Kisah Para Rasul 1:1--3:26Konteks
1:1 I wrote 1 the former 2 account, 3 Theophilus, 4 about all that Jesus began to do and teach 1:2 until the day he was taken up to heaven, 5 after he had given orders 6 by 7 the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. 1:3 To the same apostles 8 also, after his suffering, 9 he presented himself alive with many convincing proofs. He was seen by them over a forty-day period 10 and spoke about matters concerning the kingdom of God. 1:4 While he was with them, 11 he declared, 12 “Do not leave Jerusalem, 13 but wait there 14 for what my 15 Father promised, 16 which you heard about from me. 17 1:5 For 18 John baptized with water, but you 19 will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”
1:6 So when they had gathered together, they began to ask him, 20 “Lord, is this the time when you are restoring the kingdom to Israel?” 1:7 He told them, “You are not permitted to know 21 the times or periods that the Father has set by his own authority. 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts 22 of the earth.” 1:9 After 23 he had said this, while they were watching, he was lifted up and a cloud hid him from their sight. 1:10 As 24 they were still staring into the sky while he was going, suddenly 25 two men in white clothing stood near them 1:11 and said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand here 26 looking up into the sky? This same Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven 27 will come back in the same way you saw him go into heaven.”
1:12 Then they returned to Jerusalem 28 from the mountain 29 called the Mount of Olives 30 (which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey 31 away). 1:13 When 32 they had entered Jerusalem, 33 they went to the upstairs room where they were staying. Peter 34 and John, and James, and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James were there. 35 1:14 All these continued together in prayer with one mind, together with the women, along with Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers. 36 1:15 In those days 37 Peter stood up among the believers 38 (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty people) and said, 1:16 “Brothers, 39 the scripture had to be fulfilled that the Holy Spirit foretold through 40 David concerning Judas – who became the guide for those who arrested Jesus – 1:17 for he was counted as one of us and received a share in this ministry.” 41 1:18 (Now this man Judas 42 acquired a field with the reward of his unjust deed, 43 and falling headfirst 44 he burst open in the middle and all his intestines 45 gushed out. 1:19 This 46 became known to all who lived in Jerusalem, so that in their own language 47 they called that field 48 Hakeldama, that is, “Field of Blood.”) 1:20 “For it is written in the book of Psalms, ‘Let his house become deserted, 49 and let there be no one to live in it,’ 50 and ‘Let another take his position of responsibility.’ 51 1:21 Thus one of the men 52 who have accompanied us during all the time the Lord Jesus associated with 53 us, 1:22 beginning from his baptism by John until the day he 54 was taken up from us – one of these must become a witness of his resurrection together with us.” 1:23 So they 55 proposed two candidates: 56 Joseph called Barsabbas (also called Justus) and Matthias. 1:24 Then they prayed, 57 “Lord, you know the hearts of all. Show us which one of these two you have chosen 1:25 to assume the task 58 of this service 59 and apostleship from which Judas turned aside 60 to go to his own place.” 61 1:26 Then 62 they cast lots for them, and the one chosen was Matthias; 63 so he was counted with the eleven apostles. 64
2:1 Now 65 when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2:2 Suddenly 66 a sound 67 like a violent wind blowing 68 came from heaven 69 and filled the entire house where they were sitting. 2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire 70 appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them. 2:4 All 71 of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages 72 as the Spirit enabled them. 73
2:5 Now there were devout Jews 74 from every nation under heaven residing in Jerusalem. 75 2:6 When this sound 76 occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, 77 because each one heard them speaking in his own language. 2:7 Completely baffled, they said, 78 “Aren’t 79 all these who are speaking Galileans? 2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them 80 in our own native language? 81 2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia, 82 2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, 83 and visitors from Rome, 84 2:11 both Jews and proselytes, 85 Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!” 86 2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?” 2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, 87 saying, “They are drunk on new wine!” 88
2:14 But Peter stood up 89 with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea 90 and all you who live in Jerusalem, 91 know this 92 and listen carefully to what I say. 2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, 93 for it is only nine o’clock in the morning. 94 2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel: 95
‘that I will pour out my Spirit on all people, 97
and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,
and your young men will see visions,
and your old men will dream dreams.
I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. 99
and miraculous signs 101 on the earth below,
blood and fire and clouds of smoke.
2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the great and glorious 102 day of the Lord comes.
2:22 “Men of Israel, 105 listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, 106 wonders, and miraculous signs 107 that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know – 2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 108 by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles. 109 2:24 But God raised him up, 110 having released 111 him from the pains 112 of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power. 113 2:25 For David says about him,
‘I saw the Lord always in front of me, 114
for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.
2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;
my body 115 also will live in hope,
nor permit your Holy One to experience 117 decay.
2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;
you will make me full of joy with your presence.’ 118
2:29 “Brothers, 119 I can speak confidently 120 to you about our forefather 121 David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2:30 So then, because 122 he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants 123 on his throne, 124 2:31 David by foreseeing this 125 spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, 126 that he was neither abandoned to Hades, 127 nor did his body 128 experience 129 decay. 130 2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 131 2:33 So then, exalted 132 to the right hand 133 of God, and having received 134 the promise of the Holy Spirit 135 from the Father, he has poured out 136 what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,
‘The Lord said to my lord,
“Sit 137 at my right hand
2:37 Now when they heard this, 144 they were acutely distressed 145 and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “What should we do, brothers?” 2:38 Peter said to them, “Repent, and each one of you be baptized 146 in the name of Jesus Christ 147 for 148 the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 149 2:39 For the promise 150 is for you and your children, and for all who are far away, as many as the Lord our God will call to himself.” 2:40 With many other words he testified 151 and exhorted them saying, “Save yourselves from this perverse 152 generation!” 2:41 So those who accepted 153 his message 154 were baptized, and that day about three thousand people 155 were added. 156
2:42 They were devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, 157 to the breaking of bread and to prayer. 158 2:43 Reverential awe 159 came over everyone, 160 and many wonders and miraculous signs 161 came about by the apostles. 2:44 All who believed were together and held 162 everything in common, 2:45 and they began selling 163 their property 164 and possessions and distributing the proceeds 165 to everyone, as anyone had need. 2:46 Every day 166 they continued to gather together by common consent in the temple courts, 167 breaking bread from 168 house to house, sharing their food with glad 169 and humble hearts, 170 2:47 praising God and having the good will 171 of all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number every day 172 those who were being saved.
3:1 Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the time 173 for prayer, 174 at three o’clock in the afternoon. 175 3:2 And a man lame 176 from birth 177 was being carried up, who was placed at the temple gate called “the Beautiful Gate” every day 178 so he could beg for money 179 from those going into the temple courts. 180 3:3 When he saw Peter and John about to go into the temple courts, 181 he asked them for money. 182 3:4 Peter looked directly 183 at him (as did John) and said, “Look at us!” 3:5 So the lame man 184 paid attention to them, expecting to receive something from them. 3:6 But Peter said, “I have no silver or gold, 185 but what I do have I give you. In the name 186 of Jesus Christ 187 the Nazarene, stand up and 188 walk!” 3:7 Then 189 Peter 190 took hold 191 of him by the right hand and raised him up, and at once the man’s 192 feet and ankles were made strong. 193 3:8 He 194 jumped up, 195 stood and began walking around, and he entered the temple courts 196 with them, walking and leaping and praising God. 3:9 All 197 the people saw him walking and praising God, 3:10 and they recognized him as the man who used to sit and ask for donations 198 at the Beautiful Gate of the temple, and they were filled with astonishment and amazement 199 at what had happened to him.
3:11 While the man 200 was hanging on to Peter and John, all the people, completely astounded, ran together to them in the covered walkway 201 called Solomon’s Portico. 202 3:12 When Peter saw this, he declared to the people, “Men of Israel, 203 why are you amazed at this? Why 204 do you stare at us as if we had made this man 205 walk by our own power or piety? 3:13 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 206 the God of our forefathers, 207 has glorified 208 his servant 209 Jesus, whom you handed over and rejected 210 in the presence of Pilate after he had decided 211 to release him. 3:14 But you rejected 212 the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a man who was a murderer be released to you. 3:15 You killed 213 the Originator 214 of life, whom God raised 215 from the dead. To this fact we are witnesses! 216 3:16 And on the basis of faith in Jesus’ 217 name, 218 his very name has made this man – whom you see and know – strong. The 219 faith that is through Jesus 220 has given him this complete health in the presence 221 of you all. 3:17 And now, brothers, I know you acted in ignorance, 222 as your rulers did too. 3:18 But the things God foretold 223 long ago through 224 all the prophets – that his Christ 225 would suffer – he has fulfilled in this way. 3:19 Therefore repent and turn back so that your sins may be wiped out, 3:20 so that times of refreshing 226 may come from the presence of the Lord, 227 and so that he may send the Messiah 228 appointed 229 for you – that is, Jesus. 3:21 This one 230 heaven must 231 receive until the time all things are restored, 232 which God declared 233 from times long ago 234 through his holy prophets. 3:22 Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers. You must obey 235 him in everything he tells you. 236 3:23 Every person 237 who does not obey that prophet will be destroyed and thus removed 238 from the people.’ 239 3:24 And all the prophets, from Samuel and those who followed him, have spoken about and announced 240 these days. 3:25 You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant that God made with your ancestors, 241 saying to Abraham, ‘And in your descendants 242 all the nations 243 of the earth will be blessed.’ 244 3:26 God raised up 245 his servant and sent him first to you, to bless you by turning 246 each one of you from your iniquities.” 247
[1:1] 2 tn Or “first.” The translation “former” is preferred because “first” could imply to the modern English reader that the author means that his previous account was the first one to be written down. The Greek term πρῶτος (prwtos) does not necessarily mean “first” in an absolute sense, but can refer to the first in a set or series. That is what is intended here – the first account (known as the Gospel of Luke) as compared to the second one (known as Acts).
[1:1] 3 tn The Greek word λόγος (logos) is sometimes translated “book” (NRSV, NIV) or “treatise” (KJV). A formal, systematic treatment of a subject is implied, but the word “book” may be too specific and slightly misleading to the modern reader, so “account” has been used.
[1:1] sn The former account refers to the Gospel of Luke, which was “volume one” of the two-volume work Luke-Acts.
[1:2] 5 tn The words “to heaven” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied from v. 11. Several modern translations (NIV, NRSV) supply the words “to heaven” after “taken up” to specify the destination explicitly mentioned later in 1:11.
[1:2] 6 tn Or “commands.” Although some modern translations render ἐντειλάμενος (enteilameno") as “instructions” (NIV, NRSV), the word implies authority or official sanction (G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:545), so that a word like “orders” conveys the idea more effectively. The action of the temporal participle is antecedent (prior) to the action of the verb it modifies (“taken up”).
[1:3] 10 tn Grk “during forty days.” The phrase “over a forty-day period” is used rather than “during forty days” because (as the other NT accounts of Jesus’ appearances make clear) Jesus was not continually visible to the apostles during the forty days, but appeared to them on various occasions.
[1:4] 11 tn Or “While he was assembling with them,” or “while he was sharing a meal with them.” There are three basic options for translating the verb συναλίζω (sunalizw): (1) “Eat (salt) with, share a meal with”; (2) “bring together, assemble”; (3) “spend the night with, stay with” (see BDAG 964 s.v.). The difficulty with the first option is that it does not fit the context, and this meaning is not found elsewhere. The second option is difficult because of the singular number and the present tense. The third option is based on a spelling variation of συναυλιζόμενος (sunaulizomeno"), which some minuscules actually read here. The difference in meaning between (2) and (3) is not great, but (3) seems to fit the context somewhat better here.
[1:4] 17 tn Grk “While he was with them, he ordered them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait there for ‘what my Father promised, which you heard about from me.’” This verse moves from indirect to direct discourse. This abrupt change is very awkward, so the entire quotation has been rendered as direct discourse in the translation.
[1:5] 18 tn In the Greek text v. 5 is a continuation of the previous sentence, which is long and complicated. In keeping with the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[1:6] 20 tn Grk “they began to ask him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. The imperfect tense of the Greek verb ἠρώτων (hrwtwn) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
[1:9] 23 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:10] 24 tn Grk “And as.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:11] 27 tc Codex Bezae (D) and several other witnesses lack the words εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (ei" ton ouranon, “into heaven”) here, most likely by way of accidental deletion. In any event, it is hardly correct to suppose that the Western text has intentionally suppressed references to the ascension of Christ here, for the phrase is solidly attested in the final clause of the verse.
[1:12] 30 sn The Mount of Olives is the traditional name for this mountain, also called Olivet. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.
[1:12] 31 sn The phrase a Sabbath day’s journey refers to the distance the rabbis permitted a person to travel on the Sabbath without breaking the Sabbath, specified in tractate Sotah 5:3 of the Mishnah as 2,000 cubits (a cubit was about 18 inches). In this case the distance was about half a mile (1 km).
[1:13] 32 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:13] 34 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Peter (also called Simon) is always mentioned first (see also Matt 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16) and the first four are always the same, though not in the same order after Peter.
[1:15] 37 tn Grk “And in those days.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:16] 39 tn Grk “Men brothers.” In light of the compound phrase ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί (andre" adelfoi, “Men brothers”) Peter’s words are best understood as directly addressed to the males present, possibly referring specifically to the twelve (really ten at this point – eleven minus the speaker, Peter) mentioned by name in v. 13.
[1:17] 41 tn Or “and was chosen to have a share in this ministry.” The term λαγχάνω (lancanw) here and in 2 Pet 1:1 can be understood as referring to the process of divine choice and thus be translated, “was chosen to have.”
[1:19] 46 tn Grk “And this.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:21] 52 tn The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where a successor to Judas is being chosen, only men were under consideration in the original historical context.
[1:21] 53 tn Grk “the Lord Jesus went in and out among us.” According to BDAG 294 s.v. εἰσέρχομαι 1.b.β, “ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ ᾧ εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐφ᾿ ἡμᾶς went in and out among us = associated with us Ac 1:21.”
[1:23] 55 tc Codex Bezae (D) and other Western witnesses have “he proposed,” referring to Peter, thus emphasizing his role above the other apostles. The Western text displays a conscious pattern of elevating Peter in Acts, and thus the singular verb here is a palpably motivated reading.
[1:24] 57 tn Grk “And praying, they said.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[2:2] 66 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated for stylistic reasons. It occurs as part of the formula καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto) which is often left untranslated in Luke-Acts because it is redundant in contemporary English. Here it is possible (and indeed necessary) to translate ἐγένετο as “came” so that the initial clause of the English translation contains a verb; nevertheless the translation of the conjunction καί is not necessary.
[2:2] 68 tn While φέρω (ferw) generally refers to movement from one place to another with the possible implication of causing the movement of other objects, in Acts 2:2 φέρομαι (feromai) should probably be understood in a more idiomatic sense of “blowing” since it is combined with the noun for wind (πνοή, pnoh).
[2:3] 70 tn Or “And divided tongues as of fire.” The precise meaning of διαμερίζομαι (diamerizomai) in Acts 2:3 is difficult to determine. The meaning could be “tongues as of fire dividing up one to each person,” but it is also possible that the individual tongues of fire were divided (“And divided tongues as of fire appeared”). The translation adopted in the text (“tongues spreading out like a fire”) attempts to be somewhat ambiguous.
[2:4] 71 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[2:5] 74 tn Grk “Jews, devout men.” It is possible that only men are in view here in light of OT commands for Jewish men to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem at various times during the year (cf. Exod 23:17, 34:23; Deut 16:16). However, other evidence seems to indicate that both men and women might be in view. Luke 2:41-52 shows that whole families would make the temporary trip to Jerusalem. In addition, it is probable that the audience consisted of families who had taken up permanent residence in Jerusalem. The verb κατοικέω (katoikew) normally means “reside” or “dwell,” and archaeological evidence from tombs in Jerusalem does indicate that many families immigrated to Jerusalem permanently (see B. Witherington, Acts, 135); this would naturally include women. Also, the word ἀνήρ (ajnhr), which usually does mean “male” or “man” (as opposed to woman), sometimes is used generically to mean “a person” (BDAG 79 s.v. 2; cf. Matt 12:41). Given this evidence, then, it is conceivable that the audience in view here is not individual male pilgrims but a mixed group of men and women.
[2:7] 78 tn Grk “They were astounded and amazed, saying.” The two imperfect verbs, ἐξίσταντο (existanto) and ἐθαύμαζον (eqaumazon), show both the surprise and the confusion on the part of the hearers. The verb ἐξίσταντο (from ἐξίστημι, existhmi) often implies an illogical perception or response (BDAG 350 s.v. ἐξίστημι): “to be so astonished as to almost fail to comprehend what one has experienced” (L&N 25.218).
[2:7] 79 tn Grk “Behold, aren’t all these.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
[2:9] 82 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
[2:13] sn New wine refers to a new, sweet wine in the process of fermentation.
[2:14] 90 tn Or “You Jewish men.” “Judea” is preferred here because it is paired with “Jerusalem,” a location. This suggests locality rather than ethnic background is the primary emphasis in the context. As for “men,” the Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where “all” who live in Jerusalem are addressed, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.
[2:18] 98 tn Grk “slaves.” Although this translation frequently renders δοῦλος (doulos) as “slave,” the connotation is often of one who has sold himself into slavery; in a spiritual sense, the idea is that of becoming a slave of God or of Jesus Christ voluntarily. The voluntary notion is not conspicuous here; hence, the translation “servants.” In any case, the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.
[2:18] 99 sn The words and they will prophesy in Acts 2:18 are not quoted from Joel 2:29 at this point but are repeated from earlier in the quotation (Acts 2:17) for emphasis. Tongues speaking is described as prophecy, just like intelligible tongues are described in 1 Cor 14:26-33.
[2:19] 100 tn Or “in the heaven.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context. Here, in contrast to “the earth below,” a reference to the sky is more likely.
[2:22] 105 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.
[2:23] 109 tn Grk “at the hands of lawless men.” At this point the term ἄνομος (anomo") refers to non-Jews who live outside the Jewish (Mosaic) law, rather than people who broke any or all laws including secular laws. Specifically it is a reference to the Roman soldiers who carried out Jesus’ crucifixion.
[2:27] 117 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”
[2:30] 123 tn Grk “one from the fruit of his loins.” “Loins” is the traditional translation of ὀσφῦς (osfu"), referring to the male genital organs. A literal rendering like “one who came from his genital organs” would be regarded as too specific and perhaps even vulgar by many contemporary readers. Most modern translations thus render the phrase “one of his descendants.”
[2:31] 125 tn Grk “David foreseeing spoke.” The participle προϊδών (proidwn) is taken as indicating means. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance: “David foresaw [this] and spoke.” The word “this” is supplied in either case as an understood direct object (direct objects in Greek were often omitted, but must be supplied for the modern English reader).
[2:31] sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul’s letters to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
[2:31] 128 tn Grk “flesh.” See vv. 26b-27. The reference to “body” in this verse picks up the reference to “body” in v. 26. The Greek term σάρξ (sarx) in both verses literally means “flesh”; however, the translation “body” stresses the lack of decay of his physical body. The point of the verse is not merely the lack of decay of his flesh alone, but the resurrection of his entire person, as indicated by the previous parallel line “he was not abandoned to Hades.”
[2:31] 129 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”
[2:33] 132 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.
[2:33] 134 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.
[2:36] 141 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.
[2:36] 142 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.
[2:38] 146 tn The verb is a third person imperative, but the common translation “let each of you be baptized” obscures the imperative force in English, since it sounds more like a permissive (“each of you may be baptized”) to the average English reader.
[2:38] sn In the name of Jesus Christ. Baptism in Messiah Jesus’ name shows how much authority he possesses.
[2:38] 148 tn There is debate over the meaning of εἰς in the prepositional phrase εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν (eis afesin twn Jamartiwn Jumwn, “for/because of/with reference to the forgiveness of your sins”). Although a causal sense has been argued, it is difficult to maintain here. ExSyn 369-71 discusses at least four other ways of dealing with the passage: (1) The baptism referred to here is physical only, and εἰς has the meaning of “for” or “unto.” Such a view suggests that salvation is based on works – an idea that runs counter to the theology of Acts, namely: (a) repentance often precedes baptism (cf. Acts 3:19; 26:20), and (b) salvation is entirely a gift of God, not procured via water baptism (Acts 10:43 [cf. v. 47]; 13:38-39, 48; 15:11; 16:30-31; 20:21; 26:18); (2) The baptism referred to here is spiritual only. Although such a view fits well with the theology of Acts, it does not fit well with the obvious meaning of “baptism” in Acts – especially in this text (cf. 2:41); (3) The text should be repunctuated in light of the shift from second person plural to third person singular back to second person plural again. The idea then would be, “Repent for/with reference to your sins, and let each one of you be baptized…” Such a view is an acceptable way of handling εἰς, but its subtlety and awkwardness count against it; (4) Finally, it is possible that to a first-century Jewish audience (as well as to Peter), the idea of baptism might incorporate both the spiritual reality and the physical symbol. That Peter connects both closely in his thinking is clear from other passages such as Acts 10:47 and 11:15-16. If this interpretation is correct, then Acts 2:38 is saying very little about the specific theological relationship between the symbol and the reality, only that historically they were viewed together. One must look in other places for a theological analysis. For further discussion see R. N. Longenecker, “Acts,” EBC 9:283-85; B. Witherington, Acts, 154-55; F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary, 129-30; BDAG 290 s.v. εἰς 4.f.
[2:39] 150 sn The promise refers to the promise of the Holy Spirit that Jesus received from the Father in 2:33 and which he now pours out on others. The promise consists of the Holy Spirit (see note in 2:33). Jesus is the active mediator of God’s blessing.
[2:45] 163 tn The imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive (“began…”). Since in context this is a description of the beginning of the community of believers, it is more likely that these statements refer to the start of various activities and practices that the early church continued for some time.
[2:45] 164 tn It is possible that the first term for property (κτήματα, kthmata) refers to real estate (as later usage seems to indicate) while the second term (ὑπάρξεις, Juparxeis) refers to possessions in general, but it may also be that the two terms are used together for emphasis, simply indicating that all kinds of possessions were being sold. However, if the first term is more specifically a reference to real estate, it foreshadows the incident with Ananias and Sapphira in Acts 5:1-11.
[2:46] 170 tn Grk “with gladness and humbleness of hearts.” It is best to understand καρδίας (kardias) as an attributed genitive, with the two nouns it modifies actually listing attributes of the genitive noun which is related to them.
[3:1] 174 sn Going up to the temple at the time for prayer. The earliest Christians, being of Jewish roots, were still participating in the institutions of Judaism at this point. Their faith in Christ did not make them non-Jewish in their practices.
[3:2] 179 tn Grk “alms.” The term “alms” is not in common use today, so what the man expected, “money,” is used in the translation instead. The idea is that of money given as a gift to someone who was poor. Giving alms was viewed as honorable in Judaism (Tob 1:3, 16; 12:8-9; m. Pe’ah 1:1). See also Luke 11:41; 12:33; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4, 31; 24:17.
[3:2] sn Into the temple courts. The exact location of this incident is debated. The ‘Beautiful Gate’ referred either to the Nicanor Gate (which led from the Court of the Gentiles into the Court of Women) or the Shushan Gate at the eastern wall.
[3:3] sn See the note on the phrase the temple courts in the previous verse.
[3:6] 186 sn In the name. Note the authority in the name of Jesus the Messiah. His presence and power are at work for the man. The reference to “the name” is not like a magical incantation, but is designed to indicate the agent who performs the healing. The theme is quite frequent in Acts (2:38 plus 21 other times).
[3:6] 188 tc The words “stand up and” (ἔγειρε καί, egeire kai) are not in a few
[3:7] 193 sn At once the man’s feet and ankles were made strong. Note that despite the past lameness, the man is immediately able to walk. The restoration of his ability to walk pictures the presence of a renewed walk, a fresh start at life; this was far more than money would have given him.
[3:8] 195 tn Grk “Jumping up, he stood.” The participle ἐξαλλόμενος (exallomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It is possible that the paralyzed man actually jumped off the ground, but more probably this term simply refers to the speed with which he stood up. See L&N 15.240.
[3:9] 197 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[3:10] 199 sn Amazement is a frequent response to miracles of Jesus or the apostles. These took the ancients by as much surprise as they would people today. But in terms of response to what God is doing, amazement does not equal faith (Luke 4:36; 5:9, 26; 7:16).
[3:11] 201 tn Or “portico,” “colonnade”; Grk “stoa.” The translation “covered walkway” (a descriptive translation) was used here because the architectural term “portico” or “colonnade” is less familiar. However, the more technical term “portico” was retained in the actual name that follows.
[3:11] 202 sn Solomon’s Portico was a covered walkway formed by rows of columns supporting a roof and open on the inner side facing the center of the temple complex. It was located on the east side of the temple (Josephus, Ant. 15.11.3-5 [15.391-420], 20.9.7 [20.221]) and was a place of commerce and conversation.
[3:12] 203 tn Or perhaps “People of Israel,” since this was taking place in Solomon’s Portico and women may have been present. The Greek ἄνδρες ᾿Ισραηλῖται (andre" Israhlitai) used in the plural would normally mean “men, gentlemen” (BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).
[3:13] 206 tc ‡ The repetition of ὁ θεός (Jo qeos, “God”) before the names of Isaac and Jacob is found in Ì74 א C (A D without article) 36 104 1175 pc lat. The omission of the second and third ὁ θεός is supported by B E Ψ 33 1739 Ï pc. The other time that Exod 3:6 is quoted in Acts (7:32) the best witnesses also lack the repeated ὁ θεός, but the three other times this OT passage is quoted in the NT the full form, with the thrice-mentioned θεός, is used (Matt 22:32; Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37). Scribes would be prone to conform the wording here to the LXX; the longer reading is thus most likely not authentic. NA27 has the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.
[3:13] sn The reference to the God of the patriarchs is a reminder that God is the God of the nation and of promises. The phrase God of our forefathers is from the Hebrew scriptures (Exod 3:6, 15-16; 4:5; see also the Jewish prayer known as “The Eighteen Benedictions”). Once again, event has led to explanation, or what is called the “sign and speech” pattern.
[3:15] 216 tn Grk “whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the words “to this fact” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.
[3:16] 219 tn Grk “see and know, and the faith.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and καί (kai, “and”) has not been translated.
[3:16] sn The faith that is through Jesus. Note how this verse explains how the claim to “faith in Jesus’ name” works and what it means. To appeal to the name is to point to the person. It is not clear that the man expressed faith before the miracle. This could well be a “grace-faith miracle” where God grants power through the apostles to picture how much a gift life is (Luke 17:11-19). Christology and grace are emphasized here.
[3:20] sn Times of refreshing. The phrase implies relief from difficult, distressful or burdensome circumstances. It is generally regarded as a reference to the messianic age being ushered in.
[3:20] 227 tn The words “so that…Lord” are traditionally placed in v. 19 by most English translations, but in the present translation the verse division follows the standard critical editions of the Greek text (NA27, UBS4).
[3:20] sn He may send the Messiah appointed for you – that is, Jesus. The language points to the expectation of Jesus’ return to gather his people. It is a development of the question raised in Acts 1:6.
[3:21] 232 tn Grk “until the times of the restoration of all things.” Because of the awkward English style of the extended genitive construction, and because the following relative clause has as its referent the “time of restoration” rather than “all things,” the phrase was translated “until the time all things are restored.”
[3:21] sn The time all things are restored. What that restoration involves is already recorded in the scriptures of the nation of Israel.
[3:21] sn From times long ago. Once again, God’s plan is emphasized.
[3:22] 235 tn Grk “hear,” but the idea of “hear and obey” or simply “obey” is frequently contained in the Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw; see L&N 36.14) and the following context (v. 23) makes it clear that failure to “obey” the words of this “prophet like Moses” will result in complete destruction.
[3:22] 236 sn A quotation from Deut 18:15. By quoting Deut 18:15 Peter declared that Jesus was the eschatological “prophet like [Moses]” mentioned in that passage, who reveals the plan of God and the way of God.
[3:23] 239 sn A quotation from Deut 18:19, also Lev 23:29. The OT context of Lev 23:29 discusses what happened when one failed to honor atonement. One ignored the required sacrifice of God at one’s peril.
[3:24] sn All the prophets…have spoken about and announced. What Peter preaches is rooted in basic biblical and Jewish hope as expressed in the OT scriptures.
[3:25] sn In your descendants (Grk “in your seed”). Seed has an important ambiguity in this verse. The blessing comes from the servant (v. 26), who in turn blesses the responsive children of the covenant as the scripture promised. Jesus is the seed who blesses the seed.
[3:25] 243 tn Or “families.” The Greek word πατριά (patria) can indicate persons of succeeding generations who are related by birth (“lineage,” “family”) but it can also indicate a relatively large unit of people who make up a sociopolitical group and who share a presumed biological descent. In many contexts πατριά is very similar to ἔθνος (eqnos) and λαός (laos). In light of the context of the OT quotation, it is better to translate πατριά as “nations” here.
[3:26] 245 tn Grk “God raising up his servant, sent him.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Some translations (e.g., NIV, NRSV) render this participle as temporal (“when God raised up his servant”).
[3:26] 246 sn The picture of turning is again seen as the appropriate response to the message. See v. 19 above. In v. 19 it was “turning to,” here it is “turning away from.” The direction of the two metaphors is important.
[3:26] 247 tn For the translation of plural πονηρία (ponhria) as “iniquities,” see G. Harder, TDNT 6:565. The plural is important, since for Luke turning to Jesus means turning away from sins, not just the sin of rejecting Jesus.