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Teks -- Genesis 37:1-36 (NET)

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Konteks
Joseph’s Dreams
37:1 But Jacob lived in the land where his father had stayed, in the land of Canaan. 37:2 This is the account of Jacob. Joseph, his seventeen-year-old son, was taking care of the flocks with his brothers. Now he was a youngster working with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives. Joseph brought back a bad report about them to their father. 37:3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons because he was a son born to him late in life, and he made a special tunic for him. 37:4 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father loved him more than any of them, they hated Joseph and were not able to speak to him kindly. 37:5 Joseph had a dream, and when he told his brothers about it, they hated him even more. more. 37:6 He said to them, “Listen to this dream I had: 37:7 There we were, binding sheaves of grain in the middle of the field. Suddenly my sheaf rose up and stood upright and your sheaves surrounded my sheaf and bowed down to it!” 37:8 Then his brothers asked him, “Do you really think you will rule over us or have dominion over us?” They hated him even more because of his dream and because of what he said. 37:9 Then he had another dream, and told it to his brothers. “Look,” he said. “I had another dream. The sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to me.” 37:10 When he told his father and his brothers, his father rebuked him, saying, “What is this dream that you had? Will I, your mother, and your brothers really come and bow down to you?” 37:11 His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept in mind what Joseph said. 37:12 When his brothers had gone to graze their father’s flocks near Shechem, 37:13 Israel said to Joseph, “Your brothers are grazing the flocks near Shechem. Come, I will send you to them.” “I’m ready,” Joseph replied. 37:14 So Jacob said to him, “Go now and check on the welfare of your brothers and of the flocks, and bring me word.” So Jacob sent him from the valley of Hebron. 37:15 When Joseph reached Shechem, a man found him wandering in the field, so the man asked him, “What are you looking for?” 37:16 He replied, “I’m looking for my brothers. Please tell me where they are grazing their flocks.” 37:17 The man said, “They left this area, for I heard them say, ‘Let’s go to Dothan.’” So Joseph went after his brothers and found them at Dothan. 37:18 Now Joseph’s brothers saw him from a distance, and before he reached them, they plotted to kill him. 37:19 They said to one another, “Here comes this master of dreams! 37:20 Come now, let’s kill him, throw him into one of the cisterns, and then say that a wild animal ate him. Then we’ll see how his dreams turn out!” 37:21 When Reuben heard this, he rescued Joseph from their hands, saying, “Let’s not take his life!” 37:22 Reuben continued, “Don’t shed blood! Throw him into this cistern that is here in the wilderness, but don’t lay a hand on him.” (Reuben said this so he could rescue Joseph from them and take him back to his father.) 37:23 When Joseph reached his brothers, they stripped him of his tunic, the special tunic that he wore. 37:24 Then they took him and threw him into the cistern. (Now the cistern was empty; there was no water in it.) 37:25 When they sat down to eat their food, they looked up and saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead. Their camels were carrying spices, balm, and myrrh down to Egypt. 37:26 Then Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is there if we kill our brother and cover up his blood? 37:27 Come, let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites, but let’s not lay a hand on him, for after all, he is our brother, our own flesh.” His brothers agreed. 37:28 So when the Midianite merchants passed by, Joseph’s brothers pulled him out of the cistern and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. The Ishmaelites then took Joseph to Egypt. 37:29 Later Reuben returned to the cistern to find that Joseph was not in it! He tore his clothes, 37:30 returned to his brothers, and said, “The boy isn’t there! And I, where can I go?” 37:31 So they took Joseph’s tunic, killed a young goat, and dipped the tunic in the blood. 37:32 Then they brought the special tunic to their father and said, “We found this. Determine now whether it is your son’s tunic or not.” 37:33 He recognized it and exclaimed, “It is my son’s tunic! A wild animal has eaten him! Joseph has surely been torn to pieces!” 37:34 Then Jacob tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned for his son many days. 37:35 All his sons and daughters stood by him to console him, but he refused to be consoled. “No,” he said, “I will go to the grave mourning my son.” So Joseph’s father wept for him. 37:36 Now in Egypt the Midianites sold Joseph to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh’s officials, the captain of the guard.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Bilhah Rachel's maid; third wife of Jacob; mother of Dan and Naphtali,a town of Simeon and Judah inhabited by the clan of Shime-i
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Dothan a town 25 km north. of Shechem (OS)
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Gilead a mountainous region east of the Jordan & north of the Arnon to Hermon,son of Machir son of Manasseh; founder of the clan of Gilead,father of Jephthah the judge,son of Michael of the tribe of Gad
 · Hebron a valley and town of Judah 25 km west of the dead sea,son of Kohath son of Levi,son of Mareshah of Judah
 · Ishmaelite member(s) of the clan of Ishmael
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Midianite resident(s) of the region of Midian
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Potiphar a man who bought Joseph; captain of Pharaoh's guard
 · Reuben the tribe of Reuben
 · Shechem member of the Shechem Clan and/or resident of Shechem
 · Sheol the place of the dead
 · Zilpah Leah's maid


Topik/Tema Kamus: Joseph | Malice | GENEALOGY, 8 part 1 | LEVI (2) | GENESIS, 1-2 | Reuben | JOSEPH (2) | Jealousy | Ishmaelites | Envy | Dream | Jacob | SHEAF; SHEAVES | Judah | Lies and Deceits | DRESS | Deception | Hypocrisy | ISHMAEL | DREAM; DREAMER | selebihnya
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Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Bible Query , Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Gen 37:2 - These are the generations of Jacob It is not a barren genealogy, as those of Esau, but a memorable useful history.

It is not a barren genealogy, as those of Esau, but a memorable useful history.

Wesley: Gen 37:2 - Joseph brought to his father their evil report Jacob's sons did that when they were from under his eye, which they durst not have done if they had been at home with him; but Joseph gave his father ...

Jacob's sons did that when they were from under his eye, which they durst not have done if they had been at home with him; but Joseph gave his father an account of their ill carriage, that he might reprove and restrain them.

Wesley: Gen 37:3 - He made him a coat of divers colours Which probably was significant of farther honours intended him.

Which probably was significant of farther honours intended him.

Wesley: Gen 37:5 - -- Though he was now very young, about seventeen years old, yet he was pious and devout, and this fitted him for God's gracious discoveries to him. Josep...

Though he was now very young, about seventeen years old, yet he was pious and devout, and this fitted him for God's gracious discoveries to him. Joseph had a great deal of trouble before him, and therefore God gave him betimes this prospect of his advancement, to support and comfort him.

Wesley: Gen 37:8 - Shalt thou indeed reign over us? See here, How truly they interpreted his dream? The event exactly answered this interpretation, Gen 42:6, &c. How scornfully they resented it, Shalt t...

See here, How truly they interpreted his dream? The event exactly answered this interpretation, Gen 42:6, &c. How scornfully they resented it, Shalt thou that art but one, reign over us that are many? Thou that art the youngest, over us that are elder? The reign of Jesus Christ, our Joseph, is despised and striven against by an unbelieving world, who cannot endure to think that this man should reign over them. The dominion also of the upright in the morning of the resurrection is thought of with the utmost disdain.

Wesley: Gen 37:10 - His father rebuked him Probably to lessen the offence which his brethren would take at it; yet he took notice of it more than he seemed to do.

Probably to lessen the offence which his brethren would take at it; yet he took notice of it more than he seemed to do.

Wesley: Gen 37:18 - And when they saw him afar off they conspired against him It was not in a heat, or upon a sudden provocation, that they thought to slay him, but from malice propense, and in cold blood.

It was not in a heat, or upon a sudden provocation, that they thought to slay him, but from malice propense, and in cold blood.

Wesley: Gen 37:21 - And Reuben heard it God can raise up friends for his people, even among their enemies. Reuben of all the brothers had most reason to be jealous of Joseph, for he was the ...

God can raise up friends for his people, even among their enemies. Reuben of all the brothers had most reason to be jealous of Joseph, for he was the first-born, and so entitled to those distinguishing favours which Jacob was conferring on Joseph, yet he proves his best friend. Reuben's temper seems to have been soft and effeminate, which had betrayed him to the sin of uncleanness, while the temper of the two next brothers, Simeon and Levi, was fierce, which betrayed them to the sin of murder, a sin which Reuben startled at the thought of. He made a proposal which they thought would effectually destroy Joseph, and yet which he designed should answer his intention of rescuing Joseph out of their hands, probably hoping thereby to recover his father's favour which he had lately lost; but God over - ruled all to serve his own purpose of making Joseph an instrument to save much people alive. Joseph was here a type of Christ. Though he was the beloved Son of his Father, and hated by a wicked world; yet the Father sent him out of his bosom to visit us; he came from heaven to earth to seek and save us; yet then malicious plots were laid against him; he came to his own, and his own not only received him not, but consulted, This is the heir, come let us kill him. This he submitted to, in pursuance of his design to save us.

Wesley: Gen 37:24 - They call him into a pit To perish there with hunger and cold; so cruel were their tender mercies.

To perish there with hunger and cold; so cruel were their tender mercies.

Wesley: Gen 37:25 - They sat down to eat bread They felt no remorse of conscience, which if they had, would have spoiled their stomach to their meat. A great force put upon conscience commonly stup...

They felt no remorse of conscience, which if they had, would have spoiled their stomach to their meat. A great force put upon conscience commonly stupifies it, and for the time deprives it both of sense and speech.

Wesley: Gen 37:26 - What profit is it if we slay our brother? It will be less guilt and more gain to sell him. They all agreed to this. And as Joseph was sold by the contrivance of Judah for twenty pieces of silv...

It will be less guilt and more gain to sell him. They all agreed to this. And as Joseph was sold by the contrivance of Judah for twenty pieces of silver, so was our Lord Jesus for thirty, and by one of the same name too, Judas. Reuben it seems, was gone away from his brethren when they sold Joseph, intending to come round some other way to the pit, and to help Joseph out of it. But had this taken effect, what had become of God's purpose concerning his preferment, in Egypt? There are many devices of the enemies of God's people to destroy them, and of their friends to help them, which perhaps are both disappointed, as these here; but the counsel of the Lord that shall stand. Reuben thought himself undone because the child was sold; I, whither shall I go? He being the eldest, his father would expect from him an account of him; but it proved they had all been undone, if he had not been sold.

Wesley: Gen 37:35 - He refused to be comforted He resolved to go down to the grave mourning; Great affection to any creature doth but prepare for so much the greater affliction, when it is either r...

He resolved to go down to the grave mourning; Great affection to any creature doth but prepare for so much the greater affliction, when it is either removed from us, or embittered to us: inordinate love commonly ends in immoderate grief.

JFB: Gen 37:1 - Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger That is, "a sojourner"; "father" used collectively. The patriarch was at this time at Mamre, in the valley of Hebron (compare Gen 35:27); and his dwel...

That is, "a sojourner"; "father" used collectively. The patriarch was at this time at Mamre, in the valley of Hebron (compare Gen 35:27); and his dwelling there was continued in the same manner and prompted by the same motives as that of Abraham and Isaac (Heb 11:13).

JFB: Gen 37:2 - generations Leading occurrences, in the domestic history of Jacob, as shown in the narrative about to be commenced.

Leading occurrences, in the domestic history of Jacob, as shown in the narrative about to be commenced.

JFB: Gen 37:2 - Joseph . . . was feeding the flock Literally, "Joseph being seventeen years old was a shepherd over the flock"--he a lad, with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah. Oversight or superintendenc...

Literally, "Joseph being seventeen years old was a shepherd over the flock"--he a lad, with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah. Oversight or superintendence is evidently implied. This post of chief shepherd in the party might be assigned him either from his being the son of a principal wife or from his own superior qualities of character; and if invested with this office, he acted not as a gossiping telltale, but as a "faithful steward" in reporting the scandalous conduct of his brethren.

JFB: Gen 37:3 - son of his old age Benjamin being younger, was more the son of his old age and consequently on that ground might have been expected to be the favorite. Literally rendere...

Benjamin being younger, was more the son of his old age and consequently on that ground might have been expected to be the favorite. Literally rendered, it is "son of old age to him"--Hebrew phrase, for "a wise son"--one who possessed observation and wisdom above his years--an old head on young shoulders.

JFB: Gen 37:3 - made him a coat of many colors Formed in those early days by sewing together patches of colored cloth, and considered a dress of distinction (Jdg 5:30; 2Sa 13:18). The passion for v...

Formed in those early days by sewing together patches of colored cloth, and considered a dress of distinction (Jdg 5:30; 2Sa 13:18). The passion for various colors still reigns among the Arabs and other people of the East, who are fond of dressing their children in this gaudy attire. But since the art of interweaving various patterns was introduced, "the coats of colors" are different now from what they seem to have been in patriarchal times, and bear a close resemblance to the varieties of tartan.

JFB: Gen 37:4 - could not speak peaceably unto him Did not say "peace be to thee" [Gen 43:23, &c.], the usual expression of good wishes among friends and acquaintances. It is deemed a sacred duty to gi...

Did not say "peace be to thee" [Gen 43:23, &c.], the usual expression of good wishes among friends and acquaintances. It is deemed a sacred duty to give all this form of salutation; and the withholding of it is an unmistakable sign of dislike or secret hostility. The habitual refusal of Joseph's brethren, therefore, to meet him with "the salaam," showed how ill-disposed they were towards him. It is very natural in parents to love the youngest, and feel partial to those who excel in talents or amiableness. But in a family constituted as Jacob's--many children by different mothers--he showed great and criminal indiscretion.

JFB: Gen 37:5 - Joseph dreamed a dream Dreams in ancient times were much attended to, and hence the dream of Joseph, though but a mere boy, engaged the serious consideration of his family. ...

Dreams in ancient times were much attended to, and hence the dream of Joseph, though but a mere boy, engaged the serious consideration of his family. But this dream was evidently symbolical. The meaning was easily discerned, and, from its being repeated under different emblems, the fulfilment was considered certain (compare Gen 41:32), whence it was that "his brethren envied him, but his father observed the saying" [Gen 37:11].

JFB: Gen 37:12 - his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem The vale of Shechem was, from the earliest mention of Canaan, blest with extraordinary abundance of water. Therefore did the sons of Jacob go from Heb...

The vale of Shechem was, from the earliest mention of Canaan, blest with extraordinary abundance of water. Therefore did the sons of Jacob go from Hebron to this place, though it must have cost them near twenty hours' travelling--that is, at the shepherd rate, a little more than fifty miles. But the herbage there was so rich and nutritious that they thought it well worth the pains of so long a journey, to the neglect of the grazing district of Hebron [VAN DE VELDE].

JFB: Gen 37:13-17 - Israel said, . . . Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? Anxious to learn how his sons were doing in their distant encampment, Jacob despatched Joseph; and the youth, accepting the mission with alacrity, lef...

Anxious to learn how his sons were doing in their distant encampment, Jacob despatched Joseph; and the youth, accepting the mission with alacrity, left the vale of Hebron, sought them at Shechem, heard of them from a man in "the field" (the wide and richly cultivated plain of Esdraelon), and found that they had left that neighborhood for Dothan, probably being compelled by the detestation in which, from the horrid massacre, their name was held.

JFB: Gen 37:17 - Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan Hebrew, Dothaim, or "two wells," recently discovered in the modern "Dothan," situated a few hours' distance from Shechem.

Hebrew, Dothaim, or "two wells," recently discovered in the modern "Dothan," situated a few hours' distance from Shechem.

JFB: Gen 37:18 - when they saw him afar off On the level grass field, where they were watching their cattle. They could perceive him approaching in the distance from the side of Shechem, or rath...

On the level grass field, where they were watching their cattle. They could perceive him approaching in the distance from the side of Shechem, or rather, Samaria.

JFB: Gen 37:19 - Behold, this dreamer cometh Literally, "master of dreams"--a bitterly ironical sneer. Dreams being considered suggestions from above, to make false pretensions to having received...

Literally, "master of dreams"--a bitterly ironical sneer. Dreams being considered suggestions from above, to make false pretensions to having received one was detested as a species of blasphemy, and in this light Joseph was regarded by his brethren as an artful pretender. They already began to form a plot for Joseph's assassination, from which he was rescued only by the address of Reuben, who suggested that he should rather be cast into one of the wells, which are, and probably were, completely dried up in summer.

JFB: Gen 37:23 - they stripped Joseph out of his coat . . . of many colors Imagine him advancing in all the unsuspecting openness of brotherly affection. How astonished and terrified must he have been at the cold reception, t...

Imagine him advancing in all the unsuspecting openness of brotherly affection. How astonished and terrified must he have been at the cold reception, the ferocious aspect, the rough usage of his unnatural assailants! A vivid picture of his state of agony and despair was afterwards drawn by themselves (compare Gen 42:21).

JFB: Gen 37:25 - they sat down to eat bread What a view does this exhibit of those hardened profligates! Their common share in this conspiracy is not the only dismal feature in the story. The ra...

What a view does this exhibit of those hardened profligates! Their common share in this conspiracy is not the only dismal feature in the story. The rapidity, the almost instantaneous manner in which the proposal was followed by their joint resolution, and the cool indifference, or rather the fiendish satisfaction, with which they sat down to regale themselves, is astonishing. It is impossible that mere envy at his dreams, his gaudy dress, or the doting partiality of their common father, could have goaded them on to such a pitch of frenzied resentment or confirmed them in such consummate wickedness. Their hatred to Joseph must have had a far deeper seat. It must have been produced by dislike to his piety and other excellencies, which made his character and conduct a constant censure upon theirs, and on account of which they found that they could never be at ease till they had rid themselves of his hated presence. This was the true solution of the mystery, just as it was in the case of Cain (1Jo 3:12).

JFB: Gen 37:25 - they lifted up their eyes, . . . and, behold, a company of Ishmaelites They are called Midianites (Gen 37:28), and Medanites, in Hebrew (Gen 37:36), being a travelling caravan composed of a mixed association of Arabians. ...

They are called Midianites (Gen 37:28), and Medanites, in Hebrew (Gen 37:36), being a travelling caravan composed of a mixed association of Arabians. Those tribes of Northern Arabia had already addicted themselves to commerce, and long did they enjoy a monopoly, the carrying trade being entirely in their hands. Their approach could easily be seen; for, as their road, after crossing the ford from the trans-jordanic district, led along the south side of the mountains of Gilboa, a party seated on the plain of Dothan could trace them and their string of camels in the distance as they proceeded through the broad and gently sloping valley that intervenes. Trading in the produce of Arabia and India, they were in the regular course of traffic on their way to Egypt: and the chief articles of commerce in which this clan dealt were

JFB: Gen 37:25 - spicery from India, that is, a species of resinous gum, called storax, balm "balm of Gilead," the juice of the balsam tree, a native of Arabia-Felix, and myrrh--an Arabic gum of a strong, fragrant smell. For these articles the...

"balm of Gilead," the juice of the balsam tree, a native of Arabia-Felix, and myrrh--an Arabic gum of a strong, fragrant smell. For these articles there must have been an enormous demand in Egypt as they were constantly used in the process of embalming.

JFB: Gen 37:26-28 - Judah said, . . . What profit is it if we slay our brother? The sight of these travelling merchants gave a sudden turn to the views of the conspirators; for having no wish to commit a greater degree of crime th...

The sight of these travelling merchants gave a sudden turn to the views of the conspirators; for having no wish to commit a greater degree of crime than was necessary for the accomplishment of their end, they readily approved of Judah's suggestion to dispose of their obnoxious brother as a slave. The proposal, of course, was founded on their knowledge that the Arabian merchants trafficked in slaves; and there is the clearest evidence furnished by the monuments of Egypt that the traders who were in the habit of bringing slaves from the countries through which they passed, found a ready market in the cities of the Nile.

JFB: Gen 37:26-28 - they . . . lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold him Acting impulsively on Judah's advice, they had their poor victim ready by the time the merchants reached them; and money being no part of their object...

Acting impulsively on Judah's advice, they had their poor victim ready by the time the merchants reached them; and money being no part of their object, they sold him for

JFB: Gen 37:26-28 - twenty pieces of silver The money was probably in rings or pieces (shekels), and silver is always mentioned in the records of that early age before gold, on account of its ra...

The money was probably in rings or pieces (shekels), and silver is always mentioned in the records of that early age before gold, on account of its rarity. The whole sum, if in shekel weight, did not exceed £3.

JFB: Gen 37:26-28 - they brought Joseph into Egypt There were two routes to Egypt: the one was overland by Hebron, where Jacob dwelt, and by taking which, the fate of his hapless son would likely have ...

There were two routes to Egypt: the one was overland by Hebron, where Jacob dwelt, and by taking which, the fate of his hapless son would likely have reached the paternal ears; the other was directly westward across the country from Dothan to the maritime coast, and in this, the safest and most expeditious way, the merchants carried Joseph to Egypt. Thus did an overruling Providence lead this murderous conclave of brothers, as well as the slave merchants both following their own free courses--to be parties in an act by which He was to work out, in a marvellous manner, the great purposes of His wisdom and goodness towards His ancient Church and people.

JFB: Gen 37:29-30 - Reuben returned unto the pit He seems to have designedly taken a circuitous route, with a view of secretly rescuing the poor lad from a lingering death by starvation. His intentio...

He seems to have designedly taken a circuitous route, with a view of secretly rescuing the poor lad from a lingering death by starvation. His intentions were excellent, and his feelings no doubt painfully lacerated when he discovered what had been done in his absence. But the thing was of God, who had designed that Joseph's deliverance should be accomplished by other means than his.

JFB: Gen 37:31-33 - they took Joseph's coat The commission of one sin necessarily leads to another to conceal it; and the scheme of deception which the sons of Jacob planned and practised on the...

The commission of one sin necessarily leads to another to conceal it; and the scheme of deception which the sons of Jacob planned and practised on their aged father was a necessary consequence of the atrocious crime they had perpetrated. What a wonder that their cruel sneer, "thy son's coat," and their forced efforts to comfort him, did not awaken suspicion! But extreme grief, like every other passion, is blind, and Jacob, great as his affliction was, did allow himself to indulge his sorrow more than became one who believed in the government of a supreme and all-wise Disposer.

JFB: Gen 37:34 - Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins The common signs of Oriental mourning. A rent is made in the skirt more or less long according to the afflicted feelings of the mourner, and a coarse ...

The common signs of Oriental mourning. A rent is made in the skirt more or less long according to the afflicted feelings of the mourner, and a coarse rough piece of black sackcloth or camel's hair cloth is wound round the waist.

JFB: Gen 37:35 - and he said, For I will go down into the grave unto my son Not the earth, for Joseph was supposed to be torn in pieces, but the unknown place--the place of departed souls, where Jacob expected at death to meet...

Not the earth, for Joseph was supposed to be torn in pieces, but the unknown place--the place of departed souls, where Jacob expected at death to meet his beloved son.

Clarke: Gen 37:1 - Wherein his father was a stranger Wherein his father was a stranger - מגורי אביו megurey abiv , Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’ s sojournings, as the margin ver...

Wherein his father was a stranger - מגורי אביו megurey abiv , Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’ s sojournings, as the margin very properly reads it. The place was probably the vale of Hebron, see Gen 37:14.

Clarke: Gen 37:2 - These are the generations These are the generations - תלדות toledoth , the history of the lives and actions of Jacob and his sons; for in this general sense the origina...

These are the generations - תלדות toledoth , the history of the lives and actions of Jacob and his sons; for in this general sense the original must be taken, as in the whole of the ensuing history there is no particular account of any genealogical succession. Yet the words may be understood as referring to the tables or genealogical lists in the preceding chapter; and if so, the original must be understood in its common acceptation

Clarke: Gen 37:2 - The lad was with the sons of Bilhah The lad was with the sons of Bilhah - It is supposed that our word lad comes from the Hebrew ילד yeled , a child, a son; and that lass is a cont...

The lad was with the sons of Bilhah - It is supposed that our word lad comes from the Hebrew ילד yeled , a child, a son; and that lass is a contraction of ladess, the female of lad, a girl, a young woman. Some have supposed that King James desired the translators to insert this word; but this must be a mistake, as the word occurs in this place in Edmund Becke’ s Bible, printed in 1549; and still earlier in that of Coverdale, printed in 1535

Clarke: Gen 37:2 - Brought unto his father their evil report Brought unto his father their evil report - Conjecture has been busily employed to find out what this evil report might be; but it is needless to in...

Brought unto his father their evil report - Conjecture has been busily employed to find out what this evil report might be; but it is needless to inquire what it was, as on this head the sacred text is perfectly silent. All the use we can make of this information is, that it was one cause of increasing his brothers’ hatred to him, which was first excited by his father’ s partiality, and secondly by his own dreams.

Clarke: Gen 37:3 - A coat of many colors A coat of many colors - כתנת פסים kethoneth passim , a coat made up of stripes of differently colored cloth. Similar to this was the toga p...

A coat of many colors - כתנת פסים kethoneth passim , a coat made up of stripes of differently colored cloth. Similar to this was the toga praetexta of the Roman youth, which was white, striped or fringed with purple; this they wore till they were seventeen years of age, when they changed it for the toga virilis , or toga pura , which was all white. Such vestures as clothing of distinction are worn all over Persia, India, and China to the present day. It is no wonder that his brethren should envy him, when his father had thus made him such a distinguished object of his partial love. We have already seen some of the evils produced by this unwarrantable conduct of parents in preferring one child to all the rest. The old fable of the ape and her favorite cub, which she hugged to death through kindness, was directed against such foolish parental fondnesses as these.

Clarke: Gen 37:4 - And could not speak peaceably unto him And could not speak peaceably unto him - Does not this imply, in our use of the term, that they were continually quarrelling with him? but this is n...

And could not speak peaceably unto him - Does not this imply, in our use of the term, that they were continually quarrelling with him? but this is no meaning of the original: ולא יכלו דברו לשלם velo yachelu dabbero leshalom , they could not speak peace to him, i. e., they would not accost him in a friendly manner. They would not even wish him well. The eastern method of salutation is, Peace be to thee! שלום לך shalom lecha , among the Hebrews, and salam , peace, or salam kebibi , peace to thee my friend, among the Arabs. Now as peace among those nations comprehends all kinds of blessings spiritual and temporal, so they are careful not to say it to those whom they do not cordially wish well. It is not an unusual thing for an Arab or a Turk to hesitate to return the salam , if given by a Christian, or by one of whom he has not a favorable opinion: and this, in their own country, may be ever considered as a mark of hostility; not only as a proof that they do not wish you well, but that if they have an opportunity they will do you an injury. This was precisely the case with respect to Joseph’ s brethren: they would not give him the salam , and therefore felt themselves at liberty to take the first opportunity to injure him.

Clarke: Gen 37:7 - We were binding sheaves in the field We were binding sheaves in the field - Though in these early times we read little of tillage, yet it is evident from this circumstance that it was p...

We were binding sheaves in the field - Though in these early times we read little of tillage, yet it is evident from this circumstance that it was practiced by Jacob and his sons. The whole of this dream is so very plain as to require no comment, unless we could suppose that the sheaves of grain might have some reference to the plenty in Egypt under Joseph’ s superintendence, and the scarcity in Canaan, which obliged the brethren to go down to Egypt for corn, where the dream was most literally fulfilled, his brethren there bowing in the most abject manner before him.

Clarke: Gen 37:9 - He dreamed yet another dream He dreamed yet another dream - This is as clear as the preceding. But how could Jacob say, Shall I and thy mother, etc., when Rachel his mother was ...

He dreamed yet another dream - This is as clear as the preceding. But how could Jacob say, Shall I and thy mother, etc., when Rachel his mother was dead some time before this? Perhaps Jacob might hint, by this explanation, the impossibility of such a dream being fulfilled, because one of the persons who should be a chief actor in it was already dead. But any one wife or concubine of Jacob was quite sufficient to fulfill this part of the dream. It is possible, some think, that Joseph may have had these dreams before his mother Rachel died; but were even this the case, she certainly did not live to fulfill the part which appears to refer to herself

Clarke: Gen 37:9 - The sun and the moon and the eleven stars The sun and the moon and the eleven stars - Why eleven stars? Was it merely to signify that his brothers might be represented by stars? Or does he n...

The sun and the moon and the eleven stars - Why eleven stars? Was it merely to signify that his brothers might be represented by stars? Or does he not rather there allude to the Zodiac, his eleven brethren answering to eleven of the celestial signs, and himself to the twelfth? This is certainly not an unnatural thought, as it is very likely that the heavens were thus measured in the days of Joseph; for the zodiacal constellations have been distinguished among the eastern nations from time immemorial. See Clarke at Gen 49:33 (note).

Clarke: Gen 37:14 - Go - see whether it be well with thy brethren Go - see whether it be well with thy brethren - Literally, Go, I beseech thee, and see the peace of thy brethren, and the peace of the flock. Go and...

Go - see whether it be well with thy brethren - Literally, Go, I beseech thee, and see the peace of thy brethren, and the peace of the flock. Go and see whether they are all in prosperity. See Clarke on Gen 37:4 (note). As Jacob’ s sons were now gone to feed the flock on the parcel of ground they had bought from the Shechemites, (see Gen 33:19), and where they had committed such a horrible slaughter, their father might feel more solicitous about their welfare, lest the neighboring tribes should rise against them, and revenge the murder of the Shechemites

As Jacob appears to have been at this time in the vale of Hebron, it is supposed that Shechem was about sixty English miles distant from it, and that Dothan was about eight miles farther. But I must again advertise my readers that all these calculations are very dubious; for we do not even know that the same place is intended, as there are many proofs that different places went by the same names.

Clarke: Gen 37:19 - Behold, this dreamer cometh Behold, this dreamer cometh - בעל החלמות baal hachalomoth , this master of dreams, this master dreamer. A form of speech which conveys gre...

Behold, this dreamer cometh - בעל החלמות baal hachalomoth , this master of dreams, this master dreamer. A form of speech which conveys great contempt.

Clarke: Gen 37:20 - Come now and let us slay him Come now and let us slay him - What unprincipled savages these must have been to talk thus coolly about imbruing their hands in an innocent brother&...

Come now and let us slay him - What unprincipled savages these must have been to talk thus coolly about imbruing their hands in an innocent brother’ s blood! How necessary is a Divine revelation, to show man what God hates and what he loves! Ferocious cruelty is the principal characteristic of the nations and tribes who receive not the law at his mouth.

Clarke: Gen 37:21 - Reuben heard it Reuben heard it - Though Reuben appears to have been a transgressor of no ordinary magnitude, if we take Gen 35:22 according to the letter, yet his ...

Reuben heard it - Though Reuben appears to have been a transgressor of no ordinary magnitude, if we take Gen 35:22 according to the letter, yet his bosom was not the habitation of cruelly. He determined, if possible, to save his brother from death, and deliver him safely to his father, with whose fondness for him he was sufficiently acquainted. Josephus, in his usual way, puts a long flourishing speech in the mouth of Reuben on the occasion, spoken in order to dissuade his brethren from their barbarous purpose; but as it is totally unfounded, it is worthy of no regard.

Clarke: Gen 37:23 - They stripped Joseph out of his coat They stripped Joseph out of his coat - This probably was done that, if ever found, he might not be discerned to be a person of distinction, and cons...

They stripped Joseph out of his coat - This probably was done that, if ever found, he might not be discerned to be a person of distinction, and consequently, no inquiry made concerning him.

Clarke: Gen 37:25 - They sat down to eat bread They sat down to eat bread - Every act is perfectly in character, and describes forcibly the brutish and diabolic nature of their ruthless souls

They sat down to eat bread - Every act is perfectly in character, and describes forcibly the brutish and diabolic nature of their ruthless souls

Clarke: Gen 37:25 - A company of Ishmaelites A company of Ishmaelites - We may naturally suppose that this was a caravan, composed of different tribes that, for their greater safety, were trave...

A company of Ishmaelites - We may naturally suppose that this was a caravan, composed of different tribes that, for their greater safety, were traveling together, and of which Ishmaelites and Midianites made the chief. In the Chaldee they are called Arabians, which, from ערב arab , to mingle, was in all probability used by the Targumist as the word Arabians is used among us, which comprehends a vast number of clans, or tribes of people. The Jerusalem Targum calls them סרקין Sarkin , what we term Saracens. In the Persian, the clause stands thus: karavanee iskmaaleem araban aya . "A caravan of Ishmaelite Arabs came."This seems to give the true sense.

Clarke: Gen 37:28 - For twenty pieces of silver For twenty pieces of silver - In the Anglo-Saxon it is thirty pence. This, I think, is the first instance on record of selling a man for a slave; bu...

For twenty pieces of silver - In the Anglo-Saxon it is thirty pence. This, I think, is the first instance on record of selling a man for a slave; but the practice certainly did not commence now, it had doubtless been in use long before. Instead of pieces, which our translators supply, the Persian has miskal , which was probably intended to signify a shekel; and if shekels be intended, taking them at three shillings each, Joseph was sold for about three pounds sterling. I have known a whole cargo of slaves, amounting to eight hundred and thirteen, bought by a slave captain in Bonny river, in Africa, on an average, for six pounds each; and this payment was made in guns, gunpowder, and trinkets! As there were only nine of the brethren present, and they sold Joseph for twenty shekels, each had more than two shekels as his share in this most infamous transaction.

Clarke: Gen 37:29 - Ruben returned unto the pit Ruben returned unto the pit - It appears he was absent when the caravan passed by, to whom the other brethren had sold Joseph.

Ruben returned unto the pit - It appears he was absent when the caravan passed by, to whom the other brethren had sold Joseph.

Clarke: Gen 37:30 - The child is not; and I, whither shall I go? The child is not; and I, whither shall I go? - The words in the original are very plaintive, הילד איננו ואני אנה אני בא haiyel...

The child is not; and I, whither shall I go? - The words in the original are very plaintive, הילד איננו ואני אנה אני בא haiyeled einennu ,vaani anah ,ani ba !

Clarke: Gen 37:32 - Sent the coat of many colors - to their father Sent the coat of many colors - to their father - What deliberate cruelty to torture the feelings of their aged father, and thus harrow up his soul!

Sent the coat of many colors - to their father - What deliberate cruelty to torture the feelings of their aged father, and thus harrow up his soul!

Clarke: Gen 37:33 - Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces! Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces! - It is likely he inferred this from the lacerated state of the coat, which, in order the better to cover th...

Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces! - It is likely he inferred this from the lacerated state of the coat, which, in order the better to cover their wickedness, they had not only besmeared with the blood of the goat, but it is probable reduced to tatters. And what must a father’ s heart have felt in such a case! As this coat is rent, so is the body of my beloved son rent in pieces! and Jacob rent his clothes.

Clarke: Gen 37:35 - All his sons and all his daughters All his sons and all his daughters - He had only one daughter, Dinah; but his sons’ wives may be here included. But what hypocrisy in his sons...

All his sons and all his daughters - He had only one daughter, Dinah; but his sons’ wives may be here included. But what hypocrisy in his sons to attempt to comfort him concerning the death of a son who they knew was alive; and what cruelty to put their aged father to such torture, when, properly speaking, there was no ground for it!

Clarke: Gen 37:36 - Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’ s Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’ s - The word סריס saris , translated officer, signifies a eunuch; and lest any person should imagine that...

Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’ s - The word סריס saris , translated officer, signifies a eunuch; and lest any person should imagine that because this Potiphar had a wife, therefore it is absurd to suppose him to have been a eunuch, let such persons know that it is not uncommon in the east for eunuchs to have wives, nay, some of them have even a harem or seraglio where they keep many women, though it does not appear that they have any progeny; and probably discontent on this ground might have contributed as much to the unfaithfulness of Potiphar’ s wife, as that less principled motive through which it is commonly believed she acted

Clarke: Gen 37:36 - Captain of the guard Captain of the guard - שר הטבחים sar kattabbachim , chief of the butchers; a most appropriate name for the guards of an eastern despot. If ...

Captain of the guard - שר הטבחים sar kattabbachim , chief of the butchers; a most appropriate name for the guards of an eastern despot. If a person offend one of the despotic eastern princes, the order to one of the life-guards is, Go and bring me his head; and this command is instantly obeyed, without judge, jury, or any form of law. Potiphar, we may therefore suppose, was captain of those guards whose business it was to take care of the royal person, and execute his sovereign will on all the objects of his displeasure. Reader, if thou hast the happiness to live under the British constitution, be thankful to God. Here, the will, the power, and utmost influence of the king, were he even so disposed, cannot deprive the meanest subject of his property, his liberty, or his life. All the solemn legal forms of justice must be consulted; the culprit, however accused, be heard by himself and his counsel; and in the end twelve honest, impartial men, chosen from among his fellows, shall decide on the validity of the evidence produced by the accuser. For the trial by jury, as well as for innumerable political blessings, may God make the inhabitants of Great Britain thankful

1.    With this chapter the history of Joseph commences, and sets before our eyes such a scene of wonders wrought by Divine Providence in such a variety of surprising instances, as cannot fail to confirm our faith in God, show the propriety of resignation to his will, and confidence in his dispensations, and prove that all things work together for good to them that love him. Joseph has often been considered as a type of Christ, and this subject in the hands of different persons has assumed a great variety of coloring. The following parallels appear the most probable; but I shall not pledge myself for the propriety of any of them: "Jesus Christ, prefigured by Joseph, the beloved of his father, and by him sent to visit his brethren, is the innocent person whom his brethren sold for a few pieces of silver, the bargain proposed by his brother Judah, (Greek Judas), the very namesake of that disciple and brother (for so Christ vouchsafes to call him) who sold his Lord and Master; and who by this means became their Lord and Savior; nay, the Savior of strangers, and of the whole world; which had not happened but for this plot of destroying him, the act of rejecting, and exposing him to sale. In both examples we find the same fortune and the same innocence: Joseph in the prison between two criminals; Jesus on the cross between two thieves. Joseph foretells deliverance to one of his companions and death to the other, from the same omens: of the two thieves, one reviles Christ, and perishes in his crimes; the other believes, and is assured of a speedy entrance into paradise. Joseph requests the person that should be delivered to be mindful of him in his glory; the person saved by Jesus Christ entreats his deliverer to remember him when he came into his kingdom."- See Pascal’ s Thoughts. Parallels and coincidences of this kind should always be received cautiously, for where the Spirit of God has not marked a direct resemblance, and obviously referred to it as such in some other part of his word, it is bold, if not dangerous, to say "such and such things and persons are types of Christ."We have instances sufficiently numerous, legitimately attested, without having recourse to those which are of dubious import and precarious application. See the observation on Genesis 40. (Gen 40:23 (note))

2.    Envy has been defined, "pain felt, and malignity conceived, at the sight of excellence or happiness in another."Under this detestable passion did the brethren of Joseph labor; and had not God particularly interposed, it would have destroyed both its subjects and its object, Perhaps there is no vice which so directly filiates itself on Satan, as this does. In opposition to the assertion that we cannot envy that by which we profit, it may be safely replied that we may envy our neighbor’ s wisdom, though he gives us good counsel; his riches, though he supplies our wants; and his greatness, though he employs it for our protection

3.    How ruinous are family distractions! A house divided against itself cannot stand. Parents should take good heed that their own conduct be not the first and most powerful cause of such dissensions, by exciting envy in some of their children through undue partiality to others; but it is in vain to speak to most parents on the subject; they will give way to foolish predilections, till, in the prevailing distractions of their families, they meet with the punishment of their imprudence, when regrets are vain, and the evil past remedy.

Calvin: Gen 37:1 - And Jacob dwelt 1.And Jacob dwelt. Moses confirms what he had before declared, that, by the departure of Esau, the land was left to holy Jacob as its sole possessor....

1.And Jacob dwelt. Moses confirms what he had before declared, that, by the departure of Esau, the land was left to holy Jacob as its sole possessor. Although in appearance he did not obtain a single clod; yet, contented with the bare sight of the land, he exercised his faith; and Moses expressly compares him with his father, who had been a stranger in that land all his life. Therefore, though by the removal of his brother to another abode, Jacob was no little gainer; yet it was the Lord’s will that this advantage should be hidden from his eyes, in order that he might depend entirely upon the promise.

Calvin: Gen 37:2 - These are the generations of Jacob 2.These are the generations of Jacob. By the word תולדות toledoth we are not so much to understand a genealogy, as a record of events, whic...

2.These are the generations of Jacob. By the word תולדות toledoth we are not so much to understand a genealogy, as a record of events, which appears more clearly from the context. For Moses having thus commenced, does not enumerate sons and grandsons, but explains the cause of the envy of Joseph’s brethren, who formed a wicked conspiracy against him, and sold him as a slave: as if he had said “Having briefly summed up the genealogy of Esau, I now revert to the series of my history, as to what happened to the family of Jacob.” 132 Moreover, Moses being about to speak of the abominable wickedness of Jacob’s sons, begins with the statement, that Joseph was dear beyond the rest to his father, because he had begotten him in his old age: and as a token of tender love, had clothed him with a coat woven of many colors. But it was not surprising that the boy should be a great favorite with his aged father, for so it is wont to happen: and no just ground is here given for envy; seeing that sons of a more robust age, by the dictate of nature, might well concede such a point. Moses, however, states this as the cause of odium, that the mind of his father was more inclined to him than to the rest. The brethren conceive enmity against the boy, whom they see to be more tenderly loved by their father, as having been born in his old age. 133 If they did not choose to join in this love to their brother, why did they not excuse it in their father? Hence, then, we perceive their malignant and perverse disposition. But, that a manycoloured coat and similar trifles inflamed them to devise a scheme of slaughter, is a proof of their detestable cruelty. Moses also says that their hatred increased, because Joseph conveyed the evil speeches of his brethren to their father. Some expound the word evil as meaning some intolerable crime; but others more correctly suppose, that it was a complaint of the boy that his brothers vexed him with their reproaches; for, what follows in Moses, I take to have been added in explanation, that we may know the cause for which he had been treated so ill and with such hostility. It may be asked, why Moses here accuses only the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, when, afterwards, he does not exempt the sons of Leah from the same charge? One, indeed, of her sons, Reuben, was milder than any of the rest; next to him was Judah, who was his uterine brother. But what is to be said of Simon? What of Levi? Certainly since they were older, it is probable that they were leaders in the affair. The suspicion may, however, be entertained, that because these were the sons of concubines and not of true wives, their minds would be more quickly moved with envy; as if their servile extraction, on the mother’s side, subjected them to contempt.

Calvin: Gen 37:6 - And Joseph dreamed a dream 6.And Joseph dreamed a dream. Moses having stated what were the first seeds of this enmity, now ascends higher, and shows that Joseph had been electe...

6.And Joseph dreamed a dream. Moses having stated what were the first seeds of this enmity, now ascends higher, and shows that Joseph had been elected, by the wonderful purpose of God, to great things; that this had been declared to him in a dream; and that, therefore, the hatred of his brethren broke forth into madness. God, however, revealed in dreams what he would do, that afterwards it might be known that nothing had happened fortuitously: but that what had been fixed by a celestial decree, was at length, in its proper time, carried forward through circuitous windings to its completion. It had been predicted to Abraham that his seed should be wanderers from the land of Canaan. In order, then, that Jacob might pass over into Egypt, this method was divinely appointed; namely, that Joseph, being president over Egypt in a time of famine, might bring his father thither with his whole family, and supply them with food. Now, from the facts first related, no one could have conjectured such a result. The sons of Jacob conspire to put the very person to death, without whom they cannot be preserved; yea, he who was ordained to be the minister of salvation to them, is thrown into a well, and with difficulty rescued from the jaws of death. Driven about by various misfortunes, he seems to be an alien from his father’s house. Afterwards, he is cast into prison, as into another sepulcher, where, for a long time, he languishes. Nothing, therefore, was less probable than that the family of Jacob should be preserved by his means, when he was cut off from it, and carried far away, and not even reckoned among the living. Nor did any hope of his liberation remain, especially from the time in which he was neglected by the chief butler; but being condemned to perpetual imprisonment, he was left there to rot. God, however, by such complicated methods, accomplishes what he had purposed. Wherefore, in this history, we have not only a most beautiful example of Divine Providence, but also two other points are added especially worthy of notice: first, that the Lord performs his work by wonderful and unusual modes; and, secondly, that he brings forth the salvation of his Church, not from magnificent splendor, but from death and the grave. Besides, in the person of Joseph, a lively image of Christ is presented, as will more fully appear from the context. But since these subjects will be often repeated, let us follow the thread of Moses’ discourse. God, of his mere grace, conferred peculiar honor on the boy, who was the last but one among twelve, in giving him the priority among his brethren. For, by what merit or virtue shall we say that he attained the lordship over his brethren? Afterwards he seemed, indeed, to acquire this by his own great beneficence: but from the dream we learn, that it was the free gift of God, which in no way depended upon Joseph’s beneficence. Rather, he was ordained to be chief, by the mere good pleasure of God, in order that he might show kindness to his brethren. Now, since the Lord was, at that time, wont to reveal his secrets by two methods — by visions and by dreams — one of these kinds is here noted. For no doubt Joseph had often dreamed in the common manner: but Moses shows that a dream was now divinely sent to him, which might have the force and weight of an oracle. We know that dreams are often produced by our daily thoughts: sometimes they are indications of an unhealthy state of the body: but whenever God intends to make known his counsel by dreams, he engraves on them certain marks, which distinguish them from passing and frivolous imaginations, in order that their credibility and authority may stand firm. Thus Joseph, being certainly persuaded that he had not been deluded by an empty spectra, fearlessly announced his dream as a celestial oracle. Now, although the dominion is promised to him under a rural symbol, it is one which does not seem suitable for instruction to the sons of Jacob; for we know that they were herdsman, not ploughmen. Since they had no harvest which they could gather in, it seems hardly congruous that homage should be paid to his sheaf: But perhaps God designedly chose this similitude, to show that this prophecy was not founded upon the present fortunes of Joseph, and that the material of his dominion would not consist in those things which were at hand, but that it should be a future benefit, the cause of which was to be sought for elsewhere than at home.

Calvin: Gen 37:8 - Shalt thou indeed reign over us? 8.Shalt thou indeed reign over us? Here it is plainly shown to us that the paternal favor of God towards the elect, is like a fan to excite against t...

8.Shalt thou indeed reign over us? Here it is plainly shown to us that the paternal favor of God towards the elect, is like a fan to excite against them the enmity of the world. When the sons of Jacob heard that they were fighting in vain against God, their unjust hatred ought, by such means, to have been corrected. For it was as if God, setting himself in the midst, would repress their fury by these words, “Your impious conspiring will be fruitless; for although you boast, I have constituted as your chief, the man whose ruin your wicked envy hurries you to seek.” Perhaps, also, by this consolatory dream, he intended to alleviate the trouble of the holy youth. Yet their obstinacy caused it to be the more increased. Let us then learn not to be grieved if, at any time, the shining of the grace of God upon us should cause us to be envied. The sons of Jacob, however, were but too acute interpreters of the dream: yet they deride it as a fable, because it was repugnant to their wishes. Thus it often happens that they who are ill-disposed, quickly perceive what is the will of God: but, because they feel no reverence, they despise it. To this contumacy, however, succeeds a stupor which destroys their former quick-sightedness.

Calvin: Gen 37:9 - And he dreamed yet another dream 9.And he dreamed yet another dream. The scope of this dream is the same. The only difference is, that God, to inspire greater confidence in the oracl...

9.And he dreamed yet another dream. The scope of this dream is the same. The only difference is, that God, to inspire greater confidence in the oracle, presents him with a figure from heaven. The brethren of Joseph had despised what was said concerning the sheaves; the Lord now calls upon them to look towards heaven, where his august Majesty shines forth. It may, however, be asked, how it can be reconciled with fact, that his mother, who was now dead, could come and bow down to him. The interpretation of certain Hebrews, who refer it to Bilhah, is frigid, and the sense appears plain without such subterfuges: for the sun and moon designate the head of the family on each side: thus, in this figure, Joseph sees himself reverenced by the whole house of his father.

Calvin: Gen 37:10 - And his father rebuked him 10.And his father rebuked him. If Jacob suspected that the dream originated in vain ambition, he rightly rebuked his son; but if he knew that God was...

10.And his father rebuked him. If Jacob suspected that the dream originated in vain ambition, he rightly rebuked his son; but if he knew that God was the author of the dream, he ought not to have expostulated with him. But that he did know it, may be hence inferred, because he is afterwards said seriously to have considered it. For Moses, making a distinction between him and his sons, says that they breathed nothing but the virus of envy; while he revolved in his own mind what this might mean; which could not have happened, unless he had been affected with reverence. But seeing that a certain religious impression on the subject rested on his mind, how was it that he rebuked his son? This truly was not giving honor to God and to his word. For it ought to have occurred to the mind of Jacob that, although Joseph was under his authority, he yet sustained a prophetic character. It is probable, when he saw his sons so malevolent, that he wished to meet the danger by feigning what he did not feel: for he was not offended at the dream, but he was unwilling to exasperate the minds of those who, on account of their pride, would not bear to be in subjection. Therefore I do not doubt that he feignedly reproved his son, from a desire to appease contention. Nevertheless, this method of pretending to be adverse to the truth, when we are endeavoring to appease the anger of those who rage against it, is by no means approved by God. He ought rather ingenuously to have exhorted his sons not to “kick against the pricks.” Or at least he should have used this moderate address, “If this is a common dream, let it be treated with ridicule rather than with anger; but if it has proceeded from God, it is wicked to speak against it.” It is even possible that the unsuitableness of the dream had struck the mind of the old man. For we know how difficult it is entirely to throw off all sense of superiority. Certainly, though Jacob declines slightly from the right course, yet his piety appears to be of no common order; because his reverence for the oracle so easily prevailed over every other feeling. But the most wicked obstinacy betrays itself in his sons, seeing they break out into greater enmity. For though they despise the dream, yet they are not made angry about nothing. Gladly would they have had their brother as a laughing-stock; but a certain secret sense of the Deity constrains them, so that, with or against their will, they are compelled to feel that there is something authentic in the dream. Meanwhile, a blind ferocity impels them to an unintentional resistance against God. Therefore, that we may be held in obedience to God, let us learn to bring down our high spirits; because the beginning of docility is for men to submit to be brought into order. This obstinacy in the sons of Jacob was most censurable, because they not only rejected the oracle of God through their hatred of subjection, but were hostile to his messenger and herald. How much less excusable, then, will be our hardness, if we do not meekly submit our necks to the yoke of God; since the doctrine of humility, which subdues and even mortifies us, is not only more clearly revealed, but also confirmed by the precious blood of Christ? If, however, we see many refractory persons at this day, who refuse to embrace the gospel, and who perversely rise up against it, let us not be disturbed as by some new thing, seeing that the whole human race is infected with the disease of pride; for by the gospel all the glory of the flesh is reduced to nothing; rather let us know that all remain obstinate, except those who are rendered meek by the subduing influence of the Spirit.

Calvin: Gen 37:12 - And his brethren went 12.And his brethren went. Before Moses treats of the horrible design of fratricide, he describes the journey of Joseph, and amplifies, by many circum...

12.And his brethren went. Before Moses treats of the horrible design of fratricide, he describes the journey of Joseph, and amplifies, by many circumstances, the atrocity of the crime. Their brother approaches them in the discharge of a duty, to make a fraternal inquiry after their state. He comes by the command of his father; and obeys it without reluctance, as appears from his answer. He searches them out anxiously; and though they had changed their place, he spares neither labor nor trouble till he finds them. Therefore their cruelty was something more than madness, seeing they did not shrink with horror from contriving the death of a brother so pious and humane. We now see that Moses does not relate, without a purpose, that a man met Joseph in his wanderings, and told him that his brethren had departed to Dothan. For the greater was his diligence in his indefatigable pursuit, so much the less excusable were they by whom such an unworthy recompense was repaid.

Calvin: Gen 37:18 - And when they saw him afar off 18.And when they saw him afar off. Here again Moses, so far from sparing the fame of his own family by adulation, brands its chiefs with a mark of et...

18.And when they saw him afar off. Here again Moses, so far from sparing the fame of his own family by adulation, brands its chiefs with a mark of eternal infamy, and exposes them to the hatred and execration of all nations. If, at any time, among heathens, a brother murdered his brother, such impiety was treated with the utmost severity in tragedies, that it might not pass into an example for imitation. But in profane history no such thing is found, as that nine brethren should conspire together for the destruction of an innocent youth, and, like wild beasts, should pounce upon him with bloody hands. Therefore a horrible, and even diabolical fury, took possession of the sons of Jacob, when, having cast aside the sense of nature, they were thus prepared cruelly to rage against their own blood.

But, in addition to this wickedness, Moses condemns their impious contempt of God, Behold this master of dreams. For why do they insult the unhappy youth, except because he had been called by the celestial oracle to an unexpected dignity? Besides, in this manner, they themselves proclaim their own baseness more publicly than any one could do, who should purposely undertake severely to chastise them. They confess that the cause why they persecuted their brother was his having dreamed; as if truly this ass an inexpiable offense; but if they are indignant at his dreams, why do they not rather wage war with God? For Joseph deemed it necessary to receive, as a precious deposit, what had been divinely revealed unto him. But because they did not dare directly to assail God, they wrap themselves in clouds, that, losing sight of God, they may vent their fury against their brother. If such blindness seized upon the patriarchs, what shall become of the reprobates, whom obstinate malice drives along, so that they do not hesitate to resist God even to the last? And we see that they willingly disturb and excite themselves, as often as they are offended with the threatenings and chastisements of God, and rise up against his ministers for the sake of taking vengeance. The same thing, indeed, would at times happen to us all, unless God should put on his bridle to render us submissive. With respect to Joseph, the special favor of God was manifested to him, and he was raised to the highest dignity; but only in a dream, which is ridiculed by the wicked scorn of his brethren. To this is also added a conspiracy, so that he narrowly escaped death. Thus the promise of God, which had exalted him to honor, almost plunges him into the grave. We, also, who have received the gratuitous adoption of God amidst many sorrows, experience the same thing. For, from the time that Christ gathers us into his flock, God permits us to be cast down in various ways, so that we seem nearer hell than heaven. Therefore, let the example of Joseph be fixed in our minds, that we be not disquieted when many crosses spring forth to us from the root of God’s favor. For I have before showed, and the thing itself clearly testifies, that in Joseph was adumbrated, what was afterwards more fully exhibited in Christ, the Head of the Church, in order that each member may form itself to the imitation of his example.

Calvin: Gen 37:20 - And cast him into some pit // And we shall see what will become of his dreams 20.And cast him into some pit. Before they perpetrate the murder, they seek a pretext whereby they may conceal their crime from men. Meanwhile, it ne...

20.And cast him into some pit. Before they perpetrate the murder, they seek a pretext whereby they may conceal their crime from men. Meanwhile, it never enters into their mind, that what is hidden from men cannot escape the eyes of God. But so stupid is hypocrisy, that while it flees from the disgrace of the world, it is careless about the judgment of God. But it is a disease deeply rooted in the human mind, to put some specious color on every extreme act of iniquity. For although an inward judge convicts the guilty, they yet confirm themselves in impudence, that their disgrace may not appear unto others.

And we shall see what will become of his dreams As if the truth of God could be subverted by the death of one man, they boast that they shall have attained their wish when they have killed their brother; namely, that his dreams will come to nothing. This is not, indeed, their avowed purpose, but turbulent envy drives them headlong to fight against God. But whatever they design in thus contending with God in the dark, their attempts will, at length, prove vain. For God will always find a way through the most profound abyss, to the accomplishment of what he has decreed. If, then, unbelievers provoke us by their reproaches, and proudly boast that our faith will profit us nothing; let not their insolence discourage or weaken us, but let us confidently proceed.

Calvin: Gen 37:21 - And Reuben heard it 21.And Reuben heard it. It may be well to observe, while others were hastening to shed his blood, by whose care Joseph was preserved. Reuben doubtles...

21.And Reuben heard it. It may be well to observe, while others were hastening to shed his blood, by whose care Joseph was preserved. Reuben doubtless, in one affair, was the most wicked of them all, when he defiled his father’s couch; and that unbridled lust, involving other vices, was the sign of a depraved nature: now suddenly, he alone, having a regard to piety, and being mindful of fraternal duty, dissolves the impious conspiracy. It is uncertain whether he was now seeking the means of making some compensation, for the sake of which he might be restored to his father’s favor. Moses declares that it was his intention to restore the boy in safety to his father: whence the conjecture which I have stated is probable, that he thought the life of his brother would be a sufficient price by which he might reconcile his father’s mind to himself. However this may be, yet the humanity which he showed in attempting to liberate his brother, is a proof that he was not abandoned to every kind of wickedness. And perhaps God, by this testimony of his penitence, designed in some degree to lessen his former disgrace. Whence we are taught that the characters of men are not to be estimated by a single act, however atrocious, so as to cause us to despair of their salvation.

Calvin: Gen 37:22 - Cast him into this pit 22.Cast him into this pit. The pious fallacy to which Reuben descended, sufficiently proves with what vehemence the rage of his brethren was burning....

22.Cast him into this pit. The pious fallacy to which Reuben descended, sufficiently proves with what vehemence the rage of his brethren was burning. For he neither dares openly to oppose them, nor to dissuade them from their crime; because he saw that no reasons would avail to soften them. Nor does it extenuate their cruelty, that they consent to his proposal, as if they were disposed to clemency; for if either one course or the other were necessary, it would have been better for him immediately to die by their hands, than to perish by slow hunger in the pit, which is the most cruel kind of punishment. Their gross hypocrisy is rather to be noticed; because they think that they shall be free from crime, if only they do not stain their hands with their brother’s blood. As if, indeed, it made any difference, whether they ran their brother through with a sword, or put him to death by suffocation. For the Lord, when he accuses the Jews by Isaiah, of having hands full of blood, does not mean that they were assassins, but he calls them bloody, because they did not spare their suffering brethren. Therefore, the sons of Jacob are nothing better, in casting their brother alive under ground, that, as one buried, he might in vain contend with death, and perish after protracted torments; and in choosing a pit in the desert, from which no mortal could hear his dying cry, though his sighing would ascend even to heaven. It was a barbarous thought, that they should not touch his life, if they did not imbrue their hands in his blood; since it was a kind of death, not less violent, which they wished to inflict by hunger. Reuben, however, accommodating his language to their brutal conceptions, deemed it sufficient to repress, by any kind of artifice, their impetuosity for the present.

Calvin: Gen 37:23 - They stripped Joseph out of his coat 23.They stripped Joseph out of his coat 134 We see that these men are full of fictions and lies. They carelessly strip their brother; they feel no dr...

23.They stripped Joseph out of his coat 134 We see that these men are full of fictions and lies. They carelessly strip their brother; they feel no dread at casting him with their own hands into the pit, where hunger worse than ten swords might consume him; because they hope their crime will be concealed; and in taking home his clothes, no suspicion of his murder would be excited; because, truly, their father would believe that he had been torn by a wild beast. Thus Satan infatuates wicked minds, so that they entangle themselves by frivolous evasions. Conscience is indeed the fountain of modesty; but Satan so soothes by his allurements those whom he has entangled in his snares, that conscience itself, which ought to have cited them as guilty before the bar of God, only hardens them the more. For, having found out subterfuges, they break forth far more audaciously into sin, as if they might commit with impunity whatever escapes the eyes of men. Surely it is a reprobate sense, a spirit of frenzy and of stupor, which is withheld from any daring attempt, only by a fear of the shame of men; while the fear of divine judgment is trodden under foot. And although all are not carried thus far, yet the fault of paying more honor to men than to God, is too common. The repetition of the word coat in the sentence of Moses is emphatical, showing that this mark of the father’s love could not mollify their minds.

Calvin: Gen 37:25 - And they sat down to eat bread 25.And they sat down to eat bread. This was an astonishing barbarity, that they could quietly feast, while, in intention, they were guilty of their b...

25.And they sat down to eat bread. This was an astonishing barbarity, that they could quietly feast, while, in intention, they were guilty of their brother’s death: for, had there been one drop of humanity in their souls, they would at least have felt some inward compunctions; yea, commonly, the very worst men are afraid after the commission of a crime. Since the patriarchs fell into such a state of insensibility, let us learn, from their example, to fear lest, by the righteous anger of God, the same lethargy should seize upon our senses. Meanwhile, it is proper to consider the admirable progress of God’s counsel. Joseph had already passed through a double death: and now, as if by a third death, he is, beyond all expectation, rescued from the grave. For what was it less than death, to be sold as a slave to foreigners? Indeed his condition was rendered worse by the chance; because Reuben, secretly drawing him out of the pit, would have brought him back to his father: whereas now he is dragged to a distant part of the earth, without hope of return. But this was a secret turn, by which God had determined to raise him on high. And at length, he shows by the event, how much better it was that Joseph should be led far away from his own family, than that he should remain in safety at home. Moreover, the speech of Judah, by which he persuades his brethren to sell Joseph, has somewhat more reason. For he ingenuously confesses that they would be guilty of homicide, if they suffered him to perish in the pit. What gain shall we make, he says, if his blood be covered; for our hands will nevertheless be polluted with blood. By this time their fury was in some degree abated, so that they listened to more humane counsel; for though it was outrageous perfidy to sell their brother to strangers; yet it was something to send him away alive, that, at least, he might be nourished as a slave. We see, therefore, that the diabolical flame of madness, with which they had all burned, was abating, when they acknowledged that they could profit nothing by hiding their crime from the eyes of men; because homicide must of necessity come into view before God. For at first, they absolved themselves from guilt, as if no Judge sat in heaven. But now the sense of nature, which the cruelty of hatred had before benumbed, begins to exert its power. And certainly, even in the reprobate, who seem entirely to have cast off humanity, time shows that some residue of it remains. When wicked and violent affections rage, their tumultuous fervor hinders nature from acting its part. But no minds are so stupid, that a consideration of their own wickedness will not sometimes fill them with remorse: for, in order that men may come inexcusable to the judgment-seat of God, it is necessary that they should first be condemned by themselves. They who are capable of cure, and whom the Lord leads to repentance, differ from the reprobates in this, that while the latter obstinately conceal the knowledge of their crimes, the former gradually return from the indulgence of sin, to obey the voice of reason. Moreover, what Judah here declares concerning his brother, the Lord, by the prophet, extends to the whole human race. Whenever, therefore, depraved lust impels to unjust violence, or any other injury, let us remember this sacred bond by which the whole of society is bound together, in order that it may restrain us from evil doings. For man cannot injure men, but he becomes an enemy to his own flesh, and violates and perverts the whole order of nature.

Calvin: Gen 37:28 - Then there passed by Midianites 28.Then there passed by Midianites. Some think that Joseph was twice sold in the same place. For it is certain, since Median was the son of Abraham a...

28.Then there passed by Midianites. Some think that Joseph was twice sold in the same place. For it is certain, since Median was the son of Abraham and Keturah, that his sons were distinct from the sons of Ishmael: and Moses has not thoughtlessly put down these different names. 135 But I thus interpret the passage: that Joseph was exposed for sale to any one who chose, and seeing the purchase of him was declined by the Midianites, he was sold to the Ishmaelites. Moreover, though they might justly suspect the sellers of having stolen him, yet the desire of gain prevents them from making inquiry. We may also add, what is probable, that, on the journey, they inquired who Joseph was. But they did not set such a value on their common origin as to prevent them from eagerly making gain. This passage, however, teaches us how far the sons of Abraham, after the flesh, were preferred to the elect offspring, in which, nevertheless, the hope of the future Church was included. We see that, of the two sons of Abraham, a posterity so great was propagated, that from both proceeded merchants in various places: while that part of his seed which the Lord had chosen to himself was yet small. But so the children of this world, like premature fruit, quickly arrive at the greatest wealth and at the summit of happiness; whereas the Church, slowly creeping through the greatest difficulties, scarcely attains, during a long period, to the condition of mediocrity.

Calvin: Gen 37:30 - And he returned 30.And he returned. We may hence gather that Reuben, under pretense of some other business, stole away from his brethren, that, unknown to them all, ...

30.And he returned. We may hence gather that Reuben, under pretense of some other business, stole away from his brethren, that, unknown to them all, he might restore his brother, drawn out of the pit, to his father; and that therefore he was absent at the time when Joseph was sold. And there is no wonder that he was anticipated, when he had taken his course in a different direction from theirs, intending to reach the pit by a circuitous path. But now at length Reuben having lost all hope, unfolds to his brethren the intention which before he dared not confess, lest the boy should be immediately murdered.

Calvin: Gen 37:31 - And they took Joseph’s coat 31.And they took Joseph’s coat. They now return to their first scheme. In order that their father may have no suspicion of their crime, they send t...

31.And they took Joseph’s coat. They now return to their first scheme. In order that their father may have no suspicion of their crime, they send the bloody coat, from which he might conjecture that Joseph had been torn by some wild beast. Although Moses alludes to this briefly, I yet think that they rather sent some of their servants, who were not accessory to the crime, than any of their number. For he says soon afterwards, that his sons and daughters came to offer some consolation to him in his grief. And although in the words they use, there lurks some appearance of insult, it seems to me more probable that they gave this command to avert suspicion from themselves. For they feign themselves to be of confused mind, as is usual in affairs of perplexity. Yet whatever they intend, their wickedness drives them to this point, that they inflict a deadly wound upon the mind of their father. This is the profit which hypocrites gain by their disguises, that in wishing to escape the consequences of one fault, they add sin to sin. With respect to Jacob, it is a wonder that after he had been tried in so many ways, and always come forth a conqueror, he should now sink under grief. Certainly it was very absurd that the death of his son should occasion him greater sorrow than the incestuous pollution of his wife, the slaughter of the Shechemites, and the defilement of his daughter. Where was that invincible strength, by which he had even prevailed over the angel? Where the many lessons of patience with which God had exercised him, in order that he might never fail? This disposition to mourn, teaches us that no one is endued with such heroic virtues, as to be exempt from that infirmity of the flesh, which betrays itself sometimes even in little things; whence also it happens, that they who have long been accustomed to the cross, and who like veteran soldiers ought bravely to bear up against every kind of attack, fall like young recruits in some slight skirmish. Who then among us may not fear for himself, when we see holy Jacob faint, after having given so many proofs of patience?

Calvin: Gen 37:35 - And all his sons and daughters rose up // But he refused to be comforted 35.And all his sons and daughters rose up. The burden of his grief is more clearly expressed by the circumstance that all his sons and daughters meet...

35.And all his sons and daughters rose up. The burden of his grief is more clearly expressed by the circumstance that all his sons and daughters meet together to comfort him. For by the term “rose up,” is implied a common deliberation, they having agreed to come together, because necessity urged them. But hence it appears how vast is the innate dissimulation of men. The sons of Jacob assume a character by no means suitable to them; and perform an office of piety, from which their minds are most alien. If they had had respect unto God, they would have acknowledged their fault, and though no remedy might have been found for their evil, yet repentance would have brought forth some fruit; but now they are satisfied with a vanity as empty as the wind. By this example we are taught how carefully we ought to avoid dissimulation, which continually implicates men in new snares.

But he refused to be comforted. It may be asked, whether Jacob had entirely cast off the virtue of patience: for so much the language seems to mean. Besides, he sins more grievously, because he, knowingly and voluntarily, indulges in grief: for this is as if he would purposely augment his sorrow, which is to rebel against God. But I suppose his refusal to be restricted to that alleviation of grief which man might offer. For nothing is more unreasonable than that a holy man, who, all his life had borne the yoke of God with such meekness of disposition, should now, like an unbroken horse, bite his bridle; in order that, by nourishing his grief, he might confirm himself in unsubdued impetuosity. I therefore do not doubt that he was willing now to submit himself unto the Lord, though he rejects human consolations. He seems also angrily to chide his sons, whose envy and malevolence towards Joseph he knew, as if he would upbraid them by declaring that he esteemed this one son more than all the rest: since he rather desires to be with him, dead in the grave, than to enjoy the society of ten living sons whom he had yet remaining; for I except little Benjamin. I do not, however, here excuse that excess of grief which I have lately condemned. And certainly heproves himself to be overwhelmed with sadness, in speaking of the grave, as if the sons of God did not pass through death to a better life. And hence we learn the blindness of immoderate grief, which almost quenches the light of faith in the saints; so much the more diligent, then, ought we to be in our endeavor to restrain it. Job greatly excelled in piety; yet we see, after he had been oppressed by the magnitude of his grief, in what a profane manner he mixes men with beasts in death. If the angelic minds of holy men were thus darkened by sadness, how much deeper gloom will rest upon us, unless God, by the shining of his word and Spirit, should scatter it, and we also, with suitable anxiety, meet the temptation, before it overwhelms us? The principal mitigation of sorrow is the consolation of the future life; to which whosoever applies himself, need not fear lest he should be absorbed by excess of grief. Now though the immoderate sorrow of Jacob is not to be approved; yet the special design of Moses was, to set a mark of infamy on that iron hardness which cruelly reigned in the hearts of his sons. They saw that, if their father should miserably perish, consumed with grief, they would be the cause of it; in short, they saw that he was already dying through their wickedness. If they are not able to heal the wound, why, at least, do they not attempt to alleviate his pain? Therefore they are exceedingly cruel, seeing that they have not sufficient care of their father’s life, to cause them to drop a single word in mitigation of his sorrow, when it was in their power to do so.

Calvin: Gen 37:36 - And the Midianites sold him into Egypt 36.And the Midianites sold him into Egypt It was a sad spectacle, that Joseph should be thus driven from one hand to another. For it added no small i...

36.And the Midianites sold him into Egypt It was a sad spectacle, that Joseph should be thus driven from one hand to another. For it added no small indignity to his former suffering, that he is set to sale as a slave. The Lord, however, ceased not to care for him. He even suffered him to be transferred from hand to hand, in order that, at length, it might indeed appear, that he had come, by celestial guidance, to that very dominion which had been promised him in his dreams. Potiphar is called a eunuch, not because he was one really; but because, among the Orientals, it was usual to denote the satraps and princes of the court by that name. The Hebrews are not agreed respecting the dignity which Moses ascribes to him; for some explain it as the “chief of the slaughterers,” 136 whom the Greek interpreters follow. But I rather agree with others, who say that he was “the prefect of the soldiers;” not that he had the command of the whole army, but because he had the royal troops under his hand and authority: such are now the captains of the guard, if you join with it another office which the prefects of the prison exercise. For this may be gathered from Gen 39:1 137

Defender: Gen 37:1 - Jacob dwelt in the land This is the termination of the long record of Jacob which began at Gen 25:19 and ends with Gen 37:2 : "These are the generations of Jacob." He had evi...

This is the termination of the long record of Jacob which began at Gen 25:19 and ends with Gen 37:2 : "These are the generations of Jacob." He had evidently continued the account up to the burial of his father Isaac (Gen 35:28-29). His brother Esau joined with him in the burial service, and evidently gave Jacob his own records at this time. Jacob incorporated these "generations of Esau" (Genesis 36) into his own record before he closed it."

Defender: Gen 37:2 - generations of Jacob This is the last time the formula, "these are the generations of...," is used in Genesis. This verse probably represents the signature of Jacob at the...

This is the last time the formula, "these are the generations of...," is used in Genesis. This verse probably represents the signature of Jacob at the conclusion of the section (beginning at Gen 25:19). The information in the rest of Genesis must have come originally from Joseph and the other sons of Jacob. Possibly Moses recognized this formula and affixed a similar formula at its conclusion in Exo 1:1.

Defender: Gen 37:2 - feeding the flock Literally, "was shepherd over the flock." Though he was slightly younger than the four brothers with him, he was very capable and had been placed in c...

Literally, "was shepherd over the flock." Though he was slightly younger than the four brothers with him, he was very capable and had been placed in charge by his father. In this capacity, he was expected to make full reports, and these necessarily included a record of the poor work of his brothers. Evidently the six sons of Leah had been assigned other duties in another place. Benjamin, his younger brother, was still a child, at home with his father."

Defender: Gen 37:28 - Midianites These traders are called both Midianites (here and in Gen 37:36) and Ishmaelites (here and in Gen 37:25). These two tribes were both descended from Ab...

These traders are called both Midianites (here and in Gen 37:36) and Ishmaelites (here and in Gen 37:25). These two tribes were both descended from Abraham (he was father of both Ishmael through Hagar and Midian through Keturah), both lived in the same region, and undoubtedly both associated closely in many ways. The result was the interchangeable use of their names.

Defender: Gen 37:28 - twenty pieces of silver Twenty pieces of silver was the going price of a slave. In the time of Zechariah (and of Christ), it was thirty pieces of silver (Zec 11:12-13; Mat 26...

Twenty pieces of silver was the going price of a slave. In the time of Zechariah (and of Christ), it was thirty pieces of silver (Zec 11:12-13; Mat 26:14-15)."

Defender: Gen 37:36 - Potiphar Archaeological research shows that Potiphar , like Pharaoh , was a title in Egypt rather than a personal name."

Archaeological research shows that Potiphar , like Pharaoh , was a title in Egypt rather than a personal name."

TSK: Gen 37:1 - wherein his father was a stranger am 2276, bc 1728 wherein his father was a stranger : Heb. of his father’ s sojournings, Gen 17:8, Gen 23:4, Gen 28:4 *marg. Gen 36:7; Heb 11:9-16

am 2276, bc 1728

wherein his father was a stranger : Heb. of his father’ s sojournings, Gen 17:8, Gen 23:4, Gen 28:4 *marg. Gen 36:7; Heb 11:9-16

TSK: Gen 37:2 - the generations // wives // evil report the generations : Toledoth , the history, narrative, or account of the lives and actions of Jacob and his sons; for in this general sense the origin...

the generations : Toledoth , the history, narrative, or account of the lives and actions of Jacob and his sons; for in this general sense the original must be taken, as in the whole ensuing history there is no genealogy of Jacob’ s family. Gen 2:4, Gen 5:1, Gen 6:9, Gen 10:1

wives : Gen 30:4, Gen 30:9, Gen 35:22, Gen 35:25, Gen 35:26

evil report : 1Sa 2:22-24; Joh 7:7; 1Co 1:11, 1Co 5:1, 1Co 11:18

TSK: Gen 37:3 - loved // son // a coat // colours loved : Joh 3:35, Joh 13:22, Joh 13:23 son : Gen 44:20-30 a coat : Gen 37:23, Gen 37:32; Jdg 5:30; 2Sa 13:18; Psa 45:13, Psa 45:14; Eze 16:16 colours ...

loved : Joh 3:35, Joh 13:22, Joh 13:23

son : Gen 44:20-30

a coat : Gen 37:23, Gen 37:32; Jdg 5:30; 2Sa 13:18; Psa 45:13, Psa 45:14; Eze 16:16

colours : Kethoneth passim , a coat made of stripes of different coloured cloth.

TSK: Gen 37:4 - hated him // and could not speak peaceably unto him hated him : Gen 37:5, Gen 37:11, Gen 37:18-24, Gen 4:5, Gen 27:41, Gen 49:23; 1Sa 16:12, 1Sa 16:13, 1Sa 17:28; Psa 38:19, Psa 69:4; Joh 7:3-5, Joh 15:...

hated him : Gen 37:5, Gen 37:11, Gen 37:18-24, Gen 4:5, Gen 27:41, Gen 49:23; 1Sa 16:12, 1Sa 16:13, 1Sa 17:28; Psa 38:19, Psa 69:4; Joh 7:3-5, Joh 15:18, Joh 15:19; Tit 3:3; 1Jo 2:11, 1Jo 3:10, 1Jo 3:12, 1Jo 4:20

and could not speak peaceably unto him : Or, rather, ""and they could not speak peace to him,""i.e., they would not accost him in a friendly mannercaps1 . tcaps0 hey would not even wish him well, in the eastern mode of salutation of, Peace be to thee! It is not an unusual thing for an Arab or Turk to hesitate to return the salâm , if given by a Christian, or by one of whom he has not a favourable opinion; and this may always be considered as an act of hostility.

TSK: Gen 37:5 - dreamed // and they dreamed : Gen 37:9; Gen 28:12, Gen 40:5, Gen 41:1, Gen 42:9; Num 12:6; Jdg 7:13, Jdg 7:14; 1Ki 3:5; Psa 25:14; Dan 2:1, Dan 4:5; Joe 2:28; Amo 3:7 and...

TSK: Gen 37:6 - Hear Hear : Gen 44:18; Jdg 9:7

Hear : Gen 44:18; Jdg 9:7

TSK: Gen 37:7 - your sheaves // obeisance your sheaves : Gen 42:6, Gen 42:9, Gen 43:26, Gen 44:14, Gen 44:19 obeisance : Phi 2:10; Col 1:18

your sheaves : Gen 42:6, Gen 42:9, Gen 43:26, Gen 44:14, Gen 44:19

obeisance : Phi 2:10; Col 1:18

TSK: Gen 37:8 - reign over us reign over us : Gen 37:4; Exo 2:14; 1Sa 10:27, 1Sa 17:28; Psa 2:3-6, Psa 118:22; Luk 19:14, Luk 20:17; Act 4:27, Act 4:28, Act 7:35; Heb 10:29

TSK: Gen 37:9 - another dream // the sun // stars another dream : Gen 37:7, Gen 41:25, Gen 41:32 the sun : Gen 37:10, Gen 43:28, Gen 44:14, Gen 44:19, Gen 45:9, Gen 46:29, Gen 47:12, Gen 50:15-21; Act...

TSK: Gen 37:10 - Shall I Shall I : Gen 27:29; Isa 60:14; Phi 2:10, Phi 2:11

TSK: Gen 37:11 - envied // observed envied : Gen 26:14-16; Psa 106:16; Ecc 4:4; Isa 11:13, Isa 26:11; Mat 27:18; Mar 15:10; Act 7:9, Act 13:45; Gal 5:21; Tit 3:3; Jam 3:14-16, Jam 4:5 ob...

TSK: Gen 37:12 - in Shechem in Shechem : Gen 37:1, Gen 33:18, Gen 34:25-31

TSK: Gen 37:13 - come // Here am I come : 1Sa 17:17-20; Mat 10:16; Luk 20:13 Here am I : Gen 22:1, Gen 27:1, Gen 27:18; 1Sa 3:4-6, 1Sa 3:8, 1Sa 3:16; Eph 6:1-3

TSK: Gen 37:14 - see whether it be well with // Hebron see whether it be well with : Heb. see the peace of thy brethren, etc. Gen 29:6, Gen 41:16; 1Sa 17:17, 1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 18:32; 1Ki 2:33; Psa 125:5; Jer ...

see whether it be well with : Heb. see the peace of thy brethren, etc. Gen 29:6, Gen 41:16; 1Sa 17:17, 1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 18:32; 1Ki 2:33; Psa 125:5; Jer 29:7; Luk 19:42

Hebron : Gen 23:2, Gen 35:27; Num 13:22; Jos 14:13, Jos 14:15

TSK: Gen 37:15 - he was // What he was : Gen 21:14 What : Jdg 4:22; 2Ki 6:19; Joh 1:38, Joh 4:27, Joh 18:4, Joh 18:7, Joh 20:15

TSK: Gen 37:16 - seek // tell me seek : Luk 19:10 tell me : Son 1:7

seek : Luk 19:10

tell me : Son 1:7

TSK: Gen 37:17 - Dothan Dothan : 2Ki 6:13

Dothan : 2Ki 6:13

TSK: Gen 37:18 - conspired conspired : 1Sa 19:1; Psa 31:13, Psa 37:12, Psa 37:32, Psa 94:21, Psa 105:25, Psa 109:4; Mat 21:38, Mat 27:1; Mar 12:7, Mar 14:1; Luk 20:14, Luk 20:15...

TSK: Gen 37:19 - Behold // dreamer Behold : Simulated Irony: Where the words in question are used by man either in dissimulation or hypocrisy. For other instances of this figure, see ...

Behold : Simulated Irony: Where the words in question are used by man either in dissimulation or hypocrisy. For other instances of this figure, see note on 2Sa 6:20; Psa 22:8; Isa 5:19; Mat 22:16; Mat 27:29; Mat 27:40, Mat 27:42, Mat 27:43; Mar 15:29.

dreamer : Heb. master of dreams, Gen 37:5, Gen 37:11, Gen 28:12, Gen 49:23 *marg.

TSK: Gen 37:20 - and let // Some // and we and let : Psa 64:5; Pro 1:11, Pro 1:12, Pro 1:16, Pro 6:17, Pro 27:4; Tit 3:3; Joh 3:12 Some : 1Ki 13:24; 2Ki 2:24; Pro 10:18, Pro 28:13 and we : 1Sa ...

TSK: Gen 37:21 - Reuben heard // not kill him Reuben heard : Gen 35:22, Gen 42:22 not kill him : Heb. nephesh , Jos 10:28; Gen 9:5; Mat 10:28

Reuben heard : Gen 35:22, Gen 42:22

not kill him : Heb. nephesh , Jos 10:28; Gen 9:5; Mat 10:28

TSK: Gen 37:22 - Reuben said // Shed // lay Reuben said : Gen 42:22 Shed : Mat 27:24 lay : Gen 22:12; Exo 24:11; Deu 13:9; Act 12:1

Reuben said : Gen 42:22

Shed : Mat 27:24

lay : Gen 22:12; Exo 24:11; Deu 13:9; Act 12:1

TSK: Gen 37:23 - colours stript, Gen 37:3, Gen 37:31-33, Gen 42:21; Psa 22:18; Mat 27:28 colours : or, pieces, Gen 37:3

stript, Gen 37:3, Gen 37:31-33, Gen 42:21; Psa 22:18; Mat 27:28

colours : or, pieces, Gen 37:3

TSK: Gen 37:24 - and cast // the pit and cast : Psa 35:7; Lam 4:20 the pit : Psa 40:2, Psa 88:6, Psa 88:8, Psa 130:1, Psa 130:2; Jer 38:6; Lam 3:52-55; Zec 9:11

TSK: Gen 37:25 - they sat // Ishmeelites // Gilead // spicery // balm // myrrh they sat : Est 3:15; Psa 14:4; Pro 30:20; Amo 6:6 Ishmeelites : Gen 37:28, Gen 37:36, Gen 16:11, Gen 16:12, Gen 25:1-4, Gen 25:16-18, Gen 31:23; Psa 8...

they sat : Est 3:15; Psa 14:4; Pro 30:20; Amo 6:6

Ishmeelites : Gen 37:28, Gen 37:36, Gen 16:11, Gen 16:12, Gen 25:1-4, Gen 25:16-18, Gen 31:23; Psa 83:6

Gilead : Gen 31:21, Gen 43:11; Jer 8:22

spicery : Nechoth , is rendered by the LXX ""incense;""Syriac, ""resin;""Samaritan, ""balsam;""Acquila, ""storax;""which is followed by Bochart. This drug is abundant in Syria, and here Moses joins with it resin, honey, and myrrh; which agrees with the nature of the storax, which is the resin of a tree of the same name, of a reddish colour, and peculiarly pleasant fragrance.

balm : Tzeri , which in Arabic, as a verb, is to flow, seems to be a common name, as balm or balsam with us, for many of those oily, resinous substances, which flow spontaneously, or by incision, from various trees or plants; accordingly the ancients have generally interpreted it resin.

myrrh : Lot , is probably, as Junius, Deut. Dieu, Celsius, and Ursinus contend, the same as the Arabic ladan , Greek λαδανον , and Latin ladanum .

TSK: Gen 37:26 - What profit // conceal What profit : Gen 25:32; Psa 30:9; Jer 41:8; Mat 16:26; Rom 6:21 conceal : Gen 37:20, Gen 4:10; Deu 17:8; 2Sa 1:16; Job 16:18; Eze 24:7

TSK: Gen 37:27 - sell him // let not // he is our // were content sell him : Gen 37:22; Exo 21:16, Exo 21:21; Neh 5:8; Mat 16:26, Mat 26:15; 1Ti 1:10; Rev 18:13 let not : 1Sa 18:17; 2Sa 11:14-17, 2Sa 12:9 he is our :...

sell him : Gen 37:22; Exo 21:16, Exo 21:21; Neh 5:8; Mat 16:26, Mat 26:15; 1Ti 1:10; Rev 18:13

let not : 1Sa 18:17; 2Sa 11:14-17, 2Sa 12:9

he is our : Gen 29:14, Gen 42:21

were content : Heb. hearkened

TSK: Gen 37:28 - Midianites // sold Midianites : Gen 37:25, Gen 25:2; Exo 2:16; Num 25:15, Num 25:17, Num 31:2, Num 31:3, Num 31:8, Num 31:9; Jdg 6:1-3; Psa 83:9; Isa 60:6 sold : Gen 45:...

TSK: Gen 37:29 - he rent he rent : Gen 37:34, Gen 34:13; Num 14:6; Jdg 11:35; 2Ki 19:1; Job 1:20; Joe 2:13; Act 14:14

TSK: Gen 37:30 - -- Gen 37:20, Gen 42:13, Gen 42:32, Gen 42:35; Jer 31:15

TSK: Gen 37:31 - -- Gen 37:3, Gen 37:23; Pro 28:13

TSK: Gen 37:32 - thy son’ s thy son’ s : Gen 37:3, Gen 44:20-23; Luk 15:30

thy son’ s : Gen 37:3, Gen 44:20-23; Luk 15:30

TSK: Gen 37:33 - evil beast evil beast : Gen 37:20, Gen 44:28; 1Ki 13:24; 2Ki 2:24; Pro 14:15; Joh 13:7

TSK: Gen 37:34 - -- Gen 37:29; Jos 7:6; 2Sa 1:11, 2Sa 3:31; 1Ki 20:31, 1Ki 21:27; 2Ki 19:1; 1Ch 21:16; Ezr 9:3-5; Neh 9:1; Est 4:1-3; Job 1:20, Job 2:12; Psa 69:11; Isa 2...

TSK: Gen 37:35 - his daughters // rose up // For I his daughters : Gen 31:43, Gen 35:22-26 rose up : 2Sa 12:17; Job 2:11; Psa 77:2; Jer 31:15 For I : Gen 42:31, Gen 44:29-31, Gen 45:28

TSK: Gen 37:36 - the Midianites // officer // captain the Midianites : Gen 37:28, Gen 25:1, Gen 25:2, Gen 39:1 officer : Heb. eunuch, But the word signifies not only eunuchs, but also chamberlains, courti...

the Midianites : Gen 37:28, Gen 25:1, Gen 25:2, Gen 39:1

officer : Heb. eunuch, But the word signifies not only eunuchs, but also chamberlains, courtiers, and officers. Est 1:10; Isa 56:3

captain : Or, chief marshal, Heb. chief of the slaughtermen, or executioners, Gen. 39:1-23, Gen 40:4; 2Ki 25:8 *marg.

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 37:2 - The generations // these // the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah // Joseph brought unto his father their evil report The generations i.e. the events or occurrences which happened to Jacob in his family and issue. So that word is used Gen 6:9 Num 3:1 . Or the word t...

The generations i.e. the events or occurrences which happened to Jacob in his family and issue. So that word is used Gen 6:9 Num 3:1 . Or the word

these may relate to what is said Gen 35:22 , &c. The genealogy of Esau being brought in by way of parenthesis, and that being finished, Moses returns to the generations of Jacob, as his principal business, and proceeds in the history of their concerns.

Jacob placed Joseph with

the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah rather than with the sons of Leah, either to keep Joseph humble; or for Joseph’ s security, because the other sons retained the old grudge of their mother, and were more like to envy, contemn, hate, and abuse him; or as an observer of their actions, whom he most suspected, as the following words may seem to imply.

Joseph brought unto his father their evil report acquainted him with their lewd and wicked courses, to the dishonour of God and of their family, that so his father might apply such remedies as he thought meet.

Poole: Gen 37:3 - He was the son of his old age // A coat of many colours He was the son of his old age being born when Jacob was ninety-one years old. Such children are commonly best beloved by their parents, either becaus...

He was the son of his old age being born when Jacob was ninety-one years old. Such children are commonly best beloved by their parents, either because such are a singular blessing of God, and a more than common testimony of his favour, and a mercy least expected by them, and therefore most prized; or because they have more pleasing conversation with them, and less experience of their misbehaviour, of which the elder ofttimes are guilty, whereby they alienate their parents’ affections from them. The ancient translations, Chaldee, Persian, Arabic, and Samaritan, render the words thus, a wise or prudent son; old age being oft mentioned as a token of prudence; one born old, one wise above his years, one that had a grey head, as we say, upon green shoulders. This may seem the more probable, both because Joseph was indeed such a child, and gave good evidence of it in a prudent observation of his brethren’ s trespasses, and a discreet choice of the fittest remedy for them; and because the reason here alleged seems proper and peculiar to Joseph; whereas in the other sense it belongs more to Benjamin, who was younger than Joseph, and cost his mother dearer, and therefore might upon that account claim a greater interest in his father’ s afflictions.

A coat of many colours probably made of threads of divers colours interwoven together. Compare 2Sa 13:18 . This he gave him as a token of his special love, and of the rights of the first-born, which being justly taken from Reuben, he conferred upon Joseph, 1Ch 5:1 .

Poole: Gen 37:4 - -- Their hatred was so deep and keen, that they could not smother it, as for their own interest they should have done, but discovered it by their churl...

Their hatred was so deep and keen, that they could not smother it, as for their own interest they should have done, but discovered it by their churlish words and carriages to him.

Poole: Gen 37:5 - dream The dream it is probable he did not understand, for then he would never have told it to them, who, as he knew very well, were likely to make an ev...

The

dream it is probable he did not understand, for then he would never have told it to them, who, as he knew very well, were likely to make an evil construction and use of it.

Poole: Gen 37:7 - We were binding sheaves in the field // Your sheaves stood round about We were binding sheaves in the field a secret insinuation of the occasion of Joseph’ s advancement, which was from his counsel and care about th...

We were binding sheaves in the field a secret insinuation of the occasion of Joseph’ s advancement, which was from his counsel and care about the corn of Egypt.

Your sheaves stood round about this was a posture of ministry and service, as is manifest both from Scripture and from common usage.

Poole: Gen 37:8 - -- For his relation of his dreams, which they imputed to his arrogancy.

For his relation of his dreams, which they imputed to his arrogancy.

Poole: Gen 37:9 - He dreamed another dream // The sun and the moon // Object // Answ He dreamed another dream that the repetition of the same thing in another shape might teach them that the thing was both certain and very observable....

He dreamed another dream that the repetition of the same thing in another shape might teach them that the thing was both certain and very observable.

The sun and the moon were not mentioned in the first dream, because in the event his brethren only went at first to Egypt and there worshipped him, as afterwards his father went with them.

Object. His father did not worship him in Egypt.

Answ 1. He did worship him mediately by his sons, who in their father’ s name and stead bowed before him, and by the presents which he sent as testimonies of that respect which he owed to him.

2. It is probable that Jacob did, before the Egyptians, pay that reverence to his son which all the rest did, and which was due to the dignity of his place. As the Roman consul was commended by his father for requiring him to alight from his horse, as the rest did, when he met him upon the way.

Poole: Gen 37:10 - His father rebuked him // Thy mother His father rebuked him not through anger at Joseph, or contempt of his dream, for it follows, he observed it; but partly lest Joseph should be puf...

His father rebuked him not through anger at Joseph, or contempt of his dream, for it follows, he observed it; but partly lest Joseph should be puffed up upon the account of his dreams, and principally to allay the envy and hatred of his brethren.

Thy mother: either,

1. Rachel, who was now dead, and therefore must rise again and worship thee; whence he may seem to infer the idleness of the dream, because the fulfilling it was impossible. Or rather,

2. Leah, his stepmother, one that filled his mother’ s place, being now Jacob’ s only wife, and the mother of the family.

Poole: Gen 37:11 - -- The words of Joseph; or the thing, the dream which he told; well knowing that God did frequently at that time signify his mind by dreams, and percei...

The words of Joseph; or the thing, the dream which he told; well knowing that God did frequently at that time signify his mind by dreams, and perceiving something singular and extraordinary in this dream, and especially in the doubling of it.

Poole: Gen 37:12 - -- In the parts adjoining to Shechem, in the lands which he had purchased there, Gen 33:19 . Let none think strange that he should send his sheep so...

In the parts adjoining to Shechem, in the lands which he had purchased there, Gen 33:19 . Let none think strange that he should send his sheep so far from him, both because that land was his own, and because his sheep being exceeding numerous, and he but a stranger in the land, was likely to be exposed to many such inconveniences. Compare Gen 30:36 . One may rather wonder that he durst venture his sons and his cattle there, where that barbarous massacre had been committed, Gen 34:25 . But those pastures being his own, and convenient for his use, he did commit himself and them to that same good Providence which watched over him then and ever since, and still kept up that terror which then he sent upon them. Besides Jacob’ s sons and servants made a considerable company, and the men of Shechem being universally slain, others were not very forward to revenge their quarrel, where there was any hazard to themselves in such an enterprise.

Poole: Gen 37:13 - -- 1729 Having kept him for some time at home, and supposing that length of time had cooled their heats, and worn out their hatred, he now sends him ...

1729 Having kept him for some time at home, and supposing that length of time had cooled their heats, and worn out their hatred, he now sends him to them.

Poole: Gen 37:17 - Dothan Dothan a place not very far from Shechem, where afterwards a city was built. See 2Ki 6:13 .

Dothan a place not very far from Shechem, where afterwards a city was built. See 2Ki 6:13 .

Poole: Gen 37:19 - This master of dreams Heb. This master of dreams this crafty dreamer, that covers his own ambitious designs and desires with pretences or fictions of dreams.

Heb.

This master of dreams this crafty dreamer, that covers his own ambitious designs and desires with pretences or fictions of dreams.

Poole: Gen 37:20 - Cast him into some pit // Some evil beast hath devoured him Cast him into some pit partly, as unworthy of burial; partly, to cover their villanous action; and partly, that they might quickly put him out of the...

Cast him into some pit partly, as unworthy of burial; partly, to cover their villanous action; and partly, that they might quickly put him out of their sight and minds.

Some evil beast hath devoured him there being great store of such creatures in those parts. See 1Ki 13:24 2Ki 2:24 .

Poole: Gen 37:21 - delivered him He delivered him as to the violent and certain despatch of his life which was intended. Or the act is here put for the purpose and endeavour of do...

He

delivered him as to the violent and certain despatch of his life which was intended. Or the act is here put for the purpose and endeavour of doing it, in which sense Balak is said to fight against Israel, Jos 24:9 , and Abraham to offer up Isaac, Heb 11:17 . So here, he delivered him, i.e. used his utmost power to deliver him, that so he might recover his father’ s favour lost by his incestuous action.

Poole: Gen 37:25 - They sat down to eat bread // Ishmeelites // Gilead // Balm They sat down to eat bread to refresh themselves, their consciences being stupified, and their hearts hardened against their brother, notwithstanding...

They sat down to eat bread to refresh themselves, their consciences being stupified, and their hearts hardened against their brother, notwithstanding all his most passionate entreaties to them, Gen 42:21 .

Ishmeelites the posterity of Ishmael. See Gen 25:18 .

Gilead a famous place for balm, and other excellent commodities, and for the confluence of merchants. See Jer 8:22 22:6 .

Balm or rosin, as the ancient and divers other translators render it.

Poole: Gen 37:26 - and conceal his blood If we suffer him to perish in the pit, when we may sell him with advantage, and conceal his blood i.e. his death, as the word blood is often use...

If we suffer him to perish in the pit, when we may sell him with advantage,

and conceal his blood i.e. his death, as the word blood is often used. See Deu 17:8 2Sa 1:16 3:28 .

Poole: Gen 37:28 - Ishmeelites // Midianites // lift up Joseph, and sold him to the Ishmeelites This story seems a little involved, and the persons to whom he was sold doubtful. Here seem to be two, if not three, sorts of merchants mentioned, ...

This story seems a little involved, and the persons to whom he was sold doubtful. Here seem to be two, if not three, sorts of merchants mentioned,

Ishmeelites and

Midianites here, and Medanites, as it is in the Hebrew, Gen 37:36 , which were a distinct people from the Midianites, as descended from Medan, when the Midianites descended from Midian, both Abraham’ s sons, Gen 25:2 . The business may be accommodated divers ways; either,

1. The same persons or people are promiscuously called both Ishmeelites and Midianites, as they also are Jud 8:1,24,28 ; either because they were mixed together in their dwellings, and by marriages; or because they were here joined together, and made one caravan or company of merchants. And the text may be read thus, And the Midianite merchantmen (either the same who were called Ishmeelites, Gen 37:27 , or others being in the same company with them) passed by, and they (i.e. not the merchantmen, but Joseph’ s brethren, spoken of Gen 37:27 ; the relative being referred to the remoter antecedent, as it is frequently in the Scripture)

lift up Joseph, and sold him to the Ishmeelites or Midianites, &c. Or,

2. The persons may be distinguished, and the story may very well be conceived thus: The Ishmeelites are going to Egypt, and are discerned at some distance by Joseph’ s brethren, while they were discoursing about their brother. In the time of their discourse, the Midianites, who seem to be coming from Egypt, coming by the pit, and hearing Joseph’ s cries there, pull him out of the pit, and sell him to the Ishmeelites, who carry him with them into Egypt. There they sell him to the Medanites, though that, as many other historical passages, be omitted in the sacred story. And the Medanites, or Midianites, if you please, only supposing them to be other persons than those mentioned Gen 37:28 , which is but a fair and reasonable supposition, sell him to Potiphar.

Poole: Gen 37:29 - Reuben returned unto the pit // He rent his clothes Reuben returned unto the pit that, according to his brethren’ s order, Gen 37:27 , he might take him thence and sell him. He rent his clothes ...

Reuben returned unto the pit that, according to his brethren’ s order, Gen 37:27 , he might take him thence and sell him.

He rent his clothes as the manner was upon doleful occurrences. See below, Gen 37:34 Num 14:6 Ezr 9:3 Job 1:20 2:12 .

Poole: Gen 37:30 - the child // The child is not // I, whither shall I go He calls him the child comparatively to his brethren, though he was seventeen years old, Gen 37:2 . The child is not i.e. is not in the land of ...

He calls him

the child comparatively to his brethren, though he was seventeen years old, Gen 37:2 .

The child is not i.e. is not in the land of the living, or is dead, as that phrase is commonly used, as Gen 42:13,36 , compared with Gen 44:20 Job 7:21 Jer 31:15 Lam 5:7 Mat 2:18 .

I, whither shall I go either to find the child, or to flee from our father? He is more solicitous than the rest, because he being the eldest brother, his father would require Joseph at his hand; and being so highly incensed against him for his former crime, would be the more apt to suspect him, and deal more severely with him.

Poole: Gen 37:32 - brought They brought it by a messenger whom they sent: men are commonly said to do what they cause others to do.

They

brought it by a messenger whom they sent: men are commonly said to do what they cause others to do.

Poole: Gen 37:34 - Sackcloth Sackcloth i.e. a coarse and mournful habit. This is the first example of that kind, but afterwards was in common use upon these occasions. See 2Sa 3:...

Sackcloth i.e. a coarse and mournful habit. This is the first example of that kind, but afterwards was in common use upon these occasions. See 2Sa 3:31 1Ki 20:31 21:27 , &c.

Poole: Gen 37:35 - All his daughters // The grave All his daughters Dinah, and his daughters-in-law, and his sons’ daughters. The grave this Hebrew word sheol is taken sometimes for hell, a...

All his daughters Dinah, and his daughters-in-law, and his sons’ daughters.

The grave this Hebrew word sheol is taken sometimes for hell, as Job 11:8 Pro 15:11 , but most commonly for the grave, or the place or state of the dead, as Gen 42:38 44:29,31 Ps 6:5 16:10 , &c. And whether of those it signifies, must be determined by the subject and the circumstances of the place. Here it cannot be meant of hell, for Jacob neither could believe that good Joseph was there, nor would have resolved to go thither; but the sense is, I will kill myself with grief, or I will never leave mourning till I die.

Unto my son; or, for my son: so the preposition el is oft used for al, as 1Sa 1:27 4:19,21,22 2Sa 21:2 .

Poole: Gen 37:36 - -- Whose office it was to apprehend and punish criminal persons. See Gen 40:3 Jer 39:9 Mar 6:27 .

Whose office it was to apprehend and punish criminal persons. See Gen 40:3 Jer 39:9 Mar 6:27 .

Haydock: Gen 37:1 - Sojourned Sojourned at Hebron and the environs. (Haydock)

Sojourned at Hebron and the environs. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:2 - Generations // Old // The sons // He accused // Crime Generations. This connects his history with chap. xxxv. What happened to Jacob and his sons, and particularly to Joseph, forms the subject of the r...

Generations. This connects his history with chap. xxxv. What happened to Jacob and his sons, and particularly to Joseph, forms the subject of the remaining part of Genesis. (Haydock) ---

Old; complete, or beginning "his 17th year," as the Hebrew, Chaldean, and Septuagint have it. "He was the son or boy of"---so many years always means the current year unfinished. (Bochart 1. R. xiii. 1.) ---

The sons. Perhaps these were not so much enraged against Joseph, till he told his father of their scandalous behaviour, in order that he might put a stop to it. ---

He accused. Some editions of the Septuagint read, "they accused him," &c.; but all others confirm the Vulgate and Hebrew. (Calmet) ---

Crime: perhaps of sodomy, or bestiality (St. Thomas Aquinas); or of abusive language to Joseph himself. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 37:3 - Old age // Colours Old age, and therefore expected to have no more children; but he loved him still more, on account of his innocent and sweet behaviour (Menochius): in...

Old age, and therefore expected to have no more children; but he loved him still more, on account of his innocent and sweet behaviour (Menochius): in which sense the Samaritan, Chaldean, &c., have, "because he was a wise and prudent boy." ---

Colours. The nations of the East delight in gaudy attire, "hanging down to the heels" as the original passim is sometimes expressed, talaris & polymita, ver. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 37:4 - Could not Could not, through envy, which caused them to notice every little distinction shewn to Joseph. They perceived he was the most beloved. His accusing...

Could not, through envy, which caused them to notice every little distinction shewn to Joseph. They perceived he was the most beloved. His accusing them, and insinuating by his mysterious dreams that he would be their lord, heightened their rage. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:5 - A dream A dream. These dreams of Joseph were prophetical, and sent from God, as were also those which he interpreted, chap. xl. and xli.; otherwise, gener...

A dream. These dreams of Joseph were prophetical, and sent from God, as were also those which he interpreted, chap. xl. and xli.; otherwise, generally speaking, the observing of dreams is condemned in the Scripture, as superstitious and sinful. See Deuteronomy xviii. 10, and Ecclesiasticus xxxiv. 2, 3.

Haydock: Gen 37:7 - Sheaf Sheaf. Joseph probably knew not what this portended, as the prophets were sometimes ignorant of the real purport of their visions. (Calmet) --- But...

Sheaf. Joseph probably knew not what this portended, as the prophets were sometimes ignorant of the real purport of their visions. (Calmet) ---

But it admirably foreshewed the famine, which would bring his brethren to adore him in Egypt. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 37:9 - The sun The sun. This second dream confirmed the truth of the former. Joseph relates it with simplicity, not suspecting the ill will of his brethren: but h...

The sun. This second dream confirmed the truth of the former. Joseph relates it with simplicity, not suspecting the ill will of his brethren: but his father easily perceives what effect the narration would have, and desires him to be more cautious. He even points out the apparent incoherence of the dream, as Rachel, who seemed intended by the moon, was already dead; unless this dream happened before that event. St. Augustine (q. 123) observes, this was never literally verified in Joseph, but it was in Jesus Christ, whom he prefigured. (Calmet) ---

Some think that Bala, the nurse of Joseph, was intended by the moon. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Gen 37:10 - Worship Worship. This word is not used here to signify divine worship, but an inferior veneration, expressed by the bowing of the body, and that, accord...

Worship. This word is not used here to signify divine worship, but an inferior veneration, expressed by the bowing of the body, and that, according to the manner of the eastern nations, down to the ground.

Haydock: Gen 37:11 - With himself With himself: not doubting but it was prophetical. Thus acted the Blessed Virgin. (Calmet)

With himself: not doubting but it was prophetical. Thus acted the Blessed Virgin. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 37:13 - In Sichem In Sichem. About ninety miles off. The town had not probably been as yet rebuilt. Jacob had a field there, and the country was free for any one to...

In Sichem. About ninety miles off. The town had not probably been as yet rebuilt. Jacob had a field there, and the country was free for any one to feed their flocks. It was customary to drive them to a distance. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 37:14 - Bring me Bring me. He was afraid of letting him remain with them, and retained him mostly at home for company, and to protect him from danger.

Bring me. He was afraid of letting him remain with them, and retained him mostly at home for company, and to protect him from danger.

Haydock: Gen 37:16 - My brethren My brethren. The man was acquainted with Jacob's family, as he had dwelt in those parts for a long time. (Haydock)

My brethren. The man was acquainted with Jacob's family, as he had dwelt in those parts for a long time. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:17 - Dothain Dothain: twelve miles to the north of Samaria. (Eusebius)

Dothain: twelve miles to the north of Samaria. (Eusebius)

Haydock: Gen 37:19 - The dreamer The dreamer. Hebrew Bahal hachalomoth, "the lord of dreams," or the visionary lord (Calmet); or one who feigns dreams: so the Jews say of our Savi...

The dreamer. Hebrew Bahal hachalomoth, "the lord of dreams," or the visionary lord (Calmet); or one who feigns dreams: so the Jews say of our Saviour, this seducer. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:20 - Pit // Shall appear Pit: walled around to contain water: Hebrew Bur. Bar means a well that has no walls. (Menochius) --- Shall appear. They resolve to tell a li...

Pit: walled around to contain water: Hebrew Bur. Bar means a well that has no walls. (Menochius) ---

Shall appear. They resolve to tell a lie, and easily believe that Joseph had been as bad as themselves in telling one first. If they had believed the dreams were from God, they would hardly have supposed that they could prevent them from having their effect. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:22 - His father His father. Ruben wished to regain his father's favour, chap. xxxv. 22.

His father. Ruben wished to regain his father's favour, chap. xxxv. 22.

Haydock: Gen 37:25 - To eat bread // Some // Balm // Myrrh To eat bread. How could they do this while their innocent brother was praying and lamenting! (chap. xlii. 21.) (Haydock) --- Some: a caravan of ...

To eat bread. How could they do this while their innocent brother was praying and lamenting! (chap. xlii. 21.) (Haydock) ---

Some: a caravan of merchants. (Du Hamel) ---

Balm, or rosin; "That of Syria resembles attic honey." (Pliny, Natural History) ---

Myrrh, (stacten); Hebrew, Lot: "drops of myrrh or laudanum, or of the Lotus tree." (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 37:28 - Of silver Of silver. Some have read, thirty pieces of gold or silver. (St. Ambrose, c. 3.) --- The price was trifling: twenty sicles would be about £2 5s. ...

Of silver. Some have read, thirty pieces of gold or silver. (St. Ambrose, c. 3.) ---

The price was trifling: twenty sicles would be about £2 5s. 7½d. English. The Madianites and Ismaelites jointly purchased Joseph. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:29 - Ruben Ruben, who, in the mean time had been absent while his brethren hearkened to the proposal of Juda only, and therefore consented to this evil. (Haydo...

Ruben, who, in the mean time had been absent while his brethren hearkened to the proposal of Juda only, and therefore consented to this evil. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 37:30 - I go I go to seek for him. His brethren inform him of what they had done, and he consents to keep it a secret from his father. (Menochius)

I go to seek for him. His brethren inform him of what they had done, and he consents to keep it a secret from his father. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 37:33 - A beast A beast. So he might reasonably conclude from the blood, and from the insinuations of the messengers sent by his ten sons, (Haydock) whom he would n...

A beast. So he might reasonably conclude from the blood, and from the insinuations of the messengers sent by his ten sons, (Haydock) whom he would not suspect of so heinous a crime. Wild beasts infested that country. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 37:34 - Sack-cloth // Long time Sack-cloth, or hair-cloth, cilicio. These garments were made very close, like a sack, of the hair taken from the goats of Cilicia, which grew long...

Sack-cloth, or hair-cloth, cilicio. These garments were made very close, like a sack, of the hair taken from the goats of Cilicia, which grew long, rough, and of a dark colour. The poorest people used them: Usum in Castrorum & miseris velamina nautis, (Vir.[Virgil,?] Geor. 3.); and the Ascetics, or monks, afterwards chose them for the sake of mortification and humility. (Calmet) ---

Jacob was the first, mentioned in Scripture, who put them on, and the Israelites imitated him in their mourning. ---

Long time; twenty-three years, till he heard of his son being still alive. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 37:35 - Into hell // Soal Into hell; that is, into limbo, the place where the souls of the just were received before the death of our Redeemer. For allowing that the word ...

Into hell; that is, into limbo, the place where the souls of the just were received before the death of our Redeemer. For allowing that the word hell sometimes is taken for the grave, it cannot be so taken in this place; since Jacob did not believe his son to be in the grave, (whom he supposed to be devoured by a wild beast) and therefore could not mean to go down to him thither: but certainly meant the place of rest, where he believed his soul to be. (Challoner) ---

Soal, or sheol, to crave, denotes the receptacle of the dead, (Leigh) or a lower region; the grave for the body; limbo, or hell, when speaking of the soul. See Delrio, Adag. in 2 Kings, p. 209. (Haydock) ---

Protestants here translate it, "the grave," being unwilling to admit a third place in the other world for the soul. See the contrary in St. Augustine, ep. 99, ad Evod.; City of God xx. 15. (Worthington)

Haydock: Gen 37:36 - An eunuch // Soldiers An eunuch. This word sometimes signifies a chamberlain, courtier, or officer of the king: and so it is taken in this place. (Challoner) --- So...

An eunuch. This word sometimes signifies a chamberlain, courtier, or officer of the king: and so it is taken in this place. (Challoner) ---

Soldiers, cooks, or butchers. Hebrew tabachim, executioners, mactantium. He might also be chief sacrificer, governor of the prisons, &c., all these employments were anciently very honourable, Daniel ii. 14. The providence of God never shines more brightly in any part of the Scripture, than in this history of Joseph, except in that of Jesus Christ, of whom Joseph was a beautiful figure. He was born when his father was grown old, as Jesus was in the last age of the world; he was a son increasing, as Jesus waxed in age and grace before God and men; both were beloved by their father, both comely, &c. (Calmet)

Gill: Gen 37:1 - And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger // in the land of Canaan And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger,.... And this stands opposed unto, and is distinguished from the case and circumstances ...

And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger,.... And this stands opposed unto, and is distinguished from the case and circumstances of Esau and his posterity, expressed in the preceding chapter, who dwelt in the land of their possession, not as strangers and sojourners, as Jacob and his seed, but as lords and proprietors; and so these words may be introduced and read in connection with the former history; "but Jacob dwelt", &c. a; and this verse would better conclude the preceding chapter than begin a new one. The Targum of Jonathan paraphrases the words, "and Jacob dwelt quietly"; or peaceably, in tranquillity and safety; his brother Esau being gone from him into another country, he remained where his father lived and died, and in the country that by his blessing belonged to him:

in the land of Canaan, and particularly in Hebron, where Isaac and Abraham before him had dwelt.

Gill: Gen 37:2 - These are the generations of Jacob // Joseph being seventeen years old, was feeding his flock with his brethren // and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives // and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report These are the generations of Jacob,.... But no genealogy following, some interpret this of events or of things which befell Jacob, and his family, pa...

These are the generations of Jacob,.... But no genealogy following, some interpret this of events or of things which befell Jacob, and his family, particularly with respect to his son Joseph, as Aben Ezra and Ben Melech take the sense of the word to be from Pro 27:1; but the words may refer to what goes before in the latter end of chapter 35, where an account is given of Jacob's sons, with regard to which it is here said, "these are the generations of Jacob"; the whole of chapter 36, which contains the genealogy of Esau, being a parenthesis, or at least an interruption of the above account, the history of Jacob and his posterity is here reassumed and carried on:

Joseph being seventeen years old, was feeding his flock with his brethren; or "in the flock" b; he was with them in the pastures, where the flocks were fed, not so much to assist them in it, as to be taught by them how to feed, they being older than he:

and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives: his secondary wives or concubines, called his wives, because their children shared in the inheritance. These sons of theirs were Dan and Naphtali, the sons of Bilhah; and Gad and Asher, the sons of Zilpah; with these Jacob rather chose Joseph should be, than with the sons of Leah; and especially that he should be with the sons of Bilhah, who was the handmaid of Rachel, Joseph's mother, and she being dead, it might be thought that Bilhah and her sons would have the most respect for Joseph:

and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report; for not being able to bear with their evil deeds, and yet not having authority enough, being a junior, to reprove, correct, and check them, he reported them to his father: what the things were reported is not said, perhaps their quarrels among themselves, their contempt of Joseph, their neglect of their flocks, &c. Some of the Jewish writers make them to be abominable acts of uncleanness d, others eating of the member of a creature alive, particularly the flesh of the tails of lambs while living e.

Gill: Gen 37:3 - Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children // because he was the son of his old age // and he made him a coat of many colours Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children,.... He being the firstborn of his beloved Rachel, and a lovely youth, of a beautiful aspect, very ...

Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children,.... He being the firstborn of his beloved Rachel, and a lovely youth, of a beautiful aspect, very promising, prudent and pious: the reason given in the text follows:

because he was the son of his old age; being ninety one years of age when he was born; and the youngest children are generally most beloved, and especially such as are born to their parents when in years. Benjamin indeed was younger than Joseph, and is described in like manner, Gen 44:20; and for this reason one would think had the greatest claim to his father's affections; wherefore some give a different sense of this phrase, and render it, the "son" or disciple of "elders", "senators", i.e. a wise and prudent man: and indeed, if being the son of his old age was the reason of his affection, Benjamin had the best claim to it, being the youngest, and born to him when he was still older; and this sense is countenanced by Onkelos, who renders it,"because he was a wise son to him:''and so the reason why he loved him more than the rest was, because of his senile wisdom; though a child in years, he was old in wisdom and knowledge. Abendana observes, that it was a custom with old men to take one of their little children to be with them continually, and attend upon them, and minister to them, and lean upon their arm; and such an one was called the son of their old age, because he ministered to them in their old age:

and he made him a coat of many colours; that is, had one made for him, which was interwoven with threads of divers colours, or painted, or embroidered with divers figures, or made with different pieces of various colours: according to Jerom f, it was a garment which reached down to the ankles, and was distinguished with great variety by the hands of the artificer, or which had long sleeves reaching to the hands; and so the Jewish writers g say it was called "passim", because it reached to the palms of the hands: this might be an emblem of the various virtues which early appeared in him; or rather of the several graces of the Spirit of God implanted in him, and of the raiment of needlework, the righteousness of Christ, with which he was clothed, Psa 45:14; and of the various providences which Jacob, under a spirit of prophecy, foresaw he would be attended with.

Gill: Gen 37:4 - And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren // they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren,.... Which they perceived by various things in his behaviour to him, ...

And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren,.... Which they perceived by various things in his behaviour to him, by his words, his looks, his gestures, and particularly by the coat he had made him, which distinguished him from the rest:

they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him; they not only inwardly hated him, but they could not conceal their hatred, but betrayed it by their speech unto him; they could not speak to him on any occasion, but in a cross, surly, ill natured manner; they could not salute him, or give him the common salutation, Peace be to thee, as Aben Ezra suggests.

Gill: Gen 37:5 - And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren // and they hated him yet the more And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren,.... As a dream, in the simplicity of his heart; not understanding it, or imagining there was...

And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren,.... As a dream, in the simplicity of his heart; not understanding it, or imagining there was any meaning in it; he told it not with any design to affront them, but as an amusement, and for their diversion, there being something in it odd and ridiculous, as he himself might think:

and they hated him yet the more; not only because he had carried an ill report of them to his father, and because he loved him more than they, but still more because of this dream; the meaning of which they at once understood, though he did not, which yet they supposed he did, and that he told them it in a boasting manner, and to irritate them.

Gill: Gen 37:6 - And he said unto them, hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed. And he said unto them, hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed. Hear now, so the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, immediately, directly, les...

And he said unto them, hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed. Hear now, so the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, immediately, directly, lest he should forget it, having perhaps dreamt it the night before; though our version expresses more modesty and submission. The dream follows:

Gill: Gen 37:7 - For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field // and, lo, my sheaf arose, and stood upright // and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field,.... So it was represented in his mind in a dream, as if it was harvest time, and he and his brethr...

For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field,.... So it was represented in his mind in a dream, as if it was harvest time, and he and his brethren were at work together in the field binding up sheaves of corn that were reaped, in order to be carried home:

and, lo, my sheaf arose, and stood upright; it seemed to him, that after he had bound and laid it on the ground, that it rose up of itself, and stood erect:

and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf; the sheaves which his brethren bound up, they also stood upright, and all around his sheaf, and bowed unto it; so it appeared to him in his dream. This was a fit emblem of their coming to him into Egypt for corn, and bowing to him, when their sheaves were empty, and his was full. In an ancient book of the Jews h Joseph's sheaf is interpreted of the Messiah, whom they call the son of Ephraim. Joseph no doubt was a type of the true Messiah, and in this of his exaltation and glory, and of that honour given him by all his saints who come to him, and receive from him all the supplies of grace.

Gill: Gen 37:8 - And his brethren said unto him // shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shall thou indeed have dominion over us // and they hated him yet the more for his dreams and for his words And his brethren said unto him,.... After he had told his dream, being highly offended with him, understanding the dream, and the meaning of it, bette...

And his brethren said unto him,.... After he had told his dream, being highly offended with him, understanding the dream, and the meaning of it, better than he did:

shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shall thou indeed have dominion over us? denying that he ever should, and reproving him for his vanity, in concluding from hence that he would have the dominion over them. So the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, dost thou think, suppose, or imagine that thou shall rule over us? it looks as if by telling us this dream that such a whim and fancy has got into thine head:

and they hated him yet the more for his dreams and for his words; for it seems by this that he had dreamt, and told them more dreams besides this, and they hated him both for them, and for his telling them to them; though Jarchi thinks the phrase, "for his words", refers to the ill report he gave of them to his father, Gen 37:2.

Gill: Gen 37:9 - And he dreamed yet another dream // and told it his brethren, and said, behold, I have dreamed a dream more // and, behold, the sun, and the moon, and the eleven stars, made their obeisance to me And he dreamed yet another dream,.... Relating to the name subject as the former, and, for the confirmation of it, only the emblems are different, and...

And he dreamed yet another dream,.... Relating to the name subject as the former, and, for the confirmation of it, only the emblems are different, and more comprehensive:

and told it his brethren, and said, behold, I have dreamed a dream more; another dream, and which he told, either as not knowing fully the resentment of his brethren at his former dream, or in order to clear himself from any charge of feigning the dream, or having any ill intention in telling it; seeing he had another to the same purpose, and therefore thought fit to acquaint them with it, that they might more seriously consider of it, whether there was not something divine in it, which he himself began to think there was:

and, behold, the sun, and the moon, and the eleven stars, made their obeisance to me: in his dream it seemed to him, either that he was taken up into the starry heaven, and these luminaries bowed unto him, or else that they descended to him on earth, and paid their respects unto him.

Gill: Gen 37:10 - And he told it to his father, and to his brethren // and his father rebuked him // and said unto him, what is this dream that thou hast dreamed // shall I, thy mother, and thy brethren, indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth And he told it to his father, and to his brethren,.... After he had told it to his brethren, he told it to his father a second time in their hearing,...

And he told it to his father, and to his brethren,.... After he had told it to his brethren, he told it to his father a second time in their hearing, that he might pass his judgment on it, and give his sense of it before them:

and his father rebuked him; not as being ignorant of the meaning of the dream, for by what follows he had a clear understanding of it, or as if he thought it was an idle dream, and would never have any accomplishment: but he thought fit, in his great wisdom and prudence, to put on such an air, partly to check young Joseph, lest he should grow proud, and haughty, and insolent upon it, and behave in a disagreeable manner to himself and to his brethren; and partly to conciliate the minds of his brethren to him, which he perceived were exasperated by his dreams:

and said unto him, what is this dream that thou hast dreamed? what dost thou take to be the meaning of it? canst thou imagine that it is of God? is it not a mere whim and imagination of thine own wandering brain in thy sleep? why dost thou tell such an idle dream as this, as if there were something divine in it, when it appears the most absurd and irrational?

shall I, thy mother, and thy brethren, indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? whereby it plainly shows he understood the meaning of the dream, though he would not seem to countenance it. By the "sun" he understood himself, the principal and head of the family, the active instrument of the generation of it, the light, life, and support of it; and by the "moon" his wife, the passive instrument of generation, who had the lesser share of rule in the family, yet contributed much to its good and welfare; by whom is meant not Rachel, the real mother of Joseph, who was dead, unless this is observed to show the seeming absurdity of it, from whence the whole might appear ridiculous; but rather Leah, who was now Jacob's only true wife, and the stepmother of Joseph; or else Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid, who since her death was a mother to Joseph; and by the eleven "stars" he understood the eleven brethren of Joseph, who were as stars that receive their light from the sun; and in allusion to the twelve constellations in the Zodiac, to which Joseph and his eleven brethren answered. This had its fulfilment, in some measure, when Jacob sent presents to Joseph when governor of Egypt, though unknown to him, and when he and his family went thither, when, no doubt, Jacob showed a civil respect according to his dignity, and in regard to the office he bore: and so his wife, if he then had any, that went with him, and if not personally, yet in her posterity paid a deference to him, as it is certain all his brethren did. Grotius observes from the Oneirocritics or interpreters of dreams, particularly Achmes, that according to the doctrine of the Persians and Egyptians, that if anyone should dream that he rules over the stars, he shall rule over all people.

Gill: Gen 37:11 - And his brethren envied him // but his father observed the saying And his brethren envied him,.... Notwithstanding all the precaution Jacob took to prevent it; they suspecting and fearing that these dreams portended ...

And his brethren envied him,.... Notwithstanding all the precaution Jacob took to prevent it; they suspecting and fearing that these dreams portended the pre-eminence of Joseph over them, or however served to fill his mind with the hopes and expectation of it:

but his father observed the saying; what Joseph had said in relating his dream; he laid it up in his mind and kept it there, often thought of it, and waited to see its accomplishment.

Gill: Gen 37:12 - And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. Very probably some considerable time after the telling of the above dreams; it was usua...

And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. Very probably some considerable time after the telling of the above dreams; it was usual to remove flocks from place to place for the sake of pasturage; and sometimes at a great distance, as Shechem was from Hebron, where Jacob now dwelt, said i to be about sixty miles; but this is not so much to be marvelled at as the place itself, whither they went, for though Jacob had bought a parcel of a field in this place, Gen 33:19; which might be a reason for their going thither to feed their father's flocks in his own field; yet it was the place where they had committed a most outrageous action in destroying all, the males there, and therefore might fear the inhabitants of the neighbouring cities would rise upon them and cut them off.

Gill: Gen 37:13 - And Israel said unto Joseph // do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem // come, and I will send thee unto them // and he said unto him, here am I And Israel said unto Joseph,.... After his brethren had been gone some time to Shechem: do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? this questi...

And Israel said unto Joseph,.... After his brethren had been gone some time to Shechem:

do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? this question is put, not as ignorant of it, or doubting about it, but to put Joseph in mind of it, and in order to what follows:

come, and I will send thee unto them; which is pretty much he should, considering the length of the way, sixty miles, the dangerous place in which they were feeding their flocks, and especially seeing his brethren envied and hated him; but Jacob might think that by this time things had wore off of their minds; and it is certain he had no suspicion of their hatred rising so high as to attempt his life; and it is plain he had none concerning them, when his coat was brought to him, but believed it was wild beasts that had devoured him:

and he said unto him, here am I; showing his readiness to obey his father, and go on this errand, though it was a long journey, and he to go it alone, and his brethren also bore no good will to him.

Gill: Gen 37:14 - And he said to him, go, I pray thee // see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks // and bring me word again // so he sent him out of the vale of Hebron // and he came to Shechem And he said to him, go, I pray thee,.... Or "now" k, directly, immediately, which is more agreeable to the authority of a father: see whether it be...

And he said to him, go, I pray thee,.... Or "now" k, directly, immediately, which is more agreeable to the authority of a father:

see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; it having been many days, and perhaps months, since he had heard anything of them; and the rather Jacob might be under a concern for them, because of the danger they were exposed to from the neighbouring tribes and nations of the Canaanites, on account of their having some time ago destroyed the Shechemites; so the Targum of Jonathan, paraphrasing on the preceding part, makes Jacob to say,"I am afraid, lest the Horites should come and smite them, because of their smiting Hamor and Shechem, and the inhabitants of that city; come, and I will send thee, &c."

and bring me word again; of their welfare, and of the state of their flocks:

so he sent him out of the vale of Hebron: the same with the plains of Mamre near the city of Hebron, which was built on a hill:

and he came to Shechem: after he had travelled sixty miles.

Gill: Gen 37:15 - And a certain man found him // and, behold, he was wandering in the field // and the man asked him, saying, what seekest thou And a certain man found him,.... Many of the Jewish writers l say, this was an angel, the angel Gabriel, in the likeness of a man; but according to Ab...

And a certain man found him,.... Many of the Jewish writers l say, this was an angel, the angel Gabriel, in the likeness of a man; but according to Aben Ezra, it was a traveller he met on the road; but it is more probable, as Schimidt observes, that it was some man at work in the field that came upon him and took notice of him:

and, behold, he was wandering in the field; in some field near Shechem, perhaps the same his father Jacob had purchased, and where he expected to have found his brethren, and was looking out for them, going to and fro in search of them; which the labouring man in the field observed:

and the man asked him, saying, what seekest thou? seeing him walking about, and first looking one way, and then another, concluded he was in search of something, either of some man or of some creature, a sheep or an ox that was lost; and therefore put this question to him, with a view to give him what direction and assistance he could.

Gill: Gen 37:16 - And he said, I seek my brethren // tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks And he said, I seek my brethren,.... Whom, no doubt, he described to the man, and told him who they were, and to whom they belonged; or otherwise the ...

And he said, I seek my brethren,.... Whom, no doubt, he described to the man, and told him who they were, and to whom they belonged; or otherwise the man would have been at a loss to know who he meant, and what further to say to him, and without which Joseph would never have made the following request to him:

tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks; in what part of the country they are, what field they are in, how far to it, and which the way.

Gill: Gen 37:17 - And the man said, they are departed hence // for I heard them say, let us go to Dothan // and Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan And the man said, they are departed hence,.... They had been there, in the field where he and Joseph were, and which was probably the field before men...

And the man said, they are departed hence,.... They had been there, in the field where he and Joseph were, and which was probably the field before mentioned; but for good reasons, perhaps for want of pasture, or in order to find better feeding for their cattle, they were gone from thence, from the fields about Shechem:

for I heard them say, let us go to Dothan; this was, as some say, four miles from Shechem, others eight m; according to Brochardus n, it was a plain country between fruitful hills, contiguous to fountains, was pasture ground, and very fit for feeding cattle; and its very name, as Hillerus o notes, signifies grassy, or a place of tender grass: here, afterwards, was a city built, not far from Samaria, 2Ki 6:13; about twelve miles to the north of it, as says Jerom p; it was in the tribe of Manasseh, about forty four miles from Jerusalem to the north, and six miles from Tiberias to the west q:

and Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan; which shows that he had a real desire to see them, and know their state and condition, that he might report it to his father; since he might have returned on not finding them at Shechem, that being the place he was sent to, and would have been sufficient to have shown obedience to his father's commands, though perhaps it might not have come up to his full sense and meaning.

Gill: Gen 37:18 - And when they saw him afar off // even before he came near unto them // they conspired against him, to slay him And when they saw him afar off,.... They knew him as soon as they saw him, by his stature, his gesture or manner of walking, and especially by his coa...

And when they saw him afar off,.... They knew him as soon as they saw him, by his stature, his gesture or manner of walking, and especially by his coat of various colours he now had on, Gen 37:23,

even before he came near unto them; the distance he was from them when they first spied him is particularly remarked and repeated, not to show the quickness of their sight, but for the sake of what follows; to observe how soon their passions were raised, how intense and prepense their malice, and which put them upon devising ways and means to destroy him, for it follows:

they conspired against him, to slay him; they entered into a consultation, and devised the most crafty methods they could think of to take away his life, and yet conceal the murder.

Gill: Gen 37:19 - And they said one to another // behold, this dreamer cometh And they said one to another,.... According to the Targum of Jonathan, Simeon and Levi said what follows: nor is it unlikely, since they were hot, pas...

And they said one to another,.... According to the Targum of Jonathan, Simeon and Levi said what follows: nor is it unlikely, since they were hot, passionate, cruel, and bloody minded men, as appears by the affair of Shechem; and perhaps this may be the reason why Joseph afterwards, when governor of Egypt, took Simeon and bound him, Gen 42:24; which was but a just retaliation for his advice to cast him into a pit when slain:

behold, this dreamer cometh; or "master of dreams" r; not of the interpretation of them, but of dreaming them; that had them at his command when he pleased, as they jeeringly flouted him; as if he was a framer and contriver of them, and only pretended to them when he had none, or else that he was frequently dreaming and telling his dreams; this they said in a sarcastic way, and, perhaps, as pleased, and rejoicing that such an opportunity offered to take their revenge on him: this shows that it was on the account of his dreams chiefly that they bore such a grudge against him, that this was uppermost on their minds, and was revived at first sight of him, and from whence their malice sprung.

Gill: Gen 37:20 - Come now therefore, and let us slay him // and cast him into some pit // and we will say, some evil beast hath devoured him // and we shall see what will become of his dreams Come now therefore, and let us slay him,.... Agree to do it, and actually do it: and cast him into some pit; or, "one of the pits" s, which were ne...

Come now therefore, and let us slay him,.... Agree to do it, and actually do it:

and cast him into some pit; or, "one of the pits" s, which were near, and were dug for the collection of rainwater, as was usual in those countries where water was scarce:

and we will say, some evil beast hath devoured him; which would seem plausible, since wild beasts were frequent in those parts, as lions and bears, see 1Ki 13:24,

and we shall see what will become of his dreams; who will be the lord then, and reign, and have the dominion, he or we.

Gill: Gen 37:21 - And Reuben heard it // and he delivered him out of their hands // and said, let us not kill him And Reuben heard it,.... Overheard what they said, not being in the consultation; perhaps knowing his temper and disposition to be more mild and gent...

And Reuben heard it,.... Overheard what they said, not being in the consultation; perhaps knowing his temper and disposition to be more mild and gentle, and being the elder brother, might fear he would overrule matters against them, and therefore Simeon and Levi did not choose to have him in the debate; or he might be at some distance and entirely absent when the consultation was held, and their intention was reported to him by some of them:

and he delivered him out of their hands; from slaying him; that is, he endeavoured to do it by proposing another scheme:

and said, let us not kill him; or let us not smite the soul t; the dear soul, or take away life.

Gill: Gen 37:22 - And Reuben said unto them, shed no blood // but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him // that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again And Reuben said unto them, shed no blood,.... Innocent blood, as the Targum of Jonathan; the blood of a man, a brother's blood, one that had not done ...

And Reuben said unto them, shed no blood,.... Innocent blood, as the Targum of Jonathan; the blood of a man, a brother's blood, one that had not done anything wherefore it should be shed, and which would involve in guilt, and bring vengeance on them: he seems to put them in mind of the original law in Gen 9:6,

but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him: which might seem to answer the same purpose, namely, by depriving him of his life in another way, by starving him; but this was not Reuben's intention, as appears by the next clause, and by his going to the pit afterwards, as it should seem, with a view to take him out of it privately; this advice he gave:

that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again; safe and sound, in order, as it is thought by many interpreters, to reconcile his father to him, whose bed he had abused.

Gill: Gen 37:23 - And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren // that they stripped, Joseph out of his coat; his coat of many colours, that was on him And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren,.... To the very place where they were, and had, in a kind and obliging manner, asked of t...

And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren,.... To the very place where they were, and had, in a kind and obliging manner, asked of their welfare, and related their father's concern for them, who had sent him on this errand:

that they stripped, Joseph out of his coat; his coat of many colours, that was on him; according to Jarchi and Aben Ezra, this was not one and the same coat, but divers, and that the sense is, that with his coat of many colours, and besides that, they stripped him of his lower garment, which was next to his skin, his shirt; so that he was quite naked when they cast him into the pit, and this they did as soon as he came up to them, so cruel and hardhearted were they.

Gill: Gen 37:24 - And they took him, and cast him into a pit // and the pit was empty, there was no water in it And they took him, and cast him into a pit,.... Into the same that Reuben pointed to them, whose counsel they gladly took and readily executed, suppos...

And they took him, and cast him into a pit,.... Into the same that Reuben pointed to them, whose counsel they gladly took and readily executed, supposing he meant the same thing they did, starving him to death:

and the pit was empty, there was no water in it; only serpents and scorpions, as the Targum of Jonathan; and Jarchi adds, this remark, that there was no water in it, seems to be made either to furnish out a reason why Reuben directed to it, that he might be the more easily got out of it, and not be in danger of losing his life at once, or of being drowned in it; or else to show the uncomfortable situation he was in, having not so much as a drop of water to refresh him; see Zec 9:11. Dothan is said to remain to this day, and the inhabitants of it show the ancient ditch into which Joseph was cast u.

Gill: Gen 37:25 - And they sat down to eat bread // and they lifted up their eyes, and looked // and, behold, a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead // with their camels bearing spicery, and balm, and myrrh // going to carry it down to Egypt And they sat down to eat bread,.... Not at all concerned at what they had done, nor in the least grieved for the affliction of Joseph, and without any...

And they sat down to eat bread,.... Not at all concerned at what they had done, nor in the least grieved for the affliction of Joseph, and without any pity and compassion for him in his distress, but joyful and glad they had got him into their hands, and like to get rid of him for ever:

and they lifted up their eyes, and looked, after they had eaten their food, or while they were eating it:

and, behold, a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead; a place of merchandise for spices and balm, and such like things after mentioned. The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan call them Arabians; and the Targum of Jerusalem, Saracens; these were the posterity of Ishmael, who came out of Arabia to Gilead, where they took up their merchandise, at least part of it, and were travelling to Egypt with it, and their way thither lay by Dothan; these travelled in companies, now called "caravans", partly on the account of robbers, and partly by reason of wild beasts, with both which they were sometimes beset in the deserts through which they travelled:

with their camels bearing spicery, and balm, and myrrh; the first word is general according to our version, and others, and signifies various spices, a collection of them; and so Jarchi takes it; but Aquila translates it "storax"; and Bochart w, by various arguments, seems to have proved, that this is particularly intended; though the Targum of Jonathan renders it "wax" x; and so other versions: and "balm" is by some taken to be "rosin", since there was no balm or balsam in Gilead, on the other side Jordan, nor indeed any in Judea, until it was brought thither from Arabia Felix, in the times of Solomon; and what we render "myrrh", is in the Hebrew called "lot", and is by some thought to be the same with "laudanum": this their merchandise was carried on camels, very fit for their purpose every way, as they were strong creatures made to carry burdens, and could travel many days without water, which they were sometimes obliged to do in the deserts:

going to carry it down to Egypt; where these things grew not, and were much in use, at least some of them, both in medicines, and in embalming dead bodies, much practised in Egypt; an Arabic writer y makes this merchandise to consist of, nuts, turpentine, and oil.

Gill: Gen 37:26 - And Judah said unto his brethren // what profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood And Judah said unto his brethren,.... In sight of the Ishmaelites, a thought came into his mind to get Joseph sold to them: what profit is it if w...

And Judah said unto his brethren,.... In sight of the Ishmaelites, a thought came into his mind to get Joseph sold to them:

what profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? it could be no advantage to them even if they could have concealed his blood from men; and if it was discovered, as it would, in all likelihood, by come means or another, then they must be answerable for it; and if not, God would take vengeance on them, from whom they could never conceal it; and therefore it would be most profitable and advantageous to them to sell him, and not destroy him, or take away his life; and to suffer him to lie in the pit and die was the same thing.

Gill: Gen 37:27 - Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites // and let not our hand be upon him // for he is our brother, and our flesh // and his brethren were content Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites,.... For a slave, and that will defeat his dream; and as these were going down to Egypt, where they would...

Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites,.... For a slave, and that will defeat his dream; and as these were going down to Egypt, where they would sell him, he would be far enough from them, and there would be no probability of his ever being lord over them:

and let not our hand be upon him; to take away his life, either by stabbing or starving him:

for he is our brother, and our flesh; they had all one father, though different mothers, and therefore, as the relation was so near, some sympathy and compassion should be shown; some degree of tenderness at least, and not savageness and cruelty:

and his brethren were content; they agreed to the motion, inasmuch as they supposed it would answer their end as well, which was to prevent his dominion over them.

Gill: Gen 37:28 - Then there passed by Midianites, merchantmen // and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit // and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver // and they brought Joseph into Egypt Then there passed by Midianites, merchantmen,.... The same with the Ishmaelites before mentioned, as appears from the latter part of this verse; for a...

Then there passed by Midianites, merchantmen,.... The same with the Ishmaelites before mentioned, as appears from the latter part of this verse; for as these were near neighbours, so they might join together in merchandise, and travel in company for greater safety, and are sometimes called the one, and sometimes the other, as well as they might mix together in their habitations and marriages; and are hence called Arabians by the Targums, as before observed, and so by Josephus, which signifies a mixed people:

and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit: not the Midianites, but his brethren:

and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver; for twenty shekels, which amounted to twenty five shillings of our money. The Jews z say, they each took two shekels apiece, and bought with them a pair of shoes, according to Amo 8:6; but there were but nine of them, Reuben was absent:

and they brought Joseph into Egypt; some think these Midianites were different from the Ishmaelites, and that Joseph was sold many times, first to the Midianites, and then by them to the Ishmaelites, and by the latter to Potiphar. Justin a, an Heathen writer, gives an account of this affair in some agreement with this history;"Joseph (he says) was the youngest of his brethren, whose excellent genius they feared, and took him secretly, and sold him to "foreign merchants", by whom he was carried into Egypt.''

Gill: Gen 37:29 - And Reuben returned unto the pit // and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit // and he rent his clothes And Reuben returned unto the pit,.... It is very probable he had pretended to go somewhere on business, with an intention to take a circuit, and come ...

And Reuben returned unto the pit,.... It is very probable he had pretended to go somewhere on business, with an intention to take a circuit, and come to the pit and deliver his brother, and go home with him to his father. The Jews say b he departed from his brethren, and sat down on a certain mountain, that he might descend in the night and take Joseph out of the pit, and accordingly he came down in the night, and found him not. So Josephus c says, it was in the night when Reuben came to the pit, who calling to Joseph, and he not answering, suspected he was killed:

and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; for neither by looking down into it could he see him, nor by calling be answered by him, which made it a clear case to him he was not there:

and he rent his clothes; as a token of distress and anguish of mind, of sorrow and mourning, as was usual in such cases; Jacob afterwards did the same, Gen 37:34.

Gill: Gen 37:30 - And he returned unto his brethren // and said, the child is not // and I, whither shall I go And he returned unto his brethren,.... From the pit, and whom he suspected had took him and killed him, as was their first design, not being with them...

And he returned unto his brethren,.... From the pit, and whom he suspected had took him and killed him, as was their first design, not being with them when they proposed to sell him, and did:

and said, the child is not; not in the pit, nor in the land of the living, but is dead, which is sometimes the meaning of the phrase, Jer 31:15; he calls him a child, though seventeen years of age, because the youngest brother but one, and he himself was the eldest, and also because of his tender concern for him:

and I, whither shall I go? to find the child or flee from his father's face, which he could not think of seeing any more; whom he had highly offended already in the case of Bilhah, and now he would be yet more incensed against him for his neglect of Joseph, who, he might have expected, would have taken particular care of him, being the eldest son: he speaks like one in the utmost perplexity, not knowing what to do, what course to steer, being almost distracted and at his wits' end.

Gill: Gen 37:31 - And they took Joseph's coat // and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood And they took Joseph's coat,.... After they had told Reuben what they had done with him, who being willing to make the best of things as it was, joine...

And they took Joseph's coat,.... After they had told Reuben what they had done with him, who being willing to make the best of things as it was, joined with them in the following scheme: by this it appears, that when they took Joseph out of the pit they did not put his coat on him, but sold him naked, or almost so, to the merchants:

and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood; that being, as the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi observe, most like to human blood.

Gill: Gen 37:32 - And they sent the coat of many colours // and they brought it to their father, and said, this we have found // know now whether it be thy son's coat or no And they sent the coat of many colours,.... Which was what they dipped in the blood of the kid; this they sent to Jacob in such a condition, by the h...

And they sent the coat of many colours,.... Which was what they dipped in the blood of the kid; this they sent to Jacob in such a condition, by the hand of some messenger; the Targum of Jonathan says, the sons of Zilpah and Bilhah; but more probably some of their servants, whom they instructed what to say to their father when they presented it to him; not caring to appear in person at first, lest they be thrown into such commotion and confusion at their father's distress, as might tend to lead on to a discovery of the whole affair:

and they brought it to their father, and said, this we have found; that is, the messengers carried to the father of Joseph's brethren, who were sent with it, and taught to say, that they found it in some field in this condition, but found no man near it, only that by itself, and suspected it might be the coat of his son Joseph, if he had sent him out in it:

know now whether it be thy son's coat or no; look upon it, see if any marks can be observed in it, by which it may with any certainty be known whether it his or not.

Gill: Gen 37:33 - And he knew it, and said, it is my son's coat // an evil beast hath devoured him // Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces And he knew it, and said, it is my son's coat,.... He took it, and examined it, and was soon convinced, and well assured it was his son's coat; read...

And he knew it, and said, it is my son's coat,.... He took it, and examined it, and was soon convinced, and well assured it was his son's coat; read the words without the supplement "it is", and the pathos will appear the more, "my son's coat!" and think with what a beating heart, with what trembling limbs, with what wringing of hands, with what flowing eyes, and faultering speech, he spoke these words, and what follow:

an evil beast hath devoured him; this was natural to conclude from the condition the coat was in, and from the country he was sent into, which abounded with wild beasts, and was the very thing Joseph's brethren contrived to say themselves; and in this view they wished and hoped the affair would be considered, and so their wickedness concealed:

Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces; or "in rending is rent" d; he is most certainly rent in pieces, there is no question to be made of it; it is plain, and it must be the case.

Gill: Gen 37:34 - And Jacob rent his clothes // and put sackcloth upon his loins // and mourned for his son many days And Jacob rent his clothes,.... As expressive of his grief and mourning for the death of his son, as he supposed: and put sackcloth upon his loins;...

And Jacob rent his clothes,.... As expressive of his grief and mourning for the death of his son, as he supposed:

and put sackcloth upon his loins; put off his usual apparel, and put on a coarse garment on his loins next to his flesh, as another token of his great trouble and affliction for the loss of his son; which though afterwards was frequently done in times of public or private mourning, yet this is the first time we read of it; whether Jacob was the first that used it, whom his posterity and others imitated, is not certain; however it appears that this usage, as well as that of rending clothes on sorrowful occasions, were very ancient:

and mourned for his son many days: or years, as days sometimes signify; twenty two years, according to Jarchi, even until the time he went down to Egypt and saw him alive.

Gill: Gen 37:35 - And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him // but he refused to be comforted // and he said, for I will go down into the grave unto my son, mourning // thus his father wept for him And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him,.... His sons must act a most hypocritical part in this affair; and as for his daughters...

And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him,.... His sons must act a most hypocritical part in this affair; and as for his daughters, it is not easy to say who they were, since he had but one daughter that we read of, whose name was Dinah: the Targum of Jonathan calls them his sons wives; but it is a question whether any of his sons were as yet married, since the eldest of them was not more than twenty four years of age; and much less can their daughters be supposed to be meant, as they are by some. It is the opinion of the Jews, that Jacob had a twin daughter born to him with each of his sons; these his sons and daughters came together, or singly, to condole his loss, to sympathize with him, and speak a word of comfort to him, and entreat him not to give way to excessive grief and sorrow:

but he refused to be comforted; to attend to anything that might serve to alleviate his mind, and to abstain from outward mourning, and the tokens of it; he chose not to be interrupted in it:

and he said, for I will go down into the grave unto my son, mourning; the meaning is, not that he would by any means hasten his own death, or go down to his son in the grave, strictly and literally taken; since, according to his apprehension of his son's death he could have no grave, being torn to pieces by a wild beast; but either that he should go into the state of the dead, where his son was, mourning all along till he carne thither; or rather that he would go mourning all his days "for his son" e, as some render it, till he came to the grave; nor would he, nor should he receive any comfort more in this world:

thus his father wept for him; in this manner, with such circumstances as before related, and he only; for as for his brethren they hated him, and were glad they had got rid of him; or, "and his father", &c. f; his father Isaac, as the Targum of Jonathan, he wept for his son Jacob on account of his trouble and distress; as well as for his grandson Joseph; and so many Jewish writers g interpret it; and indeed Isaac was alive at this time, and lived twelve years after; but the former sense seems best.

Gill: Gen 37:36 - And the Midianites sold him into Egypt // unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh // and captain of the guard And the Midianites sold him into Egypt,.... Or Medanites, who sprung from Medan, a brother of Midian, and son of Keturah, Gen 24:2; and were distinct ...

And the Midianites sold him into Egypt,.... Or Medanites, who sprung from Medan, a brother of Midian, and son of Keturah, Gen 24:2; and were distinct from the Midianites, though they dwelt near them, and were now in company with them, and with the Ishmaelites, and were all concerned in the buying and selling of Joseph, and therefore this is sometimes ascribed to the one, and sometimes to the other:

unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh; the word is sometimes used for an eunuch, but cannot design one here, since Potiphar had a wife, and some say a child; but he either was a chamberlain, or however some officer at court, besides what follows:

and captain of the guard; of Pharoah's guard, his bodyguard; some render it, "of the slaughterers" h; meaning either cooks or butchers, of whom he was the chief; or rather executioners, he having the charge of prisoners, and the care of executing them, like our sheriffs. Joseph was a most eminent type of Christ, and there are so many things in this chapter which show an agreement between them that cannot be passed over. Joseph was the son of his father's old age, Christ the son of the Ancient of days; Joseph was in a peculiar manner beloved by his father, Christ is the dear son of his Father's love; Jacob made for Joseph a coat of many colours, God prepared a body in human nature for Christ, filled and adorned with the various gifts and graces of the Spirit without measure. Joseph was hated by his brethren, and they could not endure to think he should have the dominion over them. The Jews, of whom Christ was according to the flesh, hated him, and would not have him to reign over them; Joseph was sent by his father a long journey to visit his brethren, and know the welfare of them and their flocks, Christ was sent from heaven to earth to seek and save the lost sheep of the house of Israel; Joseph's brethren, when they saw him come to them, conspired to take away his life, the Jews, who were Christ's own, when he came to them, received him not, but said, this is the heir, let us kill him, and they consulted to take away his life; Joseph was stripped of his clothes, and sold for twenty pieces of silver at the motion of Judah, and Christ, by one of the same name, was sold for thirty pieces of silver, and was stripped of his clothes by the Roman soldiers; Joseph was delivered into the hands of foreigners, and Christ into the hands of the Gentiles; Joseph being reckoned as dead by his father, and yet alive, may be herein an emblem of Christ's death, and his resurrection from the dead.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Gen 37:1 The next section begins with the heading This is the account of Jacob in Gen 37:2, so this verse actually forms part of the preceding section as a con...

NET Notes: Gen 37:2 Some interpreters portray Joseph as a tattletale for bringing back a bad report about them [i.e., his brothers], but the entire Joseph story has some ...

NET Notes: Gen 37:3 It is not clear what this tunic was like, because the meaning of the Hebrew word that describes it is uncertain. The idea that it was a coat of many c...

NET Notes: Gen 37:4 Heb “speak to him for peace.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:5 The construction uses a hendiadys, “they added to hate,” meaning they hated him even more.

NET Notes: Gen 37:6 Heb “hear this dream which I dreamed.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:7 The verb means “to bow down to the ground.” It is used to describe worship and obeisance to masters.

NET Notes: Gen 37:8 The response of Joseph’s brothers is understandable, given what has already been going on in the family. But here there is a hint of uneasiness ...

NET Notes: Gen 37:9 Heb “and he said, ‘Look.’” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse have been rearranged in the translati...

NET Notes: Gen 37:10 Heb “Coming, will we come, I and your mother and your brothers, to bow down to you to the ground?” The verb “come” is preceded...

NET Notes: Gen 37:11 Heb “kept the word.” The referent of the Hebrew term “word” has been specified as “what Joseph said” in the transl...

NET Notes: Gen 37:13 Heb “and he said, ‘Here I am.’” The referent of the pronoun “he” (Joseph) has been specified in the translation fo...

NET Notes: Gen 37:14 Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 37:15 Heb “and a man found him and look, he was wandering in the field.” By the use of וְהִנֵּה ...

NET Notes: Gen 37:16 The imperative in this sentence has more of the nuance of a request than a command.

NET Notes: Gen 37:17 Heb “they traveled from this place.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:18 Heb “and they”; the referent (Joseph’s brothers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 37:19 Heb “Look, this master of dreams is coming.” The brothers’ words have a sarcastic note and indicate that they resent his dreams.

NET Notes: Gen 37:20 Heb “what his dreams will be.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:21 Heb “we must not strike him down [with respect to] life.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:22 Heb “from their hands” (cf. v. 21). This expression has been translated as “them” here for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 37:23 Heb “Joseph”; the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“him”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 37:24 The disjunctive clause gives supplemental information that helps the reader or hearer to picture what happened.

NET Notes: Gen 37:25 Heb “and their camels were carrying spices, balm, and myrrh, going to go down to Egypt.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:27 Heb “listened.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:28 Heb “they”; the referent (the Ishmaelites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 37:29 Heb “and look, Joseph was not in the cistern.” By the use of וְהִנֵּה (vÿhinneh, R...

NET Notes: Gen 37:31 It was with two young goats that Jacob deceived his father (Gen 27:9); now with a young goat his sons continue the deception that dominates this famil...

NET Notes: Gen 37:32 Heb “and they sent the special tunic and they brought [it] to their father.” The text as it stands is problematic. It sounds as if they se...

NET Notes: Gen 37:33 A wild animal has eaten him. Jacob draws this conclusion on his own without his sons actually having to lie with their words (see v. 20). Dipping the ...

NET Notes: Gen 37:34 Heb “and put sackcloth on his loins.”

NET Notes: Gen 37:35 Heb “his”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 37:36 The expression captain of the guard might indicate that Potiphar was the chief executioner.

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:1 And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a ( a ) stranger, in the land of Canaan. ( a ) That is, the story of such things as came to him an...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:2 These [are] the generations of Jacob. Joseph, [being] seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad [was] with the sons of...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:5 And Joseph ( c ) dreamed a dream, and he told [it] his brethren: and they hated him yet the more. ( c ) God revealed to him by a dream what should co...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:8 And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they ( d ) hated him yet the more for h...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:10 And he told [it] to his father, and to his brethren: and his father ( e ) rebuked him, and said unto him, What [is] this dream that thou hast dreamed?...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:11 And his brethren envied him; but his father ( f ) observed the saying. ( f ) He knew that God was the author of the dream, but he did not understand ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:18 And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they ( g ) conspired against him to slay him. ( g ) The Holy Spirit does not cov...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:24 And they took him, and cast ( h ) him into a pit: and the pit [was] empty, [there was] no water in it. ( h ) Their hypocrisy appears in this that the...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:28 Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the ( i ) Ishmeelites for twenty [p...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:32 And they sent the coat of [many] colours, ( k ) and they brought [it] to their father; and said, This have we found: know now whether it [be] thy son'...

Geneva Bible: Gen 37:36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an ( l ) officer of Pharaoh's, [and] captain of the guard. ( l ) Or "eunuch", which does not al...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Gen 37:1-11 - The Trials And Visions Of Devout Youth Genesis 37:1-11 The generations of Jacob' are mainly occupied with the history of Joseph, because through him mainly was the divine purpose carried on...

Maclaren: Gen 37:23-36 - Man's Passion And Gods Purpose Genesis 37:23-36 We have left the serene and lofty atmosphere of communion and saintship far above us. This narrative takes us down into foul depths. ...

MHCC: Gen 37:1-4 - --In Joseph's history we see something of Christ, who was first humbled and then exalted. It also shows the lot of Christians, who must through many tri...

MHCC: Gen 37:5-11 - --God gave Joseph betimes the prospect of his advancement, to support and comfort him under his long and grievous troubles. Observe, Joseph dreamed of h...

MHCC: Gen 37:12-22 - --How readily does Joseph wait his father's orders! Those children who are best beloved by their parents, should be the most ready to obey them. See how...

MHCC: Gen 37:23-30 - --They threw Joseph into a pit, to perish there with hunger and cold; so cruel were their tender mercies. They slighted him when he was in distress, and...

MHCC: Gen 37:31-36 - --When Satan has taught men to commit one sin, he teaches them to try to conceal it with another; to hide theft and murder, with lying and false oaths: ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 37:1-4 - -- Moses has no more to say of the Edomites, unless as they happen to fall in Israel's way; but now applies himself closely to the story of Jacob's fam...

Matthew Henry: Gen 37:5-11 - -- Here, I. Joseph relates the prophetical dreams he had, Gen 37:6, Gen 37:7, Gen 37:9, Gen 37:10. Though he was now very young (about seventeen years ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 37:12-22 - -- Here is, I. The kind visit which Joseph, in obedience to his father's command, made to his brethren, who were feeding the flock at Shechem, many mil...

Matthew Henry: Gen 37:23-30 - -- We have here the execution of their plot against Joseph. 1. They stripped him, each striving to seize the envied coat of many colours, Gen 37:23. Th...

Matthew Henry: Gen 37:31-36 - -- I. Joseph would soon be missed, great enquiry would be made for him, and therefore his brethren have a further design, to make the world believe tha...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:1-4 - -- Gen 37:1-2 The statement in Gen 37:1, which introduces the tholedoth of Jacob, " And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's pilgrimage, in the l...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:5-11 - -- This hatred was increased when Joseph told them of two dreams that he had had: viz., that as they were binding sheaves in the field, his sheaf "stoo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:12-20 - -- In a short time the hatred of Joseph's brethren grew into a crime. On one occasion, when they were feeding their flock at a distance from Hebron, in...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:21-24 - -- Reuben , who was the eldest son, and therefore specially responsible for his younger brother, opposed this murderous proposal. He dissuaded his bre...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:25-28 - -- Reuben had saved Joseph's life indeed by his proposal; but his intention to send him back to his father was frustrated. For as soon as the brethren ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:29-35 - -- The business was settled in Reuben's absence; probably because his brethren suspected that he intended to rescue Joseph. When he came to the pit and...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 37:36 - -- But Joseph, while his father was mourning, was sold by the Midianites to Potiphar, the chief of Pharaoh's trabantes , to be first of all brought lo...

Constable: Gen 11:27--Exo 1:1 - --II. PATRIARCHAL NARRATIVES 11:27--50:26 One of the significant changes in the emphasis that occurs at this point...

Constable: Gen 36:1--37:2 - --D. What became of Esau 36:1-37:1 Moses included this relatively short genealogy (toledot) in the sacred ...

Constable: Gen 37:2--Exo 1:1 - --E. What Became of Jacob 37:2-50:26 Here begins the tenth and last toledot in Genesis. Jacob remains a ma...

Constable: Gen 37:2-11 - --1. God's choice of Joseph 37:2-11 Joseph faithfully served his father even bringing back a bad report of his brothers' behavior to him for which Jacob...

Constable: Gen 37:12-36 - --2. The sale of Joseph into Egypt 37:12-36 Joseph's brothers met his second recorded visit to them with great antagonism. They plotted to kill him and ...

Guzik: Gen 37:1-36 - Joseph Is Sold Into Slavery 37 - Joseph Is Sold Into Slavery A. Joseph's dreams. 1. (1-4) Jacob favors Joseph. Now Jacob dwelt in the land where his father was a stranger, in...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 37:2 Q: In Gen 2:4, 5:1, 6:9, 10:1, 11:10, 11:27, 25:12, 25:19, 36:1, 36:9, and 37:2, Num 3:1; Ru 4:18, does the Hebrew word (Toledot) start a section, o...

Bible Query: Gen 37:3 Q: In Gen 37:3,23,32, is there any extra-Biblical evidence for a coat of many colors? A: Yes, not Joseph’s actual robe, archaeologists have found ...

Bible Query: Gen 37:17 Q: In Gen 37:17, is there any extra-Biblical evidence of making people "disappear" by throwing them into wells? A: Yes. Joseph’s brothers were nea...

Bible Query: Gen 37:17 Q: In Gen 37:17, were Joseph’s brothers planning to kill him, or did they decide to sell Joseph to Midianite traders as Gen 37:28-29 says? A: Both...

Bible Query: Gen 37:23 Q: In Gen 37:3,23,32, is there any extra-Biblical evidence for a coat of many colors? A: Yes, not Joseph’s actual robe, archaeologists have found ...

Bible Query: Gen 37:25 Q: In Gen 37:25, were the traders Ishmaelites, or Midianites as Gen 37:28 says? A: From a distance the brothers could not tell which people were comi...

Bible Query: Gen 37:28 Q: In Gen 37:28, was 20 shekels of silver about the right price for a slave like Joseph? A: Yes. According to K.A. Kitchen in Ancient Orient and Old ...

Bible Query: Gen 37:32 Q: In Gen 37:3,23,32, is there any extra-Biblical evidence for a coat of many colors? A: Yes, not Joseph’s actual robe, archaeologists have found ...

Evidence: Gen 37:1 The history of Joseph, who saved his family and all of Egypt from death due to starvation, foreshadows the Messiah to come, who has the power to sav...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 37 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 37:1, Joseph is loved by Jacob, but hated by his brethren; Gen 37:5, His dreams and the interpretation; Gen 37:12, Jacob sends him to...

Poole: Genesis 37 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 37 Jacob dwells in Canaan: Joseph brings to his father an ill report of his brethren, Gen 37:2 . He loves, they hate him, Gen 37:3,4 ; the ...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 37 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 37:1-4) Joseph is loved of Jacob, but hated by his brethren. (Gen 37:5-11) Joseph's dreams. (Gen 37:12-22) Jacob sends Joseph to visit his bret...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis 37 (Pendahuluan Pasal) At this chapter begins the story of Joseph, who, in every subsequent chapter but one to the end of this book, makes the greatest figure. He was Jac...

Constable: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title Each book of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testam...

Constable: Genesis (Garis Besar) Outline The structure of Genesis is very clear. The phrase "the generations of" (toledot in Hebrew, from yalad m...

Constable: Genesis Bibliography Aalders, Gerhard Charles. Genesis. The Bible Student's Commentary series. 2 vols. Translated by William Hey...

Haydock: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF GENESIS. INTRODUCTION. The Hebrews now entitle all the Five Books of Moses, from the initial words, which originally were written li...

Gill: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS This book, in the Hebrew copies of the Bible, and by the Jewish writers, is generally called Bereshith, which signifies "in...

Gill: Genesis 37 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 37 In this chapter begins the history of Joseph, with whom the remaining part of this book is chiefly concerned; and here a...

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