27:1 When 1 it was early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people plotted against Jesus to execute him. 27:2 They 2 tied him up, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate 3 the governor. 4
27:3 Now when 5 Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus 6 had been condemned, he regretted what he had done and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders, 27:4 saying, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood!” But they said, “What is that to us? You take care of it yourself!” 27:5 So 7 Judas threw the silver coins into the temple and left. Then he went out and hanged himself. 27:6 The 8 chief priests took the silver and said, “It is not lawful to put this into the temple treasury, since it is blood money.” 27:7 After 9 consulting together they bought the Potter’s Field with it, as a burial place for foreigners. 27:8 For this reason that field has been called the “Field of Blood” to this day. 27:9 Then what was spoken by Jeremiah 10 the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty silver coins, the price of the one whose price had been set by the people of Israel, 11 27:10 and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.” 12
27:11 Then 13 Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him, 14 “Are you the king 15 of the Jews?” Jesus 16 said, “You say so.” 17 27:12 But when he was accused by the chief priests and the elders, he did not respond. 27:13 Then Pilate said to him, “Don’t you hear how many charges they are bringing against you?” 27:14 But he did not answer even one accusation, so that the governor was quite amazed.
27:15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd, 18 whomever they wanted. 27:16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus 19 Barabbas. 27:17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus 20 Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?” 21 27:18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.) 22 27:19 As 23 he was sitting on the judgment seat, 24 his wife sent a message 25 to him: 26 “Have nothing to do with that innocent man; 27 I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream 28 about him today.” 27:20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 27:21 The 29 governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 27:22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?” 30 They all said, “Crucify him!” 31 27:23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”
27:24 When 32 Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but that instead a riot was starting, he took some water, washed his hands before the crowd and said, “I am innocent of this man’s blood. You take care of it yourselves!” 33 27:25 In 34 reply all the people said, “Let his blood be on us and on our children!” 27:26 Then he released Barabbas for them. But after he had Jesus flogged, 35 he handed him over 36 to be crucified. 37 27:27 Then the governor’s soldiers took Jesus into the governor’s residence 38 and gathered the whole cohort 39 around him. 27:28 They 40 stripped him and put a scarlet robe 41 around him, 27:29 and after braiding 42 a crown of thorns, 43 they put it on his head. They 44 put a staff 45 in his right hand, and kneeling down before him, they mocked him: 46 “Hail, king of the Jews!” 47 27:30 They 48 spat on him and took the staff 49 and struck him repeatedly 50 on the head. 27:31 When 51 they had mocked him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes back on him. Then 52 they led him away to crucify him.
27:32 As 53 they were going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon, whom they forced 54 to carry his cross. 55 27:33 They 56 came to a place called Golgotha 57 (which means “Place of the Skull”) 58 27:34 and offered Jesus 59 wine mixed with gall to drink. 60 But after tasting it, he would not drink it. 27:35 When 61 they had crucified 62 him, they divided his clothes by throwing dice. 63 27:36 Then they sat down and kept guard over him there. 27:37 Above 64 his head they put the charge against him, 65 which read: 66 “This is Jesus, the king of the Jews.” 27:38 Then two outlaws were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left. 27:39 Those 67 who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads 27:40 and saying, “You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself! 68 If you are God’s Son, come down 69 from the cross!” 27:41 In 70 the same way even the chief priests – together with the experts in the law 71 and elders 72 – were mocking him: 73 27:42 “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! He is the king of Israel! If he comes down 74 now from the cross, we will believe in him! 27:43 He trusts in God – let God, if he wants to, deliver him now 75 because he said, ‘I am God’s Son’!” 27:44 The 76 robbers who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him. 77
27:45 Now from noon until three, 78 darkness came over all the land. 79 27:46 At 80 about three o’clock Jesus shouted with a loud voice, 81 “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” 82 27:47 When 83 some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “This man is calling for Elijah.” 27:48 Immediately 84 one of them ran and got a sponge, filled it with sour wine, 85 put it on a stick, 86 and gave it to him to drink. 27:49 But the rest said, “Leave him alone! Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.” 87 27:50 Then Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and gave up his spirit. 27:51 Just then 88 the temple curtain 89 was torn in two, from top to bottom. The 90 earth shook and the rocks were split apart. 27:52 And tombs were opened, and the bodies of many saints who had died 91 were raised. 27:53 (They 92 came out of the tombs after his resurrection and went into the holy city and appeared to many people.) 27:54 Now when the centurion 93 and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and what took place, they were extremely terrified and said, “Truly this one was God’s Son!” 27:55 Many 94 women who had followed Jesus from Galilee and given him support 95 were also there, watching from a distance. 27:56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.
27:57 Now 96 when it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who was also a disciple of Jesus. 97 27:58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. 98 Then Pilate ordered that it be given to him. 27:59 Joseph 99 took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 100 27:60 and placed it 101 in his own new tomb that he had cut in the rock. 102 Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance 103 of the tomb and went away. 27:61 (Now Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting there, opposite the tomb.)
27:62 The 104 next day (which is after the day of preparation) the chief priests and the Pharisees 105 assembled before Pilate 27:63 and said, “Sir, we remember that while that deceiver was still alive he said, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 27:64 So give orders to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise his disciples may come and steal his body 106 and say to the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.” 27:65 Pilate said to them, “Take 107 a guard of soldiers. Go and make it as secure as you can.” 27:66 So 108 they went with the soldiers 109 of the guard and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone.
[27:2] 3 tc Most
[27:2] 4 sn The Jews most assuredly wanted to put Jesus to death, but they lacked the authority to do so. For this reason they handed him over to Pilate in hopes of securing a death sentence. The Romans kept close control of the death penalty in conquered territories to prevent it from being used to execute Roman sympathizers.
[27:9] 10 tc The problematic citing of Jeremiah for a text which appears to come from Zechariah has prompted certain scribes to alter it. Codex 22 has Ζαχαρίου (Zacariou, “Zechariah”) while Φ 33 omit the prophet’s name altogether. And codex 21 and the Latin ms l change the prophet’s name to “Isaiah,” in accordance with natural scribal proclivities to alter the text toward the most prominent OT prophet. But unquestionably the name Jeremiah is the wording of the original here, because it is supported by virtually all witnesses and because it is the harder reading. See D. A. Carson, “Matthew,” EBC 8:562-63, for a discussion of the textual and especially hermeneutical problem.
[27:10] 12 sn The source of this citation is debated (see the tc note on Jeremiah in v. 9 above for a related discussion). The quotation is most closely related to Zech 11:12-13, but the reference to Jeremiah in v. 9 as the source leads one to look there as well. There is no exact match for this text in Jeremiah, but there are some conceptual parallels: In Jer 18:2-6 the prophet visits a potter, and in Jer 32:6-15 he buys a field. D. A. Carson argues that Jer 19:1-13 is the source of the quotation augmented with various phrases drawn from Zech 11:12-13 (“Matthew,” EBC 8:563). W. D. Davies and D. C. Allison argue that the reference to Jeremiah is not meant to refer to one specific text from that prophet, but instead to signal that his writings as a whole are a source from which the quotation is drawn (Matthew [ICC], 3:568-69). Although the exact source of the citation is uncertain, it is reasonable to see texts from the books of Jeremiah and Zechariah both coming into play here.
[27:15] 18 sn The custom of Pilate to release one prisoner is unknown outside the gospels in Jewish writings, but it was a Roman custom at the time and thus probably used in Palestine as well (cf. Matt 27:15; John 18:39).
[27:16] 19 tc Although the external evidence for the inclusion of “Jesus” before “Barabbas” (in vv. 16 and 17) is rather sparse, being restricted virtually to the Caesarean text (Θ Ë1 700* pc sys), the omission of the Lord’s name in apposition to “Barabbas” is such a strongly motivated reading that it can hardly be original. There is no good explanation for a scribe unintentionally adding ᾿Ιησοῦν (Ihsoun) before Βαραββᾶν (Barabban), especially since Barabbas is mentioned first in each verse (thus dittography is ruled out). Further, the addition of τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (ton legomenon Criston, “who is called Christ”) to ᾿Ιησοῦν in v. 17 makes better sense if Barabbas is also called “Jesus” (otherwise, a mere “Jesus” would have been a sufficient appellation to distinguish the two).
[27:17] 20 tc Again, as in v. 16, the name “Jesus” is supplied before “Barabbas” in Θ Ë1 700* pc sys Ormss (Θ 700* lack the article τόν [ton] before Βαραββᾶν [Barabban]). The same argument for accepting the inclusion of “Jesus” as original in the previous verse applies here as well.
[27:19] sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a seat. It was used by officials in addressing an assembly or making official pronouncements, often of a judicial nature.
[27:22] 31 tn Grk “Him – be crucified!” The third person imperative is difficult to translate because English has no corresponding third person form for the imperative. The traditional translation “Let him be crucified” sounds as if the crowd is giving consent or permission. “He must be crucified” is closer, but it is more natural in English to convert the passive to active and simply say “Crucify him.”
[27:24] 33 sn You take care of it yourselves! Compare the response of the chief priests and elders to Judas in 27:4. The expression is identical except that in 27:4 it is singular and here it is plural.
[27:26] 35 tn The Greek term φραγελλόω (fragellow) refers to flogging. BDAG 1064 s.v. states, “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a sentence of death had been pronounced on them. So in the case of Jesus before the crucifixion…Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15.”
[27:26] sn A Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an excruciating punishment. The victim was stripped of his clothes and bound to a post with his hands fastened above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground). Guards standing on either side of the victim would incessantly beat him with a whip (flagellum) made out of leather with pieces of lead and bone inserted into its ends. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes, the Romans had no such limit; many people who received such a beating died as a result. See C. Schneider, TDNT, 515-19.
[27:27] sn The governor’s residence (Grk “praetorium”) was the Roman governor’s official residence. The one in Jerusalem may have been Herod’s palace in the western part of the city, or the fortress Antonia northwest of the temple area.
[27:28] 41 sn The scarlet robe probably refers to a military garment which had the color of royal purple, and thus resembled a king’s robe. The soldiers did this to Jesus as a form of mockery in view of the charges that he was a king.
[27:29] 43 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.
[27:29] sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).
[27:32] 55 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help (in all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution). Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.
[27:33] 58 sn A place called Golgotha (which means “Place of the Skull”). This location is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for the Greek term κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” is derived (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
[27:34] 60 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with gall (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.
[27:35] 63 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.
[27:37] 65 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
[27:40] 68 sn There is rich irony in the statements of those who were passing by, “save yourself!” and “come down from the cross!” In summary, they wanted Jesus to come down from the cross and save his physical life, but it was indeed his staying on the cross and giving his physical life that led to the fact that they could experience a resurrection from death to life.
[27:40] 69 tc ‡ Many important witnesses (א* A D pc it sy[s],p) read καί (kai, here with the force of “then”) before κατάβηθι (katabhqi, “come down”). The shorter reading may well be due to homoioarcton, but judging by the diverse external evidence (א2 B L W Θ 0250 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) it is equally possible that the shorter reading is original (and is so considered for this translation). NA27 puts the καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
[27:42] 74 tn Here the aorist imperative καταβάτω (katabatw) has been translated as a conditional imperative. This fits the pattern of other conditional imperatives (imperative + καί + future indicative) outlined by ExSyn 489.
[27:48] 85 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.
[27:49] 87 tc Early and important
[27:51] 89 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.
[27:58] 98 sn Asking for the body of Jesus was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43, Luke 23:51). He did this because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial.
[27:60] 101 tc ‡ αὐτό (auto, “it”) is found after ἔθηκεν (eqhken, “placed”) in the majority of witnesses, including many important ones, though it seems to be motivated by a need for clarification and cannot therefore easily explain the rise of the shorter reading (which is read by א L Θ Ë13 33 892 pc). Regardless of which reading is original (though with a slight preference for the shorter reading), English style requires the pronoun. NA27 includes αὐτό here, no doubt due to the overwhelming external attestation.