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Teks -- 1 Kings 19:1-21 (NET)

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Elijah Runs for His Life
19:1 Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, including a detailed account of how he killed all the prophets with the sword. 19:2 Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah with this warning, “May the gods judge me severely if by this time tomorrow I do not take your life as you did theirs!” 19:3 Elijah was afraid, so he got up and fled for his life to Beer Sheba in Judah. He left his servant there, 19:4 while he went a day’s journey into the desert. He went and sat down under a shrub and asked the Lord to take his life: “I’ve had enough! Now, O Lord, take my life. After all, I’m no better than my ancestors.” 19:5 He stretched out and fell asleep under the shrub. All of a sudden an angelic messenger touched him and said, “Get up and eat.” 19:6 He looked and right there by his head was a cake baking on hot coals and a jug of water. He ate and drank and then slept some more. 19:7 The Lord’s angelic messenger came back again, touched him, and said, “Get up and eat, for otherwise you won’t be able to make the journey.” 19:8 So he got up and ate and drank. That meal gave him the strength to travel forty days and forty nights until he reached Horeb, the mountain of God. 19:9 He went into a cave there and spent the night. All of a sudden the Lord spoke to him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:10 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal to the Lord, the sovereign God, even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.” 19:11 The Lord said, “Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord. Look, the Lord is ready to pass by.” A very powerful wind went before the Lord, digging into the mountain and causing landslides, but the Lord was not in the wind. After the windstorm there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 19:12 After the earthquake, there was a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. After the fire, there was a soft whisper. 19:13 When Elijah heard it, he covered his face with his robe and went out and stood at the entrance to the cave. All of a sudden a voice asked him, “Why are you here, Elijah?” 19:14 He answered, “I have been absolutely loyal to the Lord, the sovereign God, even though the Israelites have abandoned the agreement they made with you, torn down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left and now they want to take my life.” 19:15 The Lord said to him, “Go back the way you came and then head for the Desert of Damascus. Go and anoint Hazael king over Syria. 19:16 You must anoint Jehu son of Nimshi king over Israel, and Elisha son of Shaphat from Abel Meholah to take your place as prophet. 19:17 Jehu will kill anyone who escapes Hazael’s sword, and Elisha will kill anyone who escapes Jehu’s sword. 19:18 I still have left in Israel seven thousand followers who have not bowed their knees to Baal or kissed the images of him.” 19:19 Elijah went from there and found Elisha son of Shaphat. He was plowing with twelve pairs of oxen; he was near the twelfth pair. Elijah passed by him and threw his robe over him. 19:20 He left the oxen, ran after Elijah, and said, “Please let me kiss my father and mother goodbye, then I will follow you.” Elijah said to him, “Go back! Indeed, what have I done to you?” 19:21 Elisha went back and took his pair of oxen and slaughtered them. He cooked the meat over a fire that he made by burning the harness and yoke. He gave the people meat and they ate. Then he got up and followed Elijah and became his assistant.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abel the second son of Adam and Eve; the brother of Cain,an English name representing two different Hebrew names,as representing the Hebrew name 'Hebel' or 'Habel',the second son of Adam,as representing the Hebrew name 'Abel',a town in northern Israel near Dan (OS)
 · Ahab son and successor of Omri, king of Israel,son of Kolaiah; a false prophet in the time of King Zedekiah
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Beer-Sheba a famous well, its town and district in southern Judah
 · Beer-sheba a famous well, its town and district in southern Judah
 · Damascus a city-state in Syria, located near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS),a town near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS)
 · Elijah a prophet from the 9th century B.C.,a prophet from Tishbe in Gilead to Israel in King Ahab's time,son of Jeroham of Benjamin,a priest of the Harim clan who put away his heathen wife,a layman of the Bani Elam clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Elisha a son of Shaphat; a prophet of the 9th century B.C. who succeeded the prophet Elijah,son of Shaphat of Abel-Meholah; successor of the prophet Elijah
 · Hazael a king of Syria
 · Horeb a mountain; the place where the law was given to Moses
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jehu son of Hanani who prophesied against King Baasha of Israel,son of Nimshi who killed King Joram and took his place as king of Israel,son of Obed of Judah,son of Joshibiah; head of a large influential family of Simeon in King Hezekiah's time,a man of Anathoth; one of the Benjamites who defected to David at Ziklag
 · Jezebel the wife of King Ahab of Israel,wife of Ahab and mother of Jehoram, kings of Israel; daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Sidonians
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Nimshi father of Jehu, king of Israel
 · Shaphat son of Hori of Simeon; the spy sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan,father of the prophet Elisha,son of Shemaiah, a descendant of Hananiah, Zerubbabel and David,a chief of the tribe of Gad,son of Adlai; David's chief shepherd over the valley herds
 · Syria the country to the north of Palestine,a country of north western Mesopotamia


Topik/Tema Kamus: Elijah | AHAB | CATTLE | God | Persecution | Minister | Elisha | Trouble | Angel | Shaphat | Life | Miracles | Mantle | Juniper | Doubting | Jehu | Jezebel | Anointing | Cave | KISS | selebihnya
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Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

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Poole , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: 1Ki 19:1 - All the prophets Of Baal.

Of Baal.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:2 - Jezebel sent She gives him notice of it before hand: partly, out of the height of her spirit, as scorning to kill him secretly: partly, out of her impatience, till...

She gives him notice of it before hand: partly, out of the height of her spirit, as scorning to kill him secretly: partly, out of her impatience, till she had breathed out her rage: and principally, from God's all - disposing providence, that so he might have an opportunity of escaping.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:2 - Do to me, &c. So far was she from being changed by that evident miracle, that she persists in her former idolatry, and adds to it a monstrous confidence, that in sp...

So far was she from being changed by that evident miracle, that she persists in her former idolatry, and adds to it a monstrous confidence, that in spight of God she would destroy his prophet.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:3 - Left his servant Because he would not expose him to those perils and hardships which he expected: and because he desired solitude, that he might more freely converse w...

Because he would not expose him to those perils and hardships which he expected: and because he desired solitude, that he might more freely converse with God.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:4 - Into the wilderness The vast wilderness of Arabia. He durst not stay in Judah, tho' good Jehosaphat reigned there, because he was allied to Ahab, and was a man of an easy...

The vast wilderness of Arabia. He durst not stay in Judah, tho' good Jehosaphat reigned there, because he was allied to Ahab, and was a man of an easy temper, whom Ahab might circumvent, and either by force or art seize upon Elijah.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:4 - It is enough I have lived long enough for thy service, and am not like to do thee any more service; neither my words nor works are like to do any good upon these u...

I have lived long enough for thy service, and am not like to do thee any more service; neither my words nor works are like to do any good upon these unstable and incorrigible people.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:4 - I am not better That I should continue in life, when other prophets who have gone before me, have lost their lives.

That I should continue in life, when other prophets who have gone before me, have lost their lives.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:7 - Angel of the Lord, &c. _He needed not to complain of the unkindness of men, when it was thus made up by the ministration of angels. Wherever God's children are, they are sti...

_He needed not to complain of the unkindness of men, when it was thus made up by the ministration of angels. Wherever God's children are, they are still under their father's eye.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:8 - And went He wandered hither and thither for forty days, 'till at last he came to Horeb, which in the direct road was not above three or four days journey. Thit...

He wandered hither and thither for forty days, 'till at last he came to Horeb, which in the direct road was not above three or four days journey. Thither the spirit of the Lord led him, probably beyond his own intention, that he might have communion with God, in the same place that Moses had.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:9 - Unto a cave Perhaps the same wherein Moses was hid when the Lord passed before him, and proclaimed his name.

Perhaps the same wherein Moses was hid when the Lord passed before him, and proclaimed his name.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:10 - I have been, &c. _I have executed my office with zeal for God's honour, and with the hazard of my own life, and am fled hither, not being able to endure to see the dis...

_I have executed my office with zeal for God's honour, and with the hazard of my own life, and am fled hither, not being able to endure to see the dishonour done to thy name by their obstinate idolatry and wickedness.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:10 - I only Of all thy prophets, who boldly and publickly plead thy cause: for the rest of thy prophets who are not slain, hide themselves, and dare not appear to...

Of all thy prophets, who boldly and publickly plead thy cause: for the rest of thy prophets who are not slain, hide themselves, and dare not appear to do thee any service.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:10 - They seek my life I despair of doing them any good: for instead of receiving my testimony, they hunt for my life. It does by no means appear, that he was at all to blam...

I despair of doing them any good: for instead of receiving my testimony, they hunt for my life. It does by no means appear, that he was at all to blame, for fleeing from Jezebel. If they persecute you in one city flee into another. Besides, the angels feeding and preparing him for his journey, and the peculiar blessing of God upon that food, indicated the divine approbation.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:11 - And behold This is a general description of the thing, after which the manner of it is particularly explained.

This is a general description of the thing, after which the manner of it is particularly explained.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:11 - Strong wind Whereby he both prepares Elijah to receive this discovery of God with greatest humility, reverence, and godly fear; and signifies his irresistible pow...

Whereby he both prepares Elijah to receive this discovery of God with greatest humility, reverence, and godly fear; and signifies his irresistible power, to break the hardest hearts of the Israelites, and to bear down all opposition that was or should be made against him in the discharge of his office.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:11 - The Lord was not The Lord did not vouchsafe his special and gracious presence to Elijah in that wind, which possibly was to teach him not to wonder if God did not acco...

The Lord did not vouchsafe his special and gracious presence to Elijah in that wind, which possibly was to teach him not to wonder if God did not accompany his terrible administration at mount Carmel with the presence of his grace, to turn the hearts of the Israelites to himself.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:12 - A still voice To intimate, that God would do his work in and for Israel in his own time, not by might or power, but by his own spirit, Zec 4:6, which moves with a p...

To intimate, that God would do his work in and for Israel in his own time, not by might or power, but by his own spirit, Zec 4:6, which moves with a powerful, but yet with a sweet and gentle gale.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:13 - He wrapped, &c. _Through dread of God's presence, being sensibly that he was neither worthy nor able to endure the sight of God with open face.

_Through dread of God's presence, being sensibly that he was neither worthy nor able to endure the sight of God with open face.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:13 - And stood, &c. Which God commanded him to do; and as he was going towards the mouth of the cave, he was affrighted and stopped in his course, by the dreadful wind, a...

Which God commanded him to do; and as he was going towards the mouth of the cave, he was affrighted and stopped in his course, by the dreadful wind, and earthquake, and fire; when these were past, he prosecutes his journey, and goeth on to the mouth of the cave.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:16 - The son, &c. _That is, his grand - son, for he was the son of Jehosaphat, 2Ki 9:2. This was intended as a prediction that by these God would punish the degenerate ...

_That is, his grand - son, for he was the son of Jehosaphat, 2Ki 9:2. This was intended as a prediction that by these God would punish the degenerate Israelites, plead his own cause among them, and avenge the quarrel of his covenant.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:17 - Shall Elisha slay One or other of these should infallibly execute God's judgments upon the apostate Israelites. Elisha is said to slay them, either, because he slew tho...

One or other of these should infallibly execute God's judgments upon the apostate Israelites. Elisha is said to slay them, either, because he slew those forty two children, 2Ki 2:24, besides others whom upon like occasions he might destroy; or, because he by God's appointment inflicted the famine, 2Ki 8:1, or rather, by the sword which came out of his mouth: the prophets being said to pull down and to destroy what they declare and foretel shall be pulled down. Hazael began to slay them before Jehu was king, though his cruelty was much increased afterward. Jehu destroyed those whom Hazael did not, as king Joram himself, and Ahaziah, and all the near relations of Ahab.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:18 - I have left Or, I have reserved to myself; I have kept from the common contagion: therefore thou art mistaken to think that thou art left alone.

Or, I have reserved to myself; I have kept from the common contagion: therefore thou art mistaken to think that thou art left alone.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:18 - Seven thousand Either, definitely so many: or rather, indefinitely, for many thousands; the number of seven being often used for a great number.

Either, definitely so many: or rather, indefinitely, for many thousands; the number of seven being often used for a great number.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:18 - Kissed him That is, all those who have not worshipped Baal, nor professed reverence or subjection to him: which idolaters did to their idols, by bowing the knee,...

That is, all those who have not worshipped Baal, nor professed reverence or subjection to him: which idolaters did to their idols, by bowing the knee, and by kissing them.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:19 - Was plowing Who had twelve ploughs going, whereof eleven were managed by his servants, and the last by himself; according to the simplicity of those ancient times...

Who had twelve ploughs going, whereof eleven were managed by his servants, and the last by himself; according to the simplicity of those ancient times, in which men of good estate submitted to the meanest employments.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:19 - Cast his mantle By that ceremony conferring upon him the office of a prophet, which God was pleased to accompany with the gifts and graces of his spirit.

By that ceremony conferring upon him the office of a prophet, which God was pleased to accompany with the gifts and graces of his spirit.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:20 - He ran Being powerfully moved by God's spirit to follow Elijah, and wholly give up himself to his function.

Being powerfully moved by God's spirit to follow Elijah, and wholly give up himself to his function.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:20 - Let me kiss That is, bid them farewell.

That is, bid them farewell.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:20 - Go And take thy leave of them, and then return to me again.

And take thy leave of them, and then return to me again.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:20 - For what, &c. Either first, to hinder thee from performing that office. That employment to which I have called thee, doth not require an alienation of thy heart fro...

Either first, to hinder thee from performing that office. That employment to which I have called thee, doth not require an alienation of thy heart from thy parents, nor the total neglect of them. Or, secondly, to make such a change in thee, that thou shouldst be willing to forsake thy parents, and lands, and all, that thou mayest follow me. Whence comes this marvellous change? It is not from me, who did only throw my mantle over thee; but from an higher power, even from God's spirit, which both changed thy heart, and consecrated thee to thy prophetical office: which therefore it concerns thee vigorously to execute, and wholly to devote thyself to it.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:21 - From him From Elijah to his parents; whom when he had seen and kissed, he returned to Elijah.

From Elijah to his parents; whom when he had seen and kissed, he returned to Elijah.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:21 - The instruments That is, with the wood belonging to the plow, &c. to which more was added, as occasion required. But that he burned, to shew his total relinquishing o...

That is, with the wood belonging to the plow, &c. to which more was added, as occasion required. But that he burned, to shew his total relinquishing of his former employment.

Wesley: 1Ki 19:21 - And gave That is, he made thereof a feast for his servants who had been ploughing with him, and for him, and his other friends and neighbours who came to take ...

That is, he made thereof a feast for his servants who had been ploughing with him, and for him, and his other friends and neighbours who came to take their leave of him. Hereby he shewed how willingly and joyfully he forsook all his friends, that he might serve God in that high and honourable employment. It is of great advantage to young ministers, to spend some time under the direction of those that are aged and experienced; and not to think much, if occasion be, to minister unto them. Those who would be fit to teach, must have time to learn; those should first serve, who may hereafter rule.

JFB: 1Ki 19:3 - he arose, and went for his life He entered Jezreel full of hope. But a message from the incensed and hard-hearted queen, vowing speedy vengeance for her slaughtered priests, dispelle...

He entered Jezreel full of hope. But a message from the incensed and hard-hearted queen, vowing speedy vengeance for her slaughtered priests, dispelled all his bright visions of the future. It is probable, however, that in the present temper of the people, even she would not have dared to lay violent hands on the Lord's servant, and purposely threatened him because she could do no more. The threat produced the intended effect, for his faith suddenly failed him. He fled out of the kingdom into the southernmost part of the territories in Judah; nor did he deem himself safe even there, but, dismissing his servant, he resolved to seek refuge among the mountain recesses of Sinai, and there longed for death (Jam 5:17). This sudden and extraordinary depression of mind arose from too great confidence inspired by the miracles wrought at Carmel, and by the disposition the people evinced there. Had he remained steadfast and immovable, the impression on the mind of Ahab and the people generally might have been followed by good results. But he had been exalted above measure (2Co 12:7-9), and being left to himself, the great prophet, instead of showing the indomitable spirit of a martyr, fled from his post of duty.|| 09392||1||15||0||@@HE IS COMFORTED BY AN ANGEL.==== (1Ki 19:4-18)

JFB: 1Ki 19:3 - went a day's journey into the wilderness On the way from Beer-sheba to Horeb--a wide expanse of sand hills, covered with the retem (not juniper, but broom shrubs), whose tall and spreading br...

On the way from Beer-sheba to Horeb--a wide expanse of sand hills, covered with the retem (not juniper, but broom shrubs), whose tall and spreading branches, with their white leaves, afford a very cheering and refreshing shade. His gracious God did not lose sight of His fugitive servant, but watched over him, and, miraculously ministering to his wants, enabled him, in a better but not wholly right frame of mind, by virtue of that supernatural supply, to complete his contemplated journey. In the solitude of Sinai, God appeared to instruct him. "What doest thou here, Elijah?" was a searching question addressed to one who had been called to so arduous and urgent a mission as his. By an awful exhibition of divine power, he was made aware of the divine speaker who addressed him; his attention was arrested, his petulance was silenced, his heart was touched, and he was bid without delay return to the land of Israel, and prosecute the Lord's work there. To convince him that an idolatrous nation will not be unpunished, He commissions him to anoint three persons who were destined in Providence to avenge God's controversy with the people of Israel. Anointing is used synonymously with appointment (Jdg 9:8), and is applied to all named, although Jehu alone had the consecrated oil poured over his head. They were all three destined to be eminent instruments in achieving the destruction of idolaters, though in different ways. But of the three commissions, Elijah personally executed only one; namely, the call of Elisha to be his assistant and successor [1Ki 19:19], and by him the other two were accomplished (2Ki 8:7-13; 2Ki 9:1-10). Having thus satisfied the fiery zeal of the erring but sincere and pious prophet, the Lord proceeded to correct the erroneous impression under which Elijah had been laboring, of his being the sole adherent of the true religion in the land; for God, who seeth in secret, and knew all that were His, knew that there were seven thousand persons who had not done homage (literally, "kissed the hand") to Baal.

JFB: 1Ki 19:16 - Abel-meholah That is, "the meadow of dancing," in the valley of the Jordan.

That is, "the meadow of dancing," in the valley of the Jordan.

JFB: 1Ki 19:19 - Elisha the son of Shaphat Most probably he belonged to a family distinguished for piety, and for their opposition to the prevailing calf-worship.

Most probably he belonged to a family distinguished for piety, and for their opposition to the prevailing calf-worship.

JFB: 1Ki 19:19 - ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen Indicating that he was a man of substance.

Indicating that he was a man of substance.

JFB: 1Ki 19:19 - Elijah . . . cast his mantle upon him This was an investiture with the prophetic office. It is in this way that the Brahmins, the Persian Sufis, and other priestly or sacred characters in ...

This was an investiture with the prophetic office. It is in this way that the Brahmins, the Persian Sufis, and other priestly or sacred characters in the East are appointed--a mantle being, by some eminent priest, thrown across their shoulders. Elisha had probably been educated in the schools of the prophets.

JFB: 1Ki 19:20 - what have I done to thee? That is, Go, but keep in mind the solemn ceremony I have just performed on thee. It is not I, but God, who calls thee. Do not allow any earthly affect...

That is, Go, but keep in mind the solemn ceremony I have just performed on thee. It is not I, but God, who calls thee. Do not allow any earthly affection to detain you from obeying His call.

JFB: 1Ki 19:21 - took a yoke of oxen Having hastily prepared (2Sa 24:22) a farewell entertainment to his family and friends, he left his native place and attached himself to Elijah as his...

Having hastily prepared (2Sa 24:22) a farewell entertainment to his family and friends, he left his native place and attached himself to Elijah as his minister.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:1 - Ahab told Jezebel Ahab told Jezebel - Probably with no evil design against Elijah.

Ahab told Jezebel - Probably with no evil design against Elijah.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:2 - So let the gods do So let the gods do - If I do not slay thee, let the gods slay me with the most ignominious death.

So let the gods do - If I do not slay thee, let the gods slay me with the most ignominious death.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:3 - He arose, and went for his life He arose, and went for his life - He saw it was best to give place to this storm, and go to a place of safety. He probably thought that the miracle ...

He arose, and went for his life - He saw it was best to give place to this storm, and go to a place of safety. He probably thought that the miracle at Carmel would have been the means of effecting the conversion of the whole court and of the country, but, finding himself mistaken, he is greatly discouraged

Clarke: 1Ki 19:3 - To Beer-sheba To Beer-sheba - This being at the most southern extremity of the promised land, and under the jurisdiction of the king of Judah, he might suppose hi...

To Beer-sheba - This being at the most southern extremity of the promised land, and under the jurisdiction of the king of Judah, he might suppose himself in a place of safety

Clarke: 1Ki 19:3 - Left his servant there Left his servant there - Being alone, he would be the more unlikely to be discovered; besides, he did not wish to risk the life of his servant.

Left his servant there - Being alone, he would be the more unlikely to be discovered; besides, he did not wish to risk the life of his servant.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:4 - A day’ s journey into the wilderness A day’ s journey into the wilderness - Probably in his way to Mount Horeb. See 1Ki 19:8

A day’ s journey into the wilderness - Probably in his way to Mount Horeb. See 1Ki 19:8

Clarke: 1Ki 19:4 - Juniper tree Juniper tree - A tree that afforded him a shade from the scorching sun

Juniper tree - A tree that afforded him a shade from the scorching sun

Clarke: 1Ki 19:4 - It is enough It is enough - I have lived long enough! I can do no more good among this people; let me now end my days.

It is enough - I have lived long enough! I can do no more good among this people; let me now end my days.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:5 - As he lay and slept As he lay and slept - Excessive anguish of mind frequently induces sleep, as well as great fatigue of body

As he lay and slept - Excessive anguish of mind frequently induces sleep, as well as great fatigue of body

Clarke: 1Ki 19:5 - An angel touched him An angel touched him - He needed refreshment, and God sent an angel to bring him what was necessary.

An angel touched him - He needed refreshment, and God sent an angel to bring him what was necessary.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:6 - A cake baken on the coals A cake baken on the coals - All this seems to have been supernaturally provided.

A cake baken on the coals - All this seems to have been supernaturally provided.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:7 - The journey is too great for thee The journey is too great for thee - From Beer-sheba to Horeb was about one hundred and fifty miles.

The journey is too great for thee - From Beer-sheba to Horeb was about one hundred and fifty miles.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:8 - Forty days and forty nights Forty days and forty nights - So he fasted just the same time as Moses did at Horeb, and as Christ did in the wilderness.

Forty days and forty nights - So he fasted just the same time as Moses did at Horeb, and as Christ did in the wilderness.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:9 - He came thither unto a cave He came thither unto a cave - Conjectured by some to be the same cave in which God put Moses that he might give him a glimpse of his glory. See Exo ...

He came thither unto a cave - Conjectured by some to be the same cave in which God put Moses that he might give him a glimpse of his glory. See Exo 33:22

Clarke: 1Ki 19:9 - What doest thou here, Elijah? What doest thou here, Elijah? - Is this a reproach for having fled from the face of Jezebel, through what some call unbelieving fears, that God woul...

What doest thou here, Elijah? - Is this a reproach for having fled from the face of Jezebel, through what some call unbelieving fears, that God would abandon him to her rage?

Clarke: 1Ki 19:10 - I have been very jealous for the Lord I have been very jealous for the Lord - The picture which he draws here of apostate Israel is very affecting: - 1. They have forsaken thy covena...

I have been very jealous for the Lord - The picture which he draws here of apostate Israel is very affecting: -

1. They have forsaken thy covenant - They have now cleaved to and worshipped other gods

2. Thrown down thine altars - Endeavoured, as much as they possibly could, to abolish thy worship, and destroy its remembrance from the land

3. And slain thy prophets - That there might be none to reprove their iniquity, or teach the truth; so that the restoration of the true worship might be impossible

4. I only, am left - They have succeeded in destroying all the rest of the prophets, and they are determined not to rest till they slay me.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:11 - Stand upon the mount before the Lord Stand upon the mount before the Lord - God was now treating Elijah nearly in the same way that he treated Moses; and it is not unlikely that Elijah ...

Stand upon the mount before the Lord - God was now treating Elijah nearly in the same way that he treated Moses; and it is not unlikely that Elijah was now standing on the same place where Moses stood, when God revealed himself to him in the giving of the law. See Exo 19:9, Exo 19:16

Clarke: 1Ki 19:11 - The Lord passed by The Lord passed by - It appears that the passing by of the Lord occasioned the strong wind, the earthquake, and the fire; but in none of these was G...

The Lord passed by - It appears that the passing by of the Lord occasioned the strong wind, the earthquake, and the fire; but in none of these was God to make a discovery of himself unto the prophet; yet these, in some sort, prepared his way, and prepared Elijah to hear the still small voice. The apparatus, indicating the presence of the Divine Majesty, is nearly the same as that employed to minister the law to Moses; and many have supposed that God intended these things to be understood thus: that God intended to display himself to mankind not in judgment, but in mercy; and that as the wind, the earthquake, and the fire, were only the forerunners of the still small voice, which proclaimed the benignity of the Father of spirits; so the law, and all its terrors, were only intended to introduce that mild spirit of the Gospel of Jesus, proclaiming glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, and good will unto men. Others think that all this was merely natural; and that a real earthquake, and its accompaniments, are described

1.    Previously to earthquakes the atmosphere becomes greatly disturbed, mighty winds and tempests taking place

2.    This is followed by the actual agitation of the earth

3.    In this agitation fire frequently escapes, or a burning lava is poured out, often accompanied with thunder and lightning

4.    After these the air becomes serene, the thunder ceases to roll, the forked lightnings no longer play, and nothing remains but a gentle breeze

However correct all this may be, it seems most probably evident that what took place at this time was out of the ordinary course of nature; and although the things, as mentioned here, may often be the accompaniments of an earthquake that has nothing supernatural in it; yet here, though every thing is produced in its natural order, yet the exciting cause of the whole is supernatural. Thus the Chaldee understands the whole passage: "And behold the Lord was revealed; and before him was a host of the angels of the wind, tearing the mountains, and breaking the rocks before the Lord, but the Majesty (Shechinah) of the Lord was not in the host of the angels of the wind. And after the host of the angels of the wind, there was a host of the angels of commotion; but the Majesty of the Lord was not in the host of the angels of commotion. And after the host of the angels of commotion, a fire; but the Majesty of the Lord was not in the host of the angels of fire. And after the host of the angels of fire, a voice singing in silence,"etc.; that is, a sound with which no other sound was mingled. Perhaps the whole of this is intended to give an emblematical representation of the various displays of Divine providence and grace.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:13 - Wrapped his face in his mantle Wrapped his face in his mantle - This he did to signify his respect; so Moses hid his face, for he dared not to look upon God Exo 3:6. Covering the ...

Wrapped his face in his mantle - This he did to signify his respect; so Moses hid his face, for he dared not to look upon God Exo 3:6. Covering the face was a token of respect among the Asiatics, as uncovering the head is among the Europeans.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:15 - To the wilderness of Damascus To the wilderness of Damascus - He does not desire him to take a road by which he might be likely to meet Jezebel, or any other of his enemies

To the wilderness of Damascus - He does not desire him to take a road by which he might be likely to meet Jezebel, or any other of his enemies

Clarke: 1Ki 19:15 - Anoint Hazael Anoint Hazael - For what reason the Lord was about to make all these revolutions, we are told in 1Ki 19:17. God was about to bring his judgments upo...

Anoint Hazael - For what reason the Lord was about to make all these revolutions, we are told in 1Ki 19:17. God was about to bring his judgments upon the land, and especially on the house of Ahab. This he exterminated by means of Jehu; and Jehu himself was a scourge of the Lord to the people. Hazael also grievously afflicted Israel; see the accomplishment of these purposes, 2 Kings 8 (note), and 2 Kings 9 (note).

Clarke: 1Ki 19:16 - Elisha - shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room Elisha - shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room - Jarchi gives a strange turn to these words: "Thy prophecy (or execution of the prophetic offi...

Elisha - shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room - Jarchi gives a strange turn to these words: "Thy prophecy (or execution of the prophetic office) does not please me, because thou art the constant accuser of my children."With all their abominations, this rabbin would have us to believe that those vile idolaters and murderers were still the beloved children of God! And why? Because God had made a covenant with their fathers; therefore said the ancient as well as the modern siren song: "Once in the covenant, always in the covenant; once a son, and a son for ever."And yet we have here the testimony of God’ s own prophet, and the testimony of their history, that they had forsaken the covenant, and consequently renounced all their interest in it.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:17 - Shall Elisha slay Shall Elisha slay - We do not find that Elisha either used the sword, or commissioned it to be used, though he delivered solemn prophecies against t...

Shall Elisha slay - We do not find that Elisha either used the sword, or commissioned it to be used, though he delivered solemn prophecies against this disobedient people: and this is probably the sense in which this should be understood, as Elisha was prophet before Hazael was king, and Hazael was king before Jehu; and the heavy famine which he brought on the land took place before the reign either of Jehu or Hazael. The meaning of the prophecy may be this: Hazael, Jehu, and Elisha, shall be the ministers of my vengeance against this disobedient and rebellious people. The order of time, here, is not to be regarded.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:18 - Seven thousand in Israel Seven thousand in Israel - That is, many thousands; for seven is a number of perfection, as we have often seen: so, The barren has borne seven - has...

Seven thousand in Israel - That is, many thousands; for seven is a number of perfection, as we have often seen: so, The barren has borne seven - has had a numerous off-spring; Gold seven times purified - purified till all the dross is perfectly separated from it. The court and multitudes of the people had gone after Baal; but perhaps the majority of the common people still worshipped in secret the God of their fathers

Clarke: 1Ki 19:18 - Every mouth which hath not kissed him Every mouth which hath not kissed him - Idolaters often kissed their hand in honor of their idols; and hence the origin of adoration - bringing the ...

Every mouth which hath not kissed him - Idolaters often kissed their hand in honor of their idols; and hence the origin of adoration - bringing the hand to the mouth after touching the idol, if it were within reach; and if not, kissing the right hand in token of respect and subjection. The word is compounded of ad , to, and os , oris , the mouth. Dextera manu deum contingentes, ori admovebant : "Touching the god with their right hand, they applied it to their mouth."So kissing the hand, and adoration, mean the same thing -

Thus Pliny

Inter adorandum, dexteram ad osculum referimus, totum corpus circumagimus : Nat. Hist. lib. xxviii., cap. 2. -

"In the act of adoration we kiss the right hand, and turn about the whole body.

Cicero mentions a statue of Hercules, the chin and lips of which were considerably worn by the frequent kissing of his worshippers

Ut rictus ejus, et mentum paulo sit attritius, quod in precibus et gratulationibus, non solum id venerari, sed etiam osculari solent . - Orat. in Verrem

I have seen several instances of this, especially in the paintings of old saints: the lips and mouth of beautiful paintings literally worn away by the unmerciful osculations of devotees.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:19 - Twelve yoke of oxen Twelve yoke of oxen - Elisha must have had a considerable estate, when he kept twelve yoke of oxen to till the ground. If, therefore, he obeyed the ...

Twelve yoke of oxen - Elisha must have had a considerable estate, when he kept twelve yoke of oxen to till the ground. If, therefore, he obeyed the prophetic call, he did it to considerable secular loss

Clarke: 1Ki 19:19 - He with the twelfth He with the twelfth - Every owner of an inheritance among the Hebrews, and indeed among the ancients in general, was a principal agent in its cultiv...

He with the twelfth - Every owner of an inheritance among the Hebrews, and indeed among the ancients in general, was a principal agent in its cultivation

Clarke: 1Ki 19:19 - Cast his mantle upon him Cast his mantle upon him - Either this was a ceremony used in a call to the prophetic office, or it indicated that he was called to be the servant o...

Cast his mantle upon him - Either this was a ceremony used in a call to the prophetic office, or it indicated that he was called to be the servant of the prophet. The mantle, or pallium, was the peculiar garb of the prophet, as we may learn from Zec 13:4; and this was probably made of skin dressed with the hair on. See also 2Ki 1:8. It is likely, therefore, that Elijah threw his mantle on Elisha to signify to him that he was called to the prophetic office. See more on this subject below.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:20 - Let me - kiss my father and my mother Let me - kiss my father and my mother - Elisha fully understood that he was called by this ceremony to the prophetic office: and it is evident that ...

Let me - kiss my father and my mother - Elisha fully understood that he was called by this ceremony to the prophetic office: and it is evident that he conferred not with flesh and blood, but resolved, immediately resolved, to obey; only he wished to bid farewell to his relatives. See below

Clarke: 1Ki 19:20 - What have I done to thee? What have I done to thee? - Thy call is not from me, but from God: to him, not to me, art thou accountable for thy use or abuse of it.

What have I done to thee? - Thy call is not from me, but from God: to him, not to me, art thou accountable for thy use or abuse of it.

Clarke: 1Ki 19:21 - He returned back He returned back - He went home to his house; probably he yet lived with his parents, for it appears he was a single man: and he slew a yoke of the ...

He returned back - He went home to his house; probably he yet lived with his parents, for it appears he was a single man: and he slew a yoke of the oxen - he made a feast for his household, having boiled the flesh of the oxen with his agricultural implements, probably in token that he had abandoned secular life: then, having bidden them an affectionate farewell, he arose, went after Elijah, who probably still awaited his coming in the field or its vicinity, and ministered unto him

On the call of Elisha, I may make a few remarks

1.    Elijah is commanded, 1Ki 19:16, to anoint Elisha prophet in his room. Though it is generally believed that kings, priests, and prophets, were inaugurated into their respective offices by the right of unction, and this I have elsewhere supposed; yet this is the only instance on record where a prophet is commanded to be anointed; and even this case is problematical, for it does not appear that Elijah did anoint Elisha. Nothing is mentioned in his call to the prophetic office, but the casting the mantle of Elijah upon him; wherefore it is probable that the word anoint, here signifies no more than the call to the office, accompanied by the simple rite of having the prophet’ s mantle thrown over his shoulders

2.    A call to the ministerial office, though it completely sever from all secular occupations, yet never supersedes the duties of filial affection. Though Elisha must leave his oxen, and become a prophet to Israel: yet he may first go home, eat and drink with his parents and relatives, and bid them an affectionate farewell

3.    We do not find any attempt on the part of his parents to hinder him from obeying the Divine call: they had too much respect for the authority of God, and they left their son to the dictates of his conscience. Wo to those parents who strive, for filthy lucre’ s sake, to prevent their sons from embracing a call to preach Jesus to their perishing countrymen, or to the heathen, because they see that the life of a true evangelist is a life of comparative poverty, and they had rather he should gain money than save souls

4.    The cloak, we have already observed, was the prophet’ s peculiar habit; it was probably in imitation of this that the Greek philosophers wore a sort of mantle, that distinguished them from the common people; and by which they were at once as easily known as certain academical characters are by their gowns and square caps. The pallium was as common among the Greeks as the toga was among the Romans. Each of these was so peculiar to those nations, that Palliatus is used to signify a Greek, as Togatus is to signify a Roman

5.    Was it from this act of Elijah, conveying the prophetic office and its authority to Elisha by throwing his mantle upon him, that the popes of Rome borrowed the ceremony of collating an archbishop to the spiritualities and temporalities of his see, and investing him with plenary sacerdotal authority, by sending him what is well known in ecclesiastical history by the name pallium, pall, or cloak? I think this is likely; for as we learn from Zec 13:4, and 2Ki 1:8, that this mantle was a rough or hairy garment, so we learn from Durandus that the pallium or pall was made of white wool, after the following manner: -

The nuns of St. Agnes, annually on the festival of their patroness, offer two white lambs on the altar of their church, during the time they sing Agnus Dei, in a solemn mass; which lambs are afterwards taken by two of the canons of the Lateran church, and by them given to the pope’ s sub-deacons, who send them to pasture till shearing time; and then they are shorn, and the pall is made of their wool, mixed with other white wool. The pall is then carried to the Lateran church, and there placed on the high altar by the deacons, on the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul; and, after a usual watching or vigil, it is carried away in the night, and delivered to the sub-deacons, who lay it up safely. Now, because it was taken from the body of St. Peter, it signifies the plenitude of ecclesiastical power: and, therefore, the popes assume it as their prerogative, being the professed successors of this apostle, to invest other prelates with it. This was at first confined to Rome, but afterwards it was sent to popish prelates in different parts of the world

6.    It seems, from the place in Zechariah, quoted above, that this rough cloak or garment became the covering of hypocrites and deceivers; and that persons assumed the prophetic dress without the prophetic call, and God threatens to unmask them. We know that this became general in the popish Church in the beginning of the 16th century; and God stripped those false prophets of their false and wicked pretensions, and exposed them to the people. Many of them profited by this exposure, and became reformed; and the whole community became at least more cautious. The Romish Church should be thankful to the Reformation for the moral purity which is now found in it; for, had not its vices, and usurpations, and super-scandalous sales of indulgences, been thus checked, the whole fabric had by this time been probably dissolved. Should it carry its reformation still farther, it would have a more legitimate pretension to the title of apostolic. Let them compare their ritual with the Bible and common sense, and they will find cause to lop many cumbrous and rotten branches from a good tree.

Defender: 1Ki 19:1 - Jezebel Jezebel, the wife of king Ahab, was the pagan daughter of the king of Sidon and had induced Ahab himself to follow Baal and to make Baal-worship essen...

Jezebel, the wife of king Ahab, was the pagan daughter of the king of Sidon and had induced Ahab himself to follow Baal and to make Baal-worship essentially Israel's national religion (1Ki 16:31-33). When Elijah slew all her prophets - Jezebel herself had previously killed most of the Lord's true prophets (1Ki 18:13) - she became his bitterest and most dangerous enemy."

Defender: 1Ki 19:18 - seven thousand In spite of Elijah's great victory at Carmel and the excited cry of conversion by the people (1Ki 18:39), the people still feared to rebel against Jez...

In spite of Elijah's great victory at Carmel and the excited cry of conversion by the people (1Ki 18:39), the people still feared to rebel against Jezebel and her Baalite state religion. Elijah therefore fled for his life, convinced he was the only true believer in Israel (1Ki 19:10). Nevertheless, God always, in every age, has His "7000" (1Ki 19:18) who are at least open-hearted to the truth when they hear it."

TSK: 1Ki 19:1 - Ahab // how he had slain Ahab : 1Ki 16:31, 1Ki 21:5-7, 1Ki 21:25 how he had slain : 1Ki 18:40

Ahab : 1Ki 16:31, 1Ki 21:5-7, 1Ki 21:25

how he had slain : 1Ki 18:40

TSK: 1Ki 19:2 - So let // if I // to morrow So let : 1Ki 2:28, 1Ki 20:10; Rth 1:17; 2Ki 6:31 if I : Exo 10:28, Exo 15:9; 2Ki 19:10-12, 2Ki 19:22, 2Ki 19:27, 2Ki 19:28; Dan 3:15 to morrow : Pro 2...

TSK: 1Ki 19:3 - he arose // Beersheba he arose : Gen 12:12, Gen 12:13; Exo 2:15; 1Sa 27:1; Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13; Mat 26:56, Mat 26:70-74; 2Co 12:7 Beersheba : 1Ki 4:25; Gen 21:31; Amo 7:12...

TSK: 1Ki 19:4 - sat down // he requested // for himself // better sat down : 1Ki 13:14; Gen 21:15, Gen 21:16; Joh 4:6 he requested : 1Ki 19:3; Num 11:15; 2Ki 2:11; Job 3:20-22; Jer 20:14-18; Jon 4:3, Jon 4:8; Phi 1:2...

sat down : 1Ki 13:14; Gen 21:15, Gen 21:16; Joh 4:6

he requested : 1Ki 19:3; Num 11:15; 2Ki 2:11; Job 3:20-22; Jer 20:14-18; Jon 4:3, Jon 4:8; Phi 1:21-24

for himself : Heb. for his life

better : Amo 6:2; Nah 3:8; Mat 6:26; Rom 3:9

TSK: 1Ki 19:5 - as he lay // an angel as he lay : Gen 28:11-15 an angel : Psa 34:7, Psa 34:10; Dan 8:19, Dan 9:21, Dan 10:9, Dan 10:10; Act 12:7; Heb 1:14, Heb 13:5

TSK: 1Ki 19:6 - cake // head cake : 1Ki 17:6, 1Ki 17:9-15; Psa 37:3; Isa 33:16; Mat 4:11, Mat 6:32; Mar 8:2, Mar 8:3; Joh 21:5, Joh 21:9 head : Heb. bolster

TSK: 1Ki 19:7 - the angel // because the journey the angel : 1Ki 19:5 because the journey : Deu 33:25; Psa 103:13, Psa 103:14

the angel : 1Ki 19:5

because the journey : Deu 33:25; Psa 103:13, Psa 103:14

TSK: 1Ki 19:8 - in the strength // forty days // Horeb in the strength : Dan 1:15; 2Co 12:9 forty days : Exo 24:18, Exo 34:28; Deu 9:9, Deu 9:18; Mat 4:2; Mar 1:13; Luk 4:2 Horeb : Exo 3:1, Exo 19:18; Mal ...

TSK: 1Ki 19:9 - unto a cave // What doest thou unto a cave : Exo 33:21, Exo 33:22; Jer 9:2; Heb 11:38 What doest thou : 1Ki 19:13; Gen 3:9, Gen 16:8; Jer 2:18; Jon 1:3, Jon 1:4

TSK: 1Ki 19:10 - very jealous // thrown down // I only // they seek my life very jealous : Exo 20:5, Exo 34:14; Num 25:11, Num 25:13; Psa 69:9, Psa 119:139; Joh 2:17 thrown down : 1Ki 19:14, 1Ki 18:4, 1Ki 18:30; Jer 2:30; Hos ...

TSK: 1Ki 19:11 - stand upon the mount // the Lord passed // and a great // but the Lord was not in the wind // an earthquake stand upon the mount : Exo 19:20, Exo 24:12, Exo 24:18, Exo 34:2; Mat 17:1-3; 2Pe 1:17, 2Pe 1:18 the Lord passed : Exo 33:21-23, Exo 34:6; Hab 3:3-5 a...

TSK: 1Ki 19:12 - a fire // a still a fire : 1Ki 18:38; Gen 15:17; Exo 3:2; Deu 4:11, Deu 4:12, Deu 4:33; 2Ki 1:10, 2Ki 2:11; Heb 12:29 a still : Exo 34:6; Job 4:16, Job 33:7; Zec 4:6; A...

TSK: 1Ki 19:13 - he wrapped his face // What doest he wrapped his face : This he did to signify his reverence; for covering the face was a token of respect among the Asiatics, as uncovering the head is...

he wrapped his face : This he did to signify his reverence; for covering the face was a token of respect among the Asiatics, as uncovering the head is among Europeans. See note on 1Ki 18:42. Exo 3:5, Exo 3:6, Exo 33:23; Isa 6:2, Isa 6:5

What doest : 1Ki 19:9; Gen 16:8; Joh 21:15-17

TSK: 1Ki 19:14 - I have been // forsaken I have been : 1Ki 19:9, 1Ki 19:10; Isa 62:1, Isa 62:6, Isa 62:7 forsaken : Deu 29:25, Deu 31:20; Psa 78:37; Isa 1:4; Jer 22:9; Dan 11:30; Hos 6:7; Heb...

TSK: 1Ki 19:15 - wilderness of Damascus // anoint // Hazael wilderness of Damascus : The wilderness of Damascus seems to have been that part of Arabia Deserta which lay on the south-east of that city, and east ...

wilderness of Damascus : The wilderness of Damascus seems to have been that part of Arabia Deserta which lay on the south-east of that city, and east of the Trachonites, or the Djebel Haouran and El Ledja; at which the prophet could arrive without meeting Jezebel or any of his enemies. Gen 14:15; 2Ki 8:7; Act 9:2, Act 9:3

anoint : Isa 45:1; Jer 1:10, 27:2-22

Hazael : 2Ki 8:8-15, 2Ki 8:28, 2Ki 9:14; Amo 1:4

TSK: 1Ki 19:16 - Jehu // Elisha // Abelmeholah Jehu : 2Ki 9:1-3, 2Ki 9:6-14 Elisha : 1Ki 19:19-21; Luk 4:27, Eliseus Abelmeholah : 1Ki 4:12; Jdg 7:22

Jehu : 2Ki 9:1-3, 2Ki 9:6-14

Elisha : 1Ki 19:19-21; Luk 4:27, Eliseus

Abelmeholah : 1Ki 4:12; Jdg 7:22

TSK: 1Ki 19:17 - him that escapeth // the sword of Hazael // the sword of Jehu // Elisha slay him that escapeth : Isa 24:17, Isa 24:18; Amo 2:14, Amo 5:19 the sword of Hazael : 2Ki 8:12, 2Ki 10:32, 2Ki 13:3, 2Ki 13:22 the sword of Jehu : 2Ki 9:...

him that escapeth : Isa 24:17, Isa 24:18; Amo 2:14, Amo 5:19

the sword of Hazael : 2Ki 8:12, 2Ki 10:32, 2Ki 13:3, 2Ki 13:22

the sword of Jehu : 2Ki 9:14-26, 2Ki 10:6-11

Elisha slay : 2Ki 2:23, 2Ki 2:24; Isa 11:4; Jer 1:10; Hos 6:5; Rev 19:21

TSK: 1Ki 19:18 - Yet I have left // the knees // every mouth Yet I have left : or, Yet I will leave, Isa 1:9, Isa 10:20-22; Rom 11:4, Rom 11:5 the knees : Exo 20:5; Isa 49:23; Rom 14:10-12; Phi 2:10 every mouth ...

Yet I have left : or, Yet I will leave, Isa 1:9, Isa 10:20-22; Rom 11:4, Rom 11:5

the knees : Exo 20:5; Isa 49:23; Rom 14:10-12; Phi 2:10

every mouth : Idolaters often kissed their hand in honour of their idols; and hence the origin of adoration from ad , to and os , oris , the mouth. Cicero mentions a statue of Hercules, the chin and lips of which were considerably worn by the kissing of his worshippers. Job 31:27; Psa 2:12; Hos 13:2

TSK: 1Ki 19:19 - Elisha // he with // his mantle Elisha : 1Ki 19:16 he with : Exo 3:1; Jdg 6:11; Psa 78:70-72; Amo 7:14; Zec 13:5; Mat 4:18, Mat 4:19 his mantle : 1Ki 19:13; 1Sa 28:14; 2Ki 2:8, 2Ki 2...

TSK: 1Ki 19:20 - he left // I pray // Go back again he left : Mat 4:20, Mat 4:22, Mat 9:9, Mat 19:27 I pray : Mat 8:21, Mat 8:22; Luk 9:61, Luk 9:62; Act 20:37 Go back again : Heb. Go, return

he left : Mat 4:20, Mat 4:22, Mat 9:9, Mat 19:27

I pray : Mat 8:21, Mat 8:22; Luk 9:61, Luk 9:62; Act 20:37

Go back again : Heb. Go, return

TSK: 1Ki 19:21 - boiled their flesh // gave unto // ministered boiled their flesh : 2Sa 24:22 gave unto : Luk 5:28, Luk 5:29 ministered : 1Ki 18:43; Exo 24:13; Num 27:18-20; 2Ki 2:3, 2Ki 3:11; Act 13:5; 2Ti 4:11; ...

boiled their flesh : 2Sa 24:22

gave unto : Luk 5:28, Luk 5:29

ministered : 1Ki 18:43; Exo 24:13; Num 27:18-20; 2Ki 2:3, 2Ki 3:11; Act 13:5; 2Ti 4:11; Phm 1:13

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Ki 19:1 - Ahab told Jezebel Ahab told Jezebel this for his vindication, and her satisfaction. All the prophets to wit, of Baal; not of the groves, who were not present, as may...

Ahab told Jezebel this for his vindication, and her satisfaction. All the prophets to wit, of Baal; not of the groves, who were not present, as may be gathered from 1Ki 18:19,22 22:6 .

Poole: 1Ki 19:2 - Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah // So let the gods do to me Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah she gives him notice of it beforehand; partly, out of the height of her spirit, as scorning to kill him secretly...

Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah she gives him notice of it beforehand; partly, out of the height of her spirit, as scorning to kill him secretly and surreptitiously, and resolving to make him a public sacrifice; partly, out of her impatience, till she had breathed out her rage, which she could do speedily, when it required some time and preparation to seize him, who was now so much esteemed and favoured by all the people; partly, because she supposed that he who had the confidence to come thither, (where, it seems, she was at this time,) would still have the same confidence to stay there, and be obliged in honour to maintain his ground; and principally, from God’ s all-disposing providence, that so he might have an opportunity of escaping.

So let the gods do to me and more also: so far was she from being changed by that most evident miracle, that she persists in her former idolatry, and adds to it a mad and monstrous confidence, that in spite of God she would destroy his prophet.

Poole: 1Ki 19:3 - Went for his life // Which belonged to Judah // Left his servant there Went for his life i.e. to save his life; or, according to his soul, or mind; whereby it may be intimated, that he did not flee from Jezreel by the ha...

Went for his life i.e. to save his life; or, according to his soul, or mind; whereby it may be intimated, that he did not flee from Jezreel by the hand or direction of the Lord, by which he came thither, 1Ki 18:46 , but because of his own fear and apprehension of danger; for this may seem to be an act of human frailty. For God had brought him hither, and his presence might seem very necessary here to encourage and engage the king and people to go on to destroy the priests of the groves, and to purge out idolatry; and his withdrawing, as we see, did discourage all the rest, and occasioned their return to idolatry again; and having had such a late and ample experience of God’ s all-sufficiency in protecting him against the king and four hundred and fifty of Baal’ s priests, and the current of the people incensed against him for the famine, he had little reason to fear the threats of an impotent woman, whom God could cut off in a moment. But Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are , Jam 5:17 , which probably is said with respect to his fear and discontent, manifested here and 1Ki 19:4 . And lest he should be exalted above measure (which was also Paul’ s case, 2Co 12:7 ) for his eminent gifts, and graces, and miraculous works, God saw fit to withdraw his grace, and to leave him to himself, that he might be sensible of his own impotency and sinfulness, and might not dare to take any part of God’ s honour to himself.

Which belonged to Judah either, first, To the tribe of Judah, according to the first division; for Simeon’ s part, in which Beer-sheba was, was afterwards taken out of it. Or, secondly, To the kingdom of Judah.

Left his servant there partly, that he might abide there in safety; and partly, that he should wait there till his return: partly, because he would not expose him to those perils and hardships which he expected; and partly, because he desired solitude, that he might more freely converse with God.

Poole: 1Ki 19:4 - Into the wilderness // For himself // It is enough // I am not better than my fathers Into the wilderness the vast wilderness of Arabia. He durst not stay in Judah, though good Jehoshaphat reigned there, because he was allied to Ahab, ...

Into the wilderness the vast wilderness of Arabia. He durst not stay in Judah, though good Jehoshaphat reigned there, because he was allied to Ahab, and was a man of an easy temper, whom Ahab might circumvent, and either by force or art seize upon Elijah.

For himself Heb. for his life, or his soul , that it might be taken away from his body. Or, with his soul , as it is Isa 26:9 , i.e. he desired it heartily or fervently. Which he did, not only for his own sake, that he might be freed from his great fears and troubles; but especially from his zeal for God’ s glory, which he saw was and would be dreadfully eclipsed by the relapse of the Israelites into idolatry, and by Elijah’ s death, if it should be procured by the hands of Jezebel, or of the worshippers of Baal; and therefore he wished to die in peace, and by the hand of God.

It is enough I have lived long enough for thy service, and am not like to do thee any more service; neither my words nor works are like to do any good upon these unstable and incorrigible people.

I am not better than my fathers that I should continue in life, when other prophets who have gone before me have lost their lives by Jezebel, or other persecutors.

Poole: 1Ki 19:7 - -- i.e. Above thy strength, now especially when thou art faint, and weary, and fasting.

i.e. Above thy strength, now especially when thou art faint, and weary, and fasting.

Poole: 1Ki 19:8 - In the strength of that meat // Unto Horeb In the strength of that meat God giving that food a far greater and more durable virtue than ordinary. Unto Horeb: he wandered hither and thither f...

In the strength of that meat God giving that food a far greater and more durable virtue than ordinary.

Unto Horeb: he wandered hither and thither for forty days, till at last he came to Horeb, which in the direct road was not above three or four days’ journey.

Poole: 1Ki 19:9 - -- A tacit reproof. This is not thy proper place, nor the station in which I set thee, which was in Israel, to turn that backsliding people, to which e...

A tacit reproof. This is not thy proper place, nor the station in which I set thee, which was in Israel, to turn that backsliding people, to which end I gave thee my help, and would have proceeded to assist thee further, if thou hadst continued there. Nor did I give thee those excellent gifts to lie idle in this wilderness, but to employ them for thy people’ s good, whom now thou hast deserted, and art come hither, not by my command, but through thy own fear and cowardice.

Poole: 1Ki 19:10 - I have been very jealous for the Lord God of hosts // Thrown down thine altars // I only am left // They seek my life to take it away I have been very jealous for the Lord God of hosts I have not been wholly wanting to my vocation, but have executed my office with zeal for God’...

I have been very jealous for the Lord God of hosts I have not been wholly wanting to my vocation, but have executed my office with zeal for God’ s honour and service, and with the hazard of my own life; and am fled hither, not being able to endure to see the dishonour done to thy name by their obstinate idolatry and wickedness.

Thrown down thine altars those which were erected for thy worship in high places, which they did not destroy because they were to be abolished by thy command, De 12 , but out of mere contempt and opposition against thee, and therefore they suffered the altars of Baal to stand.

I only am left to wit, of all thy prophets, I mean, which do boldly and publicly plead thy cause; for the rest of thy prophets who are not slain hide themselves, and dare not appear to do thee any service.

They seek my life to take it away: I despair of doing them any good; for instead of receiving my testimony, they hunt for my life.

Poole: 1Ki 19:11 - The Lord passed by // Rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks // The Lord was not in the wind The Lord passed by either, first, by his harbingers; for, as it follows, the Lord was not yet there; or, secondly, himself. And so this is a brief an...

The Lord passed by either, first, by his harbingers; for, as it follows, the Lord was not yet there; or, secondly, himself. And so this is a brief and general description of the thing, after which the manner of it is particularly explained.

Rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks whereby be both prepares Elijah to receive this discovery of God with greatest humility, reverence, and godly fear; and signifies his almighty and irresistible power to break the hardest hearts of the Israelites, and to bear down all opposition that was or should be made against him in the discharge of his office.

The Lord was not in the wind the Lord did not vouchsafe his special and gracious presence to Elijah in that wind, where he confidently expected him; which possibly was, either, first, To qualify the excessive fervour and passion of Elijah, which mixed itself with his zeal for God, and to make him more mild in his censures, and more meek and patient in waiting for the conversion of Israel; wherein he might sooner expect God’ s presence and blessed success, than in the storm of anger or impatience. Or, secondly, To teach him not to wonder if God did not accompany his terrible administration at Mount Carmel with the presence of his grace, to turn the hearts of the Israelites to himself, as he desired, but God for wise and just reasons saw fit to deny.

Poole: 1Ki 19:12 - -- Wherein it is implied that God was present; which peradventure was to insinuate, that God would do his work in and for Israel in his own time, not b...

Wherein it is implied that God was present; which peradventure was to insinuate, that God would do his work in and for Israel in his own time, not by might or power, but by his own Spirit, Zec 4:6 , which moves with a powerful, but yet with a sweet and gentle gale.

Poole: 1Ki 19:13 - He wrapped his face in his mantle // Stood in the entering in of the cave // What doest thou here, Elijah? He wrapped his face in his mantle through horror and dread of God’ s presence, being sensible that he was neither worthy nor able to endure the ...

He wrapped his face in his mantle through horror and dread of God’ s presence, being sensible that he was neither worthy nor able to endure the sight of God with open face. Compare Gen 16:13 , with Exo 3:6 .

Stood in the entering in of the cave which God commanded him to do; and as he was going towards the mouth of the cave, he was affrighted and stopped in his course, by the dreadful wind, and earthquake, and fire; and when these were past, he prosecutes his journey, and goeth on to the mouth of the cave, and there stands still. Or the words may be rendered, after (as vau is elsewhere used) he was gone out, and standing in the mouth of the cave ; which may be mentioned as the reason why he covered his face, because now he wanted the shelter of the cave.

What doest thou here, Elijah? what before he spake by an angel, he now speaks to him again immediately.

Poole: 1Ki 19:15 - Return on thy way // Anoint Hazael to be king over Syria Return on thy way by which thou camest; for so in part lay the way from Horeb to Damascus. Anoint Hazael to be king over Syria: anoint ; either, f...

Return on thy way by which thou camest; for so in part lay the way from Horeb to Damascus.

Anoint Hazael to be king over Syria: anoint ; either, first, Figuratively, i.e. appoint or declare him king; which was done, 2Ki 8:12 ; for this word is oft used of them who were never anointed with oil, Psa 45:7 Isa 45:1 41:1 Zec 4:14 Dan 9:24 . Or, secondly, Properly; which might be done, though it be not related. Again, anoint , either by thyself, or by another; for so he anointed Jehu by Elisha, 2Ki 9:1,6 .

Poole: 1Ki 19:16 - The son of Nimshi // Elisha The son of Nimshi i. e. his grandson, for he was the son of Jehoshaphat, 2Ki 9:2 ; he constituted Elisha prophet, by casting his mantle over him, h...

The son of Nimshi i. e. his grandson, for he was the son of Jehoshaphat, 2Ki 9:2 ; he constituted

Elisha prophet, by casting his mantle over him, here, 1Ki 19:19 .

Poole: 1Ki 19:17 - -- Here the order of times seems to be perverted; for Elisha was prophet before Jehu or Hazael were kings, and Hazael was king before Jehu. But that is...

Here the order of times seems to be perverted; for Elisha was prophet before Jehu or Hazael were kings, and Hazael was king before Jehu. But that is of no moment as to the substance of the thing threatened, which is only this, that one or other of these should infallibly execute God’ s judgments upon the apostatical Israelites. Elisha is said to slay them, either because he slew those forty-two children, 2Ki 2:24 , besides others whom upon like occasions he might destroy; or because he by God’ s appointment inflicted the famine, 2Ki 6:31 ; or rather, by the sword which came out of his mouth, as Isa 49:2 Rev 1:16 19:15,21 , by his cutting prophecies and threatenings of God’ s judgments; the prophets being said to pull down and to destroy what they only declare and foretell shall be pulled down, &c. Hazael began to slay them before Jehu was king, 2Ki 8:28 , though his cruelty was much increased afterward, 2Ki 10:32 13:1-3 ; and Jehu destroyed those whom Hazael did not, king Joram himself, and Ahaziah, and his forty-two brethren, 2Ki 9:24,27 10:14 , all the near relations of wicked Ahab.

Poole: 1Ki 19:18 - I have left // Seven thousand // All the knees which have not bowed unto Baal I have left , or, I have reserved to myself ; I have by my grace kept from the common contagion; therefore thou art mistaken to think that thou art l...

I have left , or, I have reserved to myself ; I have by my grace kept from the common contagion; therefore thou art mistaken to think that thou art left alone, or that the people are universally corrupted. Or, I will reserve , from the slaughters last mentioned, and from Jezebel’ s rage.

Seven thousand either definitely so many; or rather, indefinitely, for many thousands; the number of seven being oft used for a great number, as Lev 26:18 Psa 12:6 Mic 5:5 Zec 3:9 Luk 17:4 . For it is altogether improbable that all the Israelites except seven thousand did worship Baal; except Baal be here synecdochically put for all their idols, and the calves among others.

All the knees which have not bowed unto Baal and every mouth which hath not kissed him, i.e. all those who have not worshipped Baal, nor professed reverence or subjection to him; which idolaters did to their idols, by bowing the knee, Rom 11:4 ; compare Rom 14:11 Phi 2:10 , and by kissing them, or by kissing their hand with their mouth before them, and in respect to them; of which mention is made both in Scripture, as Job 31:26,27 Ho 13:2 ; compare Psa 2:12 , and in Pliny, Apuleius, and other profane authors. And God chooseth these expressions here, to teach men that it is not sufficient to deny inward veneration of mind and heart to idols, unless they do also forbear all outward significations of worship or reverence to them; and that he will own none for his people that do otherwise.

Poole: 1Ki 19:19 - He with the twelfth // Cast his mantle upon him He with the twelfth who had twelve ploughs going, whereof eleven were managed by his servants, and the last by himself; according to the simplicity a...

He with the twelfth who had twelve ploughs going, whereof eleven were managed by his servants, and the last by himself; according to the simplicity and humility of those ancient times, in which men of good worth and estate submitted themselves to the meanest employments.

Cast his mantle upon him by that ceremony conferring upon him the office of a prophet, which God was pleased to accompany with the gifts and graces of his Spirit, wherewith he endowed and qualified him for it. The mantle was the usual habit of the prophets. See 2Ki 1:8 Zec 13:4 . But whether he did also anoint him is uncertain. See Poole "1Ki 19:16" .

Poole: 1Ki 19:20 - He ran after Elijah // And said // Let me kiss my father and my mother // Go back again // What have I done to thee? He ran after Elijah being powerfully moved by God’ s Spirit to follow Elijah, and wholly to give up himself to his affection. And said or, bu...

He ran after Elijah being powerfully moved by God’ s Spirit to follow Elijah, and wholly to give up himself to his affection.

And said or, but he said ; or, yet he said .

Let me kiss my father and my mother i.e. bid them farewell, by the usual ceremony. See Gen 29:11 31:28 Act 20:37 .

Go back again and take thy leave of them, as thou desirest, and then return to me again.

What have I done to thee? either, first, To hinder thee from performing that office. That employment to which I have called thee doth not require an alienation of thy heart from thy parents, nor the total neglect of them. Or, secondly, To make such a change in thee, that thou shouldst be willing to forsake thy parents, and lands, and all, and desire only this liberty to go and bid them farewell, that thou mayest follow me. Whence comes this marvellous change? It is not from me, who did only throw my mantle over thee; but from a higher power, even from God’ s Spirit, which hath changed thy heart, and consecrated thee to thy prophetical office; which therefore it concerns thee vigorously to execute, and wholly to devote thyself to it.

Poole: 1Ki 19:21 - He returned back from him // With the instruments of the oxen // Gave unto the people He returned back from him from Elijah to his parents, whom when he had seen and kissed, he returned to the field where Elijah was. With the instrume...

He returned back from him from Elijah to his parents, whom when he had seen and kissed, he returned to the field where Elijah was.

With the instruments of the oxen i.e. with the wood belonging to the plough, &c., to which more was added, as occasion required; but that he burned, to show his total relinquishing of his former employment.

Gave unto the people i.e. he made thereof a feast for his servants who had been ploughing with him, and for him, and his other friends and neighbours who came to take their leave of him. Hereby he showed how willingly and joyfully he forsook all his friends, that he might serve God in that high and honourable employment.

Haydock: 1Ki 19:3 - Afraid // Mind // Bersabee // Servant Afraid. Hebrew, "he saw, arose, and went for his life." (Haydock) --- He was aware of a woman's anger, Ecclesiasticus xxv. 23. Though he goes in...

Afraid. Hebrew, "he saw, arose, and went for his life." (Haydock) ---

He was aware of a woman's anger, Ecclesiasticus xxv. 23. Though he goes intrepidly to meet Achab, he flees before a woman, God being desirous that he should exercise humility, (Theodoret, q. 57, &c.) though some think that he had given way to a secret fault; (Calmet) which is a groundless assertion. (Haydock) ---

He must confess that all his strength is from above. (Tirinus) ---

Mind, to escape notice. (Menochius) ---

Bersabee, at the southern extremity of the kingdom of Juda, perhaps fifty leagues from Samaria, and five more from Jezrahel. (Calmet) ---

Servant, the boy whom he had raised to life. (Abulensis)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:4 - Desert // Tree // Die // Fathers Desert. It seems, towards Horeb. (Calmet) --- Tree. Hebrew Rothem, which term the Septuagint retain, "Rathmen." Symmachus has, "a shade." (H...

Desert. It seems, towards Horeb. (Calmet) ---

Tree. Hebrew Rothem, which term the Septuagint retain, "Rathmen." Symmachus has, "a shade." (Haydock) ---

Die. Elias requested to die, not out of impatience or pusillanimity, but out of zeal against sin; and that he might no longer be witness of the miseries of his people, and the war they were waging against God and his servants. See ver. 10. (Challoner) ---

He does not wish to fall into the hands of Jezabel, lest the idolaters should triumph: but he is willing to die, if God so order it. (Calmet) ---

Mathathias entertained the like sentiments, 1 Machabees ii. 7. ---

Fathers: that I should live longer than they did. (Menochius) (Ecclesiasticus xxx. 17.) ---

If he had been weary of life, why did he flee? His answer to Achab shews that he was by no means timid. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:6 - Cake Cake, baked in a hollow stone, covered with fire. The Arabs call such cakes, Ridpha. An angel brought this nourishment. (Calmet)

Cake, baked in a hollow stone, covered with fire. The Arabs call such cakes, Ridpha. An angel brought this nourishment. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:7 - Go Go. Hebrew, "the journey is too great for thee," without this support. (Haydock) --- He spent forty days in this journey, as he did not follow t...

Go. Hebrew, "the journey is too great for thee," without this support. (Haydock) ---

He spent forty days in this journey, as he did not follow the straitest road. Horeb is only about fifty leagues from Bersabee. (Calmet) ---

He might have travelled thither in four or five days. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:8 - In the strength of that food In the strength of that food, &c. This bread with which Elias was fed in the wilderness, was a figure of the bread of life, which we receive in the ...

In the strength of that food, &c. This bread with which Elias was fed in the wilderness, was a figure of the bread of life, which we receive in the blessed sacrament [of the Eucharist]: by the strength of which we are to be supported in our journey through the wilderness of this world, till we come to the true mountain of God, and his vision in a happy eternity. (Challoner) ---

Horeb signifies "a rock, or dry wilderness." (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:9 - Here Here. Thy presence is necessary in Israel. (Tirinus) --- Elias had been guided by a natural fear. (Menochius) --- "With how great familiarity is...

Here. Thy presence is necessary in Israel. (Tirinus) ---

Elias had been guided by a natural fear. (Menochius) ---

"With how great familiarity is he received by God!" (Tertullian, contra Psychic. vi.)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:10 - Zeal // Covenant // Altars // I alone am left Zeal; ordering the idolatrous prophets to be destroyed, (Menochius) which has enkindled the rage of Jezabel against me. I cannot bear to see the gen...

Zeal; ordering the idolatrous prophets to be destroyed, (Menochius) which has enkindled the rage of Jezabel against me. I cannot bear to see the general corruption. (Calmet) ---

Covenant; neglecting circumcision, (Rabbins) and almost the whole law. (Haydock) ---

Altars. Some had been erected by the prophets, (Estius) as the king would suffer none to go to Jerusalem. (Haydock) ---

The idolaters there them down, chap. xviii. 30. Such altars would have been unlawful in Juda. (Calmet) ---

I alone am left; viz., of the prophets in the kingdom of Israel, or of the ten tribes; for in the kingdom of Juda, religion was at that time in a very flourishing condition, under the kings Asa and Josaphat. And even in Israel there remained several prophets, though not then known to Elias. See chap. xx. 13, 28, 35. (Challoner) (Worthington) ---

Hebrew repeats I, as [in] ver. 14, and chap. xviii. 22. He might justly fear that those had been destroyed at last, whom Abdias had protected. At any rate, none durst appear in public to assist Elias. (Haydock) ---

God informs him (ver. 18.) that all is not yet lost.

Haydock: 1Ki 19:11 - Lord Lord; the angel, his representative. (Menochius) --- God had formerly granted the like favour to Moses, in the same place, Exodus xxxiii. 21.

Lord; the angel, his representative. (Menochius) ---

God had formerly granted the like favour to Moses, in the same place, Exodus xxxiii. 21.

Haydock: 1Ki 19:12 - Air Air. Something similar happened at the giving of the law, and at the propagation of the gospel, Exodus xix 9, 16., and Acts ii. 2. The Lord was ple...

Air. Something similar happened at the giving of the law, and at the propagation of the gospel, Exodus xix 9, 16., and Acts ii. 2. The Lord was pleased to shew his prophet the difference between the two laws: the own was full of terror, the other of mildness. (Grotius) ---

He insinuated likewise, that he could easily exterminate the offenders, but he chose to bear patiently with them; (Tirinus) and taught his prophet to moderate his zeal, and, after terrifying sinners, to being them to a sense of their duty by gentle means. (Sanctius) (Calmet) ---

"His spirit is most indulgent and mild." .... est teneræ serenitatis, apertus et simplex. (Tertullian, contra Marcion xxiii.)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:13 - Mantle Mantle, out of respect, like Moses, Exodus iii. 6. So the cherubim veil their faces with their wings, Isaias vi. 2. (Menochius) --- Among the Orie...

Mantle, out of respect, like Moses, Exodus iii. 6. So the cherubim veil their faces with their wings, Isaias vi. 2. (Menochius) ---

Among the Orientals, to cover the face has the same import as when we pull of our hats. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:15 - Desert // Hazael Desert, avoiding the towns as much as possible, (Calmet) and travelling through the country of Ammon to Damascus. (Menochius) --- God does not send...

Desert, avoiding the towns as much as possible, (Calmet) and travelling through the country of Ammon to Damascus. (Menochius) ---

God does not send Elias again into the midst of danger, at Achab's court. (Haydock) ---

Hazael. God exercises his authority over all nations, and disposes of crowns. He appoints Hazael to punish his people. It does not appear that Elias performed this commission in person, but by the hand of Eliseus, 4 Kings viii. 12. Neither do we find that Hazael was anointed, but he was "declared king;" in which sense the term is used, Judges ix. 8. (Salien) (Calmet) ---

Yet Torniel believes, that Elias really anointed both Hazael and Jehu. He foretold, at least, (Haydock) that they should reign. (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:16 - Jehu, the son of // Anoint // Abelmeula Jehu, the son of Jospahat, (4 Kings ix. 2.) and grandson of Namsi. (Menochius) --- Eliseus sent one of his disciples to anoint him, (4 Kings ix. ...

Jehu, the son of Jospahat, (4 Kings ix. 2.) and grandson of Namsi. (Menochius) ---

Eliseus sent one of his disciples to anoint him, (4 Kings ix. 1.; Calmet) with common oil; the sacred was reserved for priests and the kings of Juda, according to the Rabbins. ---

Anoint, or call to the ministry, perhaps by placing a mantle on his head, ver. 19. No mention is made of unction. (Calmet) ---

Yet the Fathers have hence inferred that prophets received it, as well as priests and kings. (Sanctius) ---

Elias had complained that he was left alone. God appoints him a coadjutor, and successor; a person who seemed to have yet made no immediate preparation for the office. His parents were probably known for their probity, and had taken no part in the worship of idols. (Calmet) ---

Abelmeula was in the great plain, ten miles south of Scythopolis. (Eusebius)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:17 - Shall be slain by Eliseus Shall be slain by Eliseus. Eliseus did not kill any of the idolaters with the material sword; but he is here joined with Hazael and Jehu, the great ...

Shall be slain by Eliseus. Eliseus did not kill any of the idolaters with the material sword; but he is here joined with Hazael and Jehu, the great instruments of God in punishing the idolatry of Israel, because he foretold to the former his exaltation to the kingdom of Syria, and the vengeance he would execute against Israel, and anointed the latter by one of his disciples to be king of Israel, with commission to extirpate the house of Achab. (Challoner) ---

They left nothing imperfect in the vengeance, 4 Kings viii., and ix. Eliseus sent bears to destroy forty-two children of Bethel; (4 Kings ii. 23.; Calmet) and Abulensis (q. 23.) thinks that he might put many false prophets to death, as the Scripture does not mention every thing, (Menochius) and as Elias had done himself. (Haydock) ---

Eliseus may also be the name of some general. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:18 - Will leave // Seven // Hands Will leave. Hebrew also, "I have left," as Romans xi. 4. Septuagint, "thou shalt leave." (Haydock) --- After answering the first part of the prop...

Will leave. Hebrew also, "I have left," as Romans xi. 4. Septuagint, "thou shalt leave." (Haydock) ---

After answering the first part of the prophet's complaint, and informing him that the guilty should not pass unpunished, God lets him know that he is not left alone, but that many thousands (Calmet) even in Israel still continue faithful; so far was the true Church from being in danger of perishing entirely. (Haydock) ---

Seven is often put for a great number, Proverbs xxiv. 16. Yet some suppose, (Calmet) that only this number served God out of 1,110,000 men in Israel, 1 Paralipomenon xxi. 5. (Grotius, &c.) ---

Hands. To this custom the word adore owes it rise. (Haydock) ---

The pagans kissed their right-hand, or the statue itself, when they could reach it, to testify their veneration. Inter adorandum, dexteram ad osculum referimus. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xxviii. 2.) Cicero (in Ver. 4.) mentions a beautiful statue of Hercules, the cheeks and beard of which had been rather worn with kissing; non solum id venerari, sed etiam osculari solent. See Genesis xviii. 2. (Calmet) ---

Job xxxi. 27. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:19 - Mantle Mantle, perhaps to signify that he must change his manner of living. (Menochius)

Mantle, perhaps to signify that he must change his manner of living. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:20 - Kiss // To thee Kiss, and bid them adieu. (Menochius) --- To thee. I have no farther orders. Obey the Spirit of God. Hoc age. Hebrew, "for what have I done ...

Kiss, and bid them adieu. (Menochius) ---

To thee. I have no farther orders. Obey the Spirit of God. Hoc age. Hebrew, "for what have I done to thee?" Did I require thee to follow me? Act as God may direct thee. Yet remember the ceremony which thou hast seen, and do not turn back (Calmet) to neglect thy office. (Haydock) (Matthew viii. 22., and Luke ix. 62.)

Haydock: 1Ki 19:21 - Oxen Oxen, to shew that he had relinquished his profession. (Menochius) --- "He makes a vow of them." (St. Jerome, ep. xxviii.) --- Elias waited for h...

Oxen, to shew that he had relinquished his profession. (Menochius) ---

"He makes a vow of them." (St. Jerome, ep. xxviii.) ---

Elias waited for him in the field, while he made a feast for his fellow-citizens, at parting. (Calmet) ---

Then both probably retreated to Carmel, (Salien) to watch over the instruction of the college of prophets. (Haydock)

Gill: 1Ki 19:1 - And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done // and withal how he had slain all the prophets with the sword And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done,.... What miracles he had wrought, how that not only fire came down from heaven, and consumed the sacri...

And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done,.... What miracles he had wrought, how that not only fire came down from heaven, and consumed the sacrifice, but even the stones and dust of the altar, and licked up great quantities of water in the trench around it; and that it was at his prayer that rain came down from heaven in such abundance, of which she was sensible; by all which he got the people on his side, so that it was not in his power to seize him and slay him; and this he said to clear himself, and make her easy:

and withal how he had slain all the prophets with the sword; the four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal he had gathered to Carmel; the Targum calls them false prophets, but Ahab would scarcely use that epithet to Jezebel; as for the four hundred prophets of the grove, they were not present, and so not included. Jezebel knew they were safe, being with her, she not suffering them to go to Carmel.

Gill: 1Ki 19:2 - Then Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah // saying, so let the gods do to me, and more also // if I make not thy life as the life of one of them by tomorrow about this time Then Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah,.... In Jezreel, or near it, to frighten him away; not caring to seize him, and dispatch him, for fear of th...

Then Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah,.... In Jezreel, or near it, to frighten him away; not caring to seize him, and dispatch him, for fear of the people, in whom he had now a great interest; or otherwise it is not easy to account for it that she should give him notice of it; unless she scorned to do it privately, as some think, and was determined to make a public example of him; but being not as yet prepared for it, sends him word what he must expect, imagining that as he had the courage to appear, he would not flee; no doubt there was an hand of Providence in it, be it which it will, that he might have time to make his escape:

saying, so let the gods do to me, and more also; the gods she served, Baal and Ashtaroth, and by whom she swore:

if I make not thy life as the life of one of them by tomorrow about this time; as one of the prophets Elijah had slain; she swore by her gods, and wished the greatest evils might befall her, if she did not lodge him in the state of the dead where they were in the space of twenty four hours; though Abarbinel thinks it is not an oath, but that the words and meaning of them are, so the gods do; it is their usual way, and they will go on to do so for the future, because of the holiness of their name; and therefore do not boast of slaying the prophets, or make use of that as an argument of their falsehood, for they will do the same by thee by tomorrow this time.

Gill: 1Ki 19:3 - And when he saw that // he arose and went for his life // and came to Beersheba, which belongeth to Judah // and left his servant there And when he saw that,.... That her design and resolution were to take away his life; the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Syriac versions read, "and he ...

And when he saw that,.... That her design and resolution were to take away his life; the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Syriac versions read, "and he was afraid"; or frightened; he that had such courage as not to be afraid to meet Ahab, and contend with four hundred and fifty priests of Baal, and in the face of all Israel, who at first were not inclined to take his part, is now terrified at the threats of a single woman; which shows that the spirit and courage he had before were of the Lord, and not of himself; and that those who have the greatest zeal and courage for religion, for God, and his worship, his truths and ordinances, if left to themselves, become weak and timorous; and whether this is the true reading, or not, it was certainly his case by what follows:

he arose and went for his life; fled to save his life, at a time when he was much wanted to encourage and increase the reformation from idolatry, and to preserve the people from relapsing who were converted; and through the miracles that had been wrought by him, and for him, he had great reason to trust in the Lord: or "he went unto", or "according to his own soul" m; according to his own mind and will, not taking counsel of God, or any direction from him; and so Abarbinel interprets it:

and came to Beersheba, which belongeth to Judah; to the tribe of Judah; for though it was in the inheritance of Simeon, yet that was within the tribe of Judah, Jos 19:1, or to the kingdom of Judah, over which Jehoshaphat reigned, and so might think himself safe, being out of the dominions of Ahab, and reach of Jezebel; but yet he did not think so, his fears ran so high that he imagined she would send some after him to search for him, and slay him privately, or make interest with Jehoshaphat to deliver him up, there being friendship between him and Ahab; for though this place was eighty four miles from Jezreel, as Bunting n computes it, he left it:

and left his servant there; he took him not with him, either lest he should betray him, or rather out of compassion to him, that he might not share in the miseries of life that were like to come upon him.

Gill: 1Ki 19:4 - But he himself went a day's journey into the wilderness // and came and sat down under a juniper tree // and he requested for himself that he might die // it is enough, now, O Lord, take away my life // for I am not better than my fathers But he himself went a day's journey into the wilderness,.... Of Paran, which began near Beersheba, and was the wilderness of Arabia, in which the Isra...

But he himself went a day's journey into the wilderness,.... Of Paran, which began near Beersheba, and was the wilderness of Arabia, in which the Israelites were near forty years; this day's journey carried him about twenty miles from Beersheba southward, as the above writer reckons:

and came and sat down under a juniper tree; Abarbinel supposes that Elijah chose to sit under this tree, to preserve him from venomous creatures, which naturalists say will not come near it; and Pliny o indeed observes, that it being burnt will drive away serpents, and that some persons anoint themselves with the oil of it, for fear of them; and yet Virgil p represents the shade of a juniper tree as noxious; hence some interpreters take this to be a piece of carelessness and indifference of the prophet's, where he sat:

and he requested for himself that he might die; for though he fled from Jezebel to preserve his life, not choosing to die by her hands, which would cause her prophets to exult and triumph, yet was now desirous of dying by the hand of the Lord, and in a place where his death would not be known:

it is enough, now, O Lord, take away my life; intimating that he had lived long enough, even as long as he desired; and he had done as much work for God as he thought he had to do; he supposed his service and usefulness were at an end, and therefore desired his dismission:

for I am not better than my fathers that he should not die, or live longer than they; but this desire was not like that of the Apostle Paul's, but like that of Job and of Jonah; not so much to be with God and Christ, as to be rid of the troubles of life.

Gill: 1Ki 19:5 - And as he lay and slept under a juniper tree // behold, then an angel touched him, and said unto him, arise, and eat And as he lay and slept under a juniper tree,.... Being weary and fatigued with his journey, the same under which he sat; for there was but one, as th...

And as he lay and slept under a juniper tree,.... Being weary and fatigued with his journey, the same under which he sat; for there was but one, as that is said to be in the preceding verse:

behold, then an angel touched him, and said unto him, arise, and eat; so far was the Lord from granting his request to take away his life, that he made provision to preserve it; so careful was he of him, as to give an angel charge to get food ready for him, and then awake him to eat of it.

Gill: 1Ki 19:6 - And he looked, and, behold, there was a cake baked on the coals // and a cruse of water at his head // and laid him down again And he looked, and, behold, there was a cake baked on the coals,.... Just took off the coals, quite hot. Bochart q thinks it should be rendered, "bak...

And he looked, and, behold, there was a cake baked on the coals,.... Just took off the coals, quite hot. Bochart q thinks it should be rendered, "baked on hot stones"; and such was the way of baking cakes in some of the eastern countries; see Gill on Gen 18:6, the stones hereabout might be heated by a supernatural power, and the cake baked on them by an angel; these sort of cakes are in Hebrew called "huggoth", as some pronounce the word, and are said to be now common in Bulgaria, where they are called "hugaces" r:

and a cruse of water at his head; to drink of in eating the cake; which cruse or pot a learned man s thinks was Elijah's, not brought by the angel, only water put into it by him; see 1Sa 26:11, and he did eat and drink; but not all that was set before him:

and laid him down again; to take some more sleep for his greater refreshment.

Gill: 1Ki 19:7 - And the angel of the Lord came again the second time, and touched him // and said unto him, arise, and eat, because the journey is too great for thee And the angel of the Lord came again the second time, and touched him,.... In order to awake him out of sleep: and said unto him, arise, and eat, b...

And the angel of the Lord came again the second time, and touched him,.... In order to awake him out of sleep:

and said unto him, arise, and eat, because the journey is too great for thee; which he had to go to Horeb, without eating more than he had; and there were no provisions to be had in a common way and manner in his road thither.

Gill: 1Ki 19:8 - And he arose, and did eat and drink // and went in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights unto Horeb the mount of God And he arose, and did eat and drink,.... Of what was left of the cake and cruse of water, before provided for him: and went in the strength of that...

And he arose, and did eat and drink,.... Of what was left of the cake and cruse of water, before provided for him:

and went in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights unto Horeb the mount of God; for so long he was going to that place, though it might have been gone in three or four days; but he went in byways, and wandered about in the wilderness, as the Israelites did, and that for the space of forty days, as they did near forty years; and all this while he had no other sustenance than what he had taken under the juniper tree, from whence he set out, which must be supernatural; for it is said t, a man cannot live without food beyond seven days; see Gill on Exo 24:18 the food either staying in his stomach all this while, or however the nutritive virtue of it, by which he was supported, and held out till he came to Horeb or Sinai; called the mount of the Lord, because here he had appeared to Moses in the bush, and from hence gave the law to the children of Israel. Abarbinel is of opinion that this term of forty days was consumed in his whole journey to Horeb, his stay there, and return to the land of Israel.

Gill: 1Ki 19:9 - And he came thither unto a cave, and lodged there // and, behold, the word of the Lord came to him // and he said unto him, what dost thou here, Elijah And he came thither unto a cave, and lodged there,.... This cave, some travellers say u, is to be seen at this day, not far from a church dedicated to...

And he came thither unto a cave, and lodged there,.... This cave, some travellers say u, is to be seen at this day, not far from a church dedicated to the prophet Elijah, and that the cave itself has the appearance of a chapel; but a more particular account of it is given in a journal w lately published, which says, this cave exists to this very day, and is situated at the foot of Mount Sinai, and is now enclosed in a church built of red and white granite marble, the entrance into which is from the west; the dimensions of this cave are in length five feet, in depth four feet, and in height four and a half. The Jewish writers are of opinion that this was the cleft of the rock in which Moses was put, when the Lord passed before him; but, if so, there would have been no need of Elijah to have gone forth to and stand upon the mount when the Lord passed by, 1Ki 19:11,

and, behold, the word of the Lord came to him; an articulate voice was heard by him:

and he said unto him, what dost thou here, Elijah? this is not a proper place for a prophet to be in, in a wilderness, in a mountain, in a cave in it: what work could he do for God? or what service to his people? in the land of Israel he might bear his testimony against idolatry, and so be a means of reclaiming backsliders, and of establishing those that were in the true religion; but of what usefulness could he be here? Abarbinel takes it to be a reproof of Elijah, for going into a place so holy as it was, and in which Moses, the chief of the prophets, had been, and that it did not become such a man as he was to be in such a place.

Gill: 1Ki 19:10 - And he said, I have been jealous for the Lord God of hosts // for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant // thrown down thy altars // and slain thy prophets with the sword // and I, even I only am left, and they seek my life to take it away And he said, I have been jealous for the Lord God of hosts,.... Through zeal for the glory of God he had slain four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal...

And he said, I have been jealous for the Lord God of hosts,.... Through zeal for the glory of God he had slain four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal, and this had stirred up the malice and revenge of Jezebel against him, who sought his life, and which had obliged him to flee, and come to this place for shelter; this is the first part of his answer, others follow:

for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant; the law, especially the two first commandments delivered in this very place; and therefore he could hope for no protection from them, but was forced to leave his country:

thrown down thy altars: which had been built in times past for the worship of God, to sacrifice thereon to him, but were now demolished, that those that would not bow the knee to Baal, and could not go to Jerusalem, might make no use of them:

and slain thy prophets with the sword; which was done by Jezebel, the Israelites conniving at it, and consenting to it, and not daring to oppose her; slain all she had knowledge of, or even were known by the prophet: hence it follows,

and I, even I only am left, and they seek my life to take it away: all this Elijah said, as it seems, not only to excuse himself for fleeing, and taking up his abode where he was, but to stir up the indignation of God against Israel for their idolatries and murders, and to put him upon inflicting his judgments on them for the same.

Gill: 1Ki 19:11 - And he said, go forth and stand upon the mount before the Lord // and, behold, the Lord passed by // and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the Lord // but the Lord was not in the wind // and after the wind an earthquake // but the Lord was not in the earthquake And he said, go forth and stand upon the mount before the Lord,.... Who would appear there as he had to Moses formerly, though not in the same manner:...

And he said, go forth and stand upon the mount before the Lord,.... Who would appear there as he had to Moses formerly, though not in the same manner:

and, behold, the Lord passed by; or was about to pass, for as yet he had not; his messengers first went before him:

and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the Lord; strong enough to do all this, and so it might:

but the Lord was not in the wind; as he sometimes is, Nah 1:3, he spake to Job out of a whirlwind, Job 38:1,

and after the wind an earthquake; that shook the earth all around, and the mountain also, as it did when the law was given on it, Psa 68:8.

but the Lord was not in the earthquake; as he was when it trembled in the times of Moses, Exo 19:18.

Gill: 1Ki 19:12 - And after the earthquake a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire // and after the fire a still small voice And after the earthquake a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire,.... As he was when he descended on this mount, and spake to Moses, Exo 19:1, the T...

And after the earthquake a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire,.... As he was when he descended on this mount, and spake to Moses, Exo 19:1, the Targum, and so Jarchi, interpret all these appearances of angels, and not amiss; the wind, of an host of angels of wind; the earthquake, of an host of angels of commotion; the fire, of an host of angels of fire; see Psa 104:4, these ministers of the Lord went before him, to prepare the way of his glorious Majesty; which emblems may represent the power of God, the terribleness of his majesty, and the fury of his wrath, which he could display, if he would, to the destruction of his enemies; and could as easily destroy the idolatrous kingdom of Israel, which Elijah seems to be solicitous of, as the wind rent the mountains, and broke the rocks, and the earthquake shook the earth, and the fire consumed all in its way; but he chose not to do it now, but to use lenity, and show mercy, signified by the next emblem:

and after the fire a still small voice: not rough, but gentle, more like whispering than roaring; something soft, easy, and musical; the Targum is, the voice of those that praise God in silence; and all this may be considered as showing the difference between the two dispensations of law and Gospel; the law is a voice of terrible words, and was given amidst a tempest of wind, thunder, and lightning, attended with an earthquake, Heb 12:18, but the Gospel is a gentle voice of love, grace, and mercy, of peace, pardon, righteousness, and salvation by Christ; and may also point at the order and manner of the Lord's dealings with the souls of men, who usually by the law breaks the rocky hearts of men in pieces, shakes their consciences, and fills their minds with a sense of fiery wrath and indignation they deserve, and then speaks comfortably to them, speaks peace and pardon through the ministration of the Gospel by his Spirit; blessed are the people that hear this still, small, gentle voice, the joyful sound, Psa 89:15.

Gill: 1Ki 19:13 - And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle // and, behold, there came a voice unto him, and said, what dost thou here, Elijah And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle,.... Through reverence of the divine Majesty he perceived was there, and t...

And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle,.... Through reverence of the divine Majesty he perceived was there, and through shame and confusion under a sense of his impurity, imperfections, and unworthiness, as the seraphim in Isa 6:2, and as Moses, Exo 3:6, and went out and stood in the entering in of the cave; he attempted to come forth out of the cave upon the divine order, 1Ki 19:11, but was stopped by the terrible appearances of the wind, earthquake, and fire, a little within it; but now he came quite out, and stood at the mouth of it, to hear what the Lord would say unto him:

and, behold, there came a voice unto him, and said, what dost thou here, Elijah? the same question is here put as in 1Ki 19:9, though there by an angel, here by the Lord himself.

Gill: 1Ki 19:14 - And he said // I have been very jealous And he said,.... Elijah, in answer to the question put, and he says the same as before: I have been very jealous,.... which the question was design...

And he said,.... Elijah, in answer to the question put, and he says the same as before:

I have been very jealous,.... which the question was designed to draw from him, in order to give him some instructions and directions; which would suggest to him, that though he should not deal severely with Israel, nor with Ahab and his house, yet he would hereafter by the kings he should anoint over Syria and Israel, and by the prophet he should anoint in his room, as instruments of his vengeance.

Gill: 1Ki 19:15 - And the Lord said unto him, go, return on thy way to the wilderness of Damascus // and when thou comest, anoint Hazael to be king over Syria And the Lord said unto him, go, return on thy way to the wilderness of Damascus,.... He is bid to go back the way he came, through the wilderness of A...

And the Lord said unto him, go, return on thy way to the wilderness of Damascus,.... He is bid to go back the way he came, through the wilderness of Arabia, which was part of his way to Damascus, near to which was another wilderness, which took its name from thence; though Fortunatus Schacchus x thinks no other is meant by this phrase than returning to his former course and custom of preach the law of God, and reclaiming men from the error of their ways:

and when thou comest, anoint Hazael to be king over Syria; it is nowhere related that Elijah did go to Damascus, and anoint Hazael, though it may be he did; however he acquainted Elisha with it, and he declared it to Hazael, that he should be king of Syria, and which perhaps is all that is meant by anointing; that is, that he should be made king, and which was declared by both these prophets, see 2Ki 8:13.

Gill: 1Ki 19:16 - And Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel // and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abelmeholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room And Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel,.... This was a son of Jehoshaphat, and a grandson of Nimshi; nor does he appear t...

And Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel,.... This was a son of Jehoshaphat, and a grandson of Nimshi; nor does he appear to have been anointed by Elijah, but by Elisha; and being done by his order and direction was the same as if it was done by himself, unless he was twice anointed, see 2Ki 9:1.

and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abelmeholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room; which was in the half tribe of Manasseh, on this side Jordan; See Gill on Jdg 7:22.

Gill: 1Ki 19:17 - And it shall come to pass, that him that escapeth the sword of Hazael shall Jehu slay // and him that escapeth from the sword of Jehu shall Elisha slay And it shall come to pass, that him that escapeth the sword of Hazael shall Jehu slay,.... Which suggests that many should be slain in Israel by them ...

And it shall come to pass, that him that escapeth the sword of Hazael shall Jehu slay,.... Which suggests that many should be slain in Israel by them both, as were by Hazael, 2Ki 10:32 and by Jehu, 2Ki 9:24,

and him that escapeth from the sword of Jehu shall Elisha slay; which may be understood either literally of the forty two children cursed by him, in consequence of which they were destroyed by bears, 2Ki 2:24 or rather figuratively by his prophecies, see Hos 6:5 who foretold the slaughters made by Hazael and Jehu, as well as others, see 2Ki 8:12, these several things were not done in the order in which they are here put; for what Elisha did was before Hazael and Jehu, and Jehu before Hazael; these words therefore do not respect the exact order of time in which they should be done, only that each should do the part appointed and assigned unto him, and what could not be so well done by the other; thus Hazael was to destroy those that came out to war; and Jehu Ahab's family that did not; and Elisha the children of idolatrous parents at Bethel, that came not within the reach of either; though it may be observed, that Hazael began to distress Israel before Jehu appeared, 2Ki 8:28 and the prophecies of Elisha might not have their full accomplishment until after Hazael and Jehu had done what was appointed for them.

Gill: 1Ki 19:18 - Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel // all the knees which have not bowed to Baal // and every mouth which hath not kissed him Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel,.... From perishing by the sword of either of them: all the knees which have not bowed to Baal; that is...

Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel,.... From perishing by the sword of either of them:

all the knees which have not bowed to Baal; that is, had not worshipped him, which was signified by this gesture:

and every mouth which hath not kissed him; either the image of Baal itself, or the hand, in reverence of him; which rites, one or other, or both, were used by his worshippers; See Gill on Hos 13:2. This either refers, as some think, to the present time, and so is an answer to Elijah, who thought he was the only worshipper left with which seems to agree Rom 11:2, or to the times to come, when destruction should be made by the above persons, and when God would have some faithful worshippers, and would take care of them; so some render the words, "I will reserve", &c. y.

Gill: 1Ki 19:19 - So he departed thence // and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth // and Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon him So he departed thence,.... From Mount Horeb, and came to Abelmeholah, which Bunting computes z at one hundred and fifty six miles: and found Elisha...

So he departed thence,.... From Mount Horeb, and came to Abelmeholah, which Bunting computes z at one hundred and fifty six miles:

and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, who was ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen before him, and he with the twelfth; which may be understood either of twelve couple of oxen drawing one plough; which was a large number, but will not seem strange when it is observed, that Abelmeholah, where Elisha was ploughing, lay in the vale of Jordan, which was a clayey stiff ground, and required such a number of oxen to plough it up, especially at the first tilling of it, as this might be a; compare 1Ki 4:12 A late traveller b observes, that at Damegraed, in upper Egypt on the Nile, six oxen yoked to plough had a great deal of difficulty to turn up the ground; or else, as the Jewish writers generally understand it, there were twelve ploughs, and a yoke of oxen to each, and a ploughman to attend everyone, and Elisha attended the twelfth; or was with one of the twelve, as the Targum, and might have the oversight of them all; Kimchi thinks, and so Abarbiuel after him, that this signified that he should be leader of the twelve tribes of Israel:

and Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon him; the skirts of it.

Gill: 1Ki 19:20 - And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah // and said, let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother // and then I will follow thee // and he said unto him, go back again // for what have I done to thee And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah,.... His heart being touched by the Lord at the same time, and his mind enlightened to understand what was ...

And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah,.... His heart being touched by the Lord at the same time, and his mind enlightened to understand what was meant by that action:

and said, let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother; take his leave of them in this way, which was what was used by friends at parting, see Rth 1:9.

and then I will follow thee; which he understood was meant by his casting his mantle over him:

and he said unto him, go back again; to his plough:

for what have I done to thee? he had only cast the skirts of his mantle over him, and had said nothing to him; this he said to try him, and get out of him what was in his heart, and how it had been touched by the Spirit of God; and if so, then he suggests it was not what he had done, but what the Lord had impressed upon him, that would oblige him to return, and follow him, after he had taken his leave of his parents.

Gill: 1Ki 19:21 - And he returned back from him // and took a yoke of oxen and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen // and gave unto the people, and they did eat // then he arose and went after Elijah // and ministered unto him And he returned back from him,.... To his father's house, and took his leave, and then came back into the field, perhaps with others accompanying him:...

And he returned back from him,.... To his father's house, and took his leave, and then came back into the field, perhaps with others accompanying him:

and took a yoke of oxen and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen: their yokes, and the plough, with an addition of other things sufficient to boil them:

and gave unto the people, and they did eat; the ploughmen and others that came together on this occasion; he made a feast for them, to express his joy at being called to such service he was:

then he arose and went after Elijah; left his worldly employment, the riches he was heir to, his parents, and his friends, and followed the prophet:

and ministered unto him; became his servant, whereby he attained to great knowledge and understanding of divine things, and was trained up to the prophetic office, which he was invested with upon the removal of Elijah; see Mat 8:21.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:2 Heb “I do not make your life like the life of one of them.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:3 The MT has “and he saw,” but some medieval Hebrew mss as well as several ancient versions support the reading “he was afraid.”...

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:4 Heb “fathers.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:5 Heb “Look, a messenger.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:6 Heb “and again lay down”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:7 Heb “for the journey is too great for you.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:10 Heb “and they are seeking my life to take it.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:11 Heb “tearing away the mountains and breaking the cliffs” (or perhaps, “breaking the stones”).

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:12 Heb “a voice, calm, soft.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:13 Heb “look.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:14 Heb “and they are seeking my life to take it.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:18 Heb “I have kept in Israel seven thousand, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal, and all the mouths that have not kissed him.”

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:20 Heb “he”; the referent (Elijah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Ki 19:21 Heb “and with the equipment of the oxen he cooked them, the flesh.”

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:1 And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and withal how he had slain all the ( a ) prophets with the sword. ( a ) That is, of Baal.

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:2 Then Jezebel sent a messenger unto Elijah, saying, ( b ) So let the gods do [to me], and more also, if I make not thy life as the life of one of them ...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:4 But he himself went a day's journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper tree: and he requested for himself that he might die; a...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:7 And the angel of the LORD came again the second time, and touched him, and said, Arise [and] eat; because ( d ) the journey [is] too great for thee. ...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:10 And he said, I have ( e ) been very jealous for the LORD God of hosts: for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thine altars...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:11 And he said, Go forth, and stand upon the mount before the LORD. And, behold, the LORD passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and ...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:14 And he said, I have been very jealous for the LORD God of hosts: ( g ) because the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thine al...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:18 Yet I have left [me] seven thousand in Israel, ( h ) all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him. ( h ) H...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:20 And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said, ( i ) Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and [then] I will follow thee. And he s...

Geneva Bible: 1Ki 19:21 And he returned back from him, and took a yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the ( k ) instruments of the oxen, and gave unto th...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 1Ki 19:1-8 - --Jezebel sent Elijah a threatening message. Carnal hearts are hardened and enraged against God, by that which should convince and conquer them. Great f...

MHCC: 1Ki 19:9-13 - --The question God put, What doest thou here, Elijah? is a reproof. It concerns us often to ask whether we are in our place, and in the way of our duty....

MHCC: 1Ki 19:14-18 - --God repeated the question, What doest thou here? Then he complained of his discouragement; and whither should God's prophets go with their complaints ...

MHCC: 1Ki 19:19-21 - --Elijah found Elisha by Divine direction, not in the schools of the prophets, but in the field; not reading, or praying, or sacrificing, but ploughing....

Matthew Henry: 1Ki 19:1-8 - -- One would have expected, after such a public and sensible manifestation of the glory of God and such a clear decision of the controversy depending b...

Matthew Henry: 1Ki 19:9-18 - -- Here is, I. Elijah housed in a cave at Mount Horeb, which is called the mount of God, because on it God had formerly manifested his glory. And per...

Matthew Henry: 1Ki 19:19-21 - -- Elisha was named last in the orders God gave to Elijah, but he was first called, for by him the other two were to be called. He must come in Elijah'...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Ki 19:1-8 - -- The hope of completing his victory over the idolaters and overthrowing the worship of Baal, even in the capital of the kingdom, with which Elijah ma...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Ki 19:9-18 - -- Appearance of God at Horeb . - 1Ki 19:9. When Elijah arrived at Horeb, he went into the cave (the definite article in המּערה , with the obvi...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Ki 19:19-21 - -- Call of Elisha to be a prophet . - 1Ki 19:19. As he went thence (viz., away from Horeb), Elijah found Elisha the son of Shaphat at Abel-Meholah, i...

Constable: 1Ki 16:29--22:41 - --1. Ahab's evil reign in Israel 16:29-22:40 Ahab ruled Israel from Samaria for 22 years (874-853 ...

Constable: 1Ki 19:1-8 - --Elijah's disillusionment 19:1-8 Elijah was surprised that the revival he had just witnes...

Constable: 1Ki 19:9-21 - --God's revelation of His methods 19:9-21 Elijah's zeal for God's covenant, altars, and pr...

Guzik: 1Ki 19:1-21 - God Encourages Discouraged Elijah 1 Kings 19 - God Encourages Discouraged Elijah A. Elijah flees to the wilderness. 1. (1-3) Jezebel's threat. And Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF KINGS, in the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, constitute one book. Various titles have been given them; in the Septu...

JFB: 1 Kings (Garis Besar) ABISHAG CHERISHES DAVID IN HIS EXTREME AGE. (1Ki 1:1-4) ADONIJAH USURPS THE KINGDOM. (1Ki. 1:5-31) SOLOMON, BY DAVID'S APPOINTMENT, IS ANOINTED KING....

TSK: 1 Kings 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 1Ki 19:1, Elijah, threatened by Jezebel, flees to Beer-sheba; 1Ki 19:4, In the wilderness, being weary of his life, he is comforted by an...

Poole: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIRST BOOK OF KINGS COMMONLY CALLED THE THIRD BOOK OF THE KINGS THE ARGUMENT THESE two Books called Of the Kings, because they treat of the kings of...

Poole: 1 Kings 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) KINGS CHAPTER 19 Elijah, threatened by Jezebel, fleeth to Beer-sheba; is comforted by an angel, 1Ki 19:1-8 . At Mount Horeb, complaining to God, he...

MHCC: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) The history now before us accounts for the affairs of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, yet with special regard to the kingdom of God among them; for ...

MHCC: 1 Kings 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (1Ki 19:1-8) Elijah flees to the wilderness. (1Ki 19:9-13) God manifests himself to Elijah. (1Ki 19:14-18) God's answer to Elijah. (1Ki 19:19-21) T...

Matthew Henry: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Kings Many histories are books of kings and their reigns, to which the affairs of the...

Matthew Henry: 1 Kings 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We left Elijah at the entrance of Jezreel, still appearing publicly, and all the people's eyes upon him. In this chapter we have him again abscondi...

Constable: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Books of 1 and 2 Kings received their names because they docume...

Constable: 1 Kings (Garis Besar) Outline I. The reign of Solomon chs. 1-11 A. Solomon's succession to David's throne 1:1-2:12...

Constable: 1 Kings 1 Kings Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan. "The Building Activities of David and Solomon." Israel Exploration Journ...

Haydock: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE THIRD BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This and the following Book are called by the holy Fathers, The Third and Fourth Book of Kings; but b...

Gill: 1 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 1 KINGS This, and the following book, properly are but one book, divided into two parts, and went with the Jews under the common na...

Gill: 1 Kings 19 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO 1 KINGS 19 This chapter gives us a further account of Elijah, of his being obliged to flee for his life through the threats of Jeze...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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