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Teks -- Philippians 1:1-30 (NET)

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Konteks
Salutation
1:1 From Paul and Timothy, slaves of Christ Jesus, to all the saints in Christ Jesus who are in Philippi, with the overseers and deacons. 1:2 Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!
Prayer for the Church
1:3 I thank my God every time I remember you. 1:4 I always pray with joy in my every prayer for all of you 1:5 because of your participation in the gospel from the first day until now. 1:6 For I am sure of this very thing, that the one who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus. 1:7 For it is right for me to think this about all of you, because I have you in my heart, since both in my imprisonment and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel all of you became partners in God’s grace together with me. 1:8 For God is my witness that I long for all of you with the affection of Christ Jesus. 1:9 And I pray this, that your love may abound even more and more in knowledge and every kind of insight 1:10 so that you can decide what is best, and thus be sincere and blameless for the day of Christ, 1:11 filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ to the glory and praise of God.
Ministry as a Prisoner
1:12 I want you to know, brothers and sisters, that my situation has actually turned out to advance the gospel: 1:13 The whole imperial guard and everyone else knows that I am in prison for the sake of Christ, 1:14 and most of the brothers and sisters, having confidence in the Lord because of my imprisonment, now more than ever dare to speak the word fearlessly. 1:15 Some, to be sure, are preaching Christ from envy and rivalry, but others from goodwill. 1:16 The latter do so from love because they know that I am placed here for the defense of the gospel. 1:17 The former proclaim Christ from selfish ambition, not sincerely, because they think they can cause trouble for me in my imprisonment. 1:18 What is the result? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is being proclaimed, and in this I rejoice. Yes, and I will continue to rejoice, 1:19 for I know that this will turn out for my deliverance through your prayers and the help of the Spirit of Jesus Christ. 1:20 My confident hope is that I will in no way be ashamed but that with complete boldness, even now as always, Christ will be exalted in my body, whether I live or die. 1:21 For to me, living is Christ and dying is gain. 1:22 Now if I am to go on living in the body, this will mean productive work for me, yet I don’t know which I prefer: 1:23 I feel torn between the two, because I have a desire to depart and be with Christ, which is better by far, 1:24 but it is more vital for your sake that I remain in the body. 1:25 And since I am sure of this, I know that I will remain and continue with all of you for the sake of your progress and joy in the faith, 1:26 so that what you can be proud of may increase because of me in Christ Jesus, when I come back to you. 1:27 Only conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ so that– whether I come and see you or whether I remain absent– I should hear that you are standing firm in one spirit, with one mind, by contending side by side for the faith of the gospel, 1:28 and by not being intimidated in any way by your opponents. This is a sign of their destruction, but of your salvation– a sign which is from God. 1:29 For it has been granted to you not only to believe in Christ but also to suffer for him, 1:30 since you are encountering the same conflict that you saw me face and now hear that I am facing.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Philippi a town 40 km north of the Sea of Galilee, frequently called Caesarea Philippi,a town in Macedonia 350 km north of Athens
 · Timothy a young man of Lystra who travelled with Paul and to whom two epistles were addressed


Topik/Tema Kamus: PHILIPPIANS, THE EPISTLE TO THE | Intercession | Zeal | Tact | Love | Rome | PRAYER | Philippians, Epistle to | Afflictions and Adversities | Death | Grace of God | Persecution | Minister | Resignation | Righteousness | God | RESURRECTION | Philippi | Praetorium | Faith | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - Paul Paul ( Paulos ). He does not mention his apostleship as he usually does. Omitted also in I and II Thess. and Philemon.

Paul ( Paulos ).

He does not mention his apostleship as he usually does. Omitted also in I and II Thess. and Philemon.

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - Timothy Timothy ( Timotheos ). In no sense the author, but associated with Paul because with him here in Rome as in Corinth when I and II Thessalonians writt...

Timothy ( Timotheos ).

In no sense the author, but associated with Paul because with him here in Rome as in Corinth when I and II Thessalonians written and in Ephesus when I Corinthians sent and in Macedonia when II Corinthians written. Timothy was with Paul when the Philippian church was founded (Act 16:1, Act 16:13; Act 17:14). He had been there twice since (Act 19:22; Act 20:3.).

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - To all the saints To all the saints ( pāsi tois hagiois ). The word saint (hagios ) here is used for the professing Christians as in 1Co 1:2 which see as well as Ro...

To all the saints ( pāsi tois hagiois ).

The word saint (hagios ) here is used for the professing Christians as in 1Co 1:2 which see as well as Rom 1:7 for the origin of the word. The word "all"(pāsi ) means that all individual believers are included. Paul employs this word frequently in Philippians.

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - In Christ Jesus In Christ Jesus ( en Christōi Iēsou ). The centre for all Christian relations and activities for Paul and for us.

In Christ Jesus ( en Christōi Iēsou ).

The centre for all Christian relations and activities for Paul and for us.

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - In Philippi In Philippi ( en Philippois ). See note on Act 16:12 for discussion of this name.

In Philippi ( en Philippois ).

See note on Act 16:12 for discussion of this name.

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - With the bishops With the bishops ( sun episkopois ). "Together with bishops,"thus singled out from "all the saints."See note on Act 20:17 and note on Act 20:28 for t...

With the bishops ( sun episkopois ).

"Together with bishops,"thus singled out from "all the saints."See note on Act 20:17 and note on Act 20:28 for the use of this most interesting word as equivalent to presbuteros (elder). It is an old word from episkeptomai , to look upon or after, to inspect, so the overseer or superintendent. In the second century episcopos (Ignatius) came to mean one superior to elders, but not so in the N.T. The two New Testament church officers are here mentioned (bishops or elders and deacons). The plural is here employed because there was usually one church in a city with several pastors (bishops, elders).

Robertson: Phi 1:1 - And deacons And deacons ( kai diakonois ). Technical sense here of the other church officers as in 1Ti 3:8-13, not the general use as in Mat 22:13. The origin of...

And deacons ( kai diakonois ).

Technical sense here of the other church officers as in 1Ti 3:8-13, not the general use as in Mat 22:13. The origin of the office is probably seen in Act 6:1-6. The term is often applied to preachers (1Co 3:5; 2Co 3:6). The etymology (dia , konis ) suggests raising a dust by hastening.

Robertson: Phi 1:3 - Upon Upon ( epi ). Basis of the thanksgiving.

Upon ( epi ).

Basis of the thanksgiving.

Robertson: Phi 1:3 - All All ( pāsēi ). Note frequent use of "all"here (pāsēi , pantote , always, pāsēi , again, pantōn humōn , you all). The use of "you all...

All ( pāsēi ).

Note frequent use of "all"here (pāsēi , pantote , always, pāsēi , again, pantōn humōn , you all). The use of "you all"recurs several times (Phi 1:4, Phi 1:7 bis , Phi 1:8).

Robertson: Phi 1:4 - With joy With joy ( meta charas ). Keynote of the Epistle. Paul is a happy prisoner as in Philippi when he and Silas sang praises at midnight though in prison...

With joy ( meta charas ).

Keynote of the Epistle. Paul is a happy prisoner as in Philippi when he and Silas sang praises at midnight though in prison (Act 16:25).

Robertson: Phi 1:5 - For your fellowship For your fellowship ( epi tēi Koinéōniāi humōn ). "On the basis of your contribution"as in 2Co 8:4; 2Co 9:13; Act 2:42. The particular kind ...

For your fellowship ( epi tēi Koinéōniāi humōn ).

"On the basis of your contribution"as in 2Co 8:4; 2Co 9:13; Act 2:42. The particular kind of "partnership"or "fellowship"involved is the contribution made by the Philippians for the spread of the gospel (Phi 1:7 sugKoinéōnous and Phi 4:14 where sugKoinéōnēsantes occurs).

Robertson: Phi 1:5 - In furtherance of the gospel In furtherance of the gospel ( eis to euaggelion ). "For the gospel."

In furtherance of the gospel ( eis to euaggelion ).

"For the gospel."

Robertson: Phi 1:5 - From the first day until now From the first day until now ( apo tēs prōtēs hēmeras achri tou nun ). As when in Thessalonica (Phi 4:15.), in Corinth (Act 18:5; 2Co 11:7-10...

From the first day until now ( apo tēs prōtēs hēmeras achri tou nun ).

As when in Thessalonica (Phi 4:15.), in Corinth (Act 18:5; 2Co 11:7-10), and now in Rome.

Robertson: Phi 1:6 - Being confident Being confident ( pepoithōs ). Second perfect active of peithō , to persuade.

Being confident ( pepoithōs ).

Second perfect active of peithō , to persuade.

Robertson: Phi 1:6 - This very thing This very thing ( auto touto ). Accusative of the inner object with pepoithōs , "this thing itself."

This very thing ( auto touto ).

Accusative of the inner object with pepoithōs , "this thing itself."

Robertson: Phi 1:6 - Will perfect it Will perfect it ( epitelesei ). Future active indicative of epiteleō , will fully (epi̇ ) finish. God began and God will consummate it (see note ...

Will perfect it ( epitelesei ).

Future active indicative of epiteleō , will fully (epi̇ ) finish. God began and God will consummate it (see note on 2Co 8:6 and note on Gal 3:3 where both words occur together as here), but not without their cooperation and partnership.

Robertson: Phi 1:6 - Until the day of Jesus Christ Until the day of Jesus Christ ( achri hēmeras Christou Iēsou ). The second coming as in Phi 1:10. See note on 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:4; 2Th 1:10; 2Th 2:2...

Until the day of Jesus Christ ( achri hēmeras Christou Iēsou ).

The second coming as in Phi 1:10. See note on 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:4; 2Th 1:10; 2Th 2:2; 1Co 1:18; 1Co 3:13; 2Co 1:14; Rom 13:12. Paul never sets the time for the Lord’ s return, but he is cheered by that blessed hope.

Robertson: Phi 1:7 - Because I have you in my heart Because I have you in my heart ( dia to echein me en tēi kardiāi humas ). Or "because you hold me in your heart."Literally, "because of the holdi...

Because I have you in my heart ( dia to echein me en tēi kardiāi humas ).

Or "because you hold me in your heart."Literally, "because of the holding me (or you) in the heart as to you (or me)."One accusative is the object of the infinitive echein , the other is the accusative of general reference. There is no way to decide which is the idea meant except to say that love begets love. The pastor who, like Paul, holds his people in his heart will find them holding him in their hearts.

Robertson: Phi 1:7 - In the defence In the defence ( en tēi apologiāi ). Old word (our word apology, but not our idea of apologizing), in the original sense in Act 22:1; Act 25:16. ...

In the defence ( en tēi apologiāi ).

Old word (our word apology, but not our idea of apologizing), in the original sense in Act 22:1; Act 25:16. So also in Phi 1:16 below.

Robertson: Phi 1:7 - Confirmation Confirmation ( bebaiōsei ). Old word from bebaioō (bebaios , bainō ), to make stable. In N.T. only here and Heb 6:16 about oath.

Confirmation ( bebaiōsei ).

Old word from bebaioō (bebaios , bainō ), to make stable. In N.T. only here and Heb 6:16 about oath.

Robertson: Phi 1:7 - Partakers with me of grace Partakers with me of grace ( sugKoinéōnous mou tēs charitos ). Literally, "my Corinthians-sharers in grace"(objective genitive). "Grace prompted...

Partakers with me of grace ( sugKoinéōnous mou tēs charitos ).

Literally, "my Corinthians-sharers in grace"(objective genitive). "Grace prompted them to alleviate his imprisonment, to cooperate with him in defending and propagating the gospel, and to suffer for its sake"(Vincent, Int. Crit. Comm .).

Robertson: Phi 1:8 - My witness My witness ( martus mou ). Same solemn oath in Rom 1:9.

My witness ( martus mou ).

Same solemn oath in Rom 1:9.

Robertson: Phi 1:8 - I long after I long after ( epipothō ). Longing (pothos ) directed toward (epi ) the Philippians. Old word, chiefly in Paul in N.T.

I long after ( epipothō ).

Longing (pothos ) directed toward (epi ) the Philippians. Old word, chiefly in Paul in N.T.

Robertson: Phi 1:8 - In the tender mercies In the tender mercies ( en splagchnois ). Literally "in the bowels"as the seat of the affections.

In the tender mercies ( en splagchnois ).

Literally "in the bowels"as the seat of the affections.

Robertson: Phi 1:9 - May abound May abound ( perisseuēi ). Present active subjunctive of perisseuō , may keep on overflowing, a perpetual flood of love, "yet more and more"(eti ...

May abound ( perisseuēi ).

Present active subjunctive of perisseuō , may keep on overflowing, a perpetual flood of love, "yet more and more"(eti mallon kai mallon ), but with necessary limitations (river banks), "in knowledge"(en epignōsei , in full knowledge) "and all discernment"(pāsēi aisthēsei ). The delicate spiritual perception (aisthēsis , old word from aisthanomai , only here in N.T. as the verb only in Luk 9:45 in N.T.) can be cultivated as in aisthētērion (Heb 5:14)

Robertson: Phi 1:10 - So that ye may So that ye may ( eis to humas ). Either purpose or result (eis to plus infinitive as in Rom 1:11, Rom 1:20; Rom 3:26, etc.).

So that ye may ( eis to humas ).

Either purpose or result (eis to plus infinitive as in Rom 1:11, Rom 1:20; Rom 3:26, etc.).

Robertson: Phi 1:10 - Approve the things that are excellent Approve the things that are excellent ( dokimazein ta diapheronta ). Originally, "test the things that differ."Cf. same idiom in Rom 2:28. The verb w...

Approve the things that are excellent ( dokimazein ta diapheronta ).

Originally, "test the things that differ."Cf. same idiom in Rom 2:28. The verb was used for assaying metals. Either sense suits this context, but the first step is to distinguish between good and evil and that is not always easy in our complex civilization.

Robertson: Phi 1:10 - Sincere Sincere ( eilikrineis ). Old word of uncertain origin from krinō , to judge, by heilē (sunlight) or to sift by rapid rolling (eilos ). At any ...

Sincere ( eilikrineis ).

Old word of uncertain origin from krinō , to judge, by heilē (sunlight) or to sift by rapid rolling (eilos ). At any rate it means pure, unsullied.

Robertson: Phi 1:10 - Void of offence Void of offence ( aproskopoi ). Alpha privative pros and koptō , to cut, "not stumbled against"(not causing others to stumble) or if active "not ...

Void of offence ( aproskopoi ).

Alpha privative pros and koptō , to cut, "not stumbled against"(not causing others to stumble) or if active "not stumbling against."Passive sense probably, not active as in 1Co 10:32. Common in the papyri, though not in ancient Greek writers.

Robertson: Phi 1:11 - Fruits of righteousness Fruits of righteousness ( karpon dikaiosunēs ). Singular, collective idea, fruit of righteousness. Accusative case retained with perfect passive pa...

Fruits of righteousness ( karpon dikaiosunēs ).

Singular, collective idea, fruit of righteousness. Accusative case retained with perfect passive participle.

Robertson: Phi 1:12 - The things which happened unto me The things which happened unto me ( ta kat' eme ). "The things concerning me"= "my affairs"as common in Josephus.

The things which happened unto me ( ta kat' eme ).

"The things concerning me"= "my affairs"as common in Josephus.

Robertson: Phi 1:12 - Have fallen out rather Have fallen out rather ( mallon elēluthen ). "Have come rather."Second perfect active indicative of erchomai .

Have fallen out rather ( mallon elēluthen ).

"Have come rather."Second perfect active indicative of erchomai .

Robertson: Phi 1:12 - Unto the progress Unto the progress ( eis prokopēn ). Late word from prokoptō , common verb, to cut or strike forward, but this late substantive does not occur in ...

Unto the progress ( eis prokopēn ).

Late word from prokoptō , common verb, to cut or strike forward, but this late substantive does not occur in classical Greek. It is a technical term in Stoic philosophy for "progress toward wisdom"and it appears also in the papyri and the lxx. In N.T. only here, Phi 1:25; 1Ti 4:15.

Robertson: Phi 1:13 - Throughout the whole praetorian guard Throughout the whole praetorian guard ( en holōi tōi praitōriōi ). There were originally ten thousand of these picked soldiers, concentrated ...

Throughout the whole praetorian guard ( en holōi tōi praitōriōi ).

There were originally ten thousand of these picked soldiers, concentrated in Rome by Tiberius. They had double pay and special privileges and became so powerful that emperors had to court their favour. Paul had contact with one after another of these soldiers. It is a Latin word, but the meaning is not certain, for in the other New Testament examples (Mat 27:27; Mar 15:16; Joh 18:28, Joh 18:33; Joh 19:9; Act 23:35) it means the palace of the provincial governor either in Jerusalem or Caesarea. In Rome "palace"would have to be the emperor’ s palace, a possible meaning for Paul a provincial writing to provincials (Kennedy). Some take it to mean the camp or barracks of the praetorian guard. The Greek, "in the whole praetorium,"allows this meaning, though there is no clear example of it. Mommsen and Ramsay argue for the judicial authorities ( praefecti praetorio ) with the assessors of the imperial court. At any rate Paul, chained to a soldier, had access to the soldiers and the officials.

Robertson: Phi 1:14 - The most of the brethren The most of the brethren ( tous pleionas tōn adelphōn ). "The more part of the brethren."The comparative with the article with the sense of the s...

The most of the brethren ( tous pleionas tōn adelphōn ).

"The more part of the brethren."The comparative with the article with the sense of the superlative as often in the Koiné.

Robertson: Phi 1:14 - In the Lord In the Lord ( en Kuriōi ). It is not clear whether this phrase is to be connected with "brethren"or with "being confident"(pepoithotas ), probably...

In the Lord ( en Kuriōi ).

It is not clear whether this phrase is to be connected with "brethren"or with "being confident"(pepoithotas ), probably with pepoithotas . If so, then "through my bonds"(tois desmois mou ) would be the instrumental case and mean that by means of Paul’ s bonds the brethren "are more abundantly bold"(perissoterōs tolmāin ).

Robertson: Phi 1:15 - Even of envy and strife Even of envy and strife ( kai dia phthonon kai erin ). "Even because of"(accusative after dia ). Surely the lowest of motives for preaching Christ. ...

Even of envy and strife ( kai dia phthonon kai erin ).

"Even because of"(accusative after dia ). Surely the lowest of motives for preaching Christ. Envy is an old word and an old sin and strife (eris ) is more rivalry than schism. It is petty and personal jealousy of Paul’ s power and prowess by the Judaizers in Rome whom Paul has routed in the east, but who now exult at the opportunity of annoying their great antagonist by their interpretation of Christ. Jealousy is always against those of one’ s own class or profession as preachers with preachers, doctors with doctors.

Robertson: Phi 1:15 - Of goodwill Of goodwill ( di' eudokian ). Because of goodwill toward Paul.

Of goodwill ( di' eudokian ).

Because of goodwill toward Paul.

Robertson: Phi 1:16 - Of love Of love ( ex agapēs ). Out of love to Paul as well as to Christ. Put 1Co 13:1-13 here as a flash-light.

Of love ( ex agapēs ).

Out of love to Paul as well as to Christ. Put 1Co 13:1-13 here as a flash-light.

Robertson: Phi 1:16 - Of faction Of faction ( ex eritheias ). Out of partisanship. From eritheuō , to spin wool, and that from erithos , a hireling. The papyri examples suit the id...

Of faction ( ex eritheias ).

Out of partisanship. From eritheuō , to spin wool, and that from erithos , a hireling. The papyri examples suit the idea of selfish ambition (Moulton and Milligan’ s Vocabulary ). See 2Co 12:20; Gal 5:20.

Robertson: Phi 1:16 - Not sincerely Not sincerely ( ouch hagnōs ). "Not purely,"that is with mixed and impure motives.

Not sincerely ( ouch hagnōs ).

"Not purely,"that is with mixed and impure motives.

Robertson: Phi 1:16 - To raise up affliction for my bonds To raise up affliction for my bonds ( thlipsin egeirein tois desmois mou ). Now that Paul is down they jump on him in mean and nagging ways. Dative c...

To raise up affliction for my bonds ( thlipsin egeirein tois desmois mou ).

Now that Paul is down they jump on him in mean and nagging ways. Dative case in desmois . "To make my chains gall me"(Lightfoot).

Robertson: Phi 1:18 - What then? What then? ( ti gaṙ ). Sharp problem put up to Paul by the conduct of the Judaizers.

What then? ( ti gaṙ ).

Sharp problem put up to Paul by the conduct of the Judaizers.

Robertson: Phi 1:18 - Only that Only that ( plēn hoti ). Same idiom in Act 20:23. Plēn is adverb pleon (more besides). As a preposition plēn means "except."This essentia...

Only that ( plēn hoti ).

Same idiom in Act 20:23. Plēn is adverb pleon (more besides). As a preposition plēn means "except."This essential thing Paul sees in spite of all their envy and selfishness that Christ is preached.

Robertson: Phi 1:18 - Whether in pretence Whether in pretence ( eite prophasei ). Either from prophainō , to shew forth, or prophēmi , to speak forth, the ostensible presentation often un...

Whether in pretence ( eite prophasei ).

Either from prophainō , to shew forth, or prophēmi , to speak forth, the ostensible presentation often untrue. See note on Act 27:30. Paul sees clearly through the pious pretence of these Judaizers and rejoices that people get some knowledge of Christ. Some Christ is better than no Christ.

Robertson: Phi 1:18 - Yea, and will rejoice Yea, and will rejoice ( alla kai charēsomai ). Note affirmative, not adversative, use of alla . Volitive use of the future (second future passive) ...

Yea, and will rejoice ( alla kai charēsomai ).

Note affirmative, not adversative, use of alla . Volitive use of the future (second future passive) indicative (charēsomai ) of chairō . Paul is determined to rejoice in spite of the efforts of the Judaizers to prod him to anger.

Robertson: Phi 1:19 - Will turn Will turn ( apobēsetai ). Future middle indicative of apobainō , old verb, to come from, to come back, to turn out.

Will turn ( apobēsetai ).

Future middle indicative of apobainō , old verb, to come from, to come back, to turn out.

Robertson: Phi 1:19 - To my salvation To my salvation ( eis sōtērian ). For his release from prison as he strongly hopes to see them again (Phi 1:26). Lightfoot takes the word to be P...

To my salvation ( eis sōtērian ).

For his release from prison as he strongly hopes to see them again (Phi 1:26). Lightfoot takes the word to be Paul’ s eternal salvation and it must be confessed that Phi 1:20 (the close of this sentence) does suit that idea best. Can it be that Paul carried both conceptions in the word here?

Robertson: Phi 1:19 - Supply Supply ( epichorēgias ). Late and rare word (one example in inscription of first century a.d.). In N.T. only here and Eph 4:16. From the late verb ...

Supply ( epichorēgias ).

Late and rare word (one example in inscription of first century a.d.). In N.T. only here and Eph 4:16. From the late verb epichorēgeō (double compound, epi , choros , hēgeomai , to furnish supply for the chorus) which see in 2Co 9:10; Gal 3:5.

Robertson: Phi 1:20 - Earnest expectation Earnest expectation ( apokaradokian ). In Paul alone from apokaradokeō (in papyri). See note on Rom 8:19 for only other example.

Earnest expectation ( apokaradokian ).

In Paul alone from apokaradokeō (in papyri). See note on Rom 8:19 for only other example.

Robertson: Phi 1:20 - Shall be magnified Shall be magnified ( megalunthēsetai ). Future passive indicative of megalunō , old verb, to make great, from megas (great). See note on Act 19...

Shall be magnified ( megalunthēsetai ).

Future passive indicative of megalunō , old verb, to make great, from megas (great). See note on Act 19:17.

Robertson: Phi 1:20 - In my body In my body ( en tōi sōmati mou ). See note on Rom 12:1. It is harder often to make Christ great in the body than in the spirit.

In my body ( en tōi sōmati mou ).

See note on Rom 12:1. It is harder often to make Christ great in the body than in the spirit.

Robertson: Phi 1:21 - For to me For to me ( emoi gar ). Fine example of the ethical dative. Paul gives his own view of living.

For to me ( emoi gar ).

Fine example of the ethical dative. Paul gives his own view of living.

Robertson: Phi 1:21 - To live is Christ To live is Christ ( to zēin Christos ). No copula (estin ), but to zēin (the act of living present active infinitive) is the subject as is sho...

To live is Christ ( to zēin Christos ).

No copula (estin ), but to zēin (the act of living present active infinitive) is the subject as is shown by the article to . Living is coextensive with Christ.

Robertson: Phi 1:21 - Gain Gain ( kerdos ). Old word for any gain or profit, interest on money (so in papyri). In N.T. only here, Phi 3:7; Tit 1:11.

Gain ( kerdos ).

Old word for any gain or profit, interest on money (so in papyri). In N.T. only here, Phi 3:7; Tit 1:11.

Robertson: Phi 1:21 - To die To die ( to apothanein , second aorist active infinitive, single act) is to cash in both principal and interest and so to have more of Christ than whe...

To die ( to apothanein , second aorist active infinitive, single act)

is to cash in both principal and interest and so to have more of Christ than when living. So Paul faces death with independence and calm courage.

Robertson: Phi 1:22 - If this is the fruit of my work If this is the fruit of my work ( touto moi karpos ergou ). There is no ei (if) here in the Greek, but touto (this) seems to be resumptive and to...

If this is the fruit of my work ( touto moi karpos ergou ).

There is no ei (if) here in the Greek, but touto (this) seems to be resumptive and to repeat the conditional clause just before. If so, kai just after means then and introduces the conclusion of the condition. Otherwise touto introduces the conclusion and kai means and .

Robertson: Phi 1:22 - I wot not I wot not ( ou gnōrizō ). "I know not."It seems odd to preserve the old English word "wot"here. But it is not clear that gnōrizō (old causa...

I wot not ( ou gnōrizō ).

"I know not."It seems odd to preserve the old English word "wot"here. But it is not clear that gnōrizō (old causative verb from ginōskō ) means just to know. Elsewhere in the N.T., as in Luk 2:15; Rom 9:22, it means to make known, to declare. The papyri examples mean to make known. It makes perfectly good sense to take its usual meaning here, "I do not declare what I shall choose."

Robertson: Phi 1:23 - I am in a strait I am in a strait ( sunechomai ). "I am held together."Present passive indicative of the common compound verb sunechō , to hold together, to hem tog...

I am in a strait ( sunechomai ).

"I am held together."Present passive indicative of the common compound verb sunechō , to hold together, to hem together as in Luk 8:45. "I am hemmed in on both sides"(Lightfoot).

Robertson: Phi 1:23 - Betwixt the two Betwixt the two ( ek tōn duo ). "From the two (sides)."Pressure to live on, pressure to die and be with Christ.

Betwixt the two ( ek tōn duo ).

"From the two (sides)."Pressure to live on, pressure to die and be with Christ.

Robertson: Phi 1:23 - To depart To depart ( eis to analusai ). Purpose clause, eis to and the aorist active infinitive analusai , old compound verb, to unloose (as threads), to br...

To depart ( eis to analusai ).

Purpose clause, eis to and the aorist active infinitive analusai , old compound verb, to unloose (as threads), to break up, to return (Luk 12:36, only other N.T. example), to break up camp (Polybius), to weigh anchor and put out to sea, to depart (often in old Greek and papyri). Cf. kataluō in 2Co 5:1 for tearing down the tent.

Robertson: Phi 1:23 - Very far better Very far better ( pollōi mallon kreisson ). Double comparative (triple Lightfoot calls it because of pollōi ) like Isocrates and the Koiné[289...

Very far better ( pollōi mallon kreisson ).

Double comparative (triple Lightfoot calls it because of pollōi ) like Isocrates and the Koiné[28928]š often. See note on 2Co 7:13 for perissoterōs mallon . Pollōi is the instrumental case of measure (by much).

Robertson: Phi 1:24 - In the flesh In the flesh ( en tēi sarki ). So B D G, but Aleph A C do not have en . Unnecessary with epimenō , to abide by (common verb).

In the flesh ( en tēi sarki ).

So B D G, but Aleph A C do not have en . Unnecessary with epimenō , to abide by (common verb).

Robertson: Phi 1:25 - And abide with you all And abide with you all ( kai paramenō pāsin humin ). Common Pauline idiom to repeat the simple verb (menō ) as a compound (paramenō , future...

And abide with you all ( kai paramenō pāsin humin ).

Common Pauline idiom to repeat the simple verb (menō ) as a compound (paramenō , future active indicative), old verb, to remain beside followed by locative case. See same idiom in chairō , sunchairō (Phi 2:17).

Robertson: Phi 1:26 - In Christ Jesus in me In Christ Jesus in me ( en Christōi Iēsou en emoi ). "In Christ Jesus"as the basis for the glorying (kauchēma ), "in me"as the instance in poi...

In Christ Jesus in me ( en Christōi Iēsou en emoi ).

"In Christ Jesus"as the basis for the glorying (kauchēma ), "in me"as the instance in point.

Robertson: Phi 1:26 - Through my presence Through my presence ( dia tēs emēs parousias ). The word so often used of the second coming of Christ, but here in its ordinary sense as in Phi 2...

Through my presence ( dia tēs emēs parousias ).

The word so often used of the second coming of Christ, but here in its ordinary sense as in Phi 2:12; 1Co 16:17.

Robertson: Phi 1:27 - Let your manner of life Let your manner of life ( politeuesthe ). Old verb from politēs , citizen, and that from polis , city, to be a citizen, to manage a state’ s a...

Let your manner of life ( politeuesthe ).

Old verb from politēs , citizen, and that from polis , city, to be a citizen, to manage a state’ s affairs, to live as a citizen. Only twice in N.T., here and Act 23:1. Philippi as a colony possessed Roman citizenship and Paul was proud of his own possession of this right. The Authorized Version missed the figure completely by the word "conversation"which did refer to conduct and not mere talk as now, but did not preserve the figure of citizenship. Better render, "Only do ye live as citizens."

Robertson: Phi 1:27 - Striving Striving ( sunathlountes ). Rather, "striving together"as in an athletic contest. Late and rare word (Diodorus). "The very energy of the Christian fa...

Striving ( sunathlountes ).

Rather, "striving together"as in an athletic contest. Late and rare word (Diodorus). "The very energy of the Christian faith to produce energetic individualities"(Rainy). "Striving in concert"(Lightfoot).

Robertson: Phi 1:27 - For the faith For the faith ( tēi pistei ). For the teaching of the gospel, objective sense of pistis (faith).

For the faith ( tēi pistei ).

For the teaching of the gospel, objective sense of pistis (faith).

Robertson: Phi 1:28 - Affrighted Affrighted ( pturomenoi ). Present passive participle of pturō , old verb, to frighten. The metaphor is of a timid or scared horse and from ptoeō...

Affrighted ( pturomenoi ).

Present passive participle of pturō , old verb, to frighten. The metaphor is of a timid or scared horse and from ptoeō (ptoa , terror). "Not startled in anything."

Robertson: Phi 1:28 - By the adversaries By the adversaries ( hupo tōn antikeimenōn ). These men who were lined up against (present middle participle of antikeimai ) may have been Jews ...

By the adversaries ( hupo tōn antikeimenōn ).

These men who were lined up against (present middle participle of antikeimai ) may have been Jews or Gentiles or both. See note on 2Th 2:4 for this late verb. Any preacher who attacks evil will have opposition.

Robertson: Phi 1:28 - Evident token Evident token ( endeixis ). Old word for proof. See note on 2Co 8:24; Rom 3:25. "An Attic law term"(Kennedy) and only in Paul in N.T.

Evident token ( endeixis ).

Old word for proof. See note on 2Co 8:24; Rom 3:25. "An Attic law term"(Kennedy) and only in Paul in N.T.

Robertson: Phi 1:28 - Perdition Perdition ( apōleias ). "Loss"in contrast with "salvation"(sōtērias ).

Perdition ( apōleias ).

"Loss"in contrast with "salvation"(sōtērias ).

Robertson: Phi 1:28 - And that And that ( kai touto ). Idiomatic adverbial accusative. "It is a direct indication from God. The Christian gladiator does not anxiously await the sig...

And that ( kai touto ).

Idiomatic adverbial accusative. "It is a direct indication from God. The Christian gladiator does not anxiously await the signal of life or death from the fickle crowd"(Lightfoot).

Robertson: Phi 1:29 - In the behalf of Christ In the behalf of Christ ( to huper Christou ). Literally, "the in behalf of Christ."But Paul divides the idea and uses the article to again both with...

In the behalf of Christ ( to huper Christou ).

Literally, "the in behalf of Christ."But Paul divides the idea and uses the article to again both with pisteuein and with paschein . Suffering in behalf of Christ is one of God’ s gifts to us.

Robertson: Phi 1:30 - Conflict Conflict ( agōna ). Athletic or gladiatorial contest as in 1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 4:7. The Philippians saw Paul suffer (Acts 16:19-40; 1Th 2:2) as now they ...

Conflict ( agōna ).

Athletic or gladiatorial contest as in 1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 4:7. The Philippians saw Paul suffer (Acts 16:19-40; 1Th 2:2) as now they have heard about it in Rome.

Vincent: Phi 1:1 - Paul Paul The official designation is omitted, as in 1 and 2 Thessalonians and Philemon. It is not easy to explain the use or omission of the title a...

Paul

The official designation is omitted, as in 1 and 2 Thessalonians and Philemon. It is not easy to explain the use or omission of the title apostle in all cases. Here, and in Philemon and 1 Thessalonians, its omission may be accounted for by the general, unofficial, personal, affectionate character of the letter. In 2 Corinthians and Galatians the reason for its use is apparent from the fact that Paul's official authority had been assailed. But it is also omitted in 2 Thessalonians, which has an admonitory and rebuking character. Its use in the epistles to Timothy and Titus, private letters, is explained by the fact that Paul is addressing them not only as friends, but as pastors. In Romans, while there is no evidence of any challenge of his apostolic claims, there is an authoritative exposition of Christian doctrine which appears to warrant the title.

Vincent: Phi 1:1 - Timothy Timothy Associated with Paul as in the introductions to 2 Corinthians and the two Thessalonian epistles. Timothy assisted Paul in founding the Ph...

Timothy

Associated with Paul as in the introductions to 2 Corinthians and the two Thessalonian epistles. Timothy assisted Paul in founding the Philippian church Act 16:1, Act 16:13; Act 17:14. Two visits of Timothy to Philippi are recorded, Act 19:22; Act 20:3, Act 20:4. He is evidently preparing for a third visit, see Phi 2:19. His only part in this letter is his name in the salutation, and in Phi 2:19.

Vincent: Phi 1:1 - To all the saints To all the saints ( πᾶσιν τοῖς ἀγίοις ) In Paul's personal addresses in this epistle the word all occurs nine times. It ...

To all the saints ( πᾶσιν τοῖς ἀγίοις )

In Paul's personal addresses in this epistle the word all occurs nine times. It is sufficiently accounted for by the expansiveness of grateful christian feeling which marks the entire letter, and it is doubtful whether it has any definite or conscious connection with the social rivalries hinted at in the epistle, and which call forth exhortations to unity, as if Paul were disclaiming all partisan feeling by the use of the term. For saints , see on Col 1:2; see on Rom 1:7. The word is transferred from the Old Testament. The Israelites were called ἅγιοι holy , separated and consecrated , Exo 19:6; Deu 7:6; Deu 14:2, Deu 14:21; Dan 7:18, Dan 7:22, etc. The christian Church has inherited the title and the privileges of the Jewish nation. Hence it is ἔθνος ἅγιον a holy nation , 1Pe 2:9. The term implies, but does not assert, actual, personal sanctity. It is a social, not a personal epithet. See on Act 26:10.

Vincent: Phi 1:1 - Philippi Philippi In Macedonia. Travellers by sea landed at Neapolis, and then travelled ten miles to Philippi along the Via Egnatia, which traversed Mace...

Philippi

In Macedonia. Travellers by sea landed at Neapolis, and then travelled ten miles to Philippi along the Via Egnatia, which traversed Macedonia from east to west. The site was originally occupied by a town called Datus or Datum , and was known as Krenides from its numerous springs. It was called Philippi in honor of Philip of Macedon, who enlarged and fortified it. Its situation was important, commanding the great high road between Europe and Asia. This fact led to its fortification by Philip, and made it, later, the scene of the decisive battle which resulted in the defeat of Brutus and Cassius. Its soil was productive and rich in mineral treasures, which had yielded a large revenue, but which, in Paul's time, had apparently become exhausted.

Augustus planted at Philippi a colonia . See on Act 16:12. A variety of national types assembled there - Greek, Roman, and Asiatic - representing different phases of philosophy, religion, and superstition. It was therefore an appropriate starting-point for the Gospel in Europe, a field in which it could demonstrate its power to deal with all differences of nation, faith, sex, and social standing.

Vincent: Phi 1:1 - Bishops Bishops ( ἐπισκόποις ) Lit., overseers . See on visitation , 1Pe 2:12. The word was originally a secular title, designating commi...

Bishops ( ἐπισκόποις )

Lit., overseers . See on visitation , 1Pe 2:12. The word was originally a secular title, designating commissioners appointed to regulate a newly-acquired territory or a colony. It was also applied to magistrates who regulated the sale of provisions under the Romans. In the Septuagint it signifies inspectors , superintendents , taskmasters , see 2Ki 11:19; 2Ch 34:12, 2Ch 34:17; or captains , presidents , Neh 11:9, Neh 11:14, Neh 11:22. In the apostolic writings it is synonymous with presbyter or elder ; and no official distinction of the episcopate as a distinct order of the ministry is recognized. Rev. has overseers in margin.

Vincent: Phi 1:2 - Grace - peace Grace - peace The combination of the Greek and Oriental salutations spiritualized: grace expressing God's love to man, and peace the conditio...

Grace - peace

The combination of the Greek and Oriental salutations spiritualized: grace expressing God's love to man, and peace the condition resulting therefrom.

Vincent: Phi 1:3 - Every remembrance Every remembrance ( πάσῃ τῇ μνείᾳ ) Better, as Rev, all my remembrance .

Every remembrance ( πάσῃ τῇ μνείᾳ )

Better, as Rev, all my remembrance .

Vincent: Phi 1:4 - Prayer Prayer ( δεήσει ) Rev., better, supplication . See on Luk 5:33.

Prayer ( δεήσει )

Rev., better, supplication . See on Luk 5:33.

Vincent: Phi 1:4 - For you all For you all Connect with every prayer of mine .

For you all

Connect with every prayer of mine .

Vincent: Phi 1:4 - Request Request ( τὴν δέησιν ) Rev., better, my supplication . The article refers to every supplication .

Request ( τὴν δέησιν )

Rev., better, my supplication . The article refers to every supplication .

Vincent: Phi 1:4 - With joy With joy Joy is the keynote of this epistle. Bengel says: " The sum of the epistle is, 'I rejoice, rejoice ye." ' See Phi 1:18, Phi 1:25; Phi 2:2...

With joy

Joy is the keynote of this epistle. Bengel says: " The sum of the epistle is, 'I rejoice, rejoice ye." ' See Phi 1:18, Phi 1:25; Phi 2:2, Phi 2:17, Phi 2:18, Phi 2:28, Phi 2:29; Phi 3:1; Phi 4:1, Phi 4:4, Phi 4:10.

Vincent: Phi 1:5 - For your fellowship For your fellowship ( ἐπὶ τῇ κοινωνίᾳ ὑμῶν ) Connect with I thank God . For fellowship , see on 1Jo 1:3. T...

For your fellowship ( ἐπὶ τῇ κοινωνίᾳ ὑμῶν )

Connect with I thank God . For fellowship , see on 1Jo 1:3. The word sometimes has the meaning of almsgiving , contributions , as Rom 15:26; Heb 13:16. Though here it is used in the larger sense of sympathetic cooperation , yet it is no doubt colored by the other idea, in view of the Philippians' pecuniary contributions to Paul. See Phi 4:10, Phi 4:15, Phi 4:16.

Vincent: Phi 1:5 - In the Gospel In the Gospel ( εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ) Lit., unto the Gospel: Rev., in furtherance of .

In the Gospel ( εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον )

Lit., unto the Gospel: Rev., in furtherance of .

Vincent: Phi 1:6 - Being confident Being confident ( πεποιθὼς ) With a slightly causative force: since I am confident .

Being confident ( πεποιθὼς )

With a slightly causative force: since I am confident .

Vincent: Phi 1:6 - Hath begun - will perform Hath begun - will perform ( ἐναρξάμενος - ἐπιτελέσει ) The two words occur together, 2Co 8:6; Gal 3:3. Both were u...

Hath begun - will perform ( ἐναρξάμενος - ἐπιτελέσει )

The two words occur together, 2Co 8:6; Gal 3:3. Both were used of religious ceremonials. So Euripides: " But come! Bring up the sacrificial meal-basket" (ἐξάρχου κανᾶ ); that is, begin the offering by taking the barley-meal from the basket (" Iphigenia in Aulis," 435). Some find the sacrificial metaphor here, and compare Phi 2:17, see note. Perform , better as Rev., perfect . Perform , in its older and literal sense of carrying through ( per ) or consummating would express the idea; but popular usage has identified it with do .

Vincent: Phi 1:7 - Even as Even as ( καθώς ) The reason for being confident (Phi 1:6).

Even as ( καθώς )

The reason for being confident (Phi 1:6).

Vincent: Phi 1:7 - Defense Defense ( ἀπολογία ) See on 1Pe 3:15.

Defense ( ἀπολογία )

See on 1Pe 3:15.

Vincent: Phi 1:7 - Confirmation Confirmation ( βεβαιώσει ) Only here and Heb 6:16. The kindred verb βεβαιόω to confirm , occurs frequently, as Rom 15:8; 1...

Confirmation ( βεβαιώσει )

Only here and Heb 6:16. The kindred verb βεβαιόω to confirm , occurs frequently, as Rom 15:8; 1Co 1:8, etc.

Vincent: Phi 1:7 - Partakers of my grace Partakers of my grace ( συγκοινωνούς μοῦ τῆς χάριτος ) Better, as Rev., partakers with me of grace . Li...

Partakers of my grace ( συγκοινωνούς μοῦ τῆς χάριτος )

Better, as Rev., partakers with me of grace . Lit., the grace, either the divine endowment which enabled them both to suffer bonds, and to defend and establish the Gospel, or the loving favor of God, which confers suffering and activity alike as a boon. The two may be combined. Compare Phi 1:29.

Vincent: Phi 1:8 - In the bowels of Jesus Christ In the bowels of Jesus Christ ( ἐν σπλάγχνοις Χριστοῦ Ιησοῦ ) Rev., better, in the tender mercies . Descri...

In the bowels of Jesus Christ ( ἐν σπλάγχνοις Χριστοῦ Ιησοῦ )

Rev., better, in the tender mercies . Describing his longing, not as his individual emotion, but as Christ's longing, as if the very heart of Christ dwelt in him. " In Paul not Paul lives, but Jesus Christ" (Bengel) With tender mercies compare reins , Rev 2:23, note.

Vincent: Phi 1:9 - Judgment Judgment ( αἰσθήσει ) Only here in the New Testament. Rev., better, discernment : sensitive moral perception. Used of the senses ...

Judgment ( αἰσθήσει )

Only here in the New Testament. Rev., better, discernment : sensitive moral perception. Used of the senses , as Xenophon: " perception of things sweet or pungent" (" Memorabilia," i., 4, 5). Of hearing : " It is possible to go so far away as not to afford a hearing" (" Anabasis," iv., 6, 13). The senses are called αἰσθήσεις . See Plato, " Theaetetus," 156. Plato uses it of visions of the gods (" Phaedo," 111). Compare αἰσθητήρια senses , Heb 5:14. Discernment selects, classifies, and applies what is furnished by knowledge.

Vincent: Phi 1:10 - Approve Approve ( δοκιμάζειν ) Sanction on test. See on 1Pe 1:7.

Approve ( δοκιμάζειν )

Sanction on test. See on 1Pe 1:7.

Vincent: Phi 1:10 - Things which are excellent Things which are excellent ( τὰ διαφέροντα ) Unnecessary difficulty has been made in the explanation of this phrase. Love display...

Things which are excellent ( τὰ διαφέροντα )

Unnecessary difficulty has been made in the explanation of this phrase. Love displays itself in knowledge and discernment. In proportion as it abounds it sharpens the moral perceptions for the discernment of what is best. The passage is on the line of 1Co 12:31, " Covet earnestly the best gifts," and the " more excellent way" to attain these gifts is love (1Co 13:1-13). See on Rom 2:18, where the same phrase occurs, but with a different meaning. Some explain things which are morally different .

Vincent: Phi 1:10 - Sincere Sincere ( εἱλικρινεῖς ) See on pure , 2Pe 3:1.

Sincere ( εἱλικρινεῖς )

See on pure , 2Pe 3:1.

Vincent: Phi 1:10 - Without offense Without offense ( ἀπρόσκοποι ) See on Act 24:16. It may be explained, not stumbling , or not causing others to stumble ...

Without offense ( ἀπρόσκοποι )

See on Act 24:16. It may be explained, not stumbling , or not causing others to stumble , as 1Co 10:32. Both senses may be included. If either is to be preferred it is the former, since the whole passage contemplates their inward state rather than their relations to men.

Vincent: Phi 1:10 - Till the day, etc Till the day, etc. ( εἰς ) Rev., unto . Better, against ; with a view to .

Till the day, etc. ( εἰς )

Rev., unto . Better, against ; with a view to .

Vincent: Phi 1:11 - Fruit of righteousness Fruit of righteousness ( καρπὸν δικαιοσύνης ) The phrase occurs Jam 3:18. Compare Pro 11:30.

Fruit of righteousness ( καρπὸν δικαιοσύνης )

The phrase occurs Jam 3:18. Compare Pro 11:30.

Vincent: Phi 1:11 - Glory and praise of God Glory and praise of God For glory of God , see on Rom 3:23. That God's glory may be both manifested and recognized. Compare Eph 1:6.

Glory and praise of God

For glory of God , see on Rom 3:23. That God's glory may be both manifested and recognized. Compare Eph 1:6.

Vincent: Phi 1:12 - Rather Rather ( μᾶλλον ) For the furtherance of the Gospel rather than, as might have been expected, for its hindrance.

Rather ( μᾶλλον )

For the furtherance of the Gospel rather than, as might have been expected, for its hindrance.

Vincent: Phi 1:12 - Furtherance Furtherance ( προκοπὴν ) Only here, Phi 1:25, and 1Ti 4:15. The metaphor is uncertain, but is supposed to be that of pioneers cutting ...

Furtherance ( προκοπὴν )

Only here, Phi 1:25, and 1Ti 4:15. The metaphor is uncertain, but is supposed to be that of pioneers cutting (κόπτω ) a way before (πρό ) an army, and so furthering its march. The opposite is expressed by ἐγκόπτω to cut into ; hence to throw obstacles in the way , hinder . Gal 5:7. See on 1Pe 3:7.

Vincent: Phi 1:13 - My bonds in Christ are manifest My bonds in Christ are manifest ( τοὺς δεσμούς μου φανεροὺς ἐν Χριστῷ γενέσθαι ) Bonds and ...

My bonds in Christ are manifest ( τοὺς δεσμούς μου φανεροὺς ἐν Χριστῷ γενέσθαι )

Bonds and Christ , in the Greek, are too far apart to be construed together. Better, as Rev., my bonds became manifest in Christ . His imprisonment became known as connected with Christ. It was understood to be for Christ's sake. His bonds were not hidden as though he were an ordinary prisoner. His very captivity proclaimed Christ.

Vincent: Phi 1:13 - In all the palace In all the palace ( ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ πραιτωρίῳ ) Rev., throughout the whole praetorian guard . So Lightfoot, Dw...

In all the palace ( ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ πραιτωρίῳ )

Rev., throughout the whole praetorian guard . So Lightfoot, Dwight, Farrar. This appears to be the correct rendering. The other explanations are, the imperial residence on the Palatine , so A.V.; the praetorian barracks attached to the palace , so Eadie, Ellicott, Lumby, and Alford; the praetortan camp on the east of the city , so Meyer.

The first explanation leaves the place of Paul's confinement uncertain. It may have been in the camp of the Praetorians, which was large enough to contain within its precincts lodgings for prisoners under military custody, so that Paul could dwell " in his own hired house," Act 28:30. This would be difficult to explain on the assumption that Paul was confined in the barracks or within the palace precincts.

The Praetorians, forming the imperial guard, were picked men, ten thousand in number, and all of Italian birth. The body was instituted by Augustus and was called by him praetoriae cohortes , praetorian cohorts , in imitation of the select troop which attended the person of the praetor or Roman general. Augustus originally stationed only three thousand of them, three cohorts, at Rome, and dispersed the remainder in the adjacent Italian towns. Under Tiberius they were all assembled at Rome in a fortified camp. They were distinguished by double pay and special privileges. Their term of service was originally twelve years, afterward increased to sixteen. On completing his term, each soldier received a little over eight hundred dollars. They all seem to have had the same rank as centurions in the regular legions. They became the most powerful body in the state; the emperors were obliged to court their favor, and each emperor on his accession was expected to bestow on them a liberal donative. After the death of Pertinax (a.d. 193) they put up the empire at public sale, and knocked it down to Didius Julianus. They were disbanded the same year on the accession of Severus, and were banished; but were restored by that emperor on a new plan, and increased to four times their original number. They were finally suppressed by Constantine.

The apostle was under the charge of these troops, the soldiers relieving each other in mounting guard over the prisoner, who was attached to his guard's hand by a chain. In the allusion to his bonds, Eph 6:20, he uses the specific word for the coupling-chain . His contact with the different members of the corps in succession, explains the statement that his bonds had become manifest throughout the praetorian guard.

Vincent: Phi 1:13 - In all other places In all other places ( τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν ) Rev., correctly, to all the rest ; that is, to all others besides the Pra...

In all other places ( τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν )

Rev., correctly, to all the rest ; that is, to all others besides the Praetorians.

Vincent: Phi 1:14 - Many Many ( τοὺς πλείονας ) Rev., correctly, the most . Lit., the more . Implying that there were a few who held back.

Many ( τοὺς πλείονας )

Rev., correctly, the most . Lit., the more . Implying that there were a few who held back.

Vincent: Phi 1:14 - Brethren in the Lord Brethren in the Lord In the Lord should be rather connected with being confident . The expression brethren in the Lord does not ...

Brethren in the Lord

In the Lord should be rather connected with being confident . The expression brethren in the Lord does not occur in the New Testament; while to have confidence in one in the Lord is found Gal 5:10; 2Th 3:4; compare Phi 2:24. In the Lord is thus emphatic. It may be correlative with in Christ , Phi 1:13; but this is not certain. In the Lord trusting my bonds , signifies that the bonds awaken confidence as being the practical testimony to the power of the Gospel for which Paul is imprisoned, and therefore an encouragement to their faith.

Vincent: Phi 1:14 - Are much more bold Are much more bold ( περισσοτέρως τολμᾶν ) Rev., more abundantly bold , thus holding more closely to the literal meani...

Are much more bold ( περισσοτέρως τολμᾶν )

Rev., more abundantly bold , thus holding more closely to the literal meaning of the adverb. For are bold , see on 2Co 10:2. The boldness required to profess Christ within the precincts of the palace is illustrated by the graffito or wall-scribble discovered in 1857 among the ruins on the Palatine. It is a caricature of Christ on the cross, with an ass's head, while on the left appears a christian youth in an attitude of adoration. Underneath are scrawled the words Alexamenos worships God .

Vincent: Phi 1:14 - To speak To speak ( λαλεῖν ) The verb denotes the fact rather than the substance of speaking. See on Mat 28:18. They have broken silence.

To speak ( λαλεῖν )

The verb denotes the fact rather than the substance of speaking. See on Mat 28:18. They have broken silence.

Vincent: Phi 1:15 - Even of envy Even of envy Strange as it may seem that envy should be associated with the preaching of Christ. They are jealous of Paul's influence.

Even of envy

Strange as it may seem that envy should be associated with the preaching of Christ. They are jealous of Paul's influence.

Vincent: Phi 1:15 - Strife Strife ( ἔριν ) Factious partisanship.

Strife ( ἔριν )

Factious partisanship.

Vincent: Phi 1:15 - Good will Good will Toward Paul.

Good will

Toward Paul.

Vincent: Phi 1:16 - The one preach Christ of contention The one preach Christ of contention The order of Phi 1:16, Phi 1:17, is reversed in the best texts. Of contentions (ἐξ ἐριθεία...

The one preach Christ of contention

The order of Phi 1:16, Phi 1:17, is reversed in the best texts. Of contentions (ἐξ ἐριθείας ). See on strife , Jam 3:14. Rev., better, faction . Compare Chaucer:

" For mine entente is not but for to winne

And nothing for correction of sinne"

" Pardonere's Tale ," 12337-8 .

Vincent: Phi 1:16 - Sincerely Sincerely ( ἁγνῶς ) Purely, with unmixed motives. The adjective ἁγνός means pure , in the sense of chaste , free from admixt...

Sincerely ( ἁγνῶς )

Purely, with unmixed motives. The adjective ἁγνός means pure , in the sense of chaste , free from admixture of evil, and is once applied to God, 1Jo 3:3. See on Act 26:10, footnote. Not sincerely is explained by in pretense , Phi 1:18.

Vincent: Phi 1:16 - To add affliction To add affliction ( θλῖψιν ἐπιφέρειν ) Lit., to bring affliction to bear . But the correct reading is ἐγεί...

To add affliction ( θλῖψιν ἐπιφέρειν )

Lit., to bring affliction to bear . But the correct reading is ἐγείρειν to raise up , as Rev.: to waken or stir up affliction. The phrase is striking in the light of the original meaning of θλίψις , namely, pressure . They would make his bonds press more heavily and gall him. See on Mat 13:21.

Vincent: Phi 1:17 - I am set I am set ( κεῖμαι ) Or appointed . See on Luk 2:34. Compare 1Th 3:3. Some, instead of rendering the one (or some) preach Christ ...

I am set ( κεῖμαι )

Or appointed . See on Luk 2:34. Compare 1Th 3:3. Some, instead of rendering the one (or some) preach Christ of contention - but the other of love , join οἱ μὲν some , οἱ δὲ others , in each instance with the succeeding word, making one phrase, thus: " they who are of love do so knowing that I am set, etc.: they who are of faction proclaim Christ not sincerely, etc. The phrase those who are of faction occurs Rom 2:8; and a similar phrase, him who is of faith , Rom 3:26. There seems no sufficient reason for altering A.V. and Rev.

Vincent: Phi 1:18 - What then? What then? Such being the case, how does it affect me?

What then?

Such being the case, how does it affect me?

Vincent: Phi 1:18 - Notwithstanding Notwithstanding ( πλὴν ) Read πλὴν ὅτι except that . Rev., only that . What is my feeling in view of these things? Only ...

Notwithstanding ( πλὴν )

Read πλὴν ὅτι except that . Rev., only that . What is my feeling in view of these things? Only that I rejoice that Christ is preached.

Vincent: Phi 1:18 - In pretense In pretense With a spirit of envy and faction, possibly with a counterfeited zeal for truth.

In pretense

With a spirit of envy and faction, possibly with a counterfeited zeal for truth.

Vincent: Phi 1:19 - This This This preaching of Christ in every way.

This

This preaching of Christ in every way.

Vincent: Phi 1:19 - Shall turn Shall turn ( ἀποβήσεται ) Lit., come off , eventuate .

Shall turn ( ἀποβήσεται )

Lit., come off , eventuate .

Vincent: Phi 1:19 - Salvation Salvation Not his deliverance from captivity, but it will prove salutary to him in a spiritual sense and to the saving work of the Gospel. Salva...

Salvation

Not his deliverance from captivity, but it will prove salutary to him in a spiritual sense and to the saving work of the Gospel. Salvation simply is used, without any more precise definition; and the broader sense, as related to his ministry, seems to be indicated by the words Christ shall be magnified , in Phi 1:20.

Vincent: Phi 1:19 - Supply Supply ( ἐπιχορηγίας ) See on add , 2Pe 1:5. Compare Gal 3:5. The word implies bountiful supply.

Supply ( ἐπιχορηγίας )

See on add , 2Pe 1:5. Compare Gal 3:5. The word implies bountiful supply.

Vincent: Phi 1:19 - Of the Spirit of Jesus Christ Of the Spirit of Jesus Christ Either the supply furnished by the Spirit, or the supply which is the Spirit. It is better to take it as including ...

Of the Spirit of Jesus Christ

Either the supply furnished by the Spirit, or the supply which is the Spirit. It is better to take it as including both. The exact phrase, Spirit of Jesus Christ , is found only here. Spirit of Christ occurs Rom 8:9; 1Pe 1:11. The Holy Spirit is meant; called the Spirit of Jesus Christ, because through the Spirit Christ communicates Himself to His people. " The Spirit is the living principle and the organ of the proper presence of Christ and of His life in them" (Meyer).

Vincent: Phi 1:20 - Earnest expectation Earnest expectation ( ἀποκαραδοκίαν ) Only here and Rom 8:19, on which see note.

Earnest expectation ( ἀποκαραδοκίαν )

Only here and Rom 8:19, on which see note.

Vincent: Phi 1:20 - Shall be ashamed Shall be ashamed ( αἰσχυνθήσομαι ) Rev., better, giving the force of the passive, shall be put to shame .

Shall be ashamed ( αἰσχυνθήσομαι )

Rev., better, giving the force of the passive, shall be put to shame .

Vincent: Phi 1:20 - Boldness Boldness See on Phm 1:8.

Boldness

See on Phm 1:8.

Vincent: Phi 1:20 - Shall be magnified in my body Shall be magnified in my body Through my bodily sufferings Christ shall appear more glorious, and that even if I die.

Shall be magnified in my body

Through my bodily sufferings Christ shall appear more glorious, and that even if I die.

Vincent: Phi 1:21 - To me To me Emphatic. Whatever life may be to others, to me , etc

To me

Emphatic. Whatever life may be to others, to me , etc

Vincent: Phi 1:21 - To live is Christ To live is Christ ( τὸ ζῆν Χριστὸς ) Lit, the living is Christ . Compare Gal 2:20. He has no thought of life apart from ...

To live is Christ ( τὸ ζῆν Χριστὸς )

Lit, the living is Christ . Compare Gal 2:20. He has no thought of life apart from Christ.

Vincent: Phi 1:21 - Gain Gain As consummating the union with Christ. Compare Col 3:4; 2Co 5:1-8. " Declare unto him if the light wherewith Blossoms your substance shall ...

Gain

As consummating the union with Christ. Compare Col 3:4; 2Co 5:1-8.

" Declare unto him if the light wherewith

Blossoms your substance shall remain with you

Eternally the same that it is now,

And if it do remain, say in what manner,

After ye are again made visible,

It can be that it injure not your sight.

As by a greater gladness urged and drawn

They who are dancing in a ring sometimes

Uplift their voices and their motions quicken;

So, at that orison devout and prompt,

The holy circles a new joy displayed

In their revolving and their wondrous song.

Who so lamenteth him that here we die

That we may live above, has never there

Seen the refreshment of the eternal rain."

Dante, " Paradiso ," 14 , 13-27 .

Vincent: Phi 1:22 - If I live If I live ( εἰ τὸ ζῆν ) Rev., better, if to live: the living , as Phi 1:21.

If I live ( εἰ τὸ ζῆν )

Rev., better, if to live: the living , as Phi 1:21.

Vincent: Phi 1:22 - This is the fruit of my labor This is the fruit of my labor According to the A.V. these words form the offset of the conditional clause, and conclude the sentence: if I l...

This is the fruit of my labor

According to the A.V. these words form the offset of the conditional clause, and conclude the sentence: if I live - this is the fruit . It is better to make the two clauses parallel, thus: if living after the flesh , ( if ) this is fruit of labor . The conditional suspended clause will then be closed by what I shall choose I do not declare . Fruit of labor, advantage accruing from apostolic work. Compare Rom 1:13.

Vincent: Phi 1:22 - Yet what I shall choose I wot not Yet what I shall choose I wot not ( καὶ τί αἱρήσομαι οὐ γνωρίζω ). Καὶ rendered yet has the force of ...

Yet what I shall choose I wot not ( καὶ τί αἱρήσομαι οὐ γνωρίζω ).

Καὶ rendered yet has the force of then . If living in the flesh be , etc., then what I shall choose, etc. Wot is obsolete for know . In classical Greek γνωρίζω means: 1, to make known point out ; 2, to become acquainted with or discover ; 3, to have acquaintance with . In the Septuagint the predominant meaning seems to be to make known . See Pro 22:19; Eze 44:23; Dan 2:6, Dan 2:10; Dan 5:7. The sense here is to declare or make known , as everywhere in the New Testament. Compare Luk 2:15; Joh 17:26; Act 2:28; Col 4:7; 2Pe 1:16, etc. If I am assured that my continuing to live is most fruitful for the Church, then I say nothing as to my personal preference. I do not declare my choice. It is not for me to express a choice.

Vincent: Phi 1:23 - I am in a strait betwixt two I am in a strait betwixt two ( συνέχομαι ἐκ τῶν δύο ) See on 2Co 5:14. The picture is that of a man pressed on both side...

I am in a strait betwixt two ( συνέχομαι ἐκ τῶν δύο )

See on 2Co 5:14. The picture is that of a man pressed on both sides. Lit. I am held together , so that I cannot incline either way. Betwixt two , lit., from the two . The pressure comes from both sides. Note the article, the two, the two considerations just mentioned, departing or abiding in the flesh.

Vincent: Phi 1:23 - Having a desire Having a desire Lit., the desire: my desire, as expressed in Phi 1:21, for death with its gain.

Having a desire

Lit., the desire: my desire, as expressed in Phi 1:21, for death with its gain.

Vincent: Phi 1:23 - To depart To depart ( ἀναλῦσαι ) The verb means originally to unloose , undo again . So of Penelope's web: " During the night she undid ...

To depart ( ἀναλῦσαι )

The verb means originally to unloose , undo again . So of Penelope's web: " During the night she undid it" (Homer, " Odyssey," ii., 105). Of loosing a ship from her moorings: of breaking up a camp. So 2 Macc. 9:1. Antiochus, having entered Persepolis, and having attempted to rob the temple and to hold the city, was put to flight by the inhabitants, and broke up (ἀναλελυκὼς ) and came away with dishonor. We have the same figure in popular usage of one who changes his residence: " He broke up at Chicago and removed to New York." Paul's metaphor here is the military one, to break camp . Compare 2Co 5:1, where the metaphor is the striking of a tent. Some prefer the nautical image, casting off from shore; but Paul's circumstances naturally suggested military figures; and, what is somewhat strange in the case of one so familiar with the sea, nautical metaphors are rare in his writings. There is one at 1Ti 1:19, of those " who concerning the faith have made shipwreck ;" at Eph 4:14, " tossed as by waves, and borne about by every wind." Κυβερνήσεις governments , 1Co 12:28 (see note), is from κυβερνάω to steer .

Vincent: Phi 1:23 - To be with Christ To be with Christ Compare 2Co 5:6, 2Co 5:8; Act 7:59; 1Th 4:14, 1Th 4:17.

To be with Christ

Compare 2Co 5:6, 2Co 5:8; Act 7:59; 1Th 4:14, 1Th 4:17.

Vincent: Phi 1:23 - Which is far better Which is far better ( πολλῷ μᾶλλον κρεῖσσον ) Lit., much more better . For similar cumulative expressions, see on...

Which is far better ( πολλῷ μᾶλλον κρεῖσσον )

Lit., much more better . For similar cumulative expressions, see on 2Co 4:17. The best texts insert γὰρ for . So Rev., for it is very far better .

Vincent: Phi 1:24 - To abide in the flesh To abide in the flesh ( ἐπιμένειν ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ ) See on Col 1:23. To abide by the flesh. Compare Rom 6:1; Rom 11:2...

To abide in the flesh ( ἐπιμένειν ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ )

See on Col 1:23. To abide by the flesh. Compare Rom 6:1; Rom 11:22, Rom 11:23.

Vincent: Phi 1:25 - Furtherance Furtherance See on Phi 1:12.

Furtherance

See on Phi 1:12.

Vincent: Phi 1:25 - Of faith Of faith Rev., in the faith . To be connected with both furtherance and joy . For promoting your faith and your joy in believing. For jo...

Of faith

Rev., in the faith . To be connected with both furtherance and joy . For promoting your faith and your joy in believing. For joy of faith , compare Rom 15:13.

Vincent: Phi 1:26 - Rejoicing Rejoicing ( καύχημα ) The matter of rejoicing, wrought through your faith.

Rejoicing ( καύχημα )

The matter of rejoicing, wrought through your faith.

Vincent: Phi 1:26 - In Christ Jesus for me In Christ Jesus for me ( ἐν Χριστῷ Ἱησοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ ) Construe in Christ Jesus with may abound , not wit...

In Christ Jesus for me ( ἐν Χριστῷ Ἱησοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ )

Construe in Christ Jesus with may abound , not with rejoicing . Christ is conceived as the element in which the matter of rejoicing grows and abounds. For me , better, as Rev, in me . The conjunction of the two phrases in Christ , in me , is somewhat confusing Paul's presence is the immediate cause of their christian joy; hence in me ; but their rejoicing in Paul is in Christ - a joy evolved within the sphere of life in Christ, and peculiar to those only to whom to live is Christ.

Vincent: Phi 1:26 - Coming Coming ( παρουσίας ) Rev., better, presence .

Coming ( παρουσίας )

Rev., better, presence .

Vincent: Phi 1:27 - Only Only This one thing I urge as the only thing needful.

Only

This one thing I urge as the only thing needful.

Vincent: Phi 1:27 - Let your conversation be Let your conversation be ( πολιτεύεσθε ) Only here in Paul's writings, and elsewhere only Act 23:1. The verb means to be a ci...

Let your conversation be ( πολιτεύεσθε )

Only here in Paul's writings, and elsewhere only Act 23:1. The verb means to be a citizen . Lit., Be citizens worthily of the Gospel . Rev., Let your manner of life be . Margin, Behave as citizens . Compare Eph 3:19, and see on Phi 3:20. The exhortation contemplates the Philippians as members of the christian commonwealth . The figure would be naturally suggested to Paul by his residence in Rome, and would appeal to the Philippians as a Roman colony, which was a reproduction of the parent commonwealth on a smaller scale.

Vincent: Phi 1:27 - Ye stand fast Ye stand fast ( στήκετε ) Compare Eph 6:13; 2Th 2:15. For the verb, see on Joh 1:26; see on Joh 8:44.

Ye stand fast ( στήκετε )

Compare Eph 6:13; 2Th 2:15. For the verb, see on Joh 1:26; see on Joh 8:44.

Vincent: Phi 1:27 - Spirit - mind Spirit - mind ( πνεύματι - ψυχῇ ) See on Rom 8:4; see on Rom 11:3.

Spirit - mind ( πνεύματι - ψυχῇ )

See on Rom 8:4; see on Rom 11:3.

Vincent: Phi 1:27 - Striving together for the faith Striving together for the faith ( συναθλοῦντες τῇ πίστει ) The verb occurs only here and Phi 4:3. The figure is that ...

Striving together for the faith ( συναθλοῦντες τῇ πίστει )

The verb occurs only here and Phi 4:3. The figure is that of an athletic contest, and is in keeping with standfast . Not to be rendered striving in concert with the faith , thus personifying faith , and making the faith signify the gospel teaching . For the faith as christian doctrine, see on Act 6:7. Faith is to be taken in its usual subjective sense of trust in Christ or in the Gospel . Together refers to the mutual striving of the Philippians; not to their striving in concert with Paul.

Vincent: Phi 1:28 - Terrified Terrified ( πτυρόμενοι ) Only here in the New Testament. Properly of the terror of a startled horse. Thus Diodorus Siculus, speaking ...

Terrified ( πτυρόμενοι )

Only here in the New Testament. Properly of the terror of a startled horse. Thus Diodorus Siculus, speaking of the chariot-horses of Darius at the battle of Issus: " Frightened (πτυρόμενοι ) by reason of the multitude of the dead heaped round them, they shook off their reins" (xvii. 34). Plutarch says: " The multitude is not easy to handle so that it is safe for any one to take the reins; but it should be held sufficient, if, not being scared by sight or sound, like a shy and fickle animal, it accept mastery."

Vincent: Phi 1:28 - Which is Which is ( ἥτις ἐστὶν ) Seeing that it is.

Which is ( ἥτις ἐστὶν )

Seeing that it is.

Vincent: Phi 1:28 - An evident token An evident token ( ἔνδειξις ) Only here, Rom 3:25, Rom 3:26; 2Co 8:24. Lit., a pointing out . Used in Attic law of a writ of ...

An evident token ( ἔνδειξις )

Only here, Rom 3:25, Rom 3:26; 2Co 8:24. Lit., a pointing out . Used in Attic law of a writ of indictment . A demonstration or proof .

Vincent: Phi 1:28 - To you of salvation To you of salvation ( ὑμῖν ) Read ὑμῶν of you . Rev., of your salvation .

To you of salvation ( ὑμῖν )

Read ὑμῶν of you . Rev., of your salvation .

Vincent: Phi 1:28 - And that of God And that of God Rev., from God (ἀπό ). Lightfoot finds here an allusion, in accord with striving together , to the sign of life or de...

And that of God

Rev., from God (ἀπό ). Lightfoot finds here an allusion, in accord with striving together , to the sign of life or death given by the populace in the amphitheater when a gladiator was vanquished, by turning the thumbs up or down. " The christian gladiator does not anxiously await the signal of life or death from the fickle crowd. The great Director of the contest Himself has given him a sure token of deliverance."

Vincent: Phi 1:29 - It is given - to suffer for His sake It is given - to suffer for His sake ( ἐχαρίσθη τὸ ὑπὲρ - αὐοτῦ πάσχειν ) Every word here is signific...

It is given - to suffer for His sake ( ἐχαρίσθη τὸ ὑπὲρ - αὐοτῦ πάσχειν )

Every word here is significant. Suffering is a gift of grace . " It is given" should be " it was given," referring to the gift bestowed when they became Christians. Suffering was the marriage-gift when they were espoused to Christ: the bounty when they enlisted in His service. Becoming one with Him they entered into the fellowship of His suffering (Phi 3:10). The gift was not suffering as such . Its meaning and value lay in its being for His sake . The Macedonian churches, and the Philippian church especially, were preeminently suffering churches. See 2Co 8:2.

Vincent: Phi 1:30 - Conflict Conflict ( ἀγῶνα ) An athletic contest. See on striving , Col 1:29, and compare striving together , Phi 1:27.

Conflict ( ἀγῶνα )

An athletic contest. See on striving , Col 1:29, and compare striving together , Phi 1:27.

Vincent: Phi 1:30 - Ye saw Ye saw In his sufferings at Philippi, Acts 16, see 1Th 2:2.

Ye saw

In his sufferings at Philippi, Acts 16, see 1Th 2:2.

Vincent: Phi 1:30 - Hear Hear Concerning my imprisonment.

Hear

Concerning my imprisonment.

Wesley: Phi 1:1 - Servants St. Paul, writing familiarly to the Philippians, does not style himself an apostle. And under the common title of servants, he tenderly and modestly j...

St. Paul, writing familiarly to the Philippians, does not style himself an apostle. And under the common title of servants, he tenderly and modestly joins with himself his son Timotheus, who had come to Philippi not long after St. Paul had received him, Act 16:3, Act 16:12.

Wesley: Phi 1:1 - To all the saints The apostolic epistles were sent more directly to the churches, than to the pastors of them.

The apostolic epistles were sent more directly to the churches, than to the pastors of them.

Wesley: Phi 1:1 - With the bishops and deacons The former properly took care of the internal state, the latter, of the externals, of the church, 1Ti 3:2-8; although these were not wholly confined t...

The former properly took care of the internal state, the latter, of the externals, of the church, 1Ti 3:2-8; although these were not wholly confined to the one, neither those to the other. The word bishops here includes all the presbyters at Philippi, as well as the ruling presbyters: the names bishop and presbyter, or elder, being promiscuously used in the first ages.

Wesley: Phi 1:4 - With joy After the epistle to the Ephesians, wherein love reigns, follows this, wherein there is perpetual mention of joy. "The fruit of the Spirit is love, jo...

After the epistle to the Ephesians, wherein love reigns, follows this, wherein there is perpetual mention of joy. "The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy." And joy peculiarly enlivens prayer. The sum of the whole epistle is, I rejoice. Rejoice ye.

Wesley: Phi 1:5 - -- The sense is, I thank God for your fellowship with us in all the blessings of the gospel, which I have done from the first day of your receiving it un...

The sense is, I thank God for your fellowship with us in all the blessings of the gospel, which I have done from the first day of your receiving it until now.

Wesley: Phi 1:6 - Being persuaded The grounds of which persuasion are set down in the following verse. That he who hath begun a good work in you, will perfect it until the day of Chris...

The grounds of which persuasion are set down in the following verse. That he who hath begun a good work in you, will perfect it until the day of Christ - That he who having justified, hath begun to sanctify you, will carry on this work, till it issue in glory.

Wesley: Phi 1:7 - As it is right for me to think this of you all Why? He does not say, "Because of an eternal decree;" or, "Because a saint must persevere;" but, because I have you in my heart, who were all partaker...

Why? He does not say, "Because of an eternal decree;" or, "Because a saint must persevere;" but, because I have you in my heart, who were all partakers of my grace - That is, because ye were all (for which I have you in my heart, I bear you the most grateful and tender affection) partakers of my grace - That is, sharers in the afflictions which God vouchsafed me as a grace or favour, Phi 1:29-30; both in my bonds, and when I was called forth to answer for myself, and to confirm the gospel. It is not improbable that, after they had endured that great trial of affliction, God had sealed them unto full victory, of which the apostle had a prophetic sight.

Wesley: Phi 1:8 - I long for you with the bowels of Jesus Christ In Paul, not Paul lives, but Jesus Christ. Therefore he longs for them with the bowels, the tenderness, not of Paul, but of Jesus Christ.

In Paul, not Paul lives, but Jesus Christ. Therefore he longs for them with the bowels, the tenderness, not of Paul, but of Jesus Christ.

Wesley: Phi 1:9 - And this I pray, that your love Which they had already shown.

Which they had already shown.

Wesley: Phi 1:9 - May abound yet more and more The fire which burned in the apostle never says, It is enough.

The fire which burned in the apostle never says, It is enough.

Wesley: Phi 1:9 - In knowledge and in all spiritual sense Which is the ground of all spiritual knowledge. We must be inwardly sensible of divine peace, joy, love; otherwise, we cannot know what they are.

Which is the ground of all spiritual knowledge. We must be inwardly sensible of divine peace, joy, love; otherwise, we cannot know what they are.

Wesley: Phi 1:10 - That ye may try By that spiritual sense.

By that spiritual sense.

Wesley: Phi 1:10 - The things that are excellent Not only good, but the very best; the superior excellence of which is hardly discerned, but by the adult Christian.

Not only good, but the very best; the superior excellence of which is hardly discerned, but by the adult Christian.

Wesley: Phi 1:10 - That ye may be inwardly sincere Having a single eye to the very best things, and a pure heart.

Having a single eye to the very best things, and a pure heart.

Wesley: Phi 1:10 - And outwardly without offence Holy, unblamable in all things.

Holy, unblamable in all things.

Wesley: Phi 1:11 - Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God Here are three properties of that sincerity which is acceptable to God: It must bear fruits, the fruits of righteousness, all inward and outward holin...

Here are three properties of that sincerity which is acceptable to God: It must bear fruits, the fruits of righteousness, all inward and outward holiness, all good tempers, words, and works; and that so abundantly, that we may be filled with them.

Wesley: Phi 1:11 - The branch and the fruits must derive both their virtue and their very being from the all supporting, all - supplying root, Jesus Christ. As all these flow from the grace of Christ, so they must issue in the glory and praise of God.

supporting, all - supplying root, Jesus Christ. As all these flow from the grace of Christ, so they must issue in the glory and praise of God.

Wesley: Phi 1:12 - The things concerning me My sufferings. Have fallen out rather to the furtherance, than, as you feared, the hinderance, of the gospel.

My sufferings. Have fallen out rather to the furtherance, than, as you feared, the hinderance, of the gospel.

Wesley: Phi 1:13 - My bonds in Christ Endured for his sake.

Endured for his sake.

Wesley: Phi 1:13 - Have been made manifest Much taken notice of.

Much taken notice of.

Wesley: Phi 1:13 - In the whole palace Of the Roman emperor.

Of the Roman emperor.

Wesley: Phi 1:14 - And many Who were before afraid.

Who were before afraid.

Wesley: Phi 1:14 - Trusting in the Lord through my bonds When they observed my constancy, and safety not withstanding, are more bold.

When they observed my constancy, and safety not withstanding, are more bold.

Wesley: Phi 1:15-16 - Some indeed preach Christ out of contention Envying St. Paul's success, and striving to hurt him thereby.

Envying St. Paul's success, and striving to hurt him thereby.

Wesley: Phi 1:15-16 - Not sincerely From a real desire to glorify God.

From a real desire to glorify God.

Wesley: Phi 1:15-16 - But supposing Though they were disappointed.

Though they were disappointed.

Wesley: Phi 1:15-16 - To add more affliction to my bonds By enraging the Romans against me.

By enraging the Romans against me.

Wesley: Phi 1:17 - But the others out of love To Christ and me.

To Christ and me.

Wesley: Phi 1:17 - Knowing Not barely, supposing.

Not barely, supposing.

Wesley: Phi 1:17 - That I am set Literally, I lie; yet still going forward in his work. He remained at Rome as an ambassador in a place where he is employed on an important embassy.

Literally, I lie; yet still going forward in his work. He remained at Rome as an ambassador in a place where he is employed on an important embassy.

Wesley: Phi 1:18 - In pretence Under colour of propagating the gospel.

Under colour of propagating the gospel.

Wesley: Phi 1:18 - In truth With a real design so to do.

With a real design so to do.

Wesley: Phi 1:19 - This shall turn to my salvation Shall procure me an higher degree of glory.

Shall procure me an higher degree of glory.

Wesley: Phi 1:19 - Through your prayer Obtaining for me a larger supply of the Spirit.

Obtaining for me a larger supply of the Spirit.

Wesley: Phi 1:20 - As always Since my call to the apostleship.

Since my call to the apostleship.

Wesley: Phi 1:20 - In my body however it may he disposed of. How that might be, he did not yet know. For the apostles did not know all things; particularly in things pertaining to ...

however it may he disposed of. How that might be, he did not yet know. For the apostles did not know all things; particularly in things pertaining to themselves, they had room to exercise faith and patience.

Wesley: Phi 1:21 - To me to live is Christ To know, to love, to follow Christ, is my life, my glory, my joy.

To know, to love, to follow Christ, is my life, my glory, my joy.

Wesley: Phi 1:22 - -- Here he begins to treat of the former clause of the preceding verse. Of the latter he treats, Phi 2:17. But if I am to live is the flesh, this is the ...

Here he begins to treat of the former clause of the preceding verse. Of the latter he treats, Phi 2:17. But if I am to live is the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour - This is the fruit of my living longer, that I can labour more. Glorious labour! desirable fruit! in this view, long life is indeed a blessing.

Wesley: Phi 1:22 - And what I should choose I know not That is, if it were left to my choice.

That is, if it were left to my choice.

Wesley: Phi 1:23 - To depart Out of bonds, flesh, the world.

Out of bonds, flesh, the world.

Wesley: Phi 1:23 - And to be with Christ In a nearer and fuller union. It is better to depart; it is far better to be with Christ.

In a nearer and fuller union. It is better to depart; it is far better to be with Christ.

Wesley: Phi 1:25 - I know By a prophetic notice given him while he was writing this.

By a prophetic notice given him while he was writing this.

Wesley: Phi 1:25 - That I shall continue some time longer with you And doubtless he did see them after this confinement.

And doubtless he did see them after this confinement.

Wesley: Phi 1:27 - Only Be careful for this, and nothing else.

Be careful for this, and nothing else.

Wesley: Phi 1:27 - Stand fast in one spirit With the most perfect unanimity.

With the most perfect unanimity.

Wesley: Phi 1:27 - Striving together With united strength and endeavours.

With united strength and endeavours.

Wesley: Phi 1:27 - For the faith of the gospel For all the blessings revealed and promised therein.

For all the blessings revealed and promised therein.

Wesley: Phi 1:28 - Which Namely, their being adversaries to the word of God, and to you the messengers of God.

Namely, their being adversaries to the word of God, and to you the messengers of God.

Wesley: Phi 1:28 - Is an evident token That they are in the high road to perdition; and you, in the way of salvation.

That they are in the high road to perdition; and you, in the way of salvation.

Wesley: Phi 1:29 - For to you it is given As a special token of God's love, and of your being in the way of salvation.

As a special token of God's love, and of your being in the way of salvation.

Wesley: Phi 1:30 - Having the same kind of conflict with your adversaries, which ye saw in me When I was with you, Act 16:12, Act 16:19, &c.

When I was with you, Act 16:12, Act 16:19, &c.

JFB: Phi 1:1 - Timotheus Mentioned as being well known to the Philippians (Act 16:3, Act 16:10-12), and now present with Paul. Not that Timothy had any share in writing the Ep...

Mentioned as being well known to the Philippians (Act 16:3, Act 16:10-12), and now present with Paul. Not that Timothy had any share in writing the Epistle; for Paul presently uses the first person singular, "I," not "we" (Phi 1:3). The mention of his name implies merely that Timothy joined in affectionate remembrances to them.

JFB: Phi 1:1 - servants of Jesus Christ The oldest manuscripts read the order, "Christ Jesus." Paul does not call himself "an apostle," as in the inscriptions of other Epistles; for the Phil...

The oldest manuscripts read the order, "Christ Jesus." Paul does not call himself "an apostle," as in the inscriptions of other Epistles; for the Philippians needed not to be reminded of his apostolic authority. He writes rather in a tone of affectionate familiarity.

JFB: Phi 1:1 - all So Phi 1:4, Phi 1:7-8, Phi 1:25; Phi 2:17, Phi 2:26. It implies comprehensive affection which desired not to forget any one among them "all."

So Phi 1:4, Phi 1:7-8, Phi 1:25; Phi 2:17, Phi 2:26. It implies comprehensive affection which desired not to forget any one among them "all."

JFB: Phi 1:1 - bishops Synonymous with "presbyters" in the apostolical churches; as appears from the same persons being called "elders of the Church" at Ephesus (Act 20:17),...

Synonymous with "presbyters" in the apostolical churches; as appears from the same persons being called "elders of the Church" at Ephesus (Act 20:17), and "overseers" (Act 20:28), Greek, "bishops." And Tit 1:5, compare with Phi 1:7. This is the earliest letter of Paul where bishops and deacons are mentioned, and the only one where they are separately addressed in the salutation. This accords with the probable course of events, deduced alike from the letters and history. While the apostles were constantly visiting the churches in person or by messengers, regular pastors would be less needed; but when some were removed by various causes, provision for the permanent order of the churches would be needed. Hence the three pastoral letters, subsequent to this Epistle, give instruction as to the due appointment of bishops and deacons. It agrees with this new want of the Church, when other apostles were dead or far away, and Paul long in prison, that bishops and deacons should be prominent for the first time in the opening salutation. The Spirit thus intimated that the churches were to look up to their own pastors, now that the miraculous gifts were passing into God's ordinary providence, and the presence of the inspired apostles, the dispensers of those gifts, was to be withdrawn [PALEY, "Horæ Paulinæ]. "Presbyter," implied the rank; "bishop," the duties of the office [NEANDER]. Naturally, when the apostles who had the chief supervision were no more, one among the presbyters presided and received the name "bishop," in the more restricted and modern sense; just as in the Jewish synagogue one of the elders presided as "ruler of the synagogue." Observe, the apostle addresses the Church (that is, the congregation) more directly than its presiding ministers (Col 4:17; 1Th 5:12; Heb 13:24; Rev 1:4, Rev 1:11). The bishops managed more the internal, the deacons the external, affairs of the Church. The plural number shows there was more than one bishop or presbyter, and more than one deacon in the Church at Philippi.

JFB: Phi 1:2 - Grace . . . peace The very form of this salutation implies the union of Jew, Greek, and Roman. The Greek salutation was "joy" (chairein), akin to the Greek for "grace" ...

The very form of this salutation implies the union of Jew, Greek, and Roman. The Greek salutation was "joy" (chairein), akin to the Greek for "grace" (charis). The Roman was "health," the intermediate term between grace and peace. The Hebrew was "peace," including both temporal and spiritual prosperity. Grace must come first if we are to have true peace.

JFB: Phi 1:2 - from . . . from Omit the second "from": as in the Greek, "God our Father" and "the Lord Jesus Christ," are most closely connected.

Omit the second "from": as in the Greek, "God our Father" and "the Lord Jesus Christ," are most closely connected.

JFB: Phi 1:3 - -- Translate, "In all my remembrance of you."

Translate, "In all my remembrance of you."

JFB: Phi 1:4 - making request Translate, "making my request."

Translate, "making my request."

JFB: Phi 1:4 - for you all The frequent repetition in this Epistle of "all" with "you," marks that Paul desires to declare his love for all alike, and will not recognize any div...

The frequent repetition in this Epistle of "all" with "you," marks that Paul desires to declare his love for all alike, and will not recognize any divisions among them.

JFB: Phi 1:4 - with joy The characteristic feature in this Epistle, as love is in that to the Ephesians (compare Phi 1:18; Phi 2:2, Phi 2:19, Phi 2:28; Phi 3:1; Phi 4:1, Phi ...

The characteristic feature in this Epistle, as love is in that to the Ephesians (compare Phi 1:18; Phi 2:2, Phi 2:19, Phi 2:28; Phi 3:1; Phi 4:1, Phi 4:4). Love and joy are the two first-fruits of the Spirit. Joy gives especial animation to prayers. It marked his high opinion of them, that there was almost everything in them to give him joy, and almost nothing to give him pain.

JFB: Phi 1:5 - -- Ground of his "thanking God" (Phi 1:3): "For your (continued) fellowship (that is, real spiritual participation) in (literally, 'in regard to') the Go...

Ground of his "thanking God" (Phi 1:3): "For your (continued) fellowship (that is, real spiritual participation) in (literally, 'in regard to') the Gospel from the first day (of your becoming partakers in it) until now." Believers have the fellowship of the Son of God (1Co 1:9) and of the Father (1Jo 1:3) in the Gospel, by becoming partakers of "the fellowship of the Holy Ghost" (2Co 13:14), and exercise that fellowship by acts of communion, not only the communion of the Lord's Supper, but holy liberality to brethren and ministers (Phi 4:10, Phi 4:15, "communicated . . . concerning giving"; 2Co 9:13; Gal 6:6; Heb 13:16, "To communicate forget not").

JFB: Phi 1:6 - confident This confidence nerves prayers and thanksgivings (Phi 1:3-4).

This confidence nerves prayers and thanksgivings (Phi 1:3-4).

JFB: Phi 1:6 - this very thing The very thing which he prays for (Phi 1:4) is the matter of his believing confidence (Mar 11:24; 1Jo 5:14-15). Hence the result is sure.

The very thing which he prays for (Phi 1:4) is the matter of his believing confidence (Mar 11:24; 1Jo 5:14-15). Hence the result is sure.

JFB: Phi 1:6 - he which hath begun God (Phi 2:13).

God (Phi 2:13).

JFB: Phi 1:6 - a good work Any work that God begins, He will surely finish (1Sa 3:12). Not even men begin a work at random. Much more the fact of His beginning the work is a ple...

Any work that God begins, He will surely finish (1Sa 3:12). Not even men begin a work at random. Much more the fact of His beginning the work is a pledge of its completion (Isa 26:12). So as to the particular work here meant, the perfecting of their fellowship in the Gospel (Phi 1:5; Psa 37:24; Psa 89:33; Psa 138:8; Joh 10:28-29; Rom 8:29, Rom 8:35-39; Rom 11:1-2 Heb 6:17-19; Jam 1:17; Jud 1:24). As God cast not off Israel for ever, though chastening them for a time, so He will not cast off the spiritual Israel (Deu 33:3; Isa 27:3; 1Pe 1:5).

JFB: Phi 1:6 - perform it until "perfect it up to" [ALFORD, ELLICOTT, and others].

"perfect it up to" [ALFORD, ELLICOTT, and others].

JFB: Phi 1:6 - the day of . . . Christ (Phi 1:10). The Lord's coming, designed by God in every age of the Church to be regarded as near, is to be the goal set before believers' minds rathe...

(Phi 1:10). The Lord's coming, designed by God in every age of the Church to be regarded as near, is to be the goal set before believers' minds rather than their own death.

JFB: Phi 1:7 - meet Greek, "just."

Greek, "just."

JFB: Phi 1:7 - to think this To have the prayerful confidence I expressed (Phi 1:4-6).

To have the prayerful confidence I expressed (Phi 1:4-6).

JFB: Phi 1:7 - of you Literally, "in behalf of you." Paul's confident prayer in their behalf was that God would perfect His own good work of grace in them.

Literally, "in behalf of you." Paul's confident prayer in their behalf was that God would perfect His own good work of grace in them.

JFB: Phi 1:7 - because, &c. Punctuate and translate, "Because I have you in my heart (so Phi 1:8; otherwise the Greek and the words immediately following in the verse, favor the ...

Punctuate and translate, "Because I have you in my heart (so Phi 1:8; otherwise the Greek and the words immediately following in the verse, favor the Margin, 'Ye have me in your heart . . . being partakers of my grace') (both, in my bonds, and in my defense and confirmation of the Gospel), you (I say) all being fellow partakers of my grace." This last clause thus assigns the reason why he has them in his heart (that is, cherished in his love, 2Co 3:2; 2Co 7:3), even in his bonds, and in his defense and confirmation of the Gospel (such as he was constantly making in private, Act 28:17-23; his self-defense and confirmation of the Gospel being necessarily conjoined, as the Greek implies; compare Phi 1:17), namely, "inasmuch as ye are fellow partakers of my grace": inasmuch as ye share with me in "the fellowship of the Gospel" (Phi 1:5), and have manifested this, both by suffering as I do for the Gospel's sake (Phi 1:28-30), and by imparting to me of your substance (Phi 4:15). It is natural and right for me thus confidently to pray in your behalf. (ELLICOTT, and others translate, "To be thus minded for you all"), because of my having you in my warmest remembrances even in my bonds, since you are sharers with me in the Gospel grace. Bonds do not bind love.

JFB: Phi 1:8 - -- Confirmation of Phi 1:7.

Confirmation of Phi 1:7.

JFB: Phi 1:8 - record That is, witness.

That is, witness.

JFB: Phi 1:8 - in the bowels of Jesus Christ "Christ Jesus" is the order in the oldest manuscripts. My yearning love (so the Greek implies) to you is not merely from natural affection, but from d...

"Christ Jesus" is the order in the oldest manuscripts. My yearning love (so the Greek implies) to you is not merely from natural affection, but from devotedness to Christ Jesus. "Not Paul, but Jesus Christ lives in Paul; wherefore Paul is not moved in the bowels (that is, the tender love, Jer 31:20) of Paul, but of Jesus Christ" [BENGEL]. All real spiritual love is but a portion of Christ's love which yearns in all who are united to Him [ALFORD].

JFB: Phi 1:9 - -- The subject of his prayer for them (Phi 1:4).

The subject of his prayer for them (Phi 1:4).

JFB: Phi 1:9 - your love To Christ, producing love not only to Paul, Christ's minister, as it did, but also to one another, which it did not altogether as much as it ought (Ph...

To Christ, producing love not only to Paul, Christ's minister, as it did, but also to one another, which it did not altogether as much as it ought (Phi 2:2; Phi 4:2).

JFB: Phi 1:9 - knowledge Of doctrinal and practical truth.

Of doctrinal and practical truth.

JFB: Phi 1:9 - judgment Rather, "perception"; "perceptive sense." Spiritual perceptiveness: spiritual sight, spiritual hearing, spiritual feeling, spiritual taste. Christiani...

Rather, "perception"; "perceptive sense." Spiritual perceptiveness: spiritual sight, spiritual hearing, spiritual feeling, spiritual taste. Christianity is a vigorous plant, not the hotbed growth of enthusiasm. "Knowledge" and "perception" guard love from being ill-judged.

JFB: Phi 1:10 - -- Literally, "With a view to your proving (and so approving and embracing) the things that excel" (Rom 2:18); not merely things not bad, but the things ...

Literally, "With a view to your proving (and so approving and embracing) the things that excel" (Rom 2:18); not merely things not bad, but the things best among those that are good; the things of more advanced excellence. Ask as to things, not merely, Is there no harm, but is there any good, and which is the best?

JFB: Phi 1:10 - sincere From a Greek root. Examined in the sunlight and found pure.

From a Greek root. Examined in the sunlight and found pure.

JFB: Phi 1:10 - without offence Not stumbling; running the Christian race without falling through any stumbling-block, that is, temptation, in your way.

Not stumbling; running the Christian race without falling through any stumbling-block, that is, temptation, in your way.

JFB: Phi 1:10 - till Rather, "unto," "against"; so that when the day of Christ comes, ye may be found pure and without offense.

Rather, "unto," "against"; so that when the day of Christ comes, ye may be found pure and without offense.

JFB: Phi 1:11 - -- The oldest manuscripts read the singular, "fruit." So Gal 5:22 (see on Gal 5:22); regarding the works of righteousness, however manifold, as one harmo...

The oldest manuscripts read the singular, "fruit." So Gal 5:22 (see on Gal 5:22); regarding the works of righteousness, however manifold, as one harmonious whole, "the fruit of the Spirit" (Eph 5:9) Jam 3:18, "the fruit of righteousness" (Heb 12:11); Rom 6:22, "fruit unto holiness."

JFB: Phi 1:11 - which are "which is by (Greek, 'through') Jesus Christ." Through His sending to us the Spirit from the Father. "We are wild and useless olive trees till we are ...

"which is by (Greek, 'through') Jesus Christ." Through His sending to us the Spirit from the Father. "We are wild and useless olive trees till we are grafted into Christ, who, by His living root, makes us fruit-bearing branches" [CALVIN].

JFB: Phi 1:12 - understand Greek, "know." The Philippians probably had feared that his imprisonment would hinder the spread of the Gospel; he therefore removes this fear.

Greek, "know." The Philippians probably had feared that his imprisonment would hinder the spread of the Gospel; he therefore removes this fear.

JFB: Phi 1:12 - the things which happened unto me Greek, "the things concerning me."

Greek, "the things concerning me."

JFB: Phi 1:12 - rather So far is my imprisonment from hindering the Gospel. Faith takes in a favorable light even what seems adverse [BENGEL] (Phi 1:19, Phi 1:28; Phi 2:17).

So far is my imprisonment from hindering the Gospel. Faith takes in a favorable light even what seems adverse [BENGEL] (Phi 1:19, Phi 1:28; Phi 2:17).

JFB: Phi 1:13 - my bonds in Christ Rather as Greek, "So that my bonds have become manifest in Christ," that is, known, as endured in Christ's cause.

Rather as Greek, "So that my bonds have become manifest in Christ," that is, known, as endured in Christ's cause.

JFB: Phi 1:13 - palace Literally, "Prætorium," that is, the barrack of the Prætorian guards attached to the palace of Nero, on the Palatine hill at Rome; not the general P...

Literally, "Prætorium," that is, the barrack of the Prætorian guards attached to the palace of Nero, on the Palatine hill at Rome; not the general Prætorian camp outside of the city; for this was not connected with "Cæsar's household," which Phi 4:22 shows the Prætorium here meant was. The emperor was "Prætor," or Commander-in-Chief; naturally then the barrack of his bodyguard was called the Prætorium. Paul seems now not to have been at large in his own hired house, though chained to a soldier, as in Act 28:16, Act 28:20, Act 28:30-31, but in strict custody in the Prætorium; a change which probably took place on Tigellinus becoming Prætorian Prefect. See Introduction.

JFB: Phi 1:13 - in all other places So CHRYSOSTOM. Or else, "TO all the rest," that is, "manifest to all the other" Prætorian soldiers stationed elsewhere, through the instrumentality o...

So CHRYSOSTOM. Or else, "TO all the rest," that is, "manifest to all the other" Prætorian soldiers stationed elsewhere, through the instrumentality of the Prætorian household guards who might for the time be attached to the emperor's palace, and who relieved one another in succession. Paul had been now upwards of two years a prisoner, so that there was time for his cause and the Gospel having become widely known at Rome.

JFB: Phi 1:14 - -- Translate as Greek, "And that (Phi 1:13) most of the brethren in the Lord," &c. "In the Lord," distinguishes them from "brethren after the flesh," Jew...

Translate as Greek, "And that (Phi 1:13) most of the brethren in the Lord," &c. "In the Lord," distinguishes them from "brethren after the flesh," Jewish fellow countrymen. ELLICOTT translates, "Trusting in the Lord."

JFB: Phi 1:14 - by my bonds Encouraged by my patience in bearing my bonds.

Encouraged by my patience in bearing my bonds.

JFB: Phi 1:14 - much more bold Translate as Greek, "are more abundantly bold."

Translate as Greek, "are more abundantly bold."

JFB: Phi 1:15 - -- "Some indeed are preaching Christ even for envy, that is, to carry out the envy which they felt towards Paul, on account of the success of the Gospel ...

"Some indeed are preaching Christ even for envy, that is, to carry out the envy which they felt towards Paul, on account of the success of the Gospel in the capital of the world, owing to his steadfastness in his imprisonment; they wished through envy to transfer the credit of its progress from him to themselves. Probably Judaizing teachers (Rom. 14:1-23; 1Co 3:10-15; 1Co 9:1, &c.; 2Co 11:1-4).

JFB: Phi 1:15 - some also of Rather, "for"

Rather, "for"

JFB: Phi 1:15 - good will Answering to "the brethren" (Phi 1:14); some being well disposed to him.

Answering to "the brethren" (Phi 1:14); some being well disposed to him.

JFB: Phi 1:16-17 - -- The oldest manuscripts transpose these verses, and read, "These (last) indeed out of love (to Christ and me), knowing (the opposite of 'thinking' belo...

The oldest manuscripts transpose these verses, and read, "These (last) indeed out of love (to Christ and me), knowing (the opposite of 'thinking' below) that I am set (that is, appointed by God, 1Th 3:3) for the defense of the Gospel (Phi 1:7, not on my own account). But the others out of contention (or rather, 'a factious spirit'; 'cabal'; a spirit of intrigue, using unscrupulous means to compass their end; 'self-seeking' [ALFORD]) proclaim (the Greek is not the same as that for 'preach,' but, 'announce') Christ, not sincerely (answering to 'but of a spirit of intrigue,' or 'self-seeking'). Literally, 'not purely'; not with a pure intention; the Jewish leaven they tried to introduce was in order to glorify themselves (Gal 6:12-13; however, see on Phi 1:18), thinking (but in vain) to raise up (so the oldest manuscripts read) tribulation to my bonds." Their thought was, that taking the opportunity of my being laid aside, they would exalt themselves by their Judaizing preaching, and depreciate me and my preaching, and so cause me trouble of spirit in my bonds; they thought that I, like themselves, sought my own glory, and so would be mortified at their success over mine. But they are utterly mistaken; "I rejoice" at it (Phi 1:18), so far am I from being troubled at it.

JFB: Phi 1:18 - -- What follows from this? Does this trouble me as they thought it would? "Notwithstanding" their unkind thought to me, and self-seeking intention, the c...

What follows from this? Does this trouble me as they thought it would? "Notwithstanding" their unkind thought to me, and self-seeking intention, the cause I have at heart is furthered "every way" of preaching, "whether in pretense (with a by motive, Phi 1:16) or in truth (out of true 'love' to Christ, Phi 1:17), Christ is proclaimed; and therein I do rejoice, yea, and I will rejoice." From this it would seem that these self-seeking teachers in the main "proclaimed Christ," not "another Gospel," such as the Judaizers in Galatia taught (Gal 1:6-8); though probably having some of the Jewish leaven (see on Phi 1:15-16), their chief error was their self-seeking envious motive, not so much error of doctrine; had there been vital error, Paul would not have rejoiced. The proclamation of CHRIST," however done, roused attention, and so was sure to be of service. Paul could thus rejoice at the good result of their bad intentions (Psa 76:10; Isa 10:5, Isa 10:7).

JFB: Phi 1:19 - turn to my salvation "turn out to me for, (or unto) salvation." This proclamation of Christ every way will turn out to my spiritual good. Christ, whose interests are my in...

"turn out to me for, (or unto) salvation." This proclamation of Christ every way will turn out to my spiritual good. Christ, whose interests are my interests, being glorified thereby; and so the coming of His kingdom being furthered, which, when it does come, will bring completed "SALVATION" (Heb 9:28) to me and all whose "earnest expectation" (Phi 1:20) is that Christ may be magnified in them. So far is their preaching from causing me, as they thought, tribulation in my bonds (Phi 1:16). Paul plainly quotes and applies to himself the very words of the Septuagint (Job 13:16), "This shall turn out to my salvation," which belong to all God's people of every age, in their tribulation (compare Job 13:15).

JFB: Phi 1:19 - through your prayer and the supply The Greek intimately joins the two nouns together, by having but one preposition and one article: "Through your prayer and (the consequent) supply of ...

The Greek intimately joins the two nouns together, by having but one preposition and one article: "Through your prayer and (the consequent) supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ (obtained for me through your prayer)."

JFB: Phi 1:20 - According to my earnest expectation The Greek expresses, "expectation with uplifted head (Luk 21:28) and outstretched neck." Rom 8:19 is the only other place in the New Testament that th...

The Greek expresses, "expectation with uplifted head (Luk 21:28) and outstretched neck." Rom 8:19 is the only other place in the New Testament that the word occurs. TITTMANN says, in both places it implies not mere expectation, but the anxious desire of an anticipated prosperous issue in afflictive circumstances. The subject of his earnest expectation which follows, answers to "my salvation" (Phi 1:19).

JFB: Phi 1:20 - in nothing I shall be ashamed In nothing have reason to be ashamed of "my work for God, or His work in me" [ALFORD]. Or, "in nothing be disappointed in my hope, but that I may full...

In nothing have reason to be ashamed of "my work for God, or His work in me" [ALFORD]. Or, "in nothing be disappointed in my hope, but that I may fully obtain it" [ESTIUS]. So "ashamed" is used in Rom 9:33.

JFB: Phi 1:20 - all boldness "all" is opposed to "in nothing," as "boldness" is the opposite to "ashamed."

"all" is opposed to "in nothing," as "boldness" is the opposite to "ashamed."

JFB: Phi 1:20 - so now also When "my body" is "in bonds" (Phi 1:17).

When "my body" is "in bonds" (Phi 1:17).

JFB: Phi 1:20 - Christ Not Paul, "shall be magnified."

Not Paul, "shall be magnified."

JFB: Phi 1:20 - life, or by death Whatever be the issue, I cannot lose; I must be the gainer by the event. Paul was not omniscient; in the issue of things pertaining to themselves, the...

Whatever be the issue, I cannot lose; I must be the gainer by the event. Paul was not omniscient; in the issue of things pertaining to themselves, the apostles underwent the same probation of faith and patience as we.

JFB: Phi 1:21 - For In either event (Phi 1:20) I must be the gainer, "For to me," &c.

In either event (Phi 1:20) I must be the gainer, "For to me," &c.

JFB: Phi 1:21 - to live is Christ Whatever life, time, and strength, I have, is Christ's; Christ is the sole object for which I live (Gal 2:20).

Whatever life, time, and strength, I have, is Christ's; Christ is the sole object for which I live (Gal 2:20).

JFB: Phi 1:21 - to die is gain Not the act of dying, but as the Greek ("to have died") expresses, the state after death. Besides the glorification of Christ by my death, which is my...

Not the act of dying, but as the Greek ("to have died") expresses, the state after death. Besides the glorification of Christ by my death, which is my primary object (Phi 1:20), the change of state caused by death, so far from being a matter of shame (Phi 1:20) or loss, as my enemies suppose, will be a positive "gain" to me.

JFB: Phi 1:22 - -- Rather as Greek, "But if to live in the flesh (if), this (I say, the continuance in life which I am undervaluing) be the fruit of my labor (that is, b...

Rather as Greek, "But if to live in the flesh (if), this (I say, the continuance in life which I am undervaluing) be the fruit of my labor (that is, be the condition in which the fruit of my ministerial labor is involved), then what I shall choose I know not (I cannot determine with myself, if the choice were given me, both alternatives being great goods alike)." So ALFORD and ELLICOTT. BENGEL takes it as English Version, which the Greek will bear by supposing an ellipsis, "If to live in the flesh (be my portion), this (continuing to live) is the fruit of my labor," that is, this continuance in life will be the occasion of my bringing in "the fruit of labor," that is, will be the occasion of "labors" which are their own "fruit" or reward; or, this my continuing "to live" will have this "fruit," namely, "labors" for Christ. GROTIUS explains "the fruit of labor" as an idiom for "worthwhile"; If I live in the flesh, this is worth my while, for thus Christ's interest will be advanced, "For to me to live is Christ" (Phi 1:21; compare Phi 2:30; Rom 1:13). The second alternative, namely, dying, is taken up and handled, Phi 2:17, "If I be offered."

JFB: Phi 1:23 - For The oldest manuscripts read, "But." "I know not (Phi 1:22), BUT am in a strait (am perplexed) betwixt the two (namely, 'to live' and 'to die'), having...

The oldest manuscripts read, "But." "I know not (Phi 1:22), BUT am in a strait (am perplexed) betwixt the two (namely, 'to live' and 'to die'), having the desire for departing (literally, 'to loose anchor,' 2Ti 4:6) and being with Christ; FOR (so the oldest manuscripts) it is by far better"; or as the Greek, more forcibly, "by far the more preferable"; a double comparative. This refutes the notion of the soul being dormant during its separation from the body. It also shows that, while he regarded the Lord's advent as at all times near, yet that his death before it was a very possible contingency. The partial life eternal is in the interval between death and Christ's second advent; the perfectional, at that advent [BISHOP PEARSON]. To depart is better than to remain in the flesh; to be with Christ is far, far better; a New Testament hope (Heb 12:24), [BENGEL].

JFB: Phi 1:24 - to abide To continue somewhat longer.

To continue somewhat longer.

JFB: Phi 1:24 - for you Greek, "on your account"; "for your sake." In order to be of service to you, I am willing to forego my entrance a little sooner into blessedness; heav...

Greek, "on your account"; "for your sake." In order to be of service to you, I am willing to forego my entrance a little sooner into blessedness; heaven will not fail to be mine at last.

JFB: Phi 1:25 - -- Translate, "And being confident of this."

Translate, "And being confident of this."

JFB: Phi 1:25 - I know, &c. By prophetical intimations of the Spirit. He did not yet know the issue, as far as human appearances were concerned (Phi 2:23). He doubtless returned ...

By prophetical intimations of the Spirit. He did not yet know the issue, as far as human appearances were concerned (Phi 2:23). He doubtless returned from his first captivity to Philippi (Heb 13:19; Phm 1:22).

JFB: Phi 1:25 - joy of faith Greek, "joy in your faith."

Greek, "joy in your faith."

JFB: Phi 1:26 - -- Translate, "That your matter of glorying (or rejoicing) may abound in Christ Jesus in me (that is, in my case; in respect to me, or for me who have be...

Translate, "That your matter of glorying (or rejoicing) may abound in Christ Jesus in me (that is, in my case; in respect to me, or for me who have been granted to your prayers, Phi 1:19) through my presence again among you." ALFORD makes the "matter of glorying," the possession of the Gospel, received from Paul, which would abound, be assured and increased, by his presence among them; thus, "in me," implies that Paul is the worker of the material of abounding in Christ Jesus. But "my rejoicing over you" (Phi 2:16), answers plainly to "your rejoicing in respect to me" here.

JFB: Phi 1:27 - Only Whatever happens as to my coming to you, or not, make this your one only care. By supposing this or that future contingency, many persuade themselves ...

Whatever happens as to my coming to you, or not, make this your one only care. By supposing this or that future contingency, many persuade themselves they will be such as they ought to be, but it is better always without evasion to perform present duties under present circumstances [BENGEL].

JFB: Phi 1:27 - let your conversation be (Compare Phi 3:20). The Greek implies, "Let your walk as citizens (namely, of the heavenly state; 'the city of the living God,' Heb 12:22, 'the heaven...

(Compare Phi 3:20). The Greek implies, "Let your walk as citizens (namely, of the heavenly state; 'the city of the living God,' Heb 12:22, 'the heavenly Jerusalem,' 'fellow citizens of the saints,' Eph 2:19) be," &c.

JFB: Phi 1:27 - I . . . see . . . hear So Phi 1:30. "Hear," in order to include both alternatives, must include the meaning know.

So Phi 1:30. "Hear," in order to include both alternatives, must include the meaning know.

JFB: Phi 1:27 - your affairs Your state.

Your state.

JFB: Phi 1:27 - in one spirit The fruit of partaking of the Holy Spirit (Eph 4:3-4).

The fruit of partaking of the Holy Spirit (Eph 4:3-4).

JFB: Phi 1:27 - with one mind Rather as Greek, "soul," the sphere of the affections; subordinate to the "Spirit," man's higher and heavenly nature. "There is sometimes natural anti...

Rather as Greek, "soul," the sphere of the affections; subordinate to the "Spirit," man's higher and heavenly nature. "There is sometimes natural antipathies among believers; but these are overcome, when there is not only unity of spirit, but also of soul" [BENGEL].

JFB: Phi 1:27 - striving together With united effort.

With united effort.

JFB: Phi 1:28 - terrified Literally, said of horses or other animals startled or suddenly scared; so of sudden consternation in general.

Literally, said of horses or other animals startled or suddenly scared; so of sudden consternation in general.

JFB: Phi 1:28 - which Your not being terrified.

Your not being terrified.

JFB: Phi 1:28 - evident token of perdition If they would only perceive it (2Th 1:5). It attests this, that in contending hopelessly against you, they are only rushing on to their own perdition,...

If they would only perceive it (2Th 1:5). It attests this, that in contending hopelessly against you, they are only rushing on to their own perdition, not shaking your united faith and constancy.

JFB: Phi 1:28 - to you of salvation The oldest manuscripts read, "of your salvation"; not merely your temporal safety.

The oldest manuscripts read, "of your salvation"; not merely your temporal safety.

JFB: Phi 1:29 - For Rather, a proof that this is an evident token from God of your salvation, "Because," &c.

Rather, a proof that this is an evident token from God of your salvation, "Because," &c.

JFB: Phi 1:29 - it is given Greek, "it has been granted as a favor," or "gift of grace." Faith is the gift of God (Eph 2:8), not wrought in the soul by the will of man, but by th...

Greek, "it has been granted as a favor," or "gift of grace." Faith is the gift of God (Eph 2:8), not wrought in the soul by the will of man, but by the Holy Ghost (Joh 1:12-13).

JFB: Phi 1:29 - believe on him "To believe Him," would merely mean to believe He speaks the truth. "To believe on Him," is to believe in, and trust through, Him to obtain eternal sa...

"To believe Him," would merely mean to believe He speaks the truth. "To believe on Him," is to believe in, and trust through, Him to obtain eternal salvation. Suffering for Christ is not only not a mark of God's anger, but a gift of His grace.

JFB: Phi 1:30 - ye saw in me (Act 16:12, Act 16:19, &c.; 1Th 2:2). I am "in nothing terrified by mine adversaries" (Phi 1:29), so ought not ye. The words here, "ye saw . . . and ...

(Act 16:12, Act 16:19, &c.; 1Th 2:2). I am "in nothing terrified by mine adversaries" (Phi 1:29), so ought not ye. The words here, "ye saw . . . and . . . hear," answer to "I come and see you, or else . . . hear" (Phi 1:27).

Clarke: Phi 1:1 - Paul and Timotheus Paul and Timotheus - That Timothy was at this time with the apostle in Rome we learn from Phi 2:19, and also that he was very high in the apostle...

Paul and Timotheus - That Timothy was at this time with the apostle in Rome we learn from Phi 2:19, and also that he was very high in the apostle’ s estimation. He had also accompanied the apostle on his two voyages to Philippi, see Acts 16 and 20., and was therefore deservedly dear to the Church in that city. It was on these accounts that St. Paul joined his name to his own, not because he was in any part the author of this epistle, but he might have been the apostle’ s amanuensis, though the subscription to the epistle gives this office to Epaphroditus. Neither in this epistle, nor in those to the Thessalonians and to Philemon does St. Paul call himself an apostle; the reason of which appears to be, that in none of these places was his apostolical authority called in question

Clarke: Phi 1:1 - Bishops and deacons Bishops and deacons - Επισκοποις· The overseers of the Church of God, and those who ministered to the poor, and preached occasionally. ...

Bishops and deacons - Επισκοποις· The overseers of the Church of God, and those who ministered to the poor, and preached occasionally. There has been a great deal of paper wasted on the inquiry, "Who is meant by bishops here, as no place could have more than one bishop?"To which it has been answered: "Philippi was a metropolitan see, and might have several bishops."This is the extravagance of trifling. I believe no such officer is meant as we now term bishop.

Clarke: Phi 1:2 - Grace be unto you Grace be unto you - See on Rom 1:7 (note).

Grace be unto you - See on Rom 1:7 (note).

Clarke: Phi 1:3 - Upon every remembrance Upon every remembrance - As often as you recur to my mind, so often do I thank God for the great work wrought among you. Some think that the words s...

Upon every remembrance - As often as you recur to my mind, so often do I thank God for the great work wrought among you. Some think that the words should be translated, for all your kind remembrance; referring to their kind attention to the apostle, in supplying his wants, etc.

Clarke: Phi 1:4 - Always in every prayer Always in every prayer - I pray often for you, and have great pleasure in doing it, seeing what God has already wrought among you.

Always in every prayer - I pray often for you, and have great pleasure in doing it, seeing what God has already wrought among you.

Clarke: Phi 1:5 - For your fellowship in the Gospel For your fellowship in the Gospel - if we consider κοινωνια as implying spiritual fellowship or communion, then it signifies, not only the...

For your fellowship in the Gospel - if we consider κοινωνια as implying spiritual fellowship or communion, then it signifies, not only their attention to the Gospel, their readiness to continue it, and perseverance in it, but also their unity and affection among themselves. Some understand the word as expressing their liberality to the apostle, and to the Gospel in general; for the term may not only be applied to communion among themselves, but to communications to others. This sense, though followed by Chrysostom and Theophylact, does not appear to be the best; though we know it to be a fact that they were liberal in supplying the apostle’ s necessities, and, no doubt, in ministering to the support of others.

Clarke: Phi 1:6 - Being confident Being confident - There shall be nothing lacking on God’ s part to support you; and to make you wise, holy and happy; and bring you at last to ...

Being confident - There shall be nothing lacking on God’ s part to support you; and to make you wise, holy and happy; and bring you at last to his kingdom and glory.

Clarke: Phi 1:7 - It is meet for me to think this It is meet for me to think this - Εστι δικαιον· It is just that I should think so, because I have you in my heart - you live in my war...

It is meet for me to think this - Εστι δικαιον· It is just that I should think so, because I have you in my heart - you live in my warmest love and most affectionate remembrance

Clarke: Phi 1:7 - Inasmuch as both in my bonds Inasmuch as both in my bonds - Because you have set your hearts upon me in my bonds, sending Epaphroditus to minister to me in my necessities, Phi 2...

Inasmuch as both in my bonds - Because you have set your hearts upon me in my bonds, sending Epaphroditus to minister to me in my necessities, Phi 2:25, and contributing of your own substance to me, Phi 4:14, sending once and again to me while I was in bonds for the defense of the faith, Phi 4:15, Phi 4:16; those things which being a sweet savor, a sacrifice well pleasing and acceptable to God, Phi 4:18, confirm my hope concerning you; especially when I find you yet standing firm under the like afflictions, having the same conflict which ye saw in me, when I was among you, Act 16:12, etc., and now hear to be in me, Phi 1:30. Whitby.

Clarke: Phi 1:8 - For God is my record For God is my record - I call God to witness that I have the strongest affection for you, and that I love you with that same kind of tender concern ...

For God is my record - I call God to witness that I have the strongest affection for you, and that I love you with that same kind of tender concern with which Christ loved the world when he gave himself for it; for I am even ready to be offered on the sacrifice and service of your faith, Phi 2:17.

Clarke: Phi 1:9 - This I pray This I pray - This is the substance of all my prayers for you, that your love to God, to one another, and to all mankind, may abound yet more and mo...

This I pray - This is the substance of all my prayers for you, that your love to God, to one another, and to all mankind, may abound yet more and more, ετι μαλλον και μαλλον περισσευη, that it may be like a river, perpetually fed with rain and fresh streams so that it continues to swell and increase till it fills all its banks, and floods the adjacent plains

Clarke: Phi 1:9 - In knowledge In knowledge - Of God’ s nature, perfections, your own duty and interest, his work upon your souls, and his great designs in the Gospel

In knowledge - Of God’ s nature, perfections, your own duty and interest, his work upon your souls, and his great designs in the Gospel

Clarke: Phi 1:9 - And in all judgment And in all judgment - Και πασῃ αισθησει· In all spiritual or moral feeling; that you may at once have the clearest perception an...

And in all judgment - Και πασῃ αισθησει· In all spiritual or moral feeling; that you may at once have the clearest perception and the fullest enjoyment of those things which concern your salvation; that ye may not only know but feel that you are of God, by the Spirit which he has given you; and that your feeling may become more exercised in Divine things, so that it may he increasingly sensible and refined.

Clarke: Phi 1:10 - That ye may approve things that are excellent That ye may approve things that are excellent - Εις το δοκιμαζειν ὑμας τα διαφεροντα· To the end that ye may put...

That ye may approve things that are excellent - Εις το δοκιμαζειν ὑμας τα διαφεροντα· To the end that ye may put to proof the things that differ, or the things that are in are more profitable. By the pure and abundant love which they received from God they would be able to try whatever differed from the teaching they had received, and from the experience they had in spiritual things

Clarke: Phi 1:10 - That ye may be sincere That ye may be sincere - Ἱνα ητε ειλικρινεις . The word ειλικρινεια, which we translate sincerity, is compounded of ...

That ye may be sincere - Ἱνα ητε ειλικρινεις . The word ειλικρινεια, which we translate sincerity, is compounded of ειλη, the splendor of the sun, and κρινω, I judge; a thing which may be examined in the clearest and strongest light, without the possibility of detecting a single flaw or imperfection. "A metaphor,"says Mr. Leigh, "taken from the usual practice of chapmen, in the view and choice of their wares, that bring them forth into the light and hold up the cloth against the sun, to see if they can espy any default in them. Pure as the sun."Be so purified and refined in your souls, by the indwelling Spirit, that even the light of God shining into your hearts, shall not be able to discover a fault that the love of God has not purged away

Our word sincerity is from the Latin sinceritas , which is compounded of sine , without, and cera , wax, and is a metaphor taken from clarified honey; for the mel sincerum , pure or clarified honey, is that which is sine cera , without wax, no part of the comb being left in it. Sincerity, taken in its full meaning, is a word of the most extensive import; and, when applied in reference to the state of the soul, is as strong as the word perfection itself. The soul that is sincere is the soul that is without sin

Clarke: Phi 1:10 - Without offense Without offense - Απροσκοποι· Neither offending God nor your neighbor; neither being stumbled yourselves, nor the cause of stumbling to...

Without offense - Απροσκοποι· Neither offending God nor your neighbor; neither being stumbled yourselves, nor the cause of stumbling to others

Clarke: Phi 1:10 - Till the day of Christ Till the day of Christ - Till he comes to judge the world, or, till the day in which you are called into the eternal world. According to this prayer...

Till the day of Christ - Till he comes to judge the world, or, till the day in which you are called into the eternal world. According to this prayer, a man, under the power and influence of the grace of God, may so love as never to offend his Maker, to the latest period of his life. Those who deny this, must believe that the Spirit of God either cannot or will not do it; or, that the blood of Christ cannot cleanse from all unrighteousness. And this would be not only antiscriptural, but also blasphemous.

Clarke: Phi 1:11 - Being filled with the fruits of righteousness Being filled with the fruits of righteousness - By righteousness we may understand, here, the whole work of the Spirit of God, in the soul of a beli...

Being filled with the fruits of righteousness - By righteousness we may understand, here, the whole work of the Spirit of God, in the soul of a believer; and by the fruits of righteousness, all holy tempers, holy words, and right actions. And with these they are to be filled, πεπληρωμενοι, filled up, filled full; the whole soul and life occupied with them, ever doing something by which glory is brought to God, or good done to man

Clarke: Phi 1:11 - By Jesus Christ By Jesus Christ - That is, according to his doctrine, through the power of his grace, and by the agency of his Spirit

By Jesus Christ - That is, according to his doctrine, through the power of his grace, and by the agency of his Spirit

Clarke: Phi 1:11 - Unto the glory and praise of God Unto the glory and praise of God - God being honored when the work of his grace thus appears to men in the fruits of righteousness; and God is prais...

Unto the glory and praise of God - God being honored when the work of his grace thus appears to men in the fruits of righteousness; and God is praised by all the faithful when his work thus appears. Every genuine follower of God has his glory in view by all that he does, says, or intends. He loves to glorify God, and he glorifies him by showing forth in his conversion the glorious working of the glorious power of the Lord.

Clarke: Phi 1:12 - That the things which happened unto me That the things which happened unto me - St. Paul was at this time a prisoner at Rome, and it appears probable that he had already been called to ma...

That the things which happened unto me - St. Paul was at this time a prisoner at Rome, and it appears probable that he had already been called to make a defense for himself, and to vindicate the doctrines of the Gospel; and this he had been enabled to do in such a manner that the honor of the Gospel had been greatly promoted by it. As the Philippians loved him greatly, he felt it right to give them this information relative to his state, and how God had turned his bonds to the advantage of that cause on account of which he was bound.

Clarke: Phi 1:13 - My bonds - are manifest in all the palace My bonds - are manifest in all the palace - In consequence of the public defense which he was obliged to make, his doctrines must be fully known in ...

My bonds - are manifest in all the palace - In consequence of the public defense which he was obliged to make, his doctrines must be fully known in the court, and throughout the whole city, as on his trial he would necessarily explain the whole. The praetorium, πραιτωριον, which we here translate palace, signifies the court where causes were heard and judged by the praetor or civil magistrate; it sometimes signifies the general’ s tent, and at others, the emperor’ s palace. It is supposed that it is used in this latter sense here. There were, no doubt, persons belonging to the emperor’ s household who would bring the news of so remarkable a case to the palace; for we find that there were Christians even in Caesar’ s household; Phi 4:22.

Clarke: Phi 1:14 - Waxing confident Waxing confident - Finding the effect produced by the public defense which the apostle made, they were greatly encouraged, and the more boldly and o...

Waxing confident - Finding the effect produced by the public defense which the apostle made, they were greatly encouraged, and the more boldly and openly proclaimed the doctrine of Christ crucified

Clarke: Phi 1:14 - The word The word - The doctrine of Christ; several excellent MSS. and versions add, some Θεου, others Κυριου, the word of God, or the word of th...

The word - The doctrine of Christ; several excellent MSS. and versions add, some Θεου, others Κυριου, the word of God, or the word of the Lord. This is a respectable reading, and is probably genuine.

Clarke: Phi 1:15 - Some - preach Christ even of envy and strife Some - preach Christ even of envy and strife - These must have been the Judaizing teachers, who insisted on the necessity of connecting the Mosaic r...

Some - preach Christ even of envy and strife - These must have been the Judaizing teachers, who insisted on the necessity of connecting the Mosaic rites with the Christian institutions; and, probably, denounced Paul to the Jews dwelling at Rome as not only an enemy to the law and the prophets, but also as a very imperfect Christian, because he declared strongly against the doctrine of circumcision, etc.; and no doubt endeavored to prejudice him with the heathen Romans

The word preach is not to be taken here as implying that the different persons mentioned were what we call preachers of the Gospel: all that we can understand from St. Paul’ s use of the word is, that they proclaimed Christ as the promised Messiah, espoused the Christian cause, and contended, whether in public or private, that this Jesus was the Christ; but nothing of this kind appears to have been intended in reference to the conversion of sinners

Clarke: Phi 1:15 - Some also of good will Some also of good will - Some, through mere benevolence to the apostle, both espoused his doctrine and vindicated his cause.

Some also of good will - Some, through mere benevolence to the apostle, both espoused his doctrine and vindicated his cause.

Clarke: Phi 1:16 - Preach Christ of contention Preach Christ of contention - The Judaizing teachers, they also preach Christ; they acknowledge that Jesus is the Christ or promised Messiah, and pr...

Preach Christ of contention - The Judaizing teachers, they also preach Christ; they acknowledge that Jesus is the Christ or promised Messiah, and preach him as such

Clarke: Phi 1:16 - Not sincerely Not sincerely - Ουχ ἁγνως· Not chastely, garbling the Gospel; not speaking the whole truth, but just what served their purpose; and at ...

Not sincerely - Ουχ ἁγνως· Not chastely, garbling the Gospel; not speaking the whole truth, but just what served their purpose; and at the same time they denounced the apostle as an enemy to the Divine institutions, because he spoke against circumcision.

Clarke: Phi 1:17 - The other of love The other of love - Through a sincere desire, not only to make known the way of salvation to the people, but also to vindicate and help the apostle,...

The other of love - Through a sincere desire, not only to make known the way of salvation to the people, but also to vindicate and help the apostle, because they considered him as appointed by God to preach and defend the Gospel. The 16th and 17th verses are transposed by ABDEFG, and several others; the Syriac, Arabic of Erpen, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, Itala, and several of the fathers. On this evidence Griesbach transposed them in his edition.

Clarke: Phi 1:18 - What then? What then? - It is a matter of little importance to me how Christ is preached, provided he be preached. I rejoice that any thing is known of him; an...

What then? - It is a matter of little importance to me how Christ is preached, provided he be preached. I rejoice that any thing is known of him; and am truly glad that the Gospel is even made partially known, for this will lead to farther inquiries, and in the end be of service to the truth.

Clarke: Phi 1:19 - This shall turn to my salvation This shall turn to my salvation - That is: It will be the means of my temporal safety; of my deliverance; for so the word σωτηρια is here t...

This shall turn to my salvation - That is: It will be the means of my temporal safety; of my deliverance; for so the word σωτηρια is here to be understood. The Jews had denounced the apostle as an enemy to Caesar; but he knew that, when the nature of the Gospel should be fully known, the Romans would see that he could be no enemy to Caesar who proclaimed a prince whose kingdom was not of this world; and who had taught, in the most unequivocal manner, that all Christians were to give tribute to whom tribute was due, and while they feared God to honor also the king, though that king was Nero

Clarke: Phi 1:19 - Through your prayer Through your prayer - Knowing them to be genuine followers of Christ, he was satisfied that their prayers would be very available in his behalf; and...

Through your prayer - Knowing them to be genuine followers of Christ, he was satisfied that their prayers would be very available in his behalf; and under God he places much dependence upon them

Clarke: Phi 1:19 - The supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ The supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ - The word επιχορηγια, which we translate supply, signifies also furnishing whatever is necessar...

The supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ - The word επιχορηγια, which we translate supply, signifies also furnishing whatever is necessary. The Spirit of God he expected to help all his infirmities, and to furnish him with all the wisdom, prudence, strength of reason, and argument, which might be necessary for him in the different trials he had to pass through with his persecutors, and the civil powers, at whose judgment-seat he stood.

Clarke: Phi 1:20 - Earnest expectation Earnest expectation - He had the most confident expectation that God would stand by him, so that he should be enabled, with the utmost liberty of sp...

Earnest expectation - He had the most confident expectation that God would stand by him, so that he should be enabled, with the utmost liberty of speech, εν πασῃ παρῥησια, to testify the Gospel of the grace of God; and, should he have the liberty of doing so, he was utterly regardless what the issue might be relative to himself. Whether life or death, was to him perfectly equal, and perfectly indifferent, providing Christ were magnified - his person, nature, doctrine, etc., shown to be, what they really are, most noble, most excellent, most necessary, and most glorious.

Clarke: Phi 1:21 - For to me to live is Christ For to me to live is Christ - Whether I live or die, Christ is gain to me. While I live I am Christ’ s property and servant, and Christ is my p...

For to me to live is Christ - Whether I live or die, Christ is gain to me. While I live I am Christ’ s property and servant, and Christ is my portion; if I die - if I be called to witness the truth at the expense of my life, this will be gain; I shall be saved from the remaining troubles and difficulties in life, and be put immediately in possession of my heavenly inheritance. As, therefore, it respects myself, it is a matter of perfect indifference to me whether I be taken off by a violent death, or whether I be permitted to continue here longer; in either case I can lose nothing.

Clarke: Phi 1:22 - But if I live in the flesh But if I live in the flesh - Should I be spared longer, I shall labor for Christ as I have done; and this is the fruit of my labor, that Christ shal...

But if I live in the flesh - Should I be spared longer, I shall labor for Christ as I have done; and this is the fruit of my labor, that Christ shall be magnified by my longer life, Phi 1:20

Clarke: Phi 1:22 - Yet what I shall choose I wot not Yet what I shall choose I wot not - Had I the two conditions left to my own choice, whether to die now and go to glory, or whether to live longer in...

Yet what I shall choose I wot not - Had I the two conditions left to my own choice, whether to die now and go to glory, or whether to live longer in persecutions and affliction, (glorifying Christ by spreading the Gospel), I could not tell which to prefer.

Clarke: Phi 1:23 - For I am in a strait betwixt two For I am in a strait betwixt two - Viz. the dying now, and being immediately with God; or living longer to preach and spread the Gospel, and thus gl...

For I am in a strait betwixt two - Viz. the dying now, and being immediately with God; or living longer to preach and spread the Gospel, and thus glorify Christ among men

Clarke: Phi 1:23 - Having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ Having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ - Την επιθυμιαν εχων εις το αναλυσαι . It appears to be a metaphor ta...

Having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ - Την επιθυμιαν εχων εις το αναλυσαι . It appears to be a metaphor taken from the commander of a vessel, in a foreign port, who feels a strong desire αναλυσαι, to set sail, and get to his own country and family; but this desire is counterbalanced by a conviction that the general interests of the voyage may be best answered by his longer stay in the port where his vessel now rides; for he is not in dock, he is not aground, but rides at anchor in the port, and may any hour weigh and be gone. Such was the condition of the apostle: he was not at home, but although he was abroad it was on his employer’ s business; he wishes to return, and is cleared out and ready to set sail, but he has not received his last orders from his owner, and whatever desire he may feel to be at home he will faithfully wait till his final orders arrive

Clarke: Phi 1:23 - Which is far better Which is far better - Πολλῳ - μαλλον κρεισσον· Multo magis melior , Vulgate; much more better. The reader will at once see...

Which is far better - Πολλῳ - μαλλον κρεισσον· Multo magis melior , Vulgate; much more better. The reader will at once see that the words are very emphatic.

Clarke: Phi 1:24 - To abide in the flesh To abide in the flesh - It would certainly be gain to myself to die, but it will be a gain to you if I live. If I die I shall go immediately to glor...

To abide in the flesh - It would certainly be gain to myself to die, but it will be a gain to you if I live. If I die I shall go immediately to glory; if I live I shall continue to minister to you, and strengthen you in the faith.

Clarke: Phi 1:25 - Having this confidence, I know that I shall abide Having this confidence, I know that I shall abide - Convinced that it is necessary that I should live longer, for the spreading and defense of the G...

Having this confidence, I know that I shall abide - Convinced that it is necessary that I should live longer, for the spreading and defense of the Gospel, I am persuaded that I shall now be liberated. This was in fact the case, for, after having been two years in bonds at Rome, he was released

Clarke: Phi 1:25 - For your furtherance For your furtherance - In the way of righteousness

For your furtherance - In the way of righteousness

Clarke: Phi 1:25 - And joy of faith And joy of faith - And happiness in that way. The farther a man proceeds in the way of truth, the stronger his faith will be; and the stronger his f...

And joy of faith - And happiness in that way. The farther a man proceeds in the way of truth, the stronger his faith will be; and the stronger his faith, the greater his joy or happiness.

Clarke: Phi 1:26 - That your rejoicing may be more abundant That your rejoicing may be more abundant - Men rejoice more in recovering a thing that was lost, than they do in a continual possession of what is o...

That your rejoicing may be more abundant - Men rejoice more in recovering a thing that was lost, than they do in a continual possession of what is of much greater value.

Clarke: Phi 1:27 - Let your conversation be as it becometh the Gospel Let your conversation be as it becometh the Gospel - The apostle considers the Church at Philippi as a free or imperial city, which possesses great ...

Let your conversation be as it becometh the Gospel - The apostle considers the Church at Philippi as a free or imperial city, which possesses great honors, dignities, and privileges; and he exhorts them to act, αξιως, worthy of or suitably to those honors and privileges. This is the idea that is expressed by the word πολιτευεσθε, act according to the nature of your political situation, the citizenship and privileges which you possess in consequence of your being free inhabitants of Christ’ s imperial city, the Church. The apostle resumes the same metaphor, Phi 3:20 : ἡμων - το πολιτευμα εν ουρανοις ὑπαρχει· For our citizenship is in heaven; but in this last verse he puts heaven in the place of the Church, and this is all right; for he, who is not a member of the Church of Christ on earth, can have no right to the kingdom of heaven, and he who does not walk worthy of the Gospel of Christ cannot be counted worthy to enter through the gates into the city of the eternal King

Clarke: Phi 1:27 - Whether I come and see you Whether I come and see you - Leaving the matter still in doubt as to them, whether he should again visit them

Whether I come and see you - Leaving the matter still in doubt as to them, whether he should again visit them

Clarke: Phi 1:27 - In one spirit In one spirit - Being all of one mind under the influence of the Holy Ghost

In one spirit - Being all of one mind under the influence of the Holy Ghost

Clarke: Phi 1:27 - Striving together Striving together - Συναθλουντες· Wrestling together, not in contention with each other, but in union against the enemies of the Gosp...

Striving together - Συναθλουντες· Wrestling together, not in contention with each other, but in union against the enemies of the Gospel faith - the doctrine of Christ crucified, and freedom from all Mosaic rites and ceremonies, as well as from sin and perdition, through his passion and sacrifice.

Clarke: Phi 1:28 - In nothing terrified by your adversaries In nothing terrified by your adversaries - So it appears that the Church at Philippi was then under persecution

In nothing terrified by your adversaries - So it appears that the Church at Philippi was then under persecution

Clarke: Phi 1:28 - Which is to them Which is to them - Ἡτις αυτοις εστιν . Some very judicious critics consider ἡτις as referring to πιστις, the faith ...

Which is to them - Ἡτις αυτοις εστιν . Some very judicious critics consider ἡτις as referring to πιστις, the faith of the Gospel, which they, the heathen, considered to be a token of perdition to all them who embraced it; but, as the apostle says, it was to them the Philippians, on the contrary, the most evident token of salvation; for, having embraced the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, they were incontestably in the way to eternal blessedness.

Clarke: Phi 1:29 - Unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ Unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ - Ὑμιν εχαρισθη· To you it is graciously given; it is no small privilege that God has ...

Unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ - Ὑμιν εχαρισθη· To you it is graciously given; it is no small privilege that God has so far honored you as to permit you to suffer on Christ’ s account. It is only his most faithful servants that he thus honors. Be not therefore terrified by your enemies; they can do nothing to you which God will not turn to your eternal advantage. We learn from this that it is as great a privilege to suffer for Christ as to believe on him; and the former in certain cases (as far as the latter in all cases) becomes the means of salvation to them who are thus exercised.

Clarke: Phi 1:30 - Having the same conflict Having the same conflict - When Paul preached the Gospel at Philippi he was grievously persecuted, as we learn from Acts 16:19-40, being stripped, s...

Having the same conflict - When Paul preached the Gospel at Philippi he was grievously persecuted, as we learn from Acts 16:19-40, being stripped, scourged, thrown into prison, even into the dungeon, and his feet made fast in the stocks. This was the conflict they had seen in him; and now they heard that he had been sent prisoner to Rome as an evil doer, and that he was at present in bonds, and shortly to be tried for his life before the Roman emperor to whom he had been obliged to appeal

1.    It was no small encouragement to these persons

(1.) That whatever sufferings they met with they were supported under them

(2.) That they suffered in the same cause in which their illustrious apostle was suffering

(3.) That they suffered, not because they had done any evil, or could be accused of any, but because they believed in the Son of God, who died for them and for all mankind

(4.) That all these sufferings were sanctified to their eternal good

2.    And God is able to make the same grace abound towards us in like circumstances; it is for this purpose that such consolatory portions are left on record. He who is persecuted or afflicted for Christ’ s sake, is most eminently honored by his Creator.

Calvin: Phi 1:1 - Paul and Timotheus, servants of Jesus Christ // Bishops // Deacons 1.Paul and Timotheus, servants of Jesus Christ While Paul is accustomed, in the inscription of his epistles, to employ titles of distinction, with th...

1.Paul and Timotheus, servants of Jesus Christ While Paul is accustomed, in the inscription of his epistles, to employ titles of distinction, with the view of procuring credit for himself and his ministry, there was no need of lengthened commendations in writing to the Philippians, who had known him by experience as a true Apostle of Christ, and still acknowledged him as such beyond all controversy. For they had persevered in the calling of God steadfastly, and in an even tenor. 24

Bishops He names the pastors separately, for the sake of honor. We may, however, infer from this, that the name of bishop is common to all the ministers of the Word, inasmuch as he assigns several bishops to one Church. The titles, therefore, of bishop and pastor, are synonymous. And this is one of the passages which Jerome quotes for proving this in his epistle to Evagrius, 25 and in his exposition of the Epistle to Titus. 26 Afterwards 27 there crept in the custom of applying the name of bishop exclusively to the person whom the presbyters in each church appointed over their company. 28 It originated, however, in a human custom, and rests on no Scripture authority. I acknowledge, indeed, that, as the minds and manners of men are, there cannot be order maintained among the ministers of the word, without one presiding over the others. I speak of particular bodies, 29 not of whole provinces, much less of the whole world. Now, although we must not contend for words, it were at the same time better for us in speaking to follow the Holy Spirit, the author of tongues, than to change for the worse forms of speech which are dictated to us by Him. For from the corrupted signification of the word this evil has resulted, that, as if all the presbyters 30 were not colleagues, called to the same office, one of them, under the pretext of a new appellation, usurped dominion over the others.

Deacons. This term may be taken in two ways — either as meaning administrators, and curators of the poor, or for elders, who were appointed for the regulation of morals. As, however, it is more generally made use of by Paul in the former sense, I understand it rather as meaning stewards, who superintended the distributing and receiving of alms. On the other points consult the preceding commentaries.

Calvin: Phi 1:3 - I give thanks 3.I give thanks. He begins with thanksgiving 31 on two accounts — first, that he may by this token shew his love to the Philippians; and secondly,...

3.I give thanks. He begins with thanksgiving 31 on two accounts — first, that he may by this token shew his love to the Philippians; and secondly, that, by commending them as to the past, he may exhort them, also, to perseverance in time to come. He adduces, also, another evidence of his love — the anxiety which he exercised in supplications. It is to be observed, however, that, whenever he makes mention of things that are joyful, he immediately breaks forth into thanksgiving — a practice with which we ought also to be familiar. We must, also, take notice, what things they are for which he gives thanks to God, — the fellowship of the Philippians in the gospel of Christ; for it follows from this, that it ought to be ascribed to the grace of God. When he says, upon every remembrance of you, he means, “As often as I remember you.”

Calvin: Phi 1:4 - Always in every prayer 4.Always in every prayer. Connect the words in this manner: “ Always presenting prayer for you all in every prayer of mine. ” For as he had said...

4.Always in every prayer. Connect the words in this manner: “ Always presenting prayer for you all in every prayer of mine. ” For as he had said before, that the remembrance of them was an occasion of joy to him, so he now subjoins, that they come into his mind as often as he prays. He afterwards adds, that it is with joy that he presents prayer in their behalf. Joy refers to the past; prayer to the future. For he rejoiced in their auspicious beginnings, and was desirous of their perfection. Thus it becomes us always to rejoice in the blessings received from God in such a manner, as to remember to ask from him those things that we are still in need of.

Calvin: Phi 1:5 - For your fellowship 5.For your fellowship. He now, passing over the other clause, states the ground of his joy — that they had come into the fellowship of the gospel,...

5.For your fellowship. He now, passing over the other clause, states the ground of his joy — that they had come into the fellowship of the gospel, that is, had become partakers of the gospel, which, as is well known, is accomplished by means of faith; for the gospel appears as nothing to us, in respect of any enjoyment of it, until we have received it by faith. At the same time the term fellowship may be viewed as referring to the common society of the saints, as though he had said that they had been associated with all the children of God in the faith of the gospel. When he says, from the first day, he commends their promptitude in having shewn themselves teachable immediately upon the doctrine being set before them. The phrase until now denotes their perseverance. Now we know how rare an excellence it is, to follow God immediately upon his calling us, and also to persevere steadfastly unto the end. For many are slow and backward to obey, while there are still more that fall short through fickleness and inconstancy. 32

Calvin: Phi 1:6 - Persuaded of this very thing // Until the day of Jesus Christ 6.Persuaded of this very thing An additional ground of joy is furnished in his confidence in them for the time to come. 33 But some one will say, why...

6.Persuaded of this very thing An additional ground of joy is furnished in his confidence in them for the time to come. 33 But some one will say, why should men dare to assure themselves for to-morrow amidst so great an infirmity of nature, amidst so many impediments, ruggednesses, and precipices? 34 Paul, assuredly, did not derive this confidence from the steadfastness or excellence of men, but simply from the fact, that God had manifested his love to the Philippians. And undoubtedly this is the true manner of acknowledging God’s benefits — when we derive from them occasion of hoping well as to the future. 35 For as they are tokens at once of his goodness, and of his fatherly benevolence towards us, what ingratitude were it to derive from this no confirmation of hope and good courage! In addition to this, God is not like men, so as to be wearied out or exhausted by conferring kindness. 36 Let, therefore, believers exercise themselves in constant meditation upon the favors which God confers, that they may encourage and confirm hope as to the time to come, and always ponder in their mind this syllogism: God does not forsake the work which his own hands have begun, as the Prophet bears witness, (Psa 138:8; Isa 64:8;) we are the work of his hands; therefore he will complete what he has begun in us. When I say that we are the work of his hands, I do not refer to mere creation, but to the calling by which we are adopted into the number of his sons. For it is a token to us of our election, that the Lord has called us effectually to himself by his Spirit.

It is asked, however, whether any one can be certain as to the salvation of others, for Paul here is not speaking of himself but of the Philippians. I answer, that the assurance which an individual has respecting his own salvation, is very different from what he has as to that of another. For the Spirit of God is a witness to me of my calling, as he is to each of the elect. As to others, we have no testimony, except from the outward efficacy of the Spirit; that is, in so far as the grace of God shews itself in them, so that we come to know it. There is, therefore, a great difference, because the assurance of faith remains inwardly shut up, and does not extend itself to others. But wherever we see any such tokens of Divine election as can be perceived by us, we ought immediately to be stirred up to entertain good hope, both in order that we may not be envious 37 towards our neighbors, and withhold from them an equitable and kind judgment of charity; and also, that we may be grateful to God. 38 This, however, is a general rule both as to ourselves and as to others — that, distrusting our own strength, we depend entirely upon God alone.

Until the day of Jesus Christ The chief thing, indeed, to be understood here is — until the termination of the conflict. Now the conflict is terminated by death. As, however, the Spirit is accustomed to speak in this manner in reference to the last coming of Christ, it were better to extend the advancement of the grace of Christ to the resurrection of the flesh. For although those who have been freed from the mortal body do no longer contend with the lusts of the flesh, and are, as the expression is, beyond the reach of a single dart, 39 yet there will be no absurdity in speaking of them as in the way of advancement, 40 inasmuch as they have not yet reached the point at which they aspire, — they do not yet enjoy the felicity and glory which they have hoped for; and in fine, the day has not yet shone which is to discover the treasures which lie hid in hope. And in truth, when hope is treated of, our eyes must always be directed forward to a blessed resurrection, as the grand object in view.

Calvin: Phi 1:7 - As it is reasonable // Of my grace and in the bonds 7.As it is reasonable. For we are envious 42 valuators of the gifts of God if we do not reckon as children of God those in whom there shine forth tho...

7.As it is reasonable. For we are envious 42 valuators of the gifts of God if we do not reckon as children of God those in whom there shine forth those true tokens of piety, which are the marks by which the Spirit of adoption manifests himself. Paul accordingly says, that equity itself dictates to him, 43 that he should hope well of the Philippians in all time to come, inasmuch as he sees them to be associated with himself in participation of grace. It is not without due consideration that I have given a different rendering of this passage from that of Erasmus, as the judicious reader will easily perceive. For he states what opinion he has of the Philippians, which was the ground of his hoping well respecting them. He says, then, that they are partakers with him of the same grace in his bonds, and in the defense of the gospel.

To have them in his heart is to reckon them as such in the inmost affection of his heart. For the Philippians had always assisted Paul according to their ability, so as to connect themselves with him as associates for maintaining the cause of the gospel, so far as was in their power. Thus, although they were absent in body, yet, on account of the pious disposition which they shewed by every service in their power, he recognises them as in bonds along with him. “ I have you, therefore, in my heart; ” this is, sincerely and without any pretense, assuredly, and with no slight or doubtful opinion — as what? as partakers of grace — in what? in my bonds, by which the gospel is defended. As he acknowledged them to be such, it was reasonable that he should hope well respecting them.

Of my grace and in the bonds It were a ludicrous thing in the view of the world to reckon a prison to be a benefit from God, but if we estimate the matter aright, it is no common honor that God confers upon us, when we suffer persecution for the sake of his truth. For it was not in vain that it was said,

Blessed shall ye be, when men shall afflict and harass you with all kinds of reproaches for my name’s sake. (Mat 5:11)

Let us therefore bear in remembrance also, that we must with readiness and alacrity embrace the fellowship of the cross of Christ as a special favor from God. In addition to bonds he subjoins the defense and confirmation of the gospel, that he may express so much the better the honourableness of the service which God has enjoined upon us in placing us in opposition to his enemies, so as to bear testimony to his gospel. For it is as though he had entrusted us with the defense of his gospel. And truly it was when armed with this consideration, that the martyrs were prepared to contemn all the rage of the wicked, and to rise superior to every kind of torture. And would that this were present to the mind of all that are called to make a confession of their faith, that they have been chosen by Christ to be as advocates to plead his cause! For were they sustained by such consolation they would be more courageous than to be so easily turned aside into a perfidious revolt. 44

Here, however, some one will inquire, whether the confirmation of the gospel depends on the steadfastness of men. I answer, that the truth of God is in itself too firm to require that it should have support from any other quarter; for though we should all of us be found liars, God, nevertheless, remains true. (Rom 3:4.) There is, however, no absurdity in saying, that weak consciences are confirmed in it by such helps. That kind of confirmation, therefore, of which Paul makes mention, has a relation to men, as we learn from our own experience that the slaughter of so many martyrs has been attended at least with this advantage, that they have been as it were so many seals, by which the gospel has been sealed in our hearts. Hence that saying of Tertullian, that “the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church,” — which I have imitated in a certain poem: “But that sacred blood, 45 the maintainer of God’s honor, will be like seed for producing offspring.” 46

Calvin: Phi 1:8 - For God is my witness // In the bowels 8.For God is my witness He now declares more explicitly his affection for them, and, with the view of giving proof of it, he makes use of an oath, an...

8.For God is my witness He now declares more explicitly his affection for them, and, with the view of giving proof of it, he makes use of an oath, and that on good grounds, because we know how dear in the sight of God is the edification of his Church. It was, too, more especially of advantage, that Paul’s affection should be thoroughly made known to the Philippians. For it tends in no small degree to secure credit for the doctrine, when the people are persuaded that they are beloved by the teacher. He calls God as a witness to the truth, inasmuch as he alone is the Truth, and as a witness of his affection, inasmuch as he alone is the searcher of hearts. In the word rendered long after, a particular term is made use of instead of a general, and it is a token of affection, inasmuch as we long after those things which are dear to us.

In the bowels He places the bowels of Christ in opposition to carnal affection, to intimate that his affection is holy and pious. For the man that loves according to the flesh has respect to his own advantage, and may from time to time change his mind according to the variety of circumstances and seasons. In the meantime he instructs us by what rule the affections of believers ought to be regulated, so that, renouncing their own will, they may allow Christ to sit at the helm. And, unquestionably, true love can flow from no other source than from the bowels of Christ, and this, like a goad, ought to affect us not a little — that Christ in a manner opens his bowels, that by them he may cherish mutual affection between us. 47

Calvin: Phi 1:9 - This I pray that your love 9.This I pray that your love He returns to the prayer, which he had simply touched upon in one word in passing. He states, accordingly, the sum of th...

9.This I pray that your love He returns to the prayer, which he had simply touched upon in one word in passing. He states, accordingly, the sum of those things which he asked from God in their behalf, that they also may learn to pray after his example, and may aspire at proficiency in those gifts. The view taken by some, as though the love of the Philippians denoted the Philippians themselves, as illiterate persons are accustomed very commonly to say, “Your reverence,” — “Your paternity,” is absurd. For no instance of such an expression occurs in the writings of Paul, nor had such fooleries come into use. Besides, the statement would be less complete, and, independently of this, the simple and natural meaning of the words suits admirably well. For the true attainments of Christians are when they make progress in knowledge, and understanding, and afterwards in love. Accordingly the particle in, according to the idiom of the Hebrew tongue, is taken here to mean with, as I have also rendered it, unless perhaps one should prefer to explain it as meaning by, so as to denote the instrument or formal cause. For, the greater proficiency we make in knowledge, so much the more ought our love to increase. The meaning in that case would be, “That your love may increase according to the measure of knowledge.” All knowledge, means what is full and complete — not a knowledge of all things. 48

Calvin: Phi 1:10 - That ye may approve the things that are // That ye may be sincere 10.That ye may approve the things that are Here we have a definition of Christian wisdom — to know what is advantageous or expedient — not to tor...

10.That ye may approve the things that are Here we have a definition of Christian wisdom — to know what is advantageous or expedient — not to torture the mind with empty subtleties and speculations. For the Lord does not wish that his believing people should employ themselves fruitlessly in learning what is of no profit: From this you may gather in what estimation the Sorbonnic theology ought to be held, in which you may spend your whole life, and yet not derive more of edification from it in connection with the hope of a heavenly life, or more of spiritual advantage, than from the demonstrations of Euclid. Unquestionably, although it taught nothing false, it well deserves to be execrable, on the ground that it is a pernicious profanation of spiritual doctrine. For Scripture is useful, as Paul says, in 2Ti 3:16, but there you will find nothing but cold subtleties of words.

That ye may be sincere This is the advantage which we derive from knowledge — not that every one may artfully consult his own interests, but that we may live in pure conscience in the sight of God.

It is added — and without offense The Greek word ἀπροσκοποι is ambiguous. Chrysostom explains it in an active sense — that as he had desired that they should be pure and upright in the sight of God, so he now desires that they should lead an honorable life in the sight of men, that they may not injure their neighbors by any evil examples. This exposition I do not reject: the passive signification, however, is better suited to the context, in my opinion. For he desires wisdom for them, with this view — that they may with unwavering step go forward in their calling until the day of Christ, as on the other hand it happens through ignorance, 49 that we frequently slip our foot, stumble, and turn aside. And how many stumbling blocks Satan from time to time throws in our way, with the view of either stopping our course altogether, or impeding it, every one of us knows from his own experience.

Calvin: Phi 1:11 - Filled with the fruits of righteousness 11.Filled with the fruits of righteousness. This now belongs to the outward life, for a good conscience produces its fruits by means of works. Hence ...

11.Filled with the fruits of righteousness. This now belongs to the outward life, for a good conscience produces its fruits by means of works. Hence he desires that they may be fruitful in good works for the glory of God. Such fruits, he says, are by Christ, because they flow from the grace of Christ. For the beginning of our well-doing is, when we are sanctified by his Spirit, for he rested upon him, that we might all receive of his fullness. (Joh 1:16.) And as Paul here derives a similitude from trees, we are wild olive-trees, (Rom 11:24,) and unproductive, until we are ingrafted into Christ, who by his living root makes us fruitbearing trees, in accordance with that saying, (Joh 15:1,) I am the vine, ye are the branches. He at the same time shews the end — that we may promote the glory of God. For no life is so excellent in appearance as not to be corrupted and become offensive in the view of God, if it is not directed towards this object.

Paul’s speaking here of works under the term righteousness, is not at all inconsistent with the gratuitous righteousness of faith. For it does not immediately follow that there is righteousness wherever there are the fruits of righteousness, inasmuch as there is no righteousness in the sight of God, unless there be a full and complete obedience to the law, which is not found in any one of the saints, though, nevertheless, they bring forth, according to the measure, the good and pleasant 50 fruits of righteousness, and for this reason, that, as God begins righteousness in us, through the regeneration of the Spirit, so what is wanting is amply supplied through the remission of sins, in such a way that all righteousness, nevertheless, depends upon faith.

Calvin: Phi 1:12 - But I wish you to know 12.But I wish you to know We all know from our own experience, how much the flesh is wont to be offended by the abasement of the cross. We allow, ind...

12.But I wish you to know We all know from our own experience, how much the flesh is wont to be offended by the abasement of the cross. We allow, indeed, Christ crucified to be preached to us; but when he appears in connection with his cross, then, as though we were thunderstruck at the novelty of it, 51 we either avoid him or hold him in abhorrence, and that not merely in our own persons, but also in the persons of those who deliver to us the gospel. It may have happened to the Philippians, that they were in some degree discouraged in consequence of the persecution of their Apostle. We may also very readily believe, that those bad workmen 52 who eagerly watched every occasion, however small, of doing injury, did not refrain from triumphing over the calamity of this holy man, and by this means making his gospel contemptible. If, however, they were not successful in this attempt, they might very readily calumniate him by representing him as hated by the whole world; and at the same time leading the Philippians to dread, lest, by an unfortunate association with him, 53 they should needlessly incur great dislike among all; for such are the usual artifices of Satan. The Apostle provides against this danger, when he states that the gospel had been promoted by means of his bonds. The design, accordingly, of this detail is, to encourage the Philippians, that they may not feel deterred 54 by the persecution endured by him.

Calvin: Phi 1:13 - So that my bonds 13.So that my bonds He employs the expression — in Christ, to mean, in the affairs, or in the cause of Christ, for he intimates that his bonds...

13.So that my bonds He employs the expression — in Christ, to mean, in the affairs, or in the cause of Christ, for he intimates that his bonds had become illustrious, so as to promote the honor of Christ. 55 The rendering given by some — through Christ, seems forced. I have also employed the word illustria (illustrious) in preference to manifesta , (manifest,) — as having ennobled the gospel by their fame. 56 “Satan, indeed, has attempted it, and the wicked have thought that it would turn out so, that the gospel would be destroyed; but God has frustrated both the attempts of the former and the expectations of the latter, 57 and that in two ways, for while the gospel was previously obscure and unknown, it has come to be well known, and not only so, but has even been rendered honorable in the Praetorium , no less than in the rest of the city.” By the praetorium I understand the hall and palace of Nero, which Fabius 58 and writers of that age call Augustale , ( the Augustal.) For as the name praetor was at first a general term, and denoted all magistrates who held the chief sway, (hence it came that the dictator was called the sovereign praetor, 59) it, consequently, became customary to employ the term praetorium in war to mean the tent, either of the consul, 60 or of the person who presided, 61 while in the city it denoted the palace of Caesar, 62 from the time that the Cesars took possession of the monarchy. 63 Independently of this, the bench of praetor is also called the praetorium 64

Calvin: Phi 1:14 - Many of the brethren 14.Many of the brethren. By this instance we are taught that the tortures of the saints, endured by them in behalf of the gospel, are a ground of con...

14.Many of the brethren. By this instance we are taught that the tortures of the saints, endured by them in behalf of the gospel, are a ground of confidence 65 to us. It were indeed a dreadful spectacle, and such as might tend rather to dishearten us, did we see nothing but the cruelty and rage of the persecutors. When, however, we see at the same time the hand of the Lord, which makes his people unconquerable, 66 under the infirmity of the Cross, and causes them to triumph, relying upon this, 67 we ought to venture farther than we had been accustomed, having now a pledge of our victory in the persons of our brethren. The knowledge of this ought to overcome our fears, that we may speak boldly in the midst of dangers.

Calvin: Phi 1:15 - Some indeed 15.Some indeed. Here is another fruit of Paul’s bonds, that not only were the brethren stirred up to confidence by his example — some by maintain...

15.Some indeed. Here is another fruit of Paul’s bonds, that not only were the brethren stirred up to confidence by his example — some by maintaining their position, others by becoming more eager to teach — but even those who wished him evil were on another account stirred up to publish the gospel.

Calvin: Phi 1:16 - Some, I say, from contention 16.Some, I say, from contention. Here we have a lengthened detail, in which he explains more fully the foregoing statement; for he repeats that there...

16.Some, I say, from contention. Here we have a lengthened detail, in which he explains more fully the foregoing statement; for he repeats that there are two classes of men that are stirred up by his bonds to preach Christ — the one influenced by contention, that is, by depraved affection — the other by pious zeal, as being desirous to maintain along with him the defense of the gospel. The former, he says, do not preach Christ purely, because it was not a right zeal. 68 For the term does not apply to doctrine, because it is possible that the man who teaches most purely, may, nevertheless, not be of a sincere mind. 69 Now, that this impurity was in the mind, and did not shew itself in doctrine, may be inferred from the context. Paul assuredly would have felt no pleasure in seeing the gospel corrupted; yet he declares that he rejoices in the preaching of those persons, while it was not simple or sincere.

It is asked, however, how such preaching could be injurious to him? I answer, that many occasions are unknown to us, inasmuch as we are not acquainted with the circumstances of the times. It is asked farther, “Since the gospel cannot be preached but by those that understand it, what motive induced those persons to persecute the doctrine of which they approved?” I answer, that ambition is blind, nay, it is a furious beast. Hence it is not to be wondered if false brethren snatch a weapon from the gospel for harassing good and pious pastors. 70 Paul, assuredly, says nothing here 71 of which I have not myself had experience. For there are living at this very day those who have preached the gospel with no other design, than that they might gratify the rage of the wicked by persecuting pious pastors. As to Paul’s enemies, it is of importance to observe, if they were Jews, how mad their hatred was, so as even to forget on what account they hated him. For while they made it their aim to destroy him, they exerted themselves to promote the gospel, on account of which they were hostile to him; but they imagined, no doubt, that the cause of Christ would stand or fall 72 in the person of one individual. If, however, there were envious persons, 73 who were thus hurried away by ambition, we ought to acknowledge the wonderful goodness of God, who, notwithstanding, gave such a prosperous issue to their depraved affections.

Calvin: Phi 1:17 - That for the defense 17.That for the defense. Those who truly loved Christ reckoned that it would be a disgrace to them if they did not associate themselves with Paul as ...

17.That for the defense. Those who truly loved Christ reckoned that it would be a disgrace to them if they did not associate themselves with Paul as his companions, when maintaining the cause of the gospel; and we must act in such a manner, as to give a helping hand, as far as possible, to the servants of Christ when in difficulty. 74 Observe, again, this expression — for the defense of the gospel For since Christ confers upon us so great an honor, what excuse shall we have, if we shall be traitors to his cause, 75 or what may we expect, if we betray it by our silence, but that he shall in return desert our cause, who is our sole Advocate, or Patron, with the Father? 76 (1Jo 2:1.)

Calvin: Phi 1:18 - But in every way 18.But in every way. As the wicked disposition of those of whom he has spoken might detract from the acceptableness of the doctrine, 77 he says that ...

18.But in every way. As the wicked disposition of those of whom he has spoken might detract from the acceptableness of the doctrine, 77 he says that this ought to be reckoned of great importance, that they nevertheless promoted the cause of the gospel, whatever their disposition might be. For God sometimes accomplishes an admirable work by means of wicked and depraved instruments. Accordingly, he says that he rejoices in a happy result of this nature; because this one thing contented him — if he saw the kingdom of Christ increasing — just as we, on hearing that that impure dog Carolus 78 was scattering the seeds of pure doctrine at Avignon and elsewhere, we gave thanks to God because he had made use of that most profligate and worthless villain for his glory: and at this day we rejoice that the progress of the gospel is advanced by many who, nevertheless, had another design in view. But though Paul rejoiced in the advancement of the gospel, yet, had the matter been in his hand, he would never have ordained such persons as ministers. We ought, therefore, to rejoice if God accomplishes anything that is good by means of wicked persons; but they ought not on that account to be either placed by us in the ministry, or looked upon as Christ’s lawful ministers.

Calvin: Phi 1:19 - For I know that // Through your prayer // And the supply 19.For I know that As some published the gospel with the view of rendering Paul odious, in order that they might kindle up against him the more the r...

19.For I know that As some published the gospel with the view of rendering Paul odious, in order that they might kindle up against him the more the rage of his enemies, he tells them beforehand that their wicked attempts will do him no harm, because the Lord will turn them to a contrary design. “Though they plot my destruction, yet I trust that all their attempts will have no other effect but that Christ will be glorified in me — which is a thing most salutary to me.” For it is evident from what follows, that he is not speaking of the safety of the body. But whence this confidence on the part of Paul? It is from what he teaches elsewhere, (Rom 8:28,) — that all things contribute to the advantage of God’s true worshippers, even though the whole world, with the devil, its prince, should conspire together for their ruin.

Through your prayer That he may stir them up to pray more ardently, he declares that he is confident that the Lord will give them an answer to their prayers. Nor does he use dissimulation: for he who depends for help on the prayers of the saints relies on the promise of God. In the mean time, nothing is detracted from the unmerited goodness of God, on which depend our prayers, and what is obtained by means of them.

And the supply. Let us not suppose, that because he joins these two things in one connection, they are consequently alike. The statement must, therefore, be explained in this manner: — “I know that all this will turn out to my advantage, through the administration of the Spirit, you also helping by prayer,” — so that the supply of the Spirit is the efficient cause, while prayer is a subordinate help. We must also observe the propriety of the Greek term, for ἐπιχορηγία is employed to mean the furnishing of what is wanting, 79 just as the Spirit of God pours into us everything of which we are destitute.

He calls him, too, the Spirit of Jesus Christ, to intimate, that if we are Christians, he is common to all of us, inasmuch as he was poured upon him with all fullness, that, according to the measure of his grace, he might give out, so far as is expedient, to each of his members.

Calvin: Phi 1:20 - According to my expectation // With all confidence 20.According to my expectation. Should any one object, “From what do you derive that knowledge?” he answers, “From hope.” For as it is certai...

20.According to my expectation. Should any one object, “From what do you derive that knowledge?” he answers, “From hope.” For as it is certain that God does not by any means design to frustrate our hope, hope itself ought not to be wavering. Let then the pious reader carefully observe this adverb secundum , ( according to,) that he may be fully assured in his own mind, that it is impossible but that the Lord will fulfill our expectation, inasmuch as it is founded on his own word. Now, he has promised that he will never be wanting to us even in the midst of all tortures, if we are at any time called to make confession of his name. Let, therefore, all the pious entertain hope after Paul’s example, and they will not be put to shame.

With all confidence We see that, in cherishing hope, he does not give indulgence to carnal desires, but places his hope in subjection to the promise of God. “ Christ, ” says he, “ will be magnified in my body, whether by life or by death ” By making express mention, however, of the body, he intimates that, amongst the conflicts of the present life, he is in no degree doubtful as to the issue, for we are assured as to this by God. If, accordingly, giving ourselves up to the good pleasure of God, and having in our life the same object in view as Paul had, we expect, in whatever way it may be, a prosperous issue, we shall no longer have occasion to fear lest any adversity should befall us; for if we live and die to him, we are his in life and in death. (Rom 14:8.) He expresses the way in which Christ will be magnified — by full assurance. Hence it follows, that through our fault he is cast down and lowered, so far as it is in our power to do so, when we give way through fear. Do not those then feel ashamed who reckon it a light offense to tremble, 80 when called to make confession of the truth? But how much ashamed ought those to feel, who are so shamelessly impudent as to have the hardihood even to excuse renunciation?

He adds, as always, that they may confirm their faith from past experience of the grace of God. Thus, in Rom 5:4, he says, Experience begets hope.

Calvin: Phi 1:21 - For to me to live 21.For to me to live. Interpreters have hitherto, in my opinion, given a wrong rendering and exposition to this passage; for they make this distincti...

21.For to me to live. Interpreters have hitherto, in my opinion, given a wrong rendering and exposition to this passage; for they make this distinction, that Christ was life to Paul, and death was gain. I, on the other hand, make Christ the subject of discourse in both clauses, so that he is declared to be gain in him both in life and in death; for it is customary with the Greeks to leave the word πρός to be understood. Besides that this meaning is less forced, it also corresponds better with the foregoing statement, and contains more complete doctrine. He declares that it is indifferent to him, and is all one, whether he lives or dies, because, having Christ, he reckons both to be gain. And assuredly it is Christ alone that makes us happy both in death and in life; otherwise, if death is miserable, life is in no degree happier; so that it is difficult to determine whether it is more advantageous to live or to die out of Christ. On the other hand, let Christ be with us, and he will bless our life as well as our death, so that both will be happy and desirable for us.

Calvin: Phi 1:22 - But if to live in the flesh 22.But if to live in the flesh. As persons in despair feel in perplexity as to whether they ought to prolong their life any farther in miseries, or t...

22.But if to live in the flesh. As persons in despair feel in perplexity as to whether they ought to prolong their life any farther in miseries, or to terminate their troubles by death, so Paul, on the other hand, says that he is, in a spirit of contentment, so well prepared for death or for life, because the condition of believers, both in the one case and in the other, is blessed, so that he is at a loss which to choose. If it is worth while; that is, “If I have reason to believe that there will be greater advantage from my life than from my death, I do not see which of them I ought to prefer.” To live in the flesh, is an expression which he has made use of in contempt, from comparing it with a better life.

Calvin: Phi 1:23 - For I am in a strait // Having a desire to be set free and to be with Christ // To be set free 23.For I am in a strait Paul did not desire to live with any other object in view that that of promoting the glory of Christ, and doing good to the b...

23.For I am in a strait Paul did not desire to live with any other object in view that that of promoting the glory of Christ, and doing good to the brethren. Hence he does not reckon that he has any other advantage from living than the welfare of the brethren. But so far as concerns himself personally, it were, he acknowledges, better for him to die soon, because he would be with Christ. By his choice, however, he shews what ardent love glowed in his breast. There is nothing said here as to earthly advantages, but as to spiritual benefit, which is on good grounds supremely desirable in the view of the pious. Paul, however, as if forgetful of himself, does not merely hold himself undetermined, lest he should be swayed by a regard to his own benefit rather than that of the Philippians, but at length concludes that a regard to them preponderates in his mind. And assuredly this is in reality to live and die to Christ, when, with indifference as to ourselves, we allow ourselves to be carried and borne away withersoever Christ calls us.

Having a desire to be set free and to be with Christ These two things must be read in connection. For death of itself will never be desired, because such a desire is at variance with natural feeling, but is desired for some particular reason, or with a view to some other end. Persons in despair have recourse to it from having become weary of life; believers, on the other hand, willingly hasten forward to it, because it is a deliverance from the bondage of sin, and an introduction into the kingdom of heaven. What Paul now says is this; “I desire to die, because I will, by this means, come into immediate connection with Christ.” In the mean time, believers do not cease to regard death with horror, but when they turn their eyes to that life which follows death, they easily overcome all dread by means of that consolation. Unquestionably, every one that believes in Christ ought to be so courageous as to lift up his head on mention being made of death, delighted to have intimation of his redemption. (Luk 21:28.) From this we see how many are Christians only in name, since the greater part, on hearing mention made of death, are not merely alarmed, but are rendered almost lifeless through fear, as though they had never heard a single word respecting Christ. O the worth and value of a good conscience! Now faith is the foundation of a good conscience; nay more, it is itself goodness of conscience.

To be set free This form of expression is to be observed. Profane persons speak of death as the destruction of man, as if he altogether perished. Paul here reminds us, that death is the separation of the soul from the body. And this he expresses more fully immediately afterwards, explaining as to what condition awaits believers after death — that of dwelling with Christ We are with Christ even in this life, inasmuch as the kingdom of God is within us, (Luk 17:21,) and Christ dwells in us by faith, (Eph 3:17,) and has promised that he will be with us even unto the end of the world, (Mat 28:20,) but that presence we enjoy only in hope. Hence as to our feeling, we are said to be at present at a distance from him. See 2Co 5:6. This passage is of use for setting aside the mad fancy of those who dream that souls sleep when separated from the body, for Paul openly declares that we enjoy Christ’s presence on being set free from the body.

Calvin: Phi 1:25 - And having this confidence 25.And having this confidence. Some, reckoning it an inconsistent thing that the Apostle 82 should acknowledge himself to have been disappointed of h...

25.And having this confidence. Some, reckoning it an inconsistent thing that the Apostle 82 should acknowledge himself to have been disappointed of his expectation, are of opinion that he was afterwards freed from bonds, and went over many countries of the world. Their fears, however, as to this are groundless, for the saints are accustomed to regulate their expectations according to the word of God, so as not to promise themselves more than God has promised. Thus, when they have a sure token of God’s will, they in that case place their reliance also upon a sure persuasion, which admits of no hesitation. Of this nature is a persuasion respecting a perpetual remission of sins, respecting the aid of the Spirit for the grace of final perseverance, (as it is called,) and respecting the resurrection of the flesh. Of this nature, also, was the assurance of the Prophets respecting their prophecies. As to other things, they expect nothing except conditionally, and hence they subject all events to the providence of God, who, they allow, sees more distinctly than they. To remain, means here, to stay for a little while: to continue, means, to remain for a long time.

Calvin: Phi 1:26 - That your glorying 26.That your glorying. The expression which he employs, ἐν ἐμόι, I have rendered de me (as to me,) because the preposition is made use ...

26.That your glorying. The expression which he employs, ἐν ἐμόι, I have rendered de me (as to me,) because the preposition is made use of twice, but in different senses. No one assuredly will deny that I have faithfully brought out Paul’s mind. The rendering given by some — per Christum , (through Christ,) I do not approve of. For in Christ is employed in place of Secundum Christum , (According to Christ,) or Christiane , (Christianly,) to intimate that it was a holy kind of glorying. For otherwise we are commanded to glory in God alone. (1Co 1:31.) Hence malevolent persons might meet Paul with the objection, How is it allowable for the Philippians to glory as to thee? He anticipates this calumny by saying that they will do this according to Christ — glorying in a servant of Christ, with a view to the glory of his Lord, and that with an eye to the doctrine rather than to the individual, and in opposition to the false apostles, just as David, by comparing himself with hypocrites, boasts of his righteousness. (Psa 7:8.)

Calvin: Phi 1:27 - Only in a manner worthy of the gospel // That whether I come // Stand in one spirit // Striving together for the faith 27.Only in a manner worthy of the gospel. We make use of this form of expression, when we are inclined to pass on to a new subject. Thus it is as tho...

27.Only in a manner worthy of the gospel. We make use of this form of expression, when we are inclined to pass on to a new subject. Thus it is as though he had said, “But as for me, the Lord will provide, but as for you, etc., whatever may take place as to me, let it be your care, nevertheless, to go forward in the right course.” When he speaks of a pure and honorable conversation as being worthy of the gospel, he intimates, on the other hand, that those who live otherwise do injustice to the gospel.

That whether I come As the Greek phrase made use of by Paul is elliptical, I have made use of videam , (I see,) instead of videns (seeing.) If this does not appear satisfactory, you may supply the principal verb Intelligam , (I may learn,) in this sense: “Whether, when I shall come and see you, or whether I shall, when absent, hear respecting your condition, I may learn in both ways, both by being present and by receiving intelligence, that ye stand in one spirit. ” We need not, however, feel anxiety as to particular terms, when the meaning is evident.

Stand in one spirit This, certainly, is one of the main excellences of the Church, and hence this is one means of preserving it in a sound state, inasmuch as it is torn to pieces by dissensions. But although Paul was desirous by means of this antidote to provide against novel and strange doctrines, yet he requires a twofold unity — of spirit and soul. The first is, that we have like views; the second, that we be united in heart. For when these two terms are connected together, spiritus (spirit) denotes the understanding, while anima (soul) denotes the will. Farther, agreement of views comes first in order; and then from it springs union of inclination.

Striving together for the faith This is the strongest bond of concord, when we have to fight together under the same banner, for this has often been the occasion of reconciling even the greatest enemies. Hence, in order that he may confirm the more the unity that existed among the Philippians, he calls them to notice that they are fellow-soldiers, who, having a common enemy and a common warfare, ought to have their minds united together in a holy agreement. The expression which Paul has made use of in the Greek (συναθλοῦντες τὣ πίστει) is ambiguous. The old interpreter renders it Collaborantes fidei , (laboring together with the faith.) 83 Erasmus renders it Adiuvantes fidem , (Helping the faith,) as if meaning, that they gave help to the faith to the utmost of their power. As, however, the dative in Greek is made use of instead of the ablative of instrumentality, (that language having no ablative,) I have no doubt that the Apostle’s meaning is this: “Let the faith of the gospel unite you together, more especially as that is a common armory against one and the same enemy.” In this way the particle σύν, which others refer to faith, I take as referring to the Philippians, and with greater propriety, if I am not mistaken. In the first place, every one is aware how effectual an inducement it is to concord, when we have to maintain a conflict together; and farther, we know that in the spiritual warfare we are armed with the shield of faith, (Eph 6:16,) for repelling the enemy; nay, more, faith is both our panoply and our victory. Hence he added this clause, that he might shew what is the end of a pious connection. The wicked, too, conspire together for evil, but their agreement is accursed: let us, therefore, contend with one mind under the banner of faith.

Calvin: Phi 1:28 - And in nothing terrified // Which is to them a manifest proof // And that from God 28.And in nothing terrified. The second thing which he recommends to the Philippians is fortitude of mind, 84 that they may not be thrown into confus...

28.And in nothing terrified. The second thing which he recommends to the Philippians is fortitude of mind, 84 that they may not be thrown into confusion by the rage of their adversaries. At that time the most cruel persecutions raged almost everywhere, because Satan strove with all his might to impede the commencement of the gospel, and was the more enraged in proportion as Christ put forth powerfully the grace of his Spirit. He exhorts, therefore, the Philippians to stand forward undaunted, and not be thrown into alarm.

Which is to them a manifest proof. This is the proper meaning of the Greek word, and there was no consideration that made it necessary for others to render it cause. For the wicked, when they wage war against the Lord, do already by a trial-fight, as it were, give a token of their ruin, and the more fiercely they insult over the pious, the more do they prepare themselves for ruin. The Scripture, assuredly, nowhere teaches, that the afflictions which the saints endure from the wicked are the cause of their salvation, but Paul in another instance, too, speaks of them as a manifest token or proof, (2Th 1:5,) and instead of ἔνδειξιν, which we have here, he in that passage makes use of the term ἔνδειγμα 85 This, therefore, is a choice consolation, that when we are assailed and harassed by our enemies, we have an evidence of our salvation. 86 For persecutions are in a manner seals of adoption to the children of God, if they endure them with fortitude and patience: the wicked give a token of their condemnation, because they stumble against a stone by which they shall be bruised to pieces. (Mat 21:44.)

And that from God. This is restricted to the last clause, that a taste of the grace of God may allay the bitterness of the cross. No one will naturally perceive the cross a token or evidence of salvation, for they are things that are contrary in appearance. Hence Paul calls the attention of the Philippians to another consideration — that God by his blessing turns into an occasion of welfare things that might otherwise seem to render us miserable. He proves it from this, that the endurance of the cross is the gift of God. Now it is certain, that all the gifts of God are salutary to us. To you, says he, it is given, not only to believe in Christ, but also to suffer for him. Hence even the sufferings themselves are evidences of the grace of God; and, since it is so, you have from this source a token of salvation. Oh, if this persuasion were effectually inwrought in our minds — that persecutions 87 are to be reckoned among God’s benefits, what progress would be made in the doctrine of piety! 88 And yet, what is more certain, than that it is the highest honor that is conferred upon us by Divine grace, that we suffer for his name either reproach, or imprisonment, or miseries, or tortures, or even death, for in that case he adorns us with his marks of distinction. 89 But more will be found that will rather bid God retire with gifts of that nature, than embrace with alacrity the cross when it is presented to them. Alas, then, for our stupidity! 90

Calvin: Phi 1:29 - To believe 29.To believe. He wisely conjoins faith with the cross by an inseparable connection, that the Philippians may know that they have been called to the ...

29.To believe. He wisely conjoins faith with the cross by an inseparable connection, that the Philippians may know that they have been called to the faith of Christ on this condition — that they endure persecutions on his account, as though he had said that their adoption can no more be separated from the cross, than Christ can be torn asunder from himself. Here Paul clearly testifies, that faith, as well as constancy in enduring persecutions, 91 is an unmerited gift of God. And certainly the knowledge of God is a wisdom that is too high for our attaining it by our own acuteness, and our weakness shews itself in daily instances in our own experience, when God withdraws his hand for a little while. That he may intimate the more distinctly that both are unmerited, he says expressly — for Christ’s sake, or at least that they are given to us on the ground of Christ’s grace; by which he excludes every idea of merit.

This passage is also at variance with the doctrine of the schoolmen, in maintaining that gifts of grace latterly conferred are rewards of our merit, on the ground of our having made a right use of those which had been previously bestowed. I do not deny, indeed, that God rewards the right use of his gifts of grace by bestowing grace more largely upon us, provided only you do not place merit, as they do, in opposition to his unmerited liberality and the merit of Christ.

Calvin: Phi 1:30 - Having the same conflict 30.Having the same conflict. He confirms, also, by his own example what he had said, and this adds no little authority to his doctrine. By the same m...

30.Having the same conflict. He confirms, also, by his own example what he had said, and this adds no little authority to his doctrine. By the same means, too, he shews them, that there is no reason why they should feel troubled on account of his bonds, when they behold the issue of the conflict.

Defender: Phi 1:1 - Timotheus Paul associated his young disciple Timothy with him in this letter probably because Timothy was with him when he first came to Philippi (Act 16:1, Act...

Paul associated his young disciple Timothy with him in this letter probably because Timothy was with him when he first came to Philippi (Act 16:1, Act 16:3, Act 16:11, Act 16:12). Paul was in prison at Rome when he wrote Philippians (Phi 1:12, Phi 1:13), and Timothy apparently had been able to visit him there.

Defender: Phi 1:1 - the servants Paul did not, in this case, assert his authority as an apostle, as he did when addressing a church with serious problems (1Co 1:1; Gal 1:1), perhaps b...

Paul did not, in this case, assert his authority as an apostle, as he did when addressing a church with serious problems (1Co 1:1; Gal 1:1), perhaps because he had nothing but commendation for the Philippian church. He and Timothy merely called themselves "bondslaves" of Christ.

Defender: Phi 1:1 - Philippi Philippi was the first city in Europe to hear the Gospel and establish a Christian church (Act 16:9). Paul had made at least one visit there later (Ac...

Philippi was the first city in Europe to hear the Gospel and establish a Christian church (Act 16:9). Paul had made at least one visit there later (Act 20:1-6). His divine call to Greece was the initial reason why the gospel spread to Europe and not Asia."

Defender: Phi 1:6 - will perform it It is neither our responsibility nor within our capability to maintain ourselves in a state of salvation. God began this work in us (Eph 2:8), and He ...

It is neither our responsibility nor within our capability to maintain ourselves in a state of salvation. God began this work in us (Eph 2:8), and He will assure its continuance.

Defender: Phi 1:6 - day of Jesus Christ The "day of Jesus Christ" (1Co 1:8; 1Co 5:5; 2Co 1:14; Phi 1:10; Phi 2:16; 2Th 2:2) is the day when Christ returns for His people (Joh 14:2, Joh 14:3)...

The "day of Jesus Christ" (1Co 1:8; 1Co 5:5; 2Co 1:14; Phi 1:10; Phi 2:16; 2Th 2:2) is the day when Christ returns for His people (Joh 14:2, Joh 14:3)."

Defender: Phi 1:7 - defence "Defence" is the Greek apologia, a legal term referring to a formal defense as in a courtroom. Many modern evangelicals think the gospel does not need...

"Defence" is the Greek apologia, a legal term referring to a formal defense as in a courtroom. Many modern evangelicals think the gospel does not need to be defended - just preached. Paul and Timothy knew better. The Gospel was under attack in their day and is even more so now, and it does need a sound defense (note the same word in Phi 1:17)."

Defender: Phi 1:18 - rejoice Paul could rejoice when Christ was preached, even when those so preaching were jealous of Paul's reputation and authority and were trying to undermine...

Paul could rejoice when Christ was preached, even when those so preaching were jealous of Paul's reputation and authority and were trying to undermine them. In this respect, he has set a remarkable example for modern preachers, evangelists and Bible teachers (see note on Phi 4:4)."

Defender: Phi 1:21 - gain See also Phi 1:23 ("to be with Christ ... is far better") and 2Co 5:8 ("absent from the body ... present with the Lord"). Although we normally want to...

See also Phi 1:23 ("to be with Christ ... is far better") and 2Co 5:8 ("absent from the body ... present with the Lord"). Although we normally want to continue in this life as long as possible, we need not fear death as believers in Christ; for God has assured us that even life in our immaterial spirit body after death is better than this present life, for Christ is there."

Defender: Phi 1:27 - becometh A more modern way of saying this is: "Let your civic behavior be becomingly appropriate to your allegiance to the gospel." One who professes salvation...

A more modern way of saying this is: "Let your civic behavior be becomingly appropriate to your allegiance to the gospel." One who professes salvation from sin and who has received imputed righteousness should live in a victoriously godly life style."

Defender: Phi 1:29 - given This normal Christian experience of being persecuted in some way or other for our Christian testimony has actually been granted (literally "graced") t...

This normal Christian experience of being persecuted in some way or other for our Christian testimony has actually been granted (literally "graced") to us as a privilege. "We suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together" (Rom 8:17). "If we suffer, we shall also reign with Him" (2Ti 2:12). "Rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's sufferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy." (1Pe 4:13)."

TSK: Phi 1:1 - Paul // Timotheus // the servants // the saints // Philippi // the bishops // and deacons Paul : Rom 1:1; 1Co 1:1 Timotheus : Act 16:1-3; 1Co 16:10; 2Co 1:1; Col 1:1; 1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:1; 1Ti 1:2; Heb 13:23 the servants : Mar 13:34; Joh 12:26;...

TSK: Phi 1:2 - -- Rom 1:7; 2Co 1:2; 1Pe 1:2

TSK: Phi 1:3 - I thank // upon // remembrance I thank : Rom 1:8, Rom 1:9, Rom 6:17; 1Co 1:4 upon : Eph 1:15, Eph 1:16; Col 1:3, Col 1:4; 1Th 1:2, 1Th 1:3, 1Th 3:9; 2Th 1:3; 2Ti 1:3; Phm 1:4, Phm 1...

I thank : Rom 1:8, Rom 1:9, Rom 6:17; 1Co 1:4

upon : Eph 1:15, Eph 1:16; Col 1:3, Col 1:4; 1Th 1:2, 1Th 1:3, 1Th 3:9; 2Th 1:3; 2Ti 1:3; Phm 1:4, Phm 1:5

remembrance : or, mention

TSK: Phi 1:4 - in // with in : Phi 1:9-11; Rom 1:9; Eph 1:14-23; 1Th 1:2 with : Phi 2:2, Phi 3:18, Phi 4:1; Luk 15:7, Luk 15:10; Col 2:5; 1Th 2:19, 1Th 2:20; Phm 1:7; 2Jo 1:4

TSK: Phi 1:5 - -- Phi 1:7, Phi 4:14; Act 16:15; Rom 11:17, Rom 12:13, Rom 15:26; 1Co 1:9; 2Co 8:1; Eph 2:19-22, Eph 3:6; Col 1:21-23; Phm 1:17; Heb 3:14; 2Pe 1:1; 1Jo 1...

TSK: Phi 1:6 - confident // begun // will // perform it // the day confident : 2Co 1:15, 2Co 2:3, 2Co 7:16, 2Co 9:4; Gal 5:10; 2Th 3:4; Phm 1:21; Heb 10:35 begun : Phi 1:29, Phi 2:13; Joh 6:29; Act 11:18, Act 16:14; R...

TSK: Phi 1:7 - it is // because // I have you in my heart // as // and in // partakers of my it is : 1Co 13:7; 1Th 1:2-5, 1Th 5:5; Heb 6:9, Heb 6:10 because : 2Co 3:2, 2Co 7:3 I have you in my heart : or, ye have me in your heart, Gal 5:6; 1Jo...

it is : 1Co 13:7; 1Th 1:2-5, 1Th 5:5; Heb 6:9, Heb 6:10

because : 2Co 3:2, 2Co 7:3

I have you in my heart : or, ye have me in your heart, Gal 5:6; 1Jo 3:14

as : Act 16:23-25, Act 20:23; Eph 3:1, Eph 4:1, Eph 6:20; Col 4:3, Col 4:18; 2Ti 1:8, 2Ti 2:9; Heb 10:33, Heb 10:34

and in : Phi 1:17, Phi 4:14

partakers of my : or, partakers with me of, Phi 1:5; 1Co 9:23; Heb 3:1; 1Pe 4:13, 1Pe 5:1

TSK: Phi 1:8 - God // how // in God : Rom 1:9, Rom 9:1; Gal 1:20; 1Th 2:5 how : Phi 2:26, Phi 4:1; 2Co 13:9; Gal 4:19; Col 2:1; 1Th 2:8; 2Ti 1:4 in : Phi 2:1; Isa 16:11, Isa 63:15; J...

TSK: Phi 1:9 - this // your // in knowledge // judgment this : Phi 1:4 your : Phi 3:15, Phi 3:16; Job 17:9; Pro 4:18; Mat 13:31-33; 2Co 8:7; 1Th 3:12, 1Th 4:1, 1Th 4:9, 1Th 4:10; 2Th 1:3; Phm 1:6; 1Pe 1:22 ...

TSK: Phi 1:10 - ye // approve things that are excellent // that ye may be // without // till ye : Isa 7:15, Isa 7:16; Amo 5:14, Amo 5:15; Mic 3:2; Joh 3:20; Rom 2:18, Rom 7:16, Rom 7:22, Rom 8:7; Rom 12:2, Rom 12:9 approve things that are exce...

TSK: Phi 1:11 - filled // are // unto filled : Phi 4:17; Psa 1:3, Psa 92:12-14; Isa 5:2; Luk 13:6-9; Joh 15:2, Joh 15:8, Joh 15:16; Rom 6:22; Rom 15:28; 2Co 9:10; Gal 5:22, Gal 5:23; Eph 5...

TSK: Phi 1:12 - that // rather that : Act 21:28-36, 22:1-30, 28:1-31 rather : Exo 18:11; Est 9:1; Psa 76:10; Act 8:4, Act 11:19-21; Rom 8:28, Rom 8:37; 2Ti 2:9

TSK: Phi 1:13 - in Christ // the palace // in all other places Act 20:23, Act 20:24, Act 21:11-13, Act 26:29, Act 26:31, Act 28:17, Act 28:20; Eph 3:1, Eph 4:1, Eph 6:20; Col. 4:3-18 in Christ : or, for Christ, 1P...

Act 20:23, Act 20:24, Act 21:11-13, Act 26:29, Act 26:31, Act 28:17, Act 28:20; Eph 3:1, Eph 4:1, Eph 6:20; Col. 4:3-18

in Christ : or, for Christ, 1Pe 4:12-16

the palace : or, Caesar’ s court, Phi 4:22

in all other places : or, to all others, 1Th 1:8, 1Th 1:9

TSK: Phi 1:14 - brethren // waxing // without brethren : Phi 4:1; Col 4:7 waxing : Act 4:23-31; 2Co 1:3-7; Eph 3:13, Eph 6:19, Eph 6:20; Col 4:4; 1Th 2:2 without : Luk 1:74, Luk 12:5-7

TSK: Phi 1:15 - preach // even // and preach : Phi 1:16, Phi 1:18; Act 5:42, Act 8:5, Act 8:35, Act 9:20, Act 10:36, Act 11:20; 1Co 1:23; 2Co 1:19, 2Co 4:5; 1Ti 3:16 even : Phi 2:3; Mat 23...

TSK: Phi 1:16 - not sincerely // supposing not sincerely : Phi 1:10; 2Co 2:17, 2Co 4:1, 2Co 4:2 supposing : Job 6:14, Job 16:4; Psa 69:26

not sincerely : Phi 1:10; 2Co 2:17, 2Co 4:1, 2Co 4:2

supposing : Job 6:14, Job 16:4; Psa 69:26

TSK: Phi 1:17 - that that : Phi 1:7; Rom 1:13-17; 1Co 9:16, 1Co 9:17; Gal 2:7, Gal 2:8; 1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 1:11, 2Ti 1:12, 2Ti 4:6, 2Ti 4:7; Luk 21:14; Act 22:1, Act 26:1, Act 2...

TSK: Phi 1:18 - What // whether // Christ // and I What : Rom 3:9, Rom 6:15; 1Co 10:19, 1Co 14:15 whether : Phi 1:14-17; Mat 23:14; Mar 12:40 Christ : Phi 1:15 and I : Mar 9:38-40; Luk 9:45, Luk 9:50; ...

TSK: Phi 1:19 - I know // through // the Spirit I know : Rom 8:28; 1Co 4:17; 1Pe 1:7-9 through : 2Co 1:11; Eph 6:18, Eph 6:19 the Spirit : Rom 8:9; Gal 4:6; 1Pe 1:11

I know : Rom 8:28; 1Co 4:17; 1Pe 1:7-9

through : 2Co 1:11; Eph 6:18, Eph 6:19

the Spirit : Rom 8:9; Gal 4:6; 1Pe 1:11

TSK: Phi 1:20 - earnest // in nothing // with // Christ // whether earnest : Psa 62:5; Pro 10:28, Pro 23:18; Rom 8:19 in nothing : Psa 25:2, Psa 119:80,Psa 119:116; Isa 45:17, Isa 50:7, Isa 54:4; Rom 5:5, Rom 9:33; 2C...

TSK: Phi 1:21 - to live // to die to live : Phi 1:20, Phi 2:21; 1Co 1:30; Gal 6:14; Col 3:4 to die : Phi 1:23; Isa 57:1, Isa 57:2; Rom 8:35-39; 1Co 3:22; 2Co 5:1, 2Co 5:6, 2Co 5:8; 1Th...

TSK: Phi 1:22 - live // this // I wot live : Phi 1:24; 2Co 10:3; Gal 2:20; Col 2:1; 1Pe 4:2 this : Psa 71:18; Isa 38:18, Isa 38:19 I wot : Gen 21:26, Gen 39:8; Exo 32:1; Act 3:17; Rom 11:2

TSK: Phi 1:23 - in // a desire // with // far in : 2Sa 24:14; 1Th 2:1, 1Th 2:13; Luk 12:50; 2Co 6:12 a desire : Luk 2:29, Luk 2:30; Joh 13:1; 2Co 5:8; 2Ti 4:6 with : Job 19:26, Job 19:27; Psa 49:1...

TSK: Phi 1:24 - -- Phi 1:22, Phi 1:25, Phi 1:26; Joh 16:7; Act 20:29-31

TSK: Phi 1:25 - confidence // for // joy confidence : Phi 2:24; Act 20:25 for : Luk 22:32; Joh 21:15-17; Act 11:23, Act 14:22; Rom 1:11, Rom 1:12, Rom 15:18, Rom 15:29; 2Co 1:24; Eph 4:11-13 ...

TSK: Phi 1:26 - -- Phi 2:16-18, Phi 3:1, Phi 3:3, Phi 4:4, Phi 4:10; Son 5:1; Joh 16:22, Joh 16:24; 2Co 1:14, 2Co 5:12, 2Co 7:6

TSK: Phi 1:27 - let // the gospel // whether // I may // that ye // in one // the faith let : Phi 3:18-21; Eph 4:1; Col 1:10; 1Th 2:11, 1Th 2:12, 1Th 4:1; Tit 2:10; 2Pe 1:4-9; 2Pe 3:11, 2Pe 3:14 the gospel : Rom 1:9, Rom 1:16, Rom 15:16, ...

TSK: Phi 1:28 - in // an // but // and that in : Isa 51:7, Isa 51:12; Mat 10:28; Luk 12:4-7, Luk 21:12-19; Act 4:19-31, Act 5:40-42; 1Th 2:2; 2Ti 1:7, 2Ti 1:8; Heb 13:6; Rev 2:10 an : 2Th 1:5, 2...

TSK: Phi 1:29 - it is // not it is : Act 5:41; Rom 5:3; Jam 1:2; 1Pe 4:13 not : Mat 16:17; Joh 1:12, Joh 1:13, Joh 6:44, Joh 6:45; Act 13:39, Act 14:27; Eph 2:8; Col 2:12; Jam 1:1...

TSK: Phi 1:30 - the same // which // now the same : Joh 16:33; Rom 8:35-37; 1Co 4:9-14, 1Co 15:30-32; Eph 6:11-18; Col 2:1; 1Th 2:14, 1Th 2:15, 1Th 3:2-4; 2Ti 2:10-12, 2Ti 4:7; Heb 10:32, Heb...

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Poole: Phi 1:2 - -- The evangelical salutation, as Rom 1:7 Eph 1:2 2Pe 1:2 ; praying for the free and undeserved favour of God the Father to them, as the fountain, Jam ...

The evangelical salutation, as Rom 1:7 Eph 1:2 2Pe 1:2 ; praying for the free and undeserved favour of God the Father to them, as the fountain, Jam 1:17 together with all inward and outward blessings, flowing thence through Christ the procurer of them.

Poole: Phi 1:3 - my God // Upon every remembrance of you As in most of his Epistles, viz. Rom 1:8 1Co 1:4 2Co 1:3 Eph 1:3 Col 1:3 1Th 1:2 2Th 1:3 2Ti 1:3he begins with thanks to God; and here, my God i.e...

As in most of his Epistles, viz. Rom 1:8 1Co 1:4 2Co 1:3 Eph 1:3 Col 1:3 1Th 1:2 2Th 1:3 2Ti 1:3he begins with thanks to God; and here,

my God i.e. whose I am, and whom I serve in the gospel of his Son, Act 27:23 , with Rom 1:9 , whom the Jews and Gentiles do not so acknowledge.

Upon every remembrance of you intimating that he ever bore them upon his heart to God with delight.

Poole: Phi 1:4 - -- As in praising of God, the Author of all that grace they had received, in every solemn prayer, so in continuing his fervent and assiduous requests u...

As in praising of God, the Author of all that grace they had received, in every solemn prayer, so in continuing his fervent and assiduous requests unto God always, 1Th 5:17 , for them all: the term all being used three times emphatically: compare Luk 2:37 Rom 1:9 .

Poole: Phi 1:5 - -- Your being joined with us and other Christians in the communion of Christ, and glad tidings of salvation by him, 1Co 10:16,17 1Pe 4:13 1Jo 1:3,7 ; e...

Your being joined with us and other Christians in the communion of Christ, and glad tidings of salvation by him, 1Co 10:16,17 1Pe 4:13 1Jo 1:3,7 ; evidenced by the communication of your bounty, Gal 6:6 Heb 13:16 ; your stedfastness and perseverance in all Christian duties from the first time of your receiving the gospel.

Poole: Phi 1:6 - Being confident of this very thing // That he which hath begun a good work in you, will perform it // Until the day of Jesus Christ Being confident of this very thing i.e. having thanked God for what he had done and did for them, he expresseth his firm persuasion and charitable ho...

Being confident of this very thing i.e. having thanked God for what he had done and did for them, he expresseth his firm persuasion and charitable hope of their perseverance for the future.

That he which hath begun a good work in you, will perform it not from any thing in themselves more than others, but because God the Father, (who is not weary of well-doing), having begun the work of faith in them Phi 2:13 , with Joh 6:29 , who else were dead in sins, as the Ephesians, Eph 2:1 , he would preserve and carry on that internal and spiritual work in the fruits of real Christians, and not leave it imperfect, Psa 138:8 Isa 64:8 ; but would make it perfect, or perfect, stablish, strengthen, and settle them in it, those words being of the same import in Scripture with perform it, connoting the difficulty of it.

Until the day of Jesus Christ i.e. either until the day of their death, when the spirits of just men are made perfect, and Christ appears to their particular judgment, Heb 12:23 , not as being perfect while here in this state, Phi 3:12 ; or rather, until the day of Christ, or latter day, at judgment, 1Co 1:8 1Th 4:15 ; when they shall be acknowledged to be blameless, to the glory of Christ, who hath carried them through all, and fullfilled the work of faith in them, and glorified them, 2Th 1:11 , and who are his glory, 2Co 8:23 .

Poole: Phi 1:7 - Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all // Because I have you in my heart // Inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation if the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all i.e. consonant to the law of equity and charity, Act 4:19 1Co 13:7 Col 4:1 , with 2Pe 1:13 . It be...

Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all i.e. consonant to the law of equity and charity, Act 4:19 1Co 13:7 Col 4:1 , with 2Pe 1:13 . It behoves me to pass this judgment on you all, upon good grounds.

Because I have you in my heart not barely in that he had them as it were engraved upon his heart, 2Co 3:2,3 7:3 ; for he could live and die with them, whom he did continually present unto God (as before).

Inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation if the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace but in that (for which they had gotten so much of his cordial affection) they were co-partners with him in the like precious faith, 2Pe 1:1 ; and holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, Heb 3:1 ; as children of light, 1Th 5:5 ; walking in faith and love, 2Th 1:3 ; maintaining the communion of saints, in showing the reality of the same grace with him, in that, as Phi 1:29 , it was given to them in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake. Which he reckoned they did in compassionately and seasonably supporting and relieving of him in his imprisonment, whereby the gospel was defended, and what he had preached of it was confirmed, by his becoming a real patron of it, in holding fast the profession and ratifying the confession of his faith, in glorying that he was counted worthy to suffer them for the name of Christ, Act 5:41 1Pe 4:15,16 ; wherein they did by all honest means succour him, and showed themselves companions with him, Phi 4:14 Heb 10:33 .

Poole: Phi 1:8 - In the bowels of Jesus Christ Confirming what he had before written, he appeals to God in the heavens, who searcheth the heart and trieth the reins, as in some other Epistles, Ro...

Confirming what he had before written, he appeals to God in the heavens, who searcheth the heart and trieth the reins, as in some other Epistles, Rom 1:9 2Co 1:23 , with 2Co 11:31 Gal 1:20 1Th 2:5,10 ; and as Job, Job 16:19 ; by making a solemn protestation, or oath, to put the matter out of doubt, Heb 6:16 , and giving them assurance, (as he lawfully might in this way for God’ s glory, and their good, Deu 6:13 ), of the sincerity and intenseness of his hearty affections towards every one of them, Phi 2:26 4:1 with 2Co 9:14 .

In the bowels of Jesus Christ not out of any carnal, selfish, or worldly respects; but a really Christian, spiritual, and tender love, seated in the inward parts of this sanctified apostle, Jer 31:33 ; by the same Spirit that united him unto Christ, who loves his spouse with no common love, but is the spring and procurer, and great exemplar, of that affectionate Christian love, which, like him, they are to exert from the very root of their hearts, purely, unfeignedly, and fervently, without dissimulation, Rom 12:9 1Pe 1:22 ; imitating God and Christ, Luk 1:78as Paul here, in the highest degree of dearest affection, did love the Philippians, and elsewhere the Thessalonians, 1Th 2:7,8,11 .

Poole: Phi 1:9 - And this I pray // That your love may abound // Yet more and more in knowledge // And in all judgment And this I pray: having praised God for their attainments, he returns, as Phi 1:4in token of his love, to his great petition for them. That your lov...

And this I pray: having praised God for their attainments, he returns, as Phi 1:4in token of his love, to his great petition for them.

That your love may abound viz. that their love both to God and man, showed in their bounty to him, might, as a rising stream from its springing fountain, yet further flow out, and more abundantly communicate itself in all Christian offices, and not abate, (as it seems it afterwards did among the Ephesians, Rev 2:4 ), as our Saviour foretold it would (to in some, Mat 24:12 , see 2Ti 1:13 2Ti 4:10but continue increasing to the end, 1Th 3:12 .

Yet more and more in knowledge being founded on a sound and saving understanding of the things of God, and ourselves, Joh 17:3 Rom 3:20 Eph 1:17 , with Eph 4:13 2Pe 3:18 ; and an acknowledgment of the truth which is after godliness, Tit 1:1 .

And in all judgment in the practical judgment, or internal sense, and particular experience, taste, and feeling the testimony of the Spirit in the heart concerning the grace of God, and adoption, Rom 5:1,5 8:16,17 14:17 ; when there is not only a right notion in the head, but a true sense and savour of spiritual things in the heart, Heb 5:14 ; which is when knowledge is not only an empty cloud in the air, but becomes effectual by falling down in a kindly shower upon the heart, warmed with the love of God, and the virtue of Christ’ s resurrection, as he after gives his own experience, Phi 3:10 , like David’ s, Psa 34:8 .

Poole: Phi 1:10 - That ye may be sincere // And without offence // Till the day of Christ i.e. To the ends he subjoins, namely, that ye may approve things that are excellent that upon a due expense of circumstances in a judicious trial, ...

i.e. To the ends he subjoins, namely, that ye may approve things that are excellent that upon a due expense of circumstances in a judicious trial, upon rightly discerning the differences of things not obvious to every eye, so as to choose and approve those things that are really to be preferred, being the best, Rom 2:18 1Th 5:21 surpassing all desirable things besides, Eph 3:19 , as being most acceptable unto God, Rom 12:2 .

That ye may be sincere and be upright, Pro 11:20 . It is all emphatical word in the original here, being borrowed either from such things as are tried by being held up at the beams of the sun to see What faults or flaws are in them, whether without fraud, or else from such as are clarified by the heat of the sun; and notes here, that Paul would have them to be uncorrupt and impartial in heart and life, in faith and manners; free from prevailing corruptions, of pure minds, 2Pe 3:1 ; purged from the old leaven, 1Co 5:6-8 ; not suffering the knowledge of Christ to be mixed with traditions and human inventions, but endowed with evangelical simplicity in the sight of God, 2Co 1:12 1Ti 1:5 5:22 .

And without offence not erring from the main scope and design of Christianity, or stumbling, so as either actively or passively to trouble and offend either themselves or others in the heavenly course, but working so prudently, as to give no just occasion of scandal, or laying a snare for one or other, Mat 18:7 Act 24:16 1Co 10:32 ; abiding blameless to the coming of Christ, 1Th 5:23 .

Till the day of Christ: see on Phi 1:6 ; repeated here to engage them unto serious thoughtfulness of that day.

Poole: Phi 1:11 - Being filled with the fruits of righteousness // Which are by Jesus Christ // Unto the glory and praise of God Being filled with the fruits of righteousness i.e. not only bringing forth some single, yea, or singular fruit, but replenished, plurally, with the f...

Being filled with the fruits of righteousness i.e. not only bringing forth some single, yea, or singular fruit, but replenished, plurally, with the fruits of righteousness, Act 9:36 Col 1:10 ; elsewhere called the fruits of the Spirit, Gal 5:22 Eph 5:9 ; in all goodness and truth, as well as righteousness. These are such good works as are not (whatever the papists conceive) causal of righteousness, but are, through the Spirit, (who regenerates the persons, and directs the internal and external actions of those who walk in the steps of the faith of their father Abraham, Rom 4:12 ), wrought by supernatural grace in the heart joined unto the Lord, with whom they are one spirit, 1Co 6:17 .

Which are by Jesus Christ and without whom, from their own stock and strength, till they be ingrafted into him, Joh 15:1,5 , trees of righteousness, of the Lord’ s planting, Isa 61:3 , and his workmanship, created unto good works, Eph 2:10 , they cannot bring forth fruits, and do such good works as are acceptable unto God, 2Co 13:5 ; but Christ living and dwelling in them by faith, Gal 2:20 Eph 3:17 , and God working in them both to will and to do, Phi 2:13 , they can do all through Christ, Phi 4:13 , so that they shall be accepted in him.

Unto the glory and praise of God not being empty vines, bringing forth fruit to themselves, Hos 10:1 , but to the eternal honour of him who hath called them, Mat 5:16 1Co 10:31 Eph 1:6,12,14 1Pe 2:12 1Pe 4:11 Rev 5:13 .

Poole: Phi 1:12 - But I would ye should understand, brethren // that the things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the gospel But I would ye should understand, brethren: to obviate the insinuations which false teachers and others might make use of from Paul’ s suffering...

But I would ye should understand, brethren: to obviate the insinuations which false teachers and others might make use of from Paul’ s sufferings, to obstruct the cordial entertainment of those glad tidings he had brought, and to discourage those who did obey the truth, he doth by this friendly compellation (which he often useth) kindly entreat them to consider well,

that the things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the gospel that his imprisonment, and what other troubles from without did befall him in his apostolical office, whereby the overruling providence of God so ordered, that they did (contrary to the intention of his persecutors) rather advantage than hinder the progress of the gospel, increase than decrease the church, since he had opportunity two years, in his own hired house, of teaching with freedom the things of Christ, Act 28:30,31 ; whereupon he would not have the Philippians discouraged, but rather comforted, as the Corinthians, 2Co 1:5-7 : for:

1. His iron chain in the cause of Christ was more an honour to him, even in the emperor’ s court, Phi 4:22 , or guard chamber, Act 28:16 , or judgment hall, Mat 27:27 Mar 15:16 Joh 18:28,33 ; than those glittering golden ones which others were ambitious to wear, Act 5:41 Jam 2:2 ; it being apparent there, and elsewhere, to courtiers, citizens, Jews, and foreigners, that he did not suffer as an evil-doer, 1Pe 2:19,20 3:14 ; only for the Lord’ s sake, Eph 3:1 4:1 ; whose power in his confinement did work in and by him, who approved himself faithful, which, when inquiry was made concerning his suffering, gave occasion to communicate some notions of Christ, and glad tidings of salvation by him.

Poole: Phi 1:13-14 - the brethren // Are much more bold to speak the word without fear Ver. 13,14. And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by my bonds and here again, contrary to the expectation of those persecutors, who...

Ver. 13,14. And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by my bonds and here again, contrary to the expectation of those persecutors, who designed to make havoc of the church, his innocent carriage and constancy in bearing the cross, had all influence upon the greater part of

the brethren (not according to the flesh, Rom 9:3 , but) in the service of Christ.

Are much more bold to speak the word without fear pastors, and teachers, who had been timorous at the first, were greatly imboldened to shake of carnal fear, and to profess and preach Christ crucified, or the cross of Christ, 1Co 1:18,23 , which is the power of God to salvation, Rom 1:16 , more confidently than ever; as he and Barnabas had done elsewhere, Act 13:46 ; and as Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, who were but secret disciples before Christ’ s sufferings, upon his death owned him openly for their Lord, Mat 27:57 , with Joh 19:39 .

Poole: Phi 1:14 - See Poole on "Phi 1:13" See Poole on "Phi 1:13"

See Poole on "Phi 1:13"

Poole: Phi 1:15 - -- He doth here tacitly answer an exception which might be made; It were better some of them were silent, than preach so boldly as to procure him hatre...

He doth here tacitly answer an exception which might be made; It were better some of them were silent, than preach so boldly as to procure him hatred, and lessen his reputation;

1. By granting there was somewhat in the allegation, yet it did not conclude against this, that his suffering was advantageous to promote the gospel.

2. By distinguishing of those who were hollow-hearted and false, from an envious principle, designing to disparage this excellent person, who having done much in the lesser Asia and Greece, did now, in the head city of the world, when in prison, also gain proselytes, courtiers and others, for the receiving of Christ; and those were sincere and true-hearted brethren, joining with him in the cause of Christ, and assisting him from true love to Christ, and him his apostle, to get the truth of Christianity entertained in the love of it. The former were evil works, both as to their principle and end, Phi 3:2 ; the latter acted sincerely in both respects, 2Co 2:17 .

Poole: Phi 1:16 - -- This distinction he did amplify and explain here, by particularly showing the ill motive, manners, and end of the worst sort of preachers, from an i...

This distinction he did amplify and explain here, by particularly showing the ill motive, manners, and end of the worst sort of preachers, from an ill affection of hatred, emulation, and wrath, 2Co 12:20 Gal 5:20 ; with an intemperate zeal to render Paul suspected and despicable in the eyes of the church; and to occasion in the emperor a more severe persecution, and heighten the accusers’ rage against Paul, and to gain applause to themselves, and vex his soul under outward troubles.

Poole: Phi 1:17 - -- Then intimating the genuine principle and good end of the better sort, who were moved from a prevailing affection to God, the edification and salvat...

Then intimating the genuine principle and good end of the better sort, who were moved from a prevailing affection to God, the edification and salvation of souls; cordially joining with Paul in carrying on the same design that he did, who was appointed of God, Act 23:11 1Th 3:3 ; both by doctrine and obedience, active and passive, to defend the gospel, unto which he was admirably called to be a minister, yea, and here a patron, Rom 1:1 Eph 3:7 with 1Co 1:1 ; and, as it were, to tread the devil under foot (as Tertullian speaks) in his own house. Intimating from all this, that however the former did with an ill mind, in man’ s judgment, as circumstances then were with Paul, (some of which we are ignorant of), the latter with a pious desire, preach the gospel; yet the event proved, by the good hand of God, beneficial to promote the gospel: and so it may happen still, when some false brethren, moved by blind ambition and intemperate zeal, may snatch a weapon out of the gospel to vex good and godly pastors in their promulgation of it.

Poole: Phi 1:18 - What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether in pretence, or in, truth, Christ is preached // And I therein do rejoice // Yea, and will rejoice What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether in pretence, or in, truth, Christ is preached: q.d. It doth not follow, that these different intention...

What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether in pretence, or in, truth, Christ is preached: q.d. It doth not follow, that these different intentions of the preachers should hinder the spreading of the gospel, and therefore it should not abate either your confidence or mine in the cause of Christ, since, by the overruling providence of God, that is carried on, both by the one and the other; not only by those who in truth preach the word faithfully, Jer 23:28 Mat 22:16 , from a principle of love, (as before), to the same good intent with myself; but also by those who, though they act (as in Phi 1:15 ) out of envy and ill will to me, for base ends under a fair show, 1Th 2:5 , yet they occasionally and accidentally, not by any direct causality, do promote the interest of Christ.

And I therein do rejoice and upon this account, that there is so good an effect, as the making known of Christ for the salvation of sinners, I have matter of present joy.

Yea, and will rejoice yea, and hereupon for the future, though some should continue to do that in itself which might aggravate his affliction, yet it should not take his joy from him eventually; however directly and of itself it tend to it, yet indirectly and by accident, God disposing, it should issue well for the furtherance of the gospel.

Poole: Phi 1:19 - all // Seek their own // Not the things which are Jesus Christ’ s // Through your prayer // And the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ He doth here further commend Timothy, compared with the generality of those who with him did attend the ministry of the gospel at Rome, where it see...

He doth here further commend Timothy, compared with the generality of those who with him did attend the ministry of the gospel at Rome, where it seems (whatever the papists pretend) Peter did not then preside as metropolitan. When he saith

all he doth not necessarily imply every individual besides Timothy, (though, as before, he knew not one like-minded as he was), but almost all, (as the universal sign is elsewhere synecdochically taken, Jer 6:3 Mat 10:22 Mar 1:5 ), or the most part of those then employed in the ministry, who were then at liberty, and whose inclinations, probably, he had inquired into.

Seek their own did, though not simply and absolutely, yet after a sort, seek their own profit, ease, safety, pleasure, and satisfaction; called their own, in regard of their civil right, and the world’ s opinion, but yet at God’ s disposal, Hag 2:8 . These they did (as John Mark in another case) prefer to a long and tedious journey, for the service of Christ, unto Philippi.

Not the things which are Jesus Christ’ s so that they did postpone the glory of Christ, the safety and edification of the church there, to their own things. Wherefore he doth not mean it absolutely, that they did not seek the things For I know that this shall turn to my salvation: rendering a reason of what went before, (as the causal particle notes), he doth here oppose his knowledge to the envious preachers’ opinion, and his salvation to the affliction they did exercise him with; so that he was fully persuaded, that the trouble they had given, or should give to him, (though in the nature of the thing it had a tendency to take him off from the defence of the gospel, and so to hazard his soul, or, if he stood in defence of it, Nero would persecute him to death), would, upon sure ground, work for his good, Rom 8:28 , even the great good, the salvation of his soul; yea, and for some time, compare Phi 1:25the safely of his life here, Act 27:34 Heb 11:7 . His prison should be an ark to him resting on God’ s promise, so that he could go on boldly and cheerfully in bearing his testimony to Christ with the helmet of salvation, Eph 6:17 .

Through your prayer having an interest in their prayers as a means of support, which he intimates they would continue to help him with, 2Co 1:11 , as much as if he had downright asked an interest in them, Heb 13:18 .

And the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ yea, in the use hereof, that he might have a great measure of the Spirit, promised to those that ask him, Luk 11:13 , he looks higher, not doubting but he shall have a renewed subsidy of grace continued to him from the same Spirit, which is in Christ Jesus his Head, Rom 8:9 Gal 4:6 ; thereby he should be helped in his infirmities, Rom 8:26 1Co 12:11 ; and receive grace for grace, Joh 1:16 , out of his fulness, who had not the Spirit by measure, Joh 3:34 ; whereupon, whatever his enemies conceited, he should have undersupplies secretly communicated, like those from the head to the members, which would be effectual and victorious to deliver him from every evil work, and preserve him to the heavenly kingdom, 2Ti 4:18 .

of Christ, or that they did deny Christ, for it is apparent, even when he penned this Epistle, Phi 1:13,14 , with Act 28:14,15 , and Rom 1:8 , there were many that did seriously seek Christ; but comparatively, and in a sort, they did not seek the things of Christ so intently as they should, 1Co 10:24,33 , but failed as others did in other cases, Mat 26:58 2Ti 4:16 : not as if all minding of their own things were denied to Christ’ s ministers, 1Ti 3:4,5 5:8 ; but they did slip their necks from under the yoke, and did not mind the glory of Christ in the church of Philippi, as he did.

Poole: Phi 1:20 - According to my earnest expectation and my hope // in the living God // That in nothing I shall be ashamed // But that with all boldness // As always, so now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death According to my earnest expectation and my hope he allegeth and explaineth the ground and certainty of his knowledge and persuasion of his enemies...

According to my earnest expectation and my hope he allegeth and explaineth the ground and certainty of his knowledge and persuasion of his enemies’ disappointment, and all succeeding well with him, trusting

in the living God 1Ti 4:10 , who in all death-threatening afflictions hath upon his word engaged himself to support all those that hope in his mercies, Psa 33:18,19 37:7,9 Ps 147:11 . Then be sure, when his sincere servants, assisted by his Spirit, wait for his deliverance with their necks stretched out, (as the word here notes), being raised from past experience, intensely and wistly looking for his appearance, shall be able each to say as the apostle intimates.

That in nothing I shall be ashamed negatively, he shall not be left to do any thing which may justly bring him under reproach. His well-grounded hope would not make him ashamed. Rom 5:5 , with Rom 8:25 ; but upon this account he shall have wherewith to answer him that should reproach him, Psa 119:41,42,46 Lu 9:26 2Ti 1:12 .

But that with all boldness positively, that he should continue constant in a courageous owning of the truth, and acknowledging of his Lord every way, whether he was delivered from or to death.

As always, so now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death as in the former years of his ministry he had been supported, yea, and victorious, in freely speaking for Christ, preaching and defending of his gospel, Act 9:27 Act 14:3 , with as much courage as any other, Act 4:13,29,31 , with 2Co 11:21 Gal 6:17 : so now he was humbly confident, in his present sad circnmstances, Christ should be magnified, (not that himself can become greater), i.e. before men, his glory should be rendered greater and more illustrious, and acknowledged with praise, whether he lived or died, Rom 14:8 ; yea, in the earthen vessel of his body, 2Co 4:11 , (about which he was not solicitous, having resigned it entirely to Christ), either in his enlargement and preaching of the doctrine of Christ, or in his being offered up and sealing it by his martyrdom.

Poole: Phi 1:21 - -- Some read it: For Christ is my gain in life and in death; or: For Christ is to me both in life and in death advantage. Both acknowledge it to be bro...

Some read it: For Christ is my gain in life and in death; or: For Christ is to me both in life and in death advantage. Both acknowledge it to be brought in as a reason of Paul’ s hope in life and death; and of his indifferency, in submission to God’ s pleasure, in life and death, intimating it was all one to him, so Christ was magnified in his body, whether it were by life or by death. They who follow our translation, do expound the proposition disjunctively; the former referring to the honour of Christ, and the latter to the salvation of Paul, which is understood by the name of gain. Some understand the former branch efficiently, q.d. I derive myself from Christ, unto whom I am united, he being the principle of it, as Gal 2:20 ; but others rather objectively and finally, q.d. As I have hitherto made it the business of life to serve Christ in preaching his gospel, so, if he continues my life, I purpose that in my living body, by preaching his gospel, and suffering for his name, as he requireth, he shall be glorified. Then, for the latter branch, if I die, in bearing testimony to Christ, it will be gain to myself, in that I shall be with Christ, which is better for me, Phi 1:23 , being present with the Lord, 2Co 5:8 , in whom my life is hid, Col 3:3 . So that death would not impoverish, but enrich him. They who choose the latter reading, take the proposition conjunctively, to the sense that he accounted gain to him, to have the honour of Christ magnified in his body, whether it happened to him to live or die, since he faithfully served him living or dying, and owned himself to be his both ways, Rom 14:8 . He was not (as he saith elsewhere, Act 20:24 ) moved with accidentals; neither counted he his life dear to him to testify the gospel of the grace of God; reckoning he had no life, but from Christ, whom he made it his business to serve and enjoy; so that if he continued in the body, Christ would gain, in that he designed to spend his life for the edification of his church; and if he died in that cause, Christ would gain by his death, in that his truth would, by the blood of him, who was a martyr, be further sealed, and his interest promoted, and his glory advanced; and he himself would gain, since upon his departure he should be advanced to be with Christ, Phi 1:23 , who alone makes his faithful servants happy in life and death.

Poole: Phi 1:22 - But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour // Yet what I shall choose I wot not But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour: some, from the various use of the Greek particles, render this first clanse interrogative...

But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour: some, from the various use of the Greek particles, render this first clanse interrogatively; But whether to live in the flesh were worth the while? Or more profitable? (understand, than to die). The apostle having intimated the equality and indifferency of his mind in an entire submission to the will of God, whether that glorifying of Christ by his life or that by his death were more eligible, is upon deliberation, finding the advantage to Christ and himself, upon expense of circumstances either way, in an equal balance, weighing one thing with another: living in the flesh, i.e. abiding here in this mortal body, which he thus expresseth by way of diminution, Gal 2:20 1Pe 4:1 ; in opposition to, and comparison of, dying for and in the Lord, and so being with him, Phi 1:23 .

Yet what I shall choose I wot not he seems, loving the Philippians as himself, to be at a loss what to determine, if God should permit him his choice, whether by labouring in his ministry for rite good of their souls he should bring more fruit to Christ, or by suffering, that which would arise from the blood of a martyr, who himself should receive a crown, 2Ti 4:8 .

Poole: Phi 1:23 - For I am in a strait between two // Having a desire to depart // And to be with Christ; which is far better For I am in a strait between two because he knew not what to choose for the best, he was held in suspense, Luk 12:50 Act 18:5 , as one drawn both way...

For I am in a strait between two because he knew not what to choose for the best, he was held in suspense, Luk 12:50 Act 18:5 , as one drawn both ways with weighty reasons, which he amplifies with respect to himself and the church, that Christ might be honoured in both: his love to the enjoyment of Christ and the edification of his members constraining him on each hand; the former was more delightful to him, and the latter more profitable for them.

Having a desire to depart being held not only with a bare inclination, but an ardent and perpetually active desire, to loose from this clayey tabernacle, Psa 42:1,2 Ec 12:7 Luk 2:29 12:36 2Co 5:1,4 2Ti 4:6 : so to depart as to abide in a better place.

And to be with Christ; which is far better upon being absent from the body to be present with Christ, 2Co 5:8 , in paradise, Luk 23:43 1Th 4:17 ; so to leave the body as to live with and enjoy him in heaven, is by far much better for me.

Poole: Phi 1:24 - -- However, with respect to the church, by his staying here in this mortal body he persuades himself, knowing the subtlety of false apostles, who would...

However, with respect to the church, by his staying here in this mortal body he persuades himself, knowing the subtlety of false apostles, who would enter in as grievous wolves, Act 20:29 , it was necessary to strengthen them and other churches in the faith of Christ.

Poole: Phi 1:25 - And having this confidence // I know // I shall abide and continue with you all for your furtherance and joy of faith And having this confidence viz. being persuaded of what went immediately before, how useful the continuance of his life, for a further time in this w...

And having this confidence viz. being persuaded of what went immediately before, how useful the continuance of his life, for a further time in this world, would be to the church of Christ, and particularly to them, he determines (as should seem) with more than probable conjecture; though, upon supposition it should be otherwise, he gives them abundant satisfaction in their adhering to Christ, Phi 1:27 2:17 .

I know even with a well grounded knowledge, either by a prophetic Spirit, from a particular revelation such as he had sometimes before had, Act 16:9,10 23:11 , or the sanctifying Spirit witnessing with his spirit, Rom 8:16 , strengthening his faith and persuasion, helped by their faith and prayer, Phi 1:19 , compared with 1Pe 1:8 .

I shall abide and continue with you all for your furtherance and joy of faith to these ends, that, by his personal presence with them, he might by his ministry further their faith in Christ, their joy in the Holy Ghost, and more abundant glorying in the power of Jesus Christ, for his safety, and being restored to them, as we see in what follows; and Eph 4:1 , with 2Ti 4:17 , we find, from his first imprisonment at Rome, (when likely this Epistle was written), he was delivered, and for some years restored to the churches which he had planted.

Poole: Phi 1:26 - -- Here, in confidence of being again with them, and staying with them, he expresseth an admirable affection to them, that he can be content for a time...

Here, in confidence of being again with them, and staying with them, he expresseth an admirable affection to them, that he can be content for a time to be deprived of the glorious sight of Christ, that he might see and serve them, and that under persecution; that they might, upon his return to them, more abundantly glory together, not in themselves, but, Christian-like, in Christ Jesus, the author of that doctrine he had preached to them, the Captain of their salvation, and the common Head of Christianity.

Poole: Phi 1:27 - Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ // That whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs // That ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ: q.d. In the mean time, whatever becomes of me, that which is for your part solely ...

Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ: q.d. In the mean time, whatever becomes of me, that which is for your part solely incumbent on you, who are brought into the fellowship of the gospel, is to demean yourselves truly agreeable to that state. The original phrase, as afterwards in this Epistle, Phi 3:20 4:8 , and elsewhere, Act 23:1 , imports, that their deportment should be answerable to their citizenship, that they should behave themselves as might be most to the public good of the society to which they do relate, not being of the world here, any more than their Head, Joh 15:19 17:16 . Their course of life should be every way answerable to their high calling, Eph 4:1 Col 1:10 1Th 2:12 ; bringing forth fruit meet for repentance.

That whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs intimating, that it did behove them constantly to adorn the gospel, in the exercise of Christian courage, unanimity, and patience, as well when he was distaut from them, as when among them to oversee them: not as if he doubted of returning to them for their greater edification, but further to satisfy them as to his entire submission unto God’ s pleasure on his journey, or at home, 2Co 5:6,8 ; and to excite them to shake off sloth, and to discharge their duty with all diligence, which would greatly cheer his heart.

That ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel:

1. By their stedfast endeavour after a sweet, close, holy, lasting union amongst themselves. For one spirit, one soul or mind, here seem to imply one understanding enlightened by the sanctifying Spirit, and one heart, as an inward, uniting principle, which must upon no temptation be changed: compare Phi 2:2 3:16 4:2 ; with Rom 12:16 1Co 1:10 2Co 13:11 Eph 4:2,3 1Pe 3:8 ; according to our Savior’ s prayer. Joh 17:11,20-23 , which was heard, Act 1:14 2:16 4:32 5:12 . Nor only by their union in heart and mind, but:

2. Their mutual helpfulness in action, as spiritual champions joining their forces together, for the defence of their royal charter, the maintenance of the main principles of Christianity, against all troublers of the church, and subverters of the evangelical faith, 1Co 9:24,25 Ga 5:13 Eph 6:14 , with 2Ti 4:7 .

3. A courageous spirit under sufferings from their most malignant gainsayers and persecutors, who do wittingly and willingly oppose the truth, and them professing of it, as Simon Magus and others did, Act 8:18-21 1Ti 1:20 2Ti 1:15 .

Poole: Phi 1:28 - And in nothing terrified by your adversaries // Which is to them an evident token of perdition // But to you of salvation // And that of God And in nothing terrified by your adversaries: the original word which the apostle useth, imports, they should not be appalled or affrighted, as men a...

And in nothing terrified by your adversaries: the original word which the apostle useth, imports, they should not be appalled or affrighted, as men and horses are apt to be when furiously charged by their deadly enemies, but stoutly receive them, keeping their ground, Mat 10:28 Luk 12:32 .

Which is to them an evident token of perdition considering, on the one hand, their most pertinacious rage, it is no other than an evident and convincing argmnent, or certain forerunner, of the adversaries’ utter ruin, Exo 22:22-24 Rom 2:8,9 2Th 1:5-9 .

But to you of salvation but, on the other hand, to sound believers, who behave themselves as becomes the gospel, a manifest demonstration of their everlasting welfare and glory, Mat 5:10 Mat 10:32,39 Ro 2:7,10 Eph 3:13 2Th 1:6,7 .

And that of God by the disposal of the all-wise and righteous Governor, who may for a time permit his or his people’ s adversaries to domineer, Job 1:12 Pro 16:4 ; but being a rewarder of them that diligently seek him, Heb 11:6 , will of his grace lenify the sharpness of the cross, enable believers to hold out against all the opposition of their enemies, make them partakers of his holiness, and bring them to glory, Heb 12:10,11 2Ti 2:11,12 : which might abundantly comfort the Philippians, as others, Gal 6:17 .

Poole: Phi 1:29 - For unto you it is given // In the behalf of Christ // Not only to believe on him // But also to suffer for his sake For unto you it is given he adds a further argument to move them unto that he had exhorted, from God’ s freely bestowing, of his mere grace, wha...

For unto you it is given he adds a further argument to move them unto that he had exhorted, from God’ s freely bestowing, of his mere grace, what he had required of them.

In the behalf of Christ upon the account of Christ’ s merit and mediation; not that they could have either evangelical faith, or patience, by virtue of their own strength, Phi 4:13 .

Not only to believe on him that they did not only believe Christ, but believe on him, was not from any power of their own, Joh 6:37,44 , but of God’ s free gift, Eph 2:8 , as they had an instance amongst them in Lydia, Act 16:14 ; unto her and others was this victorious grace of faith freely given by the hearing of the word, which was not unto many others that heard, Mat 13:11 2Th 3:2 Tit 1:1 ; and as the grace itself was given, so was the exercise of it.

But also to suffer for his sake upon the account of Christ, patience was given; so that to suffer, here, doth not only import a power to suffer, but actual suffering; not only the habit of faith, but the act of believing, even as the fruits of trees at the first creation were produced, as well as the trees which had a power to bear them: wherefore, if, by the grace of God, and Spirit of faith, they were empowered actually to believe, Mar 9:24 1Co 15:10 2Co 4:13 , having trust through Christ God-ward, 2Co 3:4 ; and upon the same account they were continually enabled to suffer, not simply, but in bearing testimony to Christ, Act 5:41 1Pe 3:14 4:16 ; they might be of good comfort and courage, to the daunting of their adversaries.

Poole: Phi 1:30 - -- And be heartened to partake with him in the like trials he sustained when amongst them, Act 16:19-24 , and which he now was enduring at Rome, Phi 1:...

And be heartened to partake with him in the like trials he sustained when amongst them, Act 16:19-24 , and which he now was enduring at Rome, Phi 1:13 ; an example of suffering unto them, if they would but await the blessed issue of his agony.

PBC: Phi 1:6 - -- Satan tries to throw a child of God into despair when he falls into sin. He tries to keep him down. But the saint remembers that " he which hath begun...

Satan tries to throw a child of God into despair when he falls into sin. He tries to keep him down. But the saint remembers that " he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ." Php 1:6 He knows the Lord is not through with him. He does not depend on his own faithfulness, but on the faithfulness of God for and in him.

28

See PB: Joh 10:28

PBC: Phi 1:8 - -- In the innermost part of my being, from the depth of my heart I long for you.

In the innermost part of my being, from the depth of my heart I long for you.

PBC: Phi 1:30 - -- See Philpot: THE CHRISTIAN WARFARE

See Philpot: THE CHRISTIAN WARFARE

Haydock: Phi 1:1 - With the bishops and deacons With the bishops and deacons. [1] By bishops many understand those who were only priests; for the name of priests, at that time, was common to thos...

With the bishops and deacons. [1] By bishops many understand those who were only priests; for the name of priests, at that time, was common to those who were by their ordination priests or bishops, though the order as well as the functions were different. St. John Chrysostom also takes notice, that the name of deacon then signified any minister of Christ. St. Paul also might mean the bishops, or priests and deacons, not only of Philippi, but also of the adjacent places. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Cum episcopis et diaconis, Greek: sun episkopois kai diakonois. St. Jerome, St. John Chrysostom, &c. take notice, that though the office of bishop and priest was different, yet both these different orders were sometimes expressed by the word bishop, Greek: episkopos; sometimes by the word priest, Greek: presbuteros. St. Jerome, tom. 4. in Titum. p. 413.: Quia eosdem episcopos illo tempore, quos et presbyteros appellabant, propterea indifferenter de episcopis quasi de presbyteris est locutus. See again, tom. 4, part 2, Epist. ad Oceanum, p. 648. and Ep. ad Evangelium, p. 802. St. John Chrysostom on this place: Tunc nomina erant communia; atque etiam ipse episcopus vocabatur diaconus. (tom. 4. Greek: log. a. p. 5. Ed. Savil.) Tous presbuterous outos ekal[]. Tote gar ekoinonoun tois onomasi, kai diakonos o episkopos elegeto.

Haydock: Phi 1:5 - For your fellowship For your fellowship. This word is divers times used by St. Paul for a contribution of charitable alms, which it may also signify in this place; thou...

For your fellowship. This word is divers times used by St. Paul for a contribution of charitable alms, which it may also signify in this place; though others expound it of their being made partakers of the graces of Christ, by the gospel. (Witham)