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Kisah Para Rasul 17:1--19:41

Konteks
Paul and Silas at Thessalonica

17:1 After they traveled through 1  Amphipolis 2  and Apollonia, 3  they came to Thessalonica, 4  where there was a Jewish synagogue. 5  17:2 Paul went to the Jews in the synagogue, 6  as he customarily did, and on three Sabbath days he addressed 7  them from the scriptures, 17:3 explaining and demonstrating 8  that the Christ 9  had to suffer and to rise from the dead, 10  saying, 11  “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Christ.” 12  17:4 Some of them were persuaded 13  and joined Paul and Silas, along with a large group 14  of God-fearing Greeks 15  and quite a few 16  prominent women. 17:5 But the Jews became jealous, 17  and gathering together some worthless men from the rabble in the marketplace, 18  they formed a mob 19  and set the city in an uproar. 20  They attacked Jason’s house, 21  trying to find Paul and Silas 22  to bring them out to the assembly. 23  17:6 When they did not find them, they dragged 24  Jason and some of the brothers before the city officials, 25  screaming, “These people who have stirred up trouble 26  throughout the world 27  have come here too, 17:7 and 28  Jason has welcomed them as guests! They 29  are all acting against Caesar’s 30  decrees, saying there is another king named 31  Jesus!” 32  17:8 They caused confusion among 33  the crowd and the city officials 34  who heard these things. 17:9 After 35  the city officials 36  had received bail 37  from Jason and the others, they released them.

Paul and Silas at Berea

17:10 The brothers sent Paul and Silas off to Berea 38  at once, during the night. When they arrived, 39  they went to the Jewish synagogue. 40  17:11 These Jews 41  were more open-minded 42  than those in Thessalonica, 43  for they eagerly 44  received 45  the message, examining 46  the scriptures carefully every day 47  to see if these things were so. 17:12 Therefore many of them believed, along with quite a few 48  prominent 49  Greek women and men. 17:13 But when the Jews from Thessalonica 50  heard that Paul had also proclaimed the word of God 51  in Berea, 52  they came there too, inciting 53  and disturbing 54  the crowds. 17:14 Then the brothers sent Paul away to the coast 55  at once, but Silas and Timothy remained in Berea. 56  17:15 Those who accompanied Paul escorted him as far as Athens, 57  and after receiving an order for Silas and Timothy to come to him as soon as possible, they left. 58 

Paul at Athens

17:16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens, 59  his spirit was greatly upset 60  because he saw 61  the city was full of idols. 17:17 So he was addressing 62  the Jews and the God-fearing Gentiles 63  in the synagogue, 64  and in the marketplace every day 65  those who happened to be there. 17:18 Also some of the Epicurean 66  and Stoic 67  philosophers were conversing 68  with him, and some were asking, 69  “What does this foolish babbler 70  want to say?” Others said, “He seems to be a proclaimer of foreign gods.” 71  (They said this because he was proclaiming the good news about Jesus and the resurrection.) 72  17:19 So they took Paul and 73  brought him to the Areopagus, 74  saying, “May we know what this new teaching is that you are proclaiming? 17:20 For you are bringing some surprising things 75  to our ears, so we want to know what they 76  mean.” 17:21 (All the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there used to spend their time 77  in nothing else than telling 78  or listening to something new.) 79 

17:22 So Paul stood 80  before the Areopagus and said, “Men of Athens, I see that you are very religious 81  in all respects. 82  17:23 For as I went around and observed closely your objects of worship, 83  I even found an altar with this inscription: 84  ‘To an unknown god.’ Therefore what you worship without knowing it, 85  this I proclaim to you. 17:24 The God who made the world and everything in it, 86  who is 87  Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by human hands, 88  17:25 nor is he served by human hands, as if he needed anything, 89  because he himself gives life and breath and everything to everyone. 90  17:26 From one man 91  he made every nation of the human race 92  to inhabit the entire earth, 93  determining their set times 94  and the fixed limits of the places where they would live, 95  17:27 so that they would search for God and perhaps grope around 96  for him and find him, 97  though he is 98  not far from each one of us. 17:28 For in him we live and move about 99  and exist, as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For we too are his offspring.’ 100  17:29 So since we are God’s offspring, we should not think the deity 101  is like gold or silver or stone, an image 102  made by human 103  skill 104  and imagination. 105  17:30 Therefore, although God has overlooked 106  such times of ignorance, 107  he now commands all people 108  everywhere to repent, 109  17:31 because he has set 110  a day on which he is going to judge the world 111  in righteousness, by a man whom he designated, 112  having provided proof to everyone by raising 113  him from the dead.”

17:32 Now when they heard about 114  the resurrection from the dead, some began to scoff, 115  but others said, “We will hear you again about this.” 17:33 So Paul left the Areopagus. 116  17:34 But some people 117  joined him 118  and believed. Among them 119  were Dionysius, who was a member of the Areopagus, 120  a woman 121  named Damaris, and others with them.

Paul at Corinth

18:1 After this 122  Paul 123  departed from 124  Athens 125  and went to Corinth. 126  18:2 There he 127  found 128  a Jew named Aquila, 129  a native of Pontus, 130  who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius 131  had ordered all the Jews to depart from 132  Rome. 133  Paul approached 134  them, 18:3 and because he worked at the same trade, he stayed with them and worked with them 135  (for they were tentmakers 136  by trade). 137  18:4 He addressed 138  both Jews and Greeks in the synagogue 139  every Sabbath, attempting to persuade 140  them.

18:5 Now when Silas and Timothy arrived 141  from Macedonia, 142  Paul became wholly absorbed with proclaiming 143  the word, testifying 144  to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. 145  18:6 When they opposed him 146  and reviled him, 147  he protested by shaking out his clothes 148  and said to them, “Your blood 149  be on your own heads! I am guiltless! 150  From now on I will go to the Gentiles!” 18:7 Then Paul 151  left 152  the synagogue 153  and went to the house of a person named Titius Justus, a Gentile who worshiped God, 154  whose house was next door to the synagogue. 18:8 Crispus, the president of the synagogue, 155  believed in the Lord together with his entire household, and many of the Corinthians who heard about it 156  believed and were baptized. 18:9 The Lord said to Paul by a vision 157  in the night, 158  “Do not be afraid, 159  but speak and do not be silent, 18:10 because I am with you, and no one will assault 160  you to harm 161  you, because I have many people in this city.” 18:11 So he stayed there 162  a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them. 163 

Paul Before the Proconsul Gallio

18:12 Now while Gallio 164  was proconsul 165  of Achaia, 166  the Jews attacked Paul together 167  and brought him before the judgment seat, 168  18:13 saying, “This man is persuading 169  people to worship God in a way contrary to 170  the law!” 18:14 But just as Paul was about to speak, 171  Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of some crime or serious piece of villainy, 172  I would have been justified in accepting the complaint 173  of you Jews, 174  18:15 but since it concerns points of disagreement 175  about words and names and your own law, settle 176  it yourselves. I will not be 177  a judge of these things!” 18:16 Then he had them forced away 178  from the judgment seat. 179  18:17 So they all seized Sosthenes, the president of the synagogue, 180  and began to beat 181  him in front of the judgment seat. 182  Yet none of these things were of any concern 183  to Gallio.

Paul Returns to Antioch in Syria

18:18 Paul, after staying 184  many more days in Corinth, 185  said farewell to 186  the brothers and sailed away to Syria accompanied by 187  Priscilla and Aquila. 188  He 189  had his hair cut off 190  at Cenchrea 191  because he had made a vow. 192  18:19 When they reached Ephesus, 193  Paul 194  left Priscilla and Aquila 195  behind there, but he himself went 196  into the synagogue 197  and addressed 198  the Jews. 18:20 When they asked him to stay longer, he would not consent, 199  18:21 but said farewell to 200  them and added, 201  “I will come back 202  to you again if God wills.” 203  Then 204  he set sail from Ephesus, 18:22 and when he arrived 205  at Caesarea, 206  he went up and greeted 207  the church at Jerusalem 208  and then went down to Antioch. 209  18:23 After he spent 210  some time there, Paul left and went through the region of Galatia 211  and Phrygia, 212  strengthening all the disciples.

Apollos Begins His Ministry

18:24 Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, arrived in Ephesus. 213  He was an eloquent speaker, 214  well-versed 215  in the scriptures. 18:25 He had been instructed in 216  the way of the Lord, and with great enthusiasm 217  he spoke and taught accurately the facts 218  about Jesus, although he knew 219  only the baptism of John. 18:26 He began to speak out fearlessly 220  in the synagogue, 221  but when Priscilla and Aquila 222  heard him, they took him aside 223  and explained the way of God to him more accurately. 18:27 When Apollos 224  wanted to cross over to Achaia, 225  the brothers encouraged 226  him 227  and wrote to the disciples to welcome him. When he arrived, he 228  assisted greatly those who had believed by grace, 18:28 for he refuted the Jews vigorously 229  in public debate, 230  demonstrating from the scriptures that the Christ 231  was Jesus. 232 

Disciples of John the Baptist at Ephesus

19:1 While 233  Apollos was in Corinth, 234  Paul went through the inland 235  regions 236  and came to Ephesus. 237  He 238  found some disciples there 239  19:2 and said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” 240  They replied, 241  “No, we have not even 242  heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” 19:3 So Paul 243  said, “Into what then were you baptized?” “Into John’s baptism,” they replied. 244  19:4 Paul said, “John baptized with a baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, 245  that is, in Jesus.” 19:5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, 19:6 and when Paul placed 246  his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came 247  upon them, and they began to speak 248  in tongues and to prophesy. 249  19:7 (Now there were about twelve men in all.) 250 

Paul Continues to Minister at Ephesus

19:8 So Paul 251  entered 252  the synagogue 253  and spoke out fearlessly 254  for three months, addressing 255  and convincing 256  them about the kingdom of God. 257  19:9 But when 258  some were stubborn 259  and refused to believe, reviling 260  the Way 261  before the congregation, he left 262  them and took the disciples with him, 263  addressing 264  them every day 265  in the lecture hall 266  of Tyrannus. 19:10 This went on for two years, so that all who lived in the province of Asia, 267  both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord. 268 

The Seven Sons of Sceva

19:11 God was performing extraordinary 269  miracles by Paul’s hands, 19:12 so that when even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his body 270  were brought 271  to the sick, their diseases left them and the evil spirits went out of them. 272  19:13 But some itinerant 273  Jewish exorcists tried to invoke the name 274  of the Lord Jesus over those who were possessed by 275  evil spirits, saying, “I sternly warn 276  you by Jesus whom Paul preaches.” 19:14 (Now seven sons of a man named 277  Sceva, a Jewish high priest, were doing this.) 278  19:15 But the evil spirit replied to them, 279  “I know about Jesus 280  and I am acquainted with 281  Paul, but who are you?” 282  19:16 Then the man who was possessed by 283  the evil spirit jumped on 284  them and beat them all into submission. 285  He prevailed 286  against them so that they fled from that house naked and wounded. 19:17 This became known to all who lived in Ephesus, 287  both Jews and Greeks; fear came over 288  them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised. 289  19:18 Many of those who had believed came forward, 290  confessing and making their deeds known. 291  19:19 Large numbers 292  of those who had practiced magic 293  collected their books 294  and burned them up in the presence of everyone. 295  When 296  the value of the books was added up, it was found to total fifty thousand silver coins. 297  19:20 In this way the word of the Lord 298  continued to grow in power 299  and to prevail. 300 

A Riot in Ephesus

19:21 Now after all these things had taken place, 301  Paul resolved 302  to go to Jerusalem, 303  passing through Macedonia 304  and Achaia. 305  He said, 306  “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.” 307  19:22 So after sending 308  two of his assistants, 309  Timothy and Erastus, to Macedonia, 310  he himself stayed on for a while in the province of Asia. 311 

19:23 At 312  that time 313  a great disturbance 314  took place concerning the Way. 315  19:24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines 316  of Artemis, 317  brought a great deal 318  of business 319  to the craftsmen. 19:25 He gathered 320  these 321  together, along with the workmen in similar trades, 322  and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity 323  comes from this business. 19:26 And you see and hear that this Paul has persuaded 324  and turned away 325  a large crowd, 326  not only in Ephesus 327  but in practically all of the province of Asia, 328  by saying 329  that gods made by hands are not gods at all. 330  19:27 There is danger not only that this business of ours will come into disrepute, 331  but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis 332  will be regarded as nothing, 333  and she whom all the province of Asia 334  and the world worship will suffer the loss of her greatness.” 335 

19:28 When 336  they heard 337  this they became enraged 338  and began to shout, 339  “Great is Artemis 340  of the Ephesians!” 19:29 The 341  city was filled with the uproar, 342  and the crowd 343  rushed to the theater 344  together, 345  dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions. 19:30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly, 346  the disciples would not let him. 19:31 Even some of the provincial authorities 347  who were his friends sent 348  a message 349  to him, urging him not to venture 350  into the theater. 19:32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together. 351  19:33 Some of the crowd concluded 352  it was about 353  Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front. 354  Alexander, gesturing 355  with his hand, was wanting to make a defense 356  before the public assembly. 357  19:34 But when they recognized 358  that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison, 359  “Great is Artemis 360  of the Ephesians!” for about two hours. 361  19:35 After the city secretary 362  quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person 363  is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper 364  of the temple of the great Artemis 365  and of her image that fell from heaven? 366  19:36 So because these facts 367  are indisputable, 368  you must keep quiet 369  and not do anything reckless. 370  19:37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers 371  nor blasphemers of our goddess. 372  19:38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint 373  against someone, the courts are open 374  and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there. 375  19:39 But if you want anything in addition, 376  it will have to be settled 377  in a legal assembly. 378  19:40 For 379  we are in danger of being charged with rioting 380  today, since there is no cause we can give to explain 381  this disorderly gathering.” 382  19:41 After 383  he had said 384  this, 385  he dismissed the assembly. 386 

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[17:1]  1 tn BDAG 250 s.v. διοδεύω 1 has “go, travel through” for this verse.

[17:1]  2 sn Amphipolis. The capital city of the southeastern district of Macedonia (BDAG 55 s.v. ᾿Αμφίπολις). It was a military post. From Philippi this was about 33 mi (53 km).

[17:1]  3 sn Apollonia was a city in Macedonia about 27 mi (43 km) west southwest of Amphipolis.

[17:1]  4 sn Thessalonica (modern Salonica) was a city in Macedonia about 33 mi (53 km) west of Apollonia. It was the capital of Macedonia. The road they traveled over was called the Via Egnatia. It is likely they rode horses, given their condition in Philippi. The implication of v. 1 is that the two previously mentioned cities lacked a synagogue.

[17:1]  map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

[17:1]  5 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[17:2]  6 tn Grk “he went in to them”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:2]  7 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:2. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[17:3]  8 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 2.b has “demonstrate, point out” here.

[17:3]  9 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[17:3]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

[17:3]  10 sn The Christ had to suffer and to rise from the dead. These two points (suffering and resurrection) would have been among the more controversial aspects of Paul’s messianic preaching. The term translated “had to” (δεῖ, dei) shows how divine design and scripture corresponded here.

[17:3]  11 tn The Greek words used here (καὶ ὅτι, kai {oti, “and that”) mark the switch from indirect to direct discourse. Contemporary English requires the use of an introductory verb of speaking or saying to make this transition.

[17:3]  12 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[17:3]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31. The identification of the Messiah with Jesus indicates Paul was proclaiming the fulfillment of messianic promise.

[17:4]  13 tn Or “convinced.”

[17:4]  14 tn Or “a large crowd.”

[17:4]  15 tn Or “of devout Greeks,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Luke frequently mentions such people (Acts 13:43, 50; 16:14; 17:17; 18:7).

[17:4]  16 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).

[17:5]  17 tn Grk “becoming jealous.” The participle ζηλώσαντες (zhlwsante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. So elsewhere in Acts (5:17; 7:9; 13:45).

[17:5]  18 tn Literally ἀγοραῖος (agoraio") refers to the crowd in the marketplace, although BDAG 14-15 s.v. ἀγοραῖος 1 gives the meaning, by extension, as “rabble.” Such a description is certainly appropriate in this context. L&N 15.127 translates the phrase “worthless men from the streets.”

[17:5]  19 tn On this term, which is a NT hapax legomenon, see BDAG 745 s.v. ὀχλοποιέω.

[17:5]  20 tn BDAG 458 s.v. θορυβέω 1 has “set the city in an uproar, start a riot in the city” for the meaning of ἐθορύβουν (eqoruboun) in this verse.

[17:5]  21 sn The attack took place at Jason’s house because this was probably the location of the new house church.

[17:5]  22 tn Grk “them”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:5]  23 tn BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2 has “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly προάγειν εἰς τὸν δ. Ac 17:5.”

[17:6]  24 tn See BDAG 977-78 s.v. σύρω on this verb. It was used in everyday speech of dragging in fish by a net, or dragging away someone’s (presumably) dead body (Paul in Acts 14:19).

[17:6]  25 tn L&N 37.93 defines πολιτάρχης (politarch") as “a public official responsible for administrative matters within a town or city and a member of the ruling council of such a political unit – ‘city official’” (see also BDAG 845 s.v.).

[17:6]  26 tn Or “rebellion.” BDAG 72 s.v. ἀναστατόω has “disturb, trouble, upset,” but in light of the references in the following verse to political insurrection, “stirred up rebellion” would also be appropriate.

[17:6]  27 tn Or “the empire.” This was a way of referring to the Roman empire (BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 2.b).

[17:6]  sn Throughout the world. Note how some of those present had knowledge of what had happened elsewhere. Word about Paul and his companions and their message was spreading.

[17:7]  28 tn Grk “whom.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who have stirred up trouble…whom Jason has welcomed”) the relative pronoun here (“whom”) has been replaced by the conjunction “and,” creating a clause that is grammatically coordinate but logically subordinate in the translation.

[17:7]  29 tn Grk “and they.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[17:7]  30 tn Or “the emperor’s” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

[17:7]  31 tn The word “named” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for clarity.

[17:7]  32 sn Acting…saying…Jesus. The charges are serious, involving sedition (Luke 23:2). If the political charges were true, Rome would have to react.

[17:8]  33 tn Grk “They troubled the crowd and the city officials”; but this could be understood to mean “they bothered” or “they annoyed.” In reality the Jewish instigators managed to instill doubt and confusion into both the mob and the officials by their false charges of treason. Verse 8 suggests the charges raised again Paul, Silas, Jason, and the others were false.

[17:8]  34 tn L&N 37.93 defines πολιτάρχης (politarch") as “a public official responsible for administrative matters within a town or city and a member of the ruling council of such a political unit – ‘city official.’”

[17:9]  35 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[17:9]  36 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the city officials) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:9]  37 tn That is, “a payment” or “a pledge of security” (BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 1) for which “bail” is the most common contemporary English equivalent.

[17:10]  38 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) west of Thessalonica.

[17:10]  map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

[17:10]  39 tn Grk “who arriving there, went to.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (οἵτινες, Joitine") has been left untranslated and a new English sentence begun. The participle παραγενόμενοι (paragenomenoi) has been taken temporally.

[17:10]  40 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[17:11]  41 tn Grk “These”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue at Berea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:11]  42 tn Or “more willing to learn.” L&N 27.48 and BDAG 404 s.v. εὐγενής 2 both use the term “open-minded” here. The point is that they were more receptive to Paul’s message.

[17:11]  43 sn Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia (modern Salonica).

[17:11]  map For location see JP1 C1; JP2 C1; JP3 C1; JP4 C1.

[17:11]  44 tn Or “willingly,” “readily”; Grk “with all eagerness.”

[17:11]  45 tn Grk “who received.” Here the relative pronoun (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“they”) preceded by a semicolon, which is less awkward in contemporary English than a relative clause at this point.

[17:11]  46 tn This verb (BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω 1) refers to careful examination.

[17:11]  47 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

[17:12]  48 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).

[17:12]  49 tn Or “respected.”

[17:13]  50 sn Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia (modern Salonica).

[17:13]  51 tn Grk “that the word of God had also been proclaimed by Paul.” This passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[17:13]  52 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) from Thessalonica.

[17:13]  53 tn BDAG 911 s.v. σαλεύω 2 has “incite” for σαλεύοντες (saleuonte") in Acts 17:13.

[17:13]  sn Inciting. Ironically, it was the Jews who were disturbing the peace, not the Christians.

[17:13]  54 tn Or “stirring up” (BDAG 990-91 s.v. ταράσσω 2). The point is the agitation of the crowds.

[17:14]  55 tn Grk “to the sea.” Here ἕως ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ({ew" epi thn qalassan) must mean “to the edge of the sea,” that is, “to the coast.” Since there is no mention of Paul taking a ship to Athens, he presumably traveled overland. The journey would have been about 340 mi (550 km).

[17:14]  56 tn Grk “remained there”; the referent (Berea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:15]  57 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[17:15]  58 sn They left. See 1 Thess 3:1-2, which shows they went from here to Thessalonica.

[17:16]  59 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[17:16]  60 tn Grk “greatly upset within him,” but the words “within him” were not included in the translation because they are redundant in English. See L&N 88.189. The term could also be rendered “infuriated.”

[17:16]  sn His spirit was greatly upset. See Rom 1:18-32 for Paul’s feelings about idolatry. Yet he addressed both Jews and Gentiles with tact and reserve.

[17:16]  61 tn Or “when he saw.” The participle θεωροῦντος (qewrounto") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle; it could also be translated as temporal.

[17:17]  62 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:17. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[17:17]  63 tn Or “and the devout,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44, and the note on the phrase “God-fearing Greeks” in 17:4.

[17:17]  64 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[17:17]  65 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

[17:18]  66 sn An Epicurean was a follower of the philosophy of Epicurus, who founded a school in Athens about 300 b.c. Although the Epicureans saw the aim of life as pleasure, they were not strictly hedonists, because they defined pleasure as the absence of pain. Along with this, they desired the avoidance of trouble and freedom from annoyances. They saw organized religion as evil, especially the belief that the gods punished evildoers in an afterlife. In keeping with this, they were unable to accept Paul’s teaching about the resurrection.

[17:18]  67 sn A Stoic was a follower of the philosophy founded by Zeno (342-270 b.c.), a Phoenician who came to Athens and modified the philosophical system of the Cynics he found there. The Stoics rejected the Epicurean ideal of pleasure, stressing virtue instead. The Stoics emphasized responsibility for voluntary actions and believed risks were worth taking, but thought the actual attainment of virtue was difficult. They also believed in providence.

[17:18]  68 tn BDAG 956 s.v. συμβάλλω 1 has “converse, confer” here.

[17:18]  69 tn Grk “saying.”

[17:18]  70 tn Or “ignorant show-off.” The traditional English translation of σπερμολόγος (spermologo") is given in L&N 33.381 as “foolish babbler.” However, an alternate view is presented in L&N 27.19, “(a figurative extension of meaning of a term based on the practice of birds in picking up seeds) one who acquires bits and pieces of relatively extraneous information and proceeds to pass them off with pretense and show – ‘ignorant show-off, charlatan.’” A similar view is given in BDAG 937 s.v. σπερμολόγος: “in pejorative imagery of persons whose communication lacks sophistication and seems to pick up scraps of information here and there scrapmonger, scavenger…Engl. synonyms include ‘gossip’, ‘babbler’, chatterer’; but these terms miss the imagery of unsystematic gathering.”

[17:18]  71 tn The meaning of this phrase is not clear. Literally it reads “strange deities” (see BDAG 210 s.v. δαιμόνιον 1). The note of not being customary is important. In the ancient world what was new was suspicious. The plural δαιμονίων (daimoniwn, “deities”) shows the audience grappling with Paul’s teaching that God was working through Jesus.

[17:18]  72 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[17:19]  73 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:19]  74 tn Or “to the council of the Areopagus.” See also the term in v. 22.

[17:19]  sn The Areopagus has been traditionally understood as reference to a rocky hill near the Acropolis in Athens, although this place may well have been located in the marketplace at the foot of the hill (L&N 93.412; BDAG 129 s.v. ῎Αρειος πάγος). This term does not refer so much to the place, however, as to the advisory council of Athens known as the Areopagus, which dealt with ethical, cultural, and religious matters, including the supervision of education and controlling the many visiting lecturers. Thus it could be translated the council of the Areopagus. See also the term in v. 22.

[17:20]  75 tn BDAG 684 s.v. ξενίζω 2 translates the substantival participle ξενίζοντα (xenizonta) as “astonishing things Ac 17:20.”

[17:20]  76 tn Grk “these things”; but since the referent (“surprising things”) is so close, the repetition of “these things” sounds redundant in English, so the pronoun “they” was substituted in the translation.

[17:21]  77 tn The imperfect verb ηὐκαίρουν (hukairoun) has been translated as a customary or habitual imperfect.

[17:21]  78 tn BDAG 406-7 s.v. εὐκαιρέω has “used to spend their time in nothing else than telling Ac 17:21.”

[17:21]  79 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The reference to newness may be pejorative.

[17:22]  80 tn Grk “standing…said.” The participle ζηλώσαντες (zhlwsante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[17:22]  81 tn The term δεισιδαιμονεστέρους (deisidaimonesterou") is difficult. On the one hand it can have the positive sense of “devout,” but on the other hand it can have the negative sense of “superstitious” (BDAG 216 s.v. δεισιδαίμων). As part of a laudatory introduction (the technical rhetorical term for this introduction was capatatio), the term is probably positive here. It may well be a “backhanded” compliment, playing on the ambiguity.

[17:22]  82 tn BDAG 513 s.v. κατά B.6 translates the phrase κατὰ πάντα (kata panta) as “in all respects.

[17:23]  83 tn Or “your sanctuaries.” L&N 53.54 gives “sanctuary” (place of worship) as an alternate meaning for the word σεβάσματα (sebasmata).

[17:23]  84 tn Grk “on which was written,” but since it would have been carved in stone, it is more common to speak of an “inscription” in English. To simplify the English the relative construction with a passive verb (“on which was inscribed”) was translated as a prepositional phrase with a substantive (“inscription”).

[17:23]  85 tn BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b has “Abs. ὅ ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε what you worship without knowing it (on the subject matter Maximus Tyr. 11, 5e: all sorts of philosophers ἴσασιν οὐκ ἑκόντες καὶ λέγουσιν ἄκοντες sc. τὸ θεῖον = they know and name God without intending to do so) Ac 17:23.” Paul, in typical Jewish Christian style, informs them of the true God, of whom their idols are an ignorant reflection.

[17:24]  86 tn Grk “all the things that are in it.” The speech starts with God as Creator, like 14:15.

[17:24]  87 tn Or “because he is.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) could be either adjectival, modifying οὗτος (Joutos, “who is Lord…”) or adverbial of cause (“because he is Lord…”). Since the participle διδούς (didou") in v. 25 appears to be clearly causal in force, it is preferable to understand ὑπάρχων as adjectival in this context.

[17:24]  88 sn On the statement does not live in temples made by human hands compare Acts 7:48. This has implications for idols as well. God cannot be represented by them or, as the following clause also suggests, served by human hands.

[17:25]  89 tn L&N 57.45 has “nor does he need anything more that people can supply by working for him.”

[17:25]  90 tn Grk “he himself gives to all [people] life and breath and all things.”

[17:26]  91 sn The one man refers to Adam (the word “man” is understood).

[17:26]  92 tn Or “mankind.” BDAG 276 s.v. ἔθνος 1 has “every nation of humankind Ac 17:26.”

[17:26]  93 tn Grk “to live over all the face of the earth.”

[17:26]  94 tn BDAG 884-85 s.v. προστάσσω has “(οἱ) προστεταγμένοι καιροί (the) fixed times Ac 17:26” here, but since the following phrase is also translated “fixed limits,” this would seem redundant in English, so the word “set” has been used instead.

[17:26]  95 tn Grk “the boundaries of their habitation.” L&N 80.5 has “fixed limits of the places where they would live” for this phrase.

[17:27]  96 tn See BDAG 1097-98 s.v. ψηλαφάω, which lists “touch, handle” and “to feel around for, grope for” as possible meanings.

[17:27]  97 sn Perhaps grope around for him and find him. The pagans’ struggle to know God is the point here. Conscience alone is not good enough.

[17:27]  98 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντα (Juparconta) has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

[17:28]  99 tn According to L&N 15.1, “A strictly literal translation of κινέω in Ac 17:28 might imply merely moving from one place to another. The meaning, however, is generalized movement and activity; therefore, it may be possible to translate κινούμεθα as ‘we come and go’ or ‘we move about’’ or even ‘we do what we do.’”

[17:28]  100 sn This quotation is from Aratus (ca. 310-245 b.c.), Phaenomena 5. Paul asserted a general relationship and accountability to God for all humanity.

[17:29]  101 tn Or “the divine being.” BDAG 446 s.v. θεῖος 1.b has “divine being, divinity” here.

[17:29]  102 tn Or “a likeness.” Again idolatry is directly attacked as an affront to God and a devaluation of him.

[17:29]  103 tn Grk “by the skill and imagination of man,” but ἀνθρώπου (anqrwpou) has been translated as an attributive genitive.

[17:29]  104 tn Or “craftsmanship” (cf. BDAG 1001 s.v. τέχνη).

[17:29]  105 tn Or “thought.” BDAG 336 s.v. ἐνθύμησις has “thought, reflection, idea” as the category of meaning here, but in terms of creativity (as in the context) the imaginative faculty is in view.

[17:30]  106 tn Or “has deliberately paid no attention to.”

[17:30]  107 tn Or “times when people did not know.”

[17:30]  108 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).

[17:30]  109 sn He now commands all people everywhere to repent. God was now asking all mankind to turn to him. No nation or race was excluded.

[17:31]  110 tn Or “fixed.”

[17:31]  111 sn The world refers to the whole inhabited earth.

[17:31]  112 tn Or “appointed.” BDAG 723 s.v. ὁρίζω 2.b has “of persons appoint, designate, declare: God judges the world ἐν ἀνδρὶ ᾧ ὥρισεν through a man whom he has appointed Ac 17:31.”

[17:31]  sn A man whom he designated. Jesus is put in the position of eschatological judge. As judge of the living and the dead, he possesses divine authority (Acts 10:42).

[17:31]  113 tn The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") indicates means here.

[17:32]  114 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.

[17:32]  115 tn L&N 33.408 has “some scoffed (at him) Ac 17:32” for ἐχλεύαζον (ecleuazon) here; the imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“began to scoff”).

[17:33]  116 tn Grk “left out of their midst”; the referent (the Areopagus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[17:34]  117 tn Although the Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which normally refers to males, husbands, etc., in this particular context it must have a generic force similar to that of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), since “a woman named Damaris” is mentioned specifically as being part of this group (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).

[17:34]  118 tn Grk “joining him, believed.” The participle κολληθέντες (kollhqente") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. On the use of this verb in Acts, see 5:13; 8:29; 9:26; 10:28.

[17:34]  119 tn Grk “among whom.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been translated as a third person plural pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.

[17:34]  120 tn Grk “the Areopagite” (a member of the council of the Areopagus). The noun “Areopagite” is not in common usage today in English. It is clearer to use a descriptive phrase “a member of the Areopagus” (L&N 11.82). However, this phrase alone can be misleading in English: “Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus, and a woman named Damaris” could be understood to refer to three people (Dionysius, an unnamed member of the Areopagus, and Damaris) rather than only two. Converting the descriptive phrase to a relative clause in English (“who was a member of the Areopagus”) removes the ambiguity.

[17:34]  121 tn Grk “and a woman”; but this καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

[18:1]  122 tn Grk “After these things.”

[18:1]  123 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[18:1]  124 tn Or “Paul left.”

[18:1]  125 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[18:1]  126 sn Corinth was the capital city of the senatorial province of Achaia and the seat of the Roman proconsul. It was located 55 mi (88 km) west of Athens. Corinth was a major rival to Athens and was the largest city in Greece at the time.

[18:1]  map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[18:2]  127 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

[18:2]  128 tn Grk “finding.” The participle εὑρών (Jeurwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:2]  129 sn On Aquila and his wife Priscilla see also Acts 18:18, 26; Rom 16:3-4; 1 Cor 16:19; 2 Tim 4:19. In the NT “Priscilla” and “Prisca” are the same person. This author uses the full name Priscilla, while Paul uses the diminutive form Prisca.

[18:2]  130 sn Pontus was a region in the northeastern part of Asia Minor. It was a Roman province.

[18:2]  131 sn Claudius refers to the Roman emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus, known as Claudius, who ruled from a.d. 41-54. The edict expelling the Jews from Rome was issued in a.d. 49 (Suetonius, Claudius 25.4).

[18:2]  132 tn Or “to leave.”

[18:2]  133 map For location see JP4 A1.

[18:2]  134 tn Or “went to.”

[18:3]  135 tn The prepositional phrase “with them” occurs only once in the Greek text, but since it occurs between the two finite verbs (ἔμενεν, emenen, and ἠργάζετο, hrgazeto) it relates (by implication) to both of them.

[18:3]  136 tn On the term translated “tentmakers,” see BDAG 928-29 s.v. σκνηοποιός. Paul apparently manufactured tents. In contrast to the Cynic philosophers, Paul at times labored to support himself (see also v. 5).

[18:3]  137 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[18:4]  138 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 18:4. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[18:4]  139 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[18:4]  140 tn Grk “Addressing in the synagogue every Sabbath, he was attempting to persuade both Jews and Greeks.” Because in English the verb “address” is not used absolutely but normally has an object specified, the direct objects of the verb ἔπειθεν (epeiqen) have been moved forward as the objects of the English verb “addressed,” and the pronoun “them” repeated in the translation as the object of ἔπειθεν. The verb ἔπειθεν has been translated as a conative imperfect.

[18:5]  141 tn Grk “came down.”

[18:5]  142 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[18:5]  143 tn BDAG 971 s.v. συνέχω 6 states, “συνείχετο τῷ λόγῳ (Paul) was wholly absorbed in preaching Ac 18:5…in contrast to the activity cited in vs. 3.” The imperfect συνείχετο (suneiceto) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“became wholly absorbed…”), stressing the change in Paul’s activity once Silas and Timothy arrived. At this point Paul apparently began to work less and preach more.

[18:5]  144 tn BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 2 has “testify of, bear witness to solemnly (orig. under oath)…W. acc. and inf. foll. Ac 18:5.”

[18:5]  145 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

[18:5]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

[18:6]  146 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[18:6]  147 tn The participle βλασφημούντων (blasfhmountwn) has been taken temporally. The direct object (“him”) is implied rather than expressed and could be impersonal (“it,” referring to what Paul was saying rather than Paul himself), but the verb occurs more often in contexts involving defamation or slander against personal beings (not always God). For a very similar context to this one, compare Acts 13:45. The translation “blaspheme” is not used because in contemporary English its meaning is more narrowly defined and normally refers to blasphemy against God (not what Paul’s opponents were doing here). What they were doing was more like slander or defamation of character.

[18:6]  148 tn Grk “shaking out his clothes, he said to them.” L&N 16:8 translates Acts 18:6 “when they opposed him and said evil things about him, he protested by shaking the dust from his clothes.” The addition of the verb “protested by” in the translation is necessary to clarify for the modern reader that this is a symbolic action. It is similar but not identical to the phrase in Acts 13:51, where the dust from the feet is shaken off. The participle ἐκτιναξάμενος (ektinaxameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:6]  sn He protested by shaking out his clothes. A symbolic action of protest, similar but not identical to the practice of shaking the dust off one’s feet (see Acts 13:51). The two symbolic actions are related, however, since what is shaken off here is the dust raised by the feet and settling in the clothes. The meaning is, “I am done with you! You are accountable to God.”

[18:6]  149 sn Your blood be on your own heads! By invoking this epithet Paul declared himself not responsible for their actions in rejecting Jesus whom Paul preached (cf. Ezek 33:4; 3:6-21; Matt 23:35; 27:25).

[18:6]  150 tn Or “innocent.” BDAG 489 s.v. καθαρός 3.a has “guiltless Ac 18:6.”

[18:7]  151 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[18:7]  152 tn Grk “Then leaving from there he went.” The participle μεταβάς (metabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:7]  153 tn Grk “from there”; the referent (the synagogue) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[18:7]  154 tn Grk “a worshiper of God.” The clarifying phrase “a Gentile” has been supplied for clarity, and is indicated by the context, since Paul had parted company with the Jews in the previous verse. The participle σεβομένου (sebomenou) is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

[18:7]  sn Here yet another Gentile is presented as responsive to Paul’s message in Acts.

[18:8]  155 tn That is, “the official in charge of the synagogue”; ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “leader/president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93).

[18:8]  156 tn Or “who heard him,” or “who heard Paul.” The ambiguity here results from the tendency of Greek to omit direct objects, which must be supplied from the context. The problem is that no less than three different ones may be supplied here: (1) “him,” referring to Crispus, but this is not likely because there is no indication in the context that Crispus began to speak out about the Lord; this is certainly possible and even likely, but more than the text here affirms; (2) “Paul,” who had been speaking in the synagogue and presumably, now that he had moved to Titius Justus’ house, continued speaking to the Gentiles; or (3) “about it,” that is, the Corinthians who heard about Crispus’ conversion became believers. In the immediate context this last is most probable, since the two incidents are juxtaposed. Other, less obvious direct objects could also be supplied, such as “heard the word of God,” “heard the word of the Lord,” etc., but none of these are obvious in the immediate context.

[18:9]  157 sn Frequently in Acts such a vision will tell the reader where events are headed. See Acts 10:9-16 and 16:9-10 for other accounts of visions.

[18:9]  158 tn BDAG 682 s.v. νύξ 1.c has “W. prep. ἐν ν. at night, in the nightAc 18:9.”

[18:9]  159 tn The present imperative here (with negation) is used (as it normally is) of a general condition (BDF §335).

[18:10]  160 tn BDAG 384 s.v. ἐπιτίθημι 2 has “to set upon, attack, lay a hand on” here, but “assault” is a contemporary English equivalent very close to the meaning of the original.

[18:10]  161 tn Or “injure.”

[18:11]  162 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[18:11]  163 tn See BDAG 326-27 s.v. ἐν 1.d. However, it is also possible that ἐν (en) followed by the dative here stands for the ordinary dative (“to them”).

[18:12]  164 sn Gallio was proconsul of Achaia from a.d. 51-52. This date is one of the firmly established dates in Acts. Lucius Junius Gallio was the son of the rhetorician Seneca and the brother of Seneca the philosopher. The date of Gallio’s rule is established from an inscription (W. Dittenberger, ed., Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum 2.3 no. 8). Thus the event mentioned here is probably to be dated July-October a.d. 51.

[18:12]  165 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

[18:12]  166 sn Achaia was a Roman province created in 146 b.c. that included the most important parts of Greece (Attica, Boeotia, and the Peloponnesus).

[18:12]  167 tn Grk “with one accord.”

[18:12]  168 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “tribunal” for this verse and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“court,” NIV; “tribunal,” NRSV), there is no need for an alternative translation here since the bema was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time.

[18:12]  sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city. So this was a very public event.

[18:13]  169 tn Or “inciting.”

[18:13]  170 tn Grk “worship God contrary to.” BDAG 758 s.v. παρά C.6 has “against, contrary to” for Acts 18:13. The words “in a way” are not in the Greek text, but are a necessary clarification to prevent the misunderstanding in the English translation that worshiping God was in itself contrary to the law. What is under dispute is the manner in which God was being worshiped, that is, whether Gentiles were being required to follow all aspects of the Mosaic law, including male circumcision. There is a hint of creating public chaos or disturbing Jewish custom here since Jews were the ones making the complaint. Luke often portrays the dispute between Christians and Jews as within Judaism.

[18:14]  171 tn Grk “about to open his mouth” (an idiom).

[18:14]  172 tn BDAG 902 s.v. ῥᾳδιούργημα states, “From the sense ‘prank, knavery, roguish trick, slick deed’ it is but a short step to that of a serious misdeed, crime, villainy…a serious piece of villainy Ac 18:14 (w. ἀδίκημα).”

[18:14]  173 tn According to BDAG 78 s.v. ἀνέχω 3 this is a legal technical term: “Legal t.t. κατὰ λόγον ἂν ἀνεσχόμην ὑμῶν I would have been justified in accepting your complaint Ac 18:14.”

[18:14]  174 tn Grk “accepting your complaint, O Jews.”

[18:15]  175 tn Or “dispute.”

[18:15]  176 tn Grk “see to it” (an idiom).

[18:15]  177 tn Or “I am not willing to be.” Gallio would not adjudicate their religious dispute.

[18:16]  178 tn Grk “driven away,” but this could result in a misunderstanding in English (“driven” as in a cart or wagon?). “Forced away” conveys the idea; Gallio rejected their complaint. In contemporary English terminology the case was “thrown out of court.” The verb ἀπήλασεν (aphlasen) has been translated as a causative since Gallio probably did not perform this action in person, but ordered his aides or officers to remove the plaintiffs.

[18:16]  179 sn See the note on the term judgment seat in 18:12.

[18:17]  180 tn That is, “the official in charge of the synagogue”; ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “leader/president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93).

[18:17]  sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[18:17]  181 tn The imperfect verb ἔτυπτον (etupton) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[18:17]  182 sn See the note on the term judgment seat in 18:12.

[18:17]  183 tn L&N 25.223 has “‘none of these things were of any concern to Gallio’ Ac 18:17.”

[18:17]  sn Rome was officially indifferent to such disputes. Gallio understood how sensitive some Jews would be about his meddling in their affairs. This is similar to the way Pilate dealt with Jesus. In the end, he let the Jewish leadership and people make the judgment against Jesus.

[18:18]  184 tn The participle προσμείνας (prosmeina") is taken temporally.

[18:18]  185 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[18:18]  186 tn Or “Corinth, took leave of.” Grk “saying farewell to”; the participle ἀποταξάμενος (apotaxameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:18]  187 tn Grk “Syria, and with him.”

[18:18]  188 sn See the note on Aquila in 18:2.

[18:18]  189 tn Or “Aquila, who.” The relationship of the participle κειράμενος (keirameno") is difficult to determine. Traditionally it is taken to refer to Paul, meaning that Paul had his hair cut off because of the vow. However, due to the proximity of the noun ᾿Ακύλας (Akula") and the reversal of the normal order (Aquila and Priscilla, Acts 17:34), the participle is taken as adjectival referring to Aquila by H. Greeven, TDNT 2:777, n. 11. The later references to Paul in Jerusalem (Acts 21:23) do not resolve the problem, because the cutting of Paul’s own hair, while it may be implied, is not specifically mentioned in connection with the completion of the vows made by the other four.

[18:18]  190 tn The word “off” is supplied in the translation to indicate that this was not a normal haircut, but the shaving of the head connected with taking the vow (see Acts 21:24).

[18:18]  191 tn That is, “before he sailed from Cenchrea.”

[18:18]  sn Cenchrea was one of the seaports for the city of Corinth, on the eastern side of the Isthmus of Corinth, on the Aegean Sea. It was 7 mi (11 km) east of Corinth.

[18:18]  192 sn He had made a vow. It is debated whether this vow is a private vow of thanksgiving or the Nazirite vow, because it is not clear whether the Nazirite vow could be taken outside Jerusalem. Some have cited the Mishnah (m. Nazir 3:6, 5:4) to argue that the shaving of the hair can occur outside Jerusalem, and Josephus, J. W. 2.15.1 (2.313) is sometimes suggested as a parallel, but these references are not clear. H. Greeven, TDNT 2:777, is certain that this refers to the Nazirite vow. Regardless, it is clear that Paul reflected his pious dependence on God.

[18:19]  193 sn Ephesus was an influential city in Asia Minor. It was the location of the famous temple of Artemis. In 334 b.c. control of the city had passed to Alexander the Great, who contributed a large sum to the building of a new and more elaborate temple of Artemis, which became one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and lasted until destroyed by the Goths in a.d. 263. This major port city would be reached from Corinth by ship. It was 250 mi (400 km) east of Corinth by sea.

[18:19]  map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[18:19]  194 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[18:19]  195 tn Grk “left them”; the referents (Priscilla and Aquila) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

[18:19]  196 tn Grk “going”; the participle εἰσελθών (eiselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:19]  197 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[18:19]  198 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 18:19. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[18:20]  199 sn He would not consent. Paul probably refused because he wanted to reach Jerusalem for the festival season before the seas became impassable during the winter.

[18:21]  200 tn Or “but took leave of.”

[18:21]  201 tn Grk “and saying”; the participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as “added” rather than “said” to avoid redundancy with the previous “said farewell.” The participle εἰπών has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:21]  202 tn Or “will return.”

[18:21]  203 tn The participle θέλοντος (qelontos), a genitive absolute construction, has been translated as a conditional adverbial participle. Again Paul acts in dependence on God.

[18:21]  204 tn A new sentence was begun here in the translation due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the requirements of contemporary English style, which generally uses shorter sentences.

[18:22]  205 tn BDAG 531 s.v. κατέρχομαι 2 states, “arrive, put in, nautical t.t. of ships and those who sail in them, who ‘come down’ fr. the ‘high seas’…εἴς τι at someth. a harbor Ac 18:22; 21:3; 27:5.”

[18:22]  206 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1. This was a sea voyage of 620 mi (990 km).

[18:22]  map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[18:22]  207 tn Grk “going up and greeting.” The participles ἀναβάς (anabas) and ἀσπασάμενος (aspasameno") are translated as finite verbs due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[18:22]  208 tn The words “at Jerusalem” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the participle ἀναβάς (anabas). The expression “go up” refers almost exclusively to the direction of Jerusalem, while the corresponding “go down” (κατέβη, katebh) refers to directions away from Jerusalem. Both expressions are based on a Hebrew idiom. Assuming Jerusalem is meant, this is another indication of keeping that key church informed. If Jerusalem is not referred to here, then Caesarea is in view. Paul was trying to honor a vow, which also implies a visit to Jerusalem.

[18:22]  map For the location of Jerusalem see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[18:22]  209 sn Went down to Antioch. The city of Antioch in Syria lies due north of Jerusalem. In Western languages it is common to speak of north as “up” and south as “down,” but the NT maintains the Hebrew idiom which speaks of any direction away from Jerusalem as down (since Mount Zion was thought of in terms of altitude). This marks the end of the second missionary journey which began in Acts 15:36. From Caesarea to Antioch is a journey of 280 mi (450 km).

[18:22]  map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

[18:23]  210 tn Grk “Having spent”; the participle ποιήσας (poihsas) is taken temporally.

[18:23]  211 sn Galatia refers to either (1) the region of the old kingdom of Galatia in the central part of Asia Minor, or (2) the Roman province of Galatia, whose principal cities in the 1st century were Ancyra and Pisidian Antioch. The exact extent and meaning of this area has been a subject of considerable controversy in modern NT studies.

[18:23]  212 sn Phrygia was a district in central Asia Minor west of Pisidia. See Acts 16:6.

[18:24]  213 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[18:24]  214 tn Or “was a learned man.” In this verse λόγιος (logios) can refer to someone who was an attractive and convincing speaker, a rhetorician (L&N 33.32), or it can refer to the person who has acquired a large part of the intellectual heritage of a given culture (“learned” or “cultured,” L&N 27.20, see also BDAG 598 s.v. λόγιος which lists both meanings as possible here). The description of Apollos’ fervent speaking in the following verses, as well as implications from 1 Cor 1-4, where Paul apparently compares his style and speaking ability with that of Apollos, suggests that eloquent speaking ability or formal rhetorical skill are in view here. This clause has been moved from its order in the Greek text (Grk “a certain Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, an eloquent speaker, arrived in Ephesus, who was powerful in the scriptures”) and paired with the last element (“powerful in the scriptures”) due to the demands of clarity and contemporary English style.

[18:24]  215 tn Grk “powerful.” BDAG 264 s.v. δυνατός 1.b has “in the Scriptures = well-versed 18:24.”

[18:25]  216 tn Or “had been taught.”

[18:25]  217 tn Grk “and boiling in spirit” (an idiom for great eagerness or enthusiasm; BDAG 426 s.v. ζέω).

[18:25]  218 tn Grk “the things.”

[18:25]  219 tn Grk “knowing”; the participle ἐπιστάμενος (epistameno") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

[18:26]  220 tn Or “boldly.” This is a frequent term in Acts (9:27-28; 13:46; 14:3; 19:8; 26:26).

[18:26]  221 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[18:26]  222 sn Priscilla and Aquila. This key couple, of which Priscilla was an important enough figure to be mentioned by name, instructed Apollos about the most recent work of God. See also the note on Aquila in 18:2.

[18:26]  223 tn BDAG 883 s.v. προσλαμβάνω 3 has “take aside, mid. τινά someone…So prob. also Ac 18:26: Priscilla and Aquila take Apollos aside to teach him undisturbed.”

[18:27]  224 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Apollos) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[18:27]  225 sn To cross over to Achaia. Achaia was organized by the Romans as a separate province in 27 b.c. and was located across the Aegean Sea from Ephesus. The city of Corinth was in Achaia.

[18:27]  226 tn Grk “encouraging [him], the brothers wrote.” The participle προτρεψάμενοι (protreyamenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This was the typical letter of commendation from the Ephesians to the Achaeans.

[18:27]  227 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[18:27]  228 tn Grk “who, when he arrived.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced with the pronoun “he” and a new sentence begun in the translation.

[18:28]  229 tn Or “vehemently.” BDAG 414 s.v. εὐτόνως has “vigorously, vehementlyεὐ. διακατελέγχεσθαί τινι refute someone vigorously Ac 18:28.”

[18:28]  230 tn L&N 33.442 translates the phrase τοῖς ᾿Ιουδαίοις διακατηλέγχετο δημοσίᾳ (toi" Ioudaioi" diakathlenceto dhmosia) as “he defeated the Jews in public debate.” On this use of the term δημόσιος (dhmosio") see BDAG 223 s.v. 2.

[18:28]  231 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” Again the issue is identifying the Christ as Jesus (see 5:42; 8:5; 9:22; 18:5).

[18:28]  sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

[18:28]  232 tn Although many English translations have here “that Jesus was the Christ,” in the case of two accusatives following a copulative infinitive, the first would normally be the subject and the second the predicate nominative. Additionally, the first accusative here (τὸν χριστόν, ton criston) has the article, a further indication that it should be regarded as subject of the infinitive.

[19:1]  233 tn Grk “It happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[19:1]  234 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[19:1]  235 tn Or “interior.”

[19:1]  236 tn BDAG 92 s.v. ἀνωτερικός has “upper τὰ ἀ. μέρη the upper (i.e. inland) country, the interior Ac 19:1.”

[19:1]  237 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[19:1]  238 tn Grk “and found.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the sequencing with the following verse the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[19:1]  239 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

[19:2]  240 tn The participle πιστεύσαντες (pisteusante") is taken temporally.

[19:2]  241 tn Grk “they [said] to him” (the word “said” is implied in the Greek text).

[19:2]  242 tn This use of ἀλλά (alla) is ascensive and involves an ellipsis (BDAG 45 s.v. ἀλλά 3): “No, [not only did we not receive the Spirit,] but also we have not heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” However, this is lengthy and somewhat awkward in English, and the ascensive meaning can be much more easily represented by including the word “even” after the negation. Apparently these disciples were unaware of the provision of the Spirit that is represented in baptism. The language sounds like they did not know about a Holy Spirit, but this seems to be only linguistic shorthand for not knowing about the Spirit’s presence (Luke 3:15-18). The situation is parallel to that of Apollos. Apollos and these disciples represent those who “complete” their transition to messianic faith as Jews.

[19:3]  243 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:3]  244 tn Grk “they said.”

[19:4]  245 sn These disciples may have had their contact with John early on in the Baptist’s ministry before Jesus had emerged. This is the fifth time Luke links John the Baptist and Jesus (Acts 1:5; 11:16; 13:25; 18:25).

[19:6]  246 tn Or “laid.”

[19:6]  247 sn The coming of the Holy Spirit here is another case where the Spirit comes and prophesy results in Acts (see Acts 2). Paul’s action parallels that of Peter (Acts 8) and not just with Gentiles.

[19:6]  248 tn The imperfect verb ἐλάλουν (elaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[19:6]  249 tn The imperfect verb ἐπροφήτευον (eprofhteuon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[19:7]  250 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[19:8]  251 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:8]  252 tn Grk “So entering the synagogue, he spoke out fearlessly.” The participle εἰσελθών (eiselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:8]  253 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[19:8]  254 tn Or “boldly.”

[19:8]  255 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:8. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[19:8]  256 tn Or “addressing them persuasively.” The two participles διαλεγόμενος and πείθων (dialegomeno" and peiqwn) can be understood as a hendiadys (so NIV, NRSV), thus, “addressing them persuasively.”

[19:8]  257 sn To talk about Jesus as the Christ who has come is to talk about the kingdom of God. This is yet another summary of the message like that in 18:28.

[19:9]  258 tn BDAG 1105-6 s.v. ὡς 8.b lists this use as a temporal conjunction.

[19:9]  259 tn Or “some became hardened.” See BDAG 930 s.v. σκληρύνω b and Acts 7:51-53.

[19:9]  260 tn Or “speaking evil of.” BDAG 500 s.v. κακολογέω has “speak evil of, revile, insultτὶ someth. τὴν ὁδόν the Way (i.e. Christian way of life) Ac 19:9.”

[19:9]  261 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity). Luke frequently refers to it as “the Way” (Acts 9:2; 18:25-26; 19:23; 22:4; 24:14, 22).

[19:9]  262 tn Grk “leaving them, he took.” The participle ἀποστάς (apostas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:9]  263 tn The words “with him” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[19:9]  264 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:9. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[19:9]  265 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

[19:9]  266 tn The “lecture hall” was a place where teachers and pupils met. The term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 982 s.v. σχολή). L&N 7.14 notes, “it is better to use a translation such as ‘lecture hall’ rather than ‘school,’ since one does not wish to give the impression of the typical classroom situation characteristic of present-day schools.”

[19:10]  267 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

[19:10]  sn The expression all who lived in the province of Asia is good Semitic hyperbole (see Col 1:7, “all the world”). The message was now available to the region.

[19:10]  268 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[19:11]  269 tn BDAG 1019 s.v. τυγχάνω 2.d states, “δυνάμεις οὐ τὰς τυχούσας extraordinary miracles Ac 19:11.”

[19:12]  270 tn Or “skin” (the outer surface of the body).

[19:12]  271 tn Or “were taken.” It might be that as word went out into the region that since the sick could not come to Paul, healing was brought to them this way. The “handkerchiefs” are probably face cloths for wiping perspiration (see BDAG 934 s.v. σουδάριον) while the “aprons” might be material worn by workmen (BDAG 923-24 s.v. σιμικίνθιον).

[19:12]  272 tn The words “of them” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[19:13]  273 tn Grk “some Jewish exorcists who traveled about.” The adjectival participle περιερχομένων (periercomenwn) has been translated as “itinerant.”

[19:13]  274 tn Grk “to name the name.”

[19:13]  275 tn Grk “who had.” Here ἔχω (ecw) is used of demon possession, a common usage according to BDAG 421 s.v. ἔχω 7.a.α.

[19:13]  276 sn The expression I sternly warn you means “I charge you as under oath.”

[19:14]  277 tn Grk “a certain Sceva.”

[19:14]  278 sn Within the sequence of the narrative, this amounts to a parenthetical note by the author.

[19:15]  279 tn Grk “answered and said to them.” The expression, redundant in English, has been simplified to “replied.”

[19:15]  280 tn Grk “Jesus I know about.” Here ᾿Ιησοῦν (Ihsoun) is in emphatic position in Greek, but placing the object first is not normal in contemporary English style.

[19:15]  281 tn BDAG 380 s.v. ἐπίσταμαι 2 has “know, be acquainted with τινάτὸν Παῦλον Ac 19:15.” Here the translation “be acquainted with” was used to differentiate from the previous phrase which has γινώσκω (ginwskw).

[19:15]  282 sn But who are you? This account shows how the power of Paul was so distinct that parallel claims to access that power were denied. In fact, such manipulation, by those who did not know Jesus, was judged (v. 16). The indirect way in which the exorcists made the appeal shows their distance from Jesus.

[19:16]  283 tn Grk “in whom the evil spirit was.”

[19:16]  284 tn Grk “the man in whom the evil spirit was, jumping on them.” The participle ἐφαλόμενος (efalomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. L&N 15.239 has “ἐφαλόμενος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς ‘the man jumped on them’ Ac 19:16.”

[19:16]  285 tn Grk “and beating them all into submission.” The participle κατακυριεύσας (katakurieusa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. According to W. Foerster, TDNT 3:1098, the word means “the exercise of dominion against someone, i.e., to one’s own advantage.” These exorcists were shown to be powerless in comparison to Jesus who was working through Paul.

[19:16]  286 tn BDAG 484 s.v. ἰσχύω 3 has “win out, prevailκατά τινος over, against someone Ac 19:16.”

[19:17]  287 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[19:17]  288 tn Grk “fell on.” BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 2 has “φόβος ἐ. ἐπί τινα fear came upon someoneAc 19:17.”

[19:17]  289 tn Or “exalted.”

[19:18]  290 tn Grk “came”; the word “forward” is supplied in the translation to clarify the meaning and to conform to the contemporary English idiom.

[19:18]  291 tn Or “confessing and disclosing their deeds.” BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναγγέλλω 2 has “W. ἐξομολογεῖσθαι: . τὰς πράξεις αὐτο'ν make their deeds known Ac 19:18.”

[19:18]  sn Making their deeds known. Ephesus was a major pagan religious center with much syncretistic “magical” practice. Coming to Jesus changed the lives and attitudes of these believers, creating a social impact.

[19:19]  292 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 4.a has “many, quite a few” for ἱκανοί (Jikanoi) in this verse.

[19:19]  293 tn On this term see BDAG 800 s.v. περίεργος 2.

[19:19]  294 tn Or “scrolls.”

[19:19]  295 tn Or “burned them up publicly.” L&N 14.66 has “‘they brought their books together and burned them up in the presence of everyone’ Ac 19:19.”

[19:19]  296 tn Grk “and when.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[19:19]  297 tn Or “fifty thousand silver drachmas” (about $10,000 US dollars). BDAG 128 s.v. ἀργύριον 2.c states, “ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε 50,000 (Attic silver) drachmas Ac 19:19.” Another way to express the value would be in sheep: One drachma could buy one sheep. So this many drachmas could purchase a huge flock of sheep. A drachma also equals a denarius, or a day’s wage for the average worker. So this amount would be equal to 50,000 work days or in excess of 8,300 weeks of labor (the weeks are calculated at six working days because of the Jewish cultural context). The impact of Christianity on the Ephesian economy was considerable (note in regard to this the concerns expressed in 19:26-27).

[19:20]  298 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[19:20]  299 tn The imperfect verb ηὔξανεν (huxanen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect, as has the following verb ἴσχυεν (iscuen).

[19:20]  300 sn The word of the Lord…to prevail. Luke portrays the impact of Christianity in terms of the Lord’s transforming power in the lives of individuals.

[19:21]  301 tn Grk “all these things had been fulfilled.”

[19:21]  302 tn Grk “Paul purposed in [his] spirit” (an idiom). According to BDAG 1003 s.v. τίθημι 1.b.ε the entire idiom means “to resolve” (or “decide”): “ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πνεύματι w. inf. foll. Paul resolved 19:21.”

[19:21]  303 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[19:21]  304 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[19:21]  305 sn Achaia was the Roman province of Achaia located across the Aegean Sea from Ephesus. Its principal city was Corinth.

[19:21]  306 tn Grk “Achaia, saying.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the awkwardness in English of having two participial clauses following one another (“passing through…saying”), the participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun here in the translation.

[19:21]  307 sn This is the first time Paul mentions Rome. He realized the message of Christianity could impact that society even at its heights.

[19:21]  map For location see JP4 A1.

[19:22]  308 tn The aorist participle ἀποστείλας (aposteila") has been taken temporally reflecting action antecedent to that of the main verb (ἐπέσχεν, epescen).

[19:22]  309 tn Grk “two of those who ministered to him.”

[19:22]  310 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[19:22]  311 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

[19:23]  312 tn Grk “There happened at that time.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Instead the verb “took place” has been supplied in the translation.

[19:23]  313 tn BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.2.a, “in definite indications of time…Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, thenAc 12:1; 19:23.”

[19:23]  314 tn Grk “no little disturbance” (an idiom; see BDAG 991 s.v. τάραχος 2).

[19:23]  315 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity).

[19:24]  316 tn BDAG 665 s.v. ναός 1.a states, “Specif. of temples: of replicas of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 19:24…but here, near ἱερόν vs. 27…ναός can be understood in the more restricted sense shrine, where the image of the goddess stood.”

[19:24]  317 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:24]  318 tn Grk “brought not a little business” (an idiom).

[19:24]  319 sn A great deal of business. The charge that Christianity brought economic and/or social upheaval was made a number of times in Acts: 16:20-21; 17:6-7; 18:13.

[19:25]  320 tn Grk “gathering.” The participle συναθροίσας (sunaqroisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:25]  321 tn Grk “whom”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a pronoun (“these”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.

[19:25]  322 sn Workmen in similar trades. In effect, Demetrius gathered the Ephesian chamber of commerce together to hear about the threat to their prosperity.

[19:25]  323 tn Another possible meaning is “that this business is an easy way for us to earn a living.”

[19:26]  324 tn Grk “persuading.” The participle πείσας (peisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:26]  325 tn Or “misled.”

[19:26]  326 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 3.a has “of pers. ὄχλος a large crowdAc 11:24, 26; 19:26.”

[19:26]  327 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[19:26]  328 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.

[19:26]  329 tn The participle λέγων (legwn) has been regarded as indicating instrumentality.

[19:26]  330 tn The words “at all” are not in the Greek text but are implied.

[19:26]  sn Gods made by hands are not gods at all. Paul preached against paganism’s idolatry. Here is a one-line summary of a speech like that in Acts 17:22-31.

[19:27]  331 tn Or “come under public criticism.” BDAG 101 s.v. ἀπελεγμός has “come into disrepute Ac 19:27.”

[19:27]  332 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:27]  333 tn BDAG 597 s.v. λογίζομαι 1.b has “εἰς οὐθὲν λογισθῆναι be looked upon as nothingAc 19:27.”

[19:27]  334 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.

[19:27]  335 tn Or “her magnificence.” BDAG 488 s.v. καθαιρέω 2.b has “καθαιρεῖσθαι τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς suffer the loss of her magnificence Ac 19:27”; L&N 13.38 has “‘and to have her greatness done away with’ Ac 19:27.”

[19:27]  sn Suffer the loss of her greatness. It is important to appreciate that money alone was not the issue, even for the pagan Ephesians. The issue was ultimately the dishonor of their goddess to whom they were devoted in worship. The battle was a “cosmic” one between deities.

[19:28]  336 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[19:28]  337 tn Grk “And hearing.” The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.

[19:28]  338 tn Grk “they became filled with rage” (an idiom). The reaction of the Ephesians here is like that of the Jews earlier, though Luke referred to “zeal” or “jealousy” in the former case (Acts 7:54).

[19:28]  339 tn Grk “and began shouting, saying.” The imperfect verb ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

[19:28]  340 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:29]  341 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[19:29]  342 tn L&N 39.43 has “‘the uproar spread throughout the whole city’ (literally ‘the city was filled with uproar’) Ac 19:29.” BDAG 954 s.v. σύγχυσις has “confusion, tumult.”

[19:29]  343 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:29]  344 sn To the theater. This location made the event a public spectacle. The Grand Theater in Ephesus (still standing today) stood facing down the main thoroughfare of the city toward the docks. It had a seating capacity of 25,000.

[19:29]  345 tn Grk “to the theater with one accord.”

[19:30]  346 tn Or “enter the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyεἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30.”

[19:31]  347 tn Grk “Asiarchs” (high-ranking officials of the province of Asia).

[19:31]  348 tn Grk “sending”; the participle πέμψαντες (pemyante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:31]  349 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[19:31]  350 tn BDAG 242-43 s.v. δίδωμι 11 has “to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’)…Ac 19:31.” The desire of these sympathetic authorities was surely to protect Paul’s life. The detail indicates how dangerous things had become.

[19:32]  351 tn Or “had assembled.”

[19:33]  352 tn Or “Some of the crowd gave instructions to.”

[19:33]  353 tn The words “it was about” are not in the Greek text but are implied; ᾿Αλέξανδρον (Alexandron) is taken to be an accusative of general reference.

[19:33]  354 tn BDAG 865 s.v. προβάλλω 1 has “to cause to come forward, put forwardτινά someone…push someone forward to speak in the theater…Ac 19:33.”

[19:33]  355 tn Or “motioning.”

[19:33]  356 sn The nature of Alexander’s defense is not clear. It appears he was going to explain, as a Jew, that the problem was not caused by Jews, but by those of “the Way.” However, he never got a chance to speak.

[19:33]  357 tn Or “before the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33.”

[19:34]  358 tn Grk “But recognizing.” The participle ἐπιγνόντες (epignonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:34]  359 tn Grk “[they shouted] with one voice from all of them” (an idiom).

[19:34]  360 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus, 1.25 mi (2 km) northeast of the Grand Theater. Dimensions were 418 ft by 239 ft (125 m by 72 m) for the platform; the temple proper was 377 ft by 180 ft (113 m by 54 m). The roof was supported by 117 columns, each 60 ft (18 m) high by 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter. The Emperor Justinian of Byzantium later took these columns for use in construction of the Hagia Sophia, where they still exist (in modern day Istanbul).

[19:34]  361 sn They all shouted…for about two hours. The extent of the tumult shows the racial and social tensions of a cosmopolitan city like Ephesus, indicating what the Christians in such locations had to face.

[19:35]  362 tn Or “clerk.” The “scribe” (γραμματεύς, grammateu") was the keeper of the city’s records.

[19:35]  363 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").

[19:35]  364 tn See BDAG 670 s.v. νεωκόρος. The city is described as the “warden” or “guardian” of the goddess and her temple.

[19:35]  365 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:35]  366 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

[19:35]  sn The expression fell from heaven adds a note of apologetic about the heavenly origin of the goddess. The city’s identity and well-being was wrapped up with this connection, in their view. Many interpreters view her image that fell from heaven as a stone meteorite regarded as a sacred object.

[19:36]  367 tn Grk “these things.”

[19:36]  368 tn The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὄντων (ontwn) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. On the term translated “indisputable” see BDAG 68-69 s.v. ἀναντίρρητος which has “not to be contradicted, undeniable.”

[19:36]  369 tn Grk “it is necessary that you be quiet.”

[19:36]  370 tn L&N 88.98 has “pertaining to impetuous and reckless behavior – ‘reckless, impetuous.’…‘so then, you must calm down and not do anything reckless’ Ac 19:36.” The city secretary was asking that order be restored.

[19:37]  371 tn Or perhaps, “desecrators of temples.”

[19:37]  372 sn Nor blasphemers of our goddess. There was no formal crime with which Paul could be charged. He had the right to his religion as long as he did not act physically against the temple. Since no overt act had taken place, the official wanted the community to maintain the status quo on these religious matters. The remarks suggest Paul was innocent of any civil crime.

[19:38]  373 tn BDAG 600 s.v. λόγος 1.a.ε has “ἔχειν πρός τινα λόγον have a complaint against someone19:38.”

[19:38]  374 tn L&N 56.1 has ‘if Demetrius and his workers have an accusation against someone, the courts are open’ Ac 19:38.”

[19:38]  375 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The official’s request is that the legal system be respected.

[19:39]  376 tn Or “anything more than this.”

[19:39]  377 tn Or “resolved.”

[19:39]  378 tn Or “in a legal meeting of the citizens.” L&N 30.81 has “ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται ‘it will have to be settled in a legal meeting of the citizens’ Ac 19:39.” This meeting took place three times a year.

[19:40]  379 tn Grk “For indeed.” The ascensive force of καί (kai) would be awkward to translate here.

[19:40]  380 tn The term translated “rioting” refers to a revolt or uprising (BDAG 940 s.v. στάσις 2, 3). This would threaten Roman rule and invite Roman intervention.

[19:40]  381 tn Or “to account for.” Grk “since there is no cause concerning which we can give account concerning this disorderly gathering.” The complexity of the Greek relative clause (“which”) and the multiple prepositions (“concerning”) have been simplified in the translation consistent with contemporary English style.

[19:40]  382 tn Or “commotion.” BDAG 979 s.v. συστροφή 1 gives the meaning “a tumultuous gathering of people, disorderly/seditious gathering or commotionAc 19:40.”

[19:41]  383 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[19:41]  384 tn Grk “And saying.” The participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:41]  385 tn Grk “these things.”

[19:41]  386 sn Verse 41 in the English text is included as part of verse 40 in the standard critical editions of the Greek NT.



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