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Yohanes 7:1-24

The Feast of Tabernacles

7:1 After this 1  Jesus traveled throughout Galilee. 2  He 3  stayed out of Judea 4  because the Jewish leaders 5  wanted 6  to kill him. 7:2 Now the Jewish feast of Tabernacles 7  was near. 8  7:3 So Jesus’ brothers 9  advised him, “Leave here and go to Judea so your disciples may see your miracles that you are performing. 10  7:4 For no one who seeks to make a reputation for himself 11  does anything in secret. 12  If you are doing these things, show yourself to the world.” 7:5 (For not even his own brothers believed in him.) 13 

7:6 So Jesus replied, 14  “My time 15  has not yet arrived, 16  but you are ready at any opportunity! 17  7:7 The world cannot hate you, but it hates me, because I am testifying about it that its deeds are evil. 7:8 You go up 18  to the feast yourselves. I am not going up to this feast 19  because my time 20  has not yet fully arrived.” 21  7:9 When he had said this, he remained in Galilee.

7:10 But when his brothers had gone up to the feast, then Jesus 22  himself also went up, not openly but in secret. 7:11 So the Jewish leaders 23  were looking for him at the feast, asking, “Where is he?” 24  7:12 There was 25  a lot of grumbling 26  about him among the crowds. 27  Some were saying, “He is a good man,” but others, “He deceives the common people.” 28  7:13 However, no one spoke openly about him for fear of the Jewish leaders. 29 

Teaching in the Temple

7:14 When the feast was half over, Jesus went up to the temple courts 30  and began to teach. 31  7:15 Then the Jewish leaders 32  were astonished 33  and said, “How does this man know so much when he has never had formal instruction?” 34  7:16 So Jesus replied, 35  “My teaching is not from me, but from the one who sent me. 36  7:17 If anyone wants to do God’s will, 37  he will know about my teaching, whether it is from God or whether I speak from my own authority. 38  7:18 The person who speaks on his own authority 39  desires 40  to receive honor 41  for himself; the one who desires 42  the honor 43  of the one who sent him is a man of integrity, 44  and there is no unrighteousness in him. 7:19 Hasn’t Moses given you the law? Yet not one of you keeps 45  the law! Why do you want 46  to kill me?”

7:20 The crowd 47  answered, “You’re possessed by a demon! 48  Who is trying to kill you?” 49  7:21 Jesus replied, 50  “I performed one miracle 51  and you are all amazed. 52  7:22 However, because Moses gave you the practice of circumcision 53  (not that it came from Moses, but from the forefathers), you circumcise a male child 54  on the Sabbath. 7:23 But if a male child 55  is circumcised 56  on the Sabbath so that the law of Moses is not broken, 57  why are you angry with me because I made a man completely well 58  on the Sabbath? 7:24 Do not judge according to external appearance, 59  but judge with proper 60  judgment.”

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[7:1]  1 sn Again, the transition is indicated by the imprecise temporal indicator After this. Clearly, though, the author has left out much of the events of Jesus’ ministry, because chap. 6 took place near the Passover (6:4). This would have been the Passover between winter/spring of a.d. 32, just one year before Jesus’ crucifixion (assuming a date of a.d. 33 for the crucifixion), or the Passover of winter/spring a.d. 29, assuming a date of a.d. 30 for the crucifixion.

[7:1]  2 tn Grk “Jesus was traveling around in Galilee.”

[7:1]  3 tn Grk “For he.” Here γάρ (gar, “for”) has not been translated.

[7:1]  4 tn Grk “he did not want to travel around in Judea.”

[7:1]  5 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” In NT usage the term ᾿Ιουδαῖοι (Ioudaioi) may refer to the entire Jewish people, the residents of Jerusalem and surrounding territory, the authorities in Jerusalem, or merely those who were hostile to Jesus. (For further information see R. G. Bratcher, “‘The Jews’ in the Gospel of John,” BT 26 [1975]: 401-9.) Here the phrase should be restricted to the Jewish authorities or leaders who were Jesus’ primary opponents.

[7:1]  6 tn Grk “were seeking.”

[7:2]  7 tn Or “feast of the Tents” (the feast where people lived in tents or shelters, which was celebrated in the autumn after harvest). John’s use of σκηνοπηγία (skhnophgia) for the feast of Tabernacles constitutes the only use of this term in the New Testament.

[7:2]  8 sn Since the present verse places these incidents at the feast of Tabernacles (a.d. 29 or 32, depending on whether one dates the crucifixion in a.d. 30 or 33) there would have been a 6-month interval during which no events are recorded. The author is obviously selective in his approach; he is not recording an exhaustive history (as he will later tell the reader in John 21:25). After healing the paralytic on the Sabbath in Jerusalem (John 5:1-47), Jesus withdrew again to Galilee because of mounting opposition. In Galilee the feeding of the 5,000 took place, which marked the end of the Galilean ministry for all practical purposes. John 7:1-9 thus marks Jesus’ final departure from Galilee.

[7:3]  9 tn Grk “his brothers.”

[7:3]  sn Jesusbrothers. Jesus’ brothers (really his half-brothers) were mentioned previously by John in 2:12 (see the note on brothers there). They are also mentioned elsewhere in Matt 13:55 and Mark 6:3.

[7:3]  10 tn Grk “your deeds that you are doing.”

[7:3]  sn Should the advice by Jesus’ brothers, Leave here and go to Judea so your disciples may see your miracles that you are performing, be understood as a suggestion that he should attempt to win back the disciples who had deserted him earlier (6:66)? Perhaps. But it is also possible to take the words as indicating that if Jesus is going to put forward messianic claims (i.e., through miraculous signs) then he should do so in Jerusalem, not in the remote parts of Galilee. Such an understanding seems to fit better with the following verse. It would also indicate misunderstanding on the part of Jesus’ brothers of the true nature of his mission – he did not come as the royal Messiah of Jewish apocalyptic expectation, to be enthroned as king at this time.

[7:4]  11 tn Or “seeks to be well known.”

[7:4]  12 sn No one who seeks to make a reputation for himself does anything in secret means, in effect: “if you’re going to perform signs to authenticate yourself as Messiah, you should do them at Jerusalem.” (Jerusalem is where mainstream Jewish apocalyptic tradition held that Messiah would appear.)

[7:5]  13 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[7:6]  14 tn Grk “Then Jesus said to them.”

[7:6]  15 tn Or “my opportunity.”

[7:6]  16 tn Or “is not yet here.”

[7:6]  17 tn Grk “your time is always ready.”

[7:8]  18 sn One always speaks of “going up” to Jerusalem in Jewish idiom, even though in western thought it is more common to speak of south as “down” (Jerusalem lies south of Galilee). The reason for the idiom is that Jerusalem was identified with Mount Zion in the OT, so that altitude was the issue.

[7:8]  19 tc Most mss (Ì66,75 B L T W Θ Ψ 070 0105 0250 Ë1,13 Ï sa), including most of the better witnesses, have “not yet” (οὔπω, oupw) here. Those with the reading οὐκ are not as impressive (א D K 1241 al lat), but οὐκ is the more difficult reading here, especially because it stands in tension with v. 10. On the one hand, it is possible that οὐκ arose because of homoioarcton: A copyist who saw oupw wrote ouk. However, it is more likely that οὔπω was introduced early on to harmonize with what is said two verses later. As for Jesus’ refusal to go up to the feast in v. 8, the statement does not preclude action of a different kind at a later point. Jesus may simply have been refusing to accompany his brothers with the rest of the group of pilgrims, preferring to travel separately and “in secret” (v. 10) with his disciples.

[7:8]  20 tn Although the word is καιρός (kairos) here, it parallels John’s use of ὥρα (Jwra) elsewhere as a reference to the time appointed for Jesus by the Father – the time of his return to the Father, characterized by his death, resurrection, and ascension (glorification). In the Johannine literature, synonyms are often interchanged for no apparent reason other than stylistic variation.

[7:8]  21 tn Or “my time has not yet come to an end” (a possible hint of Jesus’ death at Jerusalem); Grk “my time is not yet fulfilled.”

[7:10]  22 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[7:11]  23 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” Here the phrase refers to the Jewish authorities or leaders who were Jesus’ primary opponents. See the note on the phrase “the Jewish leaders” in v. 1.

[7:11]  24 tn Grk “Where is that one?”

[7:12]  25 tn Grk “And there was.”

[7:12]  26 tn Or “complaining.”

[7:12]  27 tn Or “among the common people” (as opposed to the religious authorities mentioned in the previous verse).

[7:12]  28 tn Or “the crowd.”

[7:13]  29 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” Here the phrase refers to the Jewish authorities or leaders who were Jesus’ primary opponents. See also the note on the phrase “the Jewish leaders” in v. 1.

[7:14]  30 tn Grk “to the temple.”

[7:14]  31 tn Or “started teaching.” An ingressive sense for the imperfect verb (“began to teach” or “started teaching”) fits well here, since the context implies that Jesus did not start his teaching at the beginning of the festival, but began when it was about half over.

[7:15]  32 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” Here the phrase refers to the Jewish authorities or leaders who were Jesus’ primary opponents. See the note on the phrase “the Jewish leaders” in v. 1.

[7:15]  33 tn Or “began to be astonished.” This imperfect verb could also be translated ingressively (“began to be astonished”), but for English stylistic reasons it is rendered as a simple past.

[7:15]  34 tn Grk “How does this man know learning since he has not been taught?” The implication here is not that Jesus never went to school (in all probability he did attend a local synagogue school while a youth), but that he was not the disciple of a particular rabbi and had not had formal or advanced instruction under a recognized rabbi (compare Acts 4:13 where a similar charge is made against Peter and John; see also Paul’s comment in Acts 22:3).

[7:15]  sn He has never had formal instruction. Ironically when the Jewish leaders came face to face with the Word become flesh – the preexistent Logos, creator of the universe and divine Wisdom personified – they treated him as an untaught, unlearned person, without the formal qualifications to be a teacher.

[7:16]  35 tn Grk “So Jesus answered and said to them.”

[7:16]  36 tn The phrase “the one who sent me” refers to God.

[7:17]  37 tn Grk “his will.”

[7:17]  38 tn Grk “or whether I speak from myself.”

[7:18]  39 tn Grk “who speaks from himself.”

[7:18]  40 tn Or “seeks.”

[7:18]  41 tn Or “praise”; Grk “glory.”

[7:18]  42 tn Or “seeks.”

[7:18]  43 tn Or “praise”; Grk “glory.”

[7:18]  44 tn Or “is truthful”; Grk “is true.”

[7:19]  45 tn Or “accomplishes”; Grk “does.”

[7:19]  46 tn Grk “seek.”

[7:20]  47 tn Or “The common people” (as opposed to the religious authorities mentioned in 7:15).

[7:20]  48 tn Grk “You have a demon!”

[7:20]  49 tn Grk “Who is seeking to kill you?”

[7:20]  sn Who is trying to kill you? Many of the crowd (if they had come in from surrounding regions for the feast) probably were ignorant of any plot. The plot was on the part of the Jewish leaders. Note how carefully John distinguishes between the leadership and the general populace in their respective responses to Jesus.

[7:21]  50 tn Grk “Jesus answered and said to them.”

[7:21]  51 tn Grk “I did one deed.”

[7:21]  52 sn The “one miracle” that caused them all to be amazed was the last previous public miracle in Jerusalem recorded by the author, the healing of the paralyzed man in John 5:1-9 on the Sabbath. (The synoptic gospels record other Sabbath healings, but John does not mention them.)

[7:22]  53 tn Grk “gave you circumcision.”

[7:22]  54 tn Grk “a man.” While the text literally reads “circumcise a man” in actual fact the practice of circumcising male infants on the eighth day after birth (see Phil 3:5) is primarily what is in view here.

[7:23]  55 tn Grk “a man.” See the note on “male child” in the previous verse.

[7:23]  56 tn Grk “receives circumcision.”

[7:23]  57 sn If a male child is circumcised on the Sabbath so that the law of Moses is not broken. The Rabbis counted 248 parts to a man’s body. In the Talmud (b. Yoma 85b) R. Eleazar ben Azariah (ca. a.d. 100) states: “If circumcision, which attaches to one only of the 248 members of the human body, suspends the Sabbath, how much more shall the saving of the whole body suspend the Sabbath?” So absolutely binding did rabbinic Judaism regard the command of Lev 12:3 to circumcise on the eighth day, that in the Mishnah m. Shabbat 18.3; 19.1, 2; and m. Nedarim 3.11 all hold that the command to circumcise overrides the command to observe the Sabbath.

[7:23]  58 tn Or “made an entire man well.”

[7:24]  59 tn Or “based on sight.”

[7:24]  60 tn Or “honest”; Grk “righteous.”

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