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Mazmur 81:1--87:7

Psalm 81 1 

For the music director; according to the gittith style; 2  by Asaph.

81:1 Shout for joy to God, our source of strength!

Shout out to the God of Jacob!

81:2 Sing 3  a song and play the tambourine,

the pleasant sounding harp, and the ten-stringed instrument!

81:3 Sound the ram’s horn on the day of the new moon, 4 

and on the day of the full moon when our festival begins. 5 

81:4 For observing the festival is a requirement for Israel; 6 

it is an ordinance given by the God of Jacob.

81:5 He decreed it as a regulation in Joseph,

when he attacked the land of Egypt. 7 

I heard a voice I did not recognize. 8 

81:6 It said: 9  “I removed the burden from his shoulder;

his hands were released from holding the basket. 10 

81:7 In your distress you called out and I rescued you.

I answered you from a dark thundercloud. 11 

I tested you at the waters of Meribah. 12  (Selah)

81:8 I said, 13  ‘Listen, my people!

I will warn 14  you!

O Israel, if only you would obey me! 15 

81:9 There must be 16  no other 17  god among you.

You must not worship a foreign god.

81:10 I am the Lord, your God,

the one who brought you out of the land of Egypt.

Open your mouth wide and I will fill it!’

81:11 But my people did not obey me; 18 

Israel did not submit to me. 19 

81:12 I gave them over to their stubborn desires; 20 

they did what seemed right to them. 21 

81:13 If only my people would obey me! 22 

If only Israel would keep my commands! 23 

81:14 Then I would quickly subdue their enemies,

and attack 24  their adversaries.”

81:15 (May those who hate the Lord 25  cower in fear 26  before him!

May they be permanently humiliated!) 27 

81:16 “I would feed Israel the best wheat, 28 

and would satisfy your appetite 29  with honey from the rocky cliffs.” 30 

Psalm 82 31 

A psalm of Asaph.

82:1 God stands in 32  the assembly of El; 33 

in the midst of the gods 34  he renders judgment. 35 

82:2 He says, 36  “How long will you make unjust legal decisions

and show favoritism to the wicked? 37  (Selah)

82:3 Defend the cause of the poor and the fatherless! 38 

Vindicate the oppressed and suffering!

82:4 Rescue the poor and needy!

Deliver them from the power 39  of the wicked!

82:5 They 40  neither know nor understand.

They stumble 41  around in the dark,

while all the foundations of the earth crumble. 42 

82:6 I thought, 43  ‘You are gods;

all of you are sons of the Most High.’ 44 

82:7 Yet you will die like mortals; 45 

you will fall like all the other rulers.” 46 

82:8 Rise up, O God, and execute judgment on the earth!

For you own 47  all the nations.

Psalm 83 48 

A song, a psalm of Asaph.

83:1 O God, do not be silent!

Do not ignore us! 49  Do not be inactive, O God!

83:2 For look, your enemies are making a commotion;

those who hate you are hostile. 50 

83:3 They carefully plot 51  against your people,

and make plans to harm 52  the ones you cherish. 53 

83:4 They say, “Come on, let’s annihilate them so they are no longer a nation! 54 

Then the name of Israel will be remembered no more.”

83:5 Yes, 55  they devise a unified strategy; 56 

they form an alliance 57  against you.

83:6 It includes 58  the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites,

Moab and the Hagrites, 59 

83:7 Gebal, 60  Ammon, and Amalek,

Philistia and the inhabitants of Tyre. 61 

83:8 Even Assyria has allied with them,

lending its strength to the descendants of Lot. 62  (Selah)

83:9 Do to them as you did to Midian 63 

as you did to Sisera and Jabin at the Kishon River! 64 

83:10 They were destroyed at Endor; 65 

their corpses were like manure 66  on the ground.

83:11 Make their nobles like Oreb and Zeeb, 67 

and all their rulers like Zebah and Zalmunna, 68 

83:12 who said, 69  “Let’s take over 70  the pastures of God!”

83:13 O my God, make them like dead thistles, 71 

like dead weeds blown away by 72  the wind!

83:14 Like the fire that burns down the forest,

or the flames that consume the mountainsides, 73 

83:15 chase them with your gale winds,

and terrify 74  them with your windstorm.

83:16 Cover 75  their faces with shame,

so they might seek 76  you, 77  O Lord.

83:17 May they be humiliated and continually terrified! 78 

May they die in shame! 79 

83:18 Then they will know 80  that you alone are the Lord, 81 

the sovereign king 82  over all the earth.

Psalm 84 83 

For the music director; according to the gittith style; 84  written by the Korahites, a psalm.

84:1 How lovely is the place where you live, 85 

O Lord who rules over all! 86 

84:2 I desperately want to be 87 

in the courts of the Lord’s temple. 88 

My heart and my entire being 89  shout for joy

to the living God.

84:3 Even the birds find a home there,

and the swallow 90  builds a nest,

where she can protect her young 91 

near your altars, O Lord who rules over all,

my king and my God.

84:4 How blessed 92  are those who live in your temple

and praise you continually! (Selah)

84:5 How blessed are those who 93  find their strength in you,

and long to travel the roads that lead to your temple! 94 

84:6 As they pass through the Baca Valley, 95 

he provides a spring for them. 96 

The rain 97  even covers it with pools of water. 98 

84:7 They are sustained as they travel along; 99 

each one appears 100  before God in Zion.

84:8 O Lord, sovereign God, 101 

hear my prayer!

Listen, O God of Jacob! (Selah)

84:9 O God, take notice of our shield! 102 

Show concern for your chosen king! 103 

84:10 Certainly 104  spending just one day in your temple courts is better

than spending a thousand elsewhere. 105 

I would rather stand at the entrance 106  to the temple of my God

than live 107  in the tents of the wicked.

84:11 For the Lord God is our sovereign protector. 108 

The Lord bestows favor 109  and honor;

he withholds no good thing from those who have integrity. 110 

84:12 O Lord who rules over all, 111 

how blessed are those who trust in you! 112 

Psalm 85 113 

For the music director; written by the Korahites, a psalm.

85:1 O Lord, you showed favor to your land;

you restored the well-being of Jacob. 114 

85:2 You pardoned 115  the wrongdoing of your people;

you forgave 116  all their sin. (Selah)

85:3 You withdrew all your fury;

you turned back from your raging anger. 117 

85:4 Restore us, O God our deliverer!

Do not be displeased with us! 118 

85:5 Will you stay mad at us forever?

Will you remain angry throughout future generations? 119 

85:6 Will you not revive us once more?

Then your people will rejoice in you!

85:7 O Lord, show us your loyal love!

Bestow on us your deliverance!

85:8 I will listen to what God the Lord says. 120 

For he will make 121  peace with his people, his faithful followers. 122 

Yet they must not 123  return to their foolish ways.

85:9 Certainly his loyal followers will soon experience his deliverance; 124 

then his splendor will again appear in our land. 125 

85:10 Loyal love and faithfulness meet; 126 

deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss. 127 

85:11 Faithfulness grows from the ground,

and deliverance looks down from the sky. 128 

85:12 Yes, the Lord will bestow his good blessings, 129 

and our land will yield 130  its crops.

85:13 Deliverance goes 131  before him,

and prepares 132  a pathway for him. 133 

Psalm 86 134 

A prayer of David.

86:1 Listen 135  O Lord! Answer me!

For I am oppressed and needy.

86:2 Protect me, 136  for I am loyal!

O my God, deliver your servant, who trusts in you!

86:3 Have mercy on me, 137  O Lord,

for I cry out to you all day long!

86:4 Make your servant 138  glad,

for to you, O Lord, I pray! 139 

86:5 Certainly 140  O Lord, you are kind 141  and forgiving,

and show great faithfulness to all who cry out to you.

86:6 O Lord, hear my prayer!

Pay attention to my plea for mercy!

86:7 In my time of trouble I cry out to you,

for you will answer me.

86:8 None can compare to you among the gods, O Lord!

Your exploits are incomparable! 142 

86:9 All the nations, whom you created,

will come and worship you, 143  O Lord.

They will honor your name.

86:10 For you are great and do amazing things.

You alone are God.

86:11 O Lord, teach me how you want me to live! 144 

Then I will obey your commands. 145 

Make me wholeheartedly committed to you! 146 

86:12 O Lord, my God, I will give you thanks with my whole heart!

I will honor your name continually! 147 

86:13 For you will extend your great loyal love to me, 148 

and will deliver my life 149  from the depths of Sheol. 150 

86:14 O God, arrogant men attack me; 151 

a gang 152  of ruthless men, who do not respect you, seek my life. 153 

86:15 But you, O Lord, are a compassionate and merciful God.

You are patient 154  and demonstrate great loyal love and faithfulness. 155 

86:16 Turn toward me and have mercy on me!

Give your servant your strength!

Deliver your slave! 156 

86:17 Show me evidence of your favor! 157 

Then those who hate me will see it and be ashamed, 158 

for you, O Lord, will help me and comfort me. 159 

Psalm 87 160 

Written by the Korahites; a psalm, a song.

87:1 The Lord’s city is in the holy hills. 161 

87:2 The Lord loves the gates of Zion

more than all the dwelling places of Jacob.

87:3 People say wonderful things about you, 162 

O city of God. (Selah)

87:4 I mention Rahab 163  and Babylon to my followers. 164 

Here are 165  Philistia and Tyre, 166  along with Ethiopia. 167 

It is said of them, “This one was born there.” 168 

87:5 But it is said of Zion’s residents, 169 

“Each one of these 170  was born in her,

and the sovereign One 171  makes her secure.” 172 

87:6 The Lord writes in the census book of the nations, 173 

“This one was born there.” 174  (Selah)

87:7 As for the singers, as well as the pipers –

all of them sing within your walls. 175 

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[81:1]  1 sn Psalm 81. The psalmist calls God’s people to assemble for a festival and then proclaims God’s message to them. The divine speech (vv. 6-16) recalls how God delivered the people from Egypt, reminds Israel of their rebellious past, expresses God’s desire for his people to obey him, and promises divine protection in exchange for obedience.

[81:1]  2 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הַגִּתִּית (haggittit) is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or instrument. See the superscription to Ps 8.

[81:2]  3 tn Heb “lift up.”

[81:3]  4 tn Heb “at the new moon.”

[81:3]  sn New moon festivals were a monthly ritual in Israel (see R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel, 469-70). In this context the New Moon festival of the seventh month, when the Feast of Tabernacles was celebrated (note the reference to a “festival” in the next line), may be in view.

[81:3]  5 tn Heb “at the full moon on the day of our festival.” The Hebrew word כֶּסֶה (keseh) is an alternate spelling of כֶּסֶא (kese’, “full moon”).

[81:3]  sn The festival in view is probably the Feast of Tabernacles (Booths), which began on the fifteenth day of the seventh month when the moon was full. See Lev 23:34; Num 29:12.

[81:4]  6 tn Heb “because a statute for Israel [is] it.”

[81:5]  7 tn Heb “in his going out against the land of Egypt.” This apparently refers to the general time period of Israel’s exodus from Egypt. The LXX reads, “from Egypt,” in which case “Joseph” (see the preceding line) would be the subject of the verb, “when he [Joseph = Israel] left Egypt.”

[81:5]  8 tn Heb “a lip I did not know, I heard.” Here the term “lip” probably stands for speech or a voice. Apparently the psalmist speaks here and refers to God’s voice, whose speech is recorded in the following verses.

[81:6]  9 tn The words “It said” are not included in the Hebrew text. They are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[81:6]  10 sn I removed the burden. The Lord speaks metaphorically of how he delivered his people from Egyptian bondage. The reference to a basket/burden probably alludes to the hard labor of the Israelites in Egypt, where they had to carry loads of bricks (see Exod 1:14).

[81:7]  11 tn Heb “I answered you in the hidden place of thunder.” This may allude to God’s self-revelation at Mount Sinai, where he appeared in a dark cloud accompanied by thunder (see Exod 19:16).

[81:7]  12 sn The name Meribah means “strife.” Two separate but similar incidents at the place called Meribah are recorded in the Pentateuch (Exod 17:1-7; Num 20:1-13). In both cases the Israelites complained about lack of water and the Lord miraculously provided for them.

[81:8]  13 tn The words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Verses 8-10 appear to recall what the Lord commanded the generation of Israelites that experienced the events described in v. 7. Note the statement in v. 11, “my people did not listen to me.”

[81:8]  14 tn Or perhaps “command.”

[81:8]  15 tn The Hebrew particle אִם (“if”) and following prefixed verbal form here express a wish (GKC 321 §109.b). Note that the apodosis (the “then” clause of the conditional sentence) is suppressed.

[81:9]  16 tn The imperfect verbal forms in v. 9 have a modal function, expressing what is obligatory.

[81:9]  17 tn Heb “different”; “illicit.”

[81:11]  18 tn Heb “did not listen to my voice.”

[81:11]  19 tn The Hebrew expression אָבָה לִי (’avah liy) means “submit to me” (see Deut 13:8).

[81:12]  20 tn Heb “and I sent him away in the stubbornness of their heart.”

[81:12]  21 tn Heb “they walked in their counsel.” The prefixed verbal form is either preterite (“walked”) or a customary imperfect (“were walking”).

[81:13]  22 tn Heb “if only my people were listening to me.” The Hebrew particle לוּ (lu, “if not”) introduces a purely hypothetical or contrary to fact condition (see 2 Sam 18:12).

[81:13]  23 tn Heb “[and if only] Israel would walk in my ways.”

[81:14]  24 tn Heb “turn my hand against.” The idiom “turn the hand against” has the nuance of “strike with the hand, attack” (see Isa 1:25; Ezek 38:12; Amos 1:8; Zech 13:7).

[81:15]  25 tn “Those who hate the Lord” are also mentioned in 2 Chr 19:2 and Ps 139:21.

[81:15]  26 tn See Deut 33:29; Ps 66:3 for other uses of the verb כָּחַשׁ (kakhash) in the sense “cower in fear.” In Ps 18:44 the verb seems to carry the nuance “to be weak; to be powerless” (see also Ps 109:24). The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive, parallel to the jussive form in the next line.

[81:15]  27 tc Heb “and may their time be forever.” The Hebrew term עִתָּם (’ittam, “their time”) must refer here to the “time” of the demise and humiliation of those who hate the Lord. Some propose an emendation to בַּעֲתָתָם (baatatam) or בִּעֻתָם (biutam; “their terror”; i.e., “may their terror last forever”), but the omission of bet (ב) in the present Hebrew text is difficult to explain, making the proposed emendation unlikely.

[81:15]  tn The verb form at the beginning of the line is jussive, indicating that this is a prayer. The translation assumes that v. 15 is a parenthetical “curse” offered by the psalmist. Having heard the reference to Israel’s enemies (v. 14), the psalmist inserts this prayer, reminding the Lord that they are God’s enemies as well.

[81:16]  28 tn Heb “and he fed him from the best of the wheat.” The Hebrew text has a third person form of the preterite with a vav (ו) consecutive attached. However, it is preferable, in light of the use of the first person in v. 14 and in the next line, to emend the verb to a first person form and understand the vav as conjunctive, continuing the apodosis of the conditional sentence of vv. 13-14. The third masculine singular pronominal suffix refers to Israel, as in v. 6.

[81:16]  sn I would feed. After the parenthetical “curse” in v. 15, the Lord’s speech continues here.

[81:16]  29 tn Heb “you.” The second person singular pronominal suffix refers to Israel, as in vv. 7-10.

[81:16]  30 sn The language in this verse, particularly the references to wheat and honey, is reminiscent of Deut 32:13-14.

[82:1]  31 sn Psalm 82. The psalmist pictures God standing in the “assembly of El” where he accuses the “gods” of failing to promote justice on earth. God pronounces sentence upon them, announcing that they will die like men. Having witnessed the scene, the psalmist then asks God to establish his just rule over the earth.

[82:1]  32 tn Or “presides over.”

[82:1]  33 tn The phrase עֲדַת אֵל (’adatel, “assembly of El”) appears only here in the OT. (1) Some understand “El” to refer to God himself. In this case he is pictured presiding over his own heavenly assembly. (2) Others take אֵל as a superlative here (“God stands in the great assembly”), as in Pss 36:6 and 80:10. (3) The present translation assumes this is a reference to the Canaanite high god El, who presided over the Canaanite divine assembly. (See Isa 14:13, where El’s assembly is called “the stars of El.”) In the Ugaritic myths the phrase ’dtilm refers to the “assembly of the gods,” who congregate in King Kirtu’s house, where Baal asks El to bless Kirtu’s house (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 91). If the Canaanite divine assembly is referred to here in Ps 82:1, then the psalm must be understood as a bold polemic against Canaanite religion. Israel’s God invades El’s assembly, denounces its gods as failing to uphold justice, and announces their coming demise. For an interpretation of the psalm along these lines, see W. VanGemeren, “Psalms,” EBC 5:533-36.

[82:1]  34 sn The present translation assumes that the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim, “gods”) here refers to the pagan gods who supposedly comprise El’s assembly according to Canaanite religion. Those who reject the polemical view of the psalm prefer to see the referent as human judges or rulers (אֱלֹהִים sometimes refers to officials appointed by God, see Exod 21:6; 22:8-9; Ps 45:6) or as angelic beings (אֱלֹהִים sometimes refers to angelic beings, see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5).

[82:1]  35 sn The picture of God rendering judgment among the gods clearly depicts his sovereign authority as universal king (see v. 8, where the psalmist boldly affirms this truth).

[82:2]  36 tn The words “he says” are supplied in the translation to indicate that the following speech is God’s judicial decision (see v. 1).

[82:2]  37 tn Heb “and the face of the wicked lift up.”

[82:3]  38 tn The Hebrew noun יָתוֹם (yatom) refers to one who has lost his father (not necessarily his mother, see Ps 109:9). Because they were so vulnerable and were frequently exploited, fatherless children are often mentioned as epitomizing the oppressed (see Pss 10:14; 68:5; 94:6; 146:9; as well as Job 6:27; 22:9; 24:3, 9; 29:12; 31:17, 21).

[82:4]  39 tn Heb “hand.”

[82:5]  40 sn Having addressed the defendants, God now speaks to those who are observing the trial, referring to the gods in the third person.

[82:5]  41 tn Heb “walk.” The Hitpael stem indicates iterative action, picturing these ignorant “judges” as stumbling around in the darkness.

[82:5]  42 sn These gods, though responsible for justice, neglect their duty. Their self-imposed ignorance (which the psalmist compares to stumbling around in the dark) results in widespread injustice, which threatens the social order of the world (the meaning of the phrase all the foundations of the earth crumble).

[82:6]  43 tn Heb “said.”

[82:6]  44 sn Normally in the OT the title Most High belongs to the God of Israel, but in this context, where the mythological overtones are so strong, it probably refers to the Canaanite high god El (see v. 1, as well as Isa 14:13).

[82:7]  45 tn Heb “men.” The point in the context is mortality, however, not maleness.

[82:7]  sn You will die like mortals. For the concept of a god losing immortality and dying, see Isa 14:12-15, which alludes to a pagan myth in which the petty god “Shining One, son of the Dawn,” is hurled into Sheol for his hubris.

[82:7]  46 tn Heb “like one of the rulers.” The comparison does not necessarily imply that they are not rulers. The expression “like one of” can sometimes mean “as one of” (Gen 49:16; Obad 11) or “as any other of” (Judg 16:7, 11).

[82:8]  47 tn The translation assumes that the Qal of נָחַל (nakhal) here means “to own; to possess,” and that the imperfect emphasizes a general truth. Another option is to translate the verb as future, “for you will take possession of all the nations” (cf. NIV “all the nations are your inheritance”).

[83:1]  48 sn Psalm 83. The psalmist asks God to deliver Israel from the attacks of foreign nations. Recalling how God defeated Israel’s enemies in the days of Deborah and Gideon, he prays that the hostile nations would be humiliated.

[83:1]  49 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”

[83:2]  50 tn Heb “lift up [their] head[s].” The phrase “lift up [the] head” here means “to threaten; to be hostile,” as in Judg 8:28.

[83:3]  51 tn Heb “they make crafty a plot.”

[83:3]  52 tn Heb “and consult together against.”

[83:3]  53 tn The passive participle of the Hebrew verb צָפַן (tsafan, “to hide”) is used here in the sense of “treasured; cherished.”

[83:4]  54 tn Heb “we will cause them to disappear from [being] a nation.”

[83:5]  55 tn Or “for.”

[83:5]  56 tn Heb “they consult [with] a heart together.”

[83:5]  57 tn Heb “cut a covenant.”

[83:6]  58 tn The words “it includes” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

[83:6]  59 sn The Hagrites are also mentioned in 1 Chr 5:10, 19-20.

[83:7]  60 sn Some identify Gebal with the Phoenician coastal city of Byblos (see Ezek 27:9, where the name is spelled differently), though others locate this site south of the Dead Sea (see BDB 148 s.v. גְּבַל; HALOT 174 s.v. גְּבַל).

[83:7]  61 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[83:8]  62 tn Heb “they are an arm for the sons of Lot.” The “arm” is here a symbol of military might.

[83:8]  sn The descendants of Lot were the Moabites and Ammonites.

[83:9]  63 tn Heb “do to them like Midian.”

[83:9]  64 sn The psalmist alludes here to Gideon’s victory over the Midianites (see Judg 7-8) and to Barak’s victory over Jabin’s army, which was led by his general Sisera (Judg 4-5).

[83:10]  65 sn Endor is not mentioned in the accounts of Gideon’s or Barak’s victories, but both battles took place in the general vicinity of the town. (See Y. Aharoni and M. Avi-Yonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas, 46, 54.) Because Sisera and Jabin are mentioned in v. 9b, many understand them to be the subject of the verbs in v. 10, though they relate v. 10 to Gideon’s victory, which is referred to in v. 9a, 11. (See, for example, Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 263.)

[83:10]  66 tn Heb “they were manure.” In addition to this passage, corpses are compared to manure in 2 Kgs 9:37; Jer 8:2; 9:21; 16:4; 25:33.

[83:11]  67 sn Oreb and Zeeb were the generals of the Midianite army that was defeated by Gideon. The Ephraimites captured and executed both of them and sent their heads to Gideon (Judg 7:24-25).

[83:11]  68 sn Zebah and Zalmunna were the Midianite kings. Gideon captured them and executed them (Judg 8:1-21).

[83:12]  69 tn The translation assumes that “Zebah and Zalmunna” are the antecedents of the relative pronoun (“who [said]”). Another option is to take “their nobles…all their rulers” as the antecedent and to translate, “those who say.”

[83:12]  70 tn Heb “let’s take possession for ourselves.”

[83:13]  71 tn Or “tumbleweed.” The Hebrew noun גַּלְגַּל (galgal) refers to a “wheel” or, metaphorically, to a whirling wind (see Ps 77:18). If taken in the latter sense here, one could understand the term as a metonymical reference to dust blown by a whirlwind (cf. NRSV “like whirling dust”). However, HALOT 190 s.v. II גַּלְגַּל understands the noun as a homonym referring to a “dead thistle” here and in Isa 17:13. The parallel line, which refers to קַשׁ (qash, “chaff”), favors this interpretation.

[83:13]  72 tn Heb “before.”

[83:14]  73 sn The imagery of fire and flames suggests unrelenting, destructive judgment.

[83:15]  74 tn The two imperfect verbal forms in v. 15 express the psalmist’s wish or prayer.

[83:16]  75 tn Heb “fill.”

[83:16]  76 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose or result (“then they will seek”).

[83:16]  77 tn Heb “your name,” which stands here for God’s person.

[83:17]  78 tn Heb “and may they be terrified to perpetuity.” The Hebrew expression עֲדֵי־עַד (’adey-ad, “to perpetuity”) can mean “forevermore” (see Pss 92:7; 132:12, 14), but here it may be used hyperbolically, for the psalmist asks that the experience of judgment might lead the nations to recognize (v. 18) and even to seek (v. 16) God.

[83:17]  79 tn Heb “may they be ashamed and perish.” The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse are understood as jussives. The psalmist concludes his prayer with an imprecation, calling severe judgment down on his enemies. The strong language of the imprecation seems to run contrary to the positive outcome of divine judgment envisioned in v. 16b. Perhaps the language of v. 17 is overstated for effect. Another option is that v. 16b expresses an ideal, while the strong imprecation of vv. 17-18 anticipates reality. It would be nice if the defeated nations actually pursued a relationship with God, but if judgment does not bring them to that point, the psalmist asks that they be annihilated so that they might at least be forced to acknowledge God’s power.

[83:18]  80 tn After the preceding jussives (v. 17), the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose (“so that they may know”) or result.

[83:18]  81 tn Heb “that you, your name [is] the Lord, you alone.”

[83:18]  82 tn Traditionally “the Most High.”

[84:1]  83 sn Psalm 84. The psalmist expresses his desire to be in God’s presence in the Jerusalem temple, for the Lord is the protector of his people.

[84:1]  84 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הַגִּתִּית (haggittit) is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or instrument.

[84:1]  85 tn Or “your dwelling place[s].” The plural form of the noun may indicate degree or quality; this is the Lord’s special dwelling place (see Pss 43:3; 46:4; 132:5, 7).

[84:1]  86 tn Traditionally, “Lord of hosts.” The title draws attention to God’s sovereign position (see Ps 69:6).

[84:2]  87 tn Heb “my soul longs, it even pines for.”

[84:2]  88 tn Heb “the courts of the Lord” (see Ps 65:4).

[84:2]  89 tn Heb “my flesh,” which stands for his whole person and being.

[84:3]  90 tn The word translated “swallow” occurs only here and in Prov 26:2.

[84:3]  91 tn Heb “even a bird finds a home, and a swallow a nest for herself, [in] which she places her young.”

[84:3]  sn The psalmist here romanticizes the temple as a place of refuge and safety. As he thinks of the birds nesting near its roof, he envisions them finding protection in God’s presence.

[84:4]  92 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see v. 12 and Pss 1:1; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).

[84:5]  93 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here was certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to in v. 5a is representative of followers of God, as the use of plural forms in vv. 5b-7 indicates.

[84:5]  94 tn Heb “roads [are] in their heart[s].” The roads are here those that lead to Zion (see v. 7).

[84:6]  95 tn The translation assumes that the Hebrew phrase עֵמֶק הַבָּכָא (’emeq habbakha’) is the name of an otherwise unknown arid valley through which pilgrims to Jerusalem passed. The term בָּכָא (bakha’) may be the name of a particular type of plant or shrub that grew in this valley. O. Borowski (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 130) suggests it is the black mulberry. Some take the phrase as purely metaphorical and relate בָּכָא to the root בָּכָה (bakhah, “to weep”). In this case one might translate, “the valley of weeping” or “the valley of affliction.”

[84:6]  96 tc The MT reads “a spring they make it,” but this makes little sense. Many medieval Hebrew mss, as well as the LXX, understand God to be the subject and the valley to be the object, “he [God] makes it [the valley] [into] a spring.”

[84:6]  97 tn This rare word may refer to the early (or autumn) rains (see Joel 2:23).

[84:6]  98 tc The MT reads בְּרָכוֹת (bÿrakhot, “blessings”) but the preceding reference to a “spring” favors an emendation to בְּרֵכוֹת (bÿrekhot, “pools”).

[84:6]  sn Pools of water. Because water is so necessary for life, it makes an apt symbol for divine favor and blessing. As the pilgrims traveled to Jerusalem, God provided for their physical needs and gave them a token of his favor and of the blessings awaiting them at the temple.

[84:7]  99 tn Heb “they go from strength to strength.” The phrase “from strength to strength” occurs only here in the OT. With a verb of motion, the expression “from [common noun] to [same common noun]” normally suggests movement from one point to another or through successive points (see Num 36:7; 1 Chr 16:20; 17:5; Ps 105:13; Jer 25:32). Ps 84:7 may be emphasizing that the pilgrims move successively from one “place of strength” to another as they travel toward Jerusalem. All along the way they find adequate provisions and renewed energy for the trip.

[84:7]  100 tn The psalmist returns to the singular (see v. 5a), which he uses in either a representative or distributive (“each one” ) sense.

[84:8]  101 tn HebLord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿvaot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9) but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvahelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת in Pss 59:5 and 80:4, 19 as well.

[84:9]  102 tn The phrase “our shield” refers metaphorically to the Davidic king, who, as God’s vice-regent, was the human protector of the people. Note the parallelism with “your anointed one” here and with “our king” in Ps 89:18.

[84:9]  103 tn Heb “look [on] the face of your anointed one.” The Hebrew phrase מְשִׁיחֶךָ (mÿshikhekha, “your anointed one”) refers here to the Davidic king (see Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 28:8; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17).

[84:10]  104 tn Or “for.”

[84:10]  105 tn Heb “better is a day in your courts than a thousand [spent elsewhere].”

[84:10]  106 tn Heb “I choose being at the entrance of the house of my God over living in the tents of the wicked.” The verb סָפַף (safaf) appears only here in the OT; it is derived from the noun סַף (saf, “threshold”). Traditionally some have interpreted this as a reference to being a doorkeeper at the temple, though some understand it to mean “lie as a beggar at the entrance to the temple” (see HALOT 765 s.v. ספף).

[84:10]  107 tn The verb דּוּר (dur, “to live”) occurs only here in the OT.

[84:11]  108 tn Heb “[is] a sun and a shield.” The epithet “sun,” though rarely used of Israel’s God in the OT, was a well-attested royal title in the ancient Near East. For several examples from Ugaritic texts, the Amarna letters, and Assyrian royal inscriptions, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 131, n. 2.

[84:11]  109 tn Or “grace.”

[84:11]  110 tn Heb “he does not withhold good to those walking in integrity.”

[84:12]  111 tn Traditionally “Lord of hosts.”

[84:12]  112 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man [who] trusts in you.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to here is representative of all followers of God, as the use of the plural form in v. 12b indicates.

[85:1]  113 sn Psalm 85. God’s people recall how he forgave their sins in the past, pray that he might now restore them to his favor, and anticipate renewed blessings.

[85:1]  114 tn Heb “you turned with a turning [toward] Jacob.” The Hebrew term שְׁבוּת (shÿvut) is apparently a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv). See Pss 14:7; 53:6.

[85:2]  115 tn Heb “lifted up.”

[85:2]  116 tn Heb “covered over.”

[85:3]  117 tn Heb “the rage of your anger.” The phrase “rage of your anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81. See Pss 69:24; 78:49.

[85:4]  118 tn Heb “break your displeasure with us.” Some prefer to emend הָפֵר (hafer, “break”) to הָסֵר (haser, “turn aside”).

[85:5]  119 tn Heb “Will your anger stretch to a generation and a generation?”

[85:8]  120 sn I will listen. Having asked for the Lord’s favor, the psalmist (who here represents the nation) anticipates a divine word of assurance.

[85:8]  121 tn Heb “speak.” The idiom “speak peace” refers to establishing or maintaining peaceful relations with someone (see Gen 37:4; Zech 9:10; cf. Ps 122:8).

[85:8]  122 tn Heb “to his people and to his faithful followers.” The translation assumes that “his people” and “his faithful followers” are viewed as identical here.

[85:8]  123 tn Or “yet let them not.” After the negative particle אֵל (’el), the prefixed verbal form is jussive, indicating the speaker’s desire or wish.

[85:9]  124 tn Heb “certainly his deliverance [is] near to those who fear him.”

[85:9]  125 tn Heb “to dwell, glory, in our land.” “Glory” is the subject of the infinitive. The infinitive with -לְ (lÿ), “to dwell,” probably indicates result here (“then”). When God delivers his people and renews his relationship with them, he will once more reveal his royal splendor in the land.

[85:10]  126 tn The psalmist probably uses the perfect verbal forms in v. 10 in a dramatic or rhetorical manner, describing what he anticipates as if it were already occurring or had already occurred.

[85:10]  127 sn Deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss. The psalmist personifies these abstract qualities to emphasize that God’s loyal love and faithfulness will yield deliverance and peace for his people.

[85:11]  128 sn The psalmist already sees undeniable signs of God’s faithfulness and expects deliverance to arrive soon.

[85:12]  129 tn Heb “what is good.”

[85:12]  130 tn Both “bestow” and “yield” translate the same Hebrew verb (נָתַן, natan). The repetition of the word emphasizes that agricultural prosperity is the direct result of divine blessing.

[85:13]  131 tn Or “will go.”

[85:13]  132 tn Or “will prepare.”

[85:13]  133 tn Heb “and it prepares for a way his footsteps.” Some suggest emending וְיָשֵׂם (vÿyasem, “and prepares”) to וְשָׁלוֹם (vÿshalom, “and peace”) since “deliverance” and “peace” are closely related earlier in v. 13. This could be translated, “and peace [goes ahead, making] a pathway for his footsteps” (cf. NEB).

[86:1]  134 sn Psalm 86. The psalmist appeals to God’s mercy as he asks for deliverance from his enemies.

[86:1]  135 tn Heb “turn your ear.”

[86:2]  136 tn Heb “my life.”

[86:3]  137 tn Or “show me favor.”

[86:4]  138 tn Heb “the soul of your servant.”

[86:4]  139 tn Heb “I lift up my soul.”

[86:5]  140 tn Or “for.”

[86:5]  141 tn Heb “good.”

[86:8]  142 tn Heb “and there are none like your acts.”

[86:9]  143 tn Or “bow down before you.”

[86:11]  144 tn Heb “teach me your way.” The Lord’s “way” refers here to the moral principles he expects the psalmist to follow. See Pss 25:4; 27:11.

[86:11]  145 tn Heb “I will walk in your truth.” The Lord’s commandments are referred to as “truth” here because they are a trustworthy and accurate expression of the divine will. See Ps 25:5.

[86:11]  146 tn Heb “Bind my heart to the fearing of your name.” The verb translated “bind” occurs only here in the Piel stem. It appears twice in the Qal, meaning “be joined” in both cases (Gen 49:6; Isa 14:20). To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for him which in turn motivates one to obey his commands (see Pss 61:5; 102:15).

[86:12]  147 tn Or “forever.”

[86:13]  148 tn Heb “for your loyal love [is] great over me.”

[86:13]  149 tn Or “for he will have delivered my life.” The verb form indicates a future perfect here.

[86:13]  150 tn Or “lower Sheol.”

[86:14]  151 tn Heb “rise up against me.”

[86:14]  152 tn Or “assembly.”

[86:14]  153 tn Heb “seek my life and do not set you before them.” See Ps 54:3.

[86:15]  154 tn Heb “slow to anger.”

[86:15]  155 tn Heb “and great of loyal love and faithfulness.”

[86:15]  sn The psalmist’s confession of faith in this verse echoes Exod 34:6.

[86:16]  156 tn Heb “the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 116:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The use of the expression here certainly does not imply that the Lord has such a secondary wife or concubine! It is used metaphorically and idiomatically to emphasize the psalmist’s humility before the Lord and his status as the Lord’s servant.

[86:17]  157 tn Heb “Work with me a sign for good.” The expression “work a sign” also occurs in Judg 6:17.

[86:17]  158 tn After the imperative in the preceding line (“work”), the prefixed verb forms with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose or result.

[86:17]  159 tn The perfect verbal forms are understood here as dramatic/rhetorical, expressing the psalmist’s certitude that such a sign from the Lord will be followed by his intervention. Another option is to understand the forms as future perfects (“for you, O Lord, will have helped me and comforted me”).

[87:1]  160 sn Psalm 87. The psalmist celebrates the Lord’s presence in Zion and the special status of its citizens.

[87:1]  161 tn Heb “his foundation [is] in the hills of holiness.” The expression “his foundation” refers here by metonymy to the Lord’s dwelling place in Zion. The “hills” are the ones surrounding Zion (see Pss 125:2; 133:3).

[87:3]  162 tn Heb “glorious things are spoken about you.” The translation assumes this is a general reference to compliments paid to Zion by those who live within her walls and by those who live in the surrounding areas and lands. Another option is that this refers to a prophetic oracle about the city’s glorious future. In this case one could translate, “wonderful things are announced concerning you.”

[87:4]  163 snRahab,” which means “proud one,” is used here as a title for Egypt (see Isa 30:7).

[87:4]  164 tn Heb “to those who know me” (see Ps 36:10). Apparently the Lord speaks here. The verbal construction (the Hiphil of זָכַר, zakhar, “remember” followed by the preposition -לְ [le] with a substantive) is rare, but the prepositional phrase is best understood as indicating the recipient of the announcement (see Jer 4:16). Some take the preposition in the sense of “among” and translate, “among those who know me” (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). In this case these foreigners are viewed as the Lord’s people and the psalm is interpreted as anticipating a time when all nations will worship the Lord (see Ps 86:9) and be considered citizens of Zion.

[87:4]  165 tn Heb “Look.”

[87:4]  166 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

[87:4]  167 tn Heb “Cush.”

[87:4]  168 tn Heb “and this one was born there.” The words “It is said of them” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarification and stylistic purposes (see v. 5). Those advocating the universalistic interpretation understand “there” as referring to Zion, but it seems more likely that the adverb refers to the nations just mentioned. The foreigners are identified by their native lands.

[87:5]  169 tn Heb “and of Zion it is said.” Another option is to translate, “and to Zion it is said.” In collocation with the Niphal of אָמַר (’amar), the preposition lamed (-לְ) can introduce the recipient of the statement (see Josh 2:2; Jer 4:11; Hos 1:10; Zeph 3:16), carry the nuance “concerning, of” (see Num 23:23), or mean “be named” (see Isa 4:3; 62:4).

[87:5]  170 tn Heb “a man and a man.” The idiom also appears in Esth 1:8. The translation assumes that the phrase refers to each of Zion’s residents, in contrast to the foreigners mentioned in v. 4. Those advocating the universalistic interpretation understand this as a reference to each of the nations, including those mentioned in v. 4.

[87:5]  171 tn Traditionally “Most High.”

[87:5]  172 tn Heb “and he makes her secure, the Most High.”

[87:6]  173 tn Heb “the Lord records in the writing of the nations.”

[87:6]  174 tn As noted in v. 4, the translation assumes a contrast between “there” (the various foreign lands) and “in her” (Zion). In contrast to foreigners, the citizens of Zion have special status because of their birthplace (v. 5). In this case vv. 4 and 6 form a structural frame around v. 5.

[87:7]  175 tc Heb “and singers, like pipers, all my springs [are] in you.” The participial form חֹלְלִים (kholÿlim) appears to be from a denominative verb meaning “play the pipe,” though some derive the form from חוּל (khul, “dance”). In this case the duplicated lamed (ל) requires an emendation to מְחֹלְלִים (mÿkholÿlim, “a Polel form). The words are addressed to Zion. As it stands, the Hebrew text makes little, if any, sense. “Springs” are often taken here as a symbol of divine blessing and life”), but this reading does not relate to the preceding line in any apparent way. The present translation assumes an emendation of כָּל־מַעְיָנַי (kol-mayanay, “all my springs”) to כֻּלָּם עָנוּ (kullamanu, “all of them sing,” with the form עָנוּ being derived from עָנָה, ’anah, “sing”).

TIP #15: Gunakan tautan Nomor Strong untuk mempelajari teks asli Ibrani dan Yunani. [SEMUA]
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