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1 Tawarikh 11:1--13:14

David Becomes King

11:1 All Israel joined David at Hebron and said, “Look, we are your very flesh and blood! 1  11:2 In the past, even when Saul was king, you were Israel’s commanding general. 2  The Lord your God said to you, ‘You will shepherd my people Israel; you will rule over my people Israel.’” 11:3 When all the leaders 3  of Israel came to the king at Hebron, David made an agreement 4  with them in Hebron before the Lord. They anointed 5  David king over Israel, just as the Lord had announced through Samuel. 6 

David Conquers Jerusalem

11:4 David and the whole Israelite army 7  advanced to Jerusalem (that is, Jebus). 8  (The Jebusites, the land’s original inhabitants, lived there.) 9  11:5 The residents of Jebus said to David, “You cannot invade this place!” But David captured the fortress of Zion (that is, the City of David). 11:6 10  David said, “Whoever attacks 11  the Jebusites first will become commanding general!” 12  So Joab son of Zeruiah attacked 13  first and became commander. 14  11:7 David lived in the fortress; for this reason it is called the City of David. 11:8 He built up the city around it, from the terrace to the surrounding walls; 15  Joab restored the rest of the city. 11:9 David’s power steadily grew, for the Lord who commands armies was with him. 16 

David’s Warriors

11:10 These were the leaders of David’s warriors who helped establish and stabilize his rule over all Israel, in accordance with the Lord’s word. 17  11:11 This is the list of David’s warriors: 18 

Jashobeam, a Hacmonite, was head of the officers. 19  He killed three hundred men with his spear in a single battle. 20 

11:12 Next in command 21  was Eleazar son of Dodo the Ahohite. He was one of the three elite warriors. 11:13 He was with David in Pas Dammim 22  when the Philistines assembled there for battle. In an area of the field that was full of barley, the army retreated before the Philistines, 11:14 but then they made a stand in the middle of that area. They defended it 23  and defeated the Philistines; the Lord gave them a great victory. 24 

11:15 Three of the thirty leaders went down to David at the rocky cliff at the cave of Adullam, while a Philistine force was camped in the Valley of Rephaim. 11:16 David was in the stronghold at the time, while a Philistine garrison was in Bethlehem. 25  11:17 David was thirsty and said, “How I wish someone would give me some water to drink 26  from the cistern in Bethlehem near the city gate!” 11:18 So the three elite warriors 27  broke through the Philistine forces and drew some water from the cistern in Bethlehem near the city gate. They carried it back to David, but David refused to drink it. He poured it out as a drink offering to the Lord 11:19 and said, “God forbid that I should do this! 28  Should I drink the blood of these men who risked their lives?” 29  Because they risked their lives to bring it to him, he refused to drink it. Such were the exploits of the three elite warriors. 30 

11:20 Abishai the brother of Joab was head of the three 31  elite warriors. He killed three hundred men with his spear 32  and gained fame along with the three elite warriors. 33  11:21 From 34  the three he was given double honor and he became their officer, even though he was not one of them. 35 

11:22 Benaiah son of Jehoiada was a brave warrior from Kabzeel who performed great exploits. He struck down the two sons of Ariel of Moab; 36  he also went down and killed a lion inside a cistern on a snowy day. 11:23 He even killed an Egyptian who was seven and a half feet 37  tall. The Egyptian had a spear as big as the crossbeam of a weaver’s loom; Benaiah attacked 38  him with a club. He grabbed the spear out of the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear. 11:24 Such were the exploits of Benaiah son of Jehoiada, who gained fame along with the three elite warriors. 11:25 He received honor from 39  the thirty warriors, though he was not one of the three elite warriors. David put him in charge of his bodyguard.

11:26 The mighty warriors were:

Asahel the brother of Joab,

Elhanan son of Dodo, from Bethlehem, 40 

11:27 Shammoth the Harorite, 41 

Helez the Pelonite, 42 

11:28 Ira son of Ikkesh the Tekoite,

Abiezer the Anathothite,

11:29 Sibbekai 43  the Hushathite,

Ilai 44  the Ahohite,

11:30 Maharai the Netophathite,

Heled son of Baanah the Netophathite,

11:31 Ithai 45  son of Ribai from Gibeah in Benjaminite territory,

Benaiah the Pirathonite,

11:32 Hurai 46  from the valleys of Gaash,

Abiel 47  the Arbathite,

11:33 Azmaveth the Baharumite, 48 

Eliahba the Shaalbonite,

11:34 the sons of Hashem 49  the Gizonite,

Jonathan son of Shageh 50  the Hararite,

11:35 Ahiam son of Sakar 51  the Hararite,

Eliphal son of Ur, 52 

11:36 Hepher the Mekerathite,

Ahijah the Pelonite,

11:37 Hezro 53  the Carmelite,

Naarai son of Ezbai,

11:38 Joel the brother of Nathan, 54 

Mibhar son of Hagri,

11:39 Zelek the Ammonite,

Naharai the Beerothite, the armor-bearer of Joab son of Zeruiah,

11:40 Ira the Ithrite,

Gareb the Ithrite,

11:41 Uriah the Hittite,

Zabad son of Achli,

11:42 Adina son of Shiza the Reubenite, leader of the Reubenites and the thirty warriors with him,

11:43 Hanan son of Maacah,

Joshaphat the Mithnite,

11:44 Uzzia the Ashterathite,

Shama and Jeiel, the sons of Hotham the Aroerite,

11:45 Jediael son of Shimri,

and Joha his brother, the Tizite,

11:46 Eliel the Mahavite,

and Jeribai and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam,

and Ithmah the Moabite,

11:47 Eliel,

and Obed,

and Jaasiel the Mezobaite.

Warriors Who Joined David at Ziklag

12:1 These were the men who joined David in Ziklag, when he was banished 55  from the presence of Saul son of Kish. (They were among the warriors who assisted him in battle. 12:2 They were armed with bows and could shoot arrows or sling stones right or left-handed. They were fellow tribesmen of Saul from Benjamin. 56 ) These were: 57 

12:3 Ahiezer, the leader, and Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite; Jeziel and Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth;


Jehu the Anathothite,

12:4 Ishmaiah the Gibeonite, one of the thirty warriors and their leader,


58 Jeremiah,



Jozabad the Gederathite,

12:5 (12:6) Eluzai,




Shephatiah the Haruphite,

12:6 Elkanah, Isshiah, Azarel, Joezer, and Jashobeam, who were Korahites,

12:7 and Joelah and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham from Gedor.

12:8 Some of the Gadites joined David at the stronghold in the desert. They were warriors who were trained for battle; they carried shields and spears. They were as fierce as lions and could run as quickly as gazelles across the hills. 59  12:9 Ezer was the leader, Obadiah the second in command, Eliab the third, 12:10 Mishmannah the fourth, Jeremiah the fifth, 12:11 Attai the sixth, Eliel the seventh, 12:12 Johanan the eighth, Elzabad the ninth, 12:13 Jeremiah the tenth, and Machbannai the eleventh. 12:14 These Gadites were military leaders; the least led a hundred men, the greatest a thousand. 60  12:15 They crossed the Jordan River 61  in the first month, 62  when it was overflowing its banks, and routed those living in all the valleys to the east and west. 63 

12:16 Some from Benjamin and Judah also came to David’s stronghold. 12:17 David went out to meet them and said, 64  “If you come to me in peace and want to help me, then I will make an alliance with you. 65  But if you come to betray me to my enemies when I have not harmed you, 66  may the God of our ancestors 67  take notice and judge!” 12:18 But a spirit 68  empowered 69  Amasai, the leader of the thirty warriors, and he said: 70 

“We are yours, O David!

We support 71  you, O son of Jesse!

May you greatly prosper! 72 

May those who help you prosper! 73 

Indeed 74  your God helps you!”

So David accepted them and made them leaders of raiding bands.

12:19 Some men from Manasseh joined 75  David when he went with the Philistines to fight against Saul. (But in the end they did not help the Philistines because, after taking counsel, the Philistine lords sent David away, saying: “It would be disastrous for us if he deserts to his master Saul.”) 76  12:20 When David 77  went to Ziklag, the men of Manasseh who joined him were Adnach, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, leaders of a thousand soldiers each in the tribe of Manasseh. 12:21 They helped David fight against raiding bands, for all of them were warriors and leaders in the army. 12:22 Each day men came to help David until his army became very large. 78 

Support for David in Hebron

12:23 The following is a record of the armed warriors who came with their leaders and joined David in Hebron in order to make David king in Saul’s place, in accordance with the Lord’s decree: 79 

12:24 From Judah came 6,800 trained warriors carrying shields and spears. 80 

12:25 From Simeon there were 7,100 warriors.

12:26 From Levi there were 4,600. 12:27 Jehoiada, the leader of Aaron’s descendants, brought 3,700 men with him, 12:28 along with Zadok, a young warrior, and twenty-two leaders from his family.

12:29 From Benjamin, Saul’s tribe, 81  there were 3,000, most of whom, up to that time, had been loyal to Saul. 82 

12:30 From Ephraim there were 20,800 warriors, who had brought fame to their families. 83 

12:31 From the half tribe of Manasseh there were 18,000 who had been designated by name to come and make David king.

12:32 From Issachar there were 200 leaders and all their relatives at their command – they understood the times and knew what Israel should do. 84 

12:33 From Zebulun there were 50,000 warriors who were prepared for battle, equipped with all kinds of weapons, and ready to give their undivided loyalty. 85 

12:34 From Naphtali there were 1,000 officers, along with 37,000 men carrying shields and spears.

12:35 From Dan there were 28,600 men prepared for battle.

12:36 From Asher there were 40,000 warriors prepared for battle.

12:37 From the other side of the Jordan, from Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, there were 120,000 men armed with all kinds of weapons.

12:38 All these men were warriors who were ready to march. 86  They came to Hebron to make David king over all Israel by acclamation; 87  all the rest of the Israelites also were in agreement that David should become king. 88  12:39 They spent three days feasting 89  there with David, for their relatives had given them provisions. 12:40 Also their neighbors, from as far away as Issachar, Zebulun, and Naphtali, were bringing food on donkeys, camels, mules, and oxen. There were large supplies of flour, fig cakes, raisins, wine, olive oil, beef, and lamb, 90  for Israel was celebrating. 91 

Uzzah Meets Disaster

13:1 David consulted with his military officers, including those who led groups of a thousand and those who led groups of a hundred. 92  13:2 David said to the whole Israelite assembly, “If you so desire and the Lord our God approves, 93  let’s spread the word 94  to our brothers who remain in all the regions of Israel, and to the priests and Levites in their cities, 95  so they may join us. 13:3 Let’s move the ark of our God back here, 96  for we did not seek his will 97  throughout Saul’s reign.” 98  13:4 The whole assembly agreed to do this, 99  for the proposal seemed right to all the people. 100  13:5 So David assembled all Israel from the Shihor River 101  in Egypt to Lebo Hamath, 102  to bring the ark of God from Kiriath Jearim. 13:6 David and all Israel went up to Baalah (that is, Kiriath Jearim) in Judah to bring up from there the ark of God the Lord, who sits enthroned between the cherubim – the ark that is called by his name. 103 

13:7 They transported the ark on a new cart from the house of Abinadab; Uzzah and Ahio were guiding the cart, 13:8 while David and all Israel were energetically 104  celebrating before God, singing and playing various stringed instruments, 105  tambourines, cymbals, and trumpets. 13:9 When they arrived at the threshing floor of Kidon, Uzzah reached out his hand to take hold of 106  the ark, because the oxen stumbled. 13:10 The Lord was so furious with Uzzah, 107  he killed him, because he reached out his hand and touched the ark. 108  He died right there before God. 109 

13:11 David was angry because the Lord attacked Uzzah; 110  so he called that place Perez Uzzah, 111  which remains its name to this very day. 13:12 David was afraid of God that day and said, “How will I ever be able to bring the ark of God up here?” 13:13 So David did not move the ark to the City of David; 112  he left it in the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite. 13:14 The ark of God remained in Obed-Edom’s house for three months; the Lord blessed Obed-Edom’s family and everything that belonged to him.

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[11:1]  1 tn Heb “look, your bone and your flesh [are] we.”

[11:2]  2 tn Heb “you were the one who led out and the one who brought in Israel.”

[11:3]  3 tn Heb “elders.”

[11:3]  4 tn Or “covenant.”

[11:3]  5 tn Or “They poured olive oil on David to designate him as king.”

[11:3]  6 tn Heb “according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Samuel.”

[11:4]  7 tn Heb “all Israel.”

[11:4]  8 sn Jebus was an older name for the city of Jerusalem (cf. Josh 15:8; Judg 1:21).

[11:4]  map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[11:4]  9 tn Heb “and there [were] the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land.”

[11:6]  10 sn Verse 6 inserts into the narrative parenthetical information about Joab’s role in the conquest of the city. Verse 7 then picks up where v. 5 left off.

[11:6]  11 tn Or perhaps “strikes down.”

[11:6]  12 tn Heb “head and officer.”

[11:6]  13 tn Heb “went up.”

[11:6]  14 tn Heb “head.”

[11:8]  15 tn Heb “to that which surrounds.” On the referent here as “the surrounding walls,” see HALOT 740 s.v. סָבִיב.

[11:9]  16 tn Heb “and David went, going and becoming great, and the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, Lord of hosts] was with him.”

[11:10]  17 tn Heb “and these were the heads of the warriors who were David’s, who held strongly with him in his kingdom and with all Israel to make him king, according to the word of the Lord, over Israel.”

[11:11]  18 tn Heb “and these are the number of the warriors who were David’s.”

[11:11]  19 tc The marginal reading (Qere) has “officers;” the consonantal text (Kethib) has “the Thirty” (see v. 15).

[11:11]  20 tn Heb “he was wielding his spear against 300, [who were] slain at one time.”

[11:12]  21 tn Heb “after him.”

[11:13]  22 tc Some read here “Ephes Dammim.” See 1 Sam 17:1.

[11:14]  23 tn Heb “delivered it.”

[11:14]  24 tn Heb “and the Lord delivered [with] a great deliverance.”

[11:16]  25 map For location see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

[11:17]  26 tn Heb “Who will give me water to drink?” On the rhetorical use of מִי (mi) here, see BDB 566 s.v. f.

[11:18]  27 tn Heb “the three,” referring to the three elite warriors mentioned in v. 12.

[11:19]  28 tn Heb “Far be it to me from my God from doing this.”

[11:19]  29 tn Heb “with their lives.” The same expression occurs later in this verse.

[11:19]  30 tn Heb “These things the three warriors did.”

[11:20]  31 tc The Syriac reads “thirty” here and at the beginning of v. 21; this reading is followed by some English translations (cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT).

[11:20]  32 tn Heb “he was wielding his spear against three hundred, [who were] slain.”

[11:20]  33 tn Heb “and to him [reading with the Qere] there was a name among the three.”

[11:21]  34 tn Or “more than.”

[11:21]  35 tn Heb “of the three.”

[11:22]  36 tc Heb “the two of Ariel, Moab.” The precise meaning of אֲרִיאֵל (’ariel) is uncertain; some read “warrior.” The present translation assumes that the word is a proper name and that בְּנֵי (bÿney, “sons of”) has accidentally dropped from the text by homoioarcton (note the preceding שְׁנֵי, shÿney).

[11:23]  37 tn Heb “five cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, this individual would be 7.5 feet (2.3 m) tall.

[11:23]  38 tn Heb “went down to.”

[11:25]  39 tn Or “more than.”

[11:26]  40 map For location see Map5 B1; Map7 E2; Map8 E2; Map10 B4.

[11:27]  41 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:25 has the variant spelling of “Shammah.”

[11:27]  42 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:26 has the variant spelling of “Paltite.”

[11:29]  43 tn In 2 Sam 23:27 this individual’s name is given as “Mebunnai.”

[11:29]  44 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:28 has the variant “Zalmon.”

[11:31]  45 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:29 has the variant spelling “Ittai.”

[11:32]  46 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:28 has the variant spelling “Hiddai.”

[11:32]  47 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:31 has the variant spelling “Abi-Albon.”

[11:33]  48 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:31 has the variant spelling “Barhumite.”

[11:34]  49 tn In 2 Sam 23:32 this individual’s name is given as “Jashen.”

[11:34]  50 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:33 has the variant spelling “Shammah.”

[11:35]  51 tn In 2 Sam 23:33 this individual’s name is given as “Sharar.”

[11:35]  52 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:34 has the variant “Eliphelet son of Ahasbai the Maacathite.”

[11:37]  53 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:35 has the variant spelling “Hezrai.”

[11:38]  54 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 23:36 has the variant “Igal son of Nathan from Zobah.”

[12:1]  55 tn Heb “kept from.”

[12:2]  56 tn Heb “ones armed with bow[s], using the right hand and the left hand with stones and with arrows with the bow, from the brothers of Saul from Benjamin.”

[12:2]  57 tn The words “These were” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons, because of the length of the intervening material since the beginning of the verse.

[12:4]  58 sn In the Hebrew text (BHS) a verse division occurs at this point, and for the remainder of the chapter the verse numbers of the Hebrew Bible differ by one from the English Bible. Thus 1 Chr 12:4b ET = 12:5 HT, and 12:5-40 ET = 12:6-41 HT. Beginning with 13:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.

[12:8]  59 tn Heb “warriors, men of battle for war, prepared with shield and spear, and [like] the face of a lion were their faces, and like gazelles on the hills to hurry.”

[12:14]  60 tn Heb “one for a hundred the small, and the great for a thousand.” Another option is to translate the preposition -לְ (lamed) as “against” and to understand this as a hyperbolic reference to their prowess: “the least could stand against a hundred, the greatest against a thousand.”

[12:15]  61 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied for clarity.

[12:15]  62 sn That is, March-April.

[12:15]  63 tn Heb “and they chased all the valleys to the east and to the west.”

[12:17]  64 tn Heb “and David went out before them and answered and said to them.”

[12:17]  65 tn Heb “there will be to me concerning you a heart for unity.”

[12:17]  66 tn Heb “with no violence in my hands.”

[12:17]  67 tn Heb “fathers.”

[12:18]  68 tn Perhaps “the Spirit,” but the text has simply רוּחַ (ruakh) with no article (suggesting an indefinite reference).

[12:18]  69 tn Heb “clothed.”

[12:18]  70 tn The words “and he said” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.

[12:18]  71 tn Heb “are with.”

[12:18]  72 tn Heb “Peace, peace to you.” The Hebrew term שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) is repeated to emphasize degree.

[12:18]  73 tn Heb “and peace to the one who helps you.”

[12:18]  74 tn Or “for.”

[12:19]  75 tn Heb “fell upon,” here in a good sense.

[12:19]  76 tn Heb “and they did not help them for by counsel they sent him away, the lords of the Philistines, saying, ‘With our heads he will fall to his master Saul.’”

[12:20]  77 tn Heb “he”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[12:22]  78 tn Heb “for at the time of day in a day they were coming to David to help him until [there was] a great camp like the camp of God.” The term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim, “God”) is probably used idiomatically here to indicate the superlative.

[12:23]  79 tn Heb “these are the numbers of the heads of the forces armed for battle [who] came to David in Hebron to turn over the kingdom of Saul to him according to the mouth of the Lord.”

[12:24]  80 tn Heb “the sons of Judah, carrying shield and spear, [were] 6,800 armed for battle.”

[12:29]  81 tn Heb “from the sons of Benjamin, the brothers of Saul.”

[12:29]  82 tn Heb “and until then, the majority of them were keeping the charge of the house of Saul.”

[12:30]  83 tn Heb “men of names for the house of their fathers.”

[12:32]  84 tn Heb “from the sons of Issachar, knowers of understanding for times to know what Israel should do, their heads [were] 200, and all their brothers according to their mouth.”

[12:33]  85 tn Heb “from Zebulun, those going out for battle, prepared for war with all weapons of war, 50,000, and to help without a heart and a heart.”

[12:38]  86 tc Heb “all these [were] men of war, helpers of the battle line.” The present translation assumes an emendation of עֹדְרֵי (’odÿrey, “helpers of”) to עֹרְכֵי, (’orÿkhey, “prepared for”).

[12:38]  87 tn Heb “with a complete heart they came to Hebron to make David king over all Israel.”

[12:38]  88 tn Heb “and also all the rest of Israel [was of] one mind to make David king.”

[12:39]  89 tn Heb “eating and drinking.”

[12:40]  90 tn Heb “cattle and sheep.”

[12:40]  91 tn Heb “for there was joy in Israel.”

[13:1]  92 tn Heb “and David consulted with the officers of thousands and hundreds, to every ruler.”

[13:2]  93 tn Heb “If to you [it is] good and from the Lord our God.”

[13:2]  94 tn Heb “let us spread and let us send.” The words “the word” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

[13:2]  95 tn Heb “in the cities of their pasturelands.”

[13:3]  96 tn Heb “to us.”

[13:3]  97 tn Heb “him.” In this case, seeking God’s will is what is implied.

[13:3]  98 tn Heb “in the days of Saul.”

[13:4]  99 tn Heb “all the assembly said to do so.”

[13:4]  100 tn Heb “for right was the word in the eyes of all the people.”

[13:5]  101 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied for clarity.

[13:5]  sn The Shihor River was a river on the border of Egypt, probably the eastern branch of the Nile.

[13:5]  102 tn Or “the entrance to Hamath.”

[13:6]  103 tn Heb “the ark of God the Lord who sits [between] the cherubim which is called [by his] name.”

[13:8]  104 tn Heb “with all strength.”

[13:8]  105 tn Heb “with songs and with zithers [meaning uncertain] and with harps.” Due to the collocation with “harps,” some type of stringed instrument is probably in view.

[13:9]  106 tn Or “to steady.”

[13:10]  107 tn Heb “and the anger of the Lord burned against Uzzah.”

[13:10]  108 tn Heb “because he stretched out his hand over the ark.”

[13:10]  109 sn The modern reader might think God seemed to overreact here, but Israel needed a vivid object lesson of God’s holiness. By loading the ark on a cart, David had violated the instructions in God’s law (Exod 25:12-14; Num 4:5-6, 15). Uzzah’s action, however innocent it may seem, betrayed a certain lack of reverence for God’s presence. God had to remind his people that his holiness could not under any circumstances be violated.

[13:11]  110 tn Heb “because the Lord broke out [with] breaking out [i.e., an outburst] against Uzzah.”

[13:11]  111 sn The name Perez Uzzah means in Hebrew “the outburst [against] Uzzah.”

[13:13]  112 sn The phrase the City of David refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.

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