5:1 So as your fellow elder and a witness of Christ’s sufferings and as one who shares in the glory that will be revealed, I urge the elders among you: 5:2 Give a shepherd’s care to 1 God’s flock among you, exercising oversight 2 not merely as a duty 3 but willingly under God’s direction, 4 not for shameful profit but eagerly. 5:3 And do not lord it over 5 those entrusted to you, 6 but be examples to the flock. 5:4 Then 7 when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that never fades away.
5:5 In the same way, you who are younger, 8 be subject to the elders. And all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, because God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble. 9 5:6 And God will exalt you in due time, 10 if you humble yourselves under his mighty hand 11 5:7 by casting 12 all your cares 13 on him because he cares for you. 5:8 Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion, 14 is on the prowl looking for someone 15 to devour. 5:9 Resist him, 16 strong in your faith, because you know 17 that your brothers and sisters 18 throughout the world 19 are enduring 20 the same kinds of suffering. 21 5:10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ 22 will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you. 23 5:11 To him belongs 24 the power forever. Amen.
5:12 Through Silvanus, 25 whom I know to be a faithful brother, 26 I have written to you briefly, in order to encourage you and testify 27 that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it. 28 5:13 The church 29 in Babylon, 30 chosen together with you, 31 greets you, and so does Mark, my son. 5:14 Greet one another with a loving kiss. 32 Peace to all of you who are in Christ. 33
[5:2] 2 tc A few important
[5:5] 8 sn In this context younger and elder are terms that combine two meanings: relative age and an official structure of leadership in the church. As in v. 1, elder here denotes those who exercise spiritual leadership, who for the most part are older in years. Likewise younger means the rest of the community, who for the most part are younger in age, who are urged to accept the authority of their leaders.
[5:6] 11 tn Grk “Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, so that in due time he may exalt you.” The sentence was rearranged so that the English reader could more clearly see the connection between “casting” (v. 7) and “humble” (v. 6).
[5:7] sn Casting. According to ExSyn 630, “Although treated as an independent command in several modern translations (e.g., RSV, NRSV, NIV), the participle [casting] should be connected with the verb of v 6, ταπεινώθητε [tapeinwqhte, Humble yourselves]. As such, it is not offering a new command, but is defining how believers are to humble themselves. Taking the participle as means enriches the understanding of both verbs: Humbling oneself is not a negative act of self-denial per se, but a positive one of active dependence on God for help.”
[5:8] 15 tc A few
[5:9] 18 tn Grk “your brotherhood.” The Greek term “brotherhood” is used in a broad sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 19 s.v. ἀδελφότης 1). Another alternative translation would be “your fellow believers,” though this would weaken the familial connotations. This same word occurs in 2:17; there it has been translated “family of believers.”
[5:9] 20 tn This verb carries the nuance “to accomplish, complete,” emphasizing their faithful endurance in suffering. The verb is passive in Greek (“suffering is being endured by your brotherhood”), but has been translated as an active to give a smoother English style.
[5:10] 22 tc ‡ A few important
[5:11] 24 tn No verb is expressed here but the verb “is” or “belongs” is clearly implied. This doxology expresses a fact for which God should be glorified (as in 4:11), rather than a wish or prayer (“may power be to him”).
[5:12] 25 sn The phrase Through Silvanus means either that Silvanus was the secretary (amanuensis) who assisted Peter in writing or composing the letter (cf. Rom 16:22) or that he carried the letter to the churches. The latter sense is more likely since this is the meaning of the Greek wording when it is used elsewhere (cf. Acts 15:23; Ignatius, Letter to the Romans 10:1; Letter to the Philadelphians 11:2; Letter to the Smyrnaeans 12:1; Polycarp, Letter to the Philippians 14), though it is perhaps possible that both ideas could be incorporated by this expression. For a detailed argument regarding this issue, see E. R. Richards, “Silvanus Was Not Peter’s Secretary: Theological Bias in Interpreting διὰ Σιλουανοῦ…ἔγραψα,” JETS 43 (September 2000): 417-32.
[5:13] 29 tn Grk “the one in Babylon,” which could refer to some individual woman (“she who is in Babylon”) since the Greek article (here “the one”) is feminine. But it is much more likely to be a veiled reference to a church (the Greek word “church” is also feminine in gender).
[5:13] 30 sn Most scholars understand Babylon here to be a figurative reference to Rome. Although in the OT the city of Babylon in Mesopotamia was the seat of tremendous power (2 Kgs 24-25; Isa 39; Jer 25), by the time of the NT what was left was an insignificant town, and there is no tradition in Christian history that Peter ever visited there. On the other hand, Christian tradition connects Peter with the church in Rome, and many interpreters think other references to Babylon in the NT refer to Rome as well (Rev 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2, 10, 21). Thus it is likely Peter was referring to Rome here.
[5:14] 33 tc Most