18:3 David defeated King Hadadezer of Zobah as far as Hamath, when he went to extend his authority 4 to the Euphrates River. 5 18:4 David seized from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 charioteers, 6 and 20,000 infantrymen. David cut the hamstrings of all but a hundred of Hadadezer’s 7 chariot horses. 8 18:5 The Arameans of Damascus came to help King Hadadezer of Zobah, but David killed 22,000 of the Arameans. 18:6 David placed garrisons in the territory of the Arameans of Damascus; 9 the Arameans became David’s subjects and brought tribute. The Lord protected 10 David wherever he campaigned. 11 18:7 David took the golden shields which Hadadezer’s servants had carried 12 and brought them to Jerusalem. 13 18:8 From Tibhath 14 and Kun, 15 Hadadezer’s cities, David took a great deal of bronze. (Solomon used it to make the big bronze basin called “The Sea,” 16 the pillars, and other bronze items.
18:9 When King Tou 17 of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, 18:10 he sent his son Hadoram 18 to King David to extend his best wishes 19 and to pronounce a blessing on him for his victory over Hadadezer, for Tou had been at war with Hadadezer. 20 He also sent various items made of gold, silver, and bronze. 21 18:11 King David dedicated these things to the Lord, 22 along with the silver and gold which he had carried off from all the nations, including 23 Edom, 24 Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.
18:12 Abishai son of Zeruiah 25 killed 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt. 18:13 He placed garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David’s subjects. The Lord protected 26 David wherever he campaigned. 27
18:14 David reigned over all Israel; he guaranteed justice for all his people. 28 18:15 Joab son of Zeruiah was commanding general of 29 the army; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was secretary; 18:16 Zadok son of Ahitub and Abimelech son of Abiathar were priests; Shavsha 30 was scribe; 18:17 Benaiah son of Jehoiada supervised 31 the Kerethites and Pelethites; and David’s sons were the king’s leading officials. 32
[18:3] 5 tn Heb “when he went to set up his hand at the Euphrates River.” The Hebrew word יָד (yad, “hand”) is usually understood to mean “control” or “dominion” here. However, since יָד does occasionally refer to a monument, perhaps one could translate, “to set up his monument at the Euphrates River” (i.e., as a visible marker of the limits of his dominion). For another example of the Hiphil of נָצַב (natsav) used with יָד (“monument”), see 1 Sam 15:12.
[18:6] 9 tc Heb “and David placed in Aram of Damascus.” The object נְצִיבִים (nÿtsivim, “garrisons”) appears to have been accidentally omitted from the text. See v. 13, as well as the parallel passage in 2 Sam 8:6, which includes it.
[18:8] 14 tn The MT reads “Tibhath” here, a variant name for Tebah (cf. 2 Sam 8:8). Some English translations substitute the other version of the name here (e.g., NIV, NLT), while others follow the reading of the Hebrew text at this point (e.g., NAB, NASB, NRSV).