kecilkan semua  

Teks -- Ephesians 5:1-33 (NET)

Tampilkan Strong
Konteks
Live in Love
5:1 Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children 5:2 and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. 5:3 But among you there must not be either sexual immorality, impurity of any kind, or greed, as these are not fitting for the saints. 5:4 Neither should there be vulgar speech, foolish talk, or coarse jesting– all of which are out of character– but rather thanksgiving. 5:5 For you can be confident of this one thing: that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (such a person is an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.
Live in the Light
5:6 Let nobody deceive you with empty words, for because of these things God’s wrath comes on the sons of disobedience. 5:7 Therefore do not be partakers with them, 5:8 for you were at one time darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of the light5:9 for the fruit of the light consists in all goodness, righteousness, and truth5:10 trying to learn what is pleasing to the Lord. 5:11 Do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but rather expose them. 5:12 For the things they do in secret are shameful even to mention. 5:13 But all things being exposed by the light are made evident. 5:14 For everything made evident is light, and for this reason it says: “Awake, O sleeper! Rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you!”
Live Wisely
5:15 Therefore be very careful how you live– not as unwise but as wise, 5:16 taking advantage of every opportunity, because the days are evil. 5:17 For this reason do not be foolish, but be wise by understanding what the Lord’s will is. 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, which is debauchery, but be filled by the Spirit, 5:19 speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making music in your hearts to the Lord, 5:20 always giving thanks to God the Father for each other in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5:21 and submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ.
Exhortations to Households
5:22 Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord, 5:23 because the husband is the head of the wife as also Christ is the head of the church– he himself being the savior of the body. 5:24 But as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything. 5:25 Husbands, love your wives just as Christ loved the church and gave himself for her 5:26 to sanctify her by cleansing her with the washing of the water by the word, 5:27 so that he may present the church to himself as glorious– not having a stain or wrinkle, or any such blemish, but holy and blameless. 5:28 In the same way husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 5:29 For no one has ever hated his own body but he feeds it and takes care of it, just as Christ also does the church, 5:30 for we are members of his body. 5:31 For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and will be joined to his wife, and the two will become one flesh. 5:32 This mystery is great– but I am actually speaking with reference to Christ and the church. 5:33 Nevertheless, each one of you must also love his own wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband.
Paralel   Ref. Silang (TSK)   ITL  
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Eph 5:1 - Imitators of God Imitators of God ( mimētai tou theou ). This old word from mimeomai Paul boldly uses. If we are to be like God, we must imitate him.

Imitators of God ( mimētai tou theou ).

This old word from mimeomai Paul boldly uses. If we are to be like God, we must imitate him.

Robertson: Eph 5:2 - An offering and a sacrifice to God An offering and a sacrifice to God ( prosphoran kai thusian tōi theōi ). Accusative in apposition with heauton (himself). Christ’ s death ...

An offering and a sacrifice to God ( prosphoran kai thusian tōi theōi ).

Accusative in apposition with heauton (himself). Christ’ s death was an offering to God "in our behalf"(huper hēmōn ) not an offering to the devil (Anselm), a ransom (lutron ) as Christ himself said (Mat 20:28), Christ’ s own view of his atoning death.

Robertson: Eph 5:2 - For an odour of a sweet smell For an odour of a sweet smell ( eis osmēn euōdias ). Same words in Phi 4:18 from Lev 4:31 (of the expiatory offering). Paul often presents Christ...

For an odour of a sweet smell ( eis osmēn euōdias ).

Same words in Phi 4:18 from Lev 4:31 (of the expiatory offering). Paul often presents Christ’ s death as a propitiation (Rom 3:25) as in 1Jo 2:2.

Robertson: Eph 5:3 - Or covetousness Or covetousness ( ē pleonexia ). In bad company surely. Debasing like sensuality.

Or covetousness ( ē pleonexia ).

In bad company surely. Debasing like sensuality.

Robertson: Eph 5:3 - As becometh saints As becometh saints ( kathōs prepei hagiois ). It is "unbecoming"for a saint to be sensual or covetous.

As becometh saints ( kathōs prepei hagiois ).

It is "unbecoming"for a saint to be sensual or covetous.

Robertson: Eph 5:4 - Filthiness Filthiness ( aischrotēs ). Old word from aischros (base), here alone in N.T.

Filthiness ( aischrotēs ).

Old word from aischros (base), here alone in N.T.

Robertson: Eph 5:4 - Foolish talking Foolish talking ( mōrologia ). Late word from mōrologos (mōros , logos ), only here in N.T.

Foolish talking ( mōrologia ).

Late word from mōrologos (mōros , logos ), only here in N.T.

Robertson: Eph 5:4 - Jesting Jesting ( eutrapelia ). Old word from eutrapelos (eu , trepō , to turn) nimbleness of wit, quickness in making repartee (so in Plato and Plutarc...

Jesting ( eutrapelia ).

Old word from eutrapelos (eu , trepō , to turn) nimbleness of wit, quickness in making repartee (so in Plato and Plutarch), but in low sense as here ribaldry, scurrility, only here in N.T. All of these disapproved vices are hapax legomena in the N.T.

Robertson: Eph 5:4 - Which are not befitting Which are not befitting ( ha ouk anēken ). Same idiom (imperfect with word of propriety about the present) in Col 3:18. Late MSS. read ta ouk anē...

Which are not befitting ( ha ouk anēken ).

Same idiom (imperfect with word of propriety about the present) in Col 3:18. Late MSS. read ta ouk anēkonta like ta mē kathēkonta in Rom 1:28.

Robertson: Eph 5:5 - Ye know of a surety Ye know of a surety ( iste ginōskontes ). The correct text has iste , not este . It is the same form for present indicative (second person plural) ...

Ye know of a surety ( iste ginōskontes ).

The correct text has iste , not este . It is the same form for present indicative (second person plural) and imperative, probably indicative here, "ye know."But why ginōskontes added? Probably, "ye know recognizing by your own experience."

Robertson: Eph 5:5 - No No ( pāṡ̇ou ). Common idiom in the N.T. like the Hebrew= oudeis (Robertson, Grammar , p. 732).

No ( pāṡ̇ou ).

Common idiom in the N.T. like the Hebrew= oudeis (Robertson, Grammar , p. 732).

Robertson: Eph 5:5 - Covetous man Covetous man ( pleonektēs ,pleon echō ). Old word, in N.T. only here and 1Co 5:10.; 1Co 6:10.

Covetous man ( pleonektēs ,pleon echō ).

Old word, in N.T. only here and 1Co 5:10.; 1Co 6:10.

Robertson: Eph 5:5 - Which is Which is ( ho estin ). So Aleph B. A D K L have hos (who), but ho is right. See note on Col 3:14 for this use of ho (which thing is). On eidō...

Which is ( ho estin ).

So Aleph B. A D K L have hos (who), but ho is right. See note on Col 3:14 for this use of ho (which thing is). On eidōlolatrēs (idolater) see note on 1Co 5:10.

Robertson: Eph 5:5 - In the Kingdom of Christ and God In the Kingdom of Christ and God ( en tēi basileiāi tou Christou kai theou ). Certainly the same kingdom and Paul may here mean to affirm the dei...

In the Kingdom of Christ and God ( en tēi basileiāi tou Christou kai theou ).

Certainly the same kingdom and Paul may here mean to affirm the deity of Christ by the use of the one article with Christou kai theou . But Sharp’ s rule cannot be insisted on here because theos is often definite without the article like a proper name. Paul did teach the deity of Christ and may do it here.

Robertson: Eph 5:6 - With empty words With empty words ( kenois logois ). Instrumental case. Probably Paul has in mind the same Gnostic praters as in Col 2:4. See note on Eph 2:2.

With empty words ( kenois logois ).

Instrumental case. Probably Paul has in mind the same Gnostic praters as in Col 2:4. See note on Eph 2:2.

Robertson: Eph 5:7 - Partakers with them Partakers with them ( sunmetochoi autōn ). Late double compound, only here in N.T., joint (sun ) shares with (metochoi ) them (autōn ). These ...

Partakers with them ( sunmetochoi autōn ).

Late double compound, only here in N.T., joint (sun ) shares with (metochoi ) them (autōn ). These Gnostics.

Robertson: Eph 5:8 - But now light But now light ( nun de phōs ). Jesus called his disciples the light of the world (Mat 5:14).

But now light ( nun de phōs ).

Jesus called his disciples the light of the world (Mat 5:14).

Robertson: Eph 5:9 - The fruit of light The fruit of light ( ho karpos tou phōtos ). Two metaphors (fruit, light) combined. See note on Gal 5:22 for "the fruit of the Spirit."The late MSS...

The fruit of light ( ho karpos tou phōtos ).

Two metaphors (fruit, light) combined. See note on Gal 5:22 for "the fruit of the Spirit."The late MSS. have "spirit"here in place of "light."

Robertson: Eph 5:9 - Goodness Goodness ( agathosunēi ). Late and rare word from agathos . See note on 2Th 1:11; Gal 5:22.

Goodness ( agathosunēi ).

Late and rare word from agathos . See note on 2Th 1:11; Gal 5:22.

Robertson: Eph 5:10 - Proving Proving ( dokimazontes ). Testing and so proving.

Proving ( dokimazontes ).

Testing and so proving.

Robertson: Eph 5:11 - Have no fellowship with Have no fellowship with ( mē sunKoinéōneite ). No partnership with, present imperative with mē . Followed by associative instrumental case erg...

Have no fellowship with ( mē sunKoinéōneite ).

No partnership with, present imperative with mē . Followed by associative instrumental case ergois (works).

Robertson: Eph 5:11 - Unfruitful Unfruitful ( akarpois ). Same metaphor of Eph 5:9 applied to darkness (skotos ).

Unfruitful ( akarpois ).

Same metaphor of Eph 5:9 applied to darkness (skotos ).

Robertson: Eph 5:11 - Reprove Reprove ( elegchete ). Convict by turning the light on the darkness.

Reprove ( elegchete ).

Convict by turning the light on the darkness.

Robertson: Eph 5:12 - In secret In secret ( kruphēi ). Old adverb, only here in N.T. Sin loves the dark.

In secret ( kruphēi ).

Old adverb, only here in N.T. Sin loves the dark.

Robertson: Eph 5:12 - Even to speak of Even to speak of ( kai legein ). And yet one must sometimes speak out, turn on the light, even if to do so is disgraceful (aischron , like 1Co 11:6).

Even to speak of ( kai legein ).

And yet one must sometimes speak out, turn on the light, even if to do so is disgraceful (aischron , like 1Co 11:6).

Robertson: Eph 5:13 - Are made manifest by the light Are made manifest by the light ( hupo tou phōtos phaneroutai ). Turn on the light. Often the preacher is the only man brave enough to turn the ligh...

Are made manifest by the light ( hupo tou phōtos phaneroutai ).

Turn on the light. Often the preacher is the only man brave enough to turn the light on the private sins of men and women or even those of a community.

Robertson: Eph 5:14 - Wherefore he saith Wherefore he saith ( dio legei ). Apparently a free adaptation of Isa 26:19; Isa 60:1. The form anasta for anastēthi (second person singular im...

Wherefore he saith ( dio legei ).

Apparently a free adaptation of Isa 26:19; Isa 60:1. The form anasta for anastēthi (second person singular imperative second aorist active of anistēmi ) occurs in Act 12:7.

Robertson: Eph 5:14 - Shall shine Shall shine ( epiphausei ). Future active of epiphauskō , a form occurring in Job (Job 25:5; Job 31:26), a variation of epiphōskō . The last li...

Shall shine ( epiphausei ).

Future active of epiphauskō , a form occurring in Job (Job 25:5; Job 31:26), a variation of epiphōskō . The last line suggests the possibility that we have here the fragment of an early Christian hymn like 1Ti 3:16.

Robertson: Eph 5:15 - Carefully Carefully ( akribōs ). Aleph B 17 put akribōs before pōs (how) instead of pōs akribōs (how exactly ye walk) as the Textus Receptus ha...

Carefully ( akribōs ).

Aleph B 17 put akribōs before pōs (how) instead of pōs akribōs (how exactly ye walk) as the Textus Receptus has it. On akribōs (from akribēs ) see note on Mat 2:8 and note on Luk 1:3.

Robertson: Eph 5:15 - Unwise Unwise ( asophoi ). Old adjective, only here in N.T.

Unwise ( asophoi ).

Old adjective, only here in N.T.

Robertson: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming the time Redeeming the time ( exagorazomenoi ton kairon ). As in Col 4:5 which see.

Redeeming the time ( exagorazomenoi ton kairon ).

As in Col 4:5 which see.

Robertson: Eph 5:17 - Be ye not foolish Be ye not foolish ( mē ginesthe aphrones ). "Stop becoming foolish."

Be ye not foolish ( mē ginesthe aphrones ).

"Stop becoming foolish."

Robertson: Eph 5:18 - Be not drunken with wine Be not drunken with wine ( mē methuskesthe oinōi ). Present passive imperative of methuskō , old verb to intoxicate. Forbidden as a habit and t...

Be not drunken with wine ( mē methuskesthe oinōi ).

Present passive imperative of methuskō , old verb to intoxicate. Forbidden as a habit and to stop it also if guilty. Instrumental case oinōi .

Robertson: Eph 5:18 - Riot Riot ( asōtia ). Old word from asōtos (adverb asōtōs in Luk 15:13), in N.T. only here, Tit 1:6; 1Pe 4:4.

Riot ( asōtia ).

Old word from asōtos (adverb asōtōs in Luk 15:13), in N.T. only here, Tit 1:6; 1Pe 4:4.

Robertson: Eph 5:18 - But be filled with the Spirit But be filled with the Spirit ( alla plērousthe en pneumati ). In contrast to a state of intoxication with wine.

But be filled with the Spirit ( alla plērousthe en pneumati ).

In contrast to a state of intoxication with wine.

Robertson: Eph 5:19 - To the Lord To the Lord ( tōi Kuriōi ). The Lord Jesus. In Col 3:16 we have tōi theōi (to God) with all these varieties of praise, another proof of the...

To the Lord ( tōi Kuriōi ).

The Lord Jesus. In Col 3:16 we have tōi theōi (to God) with all these varieties of praise, another proof of the deity of Christ. See note on Col 3:16 for discussion.

Robertson: Eph 5:20 - In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ( en onomati tou Kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou ). Jesus had told the disciples to use his name in prayer (Jo...

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ( en onomati tou Kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou ).

Jesus had told the disciples to use his name in prayer (Joh 16:23.).

Robertson: Eph 5:20 - To God, even the Father To God, even the Father ( tōi theōi kai patri ). Rather, "the God and Father."

To God, even the Father ( tōi theōi kai patri ).

Rather, "the God and Father."

Robertson: Eph 5:21 - Subjecting yourselves to one another Subjecting yourselves to one another ( hupotassomenoi allēlois ). Present middle participle of hupotassō , old military figure to line up under (...

Subjecting yourselves to one another ( hupotassomenoi allēlois ).

Present middle participle of hupotassō , old military figure to line up under (Col 3:18). The construction here is rather loose, coordinate with the preceding participles of praise and prayer. It is possible to start a new paragraph here and regard hupotassomenoi as an independent participle like an imperative.

Robertson: Eph 5:22 - Be in subjection. Be in subjection. Not in the Greek text of B and Jerome knew of no MS. with it. K L and most MSS. have hupotassesthe like Col 3:18, while Aleph A P...

Be in subjection.

Not in the Greek text of B and Jerome knew of no MS. with it. K L and most MSS. have hupotassesthe like Col 3:18, while Aleph A P have hupotassesthōsan (let them be subject to). But the case of andrasin (dative) shows that the verb is understood from Eph 5:21 if not written originally. Idiois (own) is genuine here, though not in Col 3:18.

Robertson: Eph 5:22 - As unto the Lord As unto the Lord ( hōs tōi Kuriōi ). So here instead of hōs anēken en Kuriōi of Col 3:18.

As unto the Lord ( hōs tōi Kuriōi ).

So here instead of hōs anēken en Kuriōi of Col 3:18.

Robertson: Eph 5:23 - For the husband is the head of the wife For the husband is the head of the wife ( hoti anēr estin kephalē tēs gunaikos ). "For a husband is head of the (his) wife."No article with ane...

For the husband is the head of the wife ( hoti anēr estin kephalē tēs gunaikos ).

"For a husband is head of the (his) wife."No article with anēr or kephalē .

Robertson: Eph 5:23 - As Christ also is the head of the church As Christ also is the head of the church ( hōs kai ho Christos kephalē tēs ekklēsias ). No article with kephalē , "as also Christ is head o...

As Christ also is the head of the church ( hōs kai ho Christos kephalē tēs ekklēsias ).

No article with kephalē , "as also Christ is head of the church."This is the comparison, but with a tremendous difference which Paul hastens to add either in an appositional clause or as a separate sentence.

Robertson: Eph 5:23 - Himself the saviour of the body Himself the saviour of the body ( autos sōtēr tou sōmatos ). He means the church as the body of which Christ is head and Saviour.

Himself the saviour of the body ( autos sōtēr tou sōmatos ).

He means the church as the body of which Christ is head and Saviour.

Robertson: Eph 5:24 - But But ( alla ). Perhaps, "nevertheless,"in spite of the difference just noted. Once again the verb hupotassō has to be supplied in the principal cl...

But ( alla ).

Perhaps, "nevertheless,"in spite of the difference just noted. Once again the verb hupotassō has to be supplied in the principal clause before tois andrasin either as indicative (hupotassontai ) or as imperative (hupotassesthōsan ).

Robertson: Eph 5:25 - Even as Christ also loved the church Even as Christ also loved the church ( kathōs kai ho Christos ēgapēsen tēn ekklēsian ). This is the wonderful new point not in Col 3:19 tha...

Even as Christ also loved the church ( kathōs kai ho Christos ēgapēsen tēn ekklēsian ).

This is the wonderful new point not in Col 3:19 that lifts this discussion of the husband’ s love for his wife to the highest plane.

Robertson: Eph 5:26 - That he might sanctify it That he might sanctify it ( hina autēn hagiasēi ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of hagiazō . Jesus stated...

That he might sanctify it ( hina autēn hagiasēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of hagiazō . Jesus stated this as his longing and his prayer (Joh 17:17-19). This was the purpose of Christ’ s death (Eph 5:25).

Robertson: Eph 5:26 - Having cleansed it Having cleansed it ( katharisas ). First aorist active participle of katharizō , to cleanse, either simultaneous action or antecedent.

Having cleansed it ( katharisas ).

First aorist active participle of katharizō , to cleanse, either simultaneous action or antecedent.

Robertson: Eph 5:26 - By the washing of water By the washing of water ( tōi loutrōi tou hudatos ). If loutron only means bath or bathing-place ( = loutron ), then loutrōi is in the loc...

By the washing of water ( tōi loutrōi tou hudatos ).

If loutron only means bath or bathing-place ( = loutron ), then loutrōi is in the locative. If it can mean bathing or washing, it is in the instrumental case. The usual meaning from Homer to the papyri is the bath or bathing-place, though some examples seem to mean bathing or washing. Salmond doubts if there are any clear instances. The only other N.T. example of loutron is in Tit 3:5. The reference here seems to be to the baptismal bath (immersion) of water, "in the bath of water."See note on 1Co 6:11 for the bringing together of apelousasthe and hēgiasthēte . Neither there nor here does Paul mean that the cleansing or sanctification took place in the bath save in a symbolic fashion as in Rom 6:4-6. Some think that Paul has also a reference to the bath of the bride before marriage. Still more difficult is the phrase "with the word"(en rēmati ). In Joh 17:17 Jesus connected "truth"with "sanctify."That is possible here, though it may also be connected with katharisas (having cleansed). Some take it to mean the baptismal formula.

Robertson: Eph 5:27 - That he might present That he might present ( hina parastēsēi ). Final clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of paristēmi (see note on Col 1:22 fo...

That he might present ( hina parastēsēi ).

Final clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of paristēmi (see note on Col 1:22 for parallel) as in 2Co 11:2 of presenting the bride to the bridegroom. Note both autos (himself) and heautōi (to himself).

Robertson: Eph 5:27 - Glorious Glorious ( endoxon ). Used of splendid clothing in Luk 7:25.

Glorious ( endoxon ).

Used of splendid clothing in Luk 7:25.

Robertson: Eph 5:27 - Spot Spot ( spilos ). Late word, in N.T. only here and 2Pe 2:13, but spiloō , to defile in Jam 3:6; Jud 1:23.

Spot ( spilos ).

Late word, in N.T. only here and 2Pe 2:13, but spiloō , to defile in Jam 3:6; Jud 1:23.

Robertson: Eph 5:27 - Wrinkle Wrinkle ( rutida ). Old word from ruō , to contract, only here in N.T.

Wrinkle ( rutida ).

Old word from ruō , to contract, only here in N.T.

Robertson: Eph 5:27 - But that it should be holy and without blemish But that it should be holy and without blemish ( all' hina ēi hagia kai amōmos ). Christ’ s goal for the church, his bride and his body, bot...

But that it should be holy and without blemish ( all' hina ēi hagia kai amōmos ).

Christ’ s goal for the church, his bride and his body, both negative purity and positive.

Robertson: Eph 5:28 - Even so ought Even so ought ( houtōs opheilousin ). As Christ loves the church (his body). And yet some people actually say that Paul in 1 Corinthians 7 gives a ...

Even so ought ( houtōs opheilousin ).

As Christ loves the church (his body). And yet some people actually say that Paul in 1 Corinthians 7 gives a degrading view of marriage. How can one say that after reading Eph 5:22-33 where the noblest picture of marriage ever drawn is given?

Robertson: Eph 5:29 - Nourisheth Nourisheth ( ektrephei ). Old compound with perfective sense of ek (to nourish up to maturity and on). In N.T. only here and Eph 6:4.

Nourisheth ( ektrephei ).

Old compound with perfective sense of ek (to nourish up to maturity and on). In N.T. only here and Eph 6:4.

Robertson: Eph 5:29 - Cherisheth Cherisheth ( thalpei ). Late and rare word, once in a marriage contract in a papyrus. In N.T. only here and 1Th 2:7. Primarily it means to warm (Lati...

Cherisheth ( thalpei ).

Late and rare word, once in a marriage contract in a papyrus. In N.T. only here and 1Th 2:7. Primarily it means to warm (Latin foveo ), then to foster with tender care as here.

Robertson: Eph 5:29 - Even as Christ also Even as Christ also ( kathōs kai ho Christos ). Relative (correlative) adverb pointing back to houtōs at the beginning of the sentence (Eph 5:2...

Even as Christ also ( kathōs kai ho Christos ).

Relative (correlative) adverb pointing back to houtōs at the beginning of the sentence (Eph 5:28) and repeating the statement in Eph 5:25.

Robertson: Eph 5:30 - Of his flesh and of his bones Of his flesh and of his bones ( ek tēs sarkos autou kai ek tōn osteōn autou ). These words are in the Textus Receptus (Authorized Version) supp...

Of his flesh and of his bones ( ek tēs sarkos autou kai ek tōn osteōn autou ).

These words are in the Textus Receptus (Authorized Version) supported by D G L P cursives Syriac, etc., though wanting in Aleph A B 17 Bohairic. Certainly not genuine.

Robertson: Eph 5:31 - For this cause For this cause ( anti toutou ). "Answering to this"= heneken toutou of Gen 2:24, in the sense of anti seen in anth' hōn (Luk 12:3). This whol...

For this cause ( anti toutou ).

"Answering to this"= heneken toutou of Gen 2:24, in the sense of anti seen in anth' hōn (Luk 12:3). This whole verse is a practical quotation and application of the language to Paul’ s argument here. In Mat 19:5 Jesus quotes Gen 2:24. It seems absurd to make Paul mean Christ here by anthrōpos (man) as some commentators do.

Robertson: Eph 5:32 - This mystery is great This mystery is great ( to mustērion touto mega estin ). For the word "mystery"see note on Eph 1:9. Clearly Paul means to say that the comparison o...

This mystery is great ( to mustērion touto mega estin ).

For the word "mystery"see note on Eph 1:9. Clearly Paul means to say that the comparison of marriage to the union of Christ and the church is the mystery. He makes that plain by the next words.

Robertson: Eph 5:32 - But I speak But I speak ( egō de legō ). "Now I mean."Cf. 1Co 7:29; 1Co 15:50.

But I speak ( egō de legō ).

"Now I mean."Cf. 1Co 7:29; 1Co 15:50.

Robertson: Eph 5:32 - In regard of Christ and of the church In regard of Christ and of the church ( eis Christon kai ̣eiš tēn ekklēsian ). "With reference to Christ and the church."That is all that eis ...

In regard of Christ and of the church ( eis Christon kai ̣eiš tēn ekklēsian ).

"With reference to Christ and the church."That is all that eis here means.

Robertson: Eph 5:33 - Nevertheless Nevertheless ( plēn ). "Howbeit,"not to dwell unduly (Abbott) on the matter of Christ and the church.

Nevertheless ( plēn ).

"Howbeit,"not to dwell unduly (Abbott) on the matter of Christ and the church.

Robertson: Eph 5:33 - Do ye also severally love Do ye also severally love ( kai humeis hoi kath' hena hekastos agapātō ). An unusual idiom. The verb agapātō (present active imperative) ag...

Do ye also severally love ( kai humeis hoi kath' hena hekastos agapātō ).

An unusual idiom. The verb agapātō (present active imperative) agrees with hekastos and so is third singular instead of agapāte (second plural) like humeis . The use of hoi kath' hena after humeis = "ye one by one"and then hekastos takes up (individualizes) the "one"in partitive apposition and in the third person.

Robertson: Eph 5:33 - Let the wife see that she fear Let the wife see that she fear ( hē gunē hina phobētai ). There is no verb in the Greek for "let see"(blepetō ). For this use of hina with...

Let the wife see that she fear ( hē gunē hina phobētai ).

There is no verb in the Greek for "let see"(blepetō ). For this use of hina with the subjunctive as a practical imperative without a principal verb (an elliptical imperative) see note on Mar 5:23, Mat 20:32, 1Co 7:29, 2Co 8:7, Eph 4:29 (Robertson, Grammar , p. 994). "Fear"(phobētai , present middle subjunctive) here is "reverence."

Vincent: Eph 5:1 - Be ye Be ye ( γίνεσθε ) Become , as Eph 4:32.

Be ye ( γίνεσθε )

Become , as Eph 4:32.

Vincent: Eph 5:1 - Followers Followers ( μιμηταὶ ) Rev, correctly, imitators .

Followers ( μιμηταὶ )

Rev, correctly, imitators .

Vincent: Eph 5:1 - Dear Dear ( ἀγαπητά ) Rev., beloved . As those to whom Christ has shown love

Dear ( ἀγαπητά )

Rev., beloved . As those to whom Christ has shown love

Vincent: Eph 5:2 - Walk in love Walk in love As imitators of God who is love.

Walk in love

As imitators of God who is love.

Vincent: Eph 5:2 - Loved us Loved us ( ἡμᾶς ) The correct reading is ὑμᾶς you .

Loved us ( ἡμᾶς )

The correct reading is ὑμᾶς you .

Vincent: Eph 5:2 - Gave Gave ( παρέδωκεν ) To death Compare Rom 4:25, where the same verb was delivered is followed by was raised . See also Rom 8:32; ...

Gave ( παρέδωκεν )

To death Compare Rom 4:25, where the same verb was delivered is followed by was raised . See also Rom 8:32; Gal 2:20.

Vincent: Eph 5:2 - Offering - sacrifice Offering - sacrifice ( προσφορὰν - θυσίαν ) Offering , general, including the life as well as the death of Christ: sacrifi...

Offering - sacrifice ( προσφορὰν - θυσίαν )

Offering , general, including the life as well as the death of Christ: sacrifice , special: on the cross. Properly, a slain offering.

Vincent: Eph 5:2 - A sweet smelling savor A sweet smelling savor ( ὀσμὴν εὐωδίας ) Rev., correctly, odor of a sweet smell . See on 2Co 2:14, 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:1...

A sweet smelling savor ( ὀσμὴν εὐωδίας )

Rev., correctly, odor of a sweet smell . See on 2Co 2:14, 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16. The Septuagint, in Lev 1:9, uses this phrase to render the Hebrew, a savor of quietness . For (εἰς ) expresses design , that it might become , or result: so that it became .

Vincent: Eph 5:3 - Or covetousness Or covetousness Or sets this sin emphatically by itself.

Or covetousness

Or sets this sin emphatically by itself.

Vincent: Eph 5:3 - Let it Let it It refers to each of the sins.

Let it

It refers to each of the sins.

Vincent: Eph 5:4 - Filthiness Filthiness ( αἰσχρότης ) Obscenity.

Filthiness ( αἰσχρότης )

Obscenity.

Vincent: Eph 5:4 - Foolish talking Foolish talking ( μωρολογία ) Only here in the New Testament. Talk which is both foolish and sinful. Compare corrupt communication ...

Foolish talking ( μωρολογία )

Only here in the New Testament. Talk which is both foolish and sinful. Compare corrupt communication , Eph 4:29. It is more than random or idle talk. " Words obtain a new earnestness when assumed into the ethical terminology of Christ's school. Nor, in seeking to enter fully into the meaning of this one, ought we to leave out of sight the greater emphasis which the words fool , foolish , folly obtain in Scripture than elsewhere they have or can have" (Trench).

Vincent: Eph 5:4 - Jesting Jesting ( εὐτραπελία ) Only here in the New Testament. From εὐ well or easily , πρέπω to turn . That which easily ...

Jesting ( εὐτραπελία )

Only here in the New Testament. From εὐ well or easily , πρέπω to turn . That which easily turns and adapts itself to the moods and conditions of those with whom it may be dealing at the moment. From this original sense of versatility it came to be applied to morals , as timeserving , and to speech with the accompanying notion of dissimulation . Aristotle calls it chastened insolence . The sense of the word here is polished and witty speech as the instrument of sin ; refinement and versatility without the flavor of Christian grace. " Sometimes it is lodged in a sly question, in a smart answer, in a quirkish reason, in shrewd intimation, in cunningly diverting or cleverly retorting an objection: sometimes it is couched in a bold scheme of speech, in a tart irony, in a lusty hyperbole, in a startling metaphor, in a plausible reconciling of contradictions, or in acute nonsense.... Sometimes an affected simplicity, sometimes a presumptuous bluntness giveth it being.... Its ways are unaccountable and inexplicable, being answerable to the numberless rovings of fancy and windings of language" (Barrow, Sermon xiv., " Against Foolish Talking and Jesting." The whole passage is well worth reading).

Vincent: Eph 5:5 - Ye know Ye know ( ἴστε γινώσκοντες ) The A.V. fails to give the whole force of the expression, which is, ye know recognizing . ...

Ye know ( ἴστε γινώσκοντες )

The A.V. fails to give the whole force of the expression, which is, ye know recognizing . Rev., ye know of a surety .

Vincent: Eph 5:5 - Idolater Idolater Compare Col 3:5, and see on 1Co 5:10.

Idolater

Compare Col 3:5, and see on 1Co 5:10.

Vincent: Eph 5:6 - Vain Vain Plausible, but devoid of truth, and employed to palliate heathen vices.

Vain

Plausible, but devoid of truth, and employed to palliate heathen vices.

Vincent: Eph 5:7 - Be not Be not ( γίνεσθε ) Lit., become not. It is a warning against lapsing into old vices.

Be not ( γίνεσθε )

Lit., become not. It is a warning against lapsing into old vices.

Vincent: Eph 5:8 - Ye were Ye were Emphatic, and according with become of Eph 5:7. Ye were darkness, but now are ye light. Do not become darkness again.

Ye were

Emphatic, and according with become of Eph 5:7. Ye were darkness, but now are ye light. Do not become darkness again.

Vincent: Eph 5:8 - Darkness Darkness ( σκότος ) See on Joh 1:5.

Darkness ( σκότος )

See on Joh 1:5.

Vincent: Eph 5:8 - Light Light ( φῶς ) Light itself; not a lamp. Children of light. See Mat 5:16.

Light ( φῶς )

Light itself; not a lamp. Children of light. See Mat 5:16.

Vincent: Eph 5:9 - Is in Is in Consists in. The verse is parenthetical.

Is in

Consists in. The verse is parenthetical.

Vincent: Eph 5:10 - Proving Proving Connect with walk . Walk, proving by your walk. Proving , see on 1Pe 1:7.

Proving

Connect with walk . Walk, proving by your walk. Proving , see on 1Pe 1:7.

Vincent: Eph 5:10 - Acceptable Acceptable ( εὐάρεστον ) Rev., better and more literally, well-pleasing . The one point of all moral investigation is, does it ...

Acceptable ( εὐάρεστον )

Rev., better and more literally, well-pleasing . The one point of all moral investigation is, does it please God?

Vincent: Eph 5:11 - Have - fellowship Have - fellowship ( συγκοινωνεῖτε ) See on Rev 18:4; see on Rev 1:9.

Have - fellowship ( συγκοινωνεῖτε )

See on Rev 18:4; see on Rev 1:9.

Vincent: Eph 5:11 - Unfruitful works Unfruitful works ( ἔργοις τοῖς ἀκάρποις ) Compare fruit , Eph 5:9, and Gal 5:19, Gal 5:22, works of the flesh, fr...

Unfruitful works ( ἔργοις τοῖς ἀκάρποις )

Compare fruit , Eph 5:9, and Gal 5:19, Gal 5:22, works of the flesh, fruit of the Spirit. Works which bring no blessing with them. Compare Rom 6:21; Rom 8:13; Gal 5:21; Gal 6:8.

Vincent: Eph 5:11 - Reprove Reprove ( ελέγχετε ) See on Joh 3:20.

Reprove ( ελέγχετε )

See on Joh 3:20.

Vincent: Eph 5:13 - All things All things ( τὰ πάντα ) More literally, they all , or all of them ; the secret sins just mentioned.

All things ( τὰ πάντα )

More literally, they all , or all of them ; the secret sins just mentioned.

Vincent: Eph 5:13 - That are reproved That are reproved ( ἐλεγχόμενα ) Lit., being reproved . Rev., when they are reproved . Reproved is to be taken in the s...

That are reproved ( ἐλεγχόμενα )

Lit., being reproved . Rev., when they are reproved . Reproved is to be taken in the same literal sense as in Eph 5:11, and not metaphorically in the sense of being demonstrated by light, or brought to light , which is almost synonymous with are made manifest .

Vincent: Eph 5:13 - By the light By the light Connect with are made manifest , not with are reproved .

By the light

Connect with are made manifest , not with are reproved .

Vincent: Eph 5:13 - Whatsoever doth make manifest is light Whatsoever doth make manifest is light ( πᾶν τὸ φανερούμενον φῶς ἐστίν ) Wrong. The A.V. renders doth mak...

Whatsoever doth make manifest is light ( πᾶν τὸ φανερούμενον φῶς ἐστίν )

Wrong. The A.V. renders doth make manifest , as in the middle voice, but the verb is in the passive voice. It occurs nearly fifty times in the New Testament, and never as middle. Hence Rev., correctly, everything that is made manifest .

Vincent: Eph 5:13 - Is light Is light A general proposition, going to show that manifestation can come only through light. Whatever is revealed in its true essence by light i...

Is light

A general proposition, going to show that manifestation can come only through light. Whatever is revealed in its true essence by light is of the nature of light. It no longer belongs to the category of darkness. Manifestation is a law of good and evil alike. That which is of the truth seeks the light and cometh to the light. That which is evil avoids the light, and loves darkness better than light, but none the less is brought to the light and appears in its own light. See Joh 3:20, Joh 3:21. This truth is embodied in another form in the parable of the Tares. Growth is manifestation. By suffering the tares to grow, their difference from the wheat, which at first is not apparent, is fully revealed.

Vincent: Eph 5:14 - He saith He saith God. This use of the personal pronoun is frequent in Paul's writings. See Gal 3:16; Eph 4:8; 1Co 6:16.

He saith

God. This use of the personal pronoun is frequent in Paul's writings. See Gal 3:16; Eph 4:8; 1Co 6:16.

Vincent: Eph 5:14 - Awake. etc Awake. etc. The quotation is probably a combination and free rendering of Isa 60:1; Isa 26:19. For similar combinations see on Rom 3:10; see on R...

Awake. etc.

The quotation is probably a combination and free rendering of Isa 60:1; Isa 26:19. For similar combinations see on Rom 3:10; see on Rom 9:33. By some the words are regarded as the fragment of a hymn.

Vincent: Eph 5:14 - Shall give thee light Shall give thee light Rev., correctly, shall shine upon thee .

Shall give thee light

Rev., correctly, shall shine upon thee .

Vincent: Eph 5:15 - See that ye walk circumspectly See that ye walk circumspectly ( βλέπετε πῶς ἀκριβῶς περιπατεῖτε ) Lit., look how exactly ye walk ...

See that ye walk circumspectly ( βλέπετε πῶς ἀκριβῶς περιπατεῖτε )

Lit., look how exactly ye walk . The best texts place τῶς how after ἀκριβῶς exactly . So Rev., look carefully how ye walk . Circumspectly is better rendered carefully . It means exactly , accurately , from ἄκρος the farthest point . See on inquired diligently , Mat 2:6; and compare Luk 1:3 (note); Act 18:25 (note).

Vincent: Eph 5:15 - Not as unwise, but as wise Not as unwise, but as wise Explanatory of carefully .

Not as unwise, but as wise

Explanatory of carefully .

Vincent: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming the time Redeeming the time ( ἐξαγοραζόμενοι τὸν καιπόν ) See on Col 4:5.

Redeeming the time ( ἐξαγοραζόμενοι τὸν καιπόν )

See on Col 4:5.

Vincent: Eph 5:17 - Understanding Understanding ( συνιέντες ) See on prudent , Mat 11:25; foolish , see on Rom 3:21.

Understanding ( συνιέντες )

See on prudent , Mat 11:25; foolish , see on Rom 3:21.

Vincent: Eph 5:18 - Be not drunk Be not drunk ( μὴ μεθύσκεσθε ) See on Joh 2:10.

Be not drunk ( μὴ μεθύσκεσθε )

See on Joh 2:10.

Vincent: Eph 5:18 - Wherein Wherein In drunkenness , not in wine .

Wherein

In drunkenness , not in wine .

Vincent: Eph 5:18 - Excess Excess ( ἀσωτία ) Rev., riot . Lit., unsavingness . See on riotous living , Luk 15:13.

Excess ( ἀσωτία )

Rev., riot . Lit., unsavingness . See on riotous living , Luk 15:13.

Vincent: Eph 5:19 - Speaking to yourselves Speaking to yourselves ( λαλοῦντες ἑαυτοῖς ) Rev., one to another . The A.V. is literally correct, but is open to the...

Speaking to yourselves ( λαλοῦντες ἑαυτοῖς )

Rev., one to another .

The A.V. is literally correct, but is open to the misinterpretation each one communing with himself . The meaning is as in Col 3:13, and Rev. is better.

Vincent: Eph 5:19 - Psalms Psalms See on 1Co 14:15.

Psalms

See on 1Co 14:15.

Vincent: Eph 5:19 - Hymns - spiritual songs Hymns - spiritual songs See on Col 3:16.

Hymns - spiritual songs

See on Col 3:16.

Vincent: Eph 5:22 - Your own Your own ( ἰδίοις ) The peculiar personal relationship is emphasized as the ground of the duty.

Your own ( ἰδίοις )

The peculiar personal relationship is emphasized as the ground of the duty.

Vincent: Eph 5:23 - He is the savior of the body He is the savior of the body In this particular the comparison between the husband as the head of the wife, and Christ as the head of the Church,...

He is the savior of the body

In this particular the comparison between the husband as the head of the wife, and Christ as the head of the Church, does not hold. Hence Rev., properly, renders for and He is , being Himself ; Himself separating the clause from what was previously said. The comparison lies in the fact of headship alone. The husband's love and protection cannot be called salvation , in which respect Christ's headship is peculiar to Himself .

Vincent: Eph 5:24 - Therefore Therefore ( ἀλλὰ ) Rev, correctly, but . Offsetting the relation of savior. The comparison does not hold in respect of salvation , but...

Therefore ( ἀλλὰ )

Rev, correctly, but . Offsetting the relation of savior. The comparison does not hold in respect of salvation , but it does hold in respect of subjection .

Vincent: Eph 5:26 - Sanctify and cleanse Sanctify and cleanse ( ἁγιάσῃ καθαρίσας ) Rev., might sanctify , having cleansed . The Rev. brings out the proper su...

Sanctify and cleanse ( ἁγιάσῃ καθαρίσας )

Rev., might sanctify , having cleansed . The Rev. brings out the proper succession of sanctification as a consequence of cleansing: might sanctify after having cleansed.

Vincent: Eph 5:26 - With the washing of water With the washing of water ( τῷ λουτρῷ τοῦ ὕδατος ) Λουτρόν washing is properly laver . Note the articl...

With the washing of water ( τῷ λουτρῷ τοῦ ὕδατος )

Λουτρόν washing is properly laver . Note the article, the laver, as something well known. There is no satisfactory evidence for the meaning washing . The allusion is to baptism. Some find a reference to the bride's bath before marriage.

Vincent: Eph 5:26 - By the word By the word ( ἐν ῥήματι ) Rev., correctly, with the word. To be connected with having cleansed it by the laver of ...

By the word ( ἐν ῥήματι )

Rev., correctly, with the word. To be connected with having cleansed it by the laver of water : not with might sanctify , nor with the laver of water alone, as a descriptive epithet. With the word describes that which accompanies the rite and which is the peculiar element of baptismal purification. Compare Joh 15:3. Augustine says: " Take away the word, and what is the water but water?"

Vincent: Eph 5:27 - He might present it to Himself He might present it to Himself ( παραστήσῃ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ ) As a bride. Compare 2Co 11:2. Notice the two pronouns i...

He might present it to Himself ( παραστήσῃ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ )

As a bride. Compare 2Co 11:2. Notice the two pronouns in conjunction, He , to Himself . Christ Himself presents the bride.

Vincent: Eph 5:27 - Spot Spot ( σπίλον ) Only here and 2Pe 2:13; The kindred verb σπιλόω to defile , occurs Jam 3:6; Jud 1:23.

Spot ( σπίλον )

Only here and 2Pe 2:13; The kindred verb σπιλόω to defile , occurs Jam 3:6; Jud 1:23.

Vincent: Eph 5:27 - Wrinkle Wrinkle ( ῥυτίδα ) Only here in the New Testament.

Wrinkle ( ῥυτίδα )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: Eph 5:28 - So So As Christ loved the Church.

So

As Christ loved the Church.

Vincent: Eph 5:28 - As their own bodies As their own bodies ( ὡς ) As being: since they are.

As their own bodies ( ὡς )

As being: since they are.

Vincent: Eph 5:29 - Flesh Flesh Instead of body , with reference to Gen 2:23.

Flesh

Instead of body , with reference to Gen 2:23.

Vincent: Eph 5:29 - Cherisheth Cherisheth ( θάλπει ) Only here and 1Th 2:7. Originally, to warm .

Cherisheth ( θάλπει )

Only here and 1Th 2:7. Originally, to warm .

Vincent: Eph 5:30 - -- Omit of His flesh and of His bones .

Omit of His flesh and of His bones .

Vincent: Eph 5:31 - Shall be joined Shall be joined ( προσκολληθήσεται ) Only here; and Mar 10:7. See on Luk 15:15. The compound verb denotes most intimate union.

Shall be joined ( προσκολληθήσεται )

Only here; and Mar 10:7. See on Luk 15:15. The compound verb denotes most intimate union.

Vincent: Eph 5:31 - Shall be one flesh Shall be one flesh ( ἔσονται εἰς σάρκα μίαν ) The A.V. overlooks the force of εἰς unto . Lit., shall be u...

Shall be one flesh ( ἔσονται εἰς σάρκα μίαν )

The A.V. overlooks the force of εἰς unto . Lit., shall be unto one flesh . Rev., shall become .

Vincent: Eph 5:32 - A great mystery A great mystery Great is predicative, not attributive. Rev., correctly, this mystery is great . The reference in this mystery is to ...

A great mystery

Great is predicative, not attributive. Rev., correctly, this mystery is great . The reference in this mystery is to the preceding statement of the conjugal relation of the Church with Christ, typified by the human marriage relation.

Vincent: Eph 5:32 - Concerning Christ and the Church Concerning Christ and the Church Rev., in regard of (εἰς ). Not calling your attention to the mere human relationship, but to the myst...

Concerning Christ and the Church

Rev., in regard of (εἰς ). Not calling your attention to the mere human relationship, but to the mysterious relation between Christ and His Church, of which that is a mere semblance.

Vincent: Eph 5:33 - Nevertheless Nevertheless Not to dwell longer on the mystical aspect of the subject.

Nevertheless

Not to dwell longer on the mystical aspect of the subject.

Vincent: Eph 5:33 - Even as himself Even as himself Not as much as he loves himself , but as being his very self .

Even as himself

Not as much as he loves himself , but as being his very self .

Wesley: Eph 5:1 - Be ye therefore followers Imitators.

Imitators.

Wesley: Eph 5:1 - Of God In forgiving and loving. O how much more honourable and more happy, to be an imitator of God, than of Homer, Virgil, or Alexander the Great!

In forgiving and loving. O how much more honourable and more happy, to be an imitator of God, than of Homer, Virgil, or Alexander the Great!

Wesley: Eph 5:3 - But let not any impure love be even named or heard of among you Keep at the utmost distance from it, as becometh saints.

Keep at the utmost distance from it, as becometh saints.

Wesley: Eph 5:4 - Nor foolish talking Tittle tattle, talking of nothing, the weather, fashions, meat and drink.

Tittle tattle, talking of nothing, the weather, fashions, meat and drink.

Wesley: Eph 5:4 - Or jesting The word properly means, wittiness, facetiousness, esteemed by the heathens an half - virtue. But how frequently even this quenches the Spirit, those ...

The word properly means, wittiness, facetiousness, esteemed by the heathens an half - virtue. But how frequently even this quenches the Spirit, those who are tender of conscience know.

Wesley: Eph 5:4 - Which are not convenient For a Christian; as neither increasing his faith nor holiness.

For a Christian; as neither increasing his faith nor holiness.

Wesley: Eph 5:6 - Because of these things As innocent as the heathens esteem them, and as those dealers in vain words would persuade you to think them.

As innocent as the heathens esteem them, and as those dealers in vain words would persuade you to think them.

Wesley: Eph 5:8 - Ye were once darkness Total blindness and ignorance.

Total blindness and ignorance.

Wesley: Eph 5:8 - Walk as children of light Suitably to your present knowledge.

Suitably to your present knowledge.

Wesley: Eph 5:9 - The fruit of the light Opposite to " the unfruitful works of darkness," Eph 4:11.

Opposite to " the unfruitful works of darkness," Eph 4:11.

Wesley: Eph 5:9 - Is in That is, consists in.

That is, consists in.

Wesley: Eph 5:9 - Goodness and righteousness and truth Opposite to the sins spoken of, Eph 4:25,&c.

Opposite to the sins spoken of, Eph 4:25,&c.

Wesley: Eph 5:11 - Reprove them To avoid them is not enough.

To avoid them is not enough.

Wesley: Eph 5:12 - In secret As flying the light.

As flying the light.

Wesley: Eph 5:13 - But all things which are reproved, are thereby dragged out into the light, and made manifest Shown in their proper colours, by the light.

Shown in their proper colours, by the light.

Wesley: Eph 5:13 - For whatsoever doth make manifest is light That is, for nothing but light, yea, light from heaven, can make anything manifest.

That is, for nothing but light, yea, light from heaven, can make anything manifest.

Wesley: Eph 5:14 - Wherefore he God.

God.

Wesley: Eph 5:14 - Saith In the general tenor of his word, to all who are still in darkness.

In the general tenor of his word, to all who are still in darkness.

Wesley: Eph 5:14 - Awake thou that steepest In ignorance of God and thyself; in stupid insensibility.

In ignorance of God and thyself; in stupid insensibility.

Wesley: Eph 5:14 - And arise from the dead From the death of sin.

From the death of sin.

Wesley: Eph 5:14 - And Christ shall give thee light Knowledge, holiness, happiness.

Knowledge, holiness, happiness.

Wesley: Eph 5:15 - Circumspectly Exactly, with the utmost accuracy, getting to the highest pitch of every point of holiness.

Exactly, with the utmost accuracy, getting to the highest pitch of every point of holiness.

Wesley: Eph 5:15 - Not as fools Who think not where they are going, or do not make the best of their way.

Who think not where they are going, or do not make the best of their way.

Wesley: Eph 5:16 - With all possible care redeeming the time Saving all you can for the best purposes; buying every possible moment out of the hands of sin and Satan; out of the hands of sloth, ease, pleasure, w...

Saving all you can for the best purposes; buying every possible moment out of the hands of sin and Satan; out of the hands of sloth, ease, pleasure, worldly business; the more diligently, because the present are evil days, days of the grossest ignorance, immorality, and profaneness.

Wesley: Eph 5:17 - What the will of the Lord is In every time, place, and circumstance.

In every time, place, and circumstance.

Wesley: Eph 5:18 - Wherein is excess That is, which leads to debauchery of every kind.

That is, which leads to debauchery of every kind.

Wesley: Eph 5:18 - But be ye filled with the Spirit In all his graces, who gives a more noble pleasure than wine can do.

In all his graces, who gives a more noble pleasure than wine can do.

Wesley: Eph 5:19 - Speaking to each other By the Spirit.

By the Spirit.

Wesley: Eph 5:19 - In the Psalms Of David.

Of David.

Wesley: Eph 5:19 - And hymns Of praise.

Of praise.

Wesley: Eph 5:19 - And spiritual songs On any divine subject. By there being no inspired songs, peculiarly adapted to the Christian dispensation, as there were to the Jewish, it is evident ...

On any divine subject. By there being no inspired songs, peculiarly adapted to the Christian dispensation, as there were to the Jewish, it is evident that the promise of the Holy Ghost to believers, in the last days, was by his larger effusion to supply the lack of it.

Wesley: Eph 5:19 - Singing with your hearts As well as your voice.

As well as your voice.

Wesley: Eph 5:19 - To the Lord Jesus, who searcheth the heart.

Jesus, who searcheth the heart.

Wesley: Eph 5:20 - Giving thanks At all times and places.

At all times and places.

Wesley: Eph 5:20 - And for all things Prosperous or adverse, since all work together for good. In the name of, or through, our Lord Jesus Christ - By whom we receive all good things.

Prosperous or adverse, since all work together for good. In the name of, or through, our Lord Jesus Christ - By whom we receive all good things.

Wesley: Eph 5:22 - -- In the following directions concerning relative duties, the inferiors are all along placed before the superiors, because the general proposition is co...

In the following directions concerning relative duties, the inferiors are all along placed before the superiors, because the general proposition is concerning submission; and inferiors ought to do their duty, whatever their superiors do. Wives, submit yourselves to your own husbands - Unless where God forbids. Otherwise, in all indifferent things, the will of the husband is a law to the wife.

Wesley: Eph 5:22 - As unto the Lord The obedience a wife pays to her husband is at the same time paid to Christ himself; he being head of the wife, as Christ is head of the church.

The obedience a wife pays to her husband is at the same time paid to Christ himself; he being head of the wife, as Christ is head of the church.

Wesley: Eph 5:23 - The head The governor, guide, and guardian of the wife.

The governor, guide, and guardian of the wife.

Wesley: Eph 5:23 - And he is the Saviour of the body The church, from all sin and misery.

The church, from all sin and misery.

Wesley: Eph 5:24 - In everything Which is not contrary to any command of God.

Which is not contrary to any command of God.

Wesley: Eph 5:25 - Even as Christ loved the church Here is the true model of conjugal affection. With this kind of affection, with this degree of it, and to this end, should husbands love their wives.

Here is the true model of conjugal affection. With this kind of affection, with this degree of it, and to this end, should husbands love their wives.

Wesley: Eph 5:26 - That he might sanctify it through the word The ordinary channel of all blessings.

The ordinary channel of all blessings.

Wesley: Eph 5:26 - Having cleansed it From the guilt and power of sin.

From the guilt and power of sin.

Wesley: Eph 5:26 - By the washing of water In baptism; if, with "the outward and visible sign," we receive the "inward and spiritual grace."

In baptism; if, with "the outward and visible sign," we receive the "inward and spiritual grace."

Wesley: Eph 5:27 - That he might present it Even in this world.

Even in this world.

Wesley: Eph 5:27 - To himself As his spouse.

As his spouse.

Wesley: Eph 5:27 - A glorious church All glorious within.

All glorious within.

Wesley: Eph 5:27 - Not having spot Of impurity from any sin.

Of impurity from any sin.

Wesley: Eph 5:27 - Or wrinkle Of deformity from any decay.

Of deformity from any decay.

Wesley: Eph 5:28 - As their own bodies That is, as themselves.

That is, as themselves.

Wesley: Eph 5:28 - He that loveth his wife loveth himself Which is not a sin, but an indisputable duty.

Which is not a sin, but an indisputable duty.

Wesley: Eph 5:29 - His own flesh That is, himself.

That is, himself.

Wesley: Eph 5:29 - Nourisheth and cherisheth That is, feeds and clothes it.

That is, feeds and clothes it.

Wesley: Eph 5:30 - For we The reason why Christ nourishes and cherishes the church is, that close connexion between them which is here expressed in the words of Moses, original...

The reason why Christ nourishes and cherishes the church is, that close connexion between them which is here expressed in the words of Moses, originally spoken concerning Eve.

Wesley: Eph 5:30 - Are members Are as intimately united to Christ, in a spiritual sense, as if we were literally "flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone."

Are as intimately united to Christ, in a spiritual sense, as if we were literally "flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone."

Wesley: Eph 5:31 - For this cause Because of this intimate union. Gen 2:24.

Because of this intimate union. Gen 2:24.

JFB: Eph 5:1 - therefore Seeing that "God in Christ forgave you" (Eph 4:32).

Seeing that "God in Christ forgave you" (Eph 4:32).

JFB: Eph 5:1 - followers Greek, "imitators" of God, in respect to "love" (Eph 5:2): God's essential character (1Jo 4:16).

Greek, "imitators" of God, in respect to "love" (Eph 5:2): God's essential character (1Jo 4:16).

JFB: Eph 5:1 - as dear children Greek, "as children beloved"; to which Eph 5:2 refers, "As Christ also loved us" (1Jo 4:19). "We are sons of men, when we do ill; sons of God, when we...

Greek, "as children beloved"; to which Eph 5:2 refers, "As Christ also loved us" (1Jo 4:19). "We are sons of men, when we do ill; sons of God, when we do well" [AUGUSTINE, on Psalm 52]; (compare Mat 5:44-45, Mat 5:48). Sonship infers an absolute necessity of imitation, it being vain to assume the title of son without any similitude of the Father [PEARSON].

JFB: Eph 5:2 - And In proof that you are so.

In proof that you are so.

JFB: Eph 5:2 - walk in love Resuming Eph 4:1, "walk worthy of the vocation."

Resuming Eph 4:1, "walk worthy of the vocation."

JFB: Eph 5:2 - as Christ . . . loved us From the love of the Father he passes to the love of the Son, in whom God most endearingly manifests His love to us.

From the love of the Father he passes to the love of the Son, in whom God most endearingly manifests His love to us.

JFB: Eph 5:2 - given himself for us Greek, "given Himself up (namely, to death, Gal 2:20) for us," that is, in our behalf: not here vicarious substitution, though that is indirectly impl...

Greek, "given Himself up (namely, to death, Gal 2:20) for us," that is, in our behalf: not here vicarious substitution, though that is indirectly implied, "in our stead." The offerer, and the offering that He offered, were one and the same (Joh 15:13; Rom 5:8).

JFB: Eph 5:2 - offering and a sacrifice "Offering" expresses generally His presenting Himself to the Father, as the Representative undertaking the cause of the whole of our lost race (Psa 40...

"Offering" expresses generally His presenting Himself to the Father, as the Representative undertaking the cause of the whole of our lost race (Psa 40:6-8), including His life of obedience; though not excluding His offering of His body for us (Heb 10:10). It is usually an unbloody offering, in the more limited sense. "Sacrifice" refers to His death for us exclusively. Christ is here, in reference to Psa 40:6 (quoted again in Heb 10:5), represented as the antitype of all the offerings of the law, whether the unbloody or bloody, eucharistical or propitiatory.

JFB: Eph 5:2 - for a sweet-smelling savour Greek, "for an odor of a sweet smell," that is, God is well pleased with the offering on the ground of its sweetness,and so is reconciled to us (Eph 1...

Greek, "for an odor of a sweet smell," that is, God is well pleased with the offering on the ground of its sweetness,and so is reconciled to us (Eph 1:6; Mat 3:17; 2Co 5:18-19; Heb 10:6-17). The ointment compounded of principal spices, poured upon Aaron's head, answers to the variety of the graces by which He was enabled to "offer Himself a sacrifice for a sweet-smelling savor." Another type, or prophecy by figure, was "the sweet savor" ("savor of rest," Margin) which God smelled in Noah's sacrifice (Gen 8:21). Again, as what Christ is, believers also are (1Jo 4:17), and ministers are: Paul says (2Co 2:17) "we are unto God a sweet savor of Christ."

JFB: Eph 5:3 - once named Greek, "Let it not be even named" (Eph 5:4, Eph 5:12). "Uncleanness" and "covetousness" are taken up again from Eph 4:19. The two are so closely allie...

Greek, "Let it not be even named" (Eph 5:4, Eph 5:12). "Uncleanness" and "covetousness" are taken up again from Eph 4:19. The two are so closely allied that the Greek for "covetousness" (pleonexia) is used sometimes in Scripture, and often in the Greek Fathers, for sins of impurity. The common principle is the longing to fill one's desire with material objects of sense, outside of God. The expression, "not be even named," applies better to impurity, than to "covetousness."

JFB: Eph 5:4 - filthiness Obscenity in act or gesture.

Obscenity in act or gesture.

JFB: Eph 5:4 - foolish talking The talk of fools, which is folly and sin together. The Greek of it, and of "filthiness," occurs nowhere else in the New Testament.

The talk of fools, which is folly and sin together. The Greek of it, and of "filthiness," occurs nowhere else in the New Testament.

JFB: Eph 5:4 - nor Rather, "or" (compare Eph 5:3).

Rather, "or" (compare Eph 5:3).

JFB: Eph 5:4 - jesting Greek, "eutrapelia"; found nowhere else in the New Testament: implying strictly that versatility which turns about and adapts itself, without regard t...

Greek, "eutrapelia"; found nowhere else in the New Testament: implying strictly that versatility which turns about and adapts itself, without regard to principle, to the shifting circumstances of the moment, and to the varying moods of those with whom it may deal. Not scurrile buffoonery, but refined "persiflage" and "badinage," for which Ephesus was famed [PLAUTUS, A Boastful Soldier, 3.1,42-52], and which, so far from being censured, was and is thought by the world a pleasant accomplishment. In Col 3:8, "filthy communication" refers to the foulness; "foolish talking," to the folly; "jesting," to the false refinement (and trifling witticism [TITTMANN]) Of discourse unseasoned with the salt of grace [TRENCH].

JFB: Eph 5:4 - not convenient "unseemly"; not such "as become saints" (Eph 5:3).

"unseemly"; not such "as become saints" (Eph 5:3).

JFB: Eph 5:4 - rather giving of thanks A happy play on sounds in Greek, "eucharistia" contrasted with "eutrapelia"; refined "jesting" and subtle humor sometimes offend the tender feelings o...

A happy play on sounds in Greek, "eucharistia" contrasted with "eutrapelia"; refined "jesting" and subtle humor sometimes offend the tender feelings of grace; "giving of thanks" gives that real cheerfulness of spirit to believers which the worldly try to get from "jesting" (Eph 5:19-20; Jam 5:13).

JFB: Eph 5:5 - this ye know The oldest manuscripts read, "Of this ye are sure knowing"; or as ALFORD, "This ye know being aware."

The oldest manuscripts read, "Of this ye are sure knowing"; or as ALFORD, "This ye know being aware."

JFB: Eph 5:5 - covetous . . . idolater (Col 3:5). The best reading may be translated, That is to say, literally, which is (in other words) an idolater. Paul himself had forsaken all for Ch...

(Col 3:5). The best reading may be translated, That is to say, literally, which is (in other words) an idolater. Paul himself had forsaken all for Christ (2Co 6:10; 2Co 11:27). Covetousness is worship of the creature instead of the Creator, the highest treason against the King of kings (1Sa 15:3; Mat 6:24; Phi 3:19; 1Jo 2:15).

JFB: Eph 5:5 - hath The present implies the fixedness of the exclusion, grounded on the eternal verities of that kingdom [ALFORD].

The present implies the fixedness of the exclusion, grounded on the eternal verities of that kingdom [ALFORD].

JFB: Eph 5:5 - of Christ and of God Rather, as one Greek article is applied to both, "of Christ and God," implying their perfect oneness, which is consistent only with the doctrine that ...

Rather, as one Greek article is applied to both, "of Christ and God," implying their perfect oneness, which is consistent only with the doctrine that Christ is God (compare 2Th 1:12; 1Ti 5:21; 1Ti 6:13).

JFB: Eph 5:6 - vain Empty, unreal words, namely, palliations of "uncleanness," Eph 5:3-4; Isa 5:20 (that it is natural to indulge in love), "covetousness" (that it is use...

Empty, unreal words, namely, palliations of "uncleanness," Eph 5:3-4; Isa 5:20 (that it is natural to indulge in love), "covetousness" (that it is useful to society that men should pursue gain), and "jesting" (that it is witty and clever, and that God will not so severely punish for such things).

JFB: Eph 5:6 - because of these things Uncleanness, covetousness, &c. (Eph 5:3-5).

Uncleanness, covetousness, &c. (Eph 5:3-5).

JFB: Eph 5:6 - cometh Present, not merely "shall come." Is as sure as if already come.

Present, not merely "shall come." Is as sure as if already come.

JFB: Eph 5:6 - children Rather, "sons of disobedience" (Eph 2:2-3). The children of unbelief in doctrine (Deu 32:20) are "children of disobedience" in practice, and these aga...

Rather, "sons of disobedience" (Eph 2:2-3). The children of unbelief in doctrine (Deu 32:20) are "children of disobedience" in practice, and these again are "children of wrath."

JFB: Eph 5:7 - -- Here fellowship with wicked workers is forbidden; in Eph 5:11, with their wicked works.

Here fellowship with wicked workers is forbidden; in Eph 5:11, with their wicked works.

JFB: Eph 5:8 - sometimes "once." The emphasis is on "were." Ye ought to have no fellowship with sin, which is darkness, for your state as darkness is now PAST. Stronger than "...

"once." The emphasis is on "were." Ye ought to have no fellowship with sin, which is darkness, for your state as darkness is now PAST. Stronger than "in darkness" (Rom 2:19).

JFB: Eph 5:8 - light Not merely "enlightened"; but light enlightening others (Eph 5:13).

Not merely "enlightened"; but light enlightening others (Eph 5:13).

JFB: Eph 5:8 - in In union with the Lord, who is THE LIGHT.

In union with the Lord, who is THE LIGHT.

JFB: Eph 5:8 - children of light Not merely "of the light"; just as "children of disobedience" is used on the opposite side; those whose distinguishing characteristic is light. PLINY,...

Not merely "of the light"; just as "children of disobedience" is used on the opposite side; those whose distinguishing characteristic is light. PLINY, a heathen writing to Trajan, bears unwilling testimony to the extraordinary purity of Christians' lives, contrasted with the people around them.

JFB: Eph 5:9 - fruit of the Spirit Taken by transcribers from Gal 5:22. The true reading is that of the oldest manuscripts, "The fruit of THE LIGHT"; in contrast with "the unfruitful wo...

Taken by transcribers from Gal 5:22. The true reading is that of the oldest manuscripts, "The fruit of THE LIGHT"; in contrast with "the unfruitful works of darkness" (Eph 5:11). This verse is parenthetic. Walk as children of light, that is, in all good works and words, "FOR the fruit of the light is [borne] in [ALFORD; but BENGEL, 'consists in'] all goodness [opposed to 'malice,' Eph 4:31], righteousness [opposed to 'covetousness,' Eph 5:3] and truth [opposed to 'lying,' Eph 4:25]."

JFB: Eph 5:10 - Proving Construed with "walk" (Eph 5:8; Rom 12:1-2). As we prove a coin by the eye and the ear, and by using it, so by accurate and continued study, and above...

Construed with "walk" (Eph 5:8; Rom 12:1-2). As we prove a coin by the eye and the ear, and by using it, so by accurate and continued study, and above all by practice and experimental trial, we may prove or test "what is acceptable unto the Lord." This is the office of "light," of which believers are "children," to manifest what each thing is, whether sightly or unsightly.

JFB: Eph 5:11 - unfruitful works of darkness Sins are terminated in themselves, and therefore are called "works," not "fruits" (Gal 5:19, Gal 5:22). Their only fruit is that which is not in a tru...

Sins are terminated in themselves, and therefore are called "works," not "fruits" (Gal 5:19, Gal 5:22). Their only fruit is that which is not in a true sense fruit (Deu 32:32), namely, "death" (Rom 6:21; Gal 6:8). Plants cannot bear "fruit" in the absence of light. Sin is "darkness," and its parent is the prince of darkness (Eph 6:12). Graces, on the other hand, as flourishing in "the light," are reproductive, and abound in fruits; which, as harmoniously combining in one whole, are termed (in the singular) "the FRUIT of the Spirit" (Eph 5:9).

JFB: Eph 5:11 - rather, &c. Translate as Greek, "rather even reprove them" (compare Mat 5:14-16). Not only "have no fellowship, but even reprove them," namely, in words, and in y...

Translate as Greek, "rather even reprove them" (compare Mat 5:14-16). Not only "have no fellowship, but even reprove them," namely, in words, and in your deeds, which, shining with "the light," virtually reprove all that is contrary to light (Eph 5:13; Joh 3:19-21). "Have no fellowship," does not imply that we can avoid all intercourse (1Co 5:10), but "avoid such fellowship as will defile yourselves"; just as light, though it touch filth, is not soiled by it; nay, as light detects it, so, "even reprove sin."

JFB: Eph 5:12 - -- The Greek order is, "For the things done in secret by them, it is a shame even to speak of." The "for" gives his reason for "not naming" (compare Eph ...

The Greek order is, "For the things done in secret by them, it is a shame even to speak of." The "for" gives his reason for "not naming" (compare Eph 5:3) in detail the works of darkness, whereas he describes definitely (Eph 5:9) "the fruit of the light" [BENGEL]. "Speak of," I think, is used here as "speaking of without reproving," in contrast to "even reprove them." Thus the "for" expresses this, Reprove them, for to speak of them without reproving them, is a shame (Eph 5:3). Thus "works of darkness" answers to "things done in secret."

JFB: Eph 5:13 - that are reproved Rather, "when they are reproved," namely, by you (Eph 5:11).

Rather, "when they are reproved," namely, by you (Eph 5:11).

JFB: Eph 5:13 - whatsoever doth make manifest Rather, "everything that is (that is, suffers itself to be) made manifest (or 'shone upon,' namely, by your 'reproving,' Eph 5:11) is (thenceforth no ...

Rather, "everything that is (that is, suffers itself to be) made manifest (or 'shone upon,' namely, by your 'reproving,' Eph 5:11) is (thenceforth no longer 'darkness,' Eph 5:8, but) light." The devil and the wicked will not suffer themselves to be made manifest by the light, but love darkness, though outwardly the light shines round them. Therefore, "light" has no transforming effect on them, so that they do not become light (Joh 3:19-20). But, says the apostle, you being now light yourselves (Eph 5:8), by bringing to light through reproof those who are in darkness, will convert them to light. Your consistent lives and faithful reproofs will be your "armor of light" (Rom 13:12) in making an inroad on the kingdom of darkness.

JFB: Eph 5:14 - Wherefore Referring to the whole foregoing argument (Eph 5:8, Eph 5:11, Eph 5:13). Seeing that light (spiritual) dispels the pre-existing darkness, He (God) sai...

Referring to the whole foregoing argument (Eph 5:8, Eph 5:11, Eph 5:13). Seeing that light (spiritual) dispels the pre-existing darkness, He (God) saith . . . (compare the same phrase, Eph 4:8).

JFB: Eph 5:14 - Awake The reading of all the oldest manuscripts is "Up!" or, "Rouse thee!" a phrase used in stirring men to activity. The words are a paraphrase of Isa 60:1...

The reading of all the oldest manuscripts is "Up!" or, "Rouse thee!" a phrase used in stirring men to activity. The words are a paraphrase of Isa 60:1-2, not an exact quotation. The word "Christ," shows that in quoting the prophecy, he views it in the light thrown on it by its Gospel fulfilment. As Israel is called on to "awake" from its previous state of "darkness" and "death" (Isa 59:10; Isa 60:2), for that her Light is come; so the Church, and each individual is similarly called to awake. Believers are called on to "awake" out of sleep; unbelievers, to "arise" from the dead (compare Mat 25:5; Rom 13:11; 1Th 5:6, with Eph 2:1).

JFB: Eph 5:14 - Christ "the true light," "the Sun of righteousness."

"the true light," "the Sun of righteousness."

JFB: Eph 5:14 - give thee light Rather, as Greek, "shall shine upon thee" (so enabling thee by being "made manifest" to become, and be, by the very fact, "light," Eph 5:13; then bein...

Rather, as Greek, "shall shine upon thee" (so enabling thee by being "made manifest" to become, and be, by the very fact, "light," Eph 5:13; then being so "enlightened," Eph 1:18, thou shalt be able, by "reproving," to enlighten others).

JFB: Eph 5:15 - that Rather as Greek, "See how ye walk," &c. The double idea is compressed into one sentence: "See (take heed) how ye walk," and "See that ye walk circumsp...

Rather as Greek, "See how ye walk," &c. The double idea is compressed into one sentence: "See (take heed) how ye walk," and "See that ye walk circumspectly." The manner, as well as the act itself, is included. See how ye are walking, with a view to your being circumspect (literally, accurate, exact) in your walk. Compare Col 4:5, "Walk in wisdom (answering to 'as wise' here) toward them that are without" (answering to "circumspectly," that is, correctly, in relation to the unbelievers around, not giving occasion of stumbling to any, but edifying all by a consistent walk).

JFB: Eph 5:15 - not as fools Greek, "not as unwise, but as wise."

Greek, "not as unwise, but as wise."

JFB: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming the time (Col 4:5). Greek, "Buying up for yourselves the seasonable time" (whenever it occurs) of good to yourselves and to others. Buying off from the vaniti...

(Col 4:5). Greek, "Buying up for yourselves the seasonable time" (whenever it occurs) of good to yourselves and to others. Buying off from the vanities of "them that are without" (Col 4:5), and of the "unwise" (here in Ephesians), the opportune time afforded to you for the work of God. In a narrower sense, special favorable seasons for good, occasionally presenting themselves, are referred to, of which believers ought diligently to avail themselves. This constitutes true "wisdom" (Eph 5:15). In a larger sense, the whole season from the time that one is spiritually awakened, is to be "redeemed" from vanity for God (compare 2Co 6:2; 1Pe 4:2-4). "Redeem" implies the preciousness of the opportune season, a jewel to be bought at any price. WAHL explains, "Redeeming for yourselves (that is, availing yourselves of) the opportunity (offered you of acting aright), and commanding the time as a master does his servant." TITTMANN, "Watch the time, and make it your own so as to control it; as merchants look out for opportunities, and accurately choose out the best goods; serve not the time, but command it, and it shall do what you approve." So PINDAR [Pythia, 4.509], "The time followed him as his servant, and was not as a runaway slave."

JFB: Eph 5:16 - because the days are evil The days of life in general are so exposed to evil, as to make it necessary to make the most of the seasonable opportunity so long as it lasts (Eph 6:...

The days of life in general are so exposed to evil, as to make it necessary to make the most of the seasonable opportunity so long as it lasts (Eph 6:13; Gen 47:9; Psa 49:5; Ecc 11:2; Ecc 12:1; Joh 12:35). Besides, there are many special evil days (in persecution, sickness, &c.) when the Christian is laid by in silence; therefore he needs the more to improve the seasonable times afforded to him (Amo 5:13), which Paul perhaps alludes to.

JFB: Eph 5:17 - Wherefore Seeing that ye need to walk so circumspectly, choosing and using the right opportunity of good.

Seeing that ye need to walk so circumspectly, choosing and using the right opportunity of good.

JFB: Eph 5:17 - unwise A different Greek word from that in Eph 5:15. Translate, "foolish," or "senseless."

A different Greek word from that in Eph 5:15. Translate, "foolish," or "senseless."

JFB: Eph 5:17 - understanding Not merely knowing as a matter of fact (Luk 12:47), but knowing with understanding.

Not merely knowing as a matter of fact (Luk 12:47), but knowing with understanding.

JFB: Eph 5:17 - the will of the Lord As to how each opportunity is to be used. The Lord's will, ultimately, is our "sanctification" (1Th 4:3); and that "in every thing," meantime, we shou...

As to how each opportunity is to be used. The Lord's will, ultimately, is our "sanctification" (1Th 4:3); and that "in every thing," meantime, we should "give thanks" (1Th 5:18; compare above, Eph 5:10).

JFB: Eph 5:18 - excess Worthless, ruinous, reckless prodigality.

Worthless, ruinous, reckless prodigality.

JFB: Eph 5:18 - wherein Not in the wine itself when used aright (1Ti 5:23), but in the "excess" as to it.

Not in the wine itself when used aright (1Ti 5:23), but in the "excess" as to it.

JFB: Eph 5:18 - but be filled with the Spirit The effect in inspiration was that the person was "filled" with an ecstatic exhilaration, like that caused by wine; hence the two are here connected (...

The effect in inspiration was that the person was "filled" with an ecstatic exhilaration, like that caused by wine; hence the two are here connected (compare Act 2:13-18). Hence arose the abstinence from wine of many of the prophets, for example, John the Baptist, namely, in order to keep distinct before the world the ecstasy caused by the Spirit, from that caused by wine. So also in ordinary Christians the Spirit dwells not in the mind that seeks the disturbing influences of excitement, but in the well-balanced prayerful mind. Such a one expresses his joy, not in drunken or worldly songs, but in Christian hymns of thankfulness.

JFB: Eph 5:19 - -- (Col 3:16).

JFB: Eph 5:19 - to yourselves "to one another." Hence soon arose the antiphonal or responsive chanting of which PLINY writes to Trajan: "They are wont on a fixed day to meet before...

"to one another." Hence soon arose the antiphonal or responsive chanting of which PLINY writes to Trajan: "They are wont on a fixed day to meet before daylight [to avoid persecution] and to recite a hymn among themselves by turns, to Christ, as if being God." The Spirit gives true eloquence; wine, a spurious eloquence.

JFB: Eph 5:19 - psalms Generally accompanied by an instrument.

Generally accompanied by an instrument.

JFB: Eph 5:19 - hymns In direct praise to God (compare Act 16:25; 1Co 14:26; Jam 5:13).

In direct praise to God (compare Act 16:25; 1Co 14:26; Jam 5:13).

JFB: Eph 5:19 - songs The general term for lyric pieces; "spiritual" is added to mark their being here restricted to sacred subjects, though not merely to direct praises of...

The general term for lyric pieces; "spiritual" is added to mark their being here restricted to sacred subjects, though not merely to direct praises of God, but also containing exhortations, prophecies, &c. Contrast the drunken "songs," Amo 8:10.

JFB: Eph 5:19 - making melody Greek, "playing and singing with an instrument."

Greek, "playing and singing with an instrument."

JFB: Eph 5:19 - in your heart Not merely with the tongue; but the serious feeling of the heart accompanying the singing of the lips (compare 1Co 14:15; Psa 47:7). The contrast is b...

Not merely with the tongue; but the serious feeling of the heart accompanying the singing of the lips (compare 1Co 14:15; Psa 47:7). The contrast is between the heathen and the Christian practice, "Let your songs be not the drinking songs of heathen feasts, but psalms and hymns; and their accompaniment, not the music of the lyre, but the melody of the heart" [CONYBEARE and HOWSON].

JFB: Eph 5:19 - to the Lord See PLINY'S letter quoted above: "To Christ as God."

See PLINY'S letter quoted above: "To Christ as God."

JFB: Eph 5:20 - thanks . . . for all things Even for adversities; also for blessings, unknown as well as known (Col 3:17; 1Th 5:18).

Even for adversities; also for blessings, unknown as well as known (Col 3:17; 1Th 5:18).

JFB: Eph 5:20 - unto God and the Father The Fountain of every blessing in Creation, Providence, Election, and Redemption.

The Fountain of every blessing in Creation, Providence, Election, and Redemption.

JFB: Eph 5:20 - Lord Jesus Christ By whom all things, even distresses, become ours (Rom 8:35, Rom 8:37; 1Co 3:20-23).

By whom all things, even distresses, become ours (Rom 8:35, Rom 8:37; 1Co 3:20-23).

JFB: Eph 5:21 - -- (Phi 2:3; 1Pe 5:5.) Here he passes from our relations to God, to those which concern our fellow men.

(Phi 2:3; 1Pe 5:5.) Here he passes from our relations to God, to those which concern our fellow men.

JFB: Eph 5:21 - in the fear of God All the oldest manuscripts and authorities read, "in the fear of CHRIST." The believer passes from under the bondage of the law as a letter, to be "th...

All the oldest manuscripts and authorities read, "in the fear of CHRIST." The believer passes from under the bondage of the law as a letter, to be "the servant of Christ" (1Co 7:22), which, through the instinct of love to Him, is really to be "the Lord's freeman"; for he is "under the law to Christ" (1Co 9:21; compare Joh 8:36). Christ, not the Father (Joh 5:22), is to be our judge. Thus reverential fear of displeasing Him is the motive for discharging our relative duties as Christians (1Co 10:22; 2Co 5:11; 1Pe 2:13).

JFB: Eph 5:22 - -- (Eph 6:9.) The Church's relation to Christ in His everlasting purpose, is the foundation and archetype of the three greatest of earthly relations, tha...

(Eph 6:9.) The Church's relation to Christ in His everlasting purpose, is the foundation and archetype of the three greatest of earthly relations, that of husband and wife (Eph 5:22-33), parent and child (Eph 6:1-4), master and servant (Eph 6:4-9). The oldest manuscripts omit "submit yourselves"; supplying it from Eph 5:21, "Ye wives (submitting yourselves) unto your own husbands." "Your own" is an argument for submissiveness on the part of the wives; it is not a stranger, but your own husbands whom you are called on to submit unto (compare Gen 3:16; 1Co 7:2; 1Co 14:34; Col 3:18; Tit 2:5; 1Pe 3:1-7). Those subject ought to submit themselves, of whatever kind their superiors are. "Submit" is the term used of wives: "obey," of children (Eph 6:1), as there is a greater equality between wives and husbands, than between children and parents.

JFB: Eph 5:22 - as unto the Lord Submissiveness is rendered by the wife to the husband under the eye of Christ, and so is rendered to Christ Himself. The husband stands to the wife in...

Submissiveness is rendered by the wife to the husband under the eye of Christ, and so is rendered to Christ Himself. The husband stands to the wife in the relation that the Lord does to the Church, and this is to be the ground of her submission: though that submission is inferior in kind and degree to that which she owes Christ (Eph 5:24).

JFB: Eph 5:23 - -- (1Co 11:3.)

JFB: Eph 5:23 - even as Greek, "as also."

Greek, "as also."

JFB: Eph 5:23 - and he is The oldest manuscripts read, "Himself (being) Saviour," omitting "and," and "is." In Christ's case, the Headship is united with, nay gained by, His ha...

The oldest manuscripts read, "Himself (being) Saviour," omitting "and," and "is." In Christ's case, the Headship is united with, nay gained by, His having SAVED the body in the process of redemption; so that (Paul implies) I am not alleging Christ's Headship as one entirely identical with that other, for He has a claim to it, and office in it, peculiar to Himself [ALFORD]. The husband is not saviour of the wife, in which particular Christ excels; hence, "But" (Eph 5:24) follows [BENGEL].

JFB: Eph 5:24 - Therefore Translate, as Greek, "But," or "Nevertheless," that is, though there be the difference of headships mentioned in Eph 5:23, nevertheless, thus far they...

Translate, as Greek, "But," or "Nevertheless," that is, though there be the difference of headships mentioned in Eph 5:23, nevertheless, thus far they are one, namely, in the subjection or submission (the same Greek stands for "is subject," as for "submit," Eph 5:21-22) of the Church to Christ, being the prototype of that of the wife to the husband.

JFB: Eph 5:24 - their own Not in most of the oldest manuscripts, and not needed by the argument.

Not in most of the oldest manuscripts, and not needed by the argument.

JFB: Eph 5:24 - in every thing Appertaining to a husband's legitimate authority; "in the Lord" (Col 3:18); everything not contrary to God.

Appertaining to a husband's legitimate authority; "in the Lord" (Col 3:18); everything not contrary to God.

JFB: Eph 5:25 - -- "Thou hast seen the measure of obedience; now hear also the measure of love. Do you wish your wife to obey you, as the Church is to obey Christ? Then ...

"Thou hast seen the measure of obedience; now hear also the measure of love. Do you wish your wife to obey you, as the Church is to obey Christ? Then have a solicitude for her as Christ had for the Church (Eph 5:23, "Himself the Saviour of the body"); and "if it be necessary to give thy life for her, or to be cut in ten thousand pieces, or to endure any other suffering whatever, do not refuse it; and if you suffer thus, not even so do you do what Christ has done; for you indeed do so being already united to her, but He did so for one that treated Him with aversion and hatred. As, therefore, He brought to His feet one that so treated Him, and that even wantonly spurned Him, by much tenderness of regard, not by threats, insults, and terror: so also do you act towards your wife, and though you see her disdainful and wantonly wayward, you will be able to bring her to your feet by much thoughtfulness for her, by love, by kindness. For no bound is more sovereign in binding than such bonds, especially in the case of husband and wife. For one may constrain a servant by fear, though not even he is so to be bound to you; for he may readily run away. But the companion of your life, the mother of your children, the basis of all your joy, you ought to bind to you, not by fear and threats, but by love and attachment" [CHRYSOSTOM].

JFB: Eph 5:25 - gave himself Greek, "gave Himself up."

Greek, "gave Himself up."

JFB: Eph 5:25 - for it Translate, "for her." The relation of the Church to Christ is the ground of Christianity's having raised woman to her due place in the social scale, f...

Translate, "for her." The relation of the Church to Christ is the ground of Christianity's having raised woman to her due place in the social scale, from which she was, and is, excluded in heathen lands.

JFB: Eph 5:26 - sanctify That is, consecrate her to God. Compare Joh 17:19, meaning, "I devote Myself as a holy sacrifice, that My disciples also may be devoted or consecrated...

That is, consecrate her to God. Compare Joh 17:19, meaning, "I devote Myself as a holy sacrifice, that My disciples also may be devoted or consecrated as holy in (through) the truth" [NEANDER] (Heb 2:11; Heb 10:10; Heb 13:12 see on Heb 10:10).

JFB: Eph 5:26 - and cleanse Rather, as Greek, "cleansing," without the "and."

Rather, as Greek, "cleansing," without the "and."

JFB: Eph 5:26 - with the washing of water Rather as Greek, "with," or "by the laver of the water," namely, the baptismal water. So it ought to be translated in Tit 3:5, the only other passage ...

Rather as Greek, "with," or "by the laver of the water," namely, the baptismal water. So it ought to be translated in Tit 3:5, the only other passage in the New Testament where it occurs. As the bride passed through a purifying bath before marriage, so the Church (compare Rev 21:2). He speaks of baptism according to its high ideal and design, as if the inward grace accompanied the outward rite; hence he asserts of outward baptism whatever is involved in a believing appropriation of the divine truths it symbolizes, and says that Christ, by baptism, has purified the Church [NEANDER] (1Pe 3:21).

JFB: Eph 5:26 - by the word Greek, "IN the word." To be joined with "cleansing it," or "her." The "word of faith" (Rom 10:8-9, Rom 10:17), of which confession is made in baptism,...

Greek, "IN the word." To be joined with "cleansing it," or "her." The "word of faith" (Rom 10:8-9, Rom 10:17), of which confession is made in baptism, and which carries the real cleansing (Joh 15:3; Joh 17:17) and regenerating power (1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 3:21) [ALFORD]. So AUGUSTINE [Tract 80, in John], "Take away the word, and what is the water save water? Add the word to the element, and it becomes a sacrament, being itself as it were the visible word." The regenerating efficacy of baptism is conveyed in, and by, the divine word alone.

JFB: Eph 5:27 - he The oldest manuscripts and authorities read, "That He might Himself present unto Himself the Church glorious," namely, as a bride (2Co 11:2). Holiness...

The oldest manuscripts and authorities read, "That He might Himself present unto Himself the Church glorious," namely, as a bride (2Co 11:2). Holiness and glory are inseparable. "Cleansing" is the necessary preliminary to both. Holiness is glory internal; glory is holiness shining forth outwardly. The laver of baptism is the vehicle, but the word is the nobler and true instrument of the cleansing [BENGEL]. It is Christ that prepares the Church with the necessary ornaments of grace, for presentation to Himself, as the Bridegroom at His coming again (Mat 25:1, &c.; Rev 19:7; Rev 21:2).

JFB: Eph 5:27 - not having spot (Son 4:7). The visible Church now contains clean and unclean together, like Noah's ark; like the wedding room which contained some that had, and othe...

(Son 4:7). The visible Church now contains clean and unclean together, like Noah's ark; like the wedding room which contained some that had, and others that had not, the wedding garment (Mat 22:10-14; compare 2Ti 2:20); or as the good and bad fish are taken in the same net because it cannot discern the bad from the good, the fishermen being unable to know what kind of fish the nets have taken under the waves. Still the Church is termed "holy" in the creed, in reference to her ideal and ultimate destination. When the Bridegroom comes, the bride shall be presented to Him wholly without spot, the evil being cut off from the body for ever (Mat 13:47-50). Not that there are two churches, one with bad and good intermingled, another in which there are good alone; but one and the same Church in relation to different times, now with good and evil together, hereafter with good alone [PEARSON].

JFB: Eph 5:28 - -- Translate, "So ought husbands also (thus the oldest manuscripts read) to love their own (compare Note, see on Eph 5:22) wives as their own bodies."

Translate, "So ought husbands also (thus the oldest manuscripts read) to love their own (compare Note, see on Eph 5:22) wives as their own bodies."

JFB: Eph 5:28 - He that loveth his wife loveth himself So there is the same love and the same union of body between Christ and the Church (Eph 5:30, Eph 5:32).

So there is the same love and the same union of body between Christ and the Church (Eph 5:30, Eph 5:32).

JFB: Eph 5:29 - For Supply, and we all love ourselves: "For no man," &c.

Supply, and we all love ourselves: "For no man," &c.

JFB: Eph 5:29 - his own flesh (Eph 5:31, end).

(Eph 5:31, end).

JFB: Eph 5:29 - nourisheth Greek, "nourisheth it up," namely, to maturity. "Nourisheth," refers to food and internal sustenance; "cherisheth," to clothing and external fostering...

Greek, "nourisheth it up," namely, to maturity. "Nourisheth," refers to food and internal sustenance; "cherisheth," to clothing and external fostering.

JFB: Eph 5:29 - even as Translate, "even as also."

Translate, "even as also."

JFB: Eph 5:29 - the Lord The oldest manuscripts read, "Christ." Exo 21:10 prescribes three duties to the husband. The two former (food and raiment) are here alluded to in a sp...

The oldest manuscripts read, "Christ." Exo 21:10 prescribes three duties to the husband. The two former (food and raiment) are here alluded to in a spiritual sense, by "nourisheth and cherisheth"; the third "duty of marriage" is not added in consonance with the holy propriety of Scripture language: its antitype is, "know the Lord" (Hos 2:19-20) [BENGEL].

JFB: Eph 5:30 - For Greek, "Because" (1Co 6:15). Christ nourisheth and cherisheth the Church as being of one flesh with Him. Translate, "Because we are members of His bod...

Greek, "Because" (1Co 6:15). Christ nourisheth and cherisheth the Church as being of one flesh with Him. Translate, "Because we are members of His body (His literal body), being OF His flesh and of His bones" [ALFORD] (Gen 2:23-24). The Greek expresses, "Being formed out of" or "of the substance of His flesh." Adam's deep sleep, wherein Eve was formed from out of his opened side, is an emblem of Christ's death, which was the birth of the Spouse, the Church. Joh 12:24; Joh 19:34-35, to which Eph 5:25-27 allude, as implying atonement by His blood, and sanctification by the "water," answering to that which flowed from His side (compare also Joh 7:38-39; 1Co 6:11). As Adam gave Eve a new name, Hebrew, "Isha," "woman," formed from his own rib, Ish, "man," signifying her formation from him, so Christ, Rev 2:17; Rev 3:12. Gen 2:21, Gen 2:23-24 puts the bones first because the reference there is to the natural structure. But Paul is referring to the flesh of Christ. It is not our bones and flesh, but "we" that are spiritually propagated (in our soul and spirit now, and in the body hereafter, regenerated) from the manhood of Christ which has flesh and bones. We are members of His glorified body (Joh 6:53). The two oldest existing manuscripts, and Coptic or Memphitic version, omit "of His flesh and of His bones"; the words may have crept into the text through the Margin from Gen 2:23, Septuagint. However, IRENÆUS, 294, and the old Latin and Vulgate versions, with some good old manuscripts, have them.

JFB: Eph 5:31 - For The propagation of the Church from Christ, as that of Eve from Adam, is the foundation of the spiritual marriage. The natural marriage, wherein "a man...

The propagation of the Church from Christ, as that of Eve from Adam, is the foundation of the spiritual marriage. The natural marriage, wherein "a man leaves father and mother (the oldest manuscripts omit 'his') and is joined unto his wife," is not the principal thing meant here, but the spiritual marriage represented by it, and on which it rests, whereby Christ left the Father's bosom to woo to Himself the Church out of a lost world: Eph 5:32 proves this: His earthly mother as such, also, He holds in secondary account as compared with His spiritual Bride (Luk 2:48-49; Luk 8:19-21; Luk 11:27-28). He shall again leave His Father's abode to consummate the union (Mat 25:1-10; Rev 19:7).

JFB: Eph 5:31 - they two shall be one flesh So the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Septuagint, &c., read (Gen 2:24), instead of "they shall be one flesh." So Mat 19:5. In natural marriage, husband and...

So the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Septuagint, &c., read (Gen 2:24), instead of "they shall be one flesh." So Mat 19:5. In natural marriage, husband and wife combine the elements of one perfect human being: the one being incomplete without the other. So Christ, as God-man, is pleased to make the Church, the body, a necessary adjunct to Himself, the Head. He is the archetype of the Church, from whom and according to whom, as the pattern, she is formed. He is her Head, as the husband is of the wife (Rom 6:5; 1Co 11:3; 1Co 15:45). Christ will never allow any power to sever Himself and His bride, indissolubly joined (Mat 19:6; Joh 10:28-29; Joh 13:1).

JFB: Eph 5:32 - -- Rather, "This mystery is a great one." This profound truth, beyond man's power of discovering, but now revealed, namely, of the spiritual union of Chr...

Rather, "This mystery is a great one." This profound truth, beyond man's power of discovering, but now revealed, namely, of the spiritual union of Christ and the Church, represented by the marriage union, is a great one, of deep import. See on Eph 5:30. So "mystery" is used of a divine truth not to be discovered save by revelation of God (Rom 11:25; 1Co 15:51). The Vulgate wrongly translates, "This is a great sacrament," which is made the plea by the Romish Church (in spite of the blunder having been long ago exposed by their own commentators, CAJETAN and ESTIUS) for making marriage a sacrament; it is plain not marriage in general, but that of Christ and the Church, is what is pronounced to be a "great mystery," as the words following prove, "I [emphatic] say it in regard to Christ and to the Church" (so the Greek is best translated). "I, while I quote these words out of Scripture, use them in a higher sense" [CONYBEARE and HOWSON].

JFB: Eph 5:33 - Nevertheless Not to pursue further the mystical meaning of marriage. Translate, as Greek, "Do ye also (as Christ does) severally each one so love," &c. The words, ...

Not to pursue further the mystical meaning of marriage. Translate, as Greek, "Do ye also (as Christ does) severally each one so love," &c. The words, "severally each one," refer to them in their individual capacity, contrasted with the previous collective view of the members of the Church as the bride of Christ.

Clarke: Eph 5:1 - Be ye therefore followers of God Be ye therefore followers of God - The beginning of this chapter is properly a continuation of the preceding, which should have ended with the secon...

Be ye therefore followers of God - The beginning of this chapter is properly a continuation of the preceding, which should have ended with the second verse of this. The word μιμηται, which we translate followers, signifies such as personate others, assuming their gait, mode of speech, accent, carriage, etc.; and it is from this Greek word that we have the word mimic. Though this term is often used in a ludicrous sense, yet here it is to be understood in a very solemn and proper sense. Let your whole conduct be like that of your Lord; imitate him in all your actions, words, spirit, and inclinations; imitate him as children do their beloved parents, and remember that you stand in the relation of beloved children to him. It is natural for children to imitate their parents; it is their constant aim to learn of them, and to copy them in all things; whatever they see the parent do, whatever they hear him speak, that they endeavor to copy and imitate; yea, they go farther, they insensibly copy the very tempers of their parents. If ye therefore be children of God, show this love to your heavenly Father, and imitate all his moral perfections, and acquire the mind that was in Jesus.

Clarke: Eph 5:2 - And walk in love And walk in love - Let every act of life be dictated by love to God and man

And walk in love - Let every act of life be dictated by love to God and man

Clarke: Eph 5:2 - As Christ - hath loved us As Christ - hath loved us - Laying down your lives for your brethren if necessary; counting nothing too difficult to be done in order to promote the...

As Christ - hath loved us - Laying down your lives for your brethren if necessary; counting nothing too difficult to be done in order to promote their eternal salvation

Clarke: Eph 5:2 - Hath given himself for us Hath given himself for us - Christ hath died in our stead, and become thereby a sacrifice for our sins

Hath given himself for us - Christ hath died in our stead, and become thereby a sacrifice for our sins

Clarke: Eph 5:2 - An offering An offering - Προσφορα· An oblation, an eucharistic offering; the same as מנחה minchah , Lev 2:1, etc., which is explained to be an ...

An offering - Προσφορα· An oblation, an eucharistic offering; the same as מנחה minchah , Lev 2:1, etc., which is explained to be an offering made unto the Lord, of fine flour, with oil and frankincense. It means, any offering by which gratitude was expressed for temporal blessings received from the bounty of God

Clarke: Eph 5:2 - A sacrifice A sacrifice - Θυσια· A sin-offering, a victim for sin; the same as זבח zebach , which almost universally means that sacrificial act in w...

A sacrifice - Θυσια· A sin-offering, a victim for sin; the same as זבח zebach , which almost universally means that sacrificial act in which the blood of an animal was poured out as an atonement for sin. These terms may be justly considered as including every kind of sacrifice, offering, and oblation made to God on any account; and both these terms are with propriety used here, because the apostle’ s design was to represent the sufficiency of the offering made by Christ for the sin of the world. And the passage strongly intimates, that as man is bound to be grateful to God for the good things of this life, so he should testify that gratitude by suitable offerings; but having sinned against God, he has forfeited all earthly blessings as well as those that come from heaven; and that Jesus Christ gave himself ὑπερ ἡμων, in our stead and on our account, as the gratitude-offering, προσφορα, which we owed to our Maker, and, without which a continuance of temporal blessings could not be expected; and also as a sacrifice for sin, θυσια, without which we could never approach God, and without which we must be punished with an everlasting destruction from the presence of God and the glory of his power. Thus we find that even our temporal blessings come from and by Jesus Christ, as well as all our spiritual and eternal mercies

Clarke: Eph 5:2 - For a sweet-smelling savor For a sweet-smelling savor - Εις οσμην ευωδιας· The same as is expressed in Gen 8:21; Lev 1:9; Lev 3:16 : ריח ניהוח לי...

For a sweet-smelling savor - Εις οσμην ευωδιας· The same as is expressed in Gen 8:21; Lev 1:9; Lev 3:16 : ריח ניהוח ליהוה reiach nichoach laihovah , "a sweet savor unto the Lord;"i.e. an offering of his own prescription, and one with which he was well pleased; and by accepting of which he showed that he accepted the person who offered it. The sweet-smelling savor refers to the burnt-offerings, the fumes of which ascended from the fire in the act of burning; and as such odors are grateful to man, God represents himself as pleased with them, when offered by an upright worshipper according to his own appointment.

Clarke: Eph 5:3 - But fornication But fornication - It is probable that the three terms used here by the apostle refer to different species of the same thing. The word fornication, ...

But fornication - It is probable that the three terms used here by the apostle refer to different species of the same thing. The word fornication, πορνεια, may imply not only fornication but adultery also, as it frequently does; uncleanness, ακαθαρσια may refer to all abominable and unnatural lusts - sodomy, bestiality, etc., and covetousness, πλεονεξια, to excessive indulgence in that which, moderately used, is lawful. As the covetous man never has enough of wealth, so the pleasure-taker and the libertine never have enough of the gratifications of sense, the appetite increasing in proportion to its indulgence. If, however, simple covetousness, i.e. the love of gain, be here intended, it shows from the connection in which it stands, (for it is linked with fornication, adultery, and all uncleanness), how degrading it is to the soul of man, and how abominable it is in the eye of God. In other places it is ranked with idolatry, for the man who has an inordinate love of gain makes money his god

Clarke: Eph 5:3 - Let it not be once named Let it not be once named - Let no such things ever exist among you, for ye are called to be saints.

Let it not be once named - Let no such things ever exist among you, for ye are called to be saints.

Clarke: Eph 5:4 - Neither filthiness Neither filthiness - Αισχροτης· Any thing base or vile in words or acts

Neither filthiness - Αισχροτης· Any thing base or vile in words or acts

Clarke: Eph 5:4 - Foolish talking Foolish talking - Μωρολογια· Scurrility, buffoonery, ridicule, or what tends to expose another to contempt

Foolish talking - Μωρολογια· Scurrility, buffoonery, ridicule, or what tends to expose another to contempt

Clarke: Eph 5:4 - Nor jesting Nor jesting - Ευτραπελια· Artfully turned discourses or words, from ευ, well or easily, and τρεπω, I turn; words that can be e...

Nor jesting - Ευτραπελια· Artfully turned discourses or words, from ευ, well or easily, and τρεπω, I turn; words that can be easily turned to other meanings; double entendres; chaste words which, from their connection, and the manner in which they are used, convey an obscene or offensive meaning. It also means jests, puns, witty sayings, and mountebank repartees of all kinds

Clarke: Eph 5:4 - Which are not convenient Which are not convenient - Ουκ ανηκοντα· They do not come up to the proper standard; they are utterly improper in themselves, and high...

Which are not convenient - Ουκ ανηκοντα· They do not come up to the proper standard; they are utterly improper in themselves, and highly unbecoming in those who profess Christianity

Clarke: Eph 5:4 - But rather giving of thanks But rather giving of thanks - Ευχαριστια· Decent and edifying discourse or thanksgiving to God. Prayer or praise is the most suitable l...

But rather giving of thanks - Ευχαριστια· Decent and edifying discourse or thanksgiving to God. Prayer or praise is the most suitable language for man; and he who is of a trifling, light disposition, is ill fitted for either. How can a man, who has been talking foolishly or jestingly in company, go in private to magnify God for the use of his tongue which he has abused, or his rational faculties which he has degraded?

Clarke: Eph 5:5 - For this ye know For this ye know - Ye must be convinced of the dangerous and ruinous tendency of such a spirit and conduct, when ye know that persons of this charac...

For this ye know - Ye must be convinced of the dangerous and ruinous tendency of such a spirit and conduct, when ye know that persons of this character can never inherit the kingdom of God. See on Eph 5:3 (note); and see the observations on the Greek article at the end of this epistle.

Clarke: Eph 5:6 - Let no man deceive you Let no man deceive you - Suffer no man to persuade you that any of these things are innocent, or that they are unavoidable frailties of human nature...

Let no man deceive you - Suffer no man to persuade you that any of these things are innocent, or that they are unavoidable frailties of human nature; they are all sins and abominations in the sight of God; those who practice them are children of disobedience; and on account of such practices the wrath of God - Divine punishment, must come upon them.

Clarke: Eph 5:7 - Be not ye therefore partakers with them Be not ye therefore partakers with them - Do not act as your fellow citizens do; nor suffer their philosophy, to it in vain words, κενοις λ...

Be not ye therefore partakers with them - Do not act as your fellow citizens do; nor suffer their philosophy, to it in vain words, κενοις λογοις, with empty and illusive doctrines, to lead you astray from the path of truth

That there was much need for such directions and cautions to the people of Ephesus has been often remarked. It appears, from Athenaeus, that these people were addicted to luxury, effeminacy etc. He tells us that the famous Aspasia, who was herself of the Socratic sect, brought a vast number of beautiful women into Greece, and by their means filled the country with prostitutes, και επληθυνεν απο των ταυτης ἑταιριδων ἡ Ελλας, lib. xiii. cap. 25. Ibid. cap. 31, he observes that the Ephesians had dedicated temples ἑταιρᾳ Αφροδιτῃ, to the prostitute Venus; and again, cap. 32, he quotes from Demosthenes, in Orat. contra Neaeram: τας μεν ἑταιρας ἡδονης ἑνεκα εχομεν, τας δε παλλακας της καθ ἡμεραν παλλακειας, τας δε γυναικας του παιδοποιεισθαι γνησιως, και των ενδον φυλακα πιστην εχειν· "We have whores for our pleasure, harlots for daily use, and wives for the procreation of legitimate children, and for the faithful preservation of our property."Through the whole of this 13th book of Athenaeus the reader will see the most melancholy proofs of the most abominable practices among the Greeks, and the high estimation in which public prostitutes were held; the greatest lawgivers and the wisest philosophers among the Greeks supported this system both by their authority and example. Is it not in reference to their teaching and laws that the apostle says: Let no man deceive you with vain words?

Clarke: Eph 5:8 - For ye were sometimes ( ποτε, formerly) darkness For ye were sometimes ( ποτε, formerly) darkness - While ye lived in darkness, ye lived in these crimes

For ye were sometimes ( ποτε, formerly) darkness - While ye lived in darkness, ye lived in these crimes

Clarke: Eph 5:8 - But now are ye light in the Lord But now are ye light in the Lord - When ye were in heathenish darkness ye served divers lusts and pleasures, but now ye have the light - the wisdom ...

But now are ye light in the Lord - When ye were in heathenish darkness ye served divers lusts and pleasures, but now ye have the light - the wisdom and teaching which come from God; therefore walk as children of the light - let the world see that ye are not slaves to the flesh, but free, willing, rational servants of the Most High; not brutish followers of devil gods.

Clarke: Eph 5:9 - For the fruit of the Spirit For the fruit of the Spirit - Instead of Spirit, Πνευματος, ABD*EFG, the Syriac, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala, ...

For the fruit of the Spirit - Instead of Spirit, Πνευματος, ABD*EFG, the Syriac, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala, together with several of the fathers, read φωτος, light, which is supposed by most critics to be the true reading, because there is no mention made of the Spirit in any part of the context. As light, Eph 5:8, not only means the Divine influence upon the soul, but also the Gospel, with great propriety it may be said: The fruit of the light, i.e. of the Gospel, is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth. Goodness, αγαθωσυνῃ, in the principle and disposition; righteousness, δικαιοσυνη, the exercise of that goodness in the whole conduct of life; truth, αληθεια, the director of that principle, and its exercise, to the glorification of God and the good of mankind.

Clarke: Eph 5:10 - Proving what is acceptable Proving what is acceptable - By walking in the light - under the influence of the Divine Spirit, according to the dictates of the Gospel, ye shall b...

Proving what is acceptable - By walking in the light - under the influence of the Divine Spirit, according to the dictates of the Gospel, ye shall be able to try, and bring to full proof, that by which God is best pleased. Ye shall be able to please him well in all things.

Clarke: Eph 5:11 - Have no fellowship Have no fellowship - Have no religious connection whatever with heathens or their worship

Have no fellowship - Have no religious connection whatever with heathens or their worship

Clarke: Eph 5:11 - Unfruitful works of darkness Unfruitful works of darkness - Probably alluding to the mysteries among the heathens, and the different lustrations and rites through which the init...

Unfruitful works of darkness - Probably alluding to the mysteries among the heathens, and the different lustrations and rites through which the initiated went in the caves and dark recesses where these mysteries were celebrated; all which he denominates works of darkness, because they were destitute of true wisdom; and unfruitful works, because they were of no use to mankind; the initiated being obliged, on pain of death, to keep secret what they had seen, heard, and done: hence they were called απορῥητα μυστηρια, unspeakable mysteries - things that were not to be divulged. That the apostle may refer to magic and incantations is also probable, for to these the Ephesians were greatly addicted. See the proofs in the notes on Act 19:19

Clarke: Eph 5:11 - Rather reprove them Rather reprove them - Bear a testimony against them; convince them that they are wrong; confute them in their vain reasons; reprove them for their v...

Rather reprove them - Bear a testimony against them; convince them that they are wrong; confute them in their vain reasons; reprove them for their vices, which are flagrant, while pretending to superior illumination. All these meanings has the Greek word ελεγχω, which we generally render to convince or reprove.

Clarke: Eph 5:12 - For it is a shame even to speak For it is a shame even to speak - This no doubt refers to the Eleusinian and Bacchanalian mysteries, which were performed in the night and darkness,...

For it is a shame even to speak - This no doubt refers to the Eleusinian and Bacchanalian mysteries, which were performed in the night and darkness, and were known to be so impure and abominable, especially the latter, that the Roman senate banished them both from Rome and Italy. How the discovery of these depths of Satan was made, and the whole proceedings in that case, may be seen in Livy, Hist. lib. xxxix. cap. 8-19, where the reader will see the force of what the apostle says here: It is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret; the abominations being of the most stupendous kind, and of the deepest dye.

Clarke: Eph 5:13 - But all things that are reproved But all things that are reproved - Dr. Macknight paraphrases this verse as follows: "Now all these reprovable actions, ελεγχομενα, which ...

But all things that are reproved - Dr. Macknight paraphrases this verse as follows: "Now all these reprovable actions, ελεγχομενα, which are practised in celebrating these mysteries, are made manifest as sinful by the Gospel; and, seeing every thing which discovers the true nature of actions is light, the Gospel, which discovers the evil nature of the actions performed in these mysteries, is light.

The apostle speaks against these mysteries as he speaks against fornication, uncleanness, and covetousness; but by no means either borrows expression or similitude from them to illustrate Divine truths; for, as it would be a shame even to speak of those things, surely it would be an abomination to allude to them in the illustration of the doctrines of the Gospel.

Clarke: Eph 5:14 - Wherefore he saith Wherefore he saith - It is a matter of doubt and controversy whence this saying is derived. Some think it taken from Isa 26:19 : Thy dead men shall ...

Wherefore he saith - It is a matter of doubt and controversy whence this saying is derived. Some think it taken from Isa 26:19 : Thy dead men shall live; with my dead body shall they arise; Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust, etc. Others think that it is taken from Isa 60:1-3 : Arise, shine; for thy light is come, etc. But these passages neither give the words nor the meaning of the apostle. Epiphanius supposed them to be taken from an ancient prophecy of Elijah, long since lost: Syncellus and Euthalius think they were taken from an apocryphal work attributed to Jeremiah the prophet: others, that they made part of a hymn then used in the Christian Church; for that there were, in the apostle’ s time, hymns and spiritual songs, as well as psalms, we learn from himself, in Eph 5:19, and from Col 3:16. The hymn is supposed to have begun thus: -

Εγειραι ὁ καθευδων,

Και αναστα εκ των νεκρων,

Επιφαυσει σοι ὁ Χριστος.

Awake, O thou who sleepest

And from the dead arise thou

And Christ shall shine upon thee

See Rosenmuller, Wolf, and others. But it seems more natural to understand the words he saith as referring to the light, i.e. the Gospel, mentioned Eph 5:13. And the διο λεγει should be translated, Wherefore It saith, Awake thou, etc. that is: This is the general, the strong, commanding voice of the Gospel in every part - Receive instruction; leave thy sins, which are leading thee to perdition; believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and he will enlighten and save thee

As a man asleep neither knows nor does any thing that can be called good or useful, so the Gentiles and all others, while without the knowledge of Christianity, had not only no proper knowledge of vice and virtue, but they had no correct notion of the true God

As the dead can perform no function of life, so the Gentiles and the unconverted were incapable of performing any thing worthy either of life or being. But though they were asleep - in a state of complete spiritual torpor, yet they might be awoke by the voice of the Gospel; and though dead to all goodness, and to every function of the spiritual life, yet, as their animal life was whole in them, and perception and reason were still left, they were capable of hearing the Gospel, and under that influence which always accompanies it when faithfully preached, they could discern its excellency, and find it to be the power of God to their salvation. And they are addressed by the apostle as possessing this capacity; and, on their using it properly, have the promise that Christ shall enlighten them.

Clarke: Eph 5:15 - Walk circumspectly Walk circumspectly - Our word circumspect, from the Latin circirmspicio , signifies to look round about on all hands; to be every way watchful, wary...

Walk circumspectly - Our word circumspect, from the Latin circirmspicio , signifies to look round about on all hands; to be every way watchful, wary, and cautious, in order to avoid danger, discern enemies before they come too nigh, and secure a man’ s interest by every possible and lawful means. But the original word ακριβως signifies correctly, accurately, consistently, or perfectly. Be ye, who have received the truth, careful of your conduct; walk by the rule which God has given you; do this as well in little as in great matters; exemplify your principles, which are holy and good, by a corresponding conduct; do not only profess, but live the Gospel. As you embrace all its promises, be careful also to embrace all its precepts; and behave yourselves so, that your enemies may never be able to say that ye are holy in your doctrines and profession, but irregular in your lives

Clarke: Eph 5:15 - Not as fools, but as wise Not as fools, but as wise - Μη ὡς ασοφοι, αλλ ’ ὡς σοφοι . The heathens affected to be called σοφοι, or wise m...

Not as fools, but as wise - Μη ὡς ασοφοι, αλλ ὡς σοφοι . The heathens affected to be called σοφοι, or wise men. Pythagoras was perhaps the first who corrected this vanity, by assuming the title of φιλοσοφος, a lover of wisdom; hence our term philosopher, used now in a much prouder sense than that in which the great Pythagoras wished it to be applied. The apostle here takes the term σοφος, and applies it to the Christian; and, instead of it, gives the empty Gentile philosopher the title of ασοφος, without wisdom, fool.

Clarke: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming the time Redeeming the time - Εξαγοραζομενοι τον καιρον· Buying up those moments which others seem to throw away; steadily improvin...

Redeeming the time - Εξαγοραζομενοι τον καιρον· Buying up those moments which others seem to throw away; steadily improving every present moment, that ye may, in some measure, regain the time ye have lost. Let time be your chief commodity; deal in that alone; buy it all up, and use every portion of it yourselves. Time is that on which eternity depends; in time ye are to get a preparation for the kingdom of God; if you get not this in time, your ruin is inevitable; therefore, buy up the time

Some think there is an allusion here to the case of debtors, who, by giving some valuable consideration to their creditors, obtain farther time for paying their debts. And this appears to be the sense in which it is used by the Septuagint, Dan 2:8 : Επ αληθειας οιδα εγω, ὁτι καιρον ὑμεις εξαγοραζετε· I know certainly that ye would gain or buy time - ye wish to have the time prolonged, that ye may seek out for some plausible explanation of the dream. Perhaps the apostle means in general, embrace every opportunity to glorify God, save your own souls, and do good to men

Clarke: Eph 5:16 - Because the days are evil Because the days are evil - The present times are dangerous, they are full of trouble and temptations, and only the watchful and diligent have any r...

Because the days are evil - The present times are dangerous, they are full of trouble and temptations, and only the watchful and diligent have any reason to expect that they shall keep their garments unspotted.

Clarke: Eph 5:17 - Wherefore be ye not unwise Wherefore be ye not unwise - Μη γινεσθε αφρονες· Do not become madmen. Here is a most evident allusion to the orgies of Bacchus, ...

Wherefore be ye not unwise - Μη γινεσθε αφρονες· Do not become madmen. Here is a most evident allusion to the orgies of Bacchus, in which his votaries acted like madmen; running about, tossing their heads from shoulder to shoulder, appearing to be in every sense completely frantic. See the whole of the passage in Livy, to which I have referred on Eph 5:12

Clarke: Eph 5:17 - But understanding what the will of the Lord is But understanding what the will of the Lord is - It is the will of God that ye should be sober, chaste, holy, and pure. Get a thorough understanding...

But understanding what the will of the Lord is - It is the will of God that ye should be sober, chaste, holy, and pure. Get a thorough understanding of this; acquaint yourselves with God’ s will, that ye may know how to glorify him.

Clarke: Eph 5:18 - Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess - This is a farther allusion to the Bacchanalian mysteries; in them his votaries got drunk, and ran into a...

Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess - This is a farther allusion to the Bacchanalian mysteries; in them his votaries got drunk, and ran into all manner of excesses. Plato, though he forbade drunkenness in general, yet allowed that the people should get drunk in the solemnities of that god who invented wine. And indeed this was their common custom; when they had offered their sacrifices they indulged themselves in drunkenness, and ran into all kinds of extravagance. Hence it is probable that μεθυω, to get drunk, is derived from μετα, after, and θυω, to sacrifice; for, having completed their sacrifices, they indulged themselves in wine. The word ασωτια, which we translate excess, means profligacy and debauchery of every kind; such as are the general concomitants of drunkenness, and especially among the votaries of Bacchus in Greece and Italy

Clarke: Eph 5:18 - But be filled with the Spirit But be filled with the Spirit - The heathen priests pretended to be filled with the influence of the god they worshipped; and it was in these circum...

But be filled with the Spirit - The heathen priests pretended to be filled with the influence of the god they worshipped; and it was in these circumstances that they gave out their oracles. See a remarkable instance of this quoted in the note on Luk 9:39 (note), where the case of a Bacchanalian is described. The apostle exhorts the Ephesians not to resemble these, but, instead of being filled with wine, to be filled with the Spirit of God; in consequence of which, instead of those discoveries of the Divine will to which in their drunken worship the votaries of Bacchus pretended, they should be wise indeed, and should understand what the will of the Lord is.

Clarke: Eph 5:19 - Speaking to yourselves in psalms Speaking to yourselves in psalms - We can scarcely say what is the exact difference between these three expressions. Psalms, ψαλμοι, may prob...

Speaking to yourselves in psalms - We can scarcely say what is the exact difference between these three expressions. Psalms, ψαλμοι, may probably mean those of David

Clarke: Eph 5:19 - Hymns Hymns - Ὑμνοις· Extemporaneous effusions in praise of God, uttered under the influence of the Divine Spirit, or a sense of his especial g...

Hymns - Ὑμνοις· Extemporaneous effusions in praise of God, uttered under the influence of the Divine Spirit, or a sense of his especial goodness. See Act 16:25

Clarke: Eph 5:19 - Songs Songs - Ωιδαις· Odes; premeditated and regular poetic compositions; but, in whatever form they were composed, we learn that they were all ...

Songs - Ωιδαις· Odes; premeditated and regular poetic compositions; but, in whatever form they were composed, we learn that they were all πνευματικα, spiritual - tending to magnify God and edify men

Clarke: Eph 5:19 - Singing and making melody in your heart Singing and making melody in your heart - The heart always going with the lips. It is a shocking profanation of Divine worship to draw nigh to God w...

Singing and making melody in your heart - The heart always going with the lips. It is a shocking profanation of Divine worship to draw nigh to God with the lips, while the heart is far from him. It is too often the case that, in public worship, men are carried off from the sense of the words by the sounds that are put to them. And how few choirs of singers are there in the universe whose hearts ever accompany them in what they call singing the praises of God!

Clarke: Eph 5:20 - Giving thanks always Giving thanks always - God is continually loading you with his benefits; you deserve nothing of his kindness; therefore give him thanks for his unme...

Giving thanks always - God is continually loading you with his benefits; you deserve nothing of his kindness; therefore give him thanks for his unmerited bounties

Clarke: Eph 5:20 - God and the Father God and the Father - That is: God, who is your Father, and the Father of mercies. See the observations on the Greek article at the end of this epist...

God and the Father - That is: God, who is your Father, and the Father of mercies. See the observations on the Greek article at the end of this epistle

Clarke: Eph 5:20 - In the name of our Lord Jesus In the name of our Lord Jesus - He is the only mediator; and through him alone can ye approach to God; and it is for his sake only that God will hea...

In the name of our Lord Jesus - He is the only mediator; and through him alone can ye approach to God; and it is for his sake only that God will hear your prayers or receive your praises.

Clarke: Eph 5:21 - Submitting - one to another Submitting - one to another - Let no man be so tenacious of his own will or his opinion in matters indifferent, as to disturb the peace of the Churc...

Submitting - one to another - Let no man be so tenacious of his own will or his opinion in matters indifferent, as to disturb the peace of the Church; in all such matters give way to each other, and let love rule

Clarke: Eph 5:21 - In the fear of God In the fear of God - Setting him always before your eyes, and considering that he has commanded you to love one another, and to bear each other̵...

In the fear of God - Setting him always before your eyes, and considering that he has commanded you to love one another, and to bear each other’ s burdens; and that what you do in this or any other commanded case, you do as unto the Lord. Instead of εν φοβῳ Θεου, in the fear of God, εν φοβω Χριστου, in the fear of Christ, is the reading of ABDEFG, with all others of most value; besides the Syriac, Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala; Basil the Great, and Chrysostom. Neither reading makes any difference in the sense.

Clarke: Eph 5:22 - Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands - As the Lord, viz. Christ, is the head or governor of the Church, and the head of the man, so is th...

Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands - As the Lord, viz. Christ, is the head or governor of the Church, and the head of the man, so is the man the head or governor of the woman. This is God’ s ordinance, and should not be transgressed. The husband should not be a tyrant, and the wife should not be the governor. Old Francis Quarles, in his homely rhymes, alluding to the superstitious notion, that the crowing of a hen bodes ill luck to the family, has said: -

"Ill thrives the hapless family that show

A cock that’ s silent, and a hen that crows

I know not which live most unnatural lives

Obeying husbands or commanding wives.

Clarke: Eph 5:22 - As unto the Lord As unto the Lord - The word Church seems to be necessarily understood here; that is: Act under the authority of your husbands, as the Church acts un...

As unto the Lord - The word Church seems to be necessarily understood here; that is: Act under the authority of your husbands, as the Church acts under the authority of Christ. As the Church submits to the Lord, so let wives submit to their husbands.

Clarke: Eph 5:23 - For the husband is the head of the wife For the husband is the head of the wife - This is the reason which the apostle gives for his injunctions. See above

For the husband is the head of the wife - This is the reason which the apostle gives for his injunctions. See above

Clarke: Eph 5:23 - He is the Savior of the body He is the Savior of the body - As Christ exercises authority over the Church so as to save and protect it, so let the husband exercise authority ove...

He is the Savior of the body - As Christ exercises authority over the Church so as to save and protect it, so let the husband exercise authority over his wife by protecting, comforting, and providing her with every necessary and comfort of life, according to his power.

Clarke: Eph 5:24 - In every thing In every thing - That is, every lawful thing; for it is not intimated that they should obey their husbands in any thing criminal, or in any thing de...

In every thing - That is, every lawful thing; for it is not intimated that they should obey their husbands in any thing criminal, or in any thing detrimental to the interests of their souls. The husband may be profligate, and may wish his wife to become such also; he may be an enemy to true religion, and use his authority to prevent his wife from those means of grace which she finds salutary to her soul; in none of these things should she obey him.

Clarke: Eph 5:25 - Husbands, love your wives Husbands, love your wives - Here is a grand rule, according to which every husband is called to act: Love your wife as Christ loved the Church. But ...

Husbands, love your wives - Here is a grand rule, according to which every husband is called to act: Love your wife as Christ loved the Church. But how did Christ love the Church? He gave himself for it - he laid down his life for it. So then husbands should, if necessary, lay down their lives for their wives: and there is more implied in the words than mere protection and support; for, as Christ gave himself for the Church to save it, so husbands should, by all means in their power, labor to promote the salvation of their wives, and their constant edification in righteousness. Thus we find that the authority of the man over the woman is founded on his love to her, and this love must be such as to lead him to risk his life for her. As the care of the family devolves on the wife, and the children must owe the chief direction of their minds and formation of their manners to the mother, she has need of all the assistance and support which her husband can give her; and, if she performs her duty well, she deserves the utmost of his love and affection.

Clarke: Eph 5:26 - That he might sanctify and cleanse it That he might sanctify and cleanse it - The Church is represented as the spouse of Christ, as the woman is the spouse of the man; and, to prepare th...

That he might sanctify and cleanse it - The Church is represented as the spouse of Christ, as the woman is the spouse of the man; and, to prepare this Church for himself, he washes, cleanses, and sanctifies it. There is certainly an allusion here to the ancient method of purifying women, who were appointed to be consorts to kings; twelve months, it appears, were in some instances spent in this purification: Six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odors and with other things, for the purifying of women. See the case of Esther, Est 2:12; see also Psa 45:13, Psa 45:14; Eze 16:7-14

Clarke: Eph 5:26 - With the washing of water With the washing of water - Baptism, accompanied by the purifying influences of the Holy Spirit

With the washing of water - Baptism, accompanied by the purifying influences of the Holy Spirit

Clarke: Eph 5:26 - By the word By the word - The doctrine of Christ crucified, through which baptism is administered, sin canceled, and the soul purified from all unrighteousness;...

By the word - The doctrine of Christ crucified, through which baptism is administered, sin canceled, and the soul purified from all unrighteousness; the death of Christ giving efficacy to all.

Clarke: Eph 5:27 - That he might present it to himself That he might present it to himself - It was usual to bring the royal bride to the king in the most sumptuous apparel; and is there not here an allu...

That he might present it to himself - It was usual to bring the royal bride to the king in the most sumptuous apparel; and is there not here an allusion to Psa 45:13, Psa 45:14 : The king’ s daughter (Pharaoh’ s) is all glorious within, her clothing is of wrought gold; she shall be brought unto the king (Solomon) in raiment of needlework? This presentation here spoken of by the apostle will take place on the last day. See the note on 2Co 11:2

Clarke: Eph 5:27 - A glorious Church A glorious Church - Every way splendid and honorable, because pure and holy

A glorious Church - Every way splendid and honorable, because pure and holy

Clarke: Eph 5:27 - Not having spot Not having spot - Σπιλος· No blemish on the face; no spots upon the garment; the heart and life both holy

Not having spot - Σπιλος· No blemish on the face; no spots upon the garment; the heart and life both holy

Clarke: Eph 5:27 - Wrinkle Wrinkle - Ῥυτιδα· No mark of superannuation or decay. The word is commonly applied to wrinkles on the face, indicative of sickness or dec...

Wrinkle - Ῥυτιδα· No mark of superannuation or decay. The word is commonly applied to wrinkles on the face, indicative of sickness or decrepitude

Clarke: Eph 5:27 - Holy and without blemish Holy and without blemish - In every sense holy, pure, and perfect. Now it was for this purpose that Christ gave himself for the Church; and for this...

Holy and without blemish - In every sense holy, pure, and perfect. Now it was for this purpose that Christ gave himself for the Church; and for this purpose he continues the different ordinances which he has appointed; and, particularly, the preaching of the word - the doctrine of reconciliation through faith in his blood. And it is in this life that all this purification is to take place; for none shall be presented at the day of judgment to him who has not here been sanctified, cleansed, washed, made glorious, having neither spot, wrinkle, blemish, nor any such thing. How vain is the pretension of multitudes to be members of the true Church while full of spots, wrinkles, blemishes, and Many such things; fondly supposing that their holiness is in their surety, because not in themselves! Reader, lay thy hand on thy conscience and say, Dost thou believe that this is St. Paul’ s meaning? See the notes on Eph 3:14, etc.

Clarke: Eph 5:28 - As their own bodies As their own bodies - For the woman is, properly speaking, a part of the man; for God made man male and female, and the woman was taken out of his s...

As their own bodies - For the woman is, properly speaking, a part of the man; for God made man male and female, and the woman was taken out of his side; therefore is she flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone; and therefore, he that loveth his wife loveth himself, for they two are one flesh. The apostle, in all these verses, refers to the creation and original state of the first human pair.

Clarke: Eph 5:29 - No man ever yet hated his own flesh No man ever yet hated his own flesh - And this is a natural reason why he should love his wife, and nourish and cherish her.

No man ever yet hated his own flesh - And this is a natural reason why he should love his wife, and nourish and cherish her.

Clarke: Eph 5:30 - We are members of his body We are members of his body - He has partaken of our nature, as we have partaken of the nature of Adam. And as he is the head of the Church and the S...

We are members of his body - He has partaken of our nature, as we have partaken of the nature of Adam. And as he is the head of the Church and the Savior of this body; so we, being members of the Church, are members of his mystical body. That is, we are united to him by one Spirit in the closest intimacy, even similar to that which the members have with the body.

Clarke: Eph 5:31 - Shall be joined unto his wife Shall be joined unto his wife - Προσκολληθησεται· He shall be glued or cemented to her; and, as a well-glued board will sooner br...

Shall be joined unto his wife - Προσκολληθησεται· He shall be glued or cemented to her; and, as a well-glued board will sooner break in the whole wood than in the glued joint, so death alone can part the husband and wife; and nothing but death should dissolve their affection. See the notes on Gen 2:21-24 (note).

Clarke: Eph 5:32 - This is a great mystery This is a great mystery - Το μυστηριον τουτο μεγα εστιν· This mystery is great. Sacramentum hoc magnum est ; this sacra...

This is a great mystery - Το μυστηριον τουτο μεγα εστιν· This mystery is great. Sacramentum hoc magnum est ; this sacrament is great. - Vulgate. And on the evidence of this version the Church of Rome has made matrimony a sacrament, which, as they use it, is no meaning of the original. By mystery, here, we may understand a natural thing by which some spiritual matter is signified, which signification the Spirit of God alone can give. So, here, the creation and union of Adam and Eve, were intended, in the design of God, to point out the union of Christ and the Church: a union the most important that can be conceived; and therefore the apostle calls it a great mystery. See the observations at the end of this chapter, (Eph 5:33 (note)).

Clarke: Eph 5:33 - Nevertheless Nevertheless - Πλην· Moreover, or therefore, on the consideration of God’ s design in the institution of marriage, let every one of you ...

Nevertheless - Πλην· Moreover, or therefore, on the consideration of God’ s design in the institution of marriage, let every one of you love his wife as himself, because she is both naturally and by a Divine ordinance a part of himself

Clarke: Eph 5:33 - That she reverence her husband That she reverence her husband - Let the wife ever consider the husband as her head, and this he is, not only by nature, but also by the ordinance o...

That she reverence her husband - Let the wife ever consider the husband as her head, and this he is, not only by nature, but also by the ordinance of God. These are very important matters, and on them the apostle lays great stress. See the following observations

There is one subject in the preceding verse on which I could not enlarge sufficiently in the notes, and which I have reserved for this place; viz. what the apostle says concerning the mystery of marriage, which certainly has a deeper meaning than what is generally apprehended. Dr. Macknight has some good observations on this part of the subject, which I shall beg leave to lay before my readers

1.    "The apostle calls the formation of Eve from Adam’ s body, his marriage with her; and the intimate union established between them by that marriage, a great mystery, because it contained an important emblematical meaning concerning the regeneration of believers, and their union with Christ, which hitherto had been kept secret, but which he had discovered in the 30th verse. For there, in allusion to what Adam said concerning Eve, ‘ This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh,’ the apostle says, concerning Christ and believers: We are bone of his bones, and flesh of his flesh: that is, we are parts of his body, the Church. And by this application of Adam’ s words concerning Eve to Christ and to his Church, he intimates

First, That the formation of Eve of a rib taken out of Adam’ s body was a figure of the regeneration of believers by the breaking of Christ’ s body, mentioned Eph 5:25

Secondly, That Adam’ s love to Eve, on account of her being formed of his body, was a figure of Christ’ s love to believers because they are become his body, Eph 5:30

Thirdly, That Adam’ s marriage with Eve was a figure of the eternal union of Christ with believers in heaven, mentioned Eph 5:27. For he left his Father to be united to his Church

2.    "In giving this emblematical representation of these ancient facts, the apostle has not exceeded the bounds of probability. In the first age, neither the art of writing, nor any permanent method of conveying instruction, being invented, it was necessary to make such striking actions and events as could not easily be forgotten emblems of the instruction meant to be perpetuated. On this supposition, Adam, in whom the human race began, was a natural image of Christ, in whom the human race was to be restored; and his deep sleep, the opening of his side, and the formation of Eve of a rib taken out of his side, were fit emblems of Christ’ s death, of the opening of his side on the cross, and of the regeneration of believers by his death. The love which Adam expressed towards Eve, and his union with her by marriage, were lively images of Christ’ s love to believers, and of his eternal union with them in one society after their resurrection; and Eve herself, who was formed of a rib taken from Adam’ s side, was a natural image of believers, who are regenerated, both in their body and in their mind, by the breaking of Christ’ s side on the cross. Thus, the circumstances which accompanied the formation of Eve being fit emblems of the formation of the Church, we may suppose they were brought to pass to prefigure that great event; and, by prefiguring it, to show that it was decreed of God from the very beginning

3.    "The aptness, however, of these images is not the only reason for supposing that the formation of Eve, and her marriage with Adam in paradise, were emblems of the regeneration of believers by the death of Christ, and of their eternal union with him in heaven. The singular manner in which Eve was formed, and the declaration at her marriage with Adam, ‘ Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh,’ strongly lead to that conclusion. Eve was not formed of the dust of the earth, as all other living things were made, (not excepting Adam himself), but of a rib taken from Adam’ s side while he was in a deep sleep. Now, for this diversity, what reason can be assigned, if that which the apostle hath suggested is not admitted? Farther: unless some deep instruction were couched under the formation of Eve, what occasion was there for Adam, at his marriage with her, to declare, ‘ This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man: therefore shall a man leave,’ etc.? For although the taking of Eve out of Adam might be a reason for Adam’ s affection towards her, it was no reason for the affection of his posterity towards their wives, who were not so formed. The reason of their love to their wives is their being creatures of the same species with themselves. This Eve might have been, though, like Adam, she had been formed of the dust of the earth. Wherefore Adam’ s declaration concerning Eve being taken out of his body, and concerning his love to her on that account, was intended for some purpose peculiar to himself; namely, as he was a type of Him who was to restore the human race by the breaking of his body on the cross, and who on that account loves them, and will unite them to himself for ever. Upon the whole, the formation of Eve and her marriage with Adam, and his love to and union with her because she was taken out of his side, and the declaration that, on that account, all his posterity should love their wives, and continue united to them through life, (a union which does not subsist among other animals), are events so singular, that I do not see what account can be given of them, unless, with the Apostle Paul, we suppose that, agreeably to the most ancient method of instruction, God intended these things as figurative representations of the regeneration of believers by the death of Christ, and of his eternal union with them in heaven; and that Adam and Eve were taught by God himself to consider them as such

4.    "It is no small confirmation of the apostle’ s emblematical interpretation of the formation and marriage of Eve, that in Scripture we find a variety of images and expressions founded on that interpretation. For example, Rom 5:14, Adam is expressly called a type of him who was to come, on which account, 1Co 15:45, Christ is called the last Adam. Next, the catholic Church, consisting of believers of all nations, is called the body of Christ, and the members thereof are said to be members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones; in allusion to the formation of Eve, the emblem of the Church. For, as Eve was formed of a rib taken out of Adam’ s body during his deep sleep, so believers are regenerated both in mind and body, and formed into one great society, and united to Christ as their head and governor, by the breaking of his body on the cross. Thirdly, to this emblematical meaning of the formation of Eve, our Lord, I think, alluded when he instituted his supper. For instead of appointing one symbol only of his death, he appointed two; and, in explaining the first of them, he expressed himself in such a manner as to show that he had his eye on what happened to Adam when Eve was formed: This is my body which is broken for you - for your regeneration. Fourthly, the eternal union of the regenerated with Christ after the resurrection is called a marriage, Rev 19:7; and the new Jerusalem, that is, the inhabitants of the new Jerusalem, the society of the redeemed, is termed the bride, the Lamb’ s wife; and the preparing of men for that happy union, by introducing them into the Church upon earth through faith, and by sanctifying them through the word, is called, 2Co 11:2, A fitting them for one husband, that at the resurrection they may be presented a chaste virgin to Christ; in allusion, I suppose, to the presenting of Eve to Adam, in order to her marriage with him; and to show that, in this expression, the apostle had the figurative meaning of Eve’ s marriage in his mind, he mentions, 2Co 11:3, the subtlety of the devil in deceiving Eve. Finally, the union of the Jewish Church with God, as the figure of the catholic Church, consisting of the regenerated of all nations, is by God himself termed a marriage, Jer 3:14; Ezekiel 16:8-32; and God is called the husband of that people, Isa 54:5; and their union to him by the law of Moses is termed, The day of their espousals, Jer 2:2.

1.    A truly Christian marriage has an excellence, holiness, and unity in it, that cannot be easily described; and let it be observed that, while it prefigures the union of Christ with his Church, it is one means of giving children to the Church, and members to the mystical body of Christ. It is an ordinance of God, and, cannot be too highly honored; endless volumes might be written on its utility to man: without marriage, by which every man is assigned his own wife, and every woman her own husband, even the multitude of spurious births which would take place would fail to keep up the population of the earth; and natural, moral, and political wretchedness would be the consequence of promiscuous, fortuitous, and transitory connections. For without that ascertainment of peculiar property which marriage gives to every man in his wife, and to every woman in her husband, the human progeny would be unnoticed, unclaimed, uneducated, and totally neglected. This would continually increase the wretchedness, and in process of time bring about the total depopulation of the world

2.    The husband is to love his wife, the wife to obey and venerate her husband; love and protection on the one hand, affectionate subjection and fidelity on the other. The husband should provide for his wife without encouraging profuseness; watch over her conduct without giving her vexation; keep her in subjection without making her a slave; love her without jealousy; oblige her without flattery; honor her without making her proud; and be hers entirely, without becoming either her footman or her slave. In short, they have equal rights and equal claims; but superior strength gives the man dominion, affection and subjection entitle the woman to love and protection. Without the woman, man is but half a human being; in union with the man, the woman finds her safety and perfection. In the above remarks there are many things solid and useful; there are others which rest more on fancy than judgment

3.    Of marriage the Church of Rome has made a sacrament, and it is one of the seven which that Church acknowledges. That it is an ordinance of God is sufficiently evident; that he has not made it a sacrament is not less so. Though the minister of religion celebrates it, yet the regulation of it, in reference to inheritance, etc., is assumed by the state. This is of great moment, as by it many evils are prevented, and many political and domestic advantages secured. If a man enter hastily into this state it is at his own risk; after he has once entered it, the seal of the legislature is imposed upon it, and with his engagements, he cannot trifle. A consideration of this has prevented many hasty and disproportionate alliances. Though they might hope to trifle with the Church, they dare not do it with the state.

Calvin: Eph 5:1 - Be ye therefore followers 1.Be ye therefore followers The same principle is followed out and enforced by the consideration that children ought to be like their father. He remi...

1.Be ye therefore followers The same principle is followed out and enforced by the consideration that children ought to be like their father. He reminds us that we are the children of God, and that therefore we ought, as far as possible, to resemble Him in acts of kindness. It is impossible not to perceive, that the division of chapters, in the present instance, is particularly unhappy, as it has made a separation between parts of the subject which are very closely related. If, then, we are the children of God, we ought to be followers of God. Christ also declares, that, unless we shew kindness to the unworthy, we cannot be the children of our heavenly Father.

“Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them who despitefully use you and persecute you; that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven; for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.”
(Mat 5:44.) 153

Calvin: Eph 5:2 - And walk in love as Christ also hath loved us // And gave himself for us // An offering and a sacrifice to God of a sweet smelling savor 2.And walk in love as Christ also hath loved us Having called on us to imitate God, he now calls on us to imitate Christ, who is our true model. We o...

2.And walk in love as Christ also hath loved us Having called on us to imitate God, he now calls on us to imitate Christ, who is our true model. We ought to embrace each other with that love with which Christ has embraced us, for what we perceive in Christ is our true guide.

And gave himself for us This was a remarkable proof of the highest love. Forgetful, as it were, of himself, Christ spared not his own life, that he might redeem us from death. If we desire to be partakers of this benefit, we must cultivate similar affections toward our neighbors. Not that any of us has reached such high perfection, but all must aim and strive according to the measure of their ability.

An offering and a sacrifice to God of a sweet smelling savor While this statement leads us to admire the grace of Christ, it bears directly on the present subject. No language, indeed, can fully represent the consequences and efficacy of Christ’s death. This is the only price by which we are reconciled to God. The doctrine of faith on this subject holds the highest rank. But the more extraordinary the discoveries which have reached us of the Redeemer’s kindness, the more strongly are we bound to his service. Besides, we may infer from Paul’s words, that, unless we love one another, none of our duties will be acceptable in the sight of God. If the reconciliation of men, effected by Christ, was a sacrifice of a sweet smelling savor, 154 we, too, shall be “unto God a sweet savor,” (2Co 2:15,) when this holy perfume is spread over us. To this applies the saying of Christ,

“Leave thy gift before the altar, and go and be reconciled to thy brother.” (Mat 5:24.)

Calvin: Eph 5:3 - But fornication 3.But fornication This chapter, and the Col 3:0, contain many parallel passages, which an intelligent reader will be at no loss to compare without my...

3.But fornication This chapter, and the Col 3:0, contain many parallel passages, which an intelligent reader will be at no loss to compare without my assistance. Three things are here enumerated, which the apostle desires Christians to hold in such abhorrence, that they shall not even be named, or, in other words, shall be entirely unknown among them. By uncleanness he means all base and impure lusts; so that this word differs from fornication, only as the whole class differs from a single department. The third is covetousness, which is nothing more than an immoderate desire of gain. To this precept he adds the authoritative declaration, that he demands nothing from them but that which becometh saints, — manifestly excluding from the number and fellowship of the saints all fornicators, and impure and covetous persons.

Calvin: Eph 5:4 - Neither filthiness // But rather grace 4.Neither filthiness To those three — other three are now added. By filthiness I understand all that is indecent or inconsistent with the modesty...

4.Neither filthiness To those three — other three are now added. By filthiness I understand all that is indecent or inconsistent with the modesty of the godly. By foolish talking I understand conversations that are either unprofitably or wickedly foolish; and as it frequently happens that idle talk is concealed under the garb of jesting or wit, he expressly mentions pleasantry, — which is so agreeable as to seem worthy of commendation, — and condemns it as a part of foolish talking The Greek wordεὐτραπελία is often used by heathen writers, in a good sense, for that ready and ingenious pleasantry in which able and intelligent men may properly indulge. But as it is exceedingly difficult to be witty without becoming satirical, and as jesting itself carries in it a portion of conceit not at all in keeping with the character of a godly man, Paul very properly dissuades from this practice. 155 Of all the three offenses now mentioned, Paul declares that they are not convenient, or, in other words, that they are inconsistent with Christian duty.

But rather grace Others render it giving of thanks; but I prefer Jerome’s interpretation. With the vices which had been formerly mentioned it was proper that Paul should contrast something of a general character, displaying itself in all our communications with each other. If he had said, “While they take pleasure in idle or abusive talk, do you give thanks to God,” the exhortation would have been too limited. The Greek word, εὐχαριστία, though it usually signifies Thanksgiving, admits of being translated Grace. “All our conversations ought to be, in the true sense of the words, sweet and graceful; and this end will be gained if the useful and the agreeable are properly mingled.”

Calvin: Eph 5:5 - For this ye know // Nor covetous man, who is an idolater 5.For this ye know If his readers were at all captivated by the allurements of those vices which have been enumerated, the consequence would be that ...

5.For this ye know If his readers were at all captivated by the allurements of those vices which have been enumerated, the consequence would be that they would lend a hesitating or careless ear to his admonitions. He determines, therefore, to alarm them by this weighty and dreadful threatening, that such vices shut against us the kingdom of God. By appealing to their own knowledge, he intimates that this was no doubtful matter. Some might think it harsh, or inconsistent with the Divine goodness, that all who have incurred the guilt of fornication or covetousness are excluded from the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven. But the answer is easy. Paul does not say that those who have fallen into those sins, and recovered from them, are not pardoned, but pronounces sentence on the sins themselves. After addressing the Corinthians in the same language, he adds:

“And such were some of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.”
(1Co 6:11.)

When men have repented, and thus give evidence that they are reconciled to God, they are no longer the same persons that they formerly were. But let all fornicators, or unclean or covetous persons, so long as they continue such, be assured that they have no friendship with God, and are deprived of all hope of salvation. It is called the kingdom of Christ and of God, because God hath given it to his Son that we may obtain it through him.

Nor covetous man, who is an idolater “Covetousness,” as he says in another place, “is idolatry,” (Col 3:5,) — not the idolatry which is so frequently condemned in Scripture, but one of a different description. All covetous men must deny God, and put wealth in his place; such is their blind greediness of wretched gain. But why does Paul attribute to covetousness alone what belongs equally to other carnal passions? In what respect is covetousness better entitled to this disgraceful name than ambition, or than a vain confidence in ourselves? I answer, that this disease is widely spread, and not a few minds have caught the infection. Nay, it is not reckoned a disease, but receives, on the contrary, very general commendation. This accounts for the harshness of Paul’s language, which arose from a desire to tear from our hearts the false view.

Calvin: Eph 5:6 - Let no man deceive you // For because of these things cometh the wrath of God // Upon the children of disobedience, 6.Let no man deceive you There have always been ungodly dogs, 156 by whom the threatenings of the prophets were made the subject of merriment and rid...

6.Let no man deceive you There have always been ungodly dogs, 156 by whom the threatenings of the prophets were made the subject of merriment and ridicule. We find such characters in our own day. In all ages, indeed, Satan raises up sorcerers of this description, who endeavor by unholy scoffs to escape the Divine judgment, and who actually exercise a kind of fascination over consciences not sufficiently established in the fear of God. “This is a trivial fault. Fornication is viewed by God as a light matter. Under the law of grace God is not so cruel. He has not formed us so as to be our own executioners. The frailty of nature excuses us.” These and similar expressions are often used by the scoffers. Paul, on the contrary, exclaims that we must guard against that sophistry by which consciences are ensnared to their ruin.

For because of these things cometh the wrath of God If we consider the present tense to be here used, agreeably to the Hebrew idiom, for the future, these words are a threatening of the last judgment. But I agree with those who take the word cometh in an indefinite sense, — the word of God usually cometh, — as reminding them of the ordinary judgments of God which were executed before their own eyes. And certainly, if we were not blind and slothful, there are sufficiently numerous examples by which God testifies that he is the just avenger of such crimes, — examples of the pouring out of divine indignation, privately against individuals, and publicly against cities, and kings, and nations.

Upon the children of disobedience, — upon unbelievers or rebels. This expression must not be overlooked. Paul is now addressing believers, and his object is not so much to present alarming views of their own danger, as to rouse them to behold reflected in wicked men, as in mirrors, the dreadful judgments of God. God does not make himself an object of terror to his children, that they may avoid him, but does all that can be done in a fatherly manner, to draw them to himself. They ought to learn this lesson, not to involve themselves in a dangerous fellowship with the ungodly, whose ruin is thus foreseen.

Calvin: Eph 5:8 - For ye were once darkness 8.For ye were once darkness The precepts which immediately follow derive greater weight from the motives with which they are mingled. Having spoken o...

8.For ye were once darkness The precepts which immediately follow derive greater weight from the motives with which they are mingled. Having spoken of unbelievers, and warned the Ephesians not to become partakers of their crimes and their destruction, he argues still further, that they ought to differ widely from the life and conduct of those men. At the same time, in order to guard them against ingratitude to God, he refreshes their remembrance of their own past life. “You ought,” he says, “to be very different persons from what you formerly were; for out of darkness God hath made you light.” Darkness is the name here given to the whole nature of man before regeneration; for, where the brightness of God does not shine, there is nothing but fearful darkness. Light, again, is the name given to those who are enlightened by the Spirit of God; for immediately afterwards in the same sense, he calls them children of light, and draws the inference, that they ought to walk in light, because by the mercy of God they had been rescued from darkness. Observe here, we are said to be light in the Lord, because, while we are out of Christ, all is under the dominion of Satan, whom we know to be the Prince of darkness.

Calvin: Eph 5:9 - For the fruit of the light 9.For the fruit of the light 157 This parenthesis is introduced, to point out the road in which the children of light ought to walk. A complete des...

9.For the fruit of the light 157 This parenthesis is introduced, to point out the road in which the children of light ought to walk. A complete description is not given, but a few parts of a holy and pious life are introduced by way of example. To give them a general view of duty, their attention is again directed to the will of God. Whoever desires to live in a proper and safe manner, let him resolve to obey God, and to take his will as the rule. To regulate life entirely by his command is, as he says in another Epistle, a reasonable service, (Rom 12:1,) or, as another inspired man expresses it, To obey is better than sacrifice. (1Sa 15:22.) I wonder how the word Spirit (πνεὐματος) has crept into many Greek manuscripts, as the other reading is more consistent, — the fruit of the light Paul’s meaning indeed is not affected; for in either case it will be this, that believers must walk in the light, because they are “children of the light.” This is done, when they do not live according to their own will, but devote themselves entirely to obedience to God, — when they undertake nothing but by his command. Besides, such obedience is testified by its fruits, such as goodness, righteousness, and truth.

Calvin: Eph 5:11 - And have no fellowship 11.And have no fellowship As “the children of light” dwell amidst the darkness, or, in other words, in the midst of “a perverse and crooked gen...

11.And have no fellowship As “the children of light” dwell amidst the darkness, or, in other words, in the midst of “a perverse and crooked generation,” (Deu 32:5,) — there is good reason for warning them to keep themselves apart from wicked actions. It is not enough that we do not, of our own accord, undertake anything wicked. We must beware of joining or assisting those who do wrong. In short, we must abstain from giving any consent, or advice, or approbation, or assistance; for in all these ways we have fellowship. And lest any one should imagine that he has done his duty, merely by not conniving, he adds, but rather reprove them. 158 Such a course is opposed to all dissimulation. Where a manifest offense is committed against God, every man will be eager to vindicate himself from any share in the guilt, but very few will guard against connivance; nearly all will practice some kind of dissimulation. But rather than the truth of God shall not remain unshaken, let a hundred worlds perish.

The wordἐλέγχειν, which is translated reprove, answers to the metaphor of darkness; for it literally signifies to drag forth to the light what was formerly unknown. As ungodly men flatter themselves in their vices, (Psa 36:2,) and wish their crimes to be concealed, or to be reckoned virtues, Paul enjoins that they shall be reproved. He calls them unfruitful; because they not only do no good, but are absolutely hurtful.

Calvin: Eph 5:12 - Which are done by them in secret 12.Which are done by them in secret This shews the advantage of reproving the ungodly. If they do but escape the eyes of men, there is no crime, howe...

12.Which are done by them in secret This shews the advantage of reproving the ungodly. If they do but escape the eyes of men, there is no crime, however shocking to be mentioned, which they will not perpetrate. To use a common proverb, “Night has no shame.” What is the reason of this? Sunk in the darkness of ignorance, they neither see their own baseness, nor think that it is seen by God and by angels. But let the torch of God’s word be brought forward, and their eyes are opened. Then they begin to blush and be ashamed. By their advices and reproofs the saints enlighten blind unbelievers, and drag forth from their concealment to the light of day those who were sunk in ignorance.

When unbelievers keep the doors of their houses shut, and withdraw from the view of men, it is a shame even to speak of the baseness and wickedness with which they rush into all manner of licentiousness. Would they thus lay aside all shame, and give loose reins to their passions, if darkness did not give them courage, — if they did not entertain the hope that what is hidden will pass unpunished? But do you, by reproving them, bring forward the light, that they may be ashamed of their own baseness. Such shame, arising from an acknowledgment of baseness, is the first step to repentance.

“If there come in one that believeth not, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all; and thus are the secrets of his heart made manifest; and so, falling down on his face, he worships God” (1Co 14:24.)

It may be thought that the word is used here in an unusual acceptation. Erasmus, by substituting another word for reprove, has destroyed the whole meaning; for Paul’s object is to shew that it will not be without advantage if the works of unbelievers are reproved.

Calvin: Eph 5:13 - But when all things are reproved 13.But when all things are reproved As the participle, (φανερούμενον,) which is translated, that which doth make manifest, is in the mi...

13.But when all things are reproved As the participle, (φανερούμενον,) which is translated, that which doth make manifest, is in the middle voice, it admits either of a passive or active signification. It may be either rendered, that which is made manifest, or that which doth make manifest. If the passive signification, which is followed by the ancient translator, be preferred, the word light will denote, as formerly, that which gives light, and the meaning will be, that evil works, which had been concealed, will stand out to public view, when they have been made manifest by the word of God: If the participle be taken actively, there will still be two ways of expounding it: 1. Whatever manifests is light; 2. That which manifests anything or all things, is light; taking the singular as put for the plural number. There is no difficulty, as Erasmus dreaded, about the article; for the apostles are not in the habit of adhering very strictly to rule about placing every article, and even among elegant writers this mode of using it would be allowable. The context appears to me to shew clearly that this is Paul’s meaning. He had exhorted them to reprove the evil works of unbelievers, and thus to drag them out of darkness; and he now adds, that what he enjoins upon them is the proper business of light — to make manifest It is Light, he says, which makes all things manifest; and hence it followed that they were unworthy of the name, if they did not bring to light what was involved in darkness.

Calvin: Eph 5:14 - Wherefore he saith // Arise, thou that sleepest // And Christ shall give thee light 14.Wherefore he saith Interpreters are at great pains to discover the passage of Scripture which Paul appears to quote, and which is nowhere to be fo...

14.Wherefore he saith Interpreters are at great pains to discover the passage of Scripture which Paul appears to quote, and which is nowhere to be found. I shall state my opinion. He first exhibits Christ as speaking by his ministers; for this is the ordinary message which is every day delivered by preachers of the gospel. What other object do they propose than to raise the dead to life?

“The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live”
(Joh 5:25.)

Let us now attend to the context. “Unbelievers,” Paul had said, “must be reproved, that, being brought forth to the light, they may begin to acknowledge their wickedness.” He therefore represents Christ as uttering a voice which is constantly heard in the preaching of the gospel,

Arise, thou that sleepest The allusion, I have no doubt, is to the prophecies which relate to Christ’s kingdom; such as that of Isaiah,

“Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah
is risen upon thee” (Isa 60:1.)

Let us therefore endeavor, as far as lies in our power, to rouse the sleeping and dead, that we may bring them to the light of Christ.

And Christ shall give thee light This does not mean that, when we have risen from death to life, his light begins to shine upon us, as if our performances came before his grace. All that is intended is to show that, when Christ enlightens us, we rise from death to life, — and thus to confirm the former statement, that unbelievers must be recovered from their blindness, in order to be saved. Instead ofἐπιφαύσει, he shall give light, some copies readἐφάψεται, he shall touch; but this reading is an evident blunder, and may be dismissed without any argument. 159

Calvin: Eph 5:15 - See then 15.See then If believers must not neglect to drive away the darkness of others by their own brightness, how much less ought they to be blind as to th...

15.See then If believers must not neglect to drive away the darkness of others by their own brightness, how much less ought they to be blind as to their own conduct in life? What darkness shall conceal those on whom Christ, the Sun of righteousness, has arisen? Placed, as it were, in a crowded theater, they ought to live under the eye of God and of angels. Let them stand in awe of these witnesses, though they may be concealed from the view of all mortals. Dismissing the metaphor of darkness and light, he enjoins them to regulate their life circumspectly as wise men, 160 who have been educated by the Lord in the school of true wisdom. Our understanding must shew itself by taking God for our guide and instructor, to teach us his own will.

Calvin: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming the time 16.Redeeming the time By a consideration of the time he enforces his exhortation. The days are evil. Everything around us tends to corrupt and misle...

16.Redeeming the time By a consideration of the time he enforces his exhortation. The days are evil. Everything around us tends to corrupt and mislead; so that it is difficult for godly persons, who walk among so many thorns, to escape unhurt. Such corruption having infected the age, the devil appears to have obtained tyrannical sway; so that time cannot be dedicated to God without being in some way redeemed. And what shall be the price of its redemption? To withdraw from the endless variety of allurements which would easily lead us astray; to rid ourselves from the cares and pleasures of the world; and, in a word, to abandon every hinderance. Let us be eager to recover it in every possible way, and let the numerous offenses and arduous toil, which many are in the habit of alleging as an apology for indolence, serve rather to awaken our vigilance.

Calvin: Eph 5:17 - Wherefore be ye not unwise 17.Wherefore be ye not unwise He whose “delight is in the law of the Lord, and who meditates in it day and night,” (Psa 1:2,) will triumph over...

17.Wherefore be ye not unwise He whose

“delight is in the law of the Lord, and who meditates in it day and night,”
(Psa 1:2,)

will triumph over every obstacle which Satan can oppose to his progress. Whence comes it that some wander, others fall, others strike against a rock, others go away, — but because we allow ourselves to be gradually blinded by Satan, and lose sight of the will of God, which we ought constantly to remember? And observe, that Paul defines wisdom to be, understanding what the will of the Lord is

“How shall a young man,” says David, “direct his way? By attending to thy word, O Lord.” (Psa 119:9.)

He speaks of youths, but it is the same wisdom which belongs to old men.

Calvin: Eph 5:18 - And be not drunk with wine // In which 18.And be not drunk with wine When he enjoins them not to be drunk, he forbids excessive and immoderate drinking of every description. “Be not in...

18.And be not drunk with wine When he enjoins them not to be drunk, he forbids excessive and immoderate drinking of every description. “Be not intemperate in drinking.”

In which 161 is lasciviousness. The Greek wordἀσωτία, which is translated “lasciviousness,” points out the evils which arise from drunkenness. I understand by it all that is implied in a wanton and dissolute life; for to translate it luxury, would quite enfeeble the sense. The meaning therefore is, that drunkards throw off quickly every restraint of modesty or shame; that where wine reigns, profligacy naturally follows; and consequently, that all who have any regard to moderation or decency ought to avoid and abhor drunkenness.

The children of this world are accustomed to indulge in deep drinking as an excitement to mirth. Such carnal excitement is contrasted with that holy joy of which the Spirit of God is the Author, and which produces entirely opposite effects. To what does drunkenness lead? To unbounded licentiousness, — to unbridled, indecent merriment. And to what does spiritual joy lead, when it is most strongly excited? 162

Calvin: Eph 5:19 - To psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs 19.To psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs These are truly pleasant and delightful fruits. The Spirit means “joy in the Holy Ghost,” (Rom 14:...

19.To psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs These are truly pleasant and delightful fruits. The Spirit means “joy in the Holy Ghost,” (Rom 14:17;) and the exhortation, be ye filled, (ver. 18,) alludes to deep drinking, with which it is indirectly contrasted. Speaking to themselves, is speaking among themselves. Nor does he enjoin them to sing inwardly or alone; for he immediately adds, singing in your hearts; as if he had said, “Let your praises be not merely on the tongue, as hypocrites do, but from the heart.” What may be the exact difference between psalms and hymns, or between hymns and songs, it is not easy to determine, though a few remarks on this subject shall be offered on a future occasion. 163 The appellation spiritual, given to these songs, is strikingly appropriate; for the songs most frequently used are almost always on trifling subjects, and very far from being chaste.

Calvin: Eph 5:20 - Giving thanks always 20.Giving thanks always He means that this is a pleasure which ought never to lose its relish; that this is an exercise of which we ought never to we...

20.Giving thanks always He means that this is a pleasure which ought never to lose its relish; that this is an exercise of which we ought never to weary. Innumerable benefits which we receive from God yield fresh cause of joy and thanksgiving. At the same time, he reminds believers that it will argue ungodly and disgraceful sloth, if they shall not always give thanks, — if their whole life shall not be spent in the study and exercise of praising God.

Calvin: Eph 5:21 - Submit yourselves 21.Submit yourselves God has bound us so strongly to each other, that no man ought to endeavor to avoid subjection; and where love reigns, mutual ser...

21.Submit yourselves God has bound us so strongly to each other, that no man ought to endeavor to avoid subjection; and where love reigns, mutual services will be rendered. I do not except even kings and governors, whose very authority is held for the service of the community. It is highly proper that all should be exhorted to be subject to each other in their turn.

But as nothing is more irksome to the mind of man than this mutual subjection, he directs us to the fear of Christ, who alone can subdue our fierceness, that we may not refuse the yoke, and can humble our pride, that we may not be ashamed of serving our neighbors. It does not much affect the sense, whether we interpret the fear of Christ, passively, thus, — let us submit to our neighbors, because we fear Christ; or actively, — let us submit to them, because the minds of all godly persons ought to be influenced by such fear under the reign of Christ. Some Greek manuscripts read, “the fear of God. ” The change may have been introduced by some person, who thought that the other phrase, the fear of Christ, though by far the most appropriate, sounded a little harsh. 164

Calvin: Eph 5:22 - Wives, submit yourselves 22.Wives, submit yourselves He comes now to the various conditions of life; for, besides the universal bond of subjection, some are more closely boun...

22.Wives, submit yourselves He comes now to the various conditions of life; for, besides the universal bond of subjection, some are more closely bound to each other, according to their respective callings. The community at large is divided, as it were, into so many yokes, out of which arises mutual obligation. There is, first, the yoke of marriage between husband and wife; — secondly, the yoke which binds parents and children; — and, thirdly, the yoke which connects masters and servants. By this arrangement there are six different classes, for each of whom Paul lays down peculiar duties. He begins with wives, whom he enjoins to be subject to their husbands, in the same manner as to Christ, — as to the Lord. Not that the authority is equal, but wives cannot obey Christ without yielding obedience to their husbands.

Calvin: Eph 5:23 - For the husband is the head of the wife // And he is the savior of the body 23.For the husband is the head of the wife This is the reason assigned why wives should be obedient. Christ has appointed the same relation to exist ...

23.For the husband is the head of the wife This is the reason assigned why wives should be obedient. Christ has appointed the same relation to exist between a husband and a wife, as between himself and his church. This comparison ought to produce a stronger impression on their minds, than the mere declaration that such is the appointment of God. Two things are here stated. God has given to the husband authority over the wife; and a resemblance of this authority is found in Christ, who is the head of the church, as the husband is of the wife.

And he is the savior of the body The pronoun HE (αὐτός) is supposed by some to refer to Christ; and, by others, to the husband. It applies more naturally, in my opinion, to Christ, but still with a view to the present subject. In this point, as well as in others, the resemblance ought to hold. As Christ rules over his church for her salvation, so nothing yields more advantage or comfort to the wife than to be subject to her husband. To refuse that subjection, by means of which they might be saved, is to choose destruction.

Calvin: Eph 5:24 - NO PHRASE 24.=== But, === as the church is subject to Christ. The particle but, may lead some to believe that the words, he is the savior of the body, are ...

24.=== But, === as the church is subject to Christ. The particle but, may lead some to believe that the words, he is the savior of the body, are intended to anticipate an objection. Christ has, no doubt, this peculiar claim, that he is the Savior of the Church: nevertheless, let wives know, that their husbands, though they cannot produce equal claims, have authority over them, after the example of Christ. I prefer the former interpretation; for the argument derived from the word but, (ἀλλά,) does not appear to me to have much weight.

Calvin: Eph 5:25 - Husbands, love your wives // And gave himself for it 25.Husbands, love your wives From husbands, on the other hand, the apostle requires that they cherish toward their wives no ordinary love; for to the...

25.Husbands, love your wives From husbands, on the other hand, the apostle requires that they cherish toward their wives no ordinary love; for to them, also, he holds out the example of Christ, — even as Christ also loved the church. If they are honored to bear his image, and to be, in some measure, his representatives, they ought to resemble him also in the discharge of duty.

And gave himself for it This is intended to express the strong affection which husbands ought to have for their wives, though he takes occasion, immediately afterwards, to commend the grace of Christ. Let husbands imitate Christ in this respect, that he scrupled not to die for his church. One peculiar consequence, indeed, which resulted from his death, — that by it he redeemed his church, — is altogether beyond the power of men to imitate.

Calvin: Eph 5:26 - That he might sanctify, // Washing it with the washing of water // In the word 26.That he might sanctify, — or, that he might separate it to himself; for such I consider to be the meaning of the word sanctify This is accompl...

26.That he might sanctify, — or, that he might separate it to himself; for such I consider to be the meaning of the word sanctify This is accomplished by the forgiveness of sins, and the regeneration of the Spirit.

Washing it with the washing of water Having mentioned the inward and hidden sanctification, he now adds the outward symbol, by which it is visibly confirmed; as if he had said, that a pledge of that sanctification is held out to us by baptism. Here it is necessary to guard against unsound interpretation, lest the wicked superstition of men, as has frequently happened, change a sacrament into an idol. When Paul says that we are washed by baptism, his meaning is, that God employs it for declaring to us that we are washed, and at the same time performs what it represents. If the truth — or, which is the same thing, the exhibition of the truth — were not connected with baptism, it would be improper to say that baptism is the washing of the soul. At the same time, we must beware of ascribing to the sign, or to the minister, what belongs to God alone. We must not imagine that washing is performed by the minister, or that water cleanses the pollutions of the soul, which nothing but the blood of Christ can accomplish. In short, we must beware of giving any portion of our confidence to the element or to man; for the true and proper use of the sacrament is to lead us directly to Christ, and to place all our dependence upon him.

Others again suppose that too much importance is given to the sign, by saying that baptism is the washing of the soul. Under the influence of this fear, they labor exceedingly to lessen the force of the eulogium which is here pronounced on baptism. But they are manifestly wrong; for, in the first place, the apostle does not say that it is the sign which washes, but declares it to be exclusively the work of God. It is God who washes, and the honor of performing it cannot lawfully be taken from its Author and given to the sign. But there is no absurdity in saying that God employs a sign as the outward means. Not that the power of God is limited by the sign, but this assistance is accommodated to the weakness of our capacity. Some are offended at this view, imagining that it takes from the Holy Spirit a work which is peculiarly his own, and which is everywhere ascribed to him in Scripture. But they are mistaken; for God acts by the sign in such a manner, that its whole efficacy depends upon his Spirit. Nothing more is attributed to the sign than to be an inferior organ, utterly useless in itself, except so far as it derives its power from another source.

Equally groundless is their fear, that by this interpretation the freedom of God will be restrained. The grace of God is not confined to the sign; so that God may not, if he pleases, bestow it without the aid of the sign. Besides, many receive the sign who are not made partakers of grace; for the sign is common to all, to the good and to the bad alike; but the Spirit is bestowed on none but the elect, and the sign, as we have said, has no efficacy without the Spirit. The Greek participleκαθαρίσας, is in the past tense, as if he had said, “After having washed.” But, as the Latin language has no active participle in the past tense, I chose rather to disregard this, and to translate it ( mundans ) washing, instead of ( mundatam ) having been washed; which would have kept out of view a matter of far greater importance, namely, that to God alone belongs the work of cleansing.

In the word 165 This is very far from being a superfluous addition; for, if the word is taken away, the whole power of the sacraments is gone. What else are the sacraments but seals of the word? This single consideration will drive away superstition. How comes it that superstitious men are confounded by signs, but because their minds are not directed to the Word, which would lead them to God? Certainly, when we look to anything else than to the word, there is nothing sound, nothing pure; but one absurdity springs out of another, till at length the signs, which were appointed by God for the salvation of men, become profane, and degenerate into gross idolatry. The only difference, therefore, between the sacraments of the godly and the contrivances of unbelievers, is found in the Word.

By the Word is here meant the promise, which explains the value and use of the signs. Hence it appears, that the Papists do not at all observe the signs in a proper manner. They boast indeed, of having “the Word,” but appear to regard it as a sort of enchantment; for they mutter it in an unknown tongue; as if it were addressed to dead matter, and not to men. No explanation of the mystery is made to the people; and in this respect, were there no other, the sacrament begins to be nothing more than the dead element of water. In the word is equivalent to “By the word.”

Calvin: Eph 5:27 - That he might present it to himself // Not having spot or wrinkle 27.That he might present it to himself He declares what is the design of baptism and of our being washed. It is, that we may live in a holy and unbla...

27.That he might present it to himself He declares what is the design of baptism and of our being washed. It is, that we may live in a holy and unblamable manner before God. We are washed by Christ, not that we may return to our pollution, but that we may retain through our life the purity which we have once received. This is described in metaphorical language appropriate to his argument.

Not having spot or wrinkle As the beauty of the wife produces love in the husband, so Christ adorns the Church his bride with holiness as a proof of his regard. This metaphor contains an allusion to marriage; but he afterwards lays aside the figure, and says plainly, that Christ has reconciled the church, that it might be holy and without blemish. The true beauty of the church consists in this conjugal chastity, that is, in holiness and purity.

The word present (παραστήσὟ) implies that the church ought to be holy, not only in the view of men, but in the eyes of the Lord; for Paul says, that he might present it to himself, not that he might shew it to others, though the fruits of that hidden purity become afterwards evident in outward works. Pelagians were wont to quote this passage in order to prove the perfection of righteousness in this life, but have been successfully answered by Augustine. Paul does not state what has been done, but for what purpose Christ has cleansed his church. Now, when a thing is said to be done that another may afterwards follow, it is idle to conclude that this latter thing, which ought to follow, has been already done. We do not deny that the holiness of the church is already begun; but, so long as there is daily progress, there cannot be perfection.

Calvin: Eph 5:28 - He that loveth his wife 28.He that loveth his wife An argument is now drawn from nature itself, to prove that men ought to love their wives. Every man, by his very nature, l...

28.He that loveth his wife An argument is now drawn from nature itself, to prove that men ought to love their wives. Every man, by his very nature, loves himself. But no man can love himself without loving his wife. Therefore, the man who does not love his wife is a monster. The minor proposition is proved in this manner. Marriage was appointed by God on the condition that the two should be one flesh; and that this unity may be the more sacred, he again recommends it to our notice by the consideration of Christ and his church. Such is the amount of his argument, which to a certain extent applies universally to human society. To shew what man owes to man, Isaiah says, “hide not thyself from thine own flesh.” (Isa 58:7.) But this refers to our common nature. Between a man and his wife there is a far closer relation; for they not only are united by a resemblance of nature, but by the bond of marriage have become one man. Whoever considers seriously the design of marriage cannot but love his wife.

Calvin: Eph 5:29 - Even as Christ the church 29.Even as Christ the church He proceeds to enforce the obligations of marriage by representing to us Christ and his Church; for a more powerful exam...

29.Even as Christ the church He proceeds to enforce the obligations of marriage by representing to us Christ and his Church; for a more powerful example could not have been adduced. The strong affection which a husband ought to cherish towards his wife is exemplified by Christ, and an instance of that unity which belongs to marriage is declared to exist between himself and the Church. This is a remarkable passage on the mysterious intercourse which we have with Christ.

Calvin: Eph 5:30 - For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones 30.For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones First, this is no exaggeration, but the simple truth. Secondly, he does not simply ...

30.For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones First, this is no exaggeration, but the simple truth. Secondly, he does not simply mean that Christ is a partaker of our nature, but expresses something higher (καὶ ἐμφατικώτερον) and more emphatic.

Calvin: Eph 5:31 - For this cause // He shall leave his father and mother // And they two shall be one flesh 31.For this cause This is an exact quotation from the writings of Moses. (Gen 2:24.) And what does it mean? As Eve was formed out of the substance of...

31.For this cause This is an exact quotation from the writings of Moses. (Gen 2:24.) And what does it mean? As Eve was formed out of the substance of her husband, and thus was a part of himself; so, if we are the true members of Christ, we share his substance, and by this intercourse unite into one body. In short, Paul describes our union to Christ, a symbol and pledge of which is given to us in the ordinance of the supper. Those who talk about the torture exercised on this passage to make it refer to the Lord’s supper, while no mention is made of the supper, but of marriage, are egregiously mistaken. When they admit that the death of Christ is commemorated in the supper, but not that such intercourse exists as we assert from the words of Christ, we quote this passage against them. Paul says that we are members of his flesh and of his bones. Do we wonder then, that in the Lord’s supper he holds out his body to be enjoyed by us, and to nourish us unto eternal life? Thus we prove that the only union which we maintain to be represented by the Lord’s supper is here declared in its truth and consequences by the apostle.

Two subjects are exhibited together; for the spiritual union between Christ and his church is so treated as to illustrate the common law of marriage, to which the quotation from Moses relates. He immediately adds, that the saying is fulfilled in Christ and the church. Every opportunity which presents itself for proclaiming our obligations to Christ is readily embraced, but he adapts his illustration of them to the present subject. It is uncertain whether Moses introduces Adam as using these words, or gives them as an inference drawn by himself from the creation of man. Nor is it of much consequence which of these views be taken; for, in either case, we must hold it to be an announcement of the will of God, enjoining the duties which men owe to their wives.

He shall leave his father and mother As if he had said, “Let him rather leave his father and mother than not cleave to his wife.” The marriage bond does not set aside the other duties of mankind, nor are the commandments of God so inconsistent with each other, that a man cannot be a good and faithful husband without ceasing to be a dutiful son. It is altogether a question of degree. Moses draws the comparison, in order to express more strongly the close and sacred union which subsists between husband and wife. A son is bound by an inviolable law of nature to perform his duties towards his father; and when the obligations of a husband towards his wife are declared to be stronger, their force is the better understood. He who resolves to be a good husband will not fail to perform his filial duties, but will regard marriage as more sacred than all other ties.

And they two shall be one flesh They shall be one man, or, to use a common phrase, they shall constitute one person; which certainly would not hold true with regard to any other kind of relationship. All depends on this, that the wife was formed of the flesh and bones of her husband. Such is the union between us and Christ, who in some sort makes us partakers of his substance. “We are bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh,” (Gen 2:23;) not because, like ourselves, he has a human nature, but because, by the power of his Spirit, he makes us a part of his body, so that from him we derive our life.

Calvin: Eph 5:32 - This is a great mystery // But I speak concerning Christ and the church 32.This is a great mystery He concludes by expressing his astonishment at the spiritual union between Christ and the church. This is a great mystery...

32.This is a great mystery He concludes by expressing his astonishment at the spiritual union between Christ and the church. This is a great mystery; by which he means, that no language can explain fully what it implies. It is to no purpose that men fret themselves to comprehend, by the judgment of the flesh, the manner and character of this union; for here the infinite power of the Divine Spirit is exerted. Those who refuse to admit anything on this subject beyond what their own capacity can reach, act an exceedingly foolish part. We tell them that the flesh and blood of Christ are exhibited to us in the Lord’s supper. “Explain to us the manner,” they reply, “or you will not convince us.” For my own part, I am overwhelmed by the depth of this mystery, and am not ashamed to join Paul in acknowledging at once my ignorance and my admiration. How much more satisfactory would this be than to follow my carnal judgment, in undervaluing what Paul declares to be a deep mystery! Reason itself teaches how we ought to act in such matters; for whatever is supernatural is clearly beyond our own comprehension. Let us therefore labor more to feel Christ living in us, than to discover the nature of that intercourse.

We cannot avoid admiring the acuteness of the Papists, who conclude from the word mystery (μυστήριον) that marriage is one of seven sacraments, as if they had the power of changing water into wine. They enumerate seven sacraments, while Christ has instituted no more than two; and, to prove that matrimony is one of the seven, they produce this passage. On what ground? Because the Vulgate has adopted the word Sacrament ( sacramentum ) as a translation of the word Mystery, which the apostle uses. As if Sacrament ( sacramentum ) did not frequently, among Latin writers, denote Mystery, or as if Mystery had not been the word employed by Paul in the same Epistle, when speaking of the calling of the Gentiles. But the present question is, Has marriage been appointed as a sacred symbol of the grace of God, to declare and represent to us something spiritual, such as Baptism or the Lord’s Supper? They have no ground for such an assertion, unless it be that they have been deceived by the doubtful signification of a Latin word, or rather by their ignorance of the Greek language. If the simple fact had been observed, that the word used by Paul is Mystery, no mistake would ever have occurred.

We see then the hammer and anvil with which they fabricated this sacrament. But they have given another proof of their indolence in not attending to the correction which is immediately added,

But I speak concerning Christ and the church He intended to give express warning that no man should understand him as speaking of marriage; so that his meaning is more fully expressed than if he had uttered the former sentiment without any exception. The great mystery is, that Christ breathes into the church his own life and power. But who would discover here anything like a sacrament? This blunder arose from the grossest ignorance.

Calvin: Eph 5:33 - Nevertheless, let every one 33.Nevertheless, let every one Having digressed a little from this subject, though the very digression aided his design, he adopts the method usually...

33.Nevertheless, let every one Having digressed a little from this subject, though the very digression aided his design, he adopts the method usually followed in short precepts, by giving a brief summary of duties. Husbands are required to love their wives, and wives to fear (φοβὢται) their husbands, understanding by fear that reverence which will lead them to be submissive. Where reverence does not exist, there will be no willing subjection. 166

Defender: Eph 5:4 - jesting It seems surprising at first glance that "foolish talking" and "jesting" would be condemned as in the same category of sins as fornication and filthin...

It seems surprising at first glance that "foolish talking" and "jesting" would be condemned as in the same category of sins as fornication and filthiness. Nevertheless, there are many Biblical warnings against "every idle word" (Mat 12:36), and it may be significant that the only Biblical reference to "jesting" is a warning against it. There are also many such Biblical commands as: "Let your speech be alway with grace" (Col 4:6). It seems that the popularity of many Christian speakers today is measured by the amount of humorous anecdotes and witticisms that they can inject into their messages, but one never finds this element in the sermons of Christ, the letters of Paul or anywhere in the Bible. Sin and salvation are sober, serious issues."

Defender: Eph 5:5 - idolater Another surprising revelation is that a "covetous man" is equivalent to an "idolater." In fact, "Thou shalt not covet" is the last of God's ten comman...

Another surprising revelation is that a "covetous man" is equivalent to an "idolater." In fact, "Thou shalt not covet" is the last of God's ten commandments (Exo 20:17), whereas the first two are commands against idolatry (Exo 20:3-5). Covetousness, in God's sight, is equivalent to the worship of the creation rather than the Creator (Rom 1:25), the same as the worship of other aspects of nature as personified in various gods and goddesses. The god of money and material things is mammon, and Jesus stressed that "ye cannot serve God and mammon" (Mat 6:24)."

Defender: Eph 5:9 - fruit of the Spirit "Goodness and righteousness and truth" are outward evidences of "love, joy, peace ... etc." (compare Gal 5:22, Gal 5:23)."

"Goodness and righteousness and truth" are outward evidences of "love, joy, peace ... etc." (compare Gal 5:22, Gal 5:23)."

Defender: Eph 5:10 - acceptable "Proving" is "demonstrating" and "knowing" (compare Rom 12:1, Rom 12:2)."

"Proving" is "demonstrating" and "knowing" (compare Rom 12:1, Rom 12:2)."

Defender: Eph 5:11 - reprove The Christian should not only refuse to compromise with the "unfruitful works of darkness" but openly reprove and rebuke them."

The Christian should not only refuse to compromise with the "unfruitful works of darkness" but openly reprove and rebuke them."

Defender: Eph 5:14 - he saith This quotation is a rather free translation of Isa 60:1-3, as used and applied by the Holy Spirit."

This quotation is a rather free translation of Isa 60:1-3, as used and applied by the Holy Spirit."

Defender: Eph 5:18 - drunk with wine The first command here could better be translated: "Do not begin to be drunk with wine." Since even a small amount of an intoxicant has a damaging eff...

The first command here could better be translated: "Do not begin to be drunk with wine." Since even a small amount of an intoxicant has a damaging effect on the brain, this command in effect calls for total abstinence from alcohol. Pro 23:31 warns against even looking on the wine, lest it tempt one to drink.

Defender: Eph 5:18 - filled The connotation of "filled" here is "be being filled." That is, the filling with the Spirit is not a once-for-all experience, like the baptism of the ...

The connotation of "filled" here is "be being filled." That is, the filling with the Spirit is not a once-for-all experience, like the baptism of the Spirit into the body of Christ. Instead, we are urged to continually be filled with the Spirit - controlled by the Spirit. In a way analogous to how alcohol may control a person's thoughts and actions, the better way is to allow the Holy Spirit to have control. The word "filled" is the same as "fulfilled.""

Defender: Eph 5:19 - Speaking to yourselves Eph 5:19-22 illustrate what the Spirit-filled life will be. This 19th verse applies not so much to congregational singing, as to "melody in your heart...

Eph 5:19-22 illustrate what the Spirit-filled life will be. This 19th verse applies not so much to congregational singing, as to "melody in your heart." Such a life will be fruitful (Eph 5:9), active (Eph 5:16), understanding (Eph 5:17), joyful (Eph 5:19), thankful (Eph 5:20), and submissive (Eph 5:21). It will also be bold in witnessing (Act 4:31).

Defender: Eph 5:19 - spiritual songs The words "psalms" and "hymns" are transliterations from the Greek, and "songs" (Greek ode) is a generic term for songs in general, thus needing modif...

The words "psalms" and "hymns" are transliterations from the Greek, and "songs" (Greek ode) is a generic term for songs in general, thus needing modification by "spiritual" in this context."

Defender: Eph 5:20 - Giving thanks always This all-inclusive command to thankfulness for everything is found frequently in the New Testament (Phi 4:6; 1Th 5:18). To obey this command would be ...

This all-inclusive command to thankfulness for everything is found frequently in the New Testament (Phi 4:6; 1Th 5:18). To obey this command would be clearly impossible apart from a strong belief in Jesus Christ as both omnipotent Creator and living Savior. But with this assurance, "we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose" (Rom 8:28), and therefore can be thankful for "all things.""

Defender: Eph 5:22 - Wives, submit yourselves The instructions concerning the proper relations between husbands and wives - the wife submitting to her husband, the husband loving his wife with dee...

The instructions concerning the proper relations between husbands and wives - the wife submitting to her husband, the husband loving his wife with deeply sacrificial love - found in Eph 5:22-23 should be understood as included in the exhortation to be filled with the Spirit (Eph 5:18). They follow both from the original created purpose for men and women (Eph 5:30, Eph 5:31) and the relation between Christ and the church (Eph 5:25-27)."

Defender: Eph 5:26 - by the word Sanctification and cleansing of "the church" - which certainly must include individual members - is accomplished through the Word (Joh 17:17)."

Sanctification and cleansing of "the church" - which certainly must include individual members - is accomplished through the Word (Joh 17:17)."

Defender: Eph 5:27 - glorious church There is no spotless church in existence today, but when Christ returns, "we shall be like him" (1Jo 3:2) and shall all be in "the general assembly an...

There is no spotless church in existence today, but when Christ returns, "we shall be like him" (1Jo 3:2) and shall all be in "the general assembly and church of the firstborn;" with "the spirits of just men made perfect" (Heb 12:23)."

Defender: Eph 5:29 - hated his own flesh A modern pseudo-psychological cliche is that the troubles in modern life are due to lack of self-love in criminals and anti-social misfits. However, t...

A modern pseudo-psychological cliche is that the troubles in modern life are due to lack of self-love in criminals and anti-social misfits. However, the Scriptural fact is that no man hates himself - everyone loves himself too much. The first prophesied characteristic of the perilous last days is that "men shall be lovers of their own selves" (2Ti 3:1, 2Ti 3:2)."

Defender: Eph 5:30 - his bones The amazing truth of the union of Christ and His church thus is tied to the historical reality of the union of Adam and Eve (Gen 2:23). Just as Adam g...

The amazing truth of the union of Christ and His church thus is tied to the historical reality of the union of Adam and Eve (Gen 2:23). Just as Adam gave himself for Eve, so that she could be given life from his opened side, so "Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it" (Eph 5:25)."

Defender: Eph 5:31 - father and mother This phrase is cited from Gen 2:24. This passage was also quoted by Christ in His teaching on the permanence of marriage (Mat 19:5, Mat 19:6). Thus bo...

This phrase is cited from Gen 2:24. This passage was also quoted by Christ in His teaching on the permanence of marriage (Mat 19:5, Mat 19:6). Thus both Christ and Paul confirmed the historicity and vital significance of the Genesis record of the creation of man."

TSK: Eph 5:1 - followers // as followers : Eph 4:32; Lev 11:45; Mat 5:45, Mat 5:48; Luk 6:35, Luk 6:36; 1Pe 1:15, 1Pe 1:16; 1Jo 4:11 as : Jer 31:20; Hos 1:10; Joh 1:12; Col 3:12; 1J...

TSK: Eph 5:2 - walk // as // a sacrifice // for a walk : Eph 3:17, Eph 4:2, Eph 4:15; Joh 13:34; Rom 14:16; 1Co 16:14; Col 3:14; 1Th 4:9; 1Ti 4:12; 1Pe 4:8; 1Jo 3:11, 1Jo 3:12, 1Jo 3:23, 1Jo 4:20,1Jo ...

TSK: Eph 5:3 - fornication // covetousness // named // as fornication : Eph 5:5, Eph 4:19, Eph 4:20; Num 25:1; Deu 23:17, Deu 23:18; Mat 15:19; Mar 7:21; Act 15:20; Rom 1:29, Rom 6:13; 1Co 5:10,1Co 5:11, 1Co ...

TSK: Eph 5:4 - filthiness // convenient // but filthiness : Eph 4:29; Pro 12:23, Pro 15:2; Ecc 10:13; Mat 12:34-37; Mar 7:22; Col 3:8; Jam 3:4-8; 2Pe 2:7, 2Pe 2:18; Jud 1:10,Jud 1:13 convenient : R...

TSK: Eph 5:5 - this // that no // who is this : 1Co 6:9, 1Co 6:10; Gal 5:19, Gal 5:21 that no : Eph 5:3; Heb 13:4 who is : Gal 5:21; Col 3:5; 1Ti 6:10,1Ti 6:17; Rev 21:8, Rev 22:15

TSK: Eph 5:6 - no // vain // cometh // children // disobedience no : Jer 29:8, Jer 29:9, Jer 29:31; Eze 13:10-16; Mic 3:5; Mat 24:4, Mat 24:24; Mar 13:5, Mar 13:22; Gal 6:7, Gal 6:8; Col 2:4, Col 2:8, Col 2:18; 2Th...

TSK: Eph 5:7 - -- Eph 5:11; Num 16:26; Psa 50:18; Pro 1:10-17, Pro 9:6, Pro 13:20; 1Ti 5:22; Rev 18:4

TSK: Eph 5:8 - ye were // but // walk ye were : Eph 2:11, Eph 2:12, Eph 4:18, Eph 6:12; Psa 74:20; Isa 9:2, Isa 42:16, Isa 60:2; Jer 13:16; Mat 4:16; Luk 1:79; Act 17:30, Act 26:18; Rom 1:...

TSK: Eph 5:9 - the fruit // goodness // righteousness // truth the fruit : Gal 5:22, Gal 5:23 goodness : Psa 16:2, Psa 16:3; Rom 2:4, Rom 15:14; 1Pe 2:25; 3Jo 1:11 righteousness : Phi 1:11; 1Ti 6:11; Heb 1:8, Heb ...

TSK: Eph 5:10 - Proving // acceptable Proving : 1Sa 17:39; Rom 12:1, Rom 12:2; Phi 1:10; 1Th 5:21 acceptable : Psa 19:14; Pro 21:3; Isa 58:5; Jer 6:20; Rom 14:18; Phi 4:18; 1Ti 2:3; 1Ti 5:...

TSK: Eph 5:11 - no // unfruitful // works // but no : Eph 5:7; Gen 49:5-7; Psa 1:1, Psa 1:2, Psa 26:4, Psa 26:5, Psa 94:20,Psa 94:21; Pro 4:14, Pro 4:15, Pro 9:6; Jer 15:17; Rom 16:17; 1Co 5:9-11, 1C...

TSK: Eph 5:12 - it // in it : Eph 5:3; Rom 1:24-27; 1Pe 4:3 in : 2Sa 12:12; Pro 9:17; Ecc 12:14; Jer 23:24; Luk 12:1, Luk 12:2; Rom 2:16; Rev 20:12

TSK: Eph 5:13 - reproved // for reproved : or, discovered, Lam 2:14; Hos 2:10, Hos 7:1 for : Mic 7:9; Joh 3:20,Joh 3:21; 1Co 4:5; Heb 1:13

reproved : or, discovered, Lam 2:14; Hos 2:10, Hos 7:1

for : Mic 7:9; Joh 3:20,Joh 3:21; 1Co 4:5; Heb 1:13

TSK: Eph 5:14 - he // Awake // arise // Christ he : or, it Awake : Isa 51:17, Isa 52:1, Isa 60:1; Rom 13:11, Rom 13:12; 1Co 15:34; 1Th 5:6; 2Ti 2:26 *marg. arise : Eph 2:5; Isa 26:19; Eze 37:4-10; ...

TSK: Eph 5:15 - See // walk // not See : Eph 5:33; Mat 8:4, Mat 27:4, Mat 27:24; 1Th 5:15; Heb 12:25; 1Pe 1:22; Rev 19:10 walk : Exo 23:13; Mat 10:16; 1Co 14:20; Phi 1:27; Col 1:9, Col ...

TSK: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming // the days Redeeming : Ecc 9:10; Rom 13:11; Gal 6:10; Col 4:5 the days : Eph 6:13, Eph 6:15; Psa 37:19; Ecc 11:2, Ecc 12:1; Amo 5:13; Joh 12:35; Act 11:28, Act 1...

TSK: Eph 5:17 - be // understanding be : Eph 5:15; Col 4:5 understanding : Deu 4:6; 1Ki 3:9-12; Job 28:28; Psa 111:10, Psa 119:27; Pro 2:5, Pro 14:8, Pro 23:23; Jer 4:22; Joh 7:17; Rom 1...

TSK: Eph 5:18 - be not // excess // but be not : Gen 9:21, Gen 19:32-35; Deu 21:20; Psa 69:12; Pro 20:1, Pro 23:20,Pro 23:21, Pro 23:29-35; Isa 5:11-13, Isa 5:22; Mat 24:49; Luk 12:45, Luk 2...

TSK: Eph 5:19 - to yourselves // psalms // making to yourselves : Act 16:25; 1Co 14:26; Col 3:16; Jam 5:13 psalms : Psalms, ψαλμοι [Strong’ s G5568], from ψαλλω [Strong’ s G...

to yourselves : Act 16:25; 1Co 14:26; Col 3:16; Jam 5:13

psalms : Psalms, ψαλμοι [Strong’ s G5568], from ψαλλω [Strong’ s G5567], to touch or play on a musical instrument, properly denotes such sacred songs or poems as are sung to stringed instruments, and may here refer to those of David; hymns, υμνοι [Strong’ s G5215], from υδω , to sing, celebrate, praise, signifies songs in honour of God; and songs ωδαι [Strong’ s G5603], from αειδω , to sing, denotes any regular poetic composition adapted to singing, and is here restricted to those which are spiritual. Psa 95:2, Psa 105:2; Mat 26:30

making : Psa 47:7, Psa 47:8, Psa 62:8, Psa 86:12, Psa 105:3, Psa 147:7; Isa 65:14; Mat 15:8; Joh 4:23, Joh 4:24

TSK: Eph 5:20 - thanks // in thanks : Eph 5:4; Job 1:21; Psa 34:1; Isa 63:7; Act 5:41; 1Co 1:4; Phi 1:3, Phi 4:6; Col 1:11, Col 1:12, Col 3:17; 1Th 3:9, 1Th 5:18; 2Th 1:3, 2Th 2:1...

TSK: Eph 5:21 - submitting // in submitting : Eph 5:22, Eph 5:24; Gen 16:9; 1Ch 29:24; Rom 13:1-5; 1Co 16:16; Phi 2:3; 1Ti 2:11; 1Ti 3:4; Heb 13:17; 1Pe 2:13, 1Pe 5:5 in : 2Ch 19:7; N...

TSK: Eph 5:22 - submit // as submit : Eph 5:24; Gen 3:16; Est 1:16-18, Est 1:20; 1Co 14:34; Col 3:18-25; 1Ti 2:11, 1Ti 2:12; Tit 2:5; 1Pe 3:1-6 as : Eph 6:5; Col 3:22, Col 3:23

TSK: Eph 5:23 - husband // even // he husband : 1Co 11:3-10 even : Eph 1:22, Eph 1:23, Eph 4:15; Col 1:18 he : Eph 5:25, Eph 5:26; Act 20:28; 1Th 1:10; Rev 5:9

TSK: Eph 5:24 - in in : Eph 5:33; Exo 23:13, Exo 29:35; Col 3:20,Col 3:22; Tit 2:7, Tit 2:9

TSK: Eph 5:25 - love // loved love : Eph 5:28; Gen 2:24, Gen 24:67; 2Sa 12:3; Pro 5:18, Pro 5:19; Col 3:19; 1Pe 3:7 loved : Eph 5:2; Mat 20:28; Luk 22:19, Luk 22:20; Joh 6:51; Act ...

TSK: Eph 5:26 - he // with // by he : Joh 17:17-19; Act 26:18; 1Co 6:11; Tit 2:14; Heb 9:14, Heb 10:10; 1Pe 1:2; Jud 1:1 with : Eze 16:9, Eze 36:25; Zec 13:1; Joh 3:5; Act 22:16; Tit ...

TSK: Eph 5:27 - he // glorious // not // but he : 2Co 4:14, 2Co 11:2; Col 1:22, Col 1:28; Jud 1:24 glorious : Psa 45:13, Psa 87:3; Isa 60:15-20, Isa 62:3; Jer 33:9; Heb 12:22-24; Rev 7:9-17, 21:1...

TSK: Eph 5:28 - as as : Eph 5:31, Eph 5:33; Gen 2:21-24; Mat 19:5

TSK: Eph 5:29 - hated // nourisheth hated : Eph 5:31; Pro 11:17; Ecc 4:5; Rom 1:31 nourisheth : Isa 40:11; Eze 34:14, Eze 34:15, Eze 34:27; Mat 23:37; Joh 6:50-58

TSK: Eph 5:30 - -- Eph 1:23; Gen 2:23; Rom 12:5; 1Co 6:15, 12:12-27; Col 2:19

TSK: Eph 5:31 - -- Gen 2:24; Mat 19:5; Mar 10:7, Mar 10:8; 1Co 6:16

TSK: Eph 5:32 - a great // speak a great : Eph 6:19; Col 2:2; 1Ti 3:8, 1Ti 3:16 speak : Psa 45:9-17; Song 1:1-8:14; Isa 54:5, Isa 62:4, Isa 62:5; Joh 3:29; 2Co 11:2; Rev 19:7, Rev 19:...

TSK: Eph 5:33 - let // reverence let : Eph 5:25, Eph 5:28, Eph 5:29; Col 3:19; 1Pe 3:7 reverence : Eph 5:22; 1Ki 1:31; Est 1:20; Heb 12:9; 1Pe 3:2-6

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Eph 5:1 - Be ye therefore followers of God // As dear children Eph 5:1,2 Paul exhorteth to the imitation of God, and of the love of Christ, Eph 5:3,4 to avoid fornication and all uncleanness, Eph 5:5,6 wh...

Eph 5:1,2 Paul exhorteth to the imitation of God, and of the

love of Christ,

Eph 5:3,4 to avoid fornication and all uncleanness,

Eph 5:5,6 which exclude from, the kingdom of God, and draw

down God’ s wrath on unbelievers,

Eph 5:7-14 with whose works of darkness Christians, that have

better light to inform and influence them, should

have no fellowship,

Eph 5:15-17 to walk with prudence and circumspection,

Eph 5:18-20 not to drink wine to excess, but to be filled with

the Spirit, singing psalms, and giving thanks to God,

Eph 5:21 and being in due subordination to one another.

Eph 5:22-24 The duty of wives toward their husbands,

Eph 5:25-33 and of husbands toward their wives, enforced by the

example of Christ and his church.

Be ye therefore followers of God particularly in being kind, and forgiving injuries, Mat 5:45,48 ; so that this relates to the last verse of the former chapter.

As dear children viz. of God. Children should imitate their fathers, especially when beloved of them.

Poole: Eph 5:2 - And walk in love // As Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us // An offering and a sacrifice to God // For a sweet-smelling savour And walk in love let your whole conversation be in love. As Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us viz. to die for us, Gal 2:20 ,...

And walk in love let your whole conversation be in love.

As Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us viz. to die for us, Gal 2:20 , as the greatest argument of his love, Joh 15:13 Rom 5:8 .

An offering and a sacrifice to God: either offering signifies a meat-offering, which was joined as an appendix with the bloody sacrifice; or rather more generally, all the oblations that were under the law; and the word

sacrifice either restrains it to those especially in which blood was shed for expiation of sin, or explains the meaning of it: q.d. Christ gave himself an offering, even a sacrifice in the proper sense, i.e. a bloody one.

For a sweet-smelling savour i.e. acceptable to God; alluding to the legal sacrifices, see Gen 8:21 Lev 1:9and intimating those other to have been accepted of God, only, with respect to that of Christ; and that as Christ dying to reconcile sinners to God was acceptable to him, so our spiritual sacrifices are then only like to be accepted of him, when we are reconciled to our brother, Mat 5:23,24 .

Poole: Eph 5:3 - But fornication // And all uncleanness // Or covetousness // Let it not be once named among you // As becometh saints But fornication folly committed between unmarried persons, especially men’ s abuse of themselves with common strumpets, a sin not owned as such ...

But fornication folly committed between unmarried persons, especially men’ s abuse of themselves with common strumpets, a sin not owned as such among the heathen.

And all uncleanness all other unlawful lusts whereby men defile themselves.

Or covetousness either an insatiable desire of gratifying their lusts, as Eph 4:19 ; or rather an immoderate desire of gain, which was usual in cities of great trade, as Ephesus was: see Eph 5:5 .

Let it not be once named among you not heard of, or not mentioned without detestation: see Psa 16:4 1Co 5:1 .

As becometh saints who should be pure and holy, not in their bodies and minds only, but in their words too.

Poole: Eph 5:4 - Neither filthiness // Nor foolish talking // Nor jesting // Which are not convenient // But rather giving of thanks Neither filthiness obscenity in discourse, filthy communication, Col 3:8 . Nor foolish talking affectation of foolish, vain speech, (whether jocos...

Neither filthiness obscenity in discourse, filthy communication, Col 3:8 .

Nor foolish talking affectation of foolish, vain speech, (whether jocose or serious), unprofitable, to the hearers.

Nor jesting either the same as the former, as may seem by the disjunctive particle nor, which may be by way of explication; or (which is of kin to it) scurrility in discourse, which is many times, by them that are addicted to it, called by the name of urbanity, or jesting: for all that jesting is not here condemned appears by 1Ki 18:27 Isa 14:11 .

Which are not convenient viz. for saints.

But rather giving of thanks i.e. to God for mercies received, which will better cheer up and recreate the mind than foolish talking and jesting can.

Poole: Eph 5:5 - Nor covetous man, who is an idolater // Hath any inheritance // In the kingdom of Christ and of God Nor covetous man, who is an idolater because he serves Mammon instead of God, loves his riches more than God, and placeth his hope in them. Hath any...

Nor covetous man, who is an idolater because he serves Mammon instead of God, loves his riches more than God, and placeth his hope in them.

Hath any inheritance without repentance; for he speaks of those that persevere in such sins, whom he calls children of disobedience, Eph 5:6 .

In the kingdom of Christ and of God not two distinct kingdoms, but one and the same, which belongs to God by nature, to Christ as Mediator. By this phrase he intimates, that there is no coming into the kingdom of God but by Christ.

Poole: Eph 5:6 - Vain words // The wrath of God Vain words false and deceitful, which cannot secure to you the impunity they promise you, bearing you in hand, either that those things are not sins,...

Vain words false and deceitful, which cannot secure to you the impunity they promise you, bearing you in hand, either that those things are not sins, or not so dangerous.

The wrath of God viz. in the other world.

Poole: Eph 5:7 - -- With those children of disobedience, who continue in the forementioned sins: see Job 34:8 Psa 50:18 .

With those children of disobedience, who continue in the forementioned sins: see Job 34:8 Psa 50:18 .

Poole: Eph 5:8 - For ye were sometimes darkness // But now are ye light in the Lord // Walk as children of light For ye were sometimes darkness the same as in darkness, Rom 2:19 1Th 5:4 ; viz. the darkness of sin, ignorance, unbelief. The abstract being put for ...

For ye were sometimes darkness the same as in darkness, Rom 2:19 1Th 5:4 ; viz. the darkness of sin, ignorance, unbelief. The abstract being put for the concrete, shows the greatness of that darkness in which they were.

But now are ye light in the Lord either now, being in Christ, ye are light, or rather, ye are enlightened or made light by Christ, being furnished with spiritual knowledge, faith, purity, and holiness.

Walk as children of light a Hebraism; children of light, for those that are in the light, 1Th 5:5 : q.d. Let your conversation be suitable to your condition and privileges: see 1Jo 1:7 .

Poole: Eph 5:9 - The fruit of the Spirit // In all goodness // Righteousness // Truth The fruit of the Spirit either in the fruit or work of the new nature, or of the Holy Ghost, by whom we are made light in the Lord: see Gal 5:22 . I...

The fruit of the Spirit either in the fruit or work of the new nature, or of the Holy Ghost, by whom we are made light in the Lord: see Gal 5:22 .

In all goodness either a general virtue in opposition to wickedness, or benignity and bounty.

Righteousness in opposition to injustice, by covetousness, fraud, &c.

Truth in opposition to error, lies, hypocrisy. He shows what it is to walk as children of light.

Poole: Eph 5:10 - -- Searching what the will of the Lord is, and approving it by your practice as the rule of your walking, Rom 12:2 .

Searching what the will of the Lord is, and approving it by your practice as the rule of your walking, Rom 12:2 .

Poole: Eph 5:11 - Have no fellowship with // The unfruitful // Works of darkness // But rather reprove them Have no fellowship with not only do not practise them yourselves, but do not join with others in them, by consent, advice, assistance, or any other w...

Have no fellowship with not only do not practise them yourselves, but do not join with others in them, by consent, advice, assistance, or any other way whereby ye may be defiled by them.

The unfruitful by a meiosis, for bringing forth evil fruit, destructive, pernicious, Rom 6:21 Gal 6:8 .

Works of darkness wicked works, so called because they proceed from darkness in the mind, the ignorance of God, and men are put upon them by the devil, the prince of darkness, and because they are afraid of the light.

But rather reprove them or convince them, viz. not only by your words, Lev 19:17 Mat 18:15 , but especially by your actions, which being contrary to them, will both evidence them to be, and reprove them as being, works of darkness.

Poole: Eph 5:12 - For it is a shame even to speak of those things // Which are done of them in secret For it is a shame even to speak of those things much more to have fellowship with them in them. Which are done of them in secret the darkness addin...

For it is a shame even to speak of those things much more to have fellowship with them in them.

Which are done of them in secret the darkness adding boldness, as if what men did not see, God did not observe.

Poole: Eph 5:13 - But all things // Are made manifest // By the light // For whatsoever doth make manifest is light But all things or all those things, viz. those unfruitful works of darkness, which are to be reproved. Are made manifest i.e. in the minds and co...

But all things or all those things, viz. those unfruitful works of darkness, which are to be reproved.

Are made manifest i.e. in the minds and consciences of the sinners themselves.

By the light the light of doctrine in verbal reproofs, and of a holy life in real and practical ones.

For whatsoever doth make manifest is light or, it is the light which manifests every thing, viz. which was before in the dark. The apostle argues from the nature and office of light; q.d. It is the property of light to discover and manifest what before was not seen, and therefore it becomes you who are light in the Lord to shine as lights in the world, Phi 2:15 , that ye may by your holy conversation convince wicked men of their wickedness, and deeds of darkness, which they did not before perceive in themselves.

Poole: Eph 5:14 - He saith // Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead // And Christ shall give thee light He saith either God by the prophets, of whose preaching this is the sum; it may allude in particular to Isa 60:1 . Or, Christ by his ministers, in th...

He saith either God by the prophets, of whose preaching this is the sum; it may allude in particular to Isa 60:1 . Or, Christ by his ministers, in the preaching of the gospel, who daily calls men to arise from the death of sin by repentance, and encourageth them with the promise of eternal life.

Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead the same thing in two different expressions. Sinners in some respects are said to be asleep, in others, to be dead. They are as full of dreams and vain imaginations, and as unfit for any good action, as they that are asleep are for natural; and they are as full of stench and loathsomeness as they that are dead. Here therefore they are bid to awake from sin as a sleep, and to arise from it as a death. The meaning is, that they should arise by faith and repentance out of that state of spiritual death in which they lie while in their sins.

And Christ shall give thee light the light of peace and joy here, and eternal glory hereafter. The apostle intimates, that what is the way of Christ in the gospel should likewise be the practice of these Ephesians, whom he calls light in the Lord, viz. to reprove the unfruitful works of darkness, and awaken sleeping, dead sinners, and bring them to the light of Christ.

Poole: Eph 5:15 - See then that ye walk circumspectly // Not as fools // But as wise See then that ye walk circumspectly being called to reprove the evil conversation of others, see that ye walk exactly and accurately yourselves, avoi...

See then that ye walk circumspectly being called to reprove the evil conversation of others, see that ye walk exactly and accurately yourselves, avoiding extremes and keeping close to the rule. See the same word rendered diligently, Mat 2:8 , and perfectly, 1Th 5:2 .

Not as fools who are destitute of spiritual wisdom, and through carelessness fall into sin or error, though in the light of the gospel.

But as wise those that are taught of God, and are endued with wisdom from above.

Poole: Eph 5:16 - Redeeming the time // Because the days are evil Redeeming the time or, buying the opportunity: a metaphor taken from merchants, that diligently observe the time for buying and selling, and easily p...

Redeeming the time or, buying the opportunity: a metaphor taken from merchants, that diligently observe the time for buying and selling, and easily part with their pleasure for gain; q.d. Deny yourselves in your ease, pleasure, &c. to gain an opportunity of doing good.

Because the days are evil either wicked, by reason of the wickedness of those that live in them, or troublesome, full of difficulties and dangers, by reason of men’ s hatred of you, and so either depriving you of the opportunity of doing good, or exposing you to hazards for doing it.

Poole: Eph 5:17 - Understanding // what the will of the Lord is Understanding diligently considering, what the will of the Lord is in the understanding of which your chief wisdom consists.

Understanding diligently considering,

what the will of the Lord is in the understanding of which your chief wisdom consists.

Poole: Eph 5:18 - Wherein // is excess // But be filled with the Spirit Wherein in which drunkenness, is excess profuseness, lasciviousness, and all manner of lewdness, as the effects of drunkenness, Pro 23:29 , &c. Bu...

Wherein in which drunkenness,

is excess profuseness, lasciviousness, and all manner of lewdness, as the effects of drunkenness, Pro 23:29 , &c.

But be filled with the Spirit the Holy Spirit, often compared to water; or the joy of the Spirit, in opposition to being filled with wine, Act 2:13 , and that carnal mirth which is caused by it: q.d. Be not satisfied with a little of the Spirit, but seek for a greater measure, so as to be filled with the Spirit. See Psa 36:8 Joh 3:34 Joh 4:14 .

Poole: Eph 5:19 - Speaking, &c // To yourselves // In psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs // Singing and making melody in your heart // To the Lord Speaking, &c. in opposition to the vain chaff and lewd talkativeness of drunkards over their cups. To yourselves Gr. in yourselves, i.e. among your...

Speaking, &c. in opposition to the vain chaff and lewd talkativeness of drunkards over their cups.

To yourselves Gr. in yourselves, i.e. among yourselves, both in church assemblies and families.

In psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs under these names he comprehends all manner of singing to mutual edification and God’ s glory. The particular distinction of them is uncertain, but most take psalms to be such as anciently were sung with musical instruments; hymns, such as contained only matter of praise;

spiritual songs such as were of various matter, doctrinal, prophetical, historical, &c.: see on Col 3:16 .

Singing and making melody in your heart not only with your voice, but with inward affection, contrary to the guise of hypocrites.

To the Lord to the glory of God, not for the pleasure of the sense, or for gain, &c.

Poole: Eph 5:20 - Giving thanks always // For all things // Unto God and the Father // In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ Giving thanks always: God still by fresh mercies gives fresh occasion for thanksgiving, and we must accordingly continue our thanksgiving through the...

Giving thanks always: God still by fresh mercies gives fresh occasion for thanksgiving, and we must accordingly continue our thanksgiving through the whole course of our lives without weariness.

For all things all sorts of mercies, among which afflictions may be reckoned, as working for good to them that love God, Rom 8:28 .

Unto God and the Father i.e. unto God even the Father, the Fountain of all our good.

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in whose name, and by whose merit, all good things are given to us, and by whom we offer up all our prayers, and praises, and spiritual services, that they may be accepted of God.

Poole: Eph 5:21 - Submitting yourselves one to another // In the fear of God Submitting yourselves one to another viz. to those to whom ye ought to be subject in natural, civil, or church relations. In the fear of God either...

Submitting yourselves one to another viz. to those to whom ye ought to be subject in natural, civil, or church relations.

In the fear of God either for fear of offending God, the Author of all power, who commands this subjection; or so far as is consistent with the fear of God, and so in those things which are not forbidden of him.

Poole: Eph 5:22 - Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands // As unto the Lord Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands yielding honour and obedience to them. As unto the Lord for the Lord’ s sake who hath commande...

Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands yielding honour and obedience to them.

As unto the Lord for the Lord’ s sake who hath commanded it, so that ye cannot be subject to him without being subject to them: see 1Ti 2:12 .

Poole: Eph 5:23 - For the husband is the head of the wife // Even as Christ is the head of the church // And he is the saviour of the body For the husband is the head of the wife superior to her by God’ s ordination in authority and dignity, as the head in the natural body, being th...

For the husband is the head of the wife superior to her by God’ s ordination in authority and dignity, as the head in the natural body, being the seat of reason, and the fountain of sense and motion, is more excellent than the rest of the body.

Even as Christ is the head of the church: see Eph 1:22 Col 1:18 . The particle as notes not equality, but likeness, Christ being the Head of the church in a more excellent way than the husband is of the wife.

And he is the saviour of the body i.e. Christ is the Saviour of his church, implying that so likewise the husband is given to the wife to be a saviour to her, in maintaining, protecting, and defending her; and therefore the wife, if she regard her own good, should not grudge to be subject to him.

Poole: Eph 5:24 - As the church is subject to Christ // So let the wives be to their own husbands // In every thing As the church is subject to Christ viz. with cheerfulness, chastity, humility, obedience, &c. So let the wives be to their own husbands in imitatio...

As the church is subject to Christ viz. with cheerfulness, chastity, humility, obedience, &c.

So let the wives be to their own husbands in imitation of the church’ s subjection to Christ, as a pattern of their subjection to their husbands.

In every thing understand, to which the authority of the llusband extends itself.

Poole: Eph 5:25 - Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church // And gave himself for it Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church viz. with a sincere, pure, ardent, and constant affection. As they resemble Christ in...

Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church viz. with a sincere, pure, ardent, and constant affection. As they resemble Christ in the honour they have of being the heads of their wives, so they must likewise in performing the duty of loving them, under which all matrimonial duties are comprehended.

And gave himself for it whereby he testified the greatness of his love.

Poole: Eph 5:26 - That he might sanctify // And cleanse it // With the washing of water // By the word That he might sanctify purify from its filth, and consecrate unto God: implying the whole translation of it out of a state of sin and misery into a s...

That he might sanctify purify from its filth, and consecrate unto God: implying the whole translation of it out of a state of sin and misery into a state of grace and life, consisting in the remission of sin, and renovation of nature.

And cleanse it or, cleansing it, importing the means whereby he works the former effect.

With the washing of water viz. in baptism, in which the external washing represents seals, and exhibits the internal cleansing from both the guilt and defilement of sin by the blood of Christ, Heb 9:14 Rev 1:5 .

By the word the word of the gospel, especially the promise of free justification and sanctification by Christ, which received by faith is a means of this sanctification, and without which the external washing is ineffectual; the sign, without the word whereof it is a seal, being no sacrament.

Poole: Eph 5:27 - That he might present it to himself // A glorious church // Not having spot // Or wrinkle // Or any such thing // Without blemish That he might present it to himself hereafter in heaven; that the whole church of the elect may be present with him, 2Co 5:6,8 1Th 4:17 . A glorious...

That he might present it to himself hereafter in heaven; that the whole church of the elect may be present with him, 2Co 5:6,8 1Th 4:17 .

A glorious church perfect in knowledge and holiness, shining with a heavenly glory, and fully conformed to himself, 1Jo 3:2 .

Not having spot spot of sin, in allusion to spots in garments.

Or wrinkle any relic of old Adam, in allusion to wrinkles in the body, which are signs of old age, and imply deformity.

Or any such thing viz. which is contrary to the beauty of the church, and might make her unpleasing to Christ her Husband.

Without blemish without any fault to be found in her. He seems to allude to the sacrifices, which were to be without blemish, Lev 1:3 : see Son 4:7 .

Poole: Eph 5:28 - So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies // He that loveth his wife loveth himself // their own bodies So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies with the same kind of love wherewith they love their own bodies. The woman at first was taken ou...

So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies with the same kind of love wherewith they love their own bodies. The woman at first was taken out of the man, and on that account the wife may be said to be a part of her husband.

He that loveth his wife loveth himself either this explains the former, and himself here is the same as

their own bodies before; or it adds to it, and is as much as, his own person, the wife being another self, one flesh, the same person (in a civil sense) with her husband.

Poole: Eph 5:29 - No man // His own flesh // Nourisheth and cherisheth it // Even as the Lord the church No man none in his right senses; or no man hates his flesh absolutely, but the diseases or miseries of it. His own flesh his body. Nourisheth and ...

No man none in his right senses; or no man hates his flesh absolutely, but the diseases or miseries of it.

His own flesh his body.

Nourisheth and cherisheth it feeds and clothes it, and supplies it with things necessary for it.

Even as the Lord the church which he furnisheth with all things needful to salvation.

Poole: Eph 5:30 - We are members of his body // Of his flesh, and of his bones We are members of his body his mystical body. Of his flesh, and of his bones as Eve was of Adam’ s, Gen 2:23 ; only that was in a carnal way, ...

We are members of his body his mystical body.

Of his flesh, and of his bones as Eve was of Adam’ s, Gen 2:23 ; only that was in a carnal way, this in a spiritual, as by the communication of Christ’ s flesh and blood to us by the Spirit we are united to him, and members of him.

Poole: Eph 5:31 - For this cause // Shall a man leave his father and mother // They two shall be one flesh For this cause because the woman was formed of the flesh and bones of the man. He refers to Adam’ s words, Gen 2:24 . Shall a man leave his fat...

For this cause because the woman was formed of the flesh and bones of the man. He refers to Adam’ s words, Gen 2:24 .

Shall a man leave his father and mother as to cohabitation, and domestic conversation; or, let a inan rather leave his father and mother than not cleave to his wife. The apostle doth not cancel the obligations of other relations, but prefers this before them.

They two shall be one flesh i.e. one body, or one man, viz. by the marriage bond, whereby each hath power over the other’ s body, 1Co 7:4 .

Poole: Eph 5:32 - This is a great mystery This is a great mystery either, this that was spoken before of a marriage union between Christ and the church, and its being of his flesh and of his ...

This is a great mystery either, this that was spoken before of a marriage union between Christ and the church, and its being of his flesh and of his bones, is a great mystery, and so in the latter part of the verse the apostle explains himself. Or, this that was said of the conjunction of Adam and Eve was a great mystery, (i.e. a great secret in religion), as being a type of Christ’ s marriage with his church; though not an instituted type appointed by God to signify this, yet a kind of natural type, as having a resemblance to it.

Poole: Eph 5:33 - Nevertheless // Love his wife even as himself // Reverence her husband Nevertheless q.d. Setting aside this mystery; or, to return to my former exhortation. Love his wife even as himself as her that is one flesh with h...

Nevertheless q.d. Setting aside this mystery; or, to return to my former exhortation.

Love his wife even as himself as her that is one flesh with him.

Reverence her husband or fear, yet not with a servile, but ingenuous fear, and such as proceeds from love.

PBC: Eph 5:19 - Speaking to yourselves // Making melody in your heart to the Lord " Speaking to yourselves" Paul further supported this thought in Col 3:16, " Teaching and admonishing one another." Both verses call for some form o...

" Speaking to yourselves"

Paul further supported this thought in Col 3:16, " Teaching and admonishing one another." Both verses call for some form of audience participation in the selection of particular songs to be sung in a given worship service. How can you speak to each other or teach and admonish one another unless you play a personal part in the selection of songs to be sung? The experiences of each individual member of the congregation, and the general mood of the church, changes from one service to another. The song worship should reflect that mood with the selection of appropriate hymns for the occasion. In one service the mood may be " Praise him, praise him," and in another it may be, " Mixtures of joy and sorrow I daily do pass through." This thought further teaches us that the purpose of song worship, the horizontal purpose, is to teach and admonish one another, to speak to each other of our spiritual state and needs. Every part of the worship service represents at least two functions; vertical, relating to the individual worshipper and his Lord, and horizontal, relating to the individual worshipper and his fellow-worshippers. 41

" Making melody in your heart to the Lord"

In the companion verse from Col 3:16, Paul said, " Singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord." Strong defines melody as rubbing or touching the surface, to twitch or twang, as a harp or lyre, to play on a stringed instrument. Based on Paul’s description of scripture’s integrity and thoroughness to instruct the man of God, the same verse that commands the use of psalms in the New Testament’s song worship also tells us which musical instrument we must use to transform our horizontal participation in song to vertical worship of our God. Paul did not require harps, viols, pianos, or organs as a part of the church’s public worship. He required a heart tuned to heavenly melody, in the key of grace, and carefully following the directions of the heavenly director, the Lord Jesus Christ! This he commanded, and this he required as a part of our public song worship!

321

Haydock: Eph 5:3 - Covetousness Covetousness. [1] The Latin word is generally taken for a coveting or immoderate desire of money and riches. St. Jerome and others observe, that th...

Covetousness. [1] The Latin word is generally taken for a coveting or immoderate desire of money and riches. St. Jerome and others observe, that the Greek word in this an divers other places in the New Testament may signify any unsatiable desire, or the lusts of sensual pleasures; and on this account, St. Jerome thinks that it is here joined with fornication and uncleanness. But St. John Chrysostom in the last chapter, (ver. 19. hom. xiii. and on this chap. ver. 3.) shews that by the Greek word is understood avarice, or an immoderate desire of riches, when he tells (hom. xviii) that this sin is condemned by those words of Christ, Luke xvi. 13. You cannot serve God and mammon. (Witham)

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

and 5. Covetousness, avaritia, Greek: pleonexia. See St. Jerome on these verses, who expounds it of an insatiable lust, as to the sins of uncleanness and impurity. (p. 380.) But see also St. John Chrysostom who, by Greek: pleonexia, (Chap. iv. 19.) expounds, an immoderate desire of riches: Greek: chrematon om. ig. (p. 829.) And here, hom. xvii. p. 847, Greek: o gar auto chrematon eromen, kai somaton. And hom. xviii, on the fifth verse, he expounds the word, Greek: pleonektes, os estin eidololatres, qui est idolatra, of him who is, properly speaking, an avaricious man; who adores mammon, or riches, who takes pains to leave an inheritance to others, and deprives himself of it, &c. (p. 853.) Greek: chruso douleuontes, 851.

Haydock: Eph 5:4 - Nor obscenity Nor obscenity. [2] What is here meant by this word, St. John Chrysostom tells us at large in the moral exhortation after his 17th homily; to wit, j...

Nor obscenity. [2] What is here meant by this word, St. John Chrysostom tells us at large in the moral exhortation after his 17th homily; to wit, jests with immodest suggestions or a double meaning, and raillery or buffoonery against the rules of good conversation, scarce made use of by any but by men of low condition and a mean genius, which is not to the purpose of a Christian, who must give an account to God of all his words. (Witham)

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Scurrilitas, quæ ad rem non pertinet, Greek: eutrapelia ta oukanekonta. St. John Chrysostom, Greek: log. ig. p. 848 and 849, describes the vice of Greek: eutrapelia in these words: Greek: entha aichrotes, ekei e eutrapelia....e eutrapelia malaken poiei psuchen, &c. ... porro touto christianou, to komodein....ei kalon to pragma, ti tois mimois aphietai; ...parasiton to pragma, mimon, orcheston, gunaikon, pornon, porro psuches eleutheras, porro eugenous....ei tis aichros, outos kai eutrapelos. Where there is filthiness, there is eutrapelia. It is this that makes the mind effeminate....Far be it from a Christian to play the comedian. If this were commendable, why is it left to buffoons? It is the business of flattering hangers-on, or trencher friends, of fools in a play, of debauched women, but far be it from persons of a higher rank, well born, and of good breeding. If any man be void of honour, void of shame, such a one is given to eutrapelia. A man will scarce find it worth his while to consult the Latin translation in Fronto-Ducæus, which in this and many other places is far from being exact. I know that Aristotle, (lib. iv. de moribus. chap. 14, p. 42. Ed. Aurel. Allobrog.) and St. Thomas Aquinas, the doctor of the schools, (lib. ii. Q. 60. a. 5. and 22.; Q. 168. a. 2.) takes eutrapelia in a different sense, when it is a facetious innocent way of jesting, containing rather instructive admonitions; and so, St. Thomas Aquinas tells us, it may be reckoned among the moral virtues; but then, even as Aristotle tells us, it must be without all words of immodesty and buffoonery, which is against good manners: otherwise it degenerates into scurrility.

Haydock: Eph 5:5 - Nor covetous person, which is a serving of idols Nor covetous person, which is a serving of idols. It is clear enough by the Greek that the covetous man is called an idolater, whose idol in mammon;...

Nor covetous person, which is a serving of idols. It is clear enough by the Greek that the covetous man is called an idolater, whose idol in mammon; though it may be also said of other sinners, that the vices they are addicted to are their idols. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 5:6 - -- The apostle here puts them in mind of the general judgment, when the angel of God will, on account of their crimes of avarice, fornication, &c. fall ...

The apostle here puts them in mind of the general judgment, when the angel of God will, on account of their crimes of avarice, fornication, &c. fall on the children of unbelief; by which are meant the wicked. He had before assured them that the perpetrators of such crimes would be excluded from the kingdom of heaven; and now he moreover informs them, that the severest punishments will be inflicted on such wicked persons. (Estius)

Haydock: Eph 5:7 - Be ye not, therefore, partakers with them Be ye not, therefore, partakers with them: do not imitate their wickedness, or the wrath of the Almighty will likewise fall on you. (Estius)

Be ye not, therefore, partakers with them: do not imitate their wickedness, or the wrath of the Almighty will likewise fall on you. (Estius)

Haydock: Eph 5:8 - -- By darkness is here meant the state of infidelity into which they had been plunged so far as to adore stones as God, and committed without remorse t...

By darkness is here meant the state of infidelity into which they had been plunged so far as to adore stones as God, and committed without remorse the above-mentioned grievous sins. But delivered by Christ from this darkness, they have become light in the Lord, shining in faith and justice. (Estius)

Haydock: Eph 5:9 - For the fruit of the light For the fruit of the light. So the Latin and divers Greek copies; not the fruit of the spirit, as we read in many Greek manuscripts; and in this D...

For the fruit of the light. So the Latin and divers Greek copies; not the fruit of the spirit, as we read in many Greek manuscripts; and in this Dr. Wells thought fit to change the Protestant translation. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 5:10 - -- With solicitude seek out what things are pleasing to God, and carefully perform them. (Estius)

With solicitude seek out what things are pleasing to God, and carefully perform them. (Estius)

Haydock: Eph 5:11 - -- You are light, they are darkness; do you, therefore, shew by the light of your good works how base and detestable their works of darkness are. (Estius...

You are light, they are darkness; do you, therefore, shew by the light of your good works how base and detestable their works of darkness are. (Estius)

Haydock: Eph 5:14 - Rise, thou that sleepest Rise, thou that sleepest. The sense may be taken from Isaias lx. 1. St. Jerome thinks they may be cited from work not canonical. (Witham)

Rise, thou that sleepest. The sense may be taken from Isaias lx. 1. St. Jerome thinks they may be cited from work not canonical. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 5:23 - For the husband is the head of the wife // He For the husband is the head of the wife. Though St. Paul here speaks of a man, who is a husband, we may rather translate man than husband, being...

For the husband is the head of the wife. Though St. Paul here speaks of a man, who is a husband, we may rather translate man than husband, being the same sentence and the same words as 1 Corinthians xi. 3. where even the Protestant translation has, that the man is head of the woman. ---

He (Christ) is the saviour of his mystical body, the Church: though some expound it, that the husband is to save and take care of his wife, who is as it were his body. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 5:24 - As the church is subject to Christ As the church is subject to Christ. The Church then, according to St. Paul, is ever obedient to Christ: and can never fall from him, but remain fait...

As the church is subject to Christ. The Church then, according to St. Paul, is ever obedient to Christ: and can never fall from him, but remain faithful to him, unspotted and unchanged to the end of the world. (Challoner)

Haydock: Eph 5:26 - Cleansing it by the laver Cleansing it by the laver [3] of water, in the word of life. By this washing is generally understood the sacrament of baptism; and by the word of...

Cleansing it by the laver [3] of water, in the word of life. By this washing is generally understood the sacrament of baptism; and by the word of life, not the word of the gospel preached, but the words or form used in the administration of baptism, according to Christ's institution: but this is not so certain. (Witham)

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Lavacro aquæ in verbo vitæ, Greek: to loutro tou udatos en remati loutron, be taken for a bath of water, or the water itself. See Titus iii. 5. Vitæ is now wanting in the Greek. See Estius. St. John Chrysostom, by the word, understands the form of baptism in the name of the Father, &c. (Hom. xx.)

====================

Haydock: Eph 5:27 - Not having spot or wrinkle Not having spot or wrinkle. St. Augustine and others expound it of the glorious Church of Christ, in heaven: others even of the Church of Christ in ...

Not having spot or wrinkle. St. Augustine and others expound it of the glorious Church of Christ, in heaven: others even of the Church of Christ in this world, as to its doctrines, sacraments, and disciplines, or practices approved by the Catholic Church. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 5:28-31 - He that loveth his wife, loveth himself He that loveth his wife, loveth himself. St. Paul would have this a love like that which a man hath for himself, or for his own flesh, when they are...

He that loveth his wife, loveth himself. St. Paul would have this a love like that which a man hath for himself, or for his own flesh, when they are now joined in wedlock, and are become as it were one flesh and one person, as a civil life and society. See Matthew xix. 5. The wife is to be considered as a part of the husband, as a member of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones. The words are to be taken with an allusion to what Adam said, (Genesis ii. 23.) This is now bone of my bones, &c. And so, according to the apostle, speaking figuratively, the Church, which is the spouse of Christ, is framed as it were of his bones and of his flesh sacrificed on the cross. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 5:32 - This....sacrament This....sacrament, (or mystery).... in Christ, and in the Church. This sacrament, in construction, must be referred to what immediately went before...

This....sacrament, (or mystery).... in Christ, and in the Church. This sacrament, in construction, must be referred to what immediately went before, i.e. to the conjunction of marriage betwixt man and wife; and this is called a great sacrament, or mystery, as representing the union or spiritual nuptials of Christ with his spouse, the Church. (Witham)

Gill: Eph 5:1 - Be ye therefore followers of God // as dear children Be ye therefore followers of God,.... Not in his works of infinite wisdom and almighty power, which is impossible; but in acts of righteousness and ho...

Be ye therefore followers of God,.... Not in his works of infinite wisdom and almighty power, which is impossible; but in acts of righteousness and holiness, and particularly in acts of mercy, goodness, and beneficence; as in forgiving injuries and offences, and in freely distributing to the necessities of the saints; as the connection of the words with the preceding chapter, and the instance and example in the following verse show: and this should be done by the saints,

as dear children; and because they are such by adopting grace; being predestinated unto the adoption of children, in the eternal purpose of God, and taken into that relation in the covenant of grace; and which is declared and made manifest in regeneration, and by faith in Christ Jesus: and they are dear, or beloved children, being loved with an everlasting and unchangeable love, and which is the spring and source of their adoption; and their being dear to him is seen by what he is unto them, their covenant God and Father; and by what he has done for them, in giving his Son to them, and for them; as well as in choosing, calling, and quickening them by his grace, and by the account he makes of them, as his jewels, his peculiar treasure, and the apple of his eye; and by the pity and compassion he has for them, and the care he takes of them; and therefore it becomes them to imitate him; for who should they imitate and follow after, but their Father, and especially when they are so dear unto him?

Gill: Eph 5:2 - And walk in love // as Christ also hath loved us // and hath given himself for us // an offering and a sacrifice to God, for a sweet smelling savour And walk in love,.... To God; to which the saints are obliged, not only by the law of God, which requires it, but by the goodness of God, and the disc...

And walk in love,.... To God; to which the saints are obliged, not only by the law of God, which requires it, but by the goodness of God, and the discoveries of his love to them; and which shows itself in fearing to offend him, in a conformity to his will, in making his glory the chief end of all actions, and in loving all that belong to him: and also the saints should walk in love to Christ; who is to be loved fervently, constantly, in sincerity, with all the heart, and above all creatures and things; because of the loveliness of his person, the love he bears to them, and the things he has done for them, and the relations he stands in to them; and which is manifested in keeping his commands, in delighting in his presence, and in a concern at his absence: and also they should walk in love to one another, which is chiefly designed; which is Christ's new commandment, and is an evidence of regeneration; and without which a profession of religion is in vain: and to "walk" in love, is not merely to talk of it, but to exercise it; and to do all that is done for God, and Christ, and the saints, from a principle of love; and to advance, increase, and abound in it, and to go on and continue therein: the example to be copied after, and which carries in it an argument engaging to it is,

as Christ also hath loved us; with a love exceeding great and strong, which is wonderful, inconceivable, and unparalleled; and even as the Father has loved him; with a love that is free and sovereign, unchangeable and everlasting, of which he has given many instances; and a principal one is hereafter mentioned: the "as" here is a note of similitude, not of equality; for it cannot be thought that the saints should love God, or Christ, or one another, with a love equal to Christ's love to them, but only that theirs should bear some likeness to his: the Alexandrian copy and Ethiopic version, instead of "us", read "you":

and hath given himself for us; not the world, and the things of it, which are his; not men, nor angels, nor animals, but himself; he gave away his time, service, and strength; his name, fame, and reputation; all the comforts of life, and life itself; his whole human nature, soul and body, and that as in union with his divine person; and that not only for the good of his people, but in their room and stead; not for angels, nor for all men, but for his chosen ones, the church, his sheep, his people, and when they, were sinners; in the following manner, and for the said purpose:

an offering and a sacrifice to God, for a sweet smelling savour; Christ was both priest and sacrifice; he offered up himself a propitiatory sacrifice for the sins of his people, to expiate them, and make reconciliation and satisfaction for them; and this he offered up to God, against whom they had sinned, and whose justice must be satisfied, who called him to this work, and engaged him in it; and which was well pleasing to him, he smelled a sweet savour of rest in it, it being an unblemished sacrifice, and voluntarily offered up; and was complete, full, and adequate to the demands of his justice; by it sin was put away, finished, and made an end of, and his people perfected for ever; see Gen 8:20.

Gill: Eph 5:3 - But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness // let it not be once named among you But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness,.... The apostle proceeds to dehort from several vices, which are unbecoming the dear children a...

But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness,.... The apostle proceeds to dehort from several vices, which are unbecoming the dear children and followers of God; and which the love of Christ should constrain them to avoid: the first of these, which is simple "fornication", is the sin which is committed between single or unmarried persons; and is contrary to the law of God, is a work of the flesh, and is against a man's own body; it renders persons unfit for church communion, brings many temporal calamities upon them, and exposes them to divine wrath, and excludes from the kingdom of heaven, without repentance; and the reason why it is so often taken notice of is, because it was very frequent among the Gentiles, and not thought criminal: "all uncleanness" takes in adultery, incest, sodomy, and every unnatural lust; and "covetousness" seems not so much to design that sin which is commonly so called, namely, an immoderate desire after worldly things, as a greedy and insatiable appetite after the above lusts:

let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints; that is, neither one or other of them; the sense is, that they should not be committed; so that there might be no occasion to speak of them, even though with abhorrence, as if there were no such vices in being; and much less should they be named with pleasure, and pleaded for: for thus it becomes such who are set apart by God the Father, whose sins are expiated by the blood of Christ, and whose hearts are sanctified by the Spirit of God; who profess the Gospel of Christ, and have a place and a name in God's house, better than that of sons and daughters.

Gill: Eph 5:4 - Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting // which are not convenient // but rather giving of thanks Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting,.... The former of these may include all filthy gestures and behaviour, every indecent habit and ...