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Teks -- Luke 16:1-31 (NET)

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The Parable of the Clever Steward
16:1 Jesus also said to the disciples, “There was a rich man who was informed of accusations that his manager was wasting his assets. 16:2 So he called the manager in and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? Turn in the account of your administration, because you can no longer be my manager.’ 16:3 Then the manager said to himself, ‘What should I do, since my master is taking my position away from me? I’m not strong enough to dig, and I’m too ashamed to beg. 16:4 I know what to do so that when I am put out of management, people will welcome me into their homes.’ 16:5 So he contacted his master’s debtors one by one. He asked the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’ 16:6 The man replied, ‘A hundred measures of olive oil.’ The manager said to him, ‘Take your bill, sit down quickly, and write fifty.’ 16:7 Then he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ The second man replied, ‘A hundred measures of wheat.’ The manager said to him, ‘Take your bill, and write eighty.’ 16:8 The master commended the dishonest manager because he acted shrewdly. For the people of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their contemporaries than the people of light. 16:9 And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by how you use worldly wealth, so that when it runs out you will be welcomed into the eternal homes. 16:10 “The one who is faithful in a very little is also faithful in much, and the one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 16:11 If then you haven’t been trustworthy in handling worldly wealth, who will entrust you with the true riches? 16:12 And if you haven’t been trustworthy with someone else’s property, who will give you your own? 16:13 No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot cannot serve God and money.”
More Warnings about the Pharisees
16:14 The Pharisees (who loved money) heard all this and ridiculed him. 16:15 But Jesus said to them, “You are the ones who justify yourselves in men’s eyes, but God knows your hearts. For what is highly prized among men is utterly detestable in God’s sight. 16:16 “The law and the prophets were in force until John; since then, the good news of the kingdom of God has been proclaimed, and everyone is urged to enter it. 16:17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one tiny stroke of a letter in the law to become void. 16:18 “Everyone who divorces his wife and marries someone else commits adultery, and the one who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.
The Rich Man and Lazarus
16:19 “There was a rich man who dressed in purple and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously every day. 16:20 But at his gate lay a poor man named Lazarus whose body was covered with sores, 16:21 who longed to eat what fell from the rich man’s table. In addition, the dogs came and licked his sores. 16:22 “Now the poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried. 16:23 And in hell, as he was in torment, he looked up and saw Abraham far off with Lazarus at his side. 16:24 So he called out, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, because I am in anguish in this fire.’ 16:25 But Abraham said, ‘Child, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things and Lazarus likewise bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in anguish. 16:26 Besides all this, a great chasm has been fixed between us, so that those who want to cross over from here to you cannot do so, and no one can cross from there to us.’ 16:27 So the rich man said, ‘Then I beg you, father– send Lazarus to my father’s house 16:28 (for I have five brothers) to warn them so that they don’t come into this place of torment.’ 16:29 But Abraham said, ‘They have Moses and the prophets; they must respond to them.’ 16:30 Then the rich man said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone from the dead goes to them, they will repent.’ 16:31 He replied to him, ‘If they do not respond to Moses and the prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead.’”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Hades the place of departed spirits (NIV notes); the unseen world (YC)
 · John a son of Zebedee; younger brother of James; the beloved disciple of Christ,a relative of Annas the high priest,a son of Mary the sister of Barnabas, and surnamed Mark,the father of Simon Peter
 · Lazarus the beggar man in the parable of the rich man,the brother of Mary and Martha from Bethany whom Jesus raised from the dead
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews


Topik/Tema Kamus: LAZARUS | Abraham | LUKE, THE GOSPEL OF | JESUS CHRIST, 4D | WEALTH, WEALTHY | Jesus, The Christ | Reproof | Steward | Worldliness | ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, VI-X | IMMORTAL; IMMORTALITY | Servant | PUNISHMENT, EVERLASTING | Dead | PARABLE | Probation | TRADE | Rich, The | Mammon | Greed | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Poole , Lightfoot , Haydock , Gill

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Robertson: Luk 16:1 - Unto the disciples Unto the disciples ( kai pros tous mathētas ). The three preceding parables in chapter 15 exposed the special faults of the Pharisees, "their hard ...

Unto the disciples ( kai pros tous mathētas ).

The three preceding parables in chapter 15 exposed the special faults of the Pharisees, "their hard exclusiveness, self-righteousness, and contempt for others"(Plummer). This parable is given by Luke alone. The kai (also) is not translated in the Revised Version. It seems to mean that at this same time, after speaking to the Pharisees (chapter 15), Jesus proceeds to speak a parable to the disciples (Luk 16:1-13), the parable of the Unjust Steward. It is a hard parable to explain, but Jesus opens the door by the key in Luk 16:9.

Robertson: Luk 16:1 - Which had a steward Which had a steward ( hos ēichen oikonomon ). Imperfect active, continued to have. Steward is house-manager or overseer of an estate as already see...

Which had a steward ( hos ēichen oikonomon ).

Imperfect active, continued to have. Steward is house-manager or overseer of an estate as already seen in Luk 12:42.

Robertson: Luk 16:1 - Was accused Was accused ( dieblēthē ). First aorist indicative passive, of diaballō , an old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to throw across or ba...

Was accused ( dieblēthē ).

First aorist indicative passive, of diaballō , an old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to throw across or back and forth, rocks or words and so to slander by gossip. The word implies malice even if the thing said is true. The word diabolos (slanderer) is this same root and it is used even of women, she-devils (1Ti 3:11).

Robertson: Luk 16:1 - That he was wasting That he was wasting ( hōs diaskorpizōn ). For the verb, see note on Luk 15:13. The use of hōs with the participle is a fine Greek idiom for g...

That he was wasting ( hōs diaskorpizōn ).

For the verb, see note on Luk 15:13. The use of hōs with the participle is a fine Greek idiom for giving the alleged ground of a charge against one.

Robertson: Luk 16:1 - His goods His goods ( ta huparchonta autou ). "His belongings,"a Lukan idiom.

His goods ( ta huparchonta autou ).

"His belongings,"a Lukan idiom.

Robertson: Luk 16:2 - What is this that I hear? What is this that I hear? ( ti touto akouō̱ ). There are several ways of understanding this terse Greek idiom. The Revised Version (above) takes t...

What is this that I hear? ( ti touto akouō̱ ).

There are several ways of understanding this terse Greek idiom. The Revised Version (above) takes ti to be equal to ti estin touto ho akouō ; That is a possible use of the predicate touto . Another way is to take ti to be exclamatory, which is less likely. Still another view is that ti is "Why": "Why do I hear this about thee?"See Act 14:15 where that is the idiom employed.

Robertson: Luk 16:2 - Render Render ( apodos ). Second aorist active imperative of apodidōmi , Give back (and at once).

Render ( apodos ).

Second aorist active imperative of apodidōmi , Give back (and at once).

Robertson: Luk 16:2 - The account The account ( ton logon ). The reckoning or report. Common use of logos .

The account ( ton logon ).

The reckoning or report. Common use of logos .

Robertson: Luk 16:2 - Stewardship Stewardship ( oikonomias ). Same root as oikonomos (steward). This demand does not necessarily mean dismissal if investigation proved him innocent ...

Stewardship ( oikonomias ).

Same root as oikonomos (steward). This demand does not necessarily mean dismissal if investigation proved him innocent of the charges. But the reason given implies that he is to be dismissed:

Robertson: Luk 16:2 - Thou canst no longer Thou canst no longer ( ou gar dunēi ). ||

Thou canst no longer ( ou gar dunēi ).

||

Robertson: Luk 16:3 - Within himself Within himself ( en heautōi ). As soon as he had time to think the thing over carefully. He knew that he was guilty of embezzlement of the Master&#...

Within himself ( en heautōi ).

As soon as he had time to think the thing over carefully. He knew that he was guilty of embezzlement of the Master’ s funds.

Robertson: Luk 16:3 - Taketh away Taketh away ( aphaireitai ). Present (linear) middle indicative of aphaireō , old verb to take away. Here the middle present means, He is taking aw...

Taketh away ( aphaireitai ).

Present (linear) middle indicative of aphaireō , old verb to take away. Here the middle present means, He is taking away for himself.

Robertson: Luk 16:3 - To beg I am not ashamed To beg I am not ashamed ( epaitein aischunomai ). The infinitive with aischunomai means ashamed to begin to beg. The participle, epaitōn aischuno...

To beg I am not ashamed ( epaitein aischunomai ).

The infinitive with aischunomai means ashamed to begin to beg. The participle, epaitōn aischunomai would mean, ashamed while begging, ashamed of begging while doing it.

Robertson: Luk 16:4 - I am resolved I am resolved ( egnōn ). Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō . A difficult tense to reproduce in English. I knew, I know, I have known, ...

I am resolved ( egnōn ).

Second aorist active indicative of ginōskō . A difficult tense to reproduce in English. I knew, I know, I have known, all miss it a bit. It is a burst of daylight to the puzzled, darkened man: I’ ve got it, I see into it now, a sudden solution.

Robertson: Luk 16:4 - What to do What to do ( ti poiēsō ). Either deliberative first aorist active subjunctive or deliberative future active indicative.

What to do ( ti poiēsō ).

Either deliberative first aorist active subjunctive or deliberative future active indicative.

Robertson: Luk 16:4 - When I am put out When I am put out ( hotan metastathō ). First aorist passive subjunctive of methistēmi , (meta , histēmi ), old verb, to transpose, transfer, ...

When I am put out ( hotan metastathō ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of methistēmi , (meta , histēmi ), old verb, to transpose, transfer, remove. He is expecting to be put out.

Robertson: Luk 16:4 - They may receive me They may receive me ( dexōntai ). First aorist middle subjunctive of dechomai , common verb. Subjunctive with final particle hina . He wishes to pu...

They may receive me ( dexōntai ).

First aorist middle subjunctive of dechomai , common verb. Subjunctive with final particle hina . He wishes to put the debtors under obligation to himself.

Robertson: Luk 16:4 - Debtors Debtors ( tōn chreophiletōn ). A late word. In the N.T. only here and Luk 7:41 from chreos , loan, and opheiletēs , debtor. It is probable that...

Debtors ( tōn chreophiletōn ).

A late word. In the N.T. only here and Luk 7:41 from chreos , loan, and opheiletēs , debtor. It is probable that he dealt with "each one"separately.

Robertson: Luk 16:6 - Measures Measures ( batous ). Transliterated word for Hebrew bath , between eight and nine gallons. Here alone in the N.T. Not the same word as batos ( bush...

Measures ( batous ).

Transliterated word for Hebrew bath , between eight and nine gallons. Here alone in the N.T. Not the same word as batos ( bush ) in Luk 6:44.

Robertson: Luk 16:6 - Thy bond Thy bond ( sou ta grammata ). Thy writings, thy contracts, thy note.

Thy bond ( sou ta grammata ).

Thy writings, thy contracts, thy note.

Robertson: Luk 16:6 - Quickly Quickly ( tacheōs ). It was a secret arrangement and speed was essential.

Quickly ( tacheōs ).

It was a secret arrangement and speed was essential.

Robertson: Luk 16:7 - Measures Measures ( korous ). Another Hebrew word for dry measure. The Hebrew cor was about ten bushels. Data are not clear about the Hebrew measures whethe...

Measures ( korous ).

Another Hebrew word for dry measure. The Hebrew cor was about ten bushels. Data are not clear about the Hebrew measures whether liquid ( bath ) or dry ( cor ).

Robertson: Luk 16:8 - His lord commended His lord commended ( epēinesen ho kurios ). The steward’ s lord praised him though he himself had been wronged again (see Luk 16:1 "wasting hi...

His lord commended ( epēinesen ho kurios ).

The steward’ s lord praised him though he himself had been wronged again (see Luk 16:1 "wasting his goods").

Robertson: Luk 16:8 - The unrighteous steward The unrighteous steward ( ton oikonomon tēs adikias ). Literally, the steward of unrighteousness. The genitive is the case of genus, species, the s...

The unrighteous steward ( ton oikonomon tēs adikias ).

Literally, the steward of unrighteousness. The genitive is the case of genus, species, the steward distinguished by unrighteousness as his characteristic. See "the mammon of unrighteousness"in Luk 16:9. See "the forgetful hearer"in Jam 1:25. It is a vernacular idiom common to Hebrew, Aramaic, and the Koiné .

Robertson: Luk 16:8 - Wisely Wisely ( phronimōs ). An old adverb, though here alone in the N.T. But the adjective phronimos from which it comes occurs a dozen times as in Mat...

Wisely ( phronimōs ).

An old adverb, though here alone in the N.T. But the adjective phronimos from which it comes occurs a dozen times as in Mat 10:16. It is from phroneō and that from phrēn , the mind (1Co 14:20), the discerning intellect. Perhaps "shrewdly"or "discreetly"is better here than "wisely."The lord does not absolve the steward from guilt and he was apparently dismissed from his service. His shrewdness consisted in finding a place to go by his shrewdness. He remained the steward of unrighteousness even though his shrewdness was commended.

Robertson: Luk 16:8 - For For ( hoti ). Probably by this second hoti Jesus means to say that he cites this example of shrewdness because it illustrates the point. "This is t...

For ( hoti ).

Probably by this second hoti Jesus means to say that he cites this example of shrewdness because it illustrates the point. "This is the moral of the whole parable. Men of the world in their dealings with men like themselves are more prudent than the children of light in their intercourse with one another"(Plummer). We all know how stupid Christians can be in their co-operative work in the kingdom of God, to go no further.

Robertson: Luk 16:8 - Wiser than Wiser than ( phronimōteroi huper ). Shrewder beyond, a common Greek idiom.

Wiser than ( phronimōteroi huper ).

Shrewder beyond, a common Greek idiom.

Robertson: Luk 16:9 - By the mammon of unrighteousness By the mammon of unrighteousness ( ek tou mamōnā tēs adikias ). By the use of what is so often evil (money). In Mat 6:24 mammon is set over aga...

By the mammon of unrighteousness ( ek tou mamōnā tēs adikias ).

By the use of what is so often evil (money). In Mat 6:24 mammon is set over against God as in Luk 16:13 below. Jesus knows the evil power in money, but servants of God have to use it for the kingdom of God. They should use it discreetly and it is proper to make friends by the use of it.

Robertson: Luk 16:9 - When it shall fail When it shall fail ( hotan eklipēi ). Second aorist active subjunctive with hotan , future time. The mammon is sure to fail.

When it shall fail ( hotan eklipēi ).

Second aorist active subjunctive with hotan , future time. The mammon is sure to fail.

Robertson: Luk 16:9 - That they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles That they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles ( hina dexōntai humas eis tas aiōnious skēnas ). This is the purpose of Christ in giving...

That they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles ( hina dexōntai humas eis tas aiōnious skēnas ).

This is the purpose of Christ in giving the advice about their making friends by the use of money. The purpose is that those who have been blessed and helped by the money may give a welcome to their benefactors when they reach heaven. There is no thought here of purchasing an entrance into heaven by the use of money. That idea is wholly foreign to the context. These friends will give a hearty welcome when one gives him mammon here. The wise way to lay up treasure in heaven is to use one’ s money for God here on earth. That will give a cash account there of joyful welcome, not of purchased entrance.

Robertson: Luk 16:10 - Faithful in a very little Faithful in a very little ( pistos en elachistōi ). Elative superlative. One of the profoundest sayings of Christ. We see it in business life. The ...

Faithful in a very little ( pistos en elachistōi ).

Elative superlative. One of the profoundest sayings of Christ. We see it in business life. The man who can be trusted in a very small thing will be promoted to large responsibilities. That is the way men climb to the top. Men who embezzle in large sums began with small sums. Luk 16:10-13 here explain the point of the preceding parables.

Robertson: Luk 16:11 - Faithful in the unrighteous mammon Faithful in the unrighteous mammon ( en tōi adikōi mamōnāi ). In the use of what is considered "unrighteous"as it so often is. Condition of t...

Faithful in the unrighteous mammon ( en tōi adikōi mamōnāi ).

In the use of what is considered "unrighteous"as it so often is. Condition of the first class, "if ye did not prove to be"(ei ouk egenesthe ). Failure here forfeits confidence in "the true riches"(to alēthinon ). There is no sadder story than to see a preacher go down by the wrong use of money, caught in this snare of the devil.

Robertson: Luk 16:12 - That which is your own That which is your own ( to hūmeteron ). But Westcott and Hort read to hēmeteron (our own) because of B L Origen. The difference is due to itac...

That which is your own ( to hūmeteron ).

But Westcott and Hort read to hēmeteron (our own) because of B L Origen. The difference is due to itacism in the pronunciation of hū - and hē alike (long i ). But the point in the passage calls for "yours"as correct. Earthly wealth is ours as a loan, a trust, withdrawn at any moment. It belongs to another (en tōi allotriōi ). If you did not prove faithful in this, who will give you what is really yours forever? Compare "rich toward God"(Luk 12:21).

Robertson: Luk 16:13 - Servant Servant ( oiketēs ). Household (oikos ) servant. This is the only addition to Mat 6:24 where otherwise the language is precisely the same, which s...

Servant ( oiketēs ).

Household (oikos ) servant. This is the only addition to Mat 6:24 where otherwise the language is precisely the same, which see note. Either Matthew or Luke has put the logion in the wrong place or Jesus spoke it twice. It suits perfectly each context. There is no real reason for objecting to repetition of favourite sayings by Jesus.

Robertson: Luk 16:14 - Who were lovers of money Who were lovers of money ( philarguroi huparchontes ). Literally, being lovers of money. Philarguroi is an old word, but in the N.T. only here and ...

Who were lovers of money ( philarguroi huparchontes ).

Literally, being lovers of money. Philarguroi is an old word, but in the N.T. only here and 2Ti 3:2. It is from philos and arguros .

Robertson: Luk 16:14 - Heard Heard ( ēkouon ). Imperfect active, were listening (all the while Jesus was talking to the disciples (Luk 16:1-13).

Heard ( ēkouon ).

Imperfect active, were listening (all the while Jesus was talking to the disciples (Luk 16:1-13).

Robertson: Luk 16:14 - And they scoffed at him And they scoffed at him ( kai exemuktērizon ). Imperfect active again of ekmuktērizō . lxx where late writers use simple verb. In the N.T. only...

And they scoffed at him ( kai exemuktērizon ).

Imperfect active again of ekmuktērizō . lxx where late writers use simple verb. In the N.T. only here and Luk 23:35. It means to turn out or up the nose at one, to sneer, to scoff. The Romans had a phrase, naso adunco suspendere , to hang on the hooked nose (the subject of ridicule). These money-loving Pharisees were quick to see that the words of Jesus about the wise use of money applied to them. They had stood without comment the three parables aimed directly at them (the lost sheep, the lost coin, the lost son). But now they do not remain quiet while they hear the fourth parable spoken to the disciples. No words were apparently spoken, but their eyes, noses, faces were eloquent with a fine disdain.

Robertson: Luk 16:15 - That justify yourselves That justify yourselves ( hoi dikaiountes heautous ). They were past-masters at that and were doing it now by upturned noses.

That justify yourselves ( hoi dikaiountes heautous ).

They were past-masters at that and were doing it now by upturned noses.

Robertson: Luk 16:15 - An abomination in the sight of God An abomination in the sight of God ( bdelugma enōpion tou theou ). See note on Mat 24:15 and note on Mar 13:14 for this lxx word for a detestable t...

An abomination in the sight of God ( bdelugma enōpion tou theou ).

See note on Mat 24:15 and note on Mar 13:14 for this lxx word for a detestable thing as when Antiochus Epiphanes set up an altar to Zeus in place of that to Jehovah. There is withering scorn in the use of this phrase by Jesus to these pious pretenders.

Robertson: Luk 16:16 - Entereth violently into it Entereth violently into it ( eis autēn biazetai ). A corresponding saying occurs in Mat 11:12 in a very different context. In both the verb biazeta...

Entereth violently into it ( eis autēn biazetai ).

A corresponding saying occurs in Mat 11:12 in a very different context. In both the verb biazetai , occurs also, but nowhere else in the N.T. It is present middle here and can be middle or passive in Matthew, which see note. It is rare in late prose. Deissmann ( Bible Studies , p. 258) cites an inscription where biazomai is reflexive middle and used absolutely. Here the meaning clearly is that everyone forces his way into the kingdom of God, a plea for moral enthusiasm and spiritual passion and energy that some today affect to despise.

Robertson: Luk 16:17 - One tittle One tittle ( mian kerean ). See note on Mat 5:18.

One tittle ( mian kerean ).

See note on Mat 5:18.

Robertson: Luk 16:18 - Committeth adultery Committeth adultery ( moicheuei ). Another repeated saying of Christ (Mat 5:32; Mar 10:11.; Mat 19:9.). Adultery remains adultery, divorce or no divo...

Committeth adultery ( moicheuei ).

Another repeated saying of Christ (Mat 5:32; Mar 10:11.; Mat 19:9.). Adultery remains adultery, divorce or no divorce, remarriage or no marriage.

Robertson: Luk 16:19 - He was clothed He was clothed ( enedidusketo ). Imperfect middle of endiduskō , a late intensive form of enduō . He clothed himself in or with. It was his habit...

He was clothed ( enedidusketo ).

Imperfect middle of endiduskō , a late intensive form of enduō . He clothed himself in or with. It was his habit.

Robertson: Luk 16:19 - Purple Purple ( porphuran ). This purple dye was obtained from the purple fish, a species of mussel or murex (1 Maccabees 4:23). It was very costly and wa...

Purple ( porphuran ).

This purple dye was obtained from the purple fish, a species of mussel or murex (1 Maccabees 4:23). It was very costly and was used for the upper garment by the wealthy and princes (royal purple). They had three shades of purple (deep violet, deep scarlet or crimson, deep blue). See also Mar 15:17, Mar 15:20; Rev 18:12.

Robertson: Luk 16:19 - Fine linen Fine linen ( busson ).

Fine linen ( busson ).

Robertson: Luk 16:19 - Byssus Byssus or Egyptian flax (India and Achaia also). It is a yellowed flax from which fine linen was made for undergarments. It was used for wrapping mum...

Byssus

or Egyptian flax (India and Achaia also). It is a yellowed flax from which fine linen was made for undergarments. It was used for wrapping mummies. "Some of the Egyptian linen was so fine that it was called woven air "(Vincent). Here only in the N.T. for the adjective bussinos occurs in Rev 18:12; Rev 19:8, Rev 19:14.

Robertson: Luk 16:19 - Faring sumptuously Faring sumptuously ( euphrainomenos lamprōs ).

Faring sumptuously ( euphrainomenos lamprōs ).

Robertson: Luk 16:19 - Making merry brilliantly. Making merry brilliantly. The verb euphrainomai we have already had in Luk 12:19; Luk 15:23, Luk 15:25, Luk 15:32. Lamprōs is an old adverb fro...

Making merry brilliantly.

The verb euphrainomai we have already had in Luk 12:19; Luk 15:23, Luk 15:25, Luk 15:32. Lamprōs is an old adverb from lampros , brilliant, shining, splendid, magnificent. It occurs here only in the N.T. This parable apparently was meant for the Pharisees (Luk 16:14) who were lovers of money. It shows the wrong use of money and opportunity.

Robertson: Luk 16:20 - Beggar Beggar ( ptōchos ). Original meaning of this old word. See note on Mat 5:3. The name Lazarus is from Eleazaros , "God a help,"and was a common one.

Beggar ( ptōchos ).

Original meaning of this old word. See note on Mat 5:3. The name Lazarus is from Eleazaros , "God a help,"and was a common one.

Robertson: Luk 16:20 - Lazar Lazar in English means one afflicted with a pestilential disease.

Lazar

in English means one afflicted with a pestilential disease.

Robertson: Luk 16:20 - Was laid Was laid ( ebeblēto ). Past perfect passive of the common verb ballō . He had been flung there and was still there, "as if contemptuous roughness...

Was laid ( ebeblēto ).

Past perfect passive of the common verb ballō . He had been flung there and was still there, "as if contemptuous roughness is implied"(Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 16:20 - At his gate At his gate ( pros ton pulōna autou ). Right in front of the large portico or gateway, not necessarily a part of the grand house, porch in Mat 26:7...

At his gate ( pros ton pulōna autou ).

Right in front of the large portico or gateway, not necessarily a part of the grand house, porch in Mat 26:71.

Robertson: Luk 16:20 - Full of sores Full of sores ( heilkōmenos ). Perfect passive participle of helkoō , to make sore, to ulcerate, from helkos , ulcer (Latin ulcus ). See use of...

Full of sores ( heilkōmenos ).

Perfect passive participle of helkoō , to make sore, to ulcerate, from helkos , ulcer (Latin ulcus ). See use of helkos in Luk 16:21. Common in Hippocrates and other medical writers. Here only in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 16:21 - With the crumbs that fell With the crumbs that fell ( apo tōn piptontōn ). From the things that fell from time to time. The language reminds one of Luk 15:16 (the prodigal...

With the crumbs that fell ( apo tōn piptontōn ).

From the things that fell from time to time. The language reminds one of Luk 15:16 (the prodigal son) and the Syro-Phoenician woman (Mar 7:28). Only it does not follow that this beggar did not get the scraps from the rich man’ s table. Probably he did, though nothing more. Even the wild street dogs would get them also.

Robertson: Luk 16:21 - Yea, even the dogs Yea, even the dogs ( alla kai hoi kunes ). For alla kai see also Luk 12:7; Luk 24:22. Alla can mean "yea,"though it often means "but."Here it dep...

Yea, even the dogs ( alla kai hoi kunes ).

For alla kai see also Luk 12:7; Luk 24:22. Alla can mean "yea,"though it often means "but."Here it depends on how one construes Luke’ s meaning. If he means that he was dependent on casual scraps and it was so bad that even the wild dogs moreover were his companions in misery, the climax came that he was able to drive away the dogs. The other view is that his hunger was unsatisfied, but even the dogs increased his misery.

Robertson: Luk 16:21 - Licked his sores Licked his sores ( epeleichon ta helkē autou ). Imperfect active of epileichō , a late vernacular Koiné verb, to lick over the surface. It is ...

Licked his sores ( epeleichon ta helkē autou ).

Imperfect active of epileichō , a late vernacular Koiné verb, to lick over the surface. It is not clear whether the licking of the sores by the dogs added to the misery of Lazarus or gave a measure of comfort, as he lay in his helpless condition. "Furrer speaks of witnessing dogs and lepers waiting together for the refuse"(Bruce). It was a scramble between the dogs and Lazarus.

Robertson: Luk 16:22 - Was borne Was borne ( apenechthēnai ). First aorist passive infinitive from apopherō , a common compound defective verb. The accusative case of general ref...

Was borne ( apenechthēnai ).

First aorist passive infinitive from apopherō , a common compound defective verb. The accusative case of general reference (auton ) is common with the infinitive in such clauses after egeneto , like indirect discourse. It is his soul, of course, that was so borne by the angels, not his body.

Robertson: Luk 16:22 - Into Abraham’ s bosom Into Abraham’ s bosom ( eis ton holpon Abraam ). To be in Abraham’ s bosom is to the Jew to be in Paradise. In Joh 1:18 the Logos is in the...

Into Abraham’ s bosom ( eis ton holpon Abraam ).

To be in Abraham’ s bosom is to the Jew to be in Paradise. In Joh 1:18 the Logos is in the bosom of the Father. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are in heaven and welcome those who come (Mat 8:11; 4 Maccabees 14:17). The beloved disciple reclined on the bosom of Jesus at the last passover (Joh 13:23) and this fact indicates special favour. So the welcome to Lazarus was unusual.

Robertson: Luk 16:22 - Was buried Was buried ( etaphē ). Second aorist (effective) passive of the common verb thaptō . Apparently in contrast with the angelic visitation to the be...

Was buried ( etaphē ).

Second aorist (effective) passive of the common verb thaptō . Apparently in contrast with the angelic visitation to the beggar.

Robertson: Luk 16:23 - In Hades In Hades ( en tōi Hāidēi ). See note on Mat 16:18 for discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both Paradise (Abraham’ s bos...

In Hades ( en tōi Hāidēi ).

See note on Mat 16:18 for discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both Paradise (Abraham’ s bosom) and Gehenna are in the unseen world beyond the grave.

Robertson: Luk 16:23 - In torments In torments ( en basanois ). The touchstone by which gold and other metals were tested, then the rack for torturing people. Old word, but in the N.T....

In torments ( en basanois ).

The touchstone by which gold and other metals were tested, then the rack for torturing people. Old word, but in the N.T. only here, Luk 16:28; Mat 4:24.

Robertson: Luk 16:23 - Sees Sees ( horāi ). Dramatic present indicative. The Jews believed that Gehenna and Paradise were close together. This detail in the parable does not d...

Sees ( horāi ).

Dramatic present indicative. The Jews believed that Gehenna and Paradise were close together. This detail in the parable does not demand that we believe it. The picture calls for it.

Robertson: Luk 16:23 - From afar From afar ( apo makrothen ). Pleonastic use of apo as makrothen means from afar .

From afar ( apo makrothen ).

Pleonastic use of apo as makrothen means from afar .

Robertson: Luk 16:24 - That he may dip That he may dip ( hina bapsēi ). First aorist active subjunctive of baptō , common verb, to dip.

That he may dip ( hina bapsēi ).

First aorist active subjunctive of baptō , common verb, to dip.

Robertson: Luk 16:24 - In water In water ( hudatos ). Genitive, the specifying case, water and not something else.

In water ( hudatos ).

Genitive, the specifying case, water and not something else.

Robertson: Luk 16:24 - Cool Cool ( katapsuxēi ). First aorist active subjunctive of katapsuchō , a late Greek compound, to cool off, to make cool. Only here in the N.T. but ...

Cool ( katapsuxēi ).

First aorist active subjunctive of katapsuchō , a late Greek compound, to cool off, to make cool. Only here in the N.T. but common in medical books. Note perfective use of kata - (down). A small service that will be welcome.

Robertson: Luk 16:24 - For I am in anguish For I am in anguish ( hoti odunōmai ). The active has a causative sense to cause intense pain, the middle to torment oneself (Luk 2:48; Act 20:38),...

For I am in anguish ( hoti odunōmai ).

The active has a causative sense to cause intense pain, the middle to torment oneself (Luk 2:48; Act 20:38), the passive to be translated as here. Common verb, but no other examples in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 16:25 - Receivedst Receivedst ( apelabes ). Second aorist indicative of apolambanō , old verb to get back what is promised and in full. See also Luk 6:34; Luk 18:30; ...

Receivedst ( apelabes ).

Second aorist indicative of apolambanō , old verb to get back what is promised and in full. See also Luk 6:34; Luk 18:30; Luk 23:41.

Robertson: Luk 16:25 - Evil things Evil things ( ta kaka ). Not "his,"but "the evil things"that came upon him.

Evil things ( ta kaka ).

Not "his,"but "the evil things"that came upon him.

Robertson: Luk 16:25 - Thou art in anguish Thou art in anguish ( odunāsai ). Like kauchāsai in Rom 2:17. They contracted -aesai without the loss of s. Common in the Koiné .

Thou art in anguish ( odunāsai ).

Like kauchāsai in Rom 2:17. They contracted -aesai without the loss of s. Common in the Koiné .

Robertson: Luk 16:26 - Beside all this Beside all this ( en pāsi toutois ).

Beside all this ( en pāsi toutois ).

Robertson: Luk 16:26 - In all these things In all these things ( or regions).

In all these things ( or regions).

Robertson: Luk 16:26 - Gulf Gulf ( chasma ). An old word from chainō , to yawn, our chasm, a gaping opening. Only here in the N.T.

Gulf ( chasma ).

An old word from chainō , to yawn, our chasm, a gaping opening. Only here in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 16:26 - Is fixed Is fixed ( estēriktai ). Perfect passive indicative of stērizō , old verb (See note on Luk 9:51). Permanent chasm.

Is fixed ( estēriktai ).

Perfect passive indicative of stērizō , old verb (See note on Luk 9:51). Permanent chasm.

Robertson: Luk 16:26 - May not be able May not be able ( mē dunōntai ). Present middle subjunctive of dunamai . The chasm is there on purpose ( that not , hopōs mē ) to prevent co...

May not be able ( mē dunōntai ).

Present middle subjunctive of dunamai . The chasm is there on purpose ( that not , hopōs mē ) to prevent communication.

Robertson: Luk 16:27 - That you send him That you send him ( hina pempsēis auton ). As if he had not had a fair warning and opportunity. The Roman Catholics probably justify prayer to sain...

That you send him ( hina pempsēis auton ).

As if he had not had a fair warning and opportunity. The Roman Catholics probably justify prayer to saints from this petition from the Rich Man to Abraham, but both are in Hades (the other world). It is to be observed besides, that Abraham makes no effort to communicate with the five brothers. But heavenly recognition is clearly assumed. Dante has a famous description of his visit to the damned ( Purg. iii, 114).

Robertson: Luk 16:28 - That he may testify That he may testify ( hopōs diamarturētai ). An old verb for solemn and thorough (dia - ) witness. The Rich Man labours under the delusion that...

That he may testify ( hopōs diamarturētai ).

An old verb for solemn and thorough (dia - ) witness. The Rich Man labours under the delusion that his five brothers will believe the testimony of Lazarus as a man from the dead.

Robertson: Luk 16:29 - Let them hear them Let them hear them ( akousatōsan autōn ). Even the heathen have the evidence of nature to show the existence of God as Paul argues in Romans so t...

Let them hear them ( akousatōsan autōn ).

Even the heathen have the evidence of nature to show the existence of God as Paul argues in Romans so that they are without excuse (Rom 1:20.).

Robertson: Luk 16:30 - They will repent They will repent ( metanoēsousin ). The Rich Man had failed to do this and he now sees that it is the one thing lacking. It is not wealth, not pove...

They will repent ( metanoēsousin ).

The Rich Man had failed to do this and he now sees that it is the one thing lacking. It is not wealth, not poverty, not alms, not influence, but repentance that is needed. He had thought repentance was for others, not for all.

Robertson: Luk 16:31 - Neither will they be persuaded Neither will they be persuaded ( oud' peisthēsontai ). First future passive of peithō . Gressmann calls attention to the fact that Jesus is sayin...

Neither will they be persuaded ( oud' peisthēsontai ).

First future passive of peithō . Gressmann calls attention to the fact that Jesus is saying this in the conclusion of the parable. It is a sharp discouragement against efforts today to communicate with the dead. "Saul was not led to repentance when he saw Samuel at Endor nor were the Pharisees when they saw Lazarus come forth from the tomb. The Pharisees tried to put Lazarus to death and to explain away the resurrection of Jesus"(Plummer). Alford comments on the curious fact that Lazarus was the name of the one who did rise from the dead but whose return from the dead "was the immediate exciting cause of their (Pharisees) crowning act of unbelief."

Vincent: Luk 16:1 - Steward Steward ( οἰκονόμον ) From οἶκος , a house, and νέμω , to distribute or dispense. Hence, one who assigns to the ...

Steward ( οἰκονόμον )

From οἶκος , a house, and νέμω , to distribute or dispense. Hence, one who assigns to the members of the household their several duties, and pays to each his wages. The paymaster. He kept the household stores under lock and seal, giving out what was required; and for this purpose received a signet-ring from his master. Wyc., fermour, or farmer. Here probably the land-steward.

Vincent: Luk 16:1 - Was accused Was accused ( διεβλήθη ) Only here in New Testament. From διά , over, across, and βάλλω , to throw. To carry across, an...

Was accused ( διεβλήθη )

Only here in New Testament. From διά , over, across, and βάλλω , to throw. To carry across, and hence to carry reports, etc., from one to another; to carry false reports, and so to calumniate or slander. See on devil, Mat 4:1. The word implies malice, but not necessarily falsehood. Compare Latin traducere ( trans, over, ducere, to ad), whence traduce.

Vincent: Luk 16:1 - Had wasted Had wasted ( ὡς διασκορπίζων ) Lit., as wasting. Rev., was wasting; not merely a past offence, but something going on at ...

Had wasted ( ὡς διασκορπίζων )

Lit., as wasting. Rev., was wasting; not merely a past offence, but something going on at the time of the accusation. See Luk 15:13.

Vincent: Luk 16:2 - How is it that I hear this How is it that I hear this ( τί τοῦτο ἀκούω ) Better as Rev., What is this that I hear?

How is it that I hear this ( τί τοῦτο ἀκούω )

Better as Rev., What is this that I hear?

Vincent: Luk 16:2 - Give an account Give an account ( ἀπόδος τὸν λόγον ) Lit., " give back " (ἀπό ). Rev., render. The (τὸν ) account which is ...

Give an account ( ἀπόδος τὸν λόγον )

Lit., " give back " (ἀπό ). Rev., render. The (τὸν ) account which is due. Aristophanes has a striking parallel: " And now give back my signet; for thou shalt no longer be my steward" (" Knights," 947).

Vincent: Luk 16:2 - Thou mayest Thou mayest ( δυνήσῃ ) More strictly, as Rev., thou canst.

Thou mayest ( δυνήσῃ )

More strictly, as Rev., thou canst.

Vincent: Luk 16:3 - Taketh away Taketh away Or is taking away. He was not yet dispossessed, as is shown by what follows.

Taketh away

Or is taking away. He was not yet dispossessed, as is shown by what follows.

Vincent: Luk 16:3 - I cannot I cannot ( οὐκ ἰσχύω ) See on Luk 14:30. " I have not strength." His luxurious life had unfitted him for hard labor. In Aristophan...

I cannot ( οὐκ ἰσχύω )

See on Luk 14:30. " I have not strength." His luxurious life had unfitted him for hard labor. In Aristophanes (" Birds," 1431), a sycophant is asked: " Tell me, being a young man, do you lodge informations against strangers?" He replies: " Yes; why should I suffer, for I know not how to dig ?"

Vincent: Luk 16:3 - To beg To beg ( ἐπαιτεῖν ) See on besought, Mat 15:23.

To beg ( ἐπαιτεῖν )

See on besought, Mat 15:23.

Vincent: Luk 16:4 - They may receive They may receive The debtors of his master (Luk 16:5).

They may receive

The debtors of his master (Luk 16:5).

Vincent: Luk 16:5 - He called He called Alford and Trench think that the debtors were together; but the words seem to me to indicate that he dealt with them separately. He cal...

He called

Alford and Trench think that the debtors were together; but the words seem to me to indicate that he dealt with them separately. He called to him each one, and said unto the first; after that (ἔπειτα ) another.

Vincent: Luk 16:6 - Measures Measures ( βάτους ) Lit., baths. The bath was a Hebrew measure, but the amount is uncertain, since, according to Edersheim, there wer...

Measures ( βάτους )

Lit., baths. The bath was a Hebrew measure, but the amount is uncertain, since, according to Edersheim, there were three kinds of measurement in use in Palestine: the original Mosaic, corresponding with the Roman; that of Jerusalem, which was a fifth larger; and the common Galilaean measurement, which was more than a fifth larger than the Jerusalem. Assuming the first standard, the bath would be about fifty-six pints, and the debt, therefore, a large one.

Vincent: Luk 16:6 - Take thy bill Take thy bill ( δέξαι σου τὰ γράμματα ) Lit., take back thy writings. Rev., bond. Wyc., obligation; and in Luk 16:7...

Take thy bill ( δέξαι σου τὰ γράμματα )

Lit., take back thy writings. Rev., bond. Wyc., obligation; and in Luk 16:7, letters . The plural is used for a single document. The bill is the bond which the buyer has given, and which is in the steward's keeping. He gives it back to the debtor for him to alter the figures.

Vincent: Luk 16:6 - Sit down quickly Sit down quickly It was a secret transaction, to be hurried through.

Sit down quickly

It was a secret transaction, to be hurried through.

Vincent: Luk 16:7 - To another To another ( ἑτέρῳ ) A different one with a different debt, and his circumstances demanding a different rate of discount.

To another ( ἑτέρῳ )

A different one with a different debt, and his circumstances demanding a different rate of discount.

Vincent: Luk 16:7 - Measures Measures ( κόρους ) Cors. A cor was ten baths; the dry and the fluid measures being the same.

Measures ( κόρους )

Cors. A cor was ten baths; the dry and the fluid measures being the same.

Vincent: Luk 16:8 - The lord The lord Of the steward. Rev., properly, " his lord."

The lord

Of the steward. Rev., properly, " his lord."

Vincent: Luk 16:8 - Commended Commended Admiring his shrewdness, though he himself was defrauded.

Commended

Admiring his shrewdness, though he himself was defrauded.

Vincent: Luk 16:8 - Unjust steward Unjust steward Lit., steward of injustice. See on forgetful hearer, Jam 1:25; and compare words of grace, Luk 4:22; unjust judge, Luk 18:...

Unjust steward

Lit., steward of injustice. See on forgetful hearer, Jam 1:25; and compare words of grace, Luk 4:22; unjust judge, Luk 18:6; son of his love, Col 1:13; lust of uncleanness, 2Pe 2:10. The idiom is a Hebrew one. The phrase expresses Jesus' judgment on what the steward's master praised.

Vincent: Luk 16:8 - Wisely Wisely ( φρονίμως ) See on Mat 10:16. Wyc., prudently . I would suggest shrewdly, though in the modern sense of sagaciously, since...

Wisely ( φρονίμως )

See on Mat 10:16. Wyc., prudently . I would suggest shrewdly, though in the modern sense of sagaciously, since the earlier sense of shrewd was malicious, or wicked. Plato says: " All knowledge separated from righteousness and other virtue appears to be cunning and not wisdom. " In Mat 7:24-26, it is applied to the sagacious man who built his house on the rock, opposed to the foolish (μωρός ) man who built on the sand. " It is a middle term, not bringing out prominently the moral characteristics, either good or evil, of the action to which it is applied, but recognizing in it a skilful adaptation of the means to the end - affirming nothing in the way of moral approbation or disapprobation, either of means or end, but leaving their worth to be determined by other considerations" (Trench, " Parables" ).

Vincent: Luk 16:8 - In their generation In their generation ( εἰς τὴν γενεὰν τὴν ἑαυτῶν ) The A. V. misses the point, following Wyc. Lit., in referen...

In their generation ( εἰς τὴν γενεὰν τὴν ἑαυτῶν )

The A. V. misses the point, following Wyc. Lit., in reference to their own generation; i.e., the body of the children of this world to which they belong, and are kindred. They are shrewd in dealing with their own kind; since, as is shown in the parable, where the debtors were accomplices of the steward they are all alike unscrupulous. Tynd., in their kind.

Vincent: Luk 16:8 - Than the children of light Than the children of light Lit., sons of the light. The men of the world make their intercourse with one another more profitable than the sons ...

Than the children of light

Lit., sons of the light. The men of the world make their intercourse with one another more profitable than the sons of light do their intercourse with their own kind. The latter " forget to use God's goods to form bonds of love to the contemporaries who share their character" (Godet); forget to " make friends of the mammon," etc.

Vincent: Luk 16:9 - Make to yourselves friends Make to yourselves friends Compare Virgil, " Aeneid," vi., 664:. Among the tenants of Elysium he sees " those who, by good desert, made others m...

Make to yourselves friends

Compare Virgil, " Aeneid," vi., 664:. Among the tenants of Elysium he sees " those who, by good desert, made others mindful of them."

Vincent: Luk 16:9 - Of the mammon of unrighteousness Of the mammon of unrighteousness ( ἐκ τοῦ μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας ) The same idiom as in Luk 16:8, steward of injust...

Of the mammon of unrighteousness ( ἐκ τοῦ μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας )

The same idiom as in Luk 16:8, steward of injustice. Compare unrighteous mammon, Luk 16:11. Mammon should be spelt with one m. It is a Chaldee word, meaning riches. It occurs only in this chapter and at Mat 6:24. " Of the mammon" is, literally, by means of. In the phrase of unrighteousness, there is implied no condemnation of property as such; but it is styled unrighteous, or belonging to unrighteousness, because it is the characteristic and representative object and delight and desire of the selfish and unrighteous world: their love of it being a root of all evil (1Ti 6:10). Wyc., the riches of wickedness .

Vincent: Luk 16:9 - Ye fail Ye fail ( ἐκλίπητε ) But all the best texts read ἐκλίπῃ , " when it (the mammon) fails."

Ye fail ( ἐκλίπητε )

But all the best texts read ἐκλίπῃ , " when it (the mammon) fails."

Vincent: Luk 16:9 - They may receive They may receive The friends.

They may receive

The friends.

Vincent: Luk 16:9 - Habitations Habitations ( σκηνάς ) Lit., tents or tabernacles .

Habitations ( σκηνάς )

Lit., tents or tabernacles .

Vincent: Luk 16:10 - That which is least That which is least A general proposition, yet with a reference to mammon as the least of things. See Luk 16:11.

That which is least

A general proposition, yet with a reference to mammon as the least of things. See Luk 16:11.

Vincent: Luk 16:11 - Faithful Faithful Fidelity is, therefore, possible toward the unrighteous mammon.

Faithful

Fidelity is, therefore, possible toward the unrighteous mammon.

Vincent: Luk 16:12 - That which is another's That which is another's God's. Riches are not ours, but given us in trust.

That which is another's

God's. Riches are not ours, but given us in trust.

Vincent: Luk 16:12 - Your own Your own Equivalent to the true riches . That which forms part of our eternal being - the redeemed self. Compare the parable of the Rich Fool (L...

Your own

Equivalent to the true riches . That which forms part of our eternal being - the redeemed self. Compare the parable of the Rich Fool (Luk 12:20), where the life or soul is distinguished from the possessions. " Thy soul shall be required; whose shall the wealth be?" Compare, also, rich to ward God (Luk 12:21). Chrysostom, cited by Trench, says of Abraham and Job, " They did not serve mammon, but possessed and ruled themselves, and were masters, and not servants."

Vincent: Luk 16:13 - Servant Servant ( οἰκέτης ) Properly, household servant.

Servant ( οἰκέτης )

Properly, household servant.

Vincent: Luk 16:13 - Serve Serve See on minister, Mat 20:26.

Serve

See on minister, Mat 20:26.

Vincent: Luk 16:13 - The other The other See on Mat 6:24.

The other

See on Mat 6:24.

Vincent: Luk 16:13 - Hold to Hold to See on Mat 6:24.

Hold to

See on Mat 6:24.

Vincent: Luk 16:14 - Covetous Covetous ( φιλάργυροι ) Rev. renders literally, according to the composition of the word, lover, of money. Only here and 2Ti 3:2. C...

Covetous ( φιλάργυροι )

Rev. renders literally, according to the composition of the word, lover, of money. Only here and 2Ti 3:2. Compare the kindred noun, 1Ti 6:10. The usual word for covetous is πλεονέκτης (1Co 5:10, 1Co 5:11; 1Co 6:10).

Vincent: Luk 16:14 - Derided Derided ( ἐξεμυκτήριζον ) Only here and Luk 23:35. Lit., to turn up the nose at. The Romans had a corresponding phrase, naso ...

Derided ( ἐξεμυκτήριζον )

Only here and Luk 23:35. Lit., to turn up the nose at. The Romans had a corresponding phrase, naso adunco suspendere , to hang on the hooked nose: i.e., to turn up the nose and make a hook of it, on which (figuratively) to hang the subject of ridicule. Thus Horace, in one of his satires, giving an account of a pretentious banquet at the house of a rich miser, describes one of the guests as hanging everything to his nose; i.e., making a joke of everything that occurred. The simple verb occurs at Gal 6:7, of mocking God.

Vincent: Luk 16:15 - Abomination Abomination See on Mat 24:15.

Abomination

See on Mat 24:15.

Vincent: Luk 16:16 - Presseth Presseth Rev., entereth violently. See on Mat 11:12. Wyc., maketh violence into it. Tynd., striveth to go in.

Presseth

Rev., entereth violently. See on Mat 11:12. Wyc., maketh violence into it. Tynd., striveth to go in.

Vincent: Luk 16:17 - Tittle Tittle See on Mat 5:18.

Tittle

See on Mat 5:18.

Vincent: Luk 16:19 - Was clothed Was clothed Imperfect, and frequentative; denoting his habitual attire.

Was clothed

Imperfect, and frequentative; denoting his habitual attire.

Vincent: Luk 16:19 - Purple Purple ( πορφύραν ) Originally the purple fish from which the color was obtained, and thence applied to the color itself. Several kin...

Purple ( πορφύραν )

Originally the purple fish from which the color was obtained, and thence applied to the color itself. Several kinds of these were found in the Mediterranean. The color was contained in a vein about the neck. Under the term purple the ancients included three distinct colors: 1. A deep violet, with a black or dusky tinge; the color meant by Homer in describing an ocean wave: " As when the great sea grows purple with dumb swell" (" Iliad," xiv., 16). 2. Deep scarlet or crimson - the Tyrian purple. 3. The deep blue of the Mediterranean. The dye was permanent. Alexander is said by Plutarch to have found in the royal palace at Susa garments which preserved their freshness of color though they had been laid up for nearly two hundred years; and Mr. St. John (" Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece" ) relates that a small pot of the dye was discovered at Pompeii which had preserved the tone and richness attributed to the Tyrian purple. This fixedness of color is alluded to in Isa 1:18 - though your sins were as scarlet, the term being rendered in the Septuagint φοινικοῦν , which, with its kindred words, denoted darker shades of red. A full and interesting description of the purple may be found in J. A. St. John's " Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece," iii., 224: sq.

Vincent: Luk 16:19 - Fine linen Fine linen ( βύσσον ) Byssus . A yellowish flax, and the linen made from it. Herodotus says it was used for enveloping mummies (ii., 86),...

Fine linen ( βύσσον )

Byssus . A yellowish flax, and the linen made from it. Herodotus says it was used for enveloping mummies (ii., 86), a statement confirmed by microscopic examinations. He also speaks of it as a bandage for a wound (vii., 181). It is the word used by the Septuagint for linen (Exodus 25:4; 28:5; 35:6, etc.). Some of the Egyptian linen was so fine that it was called woven air. Sir Gardner Wilkinson says that some in his possession was, to the touch, comparable to silk, and not inferior in texture to the finest cambric. It was often as transparent as lawn, a fact illustrated by the painted sculptures, where the entire form is often made distinctly visible through the outer garment. Later Greek writers used the word for cotton and for silk. See Wilkinson's " Ancient Egyptians," first series, iii., 114 sq., and Rawlinson's " History of Ancient Egypt," i., 4:87, 512. A yellow byssus was used by the Greeks, the material for which grew around Elis, and which was enormously costly. See Aeschylus, " Persae," 127.

Vincent: Luk 16:19 - Fared sumptuously Fared sumptuously ( εὐφραινόμενος λαμπρῶς ) Lit., making merry in splendor. Compare Luk 15:23, Luk 15:24, Luk 15:29, ...

Fared sumptuously ( εὐφραινόμενος λαμπρῶς )

Lit., making merry in splendor. Compare Luk 15:23, Luk 15:24, Luk 15:29, Luk 15:32. Wyc., he ate, each day, shiningly.

Vincent: Luk 16:20 - Beggar Beggar See on poor , Mat 5:3.

Beggar

See on poor , Mat 5:3.

Vincent: Luk 16:20 - Lazarus Lazarus Abbreviated from Ἐλεάζαρος , Eleazar, and meaning God a help. " It is a striking evidence of the deep impression which t...

Lazarus

Abbreviated from Ἐλεάζαρος , Eleazar, and meaning God a help. " It is a striking evidence of the deep impression which this parable has made on the mind of Christendom, that the term azar should have passed into so many languages as it has, losing altogether its signification as a proper name" (Trench).

Vincent: Luk 16:20 - Was laid Was laid ( ἐβέβλητο ) Lit., was thrown: east carelessly down by his bearers and left there.

Was laid ( ἐβέβλητο )

Lit., was thrown: east carelessly down by his bearers and left there.

Vincent: Luk 16:20 - Gate Gate ( πυλῶνα ) The gateway , often separated from the house or temple. In Mat 26:71, it is rendered porch.

Gate ( πυλῶνα )

The gateway , often separated from the house or temple. In Mat 26:71, it is rendered porch.

Vincent: Luk 16:20 - Full of sores Full of sores ( εἱλκωμένος ) Only here in New Testament. The regular medical term for to be ulcerated. John uses the kindred no...

Full of sores ( εἱλκωμένος )

Only here in New Testament. The regular medical term for to be ulcerated. John uses the kindred noun ἕλκος , an ulcer (Rev 16:2). See next verse.

Vincent: Luk 16:21 - Desiring Desiring ( ἐπιθυμῶν ) Eagerly, and not receiving what he desired. The same thing is implied in the story of the prodigal, where the s...

Desiring ( ἐπιθυμῶν )

Eagerly, and not receiving what he desired. The same thing is implied in the story of the prodigal, where the same word is used, " he would fain have been filled" (Luk 15:16), but the pods did not satisfy his hunger.

Vincent: Luk 16:21 - The crumbs that fell The crumbs that fell ( τῶν πιπτόντων ) Lit., the things falling. The best texts omit ψιχίων , crumbs .

The crumbs that fell ( τῶν πιπτόντων )

Lit., the things falling. The best texts omit ψιχίων , crumbs .

Vincent: Luk 16:21 - Moreover Moreover ( ἀλλὰ καὶ ) Lit., but even . " But (instead of finding compassion), even the dogs," etc.

Moreover ( ἀλλὰ καὶ )

Lit., but even . " But (instead of finding compassion), even the dogs," etc.

Vincent: Luk 16:21 - Licked Licked ( ἐπέλειχον ) Only here in New Testament. Cyril, cited by Hobart, says: " The only attention, and, so to speak, medical dress...

Licked ( ἐπέλειχον )

Only here in New Testament. Cyril, cited by Hobart, says: " The only attention, and, so to speak, medical dressing, which his sores received, was from the dogs who came and licked them."

Vincent: Luk 16:22 - Abraham's bosom Abraham's bosom A Rabbinical phrase, equivalent to being with Abraham in Paradise. " To the Israelite Abraham seems the personal centre and meeti...

Abraham's bosom

A Rabbinical phrase, equivalent to being with Abraham in Paradise. " To the Israelite Abraham seems the personal centre and meeting-point of Paradise" (Goebel).

Vincent: Luk 16:23 - Hell Hell Rev., Hades. Where Lazarus also was, but in a different region. See on Mat 16:18.

Hell

Rev., Hades. Where Lazarus also was, but in a different region. See on Mat 16:18.

Vincent: Luk 16:24 - Cool Cool ( καταψύχειν ) Only here in New Testament. Common in medical language. See on Luk 21:26. Compare the exquisite passage in Dante,...

Cool ( καταψύχειν )

Only here in New Testament. Common in medical language. See on Luk 21:26. Compare the exquisite passage in Dante, where Messer Adamo, the false coiner, horribly mutilated, and in the lowest circle of Malebolge, says:

" I had, while living, much of what I wished;

And now, alas! a drop of water crave.

The rivulets that from the verdant hills

Of Cassentin descend down into Arno,

Making their channels to be soft and cold,

Ever before me stand, and not in vain:

For far more doth their image dry me up

Than the disease which strips my face of flesh."

Inferno , xxx., 65 sq.

Vincent: Luk 16:24 - Tormented Tormented ( ὀδυνῶμαι ) Used by Luke only. Tormented is too strong. The word is used of the sorrow of Joseph and Mary when the child...

Tormented ( ὀδυνῶμαι )

Used by Luke only. Tormented is too strong. The word is used of the sorrow of Joseph and Mary when the child Jesus was missing (Luk 2:48); and of the grief of the Ephesian elders on parting with Paul (Act 20:38) Rev., I am in anguish.

Vincent: Luk 16:25 - Son Son ( τέκνον ) Lit., child.

Son ( τέκνον )

Lit., child.

Vincent: Luk 16:25 - Receivedst Receivedst ( ἀπέλαβες ) Received back (ἀπό ) as a reward or quittance. Compare Luk 6:34; Luk 18:30; Luk 23:41.

Receivedst ( ἀπέλαβες )

Received back (ἀπό ) as a reward or quittance. Compare Luk 6:34; Luk 18:30; Luk 23:41.

Vincent: Luk 16:25 - Gulf Gulf ( χάσμα ) From χάσκω , to yawn. Transcribed into the English chasm. In medical language, of the cavities in a wound or ulc...

Gulf ( χάσμα )

From χάσκω , to yawn. Transcribed into the English chasm. In medical language, of the cavities in a wound or ulcer.

Vincent: Luk 16:25 - Is fixed Is fixed ( ἐστήρικται ) Compare Luk 22:32; and see on 1Pe 5:10.

Is fixed ( ἐστήρικται )

Compare Luk 22:32; and see on 1Pe 5:10.

Vincent: Luk 16:27 - Send him to my father's house Send him to my father's house Compare Dante, where Ciacco, the glutton, says to Dante: " But when thou art again in the sweet world, I pray thee...

Send him to my father's house

Compare Dante, where Ciacco, the glutton, says to Dante:

" But when thou art again in the sweet world,

I pray thee to the mind of others bring me."

Inferno, vi., 88.

Vincent: Luk 16:31 - Be persuaded Be persuaded Dives had said, " they will repent." Abraham replies, " they will not be even persuaded ."

Be persuaded

Dives had said, " they will repent." Abraham replies, " they will not be even persuaded ."

Vincent: Luk 16:31 - Though one rose Though one rose Dives had said, " if one went. "

Though one rose

Dives had said, " if one went. "

Vincent: Luk 16:31 - From the dead From the dead ( ἐν νεκρῶν ) Dives had said from the dead, but using a different preposition (ἀπό ). It is wellnigh impossibl...

From the dead ( ἐν νεκρῶν )

Dives had said from the dead, but using a different preposition (ἀπό ). It is wellnigh impossible to give the English reader this nice play of prepositions. The general distinction is ἀπό , from the outside; ἐκ , from within. Thus Luk 2:4, Joseph went up from (ἀπό ) Galilee, the province, out of (ἐκ ) the city of Nazareth. Abraham's preposition (ἐκ , out of ) implies a more complete identification with the dead than Dives' ἀπό , from. A rising from among the dead was more than a messenger going from the dead. " We can hardly pass over the identity of the name Lazarus with that of him who actually was recalled from the dead; but whose return, far from persuading the Pharisees, was the immediate exciting cause of their crowning act of unbelief" (Alford).

Wesley: Luk 16:1 - And he said also to his disciples Not only to the scribes and Pharisees to whom he had hitherto been speaking, but to all the younger as well as the elder brethren: to the returning pr...

Not only to the scribes and Pharisees to whom he had hitherto been speaking, but to all the younger as well as the elder brethren: to the returning prodigals who were now his disciples.

Wesley: Luk 16:1 - A certain rich man had a steward Christ here teaches all that are now in favour with God, particularly pardoned penitents, to behave wisely in what is committed to them.

Christ here teaches all that are now in favour with God, particularly pardoned penitents, to behave wisely in what is committed to them.

Wesley: Luk 16:3 - To beg I am ashamed But not ashamed to cheat! This was likewise a sense of honour! "By men called honour, but by angels pride."

But not ashamed to cheat! This was likewise a sense of honour! "By men called honour, but by angels pride."

Wesley: Luk 16:4 - I know That is, I am resolved, what to do.

That is, I am resolved, what to do.

Wesley: Luk 16:8 - And the lord commended the unjust steward Namely, in this respect, because he had used timely precaution: so that though the dishonesty of such a servant be detestable, yet his foresight, care...

Namely, in this respect, because he had used timely precaution: so that though the dishonesty of such a servant be detestable, yet his foresight, care, and contrivance, about the interests of this life, deserve our imitation, with regard to the more important affairs of another.

Wesley: Luk 16:8 - The children of this world Those who seek no other portion than this world: Are wiser - Not absolutely, for they are, one and all, egregious fools; but they are more consistent ...

Those who seek no other portion than this world: Are wiser - Not absolutely, for they are, one and all, egregious fools; but they are more consistent with themselves; they are truer to their principles; they more steadily pursue their end; they are wiser in their generation - That is, in their own way, than the children of light - The children of God, whose light shines on their hearts.

Wesley: Luk 16:9 - And I say to you Be good stewards even of the lowest talents wherewith God hath intrusted you. Mammon means riches or money. It is termed the mammon of unrighteousness...

Be good stewards even of the lowest talents wherewith God hath intrusted you. Mammon means riches or money. It is termed the mammon of unrighteousness, because of the manner wherein it is commonly either procured or employed. Make yourselves friends of this, by doing all possible good, particularly to the children of God: that when ye fail, when your flesh and your heart faileth, when this earthly tabernacle is dissolved, those of them who have gone before may receive, may welcome you into the everlasting habitations.

Wesley: Luk 16:10 - -- And whether ye have more or less, see that ye be faithful as well as wise stewards. He that is faithful in what is meanest of all, worldly substance, ...

And whether ye have more or less, see that ye be faithful as well as wise stewards. He that is faithful in what is meanest of all, worldly substance, is also faithful in things of a higher nature; and he that uses these lowest gifts unfaithfully, is likewise unfaithful in spiritual things.

Wesley: Luk 16:11 - Who will intrust you with the true riches? How should God intrust you with spiritual and eternal, which alone are true riches?

How should God intrust you with spiritual and eternal, which alone are true riches?

Wesley: Luk 16:12 - If ye have not been faithful in that which was another's None of these temporal things are yours: you are only stewards of them, not proprietors: God is the proprietor of all; he lodges them in your hands fo...

None of these temporal things are yours: you are only stewards of them, not proprietors: God is the proprietor of all; he lodges them in your hands for a season: but still they are his property. Rich men, understand and consider this. If your steward uses any part of your estate (so called in the language of men) any farther or any otherwise than you direct, he is a knave: he has neither conscience nor honour. Neither have you either one or the other, if you use any part of that estate, which is in truth God's, not yours, any otherwise than he directs.

Wesley: Luk 16:12 - That which is your own Heaven, which when you have it, will be your own for ever.

Heaven, which when you have it, will be your own for ever.

Wesley: Luk 16:13 - -- And you cannot be faithful to God, if you trim between God and the world, if you do not serve him alone. Mat 6:24.

And you cannot be faithful to God, if you trim between God and the world, if you do not serve him alone. Mat 6:24.

Wesley: Luk 16:15 - And he said to them, Ye are they who justify yourselves before men The sense of the whole passage is, that pride, wherewith you justify yourselves, feeds covetousness, derides the Gospel, Luk 16:14, and destroys the l...

The sense of the whole passage is, that pride, wherewith you justify yourselves, feeds covetousness, derides the Gospel, Luk 16:14, and destroys the law, Luk 16:18. All which is illustrated by a terrible example.

Wesley: Luk 16:15 - Ye justify yourselves before men Ye think yourselves righteous, and persuade others to think you so.

Ye think yourselves righteous, and persuade others to think you so.

Wesley: Luk 16:16 - -- The law and the prophets were in force until John: from that time the Gospel takes place; and humble upright men receive it with inexpressible earnest...

The law and the prophets were in force until John: from that time the Gospel takes place; and humble upright men receive it with inexpressible earnestness. Mat 11:13.

Wesley: Luk 16:17 - -- Not that the Gospel at all destroys the law. Mat 5:18.

Not that the Gospel at all destroys the law. Mat 5:18.

Wesley: Luk 16:18 - -- But ye do; particularly in this notorious instance. Mat 5:31; Mat 19:7.

But ye do; particularly in this notorious instance. Mat 5:31; Mat 19:7.

Wesley: Luk 16:19 - There was a certain rich man Very probably a Pharisee, and one that justified himself before men; a very honest, as well as honourable gentleman: though it was not proper to menti...

Very probably a Pharisee, and one that justified himself before men; a very honest, as well as honourable gentleman: though it was not proper to mention his name on this occasion: who was clothed in purple and fine linen - and doubtless esteemed on this account, (perhaps not only by those who sold it, but by most that knew him,) as encouraging trade, and acting according to his quality: And feasted splendidly every day - And consequently was esteemed yet more, for his generosity and hospitality in keeping so good a table.

Wesley: Luk 16:20 - -- And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, (according to the Greek pronunciation) or Eleazer. By his name it may be conjectured, he was of no mean ...

And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, (according to the Greek pronunciation) or Eleazer. By his name it may be conjectured, he was of no mean family, though it was thus reduced. There was no reason for our Lord to conceal his name, which probably was then well known. Theophylact observes, from the tradition of the Hebrews, that he lived at Jerusalem. Yea, the dogs also came and licked his sores - It seems this circumstance is recorded to show that all his ulcers lay bare, and were not closed or bound up.

Wesley: Luk 16:22 - And the beggar Worn out with hunger, and pain, and want of all things, died: and was carried by angels (amazing change of the scene!) into Abraham's bosom - So the J...

Worn out with hunger, and pain, and want of all things, died: and was carried by angels (amazing change of the scene!) into Abraham's bosom - So the Jews styled paradise; the place where the souls of good men remain from death to the resurrection. The rich man also died, and was buried - Doubtless with pomp enough, though we do not read of his lying in state; that stupid, senseless pageantry, that shocking insult on a poor, putrefying carcass, was reserved for our enlightened age!

Wesley: Luk 16:23 - He seeth Abraham afar off And yet knew him at that distance: and shall not Abraham's children, when they are together in paradise, know each other!

And yet knew him at that distance: and shall not Abraham's children, when they are together in paradise, know each other!

Wesley: Luk 16:24 - Father Abraham, have mercy on me It cannot be denied, but here is one precedent in Scripture of praying to departed saints: but who is it that prays, and with what success? Will any, ...

It cannot be denied, but here is one precedent in Scripture of praying to departed saints: but who is it that prays, and with what success? Will any, who considers this, be fond of copying after him?

Wesley: Luk 16:25 - But Abraham said, Son According to the flesh. Is it not worthy of observation, that Abraham will not revile even a damned soul? and shall living men revile one another? Tho...

According to the flesh. Is it not worthy of observation, that Abraham will not revile even a damned soul? and shall living men revile one another? Thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things - Thou didst choose and accept of worldly things as thy good, thy happiness. And can any be at a loss to know why he was in torments? This damnable idolatry, had there been nothing more, was enough to sink him to the nethermost hell.

Wesley: Luk 16:26 - Beside this there is a great gulf fixed Reader, to which side of it wilt thou go?

Reader, to which side of it wilt thou go?

Wesley: Luk 16:28 - Lest they also come into this place He might justly fear lest their reproaches should add to his own torment.

He might justly fear lest their reproaches should add to his own torment.

Wesley: Luk 16:31 - Neither will they be persuaded Truly to repent: for this implies an entire change of heart: but a thousand apparitions cannot, effect this. God only can, applying his word.

Truly to repent: for this implies an entire change of heart: but a thousand apparitions cannot, effect this. God only can, applying his word.

JFB: Luk 16:1 - steward Manager of his estate.

Manager of his estate.

JFB: Luk 16:1 - accused Informed upon.

Informed upon.

JFB: Luk 16:1 - had wasted Rather, "was wasting."

Rather, "was wasting."

JFB: Luk 16:3 - cannot dig . . . to beg, ashamed Therefore, when dismissed, shall be in utter want.

Therefore, when dismissed, shall be in utter want.

JFB: Luk 16:4 - may receive me, &c. Observe his one object--when cast out of one home to secure another. This is the key to the parable, on which there have been many differing views.

Observe his one object--when cast out of one home to secure another. This is the key to the parable, on which there have been many differing views.

JFB: Luk 16:5-7 - fifty . . . fourscore Deducting a half from the debt of the one, and a fifth from that of the other.

Deducting a half from the debt of the one, and a fifth from that of the other.

JFB: Luk 16:8 - the lord Evidently the steward's lord, so called in Luk 16:3, Luk 16:5.

Evidently the steward's lord, so called in Luk 16:3, Luk 16:5.

JFB: Luk 16:8 - commended, &c. Not for his "injustice," but "because he had done wisely," or prudently; with commendable foresight and skilful adaptation of means to end.

Not for his "injustice," but "because he had done wisely," or prudently; with commendable foresight and skilful adaptation of means to end.

JFB: Luk 16:8 - children of this world So Luk 20:34; compare Psa 17:14 ("their portion in this life"); Phi 3:19 ("mind earthly things"); Psa 4:6-7.

So Luk 20:34; compare Psa 17:14 ("their portion in this life"); Phi 3:19 ("mind earthly things"); Psa 4:6-7.

JFB: Luk 16:8 - their generation Or "for their generation"--that is, for the purposes of the "world" they are "of." The greater wisdom (or shrewdness) of the one, in adaptation of mea...

Or "for their generation"--that is, for the purposes of the "world" they are "of." The greater wisdom (or shrewdness) of the one, in adaptation of means to ends, and in energetic, determined prosecution of them, is none of it for God and eternity--a region they were never in, an atmosphere they never breathed, an undiscovered world, an unborn existence to them--but all for the purposes of their own grovelling and fleeting generation.

JFB: Luk 16:8 - children of light (so Joh 12:36; Eph 5:8; 1Th 5:5). Yet this is only "as night-birds see better in the dark than those of the day owls than eagles" [CAJETAN and TRENCH]...

(so Joh 12:36; Eph 5:8; 1Th 5:5). Yet this is only "as night-birds see better in the dark than those of the day owls than eagles" [CAJETAN and TRENCH]. But we may learn lessons from them, as our Lord now shows, and "be wise as serpents."

JFB: Luk 16:9 - Make . . . friends of Turn to your advantage; that is, as the steward did, "by showing mercy to the poor" (Dan 4:27; compare Luk 12:33; Luk 14:13-14).

Turn to your advantage; that is, as the steward did, "by showing mercy to the poor" (Dan 4:27; compare Luk 12:33; Luk 14:13-14).

JFB: Luk 16:9 - mammon of unrighteousness Treacherous, precarious. (See on Mat 6:24).

Treacherous, precarious. (See on Mat 6:24).

JFB: Luk 16:9 - ye fail In respect of life.

In respect of life.

JFB: Luk 16:9 - they may receive you Not generally, "ye may be received" (as Luk 6:38, "shall men give"), but "those ye have relieved may rise up as witnesses for you" at the great day. T...

Not generally, "ye may be received" (as Luk 6:38, "shall men give"), but "those ye have relieved may rise up as witnesses for you" at the great day. Then, like the steward, when turned out of one home shall ye secure another; but better than he, a heavenly for an earthly, an everlasting for a temporary habitation. Money is not here made the key to heaven, more than "the deeds done in the body" in general, according to which, as a test of character--but not by the merit of which--men are to be judged (2Co 5:10, and see Mat 25:34-40).

JFB: Luk 16:10 - He, &c. A maxim of great pregnancy and value; rising from the prudence which the steward had to the fidelity which he had not, the "harmlessness of the dove, ...

A maxim of great pregnancy and value; rising from the prudence which the steward had to the fidelity which he had not, the "harmlessness of the dove, to which the serpent" with all his "wisdom" is a total stranger. Fidelity depends not on the amount entrusted, but on the sense of responsibility. He that feels this in little will feel it in much, and conversely.

JFB: Luk 16:11-12 - unrighteous mammon To the whole of this He applies the disparaging term "what is least," in contrast with "the true riches."

To the whole of this He applies the disparaging term "what is least," in contrast with "the true riches."

JFB: Luk 16:12 - another man's . . . your own An important turn to the subject. Here all we have is on trust as stewards, who have an account to render. Hereafter, what the faithful have will be t...

An important turn to the subject. Here all we have is on trust as stewards, who have an account to render. Hereafter, what the faithful have will be their own property, being no longer on probation, but in secure, undisturbed, rightful, everlasting possession and enjoyment of all that is graciously bestowed on us. Thus money is neither to be idolized nor despised: we must sit loose to it and use it for God's glory.

JFB: Luk 16:13 - can serve Be entirely at the command of; and this is true even where the services are not opposed.

Be entirely at the command of; and this is true even where the services are not opposed.

JFB: Luk 16:13 - hate . . . love Showing that the two here intended are in uncompromising hostility to each other: an awfully searching principle!

Showing that the two here intended are in uncompromising hostility to each other: an awfully searching principle!

JFB: Luk 16:14-18 - covetous . . . derided him Sneered at Him; their master sin being too plainly struck at for them to relish. But it was easier to run down than to refute such teaching.

Sneered at Him; their master sin being too plainly struck at for them to relish. But it was easier to run down than to refute such teaching.

JFB: Luk 16:15 - justify yourselves Make a show of righteousness.

Make a show of righteousness.

JFB: Luk 16:15 - highly esteemed among men Generally carried away by plausible appearances. (See 1Sa 16:7; and Luk 14:11).

Generally carried away by plausible appearances. (See 1Sa 16:7; and Luk 14:11).

JFB: Luk 16:16 - The law, &c. (See Mat 11:13).

(See Mat 11:13).

JFB: Luk 16:16 - and every man presseth, &c. Publicans and sinners, all indiscriminately, are eagerly pressing into it; and ye, interested adherents of the mere forms of an economy which is passi...

Publicans and sinners, all indiscriminately, are eagerly pressing into it; and ye, interested adherents of the mere forms of an economy which is passing away, "discerning not the signs of this time," will allow the tide to go past you and be found a stranded monument of blindness and obstinacy.

JFB: Luk 16:17 - it is easier, &c. (See on Mat 5:17-18)

(See on Mat 5:17-18)

JFB: Luk 16:18 - putteth away his wife, &c. (See on Mat 19:3-9). Far from intending to weaken the force of the law, in these allusions to a new economy, our Lord, in this unexpected way, sends h...

(See on Mat 19:3-9). Far from intending to weaken the force of the law, in these allusions to a new economy, our Lord, in this unexpected way, sends home its high requirements with a pungency which the Pharisees would not fail to feel.

JFB: Luk 16:19 - purple and fine linen, &c. (Compare Est 8:15; Rev 18:12); wanting nothing which taste and appetite craved and money could procure.

(Compare Est 8:15; Rev 18:12); wanting nothing which taste and appetite craved and money could procure.

JFB: Luk 16:20-21 - laid Having to be carried and put down.

Having to be carried and put down.

JFB: Luk 16:20-21 - full of sores Open, running, "not closed, nor bound up, nor mollified with ointment" (Isa 1:6).

Open, running, "not closed, nor bound up, nor mollified with ointment" (Isa 1:6).

JFB: Luk 16:21 - desiring to be fed with But was not [GROTIUS, BENGEL, MEYER, TRENCH, &c.]. The words may mean indeed "was fain to feed on," or "gladly fed on," as in Luk 15:16 [ALFORD, WEBST...

But was not [GROTIUS, BENGEL, MEYER, TRENCH, &c.]. The words may mean indeed "was fain to feed on," or "gladly fed on," as in Luk 15:16 [ALFORD, WEBSTER and WILKINSON, &c.]. But the context rather favors the former.

JFB: Luk 16:21 - licked, &c. A touching act of brute pity, in the absence of human relief. It is a case of heartless indifference, amidst luxuries of every kind, to one of God's p...

A touching act of brute pity, in the absence of human relief. It is a case of heartless indifference, amidst luxuries of every kind, to one of God's poorest and most afflicted ones, presented daily before the eye.

JFB: Luk 16:22 - died His burial was too unimportant to mention; while "the rich man died and was buried"--his carcass carried in pomp to its earthly resting-place.

His burial was too unimportant to mention; while "the rich man died and was buried"--his carcass carried in pomp to its earthly resting-place.

JFB: Luk 16:22 - in to Abraham's bosom As if seen reclining next to Him at the heavenly feast (Mat 8:11).

As if seen reclining next to Him at the heavenly feast (Mat 8:11).

JFB: Luk 16:23 - in hell Not the final place of the lost (for which another word is used), but as we say "the unseen world." But as the object here is certainly to depict the ...

Not the final place of the lost (for which another word is used), but as we say "the unseen world." But as the object here is certainly to depict the whole torment of the one and the perfect bliss of the other, it comes in this case to much the same.

JFB: Luk 16:23 - seeth Abraham Not God, to whom therefore he cannot cry [BENGEL].

Not God, to whom therefore he cannot cry [BENGEL].

JFB: Luk 16:24 - Father Abraham A well-founded, but unavailing, claim of natural descent (Luk 3:8; Joh 8:37).

A well-founded, but unavailing, claim of natural descent (Luk 3:8; Joh 8:37).

JFB: Luk 16:24 - mercy on me Who never showed any (Jam 2:3).

Who never showed any (Jam 2:3).

JFB: Luk 16:24 - send Lazarus The pining victim of his merciless neglect.

The pining victim of his merciless neglect.

JFB: Luk 16:24 - that he may Take me hence? No; that he dares not to ask.

Take me hence? No; that he dares not to ask.

JFB: Luk 16:24 - dip . . . tongue That is the least conceivable and the most momentary abatement of his torment; that is all. But even this he is told is (1) unreasonable.

That is the least conceivable and the most momentary abatement of his torment; that is all. But even this he is told is (1) unreasonable.

JFB: Luk 16:25-26 - Son Stinging acknowledgment of the claimed relationship.

Stinging acknowledgment of the claimed relationship.

JFB: Luk 16:25-26 - thou . . . Lazarus, &c. As it is a great law of God's kingdom, that the nature of our present desires shall rule that of our future bliss, so by that law, he whose "good thin...

As it is a great law of God's kingdom, that the nature of our present desires shall rule that of our future bliss, so by that law, he whose "good things," craved and enjoyed, were all bounded by time, could look for none after his connection with time had come to an end (Luk 6:24). But by this law, he whose "evil things," all crowded into the present life, drove him to seek, and find, consolation in a life beyond the grave, is by death released from all evil and ushered into unmixed and uninterrupted good (Luk 6:21). (2) It is impossible.

JFB: Luk 16:26 - besides all this Independently of this consideration.

Independently of this consideration.

JFB: Luk 16:26 - a great gulf fixed By an irrevocable decree there has been placed a vast impassable abyss between the two states, and the occupants of each.

By an irrevocable decree there has been placed a vast impassable abyss between the two states, and the occupants of each.

JFB: Luk 16:27-31 - Then he said Now abandoning all hope for himself.

Now abandoning all hope for himself.

JFB: Luk 16:27-31 - send him to my father's house, &c. No waking up of good in the heart of the lost, but bitter reproach against God and the old economy, as not warning him sufficiently [TRENCH]. The answ...

No waking up of good in the heart of the lost, but bitter reproach against God and the old economy, as not warning him sufficiently [TRENCH]. The answer of Abraham is, They are sufficiently warned.

JFB: Luk 16:30 - Nay Giving the lie to Abraham.

Giving the lie to Abraham.

JFB: Luk 16:30 - but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent A principle of awful magnitude and importance. The greatest miracle will have no effect on those who are determined not to believe. A real Lazarus soo...

A principle of awful magnitude and importance. The greatest miracle will have no effect on those who are determined not to believe. A real Lazarus soon "rose from the dead," but the sight of him by crowds of people, inclined thereby to Christ, only crowned the unbelief and hastened the murderous plots of the Pharisees against the Lord of glory; nor has His own resurrection, far more overpowering, yet won over that "crooked and perverse nation."

Clarke: Luk 16:1 - A steward A steward - Οικονομος, from οικος, a house, or οικια, a family, and νεμω, I administer; one who superintends domestic con...

A steward - Οικονομος, from οικος, a house, or οικια, a family, and νεμω, I administer; one who superintends domestic concerns, and ministers to the support of the family, having the products of the field, business, etc., put into his hands for this very purpose. See on Luk 8:3 (note)

There is a parable very like this in Rab. Dav. Kimchi’ s comment on Isaiah, Isa 40:21 : "The whole world may be considered as a house builded up: heaven is its roof; the stars its lamps; and the fruits of the earth, the table spread. The owner and builder of this house is the holy blessed God; and man is the steward, into whose hands all the business of the house is committed. If he considers in his heart that the master of the house is always over him, and keeps his eye upon his work; and if, in consequence, he act wisely, he shall find favor in the eyes of the master of the house: but if the master find wickedness in him, he will remove him, מן יפקדתו min pakidato , from his Stewardship. The foolish steward doth not think of this: for as his eyes do not see the master of the house, he saith in his heart, ‘ I will eat and drink what I find in this house, and will take my pleasure in it; nor shall I be careful whether there be a Lord over this house or not.’ When the Lord of the house marks this, he will come and expel him from the house, speedily and with great anger. Therefore it is written, He bringeth the princes to nothing."As is usual, our Lord has greatly improved this parable, and made it in every circumstance more striking and impressive. Both in the Jewish and Christian edition, it has great beauties

Clarke: Luk 16:1 - Wasted his goods Wasted his goods - Had been profuse and profligate; and had embezzled his master’ s substance.

Wasted his goods - Had been profuse and profligate; and had embezzled his master’ s substance.

Clarke: Luk 16:2 - Give an account of thy, etc. Give an account of thy, etc. - Produce thy books of receipts and disbursements, that I may see whether the accusation against thee be true or false....

Give an account of thy, etc. - Produce thy books of receipts and disbursements, that I may see whether the accusation against thee be true or false. The original may be translated, Give up the business, τον λογον, of the stewardship.

Clarke: Luk 16:3 - I cannot dig I cannot dig - He could not submit to become a common day-laborer, which was both a severe and base employment: To beg I am ashamed. And as these we...

I cannot dig - He could not submit to become a common day-laborer, which was both a severe and base employment: To beg I am ashamed. And as these were the only honest ways left him to procure a morsel of bread, and he would not submit to either, he found he must continue the system of knavery, in order to provide for his idleness and luxury, or else starve. Wo to the man who gets his bread in this way! The curse of the Lord must be on his head, and on his heart; in his basket, and is his store.

Clarke: Luk 16:4 - They may receive me They may receive me - That is, the debtors and tenants, who paid their debts and rents, not in money, but in kind; such as wheat, oil, and other pro...

They may receive me - That is, the debtors and tenants, who paid their debts and rents, not in money, but in kind; such as wheat, oil, and other produce of their lands.

Clarke: Luk 16:6 - A hundred measures of oil A hundred measures of oil - Ἑκατον βατους, A hundred baths. The בת bath was the largest measure of capacity among the Hebrews, e...

A hundred measures of oil - Ἑκατον βατους, A hundred baths. The בת bath was the largest measure of capacity among the Hebrews, except the homer, of which it was the tenth part: see Eze 45:11, Eze 45:14. It is equal to the ephah, i.e. to seven gallons and a half of our measure

Clarke: Luk 16:6 - Take thy bill Take thy bill - Thy account - το γραμμα . The writing in which the debt was specified, together with the obligation to pay so much, at such...

Take thy bill - Thy account - το γραμμα . The writing in which the debt was specified, together with the obligation to pay so much, at such and such times. This appears to have been in the hand-writing of the debtor, and probably signed by the steward: and this precluded imposition on each part. To prevent all appearance of forgery in this case, he is desired to write it over again, and to cancel the old engagement. In carrying on a running account with a tradesman, it is common among the Hindoos for the buyer to receive from the hands of the seller a daily account of the things received; and according to this account, written on a slip of paper, and which remains in the hands of the buyer, the person is paid.

Clarke: Luk 16:7 - A hundred measures of wheat A hundred measures of wheat - Ἑκατον κορους, a hundred cors. Κορος, from the Hebrew כר cor , was the largest measure of capa...

A hundred measures of wheat - Ἑκατον κορους, a hundred cors. Κορος, from the Hebrew כר cor , was the largest measure of capacity among the Hebrews, whether for solids or liquids. As the bath was equal to the ephah, so the cor was equal to the homer. It contained about seventy-five gallons and five pints English. For the same reason for which I preserve the names of the ancient coins, I preserve the names of the ancient measures. What idea can a mere English reader have of the word measure in this and the preceding verse, when the original words are not only totally different, but the quantity is as seven to seventy-five? The original terms should be immediately inserted in the text, and the contents inserted in the margin. The present marginal reading is incorrect. I follow Bishop Cumberland’ s weights and measures. See on Luk 15:8 (note)

In the preceding relation, I have no doubt our Lord alluded to a custom frequent in the Asiatic countries: a custom which still prevails, as the following account, taken from Capt. Hadley’ s Hindostan Dialogues, sufficiently proves. A person thus addresses the captain: "Your Sirkar’ s deputy, whilst his master was gone to Calcutta, established a court of justice

"Having searched for a good many debtors and their creditors, he learned the accounts of their bonds

"He then made an agreement with them to get the bonds out of the bondsmen’ s hands for half the debt, if they would give him one fourth

"Thus, any debtor for a hundred rupees, having given fifty to the creditor, and twenty-five to this knave, got his bond for seventy-five rupees

"Having seized and flogged 125 bondholders, he has in this manner determined their loans, and he has done this business in your name."Hadley’ s Gram. Dialogues, p. 79. 5th edit. 1801.

Clarke: Luk 16:8 - The lord commended The lord commended - Viz. the master of this unjust steward. He spoke highly of the address and cunning of his iniquitous servant. He had, on his ow...

The lord commended - Viz. the master of this unjust steward. He spoke highly of the address and cunning of his iniquitous servant. He had, on his own principles, made a very prudent provision for his support; but his master no more approved of his conduct in this, than he did in his wasting his substance before. From the ambiguous and improper manner in which this is expressed in the common English translation, it has been supposed that our blessed Lord commended the conduct of this wicked man: but the word κυριος, there translated lord, simply means the master of the unjust steward

Clarke: Luk 16:8 - The children of this world The children of this world - Such as mind worldly things only, without regarding God or their souls. A phrase by which the Jews always designate the...

The children of this world - Such as mind worldly things only, without regarding God or their souls. A phrase by which the Jews always designate the Gentiles

Clarke: Luk 16:8 - Children of light Children of light - Such as are illuminated by the Spirit of God, and regard worldly things only as far as they may subserve the great purposes of t...

Children of light - Such as are illuminated by the Spirit of God, and regard worldly things only as far as they may subserve the great purposes of their salvation, and become the instruments of good to others. But ordinarily the former evidence more carefulness and prudence, in providing for the support and comfort of this life, than the latter do in providing for another world.

Clarke: Luk 16:9 - The mammon of unrighteousness The mammon of unrighteousness - Μαμωνα της αδικιας - literally, the mammon, or riches, of injustice. Riches promise Much, and perf...

The mammon of unrighteousness - Μαμωνα της αδικιας - literally, the mammon, or riches, of injustice. Riches promise Much, and perform Nothing: they excite hope and confidence, and deceive both: in making a man depend on them for happiness, they rob him of the salvation of God and of eternal glory. For these reasons, they are represented as unjust and deceitful. See the note on Mat 6:24, where this is more particularly explained. It is evident that this must be the meaning of the words, because the false or deceitful riches, here, are put in opposition to the true riches, Luk 16:11; i.e. those Divine graces and blessings which promise all good, and give what they promise; never deceiving the expectation of any man. To insinuate that, if a man have acquired riches by unjust means, he is to sanctify them, and provide himself a passport to the kingdom of God, by giving them to the poor, is a most horrid and blasphemous perversion of our Lord’ s words. Ill gotten gain must be restored to the proper owners: if they are dead, then to their successors

Clarke: Luk 16:9 - When ye fail When ye fail - That is, when ye die. The Septuagint use the word εκλειπειν in this very sense, Jer 42:17, Jer 42:22. See the note on Gen ...

When ye fail - That is, when ye die. The Septuagint use the word εκλειπειν in this very sense, Jer 42:17, Jer 42:22. See the note on Gen 25:8. So does Josephus, War, chap. iv. 1, 9

Clarke: Luk 16:9 - They may receive you They may receive you - That is, say some, the angels. Others, the poor whom ye have relieved will welcome you into glory. It does not appear that th...

They may receive you - That is, say some, the angels. Others, the poor whom ye have relieved will welcome you into glory. It does not appear that the poor are meant

1.    Because those who have relieved them may die a long time before them; and therefore they could not be in heaven to receive them on their arrival

2.    Many poor persons may be relieved, who will live and die in their sins, and consequently never enter into heaven themselves

The expression seems to be a mere Hebraism: - they may receive you, for ye shall be received; i.e. God shall admit you, if you make a faithful use of his gifts and graces. He who does not make a faithful use of what he has received from his Maker has no reason to hope for eternal felicity. See Mat 25:33; and, for similar Hebraisms, consult in the original, Luk 6:38; Luk 12:20; Rev 12:6; Rev 16:15.

Clarke: Luk 16:10 - He that is faithful in that which is least, etc. He that is faithful in that which is least, etc. - He who has the genuine principles of fidelity in him will make a point of conscience of carefully...

He that is faithful in that which is least, etc. - He who has the genuine principles of fidelity in him will make a point of conscience of carefully attending to even the smallest things; and it is by habituating himself to act uprightly in little things that he acquires the gracious habit of acting with propriety fidelity, honor, and conscience, in matters of the greatest concern. On the contrary, he who does not act uprightly in small matters will seldom feel himself bound to pay much attention to the dictates of honor and conscience, in cases of high importance. Can we reasonably expect that a man who is continually falling by little things has power to resist temptations to great evils?

Clarke: Luk 16:12 - That which is another man’ s That which is another man’ s - Or rather another’ s, τῳ αλλοτριω . That is, worldly riches, called another’ s 1. &n...

That which is another man’ s - Or rather another’ s, τῳ αλλοτριω . That is, worldly riches, called another’ s

1.    Because they belong to God, and he has not designed that they should be any man’ s portion

2.    Because they are continually changing their possessors, being in the way of commerce, and in providence going from one to another

This property of worldly goods is often referred to by both sacred and profane writers. See a fine passage in Horace, Sat. l. ii. s. 2. v. 129

Nam propriae telluris herum natura neque illum

Nec me, nec quemquam statuit

Nature will no perpetual heir assign

Nor make the farm his property, or mine

Franci

And the following in one of our own poets: -

"Who steals my purse steals trash; ’ tis something, nothing

’ Twas mine, ’ tis his, and has been slave to thousands.

Clarke: Luk 16:12 - That which is your own? That which is your own? - Grace and glory, which God has particularly designed for you; which are the only proper satisfying portion for the soul, a...

That which is your own? - Grace and glory, which God has particularly designed for you; which are the only proper satisfying portion for the soul, and which no man can enjoy in their plenitude, unless he be faithful to the first small motions and influences of the Divine Spirit.

Clarke: Luk 16:13 - No servant can serve two masters No servant can serve two masters - The heart will be either wholly taken up with God, or wholly engrossed with the world. See on Mat 6:24 (note).

No servant can serve two masters - The heart will be either wholly taken up with God, or wholly engrossed with the world. See on Mat 6:24 (note).

Clarke: Luk 16:14 - They derided him They derided him - Or rather, They treated him with the utmost contempt. So we may translate the original words εξεμυκτηριζον αυτο...

They derided him - Or rather, They treated him with the utmost contempt. So we may translate the original words εξεμυκτηριζον αυτον, which literally signifies, in illum emunxerunt - but must not be translated into English, unless, to come a little near it, we say, they turned up their noses at him; and why! Because they were lovers of money, and he showed them that all such were in danger of perdition. As they were wedded to this life, and not concerned for the other, they considered him one of the most absurd and foolish of men, and worthy only of the most sovereign contempt, because he taught that spiritual and eternal things should be preferred before the riches of the universe. And how many thousands are there of the very same sentiment to the present day!

Clarke: Luk 16:15 - Ye - justify yourselves Ye - justify yourselves - Ye declare yourselves to be just. Ye endeavor to make it appear to men that ye can still feel an insatiable thirst after t...

Ye - justify yourselves - Ye declare yourselves to be just. Ye endeavor to make it appear to men that ye can still feel an insatiable thirst after the present world, and yet secure the blessings of another; that ye can reconcile God and mammon, - and serve two masters with equal zeal and affection; but God knoweth your hearts, - and he knoweth that ye are alive to the world, and dead to God and goodness. Therefore, howsoever ye may be esteemed among men, ye are an abomination before him. See the note on Luk 7:29.

Clarke: Luk 16:16 - The law and the prophets were until John The law and the prophets were until John - The law and the prophets continued to be the sole teachers till John came, who first began to proclaim th...

The law and the prophets were until John - The law and the prophets continued to be the sole teachers till John came, who first began to proclaim the glad tidings of the kingdom of God: and now, he who wishes to be made a partaker of the blessings of that kingdom must rush speedily into it; as there will be but a short time before an utter destruction shall fall upon this ungodly race. They who wish to be saved must imitate those who take a city by storm - rush into it, without delay, as the Romans are about to do into Jerusalem. See also on Mat 11:12 (note).

Clarke: Luk 16:17 - For heaven and earth to pass For heaven and earth to pass - See on Mat 5:17, Mat 5:18 (note).

For heaven and earth to pass - See on Mat 5:17, Mat 5:18 (note).

Clarke: Luk 16:18 - Putteth away (or divorceth) his wife Putteth away (or divorceth) his wife - See on Mat 5:31, Mat 5:32 (note); Mat 19:9, Mat 19:10 (note); Mar 10:12 (note); where the question concerning...

Putteth away (or divorceth) his wife - See on Mat 5:31, Mat 5:32 (note); Mat 19:9, Mat 19:10 (note); Mar 10:12 (note); where the question concerning divorce is considered at large. These verses, from the 13th to the 18th inclusive, appear to be part of our Lord’ s sermon on the mount; and stand in a much better connection there than they do here; unless we suppose our Lord delivered the same discourse at different times and places, which is very probable.

Clarke: Luk 16:19 - There was a certain rich man There was a certain rich man - In the Scholia of some MSS. the name of this person is said to be Ninive. This account of the rich man and Lazarus is...

There was a certain rich man - In the Scholia of some MSS. the name of this person is said to be Ninive. This account of the rich man and Lazarus is either a parable or a real history. If it be a parable, it is what may be: if it be a history, it is that which has been. Either a man may live as is here described, and go to perdition when he dies; or, some have lived in this way, and are now suffering the torments of an eternal fire. The account is equally instructive in whichsoever of these lights it is viewed. Let us carefully observe all the circumstances offered hereto our notice, and we shall see - I. The Crime of this man; and II. His Punishment

I.    The Crime of this man

1.    There was a certain rich man in Jerusalem. Provided this be a real history, there is no doubt our Lord could have mentioned his name; but, as this might have given great offense, he chose to suppress it. His being rich is, in Christ’ s account, the first part of his sin. To this circumstance our Lord adds nothing: he does not say that he was born to a large estate; or that he acquired one by improper methods; or that he was haughty or insolent in the possession of it. Yet here is the first degree of his reprobation - he got all he could, and kept all to himself

2.    He was clothed with purple and fine linen. Purple was a very precious and costly stuff; but our Lord does not say that in the use of it he exceeded the bounds of his income, nor of his rank in life; nor is it said that he used his superb dress to be an agent to his crimes, by corrupting the hearts of others. Yet our Lord lays this down as a second cause of his perdition

3.    He fared sumptuously every day. Now let it be observed that the law of Moses, under which this man lived, forbade nothing on this point, but excess in eating and drinking; indeed, it seems as if a person was authorized to taste the sweets of an abundance, which that law promised as a reward of fidelity. Besides, this rich man is not accused of having eaten food which was prohibited by the law, or of having neglected the abstinences and fasts prescribed by it. It is true, he is said to have feasted sumptuously every day; but our Lord does not intimate that this was carried to excess, or that it ministered to debauch. He is not accused of licentious discourse, of gaming, of frequenting any thing like our modern plays, balls, masquerades, or other impure and unholy assemblies; of speaking an irreverent word against Divine revelation, or the ordinances of God. In a word, his probity is not attacked, nor is he accused of any of those crimes which pervert the soul or injure civil society. As Christ has described this man, does he appear culpable? What are his crimes? Why

1.    He was rich

2.    He was finely clothed. An

3.    He feasted well

No other evil is spoken of him. In comparison of thousands, he was not only blameless, but he was a virtuous man

4.    But it is intimated by many that "he was an uncharitable, hard-hearted, unfeeling wretch."Yet of this there is not a word spoken by Christ. Let us consider all the circumstances, and we shall see that our blessed Lord has not represented this man as a monster of inhumanity, but merely as an indolent man, who sought and had his portion in this life, and was not at all concerned about another

Therefore we do not find that when Abraham addressed him on the cause of his reprobation, Luk 16:25, that he reproached him with hard-heartedness, saying, "Lazarus was hungry, and thou gavest him no meat; he was thirsty, and thou gavest him no drink, etc.;"but he said simply, Son, remember that thou didst receive thy good things in thy lifetime, Luk 16:25. "Thou hast sought thy consolation upon the earth, thou hast borne no cross, mortified no desire of the flesh, received not the salvation God had provided for thee; thou didst not belong to the people of God upon earth, and thou canst not dwell with them in glory.

There are few who consider that it is a crime for those called Christians to live without Christ, when their lives are not stained with transgression. If Christianity only required men to live without gross outward sin, paganism could furnish us with many bright examples of this sort. But the religion of Christ requires a conformity, not only in a man’ s conduct, to the principles of the Gospel; but also a conformity in his heart to the spirit and mind of Christ.

Clarke: Luk 16:20 - There was a certain beggar named Lazarus There was a certain beggar named Lazarus - His name is mentioned, because his character was good, and his end glorious; and because it is the purpos...

There was a certain beggar named Lazarus - His name is mentioned, because his character was good, and his end glorious; and because it is the purpose of God that the righteous shall be had in everlasting remembrance. Lazarus, לעזר is a contraction of the word אלעזר Eliezar , which signifies the help or assistance of God - a name properly given to a man who was both poor and afflicted, and had no help but that which came from heaven.

Clarke: Luk 16:21 - And desiring to be fed with the crumbs And desiring to be fed with the crumbs - And it is likely this desire was complied with, for it is not intimated that he spurned away the poor man f...

And desiring to be fed with the crumbs - And it is likely this desire was complied with, for it is not intimated that he spurned away the poor man from the gate, or that his suit was rejected. And as we find, Luk 16:24, that the rich man desired that Lazarus should be sent with a little water to him, it is a strong intimation that he considered him under some kind of obligation to him; for, had he refused him a few crumbs in his lifetime, it is not reasonable to suppose that he would now have requested such a favor from him; nor does Abraham glance at any such uncharitable conduct on the part of the rich man

We may now observe

II.    In what the punishment of this man consisted

1.    Lazarus dies and is carried into Abraham’ s bosom. By the phrase, Abraham’ s bosom, an allusion is made to the custom at Jewish feasts, when three persons reclining on their left elbows on a couch, the person whose head came near the breast of the other, was said to lie in his bosom. So it is said of the beloved disciple, Joh 13:25. Abraham’ s bosom was a phrase used among the Jews to signify the paradise of God. See Josephus’ s account of the Maccabees, chap. xiii.

Clarke: Luk 16:22 - The rich man also died, and was buried The rich man also died, and was buried - There is no mention of this latter circumstance in the case of Lazarus; he was buried, no doubt - necessity...

The rich man also died, and was buried - There is no mention of this latter circumstance in the case of Lazarus; he was buried, no doubt - necessity required this; but he had the burial of a pauper, while the pomp and pride of the other followed him to the tomb. But what a difference in these burials, if we take in the reading of my old MS. Bible, which is supported by several versions: forsothe the riche man is deed: and is buried in helle . And this is also the reading of the Anglo-saxon: and was in hell buried . In some MSS. the point has been wanting after εταφη, he was buried; and the following και, and, removed and set before επαρας he lifted up: so that the passage reads thus: The rich man died also, and was buried in hell; and lifting up his eyes, being in torment, he saw, etc. But let us view the circumstances of this man’ s punishment

Scarcely had he entered the place of his punishment, when he lifted up his eyes on high; and what must his surprise be, to see himself separated from God, and to feel himself tormented in that flame! Neither himself, nor friends, ever suspected that the way in which he walked could have led to such a perdition

1.    And seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom, Luk 16:23. He sees Lazarus clothed with glory and immortality - this is the first circumstance in his punishment. What a contrast! What a desire does he feel to resemble him, and what rage and despair because he is not like him? We may safely conclude that the view which damned souls have, in the gulf of perdition, of the happiness of the blessed, and the conviction that they themselves might have eternally enjoyed this felicity, from which, through their own fault, they are eternally excluded, will form no mean part of the punishment of the lost

2.    The presence of a good to which they never had any right, and of which they are now deprived, affects the miserable less than the presence of that to which they had a right, and of which they are now deprived. Even in hell, a damned spirit must abhor the evil by which he is tormented, and desire that good that would free him from his torment. If a lost soul could be reconciled to its torment, and to its situation, then, of course, its punishment must cease to be such. An eternal desire to escape from evil, and an eternal desire to be united with the supreme good, the gratification of which is for ever impossible, must make a second circumstance in the misery of the lost

3.    Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, Luk 16:25. The remembrance of the good things possessed in life, and now to be enjoyed no more for ever, together with the remembrance of grace offered or abused, will form a third circumstance in the perdition of the ungodly. Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime, etc

4.    The torments which a soul endures in the hell of fire will form, through all eternity, a continual present source of indescribable wo. Actual torment in the flames of the bottomless pit forms a fourth circumstance in the punishment of the lost. I am tormented in this flame, Luk 16:24

5.    The known impossibility of ever escaping from this place of torment, or to have any alleviation of one’ s misery in it, forms a fifth circumstance in the punishment of ungodly men. Besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf, Luk 16:26. The eternal purpose of God, formed on the principles of eternal reason, separates the persons, and the places of abode, of the righteous and the wicked, so that there can be no intercourse: They who wish to pass over hence to you, cannot; neither can they pass over, who would come from you hither. A happy spirit cannot go from heaven to alleviate their miseries; nor can any of them escape from the place of their confinement, to enter among the blessed. There may be a discovery from hell of the paradise of the blessed; but there can be no intercourse nor connection

6.    The iniquitous conduct of relatives and friends, who have been perverted by the bad example of those who are lost, is a source of present punishment to them; and if they come also to the same place of torment, must be, to those who were the instruments of bringing them thither, an eternal source of anguish. Send Lazarus to my father’ s family, for I have five brothers, that he may earnestly testify ( διαμαρτυρηται ) to them, that they come not to this place of torment. These brothers had probably been influenced by his example to content themselves with an earthly portion, and to neglect their immortal souls. Those who have been instruments of bringing others into hell shall suffer the deeper perdition on that account.

Clarke: Luk 16:29 - They have Moses and the prophets They have Moses and the prophets - This plainly supposes they were all Jewish believers: they had these writings in their hands, but they did not pe...

They have Moses and the prophets - This plainly supposes they were all Jewish believers: they had these writings in their hands, but they did not permit them to influence their lives.

Clarke: Luk 16:30 - If one went to them from the dead, etc. If one went to them from the dead, etc. - Many are desirous to see an inhabitant of the other world, and converse with him, in order to know what pa...

If one went to them from the dead, etc. - Many are desirous to see an inhabitant of the other world, and converse with him, in order to know what passes there. Make way! Here is a damned soul, which Jesus Christ has evoked from the hell of fire! Hear him! Hear him tell of his torments! Hear him utter his regrets! "But we cannot see him."No: God has, in his mercy, spared you for the present this punishment. How could you bear the sight of this damned spirit? Your very nature would fail at the appearance. Jesus keeps him as it were behind the curtain, and holds a conversation with him in your hearing, which you have neither faith nor courage sufficient to hold with him yourselves.

Clarke: Luk 16:31 - If they hear not Moses, etc. If they hear not Moses, etc. - This answer of Abraham contains two remarkable propositions 1.    That the sacred writings contain suc...

If they hear not Moses, etc. - This answer of Abraham contains two remarkable propositions

1.    That the sacred writings contain such proofs of a Divine origin, that though all the dead were to arise, to convince an unbeliever of the truths therein declared, the conviction could not be greater, nor the proof more evident, of the divinity and truth of these sacred records, than that which themselves afford

2.    That to escape eternal perdition, and get at last into eternal glory, a man is to receive the testimonies of God, and to walk according to their dictates

And these two things show the sufficiency and perfection of the sacred writings. What influence could the personal appearance of a spirit have on an unbelieving and corrupted heart? None, except to terrify it for the moment, and afterwards to leave it ten thousand reasons for uncertainty and doubt. Christ caused this to be exemplified, in the most literal manner, by raising Lazarus from the dead. And did this convince the unbelieving Jews? No. They were so much the more enraged; and from that moment conspired both the death of Lazarus and of Christ! Faith is satisfied with such proofs as God is pleased to afford! Infidelity never has enow. See a Sermon on this subject, by the author of this work

To make the parable of the unjust steward still more profitable, let every man consider: -

1.    That God is his master, and the author of all the good he enjoys, whether it be spiritual or temporal

2.    That every man is only a steward, not a proprietor of those things

3.    That all must give an account to God, how they have used or abused the blessings with which they have been entrusted

4.    That the goods which God has entrusted to our care are goods of body and soul: goods of nature and grace: of birth and education: His word, Spirit, and ordinances: goods of life, health, genius, strength, dignity, riches; and even poverty itself is often a blessing from the hand of God

5.    That all these may be improved to God’ s honor, our good, and our neighbor’ s edification and comfort

6.    That the time is coming in which we shall be called to an account before God, concerning the use we have made of the good things with which he has entrusted us

7.    That we may, even now, be accused before our Maker, of the awful crime of wasting our Lord’ s substance

8.    That if this crime can be proved against us, we are in immediate danger of being deprived of all the blessings which we have thus abused, and of being separated from God and the glory of his power for ever

9.    That on hearing of the danger to which we are exposed, though we cannot dig to purchase salvation, yet we must beg, incessantly beg, at the throne of grace for mercy to pardon all that is past

10.    That not a moment is to be lost: the arrest of death may have gone out against us; and this very night-hour-minute, our souls may be required of us. Let us therefore learn wisdom from the prudent despatch which a worldly-minded man would use to retrieve his ruinous circumstances; and watch and pray, and use the little spark of the Divine light which yet remains, but which is ready to die, that we may escape the gulf of perdition, and obtain some humble place in the heaven of glory. Our wants are pressing; God calls loudly; and eternity is at hand!

Calvin: Luk 16:1 - NO PHRASE The leading object of this parable is, to show that we ought to deal kindly and generously with our neighbors; that, when we come to the judgment sea...

The leading object of this parable is, to show that we ought to deal kindly and generously with our neighbors; that, when we come to the judgment seat of God, we may reap the fruit of our liberality. Though the parable appears to be harsh and far-fetched, yet the conclusion makes it evident, that the design of Christ was nothing else than what I have stated. And hence we see, that to inquire with great exactness into every minute part of a parable is an absurd mode of philosophizing. Christ does not advise us to purchase by large donations the forgiveness of fraud, and of extortion, and of wasteful expenditure, and of the other crimes associated with unfaithful administration. But as all the blessings which God confers upon us are committed by Him to our administration, our Lord now lays down a method of procedure, which will protect us against being treated with rigor, when we come to render our account.

They who imagine that alms are a sufficient compensation for sensuality and debauchery, do not sufficiently consider, that the first injunction given us is, to live in sobriety and temperance; and that the next is, that the streams which flow to us come from a pure fountain. It is certain that no man is so frugal, as not sometimes to waste the property which has been entrusted to him; and that even those who practice the most rigid economy are not entirely free from the charge of unfaithful stewardship. Add to this, that there are so many ways of abusing the gifts of God, that some incur guilt in one way, and some in another. I do not even deny, that the very consciousness of our own faulty stewardship ought to be felt by us as an additional excitement to kind actions.

But we ought to have quite another object in view, than to escape the judgment of God by paying a price for our redemption; and that object is, first, that seasonable and well-judged liberality may have the effect of restraining and moderating unnecessary expenses; and, secondly, that our kindness to our brethren may draw down upon us the mercy of God. It is very far from being the intention of Christ to point out to his disciples a way of escape, when the heavenly Judge shall require them to give their account; but he warns them to lose no time in guarding against the punishment which will await their cruelty, if they are found to have swallowed up the gifts of God, and to have paid no attention to acts of beneficence. 297 We must always attend to this maxim, that

with what measure a man measures, it shall be recompensed to him again,
(Mat 7:2.)

Calvin: Luk 16:8 - And the master commended the unjust steward 8.And the master commended the unjust steward Here it is obvious that if we were to attempt to find a meaning for every minute circumstance, we would...

8.And the master commended the unjust steward Here it is obvious that if we were to attempt to find a meaning for every minute circumstance, we would act absurdly. To make donations out of what belongs to another man, is an action which is very far from deserving applause; and who would patiently endure that an unprincipled villain should rob him of his property, and give it away according to his own fancy? It were indeed the grossest stupidity, if that man who beheld a portion of his substance taken away, should commend the person who stole the remainder of it and bestowed it on others. But Christ only meant what he adds a little afterwards, that ungodly and worldly men are more industrious and skillful in conducting the affairs of this fading life, than the children of God are anxious to obtain the heavenly and eternal life, or careful to make it the subject of their study and meditation.

By this comparison he charges us with highly criminal indifference, in not providing for the future, with at least as much earnestness as ungodly men display by attending to their own interests in this world. How disgraceful is it that the children of light, whom God enlightens by his Spirit and word, should slumber and neglect the hope of eternal blessedness held out to them, while worldly men are so eagerly bent on their own accommodations, and so provident and sagacious! Hence we infer, that our Lord does not intend to compare the wisdom of the Spirit to the wisdom of the flesh, (which could not have been done without pouring contempt on God himself,) but only to arouse believers to consider more attentively what belongs to the future life, and not to shut their eyes against the light of the Gospel, when they perceive that even the blind, amidst their darkness, see more clearly. And, indeed, the children of light ought to be more powerfully excited, when they behold the children of this world making provision against a distant period, for a life which is fading, and which passes in a moment.

Calvin: Luk 16:9 - Make to yourselves friends // When you fail // Of the mammon of unrighteousness 9.Make to yourselves friends As in the words which were last considered Christ did not enjoin us to offer sacrifices to God out of the fruits of exto...

9.Make to yourselves friends As in the words which were last considered Christ did not enjoin us to offer sacrifices to God out of the fruits of extortion, so now he does not mean that we ought to search for defenders or advocates, who will throw around us the shield of their protection; but teaches us that by acts of charity we obtain favor with God, who has promised, that to the merciful he will show himself merciful, (Psa 18:25.) It is highly foolish and absurd to infer from this passage, that the prayers or approbation of the dead are of service to us: for, on that supposition, all that is bestowed on unworthy persons would be thrown away; but the depravity of men does not prevent the Lord from placing on his records all that we have expended on the poor. The Lord looks not to the persons, but to the work itself, so that our liberality, though it may happen to be exercised towards ungrateful men, will be of avail to us in the sight of God. But then he appears to intimate that eternal life depends on our merits. I reply: it is sufficiently plain from the context that he speaks after the manner of men. One who possesses extensive influence or wealth, if he procure friends during his prosperity, has persons who will support him when he is visited by adversity. In like manner, our kindness to the poor will be a seasonable relief to us; for whatever any man may have generously bestowed on his neighbors the Lord acknowledges as if it had been done to himself.

When you fail By this word he expresses the time of death, and reminds us that the time of our administration will be short, lest the confident expectation of a longer continuance of life should make us take a firmer grasp. The greater part are sunk in slumber through their wealth; many squander what they have on superfluities; while the niggardliness of others keeps it back, and deprives both themselves and others of the benefit. Whence comes all this, but because they are led astray by an unfounded expectation of long life, and give themselves up to every kind of indulgence?

Of the mammon of unrighteousness By giving this name to riches, he intends to render them an object of our suspicion, because for the most part they involve their possessors in unrighteousness Though in themselves they are not evil, yet as it rarely happens that they are obtained without deceit, or violence, or some other unlawful expedient, or that the enjoyment of them is unaccompanied by pride, or luxury, or some other wicked disposition, Christ justly represents them as worthy of our suspicion; just as on another occasion he called them thorns, (Mat 13:7.) It would appear that a contrast, though not expressed, is intended to be supplied, to this effect; that riches, which otherwise, in consequence of wicked abuse, polluted their possessors, and are almost in every ease allurements of sin, ought to be directed to a contrary object, to be the means of procuring favor for us. Let us also remember what I have formerly stated, that God does not demand sacrifice to be made from booty unjustly acquired, as if he were the partner of thieves, and that it is rather a warning given to believers to keep themselves free from unrighteousness

Calvin: Luk 16:10 - He who is faithful in that which is least 10.He who is faithful in that which is least Those maxims are proverbs taken from ordinary practice and experience, and it is quite enough if they ar...

10.He who is faithful in that which is least Those maxims are proverbs taken from ordinary practice and experience, and it is quite enough if they are generally true. It will sometimes happen, no doubt, that a deceiver, who had disregarded a small gain, shall display his wickedness in a matter of importance. Nay, many persons, by affecting honesty in trifling matters, are only in pursuit of an enormous gain; 298 as that author 299 says: “Fraud establishes confidence in itself in small matters, that, when a fit opportunity shall arrive, it may deceive with vast advantage.” And yet the statement of Christ is not inaccurate; for in proverbs, as I have mentioned, we attend only to what usually happens.

Christ, therefore, exhorts his disciples to act faithfully in small matters, in order to prepare themselves for the exercise of fidelity in matters of the highest importance. He next applies this doctrine to the proper stewardship of spiritual graces, which the world, indeed, does not estimate according to their value, but which far surpass, beyond all question, the fading riches of this world. Those persons, he tells us, who act improperly and unfaithfully in things of small value, such as the transitory riches of the world, do not deserve that God should entrust to them the inestimable treasure of the Gospel, and of similar gifts. There is, therefore, in these words an implied threatening, that there is reason to fear lest, on account of our abuse of an earthly stewardship, we fail to obtain heavenly gifts. In this sense, what is true is contrasted with riches, as what is solid and lasting is contrasted with what is shadowy and fading. 300

Calvin: Luk 16:12 - And if you have not been faithful in what belongs to another // Who shall entrust to you what is your own? 12.And if you have not been faithful in what belongs to another By the expression, what belongs to another, he means what is not within man; for Go...

12.And if you have not been faithful in what belongs to another By the expression, what belongs to another, he means what is not within man; for God does not bestow riches upon us on condition that we shall be attached to them, but makes us stewards of them in such a manner, that they may not bind us with their chains. And, indeed, it is impossible that our minds should be free and disengaged for dwelling in heaven, if we did not look upon every thing that is in the world as belonging to another

Who shall entrust to you what is your own? Spiritual riches, on the other hand, which relate to a future life, are pronounced by him to be our own, because the enjoyment of them is everlasting. But now he employs a different comparison. There is no reason, he tells us, to expect that we shall make a proper and moderate use of our own property, if we have acted improperly or unfaithfully in what belonged to another. Men usually care less about abusing, and allow themselves greater liberty in squandering, their own property, because they are not afraid that any person will find fault with them; but when a thing has been entrusted to them either in charge or in loan, and of which they must afterwards render an account, they are more cautious and more timid.

We thus ascertain Christ’s meaning to be, that they who are bad stewards of earthly blessings would not be faithful guardians of spiritual gifts. He next introduces a sentence: You cannot serve God and mammon; which I have explained at Mat 6:24. There the reader will find an explanation of the word Mammon 301

Calvin: Luk 16:14 - And the Pharisees, who were covetous, heard all these things. They 14.And the Pharisees, who were covetous, heard all these things. They who imagine that Christ was ridiculed by the Pharisees, because he chose to e...

14.And the Pharisees, who were covetous, heard all these things. They who imagine that Christ was ridiculed by the Pharisees, because he chose to employ a plain and familiar style, and made no use of swelling words, 302 do not sufficiently comprehend what Luke means. Haughty and disdainful men, I do acknowledge, view the doctrine of the Gospel with contempt; but Luke expressly declares the reason why Christ was the object of their derision to have been, that they were covetous Entertaining a firm and deep-seated conviction that the rich are happy, and that there is nothing better for men than to increase their wealth by every possible method, and earnestly to guard whatever they have acquired, they reject as foolish paradoxes 303 all the sayings of Christ which had a contrary tendency. And, certainly, any one that speaks of despising riches, or bestowing alms on the poor, is regarded by the covetous as a madman. Horace’s words on this subject are well known: 304 “The people hiss at me, but I am well satisfied with myself.” 305 But if, even when they are condemned by universal opinion, they continue to flatter themselves, how much more will they ridicule as a fable that philosophy of Christ which is far removed from the ordinary belief?

Some other pretense, I have no doubt, was held out by the Pharisees for ridiculing and evading a doctrine which opposed their vice. But we must attend to the motive by which they were actuated; for it is a disease which almost always prevails in the world, that the greater part of men affect to despise whatever does not fall in with their corrupt morals. Hence the ridicule, and jest, and merriment, with which the word of God is frequently assailed; for every man fights in defense of his own vices, and all imagine that their witticisms will serve for a cloud to screen their criminality.

Calvin: Luk 16:15 - It is you that justify yourselves before men // But God knoweth your hearts // What is highly esteemed by men is abomination in the sight of God 15.It is you that justify yourselves before men We see that Christ does not give way to their disdainful conduct, but constantly maintains the author...

15.It is you that justify yourselves before men We see that Christ does not give way to their disdainful conduct, but constantly maintains the authority of his doctrine in opposition to their mockery; and it is the duty of all the ministers of the Gospel to pursue the same course, by meeting ungodly despisers with the dreadful judgment of God. He declares that the hypocrisy, with which they deceive the eyes of men, will be of no avail to them at the judgment-seat of God. They were unwilling to have it thought that their mockery was intended as a defense of their covetousness. But Christ affirms that this venom breaks out from a concealed ulcer; just as if one were to tell the mitred prelates of our own day, that their hostility to the Gospel arises from the severity with which it attacks their hidden vices.

But God knoweth your hearts He says that they reckon it enough if they appear to be good in the eyes of men, and if they can boast of a pretended sanctity; but that God, who knoweth the hearts, is well acquainted with the vices which they conceal from the view of the world. And here we must attend to the distinction between the judgments of God and the judgments of men; for men bestow approbation on outward appearances, but at the judgment-seat of God nothing is approved but an upright heart. There is added a striking observation:

What is highly esteemed by men is abomination in the sight of God Not that God rejects those virtues, the approbation of which He hath engraved on the hearts of men; but that God detests whatever men are disposed, of their own accord, to applaud. Hence it is evident in what light we ought to view all pretended acts of worship which the world contrives according to its own fancy. How much soever they may please their inventors, Christ pronounces that they are not only vain and worthless, but are even detestable.

Calvin: Luk 16:16 - The Law and the Prophets were till John Luk 16:16.The Law and the Prophets were till John Our Lord had said that the earnestness of the people was a prelude to those things which the Prophe...

Luk 16:16.The Law and the Prophets were till John Our Lord had said that the earnestness of the people was a prelude to those things which the Prophets had foretold as to the future renovation of the Church. He now compares the ministry of John to the Law and the Prophets “It is not wonderful,” he tells us, “that God should now act so powerfully on the minds of men; for he is not as formerly, seen at a distance under dark shadows, but appears openly and at hand for the establishment of his kingdom.” Hence it follows, that those who obstinately reject John’s doctrine are less excusable than those who despised the Law and the Prophets

Calvin: Luk 16:19 - There was a certain rich man Though Luke introduces some things between them, there can be no doubt that this example was intended by Christ to confirm the discourse which we hav...

Though Luke introduces some things between them, there can be no doubt that this example was intended by Christ to confirm the discourse which we have last examined. He points out what condition awaits those 307 who neglect the care of the poor, and indulge in all manner of gluttony; who give themselves up to drunkenness and other pleasures, and allow their neighbors to pine with hunger; nay, who cruelly kill with famine those whom they ought to have relieved, when the means of doing so were in their power. Some look upon it as a simple parable; but, as the name Lazarus occurs in it, I rather consider it to be the narrative of an actual fact. But that is of little consequence, provided that the reader comprehends the doctrine which it contains.

19.There was a certain rich man He is, first of all, described as clothed in purple and fine linen, and enjoying every day splendor and luxury. This denotes a life spent amidst delicacies, and superfluity, and pomp. Not that all elegance and ornaments of dress are in themselves displeasing to God, or that all the care bestowed on preparing victuals ought to be condemned; but because it seldom happens that such things are kept in moderation. He who has a liking for fine dress will constantly increase his luxury by fresh additions; and it is scarcely possible that he who indulges in sumptuous and well garnished tables shall avoid falling into intemperance. But the chief accusation brought against this man is his cruelty in suffering Lazarus, poor and full of sores, to lie out of doors at his gate.

These two clauses Christ has exhibited in contrast. The rich man, devoted to the pleasures of the table and to display, swallowed up, like an unsatiable gulf, his enormous wealth, but remained unmoved by the poverty and distresses of Lazarus, and knowingly and willingly suffered him to pine away with hunger, cold, and the offensive smell of his sores. In this manner Ezekiel (Eze 16:49) accuses Sodom of not stretching out her hand to the poor amidst fullness of bread and wine. The fine linen, which is a peculiarly delicate fabric, is well-known to have been used by the inhabitants of eastern countries for elegance and splendor; a fashion which the Popish priests have imitated in what they call their surplices.

Calvin: Luk 16:21 - And even the dogs came 21.And even the dogs came It was quite enough to prove the hardened cruelty of the rich man, that the sight of wretchedness like this did not move ...

21.And even the dogs came It was quite enough to prove the hardened cruelty of the rich man, that the sight of wretchedness like this did not move him to compassion. Had there been a drop of humanity in him, he ought at least to have ordered a supply from his kitchen for the unhappy man. But the crowning exhibition of his wicked, and savage, and worse than brutal disposition was, that he did not learn pity even from the dogs There can be no doubt that those dogs were guided by the secret purpose of God, to condemn that man by their example. Christ certainly produces them here as witnesses to convict him of unfeeling and detestable cruelty. What could be more monstrous than to see the dogs taking charge of a man, to whom his neighbor is paying no attention; and, what is more, to see the very crumbs of bread refused to a man perishing of hunger, while the dogs are giving him the service of their tongues for the purpose of healing his sores? When strangers, or even brute animals, supply our place, by performing an office which ought rather to have been discharged by ourselves, let us conclude that they are so many witnesses and judges appointed by God, to make our criminality the more manifest.

Calvin: Luk 16:22 - And it happened that the beggar died // And the rich man also died, and was buried // And Lazarus was carried by angels // Into Abraham’s bosom 22.And it happened that the beggar died Christ here points out the vast change which death effected in the condition of the two men. Death was no dou...

22.And it happened that the beggar died Christ here points out the vast change which death effected in the condition of the two men. Death was no doubt common to both; but to be after death carried by angels into Abraham’s bosom was a happiness more desirable than all the kingdoms of the world. On the other hand, to be sentenced to everlasting torments is a dreadful thing, for avoiding which a hundred lives, if it were possible, ought to be employed. In the person of Lazarus there is held out to us a striking proof that we ought not to pronounce men to be accursed by God, because they drag out, in incessant pain, a life which is full of distresses. In him the grace of God was so entirely hidden, and buried by the deformity and shame of the cross, that to the eye of the flesh nothing presented itself except the curse; and yet we see that in a body which was loathsome and full of rottenness there was lodged a soul unspeakably precious, which is carried by angels to a blessed life. It was no loss to him that he was forsaken, and despised, and destitute of every human comfort, when heavenly spirits deign to accompany him on his removal from the prison of the flesh.

And the rich man also died, and was buried In the rich man we see, as in a bright mirror, how undesirable is that temporal happiness which ends in everlasting destruction. It deserves our attention, that Christ expressly mentions the burial of the rich man, but says nothing of what was done to Lazarus. Not that his dead body was exposed to wild beasts, or lay in the open air, but because it was thrown carelessly, and without the slightest attention, into a ditch; for it may naturally be inferred from the corresponding clause, that no more attention was paid to him when he was dead than when he was alive. The rich man, on the other hand, buried magnificently according to his wealth, still retains some remnant of his former pride. 308 In this respect, we see ungodly men striving, as it were, against nature, by affecting a pompous and splendid funeral for the sake of preserving their superiority after death; but their souls in hell attest the folly and mockery of this ambition.

And Lazarus was carried by angels When he says that Lazarus was carried, it is a figure of speech by which a part is taken for the whole; for the soul being the nobler part of man, properly takes the name of the whole man. 309 This office is, not without reason, assigned by Christ to angels, who, we are aware, have been appointed to be ministering spirits (Heb 1:14) to believers, that they may devote their care and labor to their salvation.

Into Abraham’s bosom To detail the variety of speculations about Abraham’s bosom, in which many commentators of Scripture have indulged, is unnecessary, and, in my opinion, would serve no good purpose. It is quite enough that we receive what readers well acquainted with Scripture will acknowledge to be the natural meaning. As Abraham is called the father of believers, because to him was committed the covenant of eternal life, that he might first preserve it faithfully for his own children, and afterwards transmit it to all nations, and as all who are heirs of the same promise are called his children; so those who receive along with him the fruit of the same faith are said, after death, to be collected into his bosom. The metaphor is taken from a father 310, in whose bosom, as it were, the children meet, when they all return home in the evening from the labors of the day. The children of God are scattered during their pilgrimage in this world; but as, in their present course, they follow the faith of their father Abraham, so they are received at death into that blessed rest, in which he awaits their arrival. It is not necessary to suppose that reference is made here to any one place; but the assemblage of which I have spoken is described, for the purpose of assuring believers, that they have not been fruitlessly employed in fighting for the faith under the banner of Abraham, for they enjoy the same habitation in heaven.

It will perhaps be asked, Is the same condition reserved after death for the godly of our own day, or did Christ, when he rose, open his bosom to admit Abraham himself, as well as all the godly? I reply briefly: As the grace of God is more clearly revealed to us in the Gospel, and as Christ himself, the Sun of Righteousness, (Mal 4:2,) has brought to us that salvation, which the fathers were formerly permitted to behold at a distance and under dark shadows, so there cannot be a doubt that believers, when they die, make a nearer approach to the enjoyment of the heavenly life. Still, it must be understood, that the glory of immortality is delayed till the last day of redemption. So far as relates to the word bosom, that quiet harbor at which believers arrive after the navigation of the present life, may be called either Abraham’s bosom or Christ’s bosom; but, as we have advanced farther than the fathers did under the Law, this distinction will be more properly expressed by saying, that the members of Christ are associated with their Head; and thus there will be an end of the metaphor about Abraham’s bosom, as the brightness of the sun, when he is risen, makes all the stars to disappear. From the mode of expression which Christ has here employed, we may, in the meantime, draw the inference, that the fathers under the Law embraced by faith, while they lived, that inheritance of the heavenly life into which they were admitted at death.

Calvin: Luk 16:23 - And, lifting up, his eyes in hell 23.And, lifting up, his eyes in hell Though Christ is relating a history, yet he describes spiritual things under figures, which he knew to be adapte...

23.And, lifting up, his eyes in hell Though Christ is relating a history, yet he describes spiritual things under figures, which he knew to be adapted to our senses. Souls have neither fingers nor eyes, and are not liable to thirst, nor do they hold such conversations among themselves as are here described to have taken place between Abraham and the rich man; but our Lord has here drawn a picture, which represents the condition of the life to come according to the measure of our capacity. The general truth conveyed is, that believing souls, when they have left their bodies, lead a joyful and blessed life out of this world, and that for the reprobate there are prepared dreadful torments, which can no more be conceived by our minds than the boundless glory of the heavens. As it is only in a small measure—only so far as we are enlightened by the Spirit of God—that we taste by hope the glory promised to us, which far exceeds all our senses, let it be reckoned enough that the inconceivable vengeance of God, which awaits the ungodly, is communicated to us in an obscure manner, so far as is necessary to strike terror into our minds.

On these subjects the words of Christ give us slender information, and in a manner which is fitted to restrain curiosity. The wicked are described as fearfully tormented by the misery which they feel; as desiring some relief, but cut off from hope, and thus experiencing a double torment; and as having their anguish increased by being compelled to remember their crimes, and to compare the present blessedness of believers with their own miserable and lost condition. In connection with this a conversation is related, as if persons who have no intercourse with each other were supposed to talk together. When the rich man says, Father Abraham, this expresses an additional torment, that he perceives, when it is too late, that he is cut off from the number of the children of Abraham

Calvin: Luk 16:25 - Son, remember // Receivedst THY good things 25.Son, remember The word son appears to be used ironically, as a sharp and piercing reproof to the rich man, who falsely boasted in his lifetime...

25.Son, remember The word son appears to be used ironically, as a sharp and piercing reproof to the rich man, who falsely boasted in his lifetime that he was one of the sons of Abraham. It seems as if pain inflicted by a hot iron wounded his mind, when his hypocrisy and false confidence are placed before his eyes. When it is said that he is tormented in hell, because he had received his good things in his lifetime, we must not understand the meaning to be, that eternal destruction awaits all who have enjoyed prosperity in the world. On the contrary, as Augustine has judiciously observed, poor Lazarus was carried into the bosom of rich Abraham, to inform us, that riches do not shut against any man the gate of the kingdom of heaven, but that it is open alike to all who have either made a sober use of riches, or patiently endured the want of them. All that is meant is, that the rich man, who yielded to the allurements of the present life, abandoned himself entirely to earthly enjoyments, and despised God and His kingdom, now suffers the punishment of his own neglect.

Receivedst THY good things The pronoun thy is emphatic, as if Abraham had said: Thou wast created for an immortal life, and the Law of God raised time on high to the contemplation of the heavenly life; but thou, forgetting so exalted a condition, didst choose to resemble a sow or a dog, and thou therefore receivest a reward which befits brutal pleasures. But now he enjoys comfort When it is said of Lazarus, on the other hand, that he enjoys comfort, because he had suffered many distresses in the world, it would be idle to apply this to all whose condition is wretched; because their afflictions, in many cases, are so far from having been of service to them, that they ought rather to bring upon them severer punishment. But Lazarus is commended for patient endurance of the cross, which always springs from faith and a genuine fear of God; for he who obstinately resists his sufferings, and whose ferocity remains unsubdued, has no claim to be rewarded for patience, by receiving from God comfort in exchange for the cross.

To sum up the whole, they who have patiently endured the burden of the cross laid upon them, and have not been rebellious against the yoke and chastisements of God, but, amidst uninterrupted sufferings, have cherished the hope of a better life, have a rest laid up for them in heaven, when the period of their warfare shall be terminated. On the contrary, wicked despisers of God, who are wholly engrossed in the pleasures of the flesh, and who by a sort of mental intoxication, drown every feeling of piety, will experience, immediately after death, such torments as will efface their empty enjoyments. It must also be recollected, that this comfort, which the sons of God enjoy, lies in this, that they perceive a crown of glory prepared for them, and rest in the joyful expectation of it; as, on the other hand, the wicked are tormented by the apprehension of the future judgment, which they see coming upon them.

Calvin: Luk 16:26 - A vast gulf lieth 26.A vast gulf lieth These words describe the permanency of the future state, and denote, that the boundaries which separate the reprobate from the e...

26.A vast gulf lieth These words describe the permanency of the future state, and denote, that the boundaries which separate the reprobate from the elect can never be broken through. And thus we are reminded to return early to the path, while there is yet time, lest we rush headlong into that abyss, from which it will be impossible to rise. The words must not be strictly interpreted, when it is said, that no one is permitted to pass who would wish to descend from heaven to hell; for it is certain, that none of the righteous entertain any such desire.

Calvin: Luk 16:27 - I beseech thee, father 27.I beseech thee, father To bring the narrative into more full accordance with our modes of thinking, he describes the rich man as wishing that hi...

27.I beseech thee, father To bring the narrative into more full accordance with our modes of thinking, he describes the rich man as wishing that his brothers, who were still alive, should be warned by Lazarus. Here the Papists exercise their ingenuity very foolishly, by attempting to prove that the dead feel solicitude about the living. Any thing more ridiculous than this sophistry cannot be conceived; for with equal plausibility I might undertake to prove, that believing souls are not satisfied with the place assigned to them, and are actuated by a desire of removing from it to hell, were it not that they are prevented by a vast gulf. If no man holds such extravagant views, the Papists are not entitled to congratulate themselves on the other supposition. It is not my intention, however, to debate the point, or to defend either one side or another; but I thought it right to advert, in passing, to the futility of the arguments on which they rest their belief that the dead intercede with God on our behalf. I now return to the plain and natural meaning of this passage.

Calvin: Luk 16:29 - They have Moses and the prophets // Abraham’s 29.They have Moses and the prophets In the persons of the rich man and Abraham Christ reminds us, that we have received an undoubted rule of life...

29.They have Moses and the prophets In the persons of the rich man and Abraham Christ reminds us, that we have received an undoubted rule of life, and that therefore we have no right to expect that the dead will rise to instruct and persuade us. Moses and the prophets were appointed to instruct, while they lived, the men of their own age; but it was with the design, that the same advantage should be derived by posterity from their writings. As it is the will of God that we should receive instructions, in this manner, about a holy life, there is no reason why the dead should assure us of the rewards and punishments of the future state; nor is there any excuse for the indifference of those who shelter themselves under the pretext, that they do not know what is going on beyond this world. Among irreligious men, we are aware, is frequently heard this wicked saying, or rather this grunting of hogs, that it is foolish in men to distress themselves with fears about a matter of uncertainty, since no one has ever returned to bring us tidings about hell.

With the view of counteracting every enchantment of Satan of this description, Christ draws their attention to the Law and the Prophets, agreeably to that passage in the writings of Moses:

It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? But the word is very nigh unto thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou shouldest do it,
(Deu 30:12.)

They who ridicule as fabulous what Scripture testifies as to the future judgment, will one day feel how shocking is the wickedness of giving the lie to the holy oracles of God. From such lethargy Christ arouses his followers, that they may not be deceived by the hope of escaping punishment, and thus fail to improve the time allowed for repentance.

Abraham’s reply amounts to this: By Moses and the prophets God had sufficiently made known to his people the doctrine of salvation, and nothing remains for us but that it obtain the assent of all. So thoroughly infected is the mind of man with a depraved curiosity, that the greater part of men are always gaping after new revelations. Now as nothing is more displeasing to God than when men are so eager to go beyond due bounds, he forbids them to inquire at magicians and soothsayers respecting the truth, and to consult pretended oracles after the manner of the Gentiles; and in order to restrain that itching curiosity, he promises, at the same time, that he will give prophets, from whom the people may learn whatever is necessary to be known for salvation, (Deu 18:9.) But if the prophets were sent for the express purpose; that God might keep his people under the guidance of his word, he who is not satisfied with this method of instruction is not actuated by a desire to learn, but tickled by ungodly wantonness; and therefore God complains that He is insulted, when He alone is not heard from the living to the dead, (Isa 8:19.)

The division of the word of God, which Abraham makes, into the Law and the Prophets, refers to the time of the Old Testament. Now that the more ample explanation of the Gospel has been added, there is still less excuse for our wickedness, if our dislike of that doctrine hurries us in every possible direction, and, in a word, if we do not permit ourselves to be regulated by the word of God. Hence too we infer how solid is the faith of Papists about purgatory and such fooleries, when it rests on nothing but phantoms. 311

Calvin: Luk 16:30 - Nay, father Abraham 30.Nay, father Abraham This is a personification, as we have said, which expresses rather the feelings of the living than the anxiety of the dead. Th...

30.Nay, father Abraham This is a personification, as we have said, which expresses rather the feelings of the living than the anxiety of the dead. The doctrine of the Law is little esteemed by the world, the Prophets are neglected, and no man submits to hear God speaking in his own manner. Some would desire that angels should descend from heaven; others, that the dead should come out of their graves; others, that new miracles should be performed every day to sanction what they hear; and others, that voices should be heard from the sky. 312 But if God were pleased to comply with all their foolish wishes, it would be of no advantage to them; for God has included in his word all that is necessary to be known, and the authority of this word has been attested and proved by authentic seals. Besides, faith does not depend on miracles, or any extraordinary sign, but is the peculiar gift of the Spirit, and is produced by means of the word. Lastly, it is the prerogative of God to draw us to himself, and he is pleased to work effectually through his own word. There is not the slightest reason, therefore, to expect that those means, which withdraw us from obedience to the word, will be of any service to us. I freely acknowledge, that there is nothing to which the flesh is more strongly inclined than to listen to vain revelations; and we see how eagerly those men, to whom the whole of Scripture is an object of dislike, throw themselves into the snares of Satan. Hence have arisen necromancy and other delusions, which the world not only receives with avidity, but runs after with furious rage. But all that is here affirmed by Christ is, that even the dead could not reform, 313 or bring to a sound mind, those who are deaf and obstinate against the instructions of the law.

Defender: Luk 16:8 - wisely It is obvious that the Lord's commendation of the unjust steward was not for his dishonesty but for his practical wisdom in using his personal means t...

It is obvious that the Lord's commendation of the unjust steward was not for his dishonesty but for his practical wisdom in using his personal means to provide for his earthly future. As Jesus said, it is commonly true that men of this world exhibit more acumen in such matters than Christians do."

Defender: Luk 16:9 - mammon of unrighteousness Mammon was an Aramaic term meaning "wealth" or "money." As "the love of money is the root of all evil" (1Ti 6:10), mammon can easily become "the mammo...

Mammon was an Aramaic term meaning "wealth" or "money." As "the love of money is the root of all evil" (1Ti 6:10), mammon can easily become "the mammon of unrighteousness." As the Lord says (Luk 16:13): "Ye cannot serve God and mammon." Nevertheless, He exhorts the "children of light" to make friends with this mammon of unrighteousness. That is, we should use it for spiritual purposes that will make eternal friends.

Defender: Luk 16:9 - everlasting habitations As the unjust steward was using mammon to assure his own future earthly habitation, so the believer can use whatever wealth (or other gifts he may hav...

As the unjust steward was using mammon to assure his own future earthly habitation, so the believer can use whatever wealth (or other gifts he may have) to win others to forgiveness in Christ. Then, when his own life "fails," he will find many friends waiting for him in "everlasting habitations" in heaven."

Defender: Luk 16:10 - faithful also in much The context indicates that the Lord is stressing here the vital importance of faithfulness in the use of our money. This will be a measure of our fait...

The context indicates that the Lord is stressing here the vital importance of faithfulness in the use of our money. This will be a measure of our faithfulness in other matters. As the next verse says, this will determine whether He will commit to our trust "the true riches" in the age to come."

Defender: Luk 16:16 - until John John the Baptist was not the last Old Testament prophet, for the law and the prophets were in existence until John. John was the first New Testament p...

John the Baptist was not the last Old Testament prophet, for the law and the prophets were in existence until John. John was the first New Testament prophet, preaching the kingdom of God (Mat 3:1, Mat 3:2) through the work of Jesus Christ (Joh 1:15-18, Joh 1:29-34)."

Defender: Luk 16:17 - one tittle See notes on Mat 5:17, Mat 5:18."

See notes on Mat 5:17, Mat 5:18."

Defender: Luk 16:19 - rich man Whether or not this is an actual event or intended parable, it is clear that its description of life after death is intensely real and relevant."

Whether or not this is an actual event or intended parable, it is clear that its description of life after death is intensely real and relevant."

Defender: Luk 16:20 - beggar named Lazarus One indication that Jesus was relating a real event and not a parable is that the name of the beggar is given. No other parable includes personal name...

One indication that Jesus was relating a real event and not a parable is that the name of the beggar is given. No other parable includes personal names. At the same time, the rich man is left unnamed, suggesting that personal identities are forgotten in hell: "The memory of the just is blessed: but the name of the wicked shall rot" (Pro 10:7).

Defender: Luk 16:20 - laid Lazarus was "laid" (literally "thrown down") daily at the rich man's gate."

Lazarus was "laid" (literally "thrown down") daily at the rich man's gate."

Defender: Luk 16:22 - carried by the angels When a believer dies, he does not die alone. Angels have guarded him in life (Heb 1:14), and they will accompany his spirit in death, transporting him...

When a believer dies, he does not die alone. Angels have guarded him in life (Heb 1:14), and they will accompany his spirit in death, transporting him to the presence of the Lord: "The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels: the Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place" (Psa 68:17).

Defender: Luk 16:22 - Abraham's bosom In the age before the cross and Christ's victory over sin and death, the spirits of Jewish believers were transported, not to heaven, but to a separat...

In the age before the cross and Christ's victory over sin and death, the spirits of Jewish believers were transported, not to heaven, but to a separate compartment in the great pit at the heart of the earth, there to rest in peace awaiting the coming of Christ "and the opening of the prison to them that are bound" (Isa 61:1). This company of faithful was apparently under the care of "Father Abraham" (Luk 16:24)."

Defender: Luk 16:23 - hell "Hell" (Greek Hades, equivalent to the Hebrew sheol) is not the ultimate hell (Greek gehenna) referred to in Mat 10:28, the same as the "lake of fire"...

"Hell" (Greek Hades, equivalent to the Hebrew sheol) is not the ultimate hell (Greek gehenna) referred to in Mat 10:28, the same as the "lake of fire" (Rev 20:15). Hades is another compartment in the pit at the earth's center, where the spirits of the unsaved dead are confined until the day of judgment. They were not set free when Christ freed the spirits of the faithful, but are still there.

Defender: Luk 16:23 - Abraham afar off Although the two compartments were impassable and separate from each other, they were within the range of mutual sight and sound. This also reveals th...

Although the two compartments were impassable and separate from each other, they were within the range of mutual sight and sound. This also reveals that disembodied spirits are somehow still recognizable and capable of inter-communication, even though such phenomena are presently beyond our limited understanding."

Defender: Luk 16:24 - Father Abraham Abraham was also a rich man; the criterion for either comfort or torment after death is not merely that of wealth or poverty.

Abraham was also a rich man; the criterion for either comfort or torment after death is not merely that of wealth or poverty.

Defender: Luk 16:24 - water Since it seems physically impossible - at least to our limited understanding - that both tormenting fire and cooling water could co-exist at the cente...

Since it seems physically impossible - at least to our limited understanding - that both tormenting fire and cooling water could co-exist at the center of the earth, or that disembodied spirits could feel either one, it is probable that both are spiritual. That is, the fires are the burning flames of a tormented conscience and hopeless future; and the waters are the waters of life and salvation. Once this life is past, there is an impassable gulf between fire and water (Luk 16:26), so that one's destiny is already set for eternity.

Defender: Luk 16:24 - tormented his flame Lazarus had begged for crumbs from the rich man; now the rich man begged for a drop of water from Lazarus."

Lazarus had begged for crumbs from the rich man; now the rich man begged for a drop of water from Lazarus."

Defender: Luk 16:25 - remember This admonition informs us that memories will persist in hell and, therefore, eternal regrets and resentments. Surely, this is part of the torment tha...

This admonition informs us that memories will persist in hell and, therefore, eternal regrets and resentments. Surely, this is part of the torment that will endure forever."

Defender: Luk 16:31 - hear not Moses The criterion is doubly true today, for we have not only Moses and the prophets but the New Testament as well. Christ's teaching, through this narrati...

The criterion is doubly true today, for we have not only Moses and the prophets but the New Testament as well. Christ's teaching, through this narrative (or parable, whichever it be) proved prophetic, for when He did come back from the dead, His enemies still were not persuaded and did all they could to prevent His disciples from preaching His resurrection. On the other hand, there were many hearts that were still open, and such testimony did persuade them. The record says that "with great power gave the apostles witness of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus;" and it also says that "the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith" (Act 4:33; Act 6:7)."

TSK: Luk 16:1 - a certain // a steward // wasted a certain : Mat 18:23, Mat 18:24, 25:14-30 a steward : Luk 8:3, Luk 12:42; Gen 15:2, Gen 43:19; 1Ch 28:1; 1Co 4:1, 1Co 4:2; Tit 1:7; 1Pe 4:10 wasted :...

TSK: Luk 16:2 - How // give // for How : Gen 3:9-11, Gen 4:9, Gen 4:10, Gen 18:20,Gen 18:21; 1Sa 2:23, 1Sa 2:24; 1Co 1:11; 1Ti 5:24 give : Luk 12:42; Ecc 11:9, Ecc 11:10, Ecc 12:14; Mat...

TSK: Luk 16:3 - said // What // I cannot // to beg said : Luk 18:4; Est 6:6 What : Luk 12:17; Isa 10:3; Jer 5:31; Hos 9:5; Act 9:6 I cannot : Pro 13:4, Pro 15:19, Pro 18:9, Pro 19:15, Pro 21:25, Pro 21...

TSK: Luk 16:4 - -- Pro 30:9; Jer 4:22; Jam 3:15

TSK: Luk 16:5 - his his : Luk 7:41, Luk 7:42; Mat 18:24

TSK: Luk 16:6 - measures // Take measures : The word Batos in the original containeth nine gallons, three quarts. See Eze 45:10-14. Take : Luk 16:9, Luk 16:12; Tit 2:10

measures : The word Batos in the original containeth nine gallons, three quarts. See Eze 45:10-14.

Take : Luk 16:9, Luk 16:12; Tit 2:10

TSK: Luk 16:7 - An hundred // measures An hundred : Luk 20:9, Luk 20:12; Son 8:11, Son 8:12 measures : ""The word here interpreted a measure, in the original containeth about fourteen bushe...

An hundred : Luk 20:9, Luk 20:12; Son 8:11, Son 8:12

measures : ""The word here interpreted a measure, in the original containeth about fourteen bushels and a pottle. Gr.""

TSK: Luk 16:8 - unjust // done // children of this // in // children of light unjust : Luk 16:10, Luk 18:6 done : Luk 16:4; Gen 3:1; Exo 1:10; 2Sa 13:3; 2Ki 10:19; Pro 6:6-8 children of this : Luk 20:34; Psa 17:14; 1Co 3:18; Phi...

TSK: Luk 16:9 - Make // of the // mammon // when // into Make : Luk 11:41, Luk 14:14; Pro 19:17; Ecc 11:1; Isa 58:7, Isa 58:8; Dan 4:27; Mat 6:19, Mat 19:21; Mat 25:35-40; Act 10:4, Act 10:31; 2Co 9:12-15; 1...

TSK: Luk 16:10 - faithful in // he that is unjust faithful in : Luk 16:11, Luk 16:12, Luk 19:17; Mat 25:21; Heb 3:2 he that is unjust : Joh 12:6, Joh 13:2, Joh 13:27

faithful in : Luk 16:11, Luk 16:12, Luk 19:17; Mat 25:21; Heb 3:2

he that is unjust : Joh 12:6, Joh 13:2, Joh 13:27

TSK: Luk 16:11 - in // true in : Luk 16:9 true : Luk 12:33, Luk 18:22; Pro 8:18, Pro 8:19; Eph 3:8; Jam 2:5; Rev 3:18

TSK: Luk 16:12 - in // that which is your in : Luk 19:13-26; 1Ch 29:14-16; Job 1:21; Eze 16:16-21; Hos 2:8; Matt. 25:14-29 that which is your : Luk 10:42; Col 3:3, Col 3:4; 1Pe 1:4, 1Pe 1:5

in : Luk 19:13-26; 1Ch 29:14-16; Job 1:21; Eze 16:16-21; Hos 2:8; Matt. 25:14-29

that which is your : Luk 10:42; Col 3:3, Col 3:4; 1Pe 1:4, 1Pe 1:5

TSK: Luk 16:13 - servant // hate servant : Luk 9:50, Luk 11:23; Jos 24:15; Mat 4:10, Mat 6:24; Rom 6:16-22, Rom 8:5-8; Jam 4:4; 1Jo 2:15, 1Jo 2:16 hate : Luk 14:26

TSK: Luk 16:14 - who // derided who : Luk 12:15, Luk 20:47; Isa 56:11; Jer 6:13, Jer 8:10; Eze 22:25-29, Eze 33:31; Mat 23:14 derided : Luk 8:53, Luk 23:35; Psa 35:15, Psa 35:16, Psa...

TSK: Luk 16:15 - Ye // God // for Ye : Luk 10:29, Luk 11:39, Luk 18:11, Luk 18:21, Luk 20:20,Luk 20:47; Pro 20:6; Mat 6:2, Mat 6:5, Mat 6:16, Mat 23:5, Mat 23:25-27; Rom 3:20; Jam 2:21...

TSK: Luk 16:16 - Law // the kingdom // and every Law : Luk 16:29, Luk 16:31; Mat 11:9-14; Joh 1:45; Act 3:18, Act 3:24, Act 3:25 the kingdom : Luk 9:2, Luk 10:9, Luk 10:11; Mat 3:2, Mat 4:17, Mat 10:...

TSK: Luk 16:17 - it // than it : Luk 21:33; Psa 102:25-27; Isa 51:6; Mat 5:18; 2Pe 3:10; Rev 20:11, Rev 21:1, Rev 21:4 than : Isa 40:8; Rom 3:31; 1Pe 1:25

TSK: Luk 16:18 - -- Mat 5:32, Mat 19:9; Mar 10:11, Mar 10:12; 1Co 7:4, 1Co 7:10-12

TSK: Luk 16:19 - rich // clothed // purple rich : Luk 12:16-21, Luk 18:24, Luk 18:25; Jam 5:1-5 clothed : Luk 16:1, Luk 15:13; Job 21:11-15; Psa 73:3-7; Eze 16:49; Amo 6:4-6; Rev 17:4; Rev 18:7...

TSK: Luk 16:20 - a certain // Lazarus // was laid // full a certain : Luk 18:35-43; 1Sa 2:8; Jam 1:9, Jam 2:5 Lazarus : Joh 11:1 was laid : Act 3:2 full : Luk 16:21; Job 2:7; Psa 34:19, Psa 73:14; Isa 1:6; Je...

TSK: Luk 16:21 - desiring // crumbs desiring : 1Co 4:11; 2Co 11:27 crumbs : Mat 15:27; Mar 7:28; Joh 6:12

desiring : 1Co 4:11; 2Co 11:27

crumbs : Mat 15:27; Mar 7:28; Joh 6:12

TSK: Luk 16:22 - that // was carried // Abraham’ s // the rich // and was buried that : Job 3:13-19; Isa 57:1, Isa 57:2; Rev 14:13 was carried : Psa 91:11, Psa 91:12; Mat 13:38-43, Mat 24:31; Heb 2:14 Abraham’ s : Mat 8:11; Jo...

TSK: Luk 16:23 - in hell // being // seeth in hell : Psa 9:17, Psa 16:10, Psa 49:15, Psa 86:13; Pro 5:5, Pro 7:27, Pro 9:18, Pro 15:24; Isa 14:9, Isa 14:15; Mat 5:22, Mat 5:29, Mat 18:9, Mat 23...

TSK: Luk 16:24 - Father // have // in water // and cool // for Father : Luk 16:30, Luk 3:8; Mat 3:9; Joh 8:33-39, Joh 8:53-56; Rom 4:12, Rom 9:7, Rom 9:8 have : 1Sa 28:16; Isa 27:11; Jam 2:13 in water : Isa 41:17,...

TSK: Luk 16:25 - Son // remember // thy good // likewise Son : Luk 16:24 remember : Luk 16:23; Lam 1:7; Dan 5:22, Dan 5:23, Dan 5:30; Mar 9:46 thy good : Luk 6:24; Job 21:13, Job 21:14, Job 22:18; Psa 17:14,...

TSK: Luk 16:26 - between // they pass between : 1Sa 25:36; Psa 49:14; Eze 28:24; Mal 3:18; 2Th 1:4-10; Jam 1:11, Jam 1:12; Jam 5:1-7 they pass : Luk 12:59; Psa 50:22; Mat 25:46; Joh 3:36; ...

TSK: Luk 16:28 - lest lest : Psa 49:12, Psa 49:13

TSK: Luk 16:29 - have have : Luk 16:16; Isa 8:20, Isa 34:16; Mal 4:2-4; Joh 5:39-45; Act 15:21, Act 17:11, Act 17:12; 2Ti 3:15-17; 2Pe 1:19-21

TSK: Luk 16:30 - repent repent : Luk 13:3, Luk 13:5; Rev 16:9-11

TSK: Luk 16:31 - neither // be persuaded neither : Joh 11:43-53, Joh 12:10,Joh 12:11; 2Co 4:3 be persuaded : Gen 9:27 *marg. Act 19:8, Act 26:28, Act 28:23; 2Co 5:11

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Poole: Luk 16:1 - The children of this world // the children of light // translated out of darkness into marvellous light // the men of this world are wiser in their generation Luk 16:1-13 The parable of the unjust steward. Luk 16:14-18 Christ reproveth the hypocrisy of the Pharisees, who were covetous, and derided him. Lu...

Luk 16:1-13 The parable of the unjust steward.

Luk 16:14-18 Christ reproveth the hypocrisy of the Pharisees, who

were covetous, and derided him.

Luk 16:19-31 The parable of the rich man and Lazarus the beggar.

Ver. 1-8. Hierom of old thought this parable was very obscure; and Julian and other apostates, together with some of the heathen philosophers, took occasion from it to reproach the doctrine of Christ, as teaching and commanding acts of unrighteousness. But there will appear no such difficulty in it, nor cause of reproach to Christ and his doctrine from it, if we consider what I have before hinted, that it is no more necessary to a parable that all the actions in it supposed be just and honest, than that all the parts of it be true in matter of fact, whether past or possible to be; for a parable is not designed to inform us in a matter of fact, but to describe to us our duty, under a fictitious representation: nor doth every part of a parable point at some correspondent duty to be done by us; but the main scope for which it is brought is principally to be attended to by us, and other pieces of duty which may be hinted to us, are to be judged of and proved not from the parable, but from other texts of holy writ where they are inculcated. The main things in which our Saviour seemeth desirous by this parable to instruct us, are,

1. That we are but stewards of the good things God lends us, and must give an account to our Master of them.

2. That being no more than stewards intrusted with some of our Master’ s goods for a time, it is our highest prudence, while we have them in our trust, to make such a use of them as may be for our advantage when we give up our account.

Thus we shall hear our Lord in the following verses expounding his own meaning. To this purpose he supposed a rich man to have a steward, and to have received some accusation against him, as if he embezzled his master’ s goods committed to his trust. Upon which he calleth him to account, and tells him that he should be his steward no longer. He supposes this steward to be one who had no other means of livelihood and subsistence than what his place afforded him, a than not used to labour, and too proud to beg. At length he fixed his resolution, to send for his master’ s debtors, and to abate their obligations, making them debtors to his master for much less than indeed they were; by this means he probably hoped, that when he was turned off from his master he should be received by them. He supposes his master to have heard of it, and to have commended him, not for his honesty, but for his wit in providing for the time to come. What was knavery in this steward, is honest enough in those who are the stewards of our heavenly Lord’ s goods, suppose riches, honours, parts, health, life, or any outward accommodation, viz. to use our Lord’ s goods for the best profit and advantage to ourselves, during such time as we are intrusted with them. For though an earthly lord and his steward have particular divided interests, and he that maketh use of his lord’ s goods for his own best advantage cannot at the same time make use of them for the best advantage of his master, yet the case is different betwixt our heavenly Lord and us. It hath pleased God so to twist the interest of his glory with our highest good, that no man can better use his Master’ s goods for the advantage of his glory, than he who best useth them for the highest good, profit, and advantage to himself; nor doth any man better use them for his own interest, than he who best useth them for God’ s glory. So as here the parable halteth, by reason of the disparity betwixt the things that are compared. And though the unjust steward could not be commended for the honesty, but only for the policy, of his action, yet we who are stewards of the gifts of God, in doing the like, that is, making use of our Master’ s goods for our own best profit and advantage, may act not only wisely, but also honestly; and indeed Christ in this parable blames men for not doing so:

The children of this world (saith he) are wiser in their generation than the children of light By the children of this world he meaneth such as this steward was, men who regard not eternity or the concerns of their immortal souls, but only regard the things of this life, what they shall eat, or drink, or put on. By

the children of light he meaneth such as live under the light of the gospel, and receive the common illumination of the gospel; though if we yet understand it more strictly, of those who are

translated out of darkness into marvellous light it is too true, they are not so wise, and politic, and industrious for heaven, as worldly men are to obtain their ends in getting the world. He saith,

the men of this world are wiser in their generation that is, in their kind, as to those things about which they exercise their wit and policy, than the children of God.

Poole: Luk 16:5 - -- Ver. 5 See Poole on "Luk 16:1"

Ver. 5 See Poole on "Luk 16:1"

Poole: Luk 16:7 - -- Ver. 7 See Poole on "Luk 16:1"

Ver. 7 See Poole on "Luk 16:1"

Poole: Luk 16:9 - -- That by mammon here is meant riches is universally agreed, but whether it originally be a Chaldaic, or Syriac, or Punic word is not so well agreed....

That by mammon here is meant riches is universally agreed, but whether it originally be a Chaldaic, or Syriac, or Punic word is not so well agreed. The Chaldee paraphrast useth it, Hos 5:11 ; but the Hebrew there is quite otherwise, (according to our translation), he willingly walked after the commandment. But if the notion of those be true, that some of those nations had an idol called Mammon, whom they made the god of riches, answering the Grecian Plutus, it fairly interprets the Chaldee paraphrast. They followed the command for idolatry, for such was Jeroboam’ s commandment, mentioned in that text, and from thence it might be that the Syrians and Punics called riches mammon. We have the word in the New Testament four times, thrice in this chapter, once Mat 6:24 . It is called the mammon of unrighteousness, by a Hebraism; it is as much as, the unrighteous mammon: by which we must not understand ill gotten goods, (for God hateth robbery for a burnt offering), we must restore such goods, not make friends of them; but riches are so called, because of the manifold temptations to sin which arise from them, upon which account they are also called deceitful. But others think that it is so called in opposition to the true riches , mentioned Luk 16:11 . So that the mammon of unrighteousness is the mammon of falsehood, or hurtful riches, riches of hurtfulness (adicia sometimes signifies hurt or wrong, and adicein , laedere, nocere ). Of these riches, which are no true riches, and which deceive the soul, and do hurt and mischief to a soul, exposing it to temptation, Christ commands us to make friends either,

1. To make God our friend, not by meriting from him any thing by our disposal of them, but by obedience to his will in our distribution of them. Or:

2. To make poor Christians our friends, so as we may have their prayers. So that, when ye fail, when you die, when you fail of any more comfort from them, they may receive you into everlasting habitations the holy Trinity, or the blessed angels, (whose work it is, as we shall hear, to carry souls into Abraham’ s bosom), may receive you into heaven.

Poole: Luk 16:10 - -- This is a usual sentence, (our Saviour made use of many such), as to which kind of speeches it is not necessary they should be universally true, it ...

This is a usual sentence, (our Saviour made use of many such), as to which kind of speeches it is not necessary they should be universally true, it is sufficient if they generally be so. Besides that, our Saviour plainly speaketh here according to the common opinion and judgment of men. Men ordinarily judge that he who is faithful in a little thing, of no high concern or moment, will be faithful in what is of a higher concern, or greater moment; and if they have found a person unfaithful in a small thing, they will conclude that he will he so in a greater, and not trust him: though sometimes it falls out otherwise, that one who is faithful enough in some trifling things, prove unfaithful in a greater trust, where unfaithfulness will turn more to his profit; and on the contrary, he that is untruthful in a little thing, may prove more faithful in a greater; but none will trust to that: and that is our Saviour’ s design, to teach us that God will do by us as we in the like case do by our servants or neighbours.

Poole: Luk 16:11 - -- This verse now opposeth the unrighteous mammon to the true riches , which would strongly incline one to think, that by the mammon of unrighteousnes...

This verse now opposeth the unrighteous mammon to the true riches , which would strongly incline one to think, that by the mammon of unrighteousness , before mentioned, our Saviour meant only false and deceitful riches. By the true riches I cannot think is meant the gospel, which indeed is said to be committed to trust of the ministers, but not of all Christians. I had rather interpret it of special, effectual grace, which is of all other the true riches: and so it teacheth us this great truth, That God is justified in the denial of his special grace to those who do not make a due use of his common gifts and grace; and indeed here will lie men’ s damnation, because they do not make a just use of that common grace which they have, and might make a better use of it than they do. If they would be faithful in that, God would not deny them the true riches.

Poole: Luk 16:12 - -- Let it be questioned whether allotrion might not have been translated foreign as well as another man’ s , for so interpreters expound that ph...

Let it be questioned whether allotrion might not have been translated foreign as well as another man’ s , for so interpreters expound that phrase: If you have not been faithful in things that are without you, which are little, compared with things that are within us. Yet riches are indeed properly not ours, we are but the stewards of them, and part of them are other men’ s, and only trusted into our hands, to dispense to them according to our Master’ s order. Grace is our own, especially justifying and sanctifying grace; because it is given us of God solely for our own use and advantage. We use to say, That those who have been, bad servants seldom prove good masters. In the trust of our riches we are but servants; God will not give out of his special saving grace to those that abuse the trust of his common gifts and grace.

Poole: Luk 16:14 - They derided him Concerning the Pharisees’ covetousness we have often heard before; and indeed they were so from this principle, that none but the rich were ha...

Concerning the Pharisees’ covetousness we have often heard before; and indeed they were so from this principle, that none but the rich were happy and blessed, and that all poor people were cursed, Joh 7:49 ; in opposition to whom some think that our Saviour, Luk 6:20 , blessed the poor. The promises relating to the Old Testament, and made to the Jews, were generally of temporal blessings, though under them spiritual mercies were also understood. As hypocrites can never endure to have their beloved lusts touched, and persons that have drank in an error have no patience to hear it contradicted; so the Pharisees had no patience to hear that doctrine, which crossed what they had taught, and struck at their darling lusts.

They derided him: the word used signifieth a deriding with the highest degree of scorn and contempt.

Poole: Luk 16:15 - -- By justifying here is to be understood either an appearing before men as just, and strict observers of the law, or a predicating of themselves as ju...

By justifying here is to be understood either an appearing before men as just, and strict observers of the law, or a predicating of themselves as just: You (saith our Saviour) make a fine show, and great brags amongst men; but God’ s eye goeth deeper, he knoweth the heart, what pride, and covetousness, and hypocrisy lodge there. Men do not know your hearts, but God knoweth them. All is not gold by God’ s touchstone that glitters in man’ s eyes. Nay, many things which are highly esteemed amongst men, as matters of great devotion and piety and merit, and which they applaud others for, are in the sight of God no better than abominations. This highly obliges all not to make their estimate of things, from the value and estimate which men put upon them; not every thing, but many things which are highly esteemed amongst men are abomination in the sight of God.

Poole: Luk 16:16 - -- We had the sum of these words: See Poole on "Mat 11:12" and See Poole on "Mat 11:13" . The connection of these words in this place seems to be th...

We had the sum of these words: See Poole on "Mat 11:12" and See Poole on "Mat 11:13" . The connection of these words in this place seems to be this: Do not think it strange that I preach some doctrines to you which seem new to you, though indeed they are no other than was before contained in the precepts of the Old Testament; for the law and the prophets, the preaching of them, held but till John, since whose time the gospel hath been preached, which gives you a clearer light into the will of God than you had before; and it pleaseth God to give it a great acceptation in the world, though you reject it;

every man presseth that is, many press, into it so as God will not want a people, though you mock and deride the gospel, instead of embracing of it, as you ought to do.

Poole: Luk 16:17 - -- Neither do you scandalize me, as if I came to teach a new doctrine, contrary to the law and the prophets. I tell you the quite contrary; heaven and ...

Neither do you scandalize me, as if I came to teach a new doctrine, contrary to the law and the prophets. I tell you the quite contrary; heaven and earth shall pass away, before one tittle of the law shall pass. Your vain interpretations of the law shall be destroyed, or amended, but the law of my Father shall remain as a certain rule of life to his people until the world shall have an end.

Poole: Luk 16:19-22 - There was a certain beggar named Lazarus // the dogs came and licked his sores Ver. 19-22. It is a question of no great concern for us to be resolved about, whether this be a history, or narrative of matter of fact, or a parable...

Ver. 19-22. It is a question of no great concern for us to be resolved about, whether this be a history, or narrative of matter of fact, or a parable. Those that contend on either side have probable arguments for their opinion, and it may be they best judge who determine it to be neither the one nor the other, but a profitable discourse, that hath in it something of both. Our chief concern is to consider what our Lord by it designed to instruct us in. And certainly those do not judge amiss who think that this discourse hath a great reference to what went before, Luk 16:9,10 , where our Saviour had been exhorting his hearers to make themselves

friends of the mammon of unrighteousness as also to the Pharisees deriding him for his doctrine, Luk 16:14 ; our Lord by this discourse letting them know the danger of covetousness and uncharitableness, and also letting them know that what is highly esteemed among men may be abomination in the sight of God. He telleth them there was a certain rich man, who lived in great plenty and splendour; his clothing was purple and fine linen, that is, exceeding costly and splendid; his fare, or diet, was delicate and sumptuous, and that every day, from whence may easily be concluded, that if he had had a heart thereunto, he might have spared something for the poor. Nor were the objects of his charity far off.

There was a certain beggar named Lazarus poor enough, for he was full of sores, and would have been glad of the offal of the rich man’ s table; but the dogs were more charitable than their master; we read of nothing which the rich man gave him, but

the dogs came and licked his sores What was the end of this? The beggar died, and he was by the angels carried into the bosom of Abraham, that is, into heaven; some will have the phrase signify, one of the chiefest mansions in heaven. Abraham was the father of believers, and an hospitable person while he lived upon the earth. Lazarus is expressed to have been conveyed to him. There are many things discoursed by men of wit and learning about this Abraham’ s bosom, but the best centre here, that by it is meant heaven: and from hence two great points are proved:

1. That the soul is capable of an existence separated from the body, and therefore is not, as some atheists dream, a mere affection of that, and an accident, but a distinct spiritual subsistence.

2. That the souls of the good, when they depart from their bodies, immediately pass into an eternal state of blessedness.

Poole: Luk 16:23-24 - -- Ver. 23,24. Kai en tw adh , And in hell The world hath been filled with disputes about the true signification of the word adhv , which is here trans...

Ver. 23,24. Kai en tw adh , And in hell The world hath been filled with disputes about the true signification of the word adhv , which is here translated hell. The most probably true notion of it is, that it signifies, the state of the dead, both of the dead body, and so it often signifieth the grave, and of the departed soul. A very learned man saith, that if he mistakes not, this is the only text in Scripture in which by it is to be understood the place of torments. The Hebrew word which is translated by this, far more often signifying the place of the blessed, whither the saints and patriarchs went when they died, than the place whither sinners went; but Luk 16:24 makes it appear, that here it signifies hell, properly so called, as it imports the place of the damned. We must understand our Saviour in this whole diatupwsiv to speak to us figuratively, that by things which we understand we might comprehend spiritual things. Heaven and hell are at too great a distance for souls in each to discourse one with another: neither have souls any eyes to lift up. We are by this taught:

1. That as the souls of good men, when they leave their bodies, go into a state of eternal bliss, where are Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and enjoy a felicity which we are not able to express, but is set out to us under the notion of Abraham’ s bosom, to let us know that it is a place of rest, and communion with saints, and the same felicity which Abraham the friend of God doth enjoy: so the souls of wicked men, when they leave their bodies, shall go into a place of torments, the greatness of which being such as we are not able to conceive, they are expressed to us under the notion of being tormented by fire.

2. That it will be a great part of the misery of damned souls, to understand those to be in a state of happiness whom they in this life have scorned, despised, and abused, and, it may be, have been instruments to hasten them to those blessed mansions.

3. That there will come a time when the proudest sinners will be glad of the help of the meanest saints, if they could obtain it. Father Abraham ( saith the rich man), send Lazarus that Lazarus whom when alive I suffered to lie at my gate full of sores, and would not relieve.

4. That the state of the damned will be void of the least degrees of comfort and satisfaction. The rich man desireth but a cooling of his tongue with so much water as could be brought upon the tip of Lazarus’ s finger.

5. That the tongue is a member, the abuse of which will in another life lie very heavy upon lost souls.

Poole: Luk 16:25-26 - great gulf // Son // That in thy lifetime thou receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things // And besides all this, there is a great gulf fixed, &c Ver. 25,26. We must still remember, that all these things are spoken in a figure. The great gulf here mentioned, to be fixed between heaven and hel...

Ver. 25,26. We must still remember, that all these things are spoken in a figure. The

great gulf here mentioned, to be fixed between heaven and hell, is too wide for persons on opposite sides of it to be heard communicating their minds each to other. All that our Saviour designs to let us know is, that the circumstances of damned souls are such, that, if it were possible, they would beg the help and assistance of the meanest saints, whom they have in this life most scorned, despised, or abused; but as they will have no such opportunities as to crave any thing at their hands, so if they had, they could not receive the least relief from them; their state is determined, they are fixed for eternity, and there can be no change of their condition for the better. Abraham is here brought in calling this man

Son either as lineally descended from him, or being a member of that church of which he was the father. It will add to the torments of the damned, to hear and consider the former means and advantages they have been under for salvation, if they have descended from godly parents, or have been members of the church of Christ.

That in thy lifetime thou receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things The good things which the rich man received were no more the cause of his damnation, than the evil things which Lazarus met with were the cause of his salvation; but the rich man’ s ill use of the former, and Lazarus’ s good improvement of the latter, through the grace of God bestowed on him. Though it be not ordinary with God to give the same persons the upper and the nether springs, yet he sometimes doth it, of which Abraham, and Lot, and Job, and David, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Joseph of Arimathea, are some instances. But the term thy signifies the error of this rich man; he looked upon the good things of this life as his portion, those were the things which be set his heart upon, and let his heart run out to the neglecting the good things of another life. Lazarus received evil things God gave him a mean, afflicted portion in this life; but he was found patient, and glorifying of God by a quiet and believing submission to his will under them; now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. So then it seemeth that departed souls do not sleep, as some have dreamed; if they did, they could neither have been capable of comfort or torment.

And besides all this, there is a great gulf fixed, &c. the meaning of which is no more than,

1. That the state of souls upon their separation from the bodies of men and women is determined and fixed. As the tree falls, so it lieth.

2. That there is no commerce, or intercourse, between glorified and damned souls. The papists passage from purgatory to heaven is a new found way, or rather a new fancied one. If purgatory be (as they pretend) a place where souls are tormented, it may be wondered how they should pass over this gulf: it seemeth Abraham did not know the way, St. Peter knew as little; this is one of his pretended vicar’ s new discoveries, but it is no wisdom in any souls to trust to this passage, of which Abraham knew as little as he did of our prayers passing to them, or to God for them, for there is casma mega esthrigmenon , a great gulf established.

Poole: Luk 16:27-28 - -- Ver. 27,28. Him that the rich man would not hear, when he lay at his gate full of sores, exhorting him to do good and to distribute, to give alms of ...

Ver. 27,28. Him that the rich man would not hear, when he lay at his gate full of sores, exhorting him to do good and to distribute, to give alms of all that he had, and to make himself friends of the mammon of unrighteousness, he would now have restored to the earth again, his soul before the general resurrection reunited to His body, that he might go unto his father’ s house, and give them warning, that they might not come into the misery which he felt. But is there any charity in hell? Is there any there that wish well to souls upon earth? Or rather, are not damned souls, like persons infected with the plague, desirous that others might be made as miserable as themselves? A grave and acute author saith, he prayeth not for them, but for himself, that he might not be the note miserable by the company of those who upon the earth were his near relations, and dear unto him. But we must remember that our Saviour here speaketh all in a figure, and that which our Saviour by these expressions designs to instruct us in is no more than this, That although atheistical and proud and haughty souls in this life make a mock at hell, and at the wrath of God to be revealed after this life, and despise the poor servants of God, who by their doctrine, or holy life and example, would teach them better things, yet they shall find the fire of hell so hot, the wrath of God so terrible and intolerable, that if you could imagine that souls under those miseries could have the least dram of charity and good nature left it, them, though they apprehend themselves past all hopes of recovery to a better state, yet they would beg that some of those faithful ministers, or godly people, whom they have rejected, despised, and abused, might be sent to every friend they have in the world, to warn them from doing as they have done, and running the hazard of those torments they feel for doing of such things. The papists, who idly go about from hence to prove a sense in departed souls of the state of their friends that are yet alive upon the earth, can derive very little comfort from that speculation out of this text; which if it could prove any thing of that nature could prove no more than that damned souls have such a sense, and might by the same argument also evince their charity. But figurative expressions must not be so closely applied. I have showed what I judge to be the true instruction from this passage.

Poole: Luk 16:29 - They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them // Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me; for he wrote of me Christ here represents to us the genius of wicked and carnal men, that would be converted by revelations and some extraordinary signs; if they could...

Christ here represents to us the genius of wicked and carnal men, that would be converted by revelations and some extraordinary signs; if they could see one risen from the dead, then they would believe the resurrection; if they could see a glorified saint, or hear or see a damned soul, then they would believe a heaven and a hell: he here brings in Abraham saying,

They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them God will have men believe the propositions of His word, and live up to the rule of life prescribed there, and not expect to have their curiosity satisfied by needless and extraordinary revelations. But is there then no need of the gospel to bring men to heaven? Doubtless there is, but that is included in Moses and the prophets, who all prophesied of Christ, though more darkly than he is revealed in the New Testament.

Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me; for he wrote of me Joh 5:39,46, Search the Scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me: now they at that time had no Scriptures to search but those of Moses and the prophets; for the New Testament was not at that time written.

Poole: Luk 16:30-31 - -- Ver. 30,31. How vain is man in his imaginations: We are prone all of us to think after the rate that this rich man is here brought in speaking; that ...

Ver. 30,31. How vain is man in his imaginations: We are prone all of us to think after the rate that this rich man is here brought in speaking; that although persons be deaf to the sound of the word, yet some sensible evidence of the wrath of God would make a change in their hearts and lives. There is no such thing. There is not, possibly, in all the book of God a text that more speaks the desperate hardness of a sinner’ s heart than this, nor a text which looks more dreadfully upon persons sitting under the means of grace, reading and hearing the word of God, and yet find not their hearts so affected with the reading and hearing of it, as thereby to be brought to repentance, and faith, and such holiness of life as it requireth. If it were possible that such men and women should see one come out of the bottomless pit, tearing his hair, and wringing his hands, and gnashing his teeth, and bewailing his misery, and begging of them to be wise by his example, telling them for what sins he is made so miserable, and with tears and highest expressions of passion beseeching them that while they have time they would leave off those courses, acquaint themselves with God, and be at peace, that thereby good might come unto them, they would not yet believe nor repent; nor would this have any further effect upon them, than a little passion, till they could get the din out of their ears. For though sensible evidence be the highest advantage in the world to moral persuasion, yet these things are under no Divine appointment to such an effect. Henceforth let us wonder no more that a drunkard sees his companion drop down dead before him, yet presently cries again, Fill the glass; that hundreds of sinners are daily hurried down to hell in their wickedness, and yet their companions take no warning. In a fight at sea or land hundreds drop, yet their companions do not fly, but are held up by their stomachs and passion, and their ears are made deaf by the noise of the drums and trumpets. So in the world hundreds of sinners drop down daily into the pit, yet the rest of their companions tumble their companions into their graves, and never consider the work of the Lord, nor consider the operation of his hands, till they also like sheep be laid in the grave, and death comes to feed upon them, and hell to devour them also. This now to those that duly consider not things, and in particular do not consider this text, seemeth strange and amazing. But it is no more to be wondered at than that hundreds read and hear the word of God, and are not by it converted and changed. It is not to be expected that any providence of God should work upon those souls any saving change, upon whom the word doth not work. That is the ordinance of God, with which the Holy Spirit joins itself, which alone can produce this change. If God works not this change thus, he will work it by nothing else; though he sometimes maketh use of such providences towards souls to whom he intends good, to make them observe and attend to the word better, in order to so blessed an effect.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:1 - Which had a steward And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his g...

And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods.   

[Which had a steward.] This parable seems to have relation to the custom of letting out grounds, which we find discoursed of, Demai; cap. 6, where it is supposed a ground is let by its owner to some tenant upon this condition, that he pay half, or one third or fourth part of the products of the ground, according as is agreed betwixt them as to the proportion and quantity. So, also, he supposes an olive-yard let out upon such kind of conditions. And there it is disputed about the payment of the tithes, in what manner it should be compounded between the owner and him that occupies the ground.  

Steward with Kimchi is pakidh; where he hath a parable not much unlike this: "The world (saith he) is like unto a house built; the heaven is the covering of the house; the stars are the candles in the house; the fruits of the earth are like a table spread in the house; the owner of the house, and he indeed that built it, is the holy blessed God. Man in the world is as it were the steward of the house, into whose hands his lord hath delivered all his riches, if he behave himself well, he will find favour in the eyes of his lord; if ill, he will remove him from his stewardship."

Lightfoot: Luk 16:3 - I cannot dig, to beg I am ashamed Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed.  ...

Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed.   

[I cannot dig, to beg I am ashamed.] Is there not some third thing betwixt digging and begging? The distinction betwixt artificers and labourers; mentioned in Bava Mezia; hath place here. This steward, having conversed only with husbandmen, must be supposed skilled in no other handicraft; but that if he should be forced to seek a livelihood, he must be necessitated to apply himself to digging in the vineyards, or fields, or olive-yards.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:6 - Take thy bill, etc. And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.   [Take thy bill, ...

And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.   

[Take thy bill, etc.] that is, "Take from me the scroll of thy contract; which thou deliveredst to me; and make a new one, of fifty measures only, that are owing by thee." But it seems a great inequality, that he should abate one fifty in a hundred measures of oil, and the other but twenty out of a hundred measures of wheat; unless the measures of wheat exceeded the measure of oil ten times: so that when there were twenty cori of wheat abated the debtor, there were abated to him two hundred baths or ephahs.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:9 - Of the mammon of unrighteousness. // Make to yourselves friends And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habita...

And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.   

[Of the mammon of unrighteousness.] I. Were I very well assured that our Saviour in this passage meant riches well gotten, and alms to be bestowed thence, I would not render it mammon of unrighteousness; but hurtful mammon. For hurt signifies as well to deal unjustly. Vulg. hurt not the earth. And so riches, even well got, may be said to be hurtful mammon; because it frequently proves noxious to the owner. It is the lawyers' term, the damage of mammon ( Maimonides hath a treatise with that title), that is, when any person doth any way hurt or damnify another's estate. And in reality, and on the contrary, hurtful mammon; i.e. when riches turn to the hurt and mischief of the owner...  

II. Or perhaps he might call it mammon of unrighteousness in opposition to mammon of righteousness; i.e. of mercy; or almsgiving; for by that word righteousness; the Jews usually expressed charity or almsgiving; as every one that hath dipped into that language knows very well. And then his meaning might be, make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; i.e. of those riches which you have not yet laid out in righteousness; or almsgiving...  

III. I see no reason, therefore, why we may not, nay, why, indeed, it is not necessary to, understand the words precisely of riches ill gotten. For,  

1. So the application of the parable falls in directly with the parable itself: "That steward gained to himself friends by ill-gotten goods; so do ye: make to yourselves friends of the wealth you have not well got."  

Object. But far be it from our Saviour to exhort or encourage any to get riches unjustly, or to stir them up to give alms out of what they have dishonestly acquired. Saith Heinsius; " No man but will confess our Lord meant nothing less than that any one should make friends to himself of riches unjustly gained." Yet, for all this, I must acknowledge myself not so very well satisfied in this matter.  

2. Let us but a little consider by what words in the Syriac our Saviour might express mammon of unrighteousness; especially if he spoke in the vulgar language. It was a common phrase, mammon of falsity; or false mammon; at least if the Targumists speak in the vulgar idiom of that nation, which none will deny. It is said of Samuel's sons, that "they did not walk in his ways but turned after 'false mammon.'" "He destroys his own house, whoso heaps up to himself the 'mammon of falsehood.' " "Whoever walks in justice, and speaketh right things, and separates himself from 'the mammon of iniquity.' " "To shed blood and to destroy souls, that they may gain 'mammon of falsehood.'"  

There needs no commentator to shew what the Targumists mean by mammon of falsehood; or mammon of unrighteousness. They themselves explain it, when they render it sometimes by mammon of violence; sometimes by mammon of wickedness. Kimchi, by mammon of rapine; upon Isaiah_33.  

By the way, I cannot but observe, that that expression, Hos 5:11; after the commandment; i.e. of Jeroboam or Omri, is rendered by the Targumists after the mammon of falsehood. Where also see the Greek and Vulgar.  

Seeing it appears before that mammon of unrighteousness; is the same in the Greek with mammon of falsity or false mammon in the Targumists, who speak in the common language of that nation, there is no reason why it should not be taken here in the very same sense. Think but what word our Saviour would use to express unrighteousness by, and then think, if there can be any word more probable than that which was so well known, and so commonly in use in that nation. Indeed the word unrighteousness; in this place, is softened by some, that it should denote no further than false; as not true and substantial: so that the mammon of unrighteousness should signify deceitful mammon; not opposing riches well got to those that are ill got; but opposing earthly riches to spiritual; which rendering of the word took its rise from hence especially, that it looked ill and unseemly, that Christ should persuade any to make to themselves friends by giving alms out of an ill-gotten estate: not to mention that, Luk 16:11, unrighteous mammon; is opposed to true riches.  

III. It is not to be doubted but that the disciples of Christ did sufficiently abhor the acquiring of riches by fraud and rapine: but can we absolve all of them from the guilt of it before their conversion? Particularly Matthew the publican? And is it so very unseemly for our Saviour to admonish them to make themselves friends by restitution; and a pious distribution of those goods they may have unjustly gathered before their conversion? The discourse is about restitution; and not giving of alms.   

IV. It is a continued discourse in this place with that in the foregoing chapter, only that he does more particularly apply himself to his disciples, Luk 16:1, He said unto his disciples; where the particle and joins what is discoursed here with what went before. Now who were his disciples? Not the twelve apostles only, nor the seventy disciples only: but, Luk 15:1, all the publicans and sinners that came to hear him. For we needs must suppose them in the number of disciples, if we consider the distinction of the congregation then present, being made between scribes and Pharisees, and those that came to him with a good mind to hear: besides that we may observe how Christ entertains them, converseth with them, and pleads for them in the parable of the foregoing chapter. Which plea and apology for them against the scribes and Pharisees being finished, he turns his discourse to them themselves, and under the parable of an Unjust Steward, instructs them how they may make to themselves friends of the wealth they had unjustly gained, as he had done. And, indeed, what could have been more seasonably urged before the unjust and covetous Pharisees, than to stir up his followers, that, if they had acquired any unrighteous gains before their conversion, they would now honestly restore them, piously distribute them, that so they may make themselves friends of them, as the Unjust Steward had done?  

And for a comment upon this doctrine, let us take the instance of Zacchaeus, Luk 19:2-5. If Christ, while entertained in his house, had said to him what he said to his disciples here, Zacchaeus, make to thyself friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; would Zacchaeus himself, or those that stood by, have understood him any otherwise, than that he should make friends to himself of that wealth he had gotten dishonestly? And why they may not be so understood here, I profess I know not; especially when he discourses amongst those disciples that had been publicans and sinners; and scarce any of them, for aught we know, but before his conversion had been unjust and unrighteous enough.  

[Make to yourselves friends.] Were it so, that, by the mammon of unrighteousness could be understood an estate honestly got, and the discourse were about giving of alms, yet would I hardly suppose the poor to be those friends here mentioned, but Got and Christ. For who else were capable of receiving them into everlasting habitations? As for the poor (upon whom these alms are bestowed) doing this, as some have imagined, is mere dream, and deserves to be laughed at rather than discussed.  

In Bava Kama we have a discourse about restitution of goods ill gotten; and amongst other things there is this passage: "The Rabbins deliver; those that live upon violence (or thieves ), and usurers; if they make restitution, their restitution is not received." And a little after, for shepherds, exactors, and publicans, restitution is difficult. (The Gloss is, Because they have wronged so many, that they know not to whom to restore their own.) But they do make restitution to those who know their own goods; that were purloined from them. They say true, They do make restitution: but others do not receive it of them. To what end then do they make restitution? That they may perform their duty towards God.  

Upon what nicety it was that they would not allow those to restitution, from whom the goods had been purloined, I will not stand to inquire. It was necessary, however, that restitution should be made; that that which was due and owing to God might be performed; that is, they might not retain in their hands any ill-gotten goods, but devote them to some good use; and, accordingly, those things that were restored, (if the owners could not know them again) were dedicated to public use, viz. to the use of the synagogue; and so they made God their friend, of the goods that they had gained by dishonesty and unrighteousness.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:11 - If ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, etc. If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?   [If ye have not been fa...

If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?   

[If ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, etc.] the Vulgar, If ye have not been faithful in the unjust mammon; it is not ill rendered. But can any one be faithful in the unrighteous mammon? As to that, let us judge from the example of Zaccaeus: although he was not faithful in scraping together any thing unjustly, yet was he eminently faithful in so piously distributing it.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:12 - If ye have not been faithful in that which was another man's, etc. And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?   [If ye have not been faithful...

And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?   

[If ye have not been faithful in that which was another man's, etc.] to apply another man's to that wealth which is given us by God, is something harsh and obscure; but to apply it to the riches of other men, makes the sense a little more easy: "If ye have been unjust in purloining the goods of other men, and will still as unjustly keep them back, what reason have you to think that others will not deal as unjustly with you, and keep back even what is yours?"

Lightfoot: Luk 16:16 - And every one presseth into it The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.   [And every on...

The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.   

[And every one presseth into it.] These words may be varied into a sense plainly contrary; so far that they may either denote the entertainment or the persecution of the gospel. Saith Beza: Every one breaketh into it by force; which points at the former sense of these words. Vulgar: Every one commits violence upon it; which points to the latter. I have admitted of the former, as that which is the most received sense of that passage in Mat 11:12; but the latter seems more agreeable in this place, if you will suppose a continued discourse in our Saviour from Luk 16:15, and that one verse depends upon another. They do indeed seem independent, and incoherent one with another; and yet there is no reason why we may not suppose a connexion, though at the first view it is not so perspicuous. We may observe the manner of the schools in this very difficulty. In both the Talmuds, what frequent transitions are there infinitely obscure and inextricable at first sight, and seemingly of no kind of coherence; which yet the expositors have made very plain and perspicuous, very coherent with one another.  

I would therefore join and continue the discourse in some such way as this: "You laugh me to scorn; and have my doctrine in derision, boasting yourselves above the sphere of it, as if nothing I said belonged at all to you. Nor do I wonder at it; for whereas the Law and the Prophets were until John, yet did you deal no otherwise with them, but changed and wrested them at your pleasure by your traditions and the false glosses ye have put upon them. And when with John Baptist the kingdom of heaven arose and made its entry among you, every one useth violence and hostility against it; by contradiction, persecution, and laughing it to scorn. And yet, though you by your foolish traditions have made even the whole law void and of none effect, it is easier certainly for heaven and earth to pass away, than that one tittle of the law should fail. Take but an instance in the first and most ancient precept of the law, 'The man shall cleave unto his wife'; which you, by your traditions and arbitrary divorces, have reduced to nothing; but that still remains, and will remain for ever, in its full force and virtue; and he that puts away his wife (according to the licentiousness of your divorces) and marrieth another, committeth adultery."

Lightfoot: Luk 16:19 - There was a certain rich man There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:   [There was a certain rich man...

There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:   

[There was a certain rich man.] Whoever believes this not to be a parable, but a true story, let him believe also those little friars, whose trade it is to shew the monuments at Jerusalem to pilgrims, and point exactly to the place where the house of the 'rich glutton' stood. Most accurate keepers of antiquity indeed! who, after so many hundreds of years, such overthrows of Jerusalem, such devastations and changes, can rake out of the rubbish the place of so private a house, and such a one too as never had any being, but merely in parable. And that it was a parable, not only the consent of all expositors may assure us, but the thing itself speaks it.  

The main scope and design of it seems this, to hint the destruction of the unbelieving Jews, who, though they had Moses and the Prophets, did not believe them, nay, would not believe, though one (even Jesus) arose from the dead. For that conclusion of the parable abundantly evidenceth what it aimed at: "If they hear not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead."

Lightfoot: Luk 16:20 - Lazarus. // Full of sores And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,   [Lazarus.] I. We shew in our notes upon St. ...

And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,   

[Lazarus.] I. We shew in our notes upon St. Joh 11:1; in several instances, that the word Lazar is by contraction used by the Talmudists for Eleazar. The author of Juchasin attests it: in the Jerusalem Talmud every R. Eleazar is written without an Aleph, R. Lazar.  

II. In Midras Coheleth there is a certain beggar called Diglus Patragus or Petargus: poor, infirm, naked, and famished. But there could hardly be invented a more convenient name for a poor beggar than Lazar; which signifies the help of God; when he stands in so much need of the help of men.  

But perhaps there may be something more aimed at in the name: for since the discourse is concerning Abraham and Lazarus, who would not call to mind Abraham and Eliezer his servant, one born at Damascus, a Gentile by birth, and sometime in posse the heir of Abraham; but shut out of the inheritance by the birth of Isaac, yet restored here into Abraham's bosom? Which I leave to the judgment of the reader, whether it might not hint the calling of the Gentiles into the faith of Abraham.  

The Gemarists make Eliezer to accompany his master even in the cave of Machpelah: "R. Baanah painted the sepulchres: when he came to Abraham's cave, he found Eliezer standing at the mouth of it. He saith unto him, 'What is Abraham doing?' To whom he, He lieth in the embraces of Sarah. Then said Baanah, 'Go and tell him that Baanah is at the door,' " etc.  

[Full of sores.] In the Hebrew language, stricken with ulcers. Sometimes his body full of ulcers; as in this story: "They tell of Nahum Gamzu, that he was blind, lame of both hands and of both feet, and in all his body full of sores. He was thrown into a ruinous house, the feet of his bed being put into basins full of water, that the ants might not creep upon him. His disciples ask him, 'Rabbi, how hath this mischief befallen thee, when as thou art a just man?' " He gives the reason himself; viz. Because he deferred to give something to a poor man that begged of him. We have the same story in Hieros Peah; where it were worth the while to take notice how they vary in the telling it.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:22 - He was carried by the angels. // Into Abraham's bosom And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;  &nbs...

And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;   

[He was carried by the angels.] The Rabbins have an invention that there are three bands of angels attend the death of wicked men, proclaiming, "There is no peace, saith the Lord, unto the wicked." But what conceptions they have of angels being present at the death of good men, let us judge from this following passage:  

"The men of Tsippor said, 'Whoever tells us that Rabbi [Judah] is dead, we will kill him.' Bar Kaphra, looking upon them with his head veiled with a hood, said unto them, 'Holy men, and angels took hold of the tables of the covenant, and the hand of the angels prevailed; so that they took away the tables.' They said unto him, 'Is Rabbi dead then?' " The meaning of this parabolizer was this; Holy men would fain have detained R. Judah still in the land of the living, but the angels took him away.  

[Into Abraham's bosom.]...The Jewish schools dispose of the souls of Jews under a threefold phrase; I can hardly say under a threefold state; --   

I. In the garden of Eden; or Paradise. Amongst those many instances that might be alleged, even to nauseousness, let us take one wherein this very Abraham is named:  

"'He shall be as a tree planted by the rivers of waters.' This is Abraham, whom God took and planted in the land of Israel; or, whom God took and planted in Paradise." Take one instance more of one of equal fame and piety, and that was Moses: "When our master Moses departed into Paradise; he said unto Joshua, 'If thou hast any doubt upon thee about any thing, inquire now of me concerning it.'"  

II. Under the throne of glory. We have a long story in Avoth R. Nathan of the angel of death being sent by God to take away the soul of Moses; which when he could not do, "God taketh hold of him himself, and treasureth him up under the throne of glory." And a little after; "Nor is Moses' soul only placed under the throne of glory; but the souls of other just persons also are reposited under the throne of glory."  

Moses, in the words quoted before, is in Paradise; in these words, he is under the throne of glory. In another place, "he is in heaven ministering before God." So that under different phrases is the same thing expressed; and this, however, is made evident, that there the garden of Eden was not to be understood of an earthly, but a heavenly paradise. That in Rev 6:9; of 'souls crying under the altar,' comes pretty near this phrase, of being placed under the throne of glory. For the Jews conceived of the altar as the throne of the Divine Majesty; and for that reason the court of the Sanhedrim was placed so near the altar, that they might be filled with the reverence of the Divine Majesty so near them, while they were giving judgment. Only, whereas there is mention of the souls of the martyrs that had poured out their blood for God, it is an allusion to the blood of the sacrifices that were wont to be poured out at the foot of the altar.  

III. In Abraham's bosom; which if you would know what it is, you need seek no further than the Rhemists, our countrymen (with grief be it spoken), if you will believe them; for they upon this place have this passage: "The bosom of Abraham is the resting-place of all them that died in perfect state of grace before Christ's time; heaven, before, being shut from men. It is called in Zachary a lake without water, and sometimes a prison, but most commonly of the divines Limbus patrum; for that it is thought to have been the higher part or brim of hell," etc.  

If our Saviour had been the first author of this phrase, then might it have been tolerable to have looked for the meaning of it amongst Christian expositors; but seeing it is a scheme of speech so familiar amongst the Jews, and our Saviour spoke no other than in the known and vulgar dialect of that nation, the meaning must be fetched thence, not from any Greek or Roman lexicon. That which we are to inquire after is, how it was understood by the auditory then present: and I may lay any wager that the Jews, when they heard Abraham's bosom mentioned, did think of nothing less than that kind of limbo which we have here described. What! Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, etc., in a lake without water, in prison, on the very brim of hell! Is this to be in paradise? Is this to be under the throne of glory? And was Lazarus carried thither by angels when he was carried into Abraham's bosom?  

We meet with a phrase amongst the Talmudists; Kiddushin; folio 72: it is quoted also from Juchasin; folio 75. 2. Let us borrow a little patience of the reader, to transcribe the whole passage:  

"Rabbi [Judah] saith to Levi, Represent the Persians to me by some similitude. He saith, They are like to the host of the house of David. Represent to me the Iberians. They are like to the angels of destruction. Represent to me the Ismaelites. They are like the devils of the stinking pit. Represent to me the disciples of the wise, that are in Babylon. They are like to ministering angels. When R. [Judah] died; he said, Hoemnia is in Babylon; and consists of Ammonites wholly. Mesgaria is in Babylon; and wholly consists of spurious people. Birkah is in Babylon; where two men interchange their wives. Birtha Sataia is in Babylon; and at this day they depart from God. Acra of Agma is in Babylon. Ada Bar Ahava is there. This day he sits in Abraham's bosom. This day is Rabh Judah born in Babylon."  

Expositors are not well agreed, neither by whom, nor indeed concerning whom, those words are spoken, This day he sits 'in the bosom of Abraham.' And for that reason have I transcribed the whole period, that the reader may spend his judgment amongst them. The author of Juchasin thinks they may be the words of Adah Bar Ahavah spoken concerning Rabbi Judah. Another Gloss saith, They are spoken of Adah Bar Ahavah himself. Let us hear them both: "The day that Rabbi died, Rabh Adah Bar Ahavah said, by way of prophecy, This day doth he sit in Abraham's bosom." "There are those indeed that expound, This day doth he sit in Abraham's bosom; thus; that is, This day he died. Which if it be to be understood of Adah Bar Ahavah, the times do not suit. It seems to be understood therefore, This day he sits in Abraham's bosom; that is, This day is Adah Bar Ahavah circumcised, and entered into the covenant of Abraham."  

But the reader may plainly see, having read out the whole period, that these words were spoken neither by Adah nor of him, but by Levi, of whom we have some mention in the beginning of this passage, and spoken concerning Rabbi Judah that was now dead. It is Levi also that saith, that in his room, on that very selfsame day, was Rabh Judah born in Babylon, according to the common adage of their schools, which immediately follows; "A just man never dies, till there be born in his room one like him." So saith R. Meir; "When R. Akibah died, Rabbi [Judah] was born: when Rabbi Judah died, Rabh Judah was born: when Rabh Judah died, Rabba was born: when Rabba died, Rabh Isai was born."  

We have here, therefore, if we will make up the story out of both Talmuds, another not very unlike this of ours. In the Jerusalem Talmud, Rabbi Judah is conveyed by angels; in the Babylonian, he is placed in Abraham's bosom; neither would the Glosser have doubted in the least either of the thing, or of the way of expressing it, so as to have fled to any new exposition, had he not mistook the person concerning whom these words were uttered. He supposeth them spoken of Adah Bar Ahavah (wherein he is deceived): and because the times do not fall in right, if they were to be understood of his death, he therefore frames a new interpretation of his own, whiles, in the mean time, he acknowledgeth that others expound it otherwise.  

We may find out, therefore, the meaning of the phrase according to the common interpretation, by observing, first, that it was universally believed amongst the Jews, that pure and holy souls, when they left this body, went into happiness, to Abraham. Our Saviour speaks according to the received opinion of that nation in this affair, when he saith, "Many shall come from the east and from the west, and shall sit down with Abraham."   

Give me leave to transcribe a story a little more largely than usual: "There was a woman the mother of seven martyrs (so we find it also 2 Maccabees 7)." When six of her sons were slain, and the youngest brought out in order to it, though but a child of two years and a half old, "the mother saith to Caesar, ' by the life of thy head; I beseech thee, O Caesar, let me embrace and kiss my child.' This being permitted her, she plucked out her breasts and gave it suck. The she; 'By the life of thy head, I entreat thee, O Caesar, that thou wouldest first kill me and then the child.' Caesar answered, 'I will not yield to thee in this matter, for it is written in your own law, The heifer or sheep, with its young one, thou shalt not kill on the same day.' To whom she; ' O thou foolishest of all mortals; hast thou performed all the commands, that this only is wanting?' He forthwith commands that the child should be killed. The mother running into the embraces of her little son, kissed him and said, ' Go thou, O my son, to Abraham thy father; and tell him, Thus saith my mother, Do not thou boast, saying, I built an altar, and offered my son Isaac: for my mother hath built seven altars, and offered seven sons in one day,' " etc.  

This woman, questionless, did not doubt of the innocence and purity of the soul of this child, nor of its future happiness, (for we will suppose the truth of the story) which happiness she expresseth sufficiently by this, that her son was going to his father Abraham. There are several other things to the same purpose and of the same mould, that might be produced, but let this suffice in this place: however, see notes on Luk 16:24.  

Now what this being in Abraham's bosom may signify amongst the Jews, we may gather from what is spoken of the manners and the death of this R. Judah; concerning whom it is said, This day he sits in Abraham's bosom. "Rabbi Judah had the toothache thirteen years; and in all that time there was not an abortive woman throughout the whole land of Israel." For to him it is that they apply those words of the prophet, "He was a man of sorrows, and hath borne our griefs." And for these very pains of his, some had almost persuaded themselves that he was the Messiah. At length this toothache was relieved by Elias, appearing in the likeness of R. Chaijah Rubbah, who, by touching his tooth, cured him. When he died, and was to be buried on the evening of the sabbath, there were eighteen synagogues accompanied him to his grave. "Miracles were done; the day did not decline, till every one was got home before the entrance of the sabbath." Bath Kol pronounced happiness for all those that wept for him, excepting one by name; which one when he knew himself excepted, threw himself headlong from the roof of the house, and so died, etc. But to add no more, for his incomparable learning and piety he was called R. Judah the holy. And whither would the Jew think such a one would go when he went out of this world? Who amongst them, when it was said of him that was in Abraham's bosom; would not without all scruple and hesitancy understand it, that he was in the very embraces of Abraham; (as they were wont at table one to lie in the other's bosom) in the exquisite delights and perfect felicities of paradise? not in 'a lake without water,' 'a prison,' 'the very brink of hell.'

Lightfoot: Luk 16:23 - He seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.   [He seeth Abraham afar off, ...

And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.   

[He seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus.] Instead of commentary, take another parable: "There are wicked men that are coupled together in this world. But one of them repents before death; the other doth not: so the one is found standing in the assembly of the just; the other in the assembly of the wicked. The one seeth the other, [this agrees with the passage now before us] and saith, 'Woe! and alas! here is accepting of persons in this thing: he and I robbed together, committed murder together; and now he stands in the congregation of the just, and I in the congregation of the wicked.' They answer him, ' O thou most foolish amongst mortals that are in the world! Thou wert abominable, and cast forth for three days after thy death, and they did not lay thee in the grave: the worm was under thee, and the worm covered thee: which when this companion of thine came to understand, he became a penitent. It was in thy power also to have repented, but thou didst not.' He saith unto them, 'Let me go now and become a penitent,' But they say, 'O thou foolishest of men, dost thou not know that this world in which thou art is like the sabbath, and the world out of which thou camest is like the evening of the sabbath? If thou dost not provide something on the evening of the sabbath, what wilt thou eat on the sabbath day? Dost thou not know that the world out of which thou camest is like the land, and the world in which thou now art is like the sea? If a man make no provision on land for what he should eat at sea, what will he have to eat?' He gnashed his teeth and gnawed his own flesh."

Lightfoot: Luk 16:24 - And he cried and said. // And cool my tongue And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; ...

And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.   

[And he cried and said.] We have mention of the dead discoursing one amongst another, and also with those that are alive. "R. Samuel Bar Nachman saith, R. Jonathan saith, How doth it appear that the dead have any discourse amongst themselves? It appears from what is said, And the Lord said unto him, This is the land, concerning which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and Jacob saying: What is the meaning of saying? The Holy Blessed God saith unto Moses, Go thou and say to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, The oath which I sware unto you, I have performed unto your children." Note that: "Go thou and say to Abraham," etc. "There is a story of a certain pious man, that went and lodged in a burying-place, and heard two souls discoursing amongst themselves. Said the one unto the other, 'Come, my companion, and let us wander about the world, and listen behind the veil, what kind of plagues are coming upon the world.' To which the other replied, 'O my companion, I cannot; for I am buried in a cane mat: but do thou go, and whatsoever thou hearest, do thou come and tell me.' The soul went, and wandered about the world," etc.  

"The year following he went again, and lodging in a place of burial, he heard two souls discoursing between themselves. Saith the one unto the other, 'O my companion, come, let us wander about the world, and hearken behind the veil, what kind of plagues are coming upon the world.' To which the other, 'O my companion, let me alone; for the words that formerly passed between thee and me were heard amongst the living.' 'Whence could they know?' 'Perhaps some other person that is dead went and told them.'"  

"There was a certain person deposited some zuzees with a certain hostess till he should return; and went to the house of Rabh. When he returned she was dead. He went after her to the place of burial, and said unto her, 'Where are my zuzees?' She saith unto him, 'Go, take it from under the hinge of the door, in a certain place there: and speak to my mother to send me my black lead, and the reed of paint by the woman N., who is coming hither tomorrow.' But whence do they know that such a one shall die? Dumah [that is, the angel who is appointed over the dead] comes before, and proclaims it to them."  

"The zuzees that belonged to orphans were deposited with the father of Samuel [the Rabbin]. He died, Samuel being absent. He went after him to the place of burial, and said unto them [i.e. to the dead], I look for Abba. They say unto him, Abba the good is here. 'I look for Abba Bar Abba.' They say unto him, 'Abba Bar Abba the good is here.' He saith unto them, 'I look for Abba Bar Abba the father of Samuel; where is he?' They say unto him, He is gone up to the academy of the firmament. Then he saw Levi [his colleague] sitting without." (The Gloss hath it, The dead appeared as without their graves, sitting in a circle, but Levi sat without the circle.) "He saith unto him, 'Why dost thou sit without? why dost thou not ascend?' He answered him, 'They say unto me, Because there want those years wherein thou didst not go into the academy of the Rabbi.' When his father came, he saw him weep. He saith unto him, 'Why dost thou weep?' He saith unto him, 'Where is the orphans' money?' He saith unto him, 'Go, and take it out of the mill-house,' " etc. But I fear, the reader will frown at this huge length of trifles.  

[And cool my tongue.] There was a good man and a wicked man that died. As for the good man, he had no funeral rites solemnized; but the wicked man had. Afterward, there was one saw in his dream the good man walking in gardens, and hard by pleasant springs: but the wicked man with his tongue trickling drop by drop at the bank of a river, endeavouring to touch the water, but he could not.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:26 - A great gulf fixed And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass...

And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.   

[A great gulf fixed.] It is well known from the poets, that inferi among the Latins comprehend the seat both of the blessed and the damned, denoting in general the state of the dead, be they according to the quality of their persons allotted either to joys or punishments. On this hand, Elysium for the good; on that hand, Tartarus for the wicked; the river Cocytus, or Acheron, or some such great gulf fixed betwixt them. The Jews seem not to have been very distant from this apprehension of things. "God hath set the one against the other, that is, hell and paradise. How far are they distant? A handbreadth. R. Jochanan saith, A wall is between." But the Rabbins say, They are so even with one another, that you may see out of one into the other.  

That of seeing out of the one into the other agrees with the passage before us; nor is it very dissonant that it is said, They are so even with one another; that is, they are so even, that they have a plain view one from the other, nothing being interposed to hinder it, and yet so great a gulf between, that it is impossible to pass the one to the other. That is worth noting, Rev 14:10; "Shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb."

Lightfoot: Luk 16:29 - They have Moses and the prophets Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.   [They have Moses and the prophets.] The historical books...

Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.   

[They have Moses and the prophets.] The historical books also are comprehended under the title of the Prophets; according to the common acceptation of the Jews, and the reading in their synagogues: "All the books of the Prophets are eight; Joshua, Judges, Samuel, the Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the twelve." So the Gemara also reckons them. So we find the Octateuch of the Prophets; as well as the Pentateuch of Moses; in Photius; of which we have spoken elsewhere.  

But are the Hagiographa excluded, when mention is made only of the law and the prophets? Our Saviour speaks after the usual manner of their reading Moses and the Prophets in their synagogues; where every ordinary person, even the most rude and illiterate, met with them, though he had neither Moses nor the prophets nor the Hagiographa at his own house. Indeed, the holy writings; were not read in the synagogues (for what reason I will not dispute in this place), but they were, however, far from being rejected by the people, but accounted for divine writings, which may be evinced, besides other things, even from the very name. Our Saviour therefore makes no mention of them, not because he lightly esteems them, but because Moses and the prophets were heard by every one every sabbath day; and so were not the Hagiographa.

Lightfoot: Luk 16:31 - Neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.   [Neither ...

And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.   

[Neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.] Any one may see how Christ points at the infidelity of the Jews, even after that himself shall have risen again. From whence it is easy to judge what was the design and intention of this parable.

Haydock: Luk 16:1 - There was a certain rich man // A steward There was a certain rich man, &c. By this parable, our Saviour advises his disciples to accompany their penitential works with deeds of mercy to the...

There was a certain rich man, &c. By this parable, our Saviour advises his disciples to accompany their penitential works with deeds of mercy to the poor. (Ven. Bede) ---

There is a certain erroneous opinion, that obtains pretty generally amongst mankind, and which tends to increase crimes, and to lessen good works: and this is, the foolish persuasion that men are not accountable to any one, and that we can dispose as we please of the things in our possession. (St. John Chrysostom) ---

Whereas we are here informed, that we are only the dispensers of another's property, viz. God's. (St. Ambrose) ---

When, therefore, we employ it not according to the will of our Master, but fritter and squander it away in pleasure, and in the gratification of our passions, we are, beyond all doubt, unjust stewards. (Theophylactus) ---

And a strict account will be required of what we have thus dissipated, by our common Lord and Master. If then we are only stewards of that which we possess, let us cast from our minds that mean superciliousness and pride which the outward splendour of riches is so apt to inspire; and let us put on the humility, the modesty of stewards, knowing well that to whom much is given, much will be required. Abundance of riches makes not a man great, but the dispensing them according to the will and intention of his employer. (Haydock) ---

The intention of this parable, is to shew what use each one ought to make of the goods which God has committed to his charge. In the three former parables, addressed to the murmuring Scribes and Pharisees, our Saviour shews with what goodness he seeks the salvation and conversion of a sinner; in this, he teaches how the sinner, when converted, ought to correspond to his vocation, and preserve with great care the inestimable blessing of innocence. (Calmet) ---

A steward, &c. The parable puts us in mind, that let men be ever so rich or powerful in this world, God is still their master; they are his servants, and must be accountable to him how they have managed his gifts and favours; that is, all things they have had in this world. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 16:2 - And he called him And he called him, &c. Such are the words which our Lord daily addresses to us. We daily see persons equally healthy, and likely to live as ourselve...

And he called him, &c. Such are the words which our Lord daily addresses to us. We daily see persons equally healthy, and likely to live as ourselves, suddenly summoned by death, to give an account of their stewardship. Happy summons to the faithful servant, who has reason to hope in his faithful administration. Not so to the unfaithful steward, whose pursuits are earthly: death to him is terrible indeed, and his exit is filled with sorrow. All thunder-stricken at these words, "now thou canst be steward no longer," he says within himself, what shall I do! (St. Thomas Aquinas)

Haydock: Luk 16:8 - And the lord commanded // Children of this world // Commended the unjust steward // In their generation And the lord commanded, &c. By this we are given to understand, that if the lord of this unjust steward could commend him for his worldly prudence,...

And the lord commanded, &c. By this we are given to understand, that if the lord of this unjust steward could commend him for his worldly prudence, though it were an overt act of injustice; how much more will the Almighty be pleased with those who, obedient to his command, seek to redeem their sins by alms-deeds? (St. Thomas Aquinas) ---

"Give alms out of thy substance," says holy Tobias to his son, "and turn not thy face from any poor person: for so it shall come to pass, that the face of the Lord shall not be turned from thee. According to thy abilities be merciful. If thou hast much, give abundantly; if thou hast little, take care, even of that little, to bestow willingly a little. For thus thou storest up to thyself a good reward, for the day of necessity. For alms deliver from sin, and from death, and will not suffer the soul to go into darkness." (Tobias iv. 7, 8, &c.) (St. Thomas Aquinas) ---

Children of this world, &c. are more prudent and circumspect as to what regards their temporal concerns, than they who profess themselves servants of God, are about the concerns of eternity. ---

Commended the unjust steward. [1] Literally, the steward of iniquity: not for his cheating and injustice, but for his contrivances in favour of himself. ---

In their generation; i.e. in their concerns of this life. They apply themselves with greater care and pains, in their temporal affairs, than the children of light, whom God has favoured with the light of faith, do to gain heaven. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Villicum iniquitatis, i.e. iniquum, Greek: oikonomon tes adikias.

Haydock: Luk 16:9 - Make for yourselves friends // Of the mammon of iniquity // Mammon // They may receive Make for yourselves friends, &c. Not that we are authorized to wrong our neighbour, to give to the poor: evil is never to be done, that good may com...

Make for yourselves friends, &c. Not that we are authorized to wrong our neighbour, to give to the poor: evil is never to be done, that good may come from it. (St. Thomas Aquinas) ---

But we are exhorted to make the poor our friends before God, by relieving them with the riches which justly indeed belong to us, but are called the mammon of iniquity, because only the iniquitous man esteems them as riches, on which he sets his affections; whilst the riches of the virtuous are wholly celestial and spiritual. (St. Augustine, de quæst. Evang.) ---

Of the mammon of iniquity. Mammon is a Syriac word for riches; and so it might be translated, of the riches of iniquity. Riches are called unjust, and riches of iniquity, not of themselves, but because they are many times the occasion of unjust dealings, and of all kind of vices. (Witham) ---

Mammon signifies riches. They are here called the mammon of iniquity, because oftentimes ill-gotten, ill-bestowed, or an occasion of evil; and at the best are but worldly, and false: and not the true riches of a Christian. ---

They may receive. By this we see, that the poor servants of God, whom we have relieved by our alms, may hereafter, by their intercession, bring our souls to heaven. (Challoner) ---

They may receive you into their eternal tabernacles. What a beautiful thought this! What a consolation to the rich man, when the terms of his mortal existence is approaching, to think he shall have as many advocates to plead for his admittance into the eternal mansions of rest, as he has made friends among the poor by relieving their temporal wants. The rich give to the poor earthly treasures, the latter return in recompense eternal and infinite happiness. Hence we must infer, that the advantage is all on the side of the giver; according to the saying of our Lord, happier is the condition of him who gives, than of him who receives. (Haydock)

Haydock: Luk 16:10 - He that is faithful in that which is least // And he that is unjust in that which is little, is unjust also in that which is greater He that is faithful in that which is least. This seems to have been a common saying, and that men judged of the honesty of their servants by their f...

He that is faithful in that which is least. This seems to have been a common saying, and that men judged of the honesty of their servants by their fidelity in lesser matters. For example, a master that sees his servant will not steal a little thing, judges that he will not steal a greater, &c. ---

And he that is unjust in that which is little, is unjust also in that which is greater. The interpreters take notice, that here temporal goods are called little, and spiritual goods are called greater; so that the sense is, that such men as do not make a right use of their temporal goods, in the service of God, will not make a good use of spiritual graces as they ought to do. See Maldonatus. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 16:11 - If then you have not been faithful in the unjust mammon // Who will trust you with that which is the true? If then you have not been faithful in the unjust mammon; [2] i.e. in fading and false riches, which are the occasion of unjust and wicked proceedings....

If then you have not been faithful in the unjust mammon; [2] i.e. in fading and false riches, which are the occasion of unjust and wicked proceedings. ---

Who will trust you with that which is the true? i.e. God will not intrust you with the true and spiritual riches of his grace. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

In iniquo mammona, Greek: en to adiko Mammona.

Haydock: Luk 16:12 - And if you have not been faithful in that which is another's // That which is another's And if you have not been faithful in that which is another's: so again is called false worldly wealth, which passeth from one to another; so that it ...

And if you have not been faithful in that which is another's: so again is called false worldly wealth, which passeth from one to another; so that it cannot be called a man's own, who will give you that which is your own? i.e. how can you hope that God will bestow upon you, or commit to your care, spiritual riches or gifts, which, when rightly managed, would by your own for all eternity? See St. Augustine, lib. ii. qq. Evang. q. 35. p. 263. (Witham) ---

That which is another's. Temporal riches may be said to belong to another, because they are the Lord's; and we have only the dispensing of them: so that when we give alms, we are liberal of another's goods. But if we are not liberal in giving what is another's, how shall we be so in giving our own? Nothing one would have thought so properly belonged to the Jews, as the kingdom of heaven, the preaching of the gospel, and the knowledge of heavenly things. But they were deprived of all for their infidelity in the observance of the law, which was first intrusted to them. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 16:13 - No servant can serve two masters No servant can serve two masters, &c. This is added to shew us, that to dispose of our riches according to the will of the Almighty, it is necessary...

No servant can serve two masters, &c. This is added to shew us, that to dispose of our riches according to the will of the Almighty, it is necessary to keep our minds free from all attachment to them. (Theophylactus) ---

Let the avaricious man here learn, that to be a lover of riches, is to be an enemy of Christ. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 16:14 - Now the Pharisees Now the Pharisees, &c. Christ had admonished the Scribes and Pharisees not to presume too much on their own sanctity, but to receive repenting sinne...

Now the Pharisees, &c. Christ had admonished the Scribes and Pharisees not to presume too much on their own sanctity, but to receive repenting sinners, and to redeem their own sins with alms. But they derided these precepts of mercy and humility; either because they esteemed what he commanded them to be useless, or because they thought they had already complied with them. (Ven. Bede) ---

The Pharisees considered temporal riches as true goods, and the recompense which God had promised to such as observed his laws; they therefore laughed at the doctrine of Jesus Christ, which extolled liberality and alms-deeds, and despised the Master who, on all occasions, testified his great regard for poverty in his discourses, in his conduct, in the choice of his apostles, who were all poor, and had no pretensions whatever to exterior pomp or show. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 16:15 - Who justify yourselves // But God knoweth Who justify yourselves, &c. But our Lord, detecting their hidden malice, shews that their pretended justice is all hypocrisy. (Theophylactus) --- B...

Who justify yourselves, &c. But our Lord, detecting their hidden malice, shews that their pretended justice is all hypocrisy. (Theophylactus) ---

But God knoweth, &c. They justify themselves before men, whom they look upon as despicable, and abandoned sinners, and esteem themselves as not standing in need of giving alms as a remedy of sin; but he who shall lay open the secrets of hearts, sees the base atrocity of that pride which thus blinds them, and swells within their breasts. (Ven. Bede) ---

Yes, all those exterior actions which appeared great, and which were admired by men, being vitiated with improper motives and sinister designs, are an abomination in the sight of God. (Haydock)

Haydock: Luk 16:16 - The law and the prophets The law and the prophets, &c. Not that the law was made void by the coming of John [the Baptist], but that what the law and the prophets had taught,...

The law and the prophets, &c. Not that the law was made void by the coming of John [the Baptist], but that what the law and the prophets had taught, had been suited to the very imperfect dispositions of the Jews, who as yet were incapable of relishing perfect virtue. At the coming of John, the gospel began to be preached, and this called men to a life of perfect sanctity. (St. Thomas Aquinas) ---

Our Saviour came not to destroy, but to fulfil the law and the prophets. (Matthew v. 17.)

Haydock: Luk 16:19 - There was a certain rich man There was a certain rich man, &c. By this history of the rich man and Lazarus, he declares that those who are placed in affluent circumstances, draw...

There was a certain rich man, &c. By this history of the rich man and Lazarus, he declares that those who are placed in affluent circumstances, draw upon themselves a sentence of condemnation, if seeing their neighbour in want, they neglect to succour him. (St. Cyril, in Cat. Græc. patrum.) ---

He that hath the substance of this world, and shall see his brother in need, and shut up his bowels against him, how doth the charity of God abide in him? (1 John iii. 17.) A received tradition of the Jews informs us, that this Lazarus was a beggar, then at Jerusalem, suffering in the most wretched condition of poverty, and infirmity: him our Saviour introduces, to manifest more plainly the truth of what he had been saying (St. Cyril, in Cat. Græc. patrum.) ---

By this, we are not to understand that all poverty is holy, and the possession of riches criminal; but, as luxury is the disgrace of riches, so holiness of life is the ornament of poverty. (St. Ambrose) ---

A man may be reserved and modest in the midst of riches and honours, as he may be proud and avaricious in the obscurity of a poor and wretched life. ---

Divers interpreters have looked upon this as a true history; but what is said of the rich man seeing Lazarus, of his tongue, of his finger, cannot be literal: souls having no such parts. (Witham) ---

In this parable, which St. Ambrose takes to be a real fact, we have the name of the poor mendicant; but our Lord suppresses the name of the rich man, to signify that his name is blotted out of the book of life: besides, the rich man tells Abraham, that he has five brothers, who were probably still living; wherefore, to save their honour, our Lord named not their reprobated brother.

Haydock: Luk 16:22 - Abraham's bosom Abraham's bosom. [3] The place of rest, where the souls of the saints resided, till Christ had opened heaven by his death. (Challoner) --- It was an...

Abraham's bosom. [3] The place of rest, where the souls of the saints resided, till Christ had opened heaven by his death. (Challoner) ---

It was an ancient tradition of the Jews, that the souls of the just were conducted by angels into paradise. The bosom of Abraham (the common Father of all the faithful) was the place where the souls of the saints, and departed patriarchs, waited the arrival of their Deliverer. It was thither the Jesus went after his death; as it is said in the Creed, "he descended into hell," to deliver those who were detained there, and who might at Christ's ascension enter into heaven. (Calmet) See 1 Peter iii. 19. ---

"Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall sit down with Abraham." (Matthew viii. 11.)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

In sinum Abrahæ, Greek: eis ton kolpon tou Abraam. ---

Ver. 22. In inferno, Greek: en to ade. See Pearson on the Creed, (p. 236) and our Catholic controvertists.

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Haydock: Luk 16:25 - -- It appears from Philo, (de Execrat. p. 9, 37 b.) that the Jews not only acknowledged the existence of souls, and their state of happiness or misery af...

It appears from Philo, (de Execrat. p. 9, 37 b.) that the Jews not only acknowledged the existence of souls, and their state of happiness or misery after this life, but also that the souls of the saints and patriarchs interceded with God for their descendants, and obtained from them the succour they stood in need of. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 16:26 - Between us and you is fixed a great chaos Between us and you is fixed a great chaos, or gulf; i.e. God's justice has decreed, that the bad should forever be separated from the good. We may h...

Between us and you is fixed a great chaos, or gulf; i.e. God's justice has decreed, that the bad should forever be separated from the good. We may here take notice thta the Latin and Greek word, (ver. 22) translated hell, even in the Protestant translation, cannot signify only the grave. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 16:27 - -- In this parable we are taught an important truth, viz. that we must not expect to learn our duty from the dead returning to life, nor by any other ext...

In this parable we are taught an important truth, viz. that we must not expect to learn our duty from the dead returning to life, nor by any other extraordinary or miraculous means, but from the revelation of truths, which have already been made known to us in the Scriptures, and from those to whom the tradition of the Church has been committed, as a most sacred deposit. These, say the Fathers, are the masters from whom we are to learn what we are to believe, and what to practise. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 16:31 - If they hear not, Moses // The rich If they hear not, Moses, &c. We think that if we saw a man raised from the dead, who should tells us what he had seen and suffered in another world,...

If they hear not, Moses, &c. We think that if we saw a man raised from the dead, who should tells us what he had seen and suffered in another world, it would make more impression upon us than past miracles, which we hear of, or the promises and threats of the prophets, apostles, and our blessed Saviour, which are contained in Scripture; but it is a false notion, a vain excuse. The wicked, and unbelievers, would even in that case find pretexts and objections for not believing. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. iv.) ---

They would say that the dead man was a phantom; that his resurrection was not real; his assertions nugatory. When Christ raised Lazarus from the dead, the miracle was known, evident and public; yet we find none of the Pharisees converted by it. They were even so mad as to enter into a design to kill Lazarus, to get rid of a witness who deposed against their incredulity. How many other miracles did he not perform in their sight, which they attributed to the prince of darkness, or to magic? Christ raised himself from the dead. This fact was attested by many unexceptionable witnesses. And what do the hardened Jews do? They object, that his disciples, stealing away the body, maliciously persuaded the people that he had risen again. Such is the corruption of the human heart, that when once delivered up to any passion, nothing can move it. Every day we see or hear of malefactors publicly executed, yet their example has no effect on the survivors, nor does it prevent the commission of fresh crimes. (Calmet) ---

"We have also the more firm prophetical word; whereunto you do well to attend, as to a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise in your hearts." (2 Peter i. 19.) ---

We may learn many very instructive lessons from this affecting history of Lazarus. ---

The rich may learn the dreadful consequences to be apprehended from riches, when made subservient to sensuality, luxury, and ambition. The poor may learn to make their poverty and sufferings, however grievous to nature, instrumental to their future happiness, by bearing them with patience and resignation to the will of heaven. The former are taught that to expose a man to eternal misery, nothing more is required than to enjoy all the good things of this world according to their own will; the latter, that however they may be despised and rejected of men, they may still have courage, knowing that the short day of this fleeting life, with all its apparent evils, will soon be over; and that the day of eternity is fast approaching, when every one shall receive according as he has done good or evil in his body. (Haydock)

Gill: Luk 16:1 - And he said also to his disciples // there was a certain rich man // which had a steward // And the same was accused unto him, that he had wasted his goods And he said also to his disciples,.... The Syriac version adds, "a parable", as the following is; and which is directed to the disciples, as those in ...

And he said also to his disciples,.... The Syriac version adds, "a parable", as the following is; and which is directed to the disciples, as those in the preceding chapter are to the Pharisees; and who also are designed in this; though it is particularly spoken to the disciples, because it might be of some use to them, with respect, to the stewardship they were in. The Persic and Ethiopic versions read, "Jesus", or "the Lord Jesus said": and which is to be understood, though not expressed; for the parable was delivered by him, and is as follows:

there was a certain rich man: by whom God is meant, who is rich in the perfections of his nature, in the works of his hands, in his government, and the administration of it, in providential goodness, and in the large revenues of glory due to him from his creatures; for all temporal riches are from him; and so are all the riches of mercy, grace, and glory:

which had a steward; by whom is designed, not all mankind; for though all men are, in a sense, stewards under God, and are entrusted with the good things of life, the gifts of nature, endowments of mind, health, strength of body, time, &c. yet all cannot be meant, because some are distinguished from this steward, Luk 16:5 nor are the disciples intended, though the parable is directed to them; and they were stewards of the mysteries and manifold grace of God; and one among them was an unfaithful one, and was turned out of his stewardship; but the character of an unjust man will not suit with them: and besides, this steward was of the children of this world, Luk 16:8 but the Pharisees are meant: for these are taken notice of as gravelled at this parable, Luk 16:14 and to them agrees the character of the men of this world, who were worldly wise men; as also that of a steward; these are the tutors and governors mentioned in Gal 4:2 who had the care of the house of Israel, the family of God, under the legal dispensation; and to whom were committed the oracles of God, the writings of Moses, and the prophets; and whose business it was to open and explain them to the people.

And the same was accused unto him, that he had wasted his goods; put false glosses upon the Scriptures; fed the family with bad and unwholesome food, the traditions of the elders, called the leaven of the Pharisees: made havoc of the souls of men; and made the hearts of the righteous sad: and hardened sinners in their wicked ways: and fed themselves, and not the flock; and plundered persons of their temporal substance; of all which they were accused by Moses, in whom they trusted; by his law which they violated; and by their own consciences, which witnessed against them; and by the cries of those whom they abused, which came into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.

Gill: Luk 16:2 - And he called him // and said unto him, how is it that I hear this of thee // give an account of thy stewardship // for thou mayest be no longer steward And he called him,.... By the prophets, sent one after another; by John the Baptist, by Christ himself, and by his apostles: and said unto him, how...

And he called him,.... By the prophets, sent one after another; by John the Baptist, by Christ himself, and by his apostles:

and said unto him, how is it that I hear this of thee? of thy corrupting the word; of thy covetousness, rapine, and theft; of thy adultery and idolatry, and sad violation of the law; see Rom 2:21

give an account of thy stewardship: what improvement is made of thy gifts; what care has been taken of my vineyard, the Jewish church; and where are the fruits that might be expected to have been received at your hands:

for thou mayest be no longer steward. This was foretold by the prophets, that God would write a "Loammi" upon the people of the Jews; that he would cut off three shepherds in one month, and particularly lay aside the idol shepherd, by whom the Pharisees may be meant, Zec 11:8 and by John the Baptist, who declared the axe was laid to the root of the tree, and it was just ready to be cut down, Mat 3:10 and by Christ, that the kingdom of God should be taken from them, Mat 21:43 and by the apostles, who turned from them to the Gentiles, Act 13:46.

Gill: Luk 16:3 - Then the steward said within himself // what shall I do // for my Lord taketh away from me the stewardship // I cannot dig // and to beg I am ashamed Then the steward said within himself,.... As the Scribes and Pharisees were wont to do, Mat 3:9 what shall I do? he does not say, what will become ...

Then the steward said within himself,.... As the Scribes and Pharisees were wont to do, Mat 3:9

what shall I do? he does not say, what will become of me? I am undone, and what shall I do to be saved? or what shall I do for my Lord and Master I have so much injured? or what shall I do to make up matters with him? or what account shall I give? but what shall I do for a maintenance? how shall I live? what shall I do to please men, and gain their opinion and good will, and so be provided for by them? of this cast were the Pharisees, men pleasers, and self-seekers:

for my Lord taketh away from me the stewardship: the priesthood was changed, and there was a change also of the law; the ceremonial law was abrogated, and the ordinances of the former dispensation were shaken and removed; so that these men must of course turn out of their places and offices:

I cannot dig; or "plough", as the Arabic version renders it; or do any part of husbandry, particularly that which lies in manuring and cultivating the earth; not but that he was able to do it; but he could not tell how to submit to such a mean, as well as laborious way of life; for nothing was meaner among the Jews than husbandry: they have a saying, that אין לך אומנות פחותה מן הקרקע, "you have no trade", or business, "lesser", or meaner "than husbandry" g:

and to beg I am ashamed; for nothing could be more disagreeable, to one who had lived so well in his master's house, and in so much fulness and luxury, as the Scribes and Pharisees did. The Jews have a saying, that h.

"want of necessaries, טוב משאלתו, "is better than begging": (and says one) I have tasted the bitterness of all things, and I have not found any thing more bitter "than begging:"''

and which was literally true of the Jews, after the destruction of Jerusalem; when multitudes of them were condemned to work in the mines; and vast numbers were scattered about every where as vagabonds, begging their bread; both which were very irksome to that people: though both these phrases may be mystically understood: and "digging" may intend a laborious searching into the Scriptures, and a diligent performance of good works: neither of which the Pharisees much cared for, though they made large pretensions to both; nor did they dig deep to lay a good foundation whereon to build eternal life and happiness: nor could they attain to the law of righteousness by all their toil and labour, they would be thought to have taken: and for "begging", they were above that: read the Pharisee's prayer in Luk 18:11 and you will not find one petition in it. To ask any thing at the throne of grace, in a way of mere grace and favour, and not merit: or to beg any thing at the hands of Christ, as life, righteousness, pardon, cleansing, healing, food, &c. they were ashamed of, and cared not for.

Gill: Luk 16:4 - I am resolved what to do // that when I am put out of the stewardship // they may receive me into their houses I am resolved what to do,.... Or "I know what to do"; I have a scheme in my head, and I am determined to execute it, which will provide for me, and se...

I am resolved what to do,.... Or "I know what to do"; I have a scheme in my head, and I am determined to execute it, which will provide for me, and secure me a maintenance:

that when I am put out of the stewardship; drove from Jerusalem, and from the temple and the synagogues:

they may receive me into their houses; either Jews or Gentiles, after their dispersion.

Gill: Luk 16:5 - So he called every one of his Lord's debtors // unto him, and said unto the first, how much owest thou unto my Lord So he called every one of his Lord's debtors,.... Either the Gentiles, who were greatly indebted to God, having sinned against him, and the law, and l...

So he called every one of his Lord's debtors,.... Either the Gentiles, who were greatly indebted to God, having sinned against him, and the law, and light of nature, at a great rate; into whose affections, houses, and palaces, the Jews found ways and means to introduce themselves; and, in process of time, got leave to have synagogues built, and their worship set up again: or else the Jews, their countrymen; since these were under those stewards, tutors, and governors, and were debtors to do the whole law; and had, by breaking the law, contracted large debts; and against whom the ceremonial law stood as an handwriting: these the steward called

unto him, and said unto the first, how much owest thou unto my Lord? and it is observable, that the debts of these men, of the first, lay in oil, and of the other in wheat; things much used in the ceremonial law, in the observance of which they had been, greatly deficient; see Exo 29:40

Gill: Luk 16:6 - And he said an hundred measures of oil // Take thy bill // and sit down quickly // and write fifty And he said an hundred measures of oil,.... Or "baths of oil", the same quantity as in Ezr 7:22 where Aben Ezra i calls them, מדות, "measures", as...

And he said an hundred measures of oil,.... Or "baths of oil", the same quantity as in Ezr 7:22 where Aben Ezra i calls them, מדות, "measures", as we do here; and Jarchi k observes, that they were, לבלול מנחות, "to mingle with the meal, or flour offerings"; which illustrates the above observation, that they were for the temple service; and the bath was the measure of oil, as the ephah was of wheat l; and they were both of the same quantity, Eze 45:11. According to Godwin m it held four gallons and a half; so that a hundred of them contained four hundred and fifty gallons; though some make the measure much larger. Some say the "bath" held six gallons, one pottle, and half a pint; and others, seven gallons, two quarts, and half a pint; and others, nine gallons, and three quarts.

Take thy bill, or "writing"; which showed the bargain made for so many measures; and which acknowledged the receipt of them, and promised payment:

and sit down quickly; for his case required haste;

and write fifty; just half; that it might appear he had bought but fifty, and was accountable for no more.

Gill: Luk 16:7 - Then said he to another, and how much owest thou // and he said, an hundred measures of wheat // And he said unto him, take thy bill and write fourscore Then said he to another, and how much owest thou?.... To my Lord, as before: and he said, an hundred measures of wheat, or "cors of wheat"; the sam...

Then said he to another, and how much owest thou?.... To my Lord, as before:

and he said, an hundred measures of wheat, or "cors of wheat"; the same with "homers", Eze 45:14 the same quantity as in Ezr 7:22 where, as here, they are called an hundred measures of wheat; and were, as Jarchi on the place observes, למנחות, "for the meal, or flour offerings": according to the above writer n, this measure held five bushels, and five gallons; so that the whole was five hundred, sixty bushels, and a half: some make the measure to hold eight bushels and a half; and others, fourteen bushels and a pottle, which greatly increases the quantity.

And he said unto him, take thy bill and write fourscore. The Persic version reads "seventy". Inasmuch now as oil and wheat were things expended in the observance of the ceremonial law, and these men's debts lay in them, it may have regard to the deficiency of the Jews in those things: wherefore by "the bill" may be meant the law; and which is sometimes called by the same name as here, γραμμα, the "writing", or "letter", 2Co 3:6 and is so called, not merely because it was written in letters; but because it is a mere letter, showing only what is to be done and avoided, without giving strength to perform, or pointing where it is to be had; and it is so, as obeyed by an unregenerate man; and as abstracted from the spirituality of it; and as weak, and without efficacy, to quicken, justify, or sanctify: and whereas the steward, the Scribes and Pharisees, ordered the debtors to write a lesser sum; this may regard the lessening, and even laying aside of many things in the law, after the destruction of the temple; as particularly the daily sacrifice, and other things; see Dan 9:27 and the doctrine of the Pharisees was always a curtailing of the law, and making less of it than it was; as appears from the glosses they put upon it, refuted by our Lord in Mat 5:1. They compounded the matter with the people, as some men do now, and taught them, that an imperfect righteousness would do in the room of a perfect one: a doctrine very pleasing to men, and which never fails of gaining an access into the hearts and houses of carnal men; though very injurious to God, and to his divine perfections, particularly his justice and holiness; as the methods this steward took were unjust to his Lord, though very agreeable to his debtors, and were well calculated to answer the end he proposed, an after provision for himself. I am much indebted to a learned writer o, whose name is in the margin, for several thoughts and hints in the explanation of this parable; and also of that of the rich man and Lazarus, in the latter part of this chapter.

Gill: Luk 16:8 - And the Lord commended the unjust steward // became he had done wisely // For the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light And the Lord commended the unjust steward,.... Not the Lord Jesus Christ, who delivered this parable, as the Syriac version seems to suggest, renderin...

And the Lord commended the unjust steward,.... Not the Lord Jesus Christ, who delivered this parable, as the Syriac version seems to suggest, rendering it, "our Lord"; but the Lord of the steward, or "God", as the Ethiopic version reads: not that he commended him for the fact he did, or the injustice of it for this is contrary to his nature and perfections; but for his craft and cunning in providing himself a maintenance for time to come: for he is on that account branded as an "unjust steward", as he was, in wasting his Lord's goods; putting false glosses on the Scriptures; doing damage both to the souls and worldly estates of men: and in neglecting and despising lawful and honest ways of living, by digging or begging, asking favours at the hand of God, and doing good works; and in falsifying accounts; breaking the least of the commandments, and teaching men so to do; and in corrupting others, making proselytes twofold more the children of hell than himself; and in being liberal with another's property, to wrong objects, and for a wrong end. It was not therefore because he had done justly to his Lord, or right to others, that he is commended; but

became he had done wisely for himself: the wit, and not the goodness of the man is commended; which, in the language and sense of the Jews, may be thus expressed p:

"because a man, עושה טובה לעצמו, "does good" for himself with "mammon" which is not his own.''

For the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light: by "the children of this world" may be meant the Israelites, who belonged to the Jewish nation and church, called the "world", and "this world", 1Co 10:11 especially the princes of it, the ecclesiastical doctors and rulers: and who also were the men of this present world; in general they were such who were, as they were born into the world; in their sins, in the pollution, and under the guilt of them; were carnal, in the flesh, or unregenerate, and in darkness and blindness: they were such as were not only in the world, but of it; they belonged to it, having never been called out of it; and were under the influence of the God of it; and were taken with the things of it, its riches, honours, and pleasures; and had their portion in it, and were of worldly spirits; all which agrees with the Scribes and Pharisees; see Psa 17:14 and Aben Ezra on it, who has the very phrase here used: איניס דעלמא, a "man of the world", is sometimes q distinguished from a scholar, or a wise man; but בני עלמא, "the children of the world", as they frequently intend the inhabitants of the world r, are sometimes distinguished from בן עלמא דאתי, "a son of the world to come" s; and from "the children of faith" t, the same as "the children of light" here; by whom are meant the children of the Gospel dispensation; or persons enlightened by the Spirit and grace of God, to see the sinfulness of sin, and their wretched state my nature; the insufficiency of their own righteousness to justify them before God; the way of life, righteousness, and salvation by Christ; who see that the several parts of salvation, and the whole, are of grace; have some light into the Scriptures of truth, and doctrines of the Gospel; and some glimpse of heaven, and the unseen glories of another world, though attended with much darkness in the present state: and who shall enjoy the light of glory. Now, the men of the world, or carnal men, are, generally speaking, wiser than these; not in things spiritual, but in things natural, in the affairs of life, in worldly matters. The phrase seems to answer to תולדות, "generations" used in Gen 6:9 "these are the generations of Noah", &c. and "the generations of Jacob"; by which are meant, not the genealogies of them, but their affairs; what befell them in life: as so the Jewish writers u explain the phrase by הקורות, "the things which happened" unto them in this world, in the course of their pilgrimage: or they are wise, εις την γενεαν την εαυτων, "for their own generation": for the temporal good of their posterity, than saints are for the spiritual good of theirs: or they are wiser for the time that is to come in this life, than good men are concerning themselves for the time to come in the other world: or they are wiser, and more prudent in disposing of their worldly substance for their own secular good, and that of their offspring, than men of spiritual light and knowledge are, in disposing of their worldly substance for the glory of God, the interest of Christ, the honour of religion, their own spiritual good, and that of their posterity.

Gill: Luk 16:9 - And I say unto you // make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness // that when ye fail // they may receive you into everlasting habitations And I say unto you,.... These are the words of Christ, as are also the latter part of the preceding verse, accommodating and applying the parable to h...

And I say unto you,.... These are the words of Christ, as are also the latter part of the preceding verse, accommodating and applying the parable to his disciples, and for their instruction:

make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness: by "mammon" are designed riches, wealth, and substance; See Gill on Mat 6:24 and is called "mammon of unrighteousness", because such wealth is often unrighteously detained, and is not made use of to right and good purposes, by the owners of it; or because, generally speaking, it is possessed by unrighteous men; and, for the most part, used in an unrighteous manner, in luxury, pride and intemperance, and is the root, instrument, and means of such unrighteousness: or it maybe rendered "mammon of hurt", or "hurtful mammon"; as it often is to those who are over anxious and desirous of it, or other disuse or misuse of it: or, as best of all, "mammon of falsehood", or "deceitful mammon"; so in the Targum w, frequent mention is made of ממון דשקר, "mammon of falsity"; and stands opposed to "true riches" in Luk 16:10 for worldly riches are very empty and fallacious; wherefore deceitfulness is ascribed to them; and they are called uncertain riches, which are not to be depended upon. Mat 13:22 unless it should be rather thought that it is so called, because gotten in an unrighteous way; as it was by Zacchaeus, and might be by Matthew, one of the disciples, Christ now speaks to, and the publicans and sinners, who were lately become his followers, and whom he advises, as the highest piece of wisdom and prudence, to dispose of in such a manner, as of it to "make" themselves "friends"; not God, Father, Son, and Spirit. These indeed are friends to the saints, but they are not made so by money; reconciliation and redemption are not procured this way; nor is the favour of the judge to be got by such means; the only means of reconciliation, are the blood and death of Christ; though indeed acts of beneficence, rightly performed, are well pleasing to God: nor are the angels meant, who are very friendly to all good men; nor rich men, to whom riches are not to be given, Pro 22:16 but rather riches themselves, which, if not rightly used, and so made friends of, will cry, and be a witness against the owners of them, Jam 5:1 though it may be the poor saints are intended; who by their prayers are capable of doing either a great deal of hurt, or a great deal of good; and it is the interest of rich men to make them their friends:

that when ye fail: of money; or "that fails", as the Ethiopic version reads; or rather, when ye leave that, that is, when ye die; so in Jer 42:22 "know certainly that ye shall die"; the Septuagint renders it, εκλειψετε, "ye shall fall by the sword", &c.

they may receive you into everlasting habitations: the mansions of glory, which are many, and of an eternal duration: this is to be understood of their being received thither, not by the poor, to whom they have been benefactors; for though these may now pray for their reception to glory when they die, and will hereafter rejoice at their reception thither; yet they themselves will not be receivers of them, or their introducers into the everlasting tents, or tabernacles: nor are the angels intended, who carry the souls of the righteous into Abraham's bosom, and will gather the elect together at the last day; for not they, but God and Christ, receive the saints to glory: the words may be rendered impersonally, "you may be received"; in a way of welldoing, though not for it; mention is made of the "everlasting tabernacles", in

"Their glory also will I take unto me, and give these the everlasting tabernacles, which I had prepared for them.'' (2 Esdras 2:11)

and so the phrase may be rendered here, as opposed to the earthly and perishable tabernacles of the body 2Co 5:1

Gill: Luk 16:10 - He that is faithful in that which is least // is faithful also in much // and he that is unjust in the least, is unjust also in much He that is faithful in that which is least,.... In quantity and quality, especially the latter; in that which is of little value and worth, at least w...

He that is faithful in that which is least,.... In quantity and quality, especially the latter; in that which is of little value and worth, at least when compared with other things:

is faithful also in much: in matters of greater consequence and importance: the sense of the proverb is, that, generally speaking, a man that acts a faithful part in a small trust committed to him, does so likewise in a much larger; and being tried, and found faithful in things of less moment, he is intrusted with things of greater importance; though this is not always the case: for sometimes a man may behave with great integrity in lesser matters, on purpose that he might gain greater confidence, which, when he has obtained, he abuses in the vilest manner; but because it is usually otherwise, our Lord uses the common proverb; and of like sense is the following;

and he that is unjust in the least, is unjust also in much: that man that acts the unfaithful part in a small matter, and of little worth, generally does the same, if a greater trust is committed to him.

Gill: Luk 16:11 - If therefore ye have not been faithful // in the unrighteous mammon // who will commit to your trust the true riches If therefore ye have not been faithful,.... This is the application of the above proverbial expressions, and seems to be directed to the disciples of ...

If therefore ye have not been faithful,.... This is the application of the above proverbial expressions, and seems to be directed to the disciples of Christ, though not without a view to the covetous Scribes and Pharisees, who were in hearing of it, and were disturbed at it, Luk 16:14 and the meaning is, that whereas some of them might have been unfaithful, and have acted the unjust part of gathering of riches, as Matthew, and other publicans, that were now become the followers of Christ; if therefore they should be unfaithful

in the unrighteous mammon; in the disposing of it to improper uses, which was either unrighteously gotten, and therefore called, as it sometimes was, ממון דרשע, "mammon of ungodliness", or "ungodly mammon" x; or, which was fallacious, deceitful, vain, and transitory:

who will commit to your trust the true riches; or mammon? that is, how should you expect to be intrusted with the riches of grace, as the blessings and promises of the covenant of grace, the graces of the Spirit of God, which truly enrich persons, and are solid and durable? or the riches of glory, the better and more enduring substance in heaven, signified by a kingdom, and an inheritance that fadeth not away? so the Jews call the good things of another world, and say y, that

"all the good things of this world are not טובות אמתיות, "true good things", in comparison of the good things of the world to come.''

And they use the same distinction with respect to "mammon", as here:

"the holy, blessed God, they say z, gives him, ממון של אמת, "mammon of truth", or true mammon; and he makes it שקר, "false", or deceitful:''

or rather the rich treasure of the Gospel is meant, called a treasure in earthen vessels, and the unsearchable riches of Christ; and is comparable to, and of more worth than gold, silver, and precious stones. And so the Syriac version renders it, "who will trust you with the truth?" with the truth of the Gospel.

Gill: Luk 16:12 - And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's // who shall give you that which is your own And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's,.... Which is not a man's own, but what is committed to him by another; בממון א...

And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's,.... Which is not a man's own, but what is committed to him by another; בממון אחרים, "with the mammon of others a", to speak in the language of the Jews; and of mammon, our Lord is speaking, and here of another man's, of which they were only stewards, as he in the preceding parable was: hence we read b of שומרי ממון, "keepers of mammon", who were intrusted with another's substance; and such are here supposed, which, if unfaithful in,

who shall give you that which is your own? that is, should you unjustly detain, or make an ill use of another man's substance lodged in your hands, how can you expect but that you will be dealt with in like manner by others, who will not pay you yours, they have in their possession, but convert it to their own use? A like distinction of another's and a man's own, may be observed among the Jews:

"there are (say they c,) four sorts of men in respect of giving alms; he that would give, but would not have others give, his eye is evil, בשל אחרים, "in that which is other men's" (i.e. as the commentator observes d, lest the goods of others should be increased, and they get a good name); he that would that others should give, but he will not give himself, his eye is evil, בשלו, "in that which is his own"; he that gives, and would have others give, he is a "good man"; he that neither gives, nor would have others give, he is an "ungodly man";''

see Rom 5:7. Interpreters generally understand by "that which is another man's", in the first clause, the things of this world, which men are possessed of, because these are not of themselves, but from another, from God; and they are but stewards, rather than proprietors of them; and they are for the good of others, and not for themselves; and are not lasting, but in a little while will pass from them to others: and by "that which is your own", they understand the good things of grace and glory, which, when once bestowed on man, are his own property, and for his own use, and will never be alienated from him, but will always abide with him: but if he is unfaithful in the former, how should he expect the latter to be given to him?

Gill: Luk 16:13 - No servant can serve two masters No servant can serve two masters,.... See Gill on Mat 6:24.

No servant can serve two masters,.... See Gill on Mat 6:24.

Gill: Luk 16:14 - And the Pharisees also who were covetous // heard all these things // and they derided him And the Pharisees also who were covetous,.... Or lovers of money, the love of which is the root of all evil; and that they were, is evident from their...

And the Pharisees also who were covetous,.... Or lovers of money, the love of which is the root of all evil; and that they were, is evident from their devouring widows' houses, under a pretence of making long prayers for them, Mat 23:14

heard all these things; as well as the disciples, being in company with them, Luk 15:2 even the parable concerning the unjust steward, and the application of it; and the directions given about using the things of this world, and the distributing of them to the poor, and showing a greater concern for riches of an higher nature:

and they derided him: lift up their nose, or drew it out to him, as the word signifies, in a sneering way; they rejected and despised what he said about their injustice, in their stewardship; the calling of them to an account for it, and the turning of them out of it; and concerning the true use of worldly riches, and the contempt of them; they looked upon themselves safe and secure in the good opinion of the people, and happy in the enjoyment of worldly things; and looked upon him as a weak man, to talk in the manner he did.

Gill: Luk 16:15 - And he said unto them // but God knoweth your hearts // for that which is highly esteemed among men // is abomination in the sight of God And he said unto them,.... That is, Jesus said unto them, as the Syriac and Persic versions express it: "ye are they which justify yourselves before m...

And he said unto them,.... That is, Jesus said unto them, as the Syriac and Persic versions express it: "ye are they which justify yourselves before men": from the sins of injustice, unfaithfulness, covetousness, and all others; and would be thought, and appear to be righteous; but it is only in the sight of men, who can only see the outside of things, and judge thereby:

but God knoweth your hearts; and what is in them, the deceitfulness, hypocrisy, covetousness, and cruelty of them, which are hid from the eyes of men:

for that which is highly esteemed among men; or what is high in the account and esteem of men, as the outward appearance of these men for morality, religion, and holiness; their zeal for the ceremonies of the law, and the traditions of the elders:

is abomination in the sight of God; who knew full well from what principles, and with what views they acted, to gain popular applause, and amass riches to themselves, without any concern for the glory of God, and the good of men: see Isa 65:5.

Gill: Luk 16:16 - The law and the prophets were until John // since that time, the kingdom of God is preached // and every man presseth into it The law and the prophets were until John,.... Till the time that John the Baptist began his ministry; for till then, the law and the prophets, with th...

The law and the prophets were until John,.... Till the time that John the Baptist began his ministry; for till then, the law and the prophets, with the Hagiographa, or holy writings, for into these three parts the Jews divided the books of the Old Testament, were the only writings they had; and which contained the whole of the revelation granted to them; and which they wrested, and put false glosses on; and therefore it was no wonder that they derided Christ, and despised his ministry: and whereas spiritual things were promised in these writings, under the notion of temporal ones; which they not understanding, might imagine the doctrine of Christ, concerning the contempt of worldly riches, was contrary to: and since they valued themselves on having the law and the prophets, Christ observes, that

since that time, the kingdom of God is preached; the Gospel, and the mysteries of relating to the kingdom of the Messiah, his person, office, and grace; and to the kingdom of grace, which lies not in outward, but in inward and spiritual things; and to the kingdom of heaven, or glory hereafter; and which is a superior dispensation to that of the law and the prophets, and sets things in a clearer, plainer, and better light:

and every man presseth into it; the Gospel dispensation, the kingdom of the Messiah; "that he may enter into it", as the Syriac and Persic versions add; which the Scribes and Pharisees did all they could to hinder; see Mat 23:13 large multitudes crowded the ministry of John, of Christ, and of his apostles; the people flocked in great numbers to hear the word, and seemed disposed to embrace the doctrines of the Gospel, and the ordinances of it; they pressed on one another to hear it, and through many difficulties, discouragements, and obstacles, the Pharisees threw in their way; there was scarce a man but seemed very desirous of attending upon the preaching of it, and pressed hard for it; and with much force and violence, with great eagerness and endeavour broke his way to it; though a different sense is given by others reading the words, and "every one suffers violence to himself for it", as the Arabic version; or "is oppressed for it", as the Ethiopic; that is, suffers reproach, contradiction, and persecution, for the sake of hearing it.

Gill: Luk 16:17 - And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass // than one tittle of the law to fail And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass,.... This is said by Christ, lest it should be thought by his saying, that the law and the prophets were...

And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass,.... This is said by Christ, lest it should be thought by his saying, that the law and the prophets were until John, that they were no longer, nor of any more use; but were now abrogated and laid aside; whereas heaven and earth might sooner pass away, and the whole frame of nature be dissolved:

than one tittle of the law to fail; which, and the prophets, in all the precepts, promises, types, figures, prophecies, &c. thereof, had their full accomplishment in the person, miracles, obedience, sufferings, and death of Christ; see Mat 5:18.

Gill: Luk 16:18 - Whosoever putteth away his wife // and marrieth another, committeth adultery // and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband // committeth adultery Whosoever putteth away his wife,.... For any other cause than for adultery, as the Jews used to do upon every trifling occasion, and for every little ...

Whosoever putteth away his wife,.... For any other cause than for adultery, as the Jews used to do upon every trifling occasion, and for every little disgust: by which instance our Lord shows, how the Jews abused and depraved the law, and as much as in them lay, caused it to fail; and how he, on the other hand, was so far from destroying and making it of none effect, that he maintained the purity and spirituality of it; putting them in mind of what he had formerly said, and of many other things of the like kind along with it; how that if a man divorces his wife, for any thing else but the defiling his bed,

and marrieth another, committeth adultery: with her that he marries: because his marriage with the former still continues, and cannot be made void by, such a divorce:

and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband; the phrase "from her husband", is omitted in the Syriac and Persic versions:

committeth adultery; with her that he marries, because notwithstanding her husband's divorce of her, and his after marriage with her, she still remains his lawful and proper wife; See Gill on Mat 5:32. The Ethiopic version reads this last clause, quite different from all others, thus, "and whosoever puts away her husband, and joins to another, commits adultery", agreeably to See Gill on Mar 10:12.

Gill: Luk 16:19 - There was a certain rich man // which was clothed in purple and fine linen // and fared sumptuously every day There was a certain rich man,.... In Beza's most ancient copy, and in another manuscript of his it is read by way of preface, "he said also another pa...

There was a certain rich man,.... In Beza's most ancient copy, and in another manuscript of his it is read by way of preface, "he said also another parable": which shows, that this is not a history of matter of fact, or an historical account of two such persons, as the "rich" man and the beggar, who had lately lived at Jerusalem; though the Papists pretend, to this day, to point out the very spot of ground in Jerusalem, where this rich man's house stood: nor is it to be understood parabolically of any particular rich man, or prince; as Saul the first king of Israel; or Herod, who now was reigning, and was clothed in purple, and lived in a sumptuous manner: nor of rich men in general, though it greatly describes the characters of such, at least of many of them; who only take care of their bodies, and neglect their souls; adorn and pamper them, live in pleasure, and grow wanton, and have no regard to the poor saints; and when they die go to hell; for their riches will not profit them in a day of wrath, nor deliver from it, or be regarded by the Judge, any more than hills and mountains will hide them from his face: but by the rich man are meant, the Jews in general; for that this man is represented, and to be considered as a Jew, is evident from Abraham being his father, and his calling him so, and Abraham again calling him his son, Luk 16:24 of which relation the Jews much boasted and gloried in; and from his brethren having Moses and the prophets, Luk 16:29 which were peculiar to the Jewish people; and from that invincible and incurable infidelity in them, that they would not believe, though one rose from the dead, Luk 16:31 as the Jews would not believe in Christ though he himself rose from the dead, which was the sign he gave them of his being the Messiah: and the general design of the parable, is to expose the wickedness and unbelief of the Jews, and to show their danger and misery, for their contempt and rejection of the Messiah; and particularly the Pharisees are designed, who being covetous, had derided Christ for what he had before said; and, who though high in the esteem of men, were an abomination to God, Luk 16:14. These more especially boasted of Abraham being their father; and of their being the disciples of Moses, and trusted in him, and in his law; and thought they should have eternal life through having and reading the books of Moses and the prophets: these may be called "a man", because this was the name by which the Jews style themselves, in distinction from the Gentiles, whom they compare to beasts; See Gill on Mat 15:26 and this they ground on a passage in Eze 34:31 "and ye my flock, the flock of my pasture, are men": upon which their note is e,

"ye are called, אדם, "men", but the nations of the earth are not called men.''

And they may be called a "certain" man, a famous man, a man of note, as the Jews, and especially the Pharisees, thought themselves to be; and therefore coveted the chief places in the synagogues, and at feasts, and loved salutations and greetings in market places, and to be called of men Rabbi, and master: as also a "rich man"; for the Jews in general were a wealthy people, lived in a very fruitful country, and were greatly indulged with the riches of providential goodness; and particularly the Pharisees, many of whom were of the great sanhedrim, and rulers of synagogues, and elders of the people; and who by various methods, amassed to themselves great riches, and even devoured widows' houses; see Luk 6:24 and they were also rich in outward means and ordinances, having the oracles of God, his word, worship, and service; and as to their spiritual and eternal estate, in their own esteem; though they were not truly rich in grace, not in faith, nor in spiritual knowledge, nor even in good works, of which they so much boasted; but in appearance, and in their own conceit, they were rich in the knowledge of the law, and in righteousness, which they imagined was perfect, and so stood in need of nothing; no, not of repentance, and especially of Christ, or of any thing from him:

which was clothed in purple and fine linen; or "byssus", which is said to f grow on a tree, in height equal to a poplar, and in leaves like a willow, and was brought out of India into Egypt, and much used there, as it also was among the Jews: hence we often read g of בוצא or לבושין דבוץ "garments of byssus", or fine linen: the Jews in general dressed well; their common apparel were fine linen and silk; see Eze 16:10 and so the Arabic version here renders it, "silk and purple"; and the Persic version, "silks and bombycines": and the priests particularly, were arrayed in such a habit; the robe of the ephod, and also its curious girdle, were of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen, and at the hem of it were pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet, Exo 28:6. And as for the Pharisees, they loved to go in long robes, and to make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, which were fringes of blue, joined unto them; and which may figuratively express the fine outside show of holiness and righteousness, they made;

and fared sumptuously every day. The Jews in common lived well, being in a land that flowed with milk and honey; see Eze 16:13 and especially the priests, who offered up lambs every day, besides other offerings, of which they had their part; as also the Pharisees, who were often at feasts, where they loved the chief places: and this may signify the easy and jocund life they lived; knowing no sorrow upon spiritual accounts, having no sense of sin, nor sight of the spirituality of the law, nor view of danger; but at perfect ease, and not emptied from vessel to vessel.

Gill: Luk 16:20 - And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus // which was laid at his gate // full of sores And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus,.... By whom is designed, not any particular beggar in the times of Christ, that went by this name; thoug...

And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus,.... By whom is designed, not any particular beggar in the times of Christ, that went by this name; though there were such persons in Israel, and in the times of our Lord; as blind Bartimaeus, and others: nor David, in the times of Saul, who was poor and needy; and who sometimes wanted bread, and at a certain time went to Abimelech for some: nor the godly poor in common, though the heirs of the heavenly kingdom are, generally speaking, the poor of this world; these receive Christ and his Gospel, and have their evil things here, and their good things hereafter; they are now slighted and neglected by men, but shall hereafter have a place in Abraham's bosom, and be for ever with the Lord: nor are the Gentiles intended; though they may be said to be poor and helpless, as they were without Christ, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, and without hope and God in the world; and were despised and rejected by the Jews, and not suffered to come into their temple, and were called and treated as dogs; though, as the Syrophenician woman pleaded, the dogs might eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's table; and who, upon the breaking down of the middle wall of partition, were called by grace, and drawn to Christ, and were blessed with faithful Abraham, and made to sit down with him in the kingdom of heaven: but our Lord Jesus Christ himself is here meant; as appears from the cause and occasion of this parable, which was the derision of Christ by the covetous Pharisees, who, though high in the esteem of men, were an abomination to God; and from the scope and design of it, which is to represent the mean and despicable condition of Christ in this world, whilst the Pharisees, his enemies, lived in great pomp and splendour; and the exaltation of Christ hereafter, when they would be in the utmost distress; and also the infidelity of that people, who continued in their unbelief, notwithstanding the resurrection of Christ from the dead: the name Lazarus well agrees with him. The Syriac version calls him "Loozar", as if it signified one that was helpless, that had no help, but wanted it, and so a fit name for a beggar; and well suits with Christ, who looked, and there was none to help, Isa 63:5 nor did he receive any help from men; though rather, the word is the contraction of Eleazar, and so the Ethiopic version reads it here; and it is easy to observe, that he who is called R. Eleazar in the Babylonian Talmud, is in the Jerusalem called, times without number, רב לעזר, R. Lazar h; and R. Liezer, is put for R. Eliezer: it is a rule given by one of the Jewish writers i, that

"in the Jerusalem Talmud, wherever R. Eleazar is written without an "aleph", R. Lazar ben Azariah is intended.''

And Christ may very well be called by this name; since this was the name of one of his types, Eleazer the son of Aaron, and one of his ancestors, who is mentioned in his genealogy, Mat 1:15 and especially as the name signifies, that the Lord was his helper: see Exo 18:4. Help was promised him by God, and he expected it, and firmly believed he should have it, and accordingly he had it: God did help him in a day of salvation: and which was no indication of weakness in him, who is the mighty God, and mighty to save; but of the Father's regard to him as man, and mediator; and of the concern that each of the divine persons had for, and in man's salvation: and on account of his circumstances of life, he might be called πτωχος, a "poor man", as he is in 2Co 8:9 and frequently in prophecy; see Psa 34:6 Zec 9:9 and though by assuming human nature, he did not cease to be God, or to lose the riches of his divine nature and perfections, yet his divine perfections, and the glory of them, were much hid and covered in his state of humiliation; and he was much the reverse of many of them in his human nature; in which he was exposed to much outward poverty and meanness: he was born of poor parents; had no liberal education; was brought up to a trade: had not a foot of ground to call his own, nor where to lay his head: and lived upon the ministrations of others to him; and when he died, had nothing to bequeath his mother, but left her to the care of a disciple: and he is further described, by his posture and situation,

which was laid at his gate; that is, at the "rich man's", as is expressed in the Syriac, Persic, and Ethiopic versions: this was the place where beggars stood, or were laid, and asked alms; hence is that rule with the Jews k, and in many other places the following phrase;

"if a man dies and leaves sons and daughters---if he leaves but a small substance, the daughters shall be taken care of, and the sons, ישאלו על הפתחים, "shall beg at the gates."''

This denotes the rejection of Christ by the Jews; he came to them, and they received him not; he had no entrance into their hearts, and was admitted but into few of their houses; they put those that confessed him out of their synagogues; and caused him himself to depart out of some of their cities; they delivered him up unto the Gentiles that were without; and at last led him without the gate of Jerusalem, where he suffered:

full of sores; so Nahum Gamzu l is said to have his whole body, מלא שחין, "full of ulcers": sometimes the Jewish phrase, which answers to the word here used, is מוכה שחין, "one plagued with ulcers" m; and this by the commentators n, is explained of a "leprous" person; so one of the names of the Messiah is with the Jews o, חיוורא, which signifies "leprous", in proof of which, they produce Isa 53:4. "Surely he hath borne our griefs", &c. By these "sores" may be meant, sins; see Psa 38:5. Christ was holy and righteous in himself, in his nature, life, and conversation; he was without both original, and actual sins, yet he was in the likeness of sinful flesh, and was reproached and calumniated by men as a sinner; and had really and actually all the sins of his people on him, by imputation; and was made even sin itself, for them; so that in this sense he might be said to be full of them, though in himself he was free from them: they may also intend the temptations of Satan, those fiery darts which were flung at him, and by which he suffered; as also the reproaches and persecutions of men, which attended him more or less, from the cradle to the cross; together with all his other sorrows and sufferings, being scourged, buffeted, and beaten, and wounded for our sins, and bruised for our transgressions; of which wounds and bruises he might be said to be full.

Gill: Luk 16:21 - And desiring to be fed with the crumbs // which fell from the rich man's table // Moreover, the dogs came and licked his sores And desiring to be fed with the crumbs,.... The offal food, broken bread, fragments of meat: that food which falls from the knife, or plate, in eating...

And desiring to be fed with the crumbs,.... The offal food, broken bread, fragments of meat: that food which falls from the knife, or plate, in eating, and from thence on the ground; and literally understood, may express the low condition Christ was in, in his human nature: he assumed a true body, like to ours, and partook of the same flesh and blood with us, and was liable to the same infirmities as ours, which are sinless; and among the rest, was subject to hunger and thirst, and was obliged to the ministration of others for a subsistence: and it may also express his contentment in such a condition; he never murmured at the providence of God, but was entirely, resigned to his will; he did not desire to live in fulness and affluence, but avoided and shunned every step that led unto it; nor did he envy the plenty of others, and was fully satisfied with his meanness; nor did he ever work a miracle for the sake of feeding himself. Moreover, the words being understood mystically, may design the elect of God among the Jews, who, like crumbs, were few in number, a seed, a remnant, according to the election of grace; there were but few among them that were chosen of God, and effectually called by his grace; and but a little flock to whom he gave the kingdom; and a small number, who entered in at the strait gate, and were saved; and these few were very mean and despicable for their outward poverty; for the poor had the Gospel preached to them, and they received it, when the rich, and the rulers of the people, rejected it: and they were like crumbs their small degree of worldly wisdom and knowledge, being babes, simple, and foolish, who followed Christ, while the learned, wise, and prudent despised him; and for their sinfulness and vileness, being, generally speaking, notorious sinners, publicans and harlots; and of these it may be said what follows,

which fell from the rich man's table; being originally of the Jews, but separated from them by the grace of God, and rejected by them with scorn and contempt. These Christ "desired"; see Son 7:10 his desire was towards them from everlasting, when he asked them of his Father, and they were given to him; and it was not only after their persons, but after their salvation, and that both in eternity and in time; and which he signified by various words and actions; and it is towards them, while in a state of unregeneracy, that they may be converted, and believe in him; and when they are called, he delights in the grace he puts in them, and in the righteousness he puts upon them; he takes pleasure in their company; he desires them for his habitation; he stands at the door and knocks for admission to them; and nothing is he more earnestly solicitous for, and eager after, than their being with him in glory to all eternity; and his end in all, "is to be fed" or "satisfied with them"; see Isa 53:11 he came into the world to gather these scattered crumbs and fragments together; it was his meat and drink, to work out their salvation; and it will be his highest joy and pleasure to present them to his Father, and himself, complete and perfect, and introduce them into his kingdom and glory: he will be fully satisfied in them, and they in him, when they shall awake in his likeness. Then will all Christ's desires, prayers, and intercessions, have their full accomplishment. The Vulgate Latin adds, "and no man gave to him"; which seems to be transcribed from Luk 15:16 and is not supported by any copy or version.

Moreover, the dogs came and licked his sores: by the dogs are meant not the Jews, though they are sometimes so called, and especially the Scribes and Pharisees, Psa 22:16 for these made his sores and wounds, or were the authors of his sorrows and sufferings; but rather the Gentiles, who were so called by the Jews; See Gill on Mat 15:26 because these creatures were unclean by the law, and had in the greatest contempt by the Jews; and for their barbarity, malice, and cruelty, Deu 23:18 as the Gentiles were by the Jews esteemed unclean and unfit, either for civil or religious conversation; and were treated as aliens by them; and were indeed in their Heathenish state, barbarous and inhuman, and lived in malice, hateful, and hating one another: these, some of them came to Christ in person, as the centurion, and Syrophenician woman, many of the Samaritans, who, with the Jews, were all one as Heathens, and several Grecians at the feast; and many of them also came to him by faith, through the ministry of his servants, under the influence of divine grace, and that according to various prophecies in the Old Testament, concerning the calling and gathering of the Gentiles to him: these embraced a crucified Christ; and fed upon the slain Lamb of God; eat his flesh, and drank his blood; stretched forth the hand of faith, and thrust it into his bleeding wounds; and lived by faith on him, who was wounded and bruised for their sins, and whose blood was shed for the remission of them.

Gill: Luk 16:22 - And it came to pass that the beggar died // and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom // The rich man also died // and was buried And it came to pass that the beggar died,.... The death of Christ was not a casual thing, a fortuitous event; it was agreed unto, and settled in the c...

And it came to pass that the beggar died,.... The death of Christ was not a casual thing, a fortuitous event; it was agreed unto, and settled in the covenant of grace; it was spoken of by the prophets of the Old Testament; it was typified by the sacrifices of the law, and other things; it was foretold by Christ himself, and was the end of his coming into this world, wherein the great love, both of him and of his Father, is expressed; and is the main article of the Christian faith; so that this came to pass according to the decrees of God, the counsel, and covenant of peace, the will of Christ, and his predictions, and as the accomplishment of the law, and prophets: it was not a natural, but violent death which Christ died; and yet it was both voluntary and necessary; it was but once, and is of an eternal efficacy, and is a sacrifice acceptable to God; it was not for himself, or any sin of his, who knew none, nor for the angels, and their redemption, whose nature he did not assume; but for men, and for their sins. Christ died not merely as an example to them, or only to confirm his doctrines; but as a substitute, in the room and stead of his people; to atone for their sins, and satisfy divine justice; to procure the pardon of them in a way of justice; to take them away, and utterly abolish them; to bring in an everlasting righteousness; to obtain eternal redemption, and bring such nigh to God who were afar off, and that men might live through him now, and have eternal life by him hereafter:

and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: by Abraham's bosom is meant heaven, a phrase well known to the Jews, by which they commonly expressed the happiness of the future state: of Abraham's happy state they had no doubt; and when they spake of the happiness of another's, they sometimes signified it by going to Abraham; as when the mother of the seven sons, slain by Caesar, saw her youngest going to be sacrificed p.

"she fell upon him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and said unto him, my son, לך אצל אברהם אביכם, "go to Abraham, your father", and tell him, thus saith my mother, &c.''

and sometimes, as here, by being in his bosom. So it is said q, that Eliezer his servant (Abraham's, the same name with Lazarus) מונה בחיקו, "is laid in his bosom": and which may refer to the account in the Talmud r, that when R. Benaah, the painter of caves, came to the cave of Abraham, he found Eliezer, the servant of Abraham, דקאי קמיה, "standing before him". And it is also said s of Rabbi, when he died, היום יושב בחיקו של אברהם, "this day he sits in the bosom of Abraham"; for as it was usual with them to represent the joys of heaven by a feast, so the partaking of them, by sitting down at a table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; see Mat 8:11 and as their manner at meals was by lying along on couches at eating; he that lay next another might be said to lie, or lean, in his bosom: hence Abraham's bosom came to signify the near and intimate enjoyment of happiness with him in the other world. The ascension of Christ is expressed by a being "carried up into heaven", Luk 24:51 and here he is entered, and has been received, and will be retained, until the time of the restitution of all things; here he is glorified in human nature, sits at the right hand of God, and appears in his presence, on the behalf of his people; and indeed, the ends of his going there, were to receive gifts for them, to be their advocate and intercessor, to take possession of heaven in their name, and prepare that for them, and them for that; and hither "he was carried by angels": these were the chariots in which he rode; and these the guard that attended him, when he was seen, looked upon, and gazed at by them with adoration, faith, and wonder; which shows the ministration of angels to him, and seems to set forth the glory and magnificence in which he ascended; and this agrees with the notions of the Jews, that when good men die, their souls are immediately received by angels, and taken under their care, and carried to heaven. So one of their paraphrasts t having mentioned the garden of Eden, which is but another name for heaven with them, adds,

"into which no man can enter but the righteous, whose souls are "carried" thither, ביד מלאכיא, "in the hand", or "by the means" of angels.''

And elsewhere they say u,

"with the Shekinah come three ministering angels to receive the soul of a righteous man.''

Particularly it is said of Moses, at the time of his death w, that

"the holy blessed God descended from the highest heavens, to take the soul of Moses, and three ministering angels with him.''

And sometimes they say x, not only three angels, but three companies of angels attend at such a time: their words are these;

"when a righteous man departs out of the world, three companies of ministering angels meet him; one says to him, "come in peace"; and another says, "walking in his uprightness" and the other says, "he shall enter into peace", &c.''

No mention is made in this parable of the burial of this man, nor any words used expressive of it, or that in the least hint it. The reason is, because Christ lay so short a time in the grave, and he was not left there, nor did he see corruption; but in a very little while was raised from the dead, and delivered from the power of the grave; when, after some stay on earth, he was attended by angels to the highest heavens: for this is to be understood, not of his soul being had to paradise immediately upon his separation from the body; but of his ascension to heaven after his resurrection, when he was escorted by angels thither.

The rich man also died. This may be understood both of the natural death of the Scribes and Pharisees; who, though they were dignified persons, were as gods, yet were mortal, and died like men; see Psa 82:6 compared with Joh 10:34 and they died in their sins, in their unbelief of the Messiah, and so were damned; in their impenitence and hardness of heart, for as they thought they needed no repentance, they were not called unto it; and in the sin against the Holy Ghost, blaspheming the miracles of Christ done by him, and which was a sin unto death; and under the power and guilt of all their other sins, and so were lost and perished. And it may also be understood of the political and ecclesiastical death of the Jewish people; which lay in the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, and of the temple, and in the abolition of the temple worship, and of the whole ceremonial law; a "Lo-ammi" was written upon their church state, and the covenant between God and them was broken; the Gospel was removed from them, which was as death, as the return of it, and their call by it, will be as life from the dead; as well as their place and nation, their civil power and authority were taken away from them by the Romans: and a death of afflictions, by captivity and calamities, of every kind, have attended them ever since. And it is to be observed, that Lazarus died before the rich man, as Christ died before the destruction of the Jewish polity and church state: the city and sanctuary were not destroyed, nor the daily sacrifice made to cease, nor the consummation, and that determined, poured upon the desolate, until some time after the Messiah was cut off, according to the prophecy in Dan 7:26. Moreover, no mention is made of the rich man being carried by angels, as Lazarus was; and if he was, he was carried, not by the good, but by the evil angels, and not into Abraham's bosom, but to hell. So the Jews y say,

"if a soul is worthy, how many holy troops, or companies, are ready to join it, and bring it up into paradise? but if not worthy, how many strange troops are ready to bring it in the way of hell? these are the troops of the destroying angels.''

However, this is said of him, as is not of Lazarus,

and was buried: as wicked men are, when sometimes the saints are not; see Ecc 8:10. The Scribes and Pharisees, who were so diligent to build and garnish the sepulchres of the prophets, among their other instances of pride and vanity, took care, no doubt, to provide and erect stately monuments for themselves: and who were buried in great pomp and splendour. Though this may respect their church state, service, and ceremonies, which received their death blow at the crucifixion of Christ, but remained for some time unburied, it being with difficulty that these things were got under the feet of the church; and may also refer to the political state of the Jews, who, as a nation, are represented as in their graves, where they are to this day, and will be until they shall be turned unto the Lord, when they shall be brought out of their graves, and shall live and return to their own land, Eze 37:12. The Vulgate Latin adds, "in hell"; but this belongs to the following verse.

Gill: Luk 16:23 - And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments // and seeth Abraham afar off // And Lazarus in his bosom And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments,.... Which may design the place of torment, and the miserable state the Scribes and Pharisees, as a...

And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments,.... Which may design the place of torment, and the miserable state the Scribes and Pharisees, as all wicked men, enter immediately into upon death, Psa 9:17 who in their lifetime were blind, and are called blind guides, blind watchmen, blind leaders of the blind, and who were given up to judicial blindness and hardness of heart; but in hell their eyes are opened, and they see their mistakes about the Messiah, and find themselves in torments, under dreadful gnawings, and remorse of conscience; and having a terrible sensation of divine wrath, their worm dies not, and their fire is not quenched: or this may regard the vengeance of God on the Jews, at the destruction of Jerusalem; when a fire was kindled against their land, and burned to the lowest hell; and consumed the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains; and the whole land became brimstone, salt, and burning; and they were rooted out of it in anger, wrath, and great indignation; see Deu 29:23 or rather, the dreadful calamities which came upon them in the times of Adrian at Bither; when their false Messiah Bar Cochab was taken and slain, and such multitudes of them were destroyed in the most miserable manner z, when that people, who before had their eyes darkened, and a spirit of slumber and stupidity fallen upon them, in those calamities began to be under some convictions:

and seeth Abraham afar off: the covenant of circumcision given to him, and to them his natural seed, now of no use to them; their descent from him, of which they boasted, and in which they trusted, now of no avail; and him in the kingdom of heaven, and themselves thrust out; see Luk 13:28.

And Lazarus in his bosom; they now found the Messiah was come, and was gone to heaven, whither they could not come, Joh 7:33. The Jews are convinced that the Messiah is born, though not revealed; and they sometimes confess, that he was born the same day Jerusalem was destroyed; and sometimes they say, he sits at the gates of Rome among the lepers, and at other times, that he is in the walks of paradise a. This is said in agreement with the notions of the Jews, that wicked men will see the righteous in happiness, and themselves in torment; by which the latter will be aggravated, to which the allusion is; for they say b,

"the gates of paradise are fixed over against the gates of hell, so that they can see the righteous in rest, and themselves in distress.''

Gill: Luk 16:24 - And he cried and said, father Abraham // have mercy on me, and send Lazarus // that he may dip the tip of his finger in water // and cool my tongue // for I am tormented in this flame And he cried and said, father Abraham,.... The Jews used to call Abraham their father, and were proud of their descent from him, Mat 3:9 and so person...

And he cried and said, father Abraham,.... The Jews used to call Abraham their father, and were proud of their descent from him, Mat 3:9 and so persons are after death represented by them, as speaking to, and discoursing with him; as in the passage cited in the note See Gill on Luk 16:22 to which the following may be added c;

"says R. Jonathan, from whence does it appear that the dead discourse with each other? it is said, Deu 34:4 "And the Lord said unto him, this is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying", &c. what is the meaning of the word "saying?" the holy blessed God said to Moses, "go say to Abraham", &c.''

And here the Jews, in their distress, are represented as applying to him, saying,

have mercy on me, and send Lazarus; which seems to have respect to the mercy promised to Abraham, the covenant made with him, and the oath swore unto him, to send the Messiah, Luk 1:70 and which now, too late, these wretched Jews plead, the Messiah being sent already:

that he may dip the tip of his finger in water; in allusion to the washings and purifications among the Jews, and the sprinkling of blood by the finger of the high priest; which were typical of cleansing, pardon, comfort, and refreshment, by the grace and blood of Christ:

and cool my tongue; which had spoken so many scurrilous and blasphemous things of Christ; saying that he was a sinner, a glutton, and a winebibber, a Samaritan, and had a devil; that he cast out devils by Beelzebub, the prince of devils; and that he was a seditious person, and guilty of blasphemy: so the Jews represent persons in hell, desirous of cooling water, and as sometimes favoured with it, and sometimes not: they say d, he that reads "Keriat Shema, (i.e. hear, O Israel", &c.) and very accurately examines the letters of it, מצננין, "they cool hell for him", as it is said, Psa 68:14. And elsewhere e, they speak of a disciple, or good man, that was seen after death amidst gardens, and orchards, and fountains of water; and of a publican, or wicked man, seen standing by the bank of a river, seeking ממטי מיא ולא מטי, "to come to the water, but could not come at it". So Mahomet f has a passage that is somewhat like to this text;

"the inhabitants of hell fire, shall call to the inhabitants of paradise, saying, pour upon us some water, or of those refreshments God hath bestowed on you.''

This man could not so much as get a drop of water to cool his tongue, not the least refreshment, nor mitigation of the anguish of his conscience, for the sins of his tongue:

for I am tormented in this flame; in the destruction of Jerusalem, and calamities at Bither, and other afflictions; together with the wrath of God poured into the conscience, and the bitter remorses of that for speaking against the Messiah; and which are still greater in hell, where the worm dies not, and the fire is not quenched.

Gill: Luk 16:25 - But Abraham said, son // remember, that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things // And likewise Lazarus evil things // but now he is comforted // and thou art tormented But Abraham said, son,.... He calls him "son", not in a spiritual sense; he was not one of Abraham's spiritual seed, that trod in the steps of his fai...

But Abraham said, son,.... He calls him "son", not in a spiritual sense; he was not one of Abraham's spiritual seed, that trod in the steps of his faith; but because he was so according to the flesh; and in return to his calling him father: good men have not always good children, nor is any trust to be put in birth and parentage:

remember, that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things; temporal good things; a land flowing with milk and honey; all the outward blessings of life that could be wished for, the Jews had, whilst they were in their own land; and also ecclesiastical good things, as the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises, the fathers, and the Messiah according to the flesh, even all external privileges and ordinances, Rom 9:4.

And likewise Lazarus evil things; Christ was surrounded with the infirmities of human nature, he assumed; was attended with much outward meanness and poverty; was loaded with calumnies and reproaches; and followed with the wrath, hatred, and persecution of men; and suffered many evil things, as buffetings, scourging, spitting, and cruel mockings, and at last death itself:

but now he is comforted; see Psa 16:9 compared with Act 2:25. Christ being raised from the dead, and set in human nature at the right hand of God, is comforted with the presence of God, which for a while he was deprived of, when on the cross; and is delighted with the glory that it put upon him as man; and with pleasure sees the travail of his soul continually, his elect and redeemed ones, called and gathered by the grace of God, who are his jewels, his portion, and goodly heritage:

and thou art tormented; as were many of the Jews, his implacable enemies and persecutors in hell, and others in captivity, bondage, and distress.

Gill: Luk 16:26 - And besides all this // between us and you there is a great gulf fixed // so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot, neither can they pass to us that would come from thence And besides all this,.... The different circumstances of each, both past and present, which should be observed and considered: between us and you t...

And besides all this,.... The different circumstances of each, both past and present, which should be observed and considered:

between us and you there is a great gulf fixed; as this may regard the state of the Pharisees after death, it intends not the natural distance between heaven and hell; though there may be an allusion to the notions of the Jews concerning that, who on those words in Ecc 7:14. "God hath set the one over against the other", say f,

"this is hell and paradise, what space is there between them? an hand's breadth; R. Jochanan says a wall, but the Rabbans say, they are both of them even, so that they may look out of one into another.''

Which passage is cited a little differently g, thus;

"wherefore did the holy blessed God create hell and paradise? that they might be one against another; what space is there between them? R. Jochanan says, a wall, and R. Acha says an hand's breadth: but the Rabbans say, two fingers.''

And elsewhere it h is said,

"know that hell and paradise are near to one another, and one house separates between them; and paradise is on the north east side---and hell on the north west.''

Mahomet seems to have borrowed this notion from them, who says i,

"between the blessed and the damned, there shall be a vail; and men shall stand on "Al Araf", (the name of the wall or partition, that shall separate paradise from hell,) who shall know every one of them by their mouths.''

But not this natural space, be it what it will, but the immutable decree of God is intended here, which has unalterably fixed the state of the damned, and of the blessed:

so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot, neither can they pass to us that would come from thence; not that those in heaven can desire to go to those in hell; though those in hell, may wish to be in heaven; but the sense is, that by this irrevocable decree of God, the saints in heaven are eternally happy, and the wicked in hell eternally miserable: and this also agrees with the notions of the Jews k, who represent it impossible: for a man, after he has descended into hell, to come up from thence any more: but as this may regard the Jews state of captivity and affliction, since the destruction of their city and temple, upon, and for their rejection of the Messiah; it may denote the impossibility of Christ's coming again upon the same errand he came on before, to be a Saviour of sinners, and a sacrifice for sin; and of the Jews believing in him, so long as they lie under the spirit of slumber, and are given up to judicial blindness and hardness of heart.

Gill: Luk 16:27 - Then he said, I pray thee therefore father // that thou wouldst send him to my father's house Then he said, I pray thee therefore father,.... The Cambridge, copy of Beza's, and the Ethiopic version read, "father Abraham"; finding he could have ...

Then he said, I pray thee therefore father,.... The Cambridge, copy of Beza's, and the Ethiopic version read, "father Abraham"; finding he could have no redress of his misery, nor any relief for himself, he applies for others:

that thou wouldst send him to my father's house; the house of Israel and Jacob, the surviving Jews: and this agrees also with a notion of theirs, that the dead seek for mercy for them l. The Persic and Ethiopic versions read, "that thou wouldst send Lazarus", &c. whom the one calls Gazarus, and the other Eleazar.

Gill: Luk 16:28 - For I have five brethren // That he may testify unto them // lest they also come into this place of torment For I have five brethren,.... Meaning his brethren and countrymen, according to the flesh; who when he was alive, stood in such a relation to him; sai...

For I have five brethren,.... Meaning his brethren and countrymen, according to the flesh; who when he was alive, stood in such a relation to him; said to be "five", in allusion it may be to the children of Israel coming out of Egypt, חמשים, "by fives", or five in a rank, Exo 13:18 as a learned man m conjectures, to whom I am beholden for several hints, in the explanation of this parable; and certain it is, that these five brethren were Jews, since they had the writings of Moses and the prophets with them, Luk 16:29. Wherefore I shall venture to propose another conjecture, though it may be liable to exception, as all conjectures usually are: it is plain that there were "six" brethren in all; let it be observed then, that the Jewish nation were usually divided into "three" parts, "priests, Levites, and Israelites"; of these three the great sanhedrim usually consisted n; and these read the law every sabbath day; first a priest, then a Levite, and then "five Israelites" o; (let that number also be remarked;) now these were again divided into "three" sects, "Pharisees, Sadducees", and "Essenes". The former of these are represented in this parable; this I only propose, I lay no stress on it: it may be, that the twice five, or ten tribes of Israel, which were not known where they were, nor are they to this day, may be designed by a "synechdoche", of a part for the whole; whose return the Jews are yet expecting, and for whose welfare they are greatly concerned.

That he may testify unto them: that is, preach unto them, as the word is used in Act 2:40. Christ, when here on earth, did testify to that people of their sins, showed them the heinousness of them, inveighed against them, and reproved for them; and of their righteousness, and showed the hypocrisy, deficiency, and insufficiency of it to justify them; of himself as the Messiah; of truth in general; and of their ruin, temporal and eternal; but he had now finished his testimony, and which, though faithful, was not heard nor received by them; the reason of this request is,

lest they also come into this place of torment; as hell is, and which these brethren of his, he left behind, were deserving of, and in danger of coming into; and his concern for them did not arise from any regard to Christ, and the enlargement of his interest; nor from any love to his testimony, the Gospel; nor from any real notion or desire of converting grace for his brethren; nor from true love to them; but from a selfish principle, lest his own torments should be aggravated by their coming: this, as it may regard the Jews in their affliction, and if the ten tribes should be meant by the five brethren, may design the very passionate concern the Jews had, and still have for them, who yet, to this day, hope for the return of them; see Manasseh ben Israel's book, called, "Spes Israelis".

Gill: Luk 16:29 - Abraham said unto him // they have Moses and the prophets // let them hear them Abraham said unto him..... In reply to this his request: they have Moses and the prophets; that is, their writings; which shows this man, and his f...

Abraham said unto him..... In reply to this his request:

they have Moses and the prophets; that is, their writings; which shows this man, and his five brethren, to be Jews; for to them were the oracles of God committed; and these had the writings of Moses and the prophets read to them every sabbath day; and is true, whether the contemporaries and immediate successors of the Pharisees are meant, or the ten tribes: and also shows, that one view of the parable, is to establish the authority of these writings; see Luk 16:16 and that it is a peculiar privilege to have them; and that they ought to be attended to and regarded;

let them hear them; for they testified concerning Christ, and concerning the sins of the Jews, and the calamities, both temporal and eternal, that should come upon them; and which, testimony was sufficient to leave them without excuse: and indeed, the word of God, read, explained, and heard, is the ordinary means of conversion, or of bringing men to faith and repentance.

Gill: Luk 16:30 - And he said, nay, father Abraham // but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent And he said, nay, father Abraham,.... He contradicts his father Abraham, or at least desires it might not be so; this way he suggests, was not so righ...

And he said, nay, father Abraham,.... He contradicts his father Abraham, or at least desires it might not be so; this way he suggests, was not so right, and would not succeed; for he knew his brethren were a rebellious, and stiffnecked people, and would not hear Moses and the prophets, notwithstanding all their outward boast of them, and pretensions of regard to them:

but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent; but alas! repentance is not of man's will, but a gift of God's grace; nor could these men repent, because in a judicial way their eyes were shut, their ears were stopped, and their hearts were hardened; and though Christ came in person to them, and preached, as never man did, with power and authority, and confirmed his doctrine with miracles, yet they repented not, nor did they when he arose from the dead.

Gill: Luk 16:31 - And he said unto him // if they hear not Moses and the prophets // neither will they be persuaded // though one rose from the dead And he said unto him..... That is, Abraham said unto him, as the Syriac, Persic, and Ethiopic versions express it: if they hear not Moses and the p...

And he said unto him..... That is, Abraham said unto him, as the Syriac, Persic, and Ethiopic versions express it:

if they hear not Moses and the prophets; as they did not, nor regarded what they said of Christ, but disbelieved both him and them:

neither will they be persuaded: or brought to repent and believe;

though one rose from the dead; as Christ did; whose resurrection, the truth of it they endeavoured to baffle, stifle, and suppress: this was the sign Christ gave them, of the truth of his Messiahship; and yet they repented not of what they had done to him, that they might believe in him; but remained still in their impenitence and infidelity, and so died. This shows the regard that ought to be had to the written word, as read, or preached; and that it is a sad sign of a desperate condition, when men reject divine revelation. Beza's ancient copy adds, "and should go unto them".

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Luk 16:1 Or “squandering.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).