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Mikha 4:1--5:15

Konteks
Better Days Ahead for Jerusalem

4:1 In the future 1  the Lord’s Temple Mount will be the most important mountain of all; 2 

it will be more prominent than other hills. 3 

People will stream to it.

4:2 Many nations will come, saying,

“Come on! Let’s go up to the Lord’s mountain,

to the temple 4  of Jacob’s God,

so he can teach us his commands 5 

and we can live by his laws.” 6 

For Zion will be the source of instruction;

the Lord’s teachings will proceed from Jerusalem. 7 

4:3 He will arbitrate 8  between many peoples

and settle disputes between many 9  distant nations. 10 

They will beat their swords into plowshares, 11 

and their spears into pruning hooks. 12 

Nations will not use weapons 13  against other nations,

and they will no longer train for war.

4:4 Each will sit under his own grapevine

or under his own fig tree without any fear. 14 

The Lord who commands armies has decreed it. 15 

4:5 Though all the nations follow their respective gods, 16 

we will follow 17  the Lord our God forever.

Restoration Will Follow Crisis

4:6 “In that day,” says the Lord, “I will gather the lame,

and assemble the outcasts whom I injured. 18 

4:7 I will transform the lame into the nucleus of a new nation, 19 

and those far off 20  into a mighty nation.

The Lord will reign over them on Mount Zion,

from that day forward and forevermore.” 21 

4:8 As for you, watchtower for the flock, 22 

fortress of Daughter Zion 23 

your former dominion will be restored, 24 

the sovereignty that belongs to Daughter Jerusalem.

4:9 Jerusalem, why are you 25  now shouting so loudly? 26 

Has your king disappeared? 27 

Has your wise leader 28  been destroyed?

Is this why 29  pain grips 30  you as if you were a woman in labor?

4:10 Twist and strain, 31  Daughter Zion, as if you were in labor!

For you will leave the city

and live in the open field.

You will go to Babylon,

but there you will be rescued.

There the Lord will deliver 32  you

from the power 33  of your enemies.

4:11 Many nations have now assembled against you.

They say, “Jerusalem must be desecrated, 34 

so we can gloat over Zion!” 35 

4:12 But they do not know what the Lord is planning;

they do not understand his strategy.

He has gathered them like stalks of grain to be threshed 36  at the threshing floor.

4:13 “Get up and thresh, Daughter Zion!

For I will give you iron horns; 37 

I will give you bronze hooves,

and you will crush many nations.” 38 

You will devote to the Lord the spoils you take from them,

and dedicate their wealth to the sovereign Ruler 39  of the whole earth. 40 

5:1 (4:14) 41  But now slash yourself, 42  daughter surrounded by soldiers! 43 

We are besieged!

With a scepter 44  they strike Israel’s ruler 45 

on the side of his face.

A King Will Come and a Remnant Will Prosper

5:2 (5:1) As for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, 46 

seemingly insignificant 47  among the clans of Judah –

from you a king will emerge who will rule over Israel on my behalf, 48 

one whose origins 49  are in the distant past. 50 

5:3 So the Lord 51  will hand the people of Israel 52  over to their enemies 53 

until the time when the woman in labor 54  gives birth. 55 

Then the rest of the king’s 56  countrymen will return

to be reunited with the people of Israel. 57 

5:4 He will assume his post 58  and shepherd the people 59  by the Lord’s strength,

by the sovereign authority of the Lord his God. 60 

They will live securely, 61  for at that time he will be honored 62 

even in the distant regions of 63  the earth.

5:5 He will give us peace. 64 

Should the Assyrians try to invade our land

and attempt to set foot in our fortresses, 65 

we will send 66  against them seven 67  shepherd-rulers, 68 

make that eight commanders. 69 

5:6 They will rule 70  the land of Assyria with the sword,

the land of Nimrod 71  with a drawn sword. 72 

Our king 73  will rescue us from the Assyrians

should they attempt to invade our land

and try to set foot in our territory.

5:7 Those survivors from 74  Jacob will live 75 

in the midst of many nations. 76 

They will be like the dew the Lord sends,

like the rain on the grass,

that does not hope for men to come

or wait around for humans to arrive. 77 

5:8 Those survivors from Jacob will live among the nations,

in the midst of many peoples.

They will be like a lion among the animals of the forest,

like a young lion among the flocks of sheep,

which attacks when it passes through;

it rips its prey 78  and there is no one to stop it. 79 

5:9 Lift your hand triumphantly against your adversaries; 80 

may all your enemies be destroyed! 81 

The Lord Will Purify His People

5:10 “In that day,” says the Lord,

“I will destroy 82  your horses from your midst,

and smash your chariots.

5:11 I will destroy the cities of your land,

and tear down all your fortresses.

5:12 I will remove the sorcery 83  that you practice, 84 

and you will no longer have omen readers living among you. 85 

5:13 I will remove your idols and sacred pillars from your midst;

you will no longer worship what your own hands made.

5:14 I will uproot your images of Asherah 86  from your midst,

and destroy your idols. 87 

5:15 I will angrily seek vengeance

on the nations that do not obey me.” 88 

Seret untuk mengatur ukuranSeret untuk mengatur ukuran

[4:1]  1 tn Heb “at the end of days.”

[4:1]  2 tn Heb “will be established as the head of the mountains.”

[4:1]  3 tn Heb “it will be lifted up above the hills.”

[4:2]  4 tn Heb “house.”

[4:2]  5 tn Heb “ways.”

[4:2]  6 tn Heb “and we can walk in his paths.”

[4:2]  7 tn Heb “instruction [or, “law”] will go out from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.”

[4:2]  map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[4:3]  8 tn Or “judge.”

[4:3]  9 tn Or “mighty” (NASB); KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV “strong”; TEV “among the great powers.”

[4:3]  10 tn Heb “[for many nations] to a distance.”

[4:3]  11 sn Instead of referring to the large plow as a whole, the plowshare is simply the metal tip which actually breaks the earth and cuts the furrow.

[4:3]  12 sn This implement was used to prune the vines, i.e., to cut off extra leaves and young shoots (M. Klingbeil, NIDOTTE 1:1117-18). It was a short knife with a curved hook at the end sharpened on the inside like a sickle.

[4:3]  13 tn Heb “take up the sword.”

[4:4]  14 tn Heb “and there will be no one making [him] afraid.”

[4:4]  15 tn Heb “for the mouth of the Lord of Hosts has spoken.”

[4:5]  16 tn Heb “walk each in the name of his god.” The term “name” here has the idea of “authority.” To “walk in the name” of a god is to recognize the god’s authority as binding over one’s life.

[4:5]  17 tn Heb “walk in the name of.”

[4:6]  18 sn The exiles of the nation are compared to lame and injured sheep.

[4:7]  19 tn Heb “make the lame into a remnant.”

[4:7]  20 tn The precise meaning of this difficult form is uncertain. The present translation assumes the form is a Niphal participle of an otherwise unattested denominative verb הָלָא (hala’, “to be far off”; see BDB 229 s.v.), but attractive emendations include הַנַּחֲלָה (hannakhalah, “the sick one[s]”) from חָלָה (khalah) and הַנִּלְאָה (hannilah, “the weary one[s]”) from לָאָה (laah).

[4:7]  21 tn Heb “from now until forever.”

[4:8]  22 tn Heb “Migdal-eder.” Some English versions transliterate this phrase, apparently because they view it as a place name (cf. NAB).

[4:8]  23 sn The city of David, located within Jerusalem, is addressed as Daughter Zion. As the home of the Davidic king, who was Israel’s shepherd (Ps 78:70-72), the royal citadel could be viewed metaphorically as the watchtower of the flock.

[4:8]  24 tn Heb “to you it will come, the former dominion will arrive.”

[4:9]  25 tn The Hebrew form is feminine singular, indicating that Jerusalem, personified as a young woman, is now addressed (see v. 10). In v. 8 the tower/fortress was addressed with masculine forms, so there is clearly a shift in addressee here. “Jerusalem” has been supplied in the translation at the beginning of v. 9 to make this shift apparent.

[4:9]  26 tn Heb “Now why are you shouting [with] a shout.”

[4:9]  27 tn Heb “Is there no king over you?”

[4:9]  28 tn Traditionally, “counselor” (cf. KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the king mentioned in the previous line; the title points to the king’s roles as chief strategist and policy maker, both of which required extraordinary wisdom.

[4:9]  29 tn Heb “that.” The Hebrew particle כִּי (ki) is used here in a resultative sense; for this use see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 73, §450.

[4:9]  30 tn Heb “grabs hold of, seizes.”

[4:10]  31 tn Or perhaps “scream”; NRSV, TEV, NLT “groan.”

[4:10]  32 tn Or “redeem” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

[4:10]  33 tn Heb “hand.” The Hebrew idiom is a metonymy for power or control.

[4:11]  34 tn Heb “let her be desecrated.” the referent (Jerusalem) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[4:11]  35 tn Heb “and let our eye look upon Zion.”

[4:12]  36 tn The words “to be threshed” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation to make it clear that the Lord is planning to enable “Daughter Zion” to “thresh” her enemies.

[4:13]  37 tn Heb “I will make your horn iron.”

[4:13]  38 sn Jerusalem (Daughter Zion at the beginning of the verse; cf. 4:8) is here compared to a powerful ox which crushes the grain on the threshing floor with its hooves.

[4:13]  39 tn Or “the Lord” (so many English versions); Heb “the master.”

[4:13]  40 tn Heb “and their wealth to the master of all the earth.” The verb “devote” does double duty in the parallelism and is supplied in the second line for clarification.

[4:13]  sn In vv. 11-13 the prophet jumps from the present crisis (which will result in exile, v. 10) to a time beyond the restoration of the exiles when God will protect his city from invaders. The Lord’s victory over the Assyrian armies in 701 b.c. foreshadowed this.

[5:1]  41 sn Beginning with 5:1, the verse numbers through 5:15 in the English Bible differ by one from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 5:1 ET = 4:14 HT, 5:2 ET = 5:1 HT, 5:3 ET = 5:2 HT, etc., through 5:15 ET = 5:14 HT. From 6:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.

[5:1]  42 tn The Hebrew verb גָדַד (gadad) can be translated “slash yourself” or “gather in troops.” A number of English translations are based on the latter meaning (e.g., NASB, NIV, NLT).

[5:1]  sn Slash yourself. Slashing one’s body was a form of mourning. See Deut 14:1; 1 Kgs 18:28; Jer 16:6; 41:5; 47:5.

[5:1]  43 tn Heb “daughter of a troop of warriors.”

[5:1]  sn The daughter surrounded by soldiers is an image of the city of Jerusalem under siege (note the address “Daughter Jerusalem” in 4:8).

[5:1]  44 tn Or “staff”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “rod”; CEV “stick”; NCV “club.”

[5:1]  sn Striking a king with a scepter, a symbol of rulership, would be especially ironic and humiliating.

[5:1]  45 tn Traditionally, “the judge of Israel” (so KJV, NASB).

[5:2]  46 sn Ephrathah is either an alternate name for Bethlehem or the name of the district in which Bethlehem was located. See Ruth 4:11.

[5:2]  map For location of Bethlehem see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

[5:2]  47 tn Heb “being small.” Some omit לִהְיוֹת (lihyot, “being”) because it fits awkwardly and appears again in the next line.

[5:2]  48 tn Heb “from you for me one will go out to be a ruler over Israel.”

[5:2]  49 tn Heb “his goings out.” The term may refer to the ruler’s origins (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) or to his activities.

[5:2]  50 tn Heb “from the past, from the days of antiquity.” Elsewhere both phrases refer to the early periods in the history of the world or of the nation of Israel. For מִקֶּדֶם (miqqedem, “from the past”) see Neh 12:46; Pss 74:12; 77:11; Isa 45:21; 46:10. For מִימֵי עוֹלָם (mimeyolam, “from the days of antiquity”) see Isa 63:9, 11; Amos 9:11; Mic 7:14; Mal 3:4. In Neh 12:46 and Amos 9:11 the Davidic era is in view.

[5:2]  sn In riddle-like fashion this verse alludes to David, as the references to Bethlehem and to his ancient origins/activities indicate. The passage anticipates the second coming of the great king to usher in a new era of national glory for Israel. Other prophets are more direct and name this coming ideal ruler “David” (Jer 30:9; Ezek 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Hos 3:5). Of course, this prophecy of “David’s” second coming is actually fulfilled through his descendant, the Messiah, who will rule in the spirit and power of his famous ancestor and bring to realization the Davidic royal ideal in an even greater way than the historical David (see Isa 11:1, 10; Jer 33:15).

[5:3]  51 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[5:3]  52 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the people of Israel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[5:3]  53 tn The words “to their enemies” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[5:3]  54 sn The woman in labor. Personified, suffering Jerusalem is the referent. See 4:9-10.

[5:3]  55 sn Gives birth. The point of the figurative language is that Jerusalem finally finds relief from her suffering. See 4:10.

[5:3]  56 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[5:3]  57 tn Heb “to the sons of Israel.” The words “be reunited with” are supplied in the translation for clarity.

[5:3]  sn The rest of the king’s brothers are the coming king’s fellow Judahites, while the sons of Israel are the northern tribes. The verse pictures the reunification of the nation under the Davidic king. See Isa 11:12-13; Jer 31:2-6, 15-20; Ezek 37; Hos 1:11; 3:5.

[5:4]  58 tn Heb “stand up”; NAB “stand firm”; NASB “will arise.”

[5:4]  59 tn The words “the people” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[5:4]  60 tn Heb “by the majesty of the name of the Lord his God.”

[5:4]  61 tn The words “in peace” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Perhaps וְיָשָׁבוּ (vÿyashavu, “and they will live”) should be emended to וְשָׁבוּ (vÿshavu, “and they will return”).

[5:4]  62 tn Heb “be great.”

[5:4]  63 tn Or “to the ends of.”

[5:5]  64 tn Heb “and this one will be peace”; ASV “and this man shall be our peace” (cf. Eph 2:14).

[5:5]  65 tc Some prefer to read “in our land,” emending the text to בְּאַדְמָתֵנוּ (bÿadmatenu).

[5:5]  66 tn Heb “raise up.”

[5:5]  67 sn The numbers seven and eight here symbolize completeness and emphasize that Israel will have more than enough military leadership and strength to withstand the Assyrian advance.

[5:5]  68 tn Heb “shepherds.”

[5:5]  69 tn Heb “and eight leaders of men.”

[5:6]  70 tn Or perhaps “break”; or “defeat.”

[5:6]  71 sn According to Gen 10:8-12, Nimrod, who was famous as a warrior and hunter, founded Assyria.

[5:6]  72 tc The MT reads “in her gates,” but the text should be emended to בַּפְּתִיחָה (baptikhah, “with a drawn sword”).

[5:6]  73 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the coming king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[5:7]  74 tn Heb “the remnant of” (also in v. 8).

[5:7]  75 tn Heb “will be.”

[5:7]  76 tn This could mean “(scattered) among the nations” (cf. CEV, NLT) or “surrounded by many nations” (cf. NRSV).

[5:7]  77 tn Heb “that does not hope for man, and does not wait for the sons of men.”

[5:7]  sn Men wait eagerly for the dew and the rain, not vice versa. Just as the dew and rain are subject to the Lord, not men, so the remnant of Israel will succeed by the supernatural power of God and not need the support of other nations. There may even be a military metaphor here. Israel will overwhelm their enemies, just as the dew completely covers the grass (see 2 Sam 17:12). This interpretation would be consistent with the image of v. 7.

[5:8]  78 tn The words “its prey” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[5:8]  79 tn Heb “and there is no deliverer.”

[5:9]  80 tn Heb “let your hand be lifted against your adversaries.”

[5:9]  81 tn Heb “be cut off.”

[5:10]  82 tn Heb “cut off” (also in the following verse).

[5:12]  83 tn Heb “magic charms” (so NCV, TEV); NIV, NLT “witchcraft”; NAB “the means of divination.” The precise meaning of this Hebrew word is uncertain, but note its use in Isa 47:9, 12.

[5:12]  84 tn Heb “from your hands.”

[5:12]  85 tn Heb “and you will not have omen-readers.”

[5:14]  86 tn Or “Asherah poles.”

[5:14]  sn Asherah was a leading deity of the Canaanite pantheon, wife/sister of El and goddess of fertility. She was commonly worshiped at shrines in or near groves of evergreen trees, or, failing that, at places marked by wooden poles. These were to be burned or cut down (Deut 12:3; 16:21; Judg 6:25, 28, 30; 2 Kgs 18:4). The Lord states that he will destroy these images, something the Israelites themselves should have done but failed to do.

[5:14]  87 tn The MT reads “your cities,” but many emend the text to צִרֶיךָ (tsirekha, “your images”) or עֲצַבֶּיךָ (’atsbbekha, “your idols”).

[5:15]  88 tn Heb “I will accomplish in anger and in rage, vengeance on the nations who do not listen.”



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