5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 1 5:39 But I say to you, do not resist the evildoer. 2 But whoever strikes you on the 3 right cheek, turn the other to him as well. 5:40 And if someone wants to sue you and to take your tunic, 4 give him your coat also. 5:41 And if anyone forces you to go one mile, 5 go with him two. 5:42 Give to the one who asks you, 6 and do not reject 7 the one who wants to borrow from you.
5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ 8 and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 9 pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 10 your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 11 do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 12
7:12 In 13 everything, treat others as you would want them 14 to treat you, 15 for this fulfills 16 the law and the prophets.
6:27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies, 17 do good to those who hate you, 6:28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat 18 you. 6:29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek, 19 offer the other as well, 20 and from the person who takes away your coat, 21 do not withhold your tunic 22 either. 23 6:30 Give to everyone who asks you, 24 and do not ask for your possessions 25 back 26 from the person who takes them away. 6:31 Treat others 27 in the same way that you would want them to treat you. 28
6:32 “If 29 you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners 30 love those who love them. 31 6:33 And 32 if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 33 sinners 34 do the same. 6:34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid, 35 what credit is that to you? Even sinners 36 lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full. 37 6:35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back. 38 Then 39 your reward will be great, and you will be sons 40 of the Most High, 41 because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people. 42 6:36 Be merciful, 43 just as your Father is merciful.
[5:39] 2 tn The articular πονηρός (ponhro", “the evildoer”) cannot be translated simply as “evil” for then the command would be “do not resist evil.” Every instance of this construction in Matthew is most likely personified, referring either to an evildoer (13:49) or, more often, “the evil one” (as in 5:37; 6:13; 13:19, 38).
[5:39] 3 tc ‡ Many
[5:40] 4 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.
[5:42] 6 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to the one who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).
[5:44] 9 tc Most
[5:45] 10 tn Grk “be sons of your Father in heaven.” Here, however, the focus is not on attaining a relationship (becoming a child of God) but rather on being the kind of person who shares the characteristics of God himself (a frequent meaning of the Semitic idiom “son of”). See L&N 58.26.
[5:46] 11 sn The tax collectors would bid to collect taxes for the Roman government and then add a surcharge, which they kept. Since tax collectors worked for Rome, they were viewed as traitors to their own people and were not well liked.
[7:12] 15 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others as you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but here it is stated in its most emphatic, selfless form.
[6:27] 17 sn Love your enemies is the first of four short exhortations that call for an unusual response to those who are persecuting disciples. Disciples are to relate to hostility in a completely unprecedented manner.
[6:29] 20 sn This command to offer the other cheek as well is often misunderstood. It means that there is risk involved in reaching out to people with God’s hope. But if one is struck down in rejection, the disciple is to continue reaching out.
[6:29] 23 sn The command do not withhold your tunic either is again an image of continually being totally at risk as one tries to keep contact with those who are hostile to what Jesus and his disciples offer.
[6:30] 24 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to everyone who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).
[6:31] 28 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others in the same way you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but it is stated here in its most emphatic, selfless form.
[6:32] 29 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. This is a first class condition, but the next two conditional clauses are third class conditions, so that stylistic variation is probably at work.
[6:33] 32 tc ‡ Three key
[6:33] 33 tc Most
[6:35] 39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the outcome or result. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
[6:35] 40 sn The character of these actions reflects the grace and kindness of God, bearing witness to a “line of descent” or relationship of the individual to God (sons of the Most High). There is to be a unique kind of ethic at work with disciples. Jesus refers specifically to sons here because in the ancient world sons had special privileges which were rarely accorded to daughters. However, Jesus is most likely addressing both men and women in this context, so women too would receive these same privileges.
[6:36] 43 sn Merciful is a characteristic of God often noted in the OT: Exod 34:6; Deut 4:31; Joel 2:31; Jonah 4:2; 2 Sam 24:14. This remark also echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”