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Kisah Para Rasul 1:1--3:26

Konteks
Jesus Ascends to Heaven

1:1 I wrote 1  the former 2  account, 3  Theophilus, 4  about all that Jesus began to do and teach 1:2 until the day he was taken up to heaven, 5  after he had given orders 6  by 7  the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. 1:3 To the same apostles 8  also, after his suffering, 9  he presented himself alive with many convincing proofs. He was seen by them over a forty-day period 10  and spoke about matters concerning the kingdom of God. 1:4 While he was with them, 11  he declared, 12  “Do not leave Jerusalem, 13  but wait there 14  for what my 15  Father promised, 16  which you heard about from me. 17  1:5 For 18  John baptized with water, but you 19  will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

1:6 So when they had gathered together, they began to ask him, 20  “Lord, is this the time when you are restoring the kingdom to Israel?” 1:7 He told them, “You are not permitted to know 21  the times or periods that the Father has set by his own authority. 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts 22  of the earth.” 1:9 After 23  he had said this, while they were watching, he was lifted up and a cloud hid him from their sight. 1:10 As 24  they were still staring into the sky while he was going, suddenly 25  two men in white clothing stood near them 1:11 and said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand here 26  looking up into the sky? This same Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven 27  will come back in the same way you saw him go into heaven.”

A Replacement for Judas is Chosen

1:12 Then they returned to Jerusalem 28  from the mountain 29  called the Mount of Olives 30  (which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey 31  away). 1:13 When 32  they had entered Jerusalem, 33  they went to the upstairs room where they were staying. Peter 34  and John, and James, and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James were there. 35  1:14 All these continued together in prayer with one mind, together with the women, along with Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers. 36  1:15 In those days 37  Peter stood up among the believers 38  (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty people) and said, 1:16 “Brothers, 39  the scripture had to be fulfilled that the Holy Spirit foretold through 40  David concerning Judas – who became the guide for those who arrested Jesus – 1:17 for he was counted as one of us and received a share in this ministry.” 41  1:18 (Now this man Judas 42  acquired a field with the reward of his unjust deed, 43  and falling headfirst 44  he burst open in the middle and all his intestines 45  gushed out. 1:19 This 46  became known to all who lived in Jerusalem, so that in their own language 47  they called that field 48  Hakeldama, that is, “Field of Blood.”) 1:20 “For it is written in the book of Psalms, ‘Let his house become deserted, 49  and let there be no one to live in it,’ 50  and ‘Let another take his position of responsibility.’ 51  1:21 Thus one of the men 52  who have accompanied us during all the time the Lord Jesus associated with 53  us, 1:22 beginning from his baptism by John until the day he 54  was taken up from us – one of these must become a witness of his resurrection together with us.” 1:23 So they 55  proposed two candidates: 56  Joseph called Barsabbas (also called Justus) and Matthias. 1:24 Then they prayed, 57  “Lord, you know the hearts of all. Show us which one of these two you have chosen 1:25 to assume the task 58  of this service 59  and apostleship from which Judas turned aside 60  to go to his own place.” 61  1:26 Then 62  they cast lots for them, and the one chosen was Matthias; 63  so he was counted with the eleven apostles. 64 

The Holy Spirit and the Day of Pentecost

2:1 Now 65  when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2:2 Suddenly 66  a sound 67  like a violent wind blowing 68  came from heaven 69  and filled the entire house where they were sitting. 2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire 70  appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them. 2:4 All 71  of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages 72  as the Spirit enabled them. 73 

2:5 Now there were devout Jews 74  from every nation under heaven residing in Jerusalem. 75  2:6 When this sound 76  occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, 77  because each one heard them speaking in his own language. 2:7 Completely baffled, they said, 78  “Aren’t 79  all these who are speaking Galileans? 2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them 80  in our own native language? 81  2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia, 82  2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, 83  and visitors from Rome, 84  2:11 both Jews and proselytes, 85  Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!” 86  2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?” 2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, 87  saying, “They are drunk on new wine!” 88 

Peter’s Address on the Day of Pentecost

2:14 But Peter stood up 89  with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea 90  and all you who live in Jerusalem, 91  know this 92  and listen carefully to what I say. 2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, 93  for it is only nine o’clock in the morning. 94  2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel: 95 

2:17And in the last days 96  it will be,God says,

that I will pour out my Spirit on all people, 97 

and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,

and your young men will see visions,

and your old men will dream dreams.

2:18 Even on my servants, 98  both men and women,

I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. 99 

2:19 And I will perform wonders in the sky 100  above

and miraculous signs 101  on the earth below,

blood and fire and clouds of smoke.

2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness

and the moon to blood

before the great and glorious 102  day of the Lord comes.

2:21 And then 103  everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved. 104 

2:22 “Men of Israel, 105  listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, 106  wonders, and miraculous signs 107  that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know – 2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 108  by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles. 109  2:24 But God raised him up, 110  having released 111  him from the pains 112  of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power. 113  2:25 For David says about him,

I saw the Lord always in front of me, 114 

for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.

2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;

my body 115  also will live in hope,

2:27 because you will not leave my soul in Hades, 116 

nor permit your Holy One to experience 117  decay.

2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;

you will make me full of joy with your presence. 118 

2:29 “Brothers, 119  I can speak confidently 120  to you about our forefather 121  David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2:30 So then, because 122  he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants 123  on his throne, 124  2:31 David by foreseeing this 125  spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, 126  that he was neither abandoned to Hades, 127  nor did his body 128  experience 129  decay. 130  2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 131  2:33 So then, exalted 132  to the right hand 133  of God, and having received 134  the promise of the Holy Spirit 135  from the Father, he has poured out 136  what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

The Lord said to my lord,

Sit 137  at my right hand

2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool 138  for your feet.”’ 139 

2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt 140  that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified 141  both Lord 142  and Christ.” 143 

The Response to Peter’s Address

2:37 Now when they heard this, 144  they were acutely distressed 145  and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “What should we do, brothers?” 2:38 Peter said to them, “Repent, and each one of you be baptized 146  in the name of Jesus Christ 147  for 148  the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 149  2:39 For the promise 150  is for you and your children, and for all who are far away, as many as the Lord our God will call to himself.” 2:40 With many other words he testified 151  and exhorted them saying, “Save yourselves from this perverse 152  generation!” 2:41 So those who accepted 153  his message 154  were baptized, and that day about three thousand people 155  were added. 156 

The Fellowship of the Early Believers

2:42 They were devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, 157  to the breaking of bread and to prayer. 158  2:43 Reverential awe 159  came over everyone, 160  and many wonders and miraculous signs 161  came about by the apostles. 2:44 All who believed were together and held 162  everything in common, 2:45 and they began selling 163  their property 164  and possessions and distributing the proceeds 165  to everyone, as anyone had need. 2:46 Every day 166  they continued to gather together by common consent in the temple courts, 167  breaking bread from 168  house to house, sharing their food with glad 169  and humble hearts, 170  2:47 praising God and having the good will 171  of all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number every day 172  those who were being saved.

Peter and John Heal a Lame Man at the Temple

3:1 Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the time 173  for prayer, 174  at three o’clock in the afternoon. 175  3:2 And a man lame 176  from birth 177  was being carried up, who was placed at the temple gate called “the Beautiful Gate” every day 178  so he could beg for money 179  from those going into the temple courts. 180  3:3 When he saw Peter and John about to go into the temple courts, 181  he asked them for money. 182  3:4 Peter looked directly 183  at him (as did John) and said, “Look at us!” 3:5 So the lame man 184  paid attention to them, expecting to receive something from them. 3:6 But Peter said, “I have no silver or gold, 185  but what I do have I give you. In the name 186  of Jesus Christ 187  the Nazarene, stand up and 188  walk!” 3:7 Then 189  Peter 190  took hold 191  of him by the right hand and raised him up, and at once the man’s 192  feet and ankles were made strong. 193  3:8 He 194  jumped up, 195  stood and began walking around, and he entered the temple courts 196  with them, walking and leaping and praising God. 3:9 All 197  the people saw him walking and praising God, 3:10 and they recognized him as the man who used to sit and ask for donations 198  at the Beautiful Gate of the temple, and they were filled with astonishment and amazement 199  at what had happened to him.

Peter Addresses the Crowd

3:11 While the man 200  was hanging on to Peter and John, all the people, completely astounded, ran together to them in the covered walkway 201  called Solomon’s Portico. 202  3:12 When Peter saw this, he declared to the people, “Men of Israel, 203  why are you amazed at this? Why 204  do you stare at us as if we had made this man 205  walk by our own power or piety? 3:13 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 206  the God of our forefathers, 207  has glorified 208  his servant 209  Jesus, whom you handed over and rejected 210  in the presence of Pilate after he had decided 211  to release him. 3:14 But you rejected 212  the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a man who was a murderer be released to you. 3:15 You killed 213  the Originator 214  of life, whom God raised 215  from the dead. To this fact we are witnesses! 216  3:16 And on the basis of faith in Jesus’ 217  name, 218  his very name has made this man – whom you see and know – strong. The 219  faith that is through Jesus 220  has given him this complete health in the presence 221  of you all. 3:17 And now, brothers, I know you acted in ignorance, 222  as your rulers did too. 3:18 But the things God foretold 223  long ago through 224  all the prophets – that his Christ 225  would suffer – he has fulfilled in this way. 3:19 Therefore repent and turn back so that your sins may be wiped out, 3:20 so that times of refreshing 226  may come from the presence of the Lord, 227  and so that he may send the Messiah 228  appointed 229  for you – that is, Jesus. 3:21 This one 230  heaven must 231  receive until the time all things are restored, 232  which God declared 233  from times long ago 234  through his holy prophets. 3:22 Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers. You must obey 235  him in everything he tells you. 236  3:23 Every person 237  who does not obey that prophet will be destroyed and thus removed 238  from the people.’ 239  3:24 And all the prophets, from Samuel and those who followed him, have spoken about and announced 240  these days. 3:25 You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant that God made with your ancestors, 241  saying to Abraham, ‘And in your descendants 242  all the nations 243  of the earth will be blessed.’ 244  3:26 God raised up 245  his servant and sent him first to you, to bless you by turning 246  each one of you from your iniquities.” 247 

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[1:1]  1 tn Or “produced,” Grk “made.”

[1:1]  2 tn Or “first.” The translation “former” is preferred because “first” could imply to the modern English reader that the author means that his previous account was the first one to be written down. The Greek term πρῶτος (prwtos) does not necessarily mean “first” in an absolute sense, but can refer to the first in a set or series. That is what is intended here – the first account (known as the Gospel of Luke) as compared to the second one (known as Acts).

[1:1]  3 tn The Greek word λόγος (logos) is sometimes translated “book” (NRSV, NIV) or “treatise” (KJV). A formal, systematic treatment of a subject is implied, but the word “book” may be too specific and slightly misleading to the modern reader, so “account” has been used.

[1:1]  sn The former account refers to the Gospel of Luke, which was “volume one” of the two-volume work Luke-Acts.

[1:1]  4 tn Grk “O Theophilus,” but the usage of the vocative in Acts with (w) is unemphatic, following more the classical idiom (see ExSyn 69).

[1:2]  5 tn The words “to heaven” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied from v. 11. Several modern translations (NIV, NRSV) supply the words “to heaven” after “taken up” to specify the destination explicitly mentioned later in 1:11.

[1:2]  6 tn Or “commands.” Although some modern translations render ἐντειλάμενος (enteilameno") as “instructions” (NIV, NRSV), the word implies authority or official sanction (G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:545), so that a word like “orders” conveys the idea more effectively. The action of the temporal participle is antecedent (prior) to the action of the verb it modifies (“taken up”).

[1:2]  7 tn Or “through.”

[1:3]  8 tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the apostles) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[1:3]  9 sn After his suffering is a reference to Jesus’ crucifixion and the abuse which preceded it.

[1:3]  10 tn Grk “during forty days.” The phrase “over a forty-day period” is used rather than “during forty days” because (as the other NT accounts of Jesus’ appearances make clear) Jesus was not continually visible to the apostles during the forty days, but appeared to them on various occasions.

[1:4]  11 tn Or “While he was assembling with them,” or “while he was sharing a meal with them.” There are three basic options for translating the verb συναλίζω (sunalizw): (1) “Eat (salt) with, share a meal with”; (2) “bring together, assemble”; (3) “spend the night with, stay with” (see BDAG 964 s.v.). The difficulty with the first option is that it does not fit the context, and this meaning is not found elsewhere. The second option is difficult because of the singular number and the present tense. The third option is based on a spelling variation of συναυλιζόμενος (sunaulizomeno"), which some minuscules actually read here. The difference in meaning between (2) and (3) is not great, but (3) seems to fit the context somewhat better here.

[1:4]  12 tn Grk “ordered them”; the command “Do not leave” is not in Greek but is an indirect quotation in the original (see note at end of the verse for explanation).

[1:4]  13 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[1:4]  14 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text (direct objects in Greek were frequently omitted when clear from the context).

[1:4]  15 tn Grk “the,” with the article used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

[1:4]  16 tn Grk “for the promise of the Father.” Jesus is referring to the promised gift of the Holy Spirit (see the following verse).

[1:4]  17 tn Grk “While he was with them, he ordered them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait there for ‘what my Father promised, which you heard about from me.’” This verse moves from indirect to direct discourse. This abrupt change is very awkward, so the entire quotation has been rendered as direct discourse in the translation.

[1:5]  18 tn In the Greek text v. 5 is a continuation of the previous sentence, which is long and complicated. In keeping with the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

[1:5]  19 tn The pronoun is plural in Greek.

[1:6]  20 tn Grk “they began to ask him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. The imperfect tense of the Greek verb ἠρώτων (hrwtwn) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[1:7]  21 tn Grk “It is not for you to know.”

[1:8]  22 tn Or “to the ends.”

[1:9]  23 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[1:10]  24 tn Grk “And as.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[1:10]  25 tn Grk “behold.”

[1:11]  26 tn The word “here” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[1:11]  27 tc Codex Bezae (D) and several other witnesses lack the words εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (ei" ton ouranon, “into heaven”) here, most likely by way of accidental deletion. In any event, it is hardly correct to suppose that the Western text has intentionally suppressed references to the ascension of Christ here, for the phrase is solidly attested in the final clause of the verse.

[1:11]  tn Or “into the sky.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” (vv. 10, 11a) or “heaven” (twice in v. 11b) depending on the context.

[1:12]  28 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[1:12]  29 tn Or “from the hill.” The Greek term ὄρος (oros) refers to a relatively high elevation of land in contrast with βουνός (bounos, “hill”).

[1:12]  30 sn The Mount of Olives is the traditional name for this mountain, also called Olivet. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.

[1:12]  31 sn The phrase a Sabbath days journey refers to the distance the rabbis permitted a person to travel on the Sabbath without breaking the Sabbath, specified in tractate Sotah 5:3 of the Mishnah as 2,000 cubits (a cubit was about 18 inches). In this case the distance was about half a mile (1 km).

[1:13]  32 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[1:13]  33 tn The word “Jerusalem” is not in the Greek text but is implied (direct objects were often omitted when clear from the context).

[1:13]  34 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Peter (also called Simon) is always mentioned first (see also Matt 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16) and the first four are always the same, though not in the same order after Peter.

[1:13]  35 tn The words “were there” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[1:14]  36 sn Jesus’ brothers are mentioned in Matt 13:55 and John 7:3.

[1:15]  37 tn Grk “And in those days.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[1:15]  38 tn Or “brethren” (but the term includes both male and female believers present in this gathering, as indicated by those named in vv. 13-14).

[1:16]  39 tn Grk “Men brothers.” In light of the compound phrase ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί (andre" adelfoi, “Men brothers”) Peter’s words are best understood as directly addressed to the males present, possibly referring specifically to the twelve (really ten at this point – eleven minus the speaker, Peter) mentioned by name in v. 13.

[1:16]  40 tn Grk “foretold by the mouth of.”

[1:17]  41 tn Or “and was chosen to have a share in this ministry.” The term λαγχάνω (lancanw) here and in 2 Pet 1:1 can be understood as referring to the process of divine choice and thus be translated, “was chosen to have.”

[1:18]  42 tn The referent of “this man” (Judas) was specified in the translation for clarity.

[1:18]  43 tn Traditionally, “with the reward of his wickedness.”

[1:18]  44 tn Traditionally, “falling headlong.”

[1:18]  45 tn Or “all his bowels.”

[1:19]  46 tn Grk “And this.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[1:19]  47 sn Their own language refers to Aramaic, the primary language spoken in Palestine in Jesus’ day.

[1:19]  48 tn Grk “that field was called.” The passive voice has been converted to active in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style.

[1:20]  49 tn Or “uninhabited” or “empty.”

[1:20]  50 sn A quotation from Ps 69:25.

[1:20]  51 tn Or “Let another take his office.”

[1:20]  sn A quotation from Ps 109:8.

[1:21]  52 tn The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where a successor to Judas is being chosen, only men were under consideration in the original historical context.

[1:21]  53 tn Grk “the Lord Jesus went in and out among us.” According to BDAG 294 s.v. εἰσέρχομαι 1.b.β, “ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ ᾧ εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐφ᾿ ἡμᾶς went in and out among us = associated with us Ac 1:21.”

[1:22]  54 tn Here the pronoun “he” refers to Jesus.

[1:23]  55 tc Codex Bezae (D) and other Western witnesses have “he proposed,” referring to Peter, thus emphasizing his role above the other apostles. The Western text displays a conscious pattern of elevating Peter in Acts, and thus the singular verb here is a palpably motivated reading.

[1:23]  56 tn Grk “So they proposed two.” The word “candidates” was supplied in the text for clarity.

[1:24]  57 tn Grk “And praying, they said.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[1:25]  58 tn Grk “to take the place.”

[1:25]  59 tn Or “of this ministry.”

[1:25]  60 tn Or “the task of this service and apostleship which Judas ceased to perform.”

[1:25]  61 sn To go to his own place. This may well be a euphemism for Judas’ judged fate. He separated himself from them, and thus separated he would remain.

[1:26]  62 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the continuity with the preceding verse. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not.

[1:26]  63 tn Grk “and the lot fell on Matthias.”

[1:26]  64 tn Or “he was counted as one of the apostles along with the eleven.”

[2:1]  65 tn Grk “And” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not.

[2:2]  66 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated for stylistic reasons. It occurs as part of the formula καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto) which is often left untranslated in Luke-Acts because it is redundant in contemporary English. Here it is possible (and indeed necessary) to translate ἐγένετο as “came” so that the initial clause of the English translation contains a verb; nevertheless the translation of the conjunction καί is not necessary.

[2:2]  67 tn Or “a noise.”

[2:2]  68 tn While φέρω (ferw) generally refers to movement from one place to another with the possible implication of causing the movement of other objects, in Acts 2:2 φέρομαι (feromai) should probably be understood in a more idiomatic sense of “blowing” since it is combined with the noun for wind (πνοή, pnoh).

[2:2]  69 tn Or “from the sky.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context.

[2:3]  70 tn Or “And divided tongues as of fire.” The precise meaning of διαμερίζομαι (diamerizomai) in Acts 2:3 is difficult to determine. The meaning could be “tongues as of fire dividing up one to each person,” but it is also possible that the individual tongues of fire were divided (“And divided tongues as of fire appeared”). The translation adopted in the text (“tongues spreading out like a fire”) attempts to be somewhat ambiguous.

[2:4]  71 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[2:4]  72 tn The Greek term is γλώσσαις (glwssai"), the same word used for the tongues of fire.

[2:4]  sn Other languages. Acts 2:6-7 indicates that these were languages understandable to the hearers, a diverse group from “every nation under heaven.”

[2:4]  73 tn Grk “just as the spirit gave them to utter.” The verb ἀποφθέγγομαι (apofqengomai) was used of special utterances in Classical Greek (BDAG 125 s.v.).

[2:5]  74 tn Grk “Jews, devout men.” It is possible that only men are in view here in light of OT commands for Jewish men to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem at various times during the year (cf. Exod 23:17, 34:23; Deut 16:16). However, other evidence seems to indicate that both men and women might be in view. Luke 2:41-52 shows that whole families would make the temporary trip to Jerusalem. In addition, it is probable that the audience consisted of families who had taken up permanent residence in Jerusalem. The verb κατοικέω (katoikew) normally means “reside” or “dwell,” and archaeological evidence from tombs in Jerusalem does indicate that many families immigrated to Jerusalem permanently (see B. Witherington, Acts, 135); this would naturally include women. Also, the word ἀνήρ (ajnhr), which usually does mean “male” or “man” (as opposed to woman), sometimes is used generically to mean “a person” (BDAG 79 s.v. 2; cf. Matt 12:41). Given this evidence, then, it is conceivable that the audience in view here is not individual male pilgrims but a mixed group of men and women.

[2:5]  75 tn Grk “Now there were residing in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven.”

[2:5]  map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[2:6]  76 tn Or “this noise.”

[2:6]  77 tn Or “was bewildered.”

[2:7]  78 tn Grk “They were astounded and amazed, saying.” The two imperfect verbs, ἐξίσταντο (existanto) and ἐθαύμαζον (eqaumazon), show both the surprise and the confusion on the part of the hearers. The verb ἐξίσταντο (from ἐξίστημι, existhmi) often implies an illogical perception or response (BDAG 350 s.v. ἐξίστημι): “to be so astonished as to almost fail to comprehend what one has experienced” (L&N 25.218).

[2:7]  79 tn Grk “Behold, aren’t all these.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

[2:8]  80 tn Grk “we hear them, each one of us.”

[2:8]  81 tn Grk “in our own language in which we were born.”

[2:9]  82 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

[2:10]  83 tn According to BDAG 595 s.v. Λιβύη, the western part of Libya, Libya Cyrenaica, is referred to here (see also Josephus, Ant. 16.6.1 [16.160] for a similar phrase).

[2:10]  84 map For location see JP4 A1.

[2:11]  85 sn Proselytes refers to Gentile (i.e., non-Jewish) converts to Judaism.

[2:11]  86 tn Or “God’s mighty works.” Here the genitive τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a subjective genitive.

[2:13]  87 tn The words “the speakers” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

[2:13]  88 tn Grk “They are full of new wine!”

[2:13]  sn New wine refers to a new, sweet wine in the process of fermentation.

[2:14]  89 tn Grk “standing up.” The participle σταθείς (staqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[2:14]  90 tn Or “You Jewish men.” “Judea” is preferred here because it is paired with “Jerusalem,” a location. This suggests locality rather than ethnic background is the primary emphasis in the context. As for “men,” the Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where “all” who live in Jerusalem are addressed, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

[2:14]  91 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[2:14]  92 tn Grk “let this be known to you.” The passive construction has been translated as an active for stylistic reasons.

[2:15]  93 tn Grk “These men are not drunk, as you suppose.”

[2:15]  94 tn Grk “only the third hour.”

[2:16]  95 sn Note how in the quotation that follows all genders, ages, and classes are included. The event is like a hope Moses expressed in Num 11:29.

[2:17]  96 sn The phrase in the last days is not quoted from Joel, but represents Peter’s interpretive explanation of the current events as falling “in the last days.”

[2:17]  97 tn Grk “on all flesh.”

[2:18]  98 tn Grk “slaves.” Although this translation frequently renders δοῦλος (doulos) as “slave,” the connotation is often of one who has sold himself into slavery; in a spiritual sense, the idea is that of becoming a slave of God or of Jesus Christ voluntarily. The voluntary notion is not conspicuous here; hence, the translation “servants.” In any case, the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.

[2:18]  99 sn The words and they will prophesy in Acts 2:18 are not quoted from Joel 2:29 at this point but are repeated from earlier in the quotation (Acts 2:17) for emphasis. Tongues speaking is described as prophecy, just like intelligible tongues are described in 1 Cor 14:26-33.

[2:19]  100 tn Or “in the heaven.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context. Here, in contrast to “the earth below,” a reference to the sky is more likely.

[2:19]  101 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned; this is made explicit in the translation.

[2:20]  102 tn Or “and wonderful.”

[2:21]  103 tn Grk “And it will be that.”

[2:21]  104 sn A quotation from Joel 2:28-32.

[2:22]  105 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

[2:22]  106 tn Or “miraculous deeds.”

[2:22]  107 tn Again, the context indicates the miraculous nature of these signs, and this is specified in the translation.

[2:23]  108 tn Or “you killed.”

[2:23]  109 tn Grk “at the hands of lawless men.” At this point the term ἄνομος (anomo") refers to non-Jews who live outside the Jewish (Mosaic) law, rather than people who broke any or all laws including secular laws. Specifically it is a reference to the Roman soldiers who carried out Jesus’ crucifixion.

[2:24]  110 tn Grk “Whom God raised up.”

[2:24]  111 tn Or “having freed.”

[2:24]  112 sn The term translated pains is frequently used to describe pains associated with giving birth (see Rev 12:2). So there is irony here in the mixed metaphor.

[2:24]  113 tn Or “for him to be held by it” (in either case, “it” refers to death’s power).

[2:25]  114 tn Or “always before me.”

[2:26]  115 tn Grk “my flesh.”

[2:27]  116 tn Or “will not abandon my soul to Hades.” Often “Hades” is the equivalent of the Hebrew term Sheol, the place of the dead.

[2:27]  117 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

[2:28]  118 sn A quotation from Ps 16:8-11.

[2:29]  119 tn Since this represents a continuation of the address beginning in v.14 and continued in v. 22, “brothers” has been used here rather than a generic expression like “brothers and sisters.”

[2:29]  120 sn Peter’s certainty is based on well-known facts.

[2:29]  121 tn Or “about our noted ancestor,” “about the patriarch.”

[2:30]  122 tn The participles ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) and εἰδώς (eidw") are translated as causal adverbial participles.

[2:30]  123 tn Grk “one from the fruit of his loins.” “Loins” is the traditional translation of ὀσφῦς (osfu"), referring to the male genital organs. A literal rendering like “one who came from his genital organs” would be regarded as too specific and perhaps even vulgar by many contemporary readers. Most modern translations thus render the phrase “one of his descendants.”

[2:30]  124 sn An allusion to Ps 132:11 and 2 Sam 7:12-13, the promise in the Davidic covenant.

[2:31]  125 tn Grk “David foreseeing spoke.” The participle προϊδών (proidwn) is taken as indicating means. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance: “David foresaw [this] and spoke.” The word “this” is supplied in either case as an understood direct object (direct objects in Greek were often omitted, but must be supplied for the modern English reader).

[2:31]  126 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[2:31]  sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul’s letters to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.

[2:31]  127 tn Or “abandoned in the world of the dead.” The translation “world of the dead” for Hades is suggested by L&N 1.19. The phrase is an allusion to Ps 16:10.

[2:31]  128 tn Grk “flesh.” See vv. 26b-27. The reference to “body” in this verse picks up the reference to “body” in v. 26. The Greek term σάρξ (sarx) in both verses literally means “flesh”; however, the translation “body” stresses the lack of decay of his physical body. The point of the verse is not merely the lack of decay of his flesh alone, but the resurrection of his entire person, as indicated by the previous parallel line “he was not abandoned to Hades.”

[2:31]  129 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

[2:31]  130 sn An allusion to Ps 16:10.

[2:32]  131 tn Or “of him”; Grk “of which [or whom] we are all witnesses” (Acts 1:8).

[2:33]  132 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

[2:33]  133 sn The expression the right hand of God represents supreme power and authority. Its use here sets up the quotation of Ps 110:1 in v. 34.

[2:33]  134 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

[2:33]  135 tn Here the genitive τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the promise consists of the Holy Spirit.

[2:33]  136 sn The use of the verb poured out looks back to 2:17-18, where the same verb occurs twice.

[2:34]  137 sn Sit at my right hand. The word “sit” alludes back to the promise of “seating one on his throne” in v. 30.

[2:35]  138 sn The metaphor make your enemies a footstool portrays the complete subjugation of the enemies.

[2:35]  139 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1, one of the most often-cited OT passages in the NT, pointing to the exaltation of Jesus.

[2:36]  140 tn Or “know for certain.” This term is in an emphatic position in the clause.

[2:36]  141 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.

[2:36]  142 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.

[2:36]  143 tn Or “and Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[2:36]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

[2:37]  144 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[2:37]  145 tn Grk “they were pierced to the heart” (an idiom for acute emotional distress).

[2:38]  146 tn The verb is a third person imperative, but the common translation “let each of you be baptized” obscures the imperative force in English, since it sounds more like a permissive (“each of you may be baptized”) to the average English reader.

[2:38]  147 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[2:38]  sn In the name of Jesus Christ. Baptism in Messiah Jesus’ name shows how much authority he possesses.

[2:38]  148 tn There is debate over the meaning of εἰς in the prepositional phrase εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν (eis afesin twn Jamartiwn Jumwn, “for/because of/with reference to the forgiveness of your sins”). Although a causal sense has been argued, it is difficult to maintain here. ExSyn 369-71 discusses at least four other ways of dealing with the passage: (1) The baptism referred to here is physical only, and εἰς has the meaning of “for” or “unto.” Such a view suggests that salvation is based on works – an idea that runs counter to the theology of Acts, namely: (a) repentance often precedes baptism (cf. Acts 3:19; 26:20), and (b) salvation is entirely a gift of God, not procured via water baptism (Acts 10:43 [cf. v. 47]; 13:38-39, 48; 15:11; 16:30-31; 20:21; 26:18); (2) The baptism referred to here is spiritual only. Although such a view fits well with the theology of Acts, it does not fit well with the obvious meaning of “baptism” in Acts – especially in this text (cf. 2:41); (3) The text should be repunctuated in light of the shift from second person plural to third person singular back to second person plural again. The idea then would be, “Repent for/with reference to your sins, and let each one of you be baptized…” Such a view is an acceptable way of handling εἰς, but its subtlety and awkwardness count against it; (4) Finally, it is possible that to a first-century Jewish audience (as well as to Peter), the idea of baptism might incorporate both the spiritual reality and the physical symbol. That Peter connects both closely in his thinking is clear from other passages such as Acts 10:47 and 11:15-16. If this interpretation is correct, then Acts 2:38 is saying very little about the specific theological relationship between the symbol and the reality, only that historically they were viewed together. One must look in other places for a theological analysis. For further discussion see R. N. Longenecker, “Acts,” EBC 9:283-85; B. Witherington, Acts, 154-55; F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary, 129-30; BDAG 290 s.v. εἰς 4.f.

[2:38]  149 tn Here the genitive τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος (tou Jagiou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the gift consists of the Holy Spirit.

[2:39]  150 sn The promise refers to the promise of the Holy Spirit that Jesus received from the Father in 2:33 and which he now pours out on others. The promise consists of the Holy Spirit (see note in 2:33). Jesus is the active mediator of God’s blessing.

[2:40]  151 tn Or “warned.”

[2:40]  152 tn Or “crooked” (in a moral or ethical sense). See Luke 3:5.

[2:41]  153 tn Or “who acknowledged the truth of.”

[2:41]  154 tn Grk “word.”

[2:41]  155 tn Grk “souls” (here an idiom for the whole person).

[2:41]  156 tn Or “were won over.”

[2:42]  157 sn Fellowship refers here to close association involving mutual involvement and relationships.

[2:42]  158 tn Grk “prayers.” This word was translated as a collective singular in keeping with English style.

[2:43]  159 tn Or “Fear.”

[2:43]  160 tn Grk “on every soul” (here “soul” is an idiom for the whole person).

[2:43]  161 tn In this context the miraculous nature of these signs is implied. Cf. BDAG 920 s.v. σημεῖον 2.a.

[2:44]  162 tn Grk “had.”

[2:45]  163 tn The imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive (“began…”). Since in context this is a description of the beginning of the community of believers, it is more likely that these statements refer to the start of various activities and practices that the early church continued for some time.

[2:45]  164 tn It is possible that the first term for property (κτήματα, kthmata) refers to real estate (as later usage seems to indicate) while the second term (ὑπάρξεις, Juparxeis) refers to possessions in general, but it may also be that the two terms are used together for emphasis, simply indicating that all kinds of possessions were being sold. However, if the first term is more specifically a reference to real estate, it foreshadows the incident with Ananias and Sapphira in Acts 5:1-11.

[2:45]  165 tn Grk “distributing them” (αὐτά, auta). The referent (the proceeds of the sales) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[2:46]  166 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.

[2:46]  167 tn Grk “in the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

[2:46]  168 tn Here κατά (kata) is used as a distributive (BDAG 512 s.v. B.1.d).

[2:46]  169 sn The term glad (Grk “gladness”) often refers to joy brought about by God’s saving acts (Luke 1:14, 44; also the related verb in 1:47; 10:21).

[2:46]  170 tn Grk “with gladness and humbleness of hearts.” It is best to understand καρδίας (kardias) as an attributed genitive, with the two nouns it modifies actually listing attributes of the genitive noun which is related to them.

[2:47]  171 tn Or “the favor.”

[2:47]  172 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.

[3:1]  173 tn Grk “hour.”

[3:1]  174 sn Going up to the temple at the time for prayer. The earliest Christians, being of Jewish roots, were still participating in the institutions of Judaism at this point. Their faith in Christ did not make them non-Jewish in their practices.

[3:1]  175 tn Grk “at the ninth hour.” This is calculated from sunrise (Josephus, Ant. 14.4.3 [14.65]; Dan 9:21).

[3:2]  176 tn Or “crippled.”

[3:2]  177 tn Grk “from his mother’s womb.”

[3:2]  178 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.

[3:2]  179 tn Grk “alms.” The term “alms” is not in common use today, so what the man expected, “money,” is used in the translation instead. The idea is that of money given as a gift to someone who was poor. Giving alms was viewed as honorable in Judaism (Tob 1:3, 16; 12:8-9; m. Pe’ah 1:1). See also Luke 11:41; 12:33; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4, 31; 24:17.

[3:2]  180 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

[3:2]  sn Into the temple courts. The exact location of this incident is debated. The ‘Beautiful Gate’ referred either to the Nicanor Gate (which led from the Court of the Gentiles into the Court of Women) or the Shushan Gate at the eastern wall.

[3:3]  181 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

[3:3]  sn See the note on the phrase the temple courts in the previous verse.

[3:3]  182 tn Grk “alms.” See the note on the word “money” in the previous verse.

[3:4]  183 tn Grk “Peter, looking directly at him, as did John, said.” The participle ἀτενίσας (atenisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[3:5]  184 tn Grk “So he”; the referent (the lame man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:6]  185 tn Or “I have no money.” L&N 6.69 classifies the expression ἀργύριον καὶ χρυσίον (argurion kai crusion) as an idiom that is a generic expression for currency, thus “money.”

[3:6]  186 sn In the name. Note the authority in the name of Jesus the Messiah. His presence and power are at work for the man. The reference to “the name” is not like a magical incantation, but is designed to indicate the agent who performs the healing. The theme is quite frequent in Acts (2:38 plus 21 other times).

[3:6]  187 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[3:6]  188 tc The words “stand up and” (ἔγειρε καί, egeire kai) are not in a few mss (א B D sa), but are included in A C E Ψ 095 33 1739 Ï lat sy mae bo. The external testimony is thus fairly evenly divided, with few but important representatives of the Alexandrian and Western texttypes supporting the shorter reading. Internally, the words look like a standard scribal emendation, and may have been motivated by other healing passages where Jesus gave a similar double command (cf. Matt 9:5; Mark 2:9, [11]; Luke 5:23; [6:8]; John 5:8). On the other hand, there is some motivation for deleting ἔγειρε καί here, namely, unlike Jesus’ healing miracles, Peter raises (ἤγειρεν, hgeiren) the man to his feet (v. 7) rather than the man rising on his own. In light of the scribal tendency to harmonize, especially in immediate context, the longer reading is slightly preferred.

[3:7]  189 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to reflect the sequence of events.

[3:7]  190 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:7]  191 tn Grk “Peter taking hold of him…raised him up.” The participle πιάσας (piasas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[3:7]  192 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:7]  193 sn At once the man’s feet and ankles were made strong. Note that despite the past lameness, the man is immediately able to walk. The restoration of his ability to walk pictures the presence of a renewed walk, a fresh start at life; this was far more than money would have given him.

[3:8]  194 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[3:8]  195 tn Grk “Jumping up, he stood.” The participle ἐξαλλόμενος (exallomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It is possible that the paralyzed man actually jumped off the ground, but more probably this term simply refers to the speed with which he stood up. See L&N 15.240.

[3:8]  196 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

[3:9]  197 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[3:10]  198 tn Grk “alms,” but this term is not in common use today, so the closest modern equivalent, “donations,” is used instead. The idea is that of a donation to charity.

[3:10]  199 sn Amazement is a frequent response to miracles of Jesus or the apostles. These took the ancients by as much surprise as they would people today. But in terms of response to what God is doing, amazement does not equal faith (Luke 4:36; 5:9, 26; 7:16).

[3:11]  200 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:11]  201 tn Or “portico,” “colonnade”; Grk “stoa.” The translation “covered walkway” (a descriptive translation) was used here because the architectural term “portico” or “colonnade” is less familiar. However, the more technical term “portico” was retained in the actual name that follows.

[3:11]  202 sn Solomons Portico was a covered walkway formed by rows of columns supporting a roof and open on the inner side facing the center of the temple complex. It was located on the east side of the temple (Josephus, Ant. 15.11.3-5 [15.391-420], 20.9.7 [20.221]) and was a place of commerce and conversation.

[3:12]  203 tn Or perhaps “People of Israel,” since this was taking place in Solomon’s Portico and women may have been present. The Greek ἄνδρες ᾿Ισραηλῖται (andre" Israhlitai) used in the plural would normally mean “men, gentlemen” (BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).

[3:12]  204 tn Grk “or why.”

[3:12]  205 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:13]  206 tc ‡ The repetition of ὁ θεός (Jo qeos, “God”) before the names of Isaac and Jacob is found in Ì74 א C (A D without article) 36 104 1175 pc lat. The omission of the second and third ὁ θεός is supported by B E Ψ 33 1739 Ï pc. The other time that Exod 3:6 is quoted in Acts (7:32) the best witnesses also lack the repeated ὁ θεός, but the three other times this OT passage is quoted in the NT the full form, with the thrice-mentioned θεός, is used (Matt 22:32; Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37). Scribes would be prone to conform the wording here to the LXX; the longer reading is thus most likely not authentic. NA27 has the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

[3:13]  207 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”

[3:13]  sn The reference to the God of the patriarchs is a reminder that God is the God of the nation and of promises. The phrase God of our forefathers is from the Hebrew scriptures (Exod 3:6, 15-16; 4:5; see also the Jewish prayer known as “The Eighteen Benedictions”). Once again, event has led to explanation, or what is called the “sign and speech” pattern.

[3:13]  208 sn Has glorified. Jesus is alive, raised and active, as the healing illustrates so dramatically how God honors him.

[3:13]  209 sn His servant. The term servant has messianic connotations given the context of the promise, the note of suffering, and the titles and functions noted in vv. 14-15.

[3:13]  210 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”

[3:13]  211 tn This genitive absolute construction could be understood as temporal (“when he had decided”) or concessive (“although he had decided”).

[3:14]  212 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”

[3:15]  213 tn Or “You put to death.”

[3:15]  214 tn Or “Founder,” “founding Leader.”

[3:15]  215 sn Whom God raised. God is the main actor here, as he testifies to Jesus and vindicates him.

[3:15]  216 tn Grk “whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the words “to this fact” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.

[3:15]  sn We are witnesses. Note the two witnesses here, Peter and John (Acts 5:32; Heb 2:3-4).

[3:16]  217 tn Grk “in his name”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:16]  218 sn Here is another example of appeal to the person by mentioning the name. See the note on the word name in 3:6.

[3:16]  219 tn Grk “see and know, and the faith.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and καί (kai, “and”) has not been translated.

[3:16]  220 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[3:16]  sn The faith that is through Jesus. Note how this verse explains how the claim to “faith in Jesus’ name” works and what it means. To appeal to the name is to point to the person. It is not clear that the man expressed faith before the miracle. This could well be a “grace-faith miracle” where God grants power through the apostles to picture how much a gift life is (Luke 17:11-19). Christology and grace are emphasized here.

[3:16]  221 tn Or “in full view.”

[3:17]  222 sn The ignorance Peter mentions here does not excuse them from culpability. It was simply a way to say “you did not realize the great mistake you made.”

[3:18]  223 sn God foretold. Peter’s topic is the working out of God’s plan and promise through events the scriptures also note.

[3:18]  224 tn Grk “by the mouth of” (an idiom).

[3:18]  225 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[3:18]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

[3:20]  226 tn Or “relief.”

[3:20]  sn Times of refreshing. The phrase implies relief from difficult, distressful or burdensome circumstances. It is generally regarded as a reference to the messianic age being ushered in.

[3:20]  227 tn The words “so that…Lord” are traditionally placed in v. 19 by most English translations, but in the present translation the verse division follows the standard critical editions of the Greek text (NA27, UBS4).

[3:20]  228 tn Or “the Christ”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[3:20]  sn He may send the Messiah appointed for you – that is, Jesus. The language points to the expectation of Jesus’ return to gather his people. It is a development of the question raised in Acts 1:6.

[3:20]  229 tn Or “designated in advance.”

[3:21]  230 tn Grk “whom,” continuing the sentence from v. 20.

[3:21]  231 sn The term must used here (δεῖ, dei, “it is necessary”) is a key Lukan term to point to the plan of God and what must occur.

[3:21]  232 tn Grk “until the times of the restoration of all things.” Because of the awkward English style of the extended genitive construction, and because the following relative clause has as its referent the “time of restoration” rather than “all things,” the phrase was translated “until the time all things are restored.”

[3:21]  sn The time all things are restored. What that restoration involves is already recorded in the scriptures of the nation of Israel.

[3:21]  233 tn Or “spoke.”

[3:21]  234 tn Or “from all ages past.”

[3:21]  sn From times long ago. Once again, God’s plan is emphasized.

[3:22]  235 tn Grk “hear,” but the idea of “hear and obey” or simply “obey” is frequently contained in the Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw; see L&N 36.14) and the following context (v. 23) makes it clear that failure to “obey” the words of this “prophet like Moses” will result in complete destruction.

[3:22]  236 sn A quotation from Deut 18:15. By quoting Deut 18:15 Peter declared that Jesus was the eschatological “prophet like [Moses]” mentioned in that passage, who reveals the plan of God and the way of God.

[3:23]  237 tn Grk “every soul” (here “soul” is an idiom for the whole person).

[3:23]  238 tn Or “will be completely destroyed.” In Acts 3:23 the verb ἐξολεθρεύω (exoleqreuw) is translated “destroy and remove” by L&N 20.35.

[3:23]  239 sn A quotation from Deut 18:19, also Lev 23:29. The OT context of Lev 23:29 discusses what happened when one failed to honor atonement. One ignored the required sacrifice of God at one’s peril.

[3:24]  240 tn Or “proclaimed.”

[3:24]  sn All the prophets…have spoken about and announced. What Peter preaches is rooted in basic biblical and Jewish hope as expressed in the OT scriptures.

[3:25]  241 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

[3:25]  242 tn Or “in your offspring”; Grk “in your seed.”

[3:25]  sn In your descendants (Grk “in your seed”). Seed has an important ambiguity in this verse. The blessing comes from the servant (v. 26), who in turn blesses the responsive children of the covenant as the scripture promised. Jesus is the seed who blesses the seed.

[3:25]  243 tn Or “families.” The Greek word πατριά (patria) can indicate persons of succeeding generations who are related by birth (“lineage,” “family”) but it can also indicate a relatively large unit of people who make up a sociopolitical group and who share a presumed biological descent. In many contexts πατριά is very similar to ἔθνος (eqnos) and λαός (laos). In light of the context of the OT quotation, it is better to translate πατριά as “nations” here.

[3:25]  244 sn A quotation from Gen 22:18.

[3:26]  245 tn Grk “God raising up his servant, sent him.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Some translations (e.g., NIV, NRSV) render this participle as temporal (“when God raised up his servant”).

[3:26]  246 sn The picture of turning is again seen as the appropriate response to the message. See v. 19 above. In v. 19 it was “turning to,” here it is “turning away from.” The direction of the two metaphors is important.

[3:26]  247 tn For the translation of plural πονηρία (ponhria) as “iniquities,” see G. Harder, TDNT 6:565. The plural is important, since for Luke turning to Jesus means turning away from sins, not just the sin of rejecting Jesus.



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