ever been filled with great reverence, and ofttimes with doubts and fears, at any extraordinary manifestation of God’ s presence. See Gen 16:13 17:3 Jud 13:22 .

Poole: Isa 6:6 - Then flew one of the seraphims unto me // From off the altar of burnt-offering Then flew one of the seraphims unto me by God’ s command, having a live coal ; both a token and an instrument of purification, as the next vers...

Then flew one of the seraphims unto me by God’ s command, having a live coal ; both a token and an instrument of purification, as the next verse explains it.

From off the altar of burnt-offering which stood in the court of the priests near the porch, and which had always coals of fire upon it, Lev 6:12,13 . Hence he took it, to show that men are to expect purification and expiation of sin only by such means as God hath appointed, and particularly by Christ, whom that altar did manifestly represent, Heb 13:10 .

Poole: Isa 6:7 - He laid it upon my mouth // Thy sin purged He laid it upon my mouth slightly, so as only to touch my lips, and not to burn them; which God could easily effect. Thy sin purged this is a sign ...

He laid it upon my mouth slightly, so as only to touch my lips, and not to burn them; which God could easily effect.

Thy sin purged this is a sign that I have pardoned and purged the uncleanness of thy lips, and do own and accept time as a fit minister for my service.

Poole: Isa 6:8 - Whom shall I send, and who will go for us // us // Here am I; send me Whom shall I send, and who will go for us to deliver the following message? The change of the number, I and us is very remarkable; and both being...

Whom shall I send, and who will go for us to deliver the following message? The change of the number,

I and

us is very remarkable; and both being meant of one and the same Lord, do sufficiently intimate a plurality of persons in the Godhead.

Here am I; send me: God’ s last and great favour to him did both encourage and oblige him to be forward in God’ s service.

Poole: Isa 6:9 - This people // my people // Understand not, perceive not This people not my people for I disown them, as they have rejected me. Understand not, perceive not: the Hebrew words are imperative; yet they ar...

This people not

my people for I disown them, as they have rejected me.

Understand not, perceive not: the Hebrew words are imperative; yet they are not to be taken as a command what the people ought to do, but only as a signification and prediction. what by their own wickedness, and by God’ s just judgment, they did and would do, as is manifest by Mat 13:14 Act 28:26 , where they are so rendered. And imperative words among the Hebrews are frequently put for the future, as is well known to the learned. The sense is, Because you have so long heard my words, and seen my works, to no purpose, and have hardened your hearts, and will not learn nor reform, I will punish you in your own kind, your sin shall be your punishment. I will still continue my word and works to you, not in mercy, and for your good, but to aggravate your sin and condemnation; for I will blind your minds, and withdraw my Spirit, so that you shall be as unable, as now you are unwilling, to understand or perceive any thing that may do you good.

Poole: Isa 6:10 - Fat // Make their ears heavy // Shut their eyes // Lest they see // Convert // Be healed Fat i.e. stupid and senseless; for the fat which is in the body is without sense; and fatness in the heart makes it dull and heavy. Thus this phrase ...

Fat i.e. stupid and senseless; for the fat which is in the body is without sense; and fatness in the heart makes it dull and heavy. Thus this phrase is used Psa 119:70 . And this seems best to agree with the following words. This making of their hearts fat is here ascribed to the prophet, as it is ascribed to God in the repetition of this prophecy, Joh 12:40 , because God inflicted this judgment upon them by the ministry of the prophet, partly by way of prediction, foretelling that this would be the effect of his preaching; and partly by way of judicial operation, withdrawing the light and help of his Spirit, and giving them up to the power and arts of Satan, and to their own mistakes and lusts, whereby they are easily and commonly led to turn God’ s word, as they do other things, into occasions of sin.

Make their ears heavy make them dull of hearing, as Isa 59:1 Zec 7:11 , as sometimes the ears are made by an excessive noise.

Shut their eyes Heb. daub their eyes , as the word is used also Isa 44:18 .

Lest they see that they may not be able, as before they were not willing, to see.

Convert turn from their sinful practices unto God.

Be healed of sin, which is the disease of the soul, by remission and sanctification, and of all the deadly effects of sin.

Poole: Isa 6:11 - Lord, how long? // Until the land be utterly desolate Lord, how long? an abrupt speech, arising from the prophet’ s great passion and astonishment. How long shall this dreadful judgment last? Until...

Lord, how long? an abrupt speech, arising from the prophet’ s great passion and astonishment. How long shall this dreadful judgment last?

Until the land be utterly desolate until this land be totally destroyed, first by the Babylonians, and afterward by the Romans.

Poole: Isa 6:12 - Have removed men far away // And there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land Have removed men far away have caused this people to be carried away captive into far countries. And there be a great forsaking in the midst of the ...

Have removed men far away have caused this people to be carried away captive into far countries.

And there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land till houses and lands be generally forsaken of their owners, either because fled away from the sword into strange lands, or because they went into captivity.

Poole: Isa 6:13 - A tenth // Shall return // Shall be eaten // As a teil tree, and as an oak // The substance thereof A tenth a small remnant reserved, that number being put indefinitely, as is very usual. Shall return to wit, on, of the Babylonish captivity, into ...

A tenth a small remnant reserved, that number being put indefinitely, as is very usual.

Shall return to wit, on, of the Babylonish captivity, into their own land.

Shall be eaten that remnant shall be devoured and destroyed a second time by the kings of Syria, and afterwards more effectually by the Romans.

As a teil tree, and as an oak or, yet as , &c.; or, nevertheless as , &c.; such particles being frequently understood in the Hebrew, as hath been noted again and again. So the sense of the following words of the verse seems to be this, Although the Jewish nation shall undergo a second and a greater desolation by the Romans, yet there shall be another remnant, not such a one as that which came out of Babylon, which for the most part were corrupt and degenerate, as appears by the sacred histories and prophecies relating to that time; but a holy seed, a number of elect and godly Israelites, who shall afterwards look upon him whom they pierced, and mourn over him, as is said, Zec 12:10 , and by me be received to mercy. Whose substance is in them, when they east their leaves; who, when their leaves are withered and east, as it is in winter, have a substance, or subsistence, or support within themselves, to wit, a vital principle, which preserves life in the root and body of the tree, and in due time sends it forth into all the branches. But others take the Hebrew word shallecheth for the proper name of a place, to wit, a causeway which led from the palace to the temple, 1Ch 26:16 ; and so the place is and may be rendered thus, as a teil tree , (or, an elm ,) and as an oak , (the singular number for the plural, as is very frequent,) as the elms and the oaks which are at or by Shallecheth (on both sides of which way such trees were planted, to beautify and to support that causeway, as some have observed) have subsistence or support in them ; either,

1. For themselves; they stand fast and firm, when other trees are blown down: or,

2. For the way which they uphold.

The substance thereof or rather, the support (as the same word seems to be taken in the next foregoing; clause) thereof , to wit, of the land or people, which, were it not for the sake of these elect persons, should be totally and finally rooted out; or, of that tenth part, which shall be delivered and preserved for the sake of that holy seed, those true-hearted Israelites which are among them.

Haydock: Isa 6:1 - Died // I saw // Lord Died. Either a natural (Calmet) or a civil death, by means of the leprosy. (Chaldean) (Tostat. 7.) --- This and the former chapters relate to the...

Died. Either a natural (Calmet) or a civil death, by means of the leprosy. (Chaldean) (Tostat. 7.) ---

This and the former chapters relate to the commencement of Joathan's reign, whether before or after the death of Ozias. (Calmet) ---

Many think that this was the first prediction of Isaias. (Origen) (St. Jerome, ad Dam.) ---

I saw. By a prophetic vision, as if I had been present at the dedication of the temple, 3 Kings viii. 10. (Calmet) ---

Lord. Not the Father, as some have asserted, but the Son, John xii. 40. (St. Jerome, ad Dam.) (Calmet) ---

Neither Moses nor any other saw the substance of God; but only a shadow. Yet Manasses hence took a pretext to have Isaias slain. (Origen) (St. Jerome, Trad.) (Paralipomenon) (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 6:2 - The // His The two Seraphims "burning." They are supposed to constitute the highest order of angels, Numbers xxi. 6. --- His. God's or their own face. He...

The two Seraphims "burning." They are supposed to constitute the highest order of angels, Numbers xxi. 6. ---

His. God's or their own face. Hebrew and Septuagint are ambiguous. Out of respect, (Calmet) they look not at the divine majesty. (Menochius)

Haydock: Isa 6:3 - Glory Glory. By no means of the Incarnation. The unity and Trinity are insinuated. (St. Jerome; St. Gregory, Mor. xxix. 16.)

Glory. By no means of the Incarnation. The unity and Trinity are insinuated. (St. Jerome; St. Gregory, Mor. xxix. 16.)

Haydock: Isa 6:4 - Of him Of him. Septuagint, "them," (Haydock) the Seraphim signifying that the veil was removed by the death of Christ, (Theodoret) or that the people shoul...

Of him. Septuagint, "them," (Haydock) the Seraphim signifying that the veil was removed by the death of Christ, (Theodoret) or that the people should be led into captivity, as a Jew explained it to St. Jerome.

Haydock: Isa 6:5 - Peace Peace. It is proper for sinners to do so, Ecclesiasticus xv. 9. The prophet was grieved that he was unworthy to join in the acclamation of the Sera...

Peace. It is proper for sinners to do so, Ecclesiasticus xv. 9. The prophet was grieved that he was unworthy to join in the acclamation of the Seraphim, and had reason to fear death, Genesis xvi. 13., and Exodus xxxiii. 20. He finds himself less able to speak than before, like Moses, Exodus iv. 10., and vi. 12.

Haydock: Isa 6:6 - Coal Coal. "Carbuncle," (Septuagint) the word of God, (St. Basil) spirit of prophecy, (St. Jerome, 142. ad Dam., &c.)

Coal. "Carbuncle," (Septuagint) the word of God, (St. Basil) spirit of prophecy, (St. Jerome, 142. ad Dam., &c.)

Haydock: Isa 6:7 - Sin Sin. Impediment in speech. All defects were attributed to some sin, (John ix. 2.) as Job's friends maintained.

Sin. Impediment in speech. All defects were attributed to some sin, (John ix. 2.) as Job's friends maintained.

Haydock: Isa 6:8 - For us // Send me For us. Hence arises a proof of the plurality of persons. (Calmet) --- Send me. Thus Isaias was an evangelical and apostolical prophet. (St. Je...

For us. Hence arises a proof of the plurality of persons. (Calmet) ---

Send me. Thus Isaias was an evangelical and apostolical prophet. (St. Jerome) (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 6:10 - Blind // Them Blind. The prophets are said to do what they denounce. (St. Thomas Aquinas, [Summa Theologiae] 1. q. xxiv. 3.) (Sanctius) --- Septuagint, "heavy ...

Blind. The prophets are said to do what they denounce. (St. Thomas Aquinas, [Summa Theologiae] 1. q. xxiv. 3.) (Sanctius) ---

Septuagint, "heavy or gross is the heart," &c. The authors of the New Testament quote it thus less harshly. ---

Them. Is God unwilling to heal? Why then does he send his prophet? (Calmet) ---

He intimates that all the graces offered would be rendered useless by the hardened Jews. (St. Isidore. Pelus 2. ep. 270.) ---

Hebrew may be, "surely they will not see," &c. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 6:11 - Desolate Desolate. By means of Nabuchodonosor, (St. Chrysostom) and the Romans, (Eusebius, &c.) or even till the end of the world, their obstinacy will conti...

Desolate. By means of Nabuchodonosor, (St. Chrysostom) and the Romans, (Eusebius, &c.) or even till the end of the world, their obstinacy will continue.

Haydock: Isa 6:12 - Earth Earth. After the captivity, the people shall be more docile. But this was more fully verified by the preaching of the gospel.

Earth. After the captivity, the people shall be more docile. But this was more fully verified by the preaching of the gospel.

Haydock: Isa 6:13 - Tithing // Made Tithing. The land shall produce its fruits, and people shall bring their tithes, Ezechiel xx. 40. There shall be some left; (chap. i. 9., and iv. 3...

Tithing. The land shall produce its fruits, and people shall bring their tithes, Ezechiel xx. 40. There shall be some left; (chap. i. 9., and iv. 3.; Calmet) though only a tenth part will embrace Christianity. (St. Basil) ---

Made. Septuagint, "ravaged." They shall be exposed to many persecutions under Epiphanes, and few shall escape the arms of the Romans, (Calmet) those particularly (Haydock) who shall be a holy seed. (Calmet) ---

The apostles were of Jewish extraction, (Haydock) and spread the gospel throughout the world. (Menochius)

Gill: Isa 6:1 - In the year that King Uzziah died // I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up // and his train filled the temple In the year that King Uzziah died,.... Which was the fifty second year of his reign, and in the year 3246 from the creation of the world; and, accordi...

In the year that King Uzziah died,.... Which was the fifty second year of his reign, and in the year 3246 from the creation of the world; and, according to Jerom l, was the year in which Romulus, the founder of the Roman empire, was born: some understand this not of his proper death, but of his being stricken with leprosy, upon his attempt to burn incense in the temple; upon which he was shut up in a separate house, which was a kind of a civil death: so the Targum,

"in the year in which King Uzziah was smitten;''

that is, with leprosy; and so Jarchi and others interpret it, from the ancient writers; but the first sense is the best. Some, as Aben Ezra, would have this to be the beginning of the prophecy of Isaiah, because of the mission of the prophet in it; but others rightly observe, that this mission respects not the prophecy in general, but the particular reproof the prophet was sent to give to the Jews herein mentioned. The title of this chapter, in the Arabic version, is remarkable; according to which, this chapter contains the vision which Isaiah, the son of Amos, saw three years, or, as others affirm, thirty years, after prophecy was taken from him. He had prophesied about ten years before this, in the reign of Uzziah; and only this vision was in the reign of Jotham; the next prophecy was delivered out in the reign of Ahaz, Isa 7:1 and others in the time of Hezekiah; and the date of this vision is only mentioned, to observe the order of the visions, agreeably to Isa 1:1 and moreover it may be observed from hence, that kings must die as well as others; but the King of kings ever lives, he is the living God, and the everlasting King, as follows:

I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; not God essentially considered, whose essence is not to be seen; but personally, Father, Son, and Spirit, for all the three Persons appear in this vision, Isa 6:3 particularly Christ, as, is clear from Joh 12:41 who is the "Adonai", or Lord; he is Lord of all, of all men, even of the greatest among them, and of all the angels in heaven, and of the church of God, by his Father's gift, by his own purchase, in right of marriage, and through the conquest of his grace. This sight was not corporeal, but with the eyes of the understanding, in the vision of prophecy; and to have a sight of Christ as the Lord, and especially as our Lord, is very delightful and comfortable; for though he is a sovereign Lord, he is no tyrannical one, is very powerful to protect and defend, and has all fulness for supply; and particularly as "sitting upon a throne" as a king, for he having done his work as a priest, sits down on his throne as a king; and a lovely sight it is to see him enthroned at the right hand of the Majesty on high; and therefore is said to be "high and lifted up"; for this is to be understood not of his throne, as if that was high and lifted up in the highest heavens, as the Targum paraphrases it; but of himself, who is high and exalted above all creatures, as Aben Ezra observes; and this sense the accents determine for: the vision refers to the exaltation of Christ, after his humiliation here on earth; and to behold him crowned with glory and honour is very delightful, since he is exalted as our head and representative in our nature, and acts for us in this his exalted state; and we may be assured of being exalted also. It follows,

and his train filled the temple; either the material temple visionally seen, where his feet were, and his throne in heaven, as Jarchi interprets it; or heaven, as Kimchi, which is the Lord's holy temple, where his throne is, Psa 11:4 or rather the human nature of Christ, the temple where the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily, and which the train of divine perfections fill; though it may be best of all to understand it of the church, the temple of the living God; and "his train" may denote the effects of Christ's kingly and priestly offices, with which the Church was filled upon his exaltation; as the gifts and graces of his Spirit in an extraordinary manner on the day of Pentecost, and since in a more ordinary way; whereby men have been made ministers of the New Testament, and churches filled with them, and these made useful in filling the churches with members. The Targum is,

"and the temple was filled with the splendour of his glory;''

the "train" is the skirts, borders, or lower parts of the garments, in allusion to those of a king, or rather of the high priest, a type of Christ.

Gill: Isa 6:2 - Above it stood the seraphims // each one had six wings // with twain he covered his face // with twain he covered his feet // and with twain he did fly Above it stood the seraphims,.... Not above the temple, nor above the throne, much less above him that sat upon it, but either "by him", on the right ...

Above it stood the seraphims,.... Not above the temple, nor above the throne, much less above him that sat upon it, but either "by him", on the right hand and on the left, as Aben Ezra; or "near him", as Kimchi and Ben Melech; or "before him", as the Targum; or "round about him", as the Septuagint; all which denote the ministering form in which they stood; by whom are meant, not the Son and Spirit, as some of the ancients thought, who imagined the Father to be the Person sitting on the throne; nor the two Testaments, as Jerom; nor angels, which is the common interpretation; but ministers of the Gospel, the same with the four beasts in Rev 4:6 and the four living creatures in Eze 1:5 the Jewish commentators in general agree that these are the same with Ezekiel's living creatures; so Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi; and the first of these cites the Midrash Agada, as saying this is the Mercavah, which is the name they give to Ezekiel's vision of the living creatures and wheels; and this appears by their name "seraphim", which signifies "burning", and so Ezekiel's living creatures are said to be "like burning coals of fire", Eze 1:13 and the ministers of the Gospel are so called, because of their ministerial gifts, compared to fire, as the gifts of the spirit of God are, especially those which the apostles had bestowed on them, who were baptized with the Holy Spirit and fire, Mat 3:11 and even the ordinary gifts of the spirit are signified by the same figure, 1Ti 1:6 and because of their light, which they have in the truths of the Gospel; and because of their fervent and ardent love to Christ and immortal souls; and because of their flaming zeal for his cause and interest: and this also appears by their situation near the throne, see Eze 1:26 and Christ on it; where they stand as servants waiting upon him, and in order to receive from him, and where they enjoy communion with him; or "above" it may mean the temple, the church, where they stand in the highest place in it, and are over others in the Lord; they stand as servants to Christ, but preside in the church as the rulers and governors of it; to which agrees the Targum,

"holy ministers on high before him:''

and this further appears by their wings,

each one had six wings; as Ezekiel's living creatures, Eze 1:4 and John's four beasts, Rev 4:8,

with twain he covered his face; that it might not be seen, as the Targum adds; expressive of their modesty and humility, looking, upon themselves as less than the least of all the saints, and the chief of sinners, and as ashamed of themselves before the Lord; or that they might not look upon the divine Majesty, as Jarchi; or rather as being unable to look upon the dazzling glory and infinite perfections of his being; so Elijah wrapped his face in a mantle, when he heard the still small voice of the Lord, 1Ki 19:12 and as Moses before him did, Exo 3:6 being afraid to look upon God, conscious of creature distance, and of sinfulness and unworthiness; and therefore not so suitable to angels, who always behold the face of God, Mat 18:10,

with twain he covered his feet; or body, that it might not be seen, as the Targum; as conscious of the imperfection of their conduct, walk, and conversation, as ministers and Christians, in the sight of God, however beautiful their feet may appear to others, Isa 52:7,

and with twain he did fly: or minister, as the Targum; this denotes their readiness and swiftness in preaching the everlasting Gospel, running to and fro with it, having their feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace: see Rev 14:6.

Gill: Isa 6:3 - And one cried unto another // and said, holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts // The whole earth is full of his glory And one cried unto another,.... This denotes the publicness of their ministry, and their harmony and unity in it; they answered to one another, and ag...

And one cried unto another,.... This denotes the publicness of their ministry, and their harmony and unity in it; they answered to one another, and agreed in what they said; their preaching was not yea and nay, 2Co 1:19,

and said, holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; this expresses the subject matter of the Gospel ministry, respecting the holiness of God; all the doctrines of the Gospel are pure and holy, and have a tendency to promote holiness of heart and life, and are agreeable to the holiness of God, and in them the holiness of God in each of the divine Persons is declared; particularly the Gospel ministry affirms that there is one God, who is the Lord of hosts, of armies above and below, of angels and men; that there are three Persons in the Godhead, Father, Son, and Spirit; and that each of these three are glorious in holiness; there is the Holy Father, and the Holy Son, and the Holy Ghost, and the holiness of them is displayed in each of the doctrines of grace: the holiness of the Father appears in the choice of persons to eternal life, through sanctification of the Spirit; in the covenant of grace, which provides for the holiness of covenant ones; and in the justification of his people through Christ, and redemption by him, whereby the honour of his justice and holiness is secured: the holiness of the Son appears in his incarnation and life; in redemption from sin by him, and in satisfying for it, and justifying from it: and the holiness of the Spirit is seen in the doctrines of regeneration and sanctification, ascribed unto him.

The whole earth is full of his glory; as it was when Christ dwelt in it, wrought his miracles, and manifested forth his glory, and when his Gospel was preached everywhere by his apostles; and as it will be, more especially in the latter day, when it will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord; when the kingdoms of this world will become his, and his kingdom will be everywhere, even from sea to sea, and from the rivers to the ends of the earth; and this is what Gospel ministers declare will be: or "the fulness of the whole earth is his glory" m; the earth is his, and all that is in it, and all declare his glory; see Rev 4:8.

Gill: Isa 6:4 - And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried // And the house was filled with smoke And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried,.... That is, the posts of the door of the temple, as the Targum adds, where this visio...

And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried,.... That is, the posts of the door of the temple, as the Targum adds, where this vision was seen, as represented to the prophet. Some think this respects the earthquake in Uzziah's time, mentioned in Zec 14:5 and which they suppose was at the time he attempted to offer incense, and was smitten with leprosy; but, as Kimchi observes, this moving of the door posts was only in the vision of prophecy, and not in reality; this shaking therefore may denote either the shaking and removing of the temple service and worship, at the death of Christ, and through the preaching of the Gospel; or rather the shaking of the consciences of men by the word, which made them cry out, what shall we do to be saved?

And the house was filled with smoke; this was a token either of the burning of the temple, or of the anger of God against the Jews, Psa 18:8 or of their superstition and will worship, the cause of it, Rev 9:1 or of the judicial blindness and darkness they were given up unto, Isa 6:9 or rather of the presence of God in his church, and with his ministers, Exo 40:3 the allusion may be to the cloud of incense that covered the mercy seat, on the day of atonement, Lev 16:13 the passage is cited on this account in the Talmud n.

Gill: Isa 6:5 - Then said I, woe is me // for I am undone // because I am a man of unclean lips // And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips // For mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts Then said I, woe is me,.... There's no woe to a good man, all woes are to the wicked; but a good man may think himself wretched and miserable, partly...

Then said I, woe is me,.... There's no woe to a good man, all woes are to the wicked; but a good man may think himself wretched and miserable, partly on account of his own corruptions, the body of sin and death he carries about with him; and partly on account of wicked men, among whom he dwells, Rom 7:24,

for I am undone; a good man cannot be undone, or be lost and perish; he is lost in Adam with the rest; in effectual calling he is made sensible of his lost and undone state; and under the power of unbelief may write bitter things against himself; but be can never perish, or be lost and undone for ever. The Targum is,

"for I have sinned;''

and his particular sin is after mentioned: some o render it, "for I have been silent"; as if he had not performed the duty of his office, in reproving for sin, or declaring the will of God: others p, "for I am reduced to silence", I am forced to be silent; he could not join with the "seraphim", being conscious to himself of his vileness, and of his unworthiness to take the holy name of God into his polluted lips, as follows:

because I am a man of unclean lips; he says nothing of the uncleanness of his heart, nor of his actions; not that he was free from such impurity; but only of his lips, because it was the sin of his office that lay upon his mind, and gave him present uneasiness; there is no man but offends in words, and of all men persons in public office should be careful of what they say; godly ministers are conscious of many failings in their ministry. The Targum is,

"because I am a sinful man to reprove;''

and so unfit for it.

And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; such were the Jews, not only in Isaiah's time, but in the times of Christ and his apostles, who traduced him, as if he was a wicked person, calumniated his miracles, said he was a Samaritan, and had a devil; they taught for doctrines the commandments of men, and opposed and blasphemed the truths of the Gospel; and to live among men of a filthy speech and conversation is a concern to a good man; he is vexed and distressed hereby; he is in danger of learning their words, and of suffering with them in a common calamity.

For mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts; the same divine and glorious Person described in Isa 6:1 who is no other than the Lord Christ, King of kings, and Lord of lords, King of saints, and Lord of the armies, in heaven and in earth; and a lovely sight it is to see him by faith, in the glory and beauty of his person, and in the fulness of his grace; such a sight is spiritual, saving, assimilating, appropriating, very endearing, and very glorious and delightful: wherefore it may seem strange that a sight of Christ should fill the prophet with dread; one would think he should rather have said, happy man that I am, because I have seen this glorious Person, whom to see and know is life eternal; but the reason of it is, because in this view of Christ he saw the impurity of himself, and was out of conceit with himself, and therefore cries out in the manner he does; just as in a sunbeam a man beholds those innumerable motes and atoms, which before were invisible to him. It was not because of his sight of Christ he reckoned himself undone; but because of the impurity of himself, and those among whom he dwelt, which he had a view of through his sight of Christ: his sight of Christ is given as a reason of his view of his impurity, and his impurity as the reason of his being undone in his apprehension of things. The prophet, in these his circumstances, represents a sensible sinner, under a sight and sense of his sinfulness and vileness; as the seraph in the following verses represents a Gospel minister bringing the good news of pardon, by the blood and sacrifice of Christ.

Gill: Isa 6:6 - Then flew one of the seraphim unto me // Having a live coal in his hand // which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar Then flew one of the seraphim unto me,.... When the prophet had confessed his sin; for upon that follows the application of pardon; and when the serap...

Then flew one of the seraphim unto me,.... When the prophet had confessed his sin; for upon that follows the application of pardon; and when the seraph, or minister of the Gospel, had an order from the Lord to publish the doctrine of it: it is God's act alone to forgive sin; it is the work of his ministers to preach forgiveness of sin, and that to sensible sinners; who when they are made sensible of sin, and distressed with it, the Lord takes notice of them, and sends messengers to them, to comfort them, by acquainting them that their iniquity is forgiven; who go on such an errand cheerfully and swiftly; and though they do not know the particular person, yet the Lord directs their ministration to him, and makes it effectual.

Having a live coal in his hand: by which is meant the word of God, comparable to fire, and to a burning coal of fire, Jer 23:29 for the light and heat which it gives both to saints and sinners, and for its purity and purifying nature:

which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar; of burnt offering, where the fire was always burning; which was a type of Christ, and his sacrifice; and this shows what particular doctrine of the word it was the seraph or Gospel minister took, and delivered in this visionary way; it was the doctrine of pardon, founded upon the sacrifice and satisfaction of Christ. To this sense of the words the Targum agrees, which paraphrases them thus,

"and there flew to me one of the ministers, and in his mouth a word which he received from his Shechinah, upon the throne of glory, in the highest heavens, above the altar,''

See Rev 14:6.

Gill: Isa 6:7 - And he laid it upon my mouth // and said, lo, this hath touched thy lips // and thine iniquity is taken away // and thy sin purged And he laid it upon my mouth,.... Because he had complained of the impurity of his lips, and that his mouth might take in by faith this comfortable d...

And he laid it upon my mouth,.... Because he had complained of the impurity of his lips, and that his mouth might take in by faith this comfortable doctrine of pardon, and it might be filled with praise and thankfulness; it denotes the ministration of the Gospel, as a means of the application of pardoning grace:

and said, lo, this hath touched thy lips; this coal, as a symbol of the word; the particle "lo", or "behold", is prefixed to this declaration, as requiring attention to a matter of importance, and as expressing something wonderful, and declaring something sure and certain; all which the pardon of sin is, and which is spoken of without a figure in the next words:

and thine iniquity is taken away: which was abominable in his sight; a burden to him, and the cause of his distress; even all his iniquity, and particularly the iniquity of his lips he had been mourning over, and confessing; this was taken away, as by the sacrifice of Christ, from the sight of God, so from his own conscience, by the application of pardon:

and thy sin purged; or "atoned for", or "covered" q; which is done meritoriously, only by the blood and sacrifice of Christ; and in a way of application by the Spirit of God, through a promise, and by the ministry of the word; which latter is here meant. The Targum is,

"and he disposed "it" in my mouth; and said, lo, I have put the words of my prophecy in thy mouth, and thine iniquities are removed, and thy sins are expiated, or forgiven.''

Gill: Isa 6:8 - Also I heard the voice of the Lord // saying, Whom shall I send // and who will go for us // then said I, here am I, send me Also I heard the voice of the Lord,.... The Targum renders it, the voice of the Word of the Lord, as if it was the second Person, the Word, that was h...

Also I heard the voice of the Lord,.... The Targum renders it, the voice of the Word of the Lord, as if it was the second Person, the Word, that was heard speaking; but it seems rather to be the voice of the first Person, the Father:

saying, Whom shall I send? to the people of Israel, to reprove them for their blindness and stupidity, and to threaten them, and foretell unto them their ruin and destruction; intimating that it was a difficult thing to pitch upon a proper person; and that there were but few that were fit to go on such an errand: this is spoken after the manner of men; otherwise the Lord knew whom to send, and whom he would send; and could easily qualify anyone he pleased, and send with such a message:

and who will go for us? not directing his discourse to the seraphim, as Aben Ezra and Kimchi; as if he consulted with them: for who of all the creatures is the Lord's counsellor? but to the Son and Spirit, who it is certain were concerned in this mission; for the following words were said when Isaiah saw the glory of Christ, and spake of him, Joh 12:41 and they are expressly attributed to the Holy Ghost in Act 28:25 the Septuagint and Arabic versions, instead of "for us", read "unto this people"; and the Targum is,

"whom shall I send to prophesy? and who will go to teach?''

then said I, here am I, send me: for he who before thought himself undone, and unworthy to be employed in the service of God, now having a discovery and application of pardoning grace, freely offers himself to God: this shows the true nature and effect of an application of pardon; it gives a man freedom and boldness in the presence of God, and stimulates to a ready and cheerful obedience to his will, and engages him with the utmost alacrity in his service; so far is the doctrine of free and full pardon by the blood of Christ from being a licentious doctrine.

Gill: Isa 6:9 - And he said, go, and tell this people // hear ye indeed // but understand not // and see ye indeed // but perceive not And he said, go, and tell this people,.... What is and will be their case and condition, as follows: hear ye indeed; the words of the prophets sent...

And he said, go, and tell this people,.... What is and will be their case and condition, as follows:

hear ye indeed; the words of the prophets sent unto them, yea, Christ himself incarnate preaching among them; the great Prophet Moses said should be raised up unto them:

but understand not; neither that he is the Messiah, nor the doctrines delivered by him; which were spoken to them in parables; see Mat 13:13,

and see ye indeed: the miracles wrought by him, as raising the dead, cleansing the lepers, restoring sight to the blind, causing the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak:

but perceive not; that he is the Messiah, though all the characteristics pointed at in prophecy are upon him, and such miracles are done by him.

Gill: Isa 6:10 - Make the heart of this people fat // and make their ears heavy // and shut their eyes // lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understated with their heart // and convert // and be healed Make the heart of this people fat,.... Gross and heavy, stupid and unteachable, hard and obdurate; which is sometimes done by the preaching of the Gos...

Make the heart of this people fat,.... Gross and heavy, stupid and unteachable, hard and obdurate; which is sometimes done by the preaching of the Gospel, through the wickedness of man's heart, that being the savour of death unto death to some, just as the sun hardens the clay; or declare that their hearts are thus gross and stupid; or that I will give them up to a judicial hardness of heart:

and make their ears heavy: that they cannot hear the word, so as to understand it; they having stopped the ear, and plucked away the shoulder, it is in righteous judgment that they are given up to such an insensibility as not to be capable of hearing and understanding what is delivered in the ministry of the word:

and shut their eyes; they having wilfully shut their own eyes against all evidence of the Messiah, and the truth of his doctrines, they are given up to a judicial blindness; which still continues upon them, and will until the fulness of the Gentiles is brought in:

lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understated with their heart; though only in a notional way, the things relating to the Messiah, the truths of the Gospel, and the ordinances thereof, and what may belong to their outward peace:

and convert; or turn themselves by external repentance and reformation:

and be healed: or forgiven in such sense as to be preserved from national ruin; which God willed not; for seeing they went such great lengths in sin, in rejecting the Messiah, and his Gospel, they were given up to a reprobate mind, to do things that were not convenient, that they might be destroyed; which destruction is after prophesied of.

Gill: Isa 6:11 - Then said I, Lord, how long // and he answered, until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate Then said I, Lord, how long?.... That is, how long will this blindness, hardness, stupidity, and impenitence, remain with this people, or they be unde...

Then said I, Lord, how long?.... That is, how long will this blindness, hardness, stupidity, and impenitence, remain with this people, or they be under such a sore judgment of God upon them:

and he answered, until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate; until there is not an inhabitant in the cities of Judea, nor in Jerusalem, the metropolis of the land, nor a single man in any house in them; which denotes the utter desolation of the land and city; and can refer to no other than to the desolation thereof by the Romans; and till that time the blindness which happened to them continued; the things which belonged to their peace were hid from their eyes till their city was destroyed, and not one stone left upon another, Luk 19:42 till that time, and even to this day, the veil of blindness, ignorance, and and penitence, is on their hearts, and will remain until they are converted to the Lord, in the latter day; see Rom 11:25, 2Co 3:14.

Gill: Isa 6:12 - And the Lord have removed men far away // and there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land And the Lord have removed men far away,.... Not to Babylon, but to the ends of the earth, into the most distant countries, by means of the Romans; for...

And the Lord have removed men far away,.... Not to Babylon, but to the ends of the earth, into the most distant countries, by means of the Romans; for they were but instruments of carrying the Jews captive out of their own land, and dispersing them among the several nations of the world; it was the Lord's doing, and a judgment which he inflicted upon them for their sins:

and there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land; not that there should be many left in the land, and multiply and increase in it; which is the sense of the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Arabic versions; but that the land should be greatly forsaken of men; there should be many places in the midst of the land destitute of them; and this should continue a long time, as Kimchi observes, which therefore cannot be understood of the Babylonish captivity, but of their present one.

Gill: Isa 6:13 - But yet in it shall be a tenth // And it shall return, and shall be eaten // as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them, when they cast their leaves // so // the holy seed shall be the substance thereof But yet in it shall be a tenth,.... Which some understand of ten kings that should reign over Judah from this time, the death of Uzziah, unto the cap...

But yet in it shall be a tenth,.... Which some understand of ten kings that should reign over Judah from this time, the death of Uzziah, unto the captivity, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra observe; and which are, as Kimchi reckons them, as follows, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Zedekiah; but the prophecy, as we have seen, respects not the captivity of the Jews in Babylon, but their present one; wherefore the words are to be understood of a few persons, a remnant, according to the election of grace, that should be called, and saved amidst all the blindness, darkness, and destruction that should come upon that people; and may be illustrated by the words of the apostle in Rom 11:5 and these chosen, called, and saved ones, are the "tenth", that is, the Lord's tenth, as the words may be rendered r. To this sense the Targum agrees,

"and there shall be left in it righteous persons, one out of ten;''

though indeed the Christians were not left in Jerusalem when it was destroyed, but were called out of it just before, and were preserved from that ruin.

And it shall return, and shall be eaten; or "be for burning". I should choose to render it, "it shall return, and be burnt" s; that is, it shall be burnt again; it was burnt a first time by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and his army, Jer 52:13 and a second time by Titus Vespasian, to which this prophecy refers:

as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them, when they cast their leaves; the word "Beshallecheth", which we render, "when they cast their leaves", is by some, as Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi observe, thought to be the name of a gate in Jerusalem, called "Shallecheth", from which a causeway went towards the king's palace, from whence it had its name, 1Ch 26:16 and along which causeway, as is supposed, were planted teil trees and oaks, which are here referred to. But the Targum, Jarchi, and Kimchi, interpret the word as we do, of casting their leaves: and the sense seems to be this; that as the teil tree and oak, when they cast their leaves in autumn, and look as if they were dry, withered, and dead, yet have a substance in them, and in spring appear alive and green, and flourishing again; so the Jews, notwithstanding their miserable destruction by the Romans, when they were stripped of all their riches and glory, yet were not utterly consumed as a people, but remained an entire distinct people, and do so to this day, among the nations of the world; though, like a dry withered trunk of a tree, without verdure or beauty; the reason of this follows:

so, or "because",

the holy seed shall be the substance thereof; that is, they shall subsist, or continue a distinct people, though in this miserable condition; because there is a "holy seed", or a certain number, whom God has chosen to be holy, that is to arise from them, and will be called and converted in the latter day; hence they have a substance, a subsistence, and shall remain till that comes, and that chosen remnant is called and saved, Rom 11:25. The Targum is,

"as the elm and oak, when their leaves fall, and are like to dry "trees", and yet are moist to raise up seed from them; so the captivities of Israel shall be gathered, and shall return to their land; for the seed which is holy is their plantation.''

Some, interpreting the passage of the Babylonish captivity, by the "holy seed" understand the Messiah. See Luk 1:35 t.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 6:1 The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here and in vv. 8, 11 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

NET Notes: Isa 6:2 Some understand “feet” here as a euphemistic reference to the genitals.

NET Notes: Isa 6:3 Perhaps in this context, the title has a less militaristic connotation and pictures the Lord as the ruler of the heavenly assembly. See the note at 1:...

NET Notes: Isa 6:4 On the phrase אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים (’ammot h...

NET Notes: Isa 6:5 Perhaps in this context, the title has a less militaristic connotation and pictures the Lord as the ruler of the heavenly assembly. See the note at 1:...

NET Notes: Isa 6:7 Or “ritually cleansed,” or “atoned for” (NIV).

NET Notes: Isa 6:8 Heb “for us.” The plural pronoun refers to the Lord, the seraphs, and the rest of the heavenly assembly.

NET Notes: Isa 6:10 Do we take this commission at face value? Does the Lord really want to prevent his people from understanding, repenting, and being healed? Verse 9, wh...

NET Notes: Isa 6:12 Heb “and great is the abandonment in the midst of the land.”

NET Notes: Isa 6:13 Heb “a holy offspring [is] its sacred pillar.” If מַצֶּבֶת (matsevet) is taken as “s...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:1 In the year that king Uzziah died ( a ) I saw also the Lord sitting upon a ( b ) throne, high and lifted up, and his ( c ) train filled the temple. (...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:2 Above it stood the ( d ) seraphims: each one had six wings; with two he covered his ( e ) face, and with two he covered his ( f ) feet, and with two h...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:3 And one cried to another, and said, ( h ) Holy, holy, holy, [is] the LORD of hosts: the whole ( i ) earth [is] full of his glory. ( h ) This often re...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:4 And the posts of the door ( k ) moved at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke. ( k ) Which was to confirm the prophet, th...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:5 Then said I, ( l ) Woe [is] me! for I am undone; because I [am] a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for my ey...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:6 Then one of the seraphims flew to me, having a live coal in his hand, [which] he had taken with the tongs from off the ( m ) altar: ( m ) Of the burn...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:7 And he laid [it] upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thy iniquity is taken away, and thy ( n ) sin purged. ( n ) This declar...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:9 And he said, Go, and tell this people, ( o ) Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. ( o ) By which is declared that...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:11 Then said I, Lord, ( p ) how long? And he answered, Until the cities shall be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be u...

Geneva Bible: Isa 6:13 But yet in it [shall be] ( q ) a tenth, and [it] shall return, and shall be eaten: as a teil tree, ( r ) and as an oak, whose substance [is] in them, ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 6:1-13 - A Libation To Jehovah Vision And Service In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. ...

Maclaren: Isa 6:2 - A Libation To Jehovah A Seraph's Wings With twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly.'--Isaiah 6:2. THIS is the only mentio...

Maclaren: Isa 6:5 - A Libation To Jehovah The Making Of A Prophet Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean ...

MHCC: Isa 6:1-8 - --In this figurative vision, the temple is thrown open to view, even to the most holy place. The prophet, standing outside the temple, sees the Divine P...

MHCC: Isa 6:9-13 - --God sends Isaiah to foretell the ruin of his people. Many hear the sound of God's word, but do not feel the power of it. God sometimes, in righteous j...

Matthew Henry: Isa 6:1-4 - -- The vision which Isaiah saw when he was, as is said of Samuel, established to be a prophet of the Lord (1Sa 3:20), was intended, 1. To confirm his...

Matthew Henry: Isa 6:5-8 - -- Our curiosity would lead us to enquire further concerning the seraphim, their songs and their services; but here we leave them, and must attend to w...

Matthew Henry: Isa 6:9-13 - -- God takes Isaiah at his word, and here sends him on a strange errand - to foretel the ruin of his people and even to ripen them for that ruin - to p...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:1 - -- The time of the occurrence here described, viz., "the year that king Uzziah (Uzı̄yahu ) died,"was of importance to the prophet. The statement itse...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:2 - -- "Above it stood seraphim: each one had six wings; with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he did fly." We must...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:3 - -- "And one cried to the other, and said, Holy, holy, holy is Jehovah of hosts: filling the whole earth is His glory." The meaning is not that they al...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:4 - -- When Isaiah heard this, he stood entranced at the farthest possible distance from Him that sat upon the throne, namely, under the door of the heaven...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:5 - -- The seer, who was at first overwhelmed and intoxicated by the majestic sight, now recovers his self-consciousness. "Then said I, Woe to me! for I am...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:6-7 - -- This confession was followed by the forgiveness of his sins, of which he received an attestation through a heavenly sacrament, and which was conveye...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:8 - -- When Isaiah had been thus absolved, the true object of the heavenly scene was made apparent. "Then I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:9-10 - -- This is confirmed by the words in which his commission is expressed, and the substance of the message. "He said, Go, and tell this people, Hear on,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 6:11-13 - -- Isaiah heard with sighing, and yet with obedience, in what the mission to which he had so cheerfully offered himself was to consist. Isa 6:11 . "T...

Constable: Isa 6:1-13 - --II. Isaiah's vision of God ch. 6 Most serious students of Isaiah have believed that the record of Isaiah's call ...

Constable: Isa 6:1-8 - --A. The prophet's cleansing 6:1-8 6:1 Why did Isaiah date this passage since he did not date most of his others?70 Probably he did so because King Uzzi...

Constable: Isa 6:9-13 - --B. The prophet's commission 6:9-13 The Lord proceeded to give Isaiah specific instructions about what He wanted him to do and what the prophet could e...

Guzik: Isa 6:1-13 - Isaiah's Conviction, Cleansing and Call Isaiah 6 - Isaiah's Conviction, Cleansing and Call A. The conviction of the prophet. 1. (1-2) What Isaiah saw. In the year that King Uzziah died, ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...

TSK: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the Evangelical Prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the a...

TSK: Isaiah 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Isa 6:1, Isaiah, in a vision of the Lord in his glory, Isa 6:5, being terrified, has apprehensions removed; Isa 6:8, He offers himself, a...

Poole: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT THE teachers of the ancient church were of two sorts: 1. Ordinary, the priests and Levites. 2. Extraordinary, the prophets. These we...

Poole: Isaiah 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 6 The glory of the Lord, Isa 6:1-4 . Isaiah is terrified, Isa 6:5 ; is confirmed for his message, Isa 6:6-8 . The people’ s obstinacy ...

MHCC: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. He has been well called the evangelical prophet, on account of his numerous and...

MHCC: Isaiah 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Isa 6:1-8) The vision which Isaiah beheld in the temple. (Isa 6:9-13) The Lord declares the blindness to come upon the Jewish nation, and the destru...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, With Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Isaiah Prophet is a title that sounds very great to those that understand it, t...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Hitherto, it should seem, Isaiah had prophesied as a candidate, having only a virtual and tacit commission; but here we have him (if I may so speak...

Constable: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and writer The title of this book of the Bible, as is true of the o...

Constable: Isaiah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction chs. 1-5 A. Israel's condition and God's solution ch. 1 ...

Constable: Isaiah Isaiah Bibliography Alexander, Joseph Addison. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 1846, 1847. Revised ed. ...

Haydock: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF ISAIAS. INTRODUCTION. This inspired writer is called by the Holy Ghost, (Ecclesiasticus xlviii. 25.) the great prophet; from t...

Gill: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH This book is called, in the New Testament, sometimes "the Book of the Words of the Prophet Esaias", Luk 3:4 sometimes only t...

Gill: Isaiah 6 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH 6 This chapter contains a vision of the glory and majesty of Christ, the mission and commission of the prophet, and the dest...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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