Kisah Para Rasul 14:1--16:40Konteks
14:1 The same thing happened in Iconium 1 when Paul and Barnabas 2 went into the Jewish synagogue 3 and spoke in such a way that a large group 4 of both Jews and Greeks believed. 14:2 But the Jews who refused to believe 5 stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds 6 against the brothers. 14:3 So they stayed there 7 for a considerable time, speaking out courageously for the Lord, who testified 8 to the message 9 of his grace, granting miraculous signs 10 and wonders to be performed through their hands. 14:4 But the population 11 of the city was divided; some 12 sided with the Jews, and some with the apostles. 14:5 When both the Gentiles and the Jews (together with their rulers) made 13 an attempt to mistreat 14 them and stone them, 15 14:6 Paul and Barnabas 16 learned about it 17 and fled to the Lycaonian cities of Lystra 18 and Derbe 19 and the surrounding region. 14:7 There 20 they continued to proclaim 21 the good news.
14:8 In 22 Lystra 23 sat a man who could not use his feet, 24 lame from birth, 25 who had never walked. 14:9 This man was listening to Paul as he was speaking. When Paul 26 stared 27 intently at him and saw he had faith to be healed, 14:10 he said with a loud voice, “Stand upright on your feet.” 28 And the man 29 leaped up and began walking. 30 14:11 So when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they shouted 31 in the Lycaonian language, 32 “The gods have come down to us in human form!” 33 14:12 They began to call 34 Barnabas Zeus 35 and Paul Hermes, 36 because he was the chief speaker. 14:13 The priest of the temple 37 of Zeus, 38 located just outside the city, brought bulls 39 and garlands 40 to the city gates; he and the crowds wanted to offer sacrifices to them. 41 14:14 But when the apostles 42 Barnabas and Paul heard about 43 it, they tore 44 their clothes and rushed out 45 into the crowd, shouting, 46 14:15 “Men, why are you doing these things? We too are men, with human natures 47 just like you! We are proclaiming the good news to you, so that you should turn 48 from these worthless 49 things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, 50 the sea, and everything that is in them. 14:16 In 51 past 52 generations he allowed all the nations 53 to go their own ways, 14:17 yet he did not leave himself without a witness by doing good, 54 by giving you rain from heaven 55 and fruitful seasons, satisfying you 56 with food and your hearts with joy.” 57 14:18 Even by saying 58 these things, they scarcely persuaded 59 the crowds not to offer sacrifice to them.
14:19 But Jews came from Antioch 60 and Iconium, 61 and after winning 62 the crowds over, they stoned 63 Paul and dragged him out of the city, presuming him to be dead. 14:20 But after the disciples had surrounded him, he got up and went back 64 into the city. On 65 the next day he left with Barnabas for Derbe. 66
14:21 After they had proclaimed the good news in that city and made many disciples, they returned to Lystra, 67 to Iconium, 68 and to Antioch. 69 14:22 They strengthened 70 the souls of the disciples and encouraged them to continue 71 in the faith, saying, “We must enter the kingdom 72 of God through many persecutions.” 73 14:23 When they had appointed elders 74 for them in the various churches, 75 with prayer and fasting 76 they entrusted them to the protection 77 of the Lord in whom they had believed. 14:24 Then they passed through 78 Pisidia and came into Pamphylia, 79 14:25 and when they had spoken the word 80 in Perga, 81 they went down to Attalia. 82 14:26 From there they sailed back to Antioch, 83 where they had been commended 84 to the grace of God for the work they had now completed. 85 14:27 When they arrived and gathered the church together, they reported 86 all the things God 87 had done with them, and that he had opened a door 88 of faith for the Gentiles. 14:28 So they spent 89 considerable 90 time with the disciples.
15:1 Now some men came down from Judea 91 and began to teach the brothers, “Unless you are circumcised 92 according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.” 15:2 When Paul and Barnabas had a major argument and debate 93 with them, the church 94 appointed Paul and Barnabas and some others from among them to go up to meet with 95 the apostles and elders in Jerusalem 96 about this point of disagreement. 97 15:3 So they were sent on their way by the church, and as they passed through both Phoenicia 98 and Samaria, they were relating at length 99 the conversion of the Gentiles and bringing great joy 100 to all the brothers. 15:4 When they arrived in Jerusalem, they were received 101 by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they reported 102 all the things God had done with them. 103 15:5 But some from the religious party of the Pharisees 104 who had believed stood up and said, “It is necessary 105 to circumcise the Gentiles 106 and to order them to observe 107 the law of Moses.”
15:6 Both the apostles and the elders met together to deliberate 108 about this matter. 15:7 After there had been much debate, 109 Peter stood up and said to them, “Brothers, you know that some time ago 110 God chose 111 me to preach to the Gentiles so they would hear the message 112 of the gospel 113 and believe. 114 15:8 And God, who knows the heart, 115 has testified 116 to them by giving them the Holy Spirit just as he did to us, 117 15:9 and he made no distinction 118 between them and us, cleansing 119 their hearts by faith. 15:10 So now why are you putting God to the test 120 by placing on the neck of the disciples a yoke 121 that neither our ancestors 122 nor we have been able to bear? 15:11 On the contrary, we believe that we are saved through 123 the grace of the Lord Jesus, in the same way as they are.” 124
15:12 The whole group kept quiet 125 and listened to Barnabas and Paul while they explained all the miraculous signs 126 and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 15:13 After they stopped speaking, 127 James replied, 128 “Brothers, listen to me. 15:14 Simeon 129 has explained 130 how God first concerned himself 131 to select 132 from among the Gentiles 133 a people for his name. 15:15 The 134 words of the prophets agree 135 with this, as it is written,
and I will rebuild the fallen tent 138 of David;
I will rebuild its ruins and restore 139 it,
15:19 “Therefore I conclude 147 that we should not cause extra difficulty 148 for those among the Gentiles 149 who are turning to God, 15:20 but that we should write them a letter 150 telling them to abstain 151 from things defiled 152 by idols and from sexual immorality and from what has been strangled 153 and from blood. 15:21 For Moses has had those who proclaim him in every town from ancient times, 154 because he is read aloud 155 in the synagogues 156 every Sabbath.”
15:22 Then the apostles and elders, with the whole church, decided 157 to send men chosen from among them, Judas called Barsabbas and Silas, 158 leaders among the brothers, to Antioch 159 with Paul and Barnabas. 15:23 They sent this letter with them: 160
From the apostles 161 and elders, your brothers, 162 to the Gentile brothers and sisters 163 in Antioch, 164 Syria, 165 and Cilicia, greetings! 15:24 Since we have heard that some have gone out from among us with no orders from us and have confused 166 you, upsetting 167 your minds 168 by what they said, 169 15:25 we have unanimously 170 decided 171 to choose men to send to you along with our dear friends Barnabas and Paul, 15:26 who 172 have risked their lives 173 for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 174 15:27 Therefore we are sending 175 Judas and Silas 176 who will tell you these things themselves in person. 177 15:28 For it seemed best to the Holy Spirit and to us 178 not to place any greater burden on you than these necessary rules: 179 15:29 that you abstain from meat that has been sacrificed to idols 180 and from blood and from what has been strangled 181 and from sexual immorality. 182 If you keep yourselves from doing these things, 183 you will do well. Farewell. 184
15:30 So when they were dismissed, 185 they went down to Antioch, 186 and after gathering the entire group 187 together, they delivered the letter. 15:31 When they read it aloud, 188 the people 189 rejoiced at its encouragement. 190 15:32 Both Judas and Silas, who were prophets themselves, encouraged and strengthened the brothers with a long speech. 191 15:33 After 192 they had spent some time there, 193 they were sent off in peace by the brothers to those who had sent them. 15:34 [[EMPTY]] 194 15:35 But Paul and Barnabas remained in Antioch, 195 teaching and proclaiming (along with many others) 196 the word of the Lord. 197
15:36 After some days Paul said to Barnabas, “Let’s return 198 and visit the brothers in every town where we proclaimed the word of the Lord 199 to see how they are doing.” 200 15:37 Barnabas wanted to bring John called Mark along with them too, 15:38 but Paul insisted 201 that they should not take along this one who had left them in Pamphylia 202 and had not accompanied them in the work. 15:39 They had 203 a sharp disagreement, 204 so that they parted company. Barnabas took along 205 Mark and sailed away to Cyprus, 206 15:40 but Paul chose Silas and set out, commended 207 to the grace of the Lord by the brothers and sisters. 208 15:41 He passed through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening 209 the churches.
16:1 He also came to Derbe 210 and to Lystra. 211 A disciple 212 named Timothy was there, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, 213 but whose father was a Greek. 214 16:2 The brothers in Lystra 215 and Iconium 216 spoke well 217 of him. 218 16:3 Paul wanted Timothy 219 to accompany him, and he took 220 him and circumcised 221 him because of the Jews who were in those places, 222 for they all knew that his father was Greek. 223 16:4 As they went through the towns, 224 they passed on 225 the decrees that had been decided on by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem 226 for the Gentile believers 227 to obey. 228 16:5 So the churches were being strengthened in the faith and were increasing in number every day. 229
16:6 They went through the region of Phrygia 230 and Galatia, 231 having been prevented 232 by the Holy Spirit from speaking the message 233 in the province of Asia. 234 16:7 When they came to 235 Mysia, 236 they attempted to go into Bithynia, 237 but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow 238 them to do this, 239 16:8 so they passed through 240 Mysia 241 and went down to Troas. 242 16:9 A 243 vision appeared to Paul during the night: A Macedonian man was standing there 244 urging him, 245 “Come over 246 to Macedonia 247 and help us!” 16:10 After Paul 248 saw the vision, we attempted 249 immediately to go over to Macedonia, 250 concluding that God had called 251 us to proclaim the good news to them.
16:11 We put out to sea 252 from Troas 253 and sailed a straight course 254 to Samothrace, 255 the next day to Neapolis, 256 16:12 and from there to Philippi, 257 which is a leading city of that district 258 of Macedonia, 259 a Roman colony. 260 We stayed in this city for some days. 16:13 On the Sabbath day we went outside the city gate to the side of the river, where we thought there would be a place of prayer, and we sat down 261 and began to speak 262 to the women 263 who had assembled there. 264 16:14 A 265 woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth 266 from the city of Thyatira, 267 a God-fearing woman, listened to us. 268 The Lord opened her heart to respond 269 to what Paul was saying. 16:15 After she and her household were baptized, she urged us, 270 “If 271 you consider me to be a believer in the Lord, 272 come and stay in my house.” And she persuaded 273 us.
16:16 Now 274 as we were going to the place of prayer, a slave girl met us who had a spirit that enabled her to foretell the future by supernatural means. 275 She 276 brought her owners 277 a great profit by fortune-telling. 278 16:17 She followed behind Paul and us and kept crying out, 279 “These men are servants 280 of the Most High God, who are proclaiming to you the way 281 of salvation.” 282 16:18 She continued to do this for many days. But Paul became greatly annoyed, 283 and turned 284 and said to the spirit, “I command you in the name of Jesus Christ 285 to come out of her!” And it came out of her at once. 286 16:19 But when her owners 287 saw their hope of profit 288 was gone, they seized 289 Paul and Silas and dragged 290 them into the marketplace before the authorities. 16:20 When 291 they had brought them 292 before the magistrates, they said, “These men are throwing our city into confusion. 293 They are 294 Jews 16:21 and are advocating 295 customs that are not lawful for us to accept 296 or practice, 297 since we are 298 Romans.”
16:22 The crowd joined the attack 299 against them, and the magistrates tore the clothes 300 off Paul and Silas 301 and ordered them to be beaten with rods. 302 16:23 After they had beaten them severely, 303 they threw them into prison and commanded 304 the jailer to guard them securely. 16:24 Receiving such orders, he threw them in the inner cell 305 and fastened their feet in the stocks. 306
16:25 About midnight Paul and Silas were praying 307 and singing hymns to God, 308 and the rest of 309 the prisoners were listening to them. 16:26 Suddenly a great earthquake occurred, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken. Immediately all the doors flew open, and the bonds 310 of all the prisoners came loose. 16:27 When the jailer woke up 311 and saw the doors of the prison standing open, 312 he drew his sword and was about to kill himself, 313 because he assumed 314 the prisoners had escaped. 16:28 But Paul called out loudly, 315 “Do not harm yourself, 316 for we are all here!” 16:29 Calling for lights, the jailer 317 rushed in and fell down 318 trembling at the feet of Paul and Silas. 16:30 Then he brought them outside 319 and asked, “Sirs, what must 320 I do to be saved?” 16:31 They replied, 321 “Believe 322 in the Lord Jesus 323 and you will be saved, you and your household.” 16:32 Then 324 they spoke the word of the Lord 325 to him, along with all those who were in his house. 16:33 At 326 that hour of the night he took them 327 and washed their wounds; 328 then 329 he and all his family 330 were baptized right away. 331 16:34 The jailer 332 brought them into his house and set food 333 before them, and he rejoiced greatly 334 that he had come to believe 335 in God, together with his entire household. 336 16:35 At daybreak 337 the magistrates 338 sent their police officers, 339 saying, “Release those men.” 16:36 The jailer reported these words to Paul, saying, 340 “The magistrates have sent orders 341 to release you. So come out now and go in peace.” 342 16:37 But Paul said to the police officers, 343 “They had us beaten in public 344 without a proper trial 345 – even though we are Roman citizens 346 – and they threw us 347 in prison. And now they want to send us away 348 secretly? Absolutely not! They 349 themselves must come and escort us out!” 350 16:38 The police officers reported these words to the magistrates. They were frightened when they heard Paul and Silas 351 were Roman citizens 352 16:39 and came 353 and apologized to them. After 354 they brought them out, they asked them repeatedly 355 to leave the city. 16:40 When they came out of the prison, they entered Lydia’s house, and when they saw the brothers, they encouraged them and then 356 departed.
[14:5] 13 tn Grk “So there came about an attempt” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[14:6] 17 tn Grk “learning about it, fled.” The participle συνιδόντες (sunidonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It could also be taken temporally (“when they learned about it”) as long as opening clause of v. 5 is not translated as a temporal clause too, which results in a redundancy.
[14:6] 18 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium, a Roman colony that was not on the main roads of Lycaonia. Because of its relative isolation, its local character was able to be preserved.
[14:8] 22 tn Grk “And in.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[14:8] sn The description lame from birth makes clear how serious the condition was, and how real it was. This event is very similar to Acts 3:1-10, except here the lame man’s faith is clear from the start.
[14:11] 33 tn So BDAG 707 s.v. ὁμοιόω 1. However, L&N 64.4 takes the participle ὁμοιωθέντες (Jomoiwqente") as an adjectival participle modifying θεοί (qeoi): “the gods resembling men have come down to us.”
[14:11] sn The gods have come down to us in human form. Greek culture spoke of “divine men.” In this region there was a story of Zeus and Hermes visiting the area (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.611-725). The locals failed to acknowledge them, so judgment followed. The present crowd was determined not to make the mistake a second time.
[14:13] 37 tn The words “the temple of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. The translation “the priest of (the temple/shrine of) Zeus located before the city” is given for this phrase by BDAG 426 s.v. Ζεύς.
[14:13] sn Garlands were commonly wreaths of wool with leaves and flowers woven in, worn on a person’s head or woven around a staff. They were an important part of many rituals used to worship pagan gods. Although it was an erroneous reaction, the priest’s reaction shows how all acknowledged their power and access to God.
[14:14] 42 sn The apostles Barnabas and Paul. This is one of only two places where Luke calls Paul an apostle, and the description here is shared with Barnabas. This is a nontechnical use here, referring to a commissioned messenger.
[14:14] 44 tn Grk “tearing their clothes they rushed out.” The participle διαρρήξαντες (diarrhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This action is a Jewish response to blasphemy (m. Sanhedrin 7.5; Jdt 14:16-17).
[14:15] 47 tn Grk “with the same kinds of feelings,” L&N 25.32. BDAG 706 s.v. ὁμοιοπαθής translates the phrase “with the same nature τινί as someone.” In the immediate context, the contrast is between human and divine nature, and the point is that Paul and Barnabas are mere mortals, not gods.
[14:15] 48 tn Grk “in order that you should turn,” with ἐπιστρέφειν (epistrefein) as an infinitive of purpose, but this is somewhat awkward contemporary English. To translate the infinitive construction “proclaim the good news, that you should turn,” which is much smoother English, could give the impression that the infinitive clause is actually the content of the good news, which it is not. The somewhat less formal “to get you to turn” would work, but might convey to some readers manipulativeness on the part of the apostles. Thus “proclaim the good news, so that you should turn,” is used, to convey that the purpose of the proclamation of good news is the response by the hearers. The emphasis here is like 1 Thess 1:9-10.
[14:15] 49 tn Or “useless,” “futile.” The reference is to idols and idolatry, worshiping the creation over the Creator (Rom 1:18-32). See also 1 Kgs 16:2, 13, 26; 2 Kgs 17:15; Jer 2:5; 8:19; 3 Macc 6:11.
[14:15] 50 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
[14:16] 51 tn Grk “them, who in.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the pronoun “he” (“In past generations he”) and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who made the heaven” and “who in past generations”) following one another.
[14:17] 54 tn The participle ἀγαθουργῶν (agaqourgwn) is regarded as indicating means here, parallel to the following participles διδούς (didou") and ἐμπιπλῶν (empiplwn). This is the easiest way to understand the Greek structure. Semantically, the first participle is a general statement, followed by two participles giving specific examples of doing good.
[14:17] 56 tn Grk “satisfying [filling] your hearts with food and joy.” This is an idiomatic expression; it strikes the English reader as strange to speak of “filling one’s heart with food.” Thus the additional direct object “you” has been supplied, separating the two expressions somewhat: “satisfying you with food and your hearts with joy.”
[14:17] 57 sn God’s general sovereignty and gracious care in the creation are the way Paul introduces the theme of the goodness of God. He was trying to establish monotheism here. It is an OT theme (Gen 8:22; Ps 4:7; 145:15-16; 147:8-9; Isa 25:6; Jer 5:24) which also appears in the NT (Luke 12:22-34).
[14:18] 59 tn BDAG 524 s.v. καταπαύω 2.b gives both “restrain” and “dissuade someone fr. someth.,” but “they scarcely dissuaded the crowds from offering sacrifice,” while accurate, is less common in contemporary English than saying “they scarcely persuaded the crowds not to offer sacrifice.” Paganism is portrayed as a powerful reality that is hard to reverse.
[14:20] 65 tn Grk “And on.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[14:22] 70 tn Grk “to Antioch, strengthening.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here. This participle (ἐπιστηρίζοντες, episthrizonte") and the following one (παρακαλοῦντες, parakalounte") have been translated as finite verbs connected by the coordinating conjunction “and.”
[14:22] 71 sn And encouraged them to continue. The exhortations are like those noted in Acts 11:23; 13:43. An example of such a speech is found in Acts 20:18-35. Christianity is now characterized as “the faith.”
[14:23] 76 tn Literally with a finite verb (προσευξάμενοι, proseuxamenoi) rather than a noun, “praying with fasting,” but the combination “prayer and fasting” is so familiar in English that it is preferable to use it here.
[14:23] 77 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “entrust someone to the care or protection of someone” for this phrase. The reference to persecution or suffering in the context (v. 22) suggests “protection” is a better translation here. This looks at God’s ultimate care for the church.
[14:26] 83 sn Antioch was the city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia) from which Paul’s first missionary journey began (see Acts 13:1-4). That first missionary journey ends here, after covering some 1,400 mi (2,240 km).
[14:26] 84 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “commended to the grace of God for the work 14:26” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternative meanings for this category.
[14:26] 85 tn BDAG 829 s.v. πληρόω 5 has “to bring to completion an activity in which one has been involved from its beginning, complete, finish” as meanings for this category. The ministry to which they were commissioned ends with a note of success.
[15:1] 92 tc Codex Bezae (D) and a few other witnesses have “and walk” here (i.e., instead of τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωϋσέως [tw eqei tw Mwu>sew"] they read καὶ τῷ ἔθει τῷ Μωϋσέως περιπατῆτε [kai tw eqei tw Mwu>sew" peripathte]). This is a decidedly stronger focus on obedience to the Law. As well, D expands vv. 1-5 in various places with the overall effect of being “more sympathetic to the local tradition of the church at Jerusalem” while the Alexandrian witnesses are more sympathetic to Paul (TCGNT 377). Codex D is well known for having a significantly longer text in Acts, but modern scholarship is generally of the opinion that the text of D expands on the original wording of Acts, with a theological viewpoint that especially puts Peter in a more authoritarian light. The expansion in these five verses is in keeping with that motif even though Peter is not explicitly in view.
[15:1] sn Unless you are circumcised. These teachers from Judea were teaching that Gentiles could not be saved unless they kept the law of Moses in regard to circumcision. Thus according to them a Gentile had first to become a proselyte to Judaism, including circumcision, before one could become a Christian. This party is sometimes known (collectively) as Judaizers. They did not question that Gentiles could come into the community, but disagreed with Paul and Barnabas on what basis they could do so.
[15:3] 99 tn L&N 33.201 indicates that ἐκδιηγέομαι (ekdihgeomai) means to provide detailed information in a systematic manner, “to inform, to relate, to tell fully.” “Relating at length” conveys this effectively in the present context.
[15:7] 110 tn Or “long ago” (an idiom, literally “from ancient days”). According to L&N 67.26, “this reference to Peter having been chosen by God sometime before to bring the gospel to the Gentiles can hardly be regarded as a reference to ancient times, though some persons understand this to mean that God’s decision was made at the beginning of time. The usage of ἀφ᾿ ἡμερῶν ἀρχαίων is probably designed to emphasize the established nature of God’s decision for Peter to take the gospel to the Gentiles beginning with the centurion Cornelius. The fact that this was relatively early in the development of the church may also serve to explain the use of the idiom.”
[15:7] 114 tn Grk “God chose among you from my mouth the Gentiles to hear the message of the gospel and to believe.” The sense of this sentence in Greek is difficult to render in English. The Greek verb ἐκλέγομαι (eklegomai, “choose”) normally takes a person or thing as a direct object; in this verse the verb has neither clearly stated. The translation understands the phrase “from my mouth,” referring to Peter, as a description of both who God chose and the task to be done. This coupled with the following statement about Gentiles hearing the message of the gospel leads to the more dynamic rendering in the translation.
[15:10] 120 tn According to BDAG 793 s.v. πειράζω 2.c, “In Ac 15:10 the πειράζειν τὸν θεόν consists in the fact that after God’s will has been clearly made known through granting of the Spirit to the Gentiles (v. 8), some doubt and make trial to see whether God’s will really becomes operative.” All testing of God in Luke is negative: Luke 4:2; 11:16.
[15:10] 121 sn A yoke is a wooden bar or frame that joins two animals like oxen or horses so that they can pull a wagon, plow, etc. together. Here it is used figuratively of the restriction that some in the early church wanted to place on Gentile converts to Christianity of observing the law of Moses and having males circumcised. The yoke is a decidedly negative image: Matt 23:4, but cf. Matt 11:29-30.
[15:11] sn In the same way as they are. Here is an interesting reversal of the argument. Jews are saved by grace (without law), as Gentiles are.
[15:14] 132 tn Grk “to take,” but in the sense of selecting or choosing (accompanied by the preposition ἐκ [ek] plus a genitive specifying the group selected from) see Heb 5:1; also BDAG 584 s.v. λαμβάνω 6.
[15:15] 134 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[15:16] 138 tn Or more generally, “dwelling”; perhaps, “royal tent.” According to BDAG 928 s.v. σκηνή the word can mean “tent” or “hut,” or more generally “lodging” or “dwelling.” In this verse (a quotation from Amos 9:11) BDAG refers this to David’s ruined kingdom; it is possibly an allusion to a king’s tent (a royal tent). God is at work to reestablish David’s line (Acts 2:30-36; 13:32-39).
[15:16] 139 tn BDAG 86 s.v. ἀνορθόω places this verb under the meaning “to build someth. up again after it has fallen, rebuild, restore,” but since ἀνοικοδομέω (anoikodomew, “rebuild”) has occurred twice in this verse already, “restore” is used here.
[15:17] 141 tn Here καί (kai) introduces an explanatory clause that explains the preceding phrase “the rest of humanity.” The clause introduced by καί (kai) could also be punctuated in English as a parenthesis.
[15:17] 143 tn Grk “all the Gentiles on whom my name has been called.” Based on well-attested OT usage, the passive of ἐπικαλέω (epikalew) here indicates God’s ownership (“all the Gentiles who belong to me”) or calling (“all the Gentiles whom I have called to be my own”). See L&N 11.28.
[15:17] 144 sn A quotation from Amos 9:11-12 LXX. James demonstrated a high degree of cultural sensitivity when he cited a version of the text (the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament) that Gentiles would use.
[15:19] 147 tn Or “I have decided,” “I think.” The verb κρίνω (krinw) has a far broader range of meaning than the often-used English verb “judge.” BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 3 places this use in Acts 15:19 in the category “judge, think, consider, look upon” followed by double accusative of object and predicate. However, many modern translations give the impression that a binding decision is being handed down by James: “it is my judgment” (NASB, NIV); “I have reached the decision” (NRSV). L&N 22.25, on the other hand, translate the phrase here “I think that we should not cause extra difficulty for those among the Gentiles.” This gives more the impression of an opinion than a binding decision. The resolution of this lies not so much in the lexical data as in how one conceives James’ role in the leadership of the Jerusalem church, plus the dynamics of the specific situation where the issue of Gentile inclusion in the church was being discussed. The major possibilities are: (1) James is handing down a binding decision to the rest of the church as the one who has ultimate authority to decide this matter; (2) James is offering his own personal opinion in the matter, which is not binding on the church; (3) James is voicing a consensus opinion of all the apostles and elders, although phrasing it as if it were his own; (4) James is making a suggestion to the rest of the leadership as to what course they should follow. In light of the difficulty in reconstructing the historical situation in detail, it is best to use a translation which maintains as many of the various options as possible. For this reason the translation “Therefore I conclude” has been used, leaving open the question whether in reaching this conclusion James is speaking only for himself or for the rest of the leadership.
[15:20] 151 tn Three of the four prohibitions deal with food (the first, third and fourth) while one prohibition deals with behavior (the second, refraining from sexual immorality). Since these occur in the order they do, the translation “abstain from” is used to cover both sorts of activity (eating food items, immoral behavior).
[15:20] sn Telling them to abstain. These restrictions are not on matters of salvation, but are given as acts of sensitivity to their Jewish brethren, as v. 21 makes clear. Another example of such sensitivity is seen in 1 Cor 10:14-11:1.
[15:20] 153 sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14), Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the following provision in Acts 15:20, and from blood).
[15:26] 172 tn Grk “men who”; but this can be misleading because in English the referent could be understood to be the men sent along with Barnabas and Paul rather than Barnabas and Paul themselves. This option does not exist in the Greek original, however, since ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is dative and must agree with “Barnabas and Paul,” while ἄνδρας (andra") is accusative. By omitting the word “men” from the translation here, it is clear in English that the phrase refers to the immediately preceding nouns “Barnabas and Paul.”
[15:28] 178 tn This is the same expression translated “decided” in Acts 15:22, 25. BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.b.β lists “decide” as a possible gloss for this verse, and this translation would be consistent with the translation of the same expression in Acts 15:22, 25. However, the unusually awkward “the Holy Spirit and we have decided” would result. Given this approach, it would be more natural in English to say “We and the Holy Spirit have decided,” but changing the order removes the emphasis the Greek text gives to the Holy Spirit. Thus, although the similarity to the phrases in 15:22, 25 is obscured, it is better to use the alternate translation “it seems best to me” (also given by BDAG): “it seemed best to the Holy Spirit and to us.” Again the scope of agreement is highlighted.
[15:29] 180 tn There is no specific semantic component in the Greek word εἰδωλόθυτος that means “meat” (see BDAG 280 s.v. εἰδωλόθυτος; L&N 5.15). The stem –θυτος means “sacrifice” (referring to an animal sacrificially killed) and thereby implies meat.
[15:29] 181 tc Codex Bezae (D) and a few other witnesses lack the restriction “and from what has been strangled” (καὶ πνικτῶν, kai pniktwn), though the words are supported by a wide variety of early and important witnesses otherwise and should be considered authentic.
[15:29] sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14), Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the preceding provision in this verse, and from blood).
[15:29] 182 tc Codex Bezae (D) as well as 323 614 945 1739 1891 sa and other witnesses have after “sexual immorality” the following statement: “And whatever you do not want to happen to yourselves, do not do to another/others.” By adding this negative form of the Golden Rule, these witnesses effectively change the Apostolic Decree from what might be regarded as ceremonial restrictions into more ethical demands. The issues here are quite complicated, and beyond the scope of this brief note. Suffice it to say that D and its allies here are almost surely an expansion and alteration of the original text of Acts. For an excellent discussion of the exegetical and textual issues, see TCGNT 379-83.
[15:29] 183 tn Grk “from which things keeping yourselves.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (ὧν, |wn) has been replaced by a pronoun (“these things”) and a new English sentence begun. The participle διατηροῦντες (diathrounte") has been translated as a conditional adverbial participle (“if you keep yourselves”). See further L&N 13.153.
[15:29] 184 tn The phrase ἔρρωσθε (errwsqe) may be understood as a stock device indicating a letter is complete (“good-bye,” L&N 33.24) or as a sincere wish that the persons involved may fare well (“may you fare well,” L&N 23.133).
[15:31] 188 tn Grk “read it.” The translation “read aloud” is used to indicate the actual practice of public reading; translating as “read” could be misunderstood to mean private, silent, or individual reading.
[15:33] 192 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[15:34] 194 tc A few
[15:35] 197 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in v. 36; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
[15:39] 203 tn Grk “There happened a sharp disagreement.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[15:40] 207 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “be commended by someone to the grace of the Lord” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternatives for this category.
[15:40] 208 tn Grk “by the brothers.” Here it it is highly probable that the entire congregation is in view, not just men, so the translation “brothers and sisters” has been used for the plural ἀδελφῶν (adelfwn),.
[16:1] 214 sn His father was a Greek. Timothy was the offspring of a mixed marriage between a Jewish woman (see 2 Tim 1:5) and a Gentile man. On mixed marriages in Judaism, see Neh 13:23-27; Ezra 9:1-10:44; Mal 2:10-16; Jub. 30:7-17; m. Qiddushin 3.12; m. Yevamot 7.5.
[16:2] 218 tn Grk “who was well spoken of by the brothers in Lystra and Iconium.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who was a believer…who was well spoken of”) and the awkwardness of the passive verb (“was well spoken of”), the relative pronoun at the beginning of 16:2 (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“him”) and the construction converted from passive to active at the same time a new sentence was started in the translation.
[16:3] 220 tn Grk “and taking him he circumcised him.” The participle λαβών (labwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul’s cultural sensitivity showed in his action here. He did not want Timothy’s lack of circumcision to become an issue (1 Cor 9:15-23).
[16:3] sn His father was Greek. Under Jewish law at least as early as the 2nd century, a person was considered Jewish if his or her mother was Jewish. It is not certain whether such a law was in effect in the 1st century, but even if it was, Timothy would not have been accepted as fully Jewish because he was not circumcised.
[16:6] 231 sn Galatia refers to either (1) the region of the old kingdom of Galatia in the central part of Asia Minor (North Galatia), or (2) the Roman province of Galatia, whose principal cities in the 1st century were Ancyra and Pisidian Antioch (South Galatia). The exact extent and meaning of this area has been a subject of considerable controversy in modern NT studies.
[16:6] 234 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
[16:8] 240 tn Although the normal meaning for παρέρχομαι (parercomai) is “pass by, go by,” it would be difficult to get to Troas from where Paul and his companions were without going through rather than around Mysia. BDAG 776 s.v. παρέρχομαι 6 list some nonbiblical examples of the meaning “go through, pass through,” and give that meaning for the usage here.
[16:9] 243 tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[16:12] 258 tc ‡ Or perhaps, “a city in the first district” (there are a number of textual variants). L&N 1.85 follow the text of UBS4 and NA27 here: “In Ac 16:12…the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Societies has adopted a conjectural emendation, since the more traditional text, πρώτη τῆς μερίδος, literally ‘first of the district,’ is not only misleading in meaning but does not reflect the historical fact that Philippi was a city in one of the four districts of Macedonia but was not a capital city.” The original text is probably πρώτη τῆς μερίδος (prwth th" merido", “first of that district”) as found in Ì74 א A C Ψ 33vid 36 81 323 945 1175 1891 pc. This has traditionally been translated to give the impression that Philippi was the capital city of the district, but it does not necessarily have to be translated this way. The translation of the article before μερίδος as “that” acknowledges that there were other districts in the province of Macedonia.
[16:14] 265 tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[16:14] 268 tn The words “to us” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
[16:14] 269 tn Although BDAG 880 s.v. προσέχω 2.b gives the meaning “pay attention to” here, this could be misunderstood by the modern English reader to mean merely listening intently. The following context, however, indicates that Lydia responded positively to Paul’s message, so the verb here was translated “to respond.”
[16:15] 272 tn Or “faithful to the Lord.” BDAG 821 s.v. πίστος 2 states concerning this verse, “Of one who confesses the Christian faith believing or a believer in the Lord, in Christ, in God πιστ. τῷ κυρίῳ Ac 16:15.” L&N 11.17 has “one who is included among the faithful followers of Christ – ‘believer, Christian, follower.’”
[16:16] 274 tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[16:16] 275 tn Or “who had a spirit of divination”; Grk “who had a spirit of Python.” According to BDAG 896-97 s.v. πύθων, originally Πύθων (Puqwn) was the name of the serpent or dragon that guarded the Delphic oracle. According to Greek mythology, it lived at the foot of Mount Parnassus and was killed by Apollo. From this, the word came to designate a person who was thought to have a spirit of divination. Pagan generals, for example, might consult someone like this. So her presence here suggests a supernatural encounter involving Paul and her “spirit.” W. Foerster, TDNT 6:920, connects the term with ventriloquism but states: “We must assume, however, that for this girl, as for those mentioned by Origen…, the art of ventriloquism was inseparably connected with a (supposed or authentic) gift of soothsaying.” It should also be noted that if the girl in question here were only a ventriloquist, the exorcism performed by Paul in v. 18 would not have been effective.
[16:16] 276 tn Grk “who.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who had a spirit…who brought her owners a great profit”) the relative pronoun here (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“she”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
[16:17] 279 tn Grk “crying out, saying”; the participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant in English and has not been translated. The imperfect verb ἔκραζεν (ekrazen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect.
[16:17] 280 tn Grk “slaves.” See the note on the word “servants” in 2:18. The translation “servants” was used here because in this context there appears to be more emphasis on the activity of Paul and his companions (“proclaiming to you the way of salvation”) than on their status as “slaves of the Most High God.”
[16:17] 281 tn Or “a way.” The grammar of this phrase is a bit ambiguous. The phrase in Greek is ὁδὸν σωτηρίας (Jodon swthria"). Neither the head noun nor the genitive noun has the article; this is in keeping with Apollonius’ Canon (see ExSyn 239-40). Since both nouns are anarthrous, this construction also fits Apollonius’ Corollary (see ExSyn 250-54); since the genitive noun is abstract it is most naturally qualitative, so the head noun could either be definite or indefinite without being unusual as far as the grammar is concerned. Luke’s usage of ὁδός elsewhere is indecisive as far as this passage is concerned. However, when one looks at the historical background it is clear that (1) the woman is shut up (via exorcism) not because her testimony is false but because of its source (analogous to Jesus’ treatment of demons perhaps), and (b) “the way” is a par excellence description of the new faith throughout Acts. It thus seems that at least in Luke’s presentation “the way of salvation” is the preferred translation.
[16:17] 282 sn Proclaiming to you the way of salvation. The remarks were an ironic recognition of Paul’s authority, but he did not desire such a witness, possibly for fear of confusion. Her expression the Most High God might have been understood as Zeus by the audience.
[16:18] 283 tn Grk “becoming greatly annoyed.” The participle διαπονηθείς (diaponhqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. The aorist has been translated as an ingressive aorist (entry into a state or condition). See BDAG 235 s.v. διαπονέομαι.
[16:20] 291 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[16:20] 292 tn Grk “having brought them.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been taken temporally. It is also possible in English to translate this participle as a finite verb: “they brought them before the magistrates and said.”
[16:21] 297 sn Customs that are not lawful for us to accept or practice. Ironically, the charges are similar to those made against Jesus in Luke 23:2, where Jews argued he was “twisting” their customs. The charge has three elements: (1) a racial element (Jewish); (2) a social element (unlawful); and (3) a traditional element (not their customs).
[16:22] 300 tn Grk “tearing the clothes off them, the magistrates ordered.” The participle περιρήξαντες (perirhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Although it may be possible to understand the aorist active participle περιρήξαντες in a causative sense (“the magistrates caused the clothes to be torn off Paul and Silas”) in the mob scene that was taking place, it is also possible that the magistrates themselves actively participated. This act was done to prepare them for a public flogging (2 Cor 11:25; 1 Thess 2:2).
[16:23] 303 tn Grk “Having inflicted many blows on them.” The participle ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") has been taken temporally. BDAG 384 s.v. ἐπιτίθημι 1.a.β has “inflict blows upon someone” for this expression, but in this context it is simpler to translate in English as “they had beaten them severely.”
[16:24] 306 tn L&N 6.21 has “stocks” for εἰς τὸ ξύλον (ei" to xulon) here, as does BDAG 685 s.v. ξύλον 2.b. However, it is also possible (as mentioned in L&N 18.12) that this does not mean “stocks” but a block of wood (a log or wooden column) in the prison to which prisoners’ feet were chained or tied. Such a possibility is suggested by v. 26, where the “bonds” (“chains”?) of the prisoners loosened.
[16:25] 308 sn Praying and singing hymns to God. Tertullian said, “The legs feel nothing in the stocks when the heart is in heaven” (To the Martyrs 2; cf. Rom 5:3; Jas 1:2; 1 Pet 5:6). The presence of God means the potential to be free (cf. v. 26).
[16:26] 310 tn Or perhaps, “chains.” The translation of τὰ δεσμά (ta desma) is to some extent affected by the understanding of ξύλον (xulon, “stocks”) in v. 24. It is possible (as mentioned in L&N 18.12) that this does not mean “stocks” but a block of wood (a log or wooden column) in the prison to which prisoners’ feet were chained or tied.
[16:27] 311 tn L&N 23.75 has “had awakened” here. It is more in keeping with contemporary English style, however, to keep the two verbal ideas parallel in terms of tense (“when the jailer woke up and saw”) although logically the second action is subsequent to the first.
[16:28] 315 tn Grk “But Paul called out with a loud voice, saying.” The dative phrase μεγάλῃ φωνῇ (megalh fwnh) has been simplified as an English adverb (“loudly”), and the participle λέγων (legwn) has not been translated since it is redundant in English.
[16:29] sn Fell down. The earthquake and the freeing of the prisoners showed that God’s power was present. Such power could only be recognized. The open doors opened the jailer’s heart.
[16:30] 319 tn Grk “And bringing them outside, he asked.” The participle προαγαγών (proagagwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun by supplying the conjunction “then” to indicate the logical sequence.
[16:31] 323 tc The majority of
[16:32] 324 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the continuity with the preceding verse. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not.
[16:32] 325 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
[16:33] 326 tn Grk “And at.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[16:34] 333 tn Grk “placed [food] on the table” (a figurative expression). Since the actual word for food is not specified, it would also be possible to translate “set a meal before them,” but since this is taking place in the middle of the night, the preparations necessary for a full meal would probably not have been made. More likely Paul and Silas were given whatever was on hand that needed little or no preparation.
[16:34] 336 tn The phrase “together with his entire household” is placed at the end of the English sentence so that it refers to both the rejoicing and the belief. A formal equivalence translation would have “and he rejoiced greatly with his entire household that he had come to believe in God,” but the reference to the entire household being baptized in v. 33 presumes that all in the household believed.
[16:35] 338 tn On the term translated “magistrates,” see BDAG 947-48 s.v. στρατηγός 1. These city leaders were properly called duoviri, but were popularly known as praetors (στρατηγοί, strathgoi). They were the chief officials of Philippi. The text leaves the impression that they came to the decision to release Paul and Silas independently. God was at work everywhere.
[16:36] 340 tn The word “saying” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; it is necessary in English because the content of what the jailer said to Paul and Silas is not the exact message related to him by the police officers, but is a summary with his own additions.
[16:37] 350 sn They themselves must come and escort us out! Paul was asking for the injustice he and Silas suffered to be symbolically righted. It was a way of publicly taking their actions off the record and showing the apostles’ innocence, a major public statement. Note the apology given in v. 39.
[16:38] 352 sn Roman citizens. This fact was disturbing to the officials because due process was a right for a Roman citizen, well established in Roman law. To flog a Roman citizen was considered an abomination. Such punishment was reserved for noncitizens.