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Mazmur 51:1--65:13

Konteks
Psalm 51 1 

For the music director; a psalm of David, written when Nathan the prophet confronted him after David’s affair with Bathsheba. 2 

51:1 Have mercy on me, O God, because of 3  your loyal love!

Because of 4  your great compassion, wipe away my rebellious acts! 5 

51:2 Wash away my wrongdoing! 6 

Cleanse me of my sin! 7 

51:3 For I am aware of 8  my rebellious acts;

I am forever conscious of my sin. 9 

51:4 Against you – you above all 10  – I have sinned;

I have done what is evil in your sight.

So 11  you are just when you confront me; 12 

you are right when you condemn me. 13 

51:5 Look, I was guilty of sin from birth,

a sinner the moment my mother conceived me. 14 

51:6 Look, 15  you desire 16  integrity in the inner man; 17 

you want me to possess wisdom. 18 

51:7 Sprinkle me 19  with water 20  and I will be pure; 21 

wash me 22  and I will be whiter than snow. 23 

51:8 Grant me the ultimate joy of being forgiven! 24 

May the bones 25  you crushed rejoice! 26 

51:9 Hide your face 27  from my sins!

Wipe away 28  all my guilt!

51:10 Create for me a pure heart, O God! 29 

Renew a resolute spirit within me! 30 

51:11 Do not reject me! 31 

Do not take your Holy Spirit 32  away from me! 33 

51:12 Let me again experience the joy of your deliverance!

Sustain me by giving me the desire to obey! 34 

51:13 Then I will teach 35  rebels your merciful ways, 36 

and sinners will turn 37  to you.

51:14 Rescue me from the guilt of murder, 38  O God, the God who delivers me!

Then my tongue will shout for joy because of your deliverance. 39 

51:15 O Lord, give me the words! 40 

Then my mouth will praise you. 41 

51:16 Certainly 42  you do not want a sacrifice, or else I would offer it; 43 

you do not desire a burnt sacrifice. 44 

51:17 The sacrifices God desires are a humble spirit 45 

O God, a humble and repentant heart 46  you will not reject. 47 

51:18 Because you favor Zion, do what is good for her! 48 

Fortify 49  the walls of Jerusalem! 50 

51:19 Then you will accept 51  the proper sacrifices, burnt sacrifices and whole offerings;

then bulls will be sacrificed 52  on your altar. 53 

Psalm 52 54 

For the music director; a well-written song 55  by David. It was written when Doeg the Edomite went and informed Saul: “David has arrived at the home of Ahimelech.” 56 

52:1 Why do you boast about your evil plans, 57  O powerful man?

God’s loyal love protects me all day long! 58 

52:2 Your tongue carries out your destructive plans; 59 

it is as effective as a sharp razor, O deceiver. 60 

52:3 You love evil more than good,

lies more than speaking the truth. 61  (Selah)

52:4 You love to use all the words that destroy, 62 

and the tongue that deceives.

52:5 Yet 63  God will make you a permanent heap of ruins. 64 

He will scoop you up 65  and remove you from your home; 66 

he will uproot you from the land of the living. (Selah)

52:6 When the godly see this, they will be filled with awe,

and will mock the evildoer, saying: 67 

52:7 “Look, here is the man who would not make 68  God his protector!

He trusted in his great wealth

and was confident about his plans to destroy others.” 69 

52:8 But I 70  am like a flourishing 71  olive tree in the house of God;

I continually 72  trust in God’s loyal love.

52:9 I will continually 73  thank you when 74  you execute judgment; 75 

I will rely 76  on you, 77  for your loyal followers know you are good. 78 

Psalm 53 79 

For the music director; according to the machalath style; 80  a well-written song 81  by David.

53:1 Fools say to themselves, 82  “There is no God.” 83 

They sin and commit evil deeds; 84 

none of them does what is right. 85 

53:2 God looks down from heaven 86  at the human race, 87 

to see if there is anyone who is wise 88  and seeks God. 89 

53:3 Everyone rejects God; 90 

they are all morally corrupt. 91 

None of them does what is right, 92 

not even one!

53:4 All those who behave wickedly 93  do not understand 94 

those who devour my people as if they were eating bread,

and do not call out to God.

53:5 They are absolutely terrified, 95 

even by things that do not normally cause fear. 96 

For God annihilates 97  those who attack you. 98 

You are able to humiliate them because God has rejected them. 99 

53:6 I wish the deliverance 100  of Israel would come from Zion!

When God restores the well-being of his people, 101 

may Jacob rejoice, 102 

may Israel be happy! 103 

Psalm 54 104 

For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a well-written song 105  by David. It was written when the Ziphites came and informed Saul: “David is hiding with us.” 106 

54:1 O God, deliver me by your name! 107 

Vindicate me 108  by your power!

54:2 O God, listen to my prayer!

Pay attention to what I say! 109 

54:3 For foreigners 110  attack me; 111 

ruthless men, who do not respect God, seek my life. 112  (Selah)

54:4 Look, God is my deliverer! 113 

The Lord is among those who support me. 114 

54:5 May those who wait to ambush me 115  be repaid for their evil! 116 

As a demonstration of your faithfulness, 117  destroy them!

54:6 With a freewill offering I will sacrifice 118  to you!

I will give thanks to your name, O Lord, for it is good!

54:7 Surely 119  he rescues me from all trouble, 120 

and I triumph over my enemies. 121 

Psalm 55 122 

For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a well-written song 123  by David.

55:1 Listen, O God, to my prayer!

Do not ignore 124  my appeal for mercy!

55:2 Pay attention to me and answer me!

I am so upset 125  and distressed, 126  I am beside myself, 127 

55:3 because of what the enemy says, 128 

and because of how the wicked 129  pressure me, 130 

for they hurl trouble 131  down upon me 132 

and angrily attack me.

55:4 My heart beats violently 133  within me;

the horrors of death overcome me. 134 

55:5 Fear and panic overpower me; 135 

terror overwhelms 136  me.

55:6 I say, 137  “I wish I had wings like a dove!

I would fly away and settle in a safe place!

55:7 Look, I will escape to a distant place;

I will stay in the wilderness. (Selah)

55:8 I will hurry off to a place that is safe

from the strong wind 138  and the gale.”

55:9 Confuse them, 139  O Lord!

Frustrate their plans! 140 

For I see violence and conflict in the city.

55:10 Day and night they walk around on its walls, 141 

while wickedness and destruction 142  are within it.

55:11 Disaster is within it;

violence 143  and deceit do not depart from its public square.

55:12 Indeed, 144  it is not an enemy who insults me,

or else I could bear it;

it is not one who hates me who arrogantly taunts me, 145 

or else I could hide from him.

55:13 But it is you, 146  a man like me, 147 

my close friend in whom I confided. 148 

55:14 We would share personal thoughts with each other; 149 

in God’s temple we would walk together among the crowd.

55:15 May death destroy them! 150 

May they go down alive into Sheol! 151 

For evil is in their dwelling place and in their midst.

55:16 As for me, I will call out to God,

and the Lord will deliver me.

55:17 During the evening, morning, and noontime

I will lament and moan, 152 

and he will hear 153  me. 154 

55:18 He will rescue 155  me and protect me from those who attack me, 156 

even though 157  they greatly outnumber me. 158 

55:19 God, the one who has reigned as king from long ago,

will hear and humiliate them. 159  (Selah)

They refuse to change,

and do not fear God. 160 

55:20 He 161  attacks 162  his friends; 163 

he breaks his solemn promises to them. 164 

55:21 His words are as smooth as butter, 165 

but he harbors animosity in his heart. 166 

His words seem softer than oil,

but they are really like sharp swords. 167 

55:22 Throw your burden 168  upon the Lord,

and he will sustain you. 169 

He will never allow the godly to be upended. 170 

55:23 But you, O God, will bring them 171  down to the deep Pit. 172 

Violent and deceitful people 173  will not live even half a normal lifespan. 174 

But as for me, I trust in you.

Psalm 56 175 

For the music director; according to the yonath-elem-rechovim style; 176  a prayer 177  of David, written when the Philistines captured him in Gath. 178 

56:1 Have mercy on me, O God, for men are attacking me! 179 

All day long hostile enemies 180  are tormenting me. 181 

56:2 Those who anticipate my defeat 182  attack me all day long.

Indeed, 183  many are fighting against me, O Exalted One. 184 

56:3 When 185  I am afraid,

I trust in you.

56:4 In God – I boast in his promise 186 

in God I trust, I am not afraid.

What can mere men 187  do to me? 188 

56:5 All day long they cause me trouble; 189 

they make a habit of plotting my demise. 190 

56:6 They stalk 191  and lurk; 192 

they watch my every step, 193 

as 194  they prepare to take my life. 195 

56:7 Because they are bent on violence, do not let them escape! 196 

In your anger 197  bring down the nations, 198  O God!

56:8 You keep track of my misery. 199 

Put my tears in your leather container! 200 

Are they not recorded in your scroll? 201 

56:9 My enemies will turn back when I cry out to you for help; 202 

I know that God is on my side. 203 

56:10 In God – I boast in his promise 204 

in the Lord – I boast in his promise 205 

56:11 in God I trust, I am not afraid.

What can mere men 206  do to me? 207 

56:12 I am obligated to fulfill the vows I made to you, O God; 208 

I will give you the thank-offerings you deserve, 209 

56:13 when you deliver 210  my life from death.

You keep my feet from stumbling, 211 

so that I might serve 212  God as I enjoy life. 213 

Psalm 57 214 

For the music director; according to the al-tashcheth style; 215  a prayer 216  of David, written when he fled from Saul into the cave. 217 

57:1 Have mercy on me, O God! Have mercy on me!

For in you I have taken shelter. 218 

In the shadow of your wings 219  I take shelter

until trouble passes.

57:2 I cry out for help to the sovereign God, 220 

to the God who vindicates 221  me.

57:3 May he send help from heaven and deliver me 222 

from my enemies who hurl insults! 223  (Selah)

May God send his loyal love and faithfulness!

57:4 I am surrounded by lions;

I lie down 224  among those who want to devour me; 225 

men whose teeth are spears and arrows,

whose tongues are a sharp sword. 226 

57:5 Rise up 227  above the sky, O God!

May your splendor cover the whole earth! 228 

57:6 They have prepared a net to trap me; 229 

I am discouraged. 230 

They have dug a pit for me. 231 

They will fall 232  into it! (Selah)

57:7 I am determined, 233  O God! I am determined!

I will sing and praise you!

57:8 Awake, my soul! 234 

Awake, O stringed instrument and harp!

I will wake up at dawn! 235 

57:9 I will give you thanks before the nations, O Master!

I will sing praises to you before foreigners! 236 

57:10 For your loyal love extends beyond the sky, 237 

and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.

57:11 Rise up 238  above the sky, O God!

May your splendor cover the whole earth! 239 

Psalm 58 240 

For the music director; according to the al-tashcheth style; 241  a prayer 242  of David.

58:1 Do you rulers really pronounce just decisions? 243 

Do you judge people 244  fairly?

58:2 No! 245  You plan how to do what is unjust; 246 

you deal out violence in the earth. 247 

58:3 The wicked turn aside from birth; 248 

liars go astray as soon as they are born. 249 

58:4 Their venom is like that of a snake, 250 

like a deaf serpent 251  that does not hear, 252 

58:5 that does not respond to 253  the magicians,

or to a skilled snake-charmer.

58:6 O God, break the teeth in their mouths!

Smash the jawbones of the lions, O Lord!

58:7 Let them disappear 254  like water that flows away! 255 

Let them wither like grass! 256 

58:8 Let them be 257  like a snail that melts away as it moves along! 258 

Let them be like 259  stillborn babies 260  that never see the sun!

58:9 Before the kindling is even placed under your pots, 261 

he 262  will sweep it away along with both the raw and cooked meat. 263 

58:10 The godly 264  will rejoice when they see vengeance carried out;

they will bathe their feet in the blood of the wicked.

58:11 Then 265  observers 266  will say,

“Yes indeed, the godly are rewarded! 267 

Yes indeed, there is a God who judges 268  in the earth!”

Psalm 59 269 

For the music director; according to the al-tashcheth style; 270  a prayer 271  of David, written when Saul sent men to surround his house and murder him. 272 

59:1 Deliver me from my enemies, my God!

Protect me 273  from those who attack me! 274 

59:2 Deliver me from evildoers! 275 

Rescue me from violent men! 276 

59:3 For look, they wait to ambush me; 277 

powerful men stalk 278  me,

but not because I have rebelled or sinned, O Lord. 279 

59:4 Though I have done nothing wrong, 280  they are anxious to attack. 281 

Spring into action and help me! Take notice of me! 282 

59:5 You, O Lord God, the invincible warrior, 283  the God of Israel,

rouse yourself and punish 284  all the nations!

Have no mercy on any treacherous evildoers! (Selah)

59:6 They return in the evening;

they growl 285  like a dog

and prowl around outside 286  the city.

59:7 Look, they hurl insults at me

and openly threaten to kill me, 287 

for they say, 288 

“Who hears?”

59:8 But you, O Lord, laugh in disgust at them; 289 

you taunt 290  all the nations.

59:9 You are my source of strength! I will wait for you! 291 

For God is my refuge. 292 

59:10 The God who loves me will help me; 293 

God will enable me to triumph over 294  my enemies. 295 

59:11 Do not strike them dead suddenly,

because then my people might forget the lesson. 296 

Use your power to make them homeless vagabonds and then bring them down,

O Lord who shields us! 297 

59:12 They speak sinful words. 298 

So let them be trapped by their own pride

and by the curses and lies they speak!

59:13 Angrily wipe them out! Wipe them out so they vanish!

Let them know that God rules

in Jacob and to the ends of the earth! (Selah)

59:14 They return in the evening;

they growl 299  like a dog

and prowl around outside 300  the city.

59:15 They wander around looking for something to eat;

they refuse to sleep until they are full. 301 

59:16 As for me, I will sing about your strength;

I will praise your loyal love in the morning.

For you are my refuge 302 

and my place of shelter when I face trouble. 303 

59:17 You are my source of strength! I will sing praises to you! 304 

For God is my refuge, 305  the God who loves me. 306 

Psalm 60 307 

For the music director; according to the shushan-eduth style; 308  a prayer 309  of David written to instruct others. 310  It was written when he fought against Aram Naharaim and Aram-Zobah. That was when Joab turned back and struck down 311  12,000 Edomites 312  in the Valley of Salt. 313 

60:1 O God, you have rejected us. 314 

You suddenly turned on us in your anger. 315 

Please restore us! 316 

60:2 You made the earth quake; you split it open. 317 

Repair its breaches, for it is ready to fall. 318 

60:3 You have made your people experience hard times; 319 

you have made us drink intoxicating wine. 320 

60:4 You have given your loyal followers 321  a rallying flag,

so that they might seek safety from the bow. 322  (Selah)

60:5 Deliver by your power 323  and answer me, 324 

so that the ones you love may be safe. 325 

60:6 God has spoken in his sanctuary: 326 

“I will triumph! I will parcel out Shechem;

the Valley of Succoth I will measure off. 327 

60:7 Gilead belongs to me,

as does Manasseh! 328 

Ephraim is my helmet, 329 

Judah my royal scepter. 330 

60:8 Moab is my washbasin. 331 

I will make Edom serve me. 332 

I will shout in triumph over Philistia.” 333 

60:9 Who will lead me into the fortified city?

Who will bring me to Edom? 334 

60:10 Have you not rejected us, O God?

O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.

60:11 Give us help against the enemy,

for any help men might offer is futile. 335 

60:12 By God’s power we will conquer; 336 

he will trample down 337  our enemies.

Psalm 61 338 

For the music director; to be played on a stringed instrument; written by David.

61:1 O God, hear my cry for help!

Pay attention to my prayer!

61:2 From the most remote place on earth 339 

I call out to you in my despair. 340 

Lead me 341  up to an inaccessible rocky summit! 342 

61:3 Indeed, 343  you are 344  my shelter,

a strong tower that protects me from the enemy. 345 

61:4 I will be a permanent guest in your home; 346 

I will find shelter in the protection of your wings. 347  (Selah)

61:5 For you, O God, hear my vows;

you grant me the reward that belongs to your loyal followers. 348 

61:6 Give the king long life!

Make his lifetime span several generations! 349 

61:7 May he reign 350  forever before God!

Decree that your loyal love and faithfulness should protect him. 351 

61:8 Then I will sing praises to your name continually, 352 

as I fulfill 353  my vows day after day.

Psalm 62 354 

For the music director, Jeduthun; a psalm of David.

62:1 For God alone I patiently wait; 355 

he is the one who delivers me. 356 

62:2 He alone is my protector 357  and deliverer.

He is my refuge; 358  I will not be upended. 359 

62:3 How long will you threaten 360  a man?

All of you are murderers, 361 

as dangerous as a leaning wall or an unstable fence. 362 

62:4 They 363  spend all their time planning how to bring him 364  down. 365 

They love to use deceit; 366 

they pronounce blessings with their mouths,

but inwardly they utter curses. 367  (Selah)

62:5 Patiently wait for God alone, my soul! 368 

For he is the one who gives me confidence. 369 

62:6 He alone is my protector 370  and deliverer.

He is my refuge; 371  I will not be upended. 372 

62:7 God delivers me and exalts me;

God is my strong protector and my shelter. 373 

62:8 Trust in him at all times, you people!

Pour out your hearts before him! 374 

God is our shelter! (Selah)

62:9 Men are nothing but a mere breath;

human beings are unreliable. 375 

When they are weighed in the scales,

all of them together are lighter than air. 376 

62:10 Do not trust in what you can gain by oppression! 377 

Do not put false confidence in what you can gain by robbery! 378 

If wealth increases, do not become attached to it! 379 

62:11 God has declared one principle;

two principles I have heard: 380 

God is strong, 381 

62:12 and you, O Lord, demonstrate loyal love. 382 

For you repay men for what they do. 383 

Psalm 63 384 

A psalm of David, written when he was in the Judean wilderness. 385 

63:1 O God, you are my God! I long for you! 386 

My soul thirsts 387  for you,

my flesh yearns for you,

in a dry and parched 388  land where there is no water.

63:2 Yes, 389  in the sanctuary I have seen you, 390 

and witnessed 391  your power and splendor.

63:3 Because 392  experiencing 393  your loyal love is better than life itself,

my lips will praise you.

63:4 For this reason 394  I will praise you while I live;

in your name I will lift up my hands. 395 

63:5 As if with choice meat 396  you satisfy my soul. 397 

My mouth joyfully praises you, 398 

63:6 whenever 399  I remember you on my bed,

and think about you during the nighttime hours.

63:7 For you are my deliverer; 400 

under your wings 401  I rejoice.

63:8 My soul 402  pursues you; 403 

your right hand upholds me.

63:9 Enemies seek to destroy my life, 404 

but they will descend into the depths of the earth. 405 

63:10 Each one will be handed over to the sword; 406 

their corpses will be eaten by jackals. 407 

63:11 But the king 408  will rejoice in God;

everyone who takes oaths in his name 409  will boast,

for the mouths of those who speak lies will be shut up. 410 

Psalm 64 411 

For the music director; a psalm of David.

64:1 Listen to me, 412  O God, as I offer my lament!

Protect 413  my life from the enemy’s terrifying attacks. 414 

64:2 Hide me from the plots of evil men,

from the crowd of evildoers. 415 

64:3 They 416  sharpen their tongues like a sword;

they aim their arrow, a slanderous charge, 417 

64:4 in order to shoot down the innocent 418  in secluded places.

They shoot at him suddenly and are unafraid of retaliation. 419 

64:5 They encourage one another to carry out their evil deed. 420 

They plan how to hide 421  snares,

and boast, 422  “Who will see them?” 423 

64:6 They devise 424  unjust schemes;

they disguise 425  a well-conceived plot. 426 

Man’s inner thoughts cannot be discovered. 427 

64:7 But God will shoot 428  at them;

suddenly they will be 429  wounded by an arrow. 430 

64:8 Their slander will bring about their demise. 431 

All who see them will shudder, 432 

64:9 and all people will fear. 433 

They will proclaim 434  what God has done,

and reflect on his deeds.

64:10 The godly will rejoice in the Lord

and take shelter in him.

All the morally upright 435  will boast. 436 

Psalm 65 437 

For the music director; a psalm of David, a song.

65:1 Praise awaits you, 438  O God, in Zion.

Vows made to you are fulfilled.

65:2 You hear prayers; 439 

all people approach you. 440 

65:3 Our record of sins overwhelms me, 441 

but you forgive 442  our acts of rebellion.

65:4 How blessed 443  is the one whom you choose,

and allow to live in your palace courts. 444 

May we be satisfied with the good things of your house –

your holy palace. 445 

65:5 You answer our prayers by performing awesome acts of deliverance,

O God, our savior. 446 

All the ends of the earth trust in you, 447 

as well as those living across the wide seas. 448 

65:6 You created the mountains by your power, 449 

and demonstrated your strength. 450 

65:7 You calm the raging seas 451 

and their roaring waves,

as well as the commotion made by the nations. 452 

65:8 Even those living in the most remote areas are awestruck by your acts; 453 

you cause those living in the east and west to praise you. 454 

65:9 You visit the earth and give it rain; 455 

you make it rich and fertile 456 

with overflowing streams full of water. 457 

You provide grain for them, 458 

for you prepare the earth to yield its crops. 459 

65:10 You saturate 460  its furrows,

and soak 461  its plowed ground. 462 

With rain showers you soften its soil, 463 

and make its crops grow. 464 

65:11 You crown the year with your good blessings, 465 

and you leave abundance in your wake. 466 

65:12 The pastures in the wilderness glisten with moisture, 467 

and the hills are clothed with joy. 468 

65:13 The meadows are clothed with sheep,

and the valleys are covered with grain.

They shout joyfully, yes, they sing.

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[51:1]  1 sn Psalm 51. The psalmist confesses his sinfulness to God and begs for forgiveness and a transformation of his inner character. According to the psalm superscription, David offered this prayer when Nathan confronted him with his sin following the king’s affair with Bathsheba (see 2 Sam 11-12). However, the final two verses of the psalm hardly fit this situation, for they assume the walls of Jerusalem have been destroyed and that the sacrificial system has been temporarily suspended. These verses are probably an addition to the psalm made during the period of exile following the fall of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. The exiles could relate to David’s experience, for they, like him, and had been forced to confront their sin. They appropriated David’s ancient prayer and applied it to their own circumstances.

[51:1]  2 tn Heb “a psalm by David, when Nathan the prophet came to him when he had gone to Bathsheba.”

[51:1]  3 tn Or “according to.”

[51:1]  4 tn Or “according to.”

[51:1]  5 tn Traditionally “blot out my transgressions.” Because of the reference to washing and cleansing in the following verse, it is likely that the psalmist is comparing forgiveness to wiping an object clean (note the use of the verb מָחָה (makhah) in the sense of “wipe clean; dry” in 2 Kgs 21:13; Prov 30:20; Isa 25:8). Another option is that the psalmist is comparing forgiveness to erasing or blotting out names from a register (see Exod 32:32-33). In this case one might translate, “erase all record of my rebellious acts.”

[51:2]  6 tn Heb “Thoroughly wash me from my wrongdoing.”

[51:2]  7 sn In vv. 1b-2 the psalmist uses three different words to emphasize the multifaceted character and degree of his sin. Whatever one wants to call it (“rebellious acts,” “wrongdoing,” “sin”), he has done it and stands morally polluted in God’s sight. The same three words appear in Exod 34:7, which emphasizes that God is willing to forgive sin in all of its many dimensions. In v. 2 the psalmist compares forgiveness and restoration to physical cleansing. Perhaps he likens spiritual cleansing to the purification rites of priestly law.

[51:3]  8 tn Heb “know.”

[51:3]  9 tn Heb “and my sin [is] in front of me continually.”

[51:4]  10 tn Heb “only you,” as if the psalmist had sinned exclusively against God and no other. Since the Hebrew verb חָטָא (hata’, “to sin”) is used elsewhere of sinful acts against people (see BDB 306 s.v. 2.a) and David (the presumed author) certainly sinned when he murdered Uriah (2 Sam 12:9), it is likely that the psalmist is overstating the case to suggest that the attack on Uriah was ultimately an attack on God himself. To clarify the point of the hyperbole, the translation uses “especially,” rather than the potentially confusing “only.”

[51:4]  11 tn The Hebrew term לְמַעַן (lÿmaan) normally indicates purpose (“in order that”), but here it introduces a logical consequence of the preceding statement. (Taking the clause as indicating purpose here would yield a theologically preposterous idea – the psalmist purposely sinned so that God’s justice might be vindicated!) For other examples of לְמַעַן indicating result, see 2 Kgs 22:17; Jer 27:15; Amos 2:7, as well as IBHS 638-40 §38.3.

[51:4]  12 tn Heb “when you speak.” In this context the psalmist refers to God’s word of condemnation against his sin delivered through Nathan (cf. 2 Sam 12:7-12).

[51:4]  13 tn Heb “when you judge.”

[51:5]  14 tn Heb “Look, in wrongdoing I was brought forth, and in sin my mother conceived me.” The prefixed verbal form in the second line is probably a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive), stating a simple historical fact. The psalmist is not suggesting that he was conceived through an inappropriate sexual relationship (although the verse has sometimes been understood to mean that, or even that all sexual relationships are sinful). The psalmist’s point is that he has been a sinner from the very moment his personal existence began. By going back beyond the time of birth to the moment of conception, the psalmist makes his point more emphatically in the second line than in the first.

[51:6]  15 sn The juxtaposition of two occurrences of “look” in vv. 5-6 draws attention to the sharp contrast between the sinful reality of the psalmist’s condition and the lofty ideal God has for him.

[51:6]  16 tn The perfect is used in a generalizing sense here.

[51:6]  17 tn Heb “in the covered [places],” i.e., in the inner man.

[51:6]  18 tn Heb “in the secret [place] wisdom you cause me to know.” The Hiphil verbal form is causative, while the imperfect is used in a modal sense to indicate God’s desire (note the parallel verb “desire”).

[51:6]  sn You want me to possess wisdom. Here “wisdom” does not mean “intelligence” or “learning,” but refers to moral insight and skill.

[51:7]  19 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

[51:7]  20 tn Heb “cleanse me with hyssop.” “Hyssop” was a small plant (see 1 Kgs 4:33) used to apply water (or blood) in purification rites (see Exod 12:22; Lev 14:4-6, 49-52; Num 19:6-18. The psalmist uses the language and imagery of such rites to describe spiritual cleansing through forgiveness.

[51:7]  21 tn After the preceding imperfect, the imperfect with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates result.

[51:7]  22 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

[51:7]  23 sn I will be whiter than snow. Whiteness here symbolizes the moral purity resulting from forgiveness (see Isa 1:18).

[51:8]  24 tn Heb “cause me to hear happiness and joy.” The language is metonymic: the effect of forgiveness (joy) has been substituted for its cause. The psalmist probably alludes here to an assuring word from God announcing that his sins are forgiven (a so-called oracle of forgiveness). The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request. The synonyms “happiness” and “joy” are joined together as a hendiadys to emphasize the degree of joy he anticipates.

[51:8]  25 sn May the bones you crushed rejoice. The psalmist compares his sinful condition to that of a person who has been physically battered and crushed. Within this metaphorical framework, his “bones” are the seat of his emotional strength.

[51:8]  26 tn In this context of petitionary prayer, the prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive, expressing the psalmist’s wish or request.

[51:9]  27 sn In this context Hide your face from my sins means “Do not hold me accountable for my sins.”

[51:9]  28 tn See the note on the similar expression “wipe away my rebellious acts” in v. 1.

[51:10]  29 sn The heart is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s motives and moral character.

[51:10]  30 tn Heb “and a reliable spirit renew in my inner being.”

[51:11]  31 tn Heb “do not cast me away from before you.”

[51:11]  32 sn Your Holy Spirit. The personal Spirit of God is mentioned frequently in the OT, but only here and in Isa 63:10-11 is he called “your/his Holy Spirit.”

[51:11]  33 sn Do not take…away. The psalmist expresses his fear that, due to his sin, God will take away the Holy Spirit from him. NT believers enjoy the permanent gift of the Holy Spirit and need not make such a request nor fear such a consequence. However, in the OT God’s Spirit empowered certain individuals for special tasks and only temporarily resided in them. For example, when God rejected Saul as king and chose David to replace him, the divine Spirit left Saul and came upon David (1 Sam 16:13-14).

[51:12]  34 tn Heb “and [with] a willing spirit sustain me.” The psalmist asks that God make him the kind of person who willingly obeys the divine commandments. The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

[51:13]  35 tn The cohortative expresses the psalmist’s resolve. This may be a vow or promise. If forgiven, the psalmist will “repay” the Lord by declaring God’s mercy and motivating other sinners to repent.

[51:13]  36 tn Heb “your ways.” The word “merciful” is added for clarification. God’s “ways” are sometimes his commands, but in this context, where the teaching of God’s ways motivates repentance (see the next line), it is more likely that God’s merciful and compassionate way of dealing with sinners is in view. Thanksgiving songs praising God for his deliverance typically focus on these divine attributes (see Pss 34, 41, 116, 138).

[51:13]  37 tn Or “return,” i.e., in repentance.

[51:14]  38 tn Heb “from bloodshed.” “Bloodshed” here stands by metonymy for the guilt which it produces.

[51:14]  39 tn Heb “my tongue will shout for joy your deliverance.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a jussive, “may my tongue shout for joy.” However, the pattern in vv. 12-15 appears to be prayer/request (see vv. 12, 14a, 15a) followed by promise/vow (see vv. 13, 14b, 15b).

[51:15]  40 tn Heb “open my lips.” The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

[51:15]  41 tn Heb “and my mouth will declare your praise.”

[51:16]  42 tn Or “For.” The translation assumes the particle is asseverative (i.e., emphasizing: “certainly”). (Some translations that consider the particle asseverative leave it untranslated.) If taken as causal or explanatory (“for”, cf. NRSV), the verse would explain why the psalmist is pleading for forgiveness, rather than merely offering a sacrifice.

[51:16]  43 tn The translation assumes that the cohortative is used in a hypothetical manner in a formally unmarked conditional sentence, “You do not want a sacrifice, should I offer [it]” (cf. NEB). For other examples of cohortatives in the protasis (“if” clause) of a conditional sentence, see GKC 320 §108.e. (It should be noted, however, that GKC understands this particular verse in a different manner. See GKC 320 §108.f, where it is suggested that the cohortative is part of an apodosis with the protasis being suppressed.)

[51:16]  44 sn You do not desire a burnt sacrifice. The terminology used in v. 16 does not refer to expiatory sacrifices, but to dedication and communion offerings. This is not a categorical denial of the sacrificial system in general or of the importance of such offerings. The psalmist is talking about his specific situation. Dedication and communion offerings have their proper place in worship (see v. 19), but God requires something more fundamental, a repentant and humble attitude (see v. 17), before these offerings can have real meaning.

[51:17]  45 tn Heb “a broken spirit.”

[51:17]  46 tn Heb “a broken and crushed heart.”

[51:17]  47 tn Or “despise.”

[51:18]  48 tn Heb “do what is good for Zion in your favor.”

[51:18]  49 tn Or “Build.” The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

[51:18]  50 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[51:19]  51 tn Or “desire, take delight in.”

[51:19]  52 tn Heb “then they will offer up bulls.” The third plural subject is indefinite.

[51:19]  53 sn Verses 18-19 appear to reflect the exilic period, when the city’s walls lay in ruins and the sacrificial system had been disrupted.

[52:1]  54 sn Psalm 52. The psalmist confidently confronts his enemy and affirms that God will destroy evildoers and vindicate the godly.

[52:1]  55 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.

[52:1]  56 tn Heb “when Doeg the Edomite came and told Saul and said to him, ‘David has come to the house of Ahimelech.’”

[52:1]  sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm during the period when Saul was seeking his life. On one occasion Doeg the Edomite, Saul’s head shepherd (1 Sam 21:7), informed Saul of David’s whereabouts (see 1 Sam 21-22).

[52:1]  57 tn Heb “Why do you boast in evil?”

[52:1]  58 tn Heb “the loyal love of God [is] all the day.” In this context, where the psalmist is threatened by his enemy, the point seems to be that the psalmist is protected by God’s loyal love at all times.

[52:2]  59 tn Heb “destruction your tongue devises.”

[52:2]  60 tn Heb “like a sharpened razor, doer of deceit.” The masculine participle עָשָׂה (’asah) is understood as a substantival vocative, addressed to the powerful man.

[52:3]  61 tn Or “deceit more than speaking what is right.”

[52:4]  62 tn Heb “you love all the words of swallowing.” Traditionally בַּלַּע (bala’) has been taken to mean “swallowing” in the sense of “devouring” or “destructive” (see BDB 118 s.v. בָּלַע). HALOT 135 s.v. III *בֶּלַע proposes a homonym here, meaning “confusion.” This would fit the immediate context nicely and provide a close parallel to the following line, which refers to deceptive words.

[52:5]  63 tn The adverb גַּם (gam, “also; even”) is translated here in an adversative sense (“yet”). It highlights the contrastive correspondence between the evildoer’s behavior and God’s response.

[52:5]  64 tn Heb “will tear you down forever.”

[52:5]  65 tn This rare verb (חָתָה, khatah) occurs only here and in Prov 6:27; 25:22; Isa 30:14.

[52:5]  66 tn Heb “from [your] tent.”

[52:6]  67 tn Heb “and the godly will see and will fear and at him will laugh.”

[52:7]  68 tn The imperfect verbal form here draws attention to the ongoing nature of the action. The evildoer customarily rejected God and trusted in his own abilities. Another option is to take the imperfect as generalizing, “[here is the man who] does not make.”

[52:7]  69 tn Heb “he was strong in his destruction.” “Destruction” must refer back to the destructive plans mentioned in v. 2. The verb (derived from the root עָזַז, ’azaz, “be strong”) as it stands is either an imperfect (if so, probably used in a customary sense) or a preterite (without vav [ו] consecutive). However the form should probably be emended to וַיָּעָז (vayyaaz), a Qal preterite (with vav [ו] consecutive) from עָזַז. Note the preterite form without vav (ו) consecutive in the preceding line (וַיִּבְטַח, vayyivtakh, “and he trusted”). The prefixed vav (ו) was likely omitted by haplography (note the suffixed vav [ו] on the preceding עָשְׁרוֹ, ’oshro, “his wealth”).

[52:8]  70 tn The disjunctive construction (vav [ו] + subject) highlights the contrast between the evildoer’s destiny (vv. 5-7) and that of the godly psalmist’s security.

[52:8]  71 tn Or “luxuriant, green, leafy.”

[52:8]  72 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever and ever.”

[52:9]  73 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”

[52:9]  74 tn Or “for.”

[52:9]  75 tn Heb “you have acted.” The perfect verbal form (1) probably indicates a future perfect here. The psalmist promises to give thanks when the expected vindication has been accomplished. Other options include (2) a generalizing (“for you act”) or (3) rhetorical (“for you will act”) use.

[52:9]  76 tn Or “wait.”

[52:9]  77 tn Heb “your name.” God’s “name” refers here to his reputation and revealed character.

[52:9]  78 tn Heb “for it is good in front of your loyal followers.”

[53:1]  79 sn Psalm 53. This psalm is very similar to Ps 14. The major difference comes in v. 5, which corresponds to, but differs quite a bit from, Ps 14:5-6, and in the use of the divine name. Ps 14 uses “the Lord” (יְהוָה, yÿhvah, “Yahweh”) in vv. 2a, 4, 6, and 7, while Ps 53 employs “God” (אֱלֹהִים, ’elohim) throughout, as one might expect in Pss 42-83, where the name “Yahweh” is relatively infrequent. The psalmist observes that the human race is morally corrupt. Evildoers oppress God’s people, but the psalmist is confident of God’s protection and anticipates a day when God will vindicate Israel.

[53:1]  80 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מָחֲלַת (makhalat, “machalath”) is uncertain; perhaps it refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. The term also appears in the heading of Ps 88.

[53:1]  81 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 52.

[53:1]  82 tn Heb “a fool says in his heart.” The singular is used here in a collective or representative sense; the typical fool is envisioned.

[53:1]  83 sn There is no God. This statement is probably not a philosophical assertion that God does not exist, but rather a confident affirmation that he is unconcerned about how men live morally and ethically (see Ps 10:4, 11).

[53:1]  84 tn Heb “they act corruptly, they do evil [with] injustice.” Ps 14:1 has עֲלִילָה (’alilah, “a deed”) instead of עָוֶל (’aval, “injustice”). The verbs describe the typical behavior of the wicked. The subject of the plural verbs is “sons of man” (v. 2). The entire human race is characterized by sinful behavior. This practical atheism – living as if there is no God who will hold them accountable for their actions – makes them fools, for one of the earmarks of folly is to fail to anticipate the long range consequences of one’s behavior.

[53:1]  85 tn Heb “there is none that does good.”

[53:2]  86 sn The picture of the Lord looking down from heaven draws attention to his sovereignty over the world.

[53:2]  87 tn Heb “upon the sons of man.”

[53:2]  88 tn Or “acts wisely.” The Hiphil is exhibitive.

[53:2]  89 tn That is, who seeks to have a relationship with God by obeying and worshiping him.

[53:3]  90 tn Heb “all of it turns away.” Ps 14:1 has הָכֹּל (hakkol) instead of כֻּלּוֹ, and סָר (sar, “turn aside”) instead of סָג (sag, “turn away”).

[53:3]  91 tn Heb “together they are corrupt.”

[53:3]  92 tn Heb “there is none that does good.”

[53:4]  93 tn Heb “the workers of wickedness.” See Pss 5:5; 6:8. Ps 14:4 adds כֹּל (kol, “all of”) before “workers of wickedness.”

[53:4]  94 tn Heb “Do they not understand?” The rhetorical question expresses the psalmist’s amazement at their apparent lack of understanding. This may refer to their lack of moral understanding, but it more likely refers to their failure to anticipate God’s defense of his people (see vv. 5-6).

[53:5]  95 tn Heb “there they are afraid [with] fear.” The perfect verbal form is probably used in a rhetorical manner; the psalmist describes the future demise of the oppressors as if it were already occurring. The adverb שָׁם (sham, “there”) is also used here for dramatic effect, as the psalmist envisions the wicked standing in fear at a spot that is this vivid in his imagination (BDB 1027 s.v.). The cognate accusative following the verb emphasizes the degree of their terror (“absolutely”).

[53:5]  96 tn Heb “there is no fear.” Apparently this means the evildoers are so traumatized with panic (see v. 5b) that they now jump with fear at everything, even those things that would not normally cause fear. Ps 14:5 omits this line.

[53:5]  97 tn Heb “scatters the bones.” The perfect is used in a rhetorical manner, describing this future judgment as if it were already accomplished. Scattering the bones alludes to the aftermath of a battle. God annihilates his enemies, leaving their carcasses spread all over the battlefield. As the bodies are devoured by wild animals and decay, the bones of God’s dead enemies are exposed. See Ps 141:7.

[53:5]  98 tn Heb “[those who] encamp [against] you.” The second person masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to God’s people viewed as a collective whole. Instead of “for God scatters the bones of those who encamp against you,” Ps 14:5 reads, “for God is with a godly generation.”

[53:5]  99 tn Once again the perfect is used in a rhetorical manner, describing this future judgment as if it were already accomplished. As in the previous line, God’s people are probably addressed. The second person singular verb form is apparently collective, suggesting that the people are viewed here as a unified whole. Ps 14:6 reads here “the counsel of the oppressed you put to shame, even though God is his shelter,” the words being addressed to the wicked.

[53:6]  100 tn This refers metonymically to God, the one who lives in Zion and provides deliverance for Israel.

[53:6]  101 tn Heb “turns with a turning [toward] his people.” The Hebrew term שְׁבוּת (shÿvut) is apparently a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv).

[53:6]  102 tn The verb form is jussive.

[53:6]  103 tn Because the parallel verb is jussive, this verb, which is ambiguous in form, should be taken as a jussive as well.

[54:1]  104 sn Psalm 54. The psalmist asks God for protection against his enemies, confidently affirms that God will vindicate him, and promises to give thanks to God for his saving intervention.

[54:1]  105 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 52.

[54:1]  106 tn Heb “Is not David hiding with us?”

[54:1]  sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm during the period when Saul was seeking his life. On one occasion the Ziphites informed Saul that David was hiding in their territory (see 1 Sam 23:19-20).

[54:1]  107 tn God’s “name” refers here to his reputation and revealed character, which would instill fear in the psalmist’s enemies (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:17).

[54:1]  108 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

[54:2]  109 tn Heb “to the words of my mouth.”

[54:3]  110 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss read זֵדִים (zedim, “proud ones”) rather than זָרִים (zarim, “foreigners”). (No matter which reading one chooses as original, dalet-resh confusion accounts for the existence of the variant.) The term זֵדִים (“proud ones”) occurs in parallelism with עָרִיצִים (’aritsim, “violent ones”) in Ps 86:14 and Isa 13:11. However, זָרִים (zarim, “foreigners”) is parallel to עָרִיצִים (’aritsim, “violent ones”) in Isa 25:5; 29:5; Ezek 28:7; 31:12.

[54:3]  111 tn Heb “rise against me.”

[54:3]  112 tn Heb “and ruthless ones seek my life, they do not set God in front of them.”

[54:4]  113 tn Or “my helper.”

[54:4]  114 tn Or “sustain my life.”

[54:5]  115 tn Heb “to those who watch me [with evil intent].” See also Pss 5:8; 27:11; 56:2.

[54:5]  116 tn The Kethib (consonantal text) reads a Qal imperfect, “the evil will return,” while the Qere (marginal reading) has a Hiphil imperfect, “he will repay.” The parallel line has an imperative (indicating a prayer/request), so it is best to read a jussive form יָשֹׁב (yashov, “let it [the evil] return”) here.

[54:5]  117 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”

[54:6]  118 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve/vow to praise.

[54:7]  119 tn Or “for,” indicating a more specific reason why he will praise the Lord’s name (cf. v. 6).

[54:7]  120 tn The perfects in v. 7 are probably rhetorical, indicating the psalmist’s certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer, he can describe God’s deliverance and his own vindication as if they were occurring or had already occurred.

[54:7]  121 tn Heb “and on my enemies my eyes look.”

[55:1]  122 sn Psalm 55. The suffering and oppressed author laments that one of his friends has betrayed him, but he is confident that God will vindicate him by punishing his deceitful enemies.

[55:1]  123 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 52.

[55:1]  124 tn Heb “hide yourself from.”

[55:2]  125 tn Or “restless” (see Gen 27:40). The Hiphil is intransitive-exhibitive, indicating the outward display of an inner attitude.

[55:2]  126 tn Heb “in my complaint.”

[55:2]  127 tn The verb is a Hiphil cohortative from הוּם (hum), which means “to confuse someone” in the Qal and “to go wild” in the Niphal. An Arabic cognate means “to be out of one’s senses, to wander about.” With the vav (ו) conjunctive prefixed to it, the cohortative probably indicates the result or effect of the preceding main verb. Some prefer to emend the form to וְאֵהוֹמָה (vÿehomah), a Niphal of הוּם (hum), or to וְאֶהַמֶה (vÿehameh), a Qal imperfect from הָמָה (hamah, “to moan”). Many also prefer to take this verb with what follows (see v. 3).

[55:3]  128 tn Heb “because of [the] voice of [the] enemy.”

[55:3]  129 tn The singular forms “enemy” and “wicked” are collective or representative, as the plural verb forms in the second half of the verse indicate.

[55:3]  130 tn Heb “from before the pressure of the wicked.” Some suggest the meaning “screech” (note the parallel “voice”; cf. NEB “shrill clamour”; NRSV “clamor”) for the rare noun עָקָה (’aqah, “pressure”).

[55:3]  131 tn Heb “wickedness,” but here the term refers to the destructive effects of their wicked acts.

[55:3]  132 tc The verb form in the MT appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוֹט (mot, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in the Kethib (consonantal text) of Ps 140:10, where the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read. Here in Ps 55:3 it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). It is odd for “rain down” to be used with an abstract object like “wickedness,” but in Job 20:23 God “rains down” anger (unless one emends the text there; see BHS).

[55:4]  133 tn Heb “shakes, trembles.”

[55:4]  134 tn Heb “the terrors of death have fallen on me.”

[55:5]  135 tn Heb “fear and trembling enter into me.”

[55:5]  136 tn Heb “covers.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the descriptive (present progressive) force of the preceding imperfect.

[55:6]  137 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the descriptive (present progressive) force of the verbs in v. 5.

[55:8]  138 tn Heb “[the] wind [that] sweeps away.” The verb סָעָה (saah, “sweep away”) occurs only here in the OT (see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 120).

[55:9]  139 tn Traditionally בַּלַּע (bala’) has been taken to mean “swallow” in the sense of “devour” or “destroy” (cf. KJV), but this may be a homonym meaning “confuse” (see BDB 118 s.v. בַּלַּע; HALOT 135 s.v. III *בֶּלַע). “Their tongue” is the understood object of the verb (see the next line).

[55:9]  140 tn Heb “split their tongue,” which apparently means “confuse their speech,” or, more paraphrastically, “frustrate the plans they devise with their tongues.”

[55:10]  141 tn Heb “day and night they surround it, upon its walls.” Personified “violence and conflict” are the likely subjects. They are compared to watchmen on the city’s walls.

[55:10]  142 sn Wickedness and destruction. These terms are also closely associated in Ps 7:14.

[55:11]  143 tn Or “injury, harm.”

[55:12]  144 tn Or “for.”

[55:12]  145 tn Heb “[who] magnifies against me.” See Pss 35:26; 38:16.

[55:13]  146 sn It is you. The psalmist addresses the apparent ringleader of the opposition, an individual who was once his friend.

[55:13]  147 tn Heb “a man according to my value,” i.e., “a person such as I.”

[55:13]  148 tn Heb “my close friend, one known by me.”

[55:14]  149 tn Heb “who together we would make counsel sweet.” The imperfect verbal forms here and in the next line draw attention to the ongoing nature of the actions (the so-called customary use of the imperfect). Their relationship was characterized by such intimacy and friendship. See IBHS 502-3 §31.2b.

[55:15]  150 tc The meaning of the MT is unclear. The Kethib (consonantal text) reads יַשִּׁימָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashimavetalemo, “May devastation [be] upon them!”). The proposed noun יַשִּׁימָוֶת occurs only here and perhaps in the place name Beth-Jeshimoth in Num 33:49. The Qere (marginal text) has יַשִּׁי מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashi mavetalemo). The verbal form יַשִּׁי is apparently an alternate form of יַשִּׁיא (yashi’), a Hiphil imperfect from נָשַׁא (nasha’, “deceive”). In this case one might read “death will come deceptively upon them.” This reading has the advantage of reading מָוֶת (mavet, “death”) which forms a natural parallel with “Sheol” in the next line. The present translation is based on the following reconstruction of the text: יְשִׁמֵּם מָוֶת (yeshimmem mavet). The verb assumed in the reconstruction is a Hiphil jussive third masculine singular from שָׁמַם (shamam, “be desolate”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix attached. This reconstruction assumes that (1) haplography has occurred in the traditional text (the original sequence of three mems [מ] was lost with only one mem remaining), resulting in the fusion of originally distinct forms in the Kethib, and (2) that עָלֵימוֹ (’alemo, “upon them”) is a later scribal addition attempting to make sense of a garbled and corrupt text. The preposition עַל (’al) does occur with the verb שָׁמַם (shamam), but in such cases the expression means “be appalled at/because of” (see Jer 49:20; 50:45). If one were to retain the prepositional phrase here, one would have to read the text as follows: יַשִּׁים מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashim mavetalemo, “Death will be appalled at them”). The idea seems odd, to say the least. Death is not collocated with this verb elsewhere.

[55:15]  151 sn Go down alive. This curse imagines a swift and sudden death for the psalmist’s enemies.

[55:17]  152 tn The first verb is clearly a cohortative form, expressing the psalmist’s resolve. The second verb, while formally ambiguous, should also be understood as cohortative here.

[55:17]  153 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive normally appears in narrational contexts to indicate past action, but here it continues the anticipatory (future) perspective of the preceding line. In Ps 77:6 one finds the same sequence of cohortative + prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive. In this case as well, both forms refer to future actions.

[55:17]  154 tn Heb “my voice.”

[55:18]  155 tn The perfect verbal form is here used rhetorically to indicate that the action is certain to take place (the so-called perfect of certitude).

[55:18]  156 tn Heb “he will redeem in peace my life from [those who] draw near to me.”

[55:18]  157 tn Or “for.”

[55:18]  158 tn Heb “among many they are against me.” For other examples of the preposition עִמָּד (’immad) used in the sense of “at, against,” see HALOT 842 s.v.; BDB 767 s.v.; IBHS 219 §11.2.14b.

[55:19]  159 tc Heb “God will hear and answer them, even [the] one who sits [from] ancient times.” The prefixed verbal from with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the anticipatory force of the preceding imperfect. The verb appears to be a Qal form from עָנָה (’anah, “to answer”). If this reading is retained, the point would be that God “answered” them in judgment. The translation assumes an emendation to the Piel וַיְעַנֵּם (vayannem; see 2 Kgs 17:20) and understands the root as עָנָה (’anah, “to afflict”; see also 1 Kgs 8:35).

[55:19]  160 tn Heb “[the ones] for whom there are no changes, and they do not fear God.”

[55:20]  161 sn He. This must refer to the psalmist’s former friend, who was addressed previously in vv. 12-14.

[55:20]  162 tn Heb “stretches out his hand against.”

[55:20]  163 tc The form should probably be emended to an active participle (שֹׁלְמָיו, sholÿmayv) from the verbal root שָׁלַם (shalam, “be in a covenant of peace with”). Perhaps the translation “his friends” suggests too intimate a relationship. Another option is to translate, “he attacks those who made agreements with him.”

[55:20]  164 tn Heb “he violates his covenant.”

[55:21]  165 tn Heb “the butter-like [words] of his mouth are smooth.” The noun מַחְמָאֹת (makhmaot, “butter-like [words]”) occurs only here. Many prefer to emend the form to מֵחֶמְאָה (mekhemah, from [i.e., “than”] butter”), cf. NEB, NRSV “smoother than butter.” However, in this case “his mouth” does not agree in number with the plural verb חָלְקוּ (kholqu, “they are smooth”). Therefore some further propose an emendation of פִּיו (piv, “his mouth”) to פָּנָיו (panayv, “his face”). In any case, the point seems to that the psalmist’s former friend spoke kindly to him and gave the outward indications of friendship.

[55:21]  166 tn Heb “and war [is in] his heart.”

[55:21]  167 tn Heb “his words are softer than oil, but they are drawn swords.”

[55:22]  168 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.

[55:22]  169 tn The pronoun is singular; the psalmist addresses each member of his audience individually.

[55:22]  170 tn Heb “he will never allow swaying for the righteous.”

[55:23]  171 tn The pronominal suffix refers to the psalmist’s enemies (see v. 19).

[55:23]  172 tn Heb “well of the pit.” The Hebrew term שַׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 16:10; 30:9; 49:9; 103:4).

[55:23]  173 tn Heb “men of bloodshed and deceit.”

[55:23]  174 tn Heb “will not divide in half their days.”

[56:1]  175 sn Psalm 56. Despite the threats of his enemies, the psalmist is confident the Lord will keep his promise to protect and deliver him.

[56:1]  176 tn The literal meaning of this phrase is “silent dove, distant ones.” Perhaps it refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a type of musical instrument.

[56:1]  177 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16 and 57-60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”

[56:1]  178 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm when the Philistines seized him and took him to King Achish of Gath (see 1 Sam 21:11-15).

[56:1]  179 tn According to BDB 983 s.v. II שָׁאַף, the verb is derived from שָׁאַף (shaaf, “to trample, crush”) rather than the homonymic verb “pant after.”

[56:1]  180 tn Heb “a fighter.” The singular is collective for his enemies (see vv. 5-6). The Qal of לָחַם (lakham, “fight”) also occurs in Ps 35:1.

[56:1]  181 tn The imperfect verbal form draws attention to the continuing nature of the enemies’ attacks.

[56:2]  182 tn Heb “to those who watch me [with evil intent].” See also Pss 5:8; 27:11; 54:5; 59:10.

[56:2]  183 tn Or “for.”

[56:2]  184 tn Some take the Hebrew term מָרוֹם (marom, “on high; above”) as an adverb modifying the preceding participle and translate, “proudly” (cf. NASB; NIV “in their pride”). The present translation assumes the term is a divine title here. The Lord is pictured as enthroned “on high” in Ps 92:8. (Note the substantival use of the term in Isa 24:4 and see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs (Psalms [ICC], 2:34), who prefer to place the term at the beginning of the next verse.)

[56:3]  185 tn Heb “[in] a day.”

[56:4]  186 tn Heb “in God I boast, his word.” The syntax in the Hebrew text is difficult. (1) The line could be translated, “in God I boast, [in] his word.” Such a translation assumes that the prepositional phrase “in God” goes with the following verb “I boast” (see Ps 44:8) and that “his word” is appositional to “in God” and more specifically identifies the basis for the psalmist’s confidence. God’s “word” is here understood as an assuring promise of protection. Another option (2) is to translate, “in God I will boast [with] a word.” In this case, the “word” is a song of praise. (In this view the pronominal suffix “his” must be omitted as in v. 10.) The present translation reflects yet another option (3): In this case “I praise his word” is a parenthetical statement, with “his word” being the object of the verb. The sentence begun with the prepositional phrase “in God” is then completed in the next line, with the prepositional phrase being repeated after the parenthesis.

[56:4]  187 tn Heb “flesh,” which refers by metonymy to human beings (see v. 11, where “man” is used in this same question), envisioned here as mortal and powerless before God.

[56:4]  188 tn The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “Nothing!” The imperfect is used in a modal sense here, indicating capability or potential.

[56:5]  189 tn Heb “my affairs they disturb.” For other instances of דָּבָר (davar) meaning “affairs, business,” see BDB 183 s.v.. The Piel of עָצַב (’atsav, “to hurt”) occurs only here and in Isa 63:10, where it is used of “grieving” (or “offending”) the Lord’s holy Spirit. Here in Ps 56:5, the verb seems to carry the nuance “disturb, upset,” in the sense of “cause trouble.”

[56:5]  190 tn Heb “against me [are] all their thoughts for harm.”

[56:6]  191 tn The verb is from the root גּוּר (gur), which means “to challenge, attack” in Isa 54:15 and “to stalk” (with hostile intent) in Ps 59:3.

[56:6]  192 tn Or “hide.”

[56:6]  193 tn Heb “my heels.”

[56:6]  194 tn Heb “according to,” in the sense of “inasmuch as; since,” or “when; while.”

[56:6]  195 tn Heb “they wait [for] my life.”

[56:7]  196 tc Heb “because of wickedness, deliverance to them.” As it stands, the MT makes no sense. The negative particle אַיִן (’ayin, “there is not,” which is due to dittography of the immediately preceding אָוֶן, ’aven, “wickedness”), should probably be added before “deliverance” (see BHS, note a). The presence of an imperative in the next line (note “bring down”) suggests that this line should be translated as a prayer as well, “may there not be deliverance to them.”

[56:7]  197 tn Heb “in anger.” The pronoun “your” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

[56:7]  198 tn Or perhaps “people” in a general sense.

[56:8]  199 tn Heb “my wandering you count, you.” The Hebrew term נֹד (nod, “wandering,” derived from the verbal root נוֹד, nod, “to wander”; cf. NASB) here refers to the psalmist’s “changeable circumstances of life” and may be translated “misery.” The verb סָפַר (safar, “count”) probably carries the nuance “assess” here. Cf. NIV “my lament”; NRSV “my tossings.”

[56:8]  200 tn Traditionally “your bottle.” Elsewhere the Hebrew word נֹאד (nod, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20). If such a container is metaphorically in view here, then the psalmist seems to be asking God to store up his tears as a reminder of his suffering.

[56:8]  201 tn The word “recorded” is supplied in the translation for clarification. The rhetorical question assumes a positive response (see the first line of the verse).

[56:9]  202 tn Heb “then my enemies will turn back in the day I cry out.” The Hebrew particle אָז (’az, “then”) is probably used here to draw attention to the following statement.

[56:9]  203 tn Heb “this I know, that God is for me.”

[56:10]  204 tn Heb “in God I praise a word.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult. The statement is similar to that of v. 4, except that the third person pronominal suffix is omitted here, where the text has simply “a word” instead of “his word.” (1) One could translate, “in God I will boast [with] a word.” In this case, the “word” refers to a song of praise. (2) If one assumes that God’s word is in view, as in v. 4, then one option is to translate, “in God I boast, [in] his word.” In this case the prepositional phrase “in God” goes with the following verb “I boast” (see Ps 44:8) and “[his] word” is appositional to “in God” and more specifically identifies the basis for the psalmist’s confidence. God’s “word” is here understood as an assuring promise of protection. (3) The present translation reflects another option: In this case “I praise [his] word” is a parenthetical statement, with “[his] word” being the object of the verb. The sentence begun with the prepositional phrase “in God” is then completed in v. 11, with the prepositional phrase being repeated after the parenthesis.

[56:10]  205 tn The phrase “in the Lord” parallels “in God” in the first line. Once again the psalmist parenthetically remarks “I boast in [his] word” before completing the sentence in v. 11.

[56:11]  206 tn The statement is similar to that of v. 4, except “flesh” is used there instead of “man.”

[56:11]  207 tn The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “Nothing!” The imperfect is used in a modal sense here, indicating capability or potential.

[56:12]  208 tn Heb “upon me, O God, [are] your vows.”

[56:12]  209 tn Heb “I will repay thank-offerings to you.”

[56:13]  210 tn The perfect verbal form is probably future perfect; the psalmist promises to make good on his vows once God has delivered him (see Pss 13:5; 52:9). (2) Another option is to understand the final two verses as being added later, after the Lord intervened on the psalmist’s behalf. In this case one may translate, “for you have delivered.” Other options include taking the perfect as (3) generalizing (“for you deliver”) or (4) rhetorical (“for you will”).

[56:13]  211 tn Heb “are not my feet [kept] from stumbling?” The rhetorical question expects the answer, “Of course they are!” The question has been translated as an affirmation for the sake of clarification of meaning.

[56:13]  212 tn Heb “walk before.” For a helpful discussion of the background and meaning of this Hebrew idiom, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 254; cf. the same idiom in 2 Kgs 20:3; Isa 38:3.

[56:13]  213 tn Heb “in the light of life.” The phrase is used here and in Job 33:30.

[57:1]  214 sn Psalm 57. The psalmist asks for God’s protection and expresses his confidence that his ferocious enemies will be destroyed by their own schemes.

[57:1]  215 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the heading to Pss 58-59, 75.

[57:1]  216 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16, 56, 58-60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”

[57:1]  217 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm on the occasion when he fled from Saul and hid in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3.

[57:1]  218 tn Heb “my life has taken shelter.” The Hebrew perfect verbal form probably refers here to a completed action with continuing results.

[57:1]  219 sn In the shadow of your wings. The metaphor likens God to a protective mother bird (see also Pss 17:8; 36:7).

[57:2]  220 tn Heb “to God Most High.” The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן, ’elyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Ps 47:2.

[57:2]  221 tn Or “avenges in favor of.”

[57:3]  222 tn Heb “may he send from heaven and deliver me.” The prefixed verbal forms are understood as jussives expressing the psalmist’s prayer. The second verb, which has a vav (ו) conjunctive prefixed to it, probably indicates purpose. Another option is to take the forms as imperfects expressing confidence, “he will send from heaven and deliver me” (cf. NRSV).

[57:3]  223 tn Heb “he hurls insults, one who crushes me.” The translation assumes that this line identifies those from whom the psalmist seeks deliverance. (The singular is representative; the psalmist is surrounded by enemies, see v. 4.) Another option is to understand God as the subject of the verb חָרַף (kharaf), which could then be taken as a homonym of the more common root חָרַף (“insult”) meaning “confuse.” In this case “one who crushes me” is the object of the verb. One might translate, “he [God] confuses my enemies.”

[57:4]  224 tn The cohortative form אֶשְׁכְּבָה (’eshkÿvah, “I lie down”) is problematic, for it does not seem to carry one of the normal functions of the cohortative (resolve or request). One possibility is that the form here is a “pseudo-cohortative” used here in a gnomic sense (IBHS 576-77 §34.5.3b).

[57:4]  225 tn The Hebrew verb לָהַט (lahat) is here understood as a hapax legomenon meaning “devour” (see HALOT 521 s.v. II להט), a homonym of the more common verb meaning “to burn.” A more traditional interpretation takes the verb from this latter root and translates, “those who are aflame” (see BDB 529 s.v.; cf. NASB “those who breathe forth fire”).

[57:4]  226 tn Heb “my life, in the midst of lions, I lie down, devouring ones, sons of mankind, their teeth a spear and arrows and their tongue a sharp sword.” The syntax of the verse is difficult. Another option is to take “my life” with the preceding verse. For this to make sense, one must add a verb, perhaps “and may he deliver” (cf. the LXX), before the phrase. One might then translate, “May God send his loyal love and faithfulness and deliver my life.” If one does take “my life” with v. 4, then the parallelism of v. 5 is altered and one might translate: “in the midst of lions I lie down, [among] men who want to devour me, whose teeth….”

[57:5]  227 tn Or “be exalted.”

[57:5]  228 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)

[57:6]  229 tn Heb “for my feet.”

[57:6]  230 tn Heb “my life bends low.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

[57:6]  231 tn Heb “before me.”

[57:6]  232 tn The perfect form is used rhetorically here to express the psalmist’s certitude. The demise of the enemies is so certain that he can speak of it as already accomplished.

[57:7]  233 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.

[57:8]  234 tn Heb “glory,” but that makes little sense in the context. Some view כָּבוֹד (kavod, “glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvediy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 108:1, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:90. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”

[57:8]  235 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.

[57:9]  236 tn Or “the peoples.”

[57:10]  237 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”

[57:11]  238 tn Or “be exalted.”

[57:11]  239 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)

[58:1]  240 sn Psalm 58. The psalmist calls on God to punish corrupt judges because a vivid display of divine judgment will convince observers that God is the just judge of the world who vindicates the godly.

[58:1]  241 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the heading to Pss 57, 59, and 75.

[58:1]  242 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam) which also appears in the heading to Pss 16 and 56-57, 59-60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”

[58:1]  243 tn Heb “Really [in] silence, what is right do you speak?” The Hebrew noun אֵלֶם (’elem, “silence”) makes little, if any, sense in this context. Some feel that this is an indictment of the addressees’ failure to promote justice; they are silent when they should make just decisions. The present translation assumes an emendation to אֵלִם (’elim), which in turn is understood as a defectively written form of אֵילִים (’elim, “rulers,” a metaphorical use of אַיִל, ’ayil, “ram”; see Exod 15:15; Ezek 17:13). The rhetorical question is sarcastic, challenging their claim to be just. Elsewhere the collocation of דָּבַר (davar, “speak”) with צֶדֶק (tsedeq, “what is right”) as object means “to speak the truth” (see Ps 52:3; Isa 45:19). Here it refers specifically to declaring what is right in a legal setting, as the next line indicates.

[58:1]  244 tn Heb “the sons of mankind.” The translation assumes the phrase is the object of the verb “to judge.” Some take it as a vocative, “Do you judge fairly, O sons of mankind?” (Cf. NASB; see Ezek 20:4; 22:2; 23:36.)

[58:2]  245 tn The particle אַף (’af, “no”) is used here as a strong adversative emphasizing the following statement, which contrasts reality with the rulers’ claim alluded to in the rhetorical questions (see Ps 44:9).

[58:2]  246 tn Heb “in the heart unjust deeds you do.” The phrase “in the heart” (i.e., “mind”) seems to refer to their plans and motives. The Hebrew noun עַוְלָה (’avlah, “injustice”) is collocated with פָּעַל (paal, “do”) here and in Job 36:23 and Ps 119:3. Some emend the plural form עוֹלֹת (’olot, “unjust deeds”; see Ps 64:6) to the singular עָוֶל (’avel, “injustice”; see Job 34:32), taking the final tav (ת) as dittographic (note that the following verbal form begins with tav). Some then understand עָוֶל (’avel, “injustice”) as a genitive modifying “heart” and translate, “with a heart of injustice you act.”

[58:2]  247 tn Heb “in the earth the violence of your hands you weigh out.” The imagery is from the economic realm. The addressees measure out violence, rather than justice, and distribute it like a commodity. This may be ironic, since justice was sometimes viewed as a measuring scale (see Job 31:6).

[58:3]  248 tn Heb “from the womb.”

[58:3]  249 tn Heb “speakers of a lie go astray from the womb.”

[58:4]  250 tn Heb “[there is] venom to them according to the likeness of venom of a snake.”

[58:4]  251 tn Or perhaps “cobra” (cf. NASB, NIV). Other suggested species of snakes are “asp” (NEB) and “adder” (NRSV).

[58:4]  252 tn Heb “[that] stops up its ear.” The apparent Hiphil jussive verbal form should be understood as a Qal imperfect with “i” theme vowel (see GKC 168 §63.n).

[58:5]  253 tn Heb “does not listen to the voice of.”

[58:7]  254 tn Following the imperatival forms in v. 6, the prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive expressing the psalmist’s wish. Another option is to take the form as an imperfect (indicative) and translate, “they will scatter” (see v. 9). The verb מָאַס (maas; which is a homonym of the more common מָאַס, “to refuse, reject”) appears only here and in Job 7:5, where it is used of a festering wound from which fluid runs or flows.

[58:7]  255 tn Heb “like water, they go about for themselves.” The translation assumes that the phrase “they go about for themselves” is an implied relative clause modifying “water.” Another option is to take the clause as independent and parallel to what precedes. In this case the enemies would be the subject and the verb could be taken as jussive, “let them wander about.”

[58:7]  256 tc The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The text reads literally, “he treads his arrows (following the Qere; Kethib has “his arrow”), like they are cut off/dry up.” It is not clear if the verbal root is מָלַל (malal, “circumcise”; BDB 576 s.v. IV מָלַל) or the homonymic מָלַל (“wither”; HALOT 593-94 s.v. I מלל). Since the verb מָלַל (“to wither”) is used of vegetation, it is possible that the noun חָצִיר (khatsir, “grass,” which is visually similar to חִצָּיו, khitsayv, “his arrows”) originally appeared in the text. The translation above assumes that the text originally was כְּמוֹ חָצִיר יִתְמֹלָלוּ(kÿmo khatsir yitmolalu, “like grass let them wither”). If original, it could have been accidentally corrupted to חִצָּיר כְּמוֹ יִתְמֹלָלוּ (“his arrow(s) like they dry up”) with דָּרַךְ (darakh, “to tread”) being added later in an effort to make sense of “his arrow(s).”

[58:8]  257 tn There is no “to be” verb in the Hebrew text at this point, but a jussive tone can be assumed based on vv. 6-7.

[58:8]  258 tn Heb “like a melting snail [that] moves along.” A. Cohen (Psalms [SoBB], 184) explains that the text here alludes “to the popular belief that the slimy trail which the snail leaves in its track is the dissolution of its substance.”

[58:8]  259 tn The words “let them be like” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. The jussive mood is implied from the preceding context, and “like” is understood by ellipsis (see the previous line).

[58:8]  260 tn This rare word also appears in Job 3:16 and Eccles 6:3.

[58:9]  261 tn Heb “before your pots perceive thorns.”

[58:9]  262 tn Apparently God (v. 6) is the subject of the verb here.

[58:9]  263 tn Heb “like living, like burning anger he will sweep it away.” The meaning of the text is unclear. The translation assumes that within the cooking metaphor (see the previous line) חַי (khay, “living”) refers here to raw meat (as in 1 Sam 2:15, where it modifies בָּשָׂר, basar, “flesh”) and that חָרוּן (kharun; which always refers to God’s “burning anger” elsewhere) here refers to food that is cooked. The pronominal suffix on the verb “sweep away” apparently refers back to the “thorns” of the preceding line. The image depicts swift and sudden judgment. Before the fire has been adequately kindled and all the meat cooked, the winds of judgment will sweep away everything in their path.

[58:10]  264 tn The singular is representative here, as is the singular from “wicked” in the next line.

[58:11]  265 tn Following the imperfects of v. 10, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive probably indicates a result or consequence of what precedes.

[58:11]  266 tn Heb “man.” The singular is representative here.

[58:11]  267 tn Heb “surely [there] is fruit for the godly.”

[58:11]  268 tn The plural participle is unusual here if the preceding אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is here a plural of majesty, referring to the one true God. Occasionally the plural of majesty does take a plural attributive (see GKC 428-29 §132.h). It is possible that the final mem (ם) on the participle is enclitic, and that it was later misunderstood as a plural ending. Another option is to translate, “Yes indeed, there are gods who judge in the earth.” In this case, the statement reflects the polytheistic mindset of pagan observers who, despite their theological ignorance, nevertheless recognize divine retribution when they see it.

[59:1]  269 sn Psalm 59. The psalmist calls down judgment on his foreign enemies, whom he compares to ravenous wild dogs.

[59:1]  270 tn Heb “do not destroy.” Perhaps this refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a musical instrument. These words also appear in the superscription to Pss 57-58, 75.

[59:1]  271 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16, 56-58, 60 is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”

[59:1]  272 tn Heb “when Saul sent and they watched his house in order to kill him.”

[59:1]  sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm on the occasion when Saul sent assassins to surround David’s house and kill him in the morning (see 1 Sam 19:11). However, the psalm itself mentions foreign enemies (vv. 5, 8). Perhaps these references reflect a later adaptation of an original Davidic psalm.

[59:1]  273 tn Or “make me secure”; Heb “set me on high.”

[59:1]  274 tn Heb “from those who raise themselves up [against] me.”

[59:2]  275 tn Heb “from the workers of wickedness.”

[59:2]  276 tn Heb “from men of bloodshed.”

[59:3]  277 tn Heb “my life.”

[59:3]  278 tn The Hebrew verb is from the root גּוּר (gur), which means “to challenge, attack” in Isa 54:15 and “to stalk” (with hostile intent) in Ps 56:8.

[59:3]  279 sn The point is that the psalmist’s enemies have no justifiable reason for attacking him. He has neither rebelled or sinned against the Lord.

[59:4]  280 tn Heb “without sin.”

[59:4]  281 tn Heb “they run and they are determined.”

[59:4]  282 tn Heb “arise to meet me and see.” The Hebrew verb קָרָא (qara’, “to meet; to encounter”) here carries the nuance of “to help.”

[59:5]  283 tn HebLord, God, Hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי (’elohey) before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot, “hosts”). See Ps 89:9, but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yÿhvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot) in Pss 80:4, 19; 84:8 as well.

[59:5]  284 tn Heb “wake up to punish” (see Pss 35:23; 44:23).

[59:6]  285 tn Or “howl”; or “bark.”

[59:6]  286 tn Heb “go around.”

[59:7]  287 tn Heb “look, they gush forth with their mouth, swords [are] in their lips.”

[59:7]  288 tn The words “for they say” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The following question (“Who hears?”) is spoken by the psalmist’s enemies, who are confident that no one else can hear their threats against the psalmist. They are aggressive because they feel the psalmist is vulnerable and has no one to help him.

[59:8]  289 sn Laugh in disgust. See Pss 2:4; 37:13.

[59:8]  290 tn Or “scoff at”; or “deride”; or “mock” (see Ps 2:4).

[59:9]  291 tc Heb “his strength, for you I will watch.” “His strength” should be emended to “my strength” (see v. 17). Some also emend אֶשְׁמֹרָה (’eshmorah, “I will watch”) to אֱזַמֵּרָה (’ezammerah, “I will sing praises [to you]”) See v. 17.

[59:9]  292 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).

[59:10]  293 tn Heb “the God of my [Qere (marginal reading); the Kethib (consonantal text) has “his”] loyal love will meet me.”

[59:10]  294 tn Heb “will cause me to look upon.”

[59:10]  295 tn Heb “those who watch me [with evil intent].” See also Pss 5:8; 27:11; 54:5; 56:2.

[59:11]  296 tn Heb “do not kill them, lest my people forget.”

[59:11]  sn My people might forget the lesson. Swift, sudden destruction might be quickly forgotten. The psalmist wants God’s judgment to be prolonged so that it might be a continual reminder of divine justice.

[59:11]  297 tn Heb “make them roam around by your strength and bring them down, O our shield, the Lord.”

[59:12]  298 tn Heb “the sin of their mouth [is] the word of their lips.”

[59:14]  299 tn Or “howl”; or “bark.”

[59:14]  300 tn Heb “go around.”

[59:15]  301 tn Heb “if they are not full, they stay through the night.”

[59:16]  302 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).

[59:16]  303 tn Heb “and my shelter in the day of my distress.”

[59:17]  304 tn Heb “my strength, to you I will sing praises.”

[59:17]  305 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).

[59:17]  306 tn Heb “the God of my loyal love.”

[60:1]  307 sn Psalm 60. The psalmist grieves over Israel’s humiliation, but in response to God’s assuring word, he asks for divine help in battle and expresses his confidence in victory.

[60:1]  308 tn The Hebrew expression means “lily of the testimony.” It may refer to a particular music style or to a tune title.

[60:1]  309 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word מִכְתָּם (miktam), which also appears in the heading to Pss 16, 56-59, is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”

[60:1]  310 tn Heb “to teach.”

[60:1]  311 tn In Josh 8:21 and Judg 20:48 the two verbs “turn back” and “strike down” are also juxtaposed. There they refer to a military counter-attack.

[60:1]  312 tn Heb “12,000 of Edom.” Perhaps one should read אֲרַם (’aram, “Aram”) here rather than אֱדוֹם (’edom, “Edom”).

[60:1]  313 sn The heading apparently refers to the military campaign recorded in 2 Sam 10 and 1 Chr 19.

[60:1]  314 sn You have rejected us. See Pss 43:2; 44:9, 23.

[60:1]  315 tn Heb “you broke out upon us, you were angry.”

[60:1]  316 tn The imperfect verbal form here expresses the psalmist’s wish or prayer.

[60:2]  317 tn The verb פָּצַם (patsam, “split open”) occurs only here in the OT. An Arabic cognate means “crack,” and an Aramaic cognate is used in Tg. Jer 22:14 with the meaning “break open, frame.” See BDB 822 s.v. and Jastrow 1205 s.v. פְּצַם.

[60:2]  sn You made the earth quake; you split it open. The psalmist uses the imagery of an earthquake to describe the nation’s defeat.

[60:2]  318 sn It is ready to fall. The earth is compared to a wall that has been broken by the force of the earthquake (note the preceding line) and is ready to collapse.

[60:3]  319 tn Heb “you have caused your people to see [what is] hard.”

[60:3]  320 tn Heb “wine of staggering,” that is, intoxicating wine that makes one stagger in drunkenness. Intoxicating wine is here an image of divine judgment that makes its victims stagger like drunkards. See Isa 51:17-23.

[60:4]  321 tn Heb “those who fear you.”

[60:4]  322 tn There is a ray of hope in that God has allowed his loyal followers to rally under a battle flag. The translation assumes the verb is from the root נוּס (nus, “flee”) used here in the Hitpolel in the sense of “find safety for oneself” (HALOT 681 s.v. נוס) or “take flight for oneself” (BDB 630-31 s.v. נוּס). Another option is to take the verb as a denominative from נֵס (nes, “flag”) and translate “that it may be displayed” (BDB 651 s.v. II נסס) or “that they may assemble under the banner” (HALOT 704 s.v. II נסס). Here קֹשֶׁט (qoshet) is taken as an Aramaized form of קֶשֶׁת (qeshet, “bow”; BDB 905-6 s.v. קֶשֶׁת), though some understand the homonymic קֹשְׁטְ (qosht, “truth”) here (see Prov 22:21; cf. NASB). If one follows the latter interpretation, the line may be translated, “so that they might assemble under the banner for the sake of truth.”

[60:5]  323 tn Heb “right hand.”

[60:5]  324 tn The Qere (marginal reading) has “me,” while the Kethib (consonantal text) has “us.”

[60:5]  325 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text, “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”

[60:6]  326 tn Heb “in his holy place.”

[60:6]  327 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan, the Valley of Succoth for the region east of the Jordan.

[60:7]  328 sn Gilead was located east of the Jordan. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.

[60:7]  329 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”

[60:7]  sn Ephraim, named after one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.

[60:7]  330 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.

[60:8]  331 sn The metaphor of the washbasin, used to rinse one’s hands and feet, suggests that Moab, in contrast to Israel’s elevated position (vv. 6-7), would be reduced to the status of a servant.

[60:8]  332 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of,” i.e., “I will take possession of Edom.” Others translate עַל (’al) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.

[60:8]  333 tc Heb “over me, O Philistia, shout in triumph.” The translation follows the text of Ps 108:9. When the initial עֲלֵיוֹ (’aleyo, “over”) was misread as עָלַי (’alay, “over me”), the first person verb form was probably altered to an imperative to provide better sense to the line.

[60:9]  334 sn In v. 9 the psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 8, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation (v. 10, see also v. 1).

[60:11]  335 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”

[60:12]  336 tn Heb “in God we will accomplish strength.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 108:13; 118:15-16).

[60:12]  337 sn Trample down. On this expression see Ps 44:5.

[61:1]  338 sn Psalm 61. The psalmist cries out for help and expresses his confidence that God will protect him.

[61:2]  339 tn Heb “from the end of the earth.” This may indicate (1) the psalmist is exiled in a distant land, or (2) it may be hyperbolic (the psalmist feels alienated from God’s presence, as if he were in a distant land).

[61:2]  340 tn Heb “while my heart faints.”

[61:2]  341 tn The imperfect verbal form here expresses the psalmist’s wish or prayer.

[61:2]  342 tn Heb “on to a rocky summit [that] is higher than I.”

[61:3]  343 tn Or “for.”

[61:3]  344 tn Or “have been.”

[61:3]  345 tn Heb “a strong tower from the face of an enemy.”

[61:4]  346 tn Heb “I will live as a resident alien in your tent permanently.” The cohortative is understood here as indicating resolve. Another option is to take it as expressing a request, “please let me live” (cf. NASB, NRSV).

[61:4]  347 sn I will find shelter in the protection of your wings. The metaphor compares God to a protective mother bird.

[61:5]  348 tn Heb “you grant the inheritance of those who fear your name.” “Inheritance” is normally used of land which is granted as an inheritance; here it refers metaphorically to the blessings granted God’s loyal followers. To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for his revealed reputation which in turn motivates one to obey God’s commands (see Ps 86:11).

[61:6]  349 tn Heb “days upon days of the king add, his years like generation and generation.”

[61:6]  sn It is not certain if the (royal) psalmist is referring to himself in the third person in this verse, or if an exile is praying on behalf of the king.

[61:7]  350 tn Heb “sit [enthroned].” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive here, expressing the psalmist’s prayer.

[61:7]  351 tn Heb “loyal love and faithfulness appoint, let them protect him.”

[61:8]  352 tn Or “forever.”

[61:8]  353 tn Or perhaps, “and thereby fulfill.” The preposition with the infinitive construct here indicates an accompanying circumstance.

[62:1]  354 sn Psalm 62. The psalmist expresses his unwavering confidence in God’s justice and in his ability to protect his people.

[62:1]  355 tn Heb “only for God [is] there silence [to] my soul.”

[62:1]  356 tn Heb “from him [is] my deliverance.”

[62:2]  357 tn Heb “my high rocky summit.”

[62:2]  358 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).

[62:2]  359 tn The Hebrew text adds רַבָּה (rabbah, “greatly”) at the end of the line. It is unusual for this adverb to follow a negated verb. Some see this as qualifying the assertion to some degree, but this would water down the affirmation too much (see v. 6b, where the adverb is omitted). If the adverb has a qualifying function, it would suggest that the psalmist might be upended, though not severely. This is inconsistent with the confident mood of the psalm. The adverb probably has an emphatic force here, “I will not be greatly upended” meaning “I will not be annihilated.”

[62:3]  360 tn The verb form is plural; the psalmist addresses his enemies. The verb הוּת occurs only here in the OT. An Arabic cognate means “shout at.”

[62:3]  361 tn The Hebrew text has a Pual (passive) form, but the verb form should be vocalized as a Piel (active) form. See BDB 953-54 s.v. רָצַח.

[62:3]  362 tn Heb “like a bent wall and a broken fence.” The point of the comparison is not entirely clear. Perhaps the enemies are depicted as dangerous, like a leaning wall or broken fence that is in danger of falling on someone (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:69).

[62:4]  363 tn That is, the psalmist’s enemies addressed in the previous verse.

[62:4]  364 tn That is, the generic “man” referred to in the previous verse.

[62:4]  365 tn Heb “only from his lofty place [or perhaps, “dignity”] they plan to drive [him] away.”

[62:4]  366 tn Heb “they delight [in] a lie.”

[62:4]  367 sn The enemies use deceit to bring down their victim. They make him think they are his friends by pronouncing blessings upon him, but inwardly they desire his demise.

[62:5]  368 tn Heb “only for God be silent, my soul.” The wording is similar to that of v. 1a. Here an imperatival form, דּוֹמִּי (dommiy, “be silent”), appears instead of the noun דּוּמִיָּה (dumiyyah, “silence”). The psalmist is encouraging himself to maintain his trust in God.

[62:5]  369 tn Heb “for from him [is] my hope.”

[62:6]  370 tn Heb “my high rocky summit.”

[62:6]  371 tn Or “my elevated place” (see Ps 18:2).

[62:6]  372 sn The wording is identical to that of v. 2, except that רַבָּה (rabbah, “greatly”) does not appear in v. 6.

[62:7]  373 tn Heb “upon God [is] my deliverance and my glory, the high rocky summit of my strength, my shelter [is] in God.”

[62:8]  374 tn To “pour out one’s heart” means to offer up to God intense, emotional lamentation and petitionary prayers (see Lam 2:19).

[62:9]  375 tn Heb “only a breath [are] the sons of mankind, a lie [are] the sons of man.” The phrases “sons of mankind” and “sons of man” also appear together in Ps 49:2. Because of the parallel line there, where “rich and poor” are mentioned, a number of interpreters and translators treat these expressions as polar opposites, בְּנֵי אָדָם (bÿneyadam) referring to the lower classes and בְּנֵי אִישׁ (bÿneyish) to higher classes. But usage does not support such a view. The rare phrase בְּנֵי אִישׁ (“sons of man”) appears to refer to human beings in general in its other uses (see Pss 4:2; Lam 3:33). It is better to understand the phrases as synonymous expressions.

[62:9]  376 tn The noun הֶבֶל (hevel), translated “a breath” earlier in the verse, appears again here.

[62:10]  377 tn Heb “do not trust in oppression.” Here “oppression” stands by metonymy for the riches that can be gained by oppressive measures, as the final line of the verse indicates.

[62:10]  378 tn Heb “and in robbery do not place vain hope.” Here “robbery” stands by metonymy for the riches that can be gained by theft, as the next line of the verse indicates.

[62:10]  379 tn Heb “[as for] wealth, when it bears fruit, do not set [your] heart [on it].”

[62:11]  380 tn Heb “one God spoke, two which I heard.” This is a numerical saying utilizing the “x” followed by “x + 1” pattern to facilitate poetic parallelism. (See W. M. W. Roth, Numerical Sayings in the Old Testament [VTSup], 55-56.) As is typical in such sayings, a list corresponding to the second number (in this case “two”) follows. Another option is to translate, “God has spoken once, twice [he has spoken] that which I have heard.” The terms אַחַת (’akhat, “one; once”) and שְׁתַּיִם (shÿtayim, “two; twice”) are also juxtaposed in 2 Kgs 6:10 (where they refer to an action that was done more than “once or twice”) and in Job 33:14 (where they refer to God speaking “one way” and then in “another manner”).

[62:11]  381 tn Heb “that strength [belongs] to God.”

[62:12]  382 tn Heb “and to you, O Master, [is] loyal love.”

[62:12]  383 tn Heb “for you pay back to a man according to his deed.” Another option is to understand vv. 11b and 12a as the first principle and v. 12b as the second. In this case one might translate, “God has declared one principle, two principles I have heard, namely, that God is strong, and you, O Lord, demonstrate loyal love, and that you repay men for what they do.”

[62:12]  sn You repay men for what they do. The psalmist views God’s justice as a demonstration of both his power (see v. 11c) and his loyal love (see v. 12a). When God judges evildoers, he demonstrates loyal love to his people.

[63:1]  384 sn Psalm 63. The psalmist expresses his intense desire to be in God’s presence and confidently affirms that God will judge his enemies.

[63:1]  385 sn According to the psalm superscription David wrote the psalm while in the “wilderness of Judah.” Perhaps this refers to the period described in 1 Sam 23-24 or to the incident mentioned in 2 Sam 15:23.

[63:1]  386 tn Or “I will seek you.”

[63:1]  387 tn Or “I thirst.”

[63:1]  388 tn Heb “faint” or “weary.” This may picture the land as “faint” or “weary,” or it may allude to the effect this dry desert has on those who are forced to live in it.

[63:2]  389 tn The Hebrew particle כֵּן (ken) is used here to stress the following affirmation (see Josh 2:4).

[63:2]  390 tn The perfect verbal form is understood here as referring to a past experience which the psalmist desires to be repeated. Another option is to take the perfect as indicating the psalmist’s certitude that he will again stand in God’s presence in the sanctuary. In this case one can translate, “I will see you.”

[63:2]  391 tn Heb “seeing.” The preposition with the infinitive construct here indicates an accompanying circumstance.

[63:3]  392 tn This line is understood as giving the basis for the praise promised in the following line. Another option is to take the Hebrew particle כִּי (ki) as asseverative/emphasizing, “Indeed, your loyal love is better” (cf. NEB, which leaves the particle untranslated).

[63:3]  393 tn The word “experiencing” is supplied in the translation for clarification. The psalmist does not speak here of divine loyal love in some abstract sense, but of loyal love revealed and experienced.

[63:4]  394 tn Or perhaps “then.”

[63:4]  395 sn I will lift up my hands. Lifting up one’s hands toward God was a gesture of prayer (see Ps 28:2; Lam 2:19) or respect (Ps 119:48).

[63:5]  396 tn Heb “like fat and fatness.”

[63:5]  397 tn Or “me.”

[63:5]  398 tn Heb “and [with] lips of joy my mouth praises.”

[63:6]  399 tn The Hebrew term אִם (’im) is used here in the sense of “when; whenever,” as in Ps 78:34.

[63:7]  400 tn Or “[source of] help.”

[63:7]  401 tn Heb “in the shadow of your wings.”

[63:8]  402 tn Or “I.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

[63:8]  403 tn Heb “clings after.” The expression means “to pursue with determination” (see Judg 20:45; 1 Sam 14:22; 1 Chr 10:2; Jer 42:16).

[63:9]  404 tn Heb “but they for destruction seek my life.” The pronoun “they” must refer here to the psalmist’s enemies, referred to at this point for the first time in the psalm.

[63:9]  405 sn The depths of the earth refers here to the underworld dwelling place of the dead (see Ezek 26:20; 31:14, 16, 18; 32:18, 24). See L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 167.

[63:10]  406 tn Heb “they will deliver him over to the sword.” The third masculine plural subject must be indefinite (see GKC 460 §144.f) and the singular pronominal suffix either representative or distributive (emphasizing that each one will be so treated). Active verbs with indefinite subjects may be translated as passives with the object (in the Hebrew text) as subject (in the translation).

[63:10]  407 tn Heb “they will be [the] portion of jackals”; traditionally, “of foxes.”

[63:11]  408 sn The psalmist probably refers to himself in the third person here.

[63:11]  409 tn Heb “who swears [an oath] by him.”

[63:11]  410 tn The Niphal of this verb occurs only here and in Gen 8:2, where it is used of God “stopping” or “damming up” the great deep as he brought the flood to an end.

[64:1]  411 sn Psalm 64. The psalmist asks God to protect him from his dangerous enemies and then confidently affirms that God will destroy his enemies and demonstrate his justice in the sight of all observers.

[64:1]  412 tn Heb “my voice.”

[64:1]  413 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s request.

[64:1]  414 tn Heb “from the terror of [the] enemy.” “Terror” is used here metonymically for the enemy’s attacks that produce fear because they threaten the psalmist’s life.

[64:2]  415 tn Heb “workers of wickedness.”

[64:3]  416 tn Heb “who.” A new sentence was started here in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[64:3]  417 tn Heb “a bitter word.”

[64:4]  418 tn The psalmist uses the singular because he is referring to himself here as representative of a larger group.

[64:4]  419 tn Heb “and are unafraid.” The words “of retaliation” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[64:5]  420 tn Heb “they give strength to themselves, an evil matter [or “word”].”

[64:5]  421 tn Heb “they report about hiding.”

[64:5]  422 tn Heb “they say.”

[64:5]  423 tn If this is a direct quotation (cf. NASB, NIV), the pronoun “them” refers to the snares mentioned in the previous line. If it is an indirect quotation, then the pronoun may refer to the enemies themselves (cf. NEB, which is ambiguous). Some translations retain the direct quotation but alter the pronoun to “us,” referring clearly to the enemies (cf. NRSV).

[64:6]  424 tn Heb “search out, examine,” which here means (by metonymy) “devise.”

[64:6]  425 tc The MT has תַּמְנוּ (tamnu, “we are finished”), a Qal perfect first common plural form from the verbal root תָּמַם (tamam). Some understand this as the beginning of a quotation of the enemies’ words and translate, “we have completed,” but the Hiphil would seem to be required in this case. The present translation follows many medieval Hebrew mss in reading טָמְנוּ (tomnu, “they hide”), a Qal perfect third common plural form from the verbal root טָמַן (taman).

[64:6]  426 tn Heb “a searched-out search,” which is understood as referring here to a thoroughly planned plot to destroy the psalmist.

[64:6]  427 tn Heb “and the inner part of man, and a heart [is] deep.” The point seems to be that a man’s inner thoughts are incapable of being discovered. No one is a mind reader! Consequently the psalmist is vulnerable to his enemies’ well-disguised plots.

[64:7]  428 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive is normally used in narrative contexts to describe completed past actions. It is possible that the conclusion to the psalm (vv. 7-10) was added to the lament after God’s judgment of the wicked in response to the psalmist’s lament (vv. 1-6). The translation assumes that these verses are anticipatory and express the psalmist’s confidence that God would eventually judge the wicked. The psalmist uses a narrative style as a rhetorical device to emphasize his certitude. See GKC 329-30 §111.w.

[64:7]  429 tn The perfect verbal form here expresses the psalmist’s certitude about the coming demise of the wicked.

[64:7]  430 tn The translation follows the traditional accentuation of the MT. Another option is to translate, “But God will shoot them down with an arrow, suddenly they will be wounded” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

[64:8]  431 tc The MT reads literally, “and they caused him to stumble, upon them, their tongue.” Perhaps the third plural subject of the verb is indefinite with the third singular pronominal suffix on the verb being distributive (see Ps 63:10). In this case one may translate, “each one will be made to stumble.” The preposition עַל (’al) might then be taken as adversative, “against them [is] their tongue.” Many prefer to emend the text to וַיַּכְשִׁילֵמוֹ עֲלֵי לְשׁוֹנָם (vayyakhshilemoaley lÿshonam, “and he caused them to stumble over their tongue”). However, if this reading is original, it is difficult to see how the present reading of the MT arose. Furthermore, the preposition is not collocated with the verb כָּשַׁל (kashal) elsewhere. It is likely that the MT is corrupt, but a satisfying emendation has not yet been proposed.

[64:8]  432 tn The Hitpolel verbal form is probably from the root נוּד (nud; see HALOT 678 s.v. נוד), which is attested elsewhere in the Hitpolel stem, not the root נָדַד (nadad, as proposed by BDB 622 s.v. I נָדַד), which does not occur elsewhere in this stem.

[64:9]  433 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss read וַיִּרְאוּ (vayyiru, “and they will see”) instead of וַיִּירְאוּ (vayyirÿu, “and they will proclaim”).

[64:9]  434 tn Heb “the work of God,” referring to the judgment described in v. 7.

[64:10]  435 tn Heb “upright in heart.”

[64:10]  436 tn That is, about the Lord’s accomplishments on their behalf.

[65:1]  437 sn Psalm 65. The psalmist praises God because he forgives sin and blesses his people with an abundant harvest.

[65:1]  438 tn Heb “for you, silence, praise.” Many prefer to emend the noun דֻּמִיָּה (dumiyyah, “silence”) to a participle דּוֹמִיָּה (domiyyah), from the root דָּמָה (damah, “be silent”), understood here in the sense of “wait.”

[65:2]  439 tn Heb “O one who hears prayer.”

[65:2]  440 tn Heb “to you all flesh comes.”

[65:3]  441 tn Heb “the records of sins are too strong for me.”

[65:3]  442 tn Or “make atonement for.”

[65:4]  443 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).

[65:4]  444 tn Heb “[whom] you bring near [so that] he might live [in] your courts.”

[65:4]  445 tn Or “temple.”

[65:5]  446 tn Heb “[with] awesome acts in deliverance you answer us, O God of our salvation.”

[65:5]  447 tn Heb “a source of confidence [for] all the ends of the earth.”

[65:5]  sn All the ends of the earth trust in you. This idealistic portrayal of universal worship is typical hymnic hyperbole, though it does anticipate eschatological reality.

[65:5]  448 tc Heb “and [the] distant sea.” The plural adjective is problematic after the singular form “sea.” One could emend יָם (yam, “sea”) to יָמִים (yamim, “seas”), or emend the plural form רְחֹקִים (rÿkhoqim, “far”) to the singular רָחֹק (rakhoq). In this case the final mem (ם) could be treated as dittographic; note the mem on the beginning of the first word in v. 6.

[65:6]  449 tn Heb “[the] one who establishes [the] mountains by his power.”

[65:6]  450 tn Heb “one [who] is girded with strength”; or “one [who] girds himself with strength.”

[65:7]  451 tn Heb “the roar of the seas.”

[65:7]  452 sn The raging seas…the commotion made by the nations. The raging seas symbolize the turbulent nations of the earth (see Ps 46:2-3, 6; Isa 17:12).

[65:8]  453 tn Heb “and the inhabitants of the ends fear because of your signs.” God’s “signs” are the “awesome acts” (see v. 5) he performs in the earth.

[65:8]  454 tn Heb “the goings out of the morning and the evening you cause to shout for joy.” The phrase “goings out of the morning and evening” refers to the sunrise and sunset, that is, the east and the west.

[65:9]  455 tn The verb form is a Polel from שׁוּק (shuq, “be abundant”), a verb which appears only here and in Joel 2:24 and 3:13, where it is used in the Hiphil stem and means “overflow.”

[65:9]  456 tn Heb “you greatly enrich it.”

[65:9]  457 tn Heb “[with] a channel of God full of water.” The divine name is probably used here in a superlative sense to depict a very deep stream (“a stream fit for God,” as it were).

[65:9]  458 tn The pronoun apparently refers to the people of the earth, mentioned in v. 8.

[65:9]  459 tn Heb “for thus [referring to the provision of rain described in the first half of the verse] you prepare it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix attached to the verb “prepare” refers back to the “earth,” which is a feminine noun with regard to grammatical form.

[65:10]  460 tn Heb “saturating” [the form is an infinitive absolute].

[65:10]  461 tn Heb “flatten, cause to sink.”

[65:10]  462 tn Heb “trenches,” or “furrows.”

[65:10]  463 tn Heb “soften it,” that is, the earth.

[65:10]  464 tn Heb “its vegetation you bless.” Divine “blessing” often involves endowing an object with special power or capacity.

[65:11]  465 tn Heb “your good,” which refers here to agricultural blessings.

[65:11]  466 tn Heb “and your paths drip with abundance.”

[65:12]  467 tn Heb “drip.”

[65:12]  468 tn That is, with rich vegetation that brings joy to those who see it.



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