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Kisah Para Rasul 14:1--16:40

Konteks
Paul and Barnabas at Iconium

14:1 The same thing happened in Iconium 1  when Paul and Barnabas 2  went into the Jewish synagogue 3  and spoke in such a way that a large group 4  of both Jews and Greeks believed. 14:2 But the Jews who refused to believe 5  stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds 6  against the brothers. 14:3 So they stayed there 7  for a considerable time, speaking out courageously for the Lord, who testified 8  to the message 9  of his grace, granting miraculous signs 10  and wonders to be performed through their hands. 14:4 But the population 11  of the city was divided; some 12  sided with the Jews, and some with the apostles. 14:5 When both the Gentiles and the Jews (together with their rulers) made 13  an attempt to mistreat 14  them and stone them, 15  14:6 Paul and Barnabas 16  learned about it 17  and fled to the Lycaonian cities of Lystra 18  and Derbe 19  and the surrounding region. 14:7 There 20  they continued to proclaim 21  the good news.

Paul and Barnabas at Lystra

14:8 In 22  Lystra 23  sat a man who could not use his feet, 24  lame from birth, 25  who had never walked. 14:9 This man was listening to Paul as he was speaking. When Paul 26  stared 27  intently at him and saw he had faith to be healed, 14:10 he said with a loud voice, “Stand upright on your feet.” 28  And the man 29  leaped up and began walking. 30  14:11 So when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they shouted 31  in the Lycaonian language, 32  “The gods have come down to us in human form!” 33  14:12 They began to call 34  Barnabas Zeus 35  and Paul Hermes, 36  because he was the chief speaker. 14:13 The priest of the temple 37  of Zeus, 38  located just outside the city, brought bulls 39  and garlands 40  to the city gates; he and the crowds wanted to offer sacrifices to them. 41  14:14 But when the apostles 42  Barnabas and Paul heard about 43  it, they tore 44  their clothes and rushed out 45  into the crowd, shouting, 46  14:15 “Men, why are you doing these things? We too are men, with human natures 47  just like you! We are proclaiming the good news to you, so that you should turn 48  from these worthless 49  things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, 50  the sea, and everything that is in them. 14:16 In 51  past 52  generations he allowed all the nations 53  to go their own ways, 14:17 yet he did not leave himself without a witness by doing good, 54  by giving you rain from heaven 55  and fruitful seasons, satisfying you 56  with food and your hearts with joy.” 57  14:18 Even by saying 58  these things, they scarcely persuaded 59  the crowds not to offer sacrifice to them.

14:19 But Jews came from Antioch 60  and Iconium, 61  and after winning 62  the crowds over, they stoned 63  Paul and dragged him out of the city, presuming him to be dead. 14:20 But after the disciples had surrounded him, he got up and went back 64  into the city. On 65  the next day he left with Barnabas for Derbe. 66 

Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch in Syria

14:21 After they had proclaimed the good news in that city and made many disciples, they returned to Lystra, 67  to Iconium, 68  and to Antioch. 69  14:22 They strengthened 70  the souls of the disciples and encouraged them to continue 71  in the faith, saying, “We must enter the kingdom 72  of God through many persecutions.” 73  14:23 When they had appointed elders 74  for them in the various churches, 75  with prayer and fasting 76  they entrusted them to the protection 77  of the Lord in whom they had believed. 14:24 Then they passed through 78  Pisidia and came into Pamphylia, 79  14:25 and when they had spoken the word 80  in Perga, 81  they went down to Attalia. 82  14:26 From there they sailed back to Antioch, 83  where they had been commended 84  to the grace of God for the work they had now completed. 85  14:27 When they arrived and gathered the church together, they reported 86  all the things God 87  had done with them, and that he had opened a door 88  of faith for the Gentiles. 14:28 So they spent 89  considerable 90  time with the disciples.

The Jerusalem Council

15:1 Now some men came down from Judea 91  and began to teach the brothers, “Unless you are circumcised 92  according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.” 15:2 When Paul and Barnabas had a major argument and debate 93  with them, the church 94  appointed Paul and Barnabas and some others from among them to go up to meet with 95  the apostles and elders in Jerusalem 96  about this point of disagreement. 97  15:3 So they were sent on their way by the church, and as they passed through both Phoenicia 98  and Samaria, they were relating at length 99  the conversion of the Gentiles and bringing great joy 100  to all the brothers. 15:4 When they arrived in Jerusalem, they were received 101  by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they reported 102  all the things God had done with them. 103  15:5 But some from the religious party of the Pharisees 104  who had believed stood up and said, “It is necessary 105  to circumcise the Gentiles 106  and to order them to observe 107  the law of Moses.”

15:6 Both the apostles and the elders met together to deliberate 108  about this matter. 15:7 After there had been much debate, 109  Peter stood up and said to them, “Brothers, you know that some time ago 110  God chose 111  me to preach to the Gentiles so they would hear the message 112  of the gospel 113  and believe. 114  15:8 And God, who knows the heart, 115  has testified 116  to them by giving them the Holy Spirit just as he did to us, 117  15:9 and he made no distinction 118  between them and us, cleansing 119  their hearts by faith. 15:10 So now why are you putting God to the test 120  by placing on the neck of the disciples a yoke 121  that neither our ancestors 122  nor we have been able to bear? 15:11 On the contrary, we believe that we are saved through 123  the grace of the Lord Jesus, in the same way as they are.” 124 

15:12 The whole group kept quiet 125  and listened to Barnabas and Paul while they explained all the miraculous signs 126  and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15:13 After they stopped speaking, 127  James replied, 128  “Brothers, listen to me. 15:14 Simeon 129  has explained 130  how God first concerned himself 131  to select 132  from among the Gentiles 133  a people for his name. 15:15 The 134  words of the prophets agree 135  with this, as it is written,

15:16After this 136  I 137  will return,

and I will rebuild the fallen tent 138  of David;

I will rebuild its ruins and restore 139  it,

15:17 so that the rest of humanity 140  may seek the Lord,

namely, 141  all the Gentiles 142  I have called to be my own, 143  says the Lord, 144  who makes these things 15:18 known 145  from long ago. 146 

15:19 “Therefore I conclude 147  that we should not cause extra difficulty 148  for those among the Gentiles 149  who are turning to God, 15:20 but that we should write them a letter 150  telling them to abstain 151  from things defiled 152  by idols and from sexual immorality and from what has been strangled 153  and from blood. 15:21 For Moses has had those who proclaim him in every town from ancient times, 154  because he is read aloud 155  in the synagogues 156  every Sabbath.”

15:22 Then the apostles and elders, with the whole church, decided 157  to send men chosen from among them, Judas called Barsabbas and Silas, 158  leaders among the brothers, to Antioch 159  with Paul and Barnabas. 15:23 They sent this letter with them: 160 

From the apostles 161  and elders, your brothers, 162  to the Gentile brothers and sisters 163  in Antioch, 164  Syria, 165  and Cilicia, greetings! 15:24 Since we have heard that some have gone out from among us with no orders from us and have confused 166  you, upsetting 167  your minds 168  by what they said, 169  15:25 we have unanimously 170  decided 171  to choose men to send to you along with our dear friends Barnabas and Paul, 15:26 who 172  have risked their lives 173  for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 174  15:27 Therefore we are sending 175  Judas and Silas 176  who will tell you these things themselves in person. 177  15:28 For it seemed best to the Holy Spirit and to us 178  not to place any greater burden on you than these necessary rules: 179  15:29 that you abstain from meat that has been sacrificed to idols 180  and from blood and from what has been strangled 181  and from sexual immorality. 182  If you keep yourselves from doing these things, 183  you will do well. Farewell. 184 

15:30 So when they were dismissed, 185  they went down to Antioch, 186  and after gathering the entire group 187  together, they delivered the letter. 15:31 When they read it aloud, 188  the people 189  rejoiced at its encouragement. 190  15:32 Both Judas and Silas, who were prophets themselves, encouraged and strengthened the brothers with a long speech. 191  15:33 After 192  they had spent some time there, 193  they were sent off in peace by the brothers to those who had sent them. 15:34 [[EMPTY]] 194  15:35 But Paul and Barnabas remained in Antioch, 195  teaching and proclaiming (along with many others) 196  the word of the Lord. 197 

Paul and Barnabas Part Company

15:36 After some days Paul said to Barnabas, “Let’s return 198  and visit the brothers in every town where we proclaimed the word of the Lord 199  to see how they are doing.” 200  15:37 Barnabas wanted to bring John called Mark along with them too, 15:38 but Paul insisted 201  that they should not take along this one who had left them in Pamphylia 202  and had not accompanied them in the work. 15:39 They had 203  a sharp disagreement, 204  so that they parted company. Barnabas took along 205  Mark and sailed away to Cyprus, 206  15:40 but Paul chose Silas and set out, commended 207  to the grace of the Lord by the brothers and sisters. 208  15:41 He passed through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening 209  the churches.

Timothy Joins Paul and Silas

16:1 He also came to Derbe 210  and to Lystra. 211  A disciple 212  named Timothy was there, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, 213  but whose father was a Greek. 214  16:2 The brothers in Lystra 215  and Iconium 216  spoke well 217  of him. 218  16:3 Paul wanted Timothy 219  to accompany him, and he took 220  him and circumcised 221  him because of the Jews who were in those places, 222  for they all knew that his father was Greek. 223  16:4 As they went through the towns, 224  they passed on 225  the decrees that had been decided on by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem 226  for the Gentile believers 227  to obey. 228  16:5 So the churches were being strengthened in the faith and were increasing in number every day. 229 

Paul’s Vision of the Macedonian Man

16:6 They went through the region of Phrygia 230  and Galatia, 231  having been prevented 232  by the Holy Spirit from speaking the message 233  in the province of Asia. 234  16:7 When they came to 235  Mysia, 236  they attempted to go into Bithynia, 237  but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow 238  them to do this, 239  16:8 so they passed through 240  Mysia 241  and went down to Troas. 242  16:9 A 243  vision appeared to Paul during the night: A Macedonian man was standing there 244  urging him, 245  “Come over 246  to Macedonia 247  and help us!” 16:10 After Paul 248  saw the vision, we attempted 249  immediately to go over to Macedonia, 250  concluding that God had called 251  us to proclaim the good news to them.

Arrival at Philippi

16:11 We put out to sea 252  from Troas 253  and sailed a straight course 254  to Samothrace, 255  the next day to Neapolis, 256  16:12 and from there to Philippi, 257  which is a leading city of that district 258  of Macedonia, 259  a Roman colony. 260  We stayed in this city for some days. 16:13 On the Sabbath day we went outside the city gate to the side of the river, where we thought there would be a place of prayer, and we sat down 261  and began to speak 262  to the women 263  who had assembled there. 264  16:14 A 265  woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth 266  from the city of Thyatira, 267  a God-fearing woman, listened to us. 268  The Lord opened her heart to respond 269  to what Paul was saying. 16:15 After she and her household were baptized, she urged us, 270  “If 271  you consider me to be a believer in the Lord, 272  come and stay in my house.” And she persuaded 273  us.

Paul and Silas Are Thrown Into Prison

16:16 Now 274  as we were going to the place of prayer, a slave girl met us who had a spirit that enabled her to foretell the future by supernatural means. 275  She 276  brought her owners 277  a great profit by fortune-telling. 278  16:17 She followed behind Paul and us and kept crying out, 279  “These men are servants 280  of the Most High God, who are proclaiming to you the way 281  of salvation.” 282  16:18 She continued to do this for many days. But Paul became greatly annoyed, 283  and turned 284  and said to the spirit, “I command you in the name of Jesus Christ 285  to come out of her!” And it came out of her at once. 286  16:19 But when her owners 287  saw their hope of profit 288  was gone, they seized 289  Paul and Silas and dragged 290  them into the marketplace before the authorities. 16:20 When 291  they had brought them 292  before the magistrates, they said, “These men are throwing our city into confusion. 293  They are 294  Jews 16:21 and are advocating 295  customs that are not lawful for us to accept 296  or practice, 297  since we are 298  Romans.”

16:22 The crowd joined the attack 299  against them, and the magistrates tore the clothes 300  off Paul and Silas 301  and ordered them to be beaten with rods. 302  16:23 After they had beaten them severely, 303  they threw them into prison and commanded 304  the jailer to guard them securely. 16:24 Receiving such orders, he threw them in the inner cell 305  and fastened their feet in the stocks. 306 

16:25 About midnight Paul and Silas were praying 307  and singing hymns to God, 308  and the rest of 309  the prisoners were listening to them. 16:26 Suddenly a great earthquake occurred, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken. Immediately all the doors flew open, and the bonds 310  of all the prisoners came loose. 16:27 When the jailer woke up 311  and saw the doors of the prison standing open, 312  he drew his sword and was about to kill himself, 313  because he assumed 314  the prisoners had escaped. 16:28 But Paul called out loudly, 315  “Do not harm yourself, 316  for we are all here!” 16:29 Calling for lights, the jailer 317  rushed in and fell down 318  trembling at the feet of Paul and Silas. 16:30 Then he brought them outside 319  and asked, “Sirs, what must 320  I do to be saved?” 16:31 They replied, 321  “Believe 322  in the Lord Jesus 323  and you will be saved, you and your household.” 16:32 Then 324  they spoke the word of the Lord 325  to him, along with all those who were in his house. 16:33 At 326  that hour of the night he took them 327  and washed their wounds; 328  then 329  he and all his family 330  were baptized right away. 331  16:34 The jailer 332  brought them into his house and set food 333  before them, and he rejoiced greatly 334  that he had come to believe 335  in God, together with his entire household. 336  16:35 At daybreak 337  the magistrates 338  sent their police officers, 339  saying, “Release those men.” 16:36 The jailer reported these words to Paul, saying, 340  “The magistrates have sent orders 341  to release you. So come out now and go in peace.” 342  16:37 But Paul said to the police officers, 343  “They had us beaten in public 344  without a proper trial 345  – even though we are Roman citizens 346  – and they threw us 347  in prison. And now they want to send us away 348  secretly? Absolutely not! They 349  themselves must come and escort us out!” 350  16:38 The police officers reported these words to the magistrates. They were frightened when they heard Paul and Silas 351  were Roman citizens 352  16:39 and came 353  and apologized to them. After 354  they brought them out, they asked them repeatedly 355  to leave the city. 16:40 When they came out of the prison, they entered Lydia’s house, and when they saw the brothers, they encouraged them and then 356  departed.

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[14:1]  1 sn Iconium. See the note in 13:51.

[14:1]  2 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:1]  3 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[14:1]  4 tn Or “that a large crowd.”

[14:2]  5 tn Or “who would not believe.”

[14:2]  6 tn Or “embittered their minds” (Grk “their souls”). BDAG 502 s.v. κακόω 2 has “make angry, embitter τὰς ψυχάς τινων κατά τινος poison the minds of some persons against another Ac 14:2.”

[14:3]  7 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[14:3]  8 sn The Lord testified to the message by granting the signs described in the following clause.

[14:3]  9 tn Grk “word.”

[14:3]  10 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned.

[14:4]  11 tn BDAG 825 s.v. πλῆθος 2.b.γ has this translation for πλῆθος (plhqo").

[14:4]  12 tn These clauses are a good example of the contrastive μὲνδέ (mende) construction: Some “on the one hand” sided with the Jews, but some “on the other hand” sided with the apostles.

[14:5]  13 tn Grk “So there came about an attempt” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[14:5]  14 tn On this verb see BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑβρίζω.

[14:5]  15 tn The direct object “them” is repeated after both verbs in the translation for stylistic reasons, although it occurs only after λιθοβολῆσαι (liqobolhsai) in the Greek text.

[14:6]  16 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:6]  17 tn Grk “learning about it, fled.” The participle συνιδόντες (sunidonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It could also be taken temporally (“when they learned about it”) as long as opening clause of v. 5 is not translated as a temporal clause too, which results in a redundancy.

[14:6]  18 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium, a Roman colony that was not on the main roads of Lycaonia. Because of its relative isolation, its local character was able to be preserved.

[14:6]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[14:6]  19 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra.

[14:6]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[14:7]  20 tn Grk “region, and there.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated and a new sentence begun in the translation.

[14:7]  21 tn The periphrastic construction εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ἦσαν (euangelizomenoi hsan) has been translated as a progressive imperfect.

[14:8]  22 tn Grk “And in.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[14:8]  23 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium.

[14:8]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[14:8]  24 tn Grk “powerless in his feet,” meaning he was unable to use his feet to walk.

[14:8]  25 tn Grk “lame from his mother’s womb” (an idiom).

[14:8]  sn The description lame from birth makes clear how serious the condition was, and how real it was. This event is very similar to Acts 3:1-10, except here the lame man’s faith is clear from the start.

[14:9]  26 tn Grk “speaking, who.” The relative pronoun has been replaced by the noun “Paul,” and a new sentence begun in the translation because an English relative clause would be very awkward here.

[14:9]  27 tn Or “looked.”

[14:10]  28 tn BDAG 722 s.v. ὀρθός 1.a has “stand upright on your feet.”

[14:10]  29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[14:10]  30 tn This verb is imperfect tense in contrast to the previous verb, which is aorist. It has been translated ingressively, since the start of a sequence is in view here.

[14:11]  31 tn Grk “they lifted up their voice” (an idiom).

[14:11]  32 tn Grk “in Lycaonian, saying.” The word “language” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

[14:11]  33 tn So BDAG 707 s.v. ὁμοιόω 1. However, L&N 64.4 takes the participle ὁμοιωθέντες (Jomoiwqente") as an adjectival participle modifying θεοί (qeoi): “the gods resembling men have come down to us.”

[14:11]  sn The gods have come down to us in human form. Greek culture spoke of “divine men.” In this region there was a story of Zeus and Hermes visiting the area (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.611-725). The locals failed to acknowledge them, so judgment followed. The present crowd was determined not to make the mistake a second time.

[14:12]  34 tn The imperfect verb ἐκάλουν (ekaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[14:12]  35 sn Zeus was the chief Greek deity, worshiped throughout the Greco-Roman world (known to the Romans as Jupiter).

[14:12]  36 sn Hermes was a Greek god who (according to Greek mythology) was the messenger of the gods and the god of oratory (equivalent to the Roman god Mercury).

[14:13]  37 tn The words “the temple of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. The translation “the priest of (the temple/shrine of) Zeus located before the city” is given for this phrase by BDAG 426 s.v. Ζεύς.

[14:13]  38 sn See the note on Zeus in the previous verse.

[14:13]  39 tn Or “oxen.”

[14:13]  40 tn Or “wreaths.”

[14:13]  sn Garlands were commonly wreaths of wool with leaves and flowers woven in, worn on a person’s head or woven around a staff. They were an important part of many rituals used to worship pagan gods. Although it was an erroneous reaction, the priest’s reaction shows how all acknowledged their power and access to God.

[14:13]  41 tn The words “to them” are not in the Greek text, but are clearly implied by the response of Paul and Barnabas in the following verse.

[14:14]  42 sn The apostles Barnabas and Paul. This is one of only two places where Luke calls Paul an apostle, and the description here is shared with Barnabas. This is a nontechnical use here, referring to a commissioned messenger.

[14:14]  43 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") is taken temporally.

[14:14]  44 tn Grk “tearing their clothes they rushed out.” The participle διαρρήξαντες (diarrhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This action is a Jewish response to blasphemy (m. Sanhedrin 7.5; Jdt 14:16-17).

[14:14]  45 tn So BDAG 307 s.v. ἐκπηδάω 1, “rush (lit. ‘leap’) outεἰς τὸν ὄχλον into the crowd Ac 14:14.”

[14:14]  46 tn Grk “shouting and saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, in v. 15) has not been translated because it is redundant.

[14:14]  sn What follows is one of two speeches in Acts to a purely pagan audience (Acts 17 in Athens is the other). So Paul focused on God as Creator, a common link.

[14:15]  47 tn Grk “with the same kinds of feelings,” L&N 25.32. BDAG 706 s.v. ὁμοιοπαθής translates the phrase “with the same nature τινί as someone.” In the immediate context, the contrast is between human and divine nature, and the point is that Paul and Barnabas are mere mortals, not gods.

[14:15]  48 tn Grk “in order that you should turn,” with ἐπιστρέφειν (epistrefein) as an infinitive of purpose, but this is somewhat awkward contemporary English. To translate the infinitive construction “proclaim the good news, that you should turn,” which is much smoother English, could give the impression that the infinitive clause is actually the content of the good news, which it is not. The somewhat less formal “to get you to turn” would work, but might convey to some readers manipulativeness on the part of the apostles. Thus “proclaim the good news, so that you should turn,” is used, to convey that the purpose of the proclamation of good news is the response by the hearers. The emphasis here is like 1 Thess 1:9-10.

[14:15]  49 tn Or “useless,” “futile.” The reference is to idols and idolatry, worshiping the creation over the Creator (Rom 1:18-32). See also 1 Kgs 16:2, 13, 26; 2 Kgs 17:15; Jer 2:5; 8:19; 3 Macc 6:11.

[14:15]  50 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

[14:16]  51 tn Grk “them, who in.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the pronoun “he” (“In past generations he”) and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who made the heaven” and “who in past generations”) following one another.

[14:16]  52 tn On this term see BDAG 780 s.v. παροίχομαι. The word is a NT hapax legomenon.

[14:16]  53 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same). The plural here alludes to the variety of false religions in the pagan world.

[14:17]  54 tn The participle ἀγαθουργῶν (agaqourgwn) is regarded as indicating means here, parallel to the following participles διδούς (didou") and ἐμπιπλῶν (empiplwn). This is the easiest way to understand the Greek structure. Semantically, the first participle is a general statement, followed by two participles giving specific examples of doing good.

[14:17]  55 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

[14:17]  56 tn Grk “satisfying [filling] your hearts with food and joy.” This is an idiomatic expression; it strikes the English reader as strange to speak of “filling one’s heart with food.” Thus the additional direct object “you” has been supplied, separating the two expressions somewhat: “satisfying you with food and your hearts with joy.”

[14:17]  57 sn God’s general sovereignty and gracious care in the creation are the way Paul introduces the theme of the goodness of God. He was trying to establish monotheism here. It is an OT theme (Gen 8:22; Ps 4:7; 145:15-16; 147:8-9; Isa 25:6; Jer 5:24) which also appears in the NT (Luke 12:22-34).

[14:18]  58 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is regarded as indicating means.

[14:18]  59 tn BDAG 524 s.v. καταπαύω 2.b gives both “restrain” and “dissuade someone fr. someth.,” but “they scarcely dissuaded the crowds from offering sacrifice,” while accurate, is less common in contemporary English than saying “they scarcely persuaded the crowds not to offer sacrifice.” Paganism is portrayed as a powerful reality that is hard to reverse.

[14:19]  60 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

[14:19]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

[14:19]  61 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra. Note how Jews from other cities were chasing Paul (2 Cor 11:4-6; Gal 2:4-5; Acts 9:16).

[14:19]  62 tn The participle πείσαντες (peisante") is taken temporally (BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.c).

[14:19]  63 tn Grk “stoning Paul they dragged him.” The participle λιθάσαντες (liqasante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[14:20]  64 tn Grk “and entered”; the word “back” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

[14:20]  65 tn Grk “And on.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[14:20]  66 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. This was the easternmost point of the journey.

[14:20]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[14:21]  67 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) northwest of Derbe.

[14:21]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[14:21]  68 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra.

[14:21]  69 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

[14:21]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

[14:22]  70 tn Grk “to Antioch, strengthening.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here. This participle (ἐπιστηρίζοντες, episthrizonte") and the following one (παρακαλοῦντες, parakalounte") have been translated as finite verbs connected by the coordinating conjunction “and.”

[14:22]  71 sn And encouraged them to continue. The exhortations are like those noted in Acts 11:23; 13:43. An example of such a speech is found in Acts 20:18-35. Christianity is now characterized as “the faith.”

[14:22]  72 sn This reference to the kingdom of God clearly refers to its future arrival.

[14:22]  73 tn Or “sufferings.”

[14:23]  74 sn Appointed elders. See Acts 20:17.

[14:23]  75 tn The preposition κατά (kata) is used here in a distributive sense; see BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d.

[14:23]  76 tn Literally with a finite verb (προσευξάμενοι, proseuxamenoi) rather than a noun, “praying with fasting,” but the combination “prayer and fasting” is so familiar in English that it is preferable to use it here.

[14:23]  77 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “entrust someone to the care or protection of someone” for this phrase. The reference to persecution or suffering in the context (v. 22) suggests “protection” is a better translation here. This looks at God’s ultimate care for the church.

[14:24]  78 tn Grk “Then passing through Pisidia they came.” The participle διελθόντες (dielqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[14:24]  79 sn Pamphylia was a province along the southern coast of Asia Minor.

[14:25]  80 tn Or “message.”

[14:25]  81 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

[14:25]  82 sn Attalia was a seaport in the province of Pamphylia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, about 12 mi (20 km) southwest of Perga.

[14:26]  83 sn Antioch was the city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia) from which Paul’s first missionary journey began (see Acts 13:1-4). That first missionary journey ends here, after covering some 1,400 mi (2,240 km).

[14:26]  map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

[14:26]  84 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “commended to the grace of God for the work 14:26” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternative meanings for this category.

[14:26]  85 tn BDAG 829 s.v. πληρόω 5 has “to bring to completion an activity in which one has been involved from its beginning, complete, finish” as meanings for this category. The ministry to which they were commissioned ends with a note of success.

[14:27]  86 tn Or “announced.”

[14:27]  87 sn Note that God is the subject of the activity. The outcome of this mission is seen as a confirmation of the mission to the Gentiles.

[14:27]  88 sn On the image of opening, or of the door, see 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Cor 2:12; Col 4:3.

[14:28]  89 tn BDAG 238 s.v. διατρίβω gives the meaning as “spend” when followed by an accusative τὸν χρόνον (ton cronon) which is the case here.

[14:28]  90 tn Grk “no little (time)” (an idiom).

[15:1]  91 sn That is, they came down from Judea to Antioch in Syria.

[15:1]  92 tc Codex Bezae (D) and a few other witnesses have “and walk” here (i.e., instead of τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωϋσέως [tw eqei tw Mwu>sew"] they read καὶ τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωϋσέως περιπατῆτε [kai tw eqei tw Mwu>sew" peripathte]). This is a decidedly stronger focus on obedience to the Law. As well, D expands vv. 1-5 in various places with the overall effect of being “more sympathetic to the local tradition of the church at Jerusalem” while the Alexandrian witnesses are more sympathetic to Paul (TCGNT 377). Codex D is well known for having a significantly longer text in Acts, but modern scholarship is generally of the opinion that the text of D expands on the original wording of Acts, with a theological viewpoint that especially puts Peter in a more authoritarian light. The expansion in these five verses is in keeping with that motif even though Peter is not explicitly in view.

[15:1]  sn Unless you are circumcised. These teachers from Judea were teaching that Gentiles could not be saved unless they kept the law of Moses in regard to circumcision. Thus according to them a Gentile had first to become a proselyte to Judaism, including circumcision, before one could become a Christian. This party is sometimes known (collectively) as Judaizers. They did not question that Gentiles could come into the community, but disagreed with Paul and Barnabas on what basis they could do so.

[15:2]  93 tn Grk “no little argument and debate” (an idiom).

[15:2]  94 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the church, or the rest of the believers at Antioch) has been specified to avoid confusion with the Judaizers mentioned in the preceding clause.

[15:2]  95 tn Grk “go up to,” but in this context a meeting is implied.

[15:2]  96 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[15:2]  97 tn Or “point of controversy.” It is unclear whether this event parallels Gal 2:1-10 or that Gal 2 fits with Acts 11:30. More than likely Gal 2:1-10 is to be related to Acts 11:30.

[15:3]  98 sn Phoenicia was an area along the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine in ancient Syria.

[15:3]  99 tn L&N 33.201 indicates that ἐκδιηγέομαι (ekdihgeomai) means to provide detailed information in a systematic manner, “to inform, to relate, to tell fully.” “Relating at length” conveys this effectively in the present context.

[15:3]  100 tn For ἐποίουν (epoioun) in this verse BDAG 839 s.v. ποιέω 2.c has “they brought joy to the members.”

[15:4]  101 tn BDAG 761 s.v. παραδέχομαι 2 has “receive, accept” for the meaning here.

[15:4]  102 tn Or “announced.”

[15:4]  103 tn “They reported all the things God had done with them” – an identical phrase occurs in Acts 14:27. God is always the agent.

[15:5]  104 sn See the note on Pharisee in 5:34.

[15:5]  105 sn The Greek word used here (δεῖ, dei) is a strong term that expresses divine necessity. The claim is that God commanded the circumcision of Gentiles.

[15:5]  106 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the Gentiles) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[15:5]  107 tn Or “keep.”

[15:6]  108 tn The translation for ἰδεῖν (idein) in this verse is given by BDAG 279-80 s.v. εἶδον 3 as “deliberate concerning this matter.” A contemporary idiom would be to “look into” a matter.

[15:7]  109 tn Or “discussion.” This term is repeated from v. 2.

[15:7]  110 tn Or “long ago” (an idiom, literally “from ancient days”). According to L&N 67.26, “this reference to Peter having been chosen by God sometime before to bring the gospel to the Gentiles can hardly be regarded as a reference to ancient times, though some persons understand this to mean that God’s decision was made at the beginning of time. The usage of ἀφ᾿ ἡμερῶν ἀρχαίων is probably designed to emphasize the established nature of God’s decision for Peter to take the gospel to the Gentiles beginning with the centurion Cornelius. The fact that this was relatively early in the development of the church may also serve to explain the use of the idiom.”

[15:7]  111 sn God chose. The theme of God’s sovereign choice is an important point, because 1st century Jews believed Israel’s unique position and customs were a reflection of God’s choice.

[15:7]  112 tn Or “word.”

[15:7]  113 tn Or “of the good news.”

[15:7]  114 tn Grk “God chose among you from my mouth the Gentiles to hear the message of the gospel and to believe.” The sense of this sentence in Greek is difficult to render in English. The Greek verb ἐκλέγομαι (eklegomai, “choose”) normally takes a person or thing as a direct object; in this verse the verb has neither clearly stated. The translation understands the phrase “from my mouth,” referring to Peter, as a description of both who God chose and the task to be done. This coupled with the following statement about Gentiles hearing the message of the gospel leads to the more dynamic rendering in the translation.

[15:8]  115 sn The expression who knows the heart means “who knows what people think.”

[15:8]  116 tn Or “has borne witness.”

[15:8]  117 sn By giving them…just as he did to us. The allusion is to the events of Acts 10-11, esp. 10:44-48 and Peter’s remarks in 11:15-18.

[15:9]  118 tn BDAG 231 s.v. διακρίνω 1.b lists this passage under the meaning “to conclude that there is a difference, make a distinction, differentiate.”

[15:9]  119 tn Or “purifying.”

[15:10]  120 tn According to BDAG 793 s.v. πειράζω 2.c, “In Ac 15:10 the πειράζειν τὸν θεόν consists in the fact that after God’s will has been clearly made known through granting of the Spirit to the Gentiles (v. 8), some doubt and make trial to see whether God’s will really becomes operative.” All testing of God in Luke is negative: Luke 4:2; 11:16.

[15:10]  121 sn A yoke is a wooden bar or frame that joins two animals like oxen or horses so that they can pull a wagon, plow, etc. together. Here it is used figuratively of the restriction that some in the early church wanted to place on Gentile converts to Christianity of observing the law of Moses and having males circumcised. The yoke is a decidedly negative image: Matt 23:4, but cf. Matt 11:29-30.

[15:10]  122 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

[15:11]  123 tn Or “by.”

[15:11]  124 tn Or “Jesus, just as they are.” BDAG 1016-17 s.v. τρόπος 1 translates καθ᾿ ὃν τρόπον (kaqJon tropon) here as “in the same way as.”

[15:11]  sn In the same way as they are. Here is an interesting reversal of the argument. Jews are saved by grace (without law), as Gentiles are.

[15:12]  125 tn BDAG 922 s.v. σιγάω 1.a lists this passage under the meaning “say nothing, keep still, keep silent.”

[15:12]  126 tn Here in connection with τέρατα (terata) the miraculous nature of these signs is indicated.

[15:13]  127 tn BDAG 922 s.v. σιγάω 1.b lists this passage under the meaning “stop speaking, become silent.”

[15:13]  128 tn Grk “answered, saying”; the redundant participle λέγων (legwn) has not been translated.

[15:14]  129 sn Simeon is a form of the apostle Peter’s Aramaic name. James uses Peter’s “Jewish” name here.

[15:14]  130 tn Or “reported,” “described.”

[15:14]  131 tn BDAG 378 s.v. ἐπισκέπτομαι 3 translates this phrase in Acts 15:14, “God concerned himself about winning a people fr. among the nations.”

[15:14]  132 tn Grk “to take,” but in the sense of selecting or choosing (accompanied by the preposition ἐκ [ek] plus a genitive specifying the group selected from) see Heb 5:1; also BDAG 584 s.v. λαμβάνω 6.

[15:14]  133 sn In the Greek text the expression “from among the Gentiles” is in emphatic position.

[15:15]  134 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[15:15]  135 sn The term agree means “match” or “harmonize with.” James’ point in the introduction argues that many of the OT prophets taught this. He gives one example (which follows).

[15:16]  136 tn Grk “After these things.”

[15:16]  137 sn The first person pronoun I refers to God and his activity. It is God who is doing this.

[15:16]  138 tn Or more generally, “dwelling”; perhaps, “royal tent.” According to BDAG 928 s.v. σκηνή the word can mean “tent” or “hut,” or more generally “lodging” or “dwelling.” In this verse (a quotation from Amos 9:11) BDAG refers this to David’s ruined kingdom; it is possibly an allusion to a king’s tent (a royal tent). God is at work to reestablish David’s line (Acts 2:30-36; 13:32-39).

[15:16]  139 tn BDAG 86 s.v. ἀνορθόω places this verb under the meaning “to build someth. up again after it has fallen, rebuild, restore,” but since ἀνοικοδομέω (anoikodomew, “rebuild”) has occurred twice in this verse already, “restore” is used here.

[15:17]  140 tn Or “so that all other people.” The use of this term follows Amos 9:11 LXX.

[15:17]  141 tn Here καί (kai) introduces an explanatory clause that explains the preceding phrase “the rest of humanity.” The clause introduced by καί (kai) could also be punctuated in English as a parenthesis.

[15:17]  142 tn Or “all the nations” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same).

[15:17]  sn Note the linkage back to v. 14 through the mention of Gentiles. What Simeon explained is what the OT text says would happen.

[15:17]  143 tn Grk “all the Gentiles on whom my name has been called.” Based on well-attested OT usage, the passive of ἐπικαλέω (epikalew) here indicates God’s ownership (“all the Gentiles who belong to me”) or calling (“all the Gentiles whom I have called to be my own”). See L&N 11.28.

[15:17]  144 sn A quotation from Amos 9:11-12 LXX. James demonstrated a high degree of cultural sensitivity when he cited a version of the text (the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament) that Gentiles would use.

[15:18]  145 sn Who makes these things known. The remark emphasizes how God’s design of these things reaches back to the time he declared them.

[15:18]  146 sn An allusion to Isa 45:21.

[15:19]  147 tn Or “I have decided,” “I think.” The verb κρίνω (krinw) has a far broader range of meaning than the often-used English verb “judge.” BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 3 places this use in Acts 15:19 in the category “judge, think, consider, look upon” followed by double accusative of object and predicate. However, many modern translations give the impression that a binding decision is being handed down by James: “it is my judgment” (NASB, NIV); “I have reached the decision” (NRSV). L&N 22.25, on the other hand, translate the phrase here “I think that we should not cause extra difficulty for those among the Gentiles.” This gives more the impression of an opinion than a binding decision. The resolution of this lies not so much in the lexical data as in how one conceives James’ role in the leadership of the Jerusalem church, plus the dynamics of the specific situation where the issue of Gentile inclusion in the church was being discussed. The major possibilities are: (1) James is handing down a binding decision to the rest of the church as the one who has ultimate authority to decide this matter; (2) James is offering his own personal opinion in the matter, which is not binding on the church; (3) James is voicing a consensus opinion of all the apostles and elders, although phrasing it as if it were his own; (4) James is making a suggestion to the rest of the leadership as to what course they should follow. In light of the difficulty in reconstructing the historical situation in detail, it is best to use a translation which maintains as many of the various options as possible. For this reason the translation “Therefore I conclude” has been used, leaving open the question whether in reaching this conclusion James is speaking only for himself or for the rest of the leadership.

[15:19]  148 tn Or “trouble.” This term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 775 s.v. παρενοχλέω).

[15:19]  149 tn Or “among the nations” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same).

[15:20]  150 tn The translation “to write a letter, to send a letter to” for ἐπιστέλλω (epistellw) is given in L&N 33.49.

[15:20]  151 tn Three of the four prohibitions deal with food (the first, third and fourth) while one prohibition deals with behavior (the second, refraining from sexual immorality). Since these occur in the order they do, the translation “abstain from” is used to cover both sorts of activity (eating food items, immoral behavior).

[15:20]  sn Telling them to abstain. These restrictions are not on matters of salvation, but are given as acts of sensitivity to their Jewish brethren, as v. 21 makes clear. Another example of such sensitivity is seen in 1 Cor 10:14-11:1.

[15:20]  152 tn Or “polluted.”

[15:20]  153 sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14), Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the following provision in Acts 15:20, and from blood).

[15:21]  154 tn Grk “from generations of old”; the translation “fr. ancient times” is given by BDAG 192 s.v. γενεά 3.b.

[15:21]  155 tn The translation “read aloud” is used to indicate the actual practice; translating as “read” could be misunderstood to mean private, silent reading.

[15:21]  156 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[15:22]  157 tn BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.b.β lists this verse under the meaning “it seems best to me, I decide, I resolve.”

[15:22]  158 sn Silas. See 2 Cor 1:19; 1 Thess 1:1; 2 Thess 1:1 (= Silvanus).

[15:22]  159 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

[15:22]  map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

[15:23]  160 tn Grk “writing by their hand” (an idiom for sending a letter).

[15:23]  161 tn Grk “The apostles.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.

[15:23]  162 tn Grk “brothers,” but “your” is supplied to specify the relationship, since without it “brothers” could be understood as vocative in English.

[15:23]  163 tn Grk “to the brothers who are from the Gentiles.”

[15:23]  164 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

[15:23]  165 tn Grk “and Syria,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

[15:24]  166 tn Here BDAG 990-91 s.v. ταράσσω 2 states, “Of mental confusion caused by false teachings ταρ. τινά Ac 15:24 (w. λόγοις foll.).”

[15:24]  167 tn BDAG 71 s.v. ἀνασκευάζω describes this verb with a figurative meaning: “to cause inward distress, upset, unsettle.”

[15:24]  168 tn Grk “souls.”

[15:24]  169 tn Grk “by words”; L&N 25.231 translates the phrase “they troubled and upset you by what they said.”

[15:25]  170 tn Grk “having become of one mind, we have decided.” This has been translated “we have unanimously decided” to reduce the awkwardness in English.

[15:25]  171 tn BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.b.β lists this verse under the meaning “it seems best to me, I decide, I resolve.”

[15:26]  172 tn Grk “men who”; but this can be misleading because in English the referent could be understood to be the men sent along with Barnabas and Paul rather than Barnabas and Paul themselves. This option does not exist in the Greek original, however, since ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is dative and must agree with “Barnabas and Paul,” while ἄνδρας (andra") is accusative. By omitting the word “men” from the translation here, it is clear in English that the phrase refers to the immediately preceding nouns “Barnabas and Paul.”

[15:26]  173 tn Grk “who have risked their souls”; the equivalent English idiom is “risk one’s life.” The descriptions commend Barnabas and Paul as thoroughly trustworthy.

[15:26]  174 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[15:27]  175 tn This verb has been translated as an epistolary aorist.

[15:27]  176 sn Judas and Silas were the “two witnesses” who would vouch for the truth of the recommendation.

[15:27]  177 tn Grk “by means of word” (an idiom for a verbal report).

[15:28]  178 tn This is the same expression translated “decided” in Acts 15:22, 25. BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.b.β lists “decide” as a possible gloss for this verse, and this translation would be consistent with the translation of the same expression in Acts 15:22, 25. However, the unusually awkward “the Holy Spirit and we have decided” would result. Given this approach, it would be more natural in English to say “We and the Holy Spirit have decided,” but changing the order removes the emphasis the Greek text gives to the Holy Spirit. Thus, although the similarity to the phrases in 15:22, 25 is obscured, it is better to use the alternate translation “it seems best to me” (also given by BDAG): “it seemed best to the Holy Spirit and to us.” Again the scope of agreement is highlighted.

[15:28]  179 tn L&N 71.39 translates “indispensable (rules)” while BDAG 358 s.v. ἐπάναγκες has “the necessary things.”

[15:29]  180 tn There is no specific semantic component in the Greek word εἰδωλόθυτος that means “meat” (see BDAG 280 s.v. εἰδωλόθυτος; L&N 5.15). The stem –θυτος means “sacrifice” (referring to an animal sacrificially killed) and thereby implies meat.

[15:29]  181 tc Codex Bezae (D) and a few other witnesses lack the restriction “and from what has been strangled” (καὶ πνικτῶν, kai pniktwn), though the words are supported by a wide variety of early and important witnesses otherwise and should be considered authentic.

[15:29]  sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14), Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the preceding provision in this verse, and from blood).

[15:29]  182 tc Codex Bezae (D) as well as 323 614 945 1739 1891 sa and other witnesses have after “sexual immorality” the following statement: “And whatever you do not want to happen to yourselves, do not do to another/others.” By adding this negative form of the Golden Rule, these witnesses effectively change the Apostolic Decree from what might be regarded as ceremonial restrictions into more ethical demands. The issues here are quite complicated, and beyond the scope of this brief note. Suffice it to say that D and its allies here are almost surely an expansion and alteration of the original text of Acts. For an excellent discussion of the exegetical and textual issues, see TCGNT 379-83.

[15:29]  183 tn Grk “from which things keeping yourselves.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (ὧν, |wn) has been replaced by a pronoun (“these things”) and a new English sentence begun. The participle διατηροῦντες (diathrounte") has been translated as a conditional adverbial participle (“if you keep yourselves”). See further L&N 13.153.

[15:29]  184 tn The phrase ἔρρωσθε (errwsqe) may be understood as a stock device indicating a letter is complete (“good-bye,” L&N 33.24) or as a sincere wish that the persons involved may fare well (“may you fare well,” L&N 23.133).

[15:30]  185 tn Or “sent away.”

[15:30]  186 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

[15:30]  187 tn Or “congregation” (referring to the group of believers).

[15:31]  188 tn Grk “read it.” The translation “read aloud” is used to indicate the actual practice of public reading; translating as “read” could be misunderstood to mean private, silent, or individual reading.

[15:31]  189 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) is specified in the translation for clarity.

[15:31]  190 tn Or “at its encouraging message.”

[15:32]  191 tn Here λόγου (logou) is singular. BDAG 599-600 s.v. λόγος 1.a.β has “in a long speech” for this phrase.

[15:33]  192 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[15:33]  193 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[15:34]  194 tc A few mss add 15:34 “But Silas decided to stay there.” Verse 34 is lacking in Ì74 א A B E Ψ Ï bo. It is included in a shorter form, with a few minor variations, by (C) 33 36 323 453 614 (945) 1175 1739 1891 al sa, and in a longer form (“But Silas decided to stay with them, and only Judas departed”) by D l. The verse is almost certainly not a part of the original text of Acts, but was added to harmonize with the statement about Silas in v. 40. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

[15:35]  195 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

[15:35]  196 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[15:35]  197 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in v. 36; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[15:36]  198 tn Grk “Returning let us visit.” The participle ἐπιστρέψαντες (epistreyante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[15:36]  199 tn See the note on the phrase “word of the Lord” in v. 35.

[15:36]  200 tn BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 10.b has “how they are” for this phrase.

[15:38]  201 tn BDAG 94 s.v. ἀξιόω 2.a has “he insisted (impf.) that they should not take him along” for this phrase.

[15:38]  202 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor. See Acts 13:13, where it was mentioned previously.

[15:39]  203 tn Grk “There happened a sharp disagreement.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[15:39]  204 tn BDAG 780 s.v. παροξυσμός 2 has “sharp disagreement” here; L&N 33.451 has “sharp argument, sharp difference of opinion.”

[15:39]  205 tn Grk “taking along Mark sailed.” The participle παραλαβόντα (paralabonta) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[15:39]  206 sn Cyprus is a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

[15:40]  207 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “be commended by someone to the grace of the Lord” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternatives for this category.

[15:40]  208 tn Grk “by the brothers.” Here it it is highly probable that the entire congregation is in view, not just men, so the translation “brothers and sisters” has been used for the plural ἀδελφῶν (adelfwn),.

[15:41]  209 sn Strengthening. See Acts 14:22; 15:32; 18:23.

[16:1]  210 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. It was about 90 mi (145 km) from Tarsus.

[16:1]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[16:1]  211 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 25 mi (40 km) south of Iconium.

[16:1]  map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

[16:1]  212 tn Grk “And behold, a disciple.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.

[16:1]  213 tn L&N 31.103 translates this phrase “the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer.”

[16:1]  214 sn His father was a Greek. Timothy was the offspring of a mixed marriage between a Jewish woman (see 2 Tim 1:5) and a Gentile man. On mixed marriages in Judaism, see Neh 13:23-27; Ezra 9:1-10:44; Mal 2:10-16; Jub. 30:7-17; m. Qiddushin 3.12; m. Yevamot 7.5.

[16:2]  215 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 25 mi (40 km) south of Iconium.

[16:2]  216 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 110 mi (175 km) east of Pisidian Antioch.

[16:2]  217 tn For this sense of μαρτυρέω (marturew), see BDAG 618 s.v. 2.b.

[16:2]  218 tn Grk “who was well spoken of by the brothers in Lystra and Iconium.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who was a believer…who was well spoken of”) and the awkwardness of the passive verb (“was well spoken of”), the relative pronoun at the beginning of 16:2 (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“him”) and the construction converted from passive to active at the same time a new sentence was started in the translation.

[16:3]  219 tn Grk “this one”; the referent (Timothy) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:3]  220 tn Grk “and taking him he circumcised him.” The participle λαβών (labwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul’s cultural sensitivity showed in his action here. He did not want Timothy’s lack of circumcision to become an issue (1 Cor 9:15-23).

[16:3]  221 tn The verb περιέτεμεν (perietemen) here may be understood as causative (cf. ExSyn 411-12) if Paul did not personally perform the circumcision.

[16:3]  222 tn Or “who lived in the area.”

[16:3]  223 tn The anarthrous predicate nominative has been translated as qualitative (“Greek”) rather than indefinite (“a Greek”).

[16:3]  sn His father was Greek. Under Jewish law at least as early as the 2nd century, a person was considered Jewish if his or her mother was Jewish. It is not certain whether such a law was in effect in the 1st century, but even if it was, Timothy would not have been accepted as fully Jewish because he was not circumcised.

[16:4]  224 tn Or “cities.”

[16:4]  225 tn BDAG 762-63 s.v. παραδίδωμι 3 has “they handed down to them the decisions to observe Ac 16:4.”

[16:4]  226 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[16:4]  227 tn Grk “for them”; the referent (Gentile believers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:4]  228 tn Or “observe” or “follow.”

[16:5]  229 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.

[16:6]  230 sn Phrygia was a district in central Asia Minor west of Pisidia.

[16:6]  231 sn Galatia refers to either (1) the region of the old kingdom of Galatia in the central part of Asia Minor (North Galatia), or (2) the Roman province of Galatia, whose principal cities in the 1st century were Ancyra and Pisidian Antioch (South Galatia). The exact extent and meaning of this area has been a subject of considerable controversy in modern NT studies.

[16:6]  232 tn Or “forbidden.”

[16:6]  233 tn Or “word.”

[16:6]  234 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

[16:7]  235 tn BDAG 511 s.v. κατά B.1.b has “to Mysia” here.

[16:7]  236 sn Mysia was a province in northwest Asia Minor.

[16:7]  237 sn Bithynia was a province in northern Asia Minor northeast of Mysia.

[16:7]  238 tn Or “permit”; see BDAG 269 s.v. ἐάω 1.

[16:7]  239 tn The words “do this” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied for stylistic reasons, since English handles ellipses differently than Greek.

[16:8]  240 tn Although the normal meaning for παρέρχομαι (parercomai) is “pass by, go by,” it would be difficult to get to Troas from where Paul and his companions were without going through rather than around Mysia. BDAG 776 s.v. παρέρχομαι 6 list some nonbiblical examples of the meaning “go through, pass through,” and give that meaning for the usage here.

[16:8]  241 sn Mysia was a province in northwest Asia Minor.

[16:8]  242 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, near ancient Troy.

[16:9]  243 tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[16:9]  244 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[16:9]  245 tn The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

[16:9]  246 tn Grk “Coming over.” The participle διαβάς (diabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:9]  247 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[16:10]  248 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:10]  249 tn Grk “sought.”

[16:10]  250 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[16:10]  251 tn Or “summoned.”

[16:11]  252 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

[16:11]  253 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor. See v. 8.

[16:11]  254 tn BDAG 406 s.v. εὐθυδρομέω has “of a ship run a straight course” here; L&N 54.3 has “to sail a straight course, sail straight to.”

[16:11]  255 sn Samothrace is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.

[16:11]  256 sn Neapolis was a seaport on the southern coast of Macedonia. It was 10 mi (16 km) from Philippi.

[16:12]  257 map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

[16:12]  258 tc ‡ Or perhaps, “a city in the first district” (there are a number of textual variants). L&N 1.85 follow the text of UBS4 and NA27 here: “In Ac 16:12…the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies has adopted a conjectural emendation, since the more traditional text, πρώτη τῆς μερίδος, literally ‘first of the district,’ is not only misleading in meaning but does not reflect the historical fact that Philippi was a city in one of the four districts of Macedonia but was not a capital city.” The original text is probably πρώτη τῆς μερίδος (prwth th" merido", “first of that district”) as found in Ì74 א A C Ψ 33vid 36 81 323 945 1175 1891 pc. This has traditionally been translated to give the impression that Philippi was the capital city of the district, but it does not necessarily have to be translated this way. The translation of the article before μερίδος as “that” acknowledges that there were other districts in the province of Macedonia.

[16:12]  259 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[16:12]  260 sn A Roman colony was a city whose residents were regarded as Roman citizens, since such cities were originally colonized by citizens of Rome. From Troas to Philippi was 130 mi (208 km).

[16:13]  261 tn Grk “and sitting down we began to speak.” The participle καθίσαντες (kaqisante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:13]  262 tn The imperfect verb ἐλαλοῦμεν (elaloumen) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[16:13]  263 sn To the women. Apparently there were not enough Jews present in Philippi to have a synagogue (ten men would have been required to have one).

[16:13]  264 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[16:14]  265 tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[16:14]  266 tn On the term translated “a dealer in purple cloth” see BDAG 855 s.v. πορφυρόπωλις.

[16:14]  267 sn Thyatira was a city in the province of Lydia in Asia Minor.

[16:14]  268 tn The words “to us” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[16:14]  269 tn Although BDAG 880 s.v. προσέχω 2.b gives the meaning “pay attention to” here, this could be misunderstood by the modern English reader to mean merely listening intently. The following context, however, indicates that Lydia responded positively to Paul’s message, so the verb here was translated “to respond.”

[16:14]  sn Lydia is one of several significant women in Acts (see 17:4, 12, 34; 18:20).

[16:15]  270 tn Grk “urged us, saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

[16:15]  271 tn This is a first class condition in Greek, with the statement presented as real or true for the sake of the argument.

[16:15]  272 tn Or “faithful to the Lord.” BDAG 821 s.v. πίστος 2 states concerning this verse, “Of one who confesses the Christian faith believing or a believer in the Lord, in Christ, in God πιστ. τῷ κυρίῳ Ac 16:15.” L&N 11.17 has “one who is included among the faithful followers of Christ – ‘believer, Christian, follower.’”

[16:15]  273 tn Although BDAG 759 s.v. παραβιάζομαι has “urge strongly, prevail upon,” in contemporary English “persuade” is a more frequently used synonym for “prevail upon.”

[16:16]  274 tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[16:16]  275 tn Or “who had a spirit of divination”; Grk “who had a spirit of Python.” According to BDAG 896-97 s.v. πύθων, originally Πύθων (Puqwn) was the name of the serpent or dragon that guarded the Delphic oracle. According to Greek mythology, it lived at the foot of Mount Parnassus and was killed by Apollo. From this, the word came to designate a person who was thought to have a spirit of divination. Pagan generals, for example, might consult someone like this. So her presence here suggests a supernatural encounter involving Paul and her “spirit.” W. Foerster, TDNT 6:920, connects the term with ventriloquism but states: “We must assume, however, that for this girl, as for those mentioned by Origen…, the art of ventriloquism was inseparably connected with a (supposed or authentic) gift of soothsaying.” It should also be noted that if the girl in question here were only a ventriloquist, the exorcism performed by Paul in v. 18 would not have been effective.

[16:16]  276 tn Grk “who.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who had a spirit…who brought her owners a great profit”) the relative pronoun here (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“she”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.

[16:16]  277 tn Or “masters.”

[16:16]  278 tn On this term see BDAG 616 s.v. μαντεύομαι. It was used of those who gave oracles.

[16:17]  279 tn Grk “crying out, saying”; the participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant in English and has not been translated. The imperfect verb ἔκραζεν (ekrazen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect.

[16:17]  280 tn Grk “slaves.” See the note on the word “servants” in 2:18. The translation “servants” was used here because in this context there appears to be more emphasis on the activity of Paul and his companions (“proclaiming to you the way of salvation”) than on their status as “slaves of the Most High God.”

[16:17]  281 tn Or “a way.” The grammar of this phrase is a bit ambiguous. The phrase in Greek is ὁδὸν σωτηρίας (Jodon swthria"). Neither the head noun nor the genitive noun has the article; this is in keeping with Apollonius’ Canon (see ExSyn 239-40). Since both nouns are anarthrous, this construction also fits Apollonius’ Corollary (see ExSyn 250-54); since the genitive noun is abstract it is most naturally qualitative, so the head noun could either be definite or indefinite without being unusual as far as the grammar is concerned. Luke’s usage of ὁδός elsewhere is indecisive as far as this passage is concerned. However, when one looks at the historical background it is clear that (1) the woman is shut up (via exorcism) not because her testimony is false but because of its source (analogous to Jesus’ treatment of demons perhaps), and (b) “the way” is a par excellence description of the new faith throughout Acts. It thus seems that at least in Luke’s presentation “the way of salvation” is the preferred translation.

[16:17]  282 sn Proclaiming to you the way of salvation. The remarks were an ironic recognition of Paul’s authority, but he did not desire such a witness, possibly for fear of confusion. Her expression the Most High God might have been understood as Zeus by the audience.

[16:18]  283 tn Grk “becoming greatly annoyed.” The participle διαπονηθείς (diaponhqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. The aorist has been translated as an ingressive aorist (entry into a state or condition). See BDAG 235 s.v. διαπονέομαι.

[16:18]  284 tn Grk “and turning.” The participle ἐπιστρέψας (epistreya") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:18]  285 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[16:18]  286 tn BDAG 1102-3 s.v. ὥρα 2.c has “at that very time, at once, instantly” for the usage in this verse.

[16:19]  287 tn Or “masters.”

[16:19]  288 tn On this use of ἐργασία (ergasia), see BDAG 390 s.v. 4. It is often the case that destructive practices and commerce are closely tied together.

[16:19]  289 tn Grk “was gone, seizing.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:19]  290 tn On the term ἕλκω ({elkw) see BDAG 318 s.v. 1.

[16:20]  291 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[16:20]  292 tn Grk “having brought them.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been taken temporally. It is also possible in English to translate this participle as a finite verb: “they brought them before the magistrates and said.”

[16:20]  293 tn BDAG 309 s.v. ἐκταράσσω has “agitate, cause trouble to, throw into confusion” for the meaning of this verb.

[16:20]  294 tn Grk “being Jews, and they are proclaiming.” The participle ὑπάρχοντες (Juparconte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:21]  295 tn Grk “proclaiming,” but in relation to customs, “advocating” is a closer approximation to the meaning.

[16:21]  296 tn Or “acknowledge.”

[16:21]  297 sn Customs that are not lawful for us to accept or practice. Ironically, the charges are similar to those made against Jesus in Luke 23:2, where Jews argued he was “twisting” their customs. The charge has three elements: (1) a racial element (Jewish); (2) a social element (unlawful); and (3) a traditional element (not their customs).

[16:21]  298 tn Grk “we being Romans.” The participle οὖσιν (ousin) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

[16:22]  299 tn L&N 39.50 has “the crowd joined the attack against them” for συνεπέστη (sunepesth) in this verse.

[16:22]  300 tn Grk “tearing the clothes off them, the magistrates ordered.” The participle περιρήξαντες (perirhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Although it may be possible to understand the aorist active participle περιρήξαντες in a causative sense (“the magistrates caused the clothes to be torn off Paul and Silas”) in the mob scene that was taking place, it is also possible that the magistrates themselves actively participated. This act was done to prepare them for a public flogging (2 Cor 11:25; 1 Thess 2:2).

[16:22]  301 tn Grk “off them”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:22]  302 tn The infinitive ῥαβδίζειν (rJabdizein) means “to beat with rods or sticks” (as opposed to fists or clubs, BDAG 902 s.v. ῥαβδίζω).

[16:23]  303 tn Grk “Having inflicted many blows on them.” The participle ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") has been taken temporally. BDAG 384 s.v. ἐπιτίθημι 1.a.β has “inflict blows upon someone” for this expression, but in this context it is simpler to translate in English as “they had beaten them severely.”

[16:23]  304 tn Grk “commanding.” The participle παραγγείλαντες (parangeilante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:24]  305 tn Or “prison.”

[16:24]  306 tn L&N 6.21 has “stocks” for εἰς τὸ ξύλον (ei" to xulon) here, as does BDAG 685 s.v. ξύλον 2.b. However, it is also possible (as mentioned in L&N 18.12) that this does not mean “stocks” but a block of wood (a log or wooden column) in the prison to which prisoners’ feet were chained or tied. Such a possibility is suggested by v. 26, where the “bonds” (“chains”?) of the prisoners loosened.

[16:25]  307 tn Grk “praying, were singing.” The participle προσευχόμενοι (proseucomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:25]  308 sn Praying and singing hymns to God. Tertullian said, “The legs feel nothing in the stocks when the heart is in heaven” (To the Martyrs 2; cf. Rom 5:3; Jas 1:2; 1 Pet 5:6). The presence of God means the potential to be free (cf. v. 26).

[16:25]  309 tn The words “the rest of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[16:26]  310 tn Or perhaps, “chains.” The translation of τὰ δεσμά (ta desma) is to some extent affected by the understanding of ξύλον (xulon, “stocks”) in v. 24. It is possible (as mentioned in L&N 18.12) that this does not mean “stocks” but a block of wood (a log or wooden column) in the prison to which prisoners’ feet were chained or tied.

[16:27]  311 tn L&N 23.75 has “had awakened” here. It is more in keeping with contemporary English style, however, to keep the two verbal ideas parallel in terms of tense (“when the jailer woke up and saw”) although logically the second action is subsequent to the first.

[16:27]  312 tn The additional semantic component “standing” is supplied (“standing open”) to convey a stative nuance in English.

[16:27]  313 sn Was about to kill himself. The jailer’s penalty for failing to guard the prisoners would have been death, so he contemplated saving the leaders the trouble (see Acts 12:19; 27:42).

[16:27]  314 tn Or “thought.”

[16:28]  315 tn Grk “But Paul called out with a loud voice, saying.” The dative phrase μεγάλῃ φωνῇ (megalh fwnh) has been simplified as an English adverb (“loudly”), and the participle λέγων (legwn) has not been translated since it is redundant in English.

[16:28]  316 sn Do not harm yourself. Again the irony is that Paul is the agent through whom the jailer is spared.

[16:29]  317 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the jailer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:29]  318 tn Or “and prostrated himself.”

[16:29]  sn Fell down. The earthquake and the freeing of the prisoners showed that God’s power was present. Such power could only be recognized. The open doors opened the jailer’s heart.

[16:30]  319 tn Grk “And bringing them outside, he asked.” The participle προαγαγών (proagagwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun by supplying the conjunction “then” to indicate the logical sequence.

[16:30]  320 tn The Greek term (δεῖ, dei) is used by Luke to represent divine necessity.

[16:31]  321 tn Grk “said.”

[16:31]  322 sn Here the summary term of response is a call to believe. In this context it refers to trusting the sovereign God’s power to deliver, which events had just pictured for the jailer.

[16:31]  323 tc The majority of mss add Χριστόν (Criston, “Christ”) here (C D E Ψ 1739 Ï sy sa), but the best and earliest witnesses read simply τὸν κύριον ᾿Ιησοῦν (ton kurion Ihsoun, “the Lord Jesus”; Ì74vid א A B 33 81 pc bo). The addition of “Christ” to “Lord Jesus” is an obviously motivated reading. Thus on both external and internal grounds, the shorter reading is strongly preferred.

[16:32]  324 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the continuity with the preceding verse. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not.

[16:32]  325 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[16:33]  326 tn Grk “And at.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[16:33]  327 tn Grk “taking them…he washed.” The participle παραλαβών (paralabwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:33]  328 tn On this phrase BDAG 603 s.v. λούω 1 gives a literal translation as “by washing he freed them from the effects of the blows.”

[16:33]  329 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence.

[16:33]  330 sn All his family. It was often the case in the ancient world that conversion of the father led to the conversion of all those in the household.

[16:33]  331 tn Or “immediately.”

[16:34]  332 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the jailer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:34]  333 tn Grk “placed [food] on the table” (a figurative expression). Since the actual word for food is not specified, it would also be possible to translate “set a meal before them,” but since this is taking place in the middle of the night, the preparations necessary for a full meal would probably not have been made. More likely Paul and Silas were given whatever was on hand that needed little or no preparation.

[16:34]  334 tn Or “he was overjoyed.”

[16:34]  335 tn The translation “come to believe” reflects more of the resultative nuance of the perfect tense here.

[16:34]  336 tn The phrase “together with his entire household” is placed at the end of the English sentence so that it refers to both the rejoicing and the belief. A formal equivalence translation would have “and he rejoiced greatly with his entire household that he had come to believe in God,” but the reference to the entire household being baptized in v. 33 presumes that all in the household believed.

[16:35]  337 tn The translation “day is breaking” for ἡμέρα γίνεται (Jhmera ginetai) in this verse is given by BDAG 436 s.v. ἡμέρα 1.a.

[16:35]  338 tn On the term translated “magistrates,” see BDAG 947-48 s.v. στρατηγός 1. These city leaders were properly called duoviri, but were popularly known as praetors (στρατηγοί, strathgoi). They were the chief officials of Philippi. The text leaves the impression that they came to the decision to release Paul and Silas independently. God was at work everywhere.

[16:35]  339 tn On the term ῥαβδοῦχος (rJabdouco") see BDAG 902 s.v. The term was used of the Roman lictor and roughly corresponds to contemporary English “constable, policeman.”

[16:36]  340 tn The word “saying” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; it is necessary in English because the content of what the jailer said to Paul and Silas is not the exact message related to him by the police officers, but is a summary with his own additions.

[16:36]  341 tn The word “orders” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[16:36]  342 tn Grk “So coming out now go in peace.” The participle ἐξελθόντες (exelqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:37]  343 tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the police officers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:37]  344 tn Grk “Having us beaten in public.” The participle δείραντες (deirante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:37]  345 tn Or “in public, uncondemned.” BDAG 35 s.v. ἀκατάκριτος has “uncondemned, without due process” for this usage.

[16:37]  346 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντας (Juparconta") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

[16:37]  347 tn The word “us” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[16:37]  348 tn L&N 28.71 has “send us away secretly” for this verse.

[16:37]  349 tn Grk “But they.”

[16:37]  350 sn They themselves must come and escort us out! Paul was asking for the injustice he and Silas suffered to be symbolically righted. It was a way of publicly taking their actions off the record and showing the apostles’ innocence, a major public statement. Note the apology given in v. 39.

[16:38]  351 tn Grk “heard they”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[16:38]  352 sn Roman citizens. This fact was disturbing to the officials because due process was a right for a Roman citizen, well established in Roman law. To flog a Roman citizen was considered an abomination. Such punishment was reserved for noncitizens.

[16:39]  353 tn Grk “and coming, they apologized.” The participle ἐλθόντες (elqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[16:39]  354 tn Grk “and after.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[16:39]  355 tn The verb ἐρώτων (erwtwn) has been translated as an iterative imperfect; the English adverb “repeatedly” brings out the iterative force in the translation.

[16:40]  356 tn “Then” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to clarify the logical sequence in the translation.



TIP #32: Gunakan Pencarian Khusus untuk melakukan pencarian Teks Alkitab, Tafsiran/Catatan, Studi Kamus, Ilustrasi, Artikel, Ref. Silang, Leksikon, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, Gambar, Himne, Topikal. Anda juga dapat mencari bahan-bahan yang berkaitan dengan ayat-ayat yang anda inginkan melalui pencarian Referensi Ayat. [SEMUA]
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