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Teks -- 1 Peter 2:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
2:1 So get rid of all evil and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander. 2:2 And yearn like newborn infants for pure, spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow up to salvation, 2:3 if you have experienced the Lord’s kindness.
A Living Stone, a Chosen People
2:4 So as you come to him, a living stone rejected by men but chosen and priceless in God’s sight, 2:5 you yourselves, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood and to offer spiritual sacrifices that are acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 2:6 For it says in scripture, “Look, I lay in Zion a stone, a chosen and priceless cornerstone, and whoever believes in him will never be put to shame.” 2:7 So you who believe see his value, but for those who do not believe, the stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone, 2:8 and a stumbling-stone and a rock to trip over. They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do. 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people of his own, so that you may proclaim the virtues of the one who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. 2:10 You once were not a people, but now you are God’s people. You were shown no mercy, but now you have received mercy. 2:11 Dear friends, I urge you as foreigners and exiles to keep away from fleshly desires that do battle against the soul, 2:12 and maintain good conduct among the non-Christians, so that though they now malign you as wrongdoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God when he appears.
Submission to Authorities
2:13 Be subject to every human institution for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme 2:14 or to governors as those he commissions to punish wrongdoers and praise those who do good. 2:15 For God wants you to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good. 2:16 Live as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves. 2:17 Honor all people, love the family of believers, fear God, honor the king. 2:18 Slaves, be subject to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse. 2:19 For this finds God’s favor, if because of conscience toward God someone endures hardships in suffering unjustly. 2:20 For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it? But if you do good and suffer and so endure, this finds favor with God. 2:21 For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps. 2:22 He committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth. 2:23 When he was maligned, he did not answer back; when he suffered, he threatened no retaliation, but committed himself to God who judges justly. 2:24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning and live for righteousness. By his wounds you were healed. 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Zion one of the hills on which Jerusalem was built; the temple area; the city of Jerusalem; God's people,a town and citidel; an ancient part of Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: PETER, THE FIRST EPISTLE OF | Example | PETER, SIMON | Commandments | Jesus, The Christ | TRINITY, 2 | Stones | Holiness | LAW IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | Quotations and Allusions | Self-denial | Righteous | Meekness | Patience | LORD'S SUPPER; (EUCHARIST) | Prophecy | Cheek | Afflictions and Adversities | AFFLICTION | Government | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: 1Pe 2:1 - Putting away therefore Putting away therefore ( apothemenoi oun ). Second aorist middle participle of apotithēmi , old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cl...

Putting away therefore ( apothemenoi oun ).

Second aorist middle participle of apotithēmi , old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cleanse defilements (1Pe 3:21; Jam 1:21) or to put off clothing (Rom 13:12; Col 3:5.; Eph 4:22). Either sense suits here. Therefore (oun ) because of the new birth (1Pe 1:23) and the new life demanded.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:1 - Wickedness Wickedness ( kakian ). This old word, from kakos (evil), in the ancients meant vice of any kind and note pāsan (all) here.

Wickedness ( kakian ).

This old word, from kakos (evil), in the ancients meant vice of any kind and note pāsan (all) here.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:1 - Guile Guile ( dolon ). Old word (from delō , to catch with bait), deceit.

Guile ( dolon ).

Old word (from delō , to catch with bait), deceit.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:1 - Hypocrisies Hypocrisies ( hupokriseis ). Singular (hupokrisin ) in the best MSS. See 1Pe 1:22 (anupokriton ) and Mar 7:6. for Christ’ s denunciation of hy...

Hypocrisies ( hupokriseis ).

Singular (hupokrisin ) in the best MSS. See 1Pe 1:22 (anupokriton ) and Mar 7:6. for Christ’ s denunciation of hypocrites which the disciples did not understand, including Peter (Mat 15:16.).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:1 - Envies Envies ( phthonous ). Genuine here, not phonous (murders), as B has it. For the word see Mat 27:18.

Envies ( phthonous ).

Genuine here, not phonous (murders), as B has it. For the word see Mat 27:18.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:1 - Evil speakings Evil speakings ( katalalias ). Late word (from katalalos , defamer, Rom 1:30), in N.T. only here and 2Co 12:20. "Backbitings."For verb see note on 1P...

Evil speakings ( katalalias ).

Late word (from katalalos , defamer, Rom 1:30), in N.T. only here and 2Co 12:20. "Backbitings."For verb see note on 1Pe 2:12.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:2 - As newborn babes As newborn babes ( hōs artigennēta brephē ). Brephos , old word, originally unborn child (Luk 1:41-44), then infant (Luk 2:12), here figurative...

As newborn babes ( hōs artigennēta brephē ).

Brephos , old word, originally unborn child (Luk 1:41-44), then infant (Luk 2:12), here figuratively, like nēpioi . Artigennēta is a late and rare compound (Lucian, imperial inscription) from arti and gennaō , with evident allusion to anagegennēmenoi in 1Pe 1:23, probably meaning that they were recent converts, possibly slight proof that the Epistle written before Romans by Paul (Kuhl).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:2 - Long for Long for ( epipothēsate ). First aorist (constative) active imperative of epipotheō , old verb for intense yearning (Phi 2:26).

Long for ( epipothēsate ).

First aorist (constative) active imperative of epipotheō , old verb for intense yearning (Phi 2:26).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:2 - The spiritual milk which is without guile The spiritual milk which is without guile ( to logikon adolon gala ). Gala is old word for milk as in 1Co 9:7 and as metaphor in 1Co 3:2. Adolos ...

The spiritual milk which is without guile ( to logikon adolon gala ).

Gala is old word for milk as in 1Co 9:7 and as metaphor in 1Co 3:2. Adolos is an old compound (here alone in N.T.) adjective (alpha privative and dolos deceit), unadulterated milk which, alas, is so hard to get. Logikon is an old adjective in ̇ikos , from logos (reason, speech), in N.T. only here and Rom 12:1, used here with allusion to logou (1Pe 1:23) and rēma (1Pe 1:25), "the sincere milk of the word"("the milk belonging to the word,"either the milk which is the word or the milk contained in the word, that is Christ). So Bigg holds. But in Rom 12:1 Paul uses logikon in the sense of "rational"or "spiritual,"and that idea is possible here as Hort holds. In the Pelagia legend (Usener) we have the phrase tōn logikōn probatōn tou Christou (the spiritual or rational sheep of Christ).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:2 - That ye may grow thereby That ye may grow thereby ( hina en autōi auxēthēte ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of auxanō , old and...

That ye may grow thereby ( hina en autōi auxēthēte ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of auxanō , old and common verb to grow. See this same metaphor in Col 2:19; Eph 4:15. Peter uses the word of God as the food for growth, especially for babes in Christ, not emphasizing the distinction from solid food (brōma ) made in 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:13. Salvation (sōtērian ) here is final salvation.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:3 - If ye have tasted If ye have tasted ( ei egeusasthe ). Condition of first class with ei and first aorist middle indicative of geuō in figurative sense as in Heb ...

If ye have tasted ( ei egeusasthe ).

Condition of first class with ei and first aorist middle indicative of geuō in figurative sense as in Heb 6:4. "A taste excites the appetite"(Bengel).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:3 - Gracious Gracious ( chrēstos ). Quotation from Psa 34:8. The Hebrew for the lxx chrēstos is simply tobh (good). Plato used the word for food also, and...

Gracious ( chrēstos ).

Quotation from Psa 34:8. The Hebrew for the lxx chrēstos is simply tobh (good). Plato used the word for food also, and Peter carries out the metaphor in gala (milk) as in Luk 5:39.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:4 - Unto whom Unto whom ( pros hon ). The Lord, carrying on the imagery and language of the Psalm.

Unto whom ( pros hon ).

The Lord, carrying on the imagery and language of the Psalm.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:4 - Coming Coming ( proserchomenoi ). Present middle participle masculine plural of proserchomai (proselthate in the Psalm) agreeing with the subject of oik...

Coming ( proserchomenoi ).

Present middle participle masculine plural of proserchomai (proselthate in the Psalm) agreeing with the subject of oikodomeisthe .

Robertson: 1Pe 2:4 - A living stone A living stone ( lithon zōnta ). Accusative case in apposition with hon (whom, the Lord Christ). There is apparent an intentional contradiction b...

A living stone ( lithon zōnta ).

Accusative case in apposition with hon (whom, the Lord Christ). There is apparent an intentional contradiction between "living"and "stone."Cf. "living hope"in 1Pe 1:3 and "living word"in 1Pe 1:23.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:4 - Rejected indeed of men Rejected indeed of men ( hupo anthrōpōn men apodedokimasmenon ). Perfect passive participle of apodokimazō , old verb to repudiate after test (...

Rejected indeed of men ( hupo anthrōpōn men apodedokimasmenon ).

Perfect passive participle of apodokimazō , old verb to repudiate after test (Luk 9:22), in the accusative case agreeing with lithon .

Robertson: 1Pe 2:4 - But with God But with God ( para de theōi ). "By the side of God,"as he looks at it, in contrast with the rejection "by men"(hupo anthrōpōn ).

But with God ( para de theōi ).

"By the side of God,"as he looks at it, in contrast with the rejection "by men"(hupo anthrōpōn ).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:4 - Elect Elect ( eklekton ). From Isa 28:6 as in entimon (precious, for which see Luk 7:2) rather than dokimon (proved) expected after apodedokimasmenon ...

Elect ( eklekton ).

From Isa 28:6 as in entimon (precious, for which see Luk 7:2) rather than dokimon (proved) expected after apodedokimasmenon as meaning far more in God’ s sight, "a pre-eminence of position with"(Hort).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:5 - Ye also as living stones Ye also as living stones ( kai autoi hōs lithoi zōntes ). Peter applies the metaphor about Christ as the living stone to the readers, "ye yoursel...

Ye also as living stones ( kai autoi hōs lithoi zōntes ).

Peter applies the metaphor about Christ as the living stone to the readers, "ye yourselves also."

Robertson: 1Pe 2:5 - Are built up a spiritual house Are built up a spiritual house ( oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos ). Present passive indicative second person plural of oikodomeō , the very verb us...

Are built up a spiritual house ( oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos ).

Present passive indicative second person plural of oikodomeō , the very verb used by Jesus to Peter in Mat 16:18 (oikodomēsō ) of building his church on the rock. If the metaphor of a house of living stones seems "violent"(Vincent), it should be remembered that Jesus employed the figure of a house of believers. Peter just carried it a bit farther and Paul uses a temple for believers in one place (1Co 3:16) and for the kingdom of God in general (Eph 2:22), as does the author of Hebrews (Heb 3:6). This "spiritual house"includes believers in the five Roman provinces of 1Pe 1:1 and shows clearly how Peter understood the metaphor of Christ in Mat 16:18 to be not a local church, but the church general (the kingdom of Christ).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:5 - To be a holy priesthood To be a holy priesthood ( eis hierateuma hagion ). Late word (from hierateuō , to serve as priest, Luk 1:8 alone in N.T.), in lxx (Exo 19:6), in N....

To be a holy priesthood ( eis hierateuma hagion ).

Late word (from hierateuō , to serve as priest, Luk 1:8 alone in N.T.), in lxx (Exo 19:6), in N.T. only here and 1Pe 2:9, either the office of priest (Hort) or an order or body of priests. At any rate, Peter has the same idea of Rev 1:6 (hiereis , priests) that all believers are priests (Heb 4:16) and can approach God directly.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:5 - To offer up To offer up ( anenegkai ). First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of anapherō , the usual word for offering sacrifices (Heb 7:27). Only t...

To offer up ( anenegkai ).

First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of anapherō , the usual word for offering sacrifices (Heb 7:27). Only these are "spiritual"(pneumatikas ) as pictured also in Heb 13:15.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:5 - Acceptable Acceptable ( euprosdektous ). Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (eu , pros , dechomai ) as in 2Co 6:2.

Acceptable ( euprosdektous ).

Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (eu , pros , dechomai ) as in 2Co 6:2.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:6 - It is contained It is contained ( periechei ). Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of periechō , old verb, to surround, transitive in...

It is contained ( periechei ).

Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of periechō , old verb, to surround, transitive in Luk 5:9 to seize (only other N.T. example). The formula with periechei is in Josephus ( Ant. XI. 7). This Scripture (en graphēi ) is Isa 28:16 with some changes. Peter had in 1Pe 2:4 already quoted eklekton and entimon . Now note akrogōniaion (a chief corner stone), a word apparently invented by Isaiah (from akros , highest, and gōniaios , Attic word for corner stone). Paul in Eph 2:20 uses the same word, making Christ the chief corner stone (the only other N.T. example). In Isaiah the metaphor is rather a foundation stone. Peter and Paul make it "the primary foundation stone at the structure"(W. W. Lloyd).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:6 - On him On him ( ep' autōi ). That is, "on it"(this corner stone, that is, Christ).

On him ( ep' autōi ).

That is, "on it"(this corner stone, that is, Christ).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:6 - Shall not be put to shame Shall not be put to shame ( ou mē kataischunthēi ). Strong negatives ou mē with first aorist passive subjunctive of kataischunō , old verb,...

Shall not be put to shame ( ou mē kataischunthēi ).

Strong negatives ou mē with first aorist passive subjunctive of kataischunō , old verb, to put to shame (Rom 5:5).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:7 - The preciousness The preciousness ( hē timē ). Or "the honour."Explanation of entimon and ou mē kataischunthēi and only true "for you which believe"(tois ...

The preciousness ( hē timē ).

Or "the honour."Explanation of entimon and ou mē kataischunthēi and only true "for you which believe"(tois pisteuousin ethical dative of articular present active participle of pisteuō to believe).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:7 - But for such as disbelieve But for such as disbelieve ( apistousin de ). Dative present active participle again of apisteō , opposite of pisteuō (Luk 24:11).

But for such as disbelieve ( apistousin de ).

Dative present active participle again of apisteō , opposite of pisteuō (Luk 24:11).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:7 - Was made the head of the corner Was made the head of the corner ( egenēthē eis kephalēn gōnias ). This verse is from Psa 118:22 with evident allusion to Isa 28:16 (kephalē...

Was made the head of the corner ( egenēthē eis kephalēn gōnias ).

This verse is from Psa 118:22 with evident allusion to Isa 28:16 (kephalēn gōnias =akrogōniaion ). See Mat 21:42; Mar 12:10; Luk 20:17, where Jesus himself quotes Psa 118:22 and applies the rejection of the stone by the builders (hoi oikodomountes , the experts) to the Sanhedrin’ s conduct toward him. Peter quoted it also (and applied it as Jesus had done) in his speech at the Beautiful Gate (Act 4:11). Here he quotes it again to the same purpose.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:8 - And And ( kai ). Peter now quotes Isa 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed "a stone of stumbling (...

And ( kai ).

Peter now quotes Isa 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed "a stone of stumbling (lithos proskommatos ) and rock of offence (petra skandalou ),"quoted also by Paul in Rom 9:32. See note on Rom 9:32 for discussion. Proskomma (from proskoptō , to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while skandalon is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between lithos (a loose stone in the path) and petra (a ledge rising out of the ground).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:8 - For they For they ( hoi ). Causal use of the relative pronoun.

For they ( hoi ).

Causal use of the relative pronoun.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:8 - Stumble at the word, being disobedient Stumble at the word, being disobedient ( proskoptousin tōi logōi apeithountes ). Present active indicative of proskoptō with dative case, log...

Stumble at the word, being disobedient ( proskoptousin tōi logōi apeithountes ).

Present active indicative of proskoptō with dative case, logōi , and present active participle of apeitheō (cf. apistousin in 1Pe 2:7) as in Rom 3:1. Tōi logōi can be construed with apeithountes (stumble, being disobedient to the word).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:8 - Whereunto also they were appointed Whereunto also they were appointed ( eis ho kai etethēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of tithēmi . See this idiom in 1Ti 2:7. "Their disob...

Whereunto also they were appointed ( eis ho kai etethēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of tithēmi . See this idiom in 1Ti 2:7. "Their disobedience is not ordained, the penalty of their disobedience is"(Bigg). They rebelled against God and paid the penalty.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - But ye But ye ( humeis de ). In contrast with the disobedient ones.

But ye ( humeis de ).

In contrast with the disobedient ones.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - An elect race An elect race ( genos eklekton ). From Isa 43:20. The blood relation of the spiritual Israel (not the Jewish race) through the new birth (1Pe 1:23).

An elect race ( genos eklekton ).

From Isa 43:20. The blood relation of the spiritual Israel (not the Jewish race) through the new birth (1Pe 1:23).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - A royal priesthood A royal priesthood ( basileion hierateuma ). From Exo 19:6 (cf. Rev 1:6; Rev 5:10). The official in Christian churches is presbuteros =episcopos , n...

A royal priesthood ( basileion hierateuma ).

From Exo 19:6 (cf. Rev 1:6; Rev 5:10). The official in Christian churches is presbuteros =episcopos , not hiereus . We are all hiereis (priests). Cf. 1Pe 2:5.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - A holy nation A holy nation ( ethnos hagion ). Also from Exo 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jew...

A holy nation ( ethnos hagion ).

Also from Exo 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - A people for God’ s own possession A people for God’ s own possession ( laos eis peripoiēsin ). The idea here occurs in Exo 19:5; Deu 7:6; Deu 14:2; Deu 26:18, where we have lao...

A people for God’ s own possession ( laos eis peripoiēsin ).

The idea here occurs in Exo 19:5; Deu 7:6; Deu 14:2; Deu 26:18, where we have laos periousios as in Tit 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Mal 3:17 we find eis peripoiēsin (for a possession). Periousios laos is a people over and above the others and peripoiēsis is a possession in a special sense (Eph 1:14). See Paul’ s use of periepoiēsato in Act 20:28. The old rendering, "a peculiar people,"had this idea of possession, for "peculiar"is from pecus (Latin for flock).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - That ye may shew forth That ye may shew forth ( hopōs exaggeilēte ). Purpose clause with hopōs , rather than hina , with the first aorist active subjunctive of exagge...

That ye may shew forth ( hopōs exaggeilēte ).

Purpose clause with hopōs , rather than hina , with the first aorist active subjunctive of exaggellō , old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - The excellencies The excellencies ( tas aretas ). From Isa 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for "virtue,"but not in that sen...

The excellencies ( tas aretas ).

From Isa 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for "virtue,"but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2Pe 1:3, 2Pe 1:5; Phi 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isa 42:12. See Act 2:11 ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - Darkness Darkness ( skotous ). Heathenism.

Darkness ( skotous ).

Heathenism.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:9 - His marvellous light His marvellous light ( to thaumaston autou phōs ). Christianity. For thaumaston (from thaumazō ) see Mat 21:42. For the change from heathenism...

His marvellous light ( to thaumaston autou phōs ).

Christianity. For thaumaston (from thaumazō ) see Mat 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Col 1:12; Eph 5:8-14.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:10 - Which in time past Which in time past ( hoi pote ). "Who once upon a time."

Which in time past ( hoi pote ).

"Who once upon a time."

Robertson: 1Pe 2:10 - No people No people ( ou laos ). This phrase from Hos 2:23. Note use of ou (not oudeis ) with laos like Hebrew negative.

No people ( ou laos ).

This phrase from Hos 2:23. Note use of ou (not oudeis ) with laos like Hebrew negative.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:10 - Which had not obtained mercy Which had not obtained mercy ( hoi ouk eleēmenoi ). Perfect passive articular participle of eleeō and the emphatic negative ou , with which com...

Which had not obtained mercy ( hoi ouk eleēmenoi ).

Perfect passive articular participle of eleeō and the emphatic negative ou , with which compare Paul’ s use of Hos 1:1-11; 2 in Rom 9:25, which may have been known to Peter or not.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:10 - But now have obtained mercy But now have obtained mercy ( nun de eleēthentes ). Change to first aorist passive participle from "the long antecedent state"to "the single event ...

But now have obtained mercy ( nun de eleēthentes ).

Change to first aorist passive participle from "the long antecedent state"to "the single event of conversion which ended it"(Hort).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:11 - As sojourners and pilgrims As sojourners and pilgrims ( hōs paroikous kai parepidēmous ). This combination from the lxx (Gen 33:4; Psalm 39:13). See note on 1Pe 1:1 for par...

As sojourners and pilgrims ( hōs paroikous kai parepidēmous ).

This combination from the lxx (Gen 33:4; Psalm 39:13). See note on 1Pe 1:1 for parepidēmos , and see note on 1Pe 1:17 for paroikia , and see note on Eph 2:19 for paroikos (only there and here in N.T., Christians whose fatherland is heaven).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:11 - To abstain from To abstain from ( apechesthai ). Present middle (direct) infinitive of apechō , old verb, to hold back from (1Th 4:3). In indirect command (to keep...

To abstain from ( apechesthai ).

Present middle (direct) infinitive of apechō , old verb, to hold back from (1Th 4:3). In indirect command (to keep on abstaining from) after parakalō (I beseech). With the ablative case tōn sarkikōn epithumiōn , the grosser sins of the flesh (for sarkikos see 1Co 3:3) like the list in 1Pe 4:3.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:11 - Which Which ( haitines ). "Which very ones."Like Latin quippe qui .

Which ( haitines ).

"Which very ones."Like Latin quippe qui .

Robertson: 1Pe 2:11 - War against the soul War against the soul ( strateuontai kata tēs psuchēs ). Present middle indicative of strateuō , to carry on a campaign (Jam 4:1). See this stru...

War against the soul ( strateuontai kata tēs psuchēs ).

Present middle indicative of strateuō , to carry on a campaign (Jam 4:1). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Gal 5:16-24.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - Seemly Seemly ( kalēn ). Predicate adjective with anastrophēn , for which see note on 1Pe 1:15 and see note on 1Pe 1:18. The Gentiles are on the watch f...

Seemly ( kalēn ).

Predicate adjective with anastrophēn , for which see note on 1Pe 1:15 and see note on 1Pe 1:18. The Gentiles are on the watch for slips in moral conduct by the Christians.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - That That ( hina ). Final conjunction with doxasōsin (they may glorify, first aorist active subjunctive of doxazō , the purpose of the Christians ab...

That ( hina ).

Final conjunction with doxasōsin (they may glorify, first aorist active subjunctive of doxazō , the purpose of the Christians about the Gentiles.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - Wherein Wherein ( en hōi ). "In what thing."

Wherein ( en hōi ).

"In what thing."

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - As evil-doers As evil-doers ( hōs kakopoiōn ). As they did and do, old word (from kakon and poieō , Joh 18:30), in N.T. only here and 1Pe 2:14 in correct t...

As evil-doers ( hōs kakopoiōn ).

As they did and do, old word (from kakon and poieō , Joh 18:30), in N.T. only here and 1Pe 2:14 in correct text. Heathen talk against us (katalalousin ) gleefully.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - By your good works By your good works ( ek tōn kalōn ergōn ). "Out of (as a result of) your good (beautiful) deeds."

By your good works ( ek tōn kalōn ergōn ).

"Out of (as a result of) your good (beautiful) deeds."

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - Which they behold Which they behold ( epopteuontes ). Present active participle of epopteuō , old verb (from, epoptēs , overseer, spectator, 2Pe 1:16), to be an ov...

Which they behold ( epopteuontes ).

Present active participle of epopteuō , old verb (from, epoptēs , overseer, spectator, 2Pe 1:16), to be an overseer, to view carefully, in N.T. only here and 1Pe 3:2.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:12 - In the day of visitation In the day of visitation ( en hēmerāi episkopēs ). From Isa 10:33. Cf. its use in Luk 19:44, which see for the word episkopē (from episkope...

In the day of visitation ( en hēmerāi episkopēs ).

From Isa 10:33. Cf. its use in Luk 19:44, which see for the word episkopē (from episkopeō , to inspect (Heb 12:15). Clear echo here of Mat 5:16.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:13 - Be subject to Be subject to ( hupotagēte ). Second aorist passive imperative second person plural of hupotassō , to subject to, as in 1Pe 3:22.

Be subject to ( hupotagēte ).

Second aorist passive imperative second person plural of hupotassō , to subject to, as in 1Pe 3:22.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:13 - Every ordinance of man Every ordinance of man ( pasēi anthrōpinēi ktisei ). Dative case of old and common word ktisis (from ktizō , to create, to found), act of c...

Every ordinance of man ( pasēi anthrōpinēi ktisei ).

Dative case of old and common word ktisis (from ktizō , to create, to found), act of creation (Rom 1:20), a creature or creation (Rom 1:25), all creation (Col 1:15), an institution as here (in Pindar so). For anthrōpinos (human) see Jam 3:7. Peter here approves no special kind of government, but he supports law and order as Paul does (Rom 13:1-8) unless it steps in between God and man (Act 4:20).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:13 - For the Lord’ s sake For the Lord’ s sake ( dia ton kurion ). For Jesus’ sake. That is reason enough for the Christian not to be an anarchist (Mat 22:21). The ...

For the Lord’ s sake ( dia ton kurion ).

For Jesus’ sake. That is reason enough for the Christian not to be an anarchist (Mat 22:21). The heathen were keen to charge the Christians with any crime after Nero set the fashion. "It should not be forgotten that, in spite of the fine language of the philosophers, the really popular religions in Greece and Rome were forms of devil-worship, intimately blended with magic in all its grades"(Bigg).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:13 - As supreme As supreme ( hōs huperechonti ). Dative singular of present active participle of huperechō , old verb (intransitive), to stand out above (to have...

As supreme ( hōs huperechonti ).

Dative singular of present active participle of huperechō , old verb (intransitive), to stand out above (to have it over), as in Rom 13:1. It is not the divine right of kings, but the fact of the king as the outstanding ruler.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:14 - Unto governors Unto governors ( hēgemosin ). Dative again of hēgemōn , a leader (from hēgeomai , to lead), old and common word (Mat 10:18).

Unto governors ( hēgemosin ).

Dative again of hēgemōn , a leader (from hēgeomai , to lead), old and common word (Mat 10:18).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:14 - As sent by him As sent by him ( hōs di' autou pempomenois ). Present passive participle of pempō . Di' autou is "by God,"as Jesus made plain to Pilate; even P...

As sent by him ( hōs di' autou pempomenois ).

Present passive participle of pempō . Di' autou is "by God,"as Jesus made plain to Pilate; even Pilate received his authority ultimately "from above"(Joh 18:11).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:14 - For vengeance on evil-doers For vengeance on evil-doers ( eis ekdikēsin kakopoiōn ). Objective genitive with ekdikēsin , for which see Luk 18:7.

For vengeance on evil-doers ( eis ekdikēsin kakopoiōn ).

Objective genitive with ekdikēsin , for which see Luk 18:7.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:14 - For praise to them that do well For praise to them that do well ( epainon agathopoiōn ). Objective genitive again, agathopoios , a late word (Plutarch, Sirach) from agathon and ...

For praise to them that do well ( epainon agathopoiōn ).

Objective genitive again, agathopoios , a late word (Plutarch, Sirach) from agathon and poieō here only in N.T. Found in a magical papyrus.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:15 - By well-doing By well-doing ( agathopoiountas ). Present active participle of agathopoieō , only in lxx and N.T. (Mar 3:4). In accusative case agreeing with huma...

By well-doing ( agathopoiountas ).

Present active participle of agathopoieō , only in lxx and N.T. (Mar 3:4). In accusative case agreeing with humas understood, accusative of general reference with phimoin , present active infinitive (epexegetic infinitive after to thelēma tou theou , the will of God), late and rare verb (from phimos muzzle), as in Mat 22:12.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:15 - The ignorance of foolish men The ignorance of foolish men ( tēn tōn aphronōn anthrōpōn agnōsian ). Agnōsia is late and rare word (in the papyri) from alpha privat...

The ignorance of foolish men ( tēn tōn aphronōn anthrōpōn agnōsian ).

Agnōsia is late and rare word (in the papyri) from alpha privative and gnōsis (knowledge), in N.T. only here and 1Co 15:24 (disgraceful ignorance in both instances). Note alliteration.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:16 - As free As free ( hōs eleutheroi ). Note nominative again connected with hupotagēte in 1Pe 2:13, not with phimoin in 1Pe 2:14 (a parenthesis in fact)...

As free ( hōs eleutheroi ).

Note nominative again connected with hupotagēte in 1Pe 2:13, not with phimoin in 1Pe 2:14 (a parenthesis in fact). For this ethical sense of eleutheros see Gal 4:26.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:16 - And not using your freedom And not using your freedom ( kai mē echontes tēn eleutherian ). "And not holding your liberty"(present active participle of echō , with usual n...

And not using your freedom ( kai mē echontes tēn eleutherian ).

"And not holding your liberty"(present active participle of echō , with usual negative mē with participle.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:16 - For a cloke of wickedness For a cloke of wickedness ( hōs epikalumma tēs kakias ). Epikalumma (from epikaluptō Rom 4:7) is a rare word (Aristotle, lxx) for veil, her...

For a cloke of wickedness ( hōs epikalumma tēs kakias ).

Epikalumma (from epikaluptō Rom 4:7) is a rare word (Aristotle, lxx) for veil, here only in N.T. and in figurative sense for pretext to do wickedness under, a thing, alas, that sometimes happens.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:16 - But as bondservants of God But as bondservants of God ( all' hōs theou douloi ). Paul’ s proud title. There is no such thing as absolute freedom (personal freedom), for ...

But as bondservants of God ( all' hōs theou douloi ).

Paul’ s proud title. There is no such thing as absolute freedom (personal freedom), for that is anarchy. Cf. Rom 6:22 "enslaved to God."

Robertson: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour all men Honour all men ( pantas timēsate ). Not with the same honour. Constative use of the aorist imperative.

Honour all men ( pantas timēsate ).

Not with the same honour. Constative use of the aorist imperative.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:17 - Love the brotherhood Love the brotherhood ( tēn adelphotēta agapāte ). Present active imperative of agapaō , keep on doing it. Note the abstract adelphotēs (f...

Love the brotherhood ( tēn adelphotēta agapāte ).

Present active imperative of agapaō , keep on doing it. Note the abstract adelphotēs (from adelphos , brother) in the collective sense, rare save in ecclesiastical literature, though in 1 Macc. 12:10; 4 Macc. 10:3, and in late papyri. It is a word for all Christians.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:17 - Fear God Fear God ( ton theon phobeisthe ). In both senses of reverence and dread, and keep it up (present middle imperative).

Fear God ( ton theon phobeisthe ).

In both senses of reverence and dread, and keep it up (present middle imperative).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour the king Honour the king ( ton basilea timāte ). Keep that up also. A fine motto in this verse.

Honour the king ( ton basilea timāte ).

Keep that up also. A fine motto in this verse.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:18 - Servants Servants ( hoi oiketai ). Note article with the class as with andres (1Pe 3:7), though not with gunaikes (1Pe 3:1). Oiketēs , old word from oik...

Servants ( hoi oiketai ).

Note article with the class as with andres (1Pe 3:7), though not with gunaikes (1Pe 3:1). Oiketēs , old word from oikos (house), means one in the same house with another (Latin domesticus ), particularly house servants (slaves) in distinction from the general term doulos (slave). "Ye domestics."See similar directions to Christian servants (slaves) in Col 3:22-25; Eph 6:5-7; 1Ti 6:1.; Tit 2:9. Oiketēs in N.T. occurs only here, Luk 16:13; Act 10:7; Rom 14:4.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:18 - Be in subjection Be in subjection ( hupotassomenoi ). Present middle participle of hupotassō , common late compound to subject oneself to one (Luk 2:51). Either the...

Be in subjection ( hupotassomenoi ).

Present middle participle of hupotassō , common late compound to subject oneself to one (Luk 2:51). Either the participle is here used as an imperative (so in 1Pe 3:1, 1Pe 3:7) as in Rom 12:16., or the imperative este has to be supplied (Robertson, Grammar , p. 945).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:18 - To your masters To your masters ( tois despotais ). Dative case of despotēs , old word for absolute owner in contrast with doulos . It is used also of God (Luk 2:2...

To your masters ( tois despotais ).

Dative case of despotēs , old word for absolute owner in contrast with doulos . It is used also of God (Luk 2:29; Act 4:24, Act 4:29) and of Christ (2Pe 2:1; Jud 1:4). Kurios has a wider meaning and not necessarily suggesting absolute power.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:18 - To the good and gentle To the good and gentle ( tois agathois kai epieikesin ). Dative case also with the article with class. For epieikēs see note on Jam 3:17. There w...

To the good and gentle ( tois agathois kai epieikesin ).

Dative case also with the article with class. For epieikēs see note on Jam 3:17. There were slave-owners (masters) like this as there are housekeepers and employers of workmen today. This is no argument for slavery, but only a sidelight on a condition bad enough at its best.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:18 - To the froward To the froward ( tois skoliois ). "To the crooked."Old word, also in Luk 3:5; Act 2:40; Phi 2:15. Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are...

To the froward ( tois skoliois ).

"To the crooked."Old word, also in Luk 3:5; Act 2:40; Phi 2:15. Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are employers today, like this group. The test of obedience comes precisely toward this group.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:19 - For this is acceptable For this is acceptable ( touto gar charis ). "For this thing (neuter singular touto , obedience to crooked masters) is grace"(charis is feminine, h...

For this is acceptable ( touto gar charis ).

"For this thing (neuter singular touto , obedience to crooked masters) is grace"(charis is feminine, here "thanks"as in Rom 7:25). "Acceptable"calls for euprosdekton (1Pe 2:5), which is not the text here.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:19 - If a man endureth griefs If a man endureth griefs ( ei huopherei tis lupas ). Condition of first class with ei and present active indicative of hupopherō , old verb, to b...

If a man endureth griefs ( ei huopherei tis lupas ).

Condition of first class with ei and present active indicative of hupopherō , old verb, to bear up under, in N.T. only here, 1Co 10:13; 2Ti 3:11. Note plural of lupē (grief).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:19 - For conscience toward God For conscience toward God ( dia suneidēsin theou ). Suffering is not a blessing in and of itself, but, if one’ s duty to God is involved (Act ...

For conscience toward God ( dia suneidēsin theou ).

Suffering is not a blessing in and of itself, but, if one’ s duty to God is involved (Act 4:20), then one can meet it with gladness of heart. Theou (God) is objective genitive. For suneidēsis (conscience) see note on Act 23:1; and see note on 1Co 8:7. It occurs again in 1Pe 3:16.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:19 - Suffering wrongfully Suffering wrongfully ( paschōn adikōs ). Present active participle of paschō and the common adverb adikōs , unjustly, here alone in N.T. Th...

Suffering wrongfully ( paschōn adikōs ).

Present active participle of paschō and the common adverb adikōs , unjustly, here alone in N.T. This is the whole point, made clear already by Jesus in Mat 5:10-12, where Jesus has also "falsely"(pseudomenoi ). See also Luk 6:32-34.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - For what glory For what glory ( poion gar kleos ). Qualitative interrogative (what kind of glory). "What price glory?"Kleos is old word from kleō (kaleō , t...

For what glory ( poion gar kleos ).

Qualitative interrogative (what kind of glory). "What price glory?"Kleos is old word from kleō (kaleō , to call), report, praise, glory, here only in N.T.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - If ye shall take it patiently If ye shall take it patiently ( ei hupomeneite ). First-class condition with ei and future active indicative of hupomenō , for which see Jam 1:12...

If ye shall take it patiently ( ei hupomeneite ).

First-class condition with ei and future active indicative of hupomenō , for which see Jam 1:12. Same condition also in next sentence (all' ei , etc.).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - When ye sin When ye sin ( hamartanontes ). Present active participle of hamartanō (continued repetition).

When ye sin ( hamartanontes ).

Present active participle of hamartanō (continued repetition).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - And are buffeted for it And are buffeted for it ( kai kolaphizomenoi ). Present passive participle of kolaphizō , late word (from kolaphos fist), only in N.T. (cf. Mat 2...

And are buffeted for it ( kai kolaphizomenoi ).

Present passive participle of kolaphizō , late word (from kolaphos fist), only in N.T. (cf. Mat 26:67) and ecclesiastical writers. Repeated action again. No posing as a martyr allowed here. Christians do sometimes deserve persecution, as Jesus implied (Mat 5:10-12).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - When ye do well When ye do well ( agathopoiountes ). Present active participle of agathopoieō as in 1Pe 2:15.

When ye do well ( agathopoiountes ).

Present active participle of agathopoieō as in 1Pe 2:15.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - And suffer for it And suffer for it ( kai paschontes ). Present active participle of paschō (1Pe 2:19). No "for it"in the Greek here or in the previous sentence.

And suffer for it ( kai paschontes ).

Present active participle of paschō (1Pe 2:19). No "for it"in the Greek here or in the previous sentence.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:20 - This is acceptable with God This is acceptable with God ( touto charis para theōi ). "This thing (neuter) is thanks (1Pe 2:19) by the side of (para ) God (as God looks at it)...

This is acceptable with God ( touto charis para theōi ).

"This thing (neuter) is thanks (1Pe 2:19) by the side of (para ) God (as God looks at it)."

Robertson: 1Pe 2:21 - For hereunto were ye called For hereunto were ye called ( eis touto gar eklēthēte ). First aorist indicative of kaleō , to call. They were called to suffer without flinchi...

For hereunto were ye called ( eis touto gar eklēthēte ).

First aorist indicative of kaleō , to call. They were called to suffer without flinching (Hort), if need be.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:21 - Because Because ( hoti ). The fact that Christ suffered (epathen ) lifts their suffering to a new plane.

Because ( hoti ).

The fact that Christ suffered (epathen ) lifts their suffering to a new plane.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:21 - Leaving you an example Leaving you an example ( humin hupolimpanōn hupogrammon ). Present active participle of the late Ionic verb hupolimpanō (in the papyri) for the...

Leaving you an example ( humin hupolimpanōn hupogrammon ).

Present active participle of the late Ionic verb hupolimpanō (in the papyri) for the common hupoleipō , to leave behind (under), here only in N.T. Hupogrammos is also a late and rare word (from hupographō , to write under), a writing-copy for one to imitate, in 2 Macc. 2:28; Philo, Clement of Rome, here only in N.T. Clement of Alex. ( Strom. V. 8. 49) uses it of the copy-head at the top of a child’ s exercise book for the child to imitate, including all the letters of the alphabet. The papyri give many examples of hupographē and hupographō in the sense of copying a letter.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:21 - That ye should follow his steps That ye should follow his steps ( hina epakolouthēsēte tois ichnesin autou ). Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of e...

That ye should follow his steps ( hina epakolouthēsēte tois ichnesin autou ).

Purpose clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of epakoloutheō , old verb, to follow closely upon, with the associative-instrumental (1Ti 5:10, 1Ti 5:24) or the locative here. Ichnos is old word (from hikō , to go), tracks, footprints, in N.T. only here, 2Co 12:18; Rom 4:12. Peter does not mean that Christ suffered only as an example (1Pe 1:18), but he did leave us his example for our copying (1Jo 2:6).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:22 - Who did no sin Who did no sin ( hos hamartian ouk epoiēsen ). Quotation from Isa 53:9. He has already expressed the sinlessness of Christ in 1Pe 1:19. The next cl...

Who did no sin ( hos hamartian ouk epoiēsen ).

Quotation from Isa 53:9. He has already expressed the sinlessness of Christ in 1Pe 1:19. The next clause is a combination of Isa 53:9; Zep 3:13. For "guile"(dolos ) see 1Pe 2:1.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:22 - Was found Was found ( heurethē ). First aorist passive indicative of heuriskō . Christ’ s guilelessness stood the test of scrutiny (Vincent), as Peter...

Was found ( heurethē ).

First aorist passive indicative of heuriskō . Christ’ s guilelessness stood the test of scrutiny (Vincent), as Peter knew (Mat 26:60; Joh 18:38; Joh 19:4, Joh 19:6).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:23 - When he was reviled When he was reviled ( loidoroumenos ). Present passive participle of loidoreō , old verb (from loidoros , reviler, 1Co 5:11) as in Joh 9:28.

When he was reviled ( loidoroumenos ).

Present passive participle of loidoreō , old verb (from loidoros , reviler, 1Co 5:11) as in Joh 9:28.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:23 - Reviled not again Reviled not again ( ouk anteloidorei ). Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of antiloidoreō , late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one p...

Reviled not again ( ouk anteloidorei ).

Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of antiloidoreō , late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one papyrus example with compound following the simplex verb as here, Moulton and Milligan’ s Vocabulary ), here only in N.T. Idiomatic use of anti (in turn, return, back).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:23 - Threatened not Threatened not ( ouk ēpeilei ). Imperfect again (repeated acts) of apeileō , old compound (from apeilē , threat, Act 9:1), in N.T. only here an...

Threatened not ( ouk ēpeilei ).

Imperfect again (repeated acts) of apeileō , old compound (from apeilē , threat, Act 9:1), in N.T. only here and Act 4:17.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:23 - But committed himself But committed himself ( paredidou de ). Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of paradidōmi , to hand over, usually of one to a judge...

But committed himself ( paredidou de ).

Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of paradidōmi , to hand over, usually of one to a judge, but here not of another (as the Sanhedrin), but himself (supply heauton ), for Jesus uses this very idea in Luk 23:46 as he dies. Jesus thus handed himself and his cause over to the Father who judges righteously (tōi krinonti dikaiōs , dative of present active articular participle of krinō ).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:24 - Who his own self Who his own self ( hos autos ). Intensive pronoun with the relative referring to Christ (note relatives also in 1Pe 2:22, 1Pe 2:23).

Who his own self ( hos autos ).

Intensive pronoun with the relative referring to Christ (note relatives also in 1Pe 2:22, 1Pe 2:23).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:24 - Bare our sins Bare our sins ( anēnegken tas hamartias hēmōn ). Second aorist active indicative of anapherō , common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar...

Bare our sins ( anēnegken tas hamartias hēmōn ).

Second aorist active indicative of anapherō , common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar. Combination here of Isa 53:12; Deu 21:23. Jesus is the perfect sin offering (Heb 9:28). For Christ’ s body (sōma ) as the offering see 1Co 11:24. "Here St. Peter puts the Cross in the place of the altar"(Bigg).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:24 - Upon the tree Upon the tree ( epi to xulon ). Not tree here as in Luk 23:31, originally just wood (1Co 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So...

Upon the tree ( epi to xulon ).

Not tree here as in Luk 23:31, originally just wood (1Co 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Act 5:30; Act 10:39; and by Paul in Gal 3:13 (quoting Deu 21:23).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:24 - Having died unto sins Having died unto sins ( tais hamartiais apogenomenoi ). Second aorist middle participle of apoginomai , old compound to get away from, with dative (a...

Having died unto sins ( tais hamartiais apogenomenoi ).

Second aorist middle participle of apoginomai , old compound to get away from, with dative (as here) to die to anything, here only in N.T.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:24 - That we might live unto righteousness That we might live unto righteousness ( hina tēi dikaiosunēi zēsōmen ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of...

That we might live unto righteousness ( hina tēi dikaiosunēi zēsōmen ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of zaō with the dative (cf. Rom 6:20). Peter’ s idea here is like that of Paul in Rom 6:1-23, especially Rom 6:2 and Rom 6:10.).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:24 - By whose stripes ye were healed By whose stripes ye were healed ( hou tōi mōlōpi iathēte ). From Isa 53:5. First aorist passive indicative of iaomai , common verb to heal (J...

By whose stripes ye were healed ( hou tōi mōlōpi iathēte ).

From Isa 53:5. First aorist passive indicative of iaomai , common verb to heal (Jam 5:16) and the instrumental case of mōlōps , rare word (Aristotle, Plutarch) for bruise or bloody wound, here only in N.T. Cf. 1Pe 1:18. Writing to slaves who may have received such stripes, Peter’ s word is effective.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:25 - For ye were going astray like sheep For ye were going astray like sheep ( ēte gar hōs probata planōmenoi ). Brought from Isa 53:6, but changed to periphrastic imperfect indicative...

For ye were going astray like sheep ( ēte gar hōs probata planōmenoi ).

Brought from Isa 53:6, but changed to periphrastic imperfect indicative with ēte and present middle participle of planaō , to wander away. Recall the words of Jesus in Luk 15:4-7.

Robertson: 1Pe 2:25 - But are now returned But are now returned ( alla epestraphēte ). Second aorist passive indicative of epistrephō , old verb, to turn, to return (Mat 10:13).

But are now returned ( alla epestraphēte ).

Second aorist passive indicative of epistrephō , old verb, to turn, to return (Mat 10:13).

Robertson: 1Pe 2:25 - Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls ( epi ton poimena kai episkopon tōn psuchōn humōn ). Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd (Joh 10:...

Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls ( epi ton poimena kai episkopon tōn psuchōn humōn ).

Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd (Joh 10:11, and see also Heb 13:20). Here alone is Christ called our "Bishop"(overseer). See both ideas combined in Eze 34:11. Philo calls God Episcopos . Jesus is also Apostolos (Heb 3:1) and he deserves all other titles of dignity that we can give him.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:1 - All All ( πᾶσαν - πάντα ) Lit., every, or all manner of.

All ( πᾶσαν - πάντα )

Lit., every, or all manner of.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:1 - Evil-speaking Evil-speaking ( καταλαλιάς ) Lit., speakings against. A rare word. Only here and 2Co 12:20.

Evil-speaking ( καταλαλιάς )

Lit., speakings against. A rare word. Only here and 2Co 12:20.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:2 - New-born New-born ( ἀρτιγέννητα ) Peculiar to Peter, and only in this passage. Lit., born but just now (ἄρτι ).

New-born ( ἀρτιγέννητα )

Peculiar to Peter, and only in this passage. Lit., born but just now (ἄρτι ).

Vincent: 1Pe 2:2 - Babes Babes ( βρέθη ) The word signifying peculiarly a child at birth, or of tender years. See Luk 18:15; Act 7:19. Of the infant Jesus, Luk 2...

Babes ( βρέθη )

The word signifying peculiarly a child at birth, or of tender years. See Luk 18:15; Act 7:19. Of the infant Jesus, Luk 2:12, Luk 2:16. Here marking the recency of Christian life in the converts addressed.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:2 - Desire Desire ( ἐπιποθήσατε ) The compound is intensive; earnestly desire. So Rev., long for. Compare Phi 2:26.

Desire ( ἐπιποθήσατε )

The compound is intensive; earnestly desire. So Rev., long for. Compare Phi 2:26.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:2 - The sincere milk of the word The sincere milk of the word ( τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα ) The A. V. has rendered λογικὸν , of the word; but...

The sincere milk of the word ( τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα )

The A. V. has rendered λογικὸν , of the word; but wrongly. It describes the quality of the milk as spiritual or rational, as opposed to literal and ceremonial. In the only other place where it occurs (Rom 12:1) it is rendered reasonable; which Rev. gives here in margin.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:2 - Sincere Sincere ( ἄδολον ) is another epithet of the milk Lit., without guile, unadulterated. Compare guile in 1Pe 2:1. Laying aside guile, ...

Sincere ( ἄδολον ) is another epithet of the milk

Lit., without guile, unadulterated. Compare guile in 1Pe 2:1. Laying aside guile, desire the guileless milk, etc. Hence Rev. renders the whole passage, Long for the spiritual milk which is without guile.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:2 - That ye may grow thereby That ye may grow thereby The best texts add, unto sal vation.

That ye may grow thereby

The best texts add, unto sal vation.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:3 - Ye have tasted Ye have tasted ( ἐγεύσασθε ) Aorist tense. More literally, ye tasted. " A taste excites the appetite" (Bengel). Compare long for...

Ye have tasted ( ἐγεύσασθε )

Aorist tense. More literally, ye tasted. " A taste excites the appetite" (Bengel). Compare long for, 1Pe 2:2, and Psa 34:8.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:3 - Gracious Gracious ( χρηστὸς ) Actively benignant, " as distinguished from other adjectives which describe goodness on the side of its sterling w...

Gracious ( χρηστὸς )

Actively benignant, " as distinguished from other adjectives which describe goodness on the side of its sterling worth and its gentleness " (Salmond). See on Mat 11:30.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:4 - Coming Coming ( προσερχόμενοι ) Indicating a close (πρός ) and an habitual (present participle) approach and an intimate associ...

Coming ( προσερχόμενοι )

Indicating a close (πρός ) and an habitual (present participle) approach and an intimate association.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:4 - A living stone A living stone ( λίθον ζῶντα ) Omit as unto. So Rev. The words are in apposition with whom (Christ). Compare Peter's use of t...

A living stone ( λίθον ζῶντα )

Omit as unto. So Rev. The words are in apposition with whom (Christ). Compare Peter's use of the same word, stone, in Act 4:11, and Mat 21:42. It is not the word which Christ uses as a personal name for Peter (Πέτρος ) ; so that it is not necessary to infer that Peter was thinking of his own new name.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:4 - Disallowed Disallowed ( ἀποδεδοκιμασμένον ) Rev., rejected. See on the simple verb, 1Pe 1:7. The word indicates rejection after tria...

Disallowed ( ἀποδεδοκιμασμένον )

Rev., rejected. See on the simple verb, 1Pe 1:7. The word indicates rejection after trial.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:4 - Of God Of God ( παρὰ Θεῷ ) Of in the A. V. is equivalent to by ; but πατά has a stronger sense, implying the absolute power of dec...

Of God ( παρὰ Θεῷ )

Of in the A. V. is equivalent to by ; but πατά has a stronger sense, implying the absolute power of decisive choice which is with God . Render, as Rev., with God; i.e., God being judge; and compare Mat 19:26; Rom 2:11.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:4 - Precious Precious ( ἔντιμον ) At 1Pe 1:19 ( precious blood) another word is used (τίμιος ) , denoting essential preciousness. The w...

Precious ( ἔντιμον )

At 1Pe 1:19 ( precious blood) another word is used (τίμιος ) , denoting essential preciousness. The word here indicates the preciousness as recognized or held in honor.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:5 - Living stones - built up - a spiritual house Living stones - built up - a spiritual house It seems as though Peter must have had in mind the conception embodied in Christ's commission to him...

Living stones - built up - a spiritual house

It seems as though Peter must have had in mind the conception embodied in Christ's commission to him, of a building erected upon a rock. The metaphor of a house built of living stones is violent, and sufficiently characteristic of Peter; yet it pictures, in a very striking way, the union of stability, growth, and activity in the ideal church. Note the transition from babes growing (1Pe 2:2) to stones built up. But, as Salmond remarks, " In Paul we have even bolder instances of apparent confusion of metaphors, as when, in one breath, he represents believers as at once walking, rooted, and built up in Christ (Col 2:6, Col 2:7).

Vincent: 1Pe 2:5 - To offer up To offer up ( ἀνενέγκαι ) The usual Old-Testament (Septuagint) term for offering of sacrifice. Lit., to bring up to the altar. Com...

To offer up ( ἀνενέγκαι )

The usual Old-Testament (Septuagint) term for offering of sacrifice. Lit., to bring up to the altar. Compare Heb 13:15. The force of ἀνά , up , appears in the fact of the altar being raised. The word is often used of carrying from a lower to a higher place. Thus Mat 17:1; Luk 24:51. In this sense 1Pe 2:24 of this chapter is suggestive, where it is said that Christ bare (ἀνήνεγκεν ) our sins: carried them up to the cross. See note there.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:6 - It is contained It is contained ( περιέχει ) From περί , round about, and ἔχω , to hold. Hence, to contain or comprehend. So Luk 5:9...

It is contained ( περιέχει )

From περί , round about, and ἔχω , to hold. Hence, to contain or comprehend. So Luk 5:9, he was astonished (θάμβος αὐτὸν περιέσχεν ) ; lit., astonishment held him, encompassed. Also, Act 23:25, " He wrote a letter after this manner (περιέχουσαν τὸν τύπον τοῦτον ) ; lit., containing this form. The verb here is impersonal. The kindred word περιοχή occurs only in Act 8:32, rendered place; i.e., the passage of scripture: either the contents of the passage or the section of the book circumscribed or marked off.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:6 - In the scripture In the scripture ( ἐν γραφῇ ) The best texts reject the article. Γραφή means a passage of scripture. See on Mar 12:10. Henc...

In the scripture ( ἐν γραφῇ )

The best texts reject the article. Γραφή means a passage of scripture. See on Mar 12:10. Hence Rev., in scripture; margin, in a scripture.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:6 - Behold I lay Behold I lay, etc See Rom 9:33.

Behold I lay, etc

See Rom 9:33.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:6 - Precious Precious See on 1Pe 2:4.

Precious

See on 1Pe 2:4.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:7 - He is precious He is precious ( ἡ τιμὴ ) Wrong. Render, as Rev., For you therefore which believe is the preciousness ( honor, in margin).

He is precious ( ἡ τιμὴ )

Wrong. Render, as Rev., For you therefore which believe is the preciousness ( honor, in margin).

Vincent: 1Pe 2:7 - Is made the head of the corner Is made the head of the corner ( ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας ) Rev., correctly, " was made." The preposition ...

Is made the head of the corner ( ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας )

Rev., correctly, " was made." The preposition εἰς , unto , carrying the idea of coming unto the place of honor, is not rendered in A. V. or Rev. Lit., it would be, was made or became unto the head, etc.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:9 - Generation Generation ( γένος ) Better, Rev., race: a body with a common life and descent.

Generation ( γένος )

Better, Rev., race: a body with a common life and descent.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:9 - Nation . People Nation ( ἔθνος ) . People (λαὸς ) The distinction between these three words cannot be closely pressed. Race emphasizes the idea...

Nation ( ἔθνος ) . People (λαὸς )

The distinction between these three words cannot be closely pressed. Race emphasizes the idea of descent; nation, of community. Λαὸς people, occurring very often in the Septuagint, is used there mostly of the Israelites, the chosen people. The same use is also frequent in the New Testament; but it is employed in a more general sense, as by Luk 2:10. It would seem that this idea, however, in its metaphorical and Christian application, the chose Israel of God, directed Peter's choice of the word, since he adds, a people for God's own possession.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:9 - Peculiar Peculiar ( εἰς περιποίησιν ) Lit., a people for acquisition. Rev., a people for God's own possession. Wyc., a people of pu...

Peculiar ( εἰς περιποίησιν )

Lit., a people for acquisition. Rev., a people for God's own possession. Wyc., a people of purchasing. Cranmer, a people which are won. The word occurs 1Th 5:9, rendered obtaining (Rev.); Eph 1:14, God's own possession (Rev.). See Isaiah 43:21 (Sept.), where the kindred verb occurs: " This people have I formed for myself (περιεποιησάμην ) .

Vincent: 1Pe 2:9 - Shew forth Shew forth ( ἐξαγγείλητε ) Only here in New Testament. Proclaim, tell abroad.

Shew forth ( ἐξαγγείλητε )

Only here in New Testament. Proclaim, tell abroad.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:9 - The praises The praises ( τὰς ἀρετὰς ) Lit., the virtues. So Rev., excellencies. The word occurs Isa 43:21 (Sept., see above), and is rend...

The praises ( τὰς ἀρετὰς )

Lit., the virtues. So Rev., excellencies. The word occurs Isa 43:21 (Sept., see above), and is rendered praise . See, also, Isaiah 42:12 (Sept.), " Declare his praise (ἀρετὰς ) in the islands."

Vincent: 1Pe 2:10 - People People ( λαὸς ) See on 1Pe 2:9, and note the choice of the term here. A people of God. Compare Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26.

People ( λαὸς )

See on 1Pe 2:9, and note the choice of the term here. A people of God. Compare Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:11 - Beloved Beloved ( ἀγαπητοί ) A favorite term with Peter, occurring eight times in the epistles. See the phrase, our beloved. Barnabas and Pa...

Beloved ( ἀγαπητοί )

A favorite term with Peter, occurring eight times in the epistles. See the phrase, our beloved. Barnabas and Paul, Act 15:25, in the letter sent by the council at Jerusalem to the Gentile Christians, the account of which, doubtless, came from Peter. Compare our beloved brother Paul, 2Pe 3:15.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:11 - Strangers Strangers ( παροίκους ) Rev., sojourners. Compare 1Pe 1:17, " the time of your sojourning (παροικίας ) . "

Strangers ( παροίκους )

Rev., sojourners. Compare 1Pe 1:17, " the time of your sojourning (παροικίας ) . "

Vincent: 1Pe 2:11 - Which Which ( αἵτινες ) The compound pronoun denotes a class, of that kind which, classifying all fleshly desires in one category.

Which ( αἵτινες )

The compound pronoun denotes a class, of that kind which, classifying all fleshly desires in one category.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:12 - Conversation Conversation Rev., behavior. See on 1Pe 1:15.

Conversation

Rev., behavior. See on 1Pe 1:15.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:12 - Whereas Whereas ( ἐν ᾧ ) Rev., correctly, wherein; in the matter in which.

Whereas ( ἐν ᾧ )

Rev., correctly, wherein; in the matter in which.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:12 - They speak against They speak against ( καταλαλοὔσιν ) Compare evil-speakings, 1Pe 2:1, and Act 28:22.

They speak against ( καταλαλοὔσιν )

Compare evil-speakings, 1Pe 2:1, and Act 28:22.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:12 - Which they shall behold Which they shall behold ( ἐποπτεύοντες ) Rev., beholding. Used by Peter only, here and 1Pe 3:2. The kindred noun ἐπόπτ...

Which they shall behold ( ἐποπτεύοντες )

Rev., beholding. Used by Peter only, here and 1Pe 3:2. The kindred noun ἐπόπτης , an eye-witness, occurs only at 2Pe 1:16. It is a technical word, meaning one who was admitted to the highest degree of initiation in the Eleusinian mysteries. Here it conveys the idea of personal witness; behold with their own eyes.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:12 - Evil-doers Evil-doers ( κακοποιῶν ) The word occurs four times in Peter, and nowhere else in the New Testament except Joh 18:30, where it is appl...

Evil-doers ( κακοποιῶν )

The word occurs four times in Peter, and nowhere else in the New Testament except Joh 18:30, where it is applied by the priests to Christ himself.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:12 - Visitation Visitation ( ἐπισκοπῆς ) The radical idea of the word is that of observing or inspecting. Hence ἐπίσκοπος , an over...

Visitation ( ἐπισκοπῆς )

The radical idea of the word is that of observing or inspecting. Hence ἐπίσκοπος , an overseer or bishop. Visiting grows naturally out of this, as visitare from visere, to look at attentively. See Introduction, on Peter's emphasis upon sight; and compare behold, in this verse. The " day of visitation" is the day of looking upon : " When God shall look upon these wanderers, as a pastor over his flock, and shall become the overlooker or bishop of their souls" (1Pe 2:25, Lumby).

Vincent: 1Pe 2:13 - Submit yourselves Submit yourselves ( ὑποτάγητε ) Rev., be subject. See Rom 13:1 sq.

Submit yourselves ( ὑποτάγητε )

Rev., be subject. See Rom 13:1 sq.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:13 - Ordinance of man Ordinance of man ( ἀνθρωπίνῃ κτίσει ) Lit., to every human creation or institution. Rev., creation, in margin.

Ordinance of man ( ἀνθρωπίνῃ κτίσει )

Lit., to every human creation or institution. Rev., creation, in margin.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:13 - King King The emperor, styled king by Greek writers.

King

The emperor, styled king by Greek writers.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:14 - Sent Sent ( πεμπομένοις ) The present participle. In the habit of being sent: sent from time to time.

Sent ( πεμπομένοις )

The present participle. In the habit of being sent: sent from time to time.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:14 - By him By him The king; not the Lord.

By him

The king; not the Lord.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:14 - Punishment Punishment ( ἐκδίκησιν ) Not strong enough. Better, vengeance, as Rev. Compare Luk 18:7; Rom 12:19.

Punishment ( ἐκδίκησιν )

Not strong enough. Better, vengeance, as Rev. Compare Luk 18:7; Rom 12:19.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:14 - Them that do well Them that do well ( ἀγαθοποιῶν ) Only here in New Testament.

Them that do well ( ἀγαθοποιῶν )

Only here in New Testament.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:15 - Put to silence Put to silence ( φιμοῦν ) A very graphic word, meaning to muzzle or gag. Compare 1Co 9:9; 1Ti 5:18. See on Mat 22:12.

Put to silence ( φιμοῦν )

A very graphic word, meaning to muzzle or gag. Compare 1Co 9:9; 1Ti 5:18. See on Mat 22:12.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:15 - Ignorance Ignorance ( ἀγνωσίαν ) In classical Greek it is an ignorance arising from not coming into contact with the person or thing to be know...

Ignorance ( ἀγνωσίαν )

In classical Greek it is an ignorance arising from not coming into contact with the person or thing to be known. It occurs only once again in the New Testament, 1Co 15:34. Here it signifies not want of acquaintance, but of understanding; a state of ignorance.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:15 - Of foolish men Of foolish men ( τῶν ἀφρόνων ἀνθρώπων ) Of the foolish men; the article referring to those just mentioned, who spea...

Of foolish men ( τῶν ἀφρόνων ἀνθρώπων )

Of the foolish men; the article referring to those just mentioned, who speak against them as evil-doers.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:16 - Using Using ( ἔχοντες ) Lit., having or holding.

Using ( ἔχοντες )

Lit., having or holding.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:16 - Cloke Cloke ( ἐπικάλυμμα ) Only here in New Testament. Lit., a veil. The idea is that of using Christian freedom as a mask for ungodly ...

Cloke ( ἐπικάλυμμα )

Only here in New Testament. Lit., a veil. The idea is that of using Christian freedom as a mask for ungodly license. Paul uses the kindred verb (Rom 4:7) of the covering of sins. On the sentiment, compare Gal 5:13.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:18 - Servants Servants ( οἰκέται ) Household servants. So Rev., in margin. Not a common term in the New Testament, occurring only in three other p...

Servants ( οἰκέται )

Household servants. So Rev., in margin. Not a common term in the New Testament, occurring only in three other passages: Luk 16:13; Act 10:7; Rom 14:4. Some suppose that Peter intended to cover by it freedmen and other dependants in the household, or that he uses it with a conciliatory purpose, as presenting the slave in closer relation with the family.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:18 - Gentle Gentle ( ἐπιεικέσιν ) A common derivation of this word is from εἴκω , to yield. Hence the meaning, mind, yielding, indulg...

Gentle ( ἐπιεικέσιν )

A common derivation of this word is from εἴκω , to yield. Hence the meaning, mind, yielding, indulgent. But the true derivation is from εἰκός , reasonable; and the word implies rather the not being unduly rigorous: " Wherein not strictness of legal right, but consideration for one another, is the rule of practice" (Alford). Compare Phi 4:5, where, for moderation (τὸ ἐπιεικὲς ), Rev. gives forbearance, with gentleness in margin. According to Aristotle, the word stands in contrast with ἀκριβοδίκαιος , one who is exactingly just, as one who is satired with less than his due.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:18 - Froward Froward ( σκολιοῖς ) Lit., crooked. See Luk 3:5. Peter uses the word in Act 2:40 ( untoward ) ; and Paul, in Phi 2:15 ( crooked ) . ...

Froward ( σκολιοῖς )

Lit., crooked. See Luk 3:5. Peter uses the word in Act 2:40 ( untoward ) ; and Paul, in Phi 2:15 ( crooked ) . The word froward is Anglo-Saxon fream-ward or from-ward, the opposite of to-ward. (See untoward, above.) Thus Ben Jonson:

" Those that are froward to an appetite;"

i.e., averse. Compare the phrases to-God-ward (2Co 3:4); to-us-ward.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:19 - Conscience toward God Conscience toward God ( συνείδησιν Θεοῦ ) Rev., in margin, conscience of God. The idea is not conscientiousness in the ordi...

Conscience toward God ( συνείδησιν Θεοῦ )

Rev., in margin, conscience of God. The idea is not conscientiousness in the ordinary sense, but the conscious sense of one's relation to God; his consciousness of God. Thus one suffers patiently, not from a conscientious sense of duty, but from an inner consciousness of his relation to God as a son, and to Christ as a joint-heir, which involves his suffering with him no less than his being glorified with him.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:20 - What glory What glory ( ποῖον κλέος ) Lit., what kind of glory. This word for glory occurs nowhere else in the New Testament.

What glory ( ποῖον κλέος )

Lit., what kind of glory. This word for glory occurs nowhere else in the New Testament.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:20 - Buffeted Buffeted ( κολαφιζόμενοι ) See Mat 26:67 : struck with the fist. This whole passage, 1Pe 2:19-24, bears the mark of Peter's memori...

Buffeted ( κολαφιζόμενοι )

See Mat 26:67 : struck with the fist. This whole passage, 1Pe 2:19-24, bears the mark of Peter's memories of the scene of Christ's last sufferings (see Introduction) - the blows of the servants, the scorn of the high-priest, the silent submission of Jesus, the cross, the stripes.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:21 - Leaving Leaving ( ὑπολιμπάνων ) Only here in the New Testament.

Leaving ( ὑπολιμπάνων )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:21 - An example An example ( ὑπογραμμὸν ) Only here in the New Testament. A graphic word, meaning a copy set by writing-masters for their pupils....

An example ( ὑπογραμμὸν )

Only here in the New Testament. A graphic word, meaning a copy set by writing-masters for their pupils. Some explain it as a copy of characters over which the student is to trace the lines.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:21 - Follow Follow ( ἐπακολουθήσητε ) Lit., follow upon. The compound verb implies close following. From writers and painters, the ...

Follow ( ἐπακολουθήσητε )

Lit., follow upon. The compound verb implies close following. From writers and painters, the metaphor changes now to a guide.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:22 - Found Found ( εὑρέθη ) Stronger than the simple was, and indicating a guilelessness which had stood the test of scrutiny. Compare Mat 26:...

Found ( εὑρέθη )

Stronger than the simple was, and indicating a guilelessness which had stood the test of scrutiny. Compare Mat 26:60; Joh 18:38; Joh 19:4, Joh 19:6. Christ's sinlessness had also stood the test of Peter's intimacy.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:23 - Reviled - again Reviled - again ( ἀντελοιδόρει ) Only here in the New Testament.

Reviled - again ( ἀντελοιδόρει )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:23 - Committed himself Committed himself ( παρεδίδου ) But this gives a reflexive force to the verb which has no parallel. Commentators are divided, some sup...

Committed himself ( παρεδίδου )

But this gives a reflexive force to the verb which has no parallel. Commentators are divided, some supplying his cause, as Rev., in margin; others, his judgment; others, his revilers. Better, the subject of the contest - his insults and injuries. Salmond renders, but left it to him, etc.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:23 - Judgeth righteously Judgeth righteously Compare without respect of person, 1Pe 1:17.

Judgeth righteously

Compare without respect of person, 1Pe 1:17.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:24 - Bare Bare ( ἀνήνεγκεν ) See on 1Pe 2:5. Bare up to the cross, as to an altar, and offered himself thereon.

Bare ( ἀνήνεγκεν )

See on 1Pe 2:5. Bare up to the cross, as to an altar, and offered himself thereon.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:24 - The tree The tree ( ξύλον ) Lit., wood. Peter uses the same peculiar term for the cross, Act 5:30; Act 10:39.

The tree ( ξύλον )

Lit., wood. Peter uses the same peculiar term for the cross, Act 5:30; Act 10:39.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:24 - Being dead Being dead ( ἀπογενόμενοι ) Rev., more strictly, having died. Used here only in the New Testament. The rendering of the verb ca...

Being dead ( ἀπογενόμενοι )

Rev., more strictly, having died. Used here only in the New Testament. The rendering of the verb can be given only in a clumsy way, having become off unto sin ; not becoming separate from sins, but having ceased to exist as regards them. Compare Rom 6:18.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:24 - Stripes Stripes ( μώλωπι ) Lit., bruise. So Rev., in margin. Only here in New Testament; meaning a bloody wale which arises under a blow. " S...

Stripes ( μώλωπι )

Lit., bruise. So Rev., in margin. Only here in New Testament; meaning a bloody wale which arises under a blow. " Such a sight we feel sure, as we read this descriptive passage, St. Peter's eyes beheld on the body of his Master, and the flesh so dreadfully mangled made the disfigured form appear in his eyes like one single bruise" (Lumby).

Vincent: 1Pe 2:25 - For ye were as sheep going astray For ye were as sheep going astray ( ἦτε γὰρ ὡς πρόβατα πλανώμενοι ); i.e., as commonly understood, ye were ...

For ye were as sheep going astray ( ἦτε γὰρ ὡς πρόβατα πλανώμενοι );

i.e., as commonly understood, ye were like straying sheep. But the ye were should be construed with the participle going astray, the verb and the participle together denoting habitual action or condition. Render, as Rev., ye were going astray like sheep. See on Mar 12:24.

Vincent: 1Pe 2:25 - Bishop Bishop See on 1Pe 2:12.

Bishop

See on 1Pe 2:12.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:1 - Wherefore laying aside As inconsistent with that pure love.

As inconsistent with that pure love.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:1 - All dissimulation Which is the outward expression of guile in the heart.

Which is the outward expression of guile in the heart.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:2 - Desire Always, as earnestly as new born babes do, 1Pe 1:3.

Always, as earnestly as new born babes do, 1Pe 1:3.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:2 - The milk of the word That word of God which nourishes the soul as milk does the body, and which is sincere, pure from all guile, so that none are deceived who cleave to it...

That word of God which nourishes the soul as milk does the body, and which is sincere, pure from all guile, so that none are deceived who cleave to it.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:2 - That you may grow thereby In faith, love, holiness, unto the full stature of Christ.

In faith, love, holiness, unto the full stature of Christ.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:3 - Since ye have tasted Sweetly and experimentally known.

Sweetly and experimentally known.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:4 - To whom coming By faith.

By faith.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:4 - As unto a living stone Living from eternity; alive from the dead. There is a wonderful beauty and energy in these expressions, which describe Christ as a spiritual foundatio...

Living from eternity; alive from the dead. There is a wonderful beauty and energy in these expressions, which describe Christ as a spiritual foundation, solid, firm, durable; and believers as a building erected upon it, in preference to that temple which the Jews accounted their highest glory. And St. Peter speaking of him thus, shows he did not judge himself, but Christ, to be the rock on which the church was built.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:4 - Rejected indeed by men Even at this day, not only by Jews, Turks, heathens, infidels; but by all Christians, so called, who live in sin, or who hope to be saved by their own...

Even at this day, not only by Jews, Turks, heathens, infidels; but by all Christians, so called, who live in sin, or who hope to be saved by their own works.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:4 - But chosen of God From all eternity, to be the foundation of his church.

From all eternity, to be the foundation of his church.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:4 - And precious In himself, in the sight of God, and in the eyes of all believers.

In himself, in the sight of God, and in the eyes of all believers.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:5 - Ye Believers.

Believers.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:5 - As living stones Alive to God through him.

Alive to God through him.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:5 - Are built up In union with each other.

In union with each other.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:5 - A spiritual house Being spiritual yourselves, and an habitation of God through the Spirit.

Being spiritual yourselves, and an habitation of God through the Spirit.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:5 - An holy priesthood Consecrated to God, and "holy as he is holy." To offer up - Your souls and bodies, with all your thoughts, words, and actions, as spiritual sacrifices...

Consecrated to God, and "holy as he is holy." To offer up - Your souls and bodies, with all your thoughts, words, and actions, as spiritual sacrifices to God.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:6 - He that believeth shall not be confounded In time or in eternity. Isa 28:16.

In time or in eternity. Isa 28:16.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:7 - To them who believe, he is become the head of the corner The chief corner stone, on which the whole building rests. Unbelievers too will at length find him such to their sorrow, Mat 21:44. Psa 118:22.

The chief corner stone, on which the whole building rests. Unbelievers too will at length find him such to their sorrow, Mat 21:44. Psa 118:22.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:8 - Who stumble, whereunto also they were appointed They who believe not, stumble, and fall, and perish for ever; God having appointed from all eternity, "he that believeth not shall be damned."

They who believe not, stumble, and fall, and perish for ever; God having appointed from all eternity, "he that believeth not shall be damned."

Wesley: 1Pe 2:9 - But ye Who believe in Christ Are - In a higher sense than ever the Jews were. A chosen or elect race, a royal priesthood - "Kings and priests unto God," Rev ...

Who believe in Christ Are - In a higher sense than ever the Jews were. A chosen or elect race, a royal priesthood - "Kings and priests unto God," Rev 1:6. As princes, ye have power with God, and victory over sin, the world, and the devil: as priests, ye are consecrated to God, for offering spiritual sacrifices. Ye Christians are as one holy nation, under Christ your King.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:9 - A purchased people Who are his peculiar property.

Who are his peculiar property.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:9 - That ye may show forth By your whole behaviour, to all mankind.

By your whole behaviour, to all mankind.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:9 - The virtues The excellent glory, the mercy, wisdom, and power of him, Christ, who hath called you out of the darkness of ignorance, error, sin, and misery.

The excellent glory, the mercy, wisdom, and power of him, Christ, who hath called you out of the darkness of ignorance, error, sin, and misery.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:10 - Who in time past were not a people Much less the people of God; but scattered individuals of many nations. The former part of the verse particularly respects the gentiles; the latter, t...

Much less the people of God; but scattered individuals of many nations. The former part of the verse particularly respects the gentiles; the latter, the Jews.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:11 - -- Here begins the exhortation drawn from the second motive.

Here begins the exhortation drawn from the second motive.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:11 - Sojourners: pilgrims The first word properly means, those who are in a strange house; the second, those who are in a strange country. You sojourn in the body; you are pilg...

The first word properly means, those who are in a strange house; the second, those who are in a strange country. You sojourn in the body; you are pilgrims in this world. Abstain from desires of anything in this house, or in this country.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:12 - Honest Not barely unblamable, but virtuous in every respect. But our language sinks under the force, beauty, and copiousness of the original expressions.

Not barely unblamable, but virtuous in every respect. But our language sinks under the force, beauty, and copiousness of the original expressions.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:12 - That they by your good works which they shall behold See with their own eyes.

See with their own eyes.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:12 - May glorify God By owning his grace in you, and following your example.

By owning his grace in you, and following your example.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:12 - In the day of visitation The time when he shall give them fresh offers of his mercy.

The time when he shall give them fresh offers of his mercy.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:13 - Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man To every secular power. Instrumentally these are ordained by men; but originally all their power is from God.

To every secular power. Instrumentally these are ordained by men; but originally all their power is from God.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:14 - -- Or to subordinate governors, or magistrates.

Or to subordinate governors, or magistrates.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:15 - The ignorance Of them who blame you, because they do not know you: a strong motive to pity them.

Of them who blame you, because they do not know you: a strong motive to pity them.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:16 - As free Yet obeying governors, for God's sake.

Yet obeying governors, for God's sake.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour all men As being made in the image of God, bought by his Son, and designed for his kingdom.

As being made in the image of God, bought by his Son, and designed for his kingdom.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour the king Pay him all that regard both in affection and action which the laws of God and man require.

Pay him all that regard both in affection and action which the laws of God and man require.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:18 - Servants Literally, household servants.

Literally, household servants.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:18 - With all fear Of offending them or God.

Of offending them or God.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:18 - Not only to the good Tender, kind.

Tender, kind.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:18 - And gentle Mild, easily forgiving.

Mild, easily forgiving.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:19 - For conscience toward God From a pure desire of pleasing him.

From a pure desire of pleasing him.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:19 - Grief Severe treatment.

Severe treatment.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:21 - Hereunto are ye Christians.

Christians.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:21 - Called To suffer wrongfully.

To suffer wrongfully.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:21 - Leaving you an example When he went to God.

When he went to God.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:21 - That ye might follow his steps Of innocence and patience.

Of innocence and patience.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:22-23 - -- In all these instances the example of Christ is peculiarly adapted to the state of servants, who easily slide either into sin or guile, reviling their...

In all these instances the example of Christ is peculiarly adapted to the state of servants, who easily slide either into sin or guile, reviling their fellowservants, or threatening them, the natural result of anger without power.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:22-23 - He committed himself to him that judgeth righteously The only solid ground of patience in affliction. Isa 53:4, Isa 53:6-7, Isa 53:9.

The only solid ground of patience in affliction. Isa 53:4, Isa 53:6-7, Isa 53:9.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:24 - Who himself bore our sins That is, the punishment due to them. In his afflicted, torn, dying body on the tree - The cross, whereon chiefly slaves or servants were wont to suffe...

That is, the punishment due to them. In his afflicted, torn, dying body on the tree - The cross, whereon chiefly slaves or servants were wont to suffer.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:24 - That we being dead to sin Wholly delivered both from the guilt and power of it: indeed, without an atonement first made for the guilt, we could never have been delivered from t...

Wholly delivered both from the guilt and power of it: indeed, without an atonement first made for the guilt, we could never have been delivered from the power.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:24 - Might live to righteousness Which is one only. The sins we had committed, and he bore, were manifold.

Which is one only. The sins we had committed, and he bore, were manifold.

Wesley: 1Pe 2:25 - The bishop The kind observer, inspector, or overseer of your souls.

The kind observer, inspector, or overseer of your souls.

JFB: 1Pe 2:1 - laying aside Once for all: so the Greek aorist expresses as a garment put off. The exhortation applies to Christians alone, for in none else is the new nature exis...

Once for all: so the Greek aorist expresses as a garment put off. The exhortation applies to Christians alone, for in none else is the new nature existing which, as "the inward man" (Eph 3:16) can cast off the old as an outward thing, so that the Christian, through the continual renewal of his inward man, can also exhibit himself externally as a new man. But to unbelievers the demand is addressed, that inwardly, in regard to the nous (mind), they must become changed, meta-noeisthai (re-pent) [STEIGER]. The "therefore" resumes the exhortation begun in 1Pe 1:22. Seeing that ye are born again of an incorruptible seed, be not again entangled in evil, which "has no substantial being, but is an acting in contrariety to the being formed in us" [THEOPHYLACT]. "Malice," &c., are utterly inconsistent with the "love of the brethren," unto which ye have "purified your souls" (1Pe 1:22). The vices here are those which offend against the BROTHERLY LOVE inculcated above. Each succeeding one springs out of that which immediately precedes, so as to form a genealogy of the sins against love. Out of malice springs guile; out of guile, hypocrises (pretending to be what we are not, and not showing what we really are; the opposite of "love unfeigned," and "without dissimulation"); out of hypocrisies, envies of those to whom we think ourselves obliged to play the hypocrite; out of envies, evil-speaking, malicious, envious detraction of others. Guile is the permanent disposition; hypocrisies the acts flowing from it. The guileless knows no envy. Compare 1Pe 2:2, "sincere," Greek, "guileless." "Malice delights in another's hurt; envy pines at another's good; guile imparts duplicity to the heart; hypocrisy (flattery) imparts duplicity to the tongue; evil-speakings wound the character of another" [AUGUSTINE].

JFB: 1Pe 2:2 - new-born babes Altogether without "guile" (1Pe 2:1). As long as we are here we are "babes," in a specially tender relation to God (Isa 40:11). The childlike spirit i...

Altogether without "guile" (1Pe 2:1). As long as we are here we are "babes," in a specially tender relation to God (Isa 40:11). The childlike spirit is indispensable if we would enter heaven. "Milk" is here not elementary truths in contradistinction to more advanced Christian truths, as in 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:12-13; but in contrast to "guile, hypocrisies," &c. (1Pe 2:1); the simplicity of Christian doctrine in general to the childlike spirit. The same "word of grace" which is the instrument in regeneration, is the instrument also of building up. "The mother of the child is also its natural nurse" [STEIGER]. The babe, instead of chemically analyzing, instinctively desires and feeds on the milk; so our part is not self-sufficient rationalizing and questioning, but simply receiving the truth in the love of it (Mat 11:25).

JFB: 1Pe 2:2 - desire Greek, "have a yearning desire for," or "longing after," a natural impulse to the regenerate, "for as no one needs to teach new-born babes what food t...

Greek, "have a yearning desire for," or "longing after," a natural impulse to the regenerate, "for as no one needs to teach new-born babes what food to take, knowing instinctively that a table is provided for them in their mother's breast," so the believer of himself thirsts after the word of God (Psa. 119:1-176). Compare TATIUS' language as to Achilles.

JFB: 1Pe 2:2 - sincere Greek, "guileless." Compare 1Pe 2:1, "laying aside guile." IRENÆUS says of heretics. They mix chalk with the milk. The article, "the," implies that b...

Greek, "guileless." Compare 1Pe 2:1, "laying aside guile." IRENÆUS says of heretics. They mix chalk with the milk. The article, "the," implies that besides the well-known pure milk, the Gospel, there is no other pure, unadulterated doctrine; it alone can make us guileless (1Pe 2:1).

JFB: 1Pe 2:2 - of the word Not as ALFORD, "spiritual," nor "reasonable," as English Version in Rom 12:1. The Greek "logos" in Scripture is not used of the reason, or mind, but o...

Not as ALFORD, "spiritual," nor "reasonable," as English Version in Rom 12:1. The Greek "logos" in Scripture is not used of the reason, or mind, but of the WORD; the preceding context requires that "the word" should be meant here; the adjective "logikos" follows the meaning of the noun logos, "word." Jam 1:21, "Lay apart all filthiness . . . and receive with meekness the engrafted WORD," is exactly parallel, and confirms English Version here.

JFB: 1Pe 2:2 - grow The oldest manuscripts and versions read, "grow unto salvation." Being BORN again unto salvation, we are also to grow unto salvation. The end to which...

The oldest manuscripts and versions read, "grow unto salvation." Being BORN again unto salvation, we are also to grow unto salvation. The end to which growth leads is perfected salvation. "Growth is the measure of the fulness of that, not only rescue from destruction, but positive blessedness, which is implied in salvation" [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Pe 2:2 - thereby Greek, "in it"; fed on it; in its strength (Act 11:14). "The word is to be desired with appetite as the cause of life, to be swallowed in the hearing,...

Greek, "in it"; fed on it; in its strength (Act 11:14). "The word is to be desired with appetite as the cause of life, to be swallowed in the hearing, to be chewed as cud is by rumination with the understanding, and to be digested by faith" [TERTULLIAN].

JFB: 1Pe 2:3 - -- Peter alludes to Psa 34:8. The first "tastes" of God's goodness are afterwards followed by fuller and happier experiences. A taste whets the appetite ...

Peter alludes to Psa 34:8. The first "tastes" of God's goodness are afterwards followed by fuller and happier experiences. A taste whets the appetite [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Pe 2:3 - gracious Greek, "good," benignant, kind; as God is revealed to us in Christ, "the Lord" (1Pe 2:4), we who are born again ought so to be good and kind to the br...

Greek, "good," benignant, kind; as God is revealed to us in Christ, "the Lord" (1Pe 2:4), we who are born again ought so to be good and kind to the brethren (1Pe 1:22). "Whosoever has not tasted the word to him it is not sweet it has not reached the heart; but to them who have experienced it, who with the heart believe, 'Christ has been sent for me and is become my own: my miseries are His, and His life mine,' it tastes sweet" [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 2:4 - coming Drawing near (same Greek as here, Heb 10:22) by faith continually; present tense: not having come once for all at conversion.

Drawing near (same Greek as here, Heb 10:22) by faith continually; present tense: not having come once for all at conversion.

JFB: 1Pe 2:4 - stone Peter (that is, a stone, named so by Christ) desires that all similarly should be living stones BUILT ON CHRIST, THE TRUE FOUNDATION-STONE; compare hi...

Peter (that is, a stone, named so by Christ) desires that all similarly should be living stones BUILT ON CHRIST, THE TRUE FOUNDATION-STONE; compare his speech in Act 4:11. An undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness. The Spirit foreseeing the Romanist perversion of Mat 16:18 (compare Mat 16:16, "Son of the LIVING God," which coincides with his language here, "the LIVING stone"), presciently makes Peter himself to refuse it. He herein confirms Paul's teaching. Omit the as unto of English Version. Christ is positively termed the "living stone"; living, as having life in Himself from the beginning, and as raised from the dead to live evermore (Rev 1:18) after His rejection by men, and so the source of life to us. Like no earthly rock, He lives and gives life. Compare 1Co 10:4, and the type, Exo 17:6; Num 20:11.

JFB: 1Pe 2:4 - disallowed Rejected, reprobated; referred to also by Christ Himself: also by Paul; compare the kindred prophecies, Isa 8:14; Luk 2:34.

Rejected, reprobated; referred to also by Christ Himself: also by Paul; compare the kindred prophecies, Isa 8:14; Luk 2:34.

JFB: 1Pe 2:4 - chosen of God Literally, "with (or 'in the presence and judgment of') God elect," or, "chosen out" (1Pe 2:6). Many are alienated from the Gospel, because it is not ...

Literally, "with (or 'in the presence and judgment of') God elect," or, "chosen out" (1Pe 2:6). Many are alienated from the Gospel, because it is not everywhere in favor, but is on the contrary rejected by most men. Peter answers that, though rejected by men, Christ is peculiarly the stone of salvation honored by God, first so designated by Jacob in his deathbed prophecy.

JFB: 1Pe 2:5 - Ye also, as lively stones Partaking of the name and life which is in "THE LIVING STONE" (1Pe 2:4; 1Co 3:11). Many names which belong to Christ in the singular are assigned to C...

Partaking of the name and life which is in "THE LIVING STONE" (1Pe 2:4; 1Co 3:11). Many names which belong to Christ in the singular are assigned to Christians in the plural. He is "THE SON," "High Priest," "King," "Lamb"; they, "sons," "priests," "kings," "sheep," "lambs." So the Shulamite called from Solomon [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Pe 2:5 - are built up Greek, "are being built up," as in Eph 2:22. Not as ALFORD, "Be ye built up." Peter grounds his exhortations, 1Pe 2:2, 1Pe 2:11, &c., on their conscio...

Greek, "are being built up," as in Eph 2:22. Not as ALFORD, "Be ye built up." Peter grounds his exhortations, 1Pe 2:2, 1Pe 2:11, &c., on their conscious sense of their high privileges as living stones in the course of being built up into a spiritual house (that is, "the habitation of the Spirit").

JFB: 1Pe 2:5 - priesthood Christians are both the spiritual temple and the priests of the temple. There are two Greek words for "temple"; hieron (the sacred place), the whole b...

Christians are both the spiritual temple and the priests of the temple. There are two Greek words for "temple"; hieron (the sacred place), the whole building, including the courts wherein the sacrifice was killed; and naos (the dwelling, namely, of God), the inner shrine wherein God peculiarly manifested Himself, and where, in the holiest place, the blood of the slain sacrifice was presented before Him. All believers alike, and not merely ministers, are now the dwelling of God (and are called the "naos," Greek, not the hieron) and priests unto God (Rev 1:6). The minister is not, like the Jewish priest (Greek, "hiercus"), admitted nearer to God than the people, but merely for order's sake leads the spiritual services of the people. Priest is the abbreviation of presbyter in the Church of England Prayer Book, not corresponding to the Aaronic priest (hiereus, who offered literal sacrifices). Christ is the only literal hiereus-priest in the New Testament through whom alone we may always draw near to God. Compare 1Pe 2:9, "a royal priesthood," that is, a body of priest-kings, such as was Melchisedec. The Spirit never, in New Testament, gives the name hiereus, or sacerdotal priest, to ministers of the Gospel.

JFB: 1Pe 2:5 - holy Consecrated to God.

Consecrated to God.

JFB: 1Pe 2:5 - spiritual sacrifices Not the literal one of the mass, as the Romish self-styled disciples of Peter teach. Compare Isa 56:7, which compare with "acceptable to God" here; Ps...

Not the literal one of the mass, as the Romish self-styled disciples of Peter teach. Compare Isa 56:7, which compare with "acceptable to God" here; Psa 4:5; Psa 50:14; Psa 51:17, Psa 51:19; Hos 14:2; Phi 4:18. "Among spiritual sacrifices the first place belongs to the general oblation of ourselves. For never can we offer anything to God until we have offered ourselves (2Co 8:5) in sacrifice to Him. There follow afterwards prayers, giving of thanks, alms deeds, and all exercises of piety" [CALVIN]. Christian houses of worship are never called temples because the temple was a place for sacrifice, which has no place in the Christian dispensation; the Christian temple is the congregation of spiritual worshippers. The synagogue (where reading of Scripture and prayer constituted the worship) was the model of the Christian house of worship (compare Note, see on Jam 2:2, Greek, "synagogue"; Act 15:21). Our sacrifices are those of prayer, praise, and self-denying services in the cause of Christ (1Pe 2:9, end).

JFB: 1Pe 2:5 - by Jesus Christ As our mediating High Priest before God. Connect these words with "offer up." Christ is both precious Himself and makes us accepted [BENGEL]. As the t...

As our mediating High Priest before God. Connect these words with "offer up." Christ is both precious Himself and makes us accepted [BENGEL]. As the temple, so also the priesthood, is built on Christ (1Pe 2:4-5) [BEZA]. Imperfect as are our services, we are not with unbelieving timidity, which is close akin to refined self-righteousness, to doubt their acceptance THROUGH CHRIST. After extolling the dignity of Christians he goes back to CHRIST as the sole source of it.

JFB: 1Pe 2:6 - Wherefore also The oldest manuscripts read, "Because that." The statement above is so "because it is contained in Scripture."

The oldest manuscripts read, "Because that." The statement above is so "because it is contained in Scripture."

JFB: 1Pe 2:6 - Behold Calling attention to the glorious announcement of His eternal counsel.

Calling attention to the glorious announcement of His eternal counsel.

JFB: 1Pe 2:6 - elect So also believers (1Pe 2:9, "chosen," Greek, "elect generation").

So also believers (1Pe 2:9, "chosen," Greek, "elect generation").

JFB: 1Pe 2:6 - precious In Hebrew, Isa 28:16, "a corner-stone of preciousness." See on Isa 28:16. So in 1Pe 2:7, Christ is said to be, to believers, "precious," Greek, "preci...

In Hebrew, Isa 28:16, "a corner-stone of preciousness." See on Isa 28:16. So in 1Pe 2:7, Christ is said to be, to believers, "precious," Greek, "preciousness."

JFB: 1Pe 2:6 - confounded Same Greek as in Rom 9:33 (Peter here as elsewhere confirming Paul's teaching. See Introduction; also Rom 10:11), "ashamed." In Isa 28:16, "make haste...

Same Greek as in Rom 9:33 (Peter here as elsewhere confirming Paul's teaching. See Introduction; also Rom 10:11), "ashamed." In Isa 28:16, "make haste," that is, flee in sudden panic, covered with the shame of confounded hopes.

JFB: 1Pe 2:7 - -- Application of the Scripture just quoted first to the believer, then to the unbeliever. On the opposite effects of the same Gospel on different classe...

Application of the Scripture just quoted first to the believer, then to the unbeliever. On the opposite effects of the same Gospel on different classes, compare Joh 9:39; 2Co 2:15-16.

JFB: 1Pe 2:7 - precious Greek, "THE preciousness" (1Pe 2:6). To you believers belongs the preciousness of Christ just mentioned.

Greek, "THE preciousness" (1Pe 2:6). To you believers belongs the preciousness of Christ just mentioned.

JFB: 1Pe 2:7 - disobedient To the faith, and so disobedient in practice.

To the faith, and so disobedient in practice.

JFB: 1Pe 2:7 - the stone which . . . head of . . . corner (Psa 118:22). Those who rejected the STONE were all the while in spite of themselves unconsciously contributing to its becoming Head of the corner. T...

(Psa 118:22). Those who rejected the STONE were all the while in spite of themselves unconsciously contributing to its becoming Head of the corner. The same magnet has two poles, the one repulsive, the other attractive; so the Gospel has opposite effects on believers and unbelievers respectively.

JFB: 1Pe 2:8 - stone of stumbling, &c. Quoted from Isa 8:14. Not merely they stumbled, in that their prejudices were offended; but their stumbling implies the judicial punishment of their r...

Quoted from Isa 8:14. Not merely they stumbled, in that their prejudices were offended; but their stumbling implies the judicial punishment of their reception of Messiah; they hurt themselves in stumbling over the corner-stone, as "stumble" means in Jer 13:16; Dan 11:19.

JFB: 1Pe 2:8 - at the word Rather, join "being disobedient to the word"; so 1Pe 3:1; 1Pe 4:17.

Rather, join "being disobedient to the word"; so 1Pe 3:1; 1Pe 4:17.

JFB: 1Pe 2:8 - whereunto To penal stumbling; to the judicial punishment of their unbelief. See above.

To penal stumbling; to the judicial punishment of their unbelief. See above.

JFB: 1Pe 2:8 - also An additional thought; God's ordination; not that God ordains or appoints them to sin, but they are given up to "the fruit of their own ways" accordin...

An additional thought; God's ordination; not that God ordains or appoints them to sin, but they are given up to "the fruit of their own ways" according to the eternal counsel of God. The moral ordering of the world is altogether of God. God appoints the ungodly to be given up unto sin, and a reprobate mind, and its necessary penalty. "Were appointed," Greek, "set," answers to "I lay," Greek, "set," 1Pe 2:6. God, in the active, is said to appoint Christ and the elect (directly). Unbelievers, in the passive, are said to be appointed (God acting less directly in the appointment of the sinner's awful course) [BENGEL]. God ordains the wicked to punishment, not to crime [J. CAPPEL]. "Appointed" or "set" (not here "FORE-ordained") refers, not to the eternal counsel so directly, as to the penal justice of God. Through the same Christ whom sinners rejected, they shall be rejected; unlike believers, they are by God appointed unto wrath as FITTED for it. The lost shall lay all the blame of their ruin on their own sinful perversity, not on God's decree; the saved shall ascribe all the merit of their salvation to God's electing love and grace.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - -- Contrast in the privileges and destinies of believers. Compare the similar contrast with the preceding context.

Contrast in the privileges and destinies of believers. Compare the similar contrast with the preceding context.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - chosen "elect" of God, even as Christ your Lord is.

"elect" of God, even as Christ your Lord is.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - generation Implying the unity of spiritual origin and kindred of believers as a class distinct from the world.

Implying the unity of spiritual origin and kindred of believers as a class distinct from the world.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - royal Kingly. Believers, like Christ, the antitypical Melchisedec, are at once kings and priests. Israel, in a spiritual sense, was designed to be the same ...

Kingly. Believers, like Christ, the antitypical Melchisedec, are at once kings and priests. Israel, in a spiritual sense, was designed to be the same among the nations of the earth. The full realization on earth of this, both to the literal and the spiritual Israel, is as yet future.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - holy nation Antitypical to Israel.

Antitypical to Israel.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - peculiar people Literally, "a people for an acquisition," that is, whom God chose to be peculiarly His: Act 20:28, "purchased," literally, "acquired." God's "peculiar...

Literally, "a people for an acquisition," that is, whom God chose to be peculiarly His: Act 20:28, "purchased," literally, "acquired." God's "peculiar treasure" above others.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - show forth Publish abroad. Not their own praises but His. They have no reason to magnify themselves above others for once they had been in the same darkness, and...

Publish abroad. Not their own praises but His. They have no reason to magnify themselves above others for once they had been in the same darkness, and only through God's grace had been brought to the light which they must henceforth show forth to others.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - praises Greek, "virtues," "excellencies": His glory, mercy (1Pe 2:10), goodness (Greek, 1Pe 2:3; Num 14:17-18; Isa 63:7). The same term is applied to believer...

Greek, "virtues," "excellencies": His glory, mercy (1Pe 2:10), goodness (Greek, 1Pe 2:3; Num 14:17-18; Isa 63:7). The same term is applied to believers, 2Pe 1:5.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - of him who hath called you (2Pe 1:3).

(2Pe 1:3).

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - out of darkness Of heathen and even Jewish ignorance, sin, and misery, and so out of the dominion of the prince of darkness.

Of heathen and even Jewish ignorance, sin, and misery, and so out of the dominion of the prince of darkness.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - marvellous Peter still has in mind Psa 118:23.

Peter still has in mind Psa 118:23.

JFB: 1Pe 2:9 - light It is called "His," that is, God's. Only the (spiritual) light is created by God, not darkness. In Isa 45:7, it is physical darkness and evil, not mor...

It is called "His," that is, God's. Only the (spiritual) light is created by God, not darkness. In Isa 45:7, it is physical darkness and evil, not moral, that God is said to create, the punishment of sin, not sin itself. Peter, with characteristic boldness, brands as darkness what all the world calls light; reason, without the Holy Spirit, in spite of its vaunted power, is spiritual darkness. "It cannot apprehend what faith is: there it is stark blind; it gropes as one that is without eyesight, stumbling from one thing to another, and knows not what it does" [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 2:10 - -- Adapted from Hos 1:9-10; Hos 2:23. Peter plainly confirms Paul, who quotes the passage as implying the call of the Gentiles to become spiritually that...

Adapted from Hos 1:9-10; Hos 2:23. Peter plainly confirms Paul, who quotes the passage as implying the call of the Gentiles to become spiritually that which Israel had been literally, "the people of God." Primarily, the prophecy refers to literal Israel, hereafter to be fully that which in their best days they were only partially, God's people.

JFB: 1Pe 2:10 - not obtained mercy Literally, "who were men not compassionated." Implying that it was God's pure mercy, not their merits, which made the blessed change in their state; a...

Literally, "who were men not compassionated." Implying that it was God's pure mercy, not their merits, which made the blessed change in their state; a thought which ought to kindle their lively gratitude, to be shown with their life, as well as their lips.

JFB: 1Pe 2:11 - -- As heretofore he exhorted them to walk worthily of their calling, in contradistinction to their own former walk, so now he exhorts them to glorify God...

As heretofore he exhorted them to walk worthily of their calling, in contradistinction to their own former walk, so now he exhorts them to glorify God before unbelievers.

JFB: 1Pe 2:11 - Dearly beloved He gains their attention to his exhortation by assuring them of his love.

He gains their attention to his exhortation by assuring them of his love.

JFB: 1Pe 2:11 - strangers and pilgrims (1Pe 1:17). Sojourners, literally, settlers having a house in a city without being citizens in respect to the rights of citizenship; a picture of the...

(1Pe 1:17). Sojourners, literally, settlers having a house in a city without being citizens in respect to the rights of citizenship; a picture of the Christian's position on earth; and pilgrims, staying for a time in a foreign land. FLACIUS thus analyzes the exhortation: (1) Purify your souls (a) as strangers on earth who must not allow yourselves to be kept back by earthly lusts, and (b) because these lusts war against the soul's salvation. (2) Walk piously among unbelievers (a) so that they may cease to calumniate Christians, and (b) may themselves be converted to Christ.

JFB: 1Pe 2:11 - fleshly lusts Enumerated in Gal 5:19, &c. Not only the gross appetites which we have in common with the brutes, but all the thoughts of the unrenewed mind.

Enumerated in Gal 5:19, &c. Not only the gross appetites which we have in common with the brutes, but all the thoughts of the unrenewed mind.

JFB: 1Pe 2:11 - which Greek, "the which," that is, inasmuch as being such as "war." &c. Not only do they impede, but they assail [BENGEL].

Greek, "the which," that is, inasmuch as being such as "war." &c. Not only do they impede, but they assail [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Pe 2:11 - the soul That is, against the regenerated soul; such as were those now addressed. The regenerated soul is besieged by sinful lusts. Like Samson in the lap of D...

That is, against the regenerated soul; such as were those now addressed. The regenerated soul is besieged by sinful lusts. Like Samson in the lap of Delilah, the believer, the moment that he gives way to fleshly lusts, has the locks of his strength shorn, and ceases to maintain that spiritual separation from the world and the flesh of which the Nazarite vow was the type.

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - conversation "behavior"; "conduct." There are two things in which "strangers and pilgrims" ought to bear themselves well: (1) the conversation or conduct, as subje...

"behavior"; "conduct." There are two things in which "strangers and pilgrims" ought to bear themselves well: (1) the conversation or conduct, as subjects (1Pe 2:13), servants (1Pe 2:18), wives (1Pe 3:1), husbands (1Pe 3:7), all persons under all circumstances (1Pe 2:8); (2) confession of the faith (1Pe 3:15-16). Each of the two is derived from the will of God. Our conversation should correspond to our Saviour's condition; this is in heaven, so ought that to be.

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - honest Honorable, becoming, proper (1Pe 3:16). Contrast "vain conversation," 1Pe 1:18. A good walk does not make us pious, but we must first be pious and bel...

Honorable, becoming, proper (1Pe 3:16). Contrast "vain conversation," 1Pe 1:18. A good walk does not make us pious, but we must first be pious and believe before we attempt to lead a good course. Faith first receives from God, then love gives to our neighbor [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - whereas they speak against you Now (1Pe 2:15), that they may, nevertheless, at some time or other hereafter glorify God. The Greek may be rendered, "Wherein they speak against you ....

Now (1Pe 2:15), that they may, nevertheless, at some time or other hereafter glorify God. The Greek may be rendered, "Wherein they speak against you . . . that (herein) they may, by your good works, which on a closer inspection they shall behold, glorify God." The very works "which on more careful consideration, must move the heathen to praise God, are at first the object of hatred and raillery" [STEIGER].

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - evildoers Because as Christians they could not conform to heathenish customs, they were accused of disobedience to all legal authority; in order to rebut this c...

Because as Christians they could not conform to heathenish customs, they were accused of disobedience to all legal authority; in order to rebut this charge, they are told to submit to every ordinance of man (not sinful in itself).

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - by Owing to.

Owing to.

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - they shall behold Greek, "they shall be eye-witnesses of"; "shall behold on close inspection"; as opposed to their "ignorance" (1Pe 2:15) of the true character of Chris...

Greek, "they shall be eye-witnesses of"; "shall behold on close inspection"; as opposed to their "ignorance" (1Pe 2:15) of the true character of Christians and Christianity, by judging on mere hearsay. The same Greek verb occurs in a similar sense in 1Pe 3:2. "Other men narrowly look at (so the Greek implies) the actions of the righteous" [BENGEL]. TERTULLIAN contrasts the early Christians and the heathen: these delighted in the bloody gladiatorial spectacles of the amphitheater, whereas a Christian was excommunicated if he went to it at all. No Christian was found in prison for crime, but only for the faith. The heathen excluded slaves from some of their religious services, whereas Christians had some of their presbyters of the class of slaves. Slavery silently and gradually disappeared by the power of the Christian law of love, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." When the pagans deserted their nearest relatives in a plague, Christians ministered to the sick and dying. When the Gentiles left their dead unburied after a battle and cast their wounded into the streets, the disciples hastened to relieve the suffering.

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - glorify Forming a high estimate of the God whom Christians worship, from the exemplary conduct of Christians themselves. We must do good, not with a view to o...

Forming a high estimate of the God whom Christians worship, from the exemplary conduct of Christians themselves. We must do good, not with a view to our own glory, but to the glory of God.

JFB: 1Pe 2:12 - the day of visitation Of God's grace; when God shall visit them in mercy.

Of God's grace; when God shall visit them in mercy.

JFB: 1Pe 2:13 - every ordinance of man "every human institution" [ALFORD], literally, "every human creation." For though of divine appointment, yet in the mode of nomination and in the exer...

"every human institution" [ALFORD], literally, "every human creation." For though of divine appointment, yet in the mode of nomination and in the exercise of their authority, earthly governors are but human institutions, being of men, and in relation to men. The apostle speaks as one raised above all human things. But lest they should think themselves so ennobled by faith as to be raised above subordination to human authorities, he tells them to submit themselves for the sake of Christ, who desires you to be subject, and who once was subject to earthly rulers Himself, though having all things subject to Him, and whose honor is at stake in you as His earthly representatives. Compare Rom 13:5, "Be subject for conscience' sake."

JFB: 1Pe 2:13 - king The Roman emperor was "supreme" in the Roman provinces to which this Epistle was addressed. The Jewish zealots refused obedience. The distinction betw...

The Roman emperor was "supreme" in the Roman provinces to which this Epistle was addressed. The Jewish zealots refused obedience. The distinction between "the king as supreme" and "governors sent by him" implies that "if the king command one thing, and the subordinate magistrate another, we ought rather to obey the superior" [AUGUSTINE in GROTIUS]. Scripture prescribes nothing upon the form of government, but simply subjects Christians to that everywhere subsisting, without entering into the question of the right of the rulers (thus the Roman emperors had by force seized supreme authority, and Rome had, by unjustifiable means, made herself mistress of Asia), because the de facto governors have not been made by chance, but by the providence of God.

JFB: 1Pe 2:14 - governors Subordinate to the emperor, "sent," or delegated by Cæsar to preside over the provinces.

Subordinate to the emperor, "sent," or delegated by Cæsar to preside over the provinces.

JFB: 1Pe 2:14 - for the punishment No tyranny ever has been so unprincipled as that some appearance of equity was not maintained in it; however corrupt a government be, God never suffer...

No tyranny ever has been so unprincipled as that some appearance of equity was not maintained in it; however corrupt a government be, God never suffers it to be so much so as not to be better than anarchy [CALVIN]. Although bad kings often oppress the good, yet that is scarcely ever done by public authority (and it is of what is done by public authority that Peter speaks), save under the mask of right. Tyranny harasses many, but anarchy overwhelms the whole state [HORNEIUS]. The only justifiable exception is in cases where obedience to the earthly king plainly involves disobedience to the express command of the King of kings.

JFB: 1Pe 2:14 - praise of them that do well Every government recognizes the excellence of truly Christian subjects. Thus PLINY, in his letter to the Emperor Trajan, acknowledges, "I have found i...

Every government recognizes the excellence of truly Christian subjects. Thus PLINY, in his letter to the Emperor Trajan, acknowledges, "I have found in them nothing else save a perverse and extravagant superstition." The recognition in the long run mitigates persecution (1Pe 3:13).

JFB: 1Pe 2:15 - -- Ground of his directing them to submit themselves (1Pe 2:13).

Ground of his directing them to submit themselves (1Pe 2:13).

JFB: 1Pe 2:15 - put to silence Literally, "to muzzle," "to stop the mouth."

Literally, "to muzzle," "to stop the mouth."

JFB: 1Pe 2:15 - ignorance Spiritual not having "the knowledge of God," and therefore ignorant of the children of God, and misconstruing their acts; influenced by mere appearanc...

Spiritual not having "the knowledge of God," and therefore ignorant of the children of God, and misconstruing their acts; influenced by mere appearances, and ever ready to open their mouths, rather than their eyes and ears. Their ignorance should move the believer's pity, not his anger. They judge of things which they are incapable of judging through unbelief (compare 1Pe 2:12). Maintain such a walk that they shall have no charge against you, except touching your faith; and so their minds shall be favorably disposed towards Christianity.

JFB: 1Pe 2:16 - As free As "the Lord's freemen," connected with 1Pe 2:15, doing well as being free. "Well-doing" (1Pe 2:15) is the natural fruit of being freemen of Christ, m...

As "the Lord's freemen," connected with 1Pe 2:15, doing well as being free. "Well-doing" (1Pe 2:15) is the natural fruit of being freemen of Christ, made free by "the truth" from the bondage of sin. Duty is enforced on us to guard against licentiousness, but the way in which it is to be fulfilled, is by love and the holy instincts of Christian liberty. We are given principles, not details.

JFB: 1Pe 2:16 - not using Greek, "not as having your liberty for a veil (cloak) of badness, but as the servants of God," and therefore bound to submit to every ordinance of man...

Greek, "not as having your liberty for a veil (cloak) of badness, but as the servants of God," and therefore bound to submit to every ordinance of man (1Pe 2:13) which is of God's appointment.

JFB: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour all men According to whatever honor is due in each case. Equals have a respect due to them. Christ has dignified our humanity by assuming it; therefore we sho...

According to whatever honor is due in each case. Equals have a respect due to them. Christ has dignified our humanity by assuming it; therefore we should not dishonor, but be considerate to and honor our common humanity, even in the very humblest. The first "honor" is in the Greek aorist imperative, implying, "In every case render promptly every man's due" [ALFORD]. The second is in the present tense, implying, Habitually and continually honor the king. Thus the first is the general precept; the three following are its three great divisions.

JFB: 1Pe 2:17 - Love Present: Habitually love with the special and congenial affection that you ought to feel to brethren, besides the general love to all men.

Present: Habitually love with the special and congenial affection that you ought to feel to brethren, besides the general love to all men.

JFB: 1Pe 2:17 - Fear God . . . the king The king is to be honored; but God alone, in the highest sense, feared.

The king is to be honored; but God alone, in the highest sense, feared.

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - Servants Greek, "household servants": not here the Greek for "slaves." Probably including freedmen still remaining in their master's house. Masters were not co...

Greek, "household servants": not here the Greek for "slaves." Probably including freedmen still remaining in their master's house. Masters were not commonly Christians: he therefore mentions only the duties of the servants. These were then often persecuted by their unbelieving masters. Peter's special object seems to be to teach them submission, whatever the character of the masters might be. Paul not having this as his prominent design, includes masters in his monitions.

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - be subject Greek, "being subject": the participle expresses a particular instance of the general exhortation to good conduct, 1Pe 2:11-12, of which the first par...

Greek, "being subject": the participle expresses a particular instance of the general exhortation to good conduct, 1Pe 2:11-12, of which the first particular precept is given 1Pe 2:13, "Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake." The general exhortation is taken up again in 1Pe 2:16; and so the participle 1Pe 2:18, "being subject," is joined to the hortatory imperatives going before, namely, "abstain," "submit yourselves." "honor all men."

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - with Greek, "in."

Greek, "in."

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - all All possible: under all circumstances, such as are presently detailed.

All possible: under all circumstances, such as are presently detailed.

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - fear The awe of one subject: God, however, is the ultimate object of the "fear": fear "for the Lord's sake" (1Pe 2:13), not merely slavish fear of masters.

The awe of one subject: God, however, is the ultimate object of the "fear": fear "for the Lord's sake" (1Pe 2:13), not merely slavish fear of masters.

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - good Kind.

Kind.

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - gentle Indulgent towards errors: considerate: yielding, not exacting all which justice might demand.

Indulgent towards errors: considerate: yielding, not exacting all which justice might demand.

JFB: 1Pe 2:18 - froward Perverse: harsh. Those bound to obey must not make the disposition and behavior of the superior the measure of the fulfilment of their obligations.

Perverse: harsh. Those bound to obey must not make the disposition and behavior of the superior the measure of the fulfilment of their obligations.

JFB: 1Pe 2:19 - -- Reason for subjection even to froward masters.

Reason for subjection even to froward masters.

JFB: 1Pe 2:19 - thankworthy (Luk 6:33). A course out of the common, and especially praiseworthy in the eyes of God: not as Rome interprets, earning merit, and so a work of super...

(Luk 6:33). A course out of the common, and especially praiseworthy in the eyes of God: not as Rome interprets, earning merit, and so a work of supererogation (compare 1Pe 2:20).

JFB: 1Pe 2:19 - for conscience toward God Literally, "consciousness of God": from a conscientious regard to God, more than to men.

Literally, "consciousness of God": from a conscientious regard to God, more than to men.

JFB: 1Pe 2:19 - endure Greek, "patiently bear up under": as a superimposed burden [ALFORD].

Greek, "patiently bear up under": as a superimposed burden [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Pe 2:19 - grief Greek, "griefs."

Greek, "griefs."

JFB: 1Pe 2:20 - what Greek, "what kind of."

Greek, "what kind of."

JFB: 1Pe 2:20 - glory What peculiar merit.

What peculiar merit.

JFB: 1Pe 2:20 - buffeted The punishment of slaves, and suddenly inflicted [BENGEL].

The punishment of slaves, and suddenly inflicted [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Pe 2:20 - this is Some oldest manuscripts read, "for." Then the translation is, "But if when . . . ye take it patiently (it is a glory), for this is acceptable."

Some oldest manuscripts read, "for." Then the translation is, "But if when . . . ye take it patiently (it is a glory), for this is acceptable."

JFB: 1Pe 2:20 - acceptable Greek, "thankworthy," as in 1Pe 2:19.

Greek, "thankworthy," as in 1Pe 2:19.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - -- Christ's example a proof that patient endurance under undeserved sufferings is acceptable with God.

Christ's example a proof that patient endurance under undeserved sufferings is acceptable with God.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - hereunto To the patient endurance of unmerited suffering (1Pe 3:9). Christ is an example to servants, even as He was once in "the form of a servant."

To the patient endurance of unmerited suffering (1Pe 3:9). Christ is an example to servants, even as He was once in "the form of a servant."

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - called With a heavenly calling, though slaves.

With a heavenly calling, though slaves.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - for us His dying for us is the highest exemplification of "doing well" (1Pe 2:20). Ye must patiently suffer, being innocent, as Christ also innocently suffer...

His dying for us is the highest exemplification of "doing well" (1Pe 2:20). Ye must patiently suffer, being innocent, as Christ also innocently suffered (not for Himself, but for us). The oldest manuscripts for "us . . . us," read, "you . . . for you." Christ's sufferings, while they are for an example, were also primarily sufferings "for us," a consideration which imposes an everlasting obligation on us to please Him.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - leaving Behind: so the Greek: on His departure to the Father, to His glory.

Behind: so the Greek: on His departure to the Father, to His glory.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - an example Greek, "a copy," literally, "a writing copy" set by masters for their pupils. Christ's precepts and sermons were the transcript of His life. Peter gra...

Greek, "a copy," literally, "a writing copy" set by masters for their pupils. Christ's precepts and sermons were the transcript of His life. Peter graphically sets before servants those features especially suited to their case.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - follow Close upon: so the Greek.

Close upon: so the Greek.

JFB: 1Pe 2:21 - his steps Footsteps, namely, of His patience combined with innocence.

Footsteps, namely, of His patience combined with innocence.

JFB: 1Pe 2:22 - -- Illustrating Christ's well-doing (1Pe 2:20) though suffering.

Illustrating Christ's well-doing (1Pe 2:20) though suffering.

JFB: 1Pe 2:22 - did Greek aorist. "Never in a single instance did" [ALFORD]. Quoted from Isa 53:9, end, Septuagint.

Greek aorist. "Never in a single instance did" [ALFORD]. Quoted from Isa 53:9, end, Septuagint.

JFB: 1Pe 2:22 - neither Nor yet: not even [ALFORD]. Sinlessness as to the mouth is a mark of perfection. Guile is a common fault of servants. "If any boast of his innocency, ...

Nor yet: not even [ALFORD]. Sinlessness as to the mouth is a mark of perfection. Guile is a common fault of servants. "If any boast of his innocency, Christ surely did not suffer as an evildoer" [CALVIN], yet He took it patiently (1Pe 2:20). On Christ's sinlessness, compare 2Co 5:21; Heb 7:26.

JFB: 1Pe 2:23 - -- Servants are apt to "answer again" (Tit 2:9). Threats of divine judgment against oppressors are often used by those who have no other arms, as for ins...

Servants are apt to "answer again" (Tit 2:9). Threats of divine judgment against oppressors are often used by those who have no other arms, as for instance, slaves. Christ, who as Lord could have threatened with truth, never did so.

JFB: 1Pe 2:23 - committed himself Or His cause, as man in His suffering. Compare the type, Jer 11:20. In this Peter seems to have before his mind Isa 53:8. Compare Rom 12:19, on our co...

Or His cause, as man in His suffering. Compare the type, Jer 11:20. In this Peter seems to have before his mind Isa 53:8. Compare Rom 12:19, on our corresponding duty. Leave your case in His hands, not desiring to make Him executioner of your revenge, but rather praying for enemies. God's righteous judgment gives tranquillity and consolation to the oppressed.

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - his own self There being none other but Himself who could have done it. His voluntary undertaking of the work of redemption is implied. The Greek puts in antitheti...

There being none other but Himself who could have done it. His voluntary undertaking of the work of redemption is implied. The Greek puts in antithetical juxtaposition, OUR, and His OWN SELF, to mark the idea of His substitution for us. His "well-doing" in His sufferings is set forth here as an example to servants and to us all (1Pe 2:20).

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - bare To sacrifice: carried and offered up: a sacrificial term. Isa 53:11-12, "He bare the sin of many": where the idea of bearing on Himself is the promine...

To sacrifice: carried and offered up: a sacrificial term. Isa 53:11-12, "He bare the sin of many": where the idea of bearing on Himself is the prominent one; here the offering in sacrifice is combined with that idea. So the same Greek means in 1Pe 2:5.

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - our sins In offering or presenting in sacrifice (as the Greek for "bare" implies) His body, Christ offered in it the guilt of our sins upon the cross, as upon ...

In offering or presenting in sacrifice (as the Greek for "bare" implies) His body, Christ offered in it the guilt of our sins upon the cross, as upon the altar of God, that it might be expiated in Him, and so taken away from us. Compare Isa 53:10, "Thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin." Peter thus means by "bare" what the Syriac takes two words to express, to bear and to offer: (1) He hath borne our sins laid upon Him [namely, their guilt, curse, and punishment]; (2) He hath so borne them that He offered them along with Himself on the altar. He refers to the animals upon which sins were first laid, and which were then offered thus laden [VITRINGA]. Sin or guilt among the Semitic nations is considered as a burden lying heavily upon the sinner [GESENIUS].

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - on the tree The cross, the proper place for One on whom the curse was laid: this curse stuck to Him until it was legally (through His death as the guilt-bearer) d...

The cross, the proper place for One on whom the curse was laid: this curse stuck to Him until it was legally (through His death as the guilt-bearer) destroyed in His body: thus the handwriting of the bond against us is cancelled by His death.

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - that we being dead to sins The effect of His death to "sin" in the aggregate, and to all particular "sins," namely, that we should be as entirely delivered from them, as a slave...

The effect of His death to "sin" in the aggregate, and to all particular "sins," namely, that we should be as entirely delivered from them, as a slave that is dead is delivered from service to his master. This is our spiritful standing through faith by virtue of Christ's death: our actual mortification of particular sins is in proportion to the degree of our effectually being made conformable to His death. "That we should die to the sins whose collected guilt Christ carried away in His death, and so LIVE TO THE RIGHTEOUSNESS (compare Isa 53:11. 'My righteous servant shall justify many'), the gracious relation to God which He has brought in" [STEIGER].

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - by whose stripes Greek, "stripe."

Greek, "stripe."

JFB: 1Pe 2:24 - ye were healed A paradox, yet true. "Ye servants (compare 'buffeted,' 'the tree,' 1Pe 2:20, 1Pe 2:24) often bear the strife; but it is not more than your Lord Himsel...

A paradox, yet true. "Ye servants (compare 'buffeted,' 'the tree,' 1Pe 2:20, 1Pe 2:24) often bear the strife; but it is not more than your Lord Himself bore; learn from Him patience in wrongful sufferings.

JFB: 1Pe 2:25 - -- (Isa 53:6.)

JFB: 1Pe 2:25 - For Assigning their natural need of healing (1Pe 2:24).

Assigning their natural need of healing (1Pe 2:24).

JFB: 1Pe 2:25 - now Now that the atonement for all has been made, the foundation is laid for individual conversion: so "ye are returned," or "have become converted to," &...

Now that the atonement for all has been made, the foundation is laid for individual conversion: so "ye are returned," or "have become converted to," &c.

JFB: 1Pe 2:25 - Shepherd and Bishop The designation of the pastors and elders of the Church belongs in its fullest sense to the great Head of the Church, "the good Shepherd." As the "bis...

The designation of the pastors and elders of the Church belongs in its fullest sense to the great Head of the Church, "the good Shepherd." As the "bishop" oversees (as the Greek term means), so "the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous" (1Pe 3:12). He gives us His spirit and feeds and guides us by His word. "Shepherd," Hebrew, "Parnas," is often applied to kings, and enters into the composition of names, as "Pharnabazus."

Clarke: 1Pe 2:1 - Wherefore, laying aside Wherefore, laying aside - This is in close connection with the preceding chapter, from which it should not have been separated, and the subject is c...

Wherefore, laying aside - This is in close connection with the preceding chapter, from which it should not have been separated, and the subject is continued to the end of the 10th verse.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:1 - Laying aside all malice Laying aside all malice - See the notes on Eph 4:22-31 (note). These tempers and dispositions must have been common among the Jews, as they are freq...

Laying aside all malice - See the notes on Eph 4:22-31 (note). These tempers and dispositions must have been common among the Jews, as they are frequently spoken against: Christianity can never admit of such; they show the mind, not of Christ, but of the old murderer.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:2 - As new-born babes As new-born babes - In the preceding chapter, 1Pe 1:23, the apostle states that they had been born again; and as the new-born infant desires that al...

As new-born babes - In the preceding chapter, 1Pe 1:23, the apostle states that they had been born again; and as the new-born infant desires that aliment which nature has provided for it, so they, being born again - born from above, should as earnestly require that heavenly nourishment which is suited to their new nature; and this the apostle calls the sincere milk of the word, το λογικον αδολον γαλα, or, as some translate, the rational unadulterated milk; i.e. the pure doctrines of the Gospel, as delivered in the epistles and gospels, and as preached by the apostles and their successors. The rabbins frequently express learning to know the law, etc., by the term sucking, and their disciples are often denominated those that suck the breast. The figure is very expressive: as a child newly born shows an immediate desire for that nourishment, and that only, which is its most proper food; so they, being just born of God, should show that the incorruptible seed abides in them, and that they will receive nothing that is not suited to that new nature: and, indeed, they can have no spiritual growth but by the pure doctrines of the Gospel

Clarke: 1Pe 2:2 - That ye may grow thereby That ye may grow thereby - Εις σωτηριαν, Unto salvation, is added here by ABC, and about forty others; both the Syriac, the Arabic of Er...

That ye may grow thereby - Εις σωτηριαν, Unto salvation, is added here by ABC, and about forty others; both the Syriac, the Arabic of Erpen, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Slavonic, Vulgate, and several of the ancient fathers. The reading is undoubtedly genuine, and is very important. It shows why they were regenerated, and why they were to desire the unadulterated doctrines of the Gospel; viz.: that they might grow up unto salvation. This was the end they should always have in view; and nothing could so effectually promote this end as continually receiving the pure truth of God, claiming the fulfillment of its promises, and acting under its dictates.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:3 - If so be ye have tasted If so be ye have tasted - Ειπερ εγευΡƒασθε· Seeing ye have tasted. There could be no doubt that they had tasted the goodness of Ch...

If so be ye have tasted - Ειπερ εγευΡƒασθε· Seeing ye have tasted. There could be no doubt that they had tasted the goodness of Christ who were born again, of incorruptible seed, and whose hearts were purified by the truth, and who had like precious faith with the apostles themselves

Clarke: 1Pe 2:3 - That the Lord is gracious That the Lord is gracious - Ὁτι χρηστος ὁ Κυριος· From the similarity of the letters, many MSS. and several of the fathers h...

That the Lord is gracious - Ὁτι χρηστος ὁ Κυριος· From the similarity of the letters, many MSS. and several of the fathers have read, Χριστος ὁ κυριος, the Lord is Christ, or Christ is the Lord

This seems to refer to Psa 34:8 : O taste and see that the Lord is good; Γευσασθε και ιδετε ὁτι χρηστος ὁ Κυριος, Sept. And there is still a reference to the sucking child that, having once tasted its mother’ s milk, ever after desires and longs for it. As they were born of God, and had tasted his goodness, they would naturally desire the same pure unadulterated milk of the word.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:4 - To whom coming, as unto a living stone To whom coming, as unto a living stone - This is a reference to Isa 28:16 : Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a preciou...

To whom coming, as unto a living stone - This is a reference to Isa 28:16 : Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation. Jesus Christ is, in both the prophet and apostle, represented as the foundation on which the Christian Church is built, and on which it must continue to rest: and the stone or foundation is called here living, to intimate that he is the source of life to all his followers, and that it is in union with him that they live, and answer the end of their regeneration; as the stones of a building are of no use but as they occupy their proper places in a building, and rest on the foundation

Clarke: 1Pe 2:4 - Disallowed indeed of men Disallowed indeed of men - That is, rejected by the Jews. This is a plain reference to the prophecy, Psa 118:22 : The stone which the builders refus...

Disallowed indeed of men - That is, rejected by the Jews. This is a plain reference to the prophecy, Psa 118:22 : The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner

Clarke: 1Pe 2:4 - Chosen of God Chosen of God - To be the Savior of the world, and the Founder of the Church, and the foundation on which it rests; As Christ is the choice of the F...

Chosen of God - To be the Savior of the world, and the Founder of the Church, and the foundation on which it rests; As Christ is the choice of the Father, we need have no doubt of the efficacy and sufficiency of all that he has suffered and done for the salvation of a lost world. God can never be mistaken in his choice; therefore he that chooses Christ for his portion shall never be confounded

Clarke: 1Pe 2:4 - Precious Precious - Εντιμον· Honourable. Howsoever despised and rejected by men, Jesus, as the sacrifice for a lost world, is infinitely honorable ...

Precious - Εντιμον· Honourable. Howsoever despised and rejected by men, Jesus, as the sacrifice for a lost world, is infinitely honorable in the sight of God; and those who are united by faith to him partake of the same honor, being members of that great and glorious body of which he is the head, and stones in that superb building of which he is the foundation.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:5 - Ye also, as lively stones Ye also, as lively stones - Λιθοι ζωντες· Living stones; each being instinct with the principle of life, which proceeds from him who i...

Ye also, as lively stones - Λιθοι ζωντες· Living stones; each being instinct with the principle of life, which proceeds from him who is the foundation, called above λιθον ζωντα, a living stone

The metaphor in this and the following verse is as bold as it is singular; and commentators and critics have found it difficult to hit on any principle of explanation. In all metaphors there is something in the natural image that is illustrative of some chief moral property in the thing to be represented. But what analogy is there between the stones of a building and a multitude of human beings? We shall soon see. The Church of Christ, it is true, is represented under the figure of a house, or rather household; and as a household or family must have a place of residence, hence, by a metonymy, the house itself, or material building, is put for the household or family which occupies it, the container being put for the contained. This point will receive the fullest illustration if we have recourse to the Hebrew: in this language, בית beith signifies both a house and a family; בן ben a son; בת bath a daughter; and אבן eben a stone. Of all these nouns, בנה banah , he built, is, I believe, the common root. Now as בית beith , a house, is built of אבנים abanim , stones, hence בנה banah , he built, is a proper radix for both stones and building; and as בית beith , a family or household (Psa 68:6) is constituted or made up of בנים banim , sons, and בנות banoth daughters, hence the same root בנה banah , he built, is common to all; for sons and daughters build up or constitute a family, as stones do a building. Here, then, is the ground of the metaphor: the spiritual house is the holy or Christian family or household, this family or household is composed of the sons and daughters of God Almighty; and hence the propriety of living stones, because this is the living house or spiritual family. As a building rests upon a foundation, and this foundation is its support; so a family or household rests on the father, who is properly considered the foundation or support of the building. But as every father is mortal and transitory, none can be called a living stone, foundation, or support, but He who liveth for ever, and has life independent; so none but Jesus, who hath life in himself, i.e. independently, and who is the Way, the Truth, and the Life, can be a permanent foundation or support to the whole spiritual house. And as all the stones - sons and daughters, that constitute the spiritual building are made partakers of the life of Christ, consequently, they may with great propriety be called living stones, that is, sons and daughters of God, who live by Christ Jesus, because he lives in them. Now, following the metaphor; these various living stones become one grand temple, in which God is worshipped, and in which he manifests himself as he did in the temple of old. Every stone - son and daughter, being a spiritual sacrificer or priest, they all offer up praise and thanksgiving to God through Christ; and such sacrifices, being offered up in the name and through the merit of his Son, are all acceptable in his sight

This is the true metaphor, and which has not, as far as I know, ever been properly traced out. To talk of "stones being said to be alive as long as they are not cut out of the quarry, but continue to partake of that nourishment which circulates from vein to vein,"is as unsatisfactory as it is unphilosophical; the other is the true metaphor, and explains every thing.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:6 - Behold, I lay in Sion Behold, I lay in Sion - This intimates that the foundation of the Christian Church should be laid at Jerusalem; and there it was laid, for there Chr...

Behold, I lay in Sion - This intimates that the foundation of the Christian Church should be laid at Jerusalem; and there it was laid, for there Christ suffered, and there the preaching of the Gospel commenced

Clarke: 1Pe 2:6 - A chief corner stone A chief corner stone - This is the same as the foundation stone; and it is called here the chief corner stone because it is laid in the foundation, ...

A chief corner stone - This is the same as the foundation stone; and it is called here the chief corner stone because it is laid in the foundation, at an angle of the building where its two sides form the ground work of a side and end wall. And this might probably be designed to show that, in Jesus, both Jews and Gentiles were to be united; and this is probably the reason why it was called a stone of stumbling, and rock of offense; for nothing stumbled, nothing offended the Jews so much as the calling of the Gentiles into the Church of God, and admitting them to the same privileges which had been before peculiar to the Jews

Clarke: 1Pe 2:6 - Elect, precious Elect, precious - Chosen and honorable. See on 1Pe 2:4

Elect, precious - Chosen and honorable. See on 1Pe 2:4

Clarke: 1Pe 2:6 - Shall not be confounded Shall not be confounded - These words are quoted from Isa 28:16; but rather more from the Septuagint than from the Hebrew text. The latter we transl...

Shall not be confounded - These words are quoted from Isa 28:16; but rather more from the Septuagint than from the Hebrew text. The latter we translate, He that believeth shall not make haste - he who comes to God, through Christ, for salvation, shall never be confounded; he need not haste to flee away, for no enemy shall ever be able to annoy him.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:7 - Unto you therefore which believe Unto you therefore which believe - You, both Jews and Gentiles

Unto you therefore which believe - You, both Jews and Gentiles

Clarke: 1Pe 2:7 - He is precious He is precious - Ὑμιν ουν ἡ τιμη τοις πιστευουσιν· The honor is to you who believe; i.e. the honor of being in thi...

He is precious - Ὑμιν ουν ἡ τιμη τοις πιστευουσιν· The honor is to you who believe; i.e. the honor of being in this building, and of having your souls saved through the blood of the Lamb, and becoming sons and daughters of God Almighty

Clarke: 1Pe 2:7 - Them which be disobedient Them which be disobedient - The Jews, who continue to reject the Gospel; that very person whom they reject is head of the corner - is Lord over all,...

Them which be disobedient - The Jews, who continue to reject the Gospel; that very person whom they reject is head of the corner - is Lord over all, and has all power in the heavens and the earth.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:8 - A stone of stumbling A stone of stumbling - Because in him all Jews and Gentiles who believe are united; and because the latter were admitted into the Church, and called...

A stone of stumbling - Because in him all Jews and Gentiles who believe are united; and because the latter were admitted into the Church, and called by the Gospel to enjoy the same privileges which the Jews, as the peculiar people of God, had enjoyed for two thousand years before; therefore they rejected the Christian religion, they would have no partakers with themselves in the salvation of God. This was the true cause why the Jews rejected the Gospel; and they rejected Christ because he did not come as a secular prince. In the one case he was a stone of stumbling - he was poor, and affected no worldly pomp; in the other he was a rock of offense, for his Gospel called the Gentiles to be a peculiar people whom the Jews believed to be everlastingly reprobated, and utterly incapable of any spiritual good

Clarke: 1Pe 2:8 - Whereunto also they were appointed Whereunto also they were appointed - Some good critics read the verse thus, carrying on the sense from the preceding: Also a stone of stumbling, and...

Whereunto also they were appointed - Some good critics read the verse thus, carrying on the sense from the preceding: Also a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense: The disobedient stumble against the word, (or doctrine), to which verily they were appointed. - Macknight

Mr. Wakefield, leaving out, with the Syriac, the clause, The stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, reads 1Pe 2:7, 1Pe 2:8 thus: To you therefore who trust thereon, this stone is honorable; but to those who are not persuaded, ( απειθουσι ), it is a stone to strike upon and to stumble against, at which they stumble who believe not the word; and unto this indeed they were appointed; that is, they who believe not the word were appointed to stumble and fall by it, not to disbelieve it; for the word of the Lord is either a savor of life unto life, or death unto death, to all them that hear it, according as they receive it by faith, or reject it by unbelief. The phrase τιθεναι τινα εις τι is very frequent among the purest Greek writers, and signifies to attribute any thing to another, or to speak a thing of them; of which Kypke gives several examples from Plutarch; and paraphrases the words thus: This stumbling and offense, particularly of the Jews, against Christ, the corner stone, was long ago asserted and predicted by the prophets, by Christ, and by others; compare Isa 8:14, Isa 8:15; Mat 21:42, Mat 21:44; Luk 2:34; and Rom 9:32, Rom 9:33. Now this interpretation of Kypke is the more likely, because it is evident that St. Peter refers to Isa 8:14, Isa 8:15 : And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem: and many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken, etc. The disobedient, therefore, being appointed to stumble against the word, or being prophesied of as persons that should stumble, necessarily means, from the connection in which it stands, and from the passage in the prophet, that their stumbling, falling, and being broken, is the consequence of their disobedience or unbelief; but there is no intimation that they were appointed or decreed to disobey, that they might stumble, and fall, and be broken. They stumbled and fell through their obstinate unbelief; and thus their stumbling and falling, as well as their unbelief, were of themselves, in consequence of this they were appointed to be broken; this was God’ s work of judgment. This seems to be the meaning which our Lord attaches to this very prophecy, which he quotes against the chief priests and elders, Mat 21:44. On the whole of these passages, see the notes on Mat 21:42-44 (note).

Clarke: 1Pe 2:9 - Ye are a chosen generation Ye are a chosen generation - The titles formerly given to the whole Jewish Church, i.e. to all the Israelites without exception, all who were in the...

Ye are a chosen generation - The titles formerly given to the whole Jewish Church, i.e. to all the Israelites without exception, all who were in the covenant of God by circumcision, whether they were holy persons or not, are here given to Christians in general in the same way; i.e. to all who believed in Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles, and who received baptism in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost

The Israelites were a chosen or elected race, to be a special people unto the Lord their God, above all people that were upon the face of the earth, Deu 7:6

They were also a royal priesthood, or what Moses calls a kingdom of priests, Exo 19:6. For all were called to sacrifice to God; and he is represented to be the King of that people, and Father of those of whom he was king; therefore they were all royal

They were a holy nation, Exo 19:6; for they were separated from all the people of the earth, that they might worship the one only true God, and abstain from the abominations that were in the heathen world

They were also a peculiar people, λαος εις περιποιησιν, a purchased people; סגלה segullah , a private property, belonging to God Almighty, Deu 7:6; none other having any right in them, and they being under obligation to God alone. All these things the apostle applies to the Christians, to whom indeed they belong, in their spirit and essence, in such a way as they could not belong to the Hebrews of old. But they were called to this state of salvation out of darkness - idolatry, superstition, and ungodliness, into his marvellous light - the Gospel dispensation, which, in reference to the discoveries it had made of God, his nature, will, and gracious promises towards mankind, differed as much from the preceding dispensation of the Jews, as the light of the meridian sun from the faint twinkling of a star. And they had these privileges that they might show forth the praises of Him who had thus called them; αρετας, the virtues, those perfections of the wisdom, justice, truth, and goodness of God, that shone most illustriously in the Christian dispensation. These they were to exhibit in a holy and useful life, being transformed into the image of God, and walking as Christ himself walked.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:10 - Which in time past were not a people Which in time past were not a people - This is a quotation from Hos 1:9, Hos 1:10; Hos 2:23, where the calling of the Gentiles, by the preaching of ...

Which in time past were not a people - This is a quotation from Hos 1:9, Hos 1:10; Hos 2:23, where the calling of the Gentiles, by the preaching of the Gospel, is foretold. From this it is evident, that the people to whom the apostle now addresses himself had been Gentiles, covered with ignorance and superstition, and now had obtained mercy by the preaching of the Gospel of Christ.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:11 - As strangers and pilgrims As strangers and pilgrims - See the note on Heb 11:13. These were strangers and pilgrims in the most literal sense of the word, see 1Pe 1:1, for the...

As strangers and pilgrims - See the note on Heb 11:13. These were strangers and pilgrims in the most literal sense of the word, see 1Pe 1:1, for they were strangers scattered through Asia, Pontus, etc

Clarke: 1Pe 2:11 - Abstain from fleshly lusts Abstain from fleshly lusts - As ye are strangers and pilgrims, and profess to seek a heavenly country, do not entangle your affections with earthly ...

Abstain from fleshly lusts - As ye are strangers and pilgrims, and profess to seek a heavenly country, do not entangle your affections with earthly things. While others spend all their time, and employ all their skill, in acquiring earthly property, and totally neglect the salvation of their souls; they are not strangers, they are here at home; they are not pilgrims, they are seeking an earthly possession: Heaven is your home, seek that; God is your portion, seek him. All kinds of earthly desires, whether those of the flesh or of the eye, or those included in the pride of life, are here comprised in the words fleshly lusts

Clarke: 1Pe 2:11 - Which war against the soul Which war against the soul - Αἱτινες στρατευονται κατα της ψυχης· Which are marshalled and drawn up in battle ar...

Which war against the soul - Αἱτινες στρατευονται κατα της ψυχης· Which are marshalled and drawn up in battle array, to fight against the soul; either to slay it, or to bring it into captivity. This is the object and operation of every earthly and sensual desire. How little do those who indulge them think of the ruin which they produce!

Clarke: 1Pe 2:12 - Having your conversation honest Having your conversation honest - Living in such a manner among the Gentiles, in whose country ye sojourn, as becomes the Gospel which ye profess

Having your conversation honest - Living in such a manner among the Gentiles, in whose country ye sojourn, as becomes the Gospel which ye profess

Clarke: 1Pe 2:12 - That whereas they speak against you as evil doers That whereas they speak against you as evil doers - In all the heathen countries, in the first age of the Church, the Christians and the Jews were c...

That whereas they speak against you as evil doers - In all the heathen countries, in the first age of the Church, the Christians and the Jews were confounded together; and as the latter mere everywhere exceedingly troublesome and seditious, the Christians shared in their blame, and suffered no small measure of obloquy and persecution on this very account. It was doubly necessary, therefore, that the Christians should be exceedingly cautious; and that their conduct should prove that, although many of them were of the same nation, yet they who had embraced Christianity differed widely in their spirit and conduct from those, whether Jews or Gentiles, who had not received the faith of Christ

Clarke: 1Pe 2:12 - In the day of visitation In the day of visitation - I believe this refers to the time when God should come to execute judgment on the disobedient Jews, in the destruction of...

In the day of visitation - I believe this refers to the time when God should come to execute judgment on the disobedient Jews, in the destruction of their civil polity, and the subversion of their temple and city. God did at that time put a remarkable difference between the Jews and the Christians: all the former were either destroyed or carried into slavery; not one of the latter: nor did they deserve it; for not one of them had joined in the sedition against the Roman government. That the day of visitation means a time in which punishment should be inflicted, is plain from Isa 10:3 : And what will ye do in the Day of Visitation, and in the desolation which shall come from afar? To whom will ye flee for help? And where will ye leave your glory? Some think that by the phrase in this place is meant the time in which they should be brought before the heathen magistrates, who, after an impartial examination, should find them innocent, and declare them as such; by which God would be glorified, the work appearing to be his own. Others think that it signifies the time in which God should make them the offer of mercy by Jesus Christ. The words, however, may refer to the time in which the Christians should be called to suffer for the testimony of Christ; the heathens, seeing them bear their sufferings with unconquerable patience, were constrained to confess that God was with them; and not a few, from being spectators of their sufferings, became converts to Christianity,

Clarke: 1Pe 2:13 - Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man - In every settled state, and under every form of political government, where the laws are not in opposi...

Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man - In every settled state, and under every form of political government, where the laws are not in opposition to the laws of God, it may be very soundly and rationally said: "Genuine Christians have nothing to do with the laws but to obey them."Society and civil security are in a most dangerous state when the people take it into their heads that they have a right to remodel and change the laws. See the whole of this subject fully handled in the notes on Rom 13:1, etc., to which I beg every reader, who may wish to know the political sentiments of this work, to have recourse

The words παση ανθρωπινη κτισει literally signify, not every ordinance of man, but every human creature; yet κτιζειν signifies sometimes to arrange, order, as well as to create, and therefore our translation may do: but as the apostle is evidently speaking here of magistracy, or legislative authority, and as the appointment of magistrates was termed a creating of them, it is better to understand the words thus, All the constituted authorities. So, Decem tribunos plebis per pontificem creaverunt ; Cor. Nep. "They created ten tribunes of the plebeians, by the high priest." Carthagine quotannis annui bini reges creabantur; Caesar . "They created two kings every year at Carthage."Consules creantur Caesar et Servilius; Sallust. "Caesar and Servilius are created consuls." Creare ducem gerendo bello . "To create a general to conduct the war."The meaning of St. Peter appears to be this: the Jews thought it unlawful to obey any ruler that was not of their own stock; the apostle tells them they should obey the civil magistrate, let him be of what stock he may, whether a Jew or a Gentile, and let him exercise the government in whatsoever form. This is the general proposition: and then he instances emperors and their deputies; and, far from its being unlawful for them to obey a heathen magistrate, they were to do it for the Lord’ s sake, δια τον Κυριον, on account of the Lord, whose will it was, and who commanded it.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:14 - Or unto governors Or unto governors - By king as supreme, the Roman emperor is meant; and by governors, ἡγεμοσιν, are meant, leaders, governors, presidents...

Or unto governors - By king as supreme, the Roman emperor is meant; and by governors, ἡγεμοσιν, are meant, leaders, governors, presidents, proconsuls, and other chief magistrates, sent by him into the provinces dependent on the Roman empire

Clarke: 1Pe 2:14 - For the punishment of evil doers For the punishment of evil doers - This was the object of their mission; they were to punish delinquents, and encourage and protect the virtuous.

For the punishment of evil doers - This was the object of their mission; they were to punish delinquents, and encourage and protect the virtuous.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:15 - For so is the will of God For so is the will of God - God, as their supreme governor, shows them that it is his will that they should act uprightly and obediently at all time...

For so is the will of God - God, as their supreme governor, shows them that it is his will that they should act uprightly and obediently at all times, and thus confound the ignorance of foolish men, who were ready enough to assert that their religion made them bad subjects. The word φιμουν, which we translate put to silence, signifies to muzzle, i.e., stop their mouths, leave them nothing to say; let them assert, but ever be unable to bring proof to support it.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:16 - As free As free - The Jews pretended that they were a free people, and owed allegiance to God alone; hence they were continually rebelling against the Roman...

As free - The Jews pretended that they were a free people, and owed allegiance to God alone; hence they were continually rebelling against the Roman government, to which God had subjected them because of their rebellion against him: thus they used their liberty for a cloak of maliciousness - for a pretext of rebellion, and by it endeavored to vindicate their seditious and rebellious conduct

Clarke: 1Pe 2:16 - But as the servants of God But as the servants of God - These were free from sin and Satan, but they were the servants of God - bound to obey him; and, as he had made it their...

But as the servants of God - These were free from sin and Satan, but they were the servants of God - bound to obey him; and, as he had made it their duty to obey the civil magistrate, they served God by submitting to every ordinance of man for the Lord’ s sake.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour all men Honour all men - That is, Give honor to whom honor is due, Rom 13:7. Respect every man as a fellow creature, and as one who may be a fellow heir wit...

Honour all men - That is, Give honor to whom honor is due, Rom 13:7. Respect every man as a fellow creature, and as one who may be a fellow heir with you of eternal life; and therefore be ready to give him every kind of succor in your power

Clarke: 1Pe 2:17 - Love the brotherhood Love the brotherhood - All true Christians, who form one great family of which God is the head

Love the brotherhood - All true Christians, who form one great family of which God is the head

Clarke: 1Pe 2:17 - Fear God Fear God - Who gives you these commandments, lest he punish you for disobedience

Fear God - Who gives you these commandments, lest he punish you for disobedience

Clarke: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour the king Honour the king - Pay that respect to the emperor which his high authority requires, knowing that civil power is of God; that the authority with whi...

Honour the king - Pay that respect to the emperor which his high authority requires, knowing that civil power is of God; that the authority with which he, in the course of his providence, has invested him, must be respected in order to its being obeyed; and that if the man be even bad, and as a man be worthy of no reverence, yet he should be respected on account of his office. If respect be banished, subordination will flee with it, and anarchy and ruin will rise up in their place. Truly religious persons are never found in seditions. Hypocrites may join themselves with any class of the workers of iniquity, and say, Hail, brethren!

Clarke: 1Pe 2:18 - Servants, be subject Servants, be subject - See the notes on Eph 6:5; Col 3:22 (note); and Tit 2:9 (note)

Servants, be subject - See the notes on Eph 6:5; Col 3:22 (note); and Tit 2:9 (note)

Clarke: 1Pe 2:18 - With all fear With all fear - With all submission and reverence

With all fear - With all submission and reverence

Clarke: 1Pe 2:18 - The good and gentle The good and gentle - Those who are ever just in their commands, never requiring more work than is necessary or proper, and always allowing sufficie...

The good and gentle - Those who are ever just in their commands, never requiring more work than is necessary or proper, and always allowing sufficient food and sufficient time

Clarke: 1Pe 2:18 - The froward The froward - Σκολιοις· The crooked, perverse, unreasonable morose, and austere. Your time belongs to your master; obey him in every thin...

The froward - Σκολιοις· The crooked, perverse, unreasonable morose, and austere. Your time belongs to your master; obey him in every thing that is not sinful; if he employs you about unreasonable or foolish things, let him answer for it. He may waste your time, and thus play the fool with his own property; you can only fill up your time: let him assign the work; it is your duty to obey.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:19 - For this is thankworthy For this is thankworthy - If, in a conscientious discharge of your duty, you suffer evil, this is in the sight of God thankworthy, pleasing, and pro...

For this is thankworthy - If, in a conscientious discharge of your duty, you suffer evil, this is in the sight of God thankworthy, pleasing, and proper; it shows that you prefer his authority to your own ease, peace, and emolument; it shows also, as Dr. Macknight has well observed, that they considered their obligation to relative duties not to depend on the character of the person to whom they were to be performed, nor on their performing the duties they owed to their servants, but on the unalterable relations of things established by God.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:20 - For what glory is it For what glory is it - It appears from this that the poor Christians, and especially those who had been converted to Christianity while in a state o...

For what glory is it - It appears from this that the poor Christians, and especially those who had been converted to Christianity while in a state of slavery, were often grievously abused, they were buffeted because they were Christians, and because they would not join with their masters in idolatrous worship.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:21 - Hereunto were ye called Hereunto were ye called - Ye were called to a state of suffering when ye were called to be Christians; for the world cannot endure the yoke of Chris...

Hereunto were ye called - Ye were called to a state of suffering when ye were called to be Christians; for the world cannot endure the yoke of Christ, and they that will live godly in Christ must suffer persecution; they will meet with it in one form or other

Clarke: 1Pe 2:21 - Christ also suffered for us Christ also suffered for us - And left us the example of his meekness and gentleness; for when he was reviled, he reviled not again. Ye cannot expec...

Christ also suffered for us - And left us the example of his meekness and gentleness; for when he was reviled, he reviled not again. Ye cannot expect to fare better than your master; imitate his example, and his Spirit shall comfort and sustain you. Many MSS. and most of the versions, instead of Christ also suffered for Us, leaving Us, etc., read, suffered for You, leaving You, etc. This reading, which I think is genuine, is noticed in the margin.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:22 - Who did no sin Who did no sin - He suffered, but not on account of any evil he had either done or said. In deed and word he was immaculate, and yet he was exposed ...

Who did no sin - He suffered, but not on account of any evil he had either done or said. In deed and word he was immaculate, and yet he was exposed to suffering; expect the same, and when it comes bear it in the same spirit. It is very likely that the apostle mentions guile, because those who do wrong generally strive to screen themselves by prevarication and lies. These words appear to be a quotation from Isa 53:9.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:23 - But committed himself But committed himself - Though he could have inflicted any kind of punishment on his persecutors, yet to give us, in this respect also, an example t...

But committed himself - Though he could have inflicted any kind of punishment on his persecutors, yet to give us, in this respect also, an example that we should follow his steps, he committed his cause to him who is the righteous Judge. To avoid evil tempers, and the uneasiness and danger of avenging ourselves, it is a great advantage in all such cases to be able to refer our cause to God, and to be assured that the Judge of all the earth will do right

The Vulgate, one copy of the Itala, St. Cyprian, and Fulgentius, read, Tradebat autem judicanti se injuste ; "He delivered himself to him who judged unrighteously;"meaning Pontius Pilate. Some critics approve of this reading, but it has not sufficient evidence to recommend it as genuine.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:24 - Who his own self Who his own self - Not another in his place, as some anciently supposed, because they thought it impossible that the Christ should suffer

Who his own self - Not another in his place, as some anciently supposed, because they thought it impossible that the Christ should suffer

Clarke: 1Pe 2:24 - Bare our sins in his own body Bare our sins in his own body - Bore the punishment due to our sins. In no other sense could Christ bear them. To say that they were so imputed to h...

Bare our sins in his own body - Bore the punishment due to our sins. In no other sense could Christ bear them. To say that they were so imputed to him as if they had been his own, and that the Father beheld him as blackened with imputed sin, is monstrous, if not blasphemous

Clarke: 1Pe 2:24 - That we, being dead to sins That we, being dead to sins - Ἱνα ταις ἁμαρτιαις απογενομενοι· That we, being freed from sin - delivered out of i...

That we, being dead to sins - Ἱνα ταις ἁμαρτιαις απογενομενοι· That we, being freed from sin - delivered out of its power, and from under its tyranny

Clarke: 1Pe 2:24 - Should live unto righteousness Should live unto righteousness - That righteousness should be our master now, as sin was before. He is speaking still lo servants who were under an ...

Should live unto righteousness - That righteousness should be our master now, as sin was before. He is speaking still lo servants who were under an oppressive yoke, and were cruelly used by their masters, scourged, buffeted, and variously maltreated

Clarke: 1Pe 2:24 - By whose stripes ye were healed By whose stripes ye were healed - The apostle refers here to Isa 53:4-6; and he still keeps the case of these persecuted servants in view, and encou...

By whose stripes ye were healed - The apostle refers here to Isa 53:4-6; and he still keeps the case of these persecuted servants in view, and encourages them to suffer patiently by the example of Christ, who was buffeted and scourged, and who bore all this that the deep and inveterate wounds, inflicted on their souls by sin, might be healed.

Clarke: 1Pe 2:25 - For ye were as sheep going astray For ye were as sheep going astray - Formerly ye were not in a better moral condition than your oppressors; ye were like stray sheep, in the wilderne...

For ye were as sheep going astray - Formerly ye were not in a better moral condition than your oppressors; ye were like stray sheep, in the wilderness of ignorance and sin, till Christ, the true and merciful Shepherd, called you back from your wanderings, by sending you the Gospel of his grace

Clarke: 1Pe 2:25 - Bishop of your souls Bishop of your souls - Unless we consider the word bishop as a corruption of the word επισκοπος episcopos , and that this literally signi...

Bishop of your souls - Unless we consider the word bishop as a corruption of the word επισκοπος episcopos , and that this literally signifies an overseer, an inspector, or one that has the oversight, it can convey to us no meaning of the original. Jesus Christ is the Overseer of souls; he has them continually under his eye; he knows their wants, wishes, dangers, etc., and provides for them. As their shepherd, he leads them to the best pastures, defends them from their enemies, and guides them by his eye. Jesus is the good Shepherd that laid down his life for his sheep. All human souls are inexpressibly dear to him, as they are the purchase of his blood. He is still supreme Bishop or Overseer in his Church. He alone is Episcopus episcoporum , "the Bishop of bishops;"a title which the Romish pontiffs have blasphemously usurped. But this is not the only attribute of Jesus on which they have laid sacrilegious hands. And besides this, with force and with cruelty have they ruled the sheep: but the Lord is breaking the staff of their pride, and delivering the nations from the bondage of their corruption. Lord, let thy kingdom come!

Calvin: 1Pe 2:1 - Infancy After having taught the faithful that they had been regenerated by the word of God, he now exhorts them to lead a life corresponding with their birth...

After having taught the faithful that they had been regenerated by the word of God, he now exhorts them to lead a life corresponding with their birth. For if we live in the Spirit, we ought also to walk in the Spirit, as Paul says. (Gal 5:25.) It is not, then, sufficient for us to have been once called by the Lord, except we live as new creatures. This is the meaning. But as to the words, the Apostle continues the same metaphor. For as we have been born again, he requires from us a life like that of infants; by which he intimates that we are to put off the old man and his works. Hence this verse agrees with what Christ says,

“Except ye become like this little child,
ye shall not enter into the kingdom of God.”
(Mat 18:3.)

Infancy is here set by Peter in opposition to the ancientness of the flesh, which leads to corruption; and under the word milk, he includes all the feelings of spiritual life. For there is also in part a contrast between the vices which he enumerates and the sincere milk of the word; as though he had said, “Malice and hypocrisy belong to those who are habituated to the corruptions of the world; they have imbibed these vices: what pertains to infancy is sincere simplicity, free from all guile. Men, when grown up, become imbued with envy, they learn to slander one another, they are taught the arts of mischief; in short, they become hardened in every kind of evil: infants, owing to their age, do not yet know what it is to envy, to do mischief, or the like things.” He then compares the vices, in which the oldness of the flesh indulges, to strong food; and milk is called that way of living suitable to innocent nature and simple infancy.

1. All malice There is not here a complete enumeration of all those things which we ought to lay aside; but when the Apostles speak of the old man, they lay down as examples some of those vices which mark his whole character.

“Known,” says Paul, “are the works of the flesh, which are these,” (Gal 5:19;)

and yet he does not enumerate them all; but in those few things, as in a mirror, we may see that immense mass of filth which proceeds from our flesh. So also in other passages, where he refers to the new life, he touches only on a few things, by which we may understand the whole character.

What, then, he says amounts to this, — “Having laid aside the works of your former life, such as malice, deceit, dissimulations, envyings, and other things of this kind, devote yourselves to things of an opposite character, cultivate kindness, honesty,” etc. He, in short, urges this, that new morals ought to follow a new life.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:2 - The sincere milk of the word 2.The sincere milk of the word This passage is commonly explained according to the rendering of Erasmus, “Milk not for the body but for the soul;...

2.The sincere milk of the word This passage is commonly explained according to the rendering of Erasmus, “Milk not for the body but for the soul;” as though the Apostle reminded us by this expression that he spoke metaphorically. I rather think that this passage agrees with that saying of Paul,

“Be ye not children in understanding, but in malice.”
(1Co 14:20.)

That no one might think that infancy, void of understanding and full of fatuity, was commended by him, he in due time meets this objection; so he bids them to desire milk free from guile, and yet mixed with right understanding. We now see for what purpose he joins these two words, rational and guileless, (λογικὸν καὶ ἄδολος.) For simplicity and quickness of understanding are two things apparently opposite; but they ought to be mixed together, lest simplicity should become insipid, and lest malicious craftiness should creep in for want of understanding. This mingling, well regulated, is according, to what Christ says,

“Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.”
(Mat 10:16.)

And thus is solved the question which might have been otherwise raised. 19

Paul reproves the Corinthians because they were like children, and therefore they could not take strong food, but were fed with milk. (1Co 3:1.) Almost the same words are found in Heb 5:12. But in these passages those are compared to children who remain always novices and ignorant scholars in the doctrine of religion, who continued in the first elements, and never penetrated into the higher knowledge of God. Milk is called the simpler mode of teaching, and one suitable to children, when there is no progress made beyond the first rudiments. Justly, then, does Paul charge this as a fault, as well as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. But milk, here, is not elementary doctrine, which one perpetually learns; and never comes to the knowledge of the truth, but a mode of living which has the savor of the new birth, when we surrender ourselves to be brought up by God. In the same manner infancy is not set in opposition to manhood, or full age in Christ, as Paul calls it in Eph 4:13, but to the ancientness of the flesh and of former life. Moreover, as the infancy of the new life is perpetual, so Peter recommends milk as a perpetual aliment, for he would have those nourished by it to grow.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:3 - If so be that ye have tasted; 3.If so be that ye have tasted; or, If indeed ye have tasted. He alludes to Psa 34:8, “Taste and see that the Lord is good.” But he says that ...

3.If so be that ye have tasted; or, If indeed ye have tasted. He alludes to Psa 34:8,

“Taste and see that the Lord is good.”

But he says that this taste is to be had in Christ, as, doubtless, our souls can find no rest anywhere but in him. But he has drawn the ground of his exhortation from the goodness of God, because his kindness, which we perceive in Christ, ought to allure us; for what follows,

Calvin: 1Pe 2:4 - To whom coming, To whom coming, is not to be referred simply to God, but to him as he is revealed to us in the person of Christ. Now, it cannot be but that the grace ...

To whom coming, is not to be referred simply to God, but to him as he is revealed to us in the person of Christ. Now, it cannot be but that the grace of God must powerfully draw us to himself and inflame us with the love of him by whom we obtain a real perception of it. If Plato affirmed this of his Beautiful, of which a shadowy idea only he beheld afar off, much more true is this with regard to God.

Let it then be noticed, that Peter connects an access to God with the taste of his goodness. For as the human mind necessarily dreads and shuns God, as long as it regards him as rigid and severe; so, as soon as he makes known his paternal love to the faithful, it immediately follows that they disregard all things and even forget themselves and hasten to him. In short, he only makes progress in the Gospel, who in heart comes to God.

But he also shews for what end and to what purpose we ought to come to Christ, even that we may have him as our foundation. For since he is constituted a stone, he ought to be so to us, so that nothing should be appointed for him by the Father in vain or to no purpose. But he obviates an offense when he allows that Christ is rejected by men; for, as a great part of the world reject him, and even many abhor him, he might for this reason be despised by us; for we see that some of the ignorant are alienated from the Gospel, because it is not everywhere popular, nor does it conciliate favor to its professors. But Peter forbids us to esteem Christ the less, however despised he may be by the world, because he, notwithstanding, retains his own worth and honor before God.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:5 - Ye also, as lively // A holy priesthood // Acceptable to God 5.Ye also, as lively or living stones, are built up The verb may be in the imperative as well as in the indicative mood, for the termination in Gre...

5.Ye also, as lively or living stones, are built up The verb may be in the imperative as well as in the indicative mood, for the termination in Greek is ambiguous. But in whatever way it is taken, Peter no doubt meant to exhort the faithful to consecrate themselves as a spiritual temple to God; for he aptly infers from the design of our calling what our duty is. We must further observe, that he constructs one house from the whole number of the faithful. For though every one of us is said to be the temple of God, yet all are united together in one, and must be joined together by mutual love, so that one temple may be made of us all. Then, as it is true that each one is a temple in which God dwells by his Spirit, so all ought to be so fitted together, that they may form one universal temple. This is the case when every one, content with his own measure, keeps himself within the limits of his own duty; all have, however, something to do with regard to others.

By calling us living stones and spiritual building, as he had before said that Christ is a living stone, he intimates a comparison between us and the ancient temple; and this serves to amplify divine grace. For the same purpose is what he adds as to spiritual sacrifices For by how much the more excellent is the reality than the types, by so much the more all things excel in the kingdom of Christ; for we have that heavenly exemplar, to which the ancient sanctuary was conformable, and everything instituted by Moses under the Law.

A holy priesthood It is a singular honor, that God should not only consecrate us as a temple to himself, in which he dwells and is worshipped, but that he should also make us priests. But Peter mentions this double honor, in order to stimulate us more effectually to serve and worship God. Of the spiritual sacrifices, the first is the offering of ourselves, of which Paul speaks in Rom 12:1; for we can offer nothing, until we offer to him ourselves as a sacrifice; which is done by denying ourselves. Then, afterwards follow prayers, thanksgiving, almsdeeds, and all the duties of religion.

Acceptable to God It ought also to add not a little to our alacrity, when we know that the worship we perform to God is pleasing o him, as doubt necessarily brings sloth with it. Here, then, is the third thing that enforces the exhortation; for he declares that what is required is acceptable to God, lest fear should make us slothful. Idolaters are indeed under the influence of great fervor in their fictitious forms of worship; but it is so, because Satan inebriates their minds, lest they should come to consider their works; but whenever their consciences are led to examine things, they begin to stagger. It is, indeed, certain that no one will seriously and from the heart devote himself to God, until he is fully persuaded that he shall not labor in vain.

But the Apostle adds, through Jesus Christ There is never found in our sacrifices such purity, that they are of themselves acceptable to God; our self-denial is never entire and complete, our prayers are never so sincere as they ought to be, we are never so zealous and so diligent in doing good, but that our works are imperfect, and mingled with many vices. Nevertheless, Christ procures favor for them. Then Peter here obviates that want of faith which we may have respecting the acceptableness of our works, when he says, that they are accepted, not for the merit of their own excellency, but through Christ. And it ought to kindle the more the ardor of our efforts, when we hear that God deals so indulgently with us, that in Christ he sets a value on our works, which in themselves deserve nothing. At the same time, the words, by or through Christ, may be fitly connected with offering; for a similar phrase is found in Heb 13:15,

“Through him let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God.”

The sense, however, will remain the same; for we offer sacrifices through Christ, that they may be acceptable to God.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:6 - Wherefore also it is contained in Scripture; // He that believeth 6.Wherefore also it is contained in Scripture; or, Wherefore also the Scripture contains 20 They who refer the verb “contain” (περιέχε...

6.Wherefore also it is contained in Scripture; or, Wherefore also the Scripture contains 20 They who refer the verb “contain” (περιέχειν) to Christ, and render it “embrace,” because through him all these unite together, wholly depart from the meaning of the Apostle. No better is another exposition, that Christ excels others; for Peter simply intended to quote the testimony of Scripture. 21 He then shews what had been taught by the Holy Spirit in the Scriptures, or, which is the same thing, that what he adds is contained in them. Nor is it an unsuitable confirmation of the preceding verse. For we see for what slight reasons, and almost for none, many reject Christ, and some fall away from him; but this is a stumblingblock which above all other things stands in the way of some; they are drawn away, because not only the common people despise and reject Christ, but also those who are high in dignity and honor, and seem to excel others. This evil has almost ever prevailed in the world, and at this day it prevails much; for a great part of mankind judge of Christ according to the false opinion of the world. Moreover, such is the ingratitude and impiety of men, that Christ is everywhere despised. Thus it is, that while they regard one another, few pay him his due honor. Hence Peter reminds us of what had been foretold of Christ, lest the contempt or the rejection of him should move us from the faith.

Now, the first passage, which he adduces, is taken from Isa 28:16; where the Prophet, after having inveighed against the desperate wickedness of his own nation, at length adds,

“Your perfidy shall not prevent God from restoring his church, which now through you lies wholly in a ruinous state.”
(Isa 28:16)

The manner of restoration he thus describes, “I will lay in Sion a stone.” We hence learn that there is no building up of the Church without Christ; for there is no other foundation but he, as Paul testifies, (1Co 3:11.) This is no matter of wonder, for all our salvation is found only in him. Whosoever, then, turns away from him in the least degree, will find his foundation a precipice.

Therefore the Prophet not only calls him a corner-stone, which connects the whole edifice, but also a stone of trial, according to which the building is to be measured and regulated; and farther, he calls him a solid foundation, which sustains the whole edifice. He is thus, then, a corner-stone, that he might be the rule of the building, as well as the only foundation. But Peter took from the words of the Prophet what was especially suitable to his argument, even that he was a chosen stone, and in the highest degree valuable and excellent, and also that on him we ought to build. This honor is ascribed to Christ, that how much soever he may be despised by the world, he may not be despised by us; for by God he is regarded as very precious. But when he calls him a corner-stone, he intimates that those have no concern for their salvation who do not recumb on Christ. What some have refined on the word “corner,” as though it meant that Christ joins together Jews and Gentiles, as two distinct walls, is not well founded. Let us, then, be content with a simple explanation, that he is so called, because the weight of the building rests on him.

We must further observe, that the Prophet introduces God as the speaker, for he alone forms and plans his own Church, as it is said in Psa 78:69, that his hand had founded Sion. He, indeed, employs the labor and ministry of men in building it; but this is not inconsistent with the truth that it is his own work. Christ, then, is the foundation of our salvation, because he has been ordained for this end by the Father.

And he says in Sion, because there God’s spiritual temple was to have its beginning. That our faith, therefore, may firmly rest on Christ, we must come to the Law and to the Prophets. For though this stone extends to the extreme parts of the world, it was yet necessary for it to be located first in Sion, for there at that time was the seat of the Church. But it is said to have been then set, when the Father revealed him for the purpose of restoring his Church. In short, we must hold this, that those only rest on Christ, who keep the unity of the Church, for he is not set as a foundation-stone except in Sion. As from Sion the Church went forth, which is now everywhere spread, so also from Sion our faith has derived its beginning, as Isaiah says,

“From Sion shall go forth the law,
and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.” (Isa 2:3.)

Corresponding with this is what is said in the Psalms,

“The scepter of thy power will the Lord send forth from Sion.” (Psa 110:2.)

He that believeth The Prophet does not say in him, but declares generally, “He that believeth shall not make haste.” As, however, there is no doubt but that God sets forth Christ there as the object of our faith, the faith of which the Prophet speaks must look on him alone. And, doubtless, no one can rightly believe, but he who is fully convinced that in Christ he ought wholly to trust.

But the words of the Prophet may be taken in two ways, either as a promise or as an exhortation. The future time is referred to, “He shall not make haste;” but in Hebrew the future is often to be taken for an imperative, “Let him not make haste.” Thus the meaning would be, “Be ye not moved in your minds, but quietly entertain your desires, and check your feelings, until the Lord will be pleased to fulfill his promise.” So he says in another place,

“In silence and in quietness shall be your strength,”
(Isa 30:15.)

But as the other reading seems to come nearer to Peter’s interpretation, I give it the preference. Then the sense would not be unsuitable, “He who believeth shall not waver” or vacillate; for he has a firm and permanent foundation. And it is a valuable truth, that relying on Christ, we are beyond the danger of falling. Moreover, to be ashamed ( pudefieri ) means the same thing. Peter has retained the real sense of the Prophet, though he has followed the Greek version. 22

Calvin: 1Pe 2:7 - Unto you therefore which believe // And a stone of stumbling 7.Unto you therefore which believe God having pronounced Christ to be a precious and a chosen stone, Peter draws the inference that he is so to us. F...

7.Unto you therefore which believe God having pronounced Christ to be a precious and a chosen stone, Peter draws the inference that he is so to us. For, no doubt, Christ is there described such as we apprehend him by faith, and such as he proves himself to be by real evidences. We ought, then, carefully to notice this inference: Christ is a precious stone in the sight of God; then he is such to the faithful. It is faith alone which reveals to us the value and excellency of Christ.

But as the design of the Apostle was to obviate the offense which the multitude of the ungodly creates, he immediately adds another clause respecting the unbelieving, that by rejecting Christ, they do not take away the honor granted him by the Father. For this purpose a verse in Psa 118:22, is quoted, that the stone which the builders rejected, is become, nevertheless, the head of the corner. It hence follows, that Christ, though opposed by his enemies, yet continues in that dignity to which he has been appointed by the Father. But we must take notice of the two things here said, — the first is, that Christ was rejected by those who bore rule in the Church of God; and the other, that their efforts were all in vain, because necessarily fulfilled must have been what God had decreed, that is, that he, as the corner-stone, should sustain the edifice.

Moreover, that this passage ought properly to be understood of Christ, not only the Holy Spirit is a witness, and Christ himself, who has thus explained it, (Mat 21:42;) but it appears also evident from this, that it was thus commonly understood before Christ came into the world; nor is there a doubt but this exposition had been delivered as it were from hand to hand from the fathers. We hence see that this was, as it were, a common saying even among children respecting the Messiah. I shall, therefore, no longer discuss this point. We may take it as granted, that David was thus rejected by his own age, that he might typify Christ.

Let us now, then, return to the first clause: Christ was rejected by the builders. This was first shadowed forth in David; for they who were in power counted him as condemned and lost. The same was fulfilled in Christ; for they who ruled in the Church, rejected him as far as they could. It might have greatly disturbed the weak, when they saw that Christ’s enemies were so many, even the priests, the elders, and teachers, in whom alone the Church was conspicuously seen. In order to remove this offense, Peter reminded the faithful that this very thing had been predicted by David. He especially addressed the Jews, to whom this properly applied; at the same time, this admonition is very useful at this day. For they who arrogate to themselves the first place of authority in the Church, are Christ’s most inveterate enemies, and with diabolical fury persecute his Gospel.

The Pope calls himself the vicar of Christ, and yet we know how fiercely he opposes him. This spectacle frightens the simple and ignorant. Why is this? even because they consider not that what David has predicted happens now. Let us, then, remember that not those only were by this prophecy warned who saw Christ rejected by the Scribes and Pharisees; but that we are also by it fortified against daily offenses, which might otherwise upset our faith. Whenever then, we see those who glory in the title of prelates, rising up against Christ, let it come to our minds, that the stone is rejected by the builders, according to the prediction of David. And as the metaphor of building is common, when political or spiritual government is spoken of, so David calls them builders, to whom is committed the care and power of governing; not because they build rightly, but because they have the name of builders, and possess the ordinary power. It hence follows, that those in office are not always God’s true and faithful ministers. It is, therefore, extremely ridiculous in the Pope and his followers to arrogate to themselves supreme and indubitable authority on this sole pretense, that they are the ordinary governors of the Church. In the first place, their vocation to govern the Church is in no way more just or more legitimate than that of Heliogabalus to govern the empire. But though we should allow them what they unblushingly claim, that they are rightly called, yet we see what David declares respecting the ordinary rulers of the Church, that they rejected Christ, so that they built a stye for swine rather than a temple for God. The other part follows, that all the great, proud of their power and dignity, shall not prevail, so that Christ should not continue in his own place.

And a stone of stumbling After having comforted the faithful, that they would have in Christ a firm and permanent foundation, though the greater part, and even the chief men, allowed him no place in the building, he now denounces the punishment which awaits all the unbelieving, in order that they might be terrified by their example. For this purpose he quotes the testimony of Isa 8:14. The Prophet there declares that the Lord would be to the Jews a stone of stumbling and rock of offense. This properly refers to Christ, as it may be seen from the context; and Paul applies it to Christ, (Rom 9:32.) For in him the God of hosts has plainly manifested himself.

Here, then, the terrible vengeance of God is denounced on all the ungodly, because Christ would be to them an offense and a stumbling, inasmuch as they refused to make him their foundation. For as the firmness and stability of Christ is such that it can sustain all who by faith recumb on him; so his hardness is so great that it will break and tear in pieces all who resist him. For there is no medium between these two things, — we must either build on him, or be dashed against him. 23

Calvin: 1Pe 2:8 - Which stumble at the word // Whereunto also they were appointed, 8.Which stumble at the word He points out here the manner in which Christ becomes a stumbling, even when men perversely oppose the word of God. This ...

8.Which stumble at the word He points out here the manner in which Christ becomes a stumbling, even when men perversely oppose the word of God. This the Jews did; for though they professed themselves willing to receive the Messiah, yet they furiously rejected him when presented to them by God. The Papists do the same in the present day; they worship only the name of Christ, while they cannot endure the doctrine of the Gospel. Here Peter intimates that all who receive not Christ as revealed in the Gospel, are adversaries to God, and resist his word, and also that Christ is to none for destruction, but to those who, through headstrong wickedness and obstinacy, rush against the word of God.

And this is especially what deserves to be noticed, lest our fault should be imputed to Christ; for, as he has been given to us as a foundation, it is as it were an accidental thing that he becomes a rock of offense. In short, his proper office is to prepare us for a spiritual temple to God; but it is the fault of men that they stumble at him, even because unbelief leads men to contend with God. Hence Peter, in order to set forth the character of the conflict, said that they were the unbelieving.

Whereunto also they were appointed, or, to which they had been ordained. This passage may be explained in two ways. It is, indeed, certain that Peter spoke of the Jews; and the common interpretation is, that they were appointed to believe, for the promise of salvation was destined for them. But the other sense is equally suitable, that they had been appointed to unbelief; as Pharaoh is said to have been set up for this end, that he might resist God, and all the reprobate are destined for the same purpose. And what inclines me to this meaning is the particle καὶ (also) which is put in. 24 If, however, the first view be preferred, then it is a vehement upbraiding; for Peter does hence enhance the sin of unbelief in the people who had been chosen by God, because they rejected the salvation that had been peculiarly ordained for them. And no doubt this circumstance rendered them doubly inexcusable, that having been called in preference to others, they had refused to hear God. But, by saying that they were appointed to believe, he refers only to their outward call, even according to the covenant which God had made generally with the whole nation. At the same time their ingratitude, as it has been said, was sufficiently proved, when they rejected the word preached to them.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:9 - But ye are a chosen generation, // That ye should shew forth, 9.But ye are a chosen generation, or race. He again separates them from the unbelieving, lest driven by their example (as it is often the case) they...

9.But ye are a chosen generation, or race. He again separates them from the unbelieving, lest driven by their example (as it is often the case) they should fall away from the faith. As, then, it is unreasonable that those whom God has separated from the world, should mix themselves with the ungodly, Peter here reminds the faithful to what great honor they had been raised, and also to what purpose they had been called. But with the same high titles which he confers on them, Moses honored the ancient people, (Exo 19:6;) but the Apostle’s object was to shew that they had recovered again, through Christ, the great dignity and honor from which they had fallen. It is at the same time true, that God gave to the fathers an earthly taste only of these blessings, and that they are really given in Christ.

The meaning then is, as though he had said,

“Moses called formerly your fathers a holy nation, a priestly kingdom, and God’s peculiar people: all these high titles do now far more justly belong to you; therefore you ought to beware lest your unbelief should rob you of them.” (Exo 19:6)

In the meantime, however, as the greater part of the nation was unbelieving, the Apostle indirectly sets the believing Jews in opposition to all the rest, though they exceeded them in number, as though he had said, that those only were the children of Abraham, who believed in Christ, and that they only retained possession of all the blessings which God had by a singular privilege bestowed on the whole nation.

He calls them a chosen race, because God, passing by others, adopted them as it were in a special manner. They were also a holy nation; for God had consecrated them to himself, and destined that they should lead a pure and holy life. He further calls them a peculiar people, or, a people for acquisition, that they might be to him a peculiar possession or inheritance; for I take the words simply in this sense, that the Lord hath called us, that he might possess us as his own, and devoted to him. This meaning is proved by the words of Moses,

“If ye keep my covenant, ye shall be to me a peculiar treasure beyond all other nations.” (Exo 19:5.)

There is in the royal priesthood a striking inversion of the words of Moses; for he says, “a priestly kingdom,” but the same thing is meant. So what Peter intimated was this, “Moses called your fathers a sacred kingdom, because the whole people enjoyed as it were a royal liberty, and from their body were chosen the priests; both dignities were therefore joined together: but now ye are royal priests, and, indeed, in a more excellent way, because ye are, each of you, consecrated in Christ, that ye may be the associates of his kingdom, and partakers of his priesthood. Though, then, the fathers had something like to what you have; yet ye far excel them. For after the wall of partition has been pulled down by Christ, we are now gathered from every nation, and the Lord bestows these high titles on all whom he makes his people.”

There is further, as to these benefits, a contrast between us and the rest of mankind, to be considered: and hence it appears more fully how incomparable is God’s goodness towards us; for he sanctifies us, who are by nature polluted; he chose us, when he could find nothing in us but filth and vileness; he makes his peculiar possession from worthless dregs; he confers the honor of the priesthood on the profane; he brings the vassals of Satan, of sin, and of death, to the enjoyment of royal liberty.

That ye should shew forth, or declare. He carefully points out the end of our calling, that he might stimulate us to give the glory to God. And the sum of what he says is, that God has favored us with these immense benefits and constantly manifests them, that his glory might by us be made known: for by praises, or virtues, he understands wisdom, goodness, power, righteousness, and everything else, in which the glory of God shines forth. And further, it behoves us to declare these virtues or excellencies not only by our tongue, but also by our whole life. This doctrine ought to be a subject of daily meditation, and it ought to be continually remembered by us, that all God’s blessings with which he favors us are intended for this end, that his glory may be proclaimed by us.

We must also notice what he says, that we have been called out of darkness into God’s marvellous or wonderful light; for by these words he amplifies the greatness of divine grace. If the Lord had given us light while we were seeking it, it would have been a favor; but it was a much greater favor, to draw us out of the labyrinth of ignorance and the abyss of darkness. We ought hence to learn what is man’s condition, before he is translated into the kingdom of God. And this is what Isaiah says,

“Darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people; but over thee shall the Lord be seen, and his glory shall in thee shine forth.” (Isa 60:2.)

And truly we cannot be otherwise than sunk in darkness, after having departed from God, our only light. See more at large on this subject in the second chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:10 - Which in time past were not a people // Which had not obtained mercy 10.Which in time past were not a people He brings for confirmation a passage from Hosea, and well accommodates it to his own purpose. For Hosea, afte...

10.Which in time past were not a people He brings for confirmation a passage from Hosea, and well accommodates it to his own purpose. For Hosea, after having in God’s name declared that the Jews were repudiated, gives them a hope of a future restoration. Peter reminds us that this was fulfilled in his own age; for the Jews were scattered here and there, as the torn members of a body; nay, they seemed to be no longer God’s people, no worship remained among them, they were become entangled in the corruptions of the heathens; it could not then be said otherwise of them, but that they were repudiated by the Lord. But when they are gathered in Christ, from no people they really become the people of God. Paul, in Rom 9:26, applies also this prophecy to the Gentiles, and not without reason; for from the time the Lord’s covenant was broken, from which alone the Jews derived their superiority, they were put on a level with the Gentiles. It hence follows, that what God had promised, to make a people of no people, belongs in common to both.

Which had not obtained mercy This was added by the Prophet, in order that the gratuitous covenant of God, by which he takes them to be his people, might be more clearly set forth; as though he had said, “There is no other reason why the Lord counts us his people, except that he, having mercy on us, graciously adopts us.” It is then God’s gratuitous goodness, which makes of no people a people to God, and reconciles the alienated. 25

Calvin: 1Pe 2:11 - As strangers, // Which war against the soul 11.As strangers, or sojourners. There are two parts to this exhortation, — that their souls were to be free within from wicked and vicious lusts; ...

11.As strangers, or sojourners. There are two parts to this exhortation, — that their souls were to be free within from wicked and vicious lusts; and also, that they were to live honestly among men, and by the example of a good life not only to confirm the godly, but also to gain over the unbelieving to God.

And first, to call them away from the indulgence of carnal lusts, he employs this argument, that they were sojourners and strangers. And he so calls them, not because they were banished from their country, and scattered into various lands, but because the children of God, wherever they may be, are only guests in this world. In the former sense, indeed, he called them sojourners at the beginning of the Epistle, as it appears from the context; but what he says here is common to them all. For the lusts of the flesh hold us entangled, when in our minds we dwell in the world, and think not that heaven is our country; but when we pass as strangers through this life, we are not in bondage to the flesh.

By the lusts or desires of the flesh he means not only those gross concupiscences which we have in common with animals, as the Sophists hold, but also all those sinful passions and affections of the soul, to which we are by nature guided and led. For it is certain that every thought of the flesh, that is, of unrenewed nature, is enmity against God. (Rom 8:7.)

Which war against the soul Here is another argument, that they could not comply with the desires of the flesh, except to their own ruin. For he refers not here to the contest described by Paul in Rom 7:14, and in Gal 5:17, as he makes the soul to be an antagonist to the flesh: but what he says here is, that the desires of the flesh, whenever the soul consents to them, lead to perdition. He proves our carelessness in this respect, that while we anxiously shun enemies from whom we apprehend danger to the body, we willingly allow enemies hurtful to the soul to destroy us; nay, we as it were stretch forth our neck to them.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:12 - Your conversation // That they 12.Your conversation The second part of the exhortation is, that they were to conduct themselves honestly towards men. What, indeed, precedes this in...

12.Your conversation The second part of the exhortation is, that they were to conduct themselves honestly towards men. What, indeed, precedes this in order is, that their minds should be cleansed before God; but a regard should also be had to men, lest we should become a hindrance to them. And he expressly says among the Gentiles; for the Jews were not only hated everywhere, but were also almost abhorred. The more carefully, therefore, ought they to have labored to wipe off the odium and infamy attached to their name by a holy life and a well-regulated conduct. 26 For that admonition of Paul ought to be attended to, “To give no occasion to those who seek occasion.” Therefore the evil speakings and the wicked insinuations of the ungodly ought to stimulate us to lead an upright life; for it is no time for living listlessly and securely, when they sharply watch us in order to find out whatever we do amiss.

That they may glorify God He intimates that we ought thus to strive, not for our own sake, that men may think and speak well of us; but that we may glorify God, as Christ also teaches us. And Peter shews how this would be effected, even that the unbelieving, led by our good works, would become obedient to God, and thus by their own conversion give glory to him; for this he intimates by the words, in the day of visitation. I know that some refer this to the last coming of Christ; but I take it otherwise, even that God employs the holy and honest life of his people, as a preparation, to bring back the wandering to the right way. For it is the beginning of our conversion, when God is pleased to look on us with a paternal eye; but when his face is turned away from us, we perish. Hence the day of visitation may justly be said to be the time when he invites us to himself.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:13 - Submit yourselves // To every ordinance of man // Whether it be to the king 13.Submit yourselves He now comes to particular exhortations: and as obedience with regard to magistrates is a part of honest or good conversation, h...

13.Submit yourselves He now comes to particular exhortations: and as obedience with regard to magistrates is a part of honest or good conversation, he draws this inference as to their duty, “Submit yourselves,” or, Be ye subject; for by refusing the yoke of government, they would have given to the Gentiles no small occasion for reproaching them. And, indeed, the Jews were especially hated and counted infamous for this reason, because they were regarded on account of their perverseness as ungovernable. And as the commotions which they raised up in the provinces, were causes of great calamities, so that every one of a quiet and peaceable disposition dreaded them as the plague, — this was the reason that induced Peter to speak so strongly on subjection. Besides, many thought the gospel was a proclamation of such liberty, that every one might deem himself as free from servitude. It seemed an unworthy thing that God’s children should be servants, and that the heirs of the world should not have a free possession, no, not even of their own bodies. Then there was another trial, — All the magistrates were Christ’s adversaries; and they used their own authority, so that no representation of God, which secures the chief reverence, appeared in them. We now perceive the design of Peter: he exhorted the Jews, especially for these reasons, to shew respect to the civil power.

To every ordinance of man Some render the words, “to every creature;” and from a rendering so obscure and ambiguous, much labor has been taken to elicit some meaning. But I have no doubt but that Peter meant to point out the distinct manner in which God governs mankind: for the verb κτίζειν in Greek, from which κτίσις comes, means to form and to construct a building. Suitable, then, is the word “ordination;” by which Peter reminds us, that God the maker of the world has not left the human race in a state of confusion, that they might live after the manner of beasts, but as it were in a building regularly formed, and divided into several compartments. And it is called a human ordination, not because it has been invented by man, but because a mode of living, well arranged and duly ordered, is peculiar to men. 27

Whether it be to the king So he calls Caesar, as I think, whose empire extended over all those countries mentioned at the beginning of the Epistle. For though “king” was a name extremely hated by the Romans, yet it was in use among the Greeks. They, indeed, often called him autocrat, (αὐτοκράτορα) but sometimes he was also called by them king, (βασιλεὺς.) But as he subjoins a reason, that he ought to be obeyed because he excelled, or was eminent or supreme, there is no comparison made between Caesar and other magistrates. He held, indeed, the supreme power; but that eminence which Peter extols, is common to all who exercise public authority. And so Paul, in Rom 13:1, extends it to all magistrates. Now the meaning is, that obedience is due to all who rule, because they have been raised to that honor not by chance, but by God’s providence. For many are wont to inquire too scrupulously by what right power has been attained; but we ought to be satisfied with this alone, that power is possessed and exercised. And so Paul cuts off the handle of useless objections when he declares that there is no power but from God. And for this reason it is that Scripture so often says, that it is God who girds kings with a sword, who raises them on high, who transfers kingdoms as he pleases.

As Peter referred especially to the Roman Emperor, it was necessary to add this admonition; for it is certain that the Romans through unjust means rather than in a legitimate way penetrated into Asia and subdued these countries. Besides, the Caesars, who then reigned, had possessed themselves of the monarchy by tyrannical force. Hence Peter as it were forbids these things to be controverted, for he shews that subjects ought to obey their rulers without hesitation, because they are not made eminent, unless elevated by God’s hand.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:14 - Or unto governors, // For the punishment 14.Or unto governors, or, Whether to presidents. He designates every kind of magistrates, as though he had said, that there is no kind of government...

14.Or unto governors, or, Whether to presidents. He designates every kind of magistrates, as though he had said, that there is no kind of government to which we ought not to submit. He confirms this by saying that they are God’s ministers; for they who apply him to the king, are greatly mistaken. There is then a common reason, which extols the authority of all magistrates, that they rule by the command of God, and are sent by him. It hence follows (as Paul also teaches us) that they resist God, who do not obediently submit to a power ordained by him.

For the punishment This is the second reason why it behoves us reverently to regard and to respect civil authority, and that is, because it has been appointed by the Lord for the common good of mankind; for we must be extremely barbarous and brutal, if the public good is not regarded by us. This, then, in short, is what Peter means, that since God keeps the world in order by the ministry of magistrates, all they who despise their authority are enemies to mankind.

Now he assumes these two things, which belong, as Plato says, to a commonwealth, that is, reward to the good and punishment to the wicked; for, in ancient times, not only punishment was allotted to evil-doers, but also rewards to the doers of good. But though it often happens that honors are not rightly distributed, nor rewards given to the deserving, yet it is an honor, not to be despised, that the good are at the least under the care and protection of magistrates, that they are not exposed to the violence and injuries of the ungodly, that they live more quietly under laws and better retain their reputation, than if every one, unrestrained, lived as he pleased. In short, it is a singular blessing of God, that the wicked are not allowed to do what they like.

It may, however, be objected here and said, that kings and magistrates often abuse their power, and exercise tyrannical cruelty rather than justice. Such were almost all the magistrates, when this Epistle was written. To this I answer, that tyrants and those like them, do not produce such effects by their abuse, but that the ordinance of God ever remains in force, as the institution of marriage is not subverted though the wife and the husband were to act in a way not becoming them. However, therefore, men may go astray, yet the end fixed by God cannot be changed.

Were any one again to object and say, that we ought not to obey princes who, as far as they can, pervert the holy ordinance of God, and thus become savage wild beasts, while magistrates ought to bear the image of God. My reply is this, that government established by God ought to be so highly valued by us, as to honor even tyrants when in power. There is yet another reply still more evident, — that there has never been a tyranny, (nor can one be imagined,) however cruel and unbridled, in which some portion of equity has not appeared; and further, some kind of government, however deformed and corrupt it may be, is still better and more beneficial than anarchy.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:15 - For so is the will of God 15.For so is the will of God He returns to his former doctrine, lest an occasion should be given to the unbelieving to speak evil, though he expresse...

15.For so is the will of God He returns to his former doctrine, lest an occasion should be given to the unbelieving to speak evil, though he expresses less than what he had said before; for he says only that the mouths of the foolish ought to be stopped. The phrase which he adopts, “to stop up ignorance,” though it may seem harsh on account of its novelty, does not yet obscure the sense. 28 For he not only calls the unbelieving foolish, but also points out the reason why they slandered, even because they were ignorant of God. But inasmuch as he makes the unbelieving to be without understanding and reason, we hence conclude, that a right understanding cannot exist without the knowledge of God. How much soever, then, the unbelieving may boast of their own acuteness, and may seem to themselves to be wise and prudent, yet the Spirit of God charges them with folly, in order that we may know that, apart from God, we cannot be really wise, as without him there is nothing perfect.

But he prescribes the way in which the evil-speaking of the unbelieving is to be restrained, even by well-doing, or, by doing good. In this expression he includes all the duties of humanity and kindness which we ought to perform towards our neighbors. And in these is included obedience to magistrates, without which concord among men cannot be cultivated. Were any one to object and say, that the faithful can never be so careful to do good, but that they will be evil-spoken of by the unbelieving: to this the obvious answer is, that the Apostle here does not in any degree exempt them from calumnies and reproaches; but he means that no occasion of slandering ought to be given to the unbelieving, however much they may desire it. And lest any one should further object and say, that the unbelieving are by no means worthy of so much regard that God’s children should form their life to please them, Peter expressly reminds us that we are bound by God’s command to shut up their mouths.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:16 - As free 16.As free This is said by way of anticipation, that he might obviate those things which are usually objected to with regard to the liberty of God’...

16.As free This is said by way of anticipation, that he might obviate those things which are usually objected to with regard to the liberty of God’s children. For as men are naturally ingenious in laying hold on what may be for their advantage, many, at the commencement of the Gospel, thought themselves free to live only for themselves. This doting opinion, then, is what Peter corrects; and he briefly shews how much the liberty of Christians differed from unbridled licentiousness. And, in the first place, he denies that there is any veil or pretext for wickedness, by which he intimates, that there is no liberty given us to hurt our neighbors, or to do any harm to others. True liberty, then, is that which harms or injures no one. To confirm this, he declares that those are free who serve God. It is obvious, hence, to conclude, that we obtain liberty, in order that we may more promptly and more readily render obedience to God; for it is no other than a freedom from sin; and dominion is taken away from sin, that men may become obedient to righteousness.

In short, it is a free servitude, and a serving freedom. For as we ought to be the servants of God, that we may enjoy this benefit, so moderation is required in the use of it. In this way, indeed, our consciences become free; but this prevents us not to serve God, who requires us also to be subject to men.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:17 - Fear God This is a summary of what is gone before; for he intimates that God is not feared, nor their just right rendered to men, except civil order prevails ...

This is a summary of what is gone before; for he intimates that God is not feared, nor their just right rendered to men, except civil order prevails among us, and magistrates retain their authority. That he bids honor to be rendered to all, I explain thus, that none are to be neglected; for it is a general precept, which refers to the social intercourse of men. 29 The word honor has a wide meaning in Hebrew, and we know that the apostles, though they wrote in Greek, followed the meaning of words in the former language. Therefore, this word conveys no other idea to me, than that a regard ought to be had for all, since we ought to cultivate, as far as we can, peace and friendship with all; there is, indeed, nothing more adverse to concord than contempt.

What he adds respecting the love of brethren is special, as contrasted with the first clause; for he speaks of that particular love which we are bidden to have towards the household of faith, because we are connected with them by a closer relationship. And so Peter did not omit this connection; but yet he reminds us, that though brethren are to be specially regarded, yet this ought not to prevent our love from being extended to the whole human race. The word fraternity, or brotherhood, I take collectively for brethren.

Fear God I have already said that all these clauses are applied by Peter to the subject he was treating. For he means, that honor paid to kings proceeds from the fear of God and the love of man; and that, therefore, it ought to be connected with them, as though he had said, “Whosoever fears God, loves his brethren and the whole human race as he ought, and will also give honor to kings.” But, at the same time, he expressly mentions the king, because that form of government was more than any other disliked; and under it other forms are included.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:18 - Servants, be subject // Not only to the good 18.Servants, be subject Though this is a particular admonition, yet it is connected with what is gone before, as well as the other things which follo...

18.Servants, be subject Though this is a particular admonition, yet it is connected with what is gone before, as well as the other things which follow; for the obedience of servants to masters, and of wives also to their husbands, forms a part of civil or social subjection. 30

He first would have servants to be subject with all fear; by which expression he means that sincere and willing reverence, which they acknowledge by their office to be due. He then sets this fear in opposition to dissimulation as well as to forced subjection; for an eye-service (ὀφθαλμοδουλεία, Col 3:22,) as Paul calls it, is the opposite of this fear; and further, if servants clamor against severe treatment, being ready to throw off the yoke if they could, they cannot be said properly to fear. In short, fear arises from a right knowledge of duty. And though no exception is added in this place, yet, according to other places, it is to be understood. For subjection due to men is not to be so far extended as to lessen the authority of God. Then servants are to be subject to their masters, only as far as God permits, or as far as the altars, as they say. But as the word here is not δοῦλοι, slaves, but οἰκέται , domestics, we may understand the free as well as the bond servants to be meant, though it be a difference of little moment.

Not only to the good Though as to the duty of servants to obey their masters, it is wholly a matter of conscience; if, however, they are unjustly treated, as to themselves, they ought not to resist authority. Whatever, then, masters may be, there is no excuse for servants for not faithfully obeying them. For when a superior abuses his power, he must indeed hereafter render an account to God, yet he does not for the present lose his right. For this law is laid on servants, that they are to serve their masters, though they may be unworthy. For the froward he sets in opposition to the equitable or humane; and by this word he refers to the cruel and the perverse, or those who have no humanity and kindness. 31

It is a wonder what could have induced an interpreter to change one Greek word for another, and render it “wayward.” I should say nothing of the gross ignorance of the Sorbons, who commonly understand by wayward, ( dyscolos ,) the dissolute or dissipated, were it not that they seek by this absurd rendering to build up for us an article of faith, that we ought to obey the Pope and his horned wild beasts, however grievous and intolerable a tyranny they may exercise. This passage, then, shews how boldly they trifle with the Word of God.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:19 - For this is thankworthy // For conscience towards God 19.For this is thankworthy The word grace or favor, has the meaning of praise; for he means that no grace or praise shall be found before God, if we ...

19.For this is thankworthy The word grace or favor, has the meaning of praise; for he means that no grace or praise shall be found before God, if we bear the punishment which we have by our faults deserved; but that they who patiently bear injuries and wrongs are worthy of praise and accepted by God. 32 To testify that it was acceptable to God, when any one from conscience towards God persevered in doing his duty, though unjustly and unworthily treated, was at that time very necessary; for the condition of servants was very hard: they were counted no better than cattle. Such indignity might have driven them to despair; the only thing left for them was to look to God.

For conscience towards God means this, that one performs his duty, not from a regard to men, but to God. For, when a wife is submissive and obedient to her husband, in order to please him, she has her reward in this world, as Christ says of the ambitious, who looked to the praise of men, (Mat 6:16.) The same view is to be taken of other cases: When a son obeys his father in order to secure his favor and bounty, he will have his reward from his father, not from God. It is, in short, a general truth, that what we do is approved by God, if our object be to serve him, and if we are not influenced by a regard to man alone. Moreover, he who considers that he has to do with God, must necessarily endeavor to overcome evil with good. For, God not only requires that we should be such to every one as he is to us, but also that we should be good to the unworthy and to such as persecute us.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:20 - NO PHRASE It is not, however, an assertion without its difficulty, when he says, that there is nothing praiseworthy in him who is justly punished; for, when t...

It is not, however, an assertion without its difficulty, when he says, that there is nothing praiseworthy in him who is justly punished; for, when the Lord punishes our sins, patience is certainly a sacrifice of sweet odour to him, that is, when we bear with a submissive mind our punishment. But to this I reply, that Peter does not here speak simply but comparatively; for it is a small and slender praise to bear with submission a just punishment, in comparison with that of an innocent man, who willingly bears the wrongs of men, only because he fears God. At the same time he seems indirectly to refer to the motive; because they who suffer punishment for their faults, are influenced by the fear of men. But the reply already given is sufficient.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:21 - For even hereunto were ye called 21.For even hereunto were ye called For though his discourse was respecting servants, yet this passage ought not to be confined to that subject. For ...

21.For even hereunto were ye called For though his discourse was respecting servants, yet this passage ought not to be confined to that subject. For the Apostle here reminds all the godly in common as to what the condition of Christianity is, as though he had said, that we are called by the Lord for this end, patiently to bear wrongs; and as he says in another place that we are appointed to this. Lest, however, this should seem grievous to us, he consoles us with the example of Christ. Nothing seems more unworthy, and therefore less tolerable, than undeservedly to suffer; but when we turn our eyes to the Son of God, this bitterness is mitigated; for who would refuse to follow him going before us?

But we must notice the words, Leaving us an example 33 For as he treats of imitation, it is necessary to know what in Christ is to be our example. He walked on the sea, he cleansed the leprous, he raised the dead, he restored sight to the blind: to try to imitate him in these things would be absurd. For when he gave these evidences of his power, it was not his object that we should thus imitate him. It has hence happened that his fasting for forty days has been made without reason an example; but what he had in view was far otherwise. We ought, therefore, to exercise in this respect a right judgment; as also Augustine somewhere reminds us, when explaining the following passage,

“Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart.”
(Mat 11:29.)

And the same thing may be learnt from the words of Peter; for he marks the difference by saying that Christ’s patience is what we ought to follow. This subject is handled more at large by Paul in Rom 8:29, where he teaches us that all the children of God are foreordained to be made conformable to the image of Christ, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren. Hence, that we may live with him, we must previously die with him.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:22 - Who did no sin 22.Who did no sin This belongs to the present subject; for, if any one boasts of his own innocence, he must know that Christ did not suffer as a male...

22.Who did no sin This belongs to the present subject; for, if any one boasts of his own innocence, he must know that Christ did not suffer as a malefactor. He, at the same time, shews how far we come short of what Christ was, when he says, that there was no guile found in his mouth; for he who offends not by his tongue, says James, is a perfect man. (Jas 3:2.) He then declares that there was in Christ the highest perfection of innocency, such as no one of us can dare claim for himself. It hence appears more fully how unjustly he suffered beyond all others. There is, therefore, no reason why any one of us should refuse to suffer after his example, since no one is so conscious of having acted rightly, as not to know that he is imperfect.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:23 - When he was reviled, // But committed himself 23.When he was reviled, or, reproached. Here Peter points out what we are to imitate in Christ, even calmly to bear wrongs, and not to avenge wrongs...

23.When he was reviled, or, reproached. Here Peter points out what we are to imitate in Christ, even calmly to bear wrongs, and not to avenge wrongs. For such is our disposition, that when we receive injuries, our minds immediately boil over with revengeful feelings; but Christ abstained from every kind of retaliation. Our minds, therefore, ought to be bridled, lest we should seek to render evil for evil.

But committed himself, or, his cause. The word cause is not expressed, but it is obviously understood. And Peter adds this for the consolation of the godly, that is, that if they patiently endured the reproaches and violence of the wicked, they would have God as their defender. For it would be a very hard thing for us, to be subjected to the will of the ungodly, and not to have God caring for our wrongs. Peter, therefore, adorns God with this high attribute, that he judgeth righteously, as though he had said, “It behoves us calmly to bear evils; God in the meantime will not neglect what belongs to him, but will shew himself to be a righteous judge.” However wanton then the ungodly may be for a time, yet they shall not be unpunished for the wrongs done now to the children of God. Nor is there any cause for the godly to fear, as though they were without any protection; for since it belongs to God to defend them and to undertake their cause, they are to possess their souls in patience.

Moreover, as this doctrine brings no small consolation, so it avails to allay and subdue the inclinations of the flesh. For no one can recumb on the fidelity and protection of God, but he who in a meek spirit waits for his judgment; for he who leaps to take vengeance, intrudes into what belongs to God, and suffers not God to perform his own office. In reference to this Paul says, “Give place to wrath,” (Rom 12:19;) and thus he intimates that the way is closed up against God that he might not himself judge, when we anticipate him. He then confirms what he had said by the testimony of Moses, “Vengeance is mine.” (Deu 32:35.) Peter in short meant this, that we after the example of Christ shall be more prepared to endure injuries, if we give to God his own honor, that is, if we, believing him to be a righteous judge, refer our right and our cause to him.

It may however be asked, How did Christ commit his cause to the Father; for if he required vengeance from him, this he himself says is not lawful for us; for he bids us to do good to those who injure us, to pray for those who speak evil of us. (Mat 5:44.) To this my reply is, that it appears evident from the gospel-history, that Christ did thus refer his judgment to God, and yet did not demand vengeance to be taken on his enemies, but that, on the contrary, he prayed for them, “Father,” he said, “forgive them.” (Luk 23:34.) And doubtless the feelings of our flesh are far from being in unison with the judgment of God. That any one then may commit his cause to him who judgeth righteously, it is necessary that he should first lay a check on himself, so that he may not ask anything inconsistent with the righteous judgment of God. For they who indulge themselves in looking for vengeance, concede not to God his office of a judge, but in a manner wish him to be an executioner. He then who is so calm in his spirit as to wish his adversaries to become his friends, and endeavors to bring them to the right way, rightly commits to God his own cause, and his prayer is, “Thou, O Lord, knowest my heart, how I wish them to be saved who seek to destroy me: were they converted, I should congratulate them; but if they continue obstinate in their wickedness, for I know that thou watchest over my safety, I commit my cause to thee.” This meekness was manifested by Christ; it is then the rule to be observed by us.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:24 - Who his own self bare our sins // Being dead to sins Had he commended nothing in Christ’s death except as an example, it would have been very frigid: he therefore refers to a fruit much more excellent...

Had he commended nothing in Christ’s death except as an example, it would have been very frigid: he therefore refers to a fruit much more excellent. There are then three things to be noticed in this passage. The first is, that Christ by his death has given us an example of patience; the second, that by his death he restored us to life; it hence follows, that we are so bound to him, that we ought cheerfully to follow his example. In the third place, he refers to the general design of his death, that we, being dead to sins, ought to live to righteousness. And all these things confirm his previous exhortation.

24.Who his own self bare our sins This form of speaking is fitted to set forth the efficacy of Christ’s death. For as under the Law, the sinner, that he might be released from guilt, substituted a victim in his own place; so Christ took on himself the curse due to our sins, that he might atone for them before God. And he expressly adds, on the tree, because he could not offer such an expiation except on the cross. Peter, therefore, well expresses the truth, that Christ’s death was a sacrifice for the expiation of our sins; for being fixed to the cross and offering himself a victim for us, he took on himself our sin and our punishment. Isaiah, from whom Peter has taken the substance of his doctrine, employs various forms of expression, — that he was smitten by God’s hand for our sins, that he was wounded for our iniquities, that he was afflicted and broken for our sake, that the chastisement of our peace was laid on him. But Peter intended to set forth the same thing by the words of this verse, even that we are reconciled to God on this condition, because Christ made himself before his tribunal a surety and as one guilty for us, that he might suffer the punishment due to us.

This great benefit the Sophists in their schools obscure as much as they can; for they prattle that by the sacrifice of the death of Christ we are only freed after baptism from guilt, but that punishment is redeemed by satisfactions. But Peter, when he says that he bore our sins, means that not only guilt was imputed to him, but that he also suffered its punishment, that he might thus be an expiatory victim, according to that saying of the Prophet, “The chastisement of our peace was upon him.” If they object and say, that this only avails before baptism, the context here disproves them, for the words are addressed to the faithful.

But this clause and that which follows, by whose stripes ye were healed, may be also applied to the subject in hand, that is, that it behoves us to bear on our shoulders the sins of others, not indeed to expiate for them, but only to bear them as a burden laid on us.

Being dead to sins 34 He had before pointed out another end, even an example of patience; but here, as it has been stated, it is made more manifest, that we are to live a holy and righteous life. The Scripture sometimes mentions both, that is, that the Lord tries us with troubles and adversities, that we might be conformed to the death of Christ, and also that the old man has been crucified in the death of Christ, that we might walk in newness of life. (Phi 3:10; Rom 6:4.) At the same time, this end of which he speaks, differs from the former, not only as that which is general from what is particular; for in patience there is simply an example; but when he says that Christ suffered, that we being dead to sins should live to righteousness, he intimates that there is power in Christ’s death to mortify our flesh, as Paul explains more fully in Rom 6:6. For he has not only brought this great benefit to us, that God justifies us freely, by not imputing to us our sins; but he also makes us to die to the world and to the flesh, that we may rise again to a new life: not that one day makes complete this death; but wherever it is, the death of Christ is efficacious for the expiation of sins, and also for the mortification of the flesh.

Calvin: 1Pe 2:25 - For ye were as sheep 25.For ye were as sheep This also has Peter borrowed from Isaiah, except that the Prophet makes it a universal statement, “All we like sheep have ...

25.For ye were as sheep This also has Peter borrowed from Isaiah, except that the Prophet makes it a universal statement,

“All we like sheep have gone astray.” (Isa 53:6.)

But on the word sheep there is no particular stress; he indeed compares us to sheep, but the emphasis is on what the Prophet adds, when he says that every one had turned to his own way. The meaning then is, that we are all going astray from the way of salvation, and proceeding in the way of ruin, until Christ brings us back from this wandering.

And this appears still more evident from the clause which follows, but are now returned to the Shepherd, etc.; 35 for all who are not ruled by Christ, are wandering like lost sheep in the ways of error. Thus, then, is condemned the whole wisdom of the world, which does not submit to the government of Christ. But the two titles given here to Christ are remarkable, that he is the Shepherd and Bishop of souls There is then no cause to fear, but that he will faithfully watch over the safety of those who are in his fold and under his care. And it is his office to keep us safe both in body and soul; yet Peter mentions only souls, because this celestial Shepherd keeps us under his own spiritual protection unto eternal life.

Defender: 1Pe 2:2 - of the word "Of the word" here is one word, logikos in the Greek, translated "reasonable" in its only other occurrence (Rom 12:1). As babes need milk for food to ...

"Of the word" here is one word, logikos in the Greek, translated "reasonable" in its only other occurrence (Rom 12:1). As babes need milk for food to begin physical growth, so babes in Christ need "pure, reasonable (or logical) spiritual milk" if they are to grow spiritually, and this is only to be obtained from God's Word. They were "born again" through the Word (1Pe 1:23), and now must grow through the Word. As they grow, however, they must soon begin also to partake of the "strong meat" of the "word of righteousness" (Heb 5:12-14)."

Defender: 1Pe 2:4 - living stone As not just the foundation rock (1Co 3:11) but also as a living stone that could bring life and sustenance, Christ is the fulfillment of the type sugg...

As not just the foundation rock (1Co 3:11) but also as a living stone that could bring life and sustenance, Christ is the fulfillment of the type suggested by the rock smitten in the wilderness, which, thenceforth, brought life-sustaining water to God's people (Exo 17:6; Num 20:8; 1Co 10:4)."

Defender: 1Pe 2:5 - spiritual house Believers are placed, as living stones quickened by Christ, into the spiritual temple of God (Eph 2:19-22).

Believers are placed, as living stones quickened by Christ, into the spiritual temple of God (Eph 2:19-22).

Defender: 1Pe 2:5 - priesthood Christ is High Priest (Heb 4:14), but we also are called on to exercise what has come to be called "the priesthood of the believer," offering up spiri...

Christ is High Priest (Heb 4:14), but we also are called on to exercise what has come to be called "the priesthood of the believer," offering up spiritual sacrifices consisting of our own dedicated bodies (Rom 12:1), prayers of praise, thanksgiving and intercession (Heb 13:15), and material gifts for the full-time servants of God (Phi 4:18)."

Defender: 1Pe 2:6 - chief corner stone Note that Peter here recognizes that Christ, not himself, is the foundation stone of the church (as some have misinterpreted the teaching of Mat 16:18...

Note that Peter here recognizes that Christ, not himself, is the foundation stone of the church (as some have misinterpreted the teaching of Mat 16:18). He is quoting from Isa 28:16, showing that this Messianic prophecy was fulfilled in Christ. The Lord Jesus also called His words the true foundation (Mat 7:24-27), and Paul confirmed that there is no other foundation (1Co 3:11). Isaiah had also stressed that "in the LORD JEHOVAH is everlasting strength," or "the Rock of ages" (Isa 26:4).

Defender: 1Pe 2:6 - be confounded "Make haste" in Isa 28:16 is interpreted by Peter as "be confounded," meaning "be ashamed.""

"Make haste" in Isa 28:16 is interpreted by Peter as "be confounded," meaning "be ashamed.""

Defender: 1Pe 2:7 - head of the corner The reference here is to Psa 118:22, which, in turn, was referring to the tradition that, when Solomon's temple was being built, the odd-shaped stone ...

The reference here is to Psa 118:22, which, in turn, was referring to the tradition that, when Solomon's temple was being built, the odd-shaped stone which seemed not to fit anywhere turned out to be the chief cornerstone, designed for the very apex of the temple. The stones had all been precisely cut deep in the quarry, so that no noise of construction could be heard while the temple was growing (1Ki 5:17; 1Ki 6:7). In analogous fashion, each believer is being laid quietly as a living stone in the great spiritual temple. But the unique stone of the pinnacle corner is Christ Himself, who is also the temple's foundation. He is both underneath all, upholding us, and above all, crowning us as our glorious Head."

Defender: 1Pe 2:8 - rock of offence In the meantime, until He is made the head stone (Zec 4:7), Christ is just a stumbling stone on the ground, as it were, getting in the way of everyone...

In the meantime, until He is made the head stone (Zec 4:7), Christ is just a stumbling stone on the ground, as it were, getting in the way of everyone who would pass by. Peter here quotes Isa 8:14, to which Jesus also referred in the same vein (Mat 21:42-44). But note also Dan 2:34 and Jer 13:16."

Defender: 1Pe 2:9 - generation This is not the usual word for "generation," being so translated here only. The Greek word (genos) means "kindred," or simply "kind." Christians, in e...

This is not the usual word for "generation," being so translated here only. The Greek word (genos) means "kindred," or simply "kind." Christians, in effect, are a distinct "kind" of human being, almost like a separate genetic variety, and they have been specially "chosen" or "elected" by God for His own very specific purposes.

Defender: 1Pe 2:9 - priesthood In this high calling, Christians, like Christ Himself, are both "kings and priests" (Rev 1:6), a royal priesthood.

In this high calling, Christians, like Christ Himself, are both "kings and priests" (Rev 1:6), a royal priesthood.

Defender: 1Pe 2:9 - peculiar people "Peculiar" in this sense means special possession. The Greek word means "purchased" and is translated "purchased possession" in Eph 1:14. A closely re...

"Peculiar" in this sense means special possession. The Greek word means "purchased" and is translated "purchased possession" in Eph 1:14. A closely related word is used in Act 20:28 where Christ is said to have "purchased" the church with His own blood. We have been redeemed by His precious blood (1Pe 1:19) and, therefore, belong wholly to Christ."

Defender: 1Pe 2:12 - behold This unique word for "behold" is used only by Peter (1Pe 3:2). Its noun form is translated "eye-witnesses" in 2Pe 1:16. Its thrust is to inspect caref...

This unique word for "behold" is used only by Peter (1Pe 3:2). Its noun form is translated "eye-witnesses" in 2Pe 1:16. Its thrust is to inspect carefully. Unbelievers do critically observe the behavior of Christians, making it doubly important that we walk circumspectly.

Defender: 1Pe 2:12 - day of visitation Interestingly, "visitation" (used also with this meaning in Luk 19:44) is actually the same as "bishoprick" (Act 1:20). A bishop is an overseer, and t...

Interestingly, "visitation" (used also with this meaning in Luk 19:44) is actually the same as "bishoprick" (Act 1:20). A bishop is an overseer, and the idea here is of God coming as an overseer to diligently inspect the actions of both believers and unbelievers."

Defender: 1Pe 2:13 - ordinance of man The phrase "ordinance of man" means, literally, "human creation." Since only God really creates, we must regard human ordinances as divine ordinances ...

The phrase "ordinance of man" means, literally, "human creation." Since only God really creates, we must regard human ordinances as divine ordinances and submit to them as unto God, unless they contradict God's written Word (Rom 13:1)."

Defender: 1Pe 2:19 - thankworthy Both "thankworthy" in 1Pe 2:19 and "acceptable" in 1Pe 2:20 are translations of the same Greek word (charis), which is the usual word for "grace." Sol...

Both "thankworthy" in 1Pe 2:19 and "acceptable" in 1Pe 2:20 are translations of the same Greek word (charis), which is the usual word for "grace." Solely because of His grace, Christ suffered for our sins and took it patiently when He was buffeted for our faults, thus leaving us an example (1Pe 2:21) of the grace we also should show under such circumstances."

Defender: 1Pe 2:21 - follow his steps Following His steps, we should "walk, even as He walked" (1Jo 2:6), even to the cross if that should be His will. We should also love as He loved (Joh...

Following His steps, we should "walk, even as He walked" (1Jo 2:6), even to the cross if that should be His will. We should also love as He loved (Joh 13:35) and think as He thought (Phi 2:5)."

Defender: 1Pe 2:22 - did no sin In order to die for our sins, the Lord Jesus could do no sin of His own, and Peter, His close friend, assures us He did not. John, the beloved discipl...

In order to die for our sins, the Lord Jesus could do no sin of His own, and Peter, His close friend, assures us He did not. John, the beloved disciple, testified that "in him is no sin" (1Jo 3:5), and Paul, the prince of theologians, says that He "knew no sin" (2Co 5:21). Judas, who betrayed Him, admitted that "I have betrayed innocent blood" (Mat 27:4). Pilate, who judged and condemned Him, said, "I find in him no fault at all" (Joh 18:38), and the centurion who crucified Him said, "Certainly this was a righteous man" (Luk 23:47)."

Defender: 1Pe 2:24 - bare "Bare" is the same word as "offer up" in 1Pe 2:5.

"Bare" is the same word as "offer up" in 1Pe 2:5.

Defender: 1Pe 2:24 - live unto righteousness Peter thus draws the same inference as Paul did on the relation between the death of Christ for our sins and our death to sin (Gal 2:19, Gal 2:20; Rom...

Peter thus draws the same inference as Paul did on the relation between the death of Christ for our sins and our death to sin (Gal 2:19, Gal 2:20; Rom 6:11-13).

Defender: 1Pe 2:24 - healed See Isa 53:5 and the note on Mat 8:17."

See Isa 53:5 and the note on Mat 8:17."

Defender: 1Pe 2:25 - returned "Returned" is the same as "converted."

"Returned" is the same as "converted."

Defender: 1Pe 2:25 - Shepherd and Bishop "Shepherd and Bishop," can mean "Guide and Guardian.""

"Shepherd and Bishop," can mean "Guide and Guardian.""

TSK: 1Pe 2:1 - Wherefore // laying // malice // guile // hypocrisies // envies // all evil Wherefore : 1Pe 1:18-25 laying : 1Pe 4:2; Isa 2:20, Isa 30:22; Eze 18:31, Eze 18:32; Rom 13:12; Eph 4:22-25; Col 3:5-8; Heb 12:1; Jam 1:21, Jam 5:9 ma...

TSK: 1Pe 2:2 - newborn // the sincere // grow newborn : 1Pe 1:23; Mat 18:3; Mar 10:15; Rom 6:4; 1Co 3:1, 1Co 14:20 the sincere : Psa 19:7-10; 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:12, Heb 5:13 grow : 2Sa 23:5; Job 17:9;...

TSK: 1Pe 2:3 - -- Psa 9:10, Psa 24:8, Psa 63:5; Son 2:3; Zec 9:17; Heb 6:5, Heb 6:6

TSK: 1Pe 2:4 - To // a living // stone // disallowed // chosen // precious To : Isa 55:3; Jer 3:22; Mat 11:28; Joh 5:40, Joh 6:37 a living : Joh 5:26, Joh 6:57, Joh 11:25, Joh 11:26, Joh 14:6, Joh 14:19; Rom 5:10; Col 3:4 sto...

TSK: 1Pe 2:5 - also // are built // an holy // spiritual // acceptable also : 1Co 3:16, 1Co 6:19; 2Co 6:16; Eph 2:20-22; Heb 3:6; Rev 3:12 are built : or, be ye built an holy : 1Pe 2:9; Isa 61:6, Isa 66:21; Rev 1:6, Rev 5...

TSK: 1Pe 2:6 - it // Behold // elect // shall it : Dan 10:21; Mar 12:10; Joh 7:38; Act 1:16; 2Ti 3:16; 2Pe 1:20, 2Pe 3:16 Behold : 1Pe 2:4; Isa 28:16; Zec 10:4; Rom 9:32, Rom 9:33; Eph 2:20 elect ...

TSK: 1Pe 2:7 - you // precious // which be // the stone // the head you : 1Pe 1:8; Son 5:9-16; Hag 2:7; Mat 13:44-46; Joh 4:42, Joh 6:68, Joh 6:69; Phi 3:7-10 precious : or, an honour, Isa 28:5; Luk 2:32 which be : 1Pe...

TSK: 1Pe 2:8 - a stone // being // whereunto a stone : Isa 8:14, Isa 57:14; Luk 2:34; Rom 9:32, Rom 9:33; 1Co 1:23; 2Co 2:16 being : 1Pe 2:7 whereunto : Exo 9:16; Rom 9:22; 1Th 5:9; 2Pe 2:3; Jud ...

TSK: 1Pe 2:9 - a chosen // a royal // an holy // peculiar // show // praises // who a chosen : 1Pe 1:2; Deu 10:15; Psa 22:30, Psa 33:12, Psa 73:15; Isa 41:8, Isa 44:1 a royal : Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; Isa 61:6, Isa 66:21; Rev 1:6, Rev 5:1...

TSK: 1Pe 2:10 - were // obtained were : Hos 1:9, Hos 1:10; Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26 obtained : Hos 2:23; Rom 11:6, Rom 11:7, Rom 11:30; 1Co 7:25; 1Ti 1:13; Heb 4:16

TSK: 1Pe 2:11 - I beseech // as // abstain // war I beseech : Rom 12:1; 2Co 5:20, 2Co 6:1; Eph 4:1; Phm 1:9, Phm 1:10 as : 1Pe 1:1, 1Pe 1:17; Gen 23:4, Gen 47:9; Lev 25:23; 1Ch 29:15; Psa 39:12, Psa 1...

TSK: 1Pe 2:12 - your conversation // honest // among // that // whereas // they may // glorify // the day your conversation : 1Pe 3:2; Psa 37:14, Psa 50:23; 2Co 1:12; Eph 2:3, Eph 4:22; Phi 1:27; 1Ti 4:12; Heb 13:5; Jam 3:13; 2Pe 3:11 honest : Rom 12:17, R...

TSK: 1Pe 2:13 - -- Pro 17:11, Pro 24:21; Jer 29:7; Mat 22:21; Mar 12:17; Luk 20:25; Rom 13:1-7; Eph 5:21; 1Ti 2:1, 1Ti 2:2; Tit 3:1; 2Pe 2:10; Jud 1:8-10

TSK: 1Pe 2:14 - for the punishment for the punishment : Rom 13:3, Rom 13:4

for the punishment : Rom 13:3, Rom 13:4

TSK: 1Pe 2:15 - so // with // the ignorance // foolish so : 1Pe 4:2; Eph 6:6, Eph 6:7; 1Th 4:3, 1Th 5:18 with : 1Pe 2:12; Job 5:16; Psa 107:42; Tit 2:8 the ignorance : 1Ti 1:13; 2Pe 2:12; Jud 1:10 foolish ...

TSK: 1Pe 2:16 - free // and // using // a cloak // but free : Joh 8:32-36; Rom 6:18, Rom 6:22; 1Co 7:22; Gal 5:1, Gal 5:13; Jam 1:25, Jam 2:12; 2Pe 2:19 and : Jud 1:4 using : Gr. having a cloak : Mat 23:14...

TSK: 1Pe 2:17 - Honour // Love // Fear // Honour Honour : or, Esteem, 1Pe 5:5; Exo 20:12; Lev 19:32; 1Sa 15:30; Rom 12:10, Rom 13:7; Phi 2:3; 1Ti 6:1 Love : 1Pe 1:22; Joh 13:35; Heb 13:1; Zec 11:14 F...

TSK: 1Pe 2:18 - be // the good // but be : Eph 6:5-7; Col 3:22-25; 1Ti 6:1-3; Tit 2:9, Tit 2:10 the good : 2Co 10:1; Gal 5:22; Tit 3:2; Jam 3:17 but : Psa 101:4; Pro 3:32, Pro 8:13, Pro 10...

TSK: 1Pe 2:19 - this // thankworthy // for conscience // suffering this : 1Pe 2:20; Luk 6:32 thankworthy : or, thank, Act 11:23; 1Co 15:10; 2Co 1:12, 2Co 8:1 *Gr. for conscience : 1Pe 3:14-17; Mat 5:10-12; Joh 15:21; ...

this : 1Pe 2:20; Luk 6:32

thankworthy : or, thank, Act 11:23; 1Co 15:10; 2Co 1:12, 2Co 8:1 *Gr.

for conscience : 1Pe 3:14-17; Mat 5:10-12; Joh 15:21; Rom 13:5; 2Ti 1:12

suffering : Job 21:27; Psa 35:19, Psa 38:19, Psa 69:4, Psa 119:86

TSK: 1Pe 2:20 - For // buffeted // when // this // acceptable For : 1Pe 3:14, 1Pe 4:14-16; Mat 5:47 buffeted : Mat 26:67; Mar 14:65; 1Co 4:11 when : 1Pe 2:19 this : Mat 5:10-12; Rom 12:1, Rom 12:2; Eph 5:10; Phi ...

TSK: 1Pe 2:21 - even // because // for us // leaving even : Mat 10:38, Mat 16:24; Mar 8:34, Mar 8:35; Luk 9:23-25, Luk 14:26, Luk 14:27; Joh 16:33; Act 9:16, Act 14:22; 1Th 3:3, 1Th 4:2; 2Ti 3:12 because...

TSK: 1Pe 2:22 - did // guile did : Isa 53:9; Mat 27:4, Mat 27:19, Mat 27:23, Mat 27:24; Luk 23:41, Luk 23:47; Joh 8:46; 2Co 5:21; Heb 4:15, Heb 7:26, Heb 7:27, Heb 9:28; 1Jo 2:1, ...

TSK: 1Pe 2:23 - when he was // threatened // but // himself // judgeth when he was : Psa 38:12-14; Isa 53:7; Mat 27:39-44; Mar 14:60,Mar 14:61, Mar 15:29-32; Luk 22:64, Luk 22:65, Luk 23:9, Luk 23:34-39; Joh 8:48, Joh 8:4...

TSK: 1Pe 2:24 - his own self // on // the tree // being // live // by // healed his own self : Exo 28:38; Lev 16:22, Lev 22:9; Num 18:22; Psa 38:4; Isa 53:4-6, Isa 53:11; Mat 8:17; Joh 1:29; Heb 9:28 on : or, to the tree : Deu 21:...

TSK: 1Pe 2:25 - ye // the Shepherd // Bishop ye : Psa 119:176; Isa 53:6; Jer 23:2; Eze 34:6; Mat 9:36, Mat 18:12; Luk 15:4-6 the Shepherd : 1Pe 5:4; Psa 23:1-3, Psa 80:1; Son 1:7, Son 1:8; Isa 40...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Pe 2:1 - Laying aside // All malice // All guile // Hypocrisies // Envies // All evil speakings 1Pe 2:1-3 The apostle exhorteth the Christian converts to lay aside all uncharitableness. 1Pe 2:4-10 He showeth their privileges through Christ, ...

1Pe 2:1-3 The apostle exhorteth the Christian converts to lay

aside all uncharitableness.

1Pe 2:4-10 He showeth their privileges through Christ, the chief

corner stone.

1Pe 2:11,12 He beseecheth them to abstain from fleshly lusts, and

by their good conversation to promote God’ s glory

among the Gentiles.

1Pe 2:13-17 He enforceth obedience to magistrates,

1Pe 2:18-25 and teacheth servants to obey their masters, and to suffer

patiently for well-doing, after the example of Christ.

Having in the former chapter mentioned the new birth, 1Pe 1:23 , and exhorted to brotherly love, as agreeable to it, 1Pe 1:22 , he begins this chapter with a dehortation, wherein he dissuades them from those vices which are contrary to the state of regenerate men in the general, and brotherly love in particular.

Laying aside or, put off; a metaphor from an old over worn garment, fit only to be thrown away: see Eph 4:22 Col 3:8,9 Jas 1:21 .

All malice malignity, when men do evil to others voluntarily and industriously, or delight in other men’ s harms: see Rom 1:29 Eph 4:31 .

All guile: all fraudulence and impostures, and circumventing of others in any kind.

Hypocrisies all flattering, and counterfeiting friendship, and showing love in words and outward carriage, when the heart is otherwise affected. Christ calls them hypocrites that flattered him, Mat 22:16,18 .

Envies grieving at other men’ s welfare.

All evil speakings all kind of detraction.

Poole: 1Pe 2:2 - Desire // The sincere milk of the word // That ye may grow thereby Pursuant to his discourse, 1Pe 1:23 , where he speaks of their new birth, he here calls them new-born babes; but that not in opposition to those ...

Pursuant to his discourse, 1Pe 1:23 , where he speaks of their new birth, he here calls them new-born babes; but that not in opposition to those that are adult, or of fall age, as Heb 5:14 1Co 3:1 , but in opposition to their former corrupt and unregenerate state, in which they were destitute of all spiritual life; and so this agrees, not only to young converts, but generally to all regenerate persons.

Desire being new-born babes, act as such in earnestly desiring and longing for that spiritual nourishment, which is so needlul for you, even as children, as soon as they come into the world, are lingering after the breast.

The sincere milk of the word: the Greek may be rendered (and is by some) reasonable milk, viz. such as is for the soul, not for the body; that whereby the mind is nourished and strengthened; or, wordy milk, the substantive from which it is derived properly and first signifying word, or speech, and being used for the word of God, Heb 4:12 . But this not being proper English, our translation renders it best, the milk of the word, i.e. the word which is milk. The apostle useth an adjective for a substantive, but that adjective doth not signify the quality of the subject, milk, as the other, sincere, doth, but the subject of itself. The like phrase we have, 1Pe 3:7 ; Greek, female, or wifeish, weaker vessel, which we turn by the substantive, wife, who is said there to be