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Lukas 19:28-44

The Triumphal Entry

19:28 After Jesus 1  had said this, he continued on ahead, 2  going up to Jerusalem. 3  19:29 Now 4  when he approached Bethphage 5  and Bethany, at the place called the Mount of Olives, 6  he sent two of the disciples, 19:30 telling them, 7  “Go to the village ahead of you. 8  When 9  you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden. 10  Untie it and bring it here. 19:31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs 11  it.’” 19:32 So those who were sent ahead found 12  it exactly 13  as he had told them. 19:33 As 14  they were untying the colt, its owners asked them, 15  “Why are you untying that colt?” 19:34 They replied, “The Lord needs it.” 19:35 Then 16  they brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks 17  on the colt, 18  and had Jesus get on 19  it. 19:36 As 20  he rode along, they 21  spread their cloaks on the road. 19:37 As he approached the road leading down from 22  the Mount of Olives, 23  the whole crowd of his 24  disciples began to rejoice 25  and praise 26  God with a loud voice for all the mighty works 27  they had seen: 28  19:38Blessed is the king 29  who comes in the name of the Lord! 30  Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 19:39 But 31  some of the Pharisees 32  in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” 33  19:40 He answered, 34  “I tell you, if they 35  keep silent, the very stones 36  will cry out!”

Jesus Weeps for Jerusalem under Judgment

19:41 Now 37  when Jesus 38  approached 39  and saw the city, he wept over it, 19:42 saying, “If you had only known on this day, 40  even you, the things that make for peace! 41  But now they are hidden 42  from your eyes. 19:43 For the days will come upon you when your enemies will build 43  an embankment 44  against you and surround you and close in on you from every side. 19:44 They will demolish you 45  – you and your children within your walls 46  – and they will not leave within you one stone 47  on top of another, 48  because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God.” 49 

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[19:28]  1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:28]  2 tn This could mean “before [his disciples],” but that is slightly more awkward, requiring an elided element (the disciples) to be supplied.

[19:28]  3 sn This is yet another travel note on the journey to Jerusalem. See also Luke 18:31; 19:11. Jesus does not actually enter Jerusalem until 19:45.

[19:28]  map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[19:29]  4 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

[19:29]  5 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most locate it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.

[19:29]  6 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” This form of reference is awkward in contemporary English, so the more familiar “Mount of Olives” has been used in the translation.

[19:29]  sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.

[19:30]  7 tn Grk “saying.”

[19:30]  8 tn Grk “the village lying before [you]” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.a).

[19:30]  9 tn Grk “in which entering.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation.

[19:30]  10 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”

[19:31]  11 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.

[19:32]  12 tn Grk “sent ahead and went and found.”

[19:32]  13 sn Exactly as he had told them. Nothing in Luke 19-23 catches Jesus by surprise. Often he directs the action.

[19:33]  14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:33]  15 tn Grk “said to them.”

[19:35]  16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

[19:35]  17 tn Grk “garments”; but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13.

[19:35]  18 sn See Zech 9:9.

[19:35]  19 tn Although ἐπεβίβασαν (epebibasan) is frequently translated “set [Jesus] on it” or “put [Jesus] on it,” when used of a riding animal the verb can mean “to cause to mount” (L&N 15.98); thus here “had Jesus get on it.” The degree of assistance is not specified.

[19:36]  20 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:36]  21 tn The disciples initiated this action (since in 19:35 and 37 they are the subject) but the other gospels indicate the crowds also became involved. Thus it is difficult to specify the referent here as “the disciples” or “people.”

[19:37]  22 tn Grk “the descent of”; this could refer to either the slope of the hillside itself or the path leading down from it (the second option has been adopted for the translation, see L&N 15.109).

[19:37]  23 sn See the note on the name Mount of Olives in v. 29.

[19:37]  24 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

[19:37]  25 tn Here the participle χαίροντες (caironte") has been translated as a finite verb in English; it could also be translated adverbially as a participle of manner: “began to praise God joyfully.”

[19:37]  26 sn See 2:13, 20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9.

[19:37]  27 tn Or “works of power,” “miracles.” Jesus’ ministry of miracles is what has drawn attention. See Luke 7:22.

[19:37]  28 tn Grk “they had seen, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[19:38]  29 sn Luke adds the title king to the citation from Ps 118:26 to make clear who was meant (see Luke 18:38). The psalm was used in looking for the deliverance of the end, thus leading to the Pharisees’ reaction.

[19:38]  30 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26.

[19:39]  31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Not all present are willing to join in the acclamation.

[19:39]  32 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.

[19:39]  33 sn Teacher, rebuke your disciples. The Pharisees were complaining that the claims were too great.

[19:40]  34 tn Grk “and answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation to “He answered.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

[19:40]  35 tn Grk “these.”

[19:40]  36 sn This statement amounts to a rebuke. The idiom of creation speaking means that even creation knows what is taking place, yet the Pharisees miss it. On this idiom, see Gen 4:10 and Hab 2:11.

[19:41]  37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

[19:41]  38 tn Grk “he.”

[19:41]  39 sn When Jesus approached and saw the city. This is the last travel note in Luke’s account (the so-called Jerusalem journey), as Jesus approached and saw the city before entering it.

[19:42]  40 sn On this day. They had missed the time of Messiah’s coming; see v. 44.

[19:42]  41 tn Grk “the things toward peace.” This expression seems to mean “the things that would ‘lead to,’ ‘bring about,’ or ‘make for’ peace.”

[19:42]  42 sn But now they are hidden from your eyes. This becomes an oracle of doom in the classic OT sense; see Luke 13:31-35; 11:49-51; Jer 9:2; 13:7; 14:7. They are now blind and under judgment (Jer 15:5; Ps 122:6).

[19:43]  43 sn Jesus now predicted the events that would be fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. The details of the siege have led some to see Luke writing this after Jerusalem’s fall, but the language of the verse is like God’s exilic judgment for covenant unfaithfulness (Hab 2:8; Jer 6:6, 14; 8:13-22; 9:1; Ezek 4:2; 26:8; Isa 29:1-4). Specific details are lacking and the procedures described (build an embankment against you) were standard Roman military tactics.

[19:43]  44 sn An embankment refers to either wooden barricades or earthworks, or a combination of the two.

[19:44]  45 tn Grk “They will raze you to the ground.”

[19:44]  sn The singular pronoun you refers to the city of Jerusalem personified.

[19:44]  46 tn Grk “your children within you.” The phrase “[your] walls” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the city of Jerusalem, metaphorically pictured as an individual, is spoken of here.

[19:44]  47 sn (Not) one stone on top of another is an idiom for total destruction.

[19:44]  48 tn Grk “leave stone on stone.”

[19:44]  49 tn Grk “the time of your visitation.” To clarify what this refers to, the words “from God” are supplied at the end of the verse, although they do not occur in the Greek text.

[19:44]  sn You did not recognize the time of your visitation refers to the time God came to visit them. They had missed the Messiah; see Luke 1:68-79.

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