23:1 Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, 23:2 “The 1 experts in the law 2 and the Pharisees 3 sit on Moses’ seat. 23:3 Therefore pay attention to what they tell you and do it. But do not do what they do, for they do not practice what they teach. 4 23:4 They 5 tie up heavy loads, hard to carry, and put them on men’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing even to lift a finger to move them. 23:5 They 6 do all their deeds to be seen by people, for they make their phylacteries 7 wide and their tassels 8 long. 23:6 They 9 love the place of honor at banquets and the best seats in the synagogues 10 23:7 and elaborate greetings 11 in the marketplaces, and to have people call them ‘Rabbi.’ 23:8 But you are not to be called ‘Rabbi,’ for you have one Teacher and you are all brothers. 23:9 And call no one your ‘father’ on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. 23:10 Nor are you to be called ‘teacher,’ for you have one teacher, the Christ. 12 23:11 The 13 greatest among you will be your servant. 23:12 And whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.
23:13 “But woe to you, experts in the law 14 and you Pharisees, hypocrites! 15 You keep locking people out of the kingdom of heaven! 16 For you neither enter nor permit those trying to enter to go in.23:14 [[EMPTY]] 17
23:15 “Woe to you, experts in the law 18 and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You cross land and sea to make one convert, 19 and when you get one, 20 you make him twice as much a child of hell 21 as yourselves!
23:16 “Woe to you, blind guides, who say, ‘Whoever swears by the temple is bound by nothing. 22 But whoever swears by the gold of the temple is bound by the oath.’ 23:17 Blind fools! Which is greater, the gold or the temple that makes the gold sacred? 23:18 And, ‘Whoever swears by the altar is bound by nothing. 23 But if anyone swears by the gift on it he is bound by the oath.’ 23:19 You are blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that makes the gift sacred? 23:20 So whoever swears by the altar swears by it and by everything on it. 23:21 And whoever swears by the temple swears by it and the one who dwells in it. 23:22 And whoever swears by heaven swears by the throne of God and the one who sits on it.
23:23 “Woe to you, experts in the law 24 and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You give a tenth 25 of mint, dill, and cumin, 26 yet you neglect what is more important in the law – justice, mercy, and faithfulness! You 27 should have done these things without neglecting the others. 23:24 Blind guides! You strain out a gnat yet swallow a camel! 28
23:25 “Woe to you, experts in the law 29 and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and the dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. 23:26 Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup, 30 so that the outside may become clean too!
23:27 “Woe to you, experts in the law 31 and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs that look beautiful on the outside but inside are full of the bones of the dead and of everything unclean. 32 23:28 In the same way, on the outside you look righteous to people, but inside you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.
23:29 “Woe to you, experts in the law 33 and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You 34 build tombs for the prophets and decorate the graves 35 of the righteous. 23:30 And you say, ‘If we had lived in the days of our ancestors, 36 we would not have participated with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.’ 23:31 By saying this you testify against yourselves that you are descendants of those who murdered the prophets. 23:32 Fill up then the measure of your ancestors! 23:33 You snakes, you offspring of vipers! How will you escape being condemned to hell? 37
23:34 “For this reason I 38 am sending you prophets and wise men and experts in the law, 39 some of whom you will kill and crucify, 40 and some you will flog 41 in your synagogues 42 and pursue from town to town, 23:35 so that on you will come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Barachiah, 43 whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. 23:36 I tell you the truth, 44 this generation will be held responsible for all these things! 45
23:37 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 46 you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 47 How often I have longed 48 to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 49 you would have none of it! 50 23:38 Look, your house is left to you desolate! 23:39 For I tell you, you will not see me from now until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” 51
24:1 Now 52 as Jesus was going out of the temple courts and walking away, his disciples came to show him the temple buildings. 53 24:2 And he said to them, 54 “Do you see all these things? I tell you the truth, 55 not one stone will be left on another. 56 All will be torn down!” 57
24:3 As 58 he was sitting on the Mount of Olives, his disciples came to him privately and said, “Tell us, when will these things 59 happen? And what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” 24:4 Jesus answered them, 60 “Watch out 61 that no one misleads you. 24:5 For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ 62 and they will mislead many. 24:6 You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. Make sure that you are not alarmed, for this must happen, but the end is still to come. 63 24:7 For nation will rise up in arms 64 against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. And there will be famines 65 and earthquakes 66 in various places. 24:8 All 67 these things are the beginning of birth pains.
24:9 “Then they will hand you over to be persecuted and will kill you. You will be hated by all the nations 68 because of my name. 69 24:10 Then many will be led into sin, 70 and they will betray one another and hate one another. 24:11 And many false prophets will appear and deceive 71 many, 24:12 and because lawlessness will increase so much, the love of many will grow cold. 24:13 But the person who endures to the end will be saved. 72 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole inhabited earth as a testimony to all the nations, 73 and then the end will come.
24:15 “So when you see the abomination of desolation 74 – spoken about by Daniel the prophet – standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 24:16 then those in Judea must flee 75 to the mountains. 24:17 The one on the roof 76 must not come down 77 to take anything out of his house, 24:18 and the one in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 24:19 Woe 78 to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! 24:20 Pray 79 that your flight may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. 24:21 For then there will be great suffering 80 unlike anything that has happened 81 from the beginning of the world until now, or ever will happen. 24:22 And if those days had not been cut short, no one would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. 24:23 Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’ 82 or ‘There he is!’ do not believe him. 24:24 For false messiahs 83 and false prophets will appear and perform great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. 24:25 Remember, 84 I have told you ahead of time. 24:26 So then, if someone 85 says to you, ‘Look, he is in the wilderness,’ 86 do not go out, or ‘Look, he is in the inner rooms,’ do not believe him. 24:27 For just like the lightning 87 comes from the east and flashes to the west, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 24:28 Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures 88 will gather. 89
24:29 “Immediately 90 after the suffering 91 of those days, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven will be shaken. 92 24:30 Then 93 the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, 94 and 95 all the tribes of the earth will mourn. They 96 will see the Son of Man arriving on the clouds of heaven 97 with power and great glory. 24:31 And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet blast, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven 98 to the other.
24:32 “Learn 99 this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. 24:33 So also you, when you see all these things, know 100 that he is near, right at the door. 24:34 I tell you the truth, 101 this generation 102 will not pass away until all these things take place. 24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 103
24:36 “But as for that day and hour no one knows it – not even the angels in heaven 104 – except the Father alone. 24:37 For just like the days of Noah 105 were, so the coming of the Son of Man will be. 24:38 For in those days before the flood, people 106 were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day Noah entered the ark. 24:39 And they knew nothing until the flood came and took them all away. 107 It will be the same at the coming of the Son of Man. 108 24:40 Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one left. 109 24:41 There will be two women grinding grain with a mill; 110 one will be taken and one left.
24:42 “Therefore stay alert, because you do not know on what day 111 your Lord will come. 24:43 But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what time of night the thief 112 was coming, he would have been alert and would not have let his house be broken into. 24:44 Therefore you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him. 113
24:45 “Who then is the faithful and wise slave, 114 whom the master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves 115 their food at the proper time? 24:46 Blessed is that slave whom the master finds at work 116 when he comes. 24:47 I tell you the truth, 117 the master 118 will put him in charge of all his possessions. 24:48 But if 119 that evil slave should say to himself, 120 ‘My master is staying away a long time,’ 24:49 and he begins to beat his fellow slaves and to eat and drink with drunkards, 24:50 then the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not foresee, 24:51 and will cut him in two, 121 and assign him a place with the hypocrites, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
[23:5] 7 sn Phylacteries were small leather cases containing OT scripture verses, worn on the arm and forehead by Jews, especially when praying. The custom was derived from such OT passages as Exod 13:9; 16; Deut 6:8; 11:18.
[23:5] 8 tn The term κράσπεδον (kraspedon) in some contexts could refer to the outer fringe of the garment (possibly in Mark 6:56). This edge could have been plain or decorated. L&N 6.180 states, “In Mt 23:5 κράσπεδον denotes the tassels worn at the four corners of the outer garment (see 6.194).”
[23:14] 17 tc The most important
[23:15] 21 tn Grk “a son of Gehenna.” Expressions constructed with υἱός (Juios) followed by a genitive of class or kind denote a person belonging to the class or kind specified by the following genitive (L&N 9.4). Thus the phrase here means “a person who belongs to hell.”
[23:23] 27 tc ‡ Many witnesses (B C K L W Δ 0102 33 565 892 pm) have δέ (de, “but”) after ταῦτα (tauta, “these things”), while many others lack it (א D Γ Θ Ë1,13 579 700 1241 1424 pm). Since asyndeton was relatively rare in Koine Greek, the conjunction may be an intentional alteration, and is thus omitted from the present translation. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
[23:26] 30 tc A very difficult textual problem is found here. The most important Alexandrian and Byzantine, as well as significant Western, witnesses (א B C L W 0102 0281 Ë13 33 Ï lat co) have “and the dish” (καὶ τῆς παροψίδος, kai th" paroyido") after “cup,” while few important witnesses (D Θ Ë1 700 and some versional and patristic authorities) omit the phrase. On the one hand, scribes sometimes tended to eliminate redundancy; since “and the dish” is already present in v. 25, it may have been deleted in v. 26 by well-meaning scribes. On the other hand, as B. M. Metzger notes, the singular pronoun αὐτοῦ (autou, “its”) with τὸ ἐκτός (to ekto", “the outside”) in some of the same witnesses that have the longer reading (viz., B* Ë13 al) hints that their archetype lacked the words (TCGNT 50). Further, scribes would be motivated both to add the phrase from v. 25 and to change αὐτοῦ to the plural pronoun αὐτῶν (aujtwn, “their”). Although the external evidence for the shorter reading is not compelling in itself, combined with these two prongs of internal evidence, it is to be slightly preferred.
[23:27] 32 sn This was an idiom for hypocrisy – just as the wall was painted on the outside but something different on the inside, so this person was not what he appeared or pretended to be (for discussion of a similar metaphor, see L&N 88.234; BDAG 1010 s.v. τοῖχος). See Deut 28:22; Ezek 13:10-16; Acts 23:3.
[23:34] 41 tn BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “of flogging as a punishment decreed by the synagogue (Dt 25:2f; s. the Mishna Tractate Sanhedrin-Makkoth, edited w. notes by SKrauss ’33) w. acc. of pers. Mt 10:17; 23:34.”
[23:37] 47 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).
[24:1] 53 sn The Jerusalem temple was widely admired around the world. See Josephus, Ant. 15.11 [15.380-425]; J. W. 5.5 [5.184-227] and Tacitus, History 5.8, who called it “immensely opulent.” Josephus compared it to a beautiful snowcapped mountain.
[24:7] 66 tc Most witnesses (C Θ 0102 Ë1,13 Ï) have “and plagues” (καὶ λοιμοί, kai loimoi) between “famines” (λιμοί, limoi) and “earthquakes” (σεισμοί, seismoi), while others have “plagues and famines and earthquakes” (L W 33 pc lat). The similarities between λιμοί and λοιμοί could explain how καὶ λοιμοί might have accidentally dropped out, but since the Lukan parallel has both terms (and W lat have the order λοιμοὶ καὶ λιμοί there too, as they do in Matthew), it seems more likely that scribes added the phrase here. The shorter reading does not enjoy overwhelming support ([א] B D 892 pc, as well as versional witnesses), but it is nevertheless significant; coupled with the internal evidence it should be given preference.
[24:13] 72 sn But the person who endures to the end will be saved. Jesus was not claiming here that salvation is by works. He was simply arguing that genuine faith evidences itself in persistence through even the worst of trials.
[24:15] 74 sn The reference to the abomination of desolation is an allusion to Dan 9:27. Though some have seen the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy in the actions of Antiochus IV (or a representative of his) in 167
[24:17] 76 sn On the roof. Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.
[24:21] 81 sn Suffering unlike anything that has happened. Some refer this event to the destruction of Jerusalem in
[24:28] 88 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers.
[24:29] 92 sn An allusion to Isa 13:10, 34:4 (LXX); Joel 2:10. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.
[24:33] 100 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginwskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.
[24:34] 102 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (v. 30), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.
[24:36] 104 tc ‡ Some important witnesses, including early Alexandrian and Western
[24:40] 109 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and one left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah was) andthose left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to theidentification of the two groups. Its primary purposein context is topicture the sudden, surprisingseparation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.
[24:42] 111 tc Most later
[24:44] 113 sn Jesus made clear that his coming could not be timed, and suggested it would take some time – so long, in fact, that some will not be looking for him any longer (at an hour when you do not expect him).
[24:51] 121 tn The verb διχοτομέω (dicotomew) means to cut an object into two parts (L&N 19.19). This is an extremely severe punishment compared to the other two later punishments. To translate it simply as “punish” is too mild. If taken literally this servant is dismembered, although it is possible to view the stated punishment as hyperbole (L&N 38.12).