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Matius 5:38-48

Konteks
Retaliation

5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 1  5:39 But I say to you, do not resist the evildoer. 2  But whoever strikes you on the 3  right cheek, turn the other to him as well. 5:40 And if someone wants to sue you and to take your tunic, 4  give him your coat also. 5:41 And if anyone forces you to go one mile, 5  go with him two. 5:42 Give to the one who asks you, 6  and do not reject 7  the one who wants to borrow from you.

Love for Enemies

5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor 8  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 9  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 10  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 11  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 12 

Matius 7:12

Konteks
7:12 In 13  everything, treat others as you would want them 14  to treat you, 15  for this fulfills 16  the law and the prophets.

Lukas 6:27-36

Konteks

6:27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies, 17  do good to those who hate you, 6:28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat 18  you. 6:29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek, 19  offer the other as well, 20  and from the person who takes away your coat, 21  do not withhold your tunic 22  either. 23  6:30 Give to everyone who asks you, 24  and do not ask for your possessions 25  back 26  from the person who takes them away. 6:31 Treat others 27  in the same way that you would want them to treat you. 28 

6:32 “If 29  you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners 30  love those who love them. 31  6:33 And 32  if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 33  sinners 34  do the same. 6:34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid, 35  what credit is that to you? Even sinners 36  lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full. 37  6:35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back. 38  Then 39  your reward will be great, and you will be sons 40  of the Most High, 41  because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people. 42  6:36 Be merciful, 43  just as your Father is merciful.

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[5:38]  1 sn A quotation from Exod 21:24; Lev 24:20.

[5:39]  2 tn The articular πονηρός (ponhro", “the evildoer”) cannot be translated simply as “evil” for then the command would be “do not resist evil.” Every instance of this construction in Matthew is most likely personified, referring either to an evildoer (13:49) or, more often, “the evil one” (as in 5:37; 6:13; 13:19, 38).

[5:39]  3 tc ‡ Many mss (B D K L Δ Θ Ë13 565 579 700 1424 pm) have σου (sou) here (“your right cheek”), but many others lack the pronoun (א W Ë1 33 892 1241 pm). The pronoun was probably added by way of clarification. NA27 has σου in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

[5:40]  4 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.

[5:41]  5 sn If anyone forces you to go one mile. In NT times Roman soldiers had the authority to press civilians into service to carry loads for them.

[5:42]  6 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to the one who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).

[5:42]  7 tn Grk “do not turn away from.”

[5:43]  8 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

[5:44]  9 tc Most mss ([D] L [W] Θ Ë13 33 Ï lat) read “bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you,” before “those who persecute you.” But this is surely a motivated reading, importing the longer form of this aphorism from Luke 6:27-28. The shorter text is found in א B Ë1 pc sa, as well as several fathers and versional witnesses.

[5:45]  10 tn Grk “be sons of your Father in heaven.” Here, however, the focus is not on attaining a relationship (becoming a child of God) but rather on being the kind of person who shares the characteristics of God himself (a frequent meaning of the Semitic idiom “son of”). See L&N 58.26.

[5:46]  11 sn The tax collectors would bid to collect taxes for the Roman government and then add a surcharge, which they kept. Since tax collectors worked for Rome, they were viewed as traitors to their own people and were not well liked.

[5:48]  12 sn This remark echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”

[7:12]  13 tn Grk “Therefore in.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

[7:12]  14 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

[7:12]  15 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others as you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but here it is stated in its most emphatic, selfless form.

[7:12]  16 tn Grk “is.”

[6:27]  17 sn Love your enemies is the first of four short exhortations that call for an unusual response to those who are persecuting disciples. Disciples are to relate to hostility in a completely unprecedented manner.

[6:28]  18 tn The substantival participle ἐπηρεαζόντων (ephreazontwn), sometimes translated “those who abuse” (NRSV), is better rendered “those who mistreat,” a more general term (see L&N 88.129).

[6:29]  19 sn The phrase strikes you on the cheek probably pictures public rejection, like the act that indicated expulsion from the synagogue.

[6:29]  20 sn This command to offer the other cheek as well is often misunderstood. It means that there is risk involved in reaching out to people with God’s hope. But if one is struck down in rejection, the disciple is to continue reaching out.

[6:29]  21 tn Or “cloak.”

[6:29]  22 tn See the note on the word “tunics” in 3:11.

[6:29]  23 sn The command do not withhold your tunic either is again an image of continually being totally at risk as one tries to keep contact with those who are hostile to what Jesus and his disciples offer.

[6:30]  24 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to everyone who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).

[6:30]  25 tn Grk “your things,” sometimes translated “what is yours” or “what belongs to you.”

[6:30]  26 sn Do not ask for your possessions back… is an example of showing forgiveness. Paul’s remarks in 1 Cor 6:7 may reflect this principle.

[6:31]  27 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

[6:31]  28 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others in the same way you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but it is stated here in its most emphatic, selfless form.

[6:32]  29 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. This is a first class condition, but the next two conditional clauses are third class conditions, so that stylistic variation is probably at work.

[6:32]  30 sn Here the term sinners may refer to people who had no concern for observing the details of the Mosaic law; these were often treated as social outcasts. See L&N 88.295.

[6:32]  31 sn Jesus’ point in the statement even sinners love those who love them is that disciples are to go farther than sinners do. The examples replay vv. 29-30.

[6:33]  32 tc ‡ Three key mss (Ì75 א* B) have “for” here, but it is unlikely that it was present originally. The addition of conjunctions, especially to the beginning of a clause, are typically suspect because they fit the pattern of Koine tendencies toward greater explicitness. NA27 has the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

[6:33]  33 tc Most mss (A D L Θ Ξ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï lat) include γάρ (gar, “for”) following καί (kai, here translated “even”), but a few important mss (א B W 700 892* 1241 pc) lack the conjunction. The inclusion of the conjunction seems to be motivated by clarity and should probably be considered inauthentic.

[6:33]  34 sn See the note on the word sinners in v. 32.

[6:34]  35 tn Grk “to receive”; but in context the repayment of the amount lent is implied. Jesus was noting that utilitarian motives are the way of the world.

[6:34]  36 sn See the note on the word sinners in v. 32.

[6:34]  37 tn Grk “to receive as much again.”

[6:35]  38 tn Or “in return.”

[6:35]  39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the outcome or result. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

[6:35]  40 sn The character of these actions reflects the grace and kindness of God, bearing witness to a “line of descent” or relationship of the individual to God (sons of the Most High). There is to be a unique kind of ethic at work with disciples. Jesus refers specifically to sons here because in the ancient world sons had special privileges which were rarely accorded to daughters. However, Jesus is most likely addressing both men and women in this context, so women too would receive these same privileges.

[6:35]  41 sn That is, “sons of God.”

[6:35]  42 tn Or “to the ungrateful and immoral.” The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

[6:36]  43 sn Merciful is a characteristic of God often noted in the OT: Exod 34:6; Deut 4:31; Joel 2:31; Jonah 4:2; 2 Sam 24:14. This remark also echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”



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