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Teks -- Amos 2:1-16 (NET)

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Konteks
2:1 This is what the Lord says: “Because Moab has committed three crimes– make that four!– I will not revoke my decree of judgment. They burned the bones of Edom’s king into lime. 2:2 So I will set Moab on fire, and it will consume Kerioth’s fortresses. Moab will perish in the heat of battle amid war cries and the blaring of the ram’s horn. 2:3 I will remove Moab’s leader; I will kill all Moab’s officials with him.” The Lord has spoken! 2:4 This is what the Lord says: “Because Judah has committed three covenant transgressions– make that four!– I will not revoke my decree of judgment. They rejected the Lord’s law; they did not obey his commands. Their false gods, to which their fathers were loyal, led them astray. 2:5 So I will set Judah on fire, and it will consume Jerusalem’s fortresses.”
God Will Judge Israel
2:6 This is what the Lord says: “Because Israel has committed three covenant transgressions– make that four!– I will not revoke my decree of judgment. They sold the innocent for silver, the needy for a pair of sandals. 2:7 They trample on the dirt-covered heads of the poor; they push the destitute away. A man and his father go to the same girl; in this way they show disrespect for my moral purity. 2:8 They stretch out on clothing seized as collateral; they do so right beside every altar! They drink wine bought with the fines they have levied; they do so right in the temple of their God! 2:9 For Israel’s sake I destroyed the Amorites. They were as tall as cedars and as strong as oaks, but I destroyed the fruit on their branches and their roots in the ground. 2:10 I brought you up from the land of Egypt; I led you through the wilderness for forty years so you could take the Amorites’ land as your own. 2:11 I made some of your sons prophets and some of your young men Nazirites. Is this not true, you Israelites?” The Lord is speaking! 2:12 “But you made the Nazirites drink wine; you commanded the prophets, ‘Do not prophesy!’ 2:13 Look! I will press you down, like a cart loaded down with grain presses down. 2:14 Fast runners will find no place to hide; strong men will have no strength left; warriors will not be able to save their lives. 2:15 Archers will not hold their ground; fast runners will not save their lives, nor will those who ride horses. 2:16 Bravehearted warriors will run away naked in that day.” The Lord is speaking!
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Amorite members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Edom resident(s) of the region of Edom
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Kerioth a town of Moab
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · nazirite a man who expresses his devotion to God by not cutting his hair
 · Nazirite a man who expresses his devotion to God by not cutting his hair


Topik/Tema Kamus: Sin | Israel | AMOS (1) | JEROBOAM | Nazirite | Poor | Punishment | GOD, 2 | Kerioth | NUMBER | PUNISHMENTS | DEUTERONOMY | Idolatry | CALF, GOLDEN | Lime | Poetry | Minister | Oak | FURNACE | Amorites | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Amo 2:1 - The bones Or ashes, reduced them by fire into fine dust, and used these ashes instead of lime to plaister the walls and roofs of his palace, and this in hatred ...

Or ashes, reduced them by fire into fine dust, and used these ashes instead of lime to plaister the walls and roofs of his palace, and this in hatred and contempt of the king of Edom.

Wesley: Amo 2:2 - Kirioth A principal city of this country.

A principal city of this country.

Wesley: Amo 2:2 - Moab The Moabites.

The Moabites.

Wesley: Amo 2:2 - Shall die Be destroyed.

Be destroyed.

Wesley: Amo 2:2 - With tumult Such as soldiers in fight or assaults make, when they carry all by force.

Such as soldiers in fight or assaults make, when they carry all by force.

Wesley: Amo 2:3 - The judge The governor that is, every one of them.

The governor that is, every one of them.

Wesley: Amo 2:4 - Lies Idols.

Idols.

Wesley: Amo 2:4 - To err Their idolatry blinded them, partly from the natural tendency of this sin, and partly from the just judgment of God.

Their idolatry blinded them, partly from the natural tendency of this sin, and partly from the just judgment of God.

Wesley: Amo 2:4 - After which Idols.

Idols.

Wesley: Amo 2:4 - Walked Successively, one generation after another.

Successively, one generation after another.

Wesley: Amo 2:6 - Shoes The smallest bribe, exprest here proverbially.

The smallest bribe, exprest here proverbially.

Wesley: Amo 2:7 - The people That make a prey even of the poor afflicted ones, who walk with dust on their heads.

That make a prey even of the poor afflicted ones, who walk with dust on their heads.

Wesley: Amo 2:7 - Turn aside Maliciously interpret the actions, words, and designs of the humble and meek.

Maliciously interpret the actions, words, and designs of the humble and meek.

Wesley: Amo 2:7 - Will go in These corrupt judges commit also that lewdness which the Heathens abhor.

These corrupt judges commit also that lewdness which the Heathens abhor.

Wesley: Amo 2:8 - Lay down The Jews of old did not sit upright at their meals, but leaned on one side.

The Jews of old did not sit upright at their meals, but leaned on one side.

Wesley: Amo 2:8 - Upon clothes Of which the law had expressly said, none should detain them all night, Deu 24:12-13.

Of which the law had expressly said, none should detain them all night, Deu 24:12-13.

Wesley: Amo 2:8 - Every altar Of their idols.

Of their idols.

Wesley: Amo 2:8 - Drink the wine They offer their drink-offerings in wine, which they bought with the fines laid on the innocent.

They offer their drink-offerings in wine, which they bought with the fines laid on the innocent.

Wesley: Amo 2:9 - The Ammorite The mightiest nation of all the Canaanites.

The mightiest nation of all the Canaanites.

Wesley: Amo 2:9 - As the oaks Another proverbial speech denoting their great strength.

Another proverbial speech denoting their great strength.

Wesley: Amo 2:9 - His fruit Their children.

Their children.

Wesley: Amo 2:9 - His roots The old standards; that present generation.

The old standards; that present generation.

Wesley: Amo 2:11 - Nazarites Persons who bound themselves to a very sober and holy life; either for some certain time, or for their whole life.

Persons who bound themselves to a very sober and holy life; either for some certain time, or for their whole life.

Wesley: Amo 2:12 - Ye gave Importuned them to drink wine, to violate their vow, and contemn God's law.

Importuned them to drink wine, to violate their vow, and contemn God's law.

Wesley: Amo 2:13 - Under you Under the load of your sins.

Under the load of your sins.

Wesley: Amo 2:14 - The swift For their enemies shall be swifter than they.

For their enemies shall be swifter than they.

Wesley: Amo 2:14 - The strong Natural strength of body shall not deliver.

Natural strength of body shall not deliver.

Wesley: Amo 2:14 - The mighty The valiant man, the man of the greatest courage.

The valiant man, the man of the greatest courage.

JFB: Amo 2:1 - burned . . . bones of . . . king of Edom into lime When Jehoram of Israel, Jehoshaphat of Judah, and the king of Edom, combined against Mesha king of Moab, the latter failing in battle to break through...

When Jehoram of Israel, Jehoshaphat of Judah, and the king of Edom, combined against Mesha king of Moab, the latter failing in battle to break through to the king of Edom, took the oldest son of the latter and offered him as a burnt offering on the wall (2Ki 3:27) [MICHAELIS]. Thus, "king of Edom" is taken as the heir to the throne of Edom. But "his son" is rather the king of Moab's own son, whom the father offered to Molech [JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 9.3]. Thus the reference here in Amos is not to that fact, but to the revenge which probably the king of Moab took on the king of Edom, when the forces of Israel and Judah had retired after their successful campaign against Moab, leaving Edom without allies. The Hebrew tradition is that Moab in revenge tore from their grave and burned the bones of the king of Edom, the ally of Jehoram and Jehoshaphat, who was already buried. Probably the "burning of the bones" means, "he burned the king of Edom alive, reducing his very bones to lime" [MAURER].

JFB: Amo 2:2 - Kirioth The chief city of Moab, called also Kir-Moab (Isa 15:1). The form is plural here, as including both the acropolis and town itself (see Jer 48:24, Jer ...

The chief city of Moab, called also Kir-Moab (Isa 15:1). The form is plural here, as including both the acropolis and town itself (see Jer 48:24, Jer 48:41, Margin).

JFB: Amo 2:2 - die with tumult That is, amid the tumult of battle (Hos 10:14).

That is, amid the tumult of battle (Hos 10:14).

JFB: Amo 2:3 - the judge The chief magistrate, the supreme source of justice. "King" not being used, it seems likely a change of government had before this time substituted fo...

The chief magistrate, the supreme source of justice. "King" not being used, it seems likely a change of government had before this time substituted for kings, supreme judges.

JFB: Amo 2:4 - -- From foreign kingdoms he passes to Judah and Israel, lest it should be said, he was strenuous in denouncing sins abroad, but connived at those of his ...

From foreign kingdoms he passes to Judah and Israel, lest it should be said, he was strenuous in denouncing sins abroad, but connived at those of his own nation. Judah's guilt differs from that of all the others, in that it was directly against God, not merely against man. Also because Judah's sin was wilful and wittingly against light and knowledge.

JFB: Amo 2:4 - law The Mosaic code in general.

The Mosaic code in general.

JFB: Amo 2:4 - commandments Or statutes, the ceremonies and civil laws.

Or statutes, the ceremonies and civil laws.

JFB: Amo 2:4 - their lies Their lying idols (Psa 40:4; Jer 16:19), from which they drew false hopes. The order is to be observed. The Jews first cast off the divine law, then f...

Their lying idols (Psa 40:4; Jer 16:19), from which they drew false hopes. The order is to be observed. The Jews first cast off the divine law, then fall into lying errors; God thus visiting them with a righteous retribution (Rom 1:25-26, Rom 1:28; 2Th 2:11-12). The pretext of a good intention is hereby refuted: the "lies" that mislead them are "their (own) lies" [CALVIN].

JFB: Amo 2:4 - after . . . which their fathers . . . walked We are not to follow the fathers in error, but must follow the word of God alone. It was an aggravation of the Jews' sin that it was not confined to p...

We are not to follow the fathers in error, but must follow the word of God alone. It was an aggravation of the Jews' sin that it was not confined to preceding generations; the sins of the sons rivalled those of their fathers (Mat 23:32; Act 7:51) [CALVIN].

JFB: Amo 2:5 - a fire Nebuchadnezzar.

Nebuchadnezzar.

JFB: Amo 2:6 - Israel The ten tribes, the main subject of Amos' prophecies.

The ten tribes, the main subject of Amos' prophecies.

JFB: Amo 2:6 - sold the righteous Israel's judges for a bribe are induced to condemn in judgment him who has a righteous cause; in violation of Deu 16:19.

Israel's judges for a bribe are induced to condemn in judgment him who has a righteous cause; in violation of Deu 16:19.

JFB: Amo 2:6 - the poor for a pair of shoes Literally, "sandals" of wood, secured on the foot by leather straps; less valuable than shoes. Compare the same phrase, for "the most paltry bribe," A...

Literally, "sandals" of wood, secured on the foot by leather straps; less valuable than shoes. Compare the same phrase, for "the most paltry bribe," Amo 8:6; Eze 13:19; Joe 3:3. They were not driven by poverty to such a sin; beginning with suffering themselves to be tempted by a large bribe, they at last are so reckless of all shame as to prostitute justice for the merest trifle. Amos convicts them of injustice, incestuous unchastity, and oppression first, as these were so notorious that they could not deny them, before he proceeds to reprove their contempt of God, which they would have denied on the ground that they worshipped God in the form of the calves.

JFB: Amo 2:7 - pant after . . . dust of . . . earth on . . . head of . . . poor That is, eagerly thirst for this object, by their oppression to prostrate the poor so as to cast the dust on their heads in mourning on the earth (com...

That is, eagerly thirst for this object, by their oppression to prostrate the poor so as to cast the dust on their heads in mourning on the earth (compare 2Sa 1:2; Job 2:12; Eze 27:30).

JFB: Amo 2:7 - turn aside . . . way of . . . meek Pervert their cause (Amo 5:12; Job 24:4 [GROTIUS]; Isa 10:2).

Pervert their cause (Amo 5:12; Job 24:4 [GROTIUS]; Isa 10:2).

JFB: Amo 2:7 - a man and his father A crime "not so much as named among the Gentiles" (1Co 5:1). When God's people sin in the face of light, they often fall lower than even those who kno...

A crime "not so much as named among the Gentiles" (1Co 5:1). When God's people sin in the face of light, they often fall lower than even those who know not God.

JFB: Amo 2:7 - go in unto the same maid From Amo 2:8 it seems likely "the damsel" meant is one of the prostitutes attached to the idol Astarte's temple: prostitution being part of her filthy...

From Amo 2:8 it seems likely "the damsel" meant is one of the prostitutes attached to the idol Astarte's temple: prostitution being part of her filthy worship.

JFB: Amo 2:7 - to profane my . . . name Israel in such abominations, as it were, designedly seeks to insult God.

Israel in such abominations, as it were, designedly seeks to insult God.

JFB: Amo 2:8 - lay themselves . . . upon clothes laid to pledge The outer garment, which Exo 22:25-27 ordered to be restored to the poor man before sunset, as being his only covering. It aggravated the crime that t...

The outer garment, which Exo 22:25-27 ordered to be restored to the poor man before sunset, as being his only covering. It aggravated the crime that they lay on these clothes in an idol temple.

JFB: Amo 2:8 - by every altar They partook in a recumbent posture of their idolatrous feasts; the ancients being in the habit of reclining at full length in eating, the upper part ...

They partook in a recumbent posture of their idolatrous feasts; the ancients being in the habit of reclining at full length in eating, the upper part of the body resting on the left elbow, not sitting as we do.

JFB: Amo 2:8 - drink . . . wine of the condemned That is, wine bought with the money of those whom they unjustly fined.

That is, wine bought with the money of those whom they unjustly fined.

JFB: Amo 2:9 - Yet My former benefits to you heighten your ingratitude.

My former benefits to you heighten your ingratitude.

JFB: Amo 2:9 - the Amorite The most powerful of all the Canaanite nations, and therefore put for them all (Gen 15:16; Gen 48:22; Deu 1:20; Jos 7:7).

The most powerful of all the Canaanite nations, and therefore put for them all (Gen 15:16; Gen 48:22; Deu 1:20; Jos 7:7).

JFB: Amo 2:9 - height . . . like . . . cedars (Num 13:32-33).

JFB: Amo 2:9 - destroyed his fruit . . . above . . . roots . . . beneath That is, destroyed him utterly (Job 18:16; Eze 17:9; Mal 4:1).

That is, destroyed him utterly (Job 18:16; Eze 17:9; Mal 4:1).

JFB: Amo 2:10 - brought you up from . . . Egypt "brought up" is the phrase, as Egypt was low and flat, and Canaan hilly.

"brought up" is the phrase, as Egypt was low and flat, and Canaan hilly.

JFB: Amo 2:10 - to possess the land of the Amorite The Amorites strictly occupied both sides of the Jordan and the mountains afterward possessed by Judah; but they here, as in Amo 2:9, stand for all th...

The Amorites strictly occupied both sides of the Jordan and the mountains afterward possessed by Judah; but they here, as in Amo 2:9, stand for all the Canaanites. God kept Israel forty years in the wilderness, which tended to discipline them in His statutes, so as to be the better fitted for entering on the possession of Canaan.

JFB: Amo 2:11 - -- Additional obligations under which Israel lay to God; the prophets and Nazarites, appointed by Him, to furnish religious instruction and examples of h...

Additional obligations under which Israel lay to God; the prophets and Nazarites, appointed by Him, to furnish religious instruction and examples of holy self-restraint.

JFB: Amo 2:11 - of your young men It was a specimen of Israel's highly favored state, that, of the class most addicted to pleasures, God chose those who by a solemn vow bound themselve...

It was a specimen of Israel's highly favored state, that, of the class most addicted to pleasures, God chose those who by a solemn vow bound themselves to abstinence from all produce of the vine, and from all ceremonial and moral defilement. The Nazarite was not to shave (Num 6:2, &c.). God left nothing undone to secure the purity of their worship and their faithfulness to it (Lam 4:7). The same comes from a Hebrew root, nazar, "to set apart." Samson, Samuel, and John the Baptist were Nazarites.

JFB: Amo 2:11 - Is it not even thus Will any of you dare to deny it is so?

Will any of you dare to deny it is so?

JFB: Amo 2:12 - -- Ye so despised these My favors, as to tempt the Nazarite to break his vow; and forbade the prophets prophesying (Isa 30:10). So Amaziah forbade Amos (...

Ye so despised these My favors, as to tempt the Nazarite to break his vow; and forbade the prophets prophesying (Isa 30:10). So Amaziah forbade Amos (Amo 7:12-14).

JFB: Amo 2:13 - I am pressed under you So CALVIN (Compare Isa 1:14). The Margin translates actively, "I will depress your place," that is, "I will make it narrow," a metaphor for afflicting...

So CALVIN (Compare Isa 1:14). The Margin translates actively, "I will depress your place," that is, "I will make it narrow," a metaphor for afflicting a people; the opposite of enlarging, that is, relieving (Psa 4:1; Pro 4:12). MAURER translates, "I will press you down" (not as Margin, "your place"; so the Hebrew, Job 40:12; or Amo 2:7 in Hebrew text). Amos, as a shepherd, appropriately draws his similes from rustic scenes.

JFB: Amo 2:14 - flight shall perish from . . . swift Even the swift shall not be able to escape.

Even the swift shall not be able to escape.

JFB: Amo 2:14 - strong shall not strengthen his force That is, shall not be able to use his strength.

That is, shall not be able to use his strength.

JFB: Amo 2:14 - himself Literally, "his life."

Literally, "his life."

JFB: Amo 2:16 - flee . . . naked If any escape, it must be with the loss of accoutrements, and all that would impede rapid flight. They must be content with saving their life alone.

If any escape, it must be with the loss of accoutrements, and all that would impede rapid flight. They must be content with saving their life alone.

Clarke: Amo 2:1 - For three transgressions of Moab and for four For three transgressions of Moab and for four - See an explanation of this form Amo 1:2. The land of the Moabites lay to the east of the Dead Sea. F...

For three transgressions of Moab and for four - See an explanation of this form Amo 1:2. The land of the Moabites lay to the east of the Dead Sea. For the origin of this people, see Gen 19:37

Clarke: Amo 2:1 - He burned the bones on the king of Edom into lime He burned the bones on the king of Edom into lime - Possibly referring to some brutality; such as opening the grave of one of the Idumean kings, and...

He burned the bones on the king of Edom into lime - Possibly referring to some brutality; such as opening the grave of one of the Idumean kings, and calcining his bones. It is supposed by some to refer to the fact mentioned 2Ki 3:26, when the kings of Judah, Israel, and Idumea, joined together to destroy Moab. The king of it, despairing to save his city, took seven hundred men, and made a desperate sortie on the quarter where the king of Edom was; and, though not successful, took prisoner the son of the king of Edom; and, on their return into the city, offered him as a burnt-offering upon the wall, so as to terrify the besieging armies, and cause them to raise the siege. Others understand the son that was sacrificed to be the king of Moab’ s own son.

Clarke: Amo 2:2 - The palaces of Kirioth The palaces of Kirioth - This was one of the principal cities of the Moabites

The palaces of Kirioth - This was one of the principal cities of the Moabites

Clarke: Amo 2:2 - Moab shall die with tumult Moab shall die with tumult - All these expressions seem to refer to this city’ s being taken by storm, which was followed by a total slaughter ...

Moab shall die with tumult - All these expressions seem to refer to this city’ s being taken by storm, which was followed by a total slaughter of its inhabitants.

Clarke: Amo 2:3 - I will cut off the judge I will cut off the judge - It shall be so destroyed, that it shall never more have any form of government. The judge here, שופט shophet , may s...

I will cut off the judge - It shall be so destroyed, that it shall never more have any form of government. The judge here, שופט shophet , may signify the chief magistrate. The chief magistrates of the Carthaginians were called suffetes; probably taken from the Hebrew Judges, שופטים shophetim .

Clarke: Amo 2:4 - For three transgressions of Judah For three transgressions of Judah - We may take the three and four here to any latitude; for this people lived in continual hostility to their God, ...

For three transgressions of Judah - We may take the three and four here to any latitude; for this people lived in continual hostility to their God, from the days of David to the time of Uzziah, under whom Amos prophesied. Their iniquities are summed up under three general heads

1.    They despised, or rejected the law of the Lord

2.    They kept not his statutes

3.    They followed lies, were idolaters, and followed false prophets rather than those sent by Jehovah.

Clarke: Amo 2:5 - I will send a fire upon Judah I will send a fire upon Judah - This fire was the war made upon the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar, which terminated with the sackage and burning of Jerusal...

I will send a fire upon Judah - This fire was the war made upon the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar, which terminated with the sackage and burning of Jerusalem and its palace the temple.

Clarke: Amo 2:6-8 - For three transgressions of Israel, etc. For three transgressions of Israel, etc. - To be satisfied of the exceeding delinquency of this people, we have only to open the historical and prop...

For three transgressions of Israel, etc. - To be satisfied of the exceeding delinquency of this people, we have only to open the historical and prophetic books in any part; for the whole history of the Israelites is one tissue of transgression against God. Their crimes are enumerated under the following heads: -

1.    Their judges were mercenary and corrupt. They took bribes to condemn the righteous; and even for articles of clothing, such as a pair of shoes, they condemned the poor man, and delivered him into the hands of his adversary

2.    They were unmerciful to the poor generally. They pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor; or, to put it on the head of the poor; or, they bruise the head of the poor against the dust of the earth. Howsoever the clause is understood, it shows them to have been general oppressors of the poor, showing them neither justice nor mercy

3.    They turn aside the way of the meek. They are peculiarly oppressive to the weak and afflicted

4.    They were licentious to the uttermost abomination; for in their idol feasts, where young women prostituted themselves publicly in honor of Astarte, the father and son entered into impure connections with the same female

5.    They were cruel in their oppressions of the poor; for the garments or beds which the poor had pledged they retained contrary to the law, Exodus 22:7-26, which required that such things should be restored before the setting of the sun

6.    They punished the people by unjust and oppressive fines, and served their tables with wine bought by such fines. Or it may be understood of their appropriating to themselves that wine which was allowed to criminals to mitigate their sufferings in the article of death; which was the excess of inhumanity and cruelty.

Clarke: Amo 2:9 - Yet destroyed I the Amorite Yet destroyed I the Amorite - Here follow general heads of God’ s mercies to them, and the great things he had done for them 1.  &nbs...

Yet destroyed I the Amorite - Here follow general heads of God’ s mercies to them, and the great things he had done for them

1.    Bringing them out of Egypt

2.    Miraculously sustaining them in the wilderness forty years

3.    Driving out the Canaanites before them, and giving them possession of the promised land

4.    Raising up prophets among them to declare the Divine will

5.    And forming the holy institution of the Nazarites among them, to show the spiritual nature of his holy religion, Amo 2:9-11.

Clarke: Amo 2:12 - But ye gave the Nazarites wine But ye gave the Nazarites wine - This was expressly forbidden in the laws of their institution. See Num 6:1-3

But ye gave the Nazarites wine - This was expressly forbidden in the laws of their institution. See Num 6:1-3

Clarke: Amo 2:12 - Prophesy not Prophesy not - They would not worship God, and they would not hear the voice of his prophets.

Prophesy not - They would not worship God, and they would not hear the voice of his prophets.

Clarke: Amo 2:13 - Behold, I am pressed under you Behold, I am pressed under you - The marginal reading is better: "Behold, I will press your place, as a cart full of sheaves presseth."I will bring ...

Behold, I am pressed under you - The marginal reading is better: "Behold, I will press your place, as a cart full of sheaves presseth."I will bring over you the wheel of destruction; and it shall grind your place - your city and temple, as the wheel of a cart laden with sheaves presses down the ground, gravel, and stones over which it rolls.

Clarke: Amo 2:14 - The flight shall perish from the swift The flight shall perish from the swift - The swiftest shall not be able to save himself from a swifter destruction. None, by might, by counsel, or b...

The flight shall perish from the swift - The swiftest shall not be able to save himself from a swifter destruction. None, by might, by counsel, or by fleetness, shall be able to escape from the impending ruin. In a word, God has so fully determined to avenge the quarrel of his broken covenant, that all attempts to escape from his judgments shall be useless.

Clarke: Amo 2:15 - Neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself Neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself - I believe all these sayings, Amo 2:13-16, are proverbs, to show the inutility of all attemp...

Neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself - I believe all these sayings, Amo 2:13-16, are proverbs, to show the inutility of all attempts, even in the best circumstances, to escape the doom now decreed, because the cup of their iniquity was full.

Clarke: Amo 2:16 - Shall flee away naked Shall flee away naked - In some cases the alarm shall be in the night; and even the most heroic shall start from his bed, and through terror not wai...

Shall flee away naked - In some cases the alarm shall be in the night; and even the most heroic shall start from his bed, and through terror not wait to put on his clothes.

Calvin: Amo 2:1 - NO PHRASE Now Amos prophesies here against the Moabites, and proclaims respecting them what we have noticed respecting the other nations, — that the Moabites...

Now Amos prophesies here against the Moabites, and proclaims respecting them what we have noticed respecting the other nations, — that the Moabites were wholly perverse, that no repentance would be hoped for, as they had added crimes to crimes, and reached the highest pitch of wickedness; for, as we have said, the number, seven, imports this. The Prophet then charges the Moabites here with perverseness: and hence we learn that God’s vengeance did not come hastily upon them, for their wickedness was intolerable since they thus followed their crimes. But he mentions one thing in particular, — that they had burnt the bones of the king of Edom.

Some take bones here for courage, as though the Prophet had said, that the whole strength of Edom had been reduced into ashes: but this is a strained exposition; and its authors themselves confess that they are forced to it by necessity, when yet there is none. The comment given by the Rabbis does not please them, — that the body of a certain king had been burnt, and then that the Moabites had strangely applied the ashes for making a cement instead of lime. Thus the Rabbis trifle in their usual way; for when an obscure place occurs, they immediately invent some fable; though there be no history, yet they exercise their wit in fabulous glosses; and this I wholly dislike: but what need there is of running to allegory, when we may simply take what the Prophet says, that the body of the king of Edom had been burnt: for the Prophet, I doubt not, charges the Moabites with barbarous cruelty. To dig up the bodies of enemies, and to burn their bones, — this is an inhuman deed, and wholly barbarous. But it was more detestable in the Moabites, who had some connection with the people of Edom; for they descended from the same family; and the memory of that relationship ought to have continued, since Abraham brought up Lot, the father of the Moabites; and thus the Moabites were under an obligation to the Idumeans. If then any humanity existed in them, they ought to have restrained their passions, so as not to treat so cruelly their brethren. Now, when they exceeded all moderation in war, and raged against dead bodies, and burnt the bones of the dead, it was, as I have said, an extremely barbarous conduct. The meaning then is, that the Moabites could no longer be borne with; for in this one instance, they gave an example of savage cruelty. Had there been a drop of humanity in them, they would have treated more kindly their brethren, the Idumeans; but they burnt into lime, that is, into ashes, the bones of the king of Edom, and thereby proved that they had forgotten all humanity and justice. We now understand the Prophet’s meaning.

Calvin: Amo 2:2 - NO PHRASE He therefore adds a threatening, I will send a fire on Moab, which shall devour the palaces of קריות , Koriut We have stated that what the ...

He therefore adds a threatening, I will send a fire on Moab, which shall devour the palaces of קריות , Koriut We have stated that what the Prophet means by these modes of speaking is that God would consume the Moabites by a violent punishment as by a burning fire, that fortified places could not hinder him from executing his vengeance, and that though they were proud of their palaces, yet these would avail them nothing.

And he subjoins, Moab shall die with tumult, with noise, with the sound of the trumpet; that is, I will send strong enemies, who will come and make no peace with the Moabites, but will take possession of every place, and of fortified cities, by force and by the sword. For what the Prophet means by tumult, by shouting, by the sound of the trumpet, is, that the Moabites would not come under the power of their enemies by certain agreements and compacts, as when a voluntary surrender is made, which usually mitigates the hostile rage of enemies; no, he says, it shall not be so; for their enemies shall have not only their wealth but their lives also.

Calvin: Amo 2:3 - NO PHRASE He finally adds, And I will cut off the judge from the midst of her, and will slay her princes, saith Jehovah. God here declares, that the kingdom ...

He finally adds, And I will cut off the judge from the midst of her, and will slay her princes, saith Jehovah. God here declares, that the kingdom of the Moabites and the people shall be no more; for we know that men cannot exist as a body without some civil government. Wherever then there is an assemblage of men, there must be princes to rule and govern them. Hence, when God declares that there would be no more a judge among the Moabites, it is the same thing as if he had said, that their name would be blotted out; for had the people of Moab continued, some princes must have necessarily, as we have said, remained among them. When princes then are destroyed, the people must also perish, for there is no security for them. The Prophet then denounces not here a temporary punishment on the Moabites, but utter ruin, from which they were never to rise. This is the meaning. Let us now proceed —

Calvin: Amo 2:4 - NO PHRASE Amos turns now his discourse to the tribe of Judah, and to that kingdom, which still continued in the family of David. He has hitherto spoken of heat...

Amos turns now his discourse to the tribe of Judah, and to that kingdom, which still continued in the family of David. He has hitherto spoken of heathen and uncircumcised nations: what he said of them was a prelude of the destruction which was nigh the chosen people; for when God spared not others who had through ignorance sinned, what was to become of the people of Israel, who had been taught in the law? For a servant, knowing his master’s will, and doing it not, is worthy of many stripes, (Luk 12:47) God could not, then, forgive the children of Abraham, whom he had adopted as his peculiar people, when he inflicted each grievous punishments on heathen nations, whose ignorance, as it is commonly thought by men, was excusable. It is indeed true, that all who sin without law will justly perish, as Paul says in Rom 2:12, but when a comparison is made between the children of Israel and the wretched heathens, who were immersed in errors, the latter were doubtless worthy of being pardoned, when compared with that people who had betrayed their perverseness, and, as it were, designedly resolved to bring on themselves the vengeance of God.

The Prophet then having hitherto spoken of the Gentiles, turns his discourse now to the chosen people, the children of Abraham. But he speaks of the tribe of Judah, from which he sprang, as I said at the beginning; and he did this, lest any one should charge him with favoring his own countrymen: he had, indeed, migrated into the kingdom of Israel; but he was there a stranger. We shall now see how severely he reproved them. Had he, then, been silent as to the tribe of Judah, he might have been subject to calumny; for many might have said, that there was a collusion between him and his own countrymen and that he concealed their vices, and that he fiercely inveighed against their neighbors, through a wicked emulation, in order to transfer the kingdom again into the family of David. Hence, that no such suspicion might tarnish his doctrine, the Prophet here summons to judgment the tribe of Judah, and speaks in no milder language of the Jews than of other nations: for he says, that they, through their stubbornness, had so provoked God’s wrath, that there was no hope of pardon; for such was the mass of their vices, that God would now justly execute extreme vengeance, as a moderate chastisement would not be sufficient. We now then understand the Prophet’s design.

I come now to the words: For they have despised, he says, the law of Jehovah. Here he charges the Jews with apostasy; for they had cast aside the worship of God, and the pure doctrine of religion. This was a crime the most grievous. We hence see, that the Prophet condemns here freely and honestly as it became him, the vices of his own people, so that there was no room for calumny, when he afterwards became a severe censor and reprover of the Israelites; for he does not lightly touch on something wrong in the tribe of Judah, but says that they were apostates and perfidious, having cast aside the law of God. But it may be asked, why the Prophet charges the Jews with a crime so atrocious, since religion, as we have seen in the Prophecies of Hosea, still existed among them? But to this there is a ready answer: the worship of God was become corrupt among them, though they had not so openly departed from it as the Israelites. There remained, indeed, circumcision among the Israelites; but their sacrifices were pollutions, their temples were brothels: they thought that they worshipped God; but as a temple had been built at Bethel contrary to God’s command, the whole worship was a profanation. The Jews were somewhat purer; but they, we know, had also degenerated from the genuine worship of God. Hence the Prophet does not unjustly say here, that they had despised the law of God.

But we must notice the explanation which immediately follows, — that they kept not his statutes. The way then by which Amos proves that the Jews were covenant-breakers, and that having repudiated God’s law, they had fallen into wicked superstitions, is by saying, that they kept not the precepts of God. It may, however, appear that he treats them here with too much severity; for one might not altogether keep God’s commands either through ignorance or carelessness, or some other fault, and yet be not a covenant-breaker or an apostate. I answer, — That in these words of the Prophet, not mere negligence is blamed in the Jews; but they are condemned for designedly, that is, knowingly and willfully departing from the commandments of God, and devising for themselves various modes of worship. It is not then to keep the precepts of God, when men continue not under his law, but audaciously contrive for themselves new forms of worship; they regard not what God commands, but lay hold on anything pleasing that comes to their minds. This crime the Prophet now condemns in the Jews: and hence it was that they had despised the law of God. For men should never assume so much as to change any thing in the worship of God; but due reverence for God ought to influence them: were they persuaded of this — that there is no wisdom but what comes from God — they would surely confine themselves within his commands. Whenever then they invent new and fictitious forms of worship, they sufficiently show that they regard not what the Lord wills, what he enjoins, what he forbids. Thus, then, they despise his law, and even cast it away.

This is a remarkable passage; for we see, first, that a most grievous sin is condemned by the Prophet, and that sin is, that the Jews confined not themselves to God’s law, but took the liberty of innovating; this is one thing: and we also learn how much God values obedience, which is better, as it is said in another place, than all sacrifices, (1Sa 15:22) And that we may not think this a light or a trifling sin, let us notice the expression — that they despised the law of God. Every one ought to dread this as the most monstrous thing; for we cannot despise the law of God without insulting his majesty. And yet the Holy Spirit declares here, that we repudiate and reject the law of God, except we wholly follow what it commands, and continue within the limits prescribed by it. We now perceive what the Prophet means.

But he also adds, that their own lies deceived or caused them to go astray. He here confirms his preceding doctrine; for the Jews had ever a defense ready at hand, that they did with good intent what the Prophet condemned in them. They, forsooth! sedulously worshipped God, though they mixed their own leaven, by which their sacrifices were corrupted: it was not their purpose to spend their substance in vain, to undergo great expenses in sacrifices, and to undertake much labor, had they not thought that it was service acceptable to God! As then the pretense of good intention, (as they say,) ever deceives the unbelieving, the Prophet condemns this pretense, and shows it to be wholly fallacious, and of no avail. “It is nothing,” he says, “that they pretend before God some good intention; their own lies deceive them.” And Amos, no doubt, mentions here these lies, in opposition to the commands of God. As soon then as men swerve from God’s word, they involve themselves in many delusions, and cannot but go astray; and this is deserving of special notice. We indeed see how much wisdom the world claims for itself: for as soon as we invent anything we are greatly delighted with it; and the ape, according to the old proverb, is ever pleased with its own offspring. But this vice especially prevails, when by our devices we corrupt and adulterate the worship of God. Hence the Prophet here declares, that whatever is added to God’s word, and whatever men invent in their own brains is a lie: “All this,” he says, “is nothing but imposture.” We now see of what avail is good intention: by this indeed men harden themselves; but they cannot make the Lord to retract what he has once declared by the mouth of his Prophet. Let us then take heed to continue within the boundaries of God’s word, and never to leap over either on this or on that side; for when we turn aside ever so little from the pure word of God, we become immediately involved in many deceptions.

It then follows, After which have walked their fathers; literally it is, Which their fathers have walked after them: 20 but we have given the sense. The Prophet here exaggerates their sin, the insatiable rage of the people; for the children now followed their fathers. This vice, we know, prevailed in all ages among the Jews; leaving the word of God, they ever followed their own dreams, and the delusions of Satan. Since God had now often tried to correct this vice by his Prophets, and no fruit followed, the Prophet charges them here with hardness, and by this circumstance enhances the sin of the Jews: “It is nothing new,” he says, “for children to imitate their fathers, and to be wholly like them: they are then the bad eggs of bad ravens.” So also said Stephen,

‘Ye are hard and uncircumcised in heart, and resist the Holy Spirit, as your fathers also did formerly,’ (Act 7:51.)

We now understand the intention of the Prophet.

But we hence learn of what avail is the subterfuge resorted to by the Papists, when they boast of antiquity. For they set up against the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel, this shield, — that theirs is the old religion, that they have not been the first founders, but that they follow what has been handed down to them from early times, and observed for many ages. When the Papists boastingly declare all this, they think that they say enough to put God to silence, and wholly to reject his Word. But we see how frivolous is this sort of caviling, and how worthless before God: for the Prophet does not concede to the Jews the example of the fathers as an excuse, but sets forth their sin as being greater because they followed their perfidious fathers, who had forsaken the Law of the Lord. The same thing is also said by Ezekiel,

‘After the precepts of your fathers walk not,’
(Eze 20:18.)

Calvin: Amo 2:5 - NO PHRASE We now see what sort of crime is that of which the Prophet speaks. At last a threatening follows, “The Lord saith, Fire will I send on Judah, which...

We now see what sort of crime is that of which the Prophet speaks. At last a threatening follows, “The Lord saith, Fire will I send on Judah, which shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem.’ But all this we have already explained. Let us now proceed —

Calvin: Amo 2:6 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here assails the Israelites, to whom he had been sent, as we have said at the beginning. He now omits every reference to other nations; f...

The Prophet here assails the Israelites, to whom he had been sent, as we have said at the beginning. He now omits every reference to other nations; for his business was with the Israelites to whom he was especially appointed a teacher. But he wished to set before them, as in various mirrors, the judgment of God, which awaited them, that he might the more effectually awaken them: and he wished also to exhibit in the Jews themselves an example of the extreme vengeance of God, though there was greater purity among them, at least a purer religion, and more reverence for God prevailed as yet among them. He in this way prepared the Israelites, that they might not obstinately and proudly reject his doctrine. He now then addresses them, and says that they continued unmoved in their many sins. The import of the whole is, that if the Moabites, the Idumeans, the Tyrians, the Sidonians, and other nations, and that if the Jews as well as these were irreclaimable in their obstinacy, so that their diseases were incurable, and their wickedness such as God could no longer endure, the Israelites were also in the same condition; for they also continued perverse in their wickedness, and provoked God, and repented not, though God had waited long, and exhorted them to repent.

It is now meet for us to bear in mind what we have before said, — that if impiety was so rampant in that age, and the contempt of God so prevailed, that men could not be restored to a sane mind, and if iniquity everywhere overflowed, (for Amos accuses not a few people, but many nations,) let us at this day beware, lest such corruptions prevail among us; for, certainly, the world is now much worse than it was then: nay, since the Prophet says here, that both the Israelites and the Jews were wholly irreclaimable in their obstinacy, there is no excuse for us at this day for deceiving ourselves with an empty name, because we have the symbol of faith, having been baptized; and in case we have other marks, which seem to belong to the Church of God, let us not think that we are therefore free from guilt, if we allow ourselves that unruliness condemned here by the Prophet both in the Israelites and in the Jews; for they had become hardened against all instructions, against all warnings. Let, then, these examples rouse our attention, lest we, like them, harden ourselves so much as to constrain the Lord to execute on us extreme vengeance.

Let us now especially observe what the Prophet lays to the charge of Israel. He begins with their cruel deeds; but the whole book is taken up with reproofs; there is to the very end a continued accusation as to those crimes which then prevailed among the people of Israel. He does not then point out only one particular crime, as with respect to the other nations; but he scrutinizes all the vices of which the people were guilty, as though he would thoroughly anatomize them. But these we shall notice in their proper order.

Now as to the first thing, the Prophet says, that the just among the Israelites was sold for silver, yea, for shoes. It may be asked, Why is it that he does not begin with those superstitions, in which they surpassed the Jews? for if God had resolved to destroy Jerusalem and his own temple, because they had fallen away into superstitious and spurious modes of worship, how much more ought such a judgment to have been executed on the Israelites, as they had perverted the whole law, and had become wholly degenerate; and even circumcision was nothing but a profanation of God’s covenant? Why, then, does not the Prophet touch on this point? To this I answer, — That as superstition had now for many years prevailed among them, the Prophet does not make this now his subject; but we shall hereafter see, that he has not spared these ungodly deprivations which had grown rampant among the Israelites. He indeed sharply arraigns all their superstitions; but he does this in its suitable place. It was now necessary to begin with common evils; and this was far more opportune than if he had at first spoken of superstitions; for they might have said, that they did indeed worship God. He therefore preferred condemning the Jews for alienating themselves from the pure commandments of God; and as to the Israelites, he reproves here their gross vices. But after having charged them with cruelty, shameless rapacity, and many lusts, after having exposed their filthy abominations, he then takes the occasion, as being then more suitable of exclaiming against superstitions. This order our Prophet designedly observed, as we shall see more fully from the connection of his discourse.

I now return to the words, that they sold the just for silver, and the poor for shoes. He means that there was no justice nor equity among the Israelites, for they made a sale of the children of God: and it was a most shameful thing, that there was no remedy for injuries. For we hence, no doubt, learn, that the Prophet levels his reproof against the judges who then exercised authority. The just, he says, is sold for silver: this could not apply to private individuals, but to judges, to whom it belonged to extend a helping hand to the miserable and the poor, to avenge wrongs, and to give to every one his right. It is then the same as though the Prophet had said, that unbridled licentiousness reigned triumphant among the Israelites, so that just men were exposed as a prey, and were set, as it were, on sale. He says, first, that they were sold for silver, and then he adds for shoes: and this ought to be carefully observed; for when once men begin to turn aside from the right course, they abandon themselves to evil without any shame. When an attempt is first made to draw aside a man that is just and upright and free from what is corrupt, he is not immediately overcome; though a great price may be offered to him, he will yet stand firm: but when he has sold his integrity for ten pieces of gold, he may afterwards be easily bought, as the case is usually will women. A woman, while she is pure, cannot be easily drawn away from her conjugal fidelity: she may yet be corrupted by a great price; and when once corrupted, she will afterwards prostitute herself, so that she may be bought for a crust of bread. The same is the case with judges. They, then, who at first covet silver, that is, who cannot be corrupted except by a rich and fat bribe, will afterwards barter their integrity for the meanest reward; for there is no shame any more remaining in them. This is what the Prophet points out in these words, — That they sold the just for silver; that is, that they sold him for a high price, and then that they were corrupted by the meanest gift, that if one offered them a pair of shoes, they would be ready without any blush of shame to receive such a bribe.

We now then see the crime of which Amos accused the Israelites. They could not raise an objection here, which they might have done, if he touched their superstitions. He wished therefore to acquire authority by reprobating first their manifest and obvious crimes. He afterwards, as it has been stated, speaks in its proper place, of that fictitious worship, which they, after having rejected the Law of God, embraced. It follows —

Calvin: Amo 2:7 - NO PHRASE Here Amos charges them first with insatiable avarice; they panted for the heads of the poor on the dust of the earth. This place is in my judgment no...

Here Amos charges them first with insatiable avarice; they panted for the heads of the poor on the dust of the earth. This place is in my judgment not well understood. שאף , shaph, means to pant and to breathe, and is taken often metaphorically as signifying to desire: hence some render the words, “They desire the heads of the poor to be in the dust of the earth;” that is, they are anxious to see the innocent cast down and prostrate on the ground. But there is no need of many words to refute this comment; for ye see that it is strained. Others say, that in their cupidity they cast down the miserable into the dust; they therefore think that a depraved cupidity is connected with violence, and they put the lust for the deed itself.

But what need there is of having recourse to these extraneous meanings, when the words of the Prophet are in themselves plain and clear enough? He says that they panted for the heads of the poor on the ground; as though he had said, that they were not content with casting down the miserable, but that they gaped anxiously, until they wholly destroyed them. There is then nothing to be changed or added in the Prophet’s words, which harmonize well together, and mean, that through cupidity they panted for the heads of the poor, after the poor had been cast down, and were laid prostrate in the dust. The very misery of the poor, whom they saw to be in their power, and lying at their feet, ought to have satisfied them: but when such an insatiable cupidity still inflamed them, that they panted for more punishment on the poor and the miserable, was it not a fury wholly outrageous? We now perceive the Prophet’s meaning: He points out again what he has said in the former verse, — that the Israelites were given to rapacity, avarice, and cruelty of every kind.

He adds at last, and the way of the miserable they pervert. He still inveighs against the judges; for it can hardly comport with what belongs to private individuals, but it properly appertains to judges to pervert justice, and to violate equity for bribery; so that he who had the best cause became the loser, because he brought no bribe sufficiently ample. We now see what was the accusation he alleged against the Israelites. But there follows another charge, that of indulgence in lusts.

Calvin: Amo 2:8 - NO PHRASE Here the Prophet again inveighs against the people’s avariciousness, and addresses his discourse especially to the chief men; for what he mentions ...

Here the Prophet again inveighs against the people’s avariciousness, and addresses his discourse especially to the chief men; for what he mentions could not have been done by the common people, as the lower and humbler classes could not make feasts by means of spoils gained by judicial proceedings. The Prophet then condemns here, no doubt, the luxury and rapacity of men in high stations. They lie down, he says, on pledged clothes nigh every altar. God had forbidden, in his law, to take from a poor man a pledge, the need of which he had for the support of life and daily use, (Exo 22:26) For instance, it was prohibited by the law to take from a poor man his cloak or his coat, or to take the covering of his bed, or any thing else of which he had need. But the Prophet now accuses the Israelites, that they took away pledges and clothes without any distinction, and lay down on them nigh their altars. This belonged to the rich.

Then follows another clause, which, strictly speaking, must be restricted to the judges and governors, They have drunk the wine of the condemned in the house, or in the temple, of their God This may also be understood of the rich, who were wont to indulge in luxury by means of ill-gotten spoils: for they litigated without cause; and when they gained judgment in their favor, they thought it lawful to fare more sumptuously. This expression of the Prophet may therefore be extended to any of the rich. But he seems here to condemn more specifically the cruelty and rapaciousness of the judges. We now then perceive what the Prophet had in view by saying, that they lay down on pledged garments.

He then says that they drank wine derived from fines, which had been laid on the condemned. But this circumstance, that is added, ought to be observed, — that they lay down near altars and drank in the very temple: for the Prophet here laughs to scorn the gross superstition of the Israelites, that they thought that they were discharging their duty towards God, provided they came to the temple and offered sacrifices at the altar. Thus, indeed, are hypocrites wont to appease God, as if one by puppets played with a child. This has been a wickedness very common in all ages, and is here laid to the charge of the Israelites by the Prophet: they dared with an open front to enter the temple, and there to bring the pledged garments, and to feast on their spoils. Hypocrites do ever make a den of thieves of God’s temple, (Mat 21:13) for they think that all things are lawful for them, provided they put on the appearance, by external worship, of being devoted to God. Since, then, the Israelites promised themselves impunity and took liberty to sin, because they performed religious ceremonies, the Prophet here sharply reproves them: they even dared to make God a witness of their cruelty by bringing pledged garments and by blending their spoils with their sacrifices, as though God had a participation with robbers.

We hence see that rapaciousness and avarice are not alone condemned here by the Prophet, but that the gross superstition of the Israelites is also reprobated, because they thought that there would be no punishment for them, though they plundered and robbed the poor, provided they reserved a part of the spoil for God, as though a sacrifice from what had been unjustly got were not an abomination to him.

But it may be asked, Why does the Prophet thus condemn the Israelites for they had no sacred temple; and we also know (as it has been elsewhere stated) that the temples, in which they thought that they worshipped God, were filthy brothels, and full of all obscenity. How is it, then, that the Prophet now so sharply inveighs against them, because they mingled their spoils with their impure sacrifices? To this the answer is, That he had regard to their views, and derided the grossness of their minds, that they thus childishly trifled with the God whom they imagined for themselves. We say the same at this day to the Papists, — that they blend profane with sacred things, when they prostitute their masses, and also when they trifle with God in their ceremonies. It is certain that whatever the Papists do is an abomination; for the whole of religion is with them adulterated: but they yet cease not to wrong God, whose name they pretend to profess. Such also were then the Israelites: though they professed still to worship God, they were yet sacrilegious; though they offered sacrifices to the calves in Dan and in Bethel, they yet reproached God, for they ever abused his name. This, then, is the crime the Prophet now condemns in them. But what I have said must be remembered, — that this blind assurance is reprehended in the Israelites, that they thought spoils to be lawful provided they professed to worship God: but they thus rendered double their crime, as we have said; for they tried to make God the associate of robbers, mingling as they did their pollutions with their sacrifices. Let us proceed —

Calvin: Amo 2:9 - NO PHRASE God expostulates here with the Israelites for their ingratitude. He records the benefits he had before conferred on that people; and then shows how u...

God expostulates here with the Israelites for their ingratitude. He records the benefits he had before conferred on that people; and then shows how unworthily and disgracefully they had conducted themselves; for they forgot their many blessings and proudly despised God, and acted as if they were like other nations, and not bound to God for the singular benefit of adoption. The sum then is that God here complains that he had ill bestowed his blessings; and he reproves the people for their impiety, inasmuch as they did not lead a holier life after having been freely redeemed.

He says first, I have exterminated the Amorite before their face. God shows here that he was disgracefully defrauded by the Israelites, for whose sake he had previously destroyed the Amorites. For why were the Amorites exterminated, but that God would cleanse the land, and also, that he might give there a dwelling to his own people, that he might be purely worshipped? Then the people of Israel ought to have given up themselves wholly to the service of God; but as they neglected to do this, they frustrated the purpose of God, who had expelled the Amorites from that land, yea, and entirely destroyed them. The first complaint then is, that the children of Israel were nothing better than the Amorites, though God had given them the land, which was taken from its natives, that they might dwell in it, and on the condition, that his name should be there worshipped. Hence the Prophets say elsewhere, that they were Amorites. They ought to have been a new people; but as they followed the examples of others, in what did they differ from them? They are therefore called their posterity. But the Prophet speaks not here so severely; he only reproves the Israelites, because they differed in nothing from the Amorites, whom they knew to have been destroyed that they might be introduced into their place, and succeed to their inheritance.

It is then added, that the Amorites were tall in stature, and also that they were strong men. By these words the Prophet intimates that the Amorites were not conquered by the people’s valor, but by the wonderful power of God. We indeed know that they were dreaded by the people of Israel, for they were like giants. Then the Prophet speaks here of their height and strength, that the Israelites might consider that they overcame them not by their own valor, but that the land was given them by a miracle, for they had to do with giants, on whom they could hardly dare to look. It was then God who prostrated the cedars and the oaks before his people. We hence learn, that the Israelites could not boast of their own strengths as though they took possession of the land, because by means of war they ejected their enemies; for this was done by the singular kindness of God. They could not indeed have contended with their enemies, had not that been fulfilled which the Lord had so often foretold, ‘For you, while still, I will fight,’ (Exo 14:14) We now perceive the Prophet’s intention. But we may hence farther learn, that the Israelites had not possessed the land, because they were more excellent than the Amorites, its ancient inhabitants; but because it so pleased God. There was therefore no reason for the people of Israel to be proud on account of any excellency. It hence appears that they, who did not consider this remarkable kindness done to them, were more than doubly ungrateful to God.

He says that their fruit above and root below were destroyed. By this metaphor God enlarges on what he said before, that the Amorites had been exterminated, so that none of them remained. “I have demolished,” he says, or, “I have entirely destroyed the root beneath and the fruit above; I have extinguished the very name of the nation.” And yet the Israelites were not better, though the Amorites were thus destroyed; but having succeeded in their place, they became like them: this was utterly inexcusable. The more severe God’s vengeance had been towards the Amorites, the more ought the Israelites to have extolled his favor: but when with closed eyes they passed by so remarkable a testimony of God’s paternal love, it appears that they were extremely wicked and ungrateful.

Calvin: Amo 2:10 - NO PHRASE He afterwards subjoins, I have made you to ascend from the land of Egypt; I have made you to walk in the desert for forty years, in order to possess...

He afterwards subjoins, I have made you to ascend from the land of Egypt; I have made you to walk in the desert for forty years, in order to possess the land of the Amorite. The circumstances here specified are intended to confirm the same thing, that God had miraculously redeemed his people. Men, we know, for the most part extenuate the favors of God; nay, this evil is innate in us. This is the reason why the Prophet so largely describes and extols the redemption of the people. Hence he says now that they had been led out of the land of Egypt. And they ought to have remembered what had been their condition in Egypt; for there they were most miserably oppressed. When therefore that coming out was set before them, it was the same as if God had reminded them how shamefully they had been treated, and how hard had been their bondage in Egypt. That beginning ought to have humbled them, and also to have stimulated them to the cultivation of piety. When now they proudly exulted against God, when no recollection of their deliverance laid hold on them, this vice is justly laid to their charge by the Prophet: “See,” he says, “ I have brought you forth from the land of Egypt; what were ye then? what was your nobility? what was your wealth or riches? what was your power? For the Egyptians treated you as the vilest slaves; your condition then was extremely ignominious; ye were as lost, and I redeemed you: and now buried is the recollection of so illustrious a kindness, which deserved to be for ever remembered.”

He afterwards adds, I have made you to walk, etc. The Prophet here reminds them of the desert, that the Israelites might know that God might have justly closed up against them an entrance into the land, though he had promised it for an inheritance to Abraham. For how was it that the Lord led them about for so long a time, except that they, as far as they could, had denied God, and rendered themselves unworthy of enjoying the promised land? Then the Prophet indirectly blames the Israelites here for having been the cause why God detained them for forty years without introducing them immediately into the promised land; which might have easily been done, had they not closed the door against themselves by their ingratitude. This is one reason why the Prophet now speaks of the forty years. And then, as God had in various ways testified his kindness towards the Israelites, he had thus bound them the more to himself; but an ungodly forgetfulness had buried all his favors. God daily rained manna on them from heaven; he also gave them drink from a dry rock; he guided them during the day by a pillar of cloud, and in the night by fire: and we also know how often God bore with them, and how many proofs he gave them of his forbearance. The Prophet, then, by speaking here of the forty years, meant to counsel the Israelites to call to mind the many favors, by which they were bound to God, while they were miraculously led by him for forty years in the desert.

Calvin: Amo 2:11 - NO PHRASE He now subjoins, I have raised from your sons Prophets, and Nazarites from your young or strong men, (for בחרים , becharim, as we have elsew...

He now subjoins, I have raised from your sons Prophets, and Nazarites from your young or strong men, (for בחרים , becharim, as we have elsewhere said, are called by the Hebrews chosen men;) then from your youth or chosen men have I raised Nazarites. Was it not so, O children of Israel? or certainly it was so: for the particle אף , aph, sometimes is a simple affirmation, and sometimes an addition. Is not then all this true, O children of Israel? saith Jehovah. God first reminds them that he had raised up Prophets from their sons. It if a remarkable proof of God’s love, that he deigns to guide his people by Prophets: for if God were to speak himself from heaven, or to send his angels down, it would apparently be much more dignified; but when he so condescends as to employ mortal men and our own brethren, who are the agents of his Spirit, in whom he dwells, and by whose mouth he speaks, it cannot indeed be esteemed as highly as it deserves, that the Lord should thus accommodate himself to us in so familiar a manner. This is the reason why he now says, that he had raised up Prophets from their sons. They might have objected and said, that he had introduced the Law, and that then the heaven was moved, and that the earth shook: but he speaks of his daily favor in having been pleased to speak continually to his people, as it were, from mouth to mouth, and this by men: I have raised up, he says, Prophets from your sons; that is, “I have chosen angels from the midst of you.” The Prophets are indeed, as it were, celestial ambassadors, and God commands them to be heard, the same as if he himself appeared in a visible form. Since then he choose angels from the midst of us, is not this an invaluable favor? We hence see how much force is contained in this reproof, when the Lord says, that Prophets had been chosen from his own people.

And he mentions also the Nazarites. It appears sufficiently evident from Num 6:1, why God appointed Nazarites. Nothing is more difficult, we know, than to induce men to follow a common rule; for they ever seek something new; and hence have arisen so many devices, so many additions, in short, so many leavenings by which God’s worship is corrupted; for each wishes to be more holy than another, and affects some singularity. In case then any one had a wish to consecrate himself to God beyond what was commonly required, the Lord instituted a peculiar observance, that the people might not attempt any thing without at least his permission. Hence, when any one wished to consecrate himself to God, though they were all holy, he yet observed certain regulations: he abstained from wine; he allowed his hair to grow; in a word, he observed those ceremonial rites which we find in the chapter already referred to. God now reminds the Israelites that he had omitted nothing calculated to preserve them pure and holy, and entire in his worship.

After having related these two things, he asks them, Is not all this true? The facts were indeed well known: then the question, it may be said, was superfluous. But the Prophet designedly asked the Israelites the question here — Is it not so? that he might more deeply touch their hearts. We indeed often despise things well known, and we see how many heedlessly allow what they hear, and pass by things without any thought. Such must have been the torpidity of the Israelites; they might have confessed without disputing that all this was true, — that the Lord had raised up Prophets from their children, and that he had given to them that peculiar service of which we have spoken; but they mighty at the same time, have contemptuously overlooked the whole, had not this been added: “What do ye mean, O Israelites? ye do indeed see that nothing has been left undone by me to retain you in my service: how then is it now, that your lust leads you away from me, and that having shaken off the yoke, ye grow thus wanton against me?” We now perceive why the Prophet inserted this clause, for it was necessary that the Israelites should be more sharply roused, that being convicted, they might acknowledge their guilt.

Calvin: Amo 2:12 - NO PHRASE But it now follows, Ye have to the Nazarites quaffed wine, and on the Prophets ye have laid a command, that they should not prophesy God complains ...

But it now follows, Ye have to the Nazarites quaffed wine, and on the Prophets ye have laid a command, that they should not prophesy God complains here that the service which he had instituted had been violated by the people. It seems indeed a light offense, that wine had been given to the Nazarites; for the kingdom of God, we know, is not meat and drink, (1Co 8:8) though this saying of Paul was not yet made known, it was yet true in all ages. It was then lawful for the Nazarites to drink wine, provided they used moderation. To this the simple answer is that it was lawful to drink wine, for they of their own accord undertook to abstain from it. In similar manner God forbade the priests to drink wine or strong drink whenever they entered the temple. God indeed did not wish to be served with this kind of ceremony; but his intention was to show, by such a rite, that a greater temperance is required in priests than in the people in general. His purpose then to withdraw them from the common mode of living, when they entered the temple; for they were as mediators between God and his people: they ought then to have consecrated themselves in a special manner. We now see that the priests were reminded by this external symbol, that greater holiness was required in them than in the people. The same thing must be also said of the Nazarites. The Nazarites might drink wine; but during the time they consecrated themselves to God, they were not allowed to drink wine, that they might thereby acknowledge that they were in a manner separated from the common habits of men, and were come nearer to God. We now understand why it was not lawful for the Nazarites to drink wine.

But it is frivolous for the Papists to pretend this example, and to introduce it in defense of their superstitions, and of their foolish and rash vows, which they undertake without any regard to God: for God expressly sanctioned and confirmed whatever the Nazarites did under the law. Let the Papists show a proof for their monastic vows, and foolish rites, by which they now trifle with God. We also know that there is a great difference between the Nazarites and the Papal monks; for the monks vow perpetual celibacy; others vow abstinence from flesh during life; and these things are done foolishly and rashly. They indeed think that the worship of God consists in these trifles. They promise what is not in their own power; for they renounce marriage, when they know not whether they are endued with the gift of chastity. And to abstain from flesh all their life is more foolish still, because they make this to be a part of God’s service. I do, at the same time, wonder that they bring forward this example, since there are none so holy under the Papacy as to abstain from wine. As for the Carthusians and other monks of the holier sort, they seem determined to take revenge on abstinence from flesh, for they choose the sweetest and the liveliest wine; as though they intended to get a compensation for the loss and deprivation they undergo, when they pledge to God their abstinence from flesh, by reserving the best wine for themselves. These things are extremely ludicrous. Besides it is a sufficient reply if we adduce what I have already said, that the Nazarites did nothing under the law but what God in his word approved and sanctioned.

Since God then so sharply and severely reproved the Israelites for giving wine to the Nazarites, what must be expected now, when we transgress the chief commandments of God, when we corrupt his whole spiritual worship? It seemed apparently but a venial sin, so to speak, in the Nazarites to drink wine. Had they become wanton or robbed, or had they done wrong to their brethren, or committed forgery, the charge against them would have doubtless been much more atrocious. Yet the Prophet does not now abstain from bitterly complaining that they drank wine. Then, since God would have us to worship him in a spiritual manner, a much heavier charge lies against us, if we violate his spiritual worship. As, for instance, if we now pollute the sacraments, if we corrupt the purity of divine worship, if we treat his word with scorn, yea, if we transgress as to these main points of religion, much less is our excuse. Let us then remember that the Prophet here reproves the Israelites for giving wine to the Nazarites.

He then adds, that they commanded the Prophets not to prophesy. It is certain that the Prophets were not forbidden to speak, at least expressly forbidden: but when the liberty of teaching faithfully as they ought to do is taken away from God’s servants, and a command to this effect is given them, it is the same thing as to reject wholly their doctrine. The Israelites wished Prophets to be among them; and yet they could not endure their plain reproofs. But when they had polluted the worship of God, when their whole conduct became dissolute, the Prophets sharply inveighed against them: this freedom could not be endured by the Israelites; they wished to be spared and flattered. What then the Prophet now lays to their charge is that they forbade God’s servants to declare the word freely and honestly as God had commanded them. Hence he says, On the Prophets they have laid a charge, that they should not prophesy.

This evil reigns in the world at this day. It would indeed be an execrable audacity wholly to reject the Lord’s word; this is what even ungodly men dare not openly to do: but they wish at the same time some middle course to be adopted, that God might not fully exercise authority over them. They then would gladly put restraint on the Holy Spirit, so as not to allow him to speak but within certain limitations: “See, we willingly allow thee some things, but this we cannot bear: so much asperity is extremely odious.” And under the Papacy at this day the liberty of prophesying is wholly suppressed: and among us how many there are who wish to impose laws on God’s servants beyond which they are not to pass? But we see what the Prophet says here, — that the word of God is repudiated when the freedom of teaching is restrained, and men wish to be flattered, and desire their sins to be covered, and cannot bear free admonitions.

Let us also notice the word command, which the Prophet uses. צוה , tsue, means to order, to command, or to determine, in an authoritative manner. The Prophet then does not expostulate with them, because there were many who clamored, who murmured against the Prophets, as it is always the case; but he rather condemns the audacity of the chief men for daring to consult how they might silence the Prophets, and not allow them the free liberty of teaching, as we find it to be done even now. For not only in taverns and lurking-places do the ungodly clamor when their sins are severely reproved, but they also go forth publicly and complain that too much liberty is allowed the ministers of the word, and that some course ought to be adopted to make them speak more moderately. It is then this sacrilege that the Prophet now rebukes, when he says, that the ungodly commanded the Prophets, that they should not prophecy, as though they made a law, as though they wished to proclaim a decree, that the Prophets should not speak so boldly and so freely. It now follows —

Calvin: Amo 2:13 - NO PHRASE The verb עיק , oik, in Hebrew is often transitive, and it is also a neuter. This place then may admit of two interpretations. The first is, tha...

The verb עיק , oik, in Hebrew is often transitive, and it is also a neuter. This place then may admit of two interpretations. The first is, that God was pressed under the Israelites, as a wagon groans under too much weight; and so God expostulates by Isaiah, that he was weighed down by the Israelites, ‘Ye constrain me,’ he says, ‘to labor under your sins’ (Isa 1:14) The sense then, that God was pressed down under them, may be viewed as not unsuitable: and yet the more received interpretation is this, “Behold, I will bind you fast as a wagon is bound.” I am, however, more inclined to take the first meaning, — that God here reprehends the Israelites, because he had been pressed down by them: for תחתיכם , tacheticam, properly signifies, “Under you,” which some render, but strainedly, “Is your place:” for when the verb is transitive, they say, that תחתיכם , tacheticam, must be rendered “In your place:” but this is frigid and forced; and the whole passage will run better, if we say, “I am bound fast under you, as though ye were a wagon full of sheaves; 21 ” that is, “Ye are to me intolerable.” For God carried that people on his shoulders; and when they loaded him with the burden of iniquities, it is no wonder that he said that they were like a wagon — a wagon filled with many sheaves: “Ye are light as wind, but ye are also to me very burdensome, and I am forced at length to shake you off:” and this he afterwards shows.

Calvin: Amo 2:14 - NO PHRASE I explained yesterday the verse, in which the Prophet says, in the name of God, that the people were like a grievous and heavy burden, as though they...

I explained yesterday the verse, in which the Prophet says, in the name of God, that the people were like a grievous and heavy burden, as though they were a wagon laden with many sheaves. I stated that the Prophet’s words are differently explained by many interpreters, who give this view, — that God compares himself to a loaded wagon, under which the people were to be crushed. But no necessity constrains us to take the same verb in two senses, active and neuter, as they do; and then the comparison seems not quite suitable; and farther, it is better, as I have said, to say, that God complains, that he was loaded and pressed down under the people, than to render תחתיכם , tacheticm, “In your place;” for this is wholly a strained rendering. But most suitable is the Prophet’s meaning, when understood as the complaint of God, that it was a grievous thing to bear the burdens of the people, when he saw that they were men of levity, and, at the same time, burdensome.

Hence the Prophet now denounces vengeance such as they deserved; and he says first, Perish shall flight from the swift, etc., that is, no one will be so swift as to escape by fleeing; and the valiant shall do nothing by fighting; for it is to confirm strength when one resists an adversary and repels assaults. The valiant, therefore, shall fight with no advantage; and then, The strong shall not deliver his own life: he who holds the bow shall not stand; that is, he who is equipped with a bow, and repels his enemy at a distance, shall not be able to stand in his place. He who is swift on foot shall not be able to flee, nor he who mounts a horse; which means that whether footmen or horsemen, they shall not, by their celerity, be able to escape death. And, lastly, he who is stout and intrepid in heart among the valiant shall flee away naked, being content with life alone, and only anxious to provide for his own safety.

The Prophet intimates by all these words, that so grievous would be the slaughter of the people, that it would be a miracle if any should escape.

We now then see how severely the prophet at the very beginning handled this people. He no doubt observed their great obduracy: for he would not have assailed them so sharply at first, had they not been for a long time rebellious and had despised all warnings and threatening. Amos was not the first who addressed them; but the Israelites had hardened themselves against all threatenings before he came to them. It therefore behaved him sharply to reprove them, as God treats men according to their disposition. I come now to the third chapter.

Defender: Amo 2:4 - law of the Lord Judah's sin was greater than those of other nations because the people of Judah uniquely had God's law, and yet they had despised it."

Judah's sin was greater than those of other nations because the people of Judah uniquely had God's law, and yet they had despised it."

Defender: Amo 2:9 - height The exploits of the "giants" were still remembered some 600 or more years after the conquests of Moses and Joshua (Deu 2:10-21). They had been actual ...

The exploits of the "giants" were still remembered some 600 or more years after the conquests of Moses and Joshua (Deu 2:10-21). They had been actual living men, possibly demonically controlled, but certainly not mere mythical creatures."

Defender: Amo 2:12 - Nazarites wine to drink The Nazarites were dedicated to lives of abstinence from wine and strong drink (Num 6:1-8), and the prophets were called and trained to prophesy God's...

The Nazarites were dedicated to lives of abstinence from wine and strong drink (Num 6:1-8), and the prophets were called and trained to prophesy God's Word. It is doubly sinful not only to disobey God but also to induce or compel others to do so."

TSK: Amo 2:1 - For three // of Moab // because For three : Amo 2:4, Amo 2:6, Amo 1:3, Amo 1:6, Amo 1:9, Amo 1:11, Amo 1:13; Num. 22:1-25:18; Deu 23:4, Deu 23:5; Psa 83:4-7; Mic 6:5 of Moab : Isa 11...

For three : Amo 2:4, Amo 2:6, Amo 1:3, Amo 1:6, Amo 1:9, Amo 1:11, Amo 1:13; Num. 22:1-25:18; Deu 23:4, Deu 23:5; Psa 83:4-7; Mic 6:5

of Moab : Isa 11:14, 15:1-16:14, Isa 25:10; Jer. 48:1-47; Eze 25:8, Eze 25:9; Zep 2:8, Zep 2:9

because : 2Ki 3:9, 2Ki 3:26; Pro 15:3

TSK: Amo 2:2 - Kirioth // with tumult Kirioth : Jer 48:24, Jer 48:41 with tumult : Amo 1:14; Isa 9:5; Jer 48:34

Kirioth : Jer 48:24, Jer 48:41

with tumult : Amo 1:14; Isa 9:5; Jer 48:34

TSK: Amo 2:3 - -- Num 24:17; Jer 48:7, Jer 48:25

TSK: Amo 2:4 - For // Judah // because // and their // after For : Deu 31:16-18, Deu 32:15-27 Judah : Amo 3:2; 2Ki 17:19; Jer 9:25, Jer 9:26; Hos 5:12, Hos 5:13, Hos 6:11, Hos 12:2 because : Lev 26:14, Lev 26:15...

TSK: Amo 2:5 - I will I will : Jer 17:27, Jer 21:10, Jer 37:8-10, Jer 39:8, Jer 52:13; Hos 8:14

TSK: Amo 2:6 - Thus saith // For three // because Thus saith : Amos, says Abp. Newcome, first prophesies against the Syrians, Philistines, Tyrians, Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites, who dwelt in the ...

Thus saith : Amos, says Abp. Newcome, first prophesies against the Syrians, Philistines, Tyrians, Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites, who dwelt in the neighbourhood of the twelve tribes, and had occasionally become their enemies and persecutors. Having thus taught his countrymen that the providence of God extended to other nations, he briefly mentions the idolatrous practices and consequent destruction of Judah, and then passes on to his proper subject, which was to exhort and reprove the kingdom of Israel, and to denounce against it the Divine judgments.

For three : Amo 6:3-7; 2Ki 17:7-18, 2Ki 18:12; Eze 23:5-9; Hos 4:1, Hos 4:2, Hos 4:11-14, Hos 7:7-10, Hos 8:4-6; Hos 13:2, Hos 13:3; Mic 6:10-16

because : Amo 5:11, Amo 5:12, Amo 8:4-6; Isa 5:22, Isa 5:23, Isa 29:21; Joe 3:3, Joe 3:6; Mic 3:2, Mic 3:3

TSK: Amo 2:7 - pant // and turn // and a // maid // to profane pant : Amo 4:1; 1Ki 21:4; Pro 28:21; Mic 2:2, Mic 2:9, Mic 7:2, Mic 7:3; Zep 3:3 and turn : Amo 5:12; Isa 10:2 and a : Lev 18:8, Lev 18:15; Eze 22:11;...

pant : Amo 4:1; 1Ki 21:4; Pro 28:21; Mic 2:2, Mic 2:9, Mic 7:2, Mic 7:3; Zep 3:3

and turn : Amo 5:12; Isa 10:2

and a : Lev 18:8, Lev 18:15; Eze 22:11; 1Co 5:1

maid : or, young woman

to profane : Lev 20:3; 2Sa 12:14; Eze 36:20; Rom 2:24

TSK: Amo 2:8 - laid // by // they drink // the condemned laid : Exo 22:26, Exo 22:27; Deu 24:12-17; Eze 18:7, Eze 18:12 by : Amo 6:4; Isa 57:7; Eze 23:41; 1Co 8:10, 1Co 10:7, 1Co 10:21 they drink : Amo 6:6; ...

laid : Exo 22:26, Exo 22:27; Deu 24:12-17; Eze 18:7, Eze 18:12

by : Amo 6:4; Isa 57:7; Eze 23:41; 1Co 8:10, 1Co 10:7, 1Co 10:21

they drink : Amo 6:6; Jdg 9:27; Hos 4:8

the condemned : or, such as have fined, or, mulcted

TSK: Amo 2:9 - I the // whose // I destroyed I the : Gen 15:16; Exo 3:8, Exo 34:11; Num 21:24; Deu 2:24-33; Jos 3:10, Jos 24:8-12; Jdg 11:21-23; Neh 9:22-24; Psa 135:10-12, Psa 136:17-22 whose : ...

TSK: Amo 2:10 - I brought // and led // to possess I brought : Exo 12:51; Neh 9:8-12; Psa 105:42, Psa 105:43, Psa 136:10,Psa 136:11; Jer 32:20,Jer 32:21; Eze 20:10; Mic 6:4 and led : Num 14:34; Deu 2:7...

TSK: Amo 2:11 - I raised // and // Nazarites // Is it I raised : 1Sa 3:20, 1Sa 19:20; 1Ki 17:1, 1Ki 18:4, 1Ki 19:16, 1Ki 20:13, 1Ki 20:35, 1Ki 20:41, 1Ki 22:8; 2Ki 2:2-5; 2Ki 6:1, 2Ki 17:13; 2Ch 36:15; 2P...

TSK: Amo 2:13 - Behold // I am pressed Behold : Psa 78:40; Isa 1:14, Isa 7:13, Isa 43:24; Eze 6:9, Eze 16:43; Mal 2:17 I am pressed : etc. or, I will press your place, as a cart full of she...

Behold : Psa 78:40; Isa 1:14, Isa 7:13, Isa 43:24; Eze 6:9, Eze 16:43; Mal 2:17

I am pressed : etc. or, I will press your place, as a cart full of sheaves presseth

TSK: Amo 2:14 - the flight // himself the flight : Amo 9:1-3; Job 11:20 *marg. Ecc 9:11; Isa 30:16; Jer 9:23 himself : Heb. his soul, or life

the flight : Amo 9:1-3; Job 11:20 *marg. Ecc 9:11; Isa 30:16; Jer 9:23

himself : Heb. his soul, or life

TSK: Amo 2:15 - neither // himself neither : Psa 33:16, Psa 33:17 himself : Heb. his soul, or life

neither : Psa 33:16, Psa 33:17

himself : Heb. his soul, or life

TSK: Amo 2:16 - courageous // flee courageous : Heb. strong of his heart, Jer 48:41 flee : Jdg 4:17; 2Ki 7:8-20; Mar 14:52

courageous : Heb. strong of his heart, Jer 48:41

flee : Jdg 4:17; 2Ki 7:8-20; Mar 14:52

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Amo 2:1 - For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof // He // Burned the bones // Of the king of Edom // Into lime For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof: in this form the prophet began, Amo 1:3 , which see. He...

For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof: in this form the prophet began, Amo 1:3 , which see. Here he doth threaten a nation of some kin to Israel, &c., as was Ammon, and almost as much an enemy: they appeared early enemies to Israel, and took most wicked ways to ruin Israel; first hired Balaam to curse them, Nu 22 Nu 23 ; when this did not succeed, he next acts a vile part, and by lewd harlots draws Israel to sin, Num 25:1,2 , &c., that so he might do against sinful Israel what could not be done against innocent Israel. Moab also was the second oppressor of Israel, who for their sins were delivered into the hands of Eglon king of Moab, who oppressed them eighteen years, Jud 3:14 ; for which, and other hostile carriages, they are here threatened; yet their inhuman cruelty to Edom’ s king is only expressed, the other hostilities to Israel are implied.

He the king of Moab; who particularly this was is not here nor elsewhere mentioned, though some say it was Mesha, and refer this to 2Ki 3:4 ; yet it is not very likely that this was the king who acted such cruelty.

Burned the bones it had been barbarous to have burned the flesh and nerves of an enemy, but to make the fire so hot, and continue it so long, as to burn bones into ashes, is much more barbarous.

Of the king of Edom: this somewhat aggravates the cruelty, he was no common man, but a king, who was so used: his name, and the time when it was done, whether it were some king alive or dead, and his bones digged up, is not mentioned, but every way it was barbarous, though it were done to bones digged out of the grave, as some conjecture.

Into lime or ashes, calcined the bones, reduced them by fire into fine dust, and (as others conjecture) used these ashes instead of lime to plaster the walls and roofs of his palace; and this was done in hatred and contempt of the king of Edom.

Poole: Amo 2:2 - I will send a fire // Moab // It shall devour the palaces // Kerioth // With shouting // With the sound of the trumpet I will send a fire: see Amo 1:4 . Moab some think, but I know not on what ground, that there was a city of this name, and meant here, but on better...

I will send a fire: see Amo 1:4 .

Moab some think, but I know not on what ground, that there was a city of this name, and meant here, but on better reason we conclude it to be the whole country, or by a metonymy the people, who were the posterity of Lot by his elder daughter.

It shall devour the palaces: see Amo 1:4 .

Kerioth a strong and principal city of this country; or the cities, so the word will bear, and then the threat is against all their cities.

Moab the Moabites, all sorts and ranks of them, shall die, be destroyed, and perish utterly, with tumult; such as soldiers in fight or assaults make, when they carry all by force, bearing down all opposition, and slaying all opposers, with that rigour which in such cases is very usual.

With shouting as conquerors shout, to the end they may dishearten the enemy, and animate their fellow soldiers.

With the sound of the trumpet: this added partly to explain, and partly to confirm, what the prophet had foretold.

Poole: Amo 2:3 - I will cut off // From the midst thereof // The princes // With him // Saith the Lord I will cut off by the sword of the enemy, the judge; the governor, i. e. every one of them; the singular being put for the plural, to intimate the de...

I will cut off by the sword of the enemy, the judge; the governor, i. e. every one of them; the singular being put for the plural, to intimate the destruction of all of them.

From the midst thereof either of Kirioth the metropolis, or of every city in which were judges appointed to govern and minister justice to the people; and these should be cut off in these cities, and in the midst of their government.

The princes either by birth, or by office, or by excellent endowments, the chief among the Moabitish people.

With him with the supreme governor, before threatened.

Saith the Lord noting to us the certainty of the thing, the irrevocable sentence passed upon Moab, its king, princes, and judges, who being cut off, the people must needs perish, and come to nothing.

Poole: Amo 2:4 - Despised // the law of the Lord // Their lies // After the which // their fathers God hath in the former verses threatened the enemies of his people for their outrages against his people; now he does threaten his people for their ...

God hath in the former verses threatened the enemies of his people for their outrages against his people; now he does threaten his people for their obstinacy in reiterated sins: see Amo 4:3 .

Despised first slighted it, as if no excellency were in it, and next rejected it, as if it were not worthy of their observance; thus they refused with an abhorrence and detestation

the law of the Lord the whole law, partly by their immoralities and transgressions against the just commands of it, and partly by their false worship and idolatry: that law which was given with so much majesty and terror. on Mount Sinai; from which they should not have departed either to the right hand or to the left; that law which was perfect, holy, and useful, with which no fault could be justly found. So much the greater were their sins, because committed against so clear, full, and pure a law. Have not kept his commandments, i.e. they have greatly violated, as the Hebrew phrase importeth, Neh 9:34 Dan 9:5,10,11 .

Their lies idols, which are a lie, whether commended to them by their false prophets, or chosen according to their own humour and fancy; all their false, superstitious, and idolatrous worship. Caused them to err; their idolatry was first their error, and this blinded them, made them more sottish and brutish, which was partly from the natural tendency of this sin, and partly from the just judgment of God, Rom 1:24 2Th 2:10 -12 .

After the which idols or lies,

their fathers first in Ur of the Chaldees, before Abraham was called, afterwards in Egypt, the wilderness, and in the land of Canaan itself, have walked, successively, one generation after another; idolatry, and superstition, and will-worship have been old hereditary sins, and now shall be punished.

Poole: Amo 2:5 - I will send a fire // Judah // Jerusalem I will send a fire: see Amo 1:4 . Judah the kingdom of the two tribes; Benjamin is to be included with Judah, as elsewhere hath been already often ...

I will send a fire: see Amo 1:4 .

Judah the kingdom of the two tribes; Benjamin is to be included with Judah, as elsewhere hath been already often observed. It shall devour the palaces: see Amo 1:4 .

Jerusalem the chief city of Judah’ s kingdom, the city of God, where was the temple of God, and where were the seats of judicature; the holy city, but now to be destroyed for its sins, as well as other incorrigible nations. Now this was fulfilled by Nebuchadnezzar, about two hundred years after this prophecy of Amos.

Poole: Amo 2:6 - Israel // I will not turn away the punishment // They // The righteous // For silver // The poor // a pair of shoes For three transgressions : see Amo 1:3 . Israel the kingdom of the ten tribes, under the government of Jeroboam the Second at this time, against ...

For three transgressions : see Amo 1:3 .

Israel the kingdom of the ten tribes, under the government of Jeroboam the Second at this time, against which the prophet was chiefly sent, though he began with Syria and others, by the threats against which nations he prepared both Judah and Israel to hearken and consider.

I will not turn away the punishment: see Amo 1:3 .

They those who by the appointment of the law had power to hear and decide causes between man and man; judges and witnesses, like the corrupt judges,

sold for bribes were their aim, and they would at any time sell justice to the highest bidder.

The righteous the innocent, or those who had a just and righteous cause, for the prophet here speaks of the justness of the cause, not of the exact justice or absolute righteousness of the person.

For silver: money was the most current and prevailing commodity with these judges, but money’ s worth would do the feat too, if money were out of the way.

The poor: when poor men went to law with poor men before these judges, and the thing they contended for was of small value, the contenders too had light purses, and could not give a considerable bribe;

a pair of shoes a very poor bribe, expressed here proverbially, would sway with these judges, who gaped still after somewhat of gain from all.

Poole: Amo 2:7 - That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor // Turn aside the way of the meek That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor or swallow up, as the word is most frequently turned by our interpreters; and so perhap...

That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor or swallow up, as the word is most frequently turned by our interpreters; and so perhaps more plainly is their cruelty and violence set forth, in that they make a prey of the poor, who walk with dust on their heads by reason of distresses that are upon them, and, without any compassion towards them, greedily, and as at once, swallow up and devour the poor, whom, by the law of God, and the office they bear as judges, they should deliver out of the hand of the oppressor.

Turn aside the way of the meek perversely and maliciously misinterpret the actions, words, and designs of the humble and meek, of the compassionate and merciful, who pity the poor in these straits and dangers. These corrupt judges and violent oppressors are also shameless adulterers and fornicators, they commit that lewdness which the better-tutored heathens abhor and forbear; a kind of incestuous pollution; the father and son keep the same harlot, and go in unto her. Thus they profanely dishonour me, by casting off my law, and doing that which is so shamefully indecent and unlawful; and giving heathens occasion to blaspheme my name, and either think, or say, Like people, like God.

Poole: Amo 2:8 - they lay themselves down // upon clothes laid to pledge // By every altar // They drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god The Jews of old did not, as we, sit upright at their feasts, and meals, but in a posture of greater ease did lean, or lie on one side; so here they...

The Jews of old did not, as we, sit upright at their feasts, and meals, but in a posture of greater ease did lean, or lie on one side; so here

they lay themselves down i.e. put themselves in a feasting posture,

upon clothes laid to pledge of which the law had expressly said none should detain files all night, De 14 12,13 .

By every altar: impudent sinners, who dare thus before the altar, where they suppose that God is present, bring their crying, inexcusable oppressions; and feast in sacred places, on sacred viands, with bloody minds and oppressive practices; and seek mercy from God when they show, no mercy to the poor!

They drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god to complete their wickedness, they offer their drink offerings in wine which they bought with the fines and pecuniary mulcts laid on the innocent and guiltless, and thus rejoice in their violence, whilst God hates robbery for a burnt-offering.

Poole: Amo 2:9 - Yet destroyed I // The Amorite // Whose height was like the height of the cedars // Strong as the oaks // I destroyed // His fruit from above // His roots from beneath Yet destroyed I whom they have ungratefully forgotten and forsaken, and set up idol’ s in competition with me; nay, cast off my law and worship,...

Yet destroyed I whom they have ungratefully forgotten and forsaken, and set up idol’ s in competition with me; nay, cast off my law and worship, and embraced idolatry, worshipped idols that never could do them good, nor destroy their enemies; this they did after I had destroyed their enemies.

The Amorite the mightiest nation of all the Canaanites, and therefore expressly mentioned as an instance of God’ s great mercy, and Israel’ s great ingratitude: by this nation mentioned all the rest of the Canaanitish nations are to be understood. These Amorites dwelt beyond Jordan, between that and Moab, and their land fell by lot unto Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh. Before them, the children of Israel under the conduct of Moses, Deu 2:24 , &c.; Deu 3:1-14 , at the very sight of whom these mighty men fled, for God had struck them with terror that they might not stand before Israel.

Whose height was like the height of the cedars: the Amorites were men of largest size, they were of the race of the giants, Num 13:32,33 . This is a proverbial speech, and sets out the Amorites, exceeding ordinary men in stature as much as the cedar exceeds ordinary trees in height.

Strong as the oaks another proverbial speech, denoting their great strength above the strength of other men.

I destroyed utterly rooted them out.

His fruit from above: trees propagated by fruit are diminished by destroying the fruit which is the seed of them; so God cut off the children of the Amorites, and thereby prevented all succession.

His roots from beneath: this refers to the destroying the old standards, that present generation: this last clause refers to the command God gave, Deu 7:2 .

Poole: Amo 2:10 - Led you // Forty years // Through the wilderness // To possess You did not rescue yourselves out of the hands of your enemies, I did in mere mercy with a mighty arm save and rescue you, and brought you up from t...

You did not rescue yourselves out of the hands of your enemies, I did in mere mercy with a mighty arm save and rescue you, and brought you up from the land of Egypt, where you were oppressed servants, and exposed to ruin.

Led you as a shepherd leads his flock: nay, miraculously conducting by the pillar of a cloud and fire, and feeding with manna from heaven.

Forty years reckoning from their coming out of Egypt.

Through the wilderness: they passed through many wildernesses, named in Scripture according as they were then called, but all these lay so contiguous to each other, that they all made up one great wilderness, as the many names given to parts of the sea make us know what particular part is spoken of, but all make one sea.

To possess as an heir possesseth that he hath a hereditary right to, the land of the Amorite, including all the rest of the accursed and dispossessed nations.

Poole: Amo 2:11 - I raised up // Of your sons for prophets // Your young men // Nazarites // Is it not even thus? // Ye children of Israel // Saith the Lord I raised up gave prophetic endowments, stirred up their minds, commissioned them to prophesy, and carried them through by an undaunted courage given ...

I raised up gave prophetic endowments, stirred up their minds, commissioned them to prophesy, and carried them through by an undaunted courage given to them, that they, should not fear to set upon, or faint in attending to, their office.

Of your sons for prophets did not employ strangers, whose affections you might with some colour of reason suspect, but your own sons, whose affections to you and to their own country are unquestionable, were sent prophets to tell you of your sins, to foretell your dangers, and to importune you to repent of your sins, and to prevent your dangers.

Your young men though that age be generally inclined to please their own fancies, to walk after the sight of their eyes, Ecc 11:9 , yet did God change the mind of some of them in their youth, and inclined them to eminency in religion, to be examples to others.

Nazarites which were religious persons under vow bound to a very sober, abstemious, and holy life; either for some certain limited time, or for their whole life: see Num 6:1,2 , &c. These were not to drink any strong or intoxicating liquors.

Is it not even thus? God appeals to them in this matter whether he had not done this for them, given prophets to teach them, and Nazarites to be examples to them, in both which God showed his love and care of them.

Ye children of Israel apostatized Israel, you of the ten tribes.

Saith the Lord: this is added to excite them to serious pondering what is said to them.

Poole: Amo 2:12 - But ye // gave the Nazarites wine // Commanded // The prophets // Saying, Prophesy not But ye for whose benefit both Nazarites and prophets were raised, you who should have heard their word, and imitated their example, gave the Nazarit...

But ye for whose benefit both Nazarites and prophets were raised, you who should have heard their word, and imitated their example,

gave the Nazarites wine importuned, urged, or it may be (as is the custom of excessive drinkers) forced them to drink wine, to violate their vow, and contemn God’ s law too, Num 6:3,4 .

Commanded: by this passage it appears that they were men in authority who did this; it is not probable that mean persons who had no authority would enjoin silence on the prophets, Isa 30:10 Amo 7:13 Mic 2:6 . It is evident Amaziah was chief priest in Beth-el, and by virtue of his jurisdiction there silenceth the prophet.

The prophets the true, faithful, and plain-dealing prophets, who rebuked their sins, required them to repent, and threatened judgments if they did not repent.

Saying, Prophesy not: see Isa 30:10 Amo 7:13 Mic 2:6,11 ;

Poole: Amo 2:13 - am pressed under you, as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves Hitherto the Lord by the prophet had declared the sins of the kingdom of the ten tribes, now he is about to pronounce judgment against them; he call...

Hitherto the Lord by the prophet had declared the sins of the kingdom of the ten tribes, now he is about to pronounce judgment against them; he calls for their attention, and diligent weighing what he is about to speak.

I the Lord, who have so multiplied mercies to this people,

am pressed under you, as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves: some read this passage actively, and make this the sense, I will lead you with these judgments as a cart is loaded, and you shall cry and groan under these judgments, as a cart heavy loaded makes a noise in its motion under such pressures. Perhaps sheaves, the loading of a harvest season, are mentioned, to intimate the ripeness of their sins, and God’ s reaping them or cutting them down by his judgments, and carrying them together to be thrashed by further judgments.

Poole: Amo 2:14 - Therefore // The flight shall perish from the swift // The strong shall not strengthen his force // The mighty Therefore because they first loaded God with their sins, and now he loads them with punishments, no way of escape shall be left. The flight shall pe...

Therefore because they first loaded God with their sins, and now he loads them with punishments, no way of escape shall be left.

The flight shall perish from the swift not by swiftness of foot fleeing from the judgments, for their enemies shall be swifter than they, Isa 30:16 .

The strong shall not strengthen his force natural strength of body shall not deliver; such, though they might do more than weaker men, yet shall not save themselves, for they shall not know how to use their strength they shall want courage to do it.

The mighty the valiant, and man of greatest courage, shall not be able to deliver himself, his courage shall fail.

Poole: Amo 2:15 - Neither shall he stand // That handleth the bow // He that is swift of foot shall not deliver himself // Neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself Neither shall he stand though at distance from the enemies, yet shall not dare to keep his place. That handleth the bow much used in the wars of th...

Neither shall he stand though at distance from the enemies, yet shall not dare to keep his place.

That handleth the bow much used in the wars of those times, and used by strong and valiant men, but now both strength and valour should fail Israel’ s bow-men.

He that is swift of foot shall not deliver himself: this is the same, and explains that in the 14th verse.

Neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself: here the prophet foretells that the swiftness of the horse, which some will make use of, shall as little avail, nor his strength joined with his speed shall deliver the rider; neither the strength of the horse shall carry him through, nor his swiftness carry him away from the hand of the pursuer.

Poole: Amo 2:16 - Courageous among the mighty // Shall flee away naked // In that day // Saith the Lord This verse is not a bare repetition of what he had said before, to confirm it, but he doth foretell an inevitable ruin to those who were the most li...

This verse is not a bare repetition of what he had said before, to confirm it, but he doth foretell an inevitable ruin to those who were the most likely to escape, and a most shameful manner of flight.

Courageous among the mighty a description of the most famous warriors amongst Israel, such as were known for valour among the mighty and valiant ones, like David’ s worthies, such as had the heart of a lion.

Shall flee away naked either without his clothes and furniture, or without his weapons and arms, which were cast away to expedite his flight.

In that day when God will by the Assyrians, under the conduct of Tiglath-pileser first, and finally under the conduct of Shalmaneser, straiten these sinners. and besiege them in their cities.

Saith the Lord all confirmed under the seal of Heaven.

Haydock: Amo 2:1 - Ashes Ashes. Some think that he alludes to 4 Kings iii. 27., or rather to some war, the ashes of the dead were disturbed. (Calmet) --- Both these acts o...

Ashes. Some think that he alludes to 4 Kings iii. 27., or rather to some war, the ashes of the dead were disturbed. (Calmet) ---

Both these acts of inhumanity deserved severe punishment. (Worthington)

Haydock: Amo 2:2 - Fire // Carioth Fire: war under Ozias. (Calmet) --- Carioth. Septuagint, "the cities." Carioth has this meaning, but is was also the name of a great city, Jerem...

Fire: war under Ozias. (Calmet) ---

Carioth. Septuagint, "the cities." Carioth has this meaning, but is was also the name of a great city, Jeremias xlviii. 24. (Haydock)

Haydock: Amo 2:3 - Judge Judge, ruler, or head, shall be no more.

Judge, ruler, or head, shall be no more.

Haydock: Amo 2:4 - Walked Walked. After Solomon, scarcely a good prince appeared, till the days of Amos. Juda imitated the idolatry of Israel, hoping thus to find assistance...

Walked. After Solomon, scarcely a good prince appeared, till the days of Amos. Juda imitated the idolatry of Israel, hoping thus to find assistance. (Calmet) ---

His crime was the more grievous, as they had the law. (Worthington)

Haydock: Amo 2:5 - Fire Fire. Under Joathan, Rasin, &c., invaded the country. Achaz increased the misery, by applying to the Assyrians. (Calmet)

Fire. Under Joathan, Rasin, &c., invaded the country. Achaz increased the misery, by applying to the Assyrians. (Calmet)

Haydock: Amo 2:6 - Just man Just man. Joseph, (Rupert) or our Saviour, (Sanctius) or any other. The expression is proverbial, Ezechiel xiii. 19. (Calmet) --- Israel contemne...

Just man. Joseph, (Rupert) or our Saviour, (Sanctius) or any other. The expression is proverbial, Ezechiel xiii. 19. (Calmet) ---

Israel contemned the law, and adopted the abominations of all. (Worthington)

Haydock: Amo 2:7 - Humble // Name Humble, provoking him to anger. --- Name. Such incests caused infidels to blaspheme, Leviticus xviii. 8. (Calmet) --- They must be punished with...

Humble, provoking him to anger. ---

Name. Such incests caused infidels to blaspheme, Leviticus xviii. 8. (Calmet) ---

They must be punished with severity. (Worthington)

Haydock: Amo 2:8 - Altar // Condemned Altar. Herein they offended doubly, (Exodus xxii. 26.) as they used the garments of others to hide their shameful actions, 4 Kings xxiii. 7. (Calme...

Altar. Herein they offended doubly, (Exodus xxii. 26.) as they used the garments of others to hide their shameful actions, 4 Kings xxiii. 7. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "and tying up their garments with cords, they made veils touching the altar, and drank wine procured by calumnies," (Haydock) or "rapine," &c. (Chaldean) ---

Condemned by them unjustly, though some think that a very delicious and intoxicating wine is meant, such as was given to people in grief, Proverbs xxxi. 6., and Mark xv. 23. Helena learnt in Egypt how to compose such wine. (Homer, Odyssey iv.) ---

Feasting in temples on carpets was an ancient custom.

Haydock: Amo 2:9 - Beneath Beneath. The Israelites seemed like locusts in comparison, Numbers xiii. 34.

Beneath. The Israelites seemed like locusts in comparison, Numbers xiii. 34.

Haydock: Amo 2:11 - Nazarites Nazarites. Some went secretly to Jerusalem for this purpose; or perhaps they performed these rites illegally at Bethel: for many parts of the law we...

Nazarites. Some went secretly to Jerusalem for this purpose; or perhaps they performed these rites illegally at Bethel: for many parts of the law were observed, though not perfectly, chap iv. 4. The Nazarites were in high estimation, Lamentations iv. 7. But the dissolute Israelites (Calmet) derided them as well as the prophets, (Haydock) and attempted to make them transgress. (Calmet)

Haydock: Amo 2:13 - I will screek I will screek. Unable to bear any longer the enormous load of your sins, &c. The Spirit of God, as St. Jerome takes notice, accommodates itself to ...

I will screek. Unable to bear any longer the enormous load of your sins, &c. The Spirit of God, as St. Jerome takes notice, accommodates itself to the education of the prophet, and inspires him with encouragements taken from country affairs. (Challoner) ---

Septuagint, "I am overturned." Hebrew, "pressed." (Calmet)

Haydock: Amo 2:14 - Swift Swift. Jeroboam I. Other kings are described afterwards. (St. Jerome) --- In the latter times all was in confusion. (Calmet)

Swift. Jeroboam I. Other kings are described afterwards. (St. Jerome) ---

In the latter times all was in confusion. (Calmet)

Gill: Amo 2:1 - Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Moab // and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof // because he burnt the bones of the king of Edom into lime Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Moab,.... Or the Moabites, who descended from the eldest son of Lot, by one of his daughters; and, th...

Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Moab,.... Or the Moabites, who descended from the eldest son of Lot, by one of his daughters; and, though related, were great enemies to the Israelites; they sent for Balaam to curse them when on their borders, and greatly oppressed them in the times of the judges:

and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; See Gill on Amo 1:3. Idolatry, as well as the sin next charged, must be one of these four transgressions: the idols of Moab were Chemosh and Baalpeor; of the former See Gill on Jer 48:7; and of the latter See Gill on Hos 9:10;

because he burnt the bones of the king of Edom into lime; either like "to lime", or "for lime"; he burnt them thoroughly, till they came to powder as small and as white as lime, and used them instead of it to plaster the walls of his palace, by way of contempt, as the Targum; and so Jarchi and Kimchi: this is thought probable by Quinquarboreus m, for which he is blamed by Sanctius, who observes, there is no foundation for it in Scripture; and that the ashes of the bones of one man would not be sufficient to plaster a wall; and, besides, could never be brought to such a consistence as to be fit for such a purpose; yet, if it only means bare burning them, so as that they became like lime, as the colour of it, it could not be thought so very barbarous and inhuman, since it was the usage of some nations, especially the Romans, to burn their dead: no doubt something shocking is intended, and which usage to the dead is resented by the Lord. Sir Paul Rycaut n relates a piece of barbarity similar to this, that the city of Philadelphia was built with the bones of the besieged, by the prince that took it by storm. Kimchi thinks, as other interpreters also do, that it refers to the history in 2Ki 3:27; where the king of Moab is said to offer his eldest son that should have reigned in his stead for a burnt offering; which he understands, not of the king of Moab's son, but of the king of Edom's son, here called a king, because he was to have succeeded his father in the kingdom; but it seems rather to be the king of Moab's own son that he offered; nor is it likely that the king of Edom's son was in his lands; for he would have broke through into the king of Edom, but could not; and then did this rash action; not in wrath and fury, but in a religious way. The prophet here refers to some fact, notorious in those times, the truth of which is not to be questioned, though we have no other account of it in Scripture; very probably it was the same king of Moab that did it, and the same king of Edom that was so used, mentioned in the above history; the king of Moab being enraged at him for joining with the kings of Israel and Judah against him, who afterwards falling into his hands, he used him in this barbarous manner; or very likely being possessed of his country after his death, or however of his grave, he took him out of it, and burnt his bones to lime, in revenge of what he had done to him. This was a very cruel action thus to use a human body, and this not the body of a private person, but of a king; and was an act of impiety, as well as of inhumanity, to take the bones of the dead out of his grave, and burn them; and which though done to a Heathen prince. God, who is the Creator of all, and Governor of the whole world, and whose vicegerents princes are, resented; and therefore threatened the Moabites with utter destruction for it.

Gill: Amo 2:2 - But I will send a fire upon Moab // and it shall devour the palaces of Kerioth // and Moab shall die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet But I will send a fire upon Moab,.... Either on the whole country, or on some particular city so called, as in all the other prophecies; and there was...

But I will send a fire upon Moab,.... Either on the whole country, or on some particular city so called, as in all the other prophecies; and there was a city called Moab, now Areopolis; see Gill on Jer 48:4; though it may be put for the whole country, into which an enemy should be sent to destroy it, even Nebuchadnezzar:

and it shall devour the palaces of Kerioth; a principal city in the land of Moab; according to Kimchi, it was the royal city, and therefore mention is made of the palaces of it, here being the palace of the king and his princes; see Jer 48:24; though the word may be rendered cities, as it is by the Septuagint and Arabic versions; and so the Targum,

"and shall consume the palaces of the fortified place;''

and so may signify all the cities of Moab, and their palaces: or however may be put for them:

and Moab shall die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet: that is, the Moabites shall die, not in their beds, and in peace, but in war, amidst the howlings of the wounded, the shouts of soldiers, the clashing of arms, and the sound of trumpets,

Gill: Amo 2:3 - And I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof // and I will stay all the princes thereof with him, saith the Lord And I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof,.... Either from the midst of Moab, the country in general; or from Kerioth in particular, so Kimc...

And I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof,.... Either from the midst of Moab, the country in general; or from Kerioth in particular, so Kimchi; meaning their principal governor, their king, as Aben Ezra; for kings sometimes have acted as judges, took the bench, and sat and administered justice to their subjects:

and I will stay all the princes thereof with him, saith the Lord; the king, and the princes of the blood, and his nobles; so that there should be none to succeed him, or to protect and defend the people; the destruction should be an entire one, and inevitable, for the mouth of the Lord had spoken it. This was fulfilled at the same time as the prophecy against the children of Ammon by Nebuchadnezzar, five years after the destruction of Jerusalem o, which is next threatened.

Gill: Amo 2:4 - Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Judah // and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof // because they have despised the law of the Lord // and have not kept his commandments // and their lies caused them to err // after the which their fathers have walked Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Judah,.... With whom Benjamin must be joined; for the two tribes are meant as distinct from the ten t...

Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Judah,.... With whom Benjamin must be joined; for the two tribes are meant as distinct from the ten tribes, under the name of Israel, following. The prophet proceeds from the Heathens round about to the people of God themselves, for the ill usage of whom chiefly the above nations are threatened with ruin, lest they should promise themselves impunity in sin; though, if they rightly considered things, they could not expect it; since, if the Heathens, ignorant of the will of God, and his law, were punished for their sins, then much more those who knew it, and did it not, Luk 12:47; and he begins with Judah, partly because he was of that tribe, lest he should be charged with flattery and partiality, and partly because of the order of his prophecy, which being chiefly concerned with Israel, it was proper that what he had to say to Judah should be delivered first:

and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; the prophet retains the same form as in his prophecies against the Heathen nations; his own people, and God's professing people, being guilty of numerous transgressions, as well as they, and more aggravated than theirs; See Gill on Amo 1:3;

because they have despised the law of the Lord; a law so holy, just, and good, and so righteous, as no other nation had; and yet was not only not observed, but contemned: other nations sinned against the light of nature, and are not charged with breaches of the law of God, which was not given them; but these people had it, yet lightly esteemed it; counted it as a strange thing; walked not according to it, but cast it away from them; which was a great affront to the sovereignty of God, and a trampling upon his legislative power and authority:

and have not kept his commandments; or "statutes" p; the ordinances of the ceremonial law, which he appointed them to observe for the honour of his name, as parts of his worship; and to lead them into the designs of his grace and salvation by the Messiah:

and their lies caused them to err; either, their idols, as the Vulgate Latin version renders it; which are lying vanities, and deceive, and by which they were made to err from the pure worship of the living and true God to superstition and idolatry; or the words of the false prophets, as Kimchi; the false doctrines their taught, contrary to the word of God, directing them to seek for life by their own works; and promising them peace, when destruction was at hand; and daubing with untempered mortar; and as no lie is of the truth, but against it, so one untruth leads on to another:

after the which their fathers have walked; after which lies, idols, and errors, as in Ur of the Chaldees, in Egypt, in the wilderness, and even in later times: this was no excuse to them that they followed the way of their ancestors, but rather an aggravation of their guilt, that they imitated them, took no warning by them; but filled up the measure of their iniquities, and showed themselves to be a seed of evildoers, a generation of wicked men, the sons of rebellious parents.

Gill: Amo 2:5 - But I will send a fire upon Judah // and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem But I will send a fire upon Judah,.... An enemy, Nebuchadnezzar, who should burn, waste, and destroy, all that were in his way: and it shall devour...

But I will send a fire upon Judah,.... An enemy, Nebuchadnezzar, who should burn, waste, and destroy, all that were in his way:

and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem; the chief city of Judah, the royal city, where stood the temple, the palace of the most High, and the palaces of the king and his nobles; these were burnt with fire when it was taken by the Chaldean army, about two hundred years after this prophecy, Jer 52:13.

Gill: Amo 2:6 - Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Israel // and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof // because they sold the righteous for silver // and the poor for a pair of shoes Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Israel,.... The ten tribes rent from the house of David in the times of Rehoboam, and who departed fr...

Thus saith the Lord, for three transgressions of Israel,.... The ten tribes rent from the house of David in the times of Rehoboam, and who departed from the true worship of God, and set up calves at Dan and Bethel:

and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; the following part of this prophecy is taken up in pointing at the sins and punishment of Israel; now the prophet is come to the main business he was sent to do:

because they sold the righteous for silver; meaning not any particular person, as Joseph sold by his brethren, for in that they were all concerned, Judah as well as the rest; nor Christ, as others q, sold for thirty pieces of silver; since the persons here charged with it, and the times in which it was done, will not agree with that case; but the sense is, that the judges of Israel were so corrupt, that for a piece of money they would give a cause against a righteous man, and in favour of an unjust man that bribed them:

and the poor for a pair of shoes; that is, for a mere trifle they would pervert justice; if two men came before them with a cause, and both poor; yet if one could but give a pair of shoes, or anything he could part with, though he could not give money; so mean and sordid were they, they would take it, and give the cause for him, however unjust it was.

Gill: Amo 2:7 - That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor // and turn aside the way of the meek // and a man and his father will go in unto the same maid, to profane my holy name That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor,.... Either were greedy after money, the dust of the earth, and even that small portion ...

That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor,.... Either were greedy after money, the dust of the earth, and even that small portion of it the poor were possessed of; they could not be easy that they should enjoy that little of it they did, but were desirous to get it out of their hands by oppression and injustice: or they were eagerly desirous of throwing the poor upon the earth, and trampling upon them, and dragging them through the dust of it, thereby filling their heads and covering their faces with it; and caused them to put their mouths in the dust, and be humble suppliants to them. Some think there is an allusion to an ancient custom, which Joseph ben Gorion r speaks of, that a guilty person should stand before the judges, clad in black, and his head covered with dust; and this these judges desired here might be done by the rich, that the poor might be accused by them from whom they expected gifts:

and turn aside the way of the meek; decline doing them justice, pervert it, and hinder the course of it, denying it to those who are humble, meek, and modest; or else by one means or another turned them from the good ways in which they were walking, and by degrees at length brought them to such impudence and immodesty as is next expressed, so Aben Ezra:

and a man and his father will go in unto the same maid, to profane my holy name; that is, will be guilty of such uncleanness, as not only to have and enjoy the same harlot, but of such incest, as that the son would lie with his father's wife, and the father lie with his son's wife; a sin which was not named among the Gentiles, 1Co 5:1; and whereby the name of God was blasphemed among them, as if their religion taught them and encouraged them in such filthy actions; see Rom 2:24.

Gill: Amo 2:8 - And they laid themselves down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar // and they drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god And they laid themselves down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar,.... That is, the clothes they took in pledge of poor people, which they sho...

And they laid themselves down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar,.... That is, the clothes they took in pledge of poor people, which they should have restored before sun setting, Exo 22:26; these they spread by every altar, of which they had many erected to their idols, and on these as on carpets they slept by them, as was usual with the Gentiles; who not only in common used to lie and sleep on garments, or carpets, or skins spread on the floor s, but upon such in the temples of their idols, in order to obtain good dreams; so in the temple of Amphiaraus in Greece, after purgations and sacrifices to him, and to the gods whose names were engraven on the same altar, they slew a ram, and spread the skin, on which they laid themselves down, and had dreams, the signification and events of which they presently interpreted t; and Jerom says u, they used to spread the skins of the sacrifices, and lie upon them, that they might by dreams know things to come, which custom in the temple of Aesculapius continued to his times; and this custom might be imitated by the Jews; and so they are described by such, "who sleep in the temples of idols", in the Vulgate Latin version of Isa 65:4; See Gill on Isa 65:4; but very false it is what Strabo w says, that the Jews were taught this custom by Moses; telling them that such as lived soberly and righteously ought to sleep in the temple, where they might expect good dreams for themselves and others, as good gifts and signs from God, which others might not expect: or else the sense is, they laid themselves down on these clothes, and feasted on them; it being their custom at meals not to sit upright, but to recline on couches; or as the manner of the Turks and other eastern nations to sit on carpets; and it was also the custom of the Heathens to feast in their temples, and by their altars, in honour of their gods. So Herodotus relates x, that at a festival of June with the Argives, the mother of Cleobis and Biton prayed the goddess, whom they had drawn to the temple, oxen not being ready, that she would give to them what was best for men; after which prayer, it is said, they sacrificed and "feasted"; and the young men falling asleep in the temple, never rose more, but finished this life: the deity judging it better for a man to die than to live; and this custom of feasting in idols' temples obtained, in the times of the apostles, as appears from 1Co 8:10; and which was now observed by the Israelites, with this aggravation of their sin, that they laid themselves on the garments of the poor they had taken for a pawn, when they were performing their idolatrous rites; which must be very provoking to God:

and they drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god: either wine which used to be given to condemned malefactors to cheer and refresh them; which custom among the Jews was founded on Pro 31:6; See Gill on Pro 31:6; See Gill on Pro 31:7; The manner was to put a grain of frankincense into a cup of wine, which they gave to the malefactor just as he was going to be executed, that his mind might be disturbed and become insensible; and which was usually the free gift of honourable women, out of compassion to the sufferer; and if they did it not, it was provided at the expense of the public y; but this seems to be done rather to intoxicate and stupefy them, that they might not feel their pain and misery, than to cheer; and is thought to be the potion which was offered to Christ, and he refused, Mar 15:23; but whether such a custom obtained in the times of the prophet is a question; nor does it seem very likely that these men would choose such sort of wine; wherefore rather wine bought with the money they received by the fines and amercements of those they unjustly condemned is intended. The Targum renders it the wine of rapine; and this they were not content to drink only in their own houses, but drank it at their festivals in the temples of their idols, such as were built for the calves of Dan and Bethel, and other idols.

Gill: Amo 2:9 - Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them // whose height was like the height of the cedars // and he was strong as the oaks // yet I destroyed his fruit from above, and his roots from beneath Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them,.... Here the Lord by the prophet reckons up the many favours and blessings he had bestowed upon Israel, which...

Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them,.... Here the Lord by the prophet reckons up the many favours and blessings he had bestowed upon Israel, which was an aggravation of their sins, and showed them to be guilty of great ingratitude, and a justification of him in his punishment of them he drove out the seven nations of Canaanites from before them, to make way for them, and destroyed them, of which the Amorite was a principal, and is here put for all the rest:

whose height was like the height of the cedars; being both tall of stature, and in great honour and dignity with the other nations, and in very opulent and flourishing circumstances:

and he was strong as the oaks: not only like the tall cedars of Lebanon for their height and largeness of stature, but like the sturdy oaks for the strength of their bodies, being of the race of the giants, Num 13:28;

yet I destroyed his fruit from above, and his roots from beneath; that is, utterly destroyed him, root and branch, so that nothing of him remained; still persisting in the metaphor of a tree. Jarchi interprets it of their superior and inferior princes; but it seems best to understand it of children with their parents, the one being the fruit, the other the root; and, both being destroyed, there must be utter ruin.

Gill: Amo 2:10 - Also I brought you up from the land of Egypt // and led you forty years through the wilderness // to possess the land of the Amorite Also I brought you up from the land of Egypt,.... Where they were bond slaves, and in great affliction and distress, and unable to help themselves; bu...

Also I brought you up from the land of Egypt,.... Where they were bond slaves, and in great affliction and distress, and unable to help themselves; but the Lord wrought deliverance for them, and brought them out of this house of bondage with a high hand and a mighty arm:

and led you forty years through the wilderness: going before them in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night; providing them with all things necessary, with food and raiment, and protecting them from all their enemies:

to possess the land of the Amorite; the whole land of Canaan, so called from a principal nation of it.

Gill: Amo 2:11 - And I raised up of your sons for prophets // and of your young men for Nazarites // is it not even thus, O ye children of Israel, saith the Lord And I raised up of your sons for prophets,.... Such as Moses, Joshua, and the seventy elders, and others; not only to foretell things to come, but to ...

And I raised up of your sons for prophets,.... Such as Moses, Joshua, and the seventy elders, and others; not only to foretell things to come, but to teach and instruct the people in the doctrines and duties of religion, and to warn them of their sins, and the danger of them:

and of your young men for Nazarites: as Samson, Samuel, and others; whose vow not only obliged them from shaving their hair, but to abstain from drinking wine, and eating grapes, which the youthful age is inclined unto; but such grace was given them, as enabled them to deny themselves sensual gratifications, and to be examples of piety and constant attendance on the service of God, and instructing the people. The Targum is,

"of your young men for teachers;''

these were the spiritual mercies, as the former were the temporal ones, the Lord bestowed on these people, for the truth of which he appeals to them:

is it not even thus, O ye children of Israel, saith the Lord? can ye deny it? the thing was too notorious to be contradicted.

Gill: Amo 2:12 - But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink // and commanded the prophets, saying, prophesy not But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink,.... Contrary to their vow and calling, and in contempt of it, and to make them like themselves; they either p...

But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink,.... Contrary to their vow and calling, and in contempt of it, and to make them like themselves; they either persuaded them, or forced them to it:

and commanded the prophets, saying, prophesy not; hard and heavy things, judgments and denunciations of vengeance, only smooth things; by this authoritative language it appears that this is said of the rulers and governors of the people, as king, princes, and priests; see Amo 7:12.

Gill: Amo 2:13 - Behold, I are pressed under you // as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves Behold, I are pressed under you,.... With the weight of their sins, with which they had made him to serve, and had wearied him; his patience was quite...

Behold, I are pressed under you,.... With the weight of their sins, with which they had made him to serve, and had wearied him; his patience was quite wore out, he could bear them no longer:

as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves; as a cart in harvest time, in which the sheaves of corn are carried home; when one sheaf is laid upon another, till they can lay no more, and the cart is loaded and overloaded with them, and ready to break, or be pressed into the earth with them: thus. Jehovah represents himself as loaded and burdened with the sins of these people, and therefore would visit for them, and inflict deserved punishment. Some render it actively, "behold, I press" z, or "am about to press your place, as a cart full of sheaves presseth" a; the horse or horses which draw it, especially the last; or the ground it goes upon; or as a cart stuck with iron spikes, and loaded with stones, being drawn over a corn floor, presses the full sheaves, and beats out the grain, which was their way of pressing it: so the Lord signifies he would afflict and distress this people, bring them into strait circumstances, by a close siege, and other judgments, which should ruin and destroy them; and which was first begun by Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and finished by Shalmaneser, who carried away the ten tribes captive. So the Targum,

"behold, I bring distress upon you, and it shall straiten you in your place, as a cart is straitened which is loaded with sheaves.''

Gill: Amo 2:14 - Therefore the flight shall perish from the swift // and the strong shall not strengthen his force // neither shall the mighty deliver himself Therefore the flight shall perish from the swift,.... They should be so straitened and cooped up, and be so loaded with pressures, that those, as swif...

Therefore the flight shall perish from the swift,.... They should be so straitened and cooped up, and be so loaded with pressures, that those, as swift of foot as Asahel, should not be able to make their escape by fleeing:

and the strong shall not strengthen his force; should not increase it, or muster it up, and exert it to such a degree, as to be able to defend and secure himself from the enemy:

neither shall the mighty deliver himself; "his soul" or "life"; a soldier, a man of war, an expert and courageous officer at the head of his troop, or even the general of the army; see Psa 33:16.

Gill: Amo 2:15 - Neither shall he stand that handleth the bow // and he that is swift of foot shall not deliver himself // neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself Neither shall he stand that handleth the bow,.... That is, at some distance, and can make use of his instruments of war afar off; yet will not think i...

Neither shall he stand that handleth the bow,.... That is, at some distance, and can make use of his instruments of war afar off; yet will not think it safe to stand his ground, but will betake himself to his heels as fast as he can to save himself:

and he that is swift of foot shall not deliver himself; this is repeated, lest any should place confidence in their agility, and to show how complete and inevitable the affliction will be:

neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself; by fleeing on horseback, no more than he that is on foot; no ways that can be devised or thought on would preserve from this general calamity; see Psa 33:17.

Gill: Amo 2:16 - And he that is courageous among the mighty // shall flee away naked in that day // saith the Lord And he that is courageous among the mighty,.... Or "strong in his heart" b; one that is of a great heart, famous for courage and bravery, that excels...

And he that is courageous among the mighty,.... Or "strong in his heart" b; one that is of a great heart, famous for courage and bravery, that excels in it among the mighty; the most valiant soldiers and officers:

shall flee away naked in that day: shall throw away his armour, nay, put off his clothes, as being both a hinderance to him in his flight; and that he may make the better speed:

saith the Lord: which is added to show the certainty of all this; it might be depended upon that so it would be, since the Lord God of truth had spoken it; and it was fulfilled about eighty years after this prophecy.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Amo 2:1 The Moabites apparently desecrated the tomb of an Edomite king and burned his bones into a calcined substance which they then used as plaster (cf. Deu...

NET Notes: Amo 2:2 The ram’s horn (used as a trumpet) was blown to signal the approaching battle.

NET Notes: Amo 2:3 Or “princes” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NLT); TEV, CEV “leaders.”

NET Notes: Amo 2:4 Here the idolatry of the parents carried over to the children, who persisted in worshiping the idols to which their fathers were loyal.

NET Notes: Amo 2:5 For the location of Jerusalem see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Amo 2:6 Perhaps the expression “for a pair of sandals” indicates a relatively small price or debt. Some suggest that the sandals may have been an ...

NET Notes: Amo 2:7 Heb “my holy name.” Here “name” is used metonymically for God’s moral character or reputation, while “holy” ...

NET Notes: Amo 2:8 Or “gods.” The Hebrew term אֱלֹהֵיהֶם (’elohehem) may be translated R...

NET Notes: Amo 2:9 Heb “and his roots from below.”

NET Notes: Amo 2:11 Or perhaps “religious devotees” (also in the following verse). The Hebrew term נָזִיר (nazir) refers t...

NET Notes: Amo 2:12 Nazirites were strictly forbidden to drink wine (Num 6:2-3).

NET Notes: Amo 2:13 The precise meaning of this verse is unclear. Various suggested meanings have been proposed (see S. M. Paul, Amos [Hermeneia], 94): (1) One option is ...

NET Notes: Amo 2:14 Heb “the strong will not increase his strength.”

NET Notes: Amo 2:15 The last two lines read literally, “The one fast in his feet will not rescue [his life], and the rider of the horse will not rescue his life....

NET Notes: Amo 2:16 Or “the most stouthearted” (NAB); NRSV “those who are stout of heart.”

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:1 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because he burned the ( a ) bones ...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:4 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Judah, and for four, ( b ) I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because they have despised ...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:6 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of ( c ) Israel, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because they sold the righ...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:7 That pant after the ( e ) dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek: and a man and his father will go in unto the ...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:8 And they lay [themselves] down upon clothes laid to pledge ( f ) by every altar, and they ( g ) drink the wine of the condemned [in] the house of thei...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:9 Yet destroyed I the ( h ) Amorite before them, whose height [was] like the height of the cedars, and he [was] strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed his ...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:11 And I raised up of your sons for prophets, and of ( i ) your young men for Nazarites. [Is it] not even thus, O ye children of Israel? saith the LORD. ...

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:13 Behold, I am ( k ) pressed under you, as a cart is pressed [that is] full of sheaves. ( k ) You have wearied me with your sins; (Isa 1:14).

Geneva Bible: Amo 2:14 Therefore the flight shall perish from the ( l ) swift, and the strong shall not strengthen his force, neither shall the mighty deliver himself: ( l ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Amo 2:1-8 - --The evil passions of the heart break out in various forms; but the Lord looks to our motives, as well as our conduct. Those that deal cruelly, shall b...

MHCC: Amo 2:9-16 - --We need often to be reminded of the mercies we have received; which add much to the evil of the sins we have committed. They had helps for their souls...

Matthew Henry: Amo 2:1-8 - -- Here is, I. The judgment of Moab, another of the nations that bordered upon Israel. They are reckoned with and shall be punished for three transgre...

Matthew Henry: Amo 2:9-16 - -- Here, I. God puts his people Israel in mind of the great things he has done for them, in putting them into possession of the land of Canaan, the gre...

Keil-Delitzsch: Amo 2:1-3 - -- Moab. - Amo 2:1. "Thus saith Jehovah: for three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I shall not reverse it, because it has burned the bones of th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Amo 2:4-5 - -- Judah. - Amo 2:4. "Thus saith Jehovah: For three transgressions of Judah, and for four, I shall not reverse it, because they have despised the law ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Amo 2:6-8 - -- After this introduction, the prophet's address turns to Israel of the ten tribes, and in precisely the same form as in the case of the nations alrea...

Keil-Delitzsch: Amo 2:9-10 - -- And if this daring contempt of the commandments of God was highly reprehensible even in itself, it became perfectly inexcusable if we bear in mind t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Amo 2:11-12 - -- But Jehovah had not only put Israel into possession of Canaan; He had also continually manifested Himself to it as the founder and promoter of its s...

Keil-Delitzsch: Amo 2:13-16 - -- This base contempt of their covenant mercies the Lord would visit with a severe punishment. Amo 2:13. "Behold, I will press you down, as the cart p...

Constable: Amo 1:3--7:1 - --II. Prophetic messages that Amos delivered 1:3--6:14 The Book of Amos consists of words (oracles, 1:3-6:14) and ...

Constable: Amo 1:3--3:1 - --A. Oracles against nations 1:3-2:16 An oracle is a message of judgment. Amos proceeded to deliver eight ...

Constable: Amo 2:1-3 - --6. An oracle against Moab 2:1-3 Yahweh promised not to revoke His punishment of Moab, another na...

Constable: Amo 2:4-5 - --7. An oracle against Judah 2:4-5 God would treat Judah with the same justice that He promised Is...

Constable: Amo 2:6-16 - --8. An oracle against Israel 2:6-16 The greater length of this oracle as well as its last positio...

Constable: Amo 2:6-8 - --Israel's recent sins 2:6-8 Not all the sins that Amos identified appear in verses 6-8; two more appear in verse 12. Amos named seven sins of Israel al...

Constable: Amo 2:9-12 - --God's past grace 2:9-12 In this section Amos reminded the Israelites of Yahweh's past blessings on them. This made the heinousness of their sins even ...

Constable: Amo 2:12 - --Israel's response to God's grace 2:12 Even though God gave His people prophets and Nazir...

Constable: Amo 2:13-16 - --Israel's consequent punishment 2:13-16 In the previous oracles, Amos consistently likened God's judgment to fire (1:4, 7, 10, 12, 14; 2:2, 5). In this...

Guzik: Amo 2:1-16 - Judgment on God's People Amos 2 - Judgment on God's People A. Judgment on Moab and Judah. 1. (1-3) The word of the LORD against Moab. Thus says the LORD: "For three t...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) AMOS (meaning in Hebrew "a burden") was (Amo 1:1) a shepherd of Tekoa, a small town of Judah, six miles southeast from Beth-lehem, and twelve from Jer...

JFB: Amos (Garis Besar) GOD'S JUDGMENTS ON SYRIA, PHILISTIA, TYRE, EDOM, AND AMMON. (Amo 1:1-15) CHARGES AGAINST MOAB, JUDAH, AND LASTLY ISRAEL, THE CHIEF SUBJECT OF AMOS' P...

TSK: Amos 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Amo 2:1, God’s judgments upon Moab, Amo 2:4, upon Judah, Amo 2:6, and upon Israel; Amo 2:9, God complains of their ingratitude.

Poole: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT IF we might be allowed to make a conjecture at the quality of our prophet’ s sermons by the signification of his name, we must co...

Poole: Amos 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 2 God’ s judgments upon Moab, Amo 2:1-3 upon Judah, Amo 2:4,5 , and upon Israel, Amo 2:6-8 . God complaineth of Israel’ s ingrat...

MHCC: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) Amos was a herdsman, and engaged in agriculture. But the same Divine Spirit influenced Isaiah and Daniel in the court, and Amos in the sheep-folds, gi...

MHCC: Amos 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Amo 2:1-8) Judgments against Moab and Judah. (Amo 2:9-16) The ingratitude and ruin of Israel.

Matthew Henry: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Prophecy of Amos Though this prophet appeared a little before Isaiah, yet he was not, as some have ...

Matthew Henry: Amos 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter, I. God, by the prophet, proceeds in a like controversy with Moab as before with other nations (Amo 2:1-3). II. He shows what qua...

Constable: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and Writer The title of the book comes from its writer. The prophet...

Constable: Amos (Garis Besar) Outline I. Prologue 1:1-2 A. Introduction 1:1 B. Theme 1:2 ...

Constable: Amos Amos Bibliography Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. New York: Basic, 1985. Andersen, F...

Haydock: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF AMOS. INTRODUCTION. Amos prophesied in Israel about the same time as Osee, and was called from following the cattle to denoun...

Gill: Amos (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO AMOS This book in the Hebrew Bibles is called "Sepher Amos", the Book of Amos; and, in the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions, the P...

Gill: Amos 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO AMOS 2 In this chapter the prophet foretells the calamities that should come upon the Moabites for their transgressions, Amo 2:1; a...

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