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Teks -- Matthew 15:1-39 (NET)

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Konteks
Breaking Human Traditions
15:1 Then Pharisees and experts in the law came from Jerusalem to Jesus and said, 15:2 “Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don’t wash their hands when they eat.” 15:3 He answered them, “And why do you disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15:4 For God said, ‘Honor your father and mother’ and ‘Whoever insults his father or mother must be put to death.’ 15:5 But you say, ‘If someone tells his father or mother, “Whatever help you would have received from me is given to God,” 15:6 he does not need to honor his father.’ You have nullified the word of God on account of your tradition. 15:7 Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said, 15:8 ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me, 15:9 and they worship me in vain, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’”
True Defilement
15:10 Then he called the crowd to him and said, “Listen and understand. 15:11 What defiles a person is not what goes into the mouth; it is what comes out of the mouth that defiles a person.” 15:12 Then the disciples came to him and said, “Do you know that when the Pharisees heard this saying they were offended?” 15:13 And he replied, “Every plant that my heavenly Father did not plant will be uprooted. 15:14 Leave them! They are blind guides. If someone who is blind leads another who is blind, both will fall into a pit.” 15:15 But Peter said to him, “Explain this parable to us.” 15:16 Jesus said, “Even after all this, are you still so foolish? 15:17 Don’t you understand that whatever goes into the mouth enters the stomach and then passes out into the sewer? 15:18 But the things that come out of the mouth come from the heart, and these things defile a person. 15:19 For out of the heart come evil ideas, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander. 15:20 These are the things that defile a person; it is not eating with unwashed hands that defiles a person.”
A Canaanite Woman’s Faith
15:21 After going out from there, Jesus went to the region of Tyre and Sidon. 15:22 A Canaanite woman from that area came and cried out, “Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David! My daughter is horribly demon-possessed!” 15:23 But he did not answer her a word. Then his disciples came and begged him, “Send her away, because she keeps on crying out after us.” 15:24 So he answered, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” 15:25 But she came and bowed down before him and said, “Lord, help me!” 15:26 “It is not right to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs,” he said. said. 15:27 “Yes, Lord,” she replied, “but even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters’ table.” 15:28 Then Jesus answered her, “Woman, your faith is great! Let what you want be done for you.” And her daughter was healed from that hour.
Healing Many Others
15:29 When he left there, Jesus went along the Sea of Galilee. Then he went up a mountain, where he sat down. 15:30 Then large crowds came to him bringing with them the lame, blind, crippled, mute, and many others. They laid them at his feet, and he healed them. 15:31 As a result, the crowd was amazed when they saw the mute speaking, the crippled healthy, the lame walking, and the blind seeing, and they praised the God of Israel.
The Feeding of the Four Thousand
15:32 Then Jesus called the disciples and said, “I have compassion on the crowd, because they have already been here with me three days and they have nothing to eat. I don’t want to send them away hungry since they may faint on the way.” 15:33 The disciples said to him, “Where can we get enough bread in this desolate place to satisfy so great a crowd?” 15:34 Jesus said to them, “How many loaves do you have?” They replied, “Seven– and a few small fish.” 15:35 After instructing the crowd to sit down on the ground, 15:36 he took the seven loaves and the fish, and after giving thanks, he broke them and began giving them to the disciples, who then gave them to the crowds. 15:37 They all ate and were satisfied, and they picked up the broken pieces left over, seven baskets full. 15:38 Not counting children and women, there were four thousand men who ate. 15:39 After sending away the crowd, he got into the boat and went to the region of Magadan.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Canaanite residents of the region of Canaan
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Magadan a region on the west coast of the Sea of Galilee probably including the town of Magdala
 · Peter a man who was a leader among the twelve apostles and wrote the two epistles of Peter
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Sidon residents of the town of Sidon
 · Tyre a resident of the town of Tyre


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jesus, The Christ | JESUS CHRIST, 4C2 | DIVORCE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | Matthew, Gospel according to | Tradition | ABLUTION | Ecclesiasticism | Capernaum | Teachers | Commandments | Sin | UNCLEANNESS | Miracles | Pharisees | Tyre | Syrophenician | Hypocrisy | Prayer | Faith | LORD'S SUPPER; (EUCHARIST) | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Lightfoot , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

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Robertson: Mat 15:1 - From Jerusalem From Jerusalem ( apo Ierosolumōn ). Jerusalem is the headquarters of the conspiracy against Jesus with the Pharisees as the leaders in it. Already ...

From Jerusalem ( apo Ierosolumōn ).

Jerusalem is the headquarters of the conspiracy against Jesus with the Pharisees as the leaders in it. Already we have seen the Herodians combining with the Pharisees in the purpose to put Jesus to death (Mar 3:6; Mat 12:14; Luk 6:11). Soon Jesus will warn the disciples against the Sadducees also (Mat 16:6). Unusual order here, "Pharisees and scribes.""The guardians of tradition in the capital have their evil eye on Jesus and co-operate with the provincial rigorists"(Bruce), if the Pharisees were not all from Jerusalem.

Robertson: Mat 15:2 - The tradition of the elders The tradition of the elders ( tēn paradosin tōn presbuterōn ). This was the oral law, handed down by the elders of the past in ex cathedra fa...

The tradition of the elders ( tēn paradosin tōn presbuterōn ).

This was the oral law, handed down by the elders of the past in ex cathedra fashion and later codified in the Mishna. Handwashing before meals is not a requirement of the Old Testament. It is, we know, a good thing for sanitary reasons, but the rabbis made it a mark of righteousness for others at any rate. This item was magnified at great length in the oral teaching. The washing (niptontai , middle voice, note) of the hands called for minute regulations. It was commanded to wash the hands before meals, it was one’ s duty to do it after eating. The more rigorous did it between the courses. The hands must be immersed. Then the water itself must be "clean"and the cups or pots used must be ceremonially "clean."Vessels were kept full of clean water ready for use (Joh 2:6-8). So it went on ad infinitum. Thus a real issue is raised between Jesus and the rabbis. It was far more than a point of etiquette or of hygienics. The rabbis held it to be a mortal sin. The incident may have happened in a Pharisee’ s house.

Robertson: Mat 15:3 - Ye also Ye also ( kai hūmeis ). Jesus admits that the disciples had transgressed the rabbinical traditions. Jesus treats it as a matter of no great importa...

Ye also ( kai hūmeis ).

Jesus admits that the disciples had transgressed the rabbinical traditions. Jesus treats it as a matter of no great importance in itself save as they had put the tradition of the elders in the place of the commandment of God. When the two clashed, as was often the case, the rabbis transgress the commandment of God "because of your tradition"(dia tēn paradosin hūmōn ). The accusative with dia means that, not "by means of."Tradition is not good or bad in itself. It is merely what is handed on from one to another. Custom tended to make these traditions binding like law. The Talmud is a monument of their struggle with tradition. There could be no compromise on this subject and Jesus accepts the issue. He stands for real righteousness and spiritual freedom, not for bondage to mere ceremonialism and tradition. The rabbis placed tradition (the oral law) above the law of God.

Robertson: Mat 15:5 - But ye say But ye say ( hūmeis de legete ). In sharp contrast to the command of God. Jesus had quoted the fifth commandment (Exo 20:12, Exo 20:16) with the pe...

But ye say ( hūmeis de legete ).

In sharp contrast to the command of God. Jesus had quoted the fifth commandment (Exo 20:12, Exo 20:16) with the penalty "die the death"(thanatōi teleutatō ), "go on to his end by death,"in imitation of the Hebrew idiom. They dodged this command of God about the penalty for dishonouring one’ s father or mother by the use "Corban"(korban ) as Mark calls it (Mar 7:11). All one had to do to evade one’ s duty to father or mother was to say "Corban"or "Gift"(Dōron ) with the idea of using the money for God. By an angry oath of refusal to help one’ s parents, the oath or vow was binding. By this magic word one set himself free (ou mē timēsei , he shall not honour) from obedience to the fifth commandment. Sometimes unfilial sons paid graft to the rabbinical legalists for such dodges. Were some of these very faultfinders guilty?

Robertson: Mat 15:6 - Ye have made void the word of God Ye have made void the word of God ( ekurōsate ton logon tou theou ). It was a stinging indictment that laid bare the hollow pretence of their quibb...

Ye have made void the word of God ( ekurōsate ton logon tou theou ).

It was a stinging indictment that laid bare the hollow pretence of their quibbles about handwashing. Kuros means force or authority, akuros is without authority, null and void. It is a late verb, akuroō but in the lxx, Gal 3:17; and in the papyri. Adjective, verb, and substantive occur in legal phraseology like cancelling a will, etc. The moral force of God’ s law is annulled by their hairsplitting technicalities and immoral conduct.

Robertson: Mat 15:7 - Well did Isaiah prophesy of you Well did Isaiah prophesy of you ( kalōs eprophēteusen peri hūmōn Esaias ). There is sarcasm in this pointed application of Isaiah’ s wor...

Well did Isaiah prophesy of you ( kalōs eprophēteusen peri hūmōn Esaias ).

There is sarcasm in this pointed application of Isaiah’ s words (Isa 29:13) to these rabbis. He "beautifully pictured"them. The portrait was to the very life, "teaching as their doctrines the commandments of men."They were indeed far from God if they imagined that God would be pleased with such gifts at the expense of duty to one’ s parents.

Robertson: Mat 15:11 - This defileth the man This defileth the man ( touto koinoi ton anthrōpon ). This word is from koinos which is used in two senses, either what is "common"to all and gen...

This defileth the man ( touto koinoi ton anthrōpon ).

This word is from koinos which is used in two senses, either what is "common"to all and general like the Koiné Greek, or what is unclean and "common"either ceremonially or in reality. The ceremonial "commonness"disturbed Peter on the housetop in Joppa (Act 10:14). See also Act 21:28; Heb 9:13. One who is thus religiously common or unclean is cut off from doing his religious acts. "Defilement"was a grave issue with the rabbinical ceremonialists. Jesus appeals to the crowd here:

Robertson: Mat 15:11 - Hear and understand Hear and understand ( akouete kai suniete ). He has a profound distinction to draw. Moral uncleanness is what makes a man common, defiles him. That i...

Hear and understand ( akouete kai suniete ).

He has a profound distinction to draw. Moral uncleanness is what makes a man common, defiles him. That is what is to be dreaded, not to be glossed over. "This goes beyond the tradition of the elders and virtually abrogates the Levitical distinctions between clean and unclean"(Bruce). One can see the pettifogging pretenders shrivel up under these withering words.

Robertson: Mat 15:12 - Were offended Were offended ( eskandalisthēsan ). First aorist passive. "Were caused to stumble,""have taken offence"(Moffatt), "have turned against you"(Weymout...

Were offended ( eskandalisthēsan ).

First aorist passive. "Were caused to stumble,""have taken offence"(Moffatt), "have turned against you"(Weymouth), "were shocked"(Goodspeed), "War ill-pleased"(Braid Scots). They took umbrage at the public rebuke and at such a scorpion sting in it all. It cut to the quick because it was true. It showed in the glowering countenances of the Pharisees so plainly that the disciples were uneasy. See note on Mat 5:29.

Robertson: Mat 15:14 - They are blind guides They are blind guides ( tuphloi eisin hodēgoi ). Graphic picture. Once in Cincinnati a blind man introduced me to his blind friend. He said that he...

They are blind guides ( tuphloi eisin hodēgoi ).

Graphic picture. Once in Cincinnati a blind man introduced me to his blind friend. He said that he was showing him the city. Jesus is not afraid of the Pharisees. Let them alone to do their worst. Blind leaders and blind victims will land in the ditch. A proverbial expression in the O.T.

Robertson: Mat 15:15 - Declare unto us the parable Declare unto us the parable ( phrason hūmin tēn parabolēn ). Explain the parable (pithy saying) in Mat 15:11, not in Mat 15:14. As a matter of ...

Declare unto us the parable ( phrason hūmin tēn parabolēn ).

Explain the parable (pithy saying) in Mat 15:11, not in Mat 15:14. As a matter of fact, the disciples had been upset by Christ’ s powerful exposure of the "Corban"duplicity and the words about "defilement"in Mat 15:11.

Robertson: Mat 15:16 - Are ye also even yet without understanding? Are ye also even yet without understanding? ( Akmēn kai hūmeis asunetoi este ). Akmēn is an adverbial accusative (classic aichmē , point (o...

Are ye also even yet without understanding? ( Akmēn kai hūmeis asunetoi este ).

Akmēn is an adverbial accusative (classic aichmē , point (of a weapon)=akmēn chronou at this point of time, just now=eti . It occurs in papyri and inscriptions, though condemned by the old grammarians. "In spite of all my teaching, are ye also like the Pharisees without spiritual insight and grasp?"One must never forget that the disciples lived in a Pharisaic environment. Their religious world-outlook was Pharisaic. They were lacking in spiritual intelligence or sense, "totally ignorant"(Moffatt).

Robertson: Mat 15:17 - Perceive ye not? Perceive ye not? ( ou noeite ). Christ expects us to make use of our nous , intellect, not for pride, but for insight. The mind does not work infalli...

Perceive ye not? ( ou noeite ).

Christ expects us to make use of our nous , intellect, not for pride, but for insight. The mind does not work infallibly, but we should use it for its God-given purpose. Intellectual laziness or flabbiness is no credit to a devout soul.

Robertson: Mat 15:18 - Out of the mouth Out of the mouth ( ek tou stomatos ). Spoken words come out of the heart and so are a true index of character. By "heart"(kardias ) Jesus means not ...

Out of the mouth ( ek tou stomatos ).

Spoken words come out of the heart and so are a true index of character. By "heart"(kardias ) Jesus means not just the emotional nature, but the entire man, the inward life of "evil thoughts"(dialogismoi ponēroi ) that issue in words and deeds. "These defile the man,"not "eating with unwashed hands."The captious quibblings of the Pharisees, for instance, had come out of evil hearts.

Robertson: Mat 15:22 - A Canaanitish woman A Canaanitish woman ( gunē Chananaia ). The Phoenicians were descended from the Canaanites, the original inhabitants of Palestine. They were of Sem...

A Canaanitish woman ( gunē Chananaia ).

The Phoenicians were descended from the Canaanites, the original inhabitants of Palestine. They were of Semitic race, therefore, though pagan.

Robertson: Mat 15:22 - Have pity on me Have pity on me ( eleēson me ). She made her daughter’ s case her own, "badly demonized."

Have pity on me ( eleēson me ).

She made her daughter’ s case her own, "badly demonized."

Robertson: Mat 15:23 - For she crieth after us For she crieth after us ( hoti krazei opisthen hēmōn ). The disciples greatly disliked this form of public attention, a strange woman crying afte...

For she crieth after us ( hoti krazei opisthen hēmōn ).

The disciples greatly disliked this form of public attention, a strange woman crying after them. They disliked a sensation. Did they wish the woman sent away with her daughter healed or unhealed?

Robertson: Mat 15:24 - I was not sent I was not sent ( ouk apestalēn ). Second aorist passive indicative of apostellō . Jesus takes a new turn with this woman in Phoenicia. He makes a...

I was not sent ( ouk apestalēn ).

Second aorist passive indicative of apostellō . Jesus takes a new turn with this woman in Phoenicia. He makes a test case of her request. In a way she represented the problem of the Gentile world. He calls the Jews "the lost sheep of the house of Israel"in spite of the conduct of the Pharisees.

Robertson: Mat 15:27 - Even the dogs Even the dogs ( kai ta kunaria ). She took no offence at the implication of being a Gentile dog. The rather she with quick wit took Christ’ s ve...

Even the dogs ( kai ta kunaria ).

She took no offence at the implication of being a Gentile dog. The rather she with quick wit took Christ’ s very word for little dogs (kunaria ) and deftly turned it to her own advantage, for the little dogs eat of the crumbs (psichiōn , little morsels, diminutive again) that fall from the table of their masters (kuriōn ), the children.

Robertson: Mat 15:28 - As thou wilt As thou wilt ( hōs theleis ). Her great faith and her keen rejoinder won her case.

As thou wilt ( hōs theleis ).

Her great faith and her keen rejoinder won her case.

Robertson: Mat 15:29 - And sat there And sat there ( ekathēto ekei ). "Was sitting there"on the mountain side near the sea of Galilee, possibly to rest and to enjoy the view or more li...

And sat there ( ekathēto ekei ).

"Was sitting there"on the mountain side near the sea of Galilee, possibly to rest and to enjoy the view or more likely to teach.

Robertson: Mat 15:30 - And they cast them down at his feet And they cast them down at his feet ( kai eripsan autous para tous podas autou ). A very strong word, flung them down, "not carelessly, but in haste,...

And they cast them down at his feet ( kai eripsan autous para tous podas autou ).

A very strong word, flung them down, "not carelessly, but in haste, because so many were coming on the same errand"(Vincent). It was a great day for "they glorified the God of Israel."

Robertson: Mat 15:32 - Three days Three days ( hēmerai treis ). A parenthetic nominative (Robertson, Grammar , p. 460).

Three days ( hēmerai treis ).

A parenthetic nominative (Robertson, Grammar , p. 460).

Robertson: Mat 15:32 - What to eat What to eat ( ti phagōsin ). Indirect question with the deliberative subjunctive retained. In the feeding of the five thousand Jesus took compassio...

What to eat ( ti phagōsin ).

Indirect question with the deliberative subjunctive retained. In the feeding of the five thousand Jesus took compassion on the people and healed their sick (Mat 14:14). Here the hunger of the multitude moves him to compassion (splagchnizomai , in both instances). So he is unwilling (ou thelō ) to send them away hungry.

Robertson: Mat 15:32 - Faint Faint ( ekluthōsin ). Unloosed, (ekluō ) exhausted.

Faint ( ekluthōsin ).

Unloosed, (ekluō ) exhausted.

Robertson: Mat 15:33 - And the disciples say to him And the disciples say to him ( kai legousin autōi hoi mathētai ). It seems strange that they should so soon have forgotten the feeding of the fiv...

And the disciples say to him ( kai legousin autōi hoi mathētai ).

It seems strange that they should so soon have forgotten the feeding of the five thousand (Mat 14:13-21), but they did. Soon Jesus will remind them of both these demonstrations of his power (Mat 16:9, Mat 16:10). They forgot both of them, not just one. Some scholars scout the idea of two miracles so similar as the feeding of the five thousand and the four thousand, though both are narrated in detail by both Mark and Matthew and both are later mentioned by Jesus. Jesus repeated his sayings and wrought multitudes of healings. There is no reason in itself why Jesus should not on occasion repeat a nature miracle like this elsewhere. He is in the region of Decapolis, not in the country of Philip (Trachonitis ).

Robertson: Mat 15:34 - A few small fishes A few small fishes ( oliga ichthudia , diminutive again).

A few small fishes ( oliga ichthudia , diminutive again).

Robertson: Mat 15:35 - On the ground On the ground ( epi tēn gēn ). No mention of "grass"as in Mat 14:19 for this time, midsummer, the grass would be parched and gone.

On the ground ( epi tēn gēn ).

No mention of "grass"as in Mat 14:19 for this time, midsummer, the grass would be parched and gone.

Robertson: Mat 15:36 - Gave thanks Gave thanks ( eucharistēsas ). In Mat 14:19 the word used for "grace"or "blessing"is eulogēsen . Vincent notes that the Jewish custom was for the...

Gave thanks ( eucharistēsas ).

In Mat 14:19 the word used for "grace"or "blessing"is eulogēsen . Vincent notes that the Jewish custom was for the head of the house to say the blessing only if he shared the meal unless the guests were his own household. But we need not think of Jesus as bound by the peccadilloes of Jewish customs.

Robertson: Mat 15:39 - The borders of Magadan The borders of Magadan ( eis ta horia Magadan ). On the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee and so in Galilee again. Mark terms it Dalmanutha (Mar 8:1...

The borders of Magadan ( eis ta horia Magadan ).

On the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee and so in Galilee again. Mark terms it Dalmanutha (Mar 8:10). Perhaps after all the same place as Magdala, as most manuscripts have it.

Vincent: Mat 15:1 - Transgress Transgress ( παραβαίνουσιν ) Lit., to step on one side.

Transgress ( παραβαίνουσιν )

Lit., to step on one side.

Vincent: Mat 15:2 - Wash not their hands Wash not their hands Washing before meals was alone regarded as a commandment; washing after meals only as a duty. By and by the more rig...

Wash not their hands

Washing before meals was alone regarded as a commandment; washing after meals only as a duty. By and by the more rigorous actually washed between the courses, although this was declared to be purely voluntary. The distinctive designation for washing after meals was the lifting of the hands; while for washing before meat a term was used which meant, literally, to rub. If " holy," i.e., sacrificial food was to be partaken of, a complete immersion of the hands, and not a mere " uplifting" was prescribed. As the purifications were so frequent, and care had to be taken that the water had not been used for other purposes, or something fallen into it that might discolor or defile it, large vessels or jars were generally kept for the purpose (see Joh 2:6). It was the practice to draw water out of these with a kind of ladle or bucket - very often of glass - which must hold at least one and a half egg-shells (compare draw out now, Joh 2:8). The water was poured on both hands, which must be free of anything covering them, such as gravel, mortar, etc. The hands were lifted up so as to make the water run to the wrist, in order to insure that the whole hand was washed, and that the water polluted by the hand did not again run down the fingers. Similarly, each hand was rubbed with the other (the fist), provided the hand that rubbed had been affused; otherwise, the rubbing might be done against the head, or even against a wall. But there was one point on which special stress was laid. In the " first affusion," which was all that originally was required when the hands were not levitically " defiled," the water had to run down to the wrist. If the water remained short of the wrist, the hands were not clean. See Mar 7:3 (Edersheim, " Life and Times of Jesus" ).

Vincent: Mat 15:3 - Also Also ( καὶ ) The significance of this little word must not be overlooked. Christ admits that the disciples had transgressed a human injunc...

Also ( καὶ )

The significance of this little word must not be overlooked. Christ admits that the disciples had transgressed a human injunction, but adds, " Ye also transgress, and in a much greater way." " Whether the disciples transgress or not, you are the greatest transgressors" (Bengel). The one question is met with the other in the same style. Luther says, " He places one wedge against the other, and therewith drives the first back."

Vincent: Mat 15:4 - Die the death Die the death ( θανάτῳ τελευτάτω ) The Hebrew idiom is, he shall certainly be executed. The Greek is, lit., let him come ...

Die the death ( θανάτῳ τελευτάτω )

The Hebrew idiom is, he shall certainly be executed. The Greek is, lit., let him come to his end by death.

Vincent: Mat 15:5 - It is a gift It is a gift ( δῶρον ) Rev., given to God. The picture is that of a churlish son evading the duty of assisting his needy parents by utte...

It is a gift ( δῶρον )

Rev., given to God. The picture is that of a churlish son evading the duty of assisting his needy parents by uttering the formula, Corban , it is a gift to God. " Whatever that may be by which you might be helped by me, is not mine to give. It is vowed to God." The man, however, was not bound in that case to give his gift to the temple-treasury, while he was bound not to help his parent; because the phrase did not necessarily dedicate the gift to the temple. By a quibble it was regarded as something like Corban , as if it were laid on the altar and put entirely out of reach. It was expressly stated that such a vow was binding, even if what was vowed involved a breach of the law.

Vincent: Mat 15:6 - Have made of none effect Have made of none effect ( ἠκυρώσατε ) Rev., made void; ἀ , not, κῦρος , authority. Ye have deprived it of its autho...

Have made of none effect ( ἠκυρώσατε )

Rev., made void; ἀ , not, κῦρος , authority. Ye have deprived it of its authority.

Vincent: Mat 15:7 - Well Well ( καλῶς ) Admirably.

Well ( καλῶς )

Admirably.

Vincent: Mat 15:8 - Is far Is far ( ἀπέχει ) Lit., holds off from me.

Is far ( ἀπέχει )

Lit., holds off from me.

Vincent: Mat 15:19 - Out of the heart Out of the heart Compare Plato. " For all good and evil, whether in the body or in human nature, originates, as he declared, in the soul, and ove...

Out of the heart

Compare Plato. " For all good and evil, whether in the body or in human nature, originates, as he declared, in the soul, and overflows from thence, as from the head into the eyes; and therefore, if the head and body are to be well, you must begin by curing the soul. That is the first thing" (" Charmides," 157).

Vincent: Mat 15:19 - Thoughts Thoughts ( διαλογισμοὶ ) Lit., reasonings (compare Mar 9:33, Rev.), or disputings (Phi 2:14), like the captious questioning of t...

Thoughts ( διαλογισμοὶ )

Lit., reasonings (compare Mar 9:33, Rev.), or disputings (Phi 2:14), like the captious questioning of the Pharisees about washing hands.

Vincent: Mat 15:21 - Coasts Coasts ( μέρη ) Lit., and better, as Rev., parts .

Coasts ( μέρη )

Lit., and better, as Rev., parts .

Vincent: Mat 15:22 - Out of the same coasts Out of the same coasts ( ἀπὸ τῶν δρίων ἐκείνων ) Lit., as Rev., from those borders; i.e., she crossed from Phoeni...

Out of the same coasts ( ἀπὸ τῶν δρίων ἐκείνων )

Lit., as Rev., from those borders; i.e., she crossed from Phoenicia into Galilee.

Vincent: Mat 15:22 - Cried Cried ( ἐκραύγασεν ) With a loud, importunate cry: from behind. Compare after, Mat 15:23.

Cried ( ἐκραύγασεν )

With a loud, importunate cry: from behind. Compare after, Mat 15:23.

Vincent: Mat 15:22 - Me Me Making her daughter's misery her own.

Me

Making her daughter's misery her own.

Vincent: Mat 15:22 - Grievously vexed with a devil Grievously vexed with a devil ( κακῶς δαιμονίζεται ) Lit., is badly demonized. Sir J. Cheke, very evil devilled.

Grievously vexed with a devil ( κακῶς δαιμονίζεται )

Lit., is badly demonized. Sir J. Cheke, very evil devilled.

Vincent: Mat 15:23 - Send her away Send her away With her request granted; for, as Bengel exquisitely remarks, " Thus Christ was accustomed to send away."

Send her away

With her request granted; for, as Bengel exquisitely remarks, " Thus Christ was accustomed to send away."

Vincent: Mat 15:26 - Children's Children's ( τῶν τέκνων ) Bengel observes that while Christ spoke severely to the Jews, he spoke honorably of them to those without....

Children's ( τῶν τέκνων )

Bengel observes that while Christ spoke severely to the Jews, he spoke honorably of them to those without. Compare Joh 4:22.

Vincent: Mat 15:26 - Dogs Dogs ( κυναρίοις ) Diminutive: little dogs. In Mat 15:27, Wyc. renders the little whelps, and Tynd., in both verses, whelPsalms ...

Dogs ( κυναρίοις )

Diminutive: little dogs. In Mat 15:27, Wyc. renders the little whelps, and Tynd., in both verses, whelPsalms The picture is of a family meal, with the pet house-dogs running round the table.

Vincent: Mat 15:26 - Their masters Their masters The children are the masters of the little dogs. Compare Mar 7:28, " the children's crumbs."

Their masters

The children are the masters of the little dogs. Compare Mar 7:28, " the children's crumbs."

Vincent: Mat 15:30 - Cast them down Cast them down ( ἔῤῥιψαν ) Very graphic. Lit., flung them down; not carelessly, but in haste, because so many were coming on t...

Cast them down ( ἔῤῥιψαν )

Very graphic. Lit., flung them down; not carelessly, but in haste, because so many were coming on the same errand.

Vincent: Mat 15:32 - I will not I will not ( οὐ θέλω ) The A. V. might easily be mistaken for the simple future of the verb send . But two verbs are used: the verb I...

I will not ( οὐ θέλω )

The A. V. might easily be mistaken for the simple future of the verb send . But two verbs are used: the verb I will expressing Jesus' feeling or disposition. The Greek order is, and to send them away fasting I am not willing. Therefore Rev. is better: I would not.

Vincent: Mat 15:32 - Faint Faint ( ἐκλυθῶσιν ) Lit., be unstrung or relaxed.

Faint ( ἐκλυθῶσιν )

Lit., be unstrung or relaxed.

Vincent: Mat 15:34 - Little fishes Little fishes ( ἰχθύδια ) Diminutive. The disciples make their provision seem as small as possible. In Mat 15:36 the diminutive is not...

Little fishes ( ἰχθύδια )

Diminutive. The disciples make their provision seem as small as possible. In Mat 15:36 the diminutive is not used.

Vincent: Mat 15:35 - On the ground On the ground ( ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ) Compare Mar 8:6. On the occasion of feeding the five thousand, the multitude sat down on the gras...

On the ground ( ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν )

Compare Mar 8:6. On the occasion of feeding the five thousand, the multitude sat down on the grass (ἐπὶ τοὺς χότρους ) , Mat 14:19. It was then the month of flowers. Compare Mar 6:39, the green grass, and Joh 6:10, much grass. On the present occasion, several weeks later, the grass would be burnt up, so that they would sit on the ground.

Vincent: Mat 15:35 - Gave thanks Gave thanks According to the Jewish ordinance, the head of the house was to speak the blessing only if he himself shared in the meal; yet if they...

Gave thanks

According to the Jewish ordinance, the head of the house was to speak the blessing only if he himself shared in the meal; yet if they who sat down to it were not merely guests, but his children or his household, then he might speak it, even if he himself did not partake.

Vincent: Mat 15:37 - Baskets Baskets ( σπυρίδας ) See on Mat 14:20.

Baskets ( σπυρίδας )

See on Mat 14:20.

Wesley: Mat 15:1 - -- Mar 7:1.

Wesley: Mat 15:2 - The elders The chief doctors or, teachers among the Jews.

The chief doctors or, teachers among the Jews.

Wesley: Mat 15:3 - They wash not their hands when they eat bread Food in general is termed bread in Hebrew; so that to eat bread is the same as to make a meal.

Food in general is termed bread in Hebrew; so that to eat bread is the same as to make a meal.

Wesley: Mat 15:4 - Honour thy father and mother Which implies all such relief as they stand in need of. Exo 20:12; Exo 21:17.

Which implies all such relief as they stand in need of. Exo 20:12; Exo 21:17.

Wesley: Mat 15:5 - It is a gift by whatsoever thou mightest have been profited by me That is, I have given, or at least, purpose to give to the treasury of the temple, what you might otherwise have had from me.

That is, I have given, or at least, purpose to give to the treasury of the temple, what you might otherwise have had from me.

Wesley: Mat 15:7 - Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying That is, the description which Isaiah gave of your fathers, is exactly applicable to you. The words therefore which were a description of them, are a ...

That is, the description which Isaiah gave of your fathers, is exactly applicable to you. The words therefore which were a description of them, are a prophecy with regard to you.

Wesley: Mat 15:8 - Their heart is far from me And without this all outward worship is mere mockery of God. Isa 29:13.

And without this all outward worship is mere mockery of God. Isa 29:13.

Wesley: Mat 15:9 - Teaching the commandments of men As equal with, nay, superior to, those of God. What can be a more heinous sin?

As equal with, nay, superior to, those of God. What can be a more heinous sin?

Wesley: Mat 15:13 - Every plant That is, every doctrine.

That is, every doctrine.

Wesley: Mat 15:14 - Let them alone If they are indeed blind leaders of the blind; let them alone: concern not yourselves about them: a plain direction how to behave with regard to all s...

If they are indeed blind leaders of the blind; let them alone: concern not yourselves about them: a plain direction how to behave with regard to all such. Luk 6:39.

Wesley: Mat 15:17 - Are ye also yet without understanding How fair and candid are the sacred historians? Never concealing or excusing their own blemishes.

How fair and candid are the sacred historians? Never concealing or excusing their own blemishes.

Wesley: Mat 15:19 - First evil thoughts then murders - and the rest.

then murders - and the rest.

Wesley: Mat 15:19 - Railings The Greek word includes all reviling, backbiting, and evil speaking.

The Greek word includes all reviling, backbiting, and evil speaking.

Wesley: Mat 15:21 - -- Mar 7:24.

Wesley: Mat 15:22 - A woman of Canaan Canaan was also called Syrophenicia, as lying between Syria properly so called, and Phenicia, by the sea side.

Canaan was also called Syrophenicia, as lying between Syria properly so called, and Phenicia, by the sea side.

Wesley: Mat 15:22 - Cried to him From afar, Thou Son of David - So she had some knowledge of the promised Messiah.

From afar, Thou Son of David - So she had some knowledge of the promised Messiah.

Wesley: Mat 15:23 - He answered her not a word He sometimes tries our faith in like manner.

He sometimes tries our faith in like manner.

Wesley: Mat 15:24 - I am not sent Not primarily; not yet.

Not primarily; not yet.

Wesley: Mat 15:25 - Then came she Into the house where he now was.

Into the house where he now was.

Wesley: Mat 15:28 - Thy faith Thy reliance on the power and goodness of God.

Thy reliance on the power and goodness of God.

Wesley: Mat 15:29 - The sea of Galilee The Jews gave the name of seas to all large lakes. This was a hundred furlongs long, and forty broad. It was called also, the sea of Tiberias. It lay ...

The Jews gave the name of seas to all large lakes. This was a hundred furlongs long, and forty broad. It was called also, the sea of Tiberias. It lay on the borders of Galilee, and the city of Tiberias stood on its western shore. It was likewise styled the lake of Gennesareth: perhaps a corruption of Cinnereth, the name by which it was anciently called, Num 34:11. Mar 7:31.

Wesley: Mat 15:32 - They continue with me now three days It was now the third day since they came. Mar 8:1.

It was now the third day since they came. Mar 8:1.

Wesley: Mat 15:36 - He gave thanks, or blessed the food That is, he praised God for it, and prayed for a blessing upon it.

That is, he praised God for it, and prayed for a blessing upon it.

JFB: Mat 15:1 - Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem Or "from Jerusalem." Mark (Mar 7:1) says they "came from" it: a deputation probably sent from the capital expressly to watch Him. As He had not come t...

Or "from Jerusalem." Mark (Mar 7:1) says they "came from" it: a deputation probably sent from the capital expressly to watch Him. As He had not come to them at the last Passover, which they had reckoned on, they now come to Him. "And," says Mark (Mar 7:2-3), "when they saw some of His disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen hands"--hands not ceremonially cleansed by washing--"they found fault. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft"--literally, "in" or "with the fist"; that is, probably washing the one hand by the use of the other--though some understand it, with our version, in the sense of "diligently," "sedulously"--"eat not, holding the tradition of the elders"; acting religiously according to the custom handed down to them. "And when they come from the market" (Mar 7:4) --"And after market": after any common business, or attending a court of justice, where the Jews, as WEBSTER and WILKINSON remark, after their subjection to the Romans, were especially exposed to intercourse and contact with heathens--"except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups and pots, brazen vessels and tables"--rather, "couches," such as were used at meals, which probably were merely sprinkled for ceremonial purposes. "Then the Pharisees and scribes asked Him,"

JFB: Mat 15:1 - saying As follows:

As follows:

JFB: Mat 15:2 - -- Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread.

Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread.

JFB: Mat 15:3 - But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? The charge is retorted with startling power: "The tradition they transgress is but man's, and is itself the occasion of heavy transgression, undermini...

The charge is retorted with startling power: "The tradition they transgress is but man's, and is itself the occasion of heavy transgression, undermining the authority of God's law."

JFB: Mat 15:4 - For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother (Deu 5:16).

JFB: Mat 15:4 - and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death (Exo 21:17).

JFB: Mat 15:5 - But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift Or simply, "A gift!" In Mark (Mar 7:11), it is, "Corban!" that is, "An oblation!" meaning, any unbloody offering or gift dedicated to sacred uses. b...

Or simply, "A gift!" In Mark (Mar 7:11), it is, "Corban!" that is, "An oblation!" meaning, any unbloody offering or gift dedicated to sacred uses.

by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;

JFB: Mat 15:6 - And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free That is, It is true, father--mother--that by giving to thee this, which I now present, thou mightest be profited by me; but I have gifted it to pious ...

That is, It is true, father--mother--that by giving to thee this, which I now present, thou mightest be profited by me; but I have gifted it to pious uses, and therefore, at whatever cost to thee, I am not now at liberty to alienate any portion of it. "And," it is added in Mark (Mar 7:12), "ye suffer him no more to do aught for his father or his mother." To dedicate property to God is indeed lawful and laudable, but not at the expense of filial duty.

JFB: Mat 15:6 - Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect Cancelled or nullified it "by your tradition."

Cancelled or nullified it "by your tradition."

JFB: Mat 15:7 - Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying (Isa 29:13).

JFB: Mat 15:8 - This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, &c. By putting the commandments of men on a level with the divine requirements, their whole worship was rendered vain--a principle of deep moment in the s...

By putting the commandments of men on a level with the divine requirements, their whole worship was rendered vain--a principle of deep moment in the service of God. "For," it is added in Mar 7:8, "laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups; and many other such like things ye do." The drivelling nature of their multitudinous observances is here pointedly exposed, in contrast with the manly observance of "the commandment of God"; and when our Lord says, "Many other such like things ye do," it is implied that He had but given a specimen of the hideous treatment which the divine law received, and the grasping disposition which, under the mask of piety, was manifested by the ecclesiastics of that day.

JFB: Mat 15:10 - And he called the multitude, and said unto them The foregoing dialogue, though in the people's hearing, was between Jesus and the pharisaic cavillers, whose object was to disparage Him with the peop...

The foregoing dialogue, though in the people's hearing, was between Jesus and the pharisaic cavillers, whose object was to disparage Him with the people. But Jesus, having put them down, turns to the multitude, who at this time were prepared to drink in everything He said, and with admirable plainness, strength, and brevity, lays down the great principle of real pollution, by which a world of bondage and uneasiness of conscience would be dissipated in a moment, and the sense of sin be reserved for deviations from the holy and eternal law of God.

Hear and understand:

JFB: Mat 15:11 - Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man This is expressed even more emphatically in Mark (Mar 7:15-16), and it is there added, "If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." As in Mat 13:9, t...

This is expressed even more emphatically in Mark (Mar 7:15-16), and it is there added, "If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." As in Mat 13:9, this so oft-repeated saying seems designed to call attention to the fundamental and universal character of the truth it refers to.

JFB: Mat 15:12 - Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying? They had given vent to their irritation, and perhaps threats, not to our Lord Himself, from whom they seem to have slunk away, but to some of the disc...

They had given vent to their irritation, and perhaps threats, not to our Lord Himself, from whom they seem to have slunk away, but to some of the disciples, who report it to their Master.

JFB: Mat 15:13 - But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up They are offended, are they? Heed it not: their corrupt teaching is already doomed: the garden of the Lord upon earth, too long cumbered with their pr...

They are offended, are they? Heed it not: their corrupt teaching is already doomed: the garden of the Lord upon earth, too long cumbered with their presence, shall yet be purged of them and their accursed system: yea, and whatsoever is not of the planting of My heavenly Father, the great Husbandman (Joh 15:1), shall share the same fate.

JFB: Mat 15:14 - Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch Striking expression of the ruinous effects of erroneous teaching!

Striking expression of the ruinous effects of erroneous teaching!

JFB: Mat 15:15 - Then answered Peter and said unto him, Declare unto us this parable "when He was entered into the house from the people," says Mark (Mar 7:17).

"when He was entered into the house from the people," says Mark (Mar 7:17).

JFB: Mat 15:16 - And Jesus said, Are ye also yet without understanding? Slowness of spiritual apprehension in His genuine disciples grieves the Saviour: from others He expects no better (Mat 13:11).

Slowness of spiritual apprehension in His genuine disciples grieves the Saviour: from others He expects no better (Mat 13:11).

JFB: Mat 15:17-18 - Do not ye yet understand that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth, &c. Familiar though these sayings have now become, what freedom from bondage to outward things do they proclaim, on the one hand; and on the other, how se...

Familiar though these sayings have now become, what freedom from bondage to outward things do they proclaim, on the one hand; and on the other, how searching is the truth which they express--that nothing which enters from without can really defile us; and that only the evil that is in the heart, that is allowed to stir there, to rise up in thought and affection, and to flow forth in voluntary action, really defiles a man!

JFB: Mat 15:19 - For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts "evil reasonings"; referring here more immediately to those corrupt reasonings which had stealthily introduced and gradually reared up that hideous fa...

"evil reasonings"; referring here more immediately to those corrupt reasonings which had stealthily introduced and gradually reared up that hideous fabric of tradition which at length practically nullified the unchangeable principles of the moral law. But the statement is far broader than this; namely that the first shape which the evil that is in the heart takes, when it begins actively to stir, is that of "considerations" or "reasonings" on certain suggested actions.

JFB: Mat 15:19 - murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies Detractions, whether directed against God or man; here the reference seems to be to the latter. Mark (Mar 7:22) adds, "covetousnesses"--or desires aft...

Detractions, whether directed against God or man; here the reference seems to be to the latter. Mark (Mar 7:22) adds, "covetousnesses"--or desires after more; "wickednesses"--here meaning, perhaps, malignities of various forms; "deceit, lasciviousness"--meaning, excess or enormity of any kind, though by later writers restricted to lewdness; "an evil eye"--meaning, all looks or glances of envy, jealousy, or ill will towards a neighbor; "pride, foolishness"--in the Old Testament sense of "folly"; that is, criminal senselessness, the folly of the heart. How appalling is this black catalogue!

JFB: Mat 15:20 - These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man Thus does our Lord sum up this whole searching discourse.

Thus does our Lord sum up this whole searching discourse.

JFB: Mat 15:23 - But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us (Also see on Mar 7:26.)

(Also see on Mar 7:26.)

JFB: Mat 15:24 - But he answered and said, I am not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Also see on Mar 7:26.)

(Also see on Mar 7:26.)

JFB: Mat 15:25 - Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me (Also see on Mar 7:26.)

(Also see on Mar 7:26.)

Clarke: Mat 15:1 - The scribes and Pharisees - of Jerusalem The scribes and Pharisees - of Jerusalem - Our Lord was now in Galilee, Mat 14:34.

The scribes and Pharisees - of Jerusalem - Our Lord was now in Galilee, Mat 14:34.

Clarke: Mat 15:2 - Elders - Rulers and magistrates among the Jews. For they wash not their hands Elders - Rulers and magistrates among the Jews. For they wash not their hands - What frivolous nonsense! These Pharisees had nothing which their mal...

Elders - Rulers and magistrates among the Jews. For they wash not their hands - What frivolous nonsense! These Pharisees had nothing which their malice could fasten on in the conduct or doctrine of our blessed Lord and his disciples, and therefore they must dispute about washing of hands! All sorts of Pharisees are troublesome people in religious society; and the reason is, they take more pleasure in blaming others than in amending themselves

Clarke: Mat 15:2 - The tradition of the elders The tradition of the elders - The word παραδοσις, tradition, has occupied a most distinguished place, both in the Jewish and Christian Chu...

The tradition of the elders - The word παραδοσις, tradition, has occupied a most distinguished place, both in the Jewish and Christian Church. Man is ever fond of mending the work of his Maker; and hence he has been led to put his finishing hand even to Divine revelation! This supplementary matter has been called παραδοσις, from παραδιδομαι, to deliver from hand to hand - to transmit; and hence the Latin term, tradition, from trado , to deliver, especially from one to another; - to hand down. Among the Jews Tradition signifies what is also called the oral law, which they distinguish from the written law: this last contains the Mosaic precepts, as found in the Pentateuch: the former, the traditions of the elders, i.e. traditions, or doctrines, that had been successively handed down from Moses through every generation, but not committed to writing. The Jews feign that, when God gave Moses the written law, he gave him also the oral law, which is the interpretation of the former. This law, Moses at first delivered to Aaron then to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar; and, after these to the seventy-two elders, who were six of the most eminent men chosen out of each of the twelve tribes. These seventy-two, with Moses and Aaron, delivered it again to all the heads of the people, and afterwards to the congregation at large. They say also that, before Moses died, he delivered this oral law, or system of traditions, to Joshua, and Joshua to the Elders which succeeded him, They to the Prophets, and the Prophets to each other, till it came to Jeremiah, who delivered it to Baruch his scribe, who repeated it to Ezra, who delivered it to the men of the great synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the Just. By Simon the Just it was delivered to Antigonus of Socho; by him to Jose the son of Jochanan; by him to Jose, the son of Joezer; by him to Nathan the Arbelite, and Joshua the son of Perachiah; and by them to Judah the son of Tabbai, and Simeon, the son of Shatah; and by them to Shemaiah and Abtalion; and by them to Hillel; and by Hillel to Simeon his son, the same who took Christ in his arms when brought to the temple to be presented to the Lord: by Simeon it was delivered to Gamaliel his son, the preceptor of St. Paul, who delivered it to Simeon his son, and he to Rab. Judah Hakkodesh his son, who compiled and digested it into the book which is called the Mishna; to explain which the two Talmuds, called the Jerusalem and Babylyonish Talmuds, were compiled, which are also called the Gemera or complement, because by these the oral law or Mishnah is fully explained. The Jerusalem Talmud was completed about a.d. 300; and the Babylonish Talmud about the beginning of the sixth century. This Talmud was printed at Amsterdam in 12 vols. folio. These contain the whole of the traditions of the elders, and have so explained, or rather frittered away, the words of God, that our Lord might well say, Ye have made the word of God of no effect by your traditions. In what estimation these are held by the Jews, the following examples will prove: "The words of the scribes are lovely beyond the words of the law: for the words of the law are weighty and light, but the words of the scribes are all weighty."Hierus. Berac. fol. 3

"He that shall say, There are no phylacteries, though he thus transgress the words of the law, he is not guilty; but he that shall say, There are five Totaphot, thus adding to the words of the scribes, he is guilty.

"A prophet and an elder, to what are they likened! To a king sending two of his servants into a province; of one he writes thus: Unless he show you my seal, believe him not; for thus it is written of the prophet: He shall show thee a sign; but of the elders thus: According to the law which they shall teach thee, for I will confirm their words."- See Prideaux. Con. vol. ii. p. 465, and Lightfoot’ s Hor. Talmud

They wash not their hands - On washing of hands, before and after meat, the Jews laid great stress: they considered eating with unwashed hands to be no ordinary crime; and therefore, to induce men to do it, they feigned that an evil spirit, called Shibta שיבתא, who sits on the hands by night, has a right to sit on the food of him who eats without washing his hands, and make it hurtful to him! They consider the person who undervalues this rite to be no better than a heathen, and consequently excommunicate him. See many examples of this doctrine in Schoettgen and Lightfoot.

Clarke: Mat 15:3 - Why do ye - transgress the commandment Why do ye - transgress the commandment - Ye accuse my disciples of transgressing the traditions of the elders - I accuse you of transgressing the co...

Why do ye - transgress the commandment - Ye accuse my disciples of transgressing the traditions of the elders - I accuse you of transgressing the commands of God, and that too in favor of your own tradition; thus preferring the inventions of men to the positive precepts of God. Pretenders to zeal often prefer superstitious usages to the Divine law, and human inventions to the positive duties of Christianity.

Clarke: Mat 15:4 - Honor thy father and mother Honor thy father and mother - This word was taken in great latitude of meaning among the Jews: it not only meant respect and submission, but also to...

Honor thy father and mother - This word was taken in great latitude of meaning among the Jews: it not only meant respect and submission, but also to take care of a person, to nourish and support him, to enrich. See Num 22:17; Jdg 13:17; 1Ti 5:17. And that this was the sense of the law, as it respected parents, see Deu 27:16, and see the note on Exo 20:12.

Clarke: Mat 15:5 - It is a gift It is a gift - קרבן korban , Mar 7:11, an offering of approach; something consecrated to the service of God in the temple, by which a man had t...

It is a gift - קרבן korban , Mar 7:11, an offering of approach; something consecrated to the service of God in the temple, by which a man had the privilege of approaching his Maker. This conduct was similar to the custom of certain persons who bequeath the inheritance of their children to Churches or religious uses; either through terror of conscience, thus striving to purchase the kingdom of glory; or through the persuasion of interested hireling priests. It was in this way that, in the days of popish influence, the principal lands in the nation had fallen into the hands of the Church. In those charters, multitudes of which have passed through my hands, a common form was, pro salute meae, et pro salute antecessorum meorum, et pro salute successorum meorum, et pro solute uxoris meae , etc., etc., do, et concedo Deo et Ecclesiae , etc. "For my salvation, and for the salvation of my predecessors, and for the salvation of my successors, and for the salvation of my wife, etc., etc., I give and bequeath to God and his Church, etc.

Though a world of literature was destroyed, and fine buildings ruined, by the suppression of the monasteries in England, yet this step, with the Stat. 23 Hen. VIII. c. 10, together with the Stat. 9 Geo. II. c. 36, were the means of checking an evil that had arrived at a pitch of unparalleled magnitude; an evil that was supplanting the atonement made by the blood of the covenant, and putting death-bed grants of land, etc., in the place of Jesus Christ, and throwing the whole secular power of the kingdom into the hands of the pope and the priests. No wonder then that they cried out, when the monasteries were suppressed! It is sacrilege to dedicate that to God which is taken away from the necessities of our parents and children; and the good that this pretends to will doubtless be found in the catalogue of that unnatural man’ s crimes, in the judgment of the great day, who has thus deprived his own family of its due. To assist our poor relatives, is our first duty; and this is a work infinitely preferable to all pious legacies and endowments.

Clarke: Mat 15:7 - Hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy of you Hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy of you - In every place where the proper names of the Old Testament occur, in the New, the same mode of orthogr...

Hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy of you - In every place where the proper names of the Old Testament occur, in the New, the same mode of orthography should be followed: I therefore write Isaiah with the Hebrew, not Esaias, with the Greek. This prophecy is found Isa 29:13. Our blessed Lord unmasks these hypocrites; and we may observe that, when a hypocrite is found out, he should be exposed to all; this may lead to his salvation: if he be permitted to retain his falsely acquired character, how can he escape perdition!

Clarke: Mat 15:8 - Their heart is far from me Their heart is far from me - The true worship of God consists in the union of the heart to him - where this exists not, a particle of the spirit of ...

Their heart is far from me - The true worship of God consists in the union of the heart to him - where this exists not, a particle of the spirit of devotion cannot be found

Clarke: Mat 15:8 - This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth - This clause, which is taken from Isa 29:13, is omitted by several excellent MSS., and by several...

This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth - This clause, which is taken from Isa 29:13, is omitted by several excellent MSS., and by several versions and fathers. Erasmus, Mill, Drusius, and Bengel, approve of the omission, and Griesbach has left it out of the text; but as I find it in the prophet, the place from which it is quoted, I dare not omit it, howsoever respectable the above authorities may appear.

Clarke: Mat 15:9 - In vain they do worship me, etc. In vain they do worship me, etc. - By the traditions of the elders, not only the word of God was perverted, but his worship also was greatly corrupt...

In vain they do worship me, etc. - By the traditions of the elders, not only the word of God was perverted, but his worship also was greatly corrupted. But the Jews were not the only people who have acted thus: whole Christian Churches, as well as sects and parties, have acted in the same way. Men must not mould the worship of God according to their fancy - it is not what they think will do - is proper, innocent, etc., but what God himself has prescribed, that he will acknowledge as his worship. However sincere a man may be in a worship of his own invention, or of man’ s commandment, yet it profits him nothing. Christ himself says it is in vain. To condemn such, may appear to some illiberal; but whatever may be said in behalf of sincere heathens, and others who have not had the advantages of Divine Revelation, there is no excuse for the man who has the Bible before him.

Clarke: Mat 15:10 - Hear and understand Hear and understand - A most important command. Hear - make it a point of conscience to attend to the ministry of the word. Understand - be not sati...

Hear and understand - A most important command. Hear - make it a point of conscience to attend to the ministry of the word. Understand - be not satisfied with attending places of public worship merely; see that the teaching be of God, and that you lay it to heart.

Clarke: Mat 15:11 - Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth - This is an answer to the carping question of the Pharisees, mentioned Mat 15:2, Why do thy disciples ...

Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth - This is an answer to the carping question of the Pharisees, mentioned Mat 15:2, Why do thy disciples eat with unwashed hands? To which our Lord here replies, That what goes into the mouth defiles not the man; i.e. that if, in eating with unwashed hands, any particles of dust, etc., cleaving to the hands, might happen to be taken into the mouth with the food, this did not defile, did not constitute a man a sinner; for it is on this alone the question hinges: thy disciples eat with unwashed hands; therefore they are sinners; for they transgress the tradition of the elders, i.e. the oral law, which they considered equal in authority to the written law; and, indeed, often preferred the former to the latter, so as to make it of none effect, totally to destroy its nature and design, as we have often seen in the preceding notes

Clarke: Mat 15:11 - That which cometh out of the mouth That which cometh out of the mouth - That is, what springs from a corrupt unregenerate heart - a perverse will and impure passions - these defile, i...

That which cometh out of the mouth - That is, what springs from a corrupt unregenerate heart - a perverse will and impure passions - these defile, i.e. make him a sinner.

Clarke: Mat 15:12 - The Pharisees were offended The Pharisees were offended - None so liable to take offense as formalists and hypocrites, when you attempt to take away the false props from the on...

The Pharisees were offended - None so liable to take offense as formalists and hypocrites, when you attempt to take away the false props from the one, and question the sincerity of the other. Besides, a Pharisee must never be suspected of ignorance, for they are the men, and wisdom must die with them!

Clarke: Mat 15:13 - Every plant Every plant - Every plantation. So I render φυτεια, and so it is translated in the Itala version which accompanies the Greek text in the Code...

Every plant - Every plantation. So I render φυτεια, and so it is translated in the Itala version which accompanies the Greek text in the Codex Bezae, omnis plantatio , and so the word is rendered by Suidas. This gives a different turn to the text. The Pharisees, as a religious body, were now a plantation of trees, which God did not plant, water, nor own: therefore, they should be rooted up, not left to wither and die, but the fellers, and those who root up, (the Roman armies), should come against and destroy them, and the Christian Church was to be planted in their place. Since the general dispersion of the Jews, this sect, I believe, has ceased to exist as a separate body, among the descendants of Jacob. The first of the apostolical constitutions begins thus: Θεου φυτεια η καθολικη εκκλησια, και αμπελων αυτου εκλεκτος . The Catholic Church is the plantation of God, and his chosen vineyard.

Clarke: Mat 15:14 - Let them alone Let them alone - Αφετε αυτους, give them up, or leave them. These words have been sadly misunderstood. Some have quoted them to prove th...

Let them alone - Αφετε αυτους, give them up, or leave them. These words have been sadly misunderstood. Some have quoted them to prove that blind and deceitful teachers should not be pointed out to the people, nor the people warned against them; and that men should abide in the communion of a corrupt Church, because that Church had once been the Church of God, and in it they had been brought up; and to prove this they bring Scripture, for, in our present translation, the words are rendered, let them alone: but the whole connection of the place evidently proves that our blessed Lord meant, give them up, have no kind of religious connection with them, and the strong reason for which he immediately adds, because they are blind leaders. This passage does not at all mean that blind leaders should not be pointed out to the people, that they may avoid being deceived by them; for this our Lord does frequently, and warns his disciples, and the people in general, against all such false teachers as the scribes and Pharisees were; and though he bids men do that they heard those say, while they sat in the chair of Moses, yet he certainly meant no more than that they should be observant of the moral law when read to them out of the sacred book: yet neither does he tell them to do all these false teachers said; for he testifies in Mat 15:6, that they had put such false glosses on the law, that, if followed, would endanger the salvation of their souls. The Codex Bezae, for αφετε αυτους, has αφετε τους τυφλους, give up these blind men. Amen! A literal attention to these words of our Lord produced the Reformation

Probably the words may be understood as a sort of proverbial expression for - Don’ t mind them: pay no regard to them. - "They are altogether unworthy of notice.

Clarke: Mat 15:14 - And if the blind lead the blind And if the blind lead the blind - This was so self-evident a case that an apter parallel could not be found - if the blind lead the blind, both must...

And if the blind lead the blind - This was so self-evident a case that an apter parallel could not be found - if the blind lead the blind, both must fall into the ditch. Alas, for the blind teachers, who not only destroy their own souls, but those also of their flocks! Like priest, like people. If the minister be ignorant, he cannot teach what he does not know; and the people cannot become wise unto salvation under such a ministry - he is ignorant and wicked, and they are profligate. They who even wish such God speed; are partakers of their evil deeds. But shall not the poor deceived people escape? No: both shall fall into the pit of perdition together; for they should have searched the Scriptures, and not trusted to the ignorant sayings of corrupt men, no matter of what sect or party. He who has the Bible in his hand, or within his reach, and can read it, has no excuse.

Clarke: Mat 15:15 - Declare unto us this parable Declare unto us this parable - Is it not strange to hear the disciples asking for the explanation of such a parable as this! The true knowledge of t...

Declare unto us this parable - Is it not strange to hear the disciples asking for the explanation of such a parable as this! The true knowledge of the spirit of the Gospel is a thing more uncommon than we imagine, among the generality of Christians, and even of the learned.

Clarke: Mat 15:16 - Are ye also yet without understanding? Are ye also yet without understanding? - The word ακμη, which we translate yet, should be here rendered still: Are ye still void of understandi...

Are ye also yet without understanding? - The word ακμη, which we translate yet, should be here rendered still: Are ye still void of understanding? and the word is used in this sense by several Greek writers. The authorities which have induced me to prefer this translation may be seen in Kypke.

Clarke: Mat 15:17 - Cast out into the draught Cast out into the draught - Εις αφεδωνα, - And beeth into the forthgoing a sent - what is not fit for nourishment is evacuated; is thrown...

Cast out into the draught - Εις αφεδωνα, - And beeth into the forthgoing a sent - what is not fit for nourishment is evacuated; is thrown into the sink. This I believe to be the meaning of this difficult and variously translated word, αφεδρων . Diodati translates it properly, nella latrina , into the privy. And the Persian translator has given a good paraphrase, and appears to have collected the general meaning her teche der dehen ander ayeed , az nusheeb beeroon rood , we ber zemeen aftad : "Whatsoever enters into the mouth goes downward, and falls upon the ground."Michaelis, and his annotator, Dr. Marsh, have been much perplexed with this perplexing passage. See Michaelis’ s Introduction, vol. i. note 35. p. 458.

Clarke: Mat 15:19 - Out of the heart Out of the heart - In the heart of an unregenerate man, the principles and seeds of all sin are found. And iniquity is always conceived in the heart...

Out of the heart - In the heart of an unregenerate man, the principles and seeds of all sin are found. And iniquity is always conceived in the heart before it be spoken or acted. Is there any hope that a man can abstain from outward sin till his heart, that abominable fountain of corruption, be thoroughly cleansed? I trow not

Clarke: Mat 15:19 - Evil thoughts Evil thoughts - Διαλογισμοι πονηροι, wicked dialogues - for in all evil surmisings the heart holds a conversation, or dialogue, w...

Evil thoughts - Διαλογισμοι πονηροι, wicked dialogues - for in all evil surmisings the heart holds a conversation, or dialogue, with itself. For φονοι, murders, two MSS. have φθονοι, envyings, and three others have both. Envy and murder are nearly allied: the former has often led to the latter

Clarke: Mat 15:19 - Blasphemies Blasphemies - I have already observed, Mat 9:3, that the verb βλασφημεω, when applied to men, signifies to speak Injuriously of their pers...

Blasphemies - I have already observed, Mat 9:3, that the verb βλασφημεω, when applied to men, signifies to speak Injuriously of their persons, characters, etc., and, when applied to God, it means to speak Impiously of his nature, works, etc.

Clarke: Mat 15:20 - These - defile a man These - defile a man - Our Lord’ s argument is very plain. What goes into the mouth descends into the stomach and other intestines; - part is r...

These - defile a man - Our Lord’ s argument is very plain. What goes into the mouth descends into the stomach and other intestines; - part is retained for the nourishment of the body, and part is ejected, as being improper to afford nourishment. Nothing of this kind defiles the soul, because it does not enter into it; but the evil principles that are in it, producing evil thoughts, murders, etc., these defile the soul, because they have their seat and operation in it.

Clarke: Mat 15:21 - Departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon Departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon - Εις τα μερη, towards the coasts or confines. It is not clear that our Lord ever left the land...

Departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon - Εις τα μερη, towards the coasts or confines. It is not clear that our Lord ever left the land of the Hebrews; he was, as the apostle observes, Rom 15:8, the minister of the circumcision according to the truth of God. Tyre and Sidon are usually joined together, principally because they are but a few miles distant from each other.

Clarke: Mat 15:22 - A woman of Canaan A woman of Canaan - Matthew gives her this name because of the people from whom she sprung - the descendants of Canaan, Jdg 1:31, Jdg 1:32; but Mark...

A woman of Canaan - Matthew gives her this name because of the people from whom she sprung - the descendants of Canaan, Jdg 1:31, Jdg 1:32; but Mark calls her a Syrophenician, because of the country where she dwelt. The Canaanites and Phoenicians have been often confounded. This is frequently the case in the Septuagint. Compare Gen 46:10, with Exo 6:15, where the same person is called a Phoenician in the one place, and a Canaanite in the other. See also the same version in Exo 16:35; Jos 5:12

The state of this woman is a proper emblem of the state of a sinner, deeply conscious of the misery of his soul

Clarke: Mat 15:22 - Have mercy on me, etc. Have mercy on me, etc. - How proper is this prayer for a penitent! There are many excellencies contained in it 1.    It is short 2.&n...

Have mercy on me, etc. - How proper is this prayer for a penitent! There are many excellencies contained in it

1.    It is short

2.    humble

3.    full of faith

4.    fervent

5.    modest

6.    respectful

7.    rational

8.    relying only on the mercy of God

9.    persevering

Can one who sees himself a slave of the devil, beg with too much earnestness to be delivered from his thraldom

Clarke: Mat 15:22 - Son of David Son of David - An essential character of the true Messiah.

Son of David - An essential character of the true Messiah.

Clarke: Mat 15:23 - He answered her not a word He answered her not a word - Seemed to take time to consider her request, and to give her the opportunity of exercising her faith, and manifesting h...

He answered her not a word - Seemed to take time to consider her request, and to give her the opportunity of exercising her faith, and manifesting her fervor.

Clarke: Mat 15:24 - I am not sent but unto the lost sheep I am not sent but unto the lost sheep - By the Divine appointment, I am come to preach the Gospel to the Jews only. There are certain preachers who ...

I am not sent but unto the lost sheep - By the Divine appointment, I am come to preach the Gospel to the Jews only. There are certain preachers who should learn a lesson of important instruction from this part of our Lord’ s conduct. As soon as they hear of a lost sheep being found by other ministers, they give all diligence to get that one into their fold: but display little earnestness in seeking in the wilderness for those that are lost. This conduct, perhaps, proceeds from a consciousness of their inability to perform the work of an evangelist; and leads them to sit down in the labors of others, rather than submit to the reproach of presiding over empty chapels. Such persons should either dig or beg immediately, as they are a reproach to the pastoral office; for, not being sent of God, they cannot profit the people

The wilderness of this world is sufficiently wide and uncultivated. Sinners abound every where; and there is ample room for all truly religious people, who have zeal for God, and love for their perishing follow creatures, to put forth all their strength, employ all their time, and exercise all their talents, in proclaiming the Gospel of God; not only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but to a lost World. Nor can such exertions be unsuccessful. There the pure truth of God is preached, many will be converted. Where that truth is preached, though with a mixture of error, some will be converted, for God will bless his own truth. But where nothing but false doctrine is preached, no soul is converted: for God will never sanction error by a miracle of his mercy.

Clarke: Mat 15:25 - Lord, help me Lord, help me - Let me also share in the deliverance afforded to Israel.

Lord, help me - Let me also share in the deliverance afforded to Israel.

Clarke: Mat 15:26 - The children’ s bread The children’ s bread - The salvation provided for the Jews, who were termed the children of the kingdom. And cast it to the κυναριοι...

The children’ s bread - The salvation provided for the Jews, who were termed the children of the kingdom. And cast it to the κυναριοις, little dogs - to the curs; such the Gentiles were reputed by the Jewish people, and our Lord uses that form of speech which was common among his countrymen. What terrible repulses! and yet she still perseveres!

Clarke: Mat 15:27 - Truth, Lord Truth, Lord - Ναι κυριε, Yes, Lord. This appears to be not so much an assent, as a bold reply to our Lord’ s reason for apparently rej...

Truth, Lord - Ναι κυριε, Yes, Lord. This appears to be not so much an assent, as a bold reply to our Lord’ s reason for apparently rejecting her suit

The little dogs share with the children, for they eat the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table. I do not desire what is provided for these highly favored children, only what they leave: a single exertion of thy almighty power, in the healing of my afflicted daughter, is all that I wish for; and this the highly favored Jews can well spare, without lessening the provision made for themselves. Is not this the sense of this noble woman’ s reply?

Clarke: Mat 15:28 - O woman, great is thy faith O woman, great is thy faith - The hinderances thrown in this woman’ s way only tended to increase her faith. Her faith resembles a river, which...

O woman, great is thy faith - The hinderances thrown in this woman’ s way only tended to increase her faith. Her faith resembles a river, which becomes enlarged by the dykes opposed to it, till at last it sweeps them entirely away with it

Clarke: Mat 15:28 - Her daughter was made whole Her daughter was made whole - Persevering faith and prayer are next to omnipotent. No person can thus pray and believe, without receiving all his so...

Her daughter was made whole - Persevering faith and prayer are next to omnipotent. No person can thus pray and believe, without receiving all his soul requires. This is one of the finest lessons in the book of God for a penitent, or for a discouraged believer. Look to Jesus! As sure as God is in heaven, so surely will he hear and answer thee to the eternal salvation of thy soul! Be not discouraged at a little delay: when thou art properly prepared to receive the blessing, then thou shalt have it. Look up; thy salvation is at hand. Jesus admires this faith, to the end that we may admire and imitate it, and may reap the same fruits and advantages from it.

Clarke: Mat 15:29 - Went up into a mountain Went up into a mountain - Το ορος, The mountain. "Meaning,"says Wakefield, "some particular mountain which he was accustomed to frequent; for...

Went up into a mountain - Το ορος, The mountain. "Meaning,"says Wakefield, "some particular mountain which he was accustomed to frequent; for, whenever it is spoken of at a time when Jesus is in Galilee, it is always discriminated by the article. Compare Mat 4:18, with Mat 5:1; and Mat 13:54, with Mat 14:23; and Mat 28:16. I suppose it was mount Tabor."

Clarke: Mat 15:30 - Those that were - maimed Those that were - maimed - Κυλλους . Wetstein has fully proved that those who had lost a hand, foot, etc., were termed κυλλοι by the...

Those that were - maimed - Κυλλους . Wetstein has fully proved that those who had lost a hand, foot, etc., were termed κυλλοι by the Greeks. Kypke has shown, from Hippocrates, that the word was also used to signify those who had distorted or dislocated legs, knees, hands, etc. Mr. Wakefield is fully of opinion that it means here those who had lost a limb, and brings an incontestable proof from Mat 18:8; Mar 9:43. "If thy hand cause thee to offend, Cut It Off; it is better for thee to enter into life ( κυλλον ) Without A Limb, than, having thy Two hands, to go away into hell."What an astonishing manifestation of omnific and creative energy must the reproduction of a hand, foot, etc., be at the word or touch of Jesus! As this was a mere act of creative power, like that of multiplying the bread, those who allow that the above is the meaning of the word will hardly attempt to doubt the proper Divinity of Christ. Creation, in any sense of the word, i.e. causing something to exist that had no existence before, can belong only to God, because it is an effect of an unlimited power; to say that such power could be delegated to a person is to say that the person to whom it is delegated becomes, for the time being, the omnipotent God; and that God, who has thus clothed a creature with his omnipotence, ceases to be omnipotent himself; for there cannot be two omnipotents, nor can the Supreme Being delegate his omnipotence to another, and have it at the same time. I confess, then, that this is to me an unanswerable argument for the Divinity of our blessed Lord. Others may doubt; I can’ t help believing.

Clarke: Mat 15:31 - The multitude wondered The multitude wondered - And well they might, when they had such proofs of the miraculous power and love of God before their eyes. Blessed be God! t...

The multitude wondered - And well they might, when they had such proofs of the miraculous power and love of God before their eyes. Blessed be God! the same miracles are continued in their spiritual reference. All the disorders of the soul are still cured by the power of Jesus.

Clarke: Mat 15:32 - I have compassion, etc. I have compassion, etc. - See a similar transaction explained, Mat 14:14-22 (note).

I have compassion, etc. - See a similar transaction explained, Mat 14:14-22 (note).

Clarke: Mat 15:33 - Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, etc. Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, etc. - Human foresight, even in the followers of Christ, is very short. In a thousand instanc...

Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, etc. - Human foresight, even in the followers of Christ, is very short. In a thousand instances, if we supply not its deficiency by faith, we shall be always embarrassed, and often miserable. This world is a desert, where nothing can be found to satisfy the soul of man, but the salvation which Christ has procured.

Clarke: Mat 15:37 - They did all eat, and were filled They did all eat, and were filled - Εχορτασθησαν - they were satisfied. The husks of worldly pleasures may fill the man, but cannot sa...

They did all eat, and were filled - Εχορτασθησαν - they were satisfied. The husks of worldly pleasures may fill the man, but cannot satisfy the soul. A man may eat, and not be satisfied: it is the interest therefore of every follower of Christ to follow him till he be fed, and to feed on him till he be satisfied.

Clarke: Mat 15:38 - Four thousand Four thousand - Let the poor learn from these miracles to trust in God for support. Whatever his ordinary providence denies, his miraculous power wi...

Four thousand - Let the poor learn from these miracles to trust in God for support. Whatever his ordinary providence denies, his miraculous power will supply.

Clarke: Mat 15:39 - He sent away the multitude He sent away the multitude - But not before he had instructed their souls, and fed and healed their bodies

He sent away the multitude - But not before he had instructed their souls, and fed and healed their bodies

Clarke: Mat 15:39 - The coasts of Magdala The coasts of Magdala - In the parallel place, Mar 8:10, this place is called Dalmanutha. Either Magdala was formed by a transposition of letters fr...

The coasts of Magdala - In the parallel place, Mar 8:10, this place is called Dalmanutha. Either Magdala was formed by a transposition of letters from Dalman, to which the Syriac termination atha had been added, or the one of these names refers to the country, and the other to a town in that neighborhood. Jesus went into the country, and proceeded till he came to the chief town or village in that district. Whitby says, "Magdala was a city and territory beyond Jordan, on the banks of Gadara. It readied to the bridge above Jordan, which joined it to the other side of Galilee, and contained within its precincts Dalmanutha."The MSS. and VV. read the name variously - Magada, Madega, Magdala; and the Syriac has Magdu. In Mark, Dalmanutha is read by many MSS. Melagada, Madegada, Magada, Magidan, and Magedam. Magdala, variously pronounced, seems to have been the place or country; Dalmanutha, the chief town or capital

In this chapter a number of interesting and instructive particulars are contained

1.    We see the extreme superstition, envy, and incurable ill nature of the Jews. While totally lost to a proper sense of the spirituality of God’ s law, they are ceremonious in the extreme. They will not eat without washing their hands, because this would be a transgression of one of the traditions of their elders; but they can harbour the worst temper and passions, and thus break the law of God! The word of man weighs more with them than the testimony of Jehovah; and yet they pretend the highest respect for their God and sacred things, and will let their parents perish for lack of the necessaries of life, that they may have goods to vow to the service of the sanctuary! Pride and envy blind the hearts of men, and cause them often to act not only the most wicked, but the most ridiculous, parts. He who takes the book of God for the rule of his faith and practice can never go astray: but to the mazes and perplexities produced by the traditions of elders, human creeds, and confessions of faith, there is no end. These evils existed in the Christian as well as in the Jewish Church; but the Reformation, thank God! has liberated us from this endless system of uncertainty and absurdity, and the Sun of righteousness shines now unclouded! The plantation, which God did not plant, in the course of his judgments, he has now swept nearly away from the face of the earth! Babylon is fallen

2.    We wonder at the dulness of the disciples, when we find that they did not fully understand our Lord’ s meaning, in the very obvious parable about the blind leading the blind. But should we not be equally struck with their prying, inquisitive temper? They did not understand, but they could not rest till they did. They knew that their Lord could say nothing that had not the most important meaning in it: this meaning, in the preceding parable, they had not apprehended, and therefore they wished to have it farther explained by himself. Do we imitate their docility and eagerness to comprehend the truth of God? Christ presses every occurrence into a means of instruction. The dulness of the disciples in the present case, has been the means of affording us the fullest instruction on a point of the utmost importance - the state of a sinful heart, and how the thoughts and passions conceived in it defile and pollute it; and how necessary it is to have the fountain purified, that it may cease to send forth those streams of death

3.    The case of the Canaanitish woman is, in itself, a thousand sermons. Her faith - her prayers - her perseverance - her success - the honor she received from her Lord, etc., etc. How instructively - how powerfully do these speak and plead! What a profusion of light does this single case throw upon the manner in which Christ sometimes exercises the faith and patience of his followers! They that seek shall find, is the great lesson inculcated in this short history: God is ever the same. Reader, follow on after God - cry, pray, plead - all in Him is for thee! - Thou canst not perish, if thou continuest to believe and pray. The Lord will help Thee.

Calvin: Mat 15:1 - Then scribes and Pharisees // Scribes who had come from Jerusalem Mat 15:1.Then scribes and Pharisees As the fault that is here corrected is not only common but highly dangerous, the passage is particularly worthy of...

Mat 15:1.Then scribes and Pharisees As the fault that is here corrected is not only common but highly dangerous, the passage is particularly worthy of our attention. We see the extraordinary insolence that is displayed by men as to the form and manner of worshipping God; for they are perpetually contriving new modes of worship, and when any one wishes to be thought wiser than others, he displays his ingenuity on this subject. I speak not of foreigners, but of the very domestics of the Church, on whom God has conferred the peculiar honor of declaring with their lips the rule of godliness. God has laid down the manner in which he wishes that we should worship him, and has included in his law the perfection of holiness. Yet a vast number of men, as if it were a light and trivial matter to obey God and to keep what he enjoins, collect for themselves, on every hand, many additions. Those who occupy places of authority bring forward their inventions for this purpose, as if they were in possession of something more perfect than the word of the Lord. This is followed by the slow growth of tyranny; for, when men have once assumed to themselves the right to issue commands, they demand a rigid adherence to their laws, and do not allow the smallest iota to be left out, either through contempt or through forgetfulness. The world cannot endure lawful authority, and most violently rebels against enduring the Lord’s yoke, and yet easily and willingly becomes entangled in the snares of vain traditions; nay, such bondage appears to be, in the case of many, an object of desire. Meanwhile, the worship of God is corrupted, of which the first and leading principle is obedience. The authority of men is preferred to the command of God. Sternly, and therefore tyrannically, are the common people compelled to give their whole attention to trifles. This passage teaches us, first, that all modes of worship invented by men are displeasing to God, because he chooses that he alone shall be heard, in order to train and instruct us in true godliness according to his own pleasure; secondly, that those who are not satisfied with the only law of God, and weary themselves by attending to the traditions of men, are uselessly employed; thirdly, that an outrage is committed against God, when the inventions of men are so highly extolled, that the majesty of his law is almost lowered, or at least the reverence for it is abated.

Scribes who had come from Jerusalem With what design those scribes came to Jesus is not stated; but I think it probable that their attention was excited by his fame, and that they came with the desire of receiving instruction, provided that they should approve of him as a competent teacher; 391 though it is possible that they were sent to spy. However that may be, as they had brought their haughty disdain along with them, they are easily provoked by the slightest offense to bite or snarl at Christ. Hence we see with what difficulty those who are influenced by ambition and the lust of power are brought to submit to sound doctrine. Those especially whose attachment to ceremonies has been strengthened by long practice cannot endure any novelty, but loudly condemn every thing to which they have not been accustomed. In short, any thing more haughty or more disdainful than this class of men cannot be imagined.

Both Evangelists mention that they were scribes and Pharisees; but Matthew puts the scribes first, and Mark puts them second. They convey the same meaning, that the scribes belonged to various sects, but that the Pharisees were the leaders, because they occupied an honorable station, and at that time held the government. That the Pharisees should be the first to take offense at disregard of the laws of which they were authors ought not to excite surprise; for, as we have said, though they boasted that they were expounders of the law, and though their name was derived from that circumstance, 392 they had corrupted by their inventions the purity of the word of God. All the traditions that then existed among the Jews had come out of their workshop; 393 and this was the reason why they displayed more than ordinary zeal and bitterness in defending them.

Calvin: Mat 15:2 - Why do thy disciples transgress? // For they wash not their hands 2.Why do thy disciples transgress? When we speak of human traditions, this question has no reference to political laws, the use and object of which a...

2.Why do thy disciples transgress? When we speak of human traditions, this question has no reference to political laws, the use and object of which are widely different from enjoining the manner in which we ought to worship God. But as there are various kinds of human traditions, we must make some distinction among them. Some are manifestly wicked, for they inculcate acts of worship which are wicked and diametrically opposed to the word of God. Others of them mingle profane trifles with the worship of God, and corrupt its purity. Others, which are more plausible, and are not chargeable with any remarkable fault, are condemned on this ground., that they are imagined to be necessary to the worship of God; and thus there is a departure from sincere obedience to God alone, and a snare is laid for the conscience.

To this last description the present passage unquestionably relates; for the washing of hands, on which the Pharisees insisted, could not in itself be charged with wicked superstition; otherwise Christ would not have permitted the water-pots to be used at the marriage, (Joh 2:6,) if it had not been an allowable ceremony; but the fault lay in this, that they did not think that God could be properly worshipped in any other way. It was not without a specious pretext that the practice of washings was first introduced. We know how rigidly the Law of God demands outward cleanness; not that the Lord intended that this should occupy the whole attention of his servants, but that they might be more careful to guard against every spiritual defilement. But in washings the Law preserved some moderation. Next came teachers, who thought that they would not be reckoned sufficiently acute, if they did not make some appendage to the word of God; 394 and hence arose washings of which no mention was made in the Law. The legislators themselves did not give out that they delivered any thing new, 395 but only that they administered cautions, which would be of service to assist in keeping the Law of God. But this was immediately followed by great abuse, when ceremonies introduced by men began to be regarded as a part of divine worship; and again, when in matters that were free and voluntary uniformity was absolutely enjoined. For it was always the will of God, as we have already said, that he should be worshipped according to the rule laid down in his word, and therefore no addition to his Law can be endured. Now as he permits believers to have outward ceremonies, by means of which they may perform the exercises of godliness, so he does not suffer them to mix up those ceremonies with his own word, as if religion consisted in them. 396

For they wash not their hands The ground of offense is explained more fully by Mark; but the substance of his explanation is, that many things were practiced by the scribes, which they had voluntarily undertaken to keep. They were secondary laws invented by the curiosity of men, as if the plain command of God were not enough. God commanded that those who had contracted any defilement should wash themselves, (Lev 11:25;) and this extended to cups, and pots, and raiment, and other articles of household furniture, (Lev 11:32,) that they might not touch any thing that was polluted or unclean. But to invent other ablutions was idle and useless. 397 They were not destitute of plausibility, as Paul tells us that the inventions of men have an appearance of wisdom, (Col 2:23;) but if they had rested in the Law of God alone, that modesty would have been more agreeable to Him than solicitude about small matters.

They were desirous to warn a person not to take food while he was unclean, through want of consideration; but the Lord reckoned it enough to wash away those defilements of which they were aware. Besides, no end or limit could be set to such cautions; for they could scarcely move a finger without contracting some new spot or stain. But a far worse abuse lay in this, that the consciences of men were tormented with scruples which led them to regard every person as chargeable with pollution, who did not on every occasion wash his body with water. In persons who belonged to a private rank they would perhaps have overlooked the neglect of this ceremony; but as they had expected from Christ and his disciples something uncommon and extraordinary, they reckoned it unbecoming that ceremonies, which were traditions of the elders, and the practice of which was held sacred by the scribes, should not be observed by the disciples of a master who undertook to reform the existing state of things.

It is a great mistake to compare the sprinkling of the water of purification, or, as the Papists call it, blessed water, with the Jewish washing; for, by repeating so frequently the one baptism, 398 Papists do all that is in their power to efface it. Besides, this absurd sprinkling is used for exorcising. 399 But if it were lawful in itself, and were not accompanied by so many abuses, still we must always condemn the urgency with which they demand it as if it were indispensable.

Calvin: Mat 15:3 - Why do you also transgress? 3.Why do you also transgress? There are here two answers that are given by Christ, the former of which is addressed, as we say, to the person; while ...

3.Why do you also transgress? There are here two answers that are given by Christ, the former of which is addressed, as we say, to the person; while the latter decides as to the fact and the question in hand. Mark inverts that order; for he first represents Christ as speaking on the whole subject, and afterwards adds the reproof which is directed against hypocrites. We shall follow the narrative of Matthew. When the Lord, in his turn, puts the question to the scribes why they break the Law of God on account of their traditions, he does not as yet pronounce a direct acquittal of his disciples from the crime charged against them; but only points out how improper and unwarrantable is this readiness to take offense. They are displeased when the commandments of men are not observed with exactness; and how much more criminal is it to spend the whole time in observing them, to the disregard of the law of God? It is manifest, therefore, that their wrath is kindled rather by ambition than by a proper kind of zeal, when they thus prefer men to God.

When he says that they transgress the commandments of God, the meaning of the expression is easily learned from the context. They did not openly or professedly set aside the law of God, so as to look upon any thing as lawful which the law had forbidden; but there was an indirect transgression of it, for they permitted duties which God had enjoined to be neglected with impunity. A plain and familiar instance is adduced by Christ. The commandment of God is, that children shall honor their parents, (Exo 20:12.) Now as the sacred offerings yielded emolument to the priests, the observance of them was so rigidly enforced, that men were taught to regard it as a more heinous sin not to make a free-will offering than to defraud a parent of what was justly due to him. In short, what the Law of God declared to be voluntary was, in the estimation of the scribes, of higher value than one of the most important of the commandments of God. Whenever we are so eager to keep the laws of men as to bestow less care and attention on keeping the law of God itself, we are held as transgressing it. Shortly afterwards he says, that they had annulled the commandment of God on account of the traditions of men; for the scribes led the people to entertain so strong an attachment to their own injunctions, that they did not allow them leisure to attend to the word of God. Again, as they reckoned those persons to have discharged their duty well who obeyed these injunctions to the letter, hence arose a liberty to commit sin; for whenever holiness is made to consist in any thing else than in observing the Law of God, men are led to believe that the law may be violated without danger.

Let any man now consider whether this wickedness does not at present abound more among the Papists than it formerly did among the Jews. It is not indeed denied by the Pope, or by the whole of his filthy clergy, that we ought to obey God; but when we come to the point, we find that they consider the act of eating a morsel of flesh as nothing less than a capital crime, while theft or fornication is regarded as a venial fault, and thus, on account of their traditions, they overturn the Law of God; for it is utterly insufferable that the enactments of men shall withdraw any part of that obedience which is due to God alone. Besides, the honor which God commands to be yielded to parents extends to all the duties of filial piety. 400 The latter clause which Christ adds, that he who curseth father or mother deserves to be put to death, is intended to inform us, that it is no light or unimportant precept to honor parents, since the violation of it is so severely punished. And this is no small aggravation of the guilt of the scribes, that so severe a threatening does not terrify them from granting an extension of liberty to those who despised their parents.

Calvin: Mat 15:5 - But you say, etc 5.But you say, etc The mode of expression is defective, and is more fully exhibited by Mark, who adds, you suffer them not to do anything more to th...

5.But you say, etc The mode of expression is defective, and is more fully exhibited by Mark, who adds, you suffer them not to do anything more to their father or to their mother The meaning is, that the scribes were altogether wrong in acquitting those persons who fail to perform their duties to their parents, provided that this deficiency be supplied, on their part, by a voluntary sacrifice, which might have been omitted without offending God. For we must not understand Christ’s words to bear that the scribes had forbidden men to render all proper obedience; 401 but they were so eager to pursue their own gain, that children were allowed, in the meantime, to neglect their duties to their parents.

Calvin: Mat 15:7 - Well hath Isaiah prophesied concerning you 7.Well hath Isaiah prophesied concerning you Our Lord now proceeds farther; for he decides on the question in hand, which he divides into two clauses...

7.Well hath Isaiah prophesied concerning you Our Lord now proceeds farther; for he decides on the question in hand, which he divides into two clauses. The first is, that they relied on outward ceremonies alone, and set no value on true holiness, which consists in sincere uprightness of heart; and the second is, that they worshipped God in a wrong way, according to their own fancy. Now though his reproof of pretended and hypocritical holiness appears hitherto to be restricted to persons, yet it includes the substance of this doctrine, from which the full conclusion was, first, that the worship of God is spiritual, and does not consist in the sprinkling of water, or in any other ceremony; and, secondly, that there is no reasonable worship of God but what is directed by the rule of his word. Although Isaiah (Isa 29:13) did not prophesy for futurity alone, but had regard to the men of his own age, yet Christ says that this prediction relates to the Pharisees and scribes, because they resemble those ancient hypocrites with whom the prophet had to contend. Christ does not quote that passage exactly as it stands; but the prophet expressly mentions two offenses by which the Jews provoked against themselves the divine vengeance. With their lips only, and by an outward profession, they made a pretense of godliness; and, next, they turned aside to modes of worship invented by men. First, then, it is wicked hypocrisy, when the honor which men render to God is only in outward appearance; for to approach to God with the mouth, and to honor him with the lips, would not be in itself evil, provided that the heart went before. The substance of what our Lord states on this subject is, that, since the worship of God is spiritual, and as nothing pleases him that is not accompanied by the inward sincerity of the heart, they who make holiness to consist in outward display are hypocrites.

Calvin: Mat 15:9 - But in vain do they worship me // Teaching doctrines, commandments of men 9.But in vain do they worship me The words of the prophet run literally thus: their fear toward me has been taught by the precept of men. But Chris...

9.But in vain do they worship me The words of the prophet run literally thus: their fear toward me has been taught by the precept of men. But Christ has faithfully and accurately given the meaning, that in vain is God worshipped, when the will of men is substituted in the room of doctrine. By these words, all kinds of will-worship, ( ἐθελοθζησκεία,) as Paul calls it, ( Col 2:23,) are plainly condemned. For, as we have said, since God chooses to be worshipped in no other way than according to his own appointment, he cannot endure new modes of worship to be devised. As soon as men allow themselves to wander beyond the limits of the Word of God, the more labor and anxiety they display in worshipping him, the heavier is the condemnation which they draw down upon themselves; for by such inventions religion is dishonored.

Teaching doctrines, commandments of men In these words there is what is called apposition; 402 for Christ declares them to be mistaken who bring forward, in the room of doctrine, the commandments of men, or who seek to obtain from them the rule for worshipping God. Let it therefore be held as a settled principle, that, since obedience is more highly esteemed by God than sacrifices, (1Sa 15:22,) all kinds of worship invented by men are of no estimation in his sight; nay more, that, as the prophet declares, they are accursed and detestable.

Calvin: Mat 15:10 - And having called the multitudes to him // Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended? Mat 15:10.And having called the multitudes to him Here Christ turns 404 to those who are ready to receive instruction, and explains more fully the tru...

Mat 15:10.And having called the multitudes to him Here Christ turns 404 to those who are ready to receive instruction, and explains more fully the truth at which he had formerly glanced, that the kingdom of God does not consist in meat and drink, as Paul also teaches us, (Rom 14:17;) for, since outward things are by nature pure, the use of them is free and pure, and uncleanness is not contracted from the good creatures of God. It is therefore a general statement, that pollution does not come from without into a man, but that the fountain is concealed within him. Now when he says that all the evil actions which any man performs come out of the mouth of man, he employs a synecdoche; 405 for he says so by way of allusion to the subject in hand, and conveys this instruction, that we do not draw uncleanness into our mouth along with meat and drink, but that every kind of defilement proceeds from ourselves.

Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended? As the scribes were presumptuous and rebellious, Christ did not take great pains to pacify them, but satisfied himself with repelling their hypocrisy and pride. The offense which they had formerly taken up was doubled, when they perceived that—not through oversight, but seemingly on purpose—Christ despised their washings as trifles. Now when Christ did not hesitate to inflame still more, by keen provocation, wicked and malicious persons, let us learn from his example, that we ought not to be exceedingly solicitous to please every one by what we say and do. His disciples, however—as is usually the case with ignorant and unlearned people—no sooner perceive the result to be unfavorable, than they conclude that Christ’s reply had been unseasonable and improper. 406 For the object of their advice was, to persuade Christ to soothe the rage of the Pharisees by softening the harsh expression which he had employed. 407

It almost always happens with weak persons, that they form an unfavorable judgment about a doctrine, as soon as they find that it is regarded with doubt or meets with opposition. And certainly it were to be wished, that it should give no offense, but receive the calm approbation of all; but, as the minds of many are blinded, and even their hearts are kindled into rage, by Satan, and as many souls are held under the benumbing influence of brutal stupidity, it is impossible that all should relish the true doctrine of salvation. Above all, we ought not to be surprised to behold the rage of those who inwardly nourish the venom of malice and obstinacy. Yet we ought to take care that, so far as may be in our power, our manner of teaching shall give no offense; but it would be the height of madness to think of exercising greater moderation than we have been taught to do by our heavenly Master. We see how his discourse was made an occasion of offense by wicked and obstinate men; and we see at the same time, how that kind of offense which arose from malignity was treated by him with contempt.

Calvin: Mat 15:13 - Every plant // Which my heavenly Father hath not planted 13.Every plant As the indifferent success of the doctrine had wounded their weak minds, Christ intended to remedy this evil. Now the remedy which he ...

13.Every plant As the indifferent success of the doctrine had wounded their weak minds, Christ intended to remedy this evil. Now the remedy which he proposes is, that good men ought not to be distressed, or entertain less reverence for the doctrine, though to many it be an occasion of death. It is a mistaken view of this passage which some have adopted, that all the inventions of men, and every thing that has not proceeded from the mouth of God, must be rooted up and perish; for it was rather to men that Christ referred, and the meaning is, that there is no reason to wonder if the doctrine of salvation shall prove deadly to the reprobate, because they are always carried headlong to the destruction to which they are doomed.

By the persons that have been planted by the hand of God we are to understand those who, by his free adoption, have been ingrafted into the tree of life, as Isaiah also, when speaking of the Church renewed by the grace of God, calls it a branch planted by the Lord, (Isa 60:21.) Now as salvation depends solely on the election of God, the reprobate must perish, in whatever way this may be effected; not that they are innocent, and free from all blame, when God destroys them, but because, by their own malice, they turn to their destruction all that is offered to them, however salutary it may be. To those who willingly perish the Gospel thus becomes, as Paul assures us, the savor of death unto death, (2Co 2:16;) for, though it is offered to all for salvation, it does not yield this fruit in any but the elect. It belongs to a faithful and honest teacher to regulate every thing which he brings forward by a regard to the advantage of all; but whenever the result is different, let us take comfort from Christ’s reply. It is beautifully expressed by the parable, that the cause of perdition does not lie in the doctrine, but that the reprobate who have no root in God, when the doctrine is presented to them, throw out their hidden venom, and thus accelerate that death to which they were already doomed.

Which my heavenly Father hath not planted Hypocrites, who appear for a time to have been planted like good trees, are particularly described by Christ; for Epicureans, who are noted for open and shameful contempt of God, cannot properly be said to resemble trees, but the description must be intended to apply to those who have acquired celebrity by some vain appearance of godliness. Such were the scribes, who towered in the Church of God like the cedars in Lebanon, and whose revolt might on that account appear the more strange. Christ might have said that it is right that those should perish who disdainfully reject salvation; but he rises higher, and asserts that no man will remain steadfast, unless his salvation be secured by the election of God. By these words he expressly declares, that the first origin of our salvation flows from that grace by which God elected us to be his children before we were created.

Calvin: Mat 15:14 - Let them alone // They are blind leaders of the blind 14.Let them alone He sets them aside as unworthy of notice, and concludes that the offense which they take ought not to give us much uneasiness. Henc...

14.Let them alone He sets them aside as unworthy of notice, and concludes that the offense which they take ought not to give us much uneasiness. Hence has arisen the distinction, of which we hear so much, about avoiding offenses, that we ought to beware of offending the weak, but if any obstinate and malicious person take offense, we ought not to be uneasy; for, if we determined to satisfy all obstinate people, we must bury Christ, who is the stone of offense, (1Pe 2:8.) Weak persons, who are offended through ignorance, and afterwards return to just views, must be distinguished from haughty and disdainful men who are themselves the authors of offenses. It is of importance to attend to this distinction, in order that no one who is weak may be distressed through our fault. But when wicked men dash themselves through their obstinacy, let us walk on unmoved in the midst of offenses; for he who spares not weak brethren tramples, as it were, under foot those to whom we are commanded to stretch out the hand. It would be idle to attend to others, whom we cannot avoid offending, if we wish to keep the right path; and when, under the pretext of taking offense, they happen to fall off and revolt from Christ, we must let them alone, that they may not drag us along with them. 408

They are blind leaders of the blind Christ means that all who allow themselves to be driven hither and thither at the disposal of those men will miserably perish; for when they stumble on a plain road, it is evident that they are willfully blind. Why then should any one allow himself to be directed by them, except that he might fall into the same ditch? Now Christ, who has risen upon us as the Sun of righteousness, (Mal 4:2,) and not only points out the road to us by the torch of his Gospel, but desires that we should keep it before us, justly calls on his disciples to shake off that slothfulness, and not to wander, as it were, in the dark, for the sake of gratifying the blind. 409 Hence also we infer that all who, under the pretense of simplicity or modesty, give themselves up to be deceived or ensnared by errors, are without excuse.

Calvin: Mat 15:15 - And Peter answering said Mat 15:15.And Peter answering said As the disciples betray excessive ignorance, Christ justly reproves and upbraids them for being still void of unde...

Mat 15:15.And Peter answering said As the disciples betray excessive ignorance, Christ justly reproves and upbraids them for being still void of understanding, and yet does not fail to act as their teacher. What Matthew ascribes in a peculiar manner to Peter is related by Mark, in the same sense, as a question put by them all; and this is evident from Christ’s reply, in which he reproves the ignorance, not of Peter only, but of all of them alike. The general meaning is, that men are not polluted by food, but that they have within themselves the pollution of sins, which afterwards shows itself in the outward actions. Is it objected that intemperance in eating is defilement? The solution is easy. Christ speaks only of the proper and lawful use of those things which God has put in our power. To eat and drink are things in their own nature free and indifferent: if any corruption be added, it proceeds from the man himself, and therefore must be regarded not as external, but internal. 410

Calvin: Mat 15:19 - For out of the heart proceed wicked thoughts 19.For out of the heart proceed wicked thoughts Hence we infer that the word mouth, as I have mentioned, was used by Christ in a former verse by wa...

19.For out of the heart proceed wicked thoughts Hence we infer that the word mouth, as I have mentioned, was used by Christ in a former verse by way of allusion to the context; for now he makes no mention of the mouth, but merely says that out of the heart of man proceeds all that is sinful and that corrupts by its pollution. Mark differs from Matthew in this respect, that he gives a larger catalogue of sins, such as lusts, or irregular desires. The Greek word ( πλεονεξίαι) is by some rendered covetousness; but I have preferred to take it in a general acceptation. Next come fraud and intemperance, and those which immediately follow. Though the mode of expression be figurative, it is enough to understand Christ’s meaning to be, that all sins proceed from the wicked and corrupt affections of the heart. To say that an evil eye proceeds from the heart is not strictly accurate, but it involves nothing that is absurd or ambiguous; for it means, that an unholy heart pollutes the eyes by making them the ministers, or organs, of wicked desires. And yet Christ does not speak as if every thing that is evil in man were confined to open sins; but, in order to show more clearly that the heart of man is the abode of all evils, 411 he says that the proofs and results appear in the sins themselves.

Calvin: Mat 15:20 - And pollute the man And pollute the man Instead of the verb pollute, the Greek term is κοινοῖ, make common; as Mark, a little before, ( Mar 7:2,) used the phra...

And pollute the man Instead of the verb pollute, the Greek term is κοινοῖ, make common; as Mark, a little before, ( Mar 7:2,) used the phrase, κοιναῖς χερσὶ, with common hands, for with unclean hands. 412 It is a Hebrew phrase; 413 for, since God had set apart the Jews on the condition that they should separate themselves from all the pollutions of the Gentiles, everything that was inconsistent with this holiness was called common, that is, profane.

Calvin: Mat 15:21 - NO PHRASE In this miracle we are informed in what manner the grace of Christ began to flow to the Gentiles; for, though the full time was not yet come when Chr...

In this miracle we are informed in what manner the grace of Christ began to flow to the Gentiles; for, though the full time was not yet come when Christ would make himself known to the whole world, yet he intended to give some early manifestations of the common mercy which was at length offered indiscriminately to Jews and Gentiles after his resurrection. A remarkable picture of faith is presented to us in the woman of Canaan, for the purpose of instructing us by means of comparison, that the Jews were justly deprived of the promised redemption, since their impiety was so shameful.

The woman, whom Matthew describes as of Canaan, is said by Mark to have been a Greek, and a Syrophenician by birth But there is no contradiction here; for we know that it was the prevailing custom among the Jews to call all foreign nations Greeks, and hence that contrast between Greeks and Jews, which occurs so frequently in the writings of Paul. As she was a native of the territories of Tyre and Sidon, we need not wonder that she is called a Syrophenician; for that country was called Syria, and formed part of Phenicia. The Jews disdainfully gave the name of Canaanites to all the inhabitants of that district; and it is probable that the majority of them were descended from the tribes of Canaan, who when banished from their native country, fled to a sort of retreat in the neighborhood. Both agree in this point, that the woman was a native of a heathen nation, that she had not been instructed in the doctrine of the law, and that she came of her own accord to Christ, humbly to entreat his aid.

Calvin: Mat 15:22 - Have compassion on me, O Lord Mat 15:22.Have compassion on me, O Lord Though this woman was an alien, and did not belong to the Lord’s flock, yet she had acquired some taste of p...

Mat 15:22.Have compassion on me, O Lord Though this woman was an alien, and did not belong to the Lord’s flock, yet she had acquired some taste of piety; 416 for, without some knowledge of the promises, she would not have called Christ the Son of David. The Jews indeed had almost entirely departed, or at least had greatly turned aside, from the pure and sound doctrine of the Gospel; but a report of the promised redemption was extensively prevalent. As the restoration of the Church depended on the reign of David, whenever they spoke of the Messiah, it was customary for them to employ the name, Son of David; and indeed this confession was heard from the lips of all. But when the true faith had died out amongst them, it was an amazing and incredible display of the goodness of God that the sweet savor of the promises reached the neighboring nations. Though this woman had not been regularly educated by any teacher, yet her faith in Christ was not a notion adopted by her at random, but was formed out of the law and the prophets. It was therefore not less absurd than wicked in that dog, Servetus, to abuse this example for the purpose of proving that faith may exist without promises. I do not deny that, in this sense, there may sometimes be a sort of implicit faith, that is, a faith which is not accompanied by a full and distinct knowledge of sound doctrine; provided we also hold that faith always springs from the word of God, and takes its origin from true principles, and therefore is always found in connection with some light of knowledge.

Calvin: Mat 15:23 - But he made no reply to her // Send her away 23.But he made no reply to her In various ways the Evangelists bestow commendation on the faith of this woman. Here they bring before us her unshaken...

23.But he made no reply to her In various ways the Evangelists bestow commendation on the faith of this woman. Here they bring before us her unshaken constancy; for the silence of Christ was a sort of refusal, and there is reason to wonder that she was not cast down by this trial, but her continuance in prayer was a proof of her perseverance. This appears, however, to be inconsistent with the nature of faith and of calling upon God, as it is described by Paul, who assures us that no man can pray aright till he has heard the word of God.

How shall they call on him in whom they have not believed?
and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard?
(Rom 10:14.)

Who then will say that this woman had faith, who takes courage from her own feelings, though Christ is silent? But as Christ has two ways of speaking and of being silent, it must be observed, that though he withheld at that time the words of his mouth, yet he spoke within to the mind of the woman, and so this secret inspiration was a substitute for the outward preaching. Besides, her prayer arose out of the hearing of faith, (Rom 10:17;) and, therefore, though Christ does not immediately reply, she continually hears the sound of that doctrine 417 which she had already learned, that Christ came as a Redeemer. In this way the Lord often acts towards those who believe in him; he speaks to them, and yet is silent. Relying on the testimonies of Scripture, where they hear him speaking, they firmly believe that he will be gracious to them; and yet he does not immediately reply to their wishes and prayers, but, on the contrary, seems as if he did not hear. We see then that the design of Christ’s silence was not to extinguish the woman’s faith, but rather to whet her zeal and inflame her ardor. But if a small seed of doctrine in a woman of Canaan yielded such abundant fruit, it ill becomes us to be dejected, if at any time he delays and does not immediately grant a favorable answer.

Send her away The disciples present no request in favor of the woman, but as they are annoyed by her importunity, they desire that, in some way or other, she may be dismissed. It is a childish contrivance, which the Papists have endeavored to support by means of this passage, that departed saints are allowed to plead for us; for, granting that this woman solicited the disciples to give her some favor or assistance — which, however, cannot be proved from the passage — still there is a wide difference between the dead and living. It must be also observed, that, if they really intended to aid her by their advocacy, they obtain nothing.

Calvin: Mat 15:24 - I am not sent // To the lost sheep of the house of Israel 24.I am not sent He informs the Apostles that his reason for refusing the woman of Canaan arises out of his desire to devote himself entirely to the ...

24.I am not sent He informs the Apostles that his reason for refusing the woman of Canaan arises out of his desire to devote himself entirely to the Jews to whom alone he was appointed to be a minister of the grace of God. He argues from the call and the command of the Father, that he must not yield any assistance to strangers; not that the power of Christ was always confined within so narrow limits, but because present circumstances rendered it necessary that he should begin with the Jews, and at that time devote himself to them in a peculiar manner. For as I have said in expounding Mat 10:5 , the middle wall of partition (Eph 2:14) was not thrown down till after Christ’s resurrection that he might proclaim peace to the nations which were aliens from the kingdom of God: and therefore he prohibited the Apostles, at that time, from scattering anywhere but in Judea the first seed of doctrine. Justly therefore, does he affirm that, on this occasion, he was sent to the Jews only, till the Gentiles also followed in the proper order.

To the lost sheep of the house of Israel He bestows the designation of sheep of the house of Israel not on the elect only, but on all who were descended from the holy fathers; for the Lord had included all in the covenant, and was promised indiscriminately to all as a Redeemer, as he also revealed and offered himself to all without exception. It is worthy of observation, that he declares himself to have been sent to LOST sheep, as he assures us in another passage that he came to save that which was lost, (Mat 18:11.) Now as we enjoy this favor, at the present day, in common with the Jews, we learn what our condition is till he appear as our Savior.

Calvin: Mat 15:25 - And she came and worshipped him 25.And she came and worshipped him We might be apt to think that this woman contends with some measure of obstinacy, as if she would extort something...

25.And she came and worshipped him We might be apt to think that this woman contends with some measure of obstinacy, as if she would extort something from Christ in spite of him; but there is no reason to doubt that she was animated by the conviction which she entertained as to the kindness of the Messiah. When Christ expressly declared that it did not belong to his office, she was not intimidated by that refusal, and did not desist from her purpose. The reason was, that she adhered firmly to that previous sentiment of faith which I have mentioned, and admitted nothing that was opposed to her hope. And this is the sure test of faith, that we do not suffer that general commencement of our salvation, which is founded on the word of God, to be in any way torn from us.

Calvin: Mat 15:26 - It is not seemly // And to throw it to the dogs 26.It is not seemly Christ’s reply is harsher than ever, and one would think that he intended by it to cut off all hope; for not only does he decla...

26.It is not seemly Christ’s reply is harsher than ever, and one would think that he intended by it to cut off all hope; for not only does he declare that all the grace which he has received from the Father belongs to the Jews, and must be bestowed on them, otherwise they will be defrauded of their just rights; but he disdainfully compares the woman herself to a dog, thus implying that she is unworthy of being a partaker of his grace. To make the meaning plain to us, it must be understood that the appellation of the children’s bread is here given, not to the gifts of God of whatever description, but only to those which were bestowed in a peculiar manner on Abraham and his posterity. For since the beginning of the world, the goodness of God was everywhere diffused—nay, filled heaven and earth—so that all mortal men felt that God was their Father. But as the children of Abraham had been more highly honored than the rest of mankind, the children’s bread is a name given to everything that, relates peculiarly to the adoption by which the Jews alone were elected to be children The light of the sun, the breath of life, and the productions of the soil, were enjoyed by the Gentiles equally with the Jews; but the blessing which was to be expected in Christ dwelt exclusively in the family of Abraham. To lay open without distinction that which God had conferred as a peculiar privilege on a single nation, was nothing short of setting aside the covenant of God; for in this way the Jews, who ought to have the preference, were placed on a level with the Gentiles.

And to throw it to the dogs By using the word throw, Christ intimates that what is taken from the Church of God and given to heathens is not well bestowed. But this must be restricted to that time when it was in Judea only that men called on God; for, since the Gentiles were admitted to partake of the same salvations—which took place when Christ diffused everywhere the light of his Gospel—the distinction was removed, and those who were formerly dogs are now reckoned among the children. The pride of the flesh must fall down, when we learn that by nature we are dogs At first, no doubt, human nature, in which the image of God brightly shone, occupied so high a station that this opprobrious epithet did not apply to all nations, and even to kings, on whom God confers the honor of bearing his name. 418 But the treachery and revolt of Adam made it proper that the Lord should send to the stable, along with dogs, those who through the guilt of our first parent became bastards; more especially when a comparison is made between the Jews, who were exempted from the common lot, and the Gentiles, who were banished from the kingdom of God.

Christ’s meaning is more fully unfolded by Mark, who gives these words, Allow the children first to be satisfied He tells the woman of Canaan that she acts presumptuously in proceeding — as it were, in the midst of the supper — to seize on what was on the table. 419 His chief design was, to make trial of the woman’s faith; but he also pointed out the dreadful vengeance that would overtake the Jews, who rejected an inestimable benefit which was freely offered to them, and which they refused to those who sought it with warmth and earnestness.

Calvin: Mat 15:27 - Certainly, Lord 27.Certainly, Lord The woman’s reply showed that she was not hurried along by a blind or thoughtless impulse to offer a flat contradiction 420 to w...

27.Certainly, Lord The woman’s reply showed that she was not hurried along by a blind or thoughtless impulse to offer a flat contradiction 420 to what Christ had said. As God preferred the Jews to other nations, she does not dispute with them the honor of adoption, and declares, that she has no objection whatever that Christ should satisfy them according to the order which God had prescribed. She only asks that some crumbs — falling, as it were, accidentally — should come within the reach of the dogs And at no time, certainly, did God shut up his grace among the Jews in such a manner as not to bestow a small taste of them on the Gentiles. No terms could have been employed that would have described more appropriately, or more justly, that dispensation of the grace of God which was at that time in full operation.

Calvin: Mat 15:28 - Great is thy faith 28.Great is thy faith He first applauds the woman’s faith, and next declares, that on account of her faith he grants her prayer. The greatness o...

28.Great is thy faith He first applauds the woman’s faith, and next declares, that on account of her faith he grants her prayer. The greatness of her faith appeared chiefly in this respect, that by the aid of nothing more than a feeble spark of doctrine, she not only recognized the actual office of Christ, and ascribed to him heavenly power, but pursued her course steadily through formidable opposition; suffered herself to be annihilated, provided that she held by her conviction that she would not fail to obtain Christ’s assistance; and, in a word, so tempered her confidence with humility, that, while she advanced no unfounded claim, neither did she shut against her the fountain of the grace of Christ, by a sense of her own unworthiness. This commendation, bestowed on a woman who had been a heathen, 421 condemns the ingratitude of that nation which boasted that it was consecrated to God.

But how can the woman be said to believe aright, who not only receives no promise from Christ, but is driven back by his declaration to the contrary? On that point I have already spoken. Though he appears to give a harsh refusal to her prayers, yet, convinced that God would grant the salvation which he had promised through the Messiah, she ceases not to entertain favorable hopes; and therefore she concludes, that the door is shut against her, not for the purpose of excluding her altogether, but that, by a more strenuous effort of faith, she may force her way, as it were, through the chinks. Be it unto thee as thou desirest. This latter clause contains a useful doctrine, that faith will obtain anything from the Lord; for so highly does he value it, that he is always prepared to comply with our wishes, so far as it may be for our advantage.

Calvin: Mat 15:29 - And Jesus departing thence // Decapolis Mat 15:29.And Jesus departing thence Though it is unquestionably the same journey of Christ, on his return from the neighborhood of Sidon, that is rel...

Mat 15:29.And Jesus departing thence Though it is unquestionably the same journey of Christ, on his return from the neighborhood of Sidon, that is related by Matthew and by Mark, yet in some points they do not quite agree. It is of little moment that the one says he came to the borders of Magdala, and the other, that he came to the coasts of Dalmanutha; for the cities were adjacent, being situated on the lake of Gennesareth, and we need not wonder that the district which lay between them received both names. 422

Decapolis was so called from its containing ( δέκα πόλεις) ten cities; and as it was contiguous to Phenicia and to that part of Galilee which lay towards the sea, Christ must have passed through it, when he returned from Phenicia into Galilee of Judea. There is a greater appearance of contradiction in another part of the narrative, where Matthew says that our Lord cured many who labored under various diseases, while Mark takes no notice of any but of one deaf man. But this difficulty need not detain us; for Mark selected for description a miracle which was performed during the journey, and the report of which was no sooner circulated than it aroused the inhabitants of every part of that country to bring many persons to Christ to be cured. Now we know that the Evangelists are not anxious to relate all that Christ did, and are so far from dwelling largely on miracles, that they only glance at a few by way of example. Besides, Mark was satisfied with producing one instance, in which the power of Christ is as brightly displayed as in others of the same sort which followed shortly afterwards.

Calvin: Mat 15:32 - I have compassion on the multitude Mat 15:32.I have compassion on the multitude Here a miracle is related not unlike another which we have lately explained. The only difference is, that...

Mat 15:32.I have compassion on the multitude Here a miracle is related not unlike another which we have lately explained. The only difference is, that on the former occasion Christ satisfied five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes, while, on the present occasion, four thousand men are fed with seven loaves and a few small fishes; and that twelve baskets were then filled with fragments, while out of a greater abundance a smaller portion is left. Let us learn from this, that the power of God is not restricted to means or outward assistance, and that it is all one with Him whether there be much or little, as Jonathan 425 said when speaking of his own moderate army and the vast multitude of enemies:

there is no restraint to the Lord to save by many or by few,
(1Sa 14:6.)

As the blessing of God can make one loaf suffice as well as twenty for satisfying a great multitude, so, if that be wanting, a hundred loaves will not be a sufficient meal for ten men; for when the staff of bread is broken, (Lev 26:26,) though the flour should come in full weight from the mill, and the bread from the oven, it will serve no purpose to stuff the belly. The three days’ fasting, of which Christ speaks, must not be understood to mean that they had eaten nothing for three days; but that in desert places they had few conveniences, and must have wanted their ordinary food. Besides, in those warm countries, hunger is less keen than in our thick and cold atmosphere; and, therefore, we need not wonder that they should abstain longer from food.

Calvin: Mat 15:33 - Whence shall we obtain so many loaves in a solitary place? 33.Whence shall we obtain so many loaves in a solitary place? The disciples manifest excessive stupidity in not remembering, at least, that earlier p...

33.Whence shall we obtain so many loaves in a solitary place? The disciples manifest excessive stupidity in not remembering, at least, that earlier proof of the power and grace of Christ, which they might have applied to the case in hand. As if they had never seen any thing of the same sort, they forget to apply to him for relief. There is not a day on which a similar indifference does not steal upon us; and we ought to be the more careful not to allow our minds to be drawn away from the contemplation of divine benefits, that the experience of the past may lead us to expect for the future the same assistance which God has already on one or more occasions bestowed upon us.

Defender: Mat 15:3 - transgress the commandment The Lord severely rebuked the Pharisees for ignoring the clear teachings and commands of Scripture in favor of their own self-serving interpretations ...

The Lord severely rebuked the Pharisees for ignoring the clear teachings and commands of Scripture in favor of their own self-serving interpretations and traditions. This unfortunate practice is as prevalent among modern Christians as among ancient Jews, and would surely draw the same rebuke today if He were here in the flesh. In fact, we today are more culpable than they, because we have far more evidence of the inerrant authority of His Word than the Pharisees had."

Defender: Mat 15:24 - lost sheep of the house of Israel The Lord Jesus had come into the world to die for the sin of the whole world, but He had also come as Israel's promised Messiah. His seeming harshness...

The Lord Jesus had come into the world to die for the sin of the whole world, but He had also come as Israel's promised Messiah. His seeming harshness to the Canaanite woman is best understood as not only a test of her faith in the God of Israel, but also as a means to show His disciples that Gentiles also were included in God's plan, and that they too could have saving faith."

Defender: Mat 15:38 - four thousand men Mat 16:6-12 confirms that this was a second miraculous feeding of a multitude, and not an inadvertent repetition of the first, as some have charged. T...

Mat 16:6-12 confirms that this was a second miraculous feeding of a multitude, and not an inadvertent repetition of the first, as some have charged. The word "thanks" occurs for the first time in the New Testament in Mat 15:36, and significantly, it is on the lips of the Lord Jesus."

TSK: Mat 15:1 - came // scribes // which came : Mar 7:1-13 scribes : Mat 5:20, Mat 23:2, Mat 23:15-28; Luk 5:30; Act 23:9 which : Luk 5:17, Luk 5:21

TSK: Mat 15:2 - transgress // tradition transgress : Mar 7:2, Mar 7:5; Gen 1:14; Col 2:8, Col 2:20-23; 1Pe 1:18 tradition : Tradition, in Latin traditio from trado I deliver, hand down...

transgress : Mar 7:2, Mar 7:5; Gen 1:14; Col 2:8, Col 2:20-23; 1Pe 1:18

tradition : Tradition, in Latin traditio from trado I deliver, hand down, exactly agreeing with the original παραδοσις [Strong’ s G3862], from παραδιδωμι [Strong’ s G3860], I deliver, transmit. Among the Jews it signifies what is called oral law, which they say has been successively handed down from Moses, through every generation, to Judah the Holy, who compiled and digested it into the Mishneh, to explain which the two Gemaras, or Talmuds, called the Jerusalem and Babylonish, were composed. Of the estimation in which these were held by the Jews, the following may serve as an example: ""The words of the Scribes are lovely beyond the words of the law, for the words of the law are weighty and light, but the words of the Scribes are all weighty.""

TSK: Mat 15:3 - Why Why : Mat 7:3-5; Mar 7:6-8, Mar 7:13; Col 2:8, Col 2:23; Tit 1:14

TSK: Mat 15:4 - God // Honour // He God : Mat 4:10, Mat 5:17-19; Isa 8:20; Rom 3:31 Honour : Mat 19:19; Exo 20:12; Lev 19:3; Deu 5:16; Pro 23:22; Eph 6:1 He : Exo 21:17; Lev 20:9; Deu 21...

TSK: Mat 15:5 - ye say // It is ye say : Mat 23:16-18; Amo 7:15-17; Mar 7:10-13; Act 4:19, Act 5:29 It is : Lev. 27:9-34; Pro 20:25; Mar 7:11, Mar 7:12

TSK: Mat 15:6 - honour // Thus honour : 1Ti 5:3, 1Ti 5:4, 1Ti 5:8, 1Ti 5:16 Thus : Psa 119:126, Psa 119:139; Jer 8:8; Hos 4:6; Mal 2:7-9; Mar 7:13; Rom 3:31

TSK: Mat 15:7 - hypocrites // well hypocrites : Mat 7:5, Mat 23:23-29 well : Mar 7:6; Act 28:25-27

hypocrites : Mat 7:5, Mat 23:23-29

well : Mar 7:6; Act 28:25-27

TSK: Mat 15:8 - draweth // but draweth : Isa 29:13; Eze 33:31; Joh 1:47; 1Pe 3:10 but : Pro 23:26; Jer 12:2; Act 8:21; Heb 3:12

TSK: Mat 15:9 - in // teaching in : Exo 20:7; Lev 26:16, Lev 26:20; 1Sa 25:21; Psa 39:6, Psa 73:13; Ecc 5:2-7; Isa 1:13-15, Isa 58:1-3; Mal 3:14; Mar 7:7; 1Co 15:2; Jam 2:20 teachin...

TSK: Mat 15:10 - he // Hear he : 1Ki 22:28; Mar 7:14, Mar 7:16; Luk 20:45-47 Hear : Mat 13:19, Mat 24:15; Isa 6:9, Isa 55:3; Luk 24:45; Eph 1:17; Col 1:9; Jam 1:5

TSK: Mat 15:11 - that which goeth // but that which goeth : Mar 7:15; Luk 11:38-41; Act 10:14, Act 10:15, Act 11:8, Act 11:9; Rom 14:14, Rom 14:17, Rom 14:20; 1Ti 4:4, 1Ti 4:5; Tit 1:15; Heb ...

TSK: Mat 15:12 - Knowest Knowest : Mat 17:27; 1Ki 22:13, 1Ki 22:14; 1Co 10:32, 1Co 10:33; 2Co 6:3; Gal 2:5; Jam 3:17

TSK: Mat 15:13 - Every Every : Mat 13:40,Mat 13:41; Psa 92:13; Isa 60:21; Joh 15:2, Joh 15:6; 1Co 3:12-15

TSK: Mat 15:14 - Let // they // And if Let : Hos 4:17; 1Ti 6:5 they : Mat 23:16-24; Isa 9:16, Isa 42:19, Isa 56:10; Mal 2:8; Luk 6:39 And if : Jer 5:31, Jer 6:15, Jer 8:12; Eze 14:9, Eze 14...

TSK: Mat 15:15 - Declare Declare : Mat 13:36; Mar 4:34, Mar 7:17; Joh 16:29

TSK: Mat 15:16 - -- Mat 15:10, Mat 13:51, Mat 16:9, Mat 16:11; Isa 28:9, Isa 28:10; Mar 6:52, Mar 7:18, Mar 8:17, Mar 8:18, Mar 9:32; Luk 9:45; Luk 18:34, Luk 24:45; Heb ...

TSK: Mat 15:17 - that // and is that : Mat 7:19, Mat 7:20; Luk 6:45; 1Co 6:13; Col 2:21, Col 2:22; Jam 3:6 and is : 2Ki 10:27

TSK: Mat 15:18 - -- Mat 15:11, Mat 12:34; 1Sa 24:13; Psa 36:3; Pro 6:12, Pro 10:32, Pro 15:2, Pro 15:28; Luk 19:22; Jam 3:6-10; Rev 13:5, Rev 13:6

TSK: Mat 15:19 - out // evil out : Gen 6:5, Gen 8:21; Pro 4:23, Pro 6:14, Pro 22:15, Pro 24:9; Jer 17:9; Mar 7:21-23; Rom 3:10-19, Rom 7:18, Rom 8:7, Rom 8:8; Gal 5:19-21; Eph 2:1...

TSK: Mat 15:20 - which // but which : 1Co 3:16, 1Co 3:17, 1Co 6:9-11, 1Co 6:18-20; Eph 5:3-6; Rev 21:8, Rev 21:27 but : Mat 15:2, Mat 23:25, Mat 23:26; Mar 7:3, Mar 7:4; Luk 11:38-...

TSK: Mat 15:21 - and departed // Tyre and departed : Mar 7:24 Tyre : Mat 10:5, Mat 10:6, Mat 11:21-23; Gen 49:13; Jos 11:8, Jos 13:6, Jos 19:28, Jos 19:29; Jdg 1:31

TSK: Mat 15:22 - a woman // Have // son // my a woman : Mat 3:8, Mat 3:9; Psa 45:12; Eze 3:6; Mar 7:26 Have : Mat 9:27, Mat 17:15; Psa 4:1, Psa 6:2; Luk 17:13, Luk 18:13 son : Mat 1:1, Mat 20:30,M...

TSK: Mat 15:23 - Send Gen 42:7; Deu 8:2; Psa 28:1; Lam 3:8 Send : Mat 14:15; Mar 10:47, Mar 10:48

TSK: Mat 15:24 - I am not I am not : Mat 9:36, Mat 10:5, Mat 10:6; Isa 53:6; Jer 50:6, Jer 50:7; Eze 34:5, Eze 34:6, Eze 34:16, Eze 34:23; Luk 15:4-6; Act 3:25, Act 3:26, Act 1...

TSK: Mat 15:25 - came // worshipped // Lord came : Mat 20:31; Gen 32:26; Hos 12:4; Luk 11:8-10, Luk 18:1-8 worshipped : Mat 14:33 Lord : Mar 9:22, Mar 9:24

TSK: Mat 15:26 - It is not // dogs It is not : Mat 7:6; Mar 7:27, Mar 7:28; Act 22:21, Act 22:22; Rom 9:4; Gal 2:15; Eph 2:12; Phi 3:2; Rev 22:15 dogs : Τοις κυναριοις ...

It is not : Mat 7:6; Mar 7:27, Mar 7:28; Act 22:21, Act 22:22; Rom 9:4; Gal 2:15; Eph 2:12; Phi 3:2; Rev 22:15

dogs : Τοις κυναριοις [Strong’ s G2952], ""to the little dogs,""lap dogs, etc., the diminutive of κυων [Strong’ s G2965], a dog. The Jews, while they boasted of being the children of God, gave the name of dogs to the heathen, for their idolatry, etc.

TSK: Mat 15:27 - Truth // yet Truth : Mat 8:8; Gen 32:10; Job 40:4, Job 40:5, Job 42:2-6; Psa 51:4, Psa 51:5; Eze 16:63; Dan 9:18; Luk 7:6, Luk 7:7, Luk 15:18, Luk 15:19, Luk 18:13...

TSK: Mat 15:28 - Jesus // O woman // great // be it Jesus : Job 13:15, Job 23:10; Lam 3:32 O woman : Our Lord’ s purpose being now answered, he openly commended her faith, and assured her that her ...

Jesus : Job 13:15, Job 23:10; Lam 3:32

O woman : Our Lord’ s purpose being now answered, he openly commended her faith, and assured her that her daughter was healed.

great : Mat 8:10, Mat 14:31; 1Sa 2:30; Luk 17:5; Rom 4:19, Rom 4:20; 2Th 1:3

be it : Mat 8:13, Mat 9:29, Mat 9:30; Psa 145:19; Mar 5:34, Mar 7:29, Mar 7:30, Mar 9:23, Mar 9:24; Luk 7:9, Luk 7:50; Luk 18:42, Luk 18:43; Joh 4:50-53

TSK: Mat 15:29 - and came // unto // went and came : Mar 7:31 unto : Mat 4:18; Jos 12:3, Chinneroth, Isa 9:1; Mar 1:16; Luk 5:1, lake of Gennesaret, Joh 6:1, Joh 6:23, Joh 21:1, Tiberias went ...

and came : Mar 7:31

unto : Mat 4:18; Jos 12:3, Chinneroth, Isa 9:1; Mar 1:16; Luk 5:1, lake of Gennesaret, Joh 6:1, Joh 6:23, Joh 21:1, Tiberias

went : Mat 5:1, Mat 13:2

TSK: Mat 15:30 - great great : Mat 4:23, Mat 4:24, Mat 11:4, Mat 11:5, Mat 14:35, Mat 14:36; Psa 103:3; Isa 35:5, Isa 35:6; Mar 1:32-34; Mar 6:54-56; Luk 6:17-19, Luk 7:21, ...

TSK: Mat 15:31 - the dumb // the maimed // the lame // and they // God the dumb : Mat 9:33; Mar 7:37 the maimed : Mat 18:8; Mar 9:43; Luk 14:13, Luk 14:21 the lame : Mat 21:14; Act 3:2-11, Act 14:8-10 and they : Mat 9:8; ...

TSK: Mat 15:32 - Jesus // I have // three // and have // lest Jesus : Mat 9:36, Mat 14:14, Mat 20:34; Mar 8:1, Mar 8:2, Mar 9:22; Luk 7:13 I have : Heb 4:15 three : Mat 12:40, Mat 27:63; Act 27:33 and have : Mat ...

TSK: Mat 15:33 - Whence // to fill Whence : Num 11:21, Num 11:22; 2Ki 4:42-44; Mar 6:37, Mar 8:4, Mar 8:5; Joh 6:5-7 to fill : Mat 14:15; Luk 9:13; Joh 6:8, Joh 6:9

TSK: Mat 15:34 - How // few How : Mat 16:9, Mat 16:10 few : Luk 24:41, Luk 24:42; Joh 21:9, Joh 21:10

TSK: Mat 15:35 - to sit to sit : Mat 14:19-21; Mar 6:39, Mar 6:40; Luk 9:14-16; Joh 6:10

TSK: Mat 15:36 - and gave thanks and gave thanks : Mat 26:26, Mat 26:27; 1Sa 9:13; Luk 22:19, Luk 24:30; Joh 6:11; Act 27:35; Rom 14:6; 1Co 10:31; 1Ti 4:3, 1Ti 4:4

TSK: Mat 15:37 - all // seven all : Mat 15:33, Mat 14:20,Mat 14:21; Psa 107:9; Luk 1:53 seven : Mat 16:9, Mat 16:10; Mar 8:8, Mar 8:9, Mar 8:19-21

TSK: Mat 15:39 - he sent he sent : Mat 14:22; Mar 8:10

he sent : Mat 14:22; Mar 8:10

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Mat 15:1 - See Poole on "Mat 15:2" Mat 15:1-9 Christ reproveth the scribes and Pharisees for setting their own traditions above the commandments of God. Mat 15:10-20 He teacheth tha...

Mat 15:1-9 Christ reproveth the scribes and Pharisees for setting

their own traditions above the commandments of God.

Mat 15:10-20 He teacheth that not that which goeth into the mouth,

but that which cometh out of it, defileth a man.

Mat 15:21-28 He healeth the daughter of a woman of Canaan,

Mat 15:29-31 and great multitudes near the sea of Galilee.

Mat 15:32-39 He feedeth four thousand and upwards with seven

loaves and a few small fishes.

See Poole on "Mat 15:2" .

Poole: Mat 15:1-2 - -- Ver. 1,2. Mark relates this piece of history more largely, Mar 7:1-5 , Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain, of the scribes, which...

Ver. 1,2. Mark relates this piece of history more largely, Mar 7:1-5 , Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain, of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem. And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, hands, they found fault. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables. Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands? This portion of Scripture cannot be well understood without understanding something of the Jewish government as to matters ecclesiastical; in which the high priest was the chief. God addeth seventy men more to Moses and Aaron, Num 11:25 , to bear a share in the government; these were called the sanhedrim; and this was the supreme court of judicature amongst the Jews, as to all things which respected the laws of God, whether moral, judicial, or ceremonial, and every one was bound to abide by their determination. These sat in Jerusalem, but had their inferior courts in other places, from which they appealed to the sanhedrim, who finally determined, Deu 17:8-13 . It was the great business of this court to take care that there should be no corruption in religion. These were they therefore that sent messengers to John, when he began to preach, to inquire what he was, and by what authority he baptized, Joh 1:19 . The Pharisees (as we before heard) had charged our Saviour’ s disciples with violation of the sabbath by plucking and rubbing ears of corn, and himself also with the same crime for healing the sick. It is very like these accusations were got to Jerusalem, and that these were emissaries sent from the sanhedrim to watch our Saviour, or possibly they came out of their own curiosity. They could find in our Saviour no guilt as to any violation of the law of God, but they pick a quarrel with him for some rites and ceremonies of their church, which he and his disciples were not so strict in the observation of. They say, Why do thy disciples transgress the traditions of the elders? The word traditions signifies only things delivered, and is as well applicable to the law of God as any thing else. Thus the whole law of God was but a tradition, a doctrine of life, delivered to the Jews by Moses from God: thus the apostle bids the Thessalonians, Hold the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word, or our epistle, 2Th 2:15 . But the term of the elders is that which restraineth it, for as the papists in our time hold that, besides what we have in the New Testament, the apostle delivered many things to the primitive church only by word of mouth, which have since that time been imparted to succeeding churches, to the observation of which Christians are as much obliged as to the written word, so the Jews did formerly. For though, for some tract of time, they kept to the Divine law, yet in process of time they abused that text, Deu 4:14 , to found a new invention upon it: That while Moses was in the mount of God forty days and forty nights, God in the day time revealed to him the law written in the five books of Moses, and in the night he revealed to him several other things, as to which his will was they should not be written, for fear the heathens should transcribe them, but be delivered only by word of mouth to the sanhedrim, and be to them as much a rule of judgment as any part of the law which was written. By which means they gained themselves a liberty of making the law of God what they pleased, for their traditions were of several sorts. Some were determinations of what in the law seemed doubtful. Others were determinations of what the law left at liberty. Others they called sepimenta legis, rules they gave under pretence of a guard to the Divine law; for the more caution, that they might not transgress it. These things at first were not imposed as laws, but commended by way of advice and counsel, afterward they came to be looked upon as laws, and grew almost infinite. They tell us that Ezra was he who gathered those traditions together, and made the Cabbala in seventy-two books, which was kept by Gamaliel and others till the destruction of Jerusalem. A hundred and twenty years after, they tell us Rabbi Judas, the son of Simon, composed a book of them, called Misna. Three hundred years after this, they tell us R. Johanan found more, and he and others, his colleagues, collected them into a larger book, called the Jerusalem Talmud. A hundred years after this, another rabbi made a collection of the traditions amongst the Jews that remained in Babylon, which he called the Babylonish Talmud; by which two the Jews are governed in ecclesiastical matters, all the world over, at this day. Their whole Talmud is divided into six parts. The sixth is about purifications; it containeth twelve books, and every book hath twenty or thirty chapters, all treating about the purifying of houses, clothes, vessels, human bodies, and their several parts. The Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem were in such an afflicted state, that though their Talmud was not perfected of five hundred years and more after Christ, yet it is probable they added not much to what they had in use in Christ’ s time. The Pharisees were very severe as to these traditions. The Sadducees kept more to the written law. But the Pharisees were in far greater credit with the Jews, therefore Paul called them the strictest sect of the Jewish religion, Act 26:5 . The Jews have several ordinary sayings, that show in what esteem they had these traditions, as, If the scribes say our right hand is our left, and our left hand our right, we are to believe them. And, There is more in the words of the scribes than the words of the law, & c. These scribes and Pharisees accuse our Saviour’ s disciples for the violation of one of these traditions. Mark saith, that the Pharisees, and all the Jews, ( that is, the major part of those that followed the Pharisees’ faction), except they wash their hands oft, eat not. They thought it sinful to eat unless they often washed their hands. The foundation of this tradition was doubtless in the Levitical law. God by that law had declared him unclean that should touch the carcass of any unclean thing, Lev 5:2,3 . Upon this (as some think) they had superstructed a tradition of washing their hands, pots, cups, vessels, when they had been at the market, or almost any where, for fear they, or their pots, cups, &c., should have touched any unclean person or thing. In this they were guilty of several errors:

1. Extending the law to the touching of things and persons, of whom the law had said nothing.

2. In cases where such touches happened accidentally, and were not made on purpose.

3. In thinking that the stain of sin could be washed away by a ritual action, which God never commanded.

We must not think that they charge the disciples here with a neglect of a civil washing for cleanliness, but of a religious superstitious washing.

Mark saith, koinaiv cepsi , that is, with common hands; we translate it, polluted: so Act 10:14 11:8 : hands not first separated to God by the religious rite of washings.

Poole: Mat 15:3 - -- Mark hath the same, Mar 7:9 , though a little out of the order in which Matthew hath it: Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may ke...

Mark hath the same, Mar 7:9 , though a little out of the order in which Matthew hath it: Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition. Our Saviour could have answered them, had he pleased, more strictly to their questions, but he must then either have incurred danger or odium; he therefore chooseth to answer them by another question, which struck at the root of the matter. Admit, saith he, my disciples culpable in not observing traditions, which indeed you call the traditions of the elders, but are your own, devised by you, or some like you, merely to uphold your power and authority, and to keep people in a needless subjection to you: I am sure you are far more guilty, in making traditions contrary to the law of God, or rejecting God’ s law to keep your traditions. And indeed this is the common guilt of those who are great zealots for traditions and rites, not commanded in the word of God. The Jewish Rabbi Jose saith, He sinneth as much who eateth with unwashen hands, as he that lieth with an harlot. The papists make it a greater sin for a priest to marry than to keep a concubine, and commit fornication; they make it a lesser transgression than to eat meat on a Friday.

Poole: Mat 15:4-6 - -- Ver. 4-6. Mark hath much the same, Mar 7:10-13 . Mark saith Moses said, which is the same with God commanded: God commanded by Moses. Mark saith...

Ver. 4-6. Mark hath much the same, Mar 7:10-13 . Mark saith Moses said, which is the same with God commanded: God commanded by Moses. Mark saith, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift. Mark addeth, Mar 7:12 , And ye suffer him no more to do aught for his father or mother; which more fully shows their crime, and expounds what Matthew had said more shortly. Mark adds, and many such like things do ye. This is an instance by which our Saviour justifieth his charge upon them, that they had made void the law of God by their traditions. The law he instances in is the fifth commandment, Exo 20:12 Deu 5:16 ; which the apostle calleth the first commandment with promise, Eph 6:2 ; which God had fortified with a judicial law, wherein he had commanded, that he who cursed his father and mother should be put to death Exo 21:17 Lev 20:9 he had also further threatened the violaters of this law, Pro 20:20 . By the way, our Saviour here also lets us know, that the fifth commandment obliges children to relieve their parents in their necessity, and this is the sense of the term honour in other texts of Scripture: a law of God which hath approved itself to the wisdom almost of all nations. Liberi parentes alant aut vinciantur, Let children relieve their parents or be put into prison, was an old Roman law. Nor did the Pharisees deny this in terms, but they had made an exception from it, which in effect made it of no use, at least such as wicked children easily might, and commonly did, elude it by: they had taught the people to say to their parents, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me: and in that case, though they did not give their poor parents any thing wherewith they might relieve their necessities, yet they should be guiltless as to the fifth commandment. There is a strange variety of interpreters as to this text. Some making the sense this, That which I should relieve you with I have dedicated unto God, and therefore I cannot relieve you. Others thus, I have dedicated my estate to God, and that will be as much good and benefit to you, as if I had given it unto you. Others think that Corban was the form of an oath, from whence they form other senses. But the most free and unconstrained sense seemeth to be this: The Pharisees were a very courteous generation, and had a share in the gifts that were brought unto God for the use of the temple or otherwise; thence they were very zealous and diligent in persuading people to make such oblations. When any pretended the need that their parents stood in of their help, they told them, that if they told their parents it was a gift, that they had vowed such a portion of their estate to a sacred use, that would before God excuse them for not relieving their parents; so as the precept of honouring their parents, and relieving them in their necessities, obliged them not, if they had first given to God the things by which their parents might or ought to have been relieved. Thus he tells them, that by their traditions, under pretence of a more religion, and expounding the Divine law, they had indeed destroyed it, and made it of no effect at all.

Poole: Mat 15:7-9 - Ye hypocrites // well did Isaiah prophesy of you // In vain do they worship me, &c // Teaching doctrines, the commandments of men // commandments of men Ver. 7-9. The Greek is, didaskontev didaskaliav , teaching doctrines, the commandments of men. Ye hypocrites who put on an outward vizard or appear...

Ver. 7-9. The Greek is, didaskontev didaskaliav , teaching doctrines, the commandments of men.

Ye hypocrites who put on an outward vizard or appearance of holiness, but have nothing in your hearts of true and severe piety,

well did Isaiah prophesy of you: Isaiah spake to the Jews that were then in being, but what he then said of your forefathers that lived in his age, is true of you who are their children.

Saying, This people, &c. The evangelist doth not quote the words of the prophet exactly, but his sense, and teacheth us this lesson, That whatsoever outward show and profession of religion be in and upon men, if their hearts be not right with God, and what they outwardly do proceed not from an inward principle of faith, love, and obedience in and to God, they are but hypocrites.

In vain do they worship me, &c. that is, idly, and unprofitably, and to no purpose: I will not account what they do.

Teaching doctrines, the commandments of men: he means in the worship of God, for other commandments of men are not the preacher’ s texts, nor doth he here mean by

commandments of men such as backed the commandments of God, and only served to enforce them, but such as he had been speaking of, human traditions, of which God had said nothing, as washing of hands; or such traditions as enervated the commandments of God; such were the last mentioned.

Poole: Mat 15:10-11 - Hear, and understand Ver. 10,11. Mark hath the same, Mar 7:15 . Our Saviour turns off his discourse from the Pharisees and scribes, who he saw were indocible, to the mult...

Ver. 10,11. Mark hath the same, Mar 7:15 . Our Saviour turns off his discourse from the Pharisees and scribes, who he saw were indocible, to the multitude, in whom he discerned a more teachable temper: he useth the preface,

Hear, and understand as well knowing how they had been taught, and what an advantage error in possession hath. That which he tells them, and that before the scribes and Pharisees, (as will appear by the following verses), was, that that which goeth into a man doth not defile him, but that which cometh out of him. He speaketh not of a Levitical pollution, for so he that did eat of an unclean thing might by it be defiled; but even in such an eating it was not the flesh of the unclean bird or beast that defiled the man, but his sinful lusting after it, and eating it in disobedience to the command of God.

Poole: Mat 15:12 - -- The Pharisees’ offence was, without question, at his making so light a matter at their washings; not that they understood our Saviour as speak...

The Pharisees’ offence was, without question, at his making so light a matter at their washings; not that they understood our Saviour as speaking against the distinction of meats, which was established by the ceremonial law, not as yet abrogated. There is nothing doth more offend hypocrites than pressing spiritual worship and homage to God, and the slighting of all external rites and actions, not attended with a suitable inward homage and devotion of heart.

Poole: Mat 15:13-14 - Let them alone Ver. 13,14. Every plant may be understood of doctrines, practices, or persons. These scribes and Pharisees are a wretched generation, that are got i...

Ver. 13,14. Every plant may be understood of doctrines, practices, or persons. These scribes and Pharisees are a wretched generation, that are got into the sheepfold not at the door; my Father never sent them, they are crept in at the windows, they are plants got into my garden, which my Father never planted there, and they must be rooted up.

Let them alone they are incorrigible, and blinded by their own interest against any conviction or instruction: as, Hos 4:17 , Ephraim is joined to idols; let him alone: so these men are joined to their superstitious traditions; I will not concern myself with them. They are pretended leaders of the blind, Rom 2:19 , but themselves are blind. I pity the poor people, for while the blind lead the blind they both fall into a ditch. An ignorant and unfaithful ministry is the greatest plague God can send amongst a people.

Poole: Mat 15:15-16 - Are ye Ver. 15,16. Mark saith, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. Peter probably began, the rest followed. Or Peter speaks in the name of the...

Ver. 15,16. Mark saith, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. Peter probably began, the rest followed. Or Peter speaks in the name of the rest, for our Saviour in his answer doth not say, Art thou, but,

Are ye They did well in that they desired to be instructed what the meaning was of the parable, that is, the dark saying, which he used (for the Hebrews called all dark sayings parables); possibly they might also stumble at what our Saviour said, as tending to the destruction of the ceremonial law, about the difference of meats. But that they were no better instructed than not to understand a thing so plain and obvious, this was their fault, and argued their small improvement of our Saviour’ s company. God expects a proficiency in knowledge from us proportionate unto the means he giveth us.

Poole: Mat 15:17-20 - -- Ver. 17-20. Mark hath this, with very small difference in words, Mar 7:18-23 ; only he specifies some more sins than Matthew enumerates. The sum of w...

Ver. 17-20. Mark hath this, with very small difference in words, Mar 7:18-23 ; only he specifies some more sins than Matthew enumerates. The sum of what our Saviour saith is this: That all sin proceedeth from lust, some desires in the heart of man after things forbidden in the law of God. All the ticklings of our hearts with such thoughts, all the willings and desires of such things, though they never issue in overt acts, yet defile and pollute a man; and from these inward motions of the heart proceed those overt acts (mentioned by Matthew or Mark) of murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, pride, foolishness: now these things, take them in their nest, which is the heart, they defile and pollute that; take them in their passage through our lips into the world, they pollute that; take them in their overt act, they pollute the man. But to eat with unwashen hands, a thing no where forbidden by God, only by the Pharisees, who had no such authority given them from God to command any such things, this doth not pollute a man. It is possible that men may sin in not obeying the commandments of men, but it must be then in things in which God hath authorized them to command, and to determine our practice in, for the pollution lies in a disobedience to the commandment of God, not of men.

Poole: Mat 15:21 - -- Mark addeth, Mar 7:24 , and entered into an house, and would have no man know it; but he could not be hid. Some here make a question, whether our ...

Mark addeth, Mar 7:24 , and entered into an house, and would have no man know it; but he could not be hid. Some here make a question, whether our Saviour did go into Phoenicia, (of which Tyre and Sidon were the principal cities), or only into the coasts of Palestine, next to it: those that think he did not go into Phoenicia, are guided by his prohibition of his disciples to go into the way of the Gentiles, Mat 10:5 , and the consideration that the time was not yet come for his manifestation to the Gentiles. I rather incline to think that he went into Tyre and Sidon; and that this was a kind of a praeludium to the calling of the Gentiles, and a prediction of what should be done more fully afterwards. It is manifest he did not go with a design to make himself public there, for Mark saith, he would have no man know it. But for privacy withdrew himself thither, and showed some of his miraculous operations there; and Mat 15:22 saith the woman that came to him was a Canaanite. Mark saith she was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation. Nor is here any contradiction, for ever since the Grecian monarchy prevailed over so great a part of the world, the name of Greeks had obtained, so as they called all Greeks who were not Jews, Rom 1:14,16 10:12 .

A Syrophenician, saith Mark, by nation; that is, one that was a native of that part of Phoenicia which is joined to Tyre and Sidon. Matthew calls her a Canaanite, or a woman of Canaan, by which though some would understand one of Cana, yet as the orthography will not agree, so Mark calling her a Greek, and a Syrophenician, inclines us rather to judge her of the stock of the old Canaanites.

Poole: Mat 15:22-23 - he answered her not a word // Let the children first be filled // Send her away; for she crieth after us Ver. 22,23. Mark saith, A certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet: the woman was a Gr...

Ver. 22,23. Mark saith, A certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet: the woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter. But Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children’ s bread and cast it unto the dogs, Mat 7:25-27 . Though the woman appears to have been a pagan, yet living so near Galilee, she had doubtless heard of Christ, both what he had done in casting out devils, and also that he was looked upon as the Son of David, and usually called by that name by those who went to him for any cures; she therefore gives him that title. Others think her to have been more specially enlightened, and to have called him the Son of David, not as a usual compellation given him, but as believing him to have been the true Messias promised to the Jews: nor is that impossible, for though the gospel at this time had not shined out upon any considerable number of the heathen, yet God in all times had his number amongst them; and this woman living so near to the Jews, and so near to Galilee, where our Saviour hitherto had most conversed and preached, it is not improbable that she might have received the grace as well as the sound of the gospel, so God might have kindled in her heart a true faith in the Messias. Our Saviour’ s commendation of her faith in the following discourse maketh this very probable. Matthew saith that

he answered her not a word Mark saith that he said to her, Let the children first be filled, & c. To the observing reader this will appear no contradiction. For by Mark it should appear, that she first came to our Saviour into the house, into which he went that he might be private, and there fell at his feet. Here Christ answered her not a word, took no notice of her at all. But it appeareth by Matthew that Christ soon left the home, and she followed after him upon the way. The disciples said, Send her away; for she crieth after us. Then it was that our Saviour said to her,

Let the children first be filled his disciples first interposing, saying,

Send her away; for she crieth after us How many of the papists think that this text patronizes their invocation of saints departed I cannot tell, for these disciples were alive, and we do not read that she spake to any of them to intercede for her. It is certain they did move Christ on her behalf.

Poole: Mat 15:24 - -- Our Lord by these words doth not deny but that he was sent as a Redeemer to more, but not as a minister, or as an apostle, as he is called, Heb 3...

Our Lord by these words doth not deny but that he was sent as a Redeemer to more, but not as a minister, or as an apostle, as he is called, Heb 3:1 . The apostle, Rom 15:8 , saith, that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God to confirm the promises made unto the fathers. Our Lord’ s ministry was confined to the Jews; so was the apostles’ , Mat 10:5 . Till some time after our Saviour’ s ascension the gospel was not preached generally to the Gentiles, though some particular persons might and did, both in Christ’ s time and in the time of the apostles, before they did go to the Gentiles, hear, receive and embrace the gospel, as we shall hear this woman did.

Poole: Mat 15:25 - -- She here acknowledgeth his Divine power, and implores his help; thus showing that she believed him to be the Son of God, and a rewarder of those tha...

She here acknowledgeth his Divine power, and implores his help; thus showing that she believed him to be the Son of God, and a rewarder of those that sought him; and continues her request after two repulses.

Poole: Mat 15:26 - It is not meet Mark saith, Mar 7:27 , Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled; for it is not meet, &c. By the children here he means the Jews, by...

Mark saith, Mar 7:27 , Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled; for it is not meet, &c. By the children here he means the Jews, by the dogs he means the heathen. The Jews are called the children of the kingdom. Israel is called God’ s son, his firstborn, Exo 4:22 . The apostle, Rom 9:4 , saith, to them belonged the the adoption . By bread here our Saviour means the publication of the gospel, and the miracles by which the truth of the doctrine of it was confirmed; by dogs he means the heathen, whom the Jews did count as dogs, no members of the household of God: it was a term of contempt, 2Sa 3:8 2Sa 16:9 2Ki 8:13 . When our Saviour saith,

It is not meet he means it is not just, nor equal.

Objection: How came it then that the gospel was ever carried to the Gentiles?

Mark expounds our Saviour’ s meaning, or rather gives us an account of our Saviour’ s words, more perfectly: Let the children first be filled; for it is not meet, &c. The Jews are God’ s children, a people whom he chose out of all the nations of the earth, to whom he gave many privileges; it is his will the gospel should be first preached to them, and then to the Gentiles. Gentiles are as dogs, of whom God hath not taken such a care; but they shall have their time. Only it is not consonant to my Father’ s will that the gospel, and the miracles by which it is confirmed, should be exhibited unto you Gentiles, till it hath been fully preached to the Jews, and they be first filled with the sound, and with the confirmations of it.

Poole: Mat 15:27 - -- Mark reports it to the same sense, Mar 7:28 . She goeth on after three repulses, the last of which was not without a reproach, for our Lord had impl...

Mark reports it to the same sense, Mar 7:28 . She goeth on after three repulses, the last of which was not without a reproach, for our Lord had implicitly called her a dog. These words are as much as if she had said, Lord, I confess the Jews are children; I am a dog, a poor heathen, no proper member of the household of God; and it is truth that it seemeth unreasonable that I, being a dog, should be served before all the children are filled. Lord, I do not beg such a full manifestation of thy power and goodness for the Gentiles. I beg but a crumb of mercy for myself and poor child; and, Lord, though we do not use to give our loaves prepared for our children to the dogs that feed under our table, crumbs of our children’ s bread, as Mark expresses it, yet we suffer our dogs to gather them up. Lord, I know thou hast a plenty of grace and blessing, the children may be filled, and yet I may have some crumbs. Three things are remarkable in her answer, besides her faith so eminently expressed.

1. Her humility; she owneth herself a dog.

2. Her modesty; she begs no more than a crumb.

3. Her fervency and importunity after three repulses.

By this we learn our duty in prayer, to go to God humbly, to implore him modestly, and to be instant in prayer, going on in our duty, though we have not presently such an answer as we desire. These things, conjoined with faith, make an acceptable prayer.

Poole: Mat 15:28 - And her daughter was made whole from that very hour Mark saith, Mar 7:29 , And he said unto her. For this saying go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter. And when she was come to her house,...

Mark saith, Mar 7:29 , And he said unto her. For this saying go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter. And when she was come to her house, she found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon the bed. O woman! For this saying, showing the greatness of thy faith, be it unto thee as thou wilt. Go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter.

And her daughter was made whole from that very hour as she understood when she came home to her house, for she found the devil was gone out of her daughter, and her daughter was laid upon the bed. Thus the words of both the evangelists compounded make but one entire and perfect sense. The greatness of her faith appeared in two things:

1. In that she had so little means, so small a revelation; being a pagan, she ordinarily had not heard the gospel, nor seen so many of Christ’ s mighty works, confirming the truth of the doctrine of it. Hence it is observed, that Christ admired the faith of none but pagans, Mat 8:10 .

2. In that she would not give over, though he gave her three repulses. So as she said, like Jacob, I will not let thee go, until thou bless me. And as he, like a prince, so she, like a princess, prevailed with God, and obtained the thing which she desired.

But will some say. Where was her faith? What promise, what word of God, had she to assent to? God doth not speak to us outwardly, but inwardly, as undoubtedly he had to this woman, giving her some inward assurance that he was the Son of God, and both able and willing to grant her the thing she asked. Now a firm and fixed assent to any Divine revelation is faith, whether the revelation be internal or external. We from hence learn the mighty power of true faith and fervent prayer.

Poole: Mat 15:29-31 - -- Ver. 29-31. Mark gives us an account of this motion of our Saviour’ s, Mar 7:31-37 , and mentions a particular miracle which our Lord wrought, e...

Ver. 29-31. Mark gives us an account of this motion of our Saviour’ s, Mar 7:31-37 , and mentions a particular miracle which our Lord wrought, either in the way, or when he came to the place where he rested; which not being mentioned by our evangelist, I shall consider when I come to that chapter in Mark. Matthew only tells us in general that he healed many, some lame, some that were blind, some that were dumb, &c. Such a general account of the miracles wrought by our Saviour we had Mat 4:24 8:16 11:5 ; the evangelist not largely setting down every particular miracle wrought by our Saviour. And they glorified the Lord God of Israel. The Pharisees ascribed these operations to the devil’ s power, but the poor people owned them as the works of God, and gave praise unto God.

Poole: Mat 15:32-39 - into the coasts of Magdala Ver. 32-39. Mark gives us an account of this miracle, Mar 8:1-10 . There is very little difference in their relations, only Mark saith, our Saviour w...

Ver. 32-39. Mark gives us an account of this miracle, Mar 8:1-10 . There is very little difference in their relations, only Mark saith, our Saviour went into the parts of Dalmanutha; Matthew saith,

into the coasts of Magdala: most think that it was the same place, which had two names: some think one was the name of the country, the other of the city or town; others, that they were two towns near together. There are no difficulties in this history. Some question how they could fast three days; but the text doth not say so, only that at that time they had nothing to eat, having spent what they brought with them, probably in their baskets, which answers another question also, how they could get baskets in the wilderness. The miracle was of the same nature with that which we met with Mat 14:15-22 ; only there were five thousand men fed with five loaves and two fishes, here four thousand were fed with seven loaves and a few fishes; there they took up twelve, here but seven baskets full. Our Lord worketh sometimes without means, sometimes by means, and those differently proportions to his end, as it pleaseth him. The miraculous operations of our Saviour are amongst his miranda et adoranda, not his imitanda. These actions of his, which we are in reading to admire and adore, but are not concerned to imitate, yet something we may observe from them, both for our instruction and imitation. For our instruction, we may from this history observe the extent of Christ’ s compassion to his disciples, which though it is most eminently seen in what he doth for their souls, yet reacheth also to their bodies and more external wants. It also teacheth us to trust God in the doing of our duty. Those that are in a wilderness hearing Christ, shall not faint by the way before they get home. His course of giving thanks before he brake and made use of the bread, (which we observed before in the other miracle), commendeth to us the religious custom of begging a blessing before our meat, and giving thanks to God for good things of that nature, when we have received them.

Lightfoot: Mat 15:2 - Why do they transgress the tradition of the elders? // For they wash not their hands, etc. Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? For they wash not their hands when they eat bread.   [Why do they transgress t...

Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? For they wash not their hands when they eat bread.   

[Why do they transgress the tradition of the elders?] how great a value they set upon their traditions, even above the word of God, appears sufficiently from this very place, Mat 15:6. Out of infinite examples which we meet with in their writings, we will produce one place only; " The words of the scribes are lovely above the words of the law; for the words of the law are weighty and light; but the words of the scribes are all weighty."   

"He that shall say, 'There are no phylacteries, transgressing the words of the law,' is not guilty; but he that shall say, 'There are five Totaphoth; adding to the words of the scribes,' he is guilty."   

" The words of the elders are weightier than the words of the prophets."   

"A prophet and an elder; to what are they likened? To a king sending two of his servants into a province. Of one he writes thus, 'Unless he shew you my seal, believe him not': of the other thus, 'Although he shews you not my seal, yet believe him.' Thus it is written of the prophet, 'He shall shew thee a sign or a miracle'; but of the elders thus, 'According to the law which they shall teach thee,' " etc. But enough of blasphemies.   

[For they wash not their hands, etc.] the undervaluing of the washing of hands is said to be among those things for which the Sanhedrim excommunicates: and therefore that R. Eleazar Ben Hazar was excommunicated by it, because he undervalued the washing of hands; and that when he was dead, by the command of the Sanhedrim, a great stone was laid upon his bier. "Whence you may learn (say they) that the Sanhedrim stones the very coffin of every excommunicate person that dies in his excommunication."   

It would require a just volume, and not a short commentary, or a running pen, to lay open this mystery of Pharisaism concerning washing of hands, and to discover it in all its niceties: let us gather these few passages out of infinite numbers:   

I. The washing of hands and the plunging of them is appointed by the words of the scribes; but by whom, and when, it is doubted. Some ascribe the institution of this rite to Hillel and Shammai, others carry it back to ages before them: " Hillel and Shammai decreed concerning the washing of hands. R. Josi Ben Rabbi Bon, in the name of R. Levi, saith, 'That tradition was given before, but they had forgotten it': these second stand forth, and appoint according to the mind of the former."   

II. "Although it was permitted to eat unclean meats, and to drink unclean drinks, yet the ancient religious eat their common food in cleanness, and took care to avoid uncleanness all their days; and they were called Pharisees. And this is a matter of the highest sanctity, and the way of the highest religion; namely, that a man separate himself, and go aside from the vulgar, and that he neither touch them, nor eat nor drink with them: for such separation conduceth to the purity of the body from evil works," etc. Hence that definition of a Pharisee which we have produced before, The Pharisees eat their common food in cleanness; and the Pharisaical ladder of heaven, "Whosoever hath his seat in the land of Israel, and eateth his common food in cleanness, and speaks the holy language, and recites his phylacteries morning and evening, let him be confident that he shall obtain the life of the world to come."   

III. Here that distinction is to be observed between forbidden meats; and unclean meats. Of both Maimonides wrote a proper tract. Forbidden meats; such as fat, blood, creatures unlawful to be eaten ( Leviticus_2), were by no means to be eaten: but meats, unclean in themselves, were lawful indeed to be eaten, but contracted some uncleanness elsewhere: it was lawful to eat them, and it was not lawful; or, to speak as the thing indeed is, they might eat them by the law of God, but by the canons of Pharisaism they might not.   

IV. The distinction also between unclean; and profane or polluted; is to be observed. Rambam, in his preface to Toharoth; declares it.   

Profane or polluted denotes this, that it does not pollute another beside itself. For every thing which uncleanness invades so that it becomes unclean, but renders not another thing unclean, is called profane. And hence it is said of every one that eats unclean meats, or drinks unclean drinks, that his body is polluted; but he pollutes not another. Note that, "The body of the eater is polluted by unclean meats." To which you may add that which follows in the same Maimonides, in the place before alleged: "Separation from the common people, etc., conduces to the purity of the body from evil works; the purity of the body conduceth to the sanctity of the soul from evil affections; the sanctity of the soul conduces unto likeness to God, as it is said, 'And ye shall be sanctified, and ye shall be holy, because I, the Lord that sanctify you, am holy.' " Hence you may more clearly perceive the force of Christ's confutation, which we have Mat 15:17-20.   

V. They thought that clean food was polluted by unclean hands, and that the hands were polluted by unclean meats. You would wonder at this tradition: "Unclean meats and unclean drinks do not defile a man if he touch them not, but if he touch them with his hands, then his hands become unclean; if he handle them with both hands, both hands are defiled; if he touch them with one hand only, one hand only is defiled."   

VI. This care, therefore, laid upon the Pharisee sect, that meats should be set on free, as much as might be, from all uncleanness: but especially since they could not always be secure of this, that they might be secure that the meats were not rendered unclean by their hands. Hence were the washings of them not only when they knew them to be unclean, but also when they knew it not.   

Rambam in the preface to the tract of hands; hath these words; "If the hands are unclean by any uncleanness, which renders them unclean; or if it be hid from a man, and he knows not that he is polluted; yet he is bound to wash his hands in order to eating his common food," etc.   

VII. To these most rigid canons they added also bugbears and ghosts to affright them.   

It was the business of Shibta. Where the Gloss is, " Shibta was one of the demons who hurt them that wash not their hands before meat." The Aruch writes thus, " Shibta is an evil spirit which sits upon men's hands in the night: and if any touch his food with unwashen hands, that spirit sits upon that food, and there is danger from it."   

Let these things suffice as we pass along: it would be infinite to pursue all that is said of this rite and superstition. Of the quantity of water sufficient for this washing; of the washing of the hands, and of the plunging of them; of the first and second water; of the manner of washing; of the time; of the order, when the number of those that sat down to meat exceeded five, or did not exceed; and other such like niceties: read, if you have leisure, and if the toil and nauseousness of it do not offend you, the Talmudic tract of hands; Maimonides upon the tract lavers; and Babylonian Beracoth; and this article, indeed, is inserted through the whole volume entitled cleanness. Let this discourse be ended with this canon; "For a cake, and for the washing of hands, let a man walk as far as four miles."

Lightfoot: Mat 15:5 - It is a gift by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me, etc. But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;   [It is a g...

But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;   

[It is a gift by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me, etc.] I. Beside the law alleged by Christ, "Honour thy father and thy mother," etc., they acknowledge this also for law, A son is bound to provide his father meat and drink, to clothe him, to cover him, to lead him in and out, to wash his face, hands and feet. Yea, that goes higher, "A son is bound to nourish his father, yea, to beg for him." Therefore it is no wonder if these things which are spoken by our Saviour are not found verbatim in the Jewish pandect; for they are not so much alleged by him to shew that it was their direct design to banish away all reverence and love towards parents, as to show how wicked their traditions were, and into what ungodly consequences they oftentimes fell. They denied not directly the nourishment of their parents, nay, they command it, they exhorted to it; but consequently by this tradition they made all void. They taught openly, indeed, that a father was to be made no account of in comparison of a Rabbin that taught them the law; but they by no means openly asserted that parents were to be neglected: yet openly enough they did by consequence drawn from this foolish and impious tradition.   

II. One might readily comment upon this clause, "It is a gift " (or, as Mark, "it is Corban") by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; if we have read the Talmudic tracts Nedarim and Nazir; where the discourse is of vows and oaths; and the phrase which is before us speaks a vow or a form of swearing.   

1. Vows were distinguished into two ranks, vows of consecration; and vows of obligation; or of prohibition. A vow of consecration was when any thing was devoted to holy uses, namely, to the use of the altar or the Temple: as when a man, by a vow, would dedicate this or that for sacrifice, or to buy wood, salt, wine, etc. For the altar: or for the reparation of the Temple; etc. A vow of obligation or prohibition was, when a man bound himself by a vow from this or that thing, which was lawful in itself; as, that he would not eat, that he would not put on, that he would not do this or that, etc.   

2. This went for a noted axiom among them, All epithets of vows are as the vows themselves. They added certain short forms, by which they signified a vow, and which carried with it the force of a vow, as if the thing were spoken out in a larger periphrasis: as for example, "If one should say to his neighbour, Konem, Konah, Kones; behold, these are epithets of a thing devoted unto sacred uses."   

The word Konem; Rambam thus explains; Let it be upon me as a thing devoted. So also R. Nissim, Konem, Koneh, are words of devoting.   

We produced before, at Mat 5:33, some forms of oaths, which were only Assertive; these under our hands are Votive also. In the place from Beracoth just now alleged, one saith, Let the wine be 'Konem,' which I shall taste, for wine is hard to the bowels; that is, Let the wine which I taste be as devoted wine: as though he had said, I vow that I will not taste wine. "To which others answered, Is not old wine good for the bowels? Then he held his peace."   

III. But above all such like forms of vowing, the word Corban; was plainest of all; which openly speaks a thing devoted and dedicated to sacred use. And the reader of those tracts which we have mentioned shall observe these forms frequently to occur. Let it be 'Corban,' whereby I am profitable to thee; and, Let it be 'Konem,' whereby I am profitable to thee. Which words sound the very same thing, unless I am very much mistaken, with the words before us, "Let it be Corban; or a gift; by which whatsoever thou mayest be profited by me."   

Which words that they may be more clearly understood, and that the plain and full sense of the place may be discovered, let these things be considered:   

First, That the word a gift is rather to be rendered, Let it be a gift; than It is a gift. For Konem and Corban; as we have noted, signified not ' It is' as something devoted; but ' Let it be' as something devoted. and He, of whom we had mention before...meant not, The wine which I shall taste is as something devoted; but Let whatsoever wine I shall taste be as something devoted; that is, To me let all wine be devoted, and not to be tasted.   

Secondly, This form of speech A gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; does neither argue, that he who thus spake devoted his goods to sacred uses, nor obliged him (according to the doctrine of the scribes) to devote them; but only restrained him by an obligation from that thing, for the denying of which he used such a form; that is, from helping him by his goods, to whom he thus spake. He might help others with his wealth, but him he might not.   

Thirdly, The words are brought in as though they were pronounced with indignation; as if, when the needy father required food from his son, he should answer in anger and with contempt, Let it be as a thing devoted, whatsoever of mine may profit thee. But now, things that were devoted were not to be laid out upon common uses.   

Fourthly, Christ not only cites the law, 'Honour thy father and mother,' but adds this also, He that curseth father or mother. But now there was no cursing here at all; if the son spoke truly and modestly, and as the thing was, namely, that all his estate was devoted before.   

Fifthly, Therefore, although these words should have been spoken by the son irreverently, wrathfully, and inhumanly, towards his father, yet such was the folly, together with the impiety, of the traditional doctrine in this case, which pronounced the son so obliged by these his words, that it was lawful by no means to succour his needy father. He was not at all bound by these words to dedicate his estate to sacred uses; but not to help his father he was inviolably bound. O excellent doctrine and charity!   

Sixthly, The words of the verse, therefore, may thus be rendered, without any addition put between, which many interpreters do: Whosoever shall say to his father or mother, Let it be a [devoted] gift, in whatsoever thou mayest be helped by me: then let him not honour his father and mother at all.

Lightfoot: Mat 15:11 - Defileth the man Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man.   [Defileth the man.] Or...

Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man.   

[Defileth the man.] Or, maketh him common;...because they esteemed defiled men for common and vulgar men: on the contrary, a religious man among them is a singular man...

Lightfoot: Mat 15:20 - With unwashen hands These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.   [With unwashen hands.] He saith not with u...

These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.   

[With unwashen hands.] He saith not with unclean hands, but unwashen; because, as we said before, they were bound to wash, although they were not conscious that their hands were unclean. In Mark it is with common or defiled hands; Mar 7:2; which seem to be called by the Talmudists impure hands, merely because not washed. Judge from that which is said in the tract Challah; "A cake is owing out of that dough which they knead with the juice of fruits: and it is eaten with unclean hands."

Lightfoot: Mat 15:22 - A woman of Canaan And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David; my daug...

And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.   

[A woman of Canaan.] In Mark it is, A Greek woman, a Syrophoenician by nation; Mat 7:26.   

I. Of Canaan. It is worthy observing, that the Holy Bible, reckoning up the seven nations; which were to be destroyed by the Israelites, names the Perizzites, who were not at all recited among the sons of Canaan, Genesis_10; and the Canaanites as a particular nation, when all the seven, indeed, were Canaanites. See Deu 7:1; Jos 9:1; Jos 11:3; Jdg 3:5; etc.   

The reason of the latter (with which our business is) is to be fetched thence, that Canaan himself inhabited a peculiar part of that (northern) country, with his first-born sons, Sidon and Heth: and thence the name of Canaanites was put upon that particular progeny, distinguished from all his other sons; and that country was peculiarly called by the name of 'Canaan,' distinctly from all the rest of the land of Canaan. Hence Jabin, the king of Hazor, is called the 'king of Canaan,' Jdg 4:2; and the kings of Tyre and Sidon, if I mistake not, are called 'the kings of the Hittites,' 1Ki 10:29.   

II. A Greek woman, a Syrophoenician Although Judea, and almost the whole world, had now a long while stooped under the yoke of the Romans, yet the memory of the Syro-Grecian kingdom, and the name of the nation, was not yet vanished. And that is worthy to be noted, In the captivity, they compute the years only from the kingdom of the Greeks. They said before, "That the Romans, for a hundred and fourscore years, ruled over the Jews before the destruction of the Temple"; and yet they do not compute the times to that destruction by the years of the Romans, but by the years of the Greeks. Let the Jews themselves well consider this, and the Christians with them, who reckon the Roman for the fourth monarchy in Daniel.   

Therefore that woman that is here spoken of (to reduce all into a short conclusion) was a Syro-Grecian by nation, a Phoenician in respect of her habitation, and from thence called a woman of Canaan.

Lightfoot: Mat 15:26 - To the dogs But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and cast it to dogs.   [To the dogs.] By this title the Jews, ou...

But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and cast it to dogs.   

[To the dogs.] By this title the Jews, out of spite and contempt, disgraced the Gentiles, whose first care it was to hate, to mock, and to curse, all beside themselves. The nations of the world [that is, the heathen] are likened to dogs. From the common speech of the nation, rather than from his own sense, our Saviour uses this expression, to whom 'the Gentiles' were not so hateful, and whose custom was to speak with the vulgar.   

This ignominious name, like a stone cast at the heathen, at length fell upon their own heads; and that by the hand and justice of God directing it: for although they out of pride and contempt fixed that disgraceful name upon the Gentiles, according to their very just desert, the Holy Spirit recoiled it upon themselves. See Psa 59:6; Phi 3:2; Rev 22:15; etc.

Lightfoot: Mat 15:36 - He gave thanks and brake And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, and brake them; and gave to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. &nb...

And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, and brake them; and gave to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude.   

[He gave thanks and brake.] See here the tract Beracoth; where it is discoursed of the manner of giving thanks when many ate together: Three who eat together ought to give thanks together; that is, one gave thanks for the rest (as the Gloss writes) "in the plural number, saying, Let us give thanks." So when there were ten, or a hundred, or a thousand or more, one gave thanks for all, and they answered after him Amen; or some words which he had recited.

PBC: Mat 15:25 - -- See WebbSr: LORD, HELP ME

See WebbSr: LORD, HELP ME

Haydock: Mat 15:1 - -- The Pharisees observed a rigid and simple mode life, disdaining all luxurious delicacies. They scrupulously followed the dicta of reason, and paid ...

The Pharisees observed a rigid and simple mode life, disdaining all luxurious delicacies. They scrupulously followed the dicta of reason, and paid the greatest veneration and implicit obedience to the opinions and traditions of their seniors. All contingencies they ascribe to fate, but not to the exclusion of free-will. The immortality of the soul, and a future state of rewards and punishments, were favourite tenets with them, and their fame for wisdom, temperance, and integrity was proverbial. (Josephus, Antiq. Book xviii, chap. ii.)

Haydock: Mat 15:2 - Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition // The tradition of the ancients? Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition. The Pharisees had various traditions delivered down from their ancestors, called Greek: deuterseis, ...

Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition. The Pharisees had various traditions delivered down from their ancestors, called Greek: deuterseis, of which some were works of supererogation, others were contrary to the law. (Estius) ---

It is a great proof of malice in the Pharisees, and of irreproachable character in our Lord, that they should be reduce to notice triffles, no ways connected with either piety or religion. ... They moreover betrayed their superstition, by insisting on the observance of these outward ceremonies, as essential parts of piety, which were not commanded by any law, (were certainly of no divine origin) and which, at most, were duties of civility, or emblems of interior purity. (Jansenius) ---

The tradition of the ancients? They do not say the written law, which did not prescribe these washings of hands, cups, pots, beds, &c. These traditions came only from the doctors of their law, who are called elders, which is a name of dignity, as was that of senator among the Romans, and so, in English, are the names of major, alderman, &c. See Acts v. 6. &c. (Witham)

Haydock: Mat 15:3 - Why do you also Why do you also. The Jews understanding the saying of the prophets, "wash yourselves and be clean," in a carnal manner, they made a precept of not e...

Why do you also. The Jews understanding the saying of the prophets, "wash yourselves and be clean," in a carnal manner, they made a precept of not eating without first washing their hands. (Ven. Bede) ---

The traditions here alluded to, and which they call the oral law, were respected equally with the written law, by all the Jews, except the sect of Caraites; they were collected in seventy-two books, and composed the cabbala, and were kept by Gemaliel and other heads of the sanhedrim, till the destruction of Jerusalem. About 120 years after this, Rabbi Judas composed a book of them, called Mishna, or second law; afterwards two supplements and explanations were given, viz. the Talmud of Jerusalem, and the Talmud of Babylon. By these the Jews are still governed in ecclesiastical matters.

Haydock: Mat 15:5 - The gift whatsoever proceedeth from me, shall profit thee The gift whatsoever proceedeth from me, shall profit thee. [1] This gift is called Corban, Mark vii. 11. Now, as to the sense of this obscure plac...

The gift whatsoever proceedeth from me, shall profit thee. [1] This gift is called Corban, Mark vii. 11. Now, as to the sense of this obscure place, I shall mention two expositions that seem preferable to others. The first is, as if a son said to his father or mother, Whatsoever was mine, (with which indeed I might have assisted you, my parents) I have given, i.e. promised to give to the temple: and being to keep this promise, I need not, or I cannot now assist you. The second interpretation is, as if the son said to his father or mother, Whatsoever gift I have made to God will be profitable to you, as well as to me; or, let it be profitable to you, (which is more according to the Greek text, both here and in St. Mark) and therefore I am no further obliged to assist you. (Witham) ---

That is, the offering that I shall make to God, shall be instead of that which should be expended for thy profit. This tradition of the Pharisees was calculated to enrich themselves, by exempting children from giving any further assistance to their parents, if they once offered to the temple and the priests that which should have been the support of their parents. But this was a violation of the law of God, and of nature, which our Saviour here condemns. (Challoner) ---

They committed a double crime. They neither offered the gift to God, nor succoured their parents in their distress. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. lii.)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Quodcunque ex me, tibi profuerit. In the Greek, both in St. Matthew and St. Mark, Greek: doron, o ean ex emou, ophelethes, tibi prosit.

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Haydock: Mat 15:6 - And he shall not honour And he shall not honour; that is, assist his father or his mother. It is doubtful whether these may not be the words of the Pharisees; but they ra...

And he shall not honour; that is, assist his father or his mother. It is doubtful whether these may not be the words of the Pharisees; but they rather seem the words of our Saviour Christ, especially seeing that in St. Mark, Christ himself adds: And, farther, you suffer him not to do any thing for his father or mother, making void the word of God by your tradition. (Witham)

Haydock: Mat 15:9 - In vain // Commandments of men In vain they worship, or think they worship God, who neglect the divine commandments to observe the commands of men. We must not here suppose that C...

In vain they worship, or think they worship God, who neglect the divine commandments to observe the commands of men. We must not here suppose that Christ censures the commands of the Church, or the tradition of the apostles, because these are in nowise contrary to the divine law, but rather serve to enforce it, and reduce it to practice; nor are they so much the commands of men, as of God, delivered to us by his ambassadors. Christ censures such as are merely human, such as those mentioned here, which are vain and futile, as the superstitious washing of hands or erroneous, as that the soul is defiled by meat; or openly contrary to natural and divine law, as the defrauding parents of their just support. (Tirinus) ---

It is evidently erroneous to argue from this text against apostolic traditions. St. Paul tells the Thessalonians, to stand fast, and hold the traditions which they had been taught, whether by word of mouth or by epistles. (2 Thessalonians ii. 14.) ---

Commandments of men. The doctrines and commandments here reprehended, are such as are either contrary to the law of God, (as that of neglecting parents, under pretence of giving to God) or at least are frivolous, unprofitable, and no ways conducing to true piety, as that of often washing hands, &c. without regard to the purity of the heart. But as to the rules and ordinances of the holy Church, touching fasts, festivals, &c. these are no ways repugnant to, but highly agreeable to God's holy word, and all Christian piety; neither are they to be counted among the doctrines and commandments of men, because they proceed not from mere human authority, but from that which Christ has established in his Church; whose pastors he has commanded us to hear and obey, even as himself. (Luke x. 16. Matthew xviii. 17) (Challoner)

Haydock: Mat 15:11 - Not that which goeth into the mouth Not that which goeth into the mouth, &c. We must heartily pity and pray to God for those who blindly pretend from hence, that to eat any kind of mea...

Not that which goeth into the mouth, &c. We must heartily pity and pray to God for those who blindly pretend from hence, that to eat any kind of meats, or as often as a meats, or as often as a man pleaseth on fasting-days, can defile no man. (Witham) ---

No uncleaness in meat, nor any dirt contracted by eating it with unwashed hands, can defile the soul; but sin alone, or a disobedience of the heart to the ordinance and will of God. And thus, when Adam took the forbidden fruit, it was not the apple which entered into his mouth, but the disobedience to the law of God, which defiled him. The same is to be said if a Jew, in the time of the old law, had eaten swine's flesh; or a Christian convert, in the days of the apostles, contrary to their ordinance, had eaten blood; or if any of the faithful, at present, should transgress the ordinance of God's Church, by breaking the fasts: for in all these cases the soul would be defiled, not indeed by that which goeth into the mouth, but by the disobedience of the heart, in wilfully transgressing the ordinance of God, or of those who have their authority from him. (Challoner) ---

Jesus Christ by no means prohibits fasting and abstinence from certain food, and at certain times, or he would have been immediately accused of contradicting the law; he only says, that meat which they esteem unclean does not of itself, and by its own nature, defile the soul; which is what the Pharisees (and before them Pythagoras, and after them the Manicheans) maintained, and which St. Paul warmly confutes. (1 Timothy iv. 4) (Tirinus) ---

If a man gets intoxicated, adducing this same plea, that what entereth by the mouth, &c. is not the answer obvious; that it is not the wine, but the intemperance, contrary to the law of God, which defileth him: for drunkards shall not possess the kingdom of God. (1 Corinthians vi. 10)

Haydock: Mat 15:12 - Scandalized Scandalized. When the Pharisees had received our Lord's answer, they had nothing to reply. His disciples perceiving their indignation, came and ask...

Scandalized. When the Pharisees had received our Lord's answer, they had nothing to reply. His disciples perceiving their indignation, came and asked Jesus if he observed they were scandalized, i.e. offended. It is probable the disciples were also a little hurt, or afraid lest his words were contrary to the law of Moses or the tradition of the ancients, and took this occasion of having their scruples removed. St. Hilary, St. John Chrysostom and Theophylactus understand this answer, Every plant, &c. to signify that every doctrine not proceeding from God, consequently the traditions of the Pharisees here in question, were to be eradicated by the promulgation of the gospel truths, which were not to remain unpublished on account of the scandal some interested or prejudiced persons might choose to take therefrom. (Jansenius) ---

It must be here observed, that Christ was not the direct cause of scandal to the Jews, for such scandal would not be allowable; he only caused it indirectly, because it was his doctrine, at which, through their own perversity, they took scandal. (Denis the Carthusian)

Haydock: Mat 15:14 - Let them alone Let them alone. It must not be hence inferred, that he desired not the conversion of the Scribes and Pharisees. He only says: if, through their own...

Let them alone. It must not be hence inferred, that he desired not the conversion of the Scribes and Pharisees. He only says: if, through their own perversity, they choose to take scandal, let them do it; we must not neglect to teach the truth, though it displease men. (St. Jerome) ---

When, says St. Gregory, we see scandal arise from our preaching truth, we must rather suffer it to take place than desert the truth. Our Lord says they are blind, let us leave them. For the land which has often been watered with the dews of heaven, and still continues barren is deserted. Behold your house shall be left desolate. (Luke xiii. 35) And Isaias (v. 6.) says, It shall not be pruned, and it shall not be digged, but briers and thorns shall come upon it; and I will command the clouds to rain no more rain upon it. For, although God never refuses man grace sufficient to enable him to rise, if he pleases, yet he sometimes denies such assistance as would render his rise easy. The state of a sinner is then desperate indeed, when Christ tells his disciples to leave him. For as the Sodomites were destroyed, so soon as Lot, who was just and good in the sight of God, had departed from them, and as Jerusalem was laid waste when Jesus went out of it, (for he suffered without the gates) so the sinner is in a very dangerous state, when he is left by the ministers of religion as one infected with a mortal distemper. (Paulus de Palacio)

Haydock: Mat 15:19 - For out of the heart For out of the heart. We must here observe, that our divine Redeemer mentions offences against our neighbour, to shew us that he is even more desiro...

For out of the heart. We must here observe, that our divine Redeemer mentions offences against our neighbour, to shew us that he is even more desirous we should love our neighbour than worship himself. (Idem.)

Haydock: Mat 15:21 - Confines of Tyre Confines of Tyre. It perhaps may be asked, why Jesus went among the Gentiles, when he had commanded his apostles to avoid those countries? One reas...

Confines of Tyre. It perhaps may be asked, why Jesus went among the Gentiles, when he had commanded his apostles to avoid those countries? One reason may be, that our Saviour was not subject to the same rules he gave his disciples; another reason may be brought, that he did not go then to preach; hence St. Matthew observes that he kept himself retired. (St. John Chrysostom) ---

Tyre and Sidon were both situated on the Mediterranean sea, about 20 miles distant from each other, and the adjoining country to the west and north of Galilee was called the coast or territories of Tyre and Sidon. The old inhabitants of this tract were descendants of Chanaan, (for Sidon was his eldest son) and continued in possession of it much longer than they did of any other part of the country. The Greeks called it Phœnicia; and when, by right of conquest, it became a province of Syria, it took the name of Syrophœnician and Gentile; as being both by religion and language a Greek.

Haydock: Mat 15:22 - -- It is probable that woman first cried out before the door, and assembled a crowd, and then went into the house. Have mercy on me. The great faith ...

It is probable that woman first cried out before the door, and assembled a crowd, and then went into the house. Have mercy on me. The great faith of the Chanaanæan woman is justly extolled. She believed him to be God, whom she calls her Lord, and him a man, whom she styles the Son of David. She lays no stress upon her own merits, but supplicates for the mercy of God; neither does she say, have mercy on my daughter, but have mercy on me. ... To move him to compassion, she lays all her grief and sorrow before him in thee afflicting words: my daughter is grievously afflicted by a devil. (Glossa.)

Haydock: Mat 15:23 - He answered her not He answered her not. It must not be supposed that our Saviour refused to hear the woman through any contempt, but only to shew that his mission was ...

He answered her not. It must not be supposed that our Saviour refused to hear the woman through any contempt, but only to shew that his mission was in the first instance to the Jews; or to induce her to ask with greater earnestness, so as to deserve more ample assistance. (Denis the Carthusian)

Haydock: Mat 15:26-27 - And to cast it to the dogs And to cast it to the dogs; i.e. to Gentiles, sometimes so called by the Jews. (Witham) --- The diminutive word Greek: Kunarios, or whelp, is used...

And to cast it to the dogs; i.e. to Gentiles, sometimes so called by the Jews. (Witham) ---

The diminutive word Greek: Kunarios, or whelp, is used in both these verses in the Septuagint. Our Lord crosses the wishes of the Chanaanæan, not that he intended to reject her, but that he might bring to light the hidden and secret treasure of her virtue. Let us admire not only the greatness of her faith, but likewise the profoundness of her humility; for when our Saviour called the Jews children, so far from being envious or another's praise, she readily answers, and gives them the title of lords; and when Christ likened her to a dog, she presently acknowledges the meanness of her condition. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. liii.) He refused at first to listen to her petition, says the same saint, to instruct us with what faith, humility, and perseverance we ought to pray. To make his servants more sensible of his mercy, and more eager to obtain it, he often appears to pay no attention to their prayers, till he had exercised them in the virtues of humility and patience. Ask, and you shall receive; knock, and it shall be opened to you. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mat 15:28 - Be it done Be it done. Inn the beginning God said, Let there be light, and there was light; here Jesus Christ says, let it be done, &c. and her daughter wa...

Be it done. Inn the beginning God said, Let there be light, and there was light; here Jesus Christ says, let it be done, &c. and her daughter was healed from that hour. So powerful with God is earnest and fervent prayer. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. liii.)

Haydock: Mat 15:30 - And he healed them And he healed them. The Chanaanæan was long in obtaining her request, and only prevailed by her importunity; whereas the Jews were cured on declari...

And he healed them. The Chanaanæan was long in obtaining her request, and only prevailed by her importunity; whereas the Jews were cured on declaring their infirmities. Thus were they left without excuse, seeing how much greater was the faith of this poor Gentile woman, than that of the descendants of Abraham. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. liii.)

Haydock: Mat 15:32 - They continue with me now three days They continue with me now three days, eager to hear his divine instructions, and to witness the greatness of his miracles. The disciples, as if not ...

They continue with me now three days, eager to hear his divine instructions, and to witness the greatness of his miracles. The disciples, as if not remembering what Jesus had done on a similar emergency, (see Matthew, xiv. 16,) expressed their solicitude and uneasiness for the hungered multitude. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mat 15:36 - -- He gave thanks to his heavenly Father, for that providential care with which he supplies our wants, even miraculously, when necessary for us. Everywh...

He gave thanks to his heavenly Father, for that providential care with which he supplies our wants, even miraculously, when necessary for us. Everywhere his goodness and attention to the wants of his children are manifested, but not more so in the manna of the desert, than in the fertility of the holy land. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mat 15:37 - Seven baskets full Seven baskets full remained, to intimate that God remunerates with a liberal hand all alms given for his sake. Various are the circumstances attendi...

Seven baskets full remained, to intimate that God remunerates with a liberal hand all alms given for his sake. Various are the circumstances attending the present multiplication of the loaves with that in the preceding chapter. In the former, there were five loaves and two fishes; here there are seven loaves and a few little fishes: In the former, 5,000 men were filled, here 4,000: in the former case, 12 baskets full of fragments remained, here seven. (Tirinus) ---

All which sufficiently prove that these were two distinct miracles, to both of which Jesus Christ refers in chap. xvi, ver. 9. and 10. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mat 15:39 - Magedan Magedan. Some copies read Greek: Magdalan, others Greek: Magadan, or Magedan: this last is found in the Vulgate, and in the best manuscript copi...

Magedan. Some copies read Greek: Magdalan, others Greek: Magadan, or Magedan: this last is found in the Vulgate, and in the best manuscript copies. (Mat. Polus, T. iv, p. 409.)

Gill: Mat 15:1 - Then came to Jesus Scribes and Pharisees // which were of Jerusalem, saying Then came to Jesus Scribes and Pharisees,.... After he had wrought so many miracles, particularly that of feeding five thousand men; besides women and...

Then came to Jesus Scribes and Pharisees,.... After he had wrought so many miracles, particularly that of feeding five thousand men; besides women and children, with five loaves and two fishes: the fame of which had reached Jerusalem, and occasioned much talk there about him: the Scribes and Pharisees, who were his inveterate enemies, hearing thereof, came to him, where he was, in Galilee: to know the truth of these things, to converse with him, and to watch, and observe, what he said and did;

which were of Jerusalem, saying. There were Scribes and Pharisees throughout the land, but those of Jerusalem were the chief; they were men of the greatest learning and abilities, and were more expert in their religion and customs: these were either sent by the sanhedrim at Jerusalem, or came of themselves; taking upon them a greater power, and authority of examining, correcting, directing, and advising.

Gill: Mat 15:2 - Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? // for they wash not their hands when they eat bread Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders?.... Having observed, for some little time, the conduct of Christ and his disciples, they ...

Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders?.... Having observed, for some little time, the conduct of Christ and his disciples, they thought proper to take no notice of him as yet, but of them; and of them, not as transgressing any command of God, but of men; not being able to charge them with any breach of the law of God: and could they have done this with any show of truth, yet they might choose rather to accuse them of breaking the rules of the elders; by whom they mean, not the elders of the present sanhedrim, but Hillell and Shammai; the two heads of their famous schools, and other ancient doctors; from whom were delivered by one to another, certain rules and laws of their own devising, which had no foundation in the word of God; and of these the Scribes and Pharisees were more tenacious, than of the Scriptures; and indeed they preferred them before them: most extravagant are their praises and commendations of these unwritten traditions; thus they say d,

"Know then, that "the words of the Scribes" are more lovely than the words of the law: for, says R. Tarphon, if a man does not read, he only transgresses an affirmative; but if he transgresses the words of the school of Hillell, he is guilty of death, because he hath broke down a hedge, and a serpent shall bite him. It is a tradition of R. Ishmael, the words of the law have in them both prohibition and permission; some of them are light, and some heavy, but "the words of the Scribes" are all of them heavy--Mynqz המורים דברי, "weightier are the words of the elders", than the words of the prophets.''

And elsewhere e, this advice is given;

"My son, attend to "the words of the Scribes", more than to the words of the law; for in the words of the law, are affirmatives and negatives; but the words of the Scribes כל העובר על דברי סופרים, "everyone that transgresses the words of the Scribes", is guilty of death.''

This is what they charge the disciples with here, and could they have had their wills, would have put them to death for it: the particular tradition, they accuse them with the breach of, follows,

for they wash not their hands when they eat bread; common bread, an ordinary meal; for, for eating of holy things, more than bare washing was required, even an immersion of them in water; but the hands were to be washed before eating common food, whether they were known to be defiled or not: "bread" is particularly mentioned, as including all sorts of food, and as distinct from fruit; for, for eating of common fruit, there was no need of washing of hands; he that washed his hands for eating fruit, was reckoned an ostentatious man f, who were the first authors of this tradition, it is not certain; it is said g, that

"Hillell and Shammai decreed על טהרות ידים, "concerning the purification of the hands"; R. Jose ben R. Bon, in the name of R. Levi, says, so was the tradition before, but they forgot it; and these two stood up, and agreed with the minds of the former ones.''

"However, it is a certain point, that the washing of the hands, and the dipping of them, are מדברי סופרים, "from the words of the Scribes" h.''

The breach of this rule was reckoned equal to the most flagitious crimes i: R. Jose says,

"whoever eats bread without washing of hands, is as if he lay with a whore: and, says R. Eleazer, whoever despiseth washing of hands, shall be rooted out of the world.''

And elsewhere it is said by them k, that

"he that blesseth (food) with defiled hands, is guilty of death.''

And again l,

"whoever does not wash his hands as is fitting, although he is punished above, he shall be punished below.''

And to fright people into an observance of this tradition, they talk of Shibta, a sort of an evil spirit, that hurts such as eat without washing their hands: they say, he sits upon their hands, and upon their bread, and leaves something behind, which is very dangerous m; and it is recorded n, to the praise of R. Akiba, that he chose rather to die, than to transgress this tradition; for being in prison, and in want of water, what little he had, he washed his hands with it, instead of drinking it. Eleazar ben Chanac was excommunicated for despising the tradition concerning washing of hands; and when he died, the sanhedrim sent and put a great stone upon his coffin, to show, that he that died in his excommunication, the sanhedrim stoned his coffin o: but of this; see Gill on Mar 7:3.

Gill: Mat 15:3 - But he answered and said unto them // why do you also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? But he answered and said unto them,.... Taking no notice of the tradition about eating bread without washing the hands, whether it was right or wrong;...

But he answered and said unto them,.... Taking no notice of the tradition about eating bread without washing the hands, whether it was right or wrong; it being at most but an human tradition, of no moment and importance, whether it was broke or kept; he makes a very just recrimination, by putting another question to them,

why do you also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? suggesting, that, if his disciples were guilty, they were not so guilty as they themselves were; that his disciples, at most, were but guilty of the breach of an human precept, whereas they were guilty of the breach of a divine command; and that it was strange, that men who were so scrupulous of breaking, and bore so hard on such as did transgress the traditions of the elders, could allow themselves to transgress the commandments of God; yea, to do this by, and while they were observing their own traditions: and which observation carries a full acquittance of the disciples from blame; for, if by keeping the traditions of the elders, they broke the commands of God, it was a very good reason why they should not observe them.

Gill: Mat 15:4 - For God commanded, saying // Honour thy father and mother // And he that curseth father or mother, let him die the death For God commanded, saying,.... That he might not be thought to suggest this without any foundation, he gives them an instance, wherein a command of Go...

For God commanded, saying,.... That he might not be thought to suggest this without any foundation, he gives them an instance, wherein a command of God was transgressed, by the observance of their tradition: the command he refers to, stands in Exo 20:12 and is this;

Honour thy father and mother. This was a plain command of God, written with his own hand, and delivered by Moses to them; it was of a moral nature, and of eternal obligation: and to be understood, not merely of that high esteem parents are to be had in by their children, and of the respectful language and gesture to be used towards them, and of the cheerful obedience to be yielded to them; but also of honouring them with their substance, feeding, clothing, and supplying them with the necessaries of life, when they stand in need thereof; which is but their reasonable service, for all the care, expense, and trouble they have been at, in bringing them up in the world: nor did the Jews deny this to be the duty of children to their parents, and own it to be the sense of the commandment: they say p, that this is the weightiest commandment among the weighty ones, even this, the honouring of father and mother; and ask,

"What is this honour? To which is replied, he must give him food, drink, and clothing; buckle his shoes, and lead him in, and bring him out.''

They indeed laid down this as a rule, and it seems a very equitable one q; that,

"when a man's father has any money, or substance, he must be supported out of that; but if he has none, he must support him out of his own.''

But then, as will be seen hereafter, they made void this command of God, and their own explications of it, by some other tradition. Moreover, Christ observes, that it is said, Exo 21:17

And he that curseth father or mother, let him die the death; temporal and eternal: and which is a positive command of God, made as a fence for the former; and is to be understood, not only of giving abusive language to parents, but of slighting, as the Hebrew word signifies, and neglecting them, taking no notice of them, when needy and in distress, to supply their wants. Now these commands of God, Christ shows the Jews transgressed by their tradition, as appears from the following verses.

Gill: Mat 15:5-6 - But ye say, whosoever shall say to his father or mother // it is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me, and honour not his father, or his mother, he shall be free // thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect, by your tradition But ye say, whosoever shall say to his father or mother,.... That is, it was a tradition of their's, that if a man should say to his father and mother...

But ye say, whosoever shall say to his father or mother,.... That is, it was a tradition of their's, that if a man should say to his father and mother, when poor and in distress, and made application to him for sustenance,

it is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me, and honour not his father, or his mother, he shall be free: or, as Mark expresses it, "it is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me, he shall be free, and ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or mother". For the understanding of this tradition, let it be observed, that the word "Corban" signifies a gift, or offering, which was devoted to sacred use; and was unalienable, and could not be converted to any other use; and that this word was used among the Jews, from hence, as the form of an oath, or vow; and therefore, when anyone said "Corban", it was all one, as if he swore by "Corban"; or as if he had said, let it be as "Corban", as unalienable as "Corban": by which oath, or vow, the use of that which was spoken of, whether it respected a man's self, or others, was restrained and prohibited: the rule was r this קרבן כאומר כקרבן הוא אסור, "if a man said Corban, it was as if he said as Corban, and it was forbidden": and if he used the words "Conem", "Conach", and "Conas", which they call s the surnames of Corban, and were no other than corruptions of it, it was all one as if he had said "Corban" itself. There are many instances of this kind of vows, and the form of them in their oral law t, or book of traditions;

"If anyone should say, קונם שאני נהנה, "Conem (or "Corban") whatsoever I might be profited by the" sons of Noah, it is free of an Israelite, and forbidden of a Gentile; if he should say, "whatsoever I might be profited" by the seed of Abraham, it is forbidden of an Israelite, and is free of a Gentile--if anyone should say, קונם שאני נהנה לערלים, "Conem (or "Corban") whatsoever I might be profited by the uncircumcised", it is free of the uncircumcised of Israel, and forbidden of the circumcised of the Gentiles; if he says "Conem (or "Corban") whatsoever I might be profited by the circumcised", it is forbidden of the circumcised of Israel, and free of the circumcised, of the Gentiles.''

Again u,

"if anyone says to his friend, קונם שאני נהנה לך, "Conem (or "Corban") whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me", &c.''

which is exactly the same form as here, unless it should be rather rendered, "whatsoever I might be profited by thee": once more w,

"if a married woman should say to her husband, לאבא ולאביך קונם שאני נהנית "Conem (or Corban) whatsoever I might be profited by my father, or thy father, &c".''

Let these instances suffice: the plain and evident sense of the tradition before us, is this; that when, upon application being made to a man by his parents, for support and sustenance, he makes a vow in such form as this, "Corban, whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me"; that is, whatsoever profit or advantage thou mightest have, or expect to have from me, let it be as "Corban", as a gift devoted to God, that can never be revoked and converted to another use; or, in other words, I vow and protest thou shalt never have any profit from me, not a penny, nor a pennyworth of mine. Now, when a man had made such an impious vow as this, according to this tradition, it was to stand firm and good, and he was not to honour his father or mother, or do anything for them, by way of relief: so that our Lord might justly observe upon it as he does;

thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect, by your tradition: for if such a vow was valid, and a man was obliged to abide by it, according to the tradition of the elders, and not honour his father and mother, as the law of God requires; it is a plain case, that the command of God was made void by this tradition: nay they expressly say x that נדרים חלות על דברי מצוה, "vows fall upon things of a (divine) commandment", as well as upon things in a man's power, and that he is bound by them; so that without sin he cannot do what the law commands; insomuch, that if a man vows a vow, and that it may be ratified, a command must be made void, his vow must stand, and the command be abrogated. So truly and justly does Christ charge them with making the command of God of none effect, by their tradition. It is indeed disputed by the doctors, and at last allowed, that such a vow might be dissolved by a wise man, for the honour of parents y.

"R. Eliezer says, they open to a man, (i.e. the door of repentance, and dissolve his vow,) for the honour of his father and his mother, but the wise men forbid "it". Says R. Tzadok, if they open to him for the honour of his father and mother, they will open to him for the honour of God, and if so, there will be no vows: however, the wise men agreed with R. Eliezer in the affair between a man and his parents, that they should open to him for the honour of them.''

And this could be done only by a wise man; and very probably this last decree was made on account of this just reproof of Christ's, being ashamed any longer to countenance so vile a practice; and even, according to this determination, the vow stood firm till dissolved by of their doctors: so that notwithstanding, Christ's argument is good, and the instance full to prove that for which he brought it: for the above reason it may be, it is, that this tradition Christ refers to is not now extant; but that there was such an one in Christ's time, is certain; he would never have asserted it else; and had it not been true, the Pharisees would have been able to have retired him, and forward enough to have done it: and that such vows were sometimes made, and which were not to be rescinded, is clear from the following fact z.

"It happened to one in Bethhoron, אביו מודר הימנו הנאה שהיה, "whose father was excluded, by a vow, from receiving any profit from him": and he married his son, and said to his friend, a court and a dinner are given to thee by gift; but they are not to be made use of by thee, but with this condition, that my father may come and eat with us at dinner;''

which was a device to have his father at dinner, and yet secure his vow. Upon the whole, the sense of this passage is, not that a man excused himself to his parents, according to this tradition, by saying, that his substance, either in whole, or in part, was "Corban", or devoted to the service of God, and therefore they could expect no profit, or relief, from him; but that he vowed that what he had should be as "Corban", and they should be never the better for it: so that a man so vowing might give nothing to the service of God, but keep his whole substance to himself; which he might make use of for his own benefit, and for the benefit of others, but not for his father and mother; who, after such a vow made, were to receive no benefit by it, unless rescinded by a wise man; and which seems to be an explanation of it, made after the times of Christ.

Gill: Mat 15:7 - Ye hypocrites // Well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying Ye hypocrites,.... After our Lord had given so full a proof of their making void the commandments of God by their traditions, he might very justly, as...

Ye hypocrites,.... After our Lord had given so full a proof of their making void the commandments of God by their traditions, he might very justly, as he does, call them hypocrites; who pretended to so much religion and holiness, and yet scrupled not, upon occasion, to set aside a divine command; who affected so much sanctity, as to be displeased with the disciples, for not complying with an order of their elders, when they themselves made no account of a divine precept; and plainly showed they had more regard to men than God, and to the precepts of men, than to the commands of God, and to approve themselves to men more than to God; and that they sought the praise and applause of men, and not the honour which comes from God; and that their religion lay in mere rituals and externals, and those of men's devising, and not in the spiritual worship and service of God. Nor can it be thought that Christ, in calling them hypocrites, bears too hard upon them; when one of their own doctors, who lived not very distant from this age, says a of the men of Jerusalem, that

"if the hypocrites of the world were divided into ten parts, nine of them would belong to Jerusalem, and one to the rest of the world.''

Well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, in Isa 29:13 which prophecy, though it was directed to, and suited with many in that generation in which the prophet lived, yet had a further view to the Jews in after times: their own writers b acknowledge, that the whole prophecy is spoken of that nation; for by Ariel they understand the altar at Jerusalem, the city in which David dwelt,

Gill: Mat 15:8 - This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth // and honoureth me with their lips // But their heart is far from me This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth,.... The preface to these words, or the form in which they are introduced by the prophet; "wherefore...

This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth,.... The preface to these words, or the form in which they are introduced by the prophet; "wherefore the Lord said", is left out in this citation, being unnecessary here, though of the greatest importance there; partly to show, that what was about to be said, was not the prophet's own words, but the words of the Lord, of which the Jews in Christ's time made no doubt; and partly to give a reason why that judicial blindness, threatened in the context, should be inflicted on them, which is no part of Christ's design here; but which is only to show, that the description here given exactly agrees with them, and so proves, and confirms the character he gives of them as hypocrites. They approached the ordinances of God, and drew nigh to him, and attended him in outward worship; they prayed unto him publicly, and constantly, in the streets, in the synagogues, and temple, and with much seeming devotion and sanctity:

and honoureth me with their lips: they owned him to be their creator and preserver; they made their boast of him, and of their knowledge of him, as the one only living, and true God, and as the God of Israel; they brought their sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving, even the fruit of their lips, unto him, for their many peculiar mercies, privileges, and favours, as a nation, church, and people, and with much seeming sincerity and affection.

But their heart is far from me; they had no true love to God, nor faith in him, nor fear of him; they were not at all concerned for his presence with them, or for communion with him, or for his honour and glory; their hearts were in the world, and after their covetousness; they made religion a tool to their secular purposes, supposing gain to be godliness; sought the applause of men, and contented themselves with bodily exercise; having no regard to internal religion, powerful godliness, or where their hearts were, so be it, their bodies were presented to God in public worship; and what they did it was to be seen and approved of men, not caring what the searcher of hearts knew concerning them, or what he required of them.

Gill: Mat 15:9 - But in vain do they worship me // teaching for doctrines the commandments of men But in vain do they worship me,.... In the Hebrew text it is, "their fear towards me": which is rightly expressed here by "worship"; for the fear of G...

But in vain do they worship me,.... In the Hebrew text it is, "their fear towards me": which is rightly expressed here by "worship"; for the fear of God often intends the whole worship of God, both external and internal: here it only signifies external worship, which these men only attended to. They prayed in the synagogues, read, and, in their way, expounded the books of Moses, and the prophets, to the people, diligently observed the rituals of the ceremonial law, brought their offerings and sacrifices to the temple, and neglected nothing appertaining to the outward service of it; and yet it was all "in vain", and to no purpose; since the heart was wanting, no grace there, they acted from wrong principles, and with wrong views; their worship was merely outward, formal, and customary; and besides, they added doctrines and traditions of their own inventing and devising. The phrase, "in vain", is not in the text in Isaiah: some have thought that it was not originally in Matthew, but inserted by some other hand, to make the sense more complete. Grotius thinks there was a various reading, which is followed by the Septuagint, and the evangelist; and that instead of ותהי, "and is", it was ותהו, the same with לתהו, "in vain": but there is no need to suppose either of these: Christ, who made this citation, either added it himself for the clearer illustration of the passage, and as being entirely agreeable to the sense of it, and which it required, for the true understanding of it; or he might have in his view another passage of the same prophet, speaking of the same people, and upon the same subject, Isa 1:11 and from thence take the phrase, and, for explanation sake, join it to the passage here. It follows,

teaching for doctrines the commandments of men; that is, teaching the people to observe the traditions of the elders, the decrees and determinations of the doctors, as if they were doctrines delivered by God himself; or, instead of the doctrines contained in the Bible, which lay neglected by them, they obtruded on them the orders, and injunctions of men. In the text in Isaiah, are only these words, "taught by the precept of men": and which relate to their fear and worship of God; and which is here interpreted of their teachers teaching them it, and that explained of the commandments of men; as if, instead of מלמדה, "taught", it had been read, מלמדים, "teaching". The Jews have no reason to quarrel with this construction and sense, since their Targum paraphrases it thus; "and their fear before me is, כתפקידת גברין מלפין, according to the commandment of men that teach": and a noted commentator c of their's has this remark on the text, "their fear towards me is" not with a perfect heart, but "by the commandment האנשים המלמדים או־תאם, of the men that teach them".

Gill: Mat 15:10 - And he called the multitude // and said unto them, hear and understand And he called the multitude,.... Having silenced the Scribes and Pharisees, and judging it not worth his while to say any more to men so obstinate and...

And he called the multitude,.... Having silenced the Scribes and Pharisees, and judging it not worth his while to say any more to men so obstinate and perverse; who were not open to conviction, nor would attend to any argument or reason, though ever so clear and strong, against their darling notions; he leaves them, as both disliking them, and despairing of them, and calls to the common people; who, through their great veneration for these men, upon their coming withdrew, and stood at a distance; nor indeed would they admit them very near unto them, lest they should be polluted by them: Christ, I say, calls to these to come nearer to him, hoping better of them, and knowing that they were more tractable, and teachable; and that there were some among them, that were to be brought off of their former principles and prejudices, to embrace him, and the truths delivered by him:

and said unto them, hear and understand; this he said, partly, by way of reflection upon the learned Scribes and Pharisees, who, with all their learning, could not hear him so as to understand him; and partly to excite the attention of the multitude to what he had to say; as also to show, that barely to hear with the outward hearing of the ear, will be of no service, unless what is heard is understood; and that the way to understand, is to hear.

Gill: Mat 15:11 - Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth the man // but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth the man,.... No sorts of meats, or drinks, or whatever is proper food for men, or manner of eating and dr...

Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth the man,.... No sorts of meats, or drinks, or whatever is proper food for men, or manner of eating and drinking them, when moderately used, defile a man, or render him loathsome and odious in the sight God. This is directly opposite to the notions of the Jews, who say d, that

"forbidden meats are unclean themselves, הגוף והנפש ומטמאין, "and defile both body and soul".''

The first food of man was herbs; after the flood he had an allowance of the flesh of beasts, without distinction; under the Levitical dispensation, a difference of meats was enjoined to be observed; the laws respecting that distinction are now abolished, and not binding on us under the Gospel dispensation. Some scruples, about some of these things, did arise among the first Christians; but in process of time these difficulties were got over: nor is there any religion in abstinence from any sort of food; men, indeed, on a "physical" account, ought to be careful what they eat and drink, but not on a religious one; moderation in all ought to be used; and whatever is ate or drank, should be received with thankfulness, and done to the glory of God, and then no defilement can arise from hence:

but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. It is sin, and that only, which takes its rise from the heart, lies in thought, and is either expressed by the mouth, or performed by some outward action, which defiles the man, and renders him loathsome, abominable, and odious in the sight of God. The heart is the source of all evil; the pollution of it is very early, and very general, reaching to all the powers and faculties of the soul; which shows the ignorance of some, and folly of others, that talk of, and trust to the goodness of their hearts; and also the necessity of new hearts and right spirits being formed and created; and that the sinful thoughts of the heart, and the lusts thereof, are defiling to men; and that they are sinful in God's account, and abominable in his sight; that they are loathsome to sensible sinners, and are to be repented of, and forsaken by them; and need the pardoning grace of God or otherwise will be brought into judgment. Sinful words, which, through the abundance of wickedness in the heart, come out of the mouth, have the same influence and effect: words are of a defiling nature; with these men pollute both themselves and others: the tongue, though a little member, defiles the whole body; and evil and corrupt communication proceeding out of the mouth, corrupts the best of manners, and renders men loathsome to God, and liable to his awful judgment. And this is the nature of all sinful actions; they are what God can take no pleasure in; they are disagreeable, to a sensible mind; they leave a stain, which can never be removed by any thing the creature can do; nothing short of the blood of Christ can cleanse from it; and inasmuch as they are frequently committed, there is need of continual application to it. These are now the things men should be concerned about, as of a defiling nature; and not about meats and drinks, and the manner of using them, whether with hands washed, or unwashed.

Gill: Mat 15:12 - Then came his disciples, and said unto him // Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended after they heard this saying? Then came his disciples, and said unto him,.... That is, after he had dismissed the people, and was come into a private house; see Mar 7:17 his discip...

Then came his disciples, and said unto him,.... That is, after he had dismissed the people, and was come into a private house; see Mar 7:17 his disciples came to him, being alone, full of concern, for what he had said to the Pharisees, and before all the people; and not so well understanding it themselves.

Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended after they heard this saying?, that they set aside the commandments of God, by observing the traditions of the elders; or that they were hypocrites; and that the prophecy of Isaiah, which describes such persons, belonging to them; or that not what goes into, but what comes out of a man, defiles him: whichever it was they have respect unto, or it may be to the whole, they seem to wish Christ had not said it; because the Pharisees were, as they thought, grieved and troubled at it, as being contrary to true religion and piety; and lest they should be so stumbled, as no more to attend, and so all hopes of bringing them over to the faith of Christ be lost; and chiefly, because they perceived they were made exceeding angry, and were highly provoked; so that they might fear that both Christ, and they themselves, would feel the effects of their wrath and rage; and perhaps it was with some such view, that he would take some prudential step that he might not fall into their hands, that they acquaint him with it.

Gill: Mat 15:13 - But he answered, and said // every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up But he answered, and said,.... As being unconcerned at their rage, and having nothing to fear from them; and being well satisfied, that what he had sa...

But he answered, and said,.... As being unconcerned at their rage, and having nothing to fear from them; and being well satisfied, that what he had said was right, and would produce proper effects, he gave his disciples this for answer:

every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up; which may be understood either of things, or of persons: it may have regard to doctrines and ordinances; and the meaning be, that whatever doctrine is not delivered by God, or whatever ordinance is not instituted by him; whatever is not of heaven, but of man, of man's devising, and of human imposition, as the traditions of the elders, must be opposed and rejected; and sooner or later will be utterly rooted up, and destroyed; as will all the false notions, corrupt worship, and errors, and heresies of men, in God's own time: or it may respect persons. There are some plants, which are planted by Christ's Father, which is in heaven; these are the elect of God, who are trees of righteousness; the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified. These are planted by the river of God's love, in the person of Christ, in the likeness of his death and resurrection; they are transplanted out of a state of nature, are ingrafted into Christ, have the graces of the Spirit implanted in their souls, and are themselves planted in the courts of the Lord, in a Gospel church state; and being watered with the dews of grace, appear to be choice plants, plants of renown, pleasant ones, very fruitful, and which shall never perish, or be rooted, and plucked up, but there are others, like these Pharisees, hypocrites, formal professors, and heretics, who pretend to much religion and holiness, make a show of the leaves of profession, but have not the fruit of grace; these get into churches, and are outwardly and ministerially planted there; but being never rooted in Christ, nor partake of his grace, in time they wither, and die away; or persecution arising because of the Word, or truth being dispensed in so clear and glaring a light, that they cannot bear it; they are offended with it, and so are detected, discovered, and rooted up and it is necessary that truth should be freely spoken, as it was here by Christ, that such plants might be rooted out; for these words are said by Christ in justification of his conduct. So the Jews speak of God, as a planter, and of rooting up what he does not like.

"The holy, blessed God (say they e), "plants" trees in this world; if they prosper, it is well; if they do not prosper, אעקר לון, "he roots them up", and plants them even many times.''

And elsewhere it is said f,

"let the master of the vineyard come, and consume its thorns: the gloss on it is, the holy, blessed God; for the vineyard of the Lord of hosts, is the house of Israel, and he will consume, and take away the thorns of the vineyard.''

Gill: Mat 15:14 - Let them alone // they be blind leaders of the blind // And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch Let them alone,.... Have nothing to say, or do with them; do not mind their anger and resentment, their reproaches and reflections, nor trouble yourse...

Let them alone,.... Have nothing to say, or do with them; do not mind their anger and resentment, their reproaches and reflections, nor trouble yourselves at the offence they have taken; if they will go, let them go; they are a worthless generation of men, who are not to be regarded, hearkened to, nor to be pleased; it matters not what they say of me, and of my doctrine:

they be blind leaders of the blind; the people that hearken to them, and are followers of them, are "blind", as to any true sense of themselves, their state, and condition by nature; as to any spiritual, saving knowledge of God; as to any acquaintance with the Messiah, and the method of salvation by him; as to the Spirit of God, and the work of grace, regeneration, and sanctification upon the soul; as to the Scriptures of truth, and doctrines of the Gospel; and the "leaders" of them were as "blind" as they: by whom are meant the Scribes and Pharisees, the learned doctors and rabbins of the Jewish nation; who thought themselves very wise and knowing, yet they were blind also; and none more than they. It was an old tradition g among the Jews,

"that there should be "blind teachers" at the time when God should have his tabernacle among them.''

This was predicted, in Isa 42:19 and all such leaders and teachers are blind, who, notwithstanding their natural abilities, and acquired parts, are in a state of unregeneracy; and have nothing more than what they have from nature, or have attained to at school; and as apparently all such are, who lead men from Christ, to mere morality, and to a dependence upon their own righteousness for justification, which was the darling principle of the blind leaders in the text.

And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch; of ignorance and error, immorality and profaneness, distress, if not despair, temporal ruin and destruction; which was notoriously verified in the Jewish people, and their guides: and of eternal damnation, the lake which burns with fire and brimstone; what else can be expected?

Gill: Mat 15:15 - Then answered Peter // and said unto him, declare unto us this parable Then answered Peter,.... Mark says, "his disciples asked him concerning the parable"; which might be by the mouth of Peter; who, probably, being the e...

Then answered Peter,.... Mark says, "his disciples asked him concerning the parable"; which might be by the mouth of Peter; who, probably, being the eldest man, and very forward to speak, was generally their spokesman: and who, at this time, might be requested, by the rest, to ask the meaning of the parable, which had given offence to the Pharisees, and was not clearly understood by them; which he accordingly did:

and said unto him, declare unto us this parable; that not what goes into the mouth, but what comes out of it, defiles the man; which, though expressed in very plain words, and easy to be understood, yet did not appear clear to their understandings; and seemed to be contrary, not only to the traditions of the elders, but to the laws of God, respecting the difference of clean and unclean meats; and therefore call it a "parable", and desire an explanation of it.

Gill: Mat 15:16 - And Jesus said // are ye also yet without understanding? And Jesus said,.... As wondering at, and as being displeased with, and as reproving them for their dulness and ignorance: are ye also yet without u...

And Jesus said,.... As wondering at, and as being displeased with, and as reproving them for their dulness and ignorance:

are ye also yet without understanding? you, my disciples, as well as the Scribes and Pharisees; you, who have been with me so long, who have heard so many discourses from me, who for so long a time have been instructed by me, both in private, and in public; and yet do not understand what is so plain and easy, that has nothing of difficulty in it, but what might easily be accounted for.

Gill: Mat 15:17 - Do not ye understand // that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth, goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught? Do not ye understand,.... You must understand, you cannot be so ignorant, that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth, goeth into the belly, and is ca...

Do not ye understand,.... You must understand, you cannot be so ignorant,

that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth, goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught? that is, that whatsoever food a man takes in at his mouth, he swallows down, and it is received into his stomach; which, having performed its office, the grosser parts go down into the belly, and passing through the bowels, are evacuated into the vault, or privy, "purging all meats", as Mark says; for that only receives the filth and excrementitious matter; so that what is left in the body is pure, wholesome, and nourishing: nor can any part of what goes into a man defile him, because it only enters into the body, and passes through it; and, as Mark says, "entereth not into the heart", which is the seat of moral impurity; so that no moral pollution can be contracted by eating any sort of food, even though it should not be clean itself, nor be eaten with clean hands.

Gill: Mat 15:18 - But those things which proceed out of the mouth // come forth from the heart // and they defile the man But those things which proceed out of the mouth,.... Meaning not material things, as spittle, vomit, &c. but, as it follows, which come forth from ...

But those things which proceed out of the mouth,.... Meaning not material things, as spittle, vomit, &c. but, as it follows, which

come forth from the heart: are first conceived and formed there, and then come forth from thence, and are expressed by the mouth; as all idle words, foolish talking, filthy jesting, unsavoury communication, and every word that is rotten and corrupt, or which is done in the life and conversation;

and they defile the man: the heart is the corrupt fountain from whence all moral defilement flows; and sinful words and actions are the impure streams, which spring from thence, and increase the moral pollution of human nature.

Gill: Mat 15:19 - For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts // Murders // Adulteries // fornications // thefts // false witness // blasphemies For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts,.... Of God, of Christ, of the Spirit, of fellow creatures, and of all sorts of wickedness. The thoughts of...

For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts,.... Of God, of Christ, of the Spirit, of fellow creatures, and of all sorts of wickedness. The thoughts of sin are evil, are to be hated, forsaken, and for which men are accountable to God. All wicked imaginations, carnal reasonings, lustful desires, and malicious contrivances, are here included; which take their rise from, and are devised, and forged, in the corrupt heart of man.

Murders; inveterate hatred of men's persons, malice prepense, schemes to take away life, all angry and wrathful words, and actual effusion of man's blood.

Adulteries; uncleanness committed between married persons, both in thought, and deed:

fornications; unlawful copulations of persons in a single state:

thefts; taking away from others by force or fraud, what is their right and property:

false witness: swearing falsely, or exhibiting a false testimony to the hurt of his neighbour, either his name, person, or estate:

blasphemies; evil speakings of God or men. To which Mark adds "covetousness"; a greedy and insatiable desire after the things of the world, or the neighbour's goods: "wickedness"; doing hurt and mischief to fellow creatures: "deceit"; in words and actions, in trade and conversation: "lasciviousness"; all manner of uncleanness, and unnatural lusts: "an evil eye"; of envy and covetousness: the vitiosity, or corruption of nature, is, by the Jews h, called עין רע, "the evil eye": "pride"; in heart and life, in dress and gesture; and "foolishness"; expressed in talk and conduct.

Gill: Mat 15:20 - These are the things which defile a man // but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man These are the things which defile a man,.... These are filthy in themselves, and must pollute all in whom they are; they bring a defilement on the who...

These are the things which defile a man,.... These are filthy in themselves, and must pollute all in whom they are; they bring a defilement on the whole man, both body and soul, fasten guilt upon him, and expose him to everlasting punishment:

but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man: should a man neglect to wash his bands before eating a common meal, this need give him no uneasiness; he contracts no filth to his soul hereby, nor any guilt to his conscience; nor does he break any law of God; nor is he liable to any penalty for such an omission. This is a trifling matter, and merits no regard; but the things before mentioned are in their nature evil: they are contrary to the law of God; they are abominable in his sight; they render men loathsome and odious to the divine being; and expose them to shame and ruin; and it is only the blood of Christ can cleanse them from the pollution and guilt of them, and secure them from that punishment they deserve.

Gill: Mat 15:21 - Then Jesus went thence // and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon Then Jesus went thence,.... From the land of Gennesaret, after he had silenced the Pharisees, as to the charge brought by them against his disciples; ...

Then Jesus went thence,.... From the land of Gennesaret, after he had silenced the Pharisees, as to the charge brought by them against his disciples; and when he had reproved them for their hypocrisy and wickedness, in making void the commands of God by their traditions; and had explained some difficult and parabolical sayings he had made use of to his disciples, he then left that country, and departed very privately: either to shun the multitude, for the sake of retirement; or to avoid any snares the Scribes and Pharisees might be laying for him, who must be greatly galled with his free discourse, and strong arguments:

and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon; two principal cities of Phoenicia: not that he went into these places themselves, but into some places that bordered upon them; for as he ordered his disciples not to go in the way of the Gentiles, so neither did he himself.

Gill: Mat 15:22 - And behold a woman of Canaan // Came out of the same coasts // and cried unto him // saying, have mercy on me // O Lord, thou son of David // My daughter is grievously vexed with a devil And behold a woman of Canaan,.... That is, of Phoenicia, which was called Canaan; so Shaul, the son of a Canaanitish woman, is, by the Septuagint in E...

And behold a woman of Canaan,.... That is, of Phoenicia, which was called Canaan; so Shaul, the son of a Canaanitish woman, is, by the Septuagint in Exo 6:15 called the son of a Phoenician; and the kings of Canaan are, by the same interpreters in Jos 5:1 called kings of Phoenicia: hence this woman is by Mark said to be a Greek, that is, a Gentile, as the Jews used to call all of another nation, and a Syrophenician, being a native of Phoenicia, called Syrophenician; because it bordered upon Syria, and had been formerly a part of it, by conquest: so Cadmus, who is reported to have first brought letters from Phoenicia to Greece, is called i a Syrophenician merchant.

Came out of the same coasts; being an inhabitant, it is very likely, either of Tyre or Sidon: this shows that Christ did not go into these places, but only to the borders of them, since she is said to come out of them to him; who, having heard of him, and the miraculous cures wrought by him, and being informed that he was near, at such a place, as the Persic version says, "suddenly came forth out of a corner"; and the Ethiopic reads it, "out of the mountains thereof"; and made to the house where he was privately retired, and would have hid himself, as Mark suggests,

and cried unto him; with a loud voice, with much vehemency, being in great distress,

saying, have mercy on me; meaning, by curing her daughter, with whose case she was so much affected, that she made it, as it were, her own:

O Lord, thou son of David. The first of these characters expresses her faith in his power, dominion, and government, that all persons and things, and so all diseases were at his command, and control; and that being Lord of all, he could remove them at his pleasure: the other shows her knowledge and belief of him, as the Messiah, that being a name by which he was usually known by the Jews; See Gill on Mat 1:1 and which she, though a Gentile, might come at the knowledge of, either through being a proselyte to the Jewish religion, or through a general report which might reach, especially the neighbouring nations, that the Jews expected a wonderful deliverer to arise among them, under this character of the son of David; and from what she had heard of him, she concluded he must be the person.

My daughter is grievously vexed with a devil, which had took possession of her, and most grievously afflicted her: and her request to him was, that he would cast him out of her: believing he had power so to do, without seeing or touching her, only by a word speaking: her faith was like that of the centurion's.

Gill: Mat 15:23 - But he answered her not a word // and his disciples came // and besought him, saying, send her away // for she crieth after us But he answered her not a word,.... Not that he did not hear her, or that he despised either her person or petition, or that he was not moved with it;...

But he answered her not a word,.... Not that he did not hear her, or that he despised either her person or petition, or that he was not moved with it; but to continue her importunity, and try her faith, and make it manifest: for like reasons the Lord does not always, and immediately, answer the requests of his people. This giving her no answer, either that he would, or would not help her, carried in it a tacit repulse of her, and a denial of assistance to her; and it seems as if she did for a while desist from her application to him, and betook herself to his disciples to plead with him for her:

and his disciples came; to the house where he was; who, it seems by this, had been elsewhere;

and besought him, saying, send her away; not in any shape, with any sort of answer, without curing her daughter, or without a promise of a cure; no, they desired she might be dismissed, with a grant of her request, to her entire satisfaction, as appears from Christ's answer: the reason they give is,

for she crieth after us; not only because she was troublesome to them, was importunate with them, and would take no denial from them: she followed them wherever they went; there was no getting rid of her: but also, because her case was so moving, was delivered in such an affecting manner, and her cries were piercing, that they could not bear them; and therefore entreat him, that he would relieve, and dismiss her.

Gill: Mat 15:24 - But he answered, and said // I am not sent, but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel But he answered, and said,.... To his disciples, who knew how limited their commission was, that they were not to go into the way of the Gentiles, not...

But he answered, and said,.... To his disciples, who knew how limited their commission was, that they were not to go into the way of the Gentiles, not to preach to them, nor perform miracles among them; and therefore could not reasonably expect that either the woman, or they, on her behalf, should succeed in this matter.

I am not sent, but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel; as a priest, or as a Saviour and Redeemer, he was sent to make satisfaction and atonement for the sins of all God's elect, and to obtain eternal redemption and salvation for all of them, whether Jews or Gentiles; but as a prophet, in the discharge of his own personal ministry, he was sent by his Father only to the Jews; he was the "minister of the circumcision", Rom 15:8 that is, a minister to the circumcised Jews; he was sent only to preach the Gospel to them, and work miracles among them, in proof of his Messiahship; and upon their rejection of him, then his apostles were to be sent among the Gentiles; but he himself was sent only to the Jews, here styled "the lost sheep of the house of Israel": by "the house of Israel", is meant the whole body of the Jewish nation, so called from Israel, the name of Jacob their father, from whom they sprung; and by the "lost sheep" of that house, are more especially designed the elect of God among them: for though all the individuals of that house were "lost" persons, considered in Adam, and in themselves, as the rest of mankind, and Christ, in the external ministry of the word, was sent to preach to them all; yet the elect of God are only "sheep": they are the sheep of Christ, of his pasture, and of his hand, whom he has the particular care and charge of; and who, in their natural state, are lost and straying, and could never find their way, or recover themselves from their lost state in Adam, and by their own transgressions; but he came to seek, and to save them, and to these his ministry was powerful and efficacious.

Gill: Mat 15:25 - Then came she and worshipped him // Saying, Lord help me Then came she and worshipped him,.... She followed the disciples into the house; and perceiving another repulse by Christ's answer to them, she pushes...

Then came she and worshipped him,.... She followed the disciples into the house; and perceiving another repulse by Christ's answer to them, she pushes on, through all discouragements; her faith grows stronger, and her importunity greater: she had called Christ Lord, and the son of David before, but now she worships him as God:

Saying, Lord help me; a short petition, but what fully and fitly expressed her case: the object she prays unto is the Lord, by which she owns his sovereignty, dominion, and power: the request she makes is for "help", signifying that her case required it; that it was such, that she could not help herself, nor any creature help her, only he, which she firmly believed; and though it was her daughter, and not she herself, that was so miserably afflicted; yet such was her sympathy, love, and affection to her, that she makes the case her own, and calls helping her daughter, helping herself; for her daughter being relieved, she would be made easy.

Gill: Mat 15:26 - But he answered, and said // it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs But he answered, and said,.... To the woman, as the Persic version reads it, and the sense requires: it is not meet to take the children's bread, a...

But he answered, and said,.... To the woman, as the Persic version reads it, and the sense requires:

it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs; which he said, to try her faith the more, and make it the more illustrious; and that not so much from his own sense of things, as in the language of the Jewish people, and which she might not be a stranger to. By "the children", are meant the Jews, to whom the adoption belonged; who, as a nation and people, were the children of God in a large sense; being distinguished by many blessings and favours, which others had not, and being under the more peculiar care and notice of God; not that all of them were the children of God by special grace: by "the bread"; which belonged to them, is meant the external ministry of the word, and the miracles of Christ wrought among them: and particularly such outward favours which related to the good of the bodies of men, by healing their diseases, and dispossessing them of devils: and by "the dogs" are designed the Gentiles, so called by the Jews in a way of contempt, because of their ignorance, idolatry, and impurity. Christ here speaks not his own mind, as if he reproached the Gentiles, and held them in scorn and contempt, but uses the common dialect of the people; and which, this woman, living upon the borders of the Israelitish nation, was acquainted with; so that it was not so shocking and surprising, or quite so discouraging, as it would otherwise have been. The Jewish doctors say k, that the idolatrous Gentiles are not called men, that they are comparable to the beasts or the field l, to oxen, rams, goats m, and asses n: the foetus in the bowels of a Canaanitish servant, they say o,

"ymd hmhb yemb dlwk, "is like the foetus in the bowels of a beast".''

Take the following passage, as an illustration of this, and as a further proof of the Jews calling the Gentiles dogs p.

"A king provides a dinner for the children of his house; whilst they do his will they eat their meat with the king, and he gives to the dogs the part of bones to gnaw; but when the children of the house do not do the king's pleasure, he gives the dogs the dinner, and the bones to them: even so: while the Israelites do the will of their Lord, they eat at the king's table, and the feast is provided for them, and they of their own will give the bones to the Gentiles; but when they do not do the will of their Lord, lo! the feast is לכלבי, "for the dogs", and the bones are their's.''

And a little after,

""thou preparest a table before me"; this is the feast of the king; "in the presence of mine enemies"; אינון כלבי, "these are the dogs" that sit before the table, looking for their part of the bones.''

In which may be clearly discerned the distinction between children and dogs, and the application of the one to the Jews, and the other to the Gentiles, and the different food that belongs to each: and hence it is easy to see from whom Christ borrowed this expression, and with what view he made use of it.

Gill: Mat 15:27 - And she saith, truth, Lord // yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's table And she saith, truth, Lord,.... She owns all that he had said to be true, that he was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel: that she was...

And she saith, truth, Lord,.... She owns all that he had said to be true, that he was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel: that she was indeed but a dog, a poor sinful creature, and unworthy of any favour; and that it was not right and fitting that all the children's bread should be taken from them and given to dogs:

yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's table. The Syriac and Persic versions add "and live": thus she wisely lays hold upon and improves in a very beautiful manner, in her own favour, what seemed to be so much against her. It is observed q of the Syrophoenicians in general, that they have all, in their common talk, something ηδυ και κεχαρισμενον "pleasant and graceful", as there is indeed in this smart reply of her's, who was one of that people. She suggests that though the Gentiles were but dogs, and she one of them; yet their common Lord and Master had a propriety in them, and they in him; and were to be maintained and fed, and ought to live, though not in such fulness of favours and blessings, as the Jews, the children of God: nor did she desire their affluence, only that a crumb of mercy might be given her, that her poor daughter might be healed; which was but a small favour, in comparison of the numerous ones he heaped upon the children, the Jews: nor would this be any more detrimental to them, than it is to the children, for the dogs, under the table, to eat of the crumbs that fall.

Gill: Mat 15:28 - Then Jesus answered, and said unto her // O woman, great is thy faith! // be it unto thee even as thou wilt // and her daughter was made whole from that very hour Then Jesus answered, and said unto her,.... As one surprised at the strength of her faith, and the clearness and justness of her pious reasoning; and ...

Then Jesus answered, and said unto her,.... As one surprised at the strength of her faith, and the clearness and justness of her pious reasoning; and not concealing himself, and the designs of grace, any longer from her, breaks out in great admiration of her, saying,

O woman, great is thy faith! He seems surprised, that she, a woman, and a poor Gentile, should express such strong faith in him; calling him Lord, owning him to be the Messiah, worshipping him as God, believing him able to do what could not be done by human art; and though she met with such repulses, and even called a dog, yet still continued importunate with him, believing she should succeed:

be it unto thee even as thou wilt; let thy daughter be healed, as thou desirest, and in the way, and at the very time thou wouldst have it:

and her daughter was made whole from that very hour: power went forth from Christ, and dispossessed the devil; so that when she came home, as Mark observes, she found her daughter lying on the bed, quiet, and easy, and perfectly well. The conduct of our Lord towards this woman, and her behaviour under it, do, in a very lively manner, represent the methods which God sometimes takes with his people, when they apply to him in their distress; and the nature and actings of their faith upon him: as she, when she first applied to Christ for mercy and help, had not sword of answer given her; so sometimes they cry, and the Lord turns a deaf ear, or seems not to hear, and, in their apprehension of things, has covered himself with a cloud, that their prayer should not pass through; however, an immediate answer is not returned; yea, when others interpose on their behalf, and entreat for them, yet no favourable answer is returned, as was not by Christ to his disciples, when they besought him on this woman's account: and yet, notwithstanding all this, as she, they are not discouraged, but ply the throne of grace with fresh suits, acknowledge that the worst of names and characters belong to them: that they are unworthy of the least of mercies, and should be content with the crumbs of divine favour, but cannot go away without a blessing; they lay hold on every word of God, and hastily catch at it, and improve everything in their own favour, that faith can come at, and so, in the issue, succeed in their requests: effectual, fervent, and importunate prayer, the prayer of faith availeth much with God.

Gill: Mat 15:29 - And Jesus departed from thence // and went into a mountain // and sat down there And Jesus departed from thence,.... From the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, where he would have been private and retired; but being discovered, and knowing...

And Jesus departed from thence,.... From the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, where he would have been private and retired; but being discovered, and knowing that the fame of this last miracle would make him more public in those parts, he removed, and passed through the midst of the coast of Decapolis, as Mark says, "and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee": the same with the sea of Tiberias. Joh 6:1, that is, he came to those parts of Galilee, which lay near the sea side,

and went into a mountain: which was very usual with him, either for solitude, or for prayer, and sometimes, for better conveniency, to preach to the people:

and sat down there: to take some rest, being weary with his journey, and as waiting for the multitude to come to him, both for instruction and healing.

Gill: Mat 15:30 - And great multitudes came unto him // those that were lame // blind // dumb // maimed // and many others // and cast them down at Jesus' feet // and he healed them And great multitudes came unto him,.... From the adjacent places; having heard of his being where he was; and who had either attended on him before, o...

And great multitudes came unto him,.... From the adjacent places; having heard of his being where he was; and who had either attended on him before, or, however, the fame of him, and his miracles, had reached their ears: these flocked to him, having with them, in their hands, or arms, or upon their backs, or shoulders, leading some, and carrying others, in some form or another,

those that were lame; either in their legs, or arms:

blind; in one eye, or both, and that either from their birth, or since:

dumb: the word signifies both deaf and dumb: these often meet in the same person: and if a man is born deaf, he is always dumb:

maimed: having lost a limb, an arm, or a leg, or so enfeebled by some disease or another, as the palsy, that their limbs were useless to them. The Persic version reads it "leprous":

and many others; who were afflicted with various other diseases, too many to be mentioned particularly:

and cast them down at Jesus' feet; to ease themselves of their burdens, and with a view to move his compassion, believing he was able to cure them: nor do they say a word to him, or desire him to relieve these miserable objects; thinking it was enough to present them to him, and not doubting at all, but he would show favour to them:

and he healed them; immediately, either by a word speaking, or by touching them, or by putting his hands on them, or without any such outward sign, through a divine power proceeding from him, which, at once, removed all their disorders and complaints.

Gill: Mat 15:31 - Insomuch that the multitude wondered // when they saw the dumb to speak // the lame to walk, and the blind to see // and they glorified the God of Israel Insomuch that the multitude wondered,.... The multitude of the spectators, who, though they came in expectation of seeing miracles wrought, yet these ...

Insomuch that the multitude wondered,.... The multitude of the spectators, who, though they came in expectation of seeing miracles wrought, yet these were so much beyond what they could have imagined, that they were amazed and surprised to see cures so instantly performed, in such a miraculous manner: these were such glaring proofs and evidences of the wonderful power of God, that they were astonished

when they saw the dumb to speak; that is, such who before were dumb, now spoke; and the same is to be observed in the other following instances: some copies have also, "the deaf to hear", and so the Arabic version: "the maimed to be whole". This is left out in some copies; nor is it in the Arabic, Ethiopic, and Vulgate Latin versions, nor in Munster's Hebrew Gospel; but the Syriac has it, and most Greek copies, and seems necessary; since these are particularly mentioned among the persons brought to be cured; and a wonderful cure this was, that persons who had not only lost the use of their limbs, but such who had lost the limbs themselves, should have them restored perfect; for doubtless, the power of our Lord was able to do this, and which was amazing to behold:

the lame to walk, and the blind to see; as was prophesied of the times of the Messiah, and as things to be effected by him, Isa 35:5

and they glorified the God of Israel. The Ethiopic version adds, "which had given such power to the son of man", or "unto men", which seems to be taken out of Mat 9:8. This must be understood both of the multitude that saw these miraculous operations, and the persons on whom they were wrought; who were both affected with them, and gave God the praise and glory of them, by whose power alone such things could be done, who is the one only and true God: and therefore, to distinguish him from the fictitious deities of the Gentiles, he is here styled the God of Israel, of the people of Israel, so called from Jacob their ancestor, whose name was Israel; by whom God was known, and worshipped, and was their Covenant God, and Father.

Gill: Mat 15:32 - Then Jesus called his disciples unto him // and said, I have compassion on the multitude // because they continue now with me three days // and have nothing to eat // and I will not send them away fasting // lest they faint by the way Then Jesus called his disciples unto him,.... Who were at some little distance from him, to impart his mind unto them, whom he had made, and used, as ...

Then Jesus called his disciples unto him,.... Who were at some little distance from him, to impart his mind unto them, whom he had made, and used, as his familiar friends; and to try their faith, and raise their attention, and prepare them for the following miracle; as well as to teach them by his example, and accustom them to show bowels of mercy and compassion to persons in any kind of want and distress:

and said, I have compassion on the multitude; which must be understood of him as man, whose bowels yearned towards them, having been so long without any food for their bodies, or very little; as he had compassion on the sick, and diseased, and healed them, so on the sound and whole, and was willing to feed them. Christ, our high priest, is a merciful one, and is touched with the feeling of the infirmities of men, of every sort, both of soul and body:

because they continue now with me three days; which time had been spent in healing their bodily disorders, and in preaching to them for the good of their souls; which shows the diligence and indefatigableness of Christ, as well as the attachment of the people to him; who were so struck with his miracles and ministry, that though they had been so long from their habitations and families, knew not how to leave him; nor did they talk, or show any signs of departing from him, and returning to their houses, and business of life;

and have nothing to eat; not that they had been so long without eating anything, though very likely it was but little, and what they brought with them, and was now expended; nor could they provide themselves in a desert place, and many of them were a great way off from home:

and I will not send them away fasting; he might have done it, nor did the multitude ask any food of him; but he could not bear the thoughts of dismissing them in such a condition; having had but very little sustenance all this while, and so might be said to be in a manner fasting during this time, at least now:

lest they faint by the way; to their own houses, not having strength and spirit enough to travel, and get home: for "divers of them", as Mark says, "came from far".

Gill: Mat 15:33 - And his disciples said unto him // whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude? And his disciples said unto him,.... The former miracle of feeding five thousand men, besides women and children, with five loaves and two fishes, bei...

And his disciples said unto him,.... The former miracle of feeding five thousand men, besides women and children, with five loaves and two fishes, being quite out of their thoughts, they reply,

whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude? The question is big with objections, and is put with some vehemency and astonishment: the people to be led were a multitude, a great multitude, a very great multitude, and these too had had but little, or no food, for a great while; and therefore would require the more to fill and satisfy them; and besides, it was a wilderness where they were, and where no provisions were to be had; and if they could have been got for money, they had not stock enough to purchase such a large number of loaves, as were necessary to feed so great a company with.

Gill: Mat 15:34 - And Jesus saith unto them // how many loaves have ye? // and they said seven, and a few little fishes And Jesus saith unto them,.... In a very mild and gentle manner, taking no notice of their stupidity, nor upbraiding them with their forgetfulness of ...

And Jesus saith unto them,.... In a very mild and gentle manner, taking no notice of their stupidity, nor upbraiding them with their forgetfulness of the late miracle, and willing to exercise their patience, and try their faith, asks,

how many loaves have ye? meaning in the common stock, and which they brought along with them, for their own supply:

and they said seven, and a few little fishes; which they mention as so small a provision, that it was as nothing for such multitudes; their loaves of bread were but seven, and their fishes, which were ready dressed, dried, or boiled, &c. were few in number, and small, as to quantity and size.

Gill: Mat 15:35 - And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. Not regarding the smallness of the provisions, nor any further consulting with his disciples...

And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. Not regarding the smallness of the provisions, nor any further consulting with his disciples; but knowing his own power to increase this food, and determining to feed the multitude before he dismissed them, in an authoritative way ordered them to sit down upon the ground in rows, that they might be the better seen, and served.

Gill: Mat 15:36 - And he took the seven loaves and the fishes // and gave thanks // and brake them // and gave to his disciples // and the disciples to the multitude And he took the seven loaves and the fishes,.... Into his hands, and lifted them up, that it might be seen, and observed, that there were no other foo...

And he took the seven loaves and the fishes,.... Into his hands, and lifted them up, that it might be seen, and observed, that there were no other food than these, that so the miracle might appear in its true light:

and gave thanks; to God for the provision, though it was so small, in the name of the whole company, according to the usage of the Jewish nation; who, if there were ten thousand r, one for the rest used to say,

"let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel, the God of hosts, that sitteth between the cherubim:

teaching us to do so likewise, and to be thankful for, and content with our portion, be it more or less:

and brake them; which also was the custom of the master of the family to do:

and gave to his disciples: as a fresh trial of their faith, to reprove their unbelief, to put them in mind of the former miracle, and that they might be witnesses of this, and, in order to distribute to the people, which they accordingly did:

and the disciples to the multitude; in doing which they obeyed their master's orders, though before they could not persuade themselves, that such a multitude of people could be filled with so small a quantity,

Gill: Mat 15:37 - And they did all eat, and were filled // and they took up of the broken meat that was left, seven baskets full And they did all eat, and were filled,.... Every one had a share of the provision, and that to full satisfaction; no one was overlooked and neglected,...

And they did all eat, and were filled,.... Every one had a share of the provision, and that to full satisfaction; no one was overlooked and neglected, and everyone had as much as he could eat:

and they took up of the broken meat that was left, seven baskets full. The disciples, after they had distributed to everyone his portion, went round, and collected the remaining fragments, and filled seven baskets therewith, according to the number of the loaves which were broken; and so had a full return for the loaves and fishes they spared on this occasion.

Gill: Mat 15:38 - And they that did eat, were four thousand men // besides women and children And they that did eat, were four thousand men,.... This number of men, as well as of the baskets of fragments, clearly shows this to be a distinct mir...

And they that did eat, were four thousand men,.... This number of men, as well as of the baskets of fragments, clearly shows this to be a distinct miracle from the former of this kind, recorded in Mat 14:15. There the number of men were five thousand, here four thousand; there the quantity of food was five loaves and two fishes, here seven loaves and a few fishes; there the number of the baskets of fragments was twelve, here seven; though the quantity might be as large; since the word here used for a basket is not the same as there, and designs one of a larger size:

besides women and children; who were not taken into the account, though they ate as well as the men, and whose number might be very large.

Gill: Mat 15:39 - -- And he sent away the multitude,.... Dismissing them, either with a prayer for them, or with a suitable word of exhortation, to be thankful for the mer...

And he sent away the multitude,.... Dismissing them, either with a prayer for them, or with a suitable word of exhortation, to be thankful for the mercies, both spiritual and temporal, they had received, and behave agreeably in their lives and conversations:

and took ship; being near the sea side, the sea of Galilee,

and came into the coasts of Magdala: not far from Tiberias; for often mention is made of Magdala in the Talmud s, along with Tiberias, and Chammath, another place in the same neighbourhood; and was famous for some Rabbins, as R. Joden and R. Isaac t, who are said to be מגדלאה, "of Magdala". Thus the Syriac version reads it Magedo, and the Vulgate Latin Magedan; and Beza says, in one Greek exemplar it is read Magadan; and some have thought it to be the same with Megiddo, where Josiah was slain by Pharaohnecho, and which Herodotus calls Magdolos u. The Evangelist Mark says, that he came into the parts of Dalmanutha, which was a place within the coasts of Magdala. This was not the place, but another of the same name near Jerusalem, from whence Mary Magdalene may be thought to have her name. The Ethiopic version renders it, "they went into a ship, and departed into the mountains of Magdala"; that is, Christ, and his disciples.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Mat 15:1 The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb so that its telic (i.e., final or conc...

NET Notes: Mat 15:2 Grk “when they eat bread.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:3 Grk “But answering, he said to them.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:4 A quotation from Exod 21:17; Lev 20:9.

NET Notes: Mat 15:5 Grk “is a gift,” that is, something dedicated to God.

NET Notes: Mat 15:6 Here Jesus refers to something that has been set aside as a gift to be given to God at some later date, but which is still in the possession of the ow...

NET Notes: Mat 15:8 The term “heart” is a collective singular in the Greek text.

NET Notes: Mat 15:9 A quotation from Isa 29:13.

NET Notes: Mat 15:10 Grk “And calling the crowd, he said to them.” The participle προσκαλεσάμεν...

NET Notes: Mat 15:11 Grk “but what.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:12 See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

NET Notes: Mat 15:13 Grk “And answering, he said.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:14 Grk “If blind leads blind.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:15 Grk “And answering, Peter said to him.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.

NET Notes: Mat 15:16 Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

NET Notes: Mat 15:17 Or “into the latrine.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:20 Grk “but to eat with unwashed hands does not defile a person.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:21 For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

NET Notes: Mat 15:22 Grk “cried out, saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant here in contemporary English and...

NET Notes: Mat 15:23 Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant here in contemporary Engl...

NET Notes: Mat 15:24 Grk “And answering, he said.” The construction in Greek is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ...

NET Notes: Mat 15:25 Grk “she bowed down to him, saying.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:26 Grk “And answering, he said.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant and h...

NET Notes: Mat 15:27 Grk “she said.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:28 Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή 1), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used...

NET Notes: Mat 15:30 Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

NET Notes: Mat 15:32 ‡ Although the external evidence is not great (א W Θ 700 pc), the internal evidence for the omission of αὐτοQ...

NET Notes: Mat 15:36 Grk “was giving them to the disciples, and the disciples to the crowd.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:37 Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

NET Notes: Mat 15:38 Grk “And those eating were four thousand men, apart from children and women.”

NET Notes: Mat 15:39 Magadan was a place along the Sea of Galilee, the exact location of which is uncertain.

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:1 ( 1 ) Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying, ( 1 ) None commonly are more bold condemners of God, then they whom ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they ( a ) wash not their hands when they eat bread. ( a ) Which they received hande...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:3 ( 2 ) But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? ( 2 ) Their wicked boldness in corrupti...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:4 For God commanded, saying, ( b ) Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. ( b ) By honour is meant...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:5 But ye say, ( c ) Whosoever shall say to [his] father or [his] mother, [It is] a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; ( c ) The meani...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:6 And honour not his father or his mother, [he shall be free]. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none ( d ) effect by your tradition. ( d ) A...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:7 ( 3 ) [Ye] hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, ( 3 ) The same men are condemned for hypocrisy and superstition, because they made th...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:10 ( 4 ) And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand: ( 4 ) Christ teaches us that the hypocrisy of false teachers who deceive...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:21 Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the ( e ) coasts of Tyre and Sidon. ( e ) Coasts which were next to Tyre and Sidon, that is in that region ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:22 And, behold, a woman of ( f ) Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, [thou] Son of David; my daught...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:23 ( 5 ) But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us. ( 5 ) In that Christ s...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:24 But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the ( g ) house of Israel. ( g ) Of the people of Israel, who were divided into tr...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:29 ( 6 ) And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and went up into a mountain, and sat down there. ( 6 ) Christ does not c...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:30 And great multitudes came unto him, having with them [those that were] lame, blind, dumb, ( h ) maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus' ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:32 ( 7 ) Then Jesus called his disciples [unto him], and said, I have compassion on the multitude, because they ( i ) continue with me now three days, an...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:35 And he commanded the multitude to ( k ) sit down on the ground. ( k ) Literally, "to lie down backwards", as rowers do in rowing, when they draw thei...

Geneva Bible: Mat 15:37 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken [meat] that was left seven ( l ) baskets full. ( l ) A kind of container made w...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Mat 15:21-31 - A Libation To Jehovah The Crumbs And The Bread Them Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyro and Sidon. 22. And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the s...

MHCC: Mat 15:1-9 - --Additions to God's laws reflect upon his wisdom, as if he had left out something which was needed, and which man could supply; in one way or other the...

MHCC: Mat 15:10-20 - --Christ shows that the defilement they ought to fear, was not from what entered their mouths as food, but from what came out of their mouths, which sho...

MHCC: Mat 15:21-28 - --The dark corners of the country, the most remote, shall share Christ's influences; afterwards the ends of the earth shall see his salvation. The distr...

MHCC: Mat 15:29-39 - --Whatever our case is, the only way to find ease and relief, is to lay it at Christ's feet, to submit it to him, and refer it to his disposal. Those wh...

Matthew Henry: Mat 15:1-9 - -- Evil manners, we say, beget good laws. The intemperate heat of the Jewish teachers for the support of their hierarchy, occasioned many excellent dis...

Matthew Henry: Mat 15:10-20 - -- Christ having proved that the disciples, in eating with unwashen hands, were not to be blamed, as transgressing the traditions and injunctions of th...

Matthew Henry: Mat 15:21-28 - -- We have here that famous story of Christ's casting the devil out of the woman of Canaan's daughter; it has something in it singular and very surpr...