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Teks -- Philippians 4:1-23 (NET)

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Konteks
Christian Practices
4:1 So then, my brothers and sisters, dear friends whom I long to see, my joy and crown, stand in the Lord in this way, my dear friends! 4:2 I appeal to Euodia and to Syntyche to agree in the Lord. 4:3 Yes, I say also to you, true companion, help them. They have struggled together in the gospel ministry along with me and Clement and my other coworkers, whose names are in the book of life. 4:4 Rejoice in the Lord always. Again I say, rejoice! 4:5 Let everyone see your gentleness. The Lord is near! 4:6 Do not be anxious about anything. Instead, in every situation, through prayer and petition with thanksgiving, tell your requests to God. 4:7 And the peace of God that surpasses all understanding will guard your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. 4:8 Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is worthy of respect, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if something is excellent or praiseworthy, think about these things. 4:9 And what you learned and received and heard and saw in me, do these things. And the God of peace will be with you.
Appreciation for Support
4:10 I have great joy in the Lord because now at last you have again expressed your concern for me. (Now I know you were concerned before but had no opportunity to do anything.) 4:11 I am not saying this because I am in need, for I have learned to be content in any circumstance. 4:12 I have experienced times of need and times of abundance. In any and every circumstance I have learned the secret of contentment, whether I go satisfied or hungry, have plenty or nothing. 4:13 I am able to do all things through the one who strengthens me. 4:14 Nevertheless, you did well to share with me in my trouble. 4:15 And as you Philippians know, at the beginning of my gospel ministry, when I left Macedonia, no church shared with me in this matter of giving and receiving except you alone. 4:16 For even in Thessalonica on more than one occasion you sent something for my need. 4:17 I do not say this because I am seeking a gift. Rather, I seek the credit that abounds to your account. 4:18 For I have received everything, and I have plenty. I have all I need because I received from Epaphroditus what you sent– a fragrant offering, an acceptable sacrifice, very pleasing to God. 4:19 And my God will supply your every need according to his glorious riches in Christ Jesus. 4:20 May glory be given to God our Father forever and ever. Amen.
Final Greetings
4:21 Give greetings to all the saints in Christ Jesus. The brothers with me here send greetings. 4:22 All the saints greet you, especially those who belong to Caesar’s household. 4:23 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Caesar a title held by Roman emperors
 · Clement a person, male
 · Epaphroditus a man who was a messenger between Paul and the churches
 · Euodia a person, female
 · Macedonia a Roman province north of Greece which included 10 Roman colonies (IBD),citizens of the province of Macedonia
 · Philippians the inhabitants of Philippi
 · Syntyche a person, female
 · Thessalonica a town of Macedonia on the Thermaic Gulf (Gulf of Salonika)


Topik/Tema Kamus: PHILIPPIANS, THE EPISTLE TO THE | Philippi | Epaphroditus | Minister | Church | Beneficence | MACEDONIA | TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT | PAPYRUS | Syntyche | Commandments | Clement | IN THE LORD | BIBLE, THE, IV CANONICITY | Humility | Zeal | Righteousness | Rome | Righteous | Resignation | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Phi 4:1 - Longed for Longed for ( epipothētoi ). Late and rare verbal adjective (here alone in N.T.) from epipotheō .

Longed for ( epipothētoi ).

Late and rare verbal adjective (here alone in N.T.) from epipotheō .

Robertson: Phi 4:1 - So stand fast So stand fast ( houto stēkete ). Present active imperative of stēkō (late present from perfect hestēka from histēmi ). See Phi 1:27. T...

So stand fast ( houto stēkete ).

Present active imperative of stēkō (late present from perfect hestēka from histēmi ). See Phi 1:27. They were tempted to defection. Standing firm is difficult when a panic starts.

Robertson: Phi 4:2 - Euodia Euodia ( Euodian ). This name means literally "prosperous journey"(eu , hodos ). It occurs in the inscriptions.

Euodia ( Euodian ).

This name means literally "prosperous journey"(eu , hodos ). It occurs in the inscriptions.

Robertson: Phi 4:2 - Syntyche Syntyche ( Suntuchēn ). From suntugchanō , to meet with and so "pleasant acquaintance"or "good-luck."Occurs in the inscriptions and identified wi...

Syntyche ( Suntuchēn ).

From suntugchanō , to meet with and so "pleasant acquaintance"or "good-luck."Occurs in the inscriptions and identified with Lydia by some. Klopper suggests that each of these rival women had church assemblies in their homes, one a Jewish-Christian church, the other a Gentile-Christian church. Vincent doubts the great influence of women in Macedonia held by Lightfoot who also suggests that these two were ladies of rank or perhaps deaconesses of the church in Philippi. Schinz suggests that in such a pure church even slight bickerings would make a real disturbance. "It may have been accidental friction between two energetic Christian women"(Kennedy).

Robertson: Phi 4:3 - True yokefellow True yokefellow ( gnēsie sunzuge ). All sorts of suggestions have been made here, one that it was Lydia who is termed Paul’ s wife by the word...

True yokefellow ( gnēsie sunzuge ).

All sorts of suggestions have been made here, one that it was Lydia who is termed Paul’ s wife by the word sunzuge . Unfortunately for that view gnēsie is masculine vocative singular. Some have suggested it as a proper name though it is not found in the inscriptions, but the word does occur as an appellative in one. Lightfoot even proposes Epaphroditus, the bearer of the Epistle, certainly a curious turn to take to address him. After all it matters little that we do not know who the peacemaker was.

Robertson: Phi 4:3 - Help these women Help these women ( sunlambanou autais ). Present middle imperative of sunlambanō , to seize (Mat 26:55), to conceive (Luk 1:24), then to take hold ...

Help these women ( sunlambanou autais ).

Present middle imperative of sunlambanō , to seize (Mat 26:55), to conceive (Luk 1:24), then to take hold together with one (associative instrumental case), to help as here (Luk 5:7). "Take hold with them."

Robertson: Phi 4:3 - They laboured with me They laboured with me ( sunēthlēsan moi ). First aorist active indicative of sunathleō (for which see note on Phi 1:27) with associative inst...

They laboured with me ( sunēthlēsan moi ).

First aorist active indicative of sunathleō (for which see note on Phi 1:27) with associative instrumental case (moi ).

Robertson: Phi 4:3 - With Clement also With Clement also ( meta kai Klēmentos ). There is no evidence that he was Clement of Rome as the name is common.

With Clement also ( meta kai Klēmentos ).

There is no evidence that he was Clement of Rome as the name is common.

Robertson: Phi 4:3 - In the book of life In the book of life ( en biblōi zōēs ). The only instance of this expression in the N.T. outside of the Apocalypse (Rev 3:5; Rev 13:8; Rev 17:8...

In the book of life ( en biblōi zōēs ).

The only instance of this expression in the N.T. outside of the Apocalypse (Rev 3:5; Rev 13:8; Rev 17:8, etc.). Hence real Christians in spite of their bickerings.

Robertson: Phi 4:4 - Again I will say Again I will say ( palin erō ). Future active indicative of defective verb eipon .

Again I will say ( palin erō ).

Future active indicative of defective verb eipon .

Robertson: Phi 4:4 - Rejoice Rejoice ( chairete ). Present active imperative as in Phi 3:1, repeated for emphasis in spite of discouragements. Not in the sense of "Farewell"here.

Rejoice ( chairete ).

Present active imperative as in Phi 3:1, repeated for emphasis in spite of discouragements. Not in the sense of "Farewell"here.

Robertson: Phi 4:5 - Your forbearance Your forbearance ( to epieikes humōn ). "Your gentleness,""your sweet reasonableness"(Matthew Arnold), "your moderation."Old adjective (epi , eiko...

Your forbearance ( to epieikes humōn ).

"Your gentleness,""your sweet reasonableness"(Matthew Arnold), "your moderation."Old adjective (epi , eikos ) as in Jam 3:17; 1Ti 3:3. Article and neuter singular here= hē epieikeia (Act 24:4; 2Co 10:1) like to chrēston in Rom 2:4.

Robertson: Phi 4:5 - The Lord is at hand The Lord is at hand ( ho kurios eggus ). "The Apostle’ s watchword"(Lightfoot), as in 1Co 16:22 (Maran atha , Aramaic equivalent, Our Lord comet...

The Lord is at hand ( ho kurios eggus ).

"The Apostle’ s watchword"(Lightfoot), as in 1Co 16:22 (Maran atha , Aramaic equivalent, Our Lord cometh). Unless, indeed, eggus here means near in space instead of nigh in time.

Robertson: Phi 4:6 - In nothing be anxious In nothing be anxious ( mēden merimnāte ). Present imperative in prohibition, "stop being anxious."See mē merimnāte in Mat 6:31.

In nothing be anxious ( mēden merimnāte ).

Present imperative in prohibition, "stop being anxious."See mē merimnāte in Mat 6:31.

Robertson: Phi 4:6 - With thanksgiving With thanksgiving ( meta eucharistias ). In all the forms of prayer here named thanksgiving should appear.

With thanksgiving ( meta eucharistias ).

In all the forms of prayer here named thanksgiving should appear.

Robertson: Phi 4:7 - The peace of God The peace of God ( hē eirēnē tou theou ). See in 2Th 3:16 "the Lord of peace"(ho Kurios tēs eirēnēs ) and Phi 4:9 for "the God of peace"...

The peace of God ( hē eirēnē tou theou ).

See in 2Th 3:16 "the Lord of peace"(ho Kurios tēs eirēnēs ) and Phi 4:9 for "the God of peace"(ho theos tēs eirēnēs ).

Robertson: Phi 4:7 - Shall guard Shall guard ( phrourēsei ). "Shall garrison,"future active indicative of phroureō , old verb from phrouros (prȯhoros , prooraō , to see be...

Shall guard ( phrourēsei ).

"Shall garrison,"future active indicative of phroureō , old verb from phrouros (prȯhoros , prooraō , to see before, to look out). See note on Act 9:24; 2Co 11:32. God’ s peace as a sentinel mounts guard over our lives as Tennyson so beautifully pictures Love as doing.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Finally Finally ( to loipon ). See note on Phi 3:1.

Finally ( to loipon ).

See note on Phi 3:1.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever Whatsoever ( hosa ). Thus he introduces six adjectives picturing Christian ideals, old-fashioned and familiar words not necessarily from any philosop...

Whatsoever ( hosa ).

Thus he introduces six adjectives picturing Christian ideals, old-fashioned and familiar words not necessarily from any philosophic list of moral excellencies Stoic or otherwise. Without these no ideals can exist. They are pertinent now when so much filth is flaunted before the world in books, magazines and moving-pictures under the name of realism (the slime of the gutter and the cess-pool).

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Honourable Honourable ( semna ). Old word from sebō , to worship, revere. So revered, venerated (1Ti 3:8).

Honourable ( semna ).

Old word from sebō , to worship, revere. So revered, venerated (1Ti 3:8).

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Pure Pure ( hagna ). Old word for all sorts of purity. There are clean things, thoughts, words, deeds.

Pure ( hagna ).

Old word for all sorts of purity. There are clean things, thoughts, words, deeds.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Lovely Lovely ( prosphilē ). Old word, here only in N.T., from pros and phileō , pleasing, winsome.

Lovely ( prosphilē ).

Old word, here only in N.T., from pros and phileō , pleasing, winsome.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Of good report Of good report ( euphēma . Old word, only here in N.T., from eu and phēmē , fair-speaking, attractive.

Of good report ( euphēma . Old word, only here in N.T., from eu and phēmē , fair-speaking, attractive.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - If there be any If there be any ( ei tis ). Paul changes the construction from hosa (whatsoever) to a condition of the first class, as in Phi 2:1, with two substan...

If there be any ( ei tis ).

Paul changes the construction from hosa (whatsoever) to a condition of the first class, as in Phi 2:1, with two substantives.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Virtue Virtue ( aretē ). Old word, possibly from areskō , to please, used very often in a variety of senses by the ancients for any mental excellence or...

Virtue ( aretē ).

Old word, possibly from areskō , to please, used very often in a variety of senses by the ancients for any mental excellence or moral quality or physical power. Its very vagueness perhaps explains its rarity in the N.T., only four times (Phi 4:8; 1Pe 2:9; 2Pe 1:3, 2Pe 1:5). It is common in the papyri, but probably Paul is using it in the sense found in the lxx (Isa 42:12; 43:21) of God’ s splendour and might (Deissmann, Bible Studies , p. 95) in connection with "praise"(epainos ) as here or even meaning praise.

Robertson: Phi 4:8 - Think on these things Think on these things ( tauta logizesthe ). Present middle imperative for habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can hold them to ...

Think on these things ( tauta logizesthe ).

Present middle imperative for habit of thought. We are responsible for our thoughts and can hold them to high and holy ideals.

Robertson: Phi 4:9 - In me In me ( en emoi ). Paul dares to point to his life in Philippi as an illustration of this high thinking. The preacher is the interpreter of the spiri...

In me ( en emoi ).

Paul dares to point to his life in Philippi as an illustration of this high thinking. The preacher is the interpreter of the spiritual life and should be an example of it.

Robertson: Phi 4:9 - These things do These things do ( tauta prassete ). Practise as a habit (prassō , not poieō ).

These things do ( tauta prassete ).

Practise as a habit (prassō , not poieō ).

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - I rejoice I rejoice ( echarēn ). Second aorist passive indicative of chairō , a timeless aorist. I did rejoice, I do rejoice.

I rejoice ( echarēn ).

Second aorist passive indicative of chairō , a timeless aorist. I did rejoice, I do rejoice.

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Greatly Greatly ( megalōs ). Old adverb, only here in N.T., from megas (great).

Greatly ( megalōs ).

Old adverb, only here in N.T., from megas (great).

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Now at length Now at length ( ēdē pote ). In N.T. only here and Rom 1:10. Pote is indefinite past (interval), ēdē immediate present.

Now at length ( ēdē pote ).

In N.T. only here and Rom 1:10. Pote is indefinite past (interval), ēdē immediate present.

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Ye have revived Ye have revived ( anethalete ). Second aorist active indicative of old poetic word (Homer), anathallō , to sprout again, to shoot up, to blossom ag...

Ye have revived ( anethalete ).

Second aorist active indicative of old poetic word (Homer), anathallō , to sprout again, to shoot up, to blossom again. So in the lxx five times, though rare and literary word.

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Your thought for me Your thought for me ( to huper emou phronein ). Accusative case of the articular present active infinitive the object of anethalete used transitive...

Your thought for me ( to huper emou phronein ).

Accusative case of the articular present active infinitive the object of anethalete used transitively. "You caused your thinking of me to bloom afresh."

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Wherein Wherein ( Ephesians' hōi ). "In which,""upon which"(locative case). A loose reference to Paul’ s interests as involved in their thinking of hi...

Wherein ( Ephesians' hōi ).

"In which,""upon which"(locative case). A loose reference to Paul’ s interests as involved in their thinking of him.

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Ye did indeed take thought Ye did indeed take thought ( kai ephroneite ). Imperfect active, "ye were also (or had been also) thinking."

Ye did indeed take thought ( kai ephroneite ).

Imperfect active, "ye were also (or had been also) thinking."

Robertson: Phi 4:10 - Ye lacked opportunity Ye lacked opportunity ( ēkaireisthe ). Imperfect middle of akaireomai , late and rare word, here only in N.T., from akairos (a privative, kairo...

Ye lacked opportunity ( ēkaireisthe ).

Imperfect middle of akaireomai , late and rare word, here only in N.T., from akairos (a privative, kairos ), not to have a chance, the opposite of eukaireō (Mar 6:31).

Robertson: Phi 4:11 - In respect of want In respect of want ( kath' husterēsin ). Late and rare word from hustereō , to be behind or too late, only here and Mar 12:44 in N.T.

In respect of want ( kath' husterēsin ).

Late and rare word from hustereō , to be behind or too late, only here and Mar 12:44 in N.T.

Robertson: Phi 4:11 - I have learned I have learned ( emathon ). Simply, "I did learn"(constative second aorist active indicative of manthanō , to learn, looking at his long experience...

I have learned ( emathon ).

Simply, "I did learn"(constative second aorist active indicative of manthanō , to learn, looking at his long experience as a unit.

Robertson: Phi 4:11 - In whatsoever state I am In whatsoever state I am ( en hois eimi ). "In what things (circumstances) I am."

In whatsoever state I am ( en hois eimi ).

"In what things (circumstances) I am."

Robertson: Phi 4:11 - To be content To be content ( autarkēs einai ). Predicate nominative with the infinitive of the old adjective autarkēs (from autos and arkeō , to be self...

To be content ( autarkēs einai ).

Predicate nominative with the infinitive of the old adjective autarkēs (from autos and arkeō , to be self-sufficient), self-sufficing. Favourite word with the Stoics, only here in N.T., though autarkeia occurs in 2Co 9:8; 1Ti 6:6. Paul is contented with his lot and he learned that lesson long ago. Socrates said as to who is wealthiest: "He that is content with least, for autarkeia is nature’ s wealth."

Robertson: Phi 4:12 - I know how I know how ( oida ). Followed by the infinitive oida has this sense. So here twice, with tapeinousthai , to be humbled, from tapeinos , and with pe...

I know how ( oida ).

Followed by the infinitive oida has this sense. So here twice, with tapeinousthai , to be humbled, from tapeinos , and with perisseuein , to overflow.

Robertson: Phi 4:12 - Have I learned the secret Have I learned the secret ( memuēmai ). Perfect passive indicative of mueō , old and common word from muō , to close (Latin mutus ), and so t...

Have I learned the secret ( memuēmai ).

Perfect passive indicative of mueō , old and common word from muō , to close (Latin mutus ), and so to initiate with secret rites, here only in N.T. The common word mustērion (mystery) is from mustēs (one initiated) and this from mueō , to initiate, to instruct in secrets. Paul draws this metaphor from the initiatory rites of the pagan mystery-religions.

Robertson: Phi 4:12 - To be filled To be filled ( chortazesthai ). Old verb from chortos (grass, hay) and so to fatten like an animal.

To be filled ( chortazesthai ).

Old verb from chortos (grass, hay) and so to fatten like an animal.

Robertson: Phi 4:12 - To be hungry To be hungry ( peināin ). Old verb from peina (hunger) and kin to penēs , poor man who has to work for his living (penomai ).

To be hungry ( peināin ).

Old verb from peina (hunger) and kin to penēs , poor man who has to work for his living (penomai ).

Robertson: Phi 4:13 - I can do all things I can do all things ( panta ischuō ). Old verb to have strength (ischus ).

I can do all things ( panta ischuō ).

Old verb to have strength (ischus ).

Robertson: Phi 4:13 - In him that strengtheneth me In him that strengtheneth me ( en tōi endunamounti me ). Late and rare verb (in lxx) from adjective endunamos (en ,dunamis ). Causative verb to...

In him that strengtheneth me ( en tōi endunamounti me ).

Late and rare verb (in lxx) from adjective endunamos (en ,dunamis ). Causative verb to empower, to pour power into one. See same phrase in 1Ti 1:12 tōi endunamōsanti me (aorist tense here). Paul has such strength so long as Jesus keeps on putting power (dunamis ) into him.

Robertson: Phi 4:14 - That ye had fellowship That ye had fellowship ( sunKoinéōnēsantes ). First aorist active participle (simultaneous action with the principal verb kalōs epoiēsate )...

That ye had fellowship ( sunKoinéōnēsantes ).

First aorist active participle (simultaneous action with the principal verb kalōs epoiēsate ). "Ye did well contributing for my affliction."

Robertson: Phi 4:15 - In the beginning of the gospel In the beginning of the gospel ( en archēi tou euaggeliou ). After he had wrought in Philippi (2Th 2:13).

In the beginning of the gospel ( en archēi tou euaggeliou ).

After he had wrought in Philippi (2Th 2:13).

Robertson: Phi 4:15 - Had fellowship Had fellowship ( eKoinéōnēsen ). "Had partnership"(first aorist active indicative).

Had fellowship ( eKoinéōnēsen ).

"Had partnership"(first aorist active indicative).

Robertson: Phi 4:15 - In the matter In the matter ( eis logon ). "As to an account."No other church opened an account with Paul.

In the matter ( eis logon ).

"As to an account."No other church opened an account with Paul.

Robertson: Phi 4:15 - Of giving and receiving Of giving and receiving ( doseōs kai lēmpseōs ). Credit and debit. A mercantile metaphor repeated in Phi 4:17 by eis logon humōn (to your a...

Of giving and receiving ( doseōs kai lēmpseōs ).

Credit and debit. A mercantile metaphor repeated in Phi 4:17 by eis logon humōn (to your account). Paul had to keep books then with no other church, though later Thessalonica and Beroea joined Philippi in support of Paul’ s work in Corinth (2Co 11:8.).

Robertson: Phi 4:15 - But ye only But ye only ( ei mē humeis monoi ). Not even Antioch contributed anything but good wishes and prayers for Paul’ s work (Act 13:1-3).

But ye only ( ei mē humeis monoi ).

Not even Antioch contributed anything but good wishes and prayers for Paul’ s work (Act 13:1-3).

Robertson: Phi 4:16 - Once and again Once and again ( kai hapax kai dis ). "Both once and twice"they did it "even in Thessalonica"and so before Paul went to Corinth."See the same Greek i...

Once and again ( kai hapax kai dis ).

"Both once and twice"they did it "even in Thessalonica"and so before Paul went to Corinth."See the same Greek idiom in 1Th 2:18.

Robertson: Phi 4:17 - I seek for I seek for ( epizētō ). Old verb, in N.T. only here and Rom 11:7 (linear present, I am seeking for). Lightfoot calls it "the Apostle’ s nerv...

I seek for ( epizētō ).

Old verb, in N.T. only here and Rom 11:7 (linear present, I am seeking for). Lightfoot calls it "the Apostle’ s nervous anxiety to clear himself"of wanting more gifts. Why not say his delicate courtesy?

Robertson: Phi 4:18 - I have all things I have all things ( apechō panta ). As a receipt in full in appreciation of their kindness. Apechō is common in the papyri and the ostraca for ...

I have all things ( apechō panta ).

As a receipt in full in appreciation of their kindness. Apechō is common in the papyri and the ostraca for "receipt in full"(Deissmann, Bible Studies , p. 110). See Mat 6:2, Mat 6:5, Mat 6:16.

Robertson: Phi 4:18 - I am filled I am filled ( peplērōmai ). Perfect passive indicative of plēroō . "Classical Greek would hardly use the word in this personal sense"(Kennedy...

I am filled ( peplērōmai ).

Perfect passive indicative of plēroō . "Classical Greek would hardly use the word in this personal sense"(Kennedy).

Robertson: Phi 4:18 - An odour of a sweet smell An odour of a sweet smell ( osmēn euōdias ). Osmē , old word from ozō , to smell. Euōdia , old word from eu and ozō . In Eph 5:2 both w...

An odour of a sweet smell ( osmēn euōdias ).

Osmē , old word from ozō , to smell. Euōdia , old word from eu and ozō . In Eph 5:2 both words come together as here and in 2Co 2:15 we have euōdia (only other N.T. example) and in verse 2Co 2:16 osmē twice. Euōdias here is genitive of quality.

Robertson: Phi 4:18 - Sacrifice Sacrifice ( thusian ). Not the act, but the offering as in Rom 12:1.

Sacrifice ( thusian ).

Not the act, but the offering as in Rom 12:1.

Robertson: Phi 4:18 - Well-pleasing Well-pleasing ( euareston ). As in Rom 12:1.

Well-pleasing ( euareston ).

As in Rom 12:1.

Robertson: Phi 4:19 - According to his riches in glory According to his riches in glory ( kata to ploutos autou en doxēi ). God has an abundant treasure in glory and will repay the Philippians for what ...

According to his riches in glory ( kata to ploutos autou en doxēi ).

God has an abundant treasure in glory and will repay the Philippians for what they have done for Paul. The spiritual reward is what spurs men into the ministry and holds them to it.||

Robertson: Phi 4:20 - The glory The glory ( hē doxa ). "The doxology flows out of the joy of the whole epistle"(Bengel).

The glory ( hē doxa ).

"The doxology flows out of the joy of the whole epistle"(Bengel).

Robertson: Phi 4:21 - They that are of Caesar’ s household They that are of Caesar’ s household ( hoi ek tēs Kaisaros oikias ). Not members of the imperial family, but some connected with the imperial ...

They that are of Caesar’ s household ( hoi ek tēs Kaisaros oikias ).

Not members of the imperial family, but some connected with the imperial establishment. The term can apply to slaves and freedmen and even to the highest functionaries. Christianity has begun to undermine the throne of the Caesars. Some day a Christian will sit on this throne. The gospel works upward from the lower classes. lt was so at Corinth and in Rome. It is true today. It is doubtful if Nero had yet heard of Paul for his case may have been dismissed by lapse of time. But this obscure prisoner who has planted the gospel in Caesar’ s household has won more eternal fame and power than all the Caesars combined. Nero will commit suicide shortly after Paul has been executed. Nero’ s star went down and Paul’ s rose and rises still.||

Vincent: Phi 4:1 - Longed for Longed for ( ἐπιπόθητοι ) Only here in the New Testament. Compare I long for you , Phi 1:8; and for kindred words see 2Co 7:...

Longed for ( ἐπιπόθητοι )

Only here in the New Testament. Compare I long for you , Phi 1:8; and for kindred words see 2Co 7:7; Rom 15:23.

Vincent: Phi 4:1 - Joy and crown Joy and crown ( χαρὰ καὶ στέφανος ) Nearly the same phrase occurs 1Th 2:19. The Philippian converts are his chaplet of victo...

Joy and crown ( χαρὰ καὶ στέφανος )

Nearly the same phrase occurs 1Th 2:19. The Philippian converts are his chaplet of victory, showing that he has not run in vain, Phi 2:16. For crown , see on Rev 4:4; see on 1Pe 5:4.

Vincent: Phi 4:1 - So stand fast So stand fast As I have exhorted, and have borne myself in the conflict which you saw and heard to be in me, Phi 1:30.

So stand fast

As I have exhorted, and have borne myself in the conflict which you saw and heard to be in me, Phi 1:30.

Vincent: Phi 4:2 - I beseech Euodias and beseech Syntyche I beseech Euodias and beseech Syntyche ( Εὐωδίαν παρακαλῶ καὶ Συντύχην παρακαλῶ ) Euodias is inco...

I beseech Euodias and beseech Syntyche ( Εὐωδίαν παρακαλῶ καὶ Συντύχην παρακαλῶ )

Euodias is incorrect, the name being feminine, Euodia . According to the Tex. Rec., with the long o, the name means fragrance ; but the correct reading is with the short o, the meaning being prosperous journey . Syntyche means happy chance . These were prominent women in the Church, possibly deaconesses. The position of women in Macedonia was exceptional. In Greece, generally, their standing was inferior. The Athenian law prescribed that everything that a man might do by the consent or request of a woman should be null in law. In Macedonia monuments were erected to women by public bodies, and in Macedonian inscriptions records of male proper names are found formed on the mother's name instead of the father's. Macedonian women were permitted to hold property. In the account of Paul's labors in Macedonia there are notices of the addition of women of rank to the church in Thessalonica and Beroea.

For beseech , render exhort , and notice the repetition of that word with each name, making the exhortation individual and specific.

Vincent: Phi 4:2 - To be of the same mind To be of the same mind ( τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖν ) The same expression as in Phi 2:2, see note. Compare Rom 12:16. The verb φρον...

To be of the same mind ( τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖν )

The same expression as in Phi 2:2, see note. Compare Rom 12:16. The verb φρονέω to be minded , occurs eleven times in this epistle, and but seventeen times in the rest of the New Testament.

Vincent: Phi 4:3 - True yoke-fellow True yoke-fellow ( γνήσιε σύνζυγε ) For true , see on naturally , Phi 2:20. It is supposed by some that the word rendered yok...

True yoke-fellow ( γνήσιε σύνζυγε )

For true , see on naturally , Phi 2:20. It is supposed by some that the word rendered yoke-fellow is a proper name, Synzygus , and that true is to be explained as rightly so called . This explanation would be favored by the play upon the name Onesimus in the Epistle to Philemon, and is not improbably correct. The name has not been found in inscriptions, as is the case with many of the names in these epistles, as, for instance, Euodia and Syntyche. Some suppose that the chief of the bishops or superintendents at Philippi is thus addressed; but, in that case, the word would probably appear elsewhere in the New Testament. Clement of Alexandria, assuming that Paul was married, thinks that he addresses his wife. Others suppose that Lydia is addressed.

Vincent: Phi 4:3 - Help Help ( συλλαμβάνου ) Lit., take hold with . Compare Luk 5:7. The verb is used of conception , Luk 1:24; arrest , Mat 26:55; A...

Help ( συλλαμβάνου )

Lit., take hold with . Compare Luk 5:7. The verb is used of conception , Luk 1:24; arrest , Mat 26:55; Act 12:3; catching , as fish, Luk 5:9. Compare the compound συναντιλάμβανομαι help , Luk 10:40 (note); Rom 8:26.

Vincent: Phi 4:3 - Which labored with me Which labored with me ( αἵτινες συνήθλησάν μοι ) The double relative explains and classifies: for they belonged ...

Which labored with me ( αἵτινες συνήθλησάν μοι )

The double relative explains and classifies: for they belonged to the number of those who labored. Rev., for they labored . Labored , lit., strove as athletes , as Phi 1:27. Compare Sophocles: " These girls preserve me, these my nurses, these who are men, not women, in laboring with me" (" Oedipus at Colonus," 1367-8).

Vincent: Phi 4:3 - Clement Clement Supposed by some to be Clement the Bishop of Rome. Origen identifies them, saying: " Clement to whom Paul bears Testimony in Phi 4:3." S...

Clement

Supposed by some to be Clement the Bishop of Rome. Origen identifies them, saying: " Clement to whom Paul bears Testimony in Phi 4:3." So also Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Jerome. Chrysostom speaks of Clement as the constant companion of Paul in all his travels. Irenaeus, on the contrary, who mentions him as the pupil of an apostle, says nothing of his connection with Paul, by name, and would not have been likely to pass over this identity in silence had he been aware of it. Clement was a member of the Roman church, and the name was a very common one. A Roman consul, Flavius Clemens, was sentenced to death by Domitian on account of atheism , which was the common pagan designation of Christianity. The Roman catacombs furnish evidence that Christianity had penetrated into the Flavian family, so that there may have been two prominent Christians in Rome of the same name. The identity of Clement of Rome with the Clement of this epistle has been very generally abandoned. The latter was probably a Philippian.

Vincent: Phi 4:3 - Other Other ( τῶν λοιπῶν ) Rev., correctly, the rest .

Other ( τῶν λοιπῶν )

Rev., correctly, the rest .

Vincent: Phi 4:3 - Book of life Book of life The phrase occurs seven times in Revelation. Compare Luk 10:20; Heb 12:23, and see on Rev 3:5. The figure is founded on the register...

Book of life

The phrase occurs seven times in Revelation. Compare Luk 10:20; Heb 12:23, and see on Rev 3:5. The figure is founded on the register of the covenant people. Isa 4:3; Eze 13:9; Exo 32:32; Psa 69:28; Dan 12:1. The phrase was also used by the Rabbins. Thus in the Targum on Eze 13:9 : " In the book of eternal life which has been written for the just of the house of Israel, they shall not be written." God is described as " the king, sitting upon the judgment-seat, with the books of the living and the books of the dead open before Him."

Vincent: Phi 4:5 - Rejoice Rejoice See on Phi 1:4, and 2Co 13:11.

Rejoice

See on Phi 1:4, and 2Co 13:11.

Vincent: Phi 4:5 - Moderation Moderation ( τὸ ἐπιεικὲς ) Wrong. Rev., correctly, forbearance . See on gentle , 1Pe 2:18.

Moderation ( τὸ ἐπιεικὲς )

Wrong. Rev., correctly, forbearance . See on gentle , 1Pe 2:18.

Vincent: Phi 4:5 - The Lord is at hand The Lord is at hand See on 1Co 16:22.

The Lord is at hand

See on 1Co 16:22.

Vincent: Phi 4:6 - Be careful Be careful ( μεριμνᾶτε ) See on Mat 6:25. Rev., better, be anxious .

Be careful ( μεριμνᾶτε )

See on Mat 6:25. Rev., better, be anxious .

Vincent: Phi 4:6 - Prayer and supplication Prayer and supplication General and special. See on Luk 5:33; see on Luk 8:38. Προσευχή prayer , only of prayer to God. The two words...

Prayer and supplication

General and special. See on Luk 5:33; see on Luk 8:38.

Προσευχή prayer , only of prayer to God. The two words often occur together, as Eph 6:18; 1Ti 2:1; 1Ti 5:5.

Vincent: Phi 4:6 - Requests Requests ( αἰτήματα ) Specific details of supplication.

Requests ( αἰτήματα )

Specific details of supplication.

Vincent: Phi 4:6 - Unto God Unto God ( πρὸς τὸν Θεόν ) The force of πρός is rather in your intercourse with God. See on with God , Joh 1:1...

Unto God ( πρὸς τὸν Θεόν )

The force of πρός is rather in your intercourse with God. See on with God , Joh 1:1.

Vincent: Phi 4:7 - Peace of God Peace of God As the antidote to anxiety , Phi 4:6.

Peace of God

As the antidote to anxiety , Phi 4:6.

Vincent: Phi 4:7 - Which passeth all understanding Which passeth all understanding ( ἡ ὑπερέχουσα πάντα νοῦν ). Either, which passes all power of comprehen...

Which passeth all understanding ( ἡ ὑπερέχουσα πάντα νοῦν ).

Either, which passes all power of comprehension , compare Eph 3:20; or, better, which surpasses every ( human ) reason , in its power to relieve anxiety. Compare Mat 6:31, Mat 6:32. For understanding , see on Rom 7:23.

Vincent: Phi 4:7 - Shall keep Shall keep ( φρουρήσει ) Lit., guard , as Rev., or mount guard over . God's peace, like a sentinel, patrols before the heart. Co...

Shall keep ( φρουρήσει )

Lit., guard , as Rev., or mount guard over . God's peace, like a sentinel, patrols before the heart. Compare Tennyson:

" Love is and was my King and Lord,

And will be, though as yet I keep

Within his court on earth, and sleep

Encompassed by his faithful guard,

And hear at times a sentinel

Who moves about from place to place,

And whispers to the worlds of space,

In the deep night, that all is well."

" In Memoriam ."

Gurnall, a little differently: " The peace of God is said to garrison the believer's heart and mind. He is surrounded with such blessed privileges that he is as safe as one in an impregnable castle" (" Christian in Complete Armor," p. 419).

Vincent: Phi 4:7 - Hearts - minds Hearts - minds ( καρδίας - νοήματα ) For hearts , see on Rom 1:21. For minds , Rev., thoughts , see on 2Co 3:14. The guard...

Hearts - minds ( καρδίας - νοήματα )

For hearts , see on Rom 1:21. For minds , Rev., thoughts , see on 2Co 3:14. The guardianship is over the source and the issues of thought and will. " Your hearts and their fruits" (Alford).

Vincent: Phi 4:8 - Honest Honest ( σεμνὰ ) Rev., honorable , reverend in margin. In classical Greek an epithet of the gods, venerable , reverend . The word occ...

Honest ( σεμνὰ )

Rev., honorable , reverend in margin. In classical Greek an epithet of the gods, venerable , reverend . The word occurs only here and in the pastoral epistles, 1Ti 3:8, 1Ti 3:11; Tit 2:2, where it is rendered grave , both in A.V. and Rev. There lies in it the idea of a dignity or majesty which is yet inviting and attractive, and which inspires reverence. Grave , as Trench observes, does not exhaust the meaning. Gravity may be ridiculous. " The word we want is one in which the sense of gravity and dignity, and of these as inviting reverence , is combined." Ellicott's venerable is perhaps as near as any word, if venerable be divested of its modern conventional sense as implying age , and confined to its original sense, worthy of reverence .

Vincent: Phi 4:8 - Pure Pure ( ἁγνά ) See on 1Jo 3:3.

Pure ( ἁγνά )

See on 1Jo 3:3.

Vincent: Phi 4:8 - Lovely Lovely ( προσφιλῆ ) Only here in the New Testament. Adapted to excite love, and to endear him who does such things.

Lovely ( προσφιλῆ )

Only here in the New Testament. Adapted to excite love, and to endear him who does such things.

Vincent: Phi 4:8 - Of good report Of good report ( εὔφημα ) Only here in the New Testament. Lit., sounding well . The kindred verb is commonly used in an active sense...

Of good report ( εὔφημα )

Only here in the New Testament. Lit., sounding well . The kindred verb is commonly used in an active sense. Hence not well spoken of , but fairspeaking , and so winning , gracious (Rev., in margin).

Vincent: Phi 4:8 - Virtue Virtue ( ἀρετὴ ) With this exception the word occurs only in Peter's epistles; 1Pe 2:9 (note); 2Pe 1:3, 2Pe 1:5 (note).

Virtue ( ἀρετὴ )

With this exception the word occurs only in Peter's epistles; 1Pe 2:9 (note); 2Pe 1:3, 2Pe 1:5 (note).

Vincent: Phi 4:8 - Praise Praise ( ἔπαινος ) Commendation corresponding to the moral value of the virtue. In the Septuagint, ἀρετὴ virtue is four tim...

Praise ( ἔπαινος )

Commendation corresponding to the moral value of the virtue. In the Septuagint, ἀρετὴ virtue is four times used to translate the Hebrew praise . The two ideas seem to be coordinated. Lightfoot remarks that Paul seems studiously to avoid this common heathen term for moral excellence, and his explanation is very suggestive: " Whatever value may reside in your old heathen conception of virtue, whatever consideration is due to the praise of men."

Vincent: Phi 4:10 - Your care of me hath flourished again Your care of me hath flourished again ( ἀνεθάλετε τὸ ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ φρονεῖν ) Lit., ye caused your th...

Your care of me hath flourished again ( ἀνεθάλετε τὸ ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ φρονεῖν )

Lit., ye caused your thinking on my behalf to bloom anew . Rev., ye revived your thought for me . The verb occurs only here in the New Testament. In the Septuagint it appears as both transitive and intransitive, to flourish , or to cause to flourish . Thus Psa 27:7, where Septuagint reads for my heart greatly rejoiceth , my flesh flourished (ἀνέθαλεν ); Eze 17:24, have made the dry tree to flourish .

Vincent: Phi 4:10 - Wherein Wherein The matter of my wants and sufferings. Implied in your care of me .

Wherein

The matter of my wants and sufferings. Implied in your care of me .

Vincent: Phi 4:10 - Ye were careful Ye were careful ( ἐφρονεῖτε ) Rev., ye did take thought . Note the imperfect tense: ye were all along thoughtful .

Ye were careful ( ἐφρονεῖτε )

Rev., ye did take thought . Note the imperfect tense: ye were all along thoughtful .

Vincent: Phi 4:11 - Content Content ( αὐτάρκης ) Lit., self-sufficient . Only here in the New Testament. A stoic word, expressing the favorite doctrine of the s...

Content ( αὐτάρκης )

Lit., self-sufficient . Only here in the New Testament. A stoic word, expressing the favorite doctrine of the sect, that man should be sufficient to himself for all things; able, by the power of his own will, to resist the shock of circumstance. Paul is self-sufficient through the power of the new self: not he , but Christ in him. The kindred noun αὐταρκεία sufficiency , occurs 2Co 9:8; 1Ti 6:6.

Vincent: Phi 4:12 - I am instructed I am instructed ( μεμύημαι ) Rev., have I learned the secret . The metaphor is from the initiatory rites of the pagan mysterie...

I am instructed ( μεμύημαι )

Rev., have I learned the secret . The metaphor is from the initiatory rites of the pagan mysteries. I have been initiated . See on Col 1:26.

Vincent: Phi 4:12 - To be full To be full ( χορτάζεσθαι ) See on Mat 5:6.

To be full ( χορτάζεσθαι )

See on Mat 5:6.

Vincent: Phi 4:13 - I can do I can do ( ἰσχύω ) See on Luk 14:30.

I can do ( ἰσχύω )

See on Luk 14:30.

Vincent: Phi 4:13 - Strengtheneth Strengtheneth ( ἐνδυναμοῦντι ) More literally, infuses strength into me , as the old verb inforce .

Strengtheneth ( ἐνδυναμοῦντι )

More literally, infuses strength into me , as the old verb inforce .

Vincent: Phi 4:14 - Notwithstanding Notwithstanding Lest, in declaring his independence of human aid, he should seem to disparage the Philippians' gift.

Notwithstanding

Lest, in declaring his independence of human aid, he should seem to disparage the Philippians' gift.

Vincent: Phi 4:15 - When I departed from Macedonia When I departed from Macedonia On his first European circuit, going by way of Athens to Corinth, where he was joined by Silvanus and Timothy, bri...

When I departed from Macedonia

On his first European circuit, going by way of Athens to Corinth, where he was joined by Silvanus and Timothy, bringing a contribution from Macedonia. Act 18:5; 2Co 11:9.

Vincent: Phi 4:16 - Even in Thessalonica Even in Thessalonica ( καὶ ) Better also: in addition to the contribution received at Corinth.

Even in Thessalonica ( καὶ )

Better also: in addition to the contribution received at Corinth.

Vincent: Phi 4:18 - I have I have ( ̀±̓πέχω ) I have received in full. See on Mat 6:2; see on Luk 6:24.

I have ( ̀±̓πέχω )

I have received in full. See on Mat 6:2; see on Luk 6:24.

Vincent: Phi 4:18 - Odor of a sweet smell Odor of a sweet smell See on 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16. Frequent in Septuagint, of the odor of sacrifices.

Odor of a sweet smell

See on 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16. Frequent in Septuagint, of the odor of sacrifices.

Vincent: Phi 4:19 - In glory In glory This is differently connected by expositors. Some with riches , as A.V. and Rev. Others with shall supply , but with different expla...

In glory

This is differently connected by expositors. Some with riches , as A.V. and Rev. Others with shall supply , but with different explanations, as, shall supply your need with glory: in a glorious way: by placing you in glory. It is better to construe with shall supply , and to explain in glory as the element and instrument of the supply. The need shall be supplied in glory and by glory; by placing you in glory where you shall be partakers of glory.

Vincent: Phi 4:22 - Of Caesar's household Of Caesar's household Probably the slaves and freedmen attached to the palace.

Of Caesar's household

Probably the slaves and freedmen attached to the palace.

Wesley: Phi 4:1 - So stand As ye have done hitherto.

As ye have done hitherto.

Wesley: Phi 4:2 - I beseech He repeats this twice, as if speaking to each face to face, and that with the utmost tenderness.

He repeats this twice, as if speaking to each face to face, and that with the utmost tenderness.

Wesley: Phi 4:3 - And I entreat thee also, true yokefellow St. Paul had many fellowlabourers, but not many yokefellows. In this number was Barnabas first, and then Silas, whom he probably addresses here; for S...

St. Paul had many fellowlabourers, but not many yokefellows. In this number was Barnabas first, and then Silas, whom he probably addresses here; for Silas had been his yokefellow at the very place, Act 16:19.

Wesley: Phi 4:3 - Help those women who laboured together with me Literally, who wrestled. The Greek word doth not imply preaching, or anything of that kind; but danger and toil endured for the sake of the gospel, wh...

Literally, who wrestled. The Greek word doth not imply preaching, or anything of that kind; but danger and toil endured for the sake of the gospel, which was also endured at the same time, probably at Philippi, by Clement and my other fellowlabourers - This is a different word from the former, and does properly imply fellowpreachers. Whose names, although not set down here, are in the book of life - As are those of all believers. An allusion to the wrestlers in the Olympic games, whose names were all enrolled in a book. Reader, is thy name there? Then walk circumspectly, lest the Lord blot thee out of his book!

Wesley: Phi 4:5 - Let your gentleness Yieldingness, sweetness of temper, the result of joy in the Lord.

Yieldingness, sweetness of temper, the result of joy in the Lord.

Wesley: Phi 4:5 - Be known By your whole behaviour.

By your whole behaviour.

Wesley: Phi 4:5 - To all men Good and bad, gentle and froward. Those of the roughest tempers are good natured to some, from natural sympathy and various motives; a Christian, to a...

Good and bad, gentle and froward. Those of the roughest tempers are good natured to some, from natural sympathy and various motives; a Christian, to all.

Wesley: Phi 4:5 - The Lord The judge, the rewarder, the avenger.

The judge, the rewarder, the avenger.

Wesley: Phi 4:5 - Is at hand Standeth at the door.

Standeth at the door.

Wesley: Phi 4:6 - Be anxiously careful for nothing If men are not gentle towards you, yet neither on this, nor any other account, be careful, but pray. Carefulness and prayer cannot stand together.

If men are not gentle towards you, yet neither on this, nor any other account, be careful, but pray. Carefulness and prayer cannot stand together.

Wesley: Phi 4:6 - In every thing Great and small.

Great and small.

Wesley: Phi 4:6 - Let your requests be made known They who by a preposterous shame or distrustful modesty, cover, stifle, or keep in their desires, as if they were either too small or too great, must ...

They who by a preposterous shame or distrustful modesty, cover, stifle, or keep in their desires, as if they were either too small or too great, must be racked with care; from which they are entirely delivered, who pour them out with a free and filial confidence.

Wesley: Phi 4:6 - To God It is not always proper to disclose them to men.

It is not always proper to disclose them to men.

Wesley: Phi 4:6 - By supplication Which is the enlarging upon and pressing our petition.

Which is the enlarging upon and pressing our petition.

Wesley: Phi 4:6 - With thanksgiving The surest mark of a soul free from care, and of prayer joined with true resignation. This is always followed by peace. Peace and thanksgiving are bot...

The surest mark of a soul free from care, and of prayer joined with true resignation. This is always followed by peace. Peace and thanksgiving are both coupled together, Col 3:15.

Wesley: Phi 4:7 - And the peace of God That calm, heavenly repose, that tranquility of spirit, which God only can give.

That calm, heavenly repose, that tranquility of spirit, which God only can give.

Wesley: Phi 4:7 - Which surpasseth all understanding Which none can comprehend, save he that receiveth it.

Which none can comprehend, save he that receiveth it.

Wesley: Phi 4:7 - Shall keep Shall guard, as a garrison does a city.

Shall guard, as a garrison does a city.

Wesley: Phi 4:7 - Your hearts Your affections.

Your affections.

Wesley: Phi 4:7 - Your minds Your understandings, and all the various workings of them; through the Spirit and power of Christ Jesus, in the knowledge and love of God. Without a g...

Your understandings, and all the various workings of them; through the Spirit and power of Christ Jesus, in the knowledge and love of God. Without a guard set on these likewise, the purity and vigour of our affections cannot long be preserved.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Finally To sum up all.

To sum up all.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are true Here are eight particulars placed in two fourfold rows; the former containing their duty; the latter, the commendation of it. The first word in the fo...

Here are eight particulars placed in two fourfold rows; the former containing their duty; the latter, the commendation of it. The first word in the former row answers the first in the latter; the second word, the second and so on.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - True In speech.

In speech.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Honest In action.

In action.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Just With regard to others.

With regard to others.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Pure With regard to yourselves.

With regard to yourselves.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Lovely And what more lovely than truth? Of good report - As is honesty, even where it is not practised.

And what more lovely than truth? Of good report - As is honesty, even where it is not practised.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - If there be any virtue And all virtues are contained in justice.

And all virtues are contained in justice.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - If there be any praise In those things which relate rather to ourselves than to our neighbour.

In those things which relate rather to ourselves than to our neighbour.

Wesley: Phi 4:8 - Think on these things That ye may both practise them yourselves, and recommend them to others.

That ye may both practise them yourselves, and recommend them to others.

Wesley: Phi 4:9 - The things which ye have learned As catechumens.

As catechumens.

Wesley: Phi 4:9 - And received By continual instructions.

By continual instructions.

Wesley: Phi 4:9 - And heard and seen In my life and conversation. These do, and the God of peace shall be with you - Not only the peace of God, but God himself, the fountain of peace.

In my life and conversation. These do, and the God of peace shall be with you - Not only the peace of God, but God himself, the fountain of peace.

Wesley: Phi 4:10 - I rejoiced greatly St. Paul was no Stoic: he had strong passions, but all devoted to God.

St. Paul was no Stoic: he had strong passions, but all devoted to God.

Wesley: Phi 4:10 - That your care of me hath flourished again As a tree blossoms after the winter.

As a tree blossoms after the winter.

Wesley: Phi 4:10 - Ye wanted opportunity Either ye had not plenty yourselves, or you wanted a proper messenger.

Either ye had not plenty yourselves, or you wanted a proper messenger.

Wesley: Phi 4:11 - I have learned From God. He only can teach this. In everything, therewith to be content - Joyfully and thankfully patient. Nothing less is Christian content. We may ...

From God. He only can teach this. In everything, therewith to be content - Joyfully and thankfully patient. Nothing less is Christian content. We may observe a beautiful gradation in the expressions, I have learned; I know; I am instructed; I can.

Wesley: Phi 4:12 - I know how to be abased Having scarce what is needful for my body.

Having scarce what is needful for my body.

Wesley: Phi 4:12 - And to abound Having wherewith to relieve others also. Presently after, the order of the words is inverted, to intimate his frequent transition from scarcity to ple...

Having wherewith to relieve others also. Presently after, the order of the words is inverted, to intimate his frequent transition from scarcity to plenty, and from plenty to scarcity.

Wesley: Phi 4:12 - I am instructed Literally, I am initiated in that mystery, unknown to all but Christians.

Literally, I am initiated in that mystery, unknown to all but Christians.

Wesley: Phi 4:12 - Both to be full and to be hungry For one day.

For one day.

Wesley: Phi 4:12 - Both to abound and to want For a longer season.

For a longer season.

Wesley: Phi 4:13 - I can do all things Even fulfil all the will of God.

Even fulfil all the will of God.

Wesley: Phi 4:15 - In the beginning of the gospel When it was first preached at Philippi.

When it was first preached at Philippi.

Wesley: Phi 4:15 - In respect of giving On your part.

On your part.

Wesley: Phi 4:15 - And receiving On mine.

On mine.

Wesley: Phi 4:17 - Not that I desire For my own sake, the very gift which I receive of you.

For my own sake, the very gift which I receive of you.

Wesley: Phi 4:18 - An odour of a sweet smell More pleasing to God than the sweetest perfumes to men.

More pleasing to God than the sweetest perfumes to men.

Wesley: Phi 4:19 - All your need As ye have mine.

As ye have mine.

Wesley: Phi 4:19 - According to his riches in glory In his abundant, eternal glory.

In his abundant, eternal glory.

JFB: Phi 4:1 - dearly beloved Repeated again at the close of the verse, implying that his great love to them should be a motive to their obedience.

Repeated again at the close of the verse, implying that his great love to them should be a motive to their obedience.

JFB: Phi 4:1 - longed for "yearned after" in your absence (Phi 1:8).

"yearned after" in your absence (Phi 1:8).

JFB: Phi 4:1 - crown In the day of the Lord (Phi 2:16; 1Th 2:19).

In the day of the Lord (Phi 2:16; 1Th 2:19).

JFB: Phi 4:1 - so As I have admonished you.

As I have admonished you.

JFB: Phi 4:1 - stand fast (Phi 1:27).

JFB: Phi 4:2 - -- Euodia and Syntyche were two women who seem to have been at variance; probably deaconesses of the church. He repeats, "I beseech," as if he would admo...

Euodia and Syntyche were two women who seem to have been at variance; probably deaconesses of the church. He repeats, "I beseech," as if he would admonish each separately, and with the utmost impartiality.

JFB: Phi 4:2 - in the Lord The true element of Christian union; for those "in the Lord" by faith to be at variance, is an utter inconsistency.

The true element of Christian union; for those "in the Lord" by faith to be at variance, is an utter inconsistency.

JFB: Phi 4:3 - And Greek, "Yea."

Greek, "Yea."

JFB: Phi 4:3 - true yoke-fellow Yoked with me in the same Gospel yoke (Mat 11:29-30; compare 1Ti 5:17-18). Either Timothy, Silas (Act 15:40; Act 16:19, at Philippi), or the chief bis...

Yoked with me in the same Gospel yoke (Mat 11:29-30; compare 1Ti 5:17-18). Either Timothy, Silas (Act 15:40; Act 16:19, at Philippi), or the chief bishop of Philippi. Or else the Greek, "Sunzugus," or "Synzygus," is a proper name: "Who art truly, as thy name means, a yoke-fellow." Certainly not Paul's wife, as 1Co 9:5 implies he had none.

JFB: Phi 4:3 - help those women Rather, as Greek, "help them," namely, Euodia and Syntyche. "Co-operate with them" [BIRKS]; or as ALFORD, "Help in the work of their reconciliation."

Rather, as Greek, "help them," namely, Euodia and Syntyche. "Co-operate with them" [BIRKS]; or as ALFORD, "Help in the work of their reconciliation."

JFB: Phi 4:3 - which laboured with me "inasmuch as they labored with me." At Philippi, women were the first hearers of the Gospel, and Lydia the first convert. It is a coincidence which ma...

"inasmuch as they labored with me." At Philippi, women were the first hearers of the Gospel, and Lydia the first convert. It is a coincidence which marks genuineness, that in this Epistle alone, special instructions are given to women who labored with Paul in the Gospel. In selecting the first teachers, those first converted would naturally be fixed on. Euodia and Syntyche were doubtless two of "the women who resorted to the riverside, where prayer was wont to be made" (Act 16:13), and being early converted, would naturally take an active part in teaching other women called at a later period; of course not in public preaching, but in a less prominent sphere (1Ti 2:11-12).

JFB: Phi 4:3 - Clement Bishop of Rome shortly after the death of Peter and Paul. His Epistle from the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth is extant. It makes no mention ...

Bishop of Rome shortly after the death of Peter and Paul. His Epistle from the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth is extant. It makes no mention of the supremacy of the See of Peter. He was the most eminent of the apostolical fathers. ALFORD thinks that the Clement here was a Philippian, and not necessarily Clement, bishop of Rome. But ORIGEN [Commentary, Joh 1:29] identifies the Clement here with the bishop of Rome.

JFB: Phi 4:3 - in the book of life The register-book of those whose "citizenship is in heaven" (Luk 10:20; Phi 3:20). Anciently, free cities had a roll book containing the names of all ...

The register-book of those whose "citizenship is in heaven" (Luk 10:20; Phi 3:20). Anciently, free cities had a roll book containing the names of all those having the right of citizenship (compare Exo 32:32; Psa 69:28; Eze 13:9; Dan 12:1; Rev 20:12; Rev 21:27).

JFB: Phi 4:4 - -- (Isa 61:10.)

JFB: Phi 4:4 - alway Even amidst the afflictions now distressing you (Phi 1:28-30).

Even amidst the afflictions now distressing you (Phi 1:28-30).

JFB: Phi 4:4 - again As he had already said, "Rejoice" (Phi 3:1). Joy is the predominant feature of the Epistle.

As he had already said, "Rejoice" (Phi 3:1). Joy is the predominant feature of the Epistle.

JFB: Phi 4:4 - I say Greek, rather, "I will say."

Greek, rather, "I will say."

JFB: Phi 4:5 - moderation From a Greek root, "to yield," whence yieldingness [TRENCH]; or from a root, "it is fitting," whence "reasonableness of dealing" [ALFORD], that consid...

From a Greek root, "to yield," whence yieldingness [TRENCH]; or from a root, "it is fitting," whence "reasonableness of dealing" [ALFORD], that considerateness for others, not urging one's own rights to the uttermost, but waiving a part, and thereby rectifying the injustices of justice. The archetype of this grace is God, who presses not the strictness of His law against us as we deserve (Psa 130:3-4); though having exacted the fullest payment for us from our Divine Surety. There are included in "moderation," candor and kindliness. Joy in the Lord raises us above rigorism towards others (Phi 4:5), and carefulness (Phi 4:6) as to one's own affairs. Sadness produces morose harshness towards others, and a troublesome spirit in ourselves.

JFB: Phi 4:5 - Let . . . be known That is, in your conduct to others, let nothing inconsistent with "moderation" be seen. Not a precept to make a display of moderation. Let this grace ...

That is, in your conduct to others, let nothing inconsistent with "moderation" be seen. Not a precept to make a display of moderation. Let this grace "be known" to men in acts; let "your requests be made to God" in word (Phi 4:6).

JFB: Phi 4:5 - unto all men Even to the "perverse" (Phi 2:15), that so ye may win them. Exercise "forbearance" even to your persecutors. None is so ungracious as not to be kindly...

Even to the "perverse" (Phi 2:15), that so ye may win them. Exercise "forbearance" even to your persecutors. None is so ungracious as not to be kindly to someone, from some motive or another, on some occasion; the believer is to be so "unto all men" at all times.

JFB: Phi 4:5 - The Lord is at hand The Lord's coming again speedily is the grand motive to every Christian grace (Jam 5:8-9). Harshness to others (the opposite of "moderation") would be...

The Lord's coming again speedily is the grand motive to every Christian grace (Jam 5:8-9). Harshness to others (the opposite of "moderation") would be taking into our own hands prematurely the prerogatives of judging, which belongs to the Lord alone (1Co 4:5); and so provoking God to judge us by the strict letter of the law (Jam 2:12-13).

JFB: Phi 4:6 - -- Translate, "Be anxious about nothing." Care and prayer are as mutually opposed as fire and water [BENGEL].

Translate, "Be anxious about nothing." Care and prayer are as mutually opposed as fire and water [BENGEL].

JFB: Phi 4:6 - by prayer and supplication Greek, "by the prayer and the supplication" appropriate to each case [ALFORD]. Prayer for blessings; and the general term. Supplication, to avert ills...

Greek, "by the prayer and the supplication" appropriate to each case [ALFORD]. Prayer for blessings; and the general term. Supplication, to avert ills; a special term, suppliant entreaty (see on Eph 6:18).

JFB: Phi 4:6 - thanksgiving For every event, prosperity and affliction alike (1Th 5:18; Jam 5:13). The Philippians might remember Paul's example at Philippi when in the innermost...

For every event, prosperity and affliction alike (1Th 5:18; Jam 5:13). The Philippians might remember Paul's example at Philippi when in the innermost prison (Act 16:25). Thanksgiving gives effect to prayer (2Ch 20:21), and frees from anxious carefulness by making all God's dealings matter for praise, not merely for resignation, much less murmuring. "Peace" is the companion of "thanksgiving" (Phi 4:7; Col 3:15).

JFB: Phi 4:6 - let your requests be made known unto God With generous, filial, unreserved confidence; not keeping aught back, as too great, or else too small, to bring before God, though you might feel so a...

With generous, filial, unreserved confidence; not keeping aught back, as too great, or else too small, to bring before God, though you might feel so as to your fellow men. So Jacob, when fearing Esau (Gen 32:9-12); Hezekiah fearing Sennacherib (2Ki 19:14; Psa 37:5).

JFB: Phi 4:7 - And The inseparable consequence of thus laying everything before God in "prayer with thanksgiving."

The inseparable consequence of thus laying everything before God in "prayer with thanksgiving."

JFB: Phi 4:7 - peace The dispeller of "anxious care" (Phi 4:6).

The dispeller of "anxious care" (Phi 4:6).

JFB: Phi 4:7 - of God Coming from God, and resting in God (Joh 14:27; Joh 16:33; Col 3:15).

Coming from God, and resting in God (Joh 14:27; Joh 16:33; Col 3:15).

JFB: Phi 4:7 - passeth Surpasseth, or exceedeth, all man's notional powers of understanding its full blessedness (1Co 2:9-10; Eph 3:20; compare Pro 3:17).

Surpasseth, or exceedeth, all man's notional powers of understanding its full blessedness (1Co 2:9-10; Eph 3:20; compare Pro 3:17).

JFB: Phi 4:7 - shall keep Rather, "shall guard"; shall keep as a well-garrisoned stronghold (Isa 26:1, Isa 26:3). The same Greek verb is used in 1Pe 1:5. There shall be peace s...

Rather, "shall guard"; shall keep as a well-garrisoned stronghold (Isa 26:1, Isa 26:3). The same Greek verb is used in 1Pe 1:5. There shall be peace secure within, whatever outward troubles may besiege.

JFB: Phi 4:7 - hearts and minds Rather, "hearts (the seat of the thoughts) and thoughts" or purposes.

Rather, "hearts (the seat of the thoughts) and thoughts" or purposes.

JFB: Phi 4:7 - through Rather as Greek, "in Christ Jesus." It is in Christ that we are "kept" or "guarded" secure.

Rather as Greek, "in Christ Jesus." It is in Christ that we are "kept" or "guarded" secure.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - -- Summary of all his exhortations as to relative duties, whether as children or parents, husbands or wives, friends, neighbors, men in the intercourse o...

Summary of all his exhortations as to relative duties, whether as children or parents, husbands or wives, friends, neighbors, men in the intercourse of the world, &c.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - true Sincere, in words.

Sincere, in words.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - honest Old English for "seemly," namely, in action; literally, grave, dignified.

Old English for "seemly," namely, in action; literally, grave, dignified.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - just Towards others.

Towards others.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - pure "chaste," in relation to ourselves.

"chaste," in relation to ourselves.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - lovely Lovable (compare Mar 10:21; Luk 7:4-5).

Lovable (compare Mar 10:21; Luk 7:4-5).

JFB: Phi 4:8 - of good report Referring to the absent (Phi 1:27); as "lovely" refers to what is lovable face to face.

Referring to the absent (Phi 1:27); as "lovely" refers to what is lovable face to face.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - if there be any virtue "whatever virtue there is" [ALFORD]. "Virtue," the standing word in heathen ethics, is found once only in Paul's Epistles, and once in Peter's (2Pe 1:...

"whatever virtue there is" [ALFORD]. "Virtue," the standing word in heathen ethics, is found once only in Paul's Epistles, and once in Peter's (2Pe 1:5); and this in uses different from those in heathen authors. It is a term rather earthly and human, as compared with the names of the spiritual graces which Christianity imparts; hence the rarity of its occurrence in the New Testament. Piety and true morality are inseparable. Piety is love with its face towards God; morality is love with its face towards man. Despise not anything that is good in itself; only let it keep its due place.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - praise Whatever is praiseworthy; not that Christians should make man's praise their aim (compare Joh 12:43); but they should live so as to deserve men's prai...

Whatever is praiseworthy; not that Christians should make man's praise their aim (compare Joh 12:43); but they should live so as to deserve men's praise.

JFB: Phi 4:8 - think on Have a continual regard to, so as to "do" these things (Phi 4:9) whenever the occasion arises.

Have a continual regard to, so as to "do" these things (Phi 4:9) whenever the occasion arises.

JFB: Phi 4:9 - both Rather, "The things also which ye have learned . . . these practice"; the things which besides recommending them in words, have been also recommended ...

Rather, "The things also which ye have learned . . . these practice"; the things which besides recommending them in words, have been also recommended by my example, carry into practice.

JFB: Phi 4:9 - heard Though ye have not yet sufficiently "received" them.

Though ye have not yet sufficiently "received" them.

JFB: Phi 4:9 - seen Though ye have not as yet sufficiently "learned" them [BENGEL].

Though ye have not as yet sufficiently "learned" them [BENGEL].

JFB: Phi 4:9 - and "and then," as the necessary result (Phi 4:7). Not only "the peace of God," but "the God of peace" Himself "shall be with you."

"and then," as the necessary result (Phi 4:7). Not only "the peace of God," but "the God of peace" Himself "shall be with you."

JFB: Phi 4:10 - But Transitional conjunction. But "now" to pass to another subject.

Transitional conjunction. But "now" to pass to another subject.

JFB: Phi 4:10 - in the Lord He views everything with reference to Christ.

He views everything with reference to Christ.

JFB: Phi 4:10 - at the last "at last"; implying he was expecting their gift, not from a selfish view, but as a "fruit" of their faith, and to "abound" to their account (Phi 4:11,...

"at last"; implying he was expecting their gift, not from a selfish view, but as a "fruit" of their faith, and to "abound" to their account (Phi 4:11, Phi 4:17). Though long in coming, owing to Epaphroditus' sickness and other delays, he does not imply their gift was too late.

JFB: Phi 4:10 - your care . . . hath flourished again Greek, "Ye have flourished again (revived, as trees sprouting forth again in spring) in your care for me."

Greek, "Ye have flourished again (revived, as trees sprouting forth again in spring) in your care for me."

JFB: Phi 4:10 - wherein ye were also careful In respect to which (revival, namely, the sending of a supply to me) "ye were also (all along) careful, but ye lacked opportunity"; whether from want ...

In respect to which (revival, namely, the sending of a supply to me) "ye were also (all along) careful, but ye lacked opportunity"; whether from want of means or want of a messenger. Your "lack of service" (Phi 2:30), was owing to your having "lacked opportunity."

JFB: Phi 4:11 - I have learned The I in Greek is emphatical. I leave it to others if they will, to be discontented. I, for my part, have learned, by the teaching of the Holy Spirit,...

The I in Greek is emphatical. I leave it to others if they will, to be discontented. I, for my part, have learned, by the teaching of the Holy Spirit, and the dealings of Providence (Heb 5:8), to be content in every state.

JFB: Phi 4:11 - content The Greek, literally expresses "independent of others, and having sufficiency in one's self." But Christianity has raised the term above the haughty s...

The Greek, literally expresses "independent of others, and having sufficiency in one's self." But Christianity has raised the term above the haughty self-sufficiency of the heathen Stoic to the contentment of the Christian, whose sufficiency is not in self, but in God (2Co 3:5; 1Ti 6:6, 1Ti 6:8; Heb 13:5; compare Jer 2:36; Jer 45:5).

JFB: Phi 4:12 - abased In low circumstances (2Co 4:8; 2Co 6:9-10).

In low circumstances (2Co 4:8; 2Co 6:9-10).

JFB: Phi 4:12 - everywhere Rather, "in each, and in all things" [ALFORD].

Rather, "in each, and in all things" [ALFORD].

JFB: Phi 4:12 - instructed In the secret. Literally, "initiated" in a secret teaching, which is a mystery unknown to the world.

In the secret. Literally, "initiated" in a secret teaching, which is a mystery unknown to the world.

JFB: Phi 4:13 - I can do all things Greek, "I have strength for all things"; not merely "how to be abased and how to abound." After special instances he declares his universal power--how...

Greek, "I have strength for all things"; not merely "how to be abased and how to abound." After special instances he declares his universal power--how triumphantly, yet how humbly! [MEYER].

JFB: Phi 4:13 - through Christ which strengtheneth me The oldest manuscripts omit "Christ"; then translate, "In Him who giveth me power," that is, by virtue of my living union and identification with Him,...

The oldest manuscripts omit "Christ"; then translate, "In Him who giveth me power," that is, by virtue of my living union and identification with Him, who is my strength (Gal 2:20). Compare 1Ti 1:12, whence probably, "Christ" was inserted here by transcribers.

JFB: Phi 4:14 - -- He here guards against their thinking from what he has just said, that he makes light of their bounty.

He here guards against their thinking from what he has just said, that he makes light of their bounty.

JFB: Phi 4:14 - ye did communicate with my affliction That is, ye made yourselves sharers with me in my present affliction, namely, by sympathy; of which sympathy your contribution is the proof.

That is, ye made yourselves sharers with me in my present affliction, namely, by sympathy; of which sympathy your contribution is the proof.

JFB: Phi 4:15 - Now "Moreover." Arrange as Greek, "Ye also know (as well as I do myself)."

"Moreover." Arrange as Greek, "Ye also know (as well as I do myself)."

JFB: Phi 4:15 - in the beginning of the gospel Dating from the Philippian Christian era; at the first preaching of the Gospel at Philippi.

Dating from the Philippian Christian era; at the first preaching of the Gospel at Philippi.

JFB: Phi 4:15 - when I departed from Macedonia (Act 17:14). The Philippians had followed Paul with their bounty when he left Macedonia and came to Corinth. 2Co 11:8-9 thus accords with the passage...

(Act 17:14). The Philippians had followed Paul with their bounty when he left Macedonia and came to Corinth. 2Co 11:8-9 thus accords with the passage here, the dates assigned to the donation in both Epistles agreeing; namely, "in the beginning of the Gospel" here, and there, at the time of his first visit to Corinth [PALEY, Horæ Paulinæ]. However, the supply meant here is not that which he received at Corinth, but the supply sent to him when "in Thessalonica, once and again" (Phi 4:16), [ALFORD].

JFB: Phi 4:15 - as concerning giving and receiving In the account between us, "the giving" was all on your part; "the receiving" all on mine.

In the account between us, "the giving" was all on your part; "the receiving" all on mine.

JFB: Phi 4:15 - ye only We are not to wait for others in a good work, saying, "I will do so, when others do it." We must go forward, though alone.

We are not to wait for others in a good work, saying, "I will do so, when others do it." We must go forward, though alone.

JFB: Phi 4:16 - even in Thessalonica "even" as early as when I had got no further than Thessalonica, ye sent me supplies for my necessities more than once.

"even" as early as when I had got no further than Thessalonica, ye sent me supplies for my necessities more than once.

JFB: Phi 4:17 - a gift Greek, "the gift." Translate, "It is not that I seek after the gift, but I do seek after the fruit that aboundeth to your account"; what I do seek is ...

Greek, "the gift." Translate, "It is not that I seek after the gift, but I do seek after the fruit that aboundeth to your account"; what I do seek is your spiritual good, in the abounding of fruits of your faith which shall be put down to your account, against the day of reward (Heb 6:10).

JFB: Phi 4:18 - But Though "the gift" is not what I chiefly "seek after" (Phi 4:17), yet I am grateful for the gift, and hereby acknowledge it as ample for all my needs. ...

Though "the gift" is not what I chiefly "seek after" (Phi 4:17), yet I am grateful for the gift, and hereby acknowledge it as ample for all my needs. Translate, "I have all" that I want, "and more than enough." Literally, as English Version, "I abound" over and above my needs.

JFB: Phi 4:18 - I am full Greek, "I am filled full."

Greek, "I am filled full."

JFB: Phi 4:18 - the odour of a sweet smell (See on Eph 5:2). The figure is drawn from the sweet-smelling incense which was burnt along with the sacrifices; their gift being in faith was not so ...

(See on Eph 5:2). The figure is drawn from the sweet-smelling incense which was burnt along with the sacrifices; their gift being in faith was not so much to Paul, as to God (Mat 25:40), before whom it "came up for a memorial" (Act 10:4), sweet-smelling in God's presence (Gen 8:21; Rev 8:3-4).

JFB: Phi 4:18 - sacrifice acceptable (Heb 13:16).

JFB: Phi 4:19 - my Paul calls God here "my God," to imply that God would reward their bounty to HIS servant, by "fully supplying" (translate so, literally, fill to the f...

Paul calls God here "my God," to imply that God would reward their bounty to HIS servant, by "fully supplying" (translate so, literally, fill to the full) their every "need" (2Co 9:8), even as they had "fully" supplied his "need" (Phi 4:16, Phi 4:18). My Master will fully repay you; I cannot. The Philippians invested their bounty well since it got them such a glorious return.

JFB: Phi 4:19 - according to his riches The measure of His supply to you will be the immeasurable "riches of His grace" (Eph 1:7).

The measure of His supply to you will be the immeasurable "riches of His grace" (Eph 1:7).

JFB: Phi 4:19 - in glory These words belong to the whole sentence. "Glory" is the element in which His rich grace operates; and it will be the element IN which He will "supply...

These words belong to the whole sentence. "Glory" is the element in which His rich grace operates; and it will be the element IN which He will "supply fully all your need."

JFB: Phi 4:19 - by Christ Jesus By virtue of your being "IN" (so Greek, not "by") Christ Jesus, the Giver and Mediator of all spiritual blessings.

By virtue of your being "IN" (so Greek, not "by") Christ Jesus, the Giver and Mediator of all spiritual blessings.

JFB: Phi 4:20 - God and our Father Translate, "Unto our God and Father."

Translate, "Unto our God and Father."

JFB: Phi 4:20 - be glory Rather as the Greek, "be the glory." Not to us, but to Him be "the glory" alike of your gift, and of His gracious recompense to you.

Rather as the Greek, "be the glory." Not to us, but to Him be "the glory" alike of your gift, and of His gracious recompense to you.

JFB: Phi 4:21 - Salute every saint Individually.

Individually.

JFB: Phi 4:21 - greet Salute you.

Salute you.

JFB: Phi 4:21 - The brethren which are with me Perhaps Jewish believers are meant (Act 28:21). I think Phi 2:20 precludes our thinking of "closer friends," "colleagues in the ministry" [ALFORD]; he...

Perhaps Jewish believers are meant (Act 28:21). I think Phi 2:20 precludes our thinking of "closer friends," "colleagues in the ministry" [ALFORD]; he had only one close friend with him, namely, Timothy.

JFB: Phi 4:22 - they that are of Cæsar's household The slaves and dependents of Nero who had been probably converted through Paul's teaching while he was a prisoner in the Prætorian barrack attached t...

The slaves and dependents of Nero who had been probably converted through Paul's teaching while he was a prisoner in the Prætorian barrack attached to the palace. Philippi was a Roman "colony," hence there might arise a tie between the citizens of the mother city and those of the colony; especially between those of both cities who were Christians, converted as many of them were by the same apostle, and under like circumstances, he having been imprisoned at Philippi, as he now is at Rome.

JFB: Phi 4:23 - -- (Gal 6:18).

JFB: Phi 4:23 - be with you all. Amen The oldest manuscripts read, "Be with your spirit," and omit "Amen."

The oldest manuscripts read, "Be with your spirit," and omit "Amen."

Clarke: Phi 4:1 - Therefore, my - beloved Therefore, my - beloved - Because ye have this armor, and those enemies, and God for your support, see that ye stand fast in him. This verse most un...

Therefore, my - beloved - Because ye have this armor, and those enemies, and God for your support, see that ye stand fast in him. This verse most unquestionably belongs to the preceding chapter.

Clarke: Phi 4:2 - I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche - These were two pious women, as it is generally supposed, who were deaconesses in the Church at Philippi, a...

I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche - These were two pious women, as it is generally supposed, who were deaconesses in the Church at Philippi, and who in some points of doctrine and discipline had disagreed. He exhorts them to be of the same mind, that is, to compose their differences; and, if they could not perfectly agree to think and let think, and to avoid all public opposition, as their dissension would strengthen the hands of the common enemy, and stumble those who were weak. But it is more likely that Euodias was a woman, and Syntyche a man, and probably the husband of Euodias; and that it is Syntyche whom the apostle calls true yokefellow in the next verse.

Clarke: Phi 4:3 - Help those women which labored with me Help those women which labored with me - Both in the Grecian and Asiatic countries women were kept much secluded, and is was not likely that even th...

Help those women which labored with me - Both in the Grecian and Asiatic countries women were kept much secluded, and is was not likely that even the apostles had much opportunity of conversing with them; it was therefore necessary that they should have some experienced Christian women with them, who could have access to families, and preach Jesus to the female part of them. The apostle tells us that certain women labored with him in the Gospel, and were assistants to others also who had assisted him

Some think the women here were Euodias and Syntyche; but I rather incline to the opinion that Syntyche was a male, and Euodias his wife. Euodias signifies a pleasant scent; Syntyche, fortunate. There have been a number of conjectures who these persons were, and who is meant by the true yokefellow; but as there is nothing certain known on the subject, it is useless to propagate conjecture

Clarke: Phi 4:3 - With Clement also With Clement also - Supposed to be the same who was afterwards bishop of Rome, and who wrote an epistle to the Corinthians, which is still extant

With Clement also - Supposed to be the same who was afterwards bishop of Rome, and who wrote an epistle to the Corinthians, which is still extant

Clarke: Phi 4:3 - Whose names are in the book of life Whose names are in the book of life - Who are genuine Christians; who are enlisted or enrolled in the armies of the Lord, and have received a title ...

Whose names are in the book of life - Who are genuine Christians; who are enlisted or enrolled in the armies of the Lord, and have received a title to eternal glory. The reader is requested to refer to the note on Exo 32:32-33 (note), and the concluding observations at the end of that chapter, (Exo 32:35 (note)) where the writing in and blotting out of the book of life are particularly considered, and the difficulties on the subject removed. See also on Luk 10:20 (note).

Clarke: Phi 4:4 - Rejoice in the Lord alway Rejoice in the Lord alway - Be continually happy; but this happiness you can find only in the Lord. Genuine happiness is spiritual; as it can only c...

Rejoice in the Lord alway - Be continually happy; but this happiness you can find only in the Lord. Genuine happiness is spiritual; as it can only come from God, so it infallibly tends to him. The apostle repeats the exhortation, to show, not only his earnestness, but also that it was God’ s will that it should be so, and that it was their duty as well as interest.

Clarke: Phi 4:5 - Let your moderation be known Let your moderation be known - The word επιεικες is of very extensive signification; it means the same as επιεικεια, mildness, p...

Let your moderation be known - The word επιεικες is of very extensive signification; it means the same as επιεικεια, mildness, patience, yieldingness, gentleness, clemency, moderation, unwillingness to litigate or contend; but moderation is expressive enough as a general term. "Moderation,"says Dr. Macknight, "means meekness under provocation, readiness to forgive injuries, equity in the management of business, candour in judging of the characters and actions of others, sweetness of disposition, and the entire government of the passions.

Clarke: Phi 4:5 - The Lord is at hand The Lord is at hand - A phrase something similar to the Maranatha of 1Co 16:22 : The Lord is Judge, and is at hand to punish. Schoettgen supposes, f...

The Lord is at hand - A phrase something similar to the Maranatha of 1Co 16:22 : The Lord is Judge, and is at hand to punish. Schoettgen supposes, from this verse, taken in connection with the preceding, that Euodias and Syntyche were of a quarrelsome disposition; and hence the exhortation and threatening in the third and fifth verses.

Clarke: Phi 4:6 - Be careful for nothing Be careful for nothing - Μηδεν μεριμνατε· Be not anxiously solicitous; do not give place to carking care, let what will occur; for ...

Be careful for nothing - Μηδεν μεριμνατε· Be not anxiously solicitous; do not give place to carking care, let what will occur; for anxiety cannot chance the state or condition of any thing from bad to good, but will infallibly injure your own souls

Clarke: Phi 4:6 - By prayer and supplication By prayer and supplication - God alone can help you; he is disposed to do it, but you must ask by prayer and supplication; without this he has not p...

By prayer and supplication - God alone can help you; he is disposed to do it, but you must ask by prayer and supplication; without this he has not promised to help you

By prayer - solemn application to God from a sense of want

Supplication - continuance in earnest prayer. With thanksgiving, for innumerable favors already received; and for dangers, evils, and deaths turned aside. And let your souls be found in this exercise, or in the disposition in which this exercise can be performed, at all times, on all occasions, and in all places.

Clarke: Phi 4:7 - And the peace of God And the peace of God - That harmonizing of all passions and appetites which is produced by the Holy Spirit, and arises from a sense of pardon and th...

And the peace of God - That harmonizing of all passions and appetites which is produced by the Holy Spirit, and arises from a sense of pardon and the favor of God

Clarke: Phi 4:7 - Shall keep your hearts Shall keep your hearts - Φρουρησει· Shall keep them as in a strong place or castle. Your hearts - the seat of all your affections and pa...

Shall keep your hearts - Φρουρησει· Shall keep them as in a strong place or castle. Your hearts - the seat of all your affections and passions, and minds - your understanding, judgment, and conscience through Christ Jesus; by whom ye were brought into this state of favor, through whom ye are preserved in it, and in whom ye possess it; for Christ keeps that heart in peace in which he dwells and rules. This peace passeth all understanding; it is of a very different nature from all that can arise from human occurrences; it is a peace which Christ has purchased, and which God dispenses; it is felt by all the truly godly, but can be explained by none; it is communion with the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ, by the power and influence of the Holy Ghost.

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Finally, brethren Finally, brethren - The object of the apostle is to recommend holiness and righteousness to them in every point of view; and to show that the Gospel...

Finally, brethren - The object of the apostle is to recommend holiness and righteousness to them in every point of view; and to show that the Gospel of Christ requires all its professors to have the mind that was in Christ, and to walk as he himself also walked. That they were not to attend to one branch of righteousness or virtue only, but to every thing by which they might bring honor to God, good to their fellow creatures, and credit to themselves

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are true Whatsoever things are true - Ὁσα - αληθη· All that is agreeable to unchangeable and eternal truth. Whether that which is to be learne...

Whatsoever things are true - Ὁσα - αληθη· All that is agreeable to unchangeable and eternal truth. Whether that which is to be learned from the nature and state of created things, or that which comes immediately from God by revelation

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are honest Whatsoever things are honest - Ὁσα σεμνα· Whatever is grave, decent, and venerable. Whatever becomes you as men, as citizens, and as Ch...

Whatsoever things are honest - Ὁσα σεμνα· Whatever is grave, decent, and venerable. Whatever becomes you as men, as citizens, and as Christians

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are just Whatsoever things are just - Ὁσα δικαια· Whatsoever is agreeable to justice and righteousness. All that ye owe to God, to your neighbo...

Whatsoever things are just - Ὁσα δικαια· Whatsoever is agreeable to justice and righteousness. All that ye owe to God, to your neighbor, and to yourselves

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are pure Whatsoever things are pure - Ὁσα ἁγνα· Whatsoever is chaste. In reference to the state of the mind, and to the acts of the body

Whatsoever things are pure - Ὁσα ἁγνα· Whatsoever is chaste. In reference to the state of the mind, and to the acts of the body

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are lovely Whatsoever things are lovely - Ὁσα προσφιλη· Whatsoever is amiable on its own account and on account of its usefulness to others, wh...

Whatsoever things are lovely - Ὁσα προσφιλη· Whatsoever is amiable on its own account and on account of its usefulness to others, whether in your conduct or conversation

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Whatsoever things are of good report Whatsoever things are of good report - Ὁσα ευφημα· Whatsoever things the public agree to acknowledge as useful and profitable to men; ...

Whatsoever things are of good report - Ὁσα ευφημα· Whatsoever things the public agree to acknowledge as useful and profitable to men; such as charitable institutions of every kind, in which genuine Christians should ever take the lead

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - If there be any virtue If there be any virtue - If they be calculated to promote the general good of mankind, and are thus praiseworthy

If there be any virtue - If they be calculated to promote the general good of mankind, and are thus praiseworthy

Clarke: Phi 4:8 - Think on these things Think on these things - Esteem them highly, recommend them heartily, and practice them fervently Instead of ει τις επαινος, if there be...

Think on these things - Esteem them highly, recommend them heartily, and practice them fervently

Instead of ει τις επαινος, if there be any praise, several eminent MSS., as D*EFG, add επιστημης, of knowledge; and the Vulgate and the Itala have disciplinae , of discipline; but none of these appear to be an original reading.

Clarke: Phi 4:9 - Those things, which ye have - learned Those things, which ye have - learned - From my preaching and writing

Those things, which ye have - learned - From my preaching and writing

Clarke: Phi 4:9 - And received And received - By faith, as a revelation from God

And received - By faith, as a revelation from God

Clarke: Phi 4:9 - And heard And heard - From my preaching, and that of those who labored with me; and heard from me, in my private communications with you; and heard of me from...

And heard - From my preaching, and that of those who labored with me; and heard from me, in my private communications with you; and heard of me from other Churches

Clarke: Phi 4:9 - And seen in me And seen in me - While living and labouring among you

And seen in me - While living and labouring among you

Clarke: Phi 4:9 - Do Do - Take them for the rule of your faith and practice

Do - Take them for the rule of your faith and practice

Clarke: Phi 4:9 - And the God of peace And the God of peace - He who is the author of peace, the lover of peace, and the maintainer of peace; he who has made peace between heaven and eart...

And the God of peace - He who is the author of peace, the lover of peace, and the maintainer of peace; he who has made peace between heaven and earth, by the mission and sacrifice of his Son, shall be ever with you while you believe and act as here recommended.

Clarke: Phi 4:10 - But I rejoiced in the Lord But I rejoiced in the Lord - Every good comes from God, either immediately from his providence or from his grace; therefore the apostle thanks God f...

But I rejoiced in the Lord - Every good comes from God, either immediately from his providence or from his grace; therefore the apostle thanks God for the kindness of the Philippians towards him; for it was God that gave them the power, and directed their hearts to use it

Clarke: Phi 4:10 - Hath flourished again Hath flourished again - They had helped him before, Phi 2:25; they had ceased for a time, and now they began again. This is evidently designed by th...

Hath flourished again - They had helped him before, Phi 2:25; they had ceased for a time, and now they began again. This is evidently designed by the apostle, as the word ανεθαλετε implies, which is a metaphor taken from the reviviscence of flowers in spring which seemed dead in winter. For the time in which they were apparently remiss he makes a delicate apology: Ye were careful, but ye lacked opportunity; or rather ηκαιρεισθε, ye had not ability, ye wanted the means; as the word sometimes implies.

Clarke: Phi 4:11 - Not that I speak in respect of want Not that I speak in respect of want - I am quite unconcerned in this respect; leaving the whole of my support, while bound for the testimony of Jesu...

Not that I speak in respect of want - I am quite unconcerned in this respect; leaving the whole of my support, while bound for the testimony of Jesus, to the providence of God

Clarke: Phi 4:11 - For I have learned For I have learned - I am so satisfied with the wise providence and goodness of God, that I know whatever he determines is the best; and therefore I...

For I have learned - I am so satisfied with the wise providence and goodness of God, that I know whatever he determines is the best; and therefore I am perfectly contented that he should govern the world in that way which seems best to his godly wisdom. How true is the proverb, A contented mind is a continual feast! What do we get by murmuring and complaining?

Clarke: Phi 4:12 - I know - how to be abased I know - how to be abased - I have passed through all these states; I know how to conduct myself in each, and how to extract good from all. And he h...

I know - how to be abased - I have passed through all these states; I know how to conduct myself in each, and how to extract good from all. And he had passed through these things, especially the hardships, so that he had learned the lesson perfectly, as the word μεμυημαι implies; he was thoroughly instructed; fully initiated into all the mysteries of poverty and want, and of the supporting hand of God in the whole. See here the state to which God permitted his chief apostle to be reduced! And see how powerfully the grace of Christ supported him under the whole! How few of those who are called Christian ministers or Christian men have learned this important lesson! When want or affliction comes, their complaints are loud and frequent; and they are soon at the end of their patience.

Clarke: Phi 4:13 - I can do all things I can do all things - It was not a habit which he had acquired by frequent exercise, it was a disposition which he had by grace; and he was enabled ...

I can do all things - It was not a habit which he had acquired by frequent exercise, it was a disposition which he had by grace; and he was enabled to do all by the power of an indwelling Christ. Through Him who strengtheneth me is the reading of some of the best MSS., versions, and fathers; the word Χριστῳ, Christ, being omitted.

Clarke: Phi 4:14 - Ye have well done Ye have well done - Though I have learned all these important lessons, and am never miserable in want, yet ye have done well in sending me relief in...

Ye have well done - Though I have learned all these important lessons, and am never miserable in want, yet ye have done well in sending me relief in the time of affliction.

Clarke: Phi 4:15 - In the beginning of the Gospel In the beginning of the Gospel - When, having preached to you, I went forth into Macedonia, I received help from none of the Churches which I had fo...

In the beginning of the Gospel - When, having preached to you, I went forth into Macedonia, I received help from none of the Churches which I had founded, but from you alone. I received nothing from any others, and nothing was offered me.

Clarke: Phi 4:16 - For even in Thessalonica For even in Thessalonica - While labouring to plant the Church there, he was supported partly by working with his hands, 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:7-9; and par...

For even in Thessalonica - While labouring to plant the Church there, he was supported partly by working with his hands, 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:7-9; and partly by the contributions sent him from Philippi. Even the Thessalonians had contributed little to his maintenance: this is not spoken to their credit.

Clarke: Phi 4:17 - Not because I desire a gift Not because I desire a gift - I do not speak thus to incite you to send me a farther gift; I speak this on the general subject, because I wish you t...

Not because I desire a gift - I do not speak thus to incite you to send me a farther gift; I speak this on the general subject, because I wish you to bear such fruit as shall abound to your account in the day of the Lord.

Clarke: Phi 4:18 - I have all I have all - Ye have now sent me so much by Epaphroditus, that I abound in all the necessaries of life

I have all - Ye have now sent me so much by Epaphroditus, that I abound in all the necessaries of life

Clarke: Phi 4:18 - Having received - the things Having received - the things - Probably a supply of clothes and such like necessaries, as well as of money

Having received - the things - Probably a supply of clothes and such like necessaries, as well as of money

Clarke: Phi 4:18 - An odor of a sweet smell An odor of a sweet smell - Alluding to the sacrifices offered up under the law. With what ye have done to me, his servant, God is well pleased. See ...

An odor of a sweet smell - Alluding to the sacrifices offered up under the law. With what ye have done to me, his servant, God is well pleased. See Eph 5:2, and the note there.

Clarke: Phi 4:19 - My God shall supply all your need My God shall supply all your need - As you have given to me in my distress, God will never suffer you to want without raising up help to you, as he ...

My God shall supply all your need - As you have given to me in my distress, God will never suffer you to want without raising up help to you, as he raised you up for help to me

Clarke: Phi 4:19 - According to his riches According to his riches - His fullness is infinite; and through Christ, whose followers we are, he will dispense every requisite blessing of provide...

According to his riches - His fullness is infinite; and through Christ, whose followers we are, he will dispense every requisite blessing of providence, grace, and glory, to you.

Clarke: Phi 4:20 - Now unto God and our Father Now unto God and our Father - God is our Father in Christ Jesus; and such pity as a father hath for his children, such has the Lord for them that fe...

Now unto God and our Father - God is our Father in Christ Jesus; and such pity as a father hath for his children, such has the Lord for them that fear him; as a father is concerned for the support and life of his children, so is God concerned for you. A father may be poor, and unable to help his most beloved children; God, your Father, is infinite in his riches of his grace and glory, and out of his abundance we have all received, and grace for grace. Therefore, to God our Father, be glory for ever and ever!

Clarke: Phi 4:21 - Salute every saint Salute every saint - Remember to present my affectionate wishes to every Christian at Philippi

Salute every saint - Remember to present my affectionate wishes to every Christian at Philippi

Clarke: Phi 4:21 - The brethren which are with me The brethren which are with me - Those who were fellow laborers with him, generally supposed to be Aristarchus, Mark, Justus, Epaphras, Luke, and De...

The brethren which are with me - Those who were fellow laborers with him, generally supposed to be Aristarchus, Mark, Justus, Epaphras, Luke, and Demas. See the end of the epistles to the Colossians, (Col 4:17 (note) and to Philemon (Phm 1:25 (note)).

Clarke: Phi 4:22 - All the saints All the saints - All the Christians now at Rome

All the saints - All the Christians now at Rome

Clarke: Phi 4:22 - They that are of Caesar’ s household They that are of Caesar’ s household - Nero was at this time emperor of Rome: a more worthless, cruel, and diabolic wretch never disgraced the ...

They that are of Caesar’ s household - Nero was at this time emperor of Rome: a more worthless, cruel, and diabolic wretch never disgraced the name or form of man; yet in his family there were Christians: but whether this relates to the members of the imperial family, or to guards, or courtiers, or to servants, we cannot tell. If even some of his slaves were converted to Christianity, it would he sufficiently marvellous. Converts to Christianity in this family there certainly were; and this shows how powerfully the Divine word had been preached and spread. That the Empress Poppaea may have been favourably inclined to Christianity is possible; for Josephus relates of her, Antiq., lib. xx. cap. 7: Θεοσεβης γαρ ην· She was a worshipper of the true God; it is not likely, therefore, that she threw any hinderances in the way of her servants who might wish to embrace the Christian faith. St. Jerome, in Philemon, states that St. Paul had converted many in Caesar’ s family; A Caesare missus in carcerem, notior familiae ejus factus, persecutoris Christi domum fecit ecclesiam

"Being by the emperor cast into prison, he became the more known to his family, and he turned the house of Christ’ s persecutor into a church."Some imagine that Seneca, the preceptor of Nero and the poet Lucan, were converted by St. Paul; and there are still extant, and in a MS. now before me, letters which profess to have passed between Paul and Seneca; but they are worthy of neither. They have been printed in some editions of Seneca’ s works. See the remarks below.

Clarke: Phi 4:23 - The grace of our Lord The grace of our Lord - The usual apostolical benediction, which has often occurred, and been more than once explained. See on Rom 1:7 (note), and G...

The grace of our Lord - The usual apostolical benediction, which has often occurred, and been more than once explained. See on Rom 1:7 (note), and Gal 6:18 (note). The word ἡμων, our, is omitted by many MSS. and several versions, which simply read, The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ

Clarke: Phi 4:23 - Be with you all Be with you all - Instead of παντων, all, Πνευματος, Spirit, is the reading of ADEFG, several others, with the Coptic, Sahidic, Eth...

Be with you all - Instead of παντων, all, Πνευματος, Spirit, is the reading of ADEFG, several others, with the Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala; besides several of the Fathers

There are various subscriptions to this epistle in the different MSS. and versions. In the common Greek text it stands thus: It was written to the Philippians from Rome by Epaphroditus. The Epistle to the Philippians was written from Rome, and sent by Epaphroditus. - Syriac. To the Philippians. - Aethiopic. The end of the Epistle; it was written at Rome, and sent by Epaphroditus. - Arabic. To the Philippians by Timothy and Epaphroditus. - Coptic

1.    The MSS. generally agree with the versions, and all unite in stating that this epistle was written and sent from Rome, so that the common subscription may well stand. Yet there have been some strong objections made against this, as far as the place is concerned. Some foreign critics have maintained, that were it to be granted that the apostle was now a prisoner for the testimony of Christ, yet it does not follow that he was a prisoner at Rome, for he himself tells us, 2Co 11:23, that he was in prisons more abundant; and, consequently, he might be in prison somewhere else: but they have gone farther, and denied that this epistle was written while Paul was a prisoner; affirming that he had been already liberated, and that of this there are several evidences in the epistle itself. J. Christopher Wolf, in his Curae, has considered all these objections in detail, and appears to have answered them in a very satisfactory manner. That St. Paul was now in prison, these words seem clearly to prove, Phi 1:16 : - The one preach Christ of contention, not sincerely, supposing to add affliction to my bonds. This strongly argues that he was then suffering imprisonment, and that certain persons of perverse minds preached the Gospel in such a way as was calculated to make his bonds still more grievous. And, as he sends the salutations of saints which were of Caesar’ s household, it seems most evident that he was then at Rome; as, had he been a prisoner in any of the provinces, it is not likely that he would send to Philippi the greetings of those who lived at Rome

2.    The cause of this imprisonment has been variously understood. Theodorus Metochita says it was in consequence of his having converted Nero’ s baker, and one of his concubines; at which the emperor, being enraged, ordered him to be cast into prison: but the authority on which this rests is scarcely sufficient to render it credible

3.    Paul is generally allowed to have been twice imprisoned at Rome: this was, without doubt, the first time of his being there in bonds, as there is every appearance that he was delivered after this; but his second imprisonment issued in his martyrdom. Every apostle of God is immortal till his work is done. Paul became a martyr when God saw that there was no farther need either for his preaching or his writing; he had kept and defended the faith, and had finished his course; God took him then from the evil to come; and crowned him with the glory which his Redeemer had provided for him, in reference to which he lived, and after which he had continually aspired

4.    Reader, be thankful to God, who, in pity to thy weakness, has called thee to believe and enjoy, and not to suffer for his sake. It is not for us to covet seasons of martyrdom; we find it difficult to be faithful even in ordinary trials: yet, as offenses may come, and times of sore trial and proof may occur, we should be prepared for them; and we should know that nothing less than Christ in us, the hope of glory, will enable us to stand in the cloudy and dark day. Let us, therefore, put on the whole armor of God; and, fighting under the Captain of our salvation, expect the speedy destruction of every inward foe; and triumph in the assurance that death, the last enemy, will, in his destructions, shortly be brought to a perpetual end. Hallelujah! The Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. Amen and Amen

Finished correction for the press, Dec. 16th, 1831. - A. C

Calvin: Phi 4:1 - Therefore, my brethren 1.Therefore, my brethren He concludes his doctrine, as he is wont, with most urgent exhortations, that he may fix it the more firmly in the minds of ...

1.Therefore, my brethren He concludes his doctrine, as he is wont, with most urgent exhortations, that he may fix it the more firmly in the minds of men. He also insinuates himself into their affections by endearing appellations 208, which at the same time are not dictated by flattery, but by sincere affection. He calls them his joy and crown; because, delighted to see those who had been gained over through his instrumentality persevering in the faith 209, he hoped to attain that triumph, of which we have spoken 210, when the Lord will reward with a crown those things which have been accomplished under his guidance.

When he bids them so stand fast in the Lord, he means that their condition is approved of by him. At the same time, the particle so might be taken as referring to the doctrine going before; but the former view is more suitable, so that, by praising their present condition, he exhorts them to perseverance. They had already, it is true, given some evidence of their constancy. Paul, however, well knowing human weakness, reckons that they have need of confirmation for the future.

Calvin: Phi 4:2 - I exhort Euodias and Syntyche 2.I exhort Euodias and Syntyche It is an almost universally received opinion that Paul was desirous to settle a quarrel, I know not of what sort, bet...

2.I exhort Euodias and Syntyche It is an almost universally received opinion that Paul was desirous to settle a quarrel, I know not of what sort, between those two women. While I am not inclined to contend as to this, the words of Paul do not afford ground enough for such a conjecture to satisfy us that it really was so. It appears, from the testimony which he gives in their favor, that they were very excellent women; for he assigns to them so much honor as to call them fellow-soldiers in the gospel 211. Hence, as their agreement was a matter of great moment 212, and, on the other hand, there would be great danger attendant on their disagreement, he stirs them up particularly to concord.

We must take notice, however, that, whenever he speaks of agreement, he adds also the bond of it— in the Lord. For every combination will inevitably be accursed, if apart from the Lord, and, on the other hand, nothing is so disjoined, but that it ought to be reunited in Christ.

Calvin: Phi 4:3 - I entreat thee, also, true yokefellow // Whose names are in the book of life 3.I entreat thee, also, true yokefellow I am not inclined to dispute as to the gender of the noun, and shall, accordingly, leave it undetermined 213,...

3.I entreat thee, also, true yokefellow I am not inclined to dispute as to the gender of the noun, and shall, accordingly, leave it undetermined 213, whether he addresses here a man or a woman. At the same time there is excessive weakness in the argument of Erasmus, who infers that it is a woman from the circumstance, that mention is made here of other women — as though he did not immediately subjoin the name of Clement in the same connection. I refrain, however, from that dispute: only I maintain that it is not Paul’s wife that is designated by this appellation. Those who maintain this, quote Clement and Ignatius as their authorities. If they quoted correctly, I would not certainly despise men of such eminence. But as writings are brought forward from Eusebius 214 which are spurious, and were contrived by ignorant monks 215, they are not deserving of much credit among readers of sound judgment 216

Let us, therefore, inquire as to the thing itself, without taking any false impression from the opinions of men. When Paul wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians, he was, as he mentions, at that time unmarried.

“To the unmarried,” says he, “and widows, I say it is good that they should continue even as I am” (1Co 7:8.)

He wrote that Epistle at Ephesus 217 when he was prepared to leave it. Not long after, he proceeded to Jerusalem, where he was put in prison, and sent to Rome. Every one must perceive how unsuitable a period of time it would have been for marrying a wife, spent by him partly in journeying, and partly in prison. In addition to this, he was even at that time prepared to endure imprisonment and persecutions, as he himself testifies, according to Luke. (Act 21:13.) I am, at the same time, well aware what objection is usually brought forward in opposition to this — that Paul, though married, refrained from conjugal intercourse. The words, however, convey another meaning, for he is desirous that unmarried persons may have it in their power to remain in the same condition with himself. Now, what is that condition but celibacy? As to their bringing forward that passage —

Is it not lawful for me to lead about a wife (1Co 9:5,)

for the purpose of proving he had a wife, it is too silly to require any refutation 218. But granting that Paul was married, how came his wife to be at Philippi — a city which we do not read of his entering on more than two occasions, and in which it is probable he never remained so much as two whole months? In fine, nothing is more unlikely than that he speaks here of his wife; and to me it does not seem probable that he speaks of any female. I leave it, however, to the judgment of my readers. The word which Paul makes use of here (συλλάμβανεσθαι ) means, to take hold of a thing and embrace it along with another person, with the view of giving help 219

Whose names are in the book of life The book of life is the roll of the righteous, who are predestinated to life, as in the writings of Moses. (Exo 32:32.) God has this roll beside himself in safekeeping. Hence the book is nothing else than His eternal counsel, fixed in His own breast. In place of this term, Ezekiel employs this expression — the writing of the house of Israel. With the same view it is said in

Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, and let them not be written among the righteous; (Psa 69:28)

that is, let them not be numbered among the elect of God, whom he receives within the limits of his Church and kingdom 220.

Should any one allege, that Paul therefore acts rashly in usurping to himself the right of pronouncing as to the secrets of God, I answer, that we may in some measure form a judgment from the token by which God manifests his election, but only in so far as our capacity admits. In all those, therefore, in whom we see the marks of adoption shine forth, let us in the mean time reckon those to be the sons of God until the books are opened, (Rev 20:12,) which will thoroughly bring all things to view. It belongs, it is true, to God alone now to know them that are his, (2Ti 2:19,) and to separate at least the lambs from the kids; 221 but it is our part to reckon in charity all to be lambs who, in a spirit of obedience, submit themselves to Christ as their Shepherd 222, who betake themselves to his fold, and remain there constantly. It is our part to set so high a value upon the gifts of the Holy Spirit, which he confers peculiarly on his elect, that they shall be to us the seals, as it were, of an election which is hid from us.

Calvin: Phi 4:4 - Rejoice in the Lord 4.Rejoice in the Lord It is an exhortation suited to the times; for, as the condition of the pious was exceedingly troublous, and dangers threatened ...

4.Rejoice in the Lord It is an exhortation suited to the times; for, as the condition of the pious was exceedingly troublous, and dangers threatened them on every side, it was possible that they might give way, overcome by grief or impatience. 223 Hence he enjoins it upon them, that, amidst circumstances of hostility and disturbance, they should nevertheless rejoice in the Lord, 224 as assuredly these spiritual consolations, by means of which the Lord refreshes and gladdens us, ought then most of all to show their efficacy when the whole world tempts us to despair. Let us, however, in connection with the circumstances of the times, consider what efficacy there must have been in this word uttered by the mouth of Paul, who might have had special occasion of sorrow. 225 For if they are appalled by persecutions, or imprisonments, or exile, or death, here is the Apostle setting himself forward, who, amidst imprisonments, in the very heat of persecution, and in fine, amidst apprehensions of death, is not merely himself joyful, but even stirs up others to joy. The sum, then, is this — that come what may, believers, having the Lord standing on their side 226, have amply sufficient ground of joy.

The repetition of the exhortation serves to give greater force to it: Let this be your strength and stability, to rejoice in the Lord, and that, too, not for a moment merely, but so that your joy in him may be perpetuated. 227 For unquestionably it differs from the joy of the world in this respect — that we know from experience that the joy of the world is deceptive, frail, and fading, and Christ even pronouces it to be accursed (Luk 6:25). Hence, that only is a settled joy in God which is such as is never taken away from us.

Calvin: Phi 4:5 - Your moderation // The Lord is at hand 5.Your moderation This may be explained in two ways. We may understand him as bidding them rather give up their right, than that any one should have ...

5.Your moderation This may be explained in two ways. We may understand him as bidding them rather give up their right, than that any one should have occasion to complain of their sharpness or severity. Let all that have to deal with you have experience of your equity and humanity.” In this way to know, will mean to experience. Or we may understand him as exhorting them to endure all things with equanimity. 228 This latter meaning I rather prefer; for is a term that is made use of by the Greeks themselves to denote moderation of spirit — when we are not easily moved by injuries, when we are not easily annoyed by adversity, but retain equanimity of temper. In accordance with this, Cicero makes use of the following expression, — “My mind is tranquil, which takes everything in good part.” 229 Such equanimity — which is as it were the mother of patience — he requires here on the part of the Philippians, and, indeed, such as will manifest itself to all, according as occasion will require, by producing its proper effects. The term modesty does not seem appropriate here, because Paul is not in this passage cautioning them against haughty insolence, but directs them to conduct themselves peaceably in everything, and exercise control over themselves, even in the endurance of injuries or inconveniences.

The Lord is at hand Here we have an anticipation, by which he obviates an objection that might be brought forward. For carnal sense rises in opposition to the foregoing statement. For as the rage of the wicked is the more inflamed in proportion to our mildness, 230 and the more they see us prepared for enduring, are the more emboldened to inflict injuries, we are with difficulty induced to possess our souls in patience. (Luk 21:19.) Hence those proverbs, — “ We must howl when among wolves.” “Those who act like sheep will quickly be devoured by wolves.” Hence we conclude, that the ferocity of the wicked must be repressed by corresponding violence, that they may not insult us with impunity. 231 To such considerations Paul here opposes confidence in Divine providence. He replies, I say, that the Lord is at hand, whose power can overcome their audacity, and whose goodness can conquer their malice. He promises that he will aid us, provided we obey his commandment. Now, who would not rather be protected by the hand of God alone, than have all the resources of the world at his command?

Here we have a most beautiful sentiment, from which we learn, in the first place, that ignorance of the providence of God is the cause of all impatience, and that this is the reason why we are so quickly, and on trivial accounts, thrown into confusion, 232 and often, too, become disheartened because we do not recognize the fact that the Lord cares for us. On the other hand, we learn that this is the only remedy for tranquillizing our minds — when we repose unreservedly in his providential care, as knowing that we are not exposed either to the rashness of fortune, or to the caprice of the wicked, 233 but are under the regulation of God’s fatherly care. In fine, the man that is in possession of this truth, that God is present with him, has what he may rest upon with security.

There are, however, two ways in which the Lord is said to be at hand — either because his judgment is at hand, or because he is prepared to give help to his own people, in which sense it is made use of here; and also in Psa 145:18, The Lord is near to all that call upon him. The meaning therefore is, — “Miserable were the condition of the pious, if the Lord were at a distance from them.” But as he has received them under his protection and guardianship, and defends them by his hand, which is everywhere present, let them rest upon this consideration, that they may not be intimidated by the rage of the wicked. It is well known, and matter of common occurrence, that the term solicitudo (carefulness) is employed to denote that anxiety which proceeds from distrust of Divine power or help.

Calvin: Phi 4:6 - But in all things // With thanksgiving 6.But in all things It is the singular number that is made use of by Paul, but is the neuter gender; the expression, therefore, is equivalent to omn...

6.But in all things It is the singular number that is made use of by Paul, but is the neuter gender; the expression, therefore, is equivalent to omni negotio , (in every matter,) for ( prayer) and ( supplication) are feminine nouns. In these words he exhorts the Philippians, as David does all the pious in Psa 55:22, and Peter also in 1Pe 5:7, to cast all their care upon the Lord. For we are not made of iron, 234 so as not to be shaken by temptations. But this is our consolation, this is our solace — to deposit, or (to speak with greater propriety) to disburden in the bosom of God everything that harasses us. Confidence, it is true, brings tranquillity to our minds, but it is only in the event of our exercising ourselves in prayers. Whenever, therefore, we are assailed by any temptation, let us betake ourselves forthwith to prayer, as to a sacred asylum. 235

The term requests he employs here to denote desires or wishes. He would have us make these known to God by prayer and supplication, as though believers poured forth their hearts before God, when they commit themselves, and all that they have, to Him. Those, indeed, who look hither and thither to the vain comforts of the world, may appear to be in some degree relieved; but there is one sure refuge — leaning upon the Lord.

With thanksgiving As many often pray to God amiss, 236 full of complaints or of murmurings, as though they had just ground for accusing him, while others cannot brook delay, if he does not immediately gratify their desires, Paul on this account conjoins thanksgiving with prayers. It is as though he had said, that those things which are necessary for us ought to be desired by us from the Lord in such a way, that we, nevertheless, subject our affections to his good pleasure, and give thanks while presenting petitions. And, unquestionably, gratitude 237 will have this effect upon us — that the will of God will be the grand sum of our desires.

Calvin: Phi 4:7 - And the peace of God 7.And the peace of God Some, by turning the future tense into the optative mood, convert this statement into a prayer, but it is without proper found...

7.And the peace of God Some, by turning the future tense into the optative mood, convert this statement into a prayer, but it is without proper foundation. For it is a promise in which he points out the advantage of a firm confidence in God, and invocation of him. “If you do that,” says he, “the peace of God will keep your minds and hearts.” Scripture is accustomed to divide the soul of man, as to its frailties, into two parts — the mind and the heart. The mind means the understanding, while the heart denotes all the disposition or inclinations. These two terms, therefore, include the entire soul, in this sense, — “The peace of God will guard you, so as to prevent you from turning back from God in wicked thoughts or desires.”

It is on good ground that he calls it the peace of God, inasmuch as it does not depend on the present aspect of things, 238 and does not bend itself to the various shiftings of the world, 239 but is founded on the firm and immutable word of God. It is on good grounds, also, that he speaks of it as surpassing all understanding or perception, for nothing is more foreign to the human mind, than in the depth of despair to exercise, nevertheless, a feeling of hope, in the depth of poverty to see opulence, and in the depth of weakness to keep from giving way, and, in fine, to promise ourselves that nothing will be wanting to us when we are left destitute of all things; and all this in the grace of God alone, which is not itself known otherwise than through the word, and the inward earnest of the Spirit.

Calvin: Phi 4:8 - Finally 8.Finally What follows consists of general exhortations which relate to the whole of life. In the first place, he commends truth, which is nothin...

8.Finally What follows consists of general exhortations which relate to the whole of life. In the first place, he commends truth, which is nothing else than the integrity of a good conscience, with the fruits of it: secondly, gravity, or sanctity, for τὸ σεμνόν 240 denotes both — an excellence which consists in this, that we walk in a manner worthy of our vocation, (Eph 4:1,) keeping at a distance from all profane filthiness: thirdly, justice, which has to do with the mutual intercourse of mankind — that we do not injure any one, that we do not defraud any one; and, fourthly, purity, which denotes chastity in every department of life. Paul, however, does not reckon all these things to be sufficient, if we do not at the same time endeavor to make ourselves agreeable to all, in so far as we may lawfully do so in the Lord, and have regard also to our good name. For it is in this way that I understand the words —

If any praise, 241 that is, anything praiseworthy, for amidst such a corruption of manners there is so great a perversity in men’s judgments that praise is often bestowed 242 upon what is blameworthy, and it is not allowable for Christians to be desirous even of true praise among men, inasmuch as they are elsewhere forbidden to glory, except in God alone. (1Co 1:31.) Paul, therefore, does not bid them try to gain applause or commendation by virtuous actions, nor even to regulate their life according to the judgments of the people, but simply means, that they should devote themselves to the performance of good works, which merit commendation, that the wicked, and those who are enemies of the gospel, while they deride Christians and cast reproach upon them, may, nevertheless, be constrained to commend their deportment.

The word, προσφιλὢ καὶ εὔφημα however, among the Greeks, is employed, like cogitare among the Latins, to mean, meditate. 243 Now meditation comes first, afterwards follows action.

Calvin: Phi 4:9 - What things ye have learned, and received, and heard // You have seen in me // And the God of peace 9.What things ye have learned, and received, and heard By this accumulation of terms he intimates, that he was assiduous in inculcating these things....

9.What things ye have learned, and received, and heard By this accumulation of terms he intimates, that he was assiduous in inculcating these things. “This was my doctrine — my instruction — my discourse among you.” Hypocrites, on the other hand, insisted upon nothing but ceremonies. Now, it was a dishonorable thing to abandon the holy instruction, 244 which they had wholly imbibed, and with which they had been thorouglly imbued.

You have seen in me Now, the main thing in a public speaker 245 should be, that he may speak, not with his mouth merely, but by his life, and procure authority for his doctrine by rectitude of life. Paul, accordingly, procures authority for his exhortation on this ground, that he had, by his life no less than by his mouth, been a leader and master of virtues.

And the God of peace He had spoken of the peace of God; he now more particularly confirms what he had said, by promising that God himself, the Author of peace, will be with them. For the presence of God brings us every kind of blessing: as though he had said, that they would feel that God was present with them to make all things turn out well and prosperously, provided they apply themselves to pious and holy actions.

Calvin: Phi 4:10 - But I rejoiced 10.But I rejoiced He now declares the gratitude of his mind towards the Philippians, that they may not regret their beneficence, 246 as is usually th...

10.But I rejoiced He now declares the gratitude of his mind towards the Philippians, that they may not regret their beneficence, 246 as is usually the case when we think that our services are despised, or are reckoned of no account. They had sent him by Epaphroditus supplies for the relief of his necessity; he declares that their present had been acceptable to him, and he says, that he rejoiced that they had plucked up new vigor so as to exercise care respecting him. The metaphor is borrowed from trees, the strength of which is drawn inward, and lies concealed during winter, and begins to flourish 247 in spring. But immediately afterwards subjoining a correction, he qualifies what he had said, that he may not seem to reprove their negligence in the past. He says, therefore, that they had formerly, too, been concerned respecting him, but that the circumstances of the times had not admitted of his being sooner relieved by their benignity. Thus he throws the blame upon the want of opportunity. I take the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ᾿ as referring to the person of Paul, and that is its proper signification, as well as more in accordance with the connection of Paul’s words.

Calvin: Phi 4:11 - Not that I speak with respect to want // In what state I am, 11.Not that I speak with respect to want Here we have a second correction, by which he guards against its being suspected that his spirit was pusil...

11.Not that I speak with respect to want Here we have a second correction, by which he guards against its being suspected that his spirit was pusillanimous and broken down by adversities. For it was of importance that his constancy and moderation should be known by the Philippians, to whom he was a pattern of life. Accordingly he declares, that he had been gratified by their liberality in such a way that he could at the same time endure want with patience. Want refers here to disposition, for that man can never be poor in mind, who is satisfied with the lot which has been assigned to him by God.

In what state I am, says he, that is, “Whatever my condition may be, I am satisfied with it.” Why? because saints know that they thus please God. Hence they do not measure sufficiency by abundance, but by the will of God, which they judge of by what takes place, for they are persuaded that their affairs are regulated by his providence and good pleasure.

Calvin: Phi 4:12 - I know both how to be abased 12.I know both how to be abased There follows here a distinction, with the view of intimating that he has a mind adapted to bear any kind of conditio...

12.I know both how to be abased There follows here a distinction, with the view of intimating that he has a mind adapted to bear any kind of condition. 248 Prosperity is wont to puff up the mind beyond measure, and adversity, on the other hand, to depress. From both faults he declares himself to be free. I know, says he, to be abased — that is, to endure abasement with patience. Περισσεύειν is made use of twice, but in the former instance it is employed as meaning, to excel; in the second instance as meaning, to abound, so as to correspond with the things to which they are exposed. If a man knows to make use of present abundance in a sober and temperate manner, with thanksgiving, prepared to part with everything whenever it may be the good pleasure of the Lord, giving also a share to his brother, according to the measure of his ability, and is also not puffed up, that man has learned to excel, and to abound. This is a peculiarly excellent and rare virtue, and much superior to the endurance of poverty. Let all who wish to be Christ’s disciples exercise themselves in acquiring this knowledge which was possessed by Paul, but in the mean time let them accustom themselves to the endurance of poverty in such a manner that it will not be grievous and burdensome to them when they come to be deprived of their riches.

Calvin: Phi 4:13 - I can do all things through Christ 13.I can do all things through Christ As he had boasted of things that were very great, 249 in order that this might not be attributed to pride or fu...

13.I can do all things through Christ As he had boasted of things that were very great, 249 in order that this might not be attributed to pride or furnish others with occasion of foolish boasting, he adds, that it is by Christ that he is endowed with this fortitude. “ I can do all things, ” says he, “but it is in Christ, not by my own power, for it is Christ that supplies me with strength.” Hence we infer, that Christ will not be less strong and invincible in us also, if, conscious of our own weakness, we place reliance upon his power alone. When he says all things, he means merely those things which belong to his calling.

Calvin: Phi 4:14 - Nevertheless ye did well 14.Nevertheless ye did well How prudently and cautiously he acts, looking round carefully in both directions, that he may not lean too much to the on...

14.Nevertheless ye did well How prudently and cautiously he acts, looking round carefully in both directions, that he may not lean too much to the one side or to the other. By proclaiming in magnificent terms his steadfastness, he meant to provide against the Philippians supposing that he had given way under the pressure of want. 250 He now takes care that it may not, from his speaking in high terms, appear as though he despised their kindness — a thing that would not merely shew cruelty and obstinacy, but also haughtiness. He at the same time provides for this, that if any other of the servants of Christ should stand in need of their assistance they may not be slow to give him help.

Calvin: Phi 4:15 - And ye know // In the matter of giving and receiving 15.And ye know I understand this to have been added by way of excuse, inasmuch as he often received something from them, for if the other Churches ha...

15.And ye know I understand this to have been added by way of excuse, inasmuch as he often received something from them, for if the other Churches had discharged their duty, it might have seemed as though he were too eager to receive. Hence in clearing himself he praises them, and in praising them he modestly excuses others. We must also, after Paul’s example, take heed lest the pious, on seeing us too much inclined to receive from others, should on good grounds reckon us to be insatiable. You also know, says he. “I do not require to call in other witnesses, for ye yourselves also know.” For it frequently happens, that when one thinks that others are deficient in duty, he is the more liberal in giving assistance. Thus the liberality of some escapes the notice of others.

In the matter of giving and receiving He alludes to pecuniary matters, in which there are two parts, the one receiving, the other expending. It is necessary that these should be brought to an equality by mutual compensation. There was an account of this nature carried on between Paul and the Churches. 251 While Paul administered the gospel to them, there was an obligation devolving upon them in return for supplying what was necessary for the support of his life, as he says elsewhere,

If we dispense to you spiritual thinqs, is it a great matter if you give in return carnal things? (1Co 9:11.)

Hence, if the other churches had relieved Paul’s necessities, they would have been giving nothing gratuitously, but would have been simply paying their debt, for they ought to have acknowledged themselves indebted to him for the gospel. This, however, he acknowledges, had not been the case, inasmuch as they had not laid out anything on his account. What base ingratitude, and how very unseemly, to treat such an Apostle with neglect, to whom they knew themselves to be under obligation beyond their power to discharge! On the other hand, how great the forbearance of this holy man, to bear with their inhumanity with so much gentleness and indulgence, as not to make use of one sharp word by way of accusing them!

Calvin: Phi 4:17 - Not that I demand a gift 17.Not that I demand a gift Again he repels an unfavourable opinion that might be formed of immoderate cupidity, that they might not suppose that it ...

17.Not that I demand a gift Again he repels an unfavourable opinion that might be formed of immoderate cupidity, that they might not suppose that it was an indirect hint, 252 as if they ought singly to stand in the room of all, 253 and as if he abused their kindness. He accordingly declares, that he consulted not so much his own advantage as theirs. “While I receive from you,” says he, “there is proportionably much advantage that redounds to yourselves; for there are just so many articles that you may reckon to have been transferred to the table of accounts.” The meaning of this word 254 is connected with the similitude formerly employed of exchange or compensation in pecuniary matters.

Calvin: Phi 4:18 - I have received all things, and abound 18.I have received all things, and abound He declares in more explicit terms, that he has what is sufficient, and honors their liberality with a rema...

18.I have received all things, and abound He declares in more explicit terms, that he has what is sufficient, and honors their liberality with a remarkable testimony, by saying, that he has been filled. It was undoubtedly a moderate sum that they had sent, but he says, that by means of that moderate sum he is filled to satiety. It is, however, a more distinguished commendation that he bestows upon the gift in what follows, when he calls it a sacrifice acceptable, and presented as the odour of a good fragrance For what better thing can be desired than that our acts of kindness should be sacred offerings, which God receives from our hands, and takes pleasure in their sweet odour? For the same reason Christ says, Whatsoever ye shall have done unto one of the least of these, ye have done it unto me.

The similitude of sacrifices, however, adds much emphasis, by which we are taught, that the exercise of love which God enjoins upon us, is not merely a benefit conferred upon man, but is also a spiritual and sacred service which is performed to God, as we read in the Epistle to the Hebrews, that he is well pleased with such sacrifices. (Heb 13:16.) Alas for our indolence! 255 — which appears in this, that while God invites us with so much kindness to the honor of priesthood, and even puts sacrifices in our hands, we nevertheless do not sacrifice to him, and those things which were set apart for sacred oblations we not only lay out for profane uses, but squander them wickedly upon the most polluted contaminations. 256 For the altars, on which sacrifices from our resources ought to be presented, are the poor, and the servants of Christ. To the neglect of these some squander their resources on every kind of luxury, others upon the palate, others upon immodest attire, others upon magnificent dwellings. 257

Calvin: Phi 4:19 - My God will supply 19.My God will supply Some read impleat — in the optative — May he supply. 258 While I do not reject this reading, I approve more of the o...

19.My God will supply Some read impleat — in the optative May he supply. 258 While I do not reject this reading, I approve more of the other. He expressly makes mention of God as his, because he owns and acknowledges as done to himself whatever kindness is shewn to his servants. They had therefore been truly sowing in the Lord’s field, from which a sure and abundant harvest might be expected. Nor does he promise them merely a reward in the future life, but even in respect of the necessities of the present life: Do not think that you have impoverished yourselves; God, whom I serve, will abundantly furnish you with everything necessary for you.” The phrase, in glory, ought to be taken in place of the adverb gloriously, as meaning magnificently, or splendidly. He adds, however, by Christ, in whose name everything that we do is acceptable to God.

Calvin: Phi 4:20 - Now to our God and Father 20.Now to our God and Father This may be taken as a general thanksgiving, by which he closes the epistle; or it may be viewed as bearing more particu...

20.Now to our God and Father This may be taken as a general thanksgiving, by which he closes the epistle; or it may be viewed as bearing more particularly upon the last clause in reference to the liberality shewn to Paul. 259 For in respect of the assistance which the Philippians had afforded him, it became him to reckon himself indebted to them for it in such a manner as to acknowledge, that this aid had been afforded to them by the mercy of God.

Calvin: Phi 4:22 - The brethren that are with me salute you 22.The brethren that are with me salute you In these salutations he names first of all his intimate associates, 260 afterwards all the saints in gene...

22.The brethren that are with me salute you In these salutations he names first of all his intimate associates, 260 afterwards all the saints in general, that is, the whole Church at Rome, but chiefly those of the household of Nero — a thing well deserving to be noticed; for it is no common evidence of divine mercy, that the gospel had made its way into that sink of all crimes and iniquities. It is also the more to be admired, in proportion as it is a rare thing for holiness to reign in the courts of sovereigns. The conjecture formed by some, that Seneca is here referred to among others, has no appearance of foundation; for he never gave any evidence, even the smallest, of his being a Christian; nor did he belong to the household of Caesar, but was a senator, and had at one time held the office of praetor. 261

END OF THE COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS.

Defender: Phi 4:2 - Syntyche It is worth noting that this minor disagreement between two women was the only problem which Paul needed to mention in the church. Otherwise, despite ...

It is worth noting that this minor disagreement between two women was the only problem which Paul needed to mention in the church. Otherwise, despite poverty and persecution, this church was a beautiful example of what a local church should be."

Defender: Phi 4:3 - yokefellow Since this "yokefellow" is not named, it may well be that this was actually the proper name (Greek Suzugos) of a man in the church who lived up to his...

Since this "yokefellow" is not named, it may well be that this was actually the proper name (Greek Suzugos) of a man in the church who lived up to his name.

Defender: Phi 4:3 - book of life On the "book of life," in which God has inscribed the names of all His redeemed ones, see note on Rev 3:5."

On the "book of life," in which God has inscribed the names of all His redeemed ones, see note on Rev 3:5."

Defender: Phi 4:4 - Rejoice In spite of their "deep poverty" (2Co 8:2) as well as their "great trial of affliction," the Philippian church exhibited an "abundance of joy." In Pau...

In spite of their "deep poverty" (2Co 8:2) as well as their "great trial of affliction," the Philippian church exhibited an "abundance of joy." In Paul's short letter, he used the words "joy," "rejoice" and "rejoicing" at least seventeen times."

Defender: Phi 4:5 - at hand The Lord's return has always been imminent, and He frequently told His followers to watch for Him (Jam 5:7, Jam 5:9; Rev 22:7, Rev 22:20). In a second...

The Lord's return has always been imminent, and He frequently told His followers to watch for Him (Jam 5:7, Jam 5:9; Rev 22:7, Rev 22:20). In a secondary sense, He is also always at hand through the indwelling Holy Spirit."

Defender: Phi 4:6 - in every thing We are to worry about nothing because we can pray about everything."

We are to worry about nothing because we can pray about everything."

Defender: Phi 4:7 - peace of God On "the peace of God," note also Col 3:15; Joh 14:27; Isa 26:3; Isa 30:7, Isa 30:15, Isa 30:18; Isa 40:28-31. We have "peace with God" (Rom 5:1) and t...

On "the peace of God," note also Col 3:15; Joh 14:27; Isa 26:3; Isa 30:7, Isa 30:15, Isa 30:18; Isa 40:28-31. We have "peace with God" (Rom 5:1) and the "peace of God" when we know "the God of peace" (Phi 4:9)."

Defender: Phi 4:8 - these things Think on "these things" - therefore, not on other things. This is an important guideline for educators. If God does not want us to think on evil or ug...

Think on "these things" - therefore, not on other things. This is an important guideline for educators. If God does not want us to think on evil or ugly things, then surely our school's curricula should keep away from them, except to provide antidotes for them. This principle should also guide our individual study and activities."

Defender: Phi 4:9 - do See note on Phi 3:17.

See note on Phi 3:17.

Defender: Phi 4:9 - God of peace On "the God of peace," see also Rom 15:33; Rom 16:20; 2Co 13:11; 1Th 5:23; 2Th 3:16; and Heb 13:20. Note also, "the peace of God" (Phi 4:6)."

On "the God of peace," see also Rom 15:33; Rom 16:20; 2Co 13:11; 1Th 5:23; 2Th 3:16; and Heb 13:20. Note also, "the peace of God" (Phi 4:6)."

Defender: Phi 4:14 - communicate By "communicate with my affliction," Paul means "share [financially] with my pressures." Only the Philippian church had sent this type of help to Paul...

By "communicate with my affliction," Paul means "share [financially] with my pressures." Only the Philippian church had sent this type of help to Paul, despite their own poverty (Phi 4:15)."

Defender: Phi 4:17 - fruit Thus spiritual "fruit" includes financial gifts to those of God's servants spreading His Word and also to fellow believers in difficult circumstances.

Thus spiritual "fruit" includes financial gifts to those of God's servants spreading His Word and also to fellow believers in difficult circumstances.

Defender: Phi 4:17 - account "Account" is the Greek logos. "Testimony" is a better meaning here."

"Account" is the Greek logos. "Testimony" is a better meaning here."

Defender: Phi 4:19 - your need That is, "your business," or necessities for the business of the kingdom. Those who freely give will also receive (like the Philippians) - not their w...

That is, "your business," or necessities for the business of the kingdom. Those who freely give will also receive (like the Philippians) - not their wants, but all they need for their service for Christ."

TSK: Phi 4:1 - Therefore // and // my joy // so Therefore : Phi 3:20,Phi 3:21; 2Pe 3:11-14 and : Phi 1:8, Phi 2:26 my joy : Phi 2:16; 2Co 1:14; 1Th 2:19, 1Th 2:20, 1Th 3:9 so : Phi 1:27; Psa 27:14, ...

TSK: Phi 4:2 - that that : Phi 2:2, Phi 2:3, Phi 3:16; Gen 45:24; Psa 133:1-3; Mar 9:50; Rom 12:16-18; 1Co 1:10; Eph 4:1-8; 1Th 5:13; Heb 12:14; Jam 3:17, Jam 3:18; 1Pe 3...

TSK: Phi 4:3 - I // true // help // whose I : Phi 4:2; Rom 12:1; Phm 1:8, Phm 1:9 true : Phi 2:20-25; Col 1:7 help : Phi 1:27; Act 9:36-41, Act 16:14-18; Rom 16:2-4, Rom 16:9, Rom 16:12; 1Ti 5...

TSK: Phi 4:4 - Rejoice // alway // again Rejoice : Phi 3:1; Rom 12:12 alway : Psa 34:1, Psa 34:2, Psa 145:1, Psa 145:2, Psa 146:2; Mat 5:12; Act 5:41, Act 16:25; Rom 5:2, Rom 5:3; 1Th 5:16-18...

TSK: Phi 4:5 - your // The your : Mat 5:39-42, Mat 6:25, Mat 6:34; Luk 6:29-35, Luk 12:22-30, Luk 21:34; 1Co 6:7, 1Co 7:29-31; 1Co 8:13, 1Co 9:25; Tit 3:2; Heb 13:5, Heb 13:6; 1...

TSK: Phi 4:6 - careful // in // thanksgiving // known careful : Dan 3:16; Mat 6:25-33, Mat 10:19, Mat 13:22; Luk 10:41, Luk 12:29; 1Co 7:21, 1Co 7:32; 1Pe 5:7 in : Gen 32:7-12; 1Sa 1:15, 1Sa 30:6; 2Ch 32:...

TSK: Phi 4:7 - the peace // passeth // shall // through the peace : Phi 1:2; Num 6:26; Job 22:21, Job 34:29; Psa 29:11, Psa 85:8; Isa 26:3, Isa 26:12, Isa 45:7; Isa 48:18, Isa 48:22, Isa 55:11, Isa 55:12, I...

TSK: Phi 4:8 - Finally // whatsoever // are true // honest // are just // are pure // are lovely // are of // virtue // praise // think Finally : Phi 3:1 whatsoever : Rom 12:9-21; 1Co 13:4-7; Gal 5:22; Jam 3:17; 2Pe 1:5-7 are true : Mat 22:16; Joh 7:18; Rom 12:9; 2Co 6:8; Eph 4:25, Eph...

TSK: Phi 4:9 - which // do // the God // with which : Phi 3:17; 1Co 10:31-33, 1Co 11:1; 1Th 1:6, 1Th 2:2-12, 1Th 2:14, 1Th 4:1-8; 2Th 3:6-10 do : Deu 5:1; Mat 5:19, Mat 5:20, Mat 7:21, Mat 7:24-27...

TSK: Phi 4:10 - I // your // hath flourished // ye lacked I : Phi 1:1, Phi 1:3; 2Co 7:6, 2Co 7:7 your : 2Co 11:9; Gal 6:6 hath flourished : or, is revived, Psa 85:6; Hos 14:7 ye lacked : 2Co 6:7; Gal 6:10

I : Phi 1:1, Phi 1:3; 2Co 7:6, 2Co 7:7

your : 2Co 11:9; Gal 6:6

hath flourished : or, is revived, Psa 85:6; Hos 14:7

ye lacked : 2Co 6:7; Gal 6:10

TSK: Phi 4:11 - in respect // I have in respect : 1Co 4:11, 1Co 4:12; 2Co 6:10, 2Co 8:9, 2Co 11:27 I have : Phi 3:8; Gen 28:20; Exo 2:21; Mat 6:31-34; Luk 3:14; 1Ti 6:6-9; Heb 10:34; Heb ...

TSK: Phi 4:12 - how to be // I am how to be : 1Co 4:9-13; 2Co 6:4-10, 2Co 10:1, 2Co 10:10, 2Co 11:7, 2Co 11:27, 2Co 12:7-10 I am : Deu 32:10; Neh 9:20; Isa 8:11; Jer 31:19; Mat 11:29, ...

TSK: Phi 4:13 - can // through can : Joh 15:4, Joh 15:5, Joh 15:7; 2Co 3:4, 2Co 3:5 through : 2Co 12:9, 2Co 12:10; Eph 3:16, Eph 6:10; Col 1:11; Isa 40:29-31, Isa 41:10, Isa 45:24

TSK: Phi 4:14 - ye have // ye did ye have : 1Ki 8:18; 2Ch 6:8; Mat 25:21; 3Jo 1:5-8 ye did : Phi 4:18, Phi 1:7; Rom 15:27; 1Co 9:10,1Co 9:11; Gal 6:6; 1Ti 6:18; Heb 10:34, Heb 13:16

TSK: Phi 4:15 - in the // I in the : 2Ki 5:16, 2Ki 5:20; 2Co 11:8-12, 2Co 12:11-15 I : Act 16:40, Act 17:1-5

TSK: Phi 4:16 - in // once in : 1Th 2:9 once : 1Th 2:18

in : 1Th 2:9

once : 1Th 2:18

TSK: Phi 4:17 - because // fruit // to because : Phi 4:11; Mal 1:10; Act 20:33, Act 20:34; 1Co 9:12-15; 2Co 11:16; 1Th 2:5; 1Ti 3:3; 1Ti 6:10; Tit 1:7; 1Pe 5:2; 2Pe 2:3, 2Pe 2:15; Jud 1:11 ...

TSK: Phi 4:18 - I have all // abound // Epaphroditus // an // acceptable I have all : or, I have received all abound : Phi 4:12; 2Th 1:3 Epaphroditus : Phi 2:25, Phi 2:26 an : Joh 12:3-8; 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16; Eph 5:2; Heb 13...

I have all : or, I have received all

abound : Phi 4:12; 2Th 1:3

Epaphroditus : Phi 2:25, Phi 2:26

an : Joh 12:3-8; 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16; Eph 5:2; Heb 13:16; 1Pe 2:5

acceptable : Rom 12:1; 2Co 9:12

TSK: Phi 4:19 - God // supply // according // glory God : 2Sa 22:7; 2Ch 18:13; Neh 5:19; Dan 6:22; Mic 7:7; Joh 20:17, Joh 20:27; Rom 1:8; 2Co 12:21; Phm 1:4 supply : Gen 48:15; Deu 8:3, Deu 8:4; Neh 9:...

TSK: Phi 4:20 - unto // Amen unto : Phi 1:11; Psa 72:19, Psa 115:1; Mat 6:9, Mat 6:13; Rom 11:36, Rom 16:27; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:21; 1Ti 1:17; Jud 1:25; Rev 1:6, Rev 4:9-11, Rev 5:12, ...

TSK: Phi 4:21 - Salute // saint // The Salute : Rom 16:3-16 saint : Phi 1:1; 1Co 1:2; Eph 1:1 The : Rom 16:21, Rom 16:22; Gal 1:2, Gal 2:3; Col 4:10-14; Phm 1:23, Phm 1:24

TSK: Phi 4:22 - the // they // Caesar’ s the : Rom 16:16; 2Co 13:13; Heb 13:24; 1Pe 5:13; 3Jo 1:14 they : Phi 1:13 Caesar’ s : The cruel, worthless, and diabolical Nero was at this time ...

the : Rom 16:16; 2Co 13:13; Heb 13:24; 1Pe 5:13; 3Jo 1:14

they : Phi 1:13

Caesar’ s : The cruel, worthless, and diabolical Nero was at this time emperor of Rome; but it is not improbable that the empress Poppaea was favourably inclined to Christianity, as Josephus relates that Θεοσεβης [Strong’ s G2318], γαρ [Strong’ s G1063], ην [Strong’ s G2258], ""she was a worshipper of the true God.""Jerome states (in Philemon) that St. Paul had converted many in Caesar’ s family; for ""being by the emperor cast into prison, he became more known to his family, and turned the house of Christ’ s persecutor into a church.""

TSK: Phi 4:23 - -- Rom 16:20,Rom 16:24; 2Co 13:14

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Poole: Phi 4:1 - Phi 4:1 // Phi 4:2 // Phi 4:3,4 // Phi 4:5 // Phi 4:6,7 // Phi 4:8,9 // Phi 4:10-14 // Phi 4:15-17 // Phi 4:18,19 // Phi 4:20-23 // Therefore // My brethren // Dearly beloved // And longed for // My joy // And crown // So stand fast // in the Lord // My dearly beloved Phi 4:1 Paul exciteth to steadfastness in Christ, Phi 4:2 and after some particular admonitions, Phi 4:3,4 exhorteth generally to religio...

Phi 4:1 Paul exciteth to steadfastness in Christ,

Phi 4:2 and after some particular admonitions,

Phi 4:3,4 exhorteth generally to religious joy,

Phi 4:5 moderation,

Phi 4:6,7 trust in God with prayer,

Phi 4:8,9 and to every branch of moral goodness.

Phi 4:10-14 He testifieth his joy in the care shown by the

Philippians for his supply in prison, though being

always content he was above want,

Phi 4:15-17 and commendeth their former liberality to him, not

for his own sake, but for the good that would redound

to them from it.

Phi 4:18,19 He acknowledgeth the receipt of their late bounty,

assuring them that God would both accept and reward it.

Phi 4:20-23 He giveth glory to God, and concludeth with

salutations, and a blessing.

Therefore this particle connotes that which follows to be inferred by way of conclusion from what he had premised in the close of the former chapter, in opposition to the shame of the earthly-minded, concerning the glory of the heavenly-minded.

My brethren he affectionately owns them to be his brethren in the common faith, Tit 1:4 .

Dearly beloved those who, not being enticed by the insinuations of seducers, did adhere to him, had his sincere affections, Phi 2:12 .

And longed for whose safety and felicity every way he most heartily desired, Phi 1:8 2:26 ; with Rom 1:11 1Th 3:6 .

My joy intimating how their faith and holiness did at present afford matter of rejoicing to him, Phi 1:4,7,8 , with 1Th 2:19,20 .

And crown he was not ambitious of man’ s applause, but accounted them his honour and glory, the great ornament of his ministry, whereby they were converted to Christ, (as elsewhere in Scripture a crown is taken figuratively, Pro 12:4 14:24 16:31 17 :6), 1Th 2:19 ; the reward which had some similitude with the honour they had who were victorious in a race, Phi 2:16,17 : as Jam 1:12 1Pe 5:4 Rev 2:10 Rev 3:11 .

So stand fast he exhorteth them not barely to stand, but so to stand that they did not fall, 1Co 10:12 . Hereupon he adds,

in the Lord i.e. considering their relation unto Christ, they would derive power and virtue from him, into whom they were implanted, to persevere, conformably to his will, in Christian concord, till they were made like to him, Phi 3:21 , with Phi 1:27 Joh 15:4,7 1Co 15:58 16:13 Gal 5:7 Eph 6:11,14 .

My dearly beloved in whom looking upon them, (the more to fix them), he pathetically and rhetorically repeats his endearing compellation beloved.

Poole: Phi 4:2 - I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche // That they be of the same mind in the Lord I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche: after his general persuasive to perseverance, he doth here particularly by name with great affectionateness ...

I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche: after his general persuasive to perseverance, he doth here particularly by name with great affectionateness importune two women, who had been very useful in that church for the furtherance of the gospel, that they would come to a better understanding of each other, and the interest of religion amongst them, who received the gospel upon Paul’ s preaching, Act 16:13 .

That they be of the same mind in the Lord as he had moved all to love, unity, and amity, (as it became disciples of Christ), Phi 2:2 ; so he doth here especially move them unto unanimity, according to the mind of the Lord, and his way, for the sake of him whose honour is to be preferred to all private concerns, Rom 15:5 .

Poole: Phi 4:3 - And I entreat thee also, true yoke-fellow // yoke-fellow // Clement // And with other my fellow labourers // Whose names are in the book of life And I entreat thee also, true yoke-fellow he subjoins his most importunate request to some eminent person who did faithfully and sincerely draw in th...

And I entreat thee also, true yoke-fellow he subjoins his most importunate request to some eminent person who did faithfully and sincerely draw in the same yoke of Christ with him, even such another in that church at Philippi, (whom they well knew from the freedom he used when he planted the gospel amongst them, or might more distinctly know from Epaphroditus), as he had represented Timothy to be, Phi 2:20 . Some, both ancient and modern, would have this to be Paul’ s own wife, whom he left behind; but seeing it doth not appear that when he wrote this Epistle he had ever staid above two months at Philippi, he elsewhere reckons himself amongst the unmarried, 1Co 7:8 , and wished those who had the gift of continency to continue so, under the sharp persecution of the church, for which he was frequent in journeying, labours, and prisons, 2Co 11:23 , there is no cogent argument to evince that he was then married, however he had liberty to have had a wife, as well as Peter and others: see Mat 19:29 22:28 , with 1Co 9:5 . Some conceive by

yoke-fellow here is meant the lawful husband of one of the forenamed honourable matrons: others, one called by that proper name in Greek; but the epithet annexed doth not so well suit. It may suffice to say it was an intimate colleague and sincere companion of Paul’ s, who was alike affected with him, drawing in the same yoke, for the furtherance of the gospel, his genuine helper; whose special aid, by advice, prayer, and otherwise, he solicited on the behalf of those pious women, who aforetime (though not by public preaching in the church, which he elsewhere disallowed, 1Co 14:34,35 1Ti 2:12 , but privately) had not only wrought, but earnestly striven together with him, by teaching youth, and other women, good things, Tit 2:3,4 putting themselves in hazard with him, in that difficult work he had amongst them, and enduring troubles with him for the propagation of the gospel, Phi 1:27 Act 16:13 ; as Phebe, and Priscilla, and Mary, elsewhere, Act 18:2,3,26 Ro 16:1-3 1Ti 5:10 2Ti 4:19 ; in offices proper to their sex.

Clement probably, was some church officer of Roman extract in that colony at Philippi; whether he, about whose order in the catalogue of Roman bishops historians dispute, there is no certainty.

And with other my fellow labourers the rest, whom he doth not name, but only describe by the assistance they gave him in the holy work of the gospel, probably were other church officers.

Whose names are in the book of life whose names he did in charity apprehend to be enrolled in heaven, as our Saviour speaks to the rejoicing of his seventy disciples, Luk 10:20 . We are not to think there is any material book wherein their names were written, but that he useth it as a borrowed speech, intimating his persuasion of them, (as of the election of others, 1Th 1:4 , with 1Pe 1:2 ), that their life was as certainly sealed up with God, as if their names had been written in a book for that purpose; looking upon them by their fruit as truly gracious persons, whom God had effectually called according to his purpose, Rom 8:28,29,33 ; which is a book written, Exo 32:32 Isa 4:3 Eze 13:9 Dan 12:1 Rev 3:5 13:8 20:12 21:27 ; wherein the Lord knows who are his, 2Ti 2:19 .

Poole: Phi 4:4 - -- He doth here, considering the importance of Christian cheerfulness, which he had twice before put them upon, Phi 2:18 3:1 , stir them up to true rej...

He doth here, considering the importance of Christian cheerfulness, which he had twice before put them upon, Phi 2:18 3:1 , stir them up to true rejoicing, not only by repetition of the injunction, but by extending the duty to all times, and under all conditions. For though there be woe to the enemies of Christ’ s cross, who langh at his followers, Luk 6:25 ; yet they who are really found in him, have evermore ground of rejoicing, for all the benefits of God they have through him, and the far more excellent they do expect to receive upon his account, Joh 16:33 1Co 1:31 1Th 5:16 1Pe 1:8 .

Poole: Phi 4:5 - Let your moderation be known // Unto all men // The Lord is at hand Let your moderation be known exercising an even temper of mind, in governing the sensual appetite, with modesty, patience, and gentleness, in opposit...

Let your moderation be known exercising an even temper of mind, in governing the sensual appetite, with modesty, patience, and gentleness, in opposition to all impetuousness and inordinacy of affections, yea, to all excess and exorbitances in words and actions.

Unto all men both in the eye of the church, and those without, according to our Saviour’ s sermon and example, Mat 5:16,39-41 17:27 ; not rigorously insisting upon our own rights, but with due self-denial putting the best construction upon the words and deeds of others; not troubling our hearts, Joh 14:1 ; banishing that solicitude about the good things of this life, which he doth in the next verse caution against: so 1Co 7:29-32 .

The Lord is at hand considering the cogent motive of the Lord’ s approach, as Heb 10:25 Jam 5:8 ; not only in regard of his Deity, whereby he reigns amongst his enemies, Act 17:27 Jer 23:29 ; nor in regard of his special aids to his servants: Psa 14:5 ; but in regard of his coming to judgment, and setting all things right in a just distribution of rewards and punishments, to comfort his children, and confound those that disobey him, Mat 18:34,35 Mr 10:29,30 Col 3:24 Col 4:1 Heb 10:37 1Pe 3:8,9 Re 22:20 . But still we must remember, when we conceive of the Lord’ s being at hand in regard of death and judgment, we must not take our own but God’ s measures, in waiting our appointed time during his pleasure, Mat 24:36 Act 1:7 .

Poole: Phi 4:6 - Be careful for nothing // But in every thing // By prayer // And supplication // With thanksgiving // Let your requests be made known unto God Be careful for nothing he dissuades not from a spiritual care, arising from a good principle, according to a right rule, for a good end; this care of...

Be careful for nothing he dissuades not from a spiritual care, arising from a good principle, according to a right rule, for a good end; this care of diligence, in a due manner, within our own sphere, is incumbent on us, both for spirituals and temporals; as Phi 2:20 ; with Rom 12:11 2Co 11:28 12:14 2Th 3:10 1Ti 5:8 2Ti 2:15 : yet he earnestly dissuades from and prohibits all carnal solicitude, or carking, distrustful, worldly care, which doth divide and, as it were, split the heart in pieces; that anxious solicitude which doth torture the mind with such thoughts as our blessed Lord will not allow so much as one of them to be predominant in his real disciples, Mat 6:25 , because such immoderate, distracting care, is on our part a disparagement to our heavenly Father’ s good providence, Mat 6:32 ; with Psa 55:22 127:1,2 Mt 4:18,19 1Pe 5:7 . The remedy against which he doth here subjoin.

But in every thing but in all things, or in every occurring necessity, whether prosperous or adverse; sacred or civil, public or private: some render it, every time, in every condition, on every occasion.

By prayer by petition or apprecation of good to ourselves or others; mercies, or blessings, temporal, spiritual, and eternal.

And supplication and by a deprecation of evils felt or feared, wrath and judgments deserved.

With thanksgiving with a grateful acknowledgment of mercies received, benefits conferred, and deliverances vouchsafed; implying that no prayer is acceptable to God, without this ingredient of thankful resentment of his favours.

Let your requests be made known unto God: our affectionate desires should be opened to God, and poured forth before him; not that he is ignorant of us or our wants in any circumstances, but that he accounts himself glorified by our addresses to him, in seeking to be approved and assisted of him in every condition.

Poole: Phi 4:7 - Which passeth all understanding // Shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus He adds, as an encouragement to prayer, the peace of God, who was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, so that upon believing and obeyin...

He adds, as an encouragement to prayer, the peace of God, who was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, so that upon believing and obeying the gospel, they who really do so are reconciled to him, 2Co 5:19,20 , and at peace with him, Rom 5:1 , through Christ, who leaves and gives peace to his, Joh 14:27 . It is then the peace of God, in that he is the object, the donor, the author of it, by his Spirit, to those who persevere in the communion of Christ, as in Phi 4:9 , have the God of peace with them, and a sense thereof in their own spirits.

Which passeth all understanding: how it transcends a finite understanding, may be answered:

1. In that he who hath perceived it, before he had done so, could not sufficiently conceive in his own mind what at length it might be, 1Co 2:9 : hence:

2. After it is perceived, it cannot be that any one should esteem and express the power and virtue of it, according to the worth and excellency of the matter. Not that the peace should affect the heart, the will without the intervention of the understanding; since it is said to keep the heart and mind; and, Rev 2:17 , the white stone given to believers (whereby this peace is signified) is of that kind, which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it; and it is no new thing in Scripture, to say that doth exceed all understanding, which human understanding doth not so distinctly conceive as to be able to express it, as Eph 3:19 . So man’ s mind doth receive that which is taken into admiration, that it perceives something always to remain, which it hath notice of, yet cannot so perceive as to express the whole of it.

Shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus wherefore they who are really interested in this peace shall be kept as in a garrison, 1Pe 1:5 . So their whole souls shall be in safety against the assaults of Satan, their affections and reasoning shall be so kept in order, that, through Christ, they shall not finally fall.

Poole: Phi 4:8 - brethren // whatsoever things are true // Honest // Just // Pure // Lovely // Of good report // If there be any virtue, and if there be any praise // Think on these things As to what remains, he doth, with the fair compellation of brethren furthermore propose to their serious consideration, living in the neighbourhoo...

As to what remains, he doth, with the fair compellation of

brethren furthermore propose to their serious consideration, living in the neighbourhood of the Gentiles, what he doth here, hastening to a conclusion, heap up and fold together: especially,

whatsoever things are true agree with truth and doctrine, in word and conversation, which show candour and sincerity of conscience, both with reference to believers and to infidels, Psa 15:2 Eph 4:14,15,25 .

Honest venerable and grave, as becometh the gospel, Phi 1:27 , to adorn the gospel of God our Saviour, Rom 12:17 13:13 Tit 2:10 ; avoiding what may argue levity or dishonesty in gesture, apparel, words, and deeds, 2Co 7:2 .

Just giving what is due to every one by the law of nature, or nations, or the country, without guile, and not injuring any one, Rth 3:13 Neh 5:11 Mat 22:21 Rom 13:7,8 Col 4:1 1Ti 5:8 Tit 1:8 2:12 .

Pure keeping themselves undefiled in the way, Psa 119:1 , from the pollution of sin, 1Jo 3:3 , and the blemishes of filthy words and deeds, Eph 4:29 5:3-5 .

Lovely whatsoever may gain the real respect of, and be grateful to, good men, in an affable deportment acceptable to God, Tit 3:2 .

Of good report whatsoever is in a tendency to maintain a good name; not to court vain-glory or popular applause, Gal 1:10 , but that which may be for the honour of Christ, and the reputation of the gospel among the Gentiles, Rom 15:2 1Pe 2:12 ; in agreement with the word of God; otherwise we must pass through evil as well as good report, Luk 16:15 2Co 6:8 .

If there be any virtue, and if there be any praise and upon supposition there be really any other commendable practice amongst any, any praiseworthy deportment.

Think on these things diligently consider and prosecute these things.

Poole: Phi 4:9 - Those things, which ye have both learned // And received, and heard // And seen in me // Do // And the God of peace shall be with you Those things, which ye have both learned he recommends to their serious practice not new things, but those weighty matters which they had before lear...

Those things, which ye have both learned he recommends to their serious practice not new things, but those weighty matters which they had before learned of him when preaching amongst them.

And received, and heard yea, and approved as worthy to be kept.

And seen in me and that all things might be more lively and affecting, with an increase of words, he moves with this, that his doctrine was exemplified by his own practice when amongst them, (as he had hinted before, Phi 3:17 ), expressing the same thing by his life which he did by his word, 1Ti 4:12 1Pe 5:3 .

Do whereupon he would have them to be doers also of the same things, 1Th 1:6 2:13 Heb 13:7 Jam 1:22 .

And the God of peace shall be with you and in this practice you have comfort from the presence of the God of peace, (as above, Phi 4:7 ), who will embrace and prosper you, being reconciled to you in Christ, and at peace with you: so Rom 15:5,33 16:20 2Co 13:11 1Th 5:23 .

Poole: Phi 4:10 - But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly // wherein But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly he signifies that he had been much raised in true spiritual (not carnal) joy, that the Lord had by his Spirit wrou...

But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly he signifies that he had been much raised in true spiritual (not carnal) joy, that the Lord had by his Spirit wrought in them such enlargedness of heart, as did show itself in their care of him for the sake of Christ. What follows, a learned man writes, may be rendered, that now at last, ye could bring to maturity the care of me; for whom indeed ye had been careful, but had not the ability. The apostle’ s phrase is borrowed from trees, which in the winter season keep their sap within the bark, in the spring and summer grow green, and yield their fruit: so was the Philippians’ care of Paul, suffering in Christ’ s cause; for the Greek word we translate

flourished again or revived, is sometimes used actively, and transitively. So in the Seventy, Eze 17:24 ; with the apocryphal writer, /APC Sir 1:18 11:22 50:11 : and so it may be expounded here, not only of reviving, growing green, and budding again, (which is less than the thing is), but of bringing forth fruit. For their care of Paul was in their heart, but by reason of troubles it could not exert itself, or yield fruit, but only in the season, as Mat 21:34which the apostle, softening his speech, allegeth as an apology for them: he doth not say there was not any opportunity in respect of himself, but a seasonableness in respect of them; they being destitute of a faculty of bringing forth fruit, Phi 4:17 , (which yet they always nourished in their most intimate affections towards him), till the present, when at length they had a seasonableness and an ability given them of God, to the perfecting of that fruit for the apostle. For what we translate

wherein may, as Phi 3:12 , be translated, for where: compare the use of the particle and article, Mat 18:4 , with Mat 26:50 Rom 5:12 .

Poole: Phi 4:11 - Not that I speak in respect of want // For I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content Not that I speak in respect of want: he doth anticipate any conceit they might have, as if he had a mean soul, and his joy were solely for the fruit ...

Not that I speak in respect of want: he doth anticipate any conceit they might have, as if he had a mean soul, and his joy were solely for the fruit of their care be had received in the supply of his want, as the same word is elsewhere used, Mat 12:44 .

For I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content because he knew better things; being instructed at a higher rate, he had practically learned to rest satisfied with his own lot, 2Co 11:27 , accounting God’ s allowance a sufficiency to him in any condition, 1Ti 6:6,8 . How adverse soever his state was, he had attained to such equanimity that he could be content with such things as he had, Heb 13:5 , and cheerfully and patiently submit to God’ s most wise disposal of him, knowing his most righteous and tender hearted Father would never leave nor forsake him, having already given him greater things than any of these sublunary ones he could stand in need of, Rom 8:32 .

Poole: Phi 4:12 - I know both how to be abased // And I know how to abound // Every where and in all things I am instructed // Both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need He explains the equality of his mind he had through grace attained to, in a free submission to God, either in the absence or affluence of external g...

He explains the equality of his mind he had through grace attained to, in a free submission to God, either in the absence or affluence of external good things.

I know both how to be abased in a mean and ignominious state, he had spiritual skill to exercise suitable graces without murmuring, or repining when trampled on, 1Co 4:11 2Co 11:27 ; having entirely resigned his will to the will of God.

And I know how to abound in a higher state, had in much esteem, and well accommodated.

Every where and in all things I am instructed yea, in all circumstances religiously initiated and taught, fortified against temptations on all hands.

Both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need when faring well, and having a large revenue, to be temperate, 1Co 9:25 , humble, and communicative, 1Ti 6:18 . When hungry and poor, not to be distressed, but confident our heavenly Father will provide enough in his season, Mat 6:32 7:11 2Co 4:8 , giving an elixir at present that will turn all into gold.

Poole: Phi 4:13 - can do all things Having written of the great things he had learned, that it might not be attributed to his proud conceit, or give occasion to any others’ vanit...

Having written of the great things he had learned, that it might not be attributed to his proud conceit, or give occasion to any others’ vanity to boast, (as he had recourse before to the Divine efficiency to will and do, Phi 2:13 ), he rests solely for power upon Christ, being found in whom, when he saith he

can do all things we are not to understand it absolutely, but restrictively to the subject matter he had before mentioned in the precedent verses, intimating he could by the Lord’ s help use well both prosperity and adversity: or, all those things the Lord called him to and put him upon. Not, as the papists urge, that any mere man since the fall is able in this life perfectly to keep the commandments of God; but that he by faith being united to Christ, by the power of his Spirit dwelling in him, hath in the Lord righteousness and strength, Isa 45:24 ; and thereupon hath a sincere respect to all God’ s commands, as David had, Psa 119:6 ; so also had Zacharias and Elisabeth, Luk 1:6 ; in opposition to Pharisaical obedience: not by any power he had of himself, but through Christ strengthening of him, so that God would accept of his sincere performance (though not every way perfect) of what was incumbent on him.

Poole: Phi 4:14 - -- Lest any should suspect, from what he had suggested of his contentment, that he was not much affected with their liberality, but might have done as ...

Lest any should suspect, from what he had suggested of his contentment, that he was not much affected with their liberality, but might have done as well without as with it, and they might have spared their bounty and labour, he doth prudently commend their Christian commiseration, (as the phrase is, Act 10:33 ), and give them to understand how acceptable their seasonable supply was to him, who did so joyfully resent their kindness to him, in that it was well-pleasing to God, Rom 12:15 ; they did so effectually sympathize and take a share in the oppression he sustained for the cause of Christ, 2Co 1:7 , and remember him in his bonds as if it were their own case, Heb 13:3 Rev 1:9 .

Poole: Phi 4:15 - In the beginning of the gospel // When I departed from Macedonia // No church communicated with me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only He amplifies the present favour the Christians at Philippi had vouchsafed to him, by a thankful recollection of their former liberality. In the beg...

He amplifies the present favour the Christians at Philippi had vouchsafed to him, by a thankful recollection of their former liberality.

In the beginning of the gospel soon after he had preached and planted the good things of salvation amongst them, Phi 2:22 Act 16:12,13,40 .

When I departed from Macedonia comparing their first benevolence with other churches, when leaving of Macedonia, Act 18:5 2Co 11:9 .

No church communicated with me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only none of the rest of the churches had, for the spiritual things received of him in his ministration, distributed of their carnal or temporal, (though that was their duty beyond dispute, 1Co 9:7,11,13,14 Ga 6:6 1Ti 5:17,18 ), but they alone: which might at once commend their Christian liberality, and evince that he in preaching of the gospel was not mercenary, not having exacted a reward from others, but preached the gospel freely, 2Co 11:7 .

Poole: Phi 4:16 - -- They, for their parts, were most commendable in this matter, that when he was in Thessalonica, the mother city, (not above twenty-five miles distant...

They, for their parts, were most commendable in this matter, that when he was in Thessalonica, the mother city, (not above twenty-five miles distant), their care for his comfortable livelihood was more than once manifested, he passing again and again through Macedonia, 1Co 16:5 2Co 1:16 ; which argues his thankful resentment of the constant purpose of their mind to succour him upon all occasions.

Poole: Phi 4:17 - -- Neither would he have any of them to think, as if his commendation of them were any oblique insinuations, with design to draw something more from th...

Neither would he have any of them to think, as if his commendation of them were any oblique insinuations, with design to draw something more from them; he would have them to understand he did not seek himself, or theirs for his use, (as elsewhere, 1Co 10:33 2Co 12:14 ), but his great intent was, that they themselves might of God’ s grace have the fruit of their charity they had showed to him, Phi 1:11 4:10 ; which, in the balancing of the accounts, (by accepting as it were of Christ’ s will, Pro 19:17 Mat 10:42 25:35,36,40 ), will turn to their best advantage.

Poole: Phi 4:18 - -- He further testifies his thankfulness from the effect their gratuity had upon him, by three words here which declare the same thing, viz. that he wa...

He further testifies his thankfulness from the effect their gratuity had upon him, by three words here which declare the same thing, viz. that he was abundantly satisfied, having all that he could wish, even enough and more; so that he did not expect any thing more than what he had already received by their faithful messenger Epaphroditus; which he further commends from its great acceptableness to God, in allusion to the sweet odours in the sacrifices that God himself took pleasure in, Lev 2:1,2 3:16 Heb 13:16 ; so that that present God himself would accept through Christ, as if it had been offered to himself, 1Pe 2:5 . It is true, the Socinians, to lessen the meritoriousness of Christ’ s sacrifice of himself, which the apostle mentions, Eph 5:2 , with respect to Gen 8:21 , would by this text corrupt that: but the truth is, it hath nothing like with that, for the benevolence and gratuity of the Philippians is said by Paul to be an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, & c.; but it is not said that the Philippians themselves did give themselves and dour of a sweet smell, as it is said Christ gave himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour; which being once offered for all, was sufficient to take away sin, Heb 10:10,12 . And therefore their reasoning is fallacious from that parity they suggest. It is true, believers and their good works are as sweet odours, Rom 12:1 , acceptable, but in Christ, 1Pe 2:5 , because they please God only for him, for his sake and merit. But Christ, because he doth appease God himself, who smells a savour of rest in his sacrifice, which all others under the law did but shadow, receiving their efficacy from his: Christ did it by himself, believers and their services are only acceptable in him.

Poole: Phi 4:19 - But my God // Shall supply all your need // According to his riches in glory // By Christ Jesus But my God: see Phi 4:3 : he saith my God, because he imputeth and owneth that to be done to himself which is done according to his mind unto any ...

But my God: see Phi 4:3 : he saith my God, because he imputeth and owneth that to be done to himself which is done according to his mind unto any of his ambassadors, he having received the gift from their hand by Paul.

Shall supply all your need will, in a gracious return to Paul’ s prayer, abundantly answer (yea, above all he could ask or think) all their expectations, Psa 41:1-3 , with 2Co 9:8,10 .

According to his riches in glory agreeably to his own fulness and rich mercy, Psa 24:1 1Co 10:26 Eph 2:4 ; gloriously, or riches of his glory, Eph 3:16 , and goodness, Rom 2:4 9:23 ; sustaining and defending them liberally and powerfully here, to his own glory, and taking them hereafter into everlasting glory.

By Christ Jesus through the mediation of, and by virtue of their communion with, Christ Jesus.

Poole: Phi 4:20 - Amen From thanking of the Philippians, the holy man passeth to a giving of thanks unto God, the first cause, that they might not be elated. He had my Go...

From thanking of the Philippians, the holy man passeth to a giving of thanks unto God, the first cause, that they might not be elated. He had my God, Phi 4:19 ; now, our Father; not only adoring him as Maker of all, but as Father of all the faithful as well as of Paul, being born of him in Christ, Joh 1:12,13 , through whom he takes a fatherly care of them, Mat 6:32 . Christ saith, my Father, Joh 20:17 , as being his only Son by eternal generation; and he allows believers to say our Father, as being his children by adoption. Unto whom they are obliged to ascribe praise, and always to give thanks in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Eph 5:20 . And this indeed hath been their practice, which should be ours, Rom 1:25 9:5 11:33,36 16:25,27 Eph 3:21 1Ti 1:17 1Pe 4:11 5:11 2Pe 3:18 Jud 1:25 Rev 1:6 , &c. It intimates, their hearts being full with the glory of God, their pens and months were enlarged accordingly, exciting others to the like doxologies. To almost all which in the forecited places (as here)

ever and ever is added, connoting absolute eternity, and joining past, present, and future ages together. This form of

Amen affixed in the close, doth signify how his heart did give, and rejoiced to give, all blessedness to our Father in Christ, as rejoicing that he is so blessed a God.

Poole: Phi 4:21 - brethren He doth friendly embrace and wish happiness to all and every sanctified one who is a member of Christ, hath entirely resigned up to him, and doth ab...

He doth friendly embrace and wish happiness to all and every sanctified one who is a member of Christ, hath entirely resigned up to him, and doth abide in him. Then shows, that most probably his colleagues and fellow labourers in the Christian church at Rome, (calling such elsewhere

brethren 1Co 1:1 Col 1:1 4:7 Phm 1:1,7,20), Phi 1:14 2:25 1Co 16:20 , do so likewise.

Poole: Phi 4:22 - -- The rest of the Christians at Rome do the same; more especially they of Nero the emperor’ s own family and court, his domestics, Phi 1:13 . It ...

The rest of the Christians at Rome do the same; more especially they of Nero the emperor’ s own family and court, his domestics, Phi 1:13 . It seems there were some there truly pious and Christian: but however some conceit, there is no real evidence that Seneca was of that number; he being not a courtier, but a senator, who left no real token (we know of) that he was a Christian.

Poole: Phi 4:23 - Amen He concludes this (like his other Epistles) much as he began, (see on Phi 1:2 ), praying the same grace of the Lord might abide with them, which he ...

He concludes this (like his other Epistles) much as he began, (see on Phi 1:2 ), praying the same grace of the Lord might abide with them, which he had prayed to them all, Phi 1:1 .

Amen not at all doubting, but with full confidence trusting, all should be firm, as he had prayed.

It was written to the Philippians from Rome by Epaphroditus.

PBC: Phi 4:7 - keep your hearts " keep your hearts" Keep your hearts was translated from a Greek word which means to stand guard over. The sentinel, the armed guard over the fortres...

" keep your hearts"

Keep your hearts was translated from a Greek word which means to stand guard over. The sentinel, the armed guard over the fortress of your heart, is God’s peace!

41

PBC: Phi 4:19 - -- See Philpot: A SUPPLY FOR EVERY NEED

See Philpot: A SUPPLY FOR EVERY NEED

PBC: Phi 4:22 - -- Many examples can be given from the Old Testament of God’s children who were put in positions of power and influence in pagan governments. Here is a...

Many examples can be given from the Old Testament of God’s children who were put in positions of power and influence in pagan governments. Here is an example of this from the New Testament.

The Apostle Paul was under household arrest in Rome. He was incarcerated in a location very near the heart of government. He boldly preached the gospel and constantly witnessed to everyone he met. Evidently some very important people were converted to Christianity. When Paul was closing his letter to the church at Philippi, he said in Php 4:22 " All the saints salute you, chiefly they that are of Caesar’s household." It does not take much imagination to realize that the servants of Caesar were in a very good position from which to assist the cause of Christ.

326

Haydock: Phi 4:2 - I beg of I beg of. St. John Chrysostom, Theodoret, and many others, think that these were two ladies particularly famous in the Church at Philippi, for their...

I beg of. St. John Chrysostom, Theodoret, and many others, think that these were two ladies particularly famous in the Church at Philippi, for their virtue and good works. Some critics are of opinion that Syntyche was a man. It is certain, at least, that this name agrees amongst the Greek better with a man than a woman; and perhaps the latter of these two may be the husband of Evodia.

Haydock: Phi 4:3 - I entreat thee, my sincere // With Clement // Those women who have laboured with me in the gospel I entreat thee, my sincere [1] companion. St. John Chrysostom expounds it of his fellow labourer or fellow soldier, and says that some pretended t...

I entreat thee, my sincere [1] companion. St. John Chrysostom expounds it of his fellow labourer or fellow soldier, and says that some pretended that by it was meant St. Paul's wife; but this he absolutely rejects, as do all the ancient interpreters, who teach us that St. Paul was never married, if we except the particular opinion of Clement of Alexandria, (lib. 3. strom. p. 448. Edit. Heinsii) who at the same time tells us, that St. Paul and those ministers of the gospel who had wives, lived with them as if they had been their sisters. The pretended reformers, who bring this place to shew that bishops and priests may marry, will they be for living after this manner? See 1 Corinthians vii. 7, 8. But even Calvin, Beza, and Dr. Hammond, expound this of some man that laboured with St. Paul. (Witham) ---

It seems probable that St. Paul is here speaking to one of the persons mentioned in the previous verse. Others think that he is speaking to the gaoler [jailer] whom he converted at Philippi. It seems most probable, however, that St. Paul is here speaking to the bishop of the Church, at Philippi. As to the opinion that he is speaking to his wife, we have elsewhere refuted that sentiment. (Calmet) ---

St. Paul says of himself that he had no wife, (1 Corinthians vii. 8.) and all the Greek Fathers are very positive on this point. ---

With Clement. St. Jerome, Estius, and some others, believe that this Clement was the fourth pope that governed the Church, after Sts. Linus and Cletus: this at least is the common opinion. ---

Those women who have laboured with me in the gospel, not by preaching, but by assisting other ways to promote the gospel. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Germane compar. Greek suzuge gnesie. St. John Chrysostom ( Greek: log. ig. p. 76.) expounds it by Greek: sunergos and Greek: sustratiotes. He tells us some fancied it was St. Paul's wife; but, says he, Greek: alla ouk estin, &c.

Haydock: Phi 4:6 - But in every But in every [2] thing by prayer, &c. By the Greek, the sense and construction cannot be in every prayer; but in every thing, in all circumstanc...

But in every [2] thing by prayer, &c. By the Greek, the sense and construction cannot be in every prayer; but in every thing, in all circumstances, have recourse to prayer. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Sed in omni oratione, &c. Greek: all en panti, te proseuche; no copies, Greek: pase.

Haydock: Phi 4:8 - For the rest, brethren, whatsoever things are true // Whatsoever things are true // Whatsoever things are modest // Whatsoever things are just // Whatsoever things are amiable // Whatsoever things are of good repute // If there be any virtue, if there be any praise of discipline For the rest, brethren, whatsoever things are true, &c. Here the apostle enumerates general precepts of morality, which they ought to practise. --- ...

For the rest, brethren, whatsoever things are true, &c. Here the apostle enumerates general precepts of morality, which they ought to practise. ---

Whatsoever things are true. In words, in promises, in lawful oaths, &c. he commands rectitude of mind and sincerity of heart. ---

Whatsoever things are modest. By these words he prescribes gravity in manners, modesty in dress, and decency in conversation. ---

Whatsoever things are just. That is, in dealing with others, in buying or selling, in trade or business, to be fair and honest. Whatsoever things are holy. By these words may be understood, that those who are in a religious state professed, or in holy orders, should lead a life of sanctity and chastity, according to the vows they make; but these words being applied to those in the world, indicate the virtuous life they are bound by the divine commandments to follow. ---

Whatsoever things are amiable. That is to practise those good offices in society that procure us the esteem and good will of our neighbours. ---

Whatsoever things are of good repute. That is, that by our conduct and behaviour we should edify our neighbours, and give them good example by our actions. ---

If there be any virtue, if there be any praise of discipline: that those in error, by seeing the morality and good discipline of the true religion, may be converted. And finally, the apostle commands not only the Philippians, but all Christians, to think on these things: that is, to make it their study and concern, that the peace of God might be with them. (Challoner)

Haydock: Phi 4:10 - Hath flourished again Hath flourished again. Literally, that you have flourished again, to think or care for me, which appears by your sending me a supply of money. (...

Hath flourished again. Literally, that you have flourished again, to think or care for me, which appears by your sending me a supply of money. (Witham) ---

From hence it would appear, that the Philippians had in some respect been wanting in attention to this apostle: that their former liberality, which for a time had been slack and dead, had again revived.

Haydock: Phi 4:11 - I have learned....to be content therewith I have learned....to be content therewith. Literally, to be sufficient. I know how to be in a low condition. (Witham)

I have learned....to be content therewith. Literally, to be sufficient. I know how to be in a low condition. (Witham)

Haydock: Phi 4:14 - In communicating In communicating; [3] i.e. contributing to relieve my wants. (Witham) =============================== [BIBLIOGRAPHY] Communicantes, Greek: s...

In communicating; [3] i.e. contributing to relieve my wants. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Communicantes, Greek: sugkoinonesantes. See Chap. i. 5. &c.

Haydock: Phi 4:15 - Giving and receiving Giving and receiving; by my giving your spiritual instructions, and you returning me temporal assistance; and know that these, your charities, are a...

Giving and receiving; by my giving your spiritual instructions, and you returning me temporal assistance; and know that these, your charities, are an odour of sweetness, an acceptable sacrifice to God. (ver. 18.) (Witham)

Haydock: Phi 4:19 - May God supply all your wants May God supply all your wants. [4] See the Greek, which determines the signification of the Latin. (Witham) =============================== [BI...

May God supply all your wants. [4] See the Greek, which determines the signification of the Latin. (Witham)

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Omne desiderium vestrum; the common Greek copies, Greek: chreian; though some Greek: epithumian; some Greek: charan, gaudium; and some Greek: pharin, gratiam.

====================

Gill: Phi 4:1 - Therefore, my brethren // dearly beloved // and longed for // my joy and crown // so stand fast in the Lord // my dearly beloved Therefore, my brethren,.... Not in a natural but spiritual relation; having the same Father, being of the same family, and household of faith: seeing ...

Therefore, my brethren,.... Not in a natural but spiritual relation; having the same Father, being of the same family, and household of faith: seeing that on the one hand there were false teachers, who stand described by various characters in the preceding chapter, by whom they were in danger of being carried away from the simplicity of the Gospel; and on the other hand, such were the conduct and conversation of the apostle, and other true believers, and such were their expectations of Christ from heaven, and of happiness from him as there expressed; therefore he exhorts to steadfastness in him, and that under the most tender, affectionate, and endearing appellations; given in the uprightness of his soul, without any manner of flattery, to signify his strong affection for them, and to engage them to attend the more to what he was about to exhort them to; and which arose from pure love to them, an hearty concern for their good, and the honour of Christ Jesus:

dearly beloved: as belonging to Christ, interested in him, members of him, redeemed by him, and bearing his image; and as his brethren, and so not loved with a carnal, but spiritual love:

and longed for; to see them, converse with them, and impart some spiritual gift to them; being the excellent in the earth, as other saints, towards whom was his desire, and with whom was all his delight. These epithets are joined with the word "brethren", in the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, and read thus, "my dearly beloved, and longed for brethren"; and in the Ethiopic version, "our beloved brethren": to which are added,

my joy and crown; they were matter of joy to him, as he had reason to hope well of them; yea, to be confident that the good work was begun, and would be carried on in them; and that they had hitherto continued in the doctrine of the Gospel, and walked worthy of it; and they were his "crown", as they were seals of his ministry; and whom he valued more, and reckoned a greater honour and ornament to him, than the richest diadem, set with the most costly jewels and precious stones, and which he hoped and believed would be his crown of rejoicing another day; when he, with them, should stand at the hand of Christ triumphing, as victors crowned, ever sin, Satan, the world, death, and hell:

so stand fast in the Lord; or "by the Lord"; by his power and strength, which is only able to make to stand fast; saints are liable to failing, and would fall, were they not upheld with his right hand, and kept by his power; they only stand fast, as they stand supported by his strength, trusting in his might, and leaning on his arm. Christ is the only foundation where they can stand safe and sure; and such as are rooted and grounded, and built up in him, are established and stand; though they are still in need of being exhorted to hold the head, abide by him, and cleave unto him; to stand fast in his grace, exercising the graces of faith, hope, and love upon him; in the liberty of Christ, in opposition to the bondage of the law, false teachers were for bringing them into; and in the doctrine of faith, and not depart from it in any degree, nor give way in the least to the opposers of it, but continue steadfast in it without wavering, and which is chiefly intended here: so the Arabic version renders it, "so stand in the faith of the Lord"; both in the grace faith, and in the doctrine of it, and in the profession of both: see 1Co 16:13. The apostle bids them so stand fast; that is, either as they had hitherto done, or as they had him and others for an example; whose views, conversation, and behaviour, are described in the foregoing chapter:

my dearly beloved; this, which otherwise would be a repetition of what is before said, is by some connected with the former clause, and read thus, "so stand fast my dearly beloved in the Lord"; and contains a reason, both why they were dearly beloved by the apostle, because beloved in and by the Lord; and why it became them to stand fast in him, and abide by him, his truths, ordinances, cause, and interest.

Gill: Phi 4:2 - I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche // that they be of the same mind in the Lord I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche,.... Two women, who were members of this church at Philippi, and who seem to have been at variance; either wit...

I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche,.... Two women, who were members of this church at Philippi, and who seem to have been at variance; either with each other, on account of some temporal and civil things, as often is the case of the dear children of God, who fall out by the way; and it becomes a very hard and difficult task to reconcile them, though as here entreated in the most tender and importunate manner to agree: or else with the church, having entertained some sentiments in religion different from it; being drawn aside by false teachers from the simplicity of the Gospel, and their steadfastness in the faith; and this may rather be thought to be the meaning, since the apostle would scarcely take notice of a private difference in so public a manner, and since this exhortation follows so closely the former:

that they be of the same mind in the Lord; either that they agree together, and be reconciled to each other, considering the relation they stood in to one another, and to the Lord; or that they become of the same mind, and embrace the same truths, and profess and maintain the same principles the church did; and so the Arabic version renders it, "that ye entertain one and the same opinion concerning the faith of the Lord".

Gill: Phi 4:3 - And I entreat thee also, true yoke fellow // help those women // which laboured with me in the Gospel // with Clement also // and with other my fellow labourers // whose names are in the book of life And I entreat thee also, true yoke fellow,.... Not his wife, as some think d, for he had none, as appears from 1Co 7:7, at the writing of which epistl...

And I entreat thee also, true yoke fellow,.... Not his wife, as some think d, for he had none, as appears from 1Co 7:7, at the writing of which epistle he was at Ephesus, where he stayed some little time, and then went to Jerusalem; where he was quickly apprehended, and sent a prisoner to Rome, and where he now was as such; and therefore it is not likely that he should marry a wife within this compass of time, and much less that he should have one at Philippi; besides, the word used is of the masculine gender, and designs a man and not a woman: some think it is the proper name of a man, who was called "Syzygus", and so the Arabic interpreter seems to understand it; and by the apostle, true "Syzygus", signifying that as was his name, so was he, really and in truth, a companion and fellow labourer, that drew in the same yoke with him; the Syriac version renders it, "the son of my yoke", and the Ethiopic version, "my brother and my companion": some think this person was the husband or brother of one of the above women; and therefore is entreated to use his interest, and compose the difference between them, or endeavour to reconcile them to the church; and others that it was the jailer, that was converted by the apostle: but it seems most likely to have been one that was under the same yoke of the Gospel, and who had been employed with him in preaching of it, a fellow labourer; such an one as Barnabas, Silas, and Timothy, and might be one of those; or rather Epaphroditus, who was minister in this church, and by whom the apostle sent this letter, and whom he might address and importune in this manner; the word may very well be thought to answer to the Hebrew word חבר, often used in Jewish writings, for an associate, a colleague, and a disciple of the wise men, to which the apostle may allude; see Phi 2:25,

help those women; Euodias and Syntyche. The Syriac and Ethiopic versions read "them", referring to the above women; and the Arabic version reads, "help both"; that is, both those women; not by relieving their temporal wants, which it does not appear they were in; but either by composing their differences, or by assisting them with good counsel and advice; and giving them proper instructions in the doctrines of the Gospel, that they might be brought to think the same things the church did: and the rather such pains should be taken with them, since they were such, says the apostle,

which laboured with me in the Gospel; not in preaching it, for he suffered not a woman to teach in the church, 1Ti 2:12; but by professing it, and bearing reproach and persecution for it; and by supporting and encouraging, and spreading it with their worldly substance:

with Clement also; which some think is the same with Clemens Romanus, who was afterwards bishop of Rome, and whose epistle to the Corinthians is still extant; other writings are ascribed to him, but are spurious; however, by his name he seems to be a Roman; and from his being joined with the apostle, as one with whom these women also laboured in the Gospel, he appears to be a preacher of it at Philippi:

and with other my fellow labourers; in the work of the ministry, as Timothy, who was with him at Philippi, when he first preached the Gospel there, Act 16:1, and some others:

whose names are in the book of life; the book of God's eternal purposes and decrees, divine predestination to eternal life; and this being called a "book", and the names of persons being said to be in it, denote the love of God to his elect, his care of them, his value for them, his remembrance of them, and the exact knowledge which he has of them; as well as imply, that his eternal election of them is personal and particular, is well known to him, and is sure and unchangeable; being more so than the writing of Pilate on the cross, who said, what I have written, I have written, Joh 19:22; and is called the "book of life", because those whose names are written in it, have a spiritual life here, and an eternal one hereafter; to both which they are afore written in this book, or pre-ordained in God's counsels, and certainly and infallibly enjoy it: now the apostle's knowledge of these persons being written in this book, did not arise from any special revelation, as being shown the book of life, and the names of the elect in it, when he was caught up into the third heaven, 2Co 12:2; nor was his knowledge of this matter peculiar and limited to these persons only, but common to all that he had reason to hope and believe had received the grace of God in truth, and walked worthy of the calling wherewith they were called, Eph 4:1; such persons in a judgment of charity, which hopes and believes all things, he concluded were in this book of life; and the same judgment, faith, and hope, ought all believers to form and entertain one of another, nothing appearing contrary to it, in their faith and conversation,

Gill: Phi 4:4 - Rejoice in the Lord alway // and again, I say, rejoice Rejoice in the Lord alway,.... This is a repetition of the exhortation in the preceding chapter; See Gill on Phi 3:1; with this addition "alway"; for ...

Rejoice in the Lord alway,.... This is a repetition of the exhortation in the preceding chapter; See Gill on Phi 3:1; with this addition "alway"; for there is always cause and matter for rejoicing in Christ, even in times of affliction, distress, and persecution; since he is always the same; his grace is always sufficient; his blood has a continual virtue in it, and always speaks for peace and pardon; his righteousness is an everlasting one, and so is his salvation, and such is his love; though some join this word with what follows,

and again, I say, rejoice; this is what was continually inculcated by him, as being of great importance and use for the comfort of believers, and the honour of Christ.

Gill: Phi 4:5 - Let your moderation be known unto all men // the Lord is at hand Let your moderation be known unto all men,.... The Vulgate Latin reads, "your modesty". The Syriac and Arabic versions, "your meekness", or "humility"...

Let your moderation be known unto all men,.... The Vulgate Latin reads, "your modesty". The Syriac and Arabic versions, "your meekness", or "humility"; graces which accompany moderation, and are very necessary to it, but not that itself. The Ethiopic version renders it, "your authority", which by no means agrees; for moderation lies not in exerting authority and power to the uttermost, at least with rigour, but in showing clemency and lenity; not dealing with men according to the severity of laws and strict justice, but according to equity, and with mildness and gentleness; giving up strict and proper right, receding from what is a man's due, and not rigidly insisting on it; putting up with affronts and injuries, and bearing them with patience; and interpreting things in the best sense, and putting the best constructions on words and actions they will bear; and in using inferiors and equals with all humanity, kindness, and respect: and this is what is here intended, which the apostle would have made "known"; exercised and practised publicly, that it might be seen and known of all, and God might be glorified, by whose name they were called, though their agreeable conversation among men; see Mat 5:16; and he would not only have this known unto, but exercised towards "all men"; not only to believers, the members of the church, by ruling with gentleness, by bearing the infirmities of the weak, and by forgiving offences; but also to unbelievers, to the men of the world, by not avenging themselves, but giving way to wrath; by patient suffering for well doing, without making any returns of ill, either by words or deeds: this is the moderation here meant, and not moderation in eating and drinking, and in apparel, and in the love and use of, and care for the things of this world; though such moderation highly becomes professors of religion; and much less moderation in religion, or towards the false teachers, thinking and speaking well of them; and interpreting their notions in the best sense, hoping they may mean otherwise than they say, and therefore should treat their persons with great respect, and their principles with tenderness; but this can never be thought to be the apostle's sense, after he had himself given them such names and characters, as in Phi 3:2; and besides, though we may, and many times ought, as men and Christians, to give way, and yield up what is our right and due, for the sake of peace, yet we cannot, nor ought to give up anything, that of right belongs to God and Christ, in matters of doctrine or worship; nor in the least abate of our zeal for the same, or give way to false teachers in any respect, nor for any time: moreover, moderation in religion is nothing else but lukewarmness and indifference, than which nothing is more detestable, or abhorred by Christ. The argument or reason enforcing moderation in the above sense of it follows,

the Lord is at hand. The Syriac version reads, "our Lord": and the Ethiopic version, "God is at hand". The sense is, either the Lord is near, he is omnipresent, and sees and observes the conduct of his people, their deportment in the world, and to one another; and therefore, as in his presence, and under his eye, they should behave according to equity, and with kindness and tenderness towards their fellow creatures and fellow Christians: or the Lord is nigh unto them, as he is to all that call upon him in truth, Psa 145:18; he is a present help in time of trouble, Psa 46:1; he is in the midst of them, and will help, and that right early, Psa 46:5; and will avenge his elect, and vindicate their cause, and right all their wrongs in his due time; and therefore they should take all things patiently, and not avenge themselves: or in a little while Christ will come to judgment, when he will plead the cause of his people, and convince ungodly sinners of their ungodly deeds, and hard speeches against him and his, Jud 1:15; and therefore they should leave all to that time, and commit themselves to him that judgeth righteously, 1Pe 2:23.

Gill: Phi 4:6 - Be careful for nothing // but in everything // by prayer and supplication // with thanksgiving // let your requests be made known to God Be careful for nothing,.... This must be understood not in the most extensive sense, but with a limitation and restriction. There are many things that...

Be careful for nothing,.... This must be understood not in the most extensive sense, but with a limitation and restriction. There are many things that saints are to be careful for, as men and Christians; they are to be careful of their bodies, as well as of their souls; of the health of them, which is to be preserved by all lawful means, and not exposed to unnecessary danger; and for their families, to provide things honest for them, proper food and raiment, and the necessaries of life; for whoever does not do that, denies the faith, and is worse than an infidel; and even for the things of this world in a moderate way, using all diligence and industry in obtaining them; men ought to be careful to discharge the duties of their calling in civil life, and to care and concern themselves for the honour of God, the interest of religion, and the support of the Gospel; and that they offend not God, by sinning against him: but the carefulness the apostle speaks of, is an anxious solicitude for worldly things, an immoderate concern for the things of life, arising from diffidence, or negligence, of the power, providence, and faithfulness of God: saints should not be anxiously, or in a distressing manner concerned for the things of this world, but be content, whether they have less or more; nor be over much pressed with what befalls them, but should cast their care upon the Lord, and carry every case to him, and leave it there:

but in everything. The Syriac and Ethiopic versions render it, "in every time": always, constantly, every day, as often as there is opportunity, and need requires. The Vulgate Latin and Arabic versions join it with the following clause, "in every prayer and supplication"; but the grammatical construction of the words will not admit of such a version; it is best to understand it of every thing, or case, which should be brought to God; whether it be of a temporal or spiritual kind, relating to body or soul, to ourselves or others, to our families, relations, and acquaintance, the church, or the world:

by prayer and supplication: which may include all sorts of prayer, mental or vocal, private or public, ordinary or extraordinary, and every part of prayer: prayer may design petition, or asking for good things that are wanted; and "supplication", a deprecating of evils that are feared; though these two are often used together for the same thing, for prayer in general: which ought always to be accompanied

with thanksgiving; for mercies received; for a man can never come to the throne of grace, to ask for grace and mercy, but he has mercies to bless God for, and so to do is very acceptable to God; nor can a person expect to succeed in the enjoyment of future mercies, when he is not thankful for past and present ones: in this manner therefore, at all times, upon every occasion, in a way of humble petition and supplication, joined with thankfulness for all favours,

let your requests be made known to God; not to men; fly not to an arm of flesh, but to God, to him only, and that in the most private mariner, as not to be known by men; and put up such requests, as there may be reason to hope and believe God will "know" and approve of; such as are agreeable to his will, to the covenant of his grace, and the declaration of his word: use familiarity with God, tell him as you would do a friend, freely and fully, all your case, pour out your souls and your complaints before him. This God would have his people do, and he expects it from them; and though he knows all their wants, and what are their desires before they express them, yet he will seem not to know them, or take any notice of them, until they open them to him in some way or other; either by vocal prayer, or mental; by ejaculations, or sighs and groans, by chattering as a crane or a swallow, all which he understands: and be the case made known in what way or manner soever, with ever so much weakness, so be it, it is made known, it is enough, it shall be regarded and not despised.

Gill: Phi 4:7 - And the peace of God which passeth all understanding // shall keep your hearts and minds through Jesus Christ And the peace of God which passeth all understanding,.... Not that peace which God calls his people to among themselves in their effectual calling; an...

And the peace of God which passeth all understanding,.... Not that peace which God calls his people to among themselves in their effectual calling; and which he requires of them to cultivate and maintain; and which he encourages in them by the promise of his gracious presence among them; and which indeed he is the author of, and therefore is so called, Col 3:15; and which may be said to surpass or exceed all speculative knowledge, and understanding; for the one puffs up and profits nothing, but the other edifies; and much less that peace which God has in himself, who is all peace and love, and which passes all understanding, human and angelic; but either that peace which is made with God by the blood of Christ, and is published in the Gospel of peace, which passes and surprises all understanding of men and angels, that it should be; that the thoughts of God should be concerning it from everlasting; that a council of peace should be called and held between the eternal Three, and a covenant of peace entered into; that Christ should be appointed the peace maker, and the chastisement of it laid on him; that he should make it by the blood of his cross, and for men, while enemies to God and to himself: or else that peace of conscience, which arises from a view of peace made by Christ; of justification by his righteousness, and atonement by his sacrifice; and which may be called "the peace of Christ", as the Alexandrian copy reads; both because it is founded upon, and springs from him, and is what he is the donor of: and this is what passes the understanding of every natural man; he knows nothing of this peace, what this tranquillity of mind means; he intermeddles not with this joy; it is unaccountable to him how it should be, that such then should have peace, who have so much trouble, are so much reproached, afflicted, and persecuted, and yet have peace in Christ, while they have tribulation in the world; which

shall keep your hearts and minds through Jesus Christ, or "in Christ Jesus": some read these words prayer wise, or as a wish, "let it", or "may it keep", so the Vulgate Latin; but they are rather a promise, encouraging the saints to the discharge of the above duties; as rejoicing always in the Lord, showing their moderation to all men, avoiding anxious care, and betaking themselves at all times, on all occasions, to prayer to God; in which way they may expect peace, and such as will be of that see vice to them, as here expressed; that is, be a means of their final perseverance; for the peace of God, in either sense, is a preservation of the saints: peace made with God secures them in Christ from all condemnation by the law, sin, Satan, the world, or their own hearts; and peace in their own souls, on so good a foundation as it is, keeps them through Christ as in a garrison, from being overset with the troubles of the world, or the temptations of Satan; and is a means of preserving them from being carried away with the errors and heresies of the wicked, having a witness to truth within themselves; and from every evil way and work, from profaneness and immorality; the grace of God teaching them, and the love of Christ constraining them, which is shed abroad in their hearts, to live and act otherwise.

Gill: Phi 4:8 - Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true // whatsoever things are honest // whatsoever things are just // whatsoever things are pure // whatsoever are lovely // whatsoever things are of good report // if there be any virtue // and if there be any praise // think on these things Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true,.... To close all with respect to the duties of Christianity incumbent on the professors of it, the apos...

Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true,.... To close all with respect to the duties of Christianity incumbent on the professors of it, the apostle exhorts to a regard to everything that is true; that is agreeable to the Scriptures of truth, to the Gospel the word of truth, or to the law and light of nature; and whatever was really so, even among the very Heathens, in opposition to falsehood, lying, and hypocrisy

whatsoever things are honest; in the sight of men; or grave, or "venerable" in speech, in action or attire, in opposition to levity, frothiness, or foppery:

whatsoever things are just; between man and man, or with respect both to God and men; giving to God what belongs to him, and to man what is his due; studying to exercise a conscience void of offence to both, in opposition to all impiety, injustice, violence, and oppression:

whatsoever things are pure; or "chaste", in words and deeds, in opposition to all filthiness and foolish talking, to obscene words and actions. The Vulgate Latin and Arabic versions render it, "whatsoever things are holy"; which are agreeable to the holy nature, law, and will of God, and which tend to promote holiness of heart and life:

whatsoever are lovely; which are amiable in themselves, and to be found even among mere moral men, as in the young man whom Christ as man is said to love, Mar 10:21; and which serve to cultivate and increase love, friendship, and amity among men; and which things also are grateful to God and lovely in his sight, in opposition to all contention, strife, wrath, and hatred:

whatsoever things are of good report; are well spoken of, and tend to get and establish a good name, which is better than precious ointment, Ecc 7:1; for though a good name, credit, and reputation among men, are to be sacrificed for the sake of Christ when called for; yet care is to be taken to preserve them by doing things which may secure them, and cause professors of religion to be well reported of; and which beautiful in all, and absolutely necessary in some:

if there be any virtue; anywhere, among any persons whatever, in opposition to vice:

and if there be any praise; that is praiseworthy among men, and deserves commendation, even though in an unjust steward, Luk 16:8, it should be regarded. The Vulgate Latin adds, "of discipline", without any authority from any copy. The Claromontane manuscript reads, "if any praise of knowledge":

think on these things: meditate upon them, revolve them in your minds, seriously consider them, and reason with yourselves about them, in order to put them into practice.

Gill: Phi 4:9 - These things which ye have both learned // and received // and heard // and seen in me // do // and the God of peace shall be with you These things which ye have both learned,.... Meaning from himself, in a doctrinal way: and received; not only into their heads but hearts, had embr...

These things which ye have both learned,.... Meaning from himself, in a doctrinal way:

and received; not only into their heads but hearts, had embraced cordially, with great affection, in the love thereof, as well as given a full assent to:

and heard; either publicly or privately, from the pulpit, or in conversation; or had heard of him when absent, or from him when present:

and seen in me: in his life and conversation, which were well known, and were a pattern to them that believe; and therefore he adds,

do; practise the same things which they had learned from him as their duty, and had heard him urge as such, and had seen exemplified in himself:

and the God of peace shall be with you; to give that peace which is beyond the conception of a natural man, and the expression of a spiritual one, and is the great preservative through Christ; and to enable to do and to continue to do the above things, and to keep them from all harm, and every enemy of their souls; to favour them with his gracious presence here, and with endless peace hereafter.

Gill: Phi 4:10 - But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly // that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again // wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked opportunity But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly,.... The apostle proceeds to the last part of this epistle, and to take notice of the present which these Philippia...

But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly,.... The apostle proceeds to the last part of this epistle, and to take notice of the present which these Philippians had sent him, on account of which this his rejoicing was; and which was not small but great, and was not of a carnal but spiritual kind; it was a joy in the Holy Ghost, which is opposed to meats and drinks, and earthly enjoyments; it was a joy in the Lord; "in our Lord", as the Syriac version renders it; it was not so much on account of the nature, substance, quantity or quality of the things sent him, and the suitableness of them to his present necessity; but because this thing was of the Lord, he had put it into their hearts to do it, and had given them not only ability, but a willing mind, and had wrought in them both to will and to do; and because what they did they did for the sake of Christ, and to him as an apostle of his, and in obedience to Christ, and with a view to promote his cause and interest, honour and glory:

that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again; which supposes that they had formerly, at the first preaching of the Gospel, showed great respect to him, and took great care of him, as appears from Phi 4:15, but that for some time past, and it seems for a considerable while, they had dropped it, or at least had not shown it; but that now it revived again, and was seen in the present they had now sent him. The allusion is to trees, which in the summer season bear much fruit, in autumn cast their leaves, and in the winter are entirely bare, and in the spring of the year revive again, and put forth leaves and fruit: and just so it is with the saints, they are compared to trees, and are called trees of righteousness, Isa 61:3, and are fruitful ones, Jer 23:3; but they have their winter seasons, when they are barren and unfruitful, and look as if they were dead; but when it is a spring time with them they revive again, as in the exercise of their faith and hope in Christ, so of their love to him, and to one another, and the ministers of the Gospel; when the south wind of the Spirit blows, the sun of righteousness arises, and, the dews of divine grace fall upon them; and such a revival was now in this church; and this was what the apostle so much rejoiced in, not so much for the gift bestowed on him, as for the fruit that appeared in them; see Phi 4:17; but whereas he had said that this care of him flourished again, "at last"; lest this should be thought as finding fault with them, and bringing a charge against them, he corrects himself by adding,

wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked opportunity; signifying that he believed they had entertained the same sentiments of him, had the same affection and inward care for him all along; but they had no opportunity of showing it, he being at such a distance, and they having no convenient or proper persons to send to him; or were hindered through multiplicity of business on their hands, that they could not attend to him; and so the Vulgate Latin version renders it, "but ye were busied", or taken up and employed in business; or it was for want of ability; for the words will bear to be rendered, "but ye lacked ability"; and to this sense does the Syriac version render it, אלא לא ספקין הויתון, "but ye were not sufficient"; or had not a sufficiency, were not able to do it, and therefore to be easily excused.

Gill: Phi 4:11 - Not that I speak in respect of want // for I have learned in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content Not that I speak in respect of want,.... Either of want of will in them; of their slowness and backwardness in their care of him, postponing him to ot...

Not that I speak in respect of want,.... Either of want of will in them; of their slowness and backwardness in their care of him, postponing him to others, caring for him last of all; this gave him no uneasiness, he did not take it ill, knowing and owning himself to be less than the least of all saints: or of his own want before this present came; and his sense is, that he did not express himself with so much joy, because of the penury and distress he was in before the things came to him which they sent; for he was not in want; though he had nothing, he possessed all things, and was as happy, and in as comfortable a frame, and in as much content then as now:

for I have learned in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content; or "to be sufficient", as the Vulgate Latin version renders it; or that that is sufficient for me which I have, as the Syriac version renders it; for the word here used signifies to be self-sufficient, or to have a sufficiency in one's self, which in the strict sense of the phrase is only true of God, who is "El-shaddai", God all-sufficient; but, in a lower sense, is true of such who are contented with their present state and condition, with such things as they have, be they more or less, and think that they have enough, as old Jacob did, Gen 33:11; and such persons have a sort of an all-sufficiency in them; they are thankful for every thing they have, be it little or more, and in every state, whether of adversity or prosperity; and quietly and patiently submit to the will of God, and cheerfully take and bear whatever is assigned them as their portion; and such an one was the apostle: he was not only content with food and raiment, and such things as he had, but even when he had nothing at all; when he had neither bread to eat nor clothes to wear; when he was in hunger and thirst, in cold and nakedness, as was sometimes his case; and therefore he does not say here, that he had learnt to be content with such things as he had, but εν οις ειμι, "in what I am": and this he had not by nature, but by grace; it was not natural, but adventitious to him; it was not what he had acquired by his industry, but what he had "learned"; and that not in the school of nature and reason, while an unregenerate man; nor at the feet of Gamaliel, while he was training up under him in the law of Moses, and in the traditions of the elders; but he learned it of God, and was taught it by the revelation of Christ, and under the teachings of the Spirit of God, and that in the school of affliction, by a train of experiences, of many sorrows, afflictions, and distresses; for this lesson is learned quite contrary to all the rules and reasons among men, not by prosperity, but by adversity: many are the things that may excite and encourage to the exercise of this heavenly grace, where it is wrought; as the consideration of the unalterable will of God, according to which every man's state and condition is settled, and therefore what God has made crooked can never be made straight; and of our case when we came into the world, and what that will be when we go out of it, naked and bare of this world's things; and of our unworthiness of the least mercy at the hand of God: add to which, the consideration of God being our portion and exceeding great reward; of having an interest in Christ and all things in him; and of the profits and pleasures of a life of contentment; and of the promises which God has made to such; and of the future glory and happiness which will shortly be enjoyed: so that a believer may say, who has the smallest pittance of earthly enjoyments, this, with a covenant God, with an interest in Christ, with grace here and heaven hereafter, is enough.

Gill: Phi 4:12 - I know both how to be abased // and I know how to abound // every where // and in all things // I am instructed // both to be full, and to be hungry // both to abound and to suffer need I know both how to be abased,.... Or "humbled"; to be treated with indignity and contempt, to be trampled upon by man, to suffer hardships and distres...

I know both how to be abased,.... Or "humbled"; to be treated with indignity and contempt, to be trampled upon by man, to suffer hardships and distress, to be in a very mean and low condition, to work with his own hands, and minister to his own and the necessities of others in that way; yea, to be in hunger and thirst, in cold and nakedness, and have no certain dwelling place; and he knew how to behave under all this; not to be depressed and cast down, or to fret, repine, and murmur:

and I know how to abound; or "to excel"; to be in the esteem of men, and to have an affluence of the things of this world, and how to behave in the midst of plenty; so as not to be lifted up, to be proud and haughty, and injurious to fellow creatures; so as not to abuse the good things of life; and so as to use them to the honour of God, the interest of religion, and the good of fellow creatures, and fellow Christians:

every where; whether among Jews or Gentiles, at Jerusalem or at Rome, or at whatsoever place; or as the Arabic version renders it, "every time": always, in every season, whether of adversity or prosperity:

and in all things; in all circumstances of life:

I am instructed; or "initiated", as he was by the Gospel; and, ever since he embraced it, was taught this lesson of contentment, and inured to the exercise of it, and was trained up and instructed how to behave himself in the different changes and vicissitudes he came into:

both to be full, and to be hungry; to know what it was to have plenty and want, to have a full meal and to want one, and be almost starved and famished, and how to conduct under such different circumstances:

both to abound and to suffer need; which the apostle repeats for confirmation sake; and the whole of what he here says is an explanation of the lesson of contentment he had learned; and the knowledge he speaks of was not speculative but experimental, and lay not merely in theory, but in practice; and now lest he should be thought guilty of arrogance, and to ascribe too much to himself, he in Phi 4:13 attributes all to the power and grace of Christ.

Gill: Phi 4:13 - I can do all things // through Christ which strengtheneth me I can do all things,.... Which must not be understood in the greatest latitude, and without any limitation; for the apostle was not omnipotent, either...

I can do all things,.... Which must not be understood in the greatest latitude, and without any limitation; for the apostle was not omnipotent, either in himself, or by the power of Christ; nor could he do all things that Christ could do; but it must be restrained to the subject matter treated of: the sense is, that he could be content in every state, and could know how to behave himself in adversity and prosperity, amidst both poverty and plenty; yea, it may be extended to all the duties incumbent on him both as a Christian and as an apostle, as to exercise a conscience void of offence towards God and men; to take the care of all the churches; to labour more abundantly than others in preaching the Gospel; and to bear all afflictions, reproaches, and persecutions for the sake of it; yea, he could willingly and cheerfully endure the most cruel and torturing death for the sake of Christ: all these things he could do, not in his own strength, for no man was more conscious of his own weakness than he was, or knew more of the impotency of human nature; and therefore always directed others to be strong in the Lord, and in, the power of his might, and in the grace that is in Christ, on which he himself always depended, and by which he did what he did; as he adds here,

through Christ which strengtheneth me. The Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions leave out the word "Christ", and only read "him"; and so the Alexandrian copy and others; but intend Christ as those that express it: strength to perform duty and to bear sufferings is in Christ, and which he communicates to his people; he strengthens them with strength in their souls, internally, as the word here used signifies; by virtue of which they can do whatever he enjoins them or calls them to, though without him they can do nothing.

Gill: Phi 4:14 - Notwithstanding ye have well done // that ye did communicate with my affliction Notwithstanding ye have well done,.... This he says lest they should think he slighted their kindness, and lest they should be discouraged from doing ...

Notwithstanding ye have well done,.... This he says lest they should think he slighted their kindness, and lest they should be discouraged from doing any such thing of this kind another time, either to himself or others; for though he was so well contented with his state, and knew how to be abased and to suffer need, and could do all things through the strength of Christ, yet he observes they did well in communicating to him; for communicating to poor saints or ministers is a considerable branch of well doing; it is a good work when it is done in faith, and from love, and with a view to the glory, honour, and interest of Christ; it is what is agreeable to the will of God, and is an odour of a sweet smell, and acceptable to him:

that ye did communicate with my affliction; by which is meant, not any affliction of mind, for he was in as comfortable a frame, had as clear views of his interest in God, as his covenant God, and was as contented and satisfied as ever he was in his life; nor any disorder or distemper of body; but he was in prison and penury: these Philippians communicated with him in it, both by sympathizing with him in his tribulation, and by sending their minister to visit him, and with him a present for his relief and support; in doing which they did well.

Gill: Phi 4:15 - Now ye Philippians know also // that in the beginning of the Gospel // when I departed from Macedonia // no church communicated with me, as concerning giving and receiving // but ye only Now ye Philippians know also,.... As well as the apostle did, that they not only communicated now, but also had done formerly, and when none else besi...

Now ye Philippians know also,.... As well as the apostle did, that they not only communicated now, but also had done formerly, and when none else beside them did; wherefore he not only commends them for their present kindness to him, but for their past favours:

that in the beginning of the Gospel; of the preaching of it by the apostle in the parts of Macedonia, particularly at Philippi; as soon as ever the Gospel was preached to them, they showed a grateful and beneficent spirit; of which we have an instance in Lydia, the first person we read of converted there, and also in the jailer, who was the next; see Act 16:12; yea, not only while he was with them they communicated to him, but when he was gone from them:

when I departed from Macedonia; when he went to Corinth and other places, to preach the Gospel in other parts and to other people, they sent the brethren after him with presents which supplied what was lacking to him, and in which other churches were deficient; see 2Co 11:8; the Ethiopic version reads, "when ye went from Macedonia with me": but is not supported by any copy or other version:

no church communicated with me, as concerning giving and receiving,

but ye only; the phrase, "giving and receiving", is the same with Ntmw avm mva wmtN, which is often used by the Jews for trading and commerce e; and the allusion is to the keeping of accounts by men in business, by debtor and creditor, in a book, putting down in one column what is delivered out, and in the other what is received, whereby accounts are kept clear: the apostle's meaning is, that whereas he and his fellow ministers had delivered out spiritual things to this church, they had in return communicated their carnal things; so that there was a proper account kept, which was not observed by other churches, and which was greatly to the commendation of this,

Gill: Phi 4:16 - For even in Thessalonica // ye sent once and again unto my necessity For even in Thessalonica,.... When the apostle was there; for from Philippi he went to Thessalonica; see Act 17:1, ye sent once and again unto my n...

For even in Thessalonica,.... When the apostle was there; for from Philippi he went to Thessalonica; see Act 17:1,

ye sent once and again unto my necessity; for his use and service, to support him while he was at that place, and relieve and assist him in his necessities; for the people at Thessalonica were either not able to communicate, or were not of a beneficent disposition, or the apostle did not care to be chargeable to them; and they seem many of them to have been idle and lazy, and therefore he wrought among them with his own hands to set them an example; and the Philippians hearing and knowing that this was the case, sent frequently, while he was here, some of the brethren with gifts unto him.

Gill: Phi 4:17 - Not because I desire a gift // but I desire fruit that may abound to your account Not because I desire a gift,.... This commendation of them he entered into, not because he desired another present to be made to him, either by them o...

Not because I desire a gift,.... This commendation of them he entered into, not because he desired another present to be made to him, either by them or others; he was not a man of such a disposition, he was not like one of those that could never have enough; he was fully satisfied and highly contented with what he had; he was not like the false teachers, that made merchandise of men; he sought not theirs, but them:

but I desire fruit that may abound to your account; he had planted them, or had been an instrument in planting of them, as trees of righteousness, Isa 61:3; and his great desire was to see fruits of righteousness grow upon them, Phi 1:11; by which sometimes are meant acts of beneficence, as in 2Co 9:10; and that these might be abundant and turn to their profit and advantage, as such fruit does; for God does not forget to recompence acts of bounty, and labours of love, but if even a cup of cold water is given to a prophet or minister of Christ, on account of his being so, it shall have its reward in the issue of things, upon the casting up of accounts, Mat 10:42; for the apostle still has reference unto that; his view was, that the balance might be on their side, and that much might be received by them; so that it was not for himself, but for their encouragement and future good, he said this; for as for himself he adds,

Gill: Phi 4:18 - But I have all things, and abound // I am full // having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you // an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God But I have all things, and abound,.... Or "I have received all things", as the Syriac version renders it; all that they had sent by Epaphroditus; and ...

But I have all things, and abound,.... Or "I have received all things", as the Syriac version renders it; all that they had sent by Epaphroditus; and for which he now gives a receipt; and by virtue of which he now abounded; and which abundance of his was not so much owing to the largeness of their presents, as to the peace of his mind; looking upon this gift of theirs, though it might be but small in itself, a fulness to him; for he adds,

I am full; as much as he desired, he wanted no more, he had enough:

having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you: and which he acknowledged, that the character of this good man might stand clear, who had been intrusted with this affair:

an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God, this is said in allusion to the sacrifices under the former dispensation, in which God smelled a sweet savour, Gen 8:21, in reference to which, as the sacrifice of Christ is said to be of a sweet smelling savour, Eph 5:2, and as the spiritual sacrifices of the saints, as praises and prayers, are called odours, Rev 5:8, and are said to be acceptable unto God, 1Pe 2:5; so acts of beneficence are called sacrifices, with which he is well pleased, Heb 13:16.

Gill: Phi 4:19 - But my God shall supply all your need // according to his riches // in glory // by Christ Jesus But my God shall supply all your need,.... Or "fulfil all your need": the Jews, when they would comfort any, under the loss of any worldly enjoyment, ...

But my God shall supply all your need,.... Or "fulfil all your need": the Jews, when they would comfort any, under the loss of any worldly enjoyment, used to say, המקום ימלא לך חסרונך, "God fulfil", or "will fulfil thy need" f. The Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, read these words as a wish or prayer, "but may my God supply" or "fulfil all your need"; I am not able to make you any returns, but I pray that my God would recompence it to you, that as you have supplied my want, he would supply all yours; but we with others, and as the Ethiopic version, read, "shall" or "will supply"; as an assertion by way of promise, though he could not, yet his God would; he who was his God, not only as the God of nature and providence, or as the God of the Israelites, but as the God of all grace; who had loved him as such, had chosen, adopted, regenerated, and sanctified him; who was his God in Christ, and by virtue of the covenant of grace, and which was made known in the effectual calling; whose ambassador he was, and whom he had faithfully served in the Gospel of his Son; this God, who had been his God, was and would be so unto death, in whom he had an interest, and because he had an interest in him, and was thus related to him, be firmly believed, and fully assures these saints, that he would supply their wants who had been so careful of him: believers, though they need nothing as considered in Christ, being complete and filled full in him, having in him all grace, and all spiritual blessings, and under believing views of this at times, see themselves complete and wanting nothing; yet, in themselves, they are poor and needy, and often want fresh discoveries of the love of God to them, fresh supplies of grace from Christ, stand in need of more light from him, and to be quickened according to his word; they want fresh supplies of strength from him answerable to the service and work they are daily called to; and as their trials and afflictions abound, they have need of renewed comfort to support under them; and have also need of fresh manifestations and applications of pardoning grace to their souls, and fresh views of the righteousness of Christ, as their justifying righteousness before God; and, in a word, need daily food for their souls as for their bodies: now God, who is also their God, is able and willing to supply their wants; and he does so, he withholds no good thing from them, nor do they want any good thing needful for them, for he supplies "all" their need; and this they may expect, since he is the God of all grace, and a fulness of grace is in his Son; and this grace is sufficient for them, and a supply of it is given them by the Spirit,

according to his riches; God is rich not only in the perfections of his nature, which are inconceivable and incommunicable; and in the works of his hands, of creation and providence, the whole earth is full of his riches, Psa 104:24, and according to these riches of his goodness he supplies the wants of all creatures living; but he is also rich in grace and mercy, Eph 2:4, and it is according to the riches of his grace he supplies the spiritual wants of his people, and he does it like himself, according to the riches he has; he gives all things richly to enjoy, plenteously and abundantly:

in glory: in a glorious manner, so as to show himself glorious, and make his people so, to the glory of his rich grace; and "with glory", as it may be rendered, with eternal glory; he will not only give grace here, and more of it as is needful, according to the abundance of it in himself and in his Son, but glory hereafter: and all

by Christ Jesus; and through him, who is full of grace and truth; who is the Mediator in whom the fulness of it lies, and through whose hands, and by whom, it is communicated to the saints: or "with Christ Jesus"; along with him God gives all things freely, all things pertaining to life and godliness: or "for the sake of Christ Jesus"; not for any worth or merit in men, but for the sake of Christ, in whom they are accepted, and on whose account respect is had to their persons, and so to their wants,

Gill: Phi 4:20 - Now unto God and our Father // be glory for ever and ever, Amen Now unto God and our Father,.... To God, who is our Father in Christ, be glory for ever and ever, Amen; for all the grace he gives now, and for al...

Now unto God and our Father,.... To God, who is our Father in Christ,

be glory for ever and ever, Amen; for all the grace he gives now, and for all the glory and happiness expected hereafter; for the supply of every want both temporal and spiritual; seeing every good gift comes from him, and is to be ascribed to his free grace and favour, and not to any deserts of men: and particularly he may mean for what they had sent him, and he had received from them.

Gill: Phi 4:21 - Salute every saint in Christ Jesus // the brethren which are with me greet you Salute every saint in Christ Jesus,.... Meaning at Philippi, whether rich or poor, lesser or greater believers, common saints, as well as the officers...

Salute every saint in Christ Jesus,.... Meaning at Philippi, whether rich or poor, lesser or greater believers, common saints, as well as the officers of the church, bishops and deacons; who were in Christ by electing grace, and as their covenant head, and representative from everlasting, and which was manifested and made known by their conversion and the effectual calling:

the brethren which are with me greet you; such as Timothy; see Phi 2:19; and Epaphras, Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, and Lucas; see Phm 1:23; he makes no mention of Peter anywhere, when he writes from Rome or to it, which shows he was not there then, or a bishop of that place, as the Papists say.

Gill: Phi 4:22 - All the saints salute you // chiefly they that are of Caesar's household All the saints salute you,.... The members of the church at Rome, chiefly they that are of Caesar's household; for by means of the apostle's bonds,...

All the saints salute you,.... The members of the church at Rome,

chiefly they that are of Caesar's household; for by means of the apostle's bonds, which were made manifest in the emperor's palace, Christ was made known to some there likewise; though Nero, the then reigning emperor, was a very wicked prince, and his court a very debauched one, yet the grace of God reached some there: who these were cannot be said; as for the conjecture that Seneca the philosopher, Nero's master, was one of them, it is without foundation; the eight letters of his to the Apostle Paul, and the six letters of the apostle to him, are spurious, though of ancient date, being made mention of by Austin and Jerom g: a like groundless conjecture is that, that Lucan the poet, Seneca's brother's son, was another; for there is nothing in his writings, or in any account of him, any more than in the former, that shows him to be a Christian. Torpes, a man in great favour and dignity in Nero's court, and Evellius his counsellor, who both suffered martyrdom under him, according to the Roman martyrology, are also mentioned,

Gill: Phi 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all // Amen // it was written to the Philippians from Rome, by Epaphroditus The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all,.... The Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions read, "with your spirit", as in Gal 6:18; and so the ...

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all,.... The Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions read, "with your spirit", as in Gal 6:18; and so the Alexandrian copy and some others read. This is the apostle's token in all his epistles of the genuineness of them, and which he wrote with his own hand, 2Th 3:17; see Gill on Rom 16:22, Rom 16:24.

Amen: with which all the epistles are concluded; see Gill on Rom 16:27.

The subscription is,

it was written to the Philippians from Rome, by Epaphroditus; that this epistle was written to the Philippians by the Apostle Paul, when he was a prisoner at Rome, and sent to them by Epaphroditus their minister, when he returned from him to them.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Phi 4:1 Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:12.

NET Notes: Phi 4:3 Grk “in the gospel,” a metonymy in which the gospel itself is substituted for the ministry of making the gospel known.

NET Notes: Phi 4:5 Grk “let your gentleness be seen by all.” The passive voice construction has been converted to active voice in the translation for stylist...

NET Notes: Phi 4:7 Grk “will guard the hearts of you and the minds of you.” To improve the English style, the second occurrence of ὑμῶν...

NET Notes: Phi 4:8 Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:12.

NET Notes: Phi 4:10 Grk “for you were even concerned, but you lacked opportunity.”

NET Notes: Phi 4:12 The words “of contentment” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by Paul’s remarks at the end of v. 11.

NET Notes: Phi 4:13 Although some excellent witnesses lack explicit reference to the one strengthening Paul (so א* A B D* I 33 1739 lat co Cl), the majority of witn...

NET Notes: Phi 4:16 Or “several times”; Grk, “both once and twice.” The literal expression “once and twice” is frequently used as a Gr...

NET Notes: Phi 4:17 Grk “Not that I am seeking the gift.” The phrase “I do not say this…” has been supplied in the translation to complete t...

NET Notes: Phi 4:19 Or “according to the riches of his glory.” The phrase “of his glory” is treated as an attributive genitive in the translation.

NET Notes: Phi 4:21 Or perhaps, “The brothers and sisters” (so TEV, TNIV; cf. NRSV “The friends”; CEV “The Lord’s followers”) If...

NET Notes: Phi 4:23 Most witnesses, including several important ones (Ì46 א A D Ψ 33 Ï lat sy bo), have ἀμήν (amhn, “amen...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:1 Therefore, ( 1 ) my brethren dearly beloved and longed for, my joy and ( a ) crown, so stand fast in the ( b ) Lord, [my] dearly beloved. ( 1 ) A reh...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:2 ( 2 ) I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche, that they be of the same mind in the Lord. ( 2 ) He also calls on some by name, partly because they ne...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:3 And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and [with] other my fellowlabourer...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:4 ( 3 ) Rejoice in the ( d ) Lord alway: [and] again I say, Rejoice. ( 3 ) He adds particular exhortations: and the first is, that the joy of the Phili...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:5 ( 4 ) Let your ( e ) moderation be known unto all men. ( 5 ) The Lord [is] at hand. ( 4 ) The second is, that taking all things in good part, they be...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:6 ( 6 ) Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with ( f ) thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. ( 6 ) T...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:7 And the ( g ) peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your ( h ) hearts and minds through Christ Jesus. ( g ) That great quietness ...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:8 ( 7 ) Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things ( i ) [are] honest, whatsoever things [are] just, whatsoever things [are] pure,...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:10 ( 8 ) But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked oppo...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:11 Not that I speak in respect of ( k ) want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, [therewith] to be content. ( k ) As though I am speaking con...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:12 I know both how to be ( l ) abased, and I know how to abound: every where and in all things I am ( m ) instructed both to be full and to be hungry, bo...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:15 ( 9 ) Now ye Philippians know also, that in the ( n ) beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church communicated with me as conce...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:17 ( 10 ) Not because I desire a gift: but I desire fruit that may abound to your account. ( 10 ) He witnesses again that he admits well of their benefi...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:18 But I have all, and abound: I am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things [which were sent] from you, an ( o ) odour of a sweet smell, a sacri...

Geneva Bible: Phi 4:22 All the saints salute you, chiefly they that are of ( p ) Caesar's household. ( p ) Those who belong to the emperor Nero.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Phi 4:1 - A Libation To Jehovah A Tender Exhortation Therefore, my brethren, dearly beloved and longed for. my joy and crown, so stand fast in the Lord, my dearly beloved.'--Phil. 4...

Maclaren: Phi 4:8 - A Libation To Jehovah Names In The Book Of Life Other my fellow-labourers whose names are in the book of life.--Phil. 4:8. PAUL was as gentle as he was strong. Winsome cou...