2:1 Then after fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem 1 again with Barnabas, taking Titus along too. 2:2 I went there 2 because of 3 a revelation and presented 4 to them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. But I did so 5 only in a private meeting with the influential people, 6 to make sure that I was not running – or had not run 7 – in vain. 2:3 Yet 8 not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, although he was a Greek. 2:4 Now this matter arose 9 because of the false brothers with false pretenses 10 who slipped in unnoticed to spy on 11 our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, to make us slaves. 12 2:5 But 13 we did not surrender to them 14 even for a moment, 15 in order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 16
2:6 But from those who were influential 17 (whatever they were makes no difference to me; God shows no favoritism between people 18 ) – those influential leaders 19 added 20 nothing to my message. 21 2:7 On the contrary, when they saw 22 that I was entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised 23 just as Peter was to the circumcised 24 2:8 (for he who empowered 25 Peter for his apostleship 26 to the circumcised 27 also empowered me for my apostleship to the Gentiles) 28 2:9 and when James, Cephas, 29 and John, who had a reputation as 30 pillars, 31 recognized 32 the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me 33 the right hand of fellowship, agreeing 34 that we would go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. 35 2:10 They requested 36 only that we remember the poor, the very thing I also was eager to do.
2:11 But when Cephas 37 came to Antioch, 38 I opposed him to his face, because he had clearly done wrong. 39 2:12 Until 40 certain people came from James, he had been eating with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he stopped doing this 41 and separated himself 42 because he was afraid of those who were pro-circumcision. 43 2:13 And the rest of the Jews also joined with him in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray with them 44 by their hypocrisy. 2:14 But when I saw that they were not behaving consistently with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas 45 in front of them all, “If you, although you are a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you try to force 46 the Gentiles to live like Jews?”
2:15 We are Jews by birth 47 and not Gentile sinners, 48 2:16 yet we know 49 that no one 50 is justified by the works of the law 51 but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ. 52 And 53 we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by the faithfulness of Christ 54 and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one 55 will be justified. 2:17 But if while seeking to be justified in Christ we ourselves have also been found to be sinners, is Christ then one who encourages 56 sin? Absolutely not! 2:18 But if I build up again those things I once destroyed, 57 I demonstrate that I am one who breaks God’s law. 58 2:19 For through the law I died to the law so that I may live to God. 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ, 59 and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me. So 60 the life I now live in the body, 61 I live because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, 62 who loved me and gave himself for me. 2:21 I do not set aside 63 God’s grace, because if righteousness 64 could come through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 65
[2:2] 3 tn Or “in accordance with.” According to BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.5.a.δ, “Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged…Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis of…κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2.”
[2:2] 5 tn Grk “Gentiles, but only privately…to make sure.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started with “But” and the words “I did so,” an implied repetition from the previous clause, were supplied to make a complete English sentence.
[2:2] 6 tn L&N 87.42 has “important persons, influential persons, prominent persons” for οἱ δοκοῦντες and translates this phrase in Gal 2:2 as “in a private meeting with the prominent persons.” The “prominent people” referred to here are the leaders of the Jerusalem church.
[2:4] 10 tn The adjective παρεισάκτους (pareisaktou"), which relates to someone joining a group with false motives or false pretenses, applies to the “false brothers.” Although the expression “false brothers with false pretenses” is somewhat redundant, it captures the emphatic force of Paul’s expression, which labels both these “brothers” as false (ψευδαδέλφους, yeudadelfou") as well as their motives. See L&N 34.29 for more information.
[2:4] 11 tn The verb translated here as “spy on” (κατασκοπέω, kataskopew) can have a neutral nuance, but here the connotation is certainly negative (so F. F. Bruce, Galatians [NIGTC], 112-13, and E. Burton, Galatians [ICC], 83).
[2:5] 13 tn Grk “slaves, nor did we…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, οὐδέ (oude) was translated as “But…even” and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 5.
[2:5] 16 sn In order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. Paul evidently viewed the demands of the so-called “false brothers” as a departure from the truth contained in the gospel he preached. This was a very serious charge (see Gal 1:8).
[2:6] 17 tn Or “influential leaders.” BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.a.β has “the influential men Gal 2:2, 6b. A fuller expr. w. the same mng., w. inf. added…vss. 6a, 9.” This refers to the leadership of the Jerusalem church.
[2:6] 19 tn Or “influential people”; here “leaders” was used rather than “people” for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy with the word “people” in the previous parenthetical remark. See also the note on the word “influential” at the beginning of this verse.
[2:7] 22 tn The participle ἰδόντες (idontes) has been taken temporally to retain the structure of the passage. Many modern translations, because of the length of the sentence here, translate this participle as a finite verb and break the Greek sentences into several English sentences (NIV, for example, begins new sentences at the beginning of both vv. 8 and 9).
[2:9] 34 tn Grk “so,” with the ἵνα (Jina) indicating the result of the “pillars” extending the “right hand of fellowship,” but the translation “they gave…the right hand of fellowship so that we would go” could be misunderstood as purpose here. The implication of the scene is that an agreement, outlined at the end of v. 10, was reached between Paul and Barnabas on the one hand and the “pillars” of the Jerusalem church on the other.
[2:12] 41 tn Grk “he drew back.” If ἑαυτόν (Jeauton) goes with both ὑπέστελλεν (Jupestellen) and ἀφώριζεν (afwrizen) rather than only the latter, the meaning would be “he drew himself back” (see BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 1.a).
[2:16] 52 tn Or “faith in Jesus Christ.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in v. 20; Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 3:22; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
[2:16] sn On the phrase translated the faithfulness of Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
[2:16] 53 tn In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[2:20] 59 tn Both the NA27/UBS4 Greek text and the NRSV place the phrase “I have been crucified with Christ” at the end of v. 19, but most English translations place these words at the beginning of v. 20.
[2:20] 60 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to bring out the connection of the following clauses with the preceding ones. What Paul says here amounts to a result or inference drawn from his co-crucifixion with Christ and the fact that Christ now lives in him. In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[2:20] 62 tc A number of important witnesses (Ì46 B D* F G) have θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ (qeou kai Cristou, “of God and Christ”) instead of υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ (Juiou tou qeou, “the Son of God”), found in the majority of
[2:20] sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.