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Teks -- Isaiah 42:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
The Lord Commissions His Special Servant
42:1 “Here is my servant whom I support, my chosen one in whom I take pleasure. I have placed my spirit on him; he will make just decrees for the nations. 42:2 He will not cry out or shout; he will not publicize himself in the streets. 42:3 A crushed reed he will not break, a dim wick he will not extinguish; he will faithfully make just decrees. 42:4 He will not grow dim or be crushed before establishing justice on the earth; the coastlands will wait in anticipation for his decrees.” 42:5 This is what the true God, the Lord, says– the one who created the sky and stretched it out, the one who fashioned the earth and everything that lives on it, the one who gives breath to the people on it, and life to those who live on it: 42:6 “I, the Lord, officially commission you; I take hold of your hand. I protect you and make you a covenant mediator for people, and a light to the nations, 42:7 to open blind eyes, to release prisoners from dungeons, those who live in darkness from prisons.
The Lord Intervenes
42:8 I am the Lord! That is my name! I will not share my glory with anyone else, or the praise due me with idols. 42:9 Look, my earlier predictive oracles have come to pass; now I announce new events. Before they begin to occur, I reveal them to you.” 42:10 Sing to the Lord a brand new song! Praise him from the horizon of the earth, you who go down to the sea, and everything that lives in it, you coastlands and those who live there! 42:11 Let the desert and its cities shout out, the towns where the nomads of Kedar live! Let the residents of Sela shout joyfully; let them shout loudly from the mountaintops. 42:12 Let them give the Lord the honor he deserves; let them praise his deeds in the coastlands. 42:13 The Lord emerges like a hero, like a warrior he inspires himself for battle; he shouts, yes, he yells, he shows his enemies his power. 42:14 “I have been inactive for a long time; I kept quiet and held back. Like a woman in labor I groan; I pant and gasp. 42:15 I will make the trees on the mountains and hills wither up; I will dry up all their vegetation. I will turn streams into islands, and dry up pools of water. 42:16 I will lead the blind along an unfamiliar way; I will guide them down paths they have never traveled. I will turn the darkness in front of them into light, and level out the rough ground. This is what I will do for them. I will not abandon them. 42:17 Those who trust in idols will turn back and be utterly humiliated, those who say to metal images, ‘You are our gods.’”
The Lord Reasons with His People
42:18 “Listen, you deaf ones! Take notice, you blind ones! 42:19 My servant is truly blind, my messenger is truly deaf. My covenant partner, the servant of the Lord, is truly blind. 42:20 You see many things, but don’t comprehend; their ears are open, but do not hear.” 42:21 The Lord wanted to exhibit his justice by magnifying his law and displaying it. 42:22 But these people are looted and plundered; all of them are trapped in pits and held captive in prisons. They were carried away as loot with no one to rescue them; they were carried away as plunder, and no one says, “Bring that back!” 42:23 Who among you will pay attention to this? Who will listen attentively in the future? 42:24 Who handed Jacob over to the robber? Who handed Israel over to the looters? Was it not the Lord, against whom we sinned? They refused to follow his commands; they disobeyed his law. 42:25 So he poured out his fierce anger on them, along with the devastation of war. Its flames encircled them, but they did not realize it; it burned against them, but they did notice.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Kedar son of Ishmael son of Abraham and Hagar,a people descended from Ishmael's son Kedar
 · Sela a musical notation for crescendo or emphasis by action (IBD)


Topik/Tema Kamus: Isaiah | Isaiah, The Book of | Gentiles | Church | Jesus, The Christ | GOD, 2 | SERVANT OF JEHOVAH; SERVANT OF THE LORD; SERVANT OF YAHWEH | Blindness | Covenant | God | Quotations and Allusions | Meekness | Island | JESUS CHRIST, 4C1 | CHRIST, OFFICES OF | Impenitence | Kedar | Prophecy | Reed | HOLY SPIRIT, 2 | selebihnya
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Poole , Haydock , Gill

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Behold The prophet having given one eminent instance of God's certain fore - knowledge, in the deliverance of the Jews by Cyrus, now adds another more eminen...

The prophet having given one eminent instance of God's certain fore - knowledge, in the deliverance of the Jews by Cyrus, now adds another more eminent example of it, by foretelling the coming of the Messiah. This place therefore is expressly interpreted of Christ, Mat 12:18, &c. And to him, and to him only, all the particulars following, truly and evidently belong.

Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Whom Whom I will enable to do and suffer all those things which belong to his office.

Whom I will enable to do and suffer all those things which belong to his office.

Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Elect Chosen by me to this great work.

Chosen by me to this great work.

Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Delighteth Both for himself and for all his people, being fully satisfied with that sacrifice, which he shall offer up to me.

Both for himself and for all his people, being fully satisfied with that sacrifice, which he shall offer up to me.

Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Bring forth Shall publish or shew, as this word is translated, Mat 12:18.

Shall publish or shew, as this word is translated, Mat 12:18.

Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Judgment The law, and will, and counsel of God, concerning man's salvation.

The law, and will, and counsel of God, concerning man's salvation.

Wesley: Isa 42:1 - Gentiles Not only to the Jews, but to the Heathen nations.

Not only to the Jews, but to the Heathen nations.

Wesley: Isa 42:2 - Cry In a way of contention, or ostentation.

In a way of contention, or ostentation.

Wesley: Isa 42:2 - Lift His voice.

His voice.

Wesley: Isa 42:2 - Heard As contentious and vain - glorious persons frequently do.

As contentious and vain - glorious persons frequently do.

Wesley: Isa 42:3 - Break Christ will not deal rigorously with those that come to him, but he will use all gentleness, cherishing the smallest beginnings of grace, comforting a...

Christ will not deal rigorously with those that come to him, but he will use all gentleness, cherishing the smallest beginnings of grace, comforting and healing wounded consciences.

Wesley: Isa 42:3 - Quench That wick of a candle which is almost extinct, he will not quench, but revive and kindle it again.

That wick of a candle which is almost extinct, he will not quench, but revive and kindle it again.

Wesley: Isa 42:3 - Judgment The law of God, or the doctrine of the gospel, which he will bring forth, unto, with, or according to truth, that is, truly and faithfully.

The law of God, or the doctrine of the gospel, which he will bring forth, unto, with, or according to truth, that is, truly and faithfully.

Wesley: Isa 42:4 - 'Till 'Till he has established his law or doctrine, among the nations of the earth.

'Till he has established his law or doctrine, among the nations of the earth.

Wesley: Isa 42:4 - Isles The countries remote from Judea, shall gladly receive his doctrine.

The countries remote from Judea, shall gladly receive his doctrine.

Wesley: Isa 42:5 - He This description of God's infinite power, is seasonably added, to give them assurance of the certain accomplishment of his promises.

This description of God's infinite power, is seasonably added, to give them assurance of the certain accomplishment of his promises.

Wesley: Isa 42:6 - Called thee To declare my righteousness, or faithfulness.

To declare my righteousness, or faithfulness.

Wesley: Isa 42:6 - With hold - Will give thee counsel and strength for the work.

hold - Will give thee counsel and strength for the work.

Wesley: Isa 42:6 - Give thee To be the mediator in whom my covenant of grace is confirmed with mankind.

To be the mediator in whom my covenant of grace is confirmed with mankind.

Wesley: Isa 42:6 - The people Of all people, not only of Jews but Gentiles.

Of all people, not only of Jews but Gentiles.

Wesley: Isa 42:6 - A light To enlighten them with true and saving knowledge.

To enlighten them with true and saving knowledge.

Wesley: Isa 42:8 - The Lord Heb. Jehovah: who have all being in and of myself, and give being to all my creatures. The everlasting, and unchangeable, and omnipotent God, who ther...

Heb. Jehovah: who have all being in and of myself, and give being to all my creatures. The everlasting, and unchangeable, and omnipotent God, who therefore both can, and will fulfil all my promises.

Wesley: Isa 42:9 - I tell you That when they come to pass, you may know that I am God, and that this is my work.

That when they come to pass, you may know that I am God, and that this is my work.

Wesley: Isa 42:10 - Sing Upon this new and great occasion, the salvation of the world by Christ.

Upon this new and great occasion, the salvation of the world by Christ.

Wesley: Isa 42:10 - From the end All nations from one end of the earth to another.

All nations from one end of the earth to another.

Wesley: Isa 42:10 - Ye You that go by sea carry these glad tidings from Judea, where Christ was born, and lived, and died, and published the gospel, unto the remotest parts ...

You that go by sea carry these glad tidings from Judea, where Christ was born, and lived, and died, and published the gospel, unto the remotest parts of the earth.

Wesley: Isa 42:11 - The wilderness Those parts of the world which are now desolate and forsaken of God, and barren of all good fruits.

Those parts of the world which are now desolate and forsaken of God, and barren of all good fruits.

Wesley: Isa 42:11 - Kedar The Arabians: who were an Heathen and barbarous people, and are put for all nations.

The Arabians: who were an Heathen and barbarous people, and are put for all nations.

Wesley: Isa 42:11 - Mountains Who are commonly more savage and ignorant than others.

Who are commonly more savage and ignorant than others.

Wesley: Isa 42:12 - The islands In the remotest parts of the world, as well as in Arabia, which was near to them.

In the remotest parts of the world, as well as in Arabia, which was near to them.

Wesley: Isa 42:13 - Go forth To battle.

To battle.

Wesley: Isa 42:13 - Stir up He shall stir up his strength, and anger against the obstinate enemies of his Son and gospel.

He shall stir up his strength, and anger against the obstinate enemies of his Son and gospel.

Wesley: Isa 42:13 - Roar As a lion doth upon his prey, and as soldiers do when they begin the battle.

As a lion doth upon his prey, and as soldiers do when they begin the battle.

Wesley: Isa 42:14 - Long I have for many ages suffered the devil and his servants, to prevail in the world, but now I will bring forth and accomplish that glorious work which ...

I have for many ages suffered the devil and his servants, to prevail in the world, but now I will bring forth and accomplish that glorious work which I have long conceived in my mind; yea, I will suddenly destroy the incorrigible enemies of my truth.

Wesley: Isa 42:15 - Hills My most lofty and flourishing enemies.

My most lofty and flourishing enemies.

Wesley: Isa 42:15 - Dry up I will remove all impediments out of the way.

I will remove all impediments out of the way.

Wesley: Isa 42:16 - The blind The Gentiles.

The Gentiles.

Wesley: Isa 42:16 - By a way By the way of truth, which hitherto has been hidden from them, yea, I will take away all hindrances; I will direct then in the right way; I will enlig...

By the way of truth, which hitherto has been hidden from them, yea, I will take away all hindrances; I will direct then in the right way; I will enlighten their dark minds, and rectify their perverse wills and affections, until I have brought theirs to the end of their journey.

Wesley: Isa 42:18 - Hear O you, whosoever you are, who resist this clear light.

O you, whosoever you are, who resist this clear light.

Wesley: Isa 42:19 - My servant The Jews, who will not receive their, Messiah.

The Jews, who will not receive their, Messiah.

Wesley: Isa 42:19 - Messenger My messengers, the singular number being put for the plural, namely the priests and other teachers whom I have appointed to instruct my people.

My messengers, the singular number being put for the plural, namely the priests and other teachers whom I have appointed to instruct my people.

Wesley: Isa 42:19 - The Lord's servant As the most eminent teachers and rulers of the Jews, who were called and obliged to be the Lord's servants, in a special manner.

As the most eminent teachers and rulers of the Jews, who were called and obliged to be the Lord's servants, in a special manner.

Wesley: Isa 42:20 - Heareth not Thou dost not seriously consider the plain word, and the wonderful works of God.

Thou dost not seriously consider the plain word, and the wonderful works of God.

Wesley: Isa 42:21 - Well pleased Altho' God might justly destroy thee suddenly, yet he will patiently wait for thy repentance, that he may be gracious; and that not for thy sake, but ...

Altho' God might justly destroy thee suddenly, yet he will patiently wait for thy repentance, that he may be gracious; and that not for thy sake, but for the glory of his own faithfulness, in fulfilling that covenant, which he made with thy pious progenitors.

Wesley: Isa 42:21 - Magnify He will maintain the honour of his law, and therefore is not forward to destroy you, who profess the true religion, lest his law should upon that occa...

He will maintain the honour of his law, and therefore is not forward to destroy you, who profess the true religion, lest his law should upon that occasion be exposed to contempt.

Wesley: Isa 42:22 - But But not withstanding this respect which God hath to his people, he hath severely scourged you for your sins.

But not withstanding this respect which God hath to his people, he hath severely scourged you for your sins.

Wesley: Isa 42:22 - Hid They have been taken in snares made by their own hands, and by God's just judgment cast into dungeons and prisons.

They have been taken in snares made by their own hands, and by God's just judgment cast into dungeons and prisons.

Wesley: Isa 42:22 - None None afforded them help.

None afforded them help.

Wesley: Isa 42:25 - Fury Most grievous judgments.

Most grievous judgments.

Wesley: Isa 42:25 - Yet They were secure and stupid under God's judgments.

They were secure and stupid under God's judgments.

JFB: Isa 42:1 - my servant The law of prophetic suggestion leads Isaiah from Cyrus to the far greater Deliverer, behind whom the former is lost sight of. The express quotation i...

The law of prophetic suggestion leads Isaiah from Cyrus to the far greater Deliverer, behind whom the former is lost sight of. The express quotation in Mat 12:18-20, and the description can apply to Messiah alone (Psa 40:6; with which compare Exo 21:6; Joh 6:38; Phi 2:7). Israel, also, in its highest ideal, is called the "servant" of God (Isa 49:3). But this ideal is realized only in the antitypical Israel, its representative-man and Head, Messiah (compare Mat 2:15, with Hos 11:1). "Servant" was the position assumed by the Son of God throughout His humiliation.

JFB: Isa 42:1 - elect Chosen by God before the foundation of the world for an atonement (1Pe 1:20; Rev 13:8). Redemption was no afterthought to remedy an unforeseen evil (R...

Chosen by God before the foundation of the world for an atonement (1Pe 1:20; Rev 13:8). Redemption was no afterthought to remedy an unforeseen evil (Rom 16:25-26; Eph 3:9, Eph 3:11; 2Ti 1:9-10; Tit 1:2-3). In Mat 12:18 it is rendered "My beloved"; the only beloved Son, beloved in a sense distinct from all others. Election and the love of God are inseparably joined.

JFB: Isa 42:1 - soul A human phrase applied to God, because of the intended union of humanity with the Divinity: "I Myself."

A human phrase applied to God, because of the intended union of humanity with the Divinity: "I Myself."

JFB: Isa 42:1 - delighteth Is well pleased with, and accepts, as a propitiation. God could have "delighted" in no created being as a mediator (compare Isa 42:21; Isa 63:5; Mat 3...

Is well pleased with, and accepts, as a propitiation. God could have "delighted" in no created being as a mediator (compare Isa 42:21; Isa 63:5; Mat 3:17).

JFB: Isa 42:1 - spirit upon him (Isa 11:2; Isa 61:1; Luk 4:18; Joh 3:34).

JFB: Isa 42:1 - judgment The gospel dispensation, founded on justice, the canon of the divine rule and principle of judgment called "the law" (Isa 2:3; compare Isa 42:4; Isa 5...

The gospel dispensation, founded on justice, the canon of the divine rule and principle of judgment called "the law" (Isa 2:3; compare Isa 42:4; Isa 51:4; Isa 49:6). The Gospel has a discriminating judicial effect: saving to penitents; condemnatory to Satan, the enemy (Joh 12:31; Joh 16:11), and the wilfully impenitent (Joh 9:39). Mat 12:18 has, "He shall show," for "He shall bring forth," or "cause to go forth." Christ both produced and announced His "judgment." The Hebrew dwells most on His producing it; Matthew on His announcement of it: the two are joined in Him.

JFB: Isa 42:2 - -- Matthew (Mat 12:19) marks the kind of "cry" as that of altercation by quoting it, "He shall not strive" (Isa 53:7).

Matthew (Mat 12:19) marks the kind of "cry" as that of altercation by quoting it, "He shall not strive" (Isa 53:7).

JFB: Isa 42:2 - street The Septuagint translates "outside." An image from an altercation in a house, loud enough to be heard in the street outside: appropriate of Him who "w...

The Septuagint translates "outside." An image from an altercation in a house, loud enough to be heard in the street outside: appropriate of Him who "withdrew Himself" from the public fame created by His miracles to privacy (Mat 12:15; Isa 34:5, there, shows another and sterner aspect of His character, which is also implied in the term "judgment").

JFB: Isa 42:3 - bruised "It pleased the Lord to bruise Him" (Isa 53:5, Isa 53:10; Gen 3:15); so He can feel for the bruised. As Isa 42:2 described His unturbulent spirit towa...

"It pleased the Lord to bruise Him" (Isa 53:5, Isa 53:10; Gen 3:15); so He can feel for the bruised. As Isa 42:2 described His unturbulent spirit towards His violent enemies (Mat 12:14-16), and His utter freedom from love of notoriety, so Isa 42:3, His tenderness in cherishing the first spark of grace in the penitent (Isa 40:11).

JFB: Isa 42:3 - reed Fragile: easily "shaken with the wind" (Mat 11:7). Those who are at best feeble, and who besides are oppressed by calamity or by the sense of sin.

Fragile: easily "shaken with the wind" (Mat 11:7). Those who are at best feeble, and who besides are oppressed by calamity or by the sense of sin.

JFB: Isa 42:3 - break Entirely crush or condemn. Compare "bind up the broken-hearted" (Isa 50:4; Isa 61:1; Mat 11:28).

Entirely crush or condemn. Compare "bind up the broken-hearted" (Isa 50:4; Isa 61:1; Mat 11:28).

JFB: Isa 42:3 - flax Put for the lamp-wick, formed of flax. The believer is the lamp (so the Greek, Mat 5:15; Joh 5:35): his conscience enlightened by the Holy Ghost is th...

Put for the lamp-wick, formed of flax. The believer is the lamp (so the Greek, Mat 5:15; Joh 5:35): his conscience enlightened by the Holy Ghost is the wick. "Smoking" means "dimly burning," "smouldering," the flame not quite extinct. This expresses the positive side of the penitent's religion; as "bruised reed," the negative. Broken-hearted in himself, but not without some spark of flame: literally, "from above." Christ will supply such a one with grace as with oil. Also, the light of nature smouldering in the Gentiles amidst the hurtful fumes of error. He not only did not quench, but cleared away the mists and superadded the light of revelation. See JEROME, To Algasia, Question 2.

JFB: Isa 42:3 - truth Mat 12:20 quotes it, "send forth judgment unto victory." Matthew, under the Spirit, gives the virtual sense, but varies the word, in order to bring ou...

Mat 12:20 quotes it, "send forth judgment unto victory." Matthew, under the Spirit, gives the virtual sense, but varies the word, in order to bring out a fresh aspect of the same thing. Truth has in itself the elements of victory over all opposing forces. Truth is the victory of Him who is "the truth" (Joh 14:6). The gospel judicial sifting ("judgment") of believers and unbelievers, begun already in part (Joh 3:18-19; Joh 9:39), will be consummated victoriously in truth only at His second coming; Isa 42:13-14, here, and Mat 12:32, Mat 12:36, Mat 12:41-42, show that there is reference to the judicial aspect of the Gospel, especially finally: besides the mild triumph of Jesus coming in mercy to the penitent now (Isa 42:2), there shall be finally the judgment on His enemies, when the "truth" shall be perfectly developed. Compare Isa 61:1-3, where the two comings are similarly joined (Psa 2:4-6, Psa 2:8; Rev 15:2, Rev 15:4; Rev 19:11-16). On "judgment," see on Isa 42:1.

JFB: Isa 42:4 - fail Faint; man in religion may become as the almost expiring flax-wick (Isa 42:3), but not so He in His purposes of grace.

Faint; man in religion may become as the almost expiring flax-wick (Isa 42:3), but not so He in His purposes of grace.

JFB: Isa 42:4 - discouraged Literally, "broken," that is, checked in zeal by discouragements (compare Isa 49:4-5). ROSENMULLER not so well translates, "He shall not be too slow o...

Literally, "broken," that is, checked in zeal by discouragements (compare Isa 49:4-5). ROSENMULLER not so well translates, "He shall not be too slow on the one hand, nor run too hastily on the other."

JFB: Isa 42:4 - judgment His true religion, the canon of His judgments and righteous reign.

His true religion, the canon of His judgments and righteous reign.

JFB: Isa 42:4 - isles . . . wait, &c. The distant lands beyond sea shall put their trust in His gospel way of salvation. Mat 12:21 virtually gives the sense, with the inspired addition of ...

The distant lands beyond sea shall put their trust in His gospel way of salvation. Mat 12:21 virtually gives the sense, with the inspired addition of another aspect of the same thing, "In his name shall the Gentiles trust" (as "wait for" here means, Isa 30:18). "His law" is not something distinct from Himself, but is indeed Himself, the manifestation of God's character ("name") in Christ, who is the embodiment of the law (Isa 42:21; Jer 23:6; Rom 10:4). "Isles" here, and in Isa 42:12, may refer to the fact that the populations of which the Church was primarily formed were Gentiles of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean.

JFB: Isa 42:5 - -- Previously God had spoken of Messiah; now (Isa 42:5-7) He speaks to Him. To show to all that He is able to sustain the Messiah in His appointed work, ...

Previously God had spoken of Messiah; now (Isa 42:5-7) He speaks to Him. To show to all that He is able to sustain the Messiah in His appointed work, and that all might accept Messiah as commissioned by such a mighty God, He commences by announcing Himself as the Almighty Creator and Preserver of all things.

JFB: Isa 42:5 - spread . . . earth (Psa 136:6).

JFB: Isa 42:6 - in righteousness Rather, "for a righteous purpose" [LOWTH]. (See Isa 42:21). God "set forth" His Son "to be a propitiation (so as) to declare His (God's) righteousness...

Rather, "for a righteous purpose" [LOWTH]. (See Isa 42:21). God "set forth" His Son "to be a propitiation (so as) to declare His (God's) righteousness, that God might be just, and (yet) the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus" (Rom 3:25-26; compare see on Isa 41:2; Isa 45:13; Isa 50:8-9).

JFB: Isa 42:6 - hold . . . hand Compare as to Israel, the type of Messiah, Hos 11:3.

Compare as to Israel, the type of Messiah, Hos 11:3.

JFB: Isa 42:6 - covenant The medium of the covenant, originally made between God and Abraham (Isa 49:8). "The mediator of a better covenant" (Heb 8:6) than the law (see Isa 49...

The medium of the covenant, originally made between God and Abraham (Isa 49:8). "The mediator of a better covenant" (Heb 8:6) than the law (see Isa 49:8; Jer 31:33; Jer 50:5). So the abstract "peace," for peace-maker (Mic 5:5; Eph 2:14).

JFB: Isa 42:6 - the people Israel; as Isa 49:8, compared with Isa 42:6, proves (Luk 2:32).

Israel; as Isa 49:8, compared with Isa 42:6, proves (Luk 2:32).

JFB: Isa 42:7 - blind Spiritually (Isa 42:16, Isa 42:18-19; Isa 35:5; Joh 9:39).

JFB: Isa 42:7 - prison (Isa 61:1-2).

JFB: Isa 42:7 - darkness Opposed to "light" (Isa 42:6; Eph 5:8; 1Pe 2:9).

Opposed to "light" (Isa 42:6; Eph 5:8; 1Pe 2:9).

JFB: Isa 42:8 - -- God turns from addressing Messiah to the people.

God turns from addressing Messiah to the people.

JFB: Isa 42:8 - Lord JEHOVAH: God's distinguishing and incommunicable name, indicating essential being and immutable faithfulness (compare Exo 6:3; Psa 83:18; Psa 96:5; Ho...

JEHOVAH: God's distinguishing and incommunicable name, indicating essential being and immutable faithfulness (compare Exo 6:3; Psa 83:18; Psa 96:5; Hos 12:5).

JFB: Isa 42:8 - my That is due to Me, and to Me alone.

That is due to Me, and to Me alone.

JFB: Isa 42:9 - former things Former predictions of God, which were now fulfilled, are here adduced as proof that they ought to trust in Him alone as God; namely, the predictions a...

Former predictions of God, which were now fulfilled, are here adduced as proof that they ought to trust in Him alone as God; namely, the predictions as to Israel's restoration from Babylon.

JFB: Isa 42:9 - new Namely, predictions as to Messiah, who is to bring all nations to the worship of Jehovah (Isa 42:1, Isa 42:4, Isa 42:6).

Namely, predictions as to Messiah, who is to bring all nations to the worship of Jehovah (Isa 42:1, Isa 42:4, Isa 42:6).

JFB: Isa 42:9 - spring forth The same image from plants just beginning to germinate occurs in Isa 43:19; Isa 58:8. Before there is the slightest indication to enable a sagacious o...

The same image from plants just beginning to germinate occurs in Isa 43:19; Isa 58:8. Before there is the slightest indication to enable a sagacious observer to infer the coming event, God foretells it.

JFB: Isa 42:10 - new song Such as has never before been sung, called for by a new manifestation of God's grace, to express which no hymn for former mercies would be appropriate...

Such as has never before been sung, called for by a new manifestation of God's grace, to express which no hymn for former mercies would be appropriate. The new song shall be sung when the Lord shall reign in Jerusalem, and all "nations shall flow unto it" (Isa 2:2; Isa 26:1; Rev 5:9; Rev 14:3).

JFB: Isa 42:10 - ye that go down to the sea Whose conversion will be the means of diffusing the Gospel to distant lands.

Whose conversion will be the means of diffusing the Gospel to distant lands.

JFB: Isa 42:10 - all . . . therein All the living creatures that fill the sea (Psa 96:11) [MAURER]. Or, all sailors and voyagers [GESENIUS]. But these were already mentioned in the prev...

All the living creatures that fill the sea (Psa 96:11) [MAURER]. Or, all sailors and voyagers [GESENIUS]. But these were already mentioned in the previous clause: there he called on all who go upon the sea; in this clause all animals in the sea; so in Isa 42:11, he calls on the inanimate wilderness to lift up its voice. External nature shall be so renovated as to be in unison with the moral renovation.

JFB: Isa 42:11 - cities In a region not wholly waste, but mainly so, with an oasis here and there.

In a region not wholly waste, but mainly so, with an oasis here and there.

JFB: Isa 42:11 - Kedar In Arabia-Deserta (Isa 21:16; Gen 25:13). The Kedarenians led a nomadic, wandering life. So Kedar is here put in general for that class of men.

In Arabia-Deserta (Isa 21:16; Gen 25:13). The Kedarenians led a nomadic, wandering life. So Kedar is here put in general for that class of men.

JFB: Isa 42:11 - rock Sela, that is, Petra, the metropolis of Idumea and the Nabathoean Ishmaelites. Or it may refer in general to those in Arabia-Petræa, who had their dw...

Sela, that is, Petra, the metropolis of Idumea and the Nabathoean Ishmaelites. Or it may refer in general to those in Arabia-Petræa, who had their dwellings cut out of the rock.

JFB: Isa 42:11 - the mountains Namely, of Paran, south of Sinai, in Arabic Petræa [VITRINGA].

Namely, of Paran, south of Sinai, in Arabic Petræa [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 42:12 - glory . . . islands (Isa 24:15).

JFB: Isa 42:13-16 - -- Jehovah will no longer restrain His wrath: He will go forth as a mighty warrior (Exo 15:3) to destroy His people's and His enemies, and to deliver Isr...

Jehovah will no longer restrain His wrath: He will go forth as a mighty warrior (Exo 15:3) to destroy His people's and His enemies, and to deliver Israel (compare Psa 45:3).

JFB: Isa 42:13-16 - stir up jealousy Rouse His indignation.

Rouse His indignation.

JFB: Isa 42:13-16 - roar Image from the battle cry of a warrior.

Image from the battle cry of a warrior.

JFB: Isa 42:14 - long time Namely, during the desolation of Israel (Isa 32:14).

Namely, during the desolation of Israel (Isa 32:14).

JFB: Isa 42:14 - holden my peace (Compare Psa 50:21; Hab 1:2).

(Compare Psa 50:21; Hab 1:2).

JFB: Isa 42:14 - cry like a travailing woman, &c. Like a woman in parturition, who, after having restrained her breathing for a time, at last, overcome with labor pain, lets out her voice with a panti...

Like a woman in parturition, who, after having restrained her breathing for a time, at last, overcome with labor pain, lets out her voice with a panting sigh; so Jehovah will give full vent to His long pent-up wrath. Translate, instead of "destroy . . . devour"; I will at once breathe hard and pant, namely, giving loose to My wrath.

JFB: Isa 42:15 - -- I will destroy all My foes.

I will destroy all My foes.

JFB: Isa 42:15 - mountains In Palestine usually planted with vines and olives in terraces, up to their tops.

In Palestine usually planted with vines and olives in terraces, up to their tops.

JFB: Isa 42:15 - islands Rather, "dry lands." God will destroy His foes, the heathen, and their idols, and "dry up" the fountains of their oracles, their doctrines and institu...

Rather, "dry lands." God will destroy His foes, the heathen, and their idols, and "dry up" the fountains of their oracles, their doctrines and institutions, the symbol of which is water, and their schools which promoted idolatry [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 42:16 - blind God's people, Israel, in captivity, needing a guide. In the ulterior sense the New Testament Church, which was about to be led and enlightened by the ...

God's people, Israel, in captivity, needing a guide. In the ulterior sense the New Testament Church, which was about to be led and enlightened by the Son of God as its leader and shepherd in the wilderness of the Roman empire, until it should reach a city of habitation. "A way . . . they knew not," refers to the various means ployed by Providence for the establishment of the Church in the world, such as would never have occurred to the mind of mere man. "Blind," they are called, as not having heretofore seen God's ways in ordering His Church.

JFB: Isa 42:16 - make darkness light, &c. Implies that the glorious issue would only be known by the event itself [VITRINGA]. The same holds good of the individual believer (Isa 30:21; Psa 107...

Implies that the glorious issue would only be known by the event itself [VITRINGA]. The same holds good of the individual believer (Isa 30:21; Psa 107:7; compare Hos 2:6, Hos 2:14; Eph 5:8; Heb 13:5).

JFB: Isa 42:17 - turned back . . . ashamed Disappointed in their trust; the same phrase occurs in Psa 35:4.

Disappointed in their trust; the same phrase occurs in Psa 35:4.

JFB: Isa 42:18 - deaf Namely, to the voice of God.

Namely, to the voice of God.

JFB: Isa 42:18 - blind To your duty and interest; wilfully so (Isa 42:20). In this they differ from "the blind" (Isa 42:16). The Jews are referred to. He had said, God would...

To your duty and interest; wilfully so (Isa 42:20). In this they differ from "the blind" (Isa 42:16). The Jews are referred to. He had said, God would destroy the heathen idolatry; here he remembers that even Israel, His "servant" (Isa 42:19), from whom better things might have been expected, is tainted with this sin.

JFB: Isa 42:19 - my servant Namely, Israel. Who of the heathen is so blind? Considering Israel's high privileges, the heathen's blindness was as nothing compared with that of Isr...

Namely, Israel. Who of the heathen is so blind? Considering Israel's high privileges, the heathen's blindness was as nothing compared with that of Israelite idolaters.

JFB: Isa 42:19 - my messenger . . . sent Israel was designed by God to be the herald of His truth to other nations.

Israel was designed by God to be the herald of His truth to other nations.

JFB: Isa 42:19 - perfect Furnished with institutions, civil and religious, suited to their perfect well-being. Compare the title, "Jeshurun," the perfect one, applied to Israe...

Furnished with institutions, civil and religious, suited to their perfect well-being. Compare the title, "Jeshurun," the perfect one, applied to Israel (compare Isa 44:2), as the type of Messiah Or translate, the friend of God, which Israel was by virtue of descent from Abraham, who was so called (Isa 41:8), [GESENIUS]. The language, "my servant" (compare Isa 42:1), "messenger" (Mal 3:1), "perfect" (Rom 10:4; Heb 2:10; 1Pe 2:22), can, in the full antitypical sense, only apply to Christ. So Isa 42:21 plainly refers to Him. "Blind" and "deaf" in His case refer to His endurance of suffering and reproach, as though He neither saw nor heard (Psa 38:13-14). Thus there is a transition by contrast from the moral blindness of Israel (Isa 42:18) to the patient blindness and deafness of Messiah [HORSLEY].

JFB: Isa 42:20 - observest Thou dost not keep them. The "many things" are the many proofs which all along from the first God had given Israel of His goodness and His power (Deu ...

Thou dost not keep them. The "many things" are the many proofs which all along from the first God had given Israel of His goodness and His power (Deu 4:32-38; Deu 29:2-4; Psa. 78:1-72; Psa. 105:1-45).

JFB: Isa 42:20 - he Transition from the second to the third person. "Opening . . . ears," that is, though he (Israel) hath his ears open (see on Isa 6:10). This language,...

Transition from the second to the third person. "Opening . . . ears," that is, though he (Israel) hath his ears open (see on Isa 6:10). This language, too (see on Isa 42:19), applies to Messiah as Jehovah's servant (Isa 50:5; Psa 40:6).

JFB: Isa 42:21 - his righteousness Not His people's, but His own; Isa 42:24 shows that they had no righteousness (Isa 45:24; Isa 59:16). God is well pleased with His Son ("in whom My so...

Not His people's, but His own; Isa 42:24 shows that they had no righteousness (Isa 45:24; Isa 59:16). God is well pleased with His Son ("in whom My soul delighteth," Isa 42:1), "who fulfils all righteousness" (Mat 3:15) for them, and with them for His sake (compare Isa 42:6; Psa 71:16, Psa 71:19; Mat 5:17; Rom 10:3-4; Phi 3:9). Perhaps in God's "righteousness" here is included His faithfulness to His promises given to Israel's forefathers [ROSENMULLER]; because of this He is well pleased with Israel, even though displeased with their sin, which He here reproves; but that promise could only be based on the righteousness of Messiah, the promised seed, which is God's righteousness.

JFB: Isa 42:22 - holes Caught by their foes in the caverns where they had sought refuge [BARNES]. Or bound in subterranean dungeons [BARNES].

Caught by their foes in the caverns where they had sought refuge [BARNES]. Or bound in subterranean dungeons [BARNES].

JFB: Isa 42:22 - prison-houses Either literal prisons, or their own houses, whence they dare not go forth for fear of the enemy. The connection is: Notwithstanding God's favor to Hi...

Either literal prisons, or their own houses, whence they dare not go forth for fear of the enemy. The connection is: Notwithstanding God's favor to His people for His righteousness' sake (Isa 42:21), they have fallen into misery (the Babylonish and Romish captivities and their present dispersion), owing to their disregard of the divine law: spiritual imprisonment is included (Isa 42:7).

JFB: Isa 42:22 - none saith, Restore There is no deliverer (Isa 63:5).

There is no deliverer (Isa 63:5).

JFB: Isa 42:23 - -- A call that they should be warned by the past judgments of God to obey Him for the time to come.

A call that they should be warned by the past judgments of God to obey Him for the time to come.

JFB: Isa 42:24 - Who Their calamity was not the work of chance, but God's immediate act for their sins.

Their calamity was not the work of chance, but God's immediate act for their sins.

JFB: Isa 42:24 - Jacob . . . Israel . . . we Change from the third to the first person; Isaiah first speaking to them as a prophet, distinct from them; then identifying himself with them, and ack...

Change from the third to the first person; Isaiah first speaking to them as a prophet, distinct from them; then identifying himself with them, and acknowledging His share in the nation's sins (compare Jos 5:1).

JFB: Isa 42:25 - him Israel (Isa 42:24).

Israel (Isa 42:24).

JFB: Isa 42:25 - strength of battle Violence of war.

Violence of war.

JFB: Isa 42:25 - it The battle or war (compare Isa 10:16).

The battle or war (compare Isa 10:16).

JFB: Isa 42:25 - knew not Knew not the lesson of repentance which the judgment was intended to teach (Isa 5:13; Isa 9:13; Jer 5:3).

Knew not the lesson of repentance which the judgment was intended to teach (Isa 5:13; Isa 9:13; Jer 5:3).

Clarke: Isa 42:1 - Behold my servant, whom I uphold Behold my servant, whom I uphold - אתמך בו ethmach bo , on whom I lean. Alluding to the custom of kings leaning on the arm of their most belo...

Behold my servant, whom I uphold - אתמך בו ethmach bo , on whom I lean. Alluding to the custom of kings leaning on the arm of their most beloved and faithful servant. All, both Jews and Christians, agree, that the seven first verses of this chapter belong to Christ. Now, as they are evidently a continuation of the prophecy in the preceding chapter, that prophecy cannot belong to Cyrus, but to Christ

He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles "He shall publish judgment to the nations"- Four MSS. two ancient, add the conjunction ומשפט vemishpat . See Mat 12:18

The word משפט mishpat , judgment, like צדקה tsedakah , righteousness, is taken in a great latitude of signification. It means rule, form, order, model, plan; rule of right, or of religion; an ordinance, institution; judicial process, cause, trial, sentence, condemnation, acquittal, deliverance, mercy, etc. It certainly means in this place the law to be published by Messiah, the institution of the Gospel.

Clarke: Isa 42:4 - -- He shall not fail nor be discouraged "His force shall not be abated nor broken"- Rabbi Meir ita citat locum istum, ut post ירוץ yaruts , add...

He shall not fail nor be discouraged "His force shall not be abated nor broken"- Rabbi Meir ita citat locum istum, ut post ירוץ yaruts , addat כוחו cocho , robur ejus, quod hodie Ilon comparet in textu Hebraeo, sed addendum videtur, ut sensus fiat planior

"Rabbi Meir cites this passage so as to add after ירוץ yarats כוחו cocho , his force, which word is not found in the present Hebrew text, but seems necessary to be added to make the sense more distinct."Capell. Crit. Sac. p. 382. For which reason I had added it in the translation, before I observed this remark of Capellus. - L.

Clarke: Isa 42:6 - -- A covenant of the people "A covenant to the people"- For עם am , two MSS. of Dr. Kennicott’ s, and of my own, read עולם olam , the cove...

A covenant of the people "A covenant to the people"- For עם am , two MSS. of Dr. Kennicott’ s, and of my own, read עולם olam , the covenant of the age to come, or the everlasting covenant; which seems to give a clearer and better sense. But I think the word ברית berith , here, should not be translated covenant, but covenant sacrifice, which meaning it often has; and undoubtedly in this place. This gives a still stronger and clearer sense.

Clarke: Isa 42:7 - To open the blind eyes To open the blind eyes - In this verse the prophet seems to set forth the spiritual redemption, under images borrowed from the temporal deliverance ...

To open the blind eyes - In this verse the prophet seems to set forth the spiritual redemption, under images borrowed from the temporal deliverance

Out of the prison house "And from the dungeon"- The Septuagint, Syriac, and four MSS., one ancient, add the conjunction ו vau , ומבית umibbeith , and from the house.

Clarke: Isa 42:8 - I am the Lord I am the Lord - אני יהוה ani Yehovah . This is the famous tetragrammaton, or name of four letters, which we write Jehovah Yehovah, Yehveh, ...

I am the Lord - אני יהוה ani Yehovah . This is the famous tetragrammaton, or name of four letters, which we write Jehovah Yehovah, Yehveh, Yeveh, Jhuh, Javah, etc. The letters are Y H U H. The Jews never pronounce it, and the true pronunciation is utterly unknown

Clarke: Isa 42:8 - That is my name That is my name - A name peculiar to myself.

That is my name - A name peculiar to myself.

Clarke: Isa 42:10 - Ye that go down to the sea Ye that go down to the sea - This seems not to belong to this place; it does not well consist with what follows, "and the fullness thereof."They tha...

Ye that go down to the sea - This seems not to belong to this place; it does not well consist with what follows, "and the fullness thereof."They that go down upon the sea means navigators, sailors, traders, such as do business in great waters; an idea much too confined for the prophet, who means the sea in general, as it is used by the Hebrews, for the distant nations, the islands, the dwellers on the sea-coasts all over the world. I suspect that some transcriber had the Psa 107:23 verse of Psalm 107 running in his head, יורדי הים באניות yoredey haiyam booniyoth , and wrote in this place יורדי הים yoredey haiyam instead of ירעם הים yiram haiyam , or יריע yari , or ירן yaran ; "let the sea roar, or shout, or exult."But as this is so different in appearance from the present reading, I do not take the liberty of introducing it into the translation. Conjeceram legendum יגידו yegidu , ut Isa 42:12; sed non favent Versiones . "I would propose to read יגידו yegidu , as in Isa 42:12; but this is not supported by the Versions."- Secker.

Clarke: Isa 42:11 - Let the wilderness Let the wilderness - The most uncultivated countries, and the most rude and uncivilized people, shall confess and celebrate with thanksgiving the bl...

Let the wilderness - The most uncultivated countries, and the most rude and uncivilized people, shall confess and celebrate with thanksgiving the blessing of the knowledge of God graciously imparted to them. By the desert is meant Arabia Deserta; by the rocky country, Arabia Petraea; by the mountains, probably those celebrated ones, Paran, Horeb, Sinai, in the same country; to which also belonged Kedar, a clan of Arabians, dwelling for the most part in tents; but there were others of them who inhabited or frequented cities and villages, as may be collected from this place of the prophet. Pietro della Valle, speaking of the people of Arabia Deserta, says: "There is a sort of Arabs of that country called Maedi, who with their herds, of buffaloes for the most part, sometimes live in the deserts, and sometimes in cities; from whence they have their name, which signifies wandering, going from place to place. They have no professed houses; nor are they properly Bedaui, or Beduui, that is, Deserticoli, who are the most noble among them, and never abide within walls, but always go wandering through the open country with their black tents; nor are they properly called Hhadesi, as they call those who dwell in cities, and lands with fixed houses. These by the latter are esteemed ignoble and base; but both are considered as of low condition."Viaggi, Parte 3 lett. ii

Clarke: Isa 42:11 - The villages that Kedar doth inhabit The villages that Kedar doth inhabit - The Arabs, according to the Targum

The villages that Kedar doth inhabit - The Arabs, according to the Targum

Clarke: Isa 42:11 - The inhabitants of the rock The inhabitants of the rock - They who dwell on fortified places. The Vulgate has habitatores Petraeae , "the inhabitants of Arabia Petraea."Those w...

The inhabitants of the rock - They who dwell on fortified places. The Vulgate has habitatores Petraeae , "the inhabitants of Arabia Petraea."Those who make the rock Jesus Christ, the inhabitants of the rock, true believers in him; the singing, rejoicing for the salvation they have received; abuse and disgrace the passage and the pulpit. I have heard a clergyman, a magistrate, a justice of the quorum, spend an hour in showing from these words

1.    That they meant Jesus Christ, and none other

2.    That he might be fully compared to a rock, as the foundation on which his Church was built, and on which all true believers rested for their salvation

3.    A rock, because of his strength and might in destroying his enemies, and supporting his friends

4.    A refreshing rock, like that in the wilderness; and that rock was Christ

5.    A perspective rock, from which true believers could discover their heavenly inheritance: "When my heart is overwhelmed, lead me to the rock that is higher than I, "etc. Now all this is true in itself; but false in respect to the words on which it was professedly built, for they have no such meaning.

Clarke: Isa 42:14 - -- I have been still "Shall I keep silence for ever"- After מעולם meolam , in the copy which the Septuagint had before them, followed the word ...

I have been still "Shall I keep silence for ever"- After מעולם meolam , in the copy which the Septuagint had before them, followed the word הלעולם, heleolam , εσιωπησα απ αιωνος· Μη και αει σιωπησομαι· according to MSS. Pachom. and 50. D. 2 and Edit. Complut., which word, הלעולם haleolam , has been omitted in the text by an easy mistake of a transcriber, because of the similitude of the word preceding. Shall I always keep silences like that of Juvenal: Semper ego auditor tantum? Shall I always be a hearer only?

Clarke: Isa 42:15 - -- I wilt make the rivers islands "I will make the rivers dry deserts"- Instead of איים iyim , islands, read ציים tsiim ; a very probable co...

I wilt make the rivers islands "I will make the rivers dry deserts"- Instead of איים iyim , islands, read ציים tsiim ; a very probable conjecture of Houbigant.

Clarke: Isa 42:16 - In paths In paths - The Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and nine MSS., (two ancient), read ובנתיבות ubenotiboth

In paths - The Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and nine MSS., (two ancient), read ובנתיבות ubenotiboth

Clarke: Isa 42:16 - Will I do unto them Will I do unto them - עשיתם asitem . This word, so written as it is in the text, means "thou wilt do, "in the second person. The Masoretes ha...

Will I do unto them - עשיתם asitem . This word, so written as it is in the text, means "thou wilt do, "in the second person. The Masoretes have indeed pointed it for the first person; but the י yod in the last syllable is absolutely necessary to distinguish the first person; and so it is written in forty MSS., עשיתים asithim

Jarchi, Kimchi, Sal. ben Melec, etc., agree that the past time is here put for the future, עשיתי asithi for אעשה ; and indeed the context necessarily requires that interpretation. Farther it is to be observed that עשיתים asithim is put for עשיתי להם asithi lahem , "I have done them,"for "I have done for them;"as עשיתני asitheni is for עשיתי לי asiti li , "I have made myself,"for "I have made for myself,"Eze 29:2; and in the celebrated passage of Jephthah’ s vow, Jdg 11:31, והעליתיהו עולה veheelitihu olah for העליתי לו עולה heelithi lo olah , "I will offer him a burnt-offering, "for "I will offer unto him (that is, unto Jehovah) a burnt-offering;"by an ellipsis of the preposition of which Buxtorf gives many other examples, Thes. Grammat. lib. 2:17. See also note on Isa 65:5. A late happy application of this grammatical remark to that much disputed passage has perfectly cleared up a difficulty which for two thousand years had puzzled all the translators and expositors, had given occasion to dissertations without number, and caused endless disputes among the learned on the question, whether Jephthah sacrificed his daughter or not; in which both parties have been equally ignorant of the meaning of the place, of the state of the fact, and of the very terms of the vow; which now at last has been cleared up beyond all doubt by my learned friend Dr. Randolph, Margaret Professor of Divinity in the University of Oxford, in his Sermon on Jephthah’ s Vow, Oxford, 1766. - L.

Clarke: Isa 42:19 - -- As my messenger that I sent "As he to whom I have sent my messengers"- כמלכי אשלח kemalachey eshlach , ut ad quem nuncios meos misi . The...

As my messenger that I sent "As he to whom I have sent my messengers"- כמלכי אשלח kemalachey eshlach , ut ad quem nuncios meos misi . The Vulgate and Chaldee are almost the only interpreters who render it rightly, in consistence with the rest of the sentence, and in perfect agreement with the Hebrew idiom; according to which the ellipsis is to be thus supplied: כלאשר מלאכי אשלח kelaasher malachey eshlach ; "As he to whom I have sent my messengers.

As he that is perfect "As he who is perfectly instructed"- See note on Isa 44:2 (note)

And blind as the Lord’ s servant "And deaf, as the servant of Jehovah"- For ועור veivver , and blind, we must read וחרש vecheresh , and deaf: κωφος, Symmachus, and so a MS. The mistake is palpable, and the correction self-evident, and admissible though there had been no authority for it.

Clarke: Isa 42:20 - -- Seeing many things "Thou hast seen indeed"- The text has ראית רבית raith rabith , which the Masoretes in the marginal Keri have corrected t...

Seeing many things "Thou hast seen indeed"- The text has ראית רבית raith rabith , which the Masoretes in the marginal Keri have corrected to ראות רבות reoth rabboth ; as indeed one hundred and seven MSS., and five editions, now have it in the text. This was probably the reading of most of the MSS. of their time; which, though they approved of it, out of some superstition they would not admit into their standard text. But these wretched critics, though they perceived there was some fault, yet did not know where the fault lay, nor consequently how to amend it; and yet it was open enough to a judicious eye: רבות rabboth , sic veteres; et tamen forte legendum , ראות reoth , vide cap. Isa 6:9."- Secker. That is, ראית ראות raith , reoth , seeing, thou shalt see. I believe no one will doubt of admitting this as the true reading

But he heareth not "Yet thou wilt not hear"- For ישמע yishma , read תשמע tishma , in the second person; so all the ancient Versions and forty MSS. of Kennicott’ s, (four of them ancient), and seventeen of De Rossi’ s, and perhaps five more. Two others have תשמעו tishmeu , second person plural.

Clarke: Isa 42:21 - -- He win magnify the law "He hath exalted his own praise"- For תורה torah , the law, the Septuagint read תודה todah , praise.

He win magnify the law "He hath exalted his own praise"- For תורה torah , the law, the Septuagint read תודה todah , praise.

Clarke: Isa 42:22 - -- They are all of them snared in holes "All their chosen youths are taken in the toils"- For הפח hapheach read הופחו huphachu , in the plu...

They are all of them snared in holes "All their chosen youths are taken in the toils"- For הפח hapheach read הופחו huphachu , in the plural number, hophal; as החבאו hochbau , which answers to it in the following member of the sentence. Le Clerc, Houbigant. הפח huppach , Secker.

Clarke: Isa 42:24 - -- We have sinned "They have sinned"- For חטאנו chatanu , "we have sinned,"first person; the Septuagint and Chaldee read חטאו chateu , "they...

We have sinned "They have sinned"- For חטאנו chatanu , "we have sinned,"first person; the Septuagint and Chaldee read חטאו chateu , "they have sinned,"in the third person.

Clarke: Isa 42:25 - The fury of his anger "The heat of his wrath"- For חמה chammah , the Bodl. MS. has חמת chammath , in regimine, more regularly

It hath set him on fire round about The fury of his anger "The heat of his wrath"- For חמה chammah , the Bodl. MS. has חמת chammath , in regimine, more regularly It hath set h...

The fury of his anger "The heat of his wrath"- For חמה chammah , the Bodl. MS. has חמת chammath , in regimine, more regularly

It hath set him on fire round about - So thoroughly hardened are the Jewish people, that they are represented as being in a house on fire, and even scorched with the flames, without perceiving their danger, or feeling that they are hurt! What a picture of mental induration! and this is their state to the present day. But by whom shall Jacob arise? for in this sense he is small indeed. Many efforts have been made to Christianize them, but without effect; and is this to be wondered at, while we tell them how great they are, how learned, how wise, how much we owe to them, that they are still the peculiar people of God, etc., etc.? If all this be true, what can they gain by becoming Christians? Whereas a more stupid, proud, hardened, ignorant people can scarcely be found in the civilized world, and they are most grossly ignorant of their own Scriptures.

Calvin: Isa 42:1 - Behold my servant // I will lean upon, him, // My elect // In whom my soul is well pleased // He will exhibit judgment to the Gentiles 1.Behold my servant The Prophet appears to break off abruptly to speak of Christ, but we ought to remember what we mentioned formerly 150 in expoundi...

1.Behold my servant The Prophet appears to break off abruptly to speak of Christ, but we ought to remember what we mentioned formerly 150 in expounding another passage, (Isa 7:14,) that the prophets, when they promise anything hard to be believed, are wont immediately afterwards to mention Christ; for in him are ratified all the promises which would otherwise have been doubtful and uncertain. “In Christ,” says Paul, “is Yea and Amen.” (2Co 1:20.) For what intercourse can we have with God, unless the Mediator come between us? We undoubtedly are too far alienated from his majesty, and therefore could not be partakers either of salvation or of any other blessing, but through the kindness of Christ.

Besides, when the Lord promised deliverance to the Jews, he wished to raise their minds higher, that they might look for greater and more valuable gifts than bodily freedom and a return to Judea; for those blessings were only the foretaste of that redemption which they at length obtained through Christ, and which we now enjoy. The grace of God in the return of his people would indeed have been imperfect, if he had not, at that time revealed himself as the perpetual Redeemer of his Church. But, as we have already said, the end of the captivity in Babylon included the full restoration of the Church; and consequently we need not wonder if the prophets interweave that commencement of grace with the reign of Christ, for that succession of events is mentioned in ninny passages. We must therefore come to Christ, without whom God cannot be reconciled to us; that is, unless we be received into the number of God’s children by being ingrafted, into his body. It will be evident from what follows, that the Prophet now speaks of Christ as the First-born and the Head, for to no other person could the following statements be applied, and the Evangelists place the matter beyond all controversy. (Mat 12:17.)

He calls Christ his Servant, (κατ ἐξοχήν,) by way of eminence; for this name belongs to all the godly, because God has adopted them on the condition of directing themselves and their whole life to obedience to him; and godly teachers, and those who hold a public office in the Church, are in a peculiar manner denominated the servants of God. But there is something still more extraordinary, on account of which this name belongs especially to Christ, for he is called a “Servant,” because God the Father not only enjoined him to teach or to do some particular thing, but called him to a singular and incomparable work which has nothing in common with other works.

Though this name is ascribed to the person, yet it belongs to human nature; for since his divine nature is eternal, and since he has always possessed in it a glory equal and perfectly similar to that of the Father, it was necessary that he should assume flesh in order that he might submit to obedience. Hence also Paul says,

“Though he was in the form of God, he accounted it not robbery to make himself equal to God, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant,” etc. (Phi 2:6.)

That he was a servant was a voluntary act, so that we must not think that it detracted anything from his rank. The ancient writers of the Church expressed this by the word “Dispensation,” by which it was brought about, they tell us, that he was subject to all our infirmities. It was by a voluntary determination that he subjected himself to God, and subjected himself in such a manner as to become also of service to us; and yet that exceedingly low condition does not hinder him from still continuing to possess supreme majesty. Hence also the Apostle says that he was “exalted above every name.” (Phi 2:9.) he employs the demonstrative particle Behold, in order to lead the Jews to regard the event as having actually taken place; for the objects which were before their eyes might have led them to despair, and therefore he bids them turn away their eyes from the actual condition of things and look to Christ.

I will lean upon, him, or, I will uphold him. 151 אתמך (ethmoch) is interpreted by some in an active, and by others in a passive sense. If it be taken in a passive sense, the meaning will be, that God will “lean on” his Anointed in such a manner as to lay the whole charge upon him, as masters commonly do to their faithful servants; and it is a proof of extraordinary fidelity, that God the Father will deliver all things to him, and will put into his hand his own power and authority. (Joh 13:3.) Yet I do not object to the active signification, “I will raise him up,” or, “I will exalt him,” or, “I will support him in his rank;” for what immediately follows, I will put my Spirit in him, is a repetition of the same sentiment. In the former clause, therefore, he says, I will uphold him, and afterwards describes the manner of “upholding,” that he will direct him by his Spirit, meaning by this phrase that he will assist Christ in all things, and will not permit him to be overcome by any difficulties. Now, it was necessary that Christ should he endued with the Spirit of God, in order to execute that divine office, and be the Mediator between God and men; for so great a work could not be performed by human power.

My elect In this passage the word Elect denotes “excellent,” as in many other passages; for they who are in the very flower of their age are called chosen youths. (1Sa 26:2, and 2Sa 6:1.) Jehovah therefore calls him “an excellent servant,” because he bears the message of reconciliation, and because all his actions are directed by God. At the same time he demonstrates his undeserved love, by which he embraced us all in his only-begotten Son, that in his person we may behold an illustrious display of that election by which we have been adopted into the hope of eternal life. Now, since heavenly power dwells in the human nature of Christ, when we hear him speak, let us not look at flesh and blood, but raise our minds higher, so as to know that all that he does is divine.

In whom my soul is well pleased From this passage we learn that Christ is not only beloved by the Father, (Mat 3:17,) but is alone beloved and accepted by him, so that there is no way of obtaining favor from God but through the intercession of Christ. In this sense the Evangelists quote this passage, (Mat 12:18,) as Paul also declares that we are reconciled “in the beloved” in such a manner as to be beloved on his account. (Eph 1:6.) The Prophet afterwards shews that Christ will be endued with the power of the Spirit, not solely on his own account, but in order to spread it far and wide.

He will exhibit judgment to the Gentiles By the word judgment the Prophet means a well-regulated government, and not a sentence which is pronounced by a judge on the bench; for to judge means, among the Hebrew writers, “to command, to rule, to govern,” and he adds that this judgment will be not only in Judea, but throughout the whole world. This promise was exceedingly new and strange; for it was only in Judea that God was known, (Psa 76:2,) and the Gentiles were shut out from all confidence in his favor. (Eph 2:12.)

These clear proofs were therefore exceedingly needful for us, that we might be certain of our calling; for otherwise we might think that these promises did not at all belong to us. Christ was sent in order to bring the whole world under the authority of God and obedience to him; and this shows that without him everything is confused and disordered. Before he comes to us, there can be no proper government amongst us; and therefore we must learn to submit to him, if we desire to be well and justly governed. Now, we ought to judge of this government from the nature of his kingdom, which is not external, but belongs to the inner man; for it consists of a good conscience and uprightness of life, not what is so reckoned before men, but what is so reckoned before God. The doctrine may be thus summed up: “Because the whole life of men has been perverted since we were corrupted in every respect by the fall of Adam, Christ came with the heavenly power of his Spirit, that he might change our disposition, and thus form us again to ‘newness of life.’” (Rom 6:4.)

Calvin: Isa 42:2 - He shall not cry aloud // He shall not lift up his voice; 2.He shall not cry aloud The Prophet shews of what nature the coming of Christ will be; that is, without pomp or splendor, such as commonly attends e...

2.He shall not cry aloud The Prophet shews of what nature the coming of Christ will be; that is, without pomp or splendor, such as commonly attends earthly kings, at whose arrival there are uttered various noises and loud cries, as if heaven and earth were about to mingle. But Isaiah says that Christ will come without any noise or cry; and that not only for the sake of applauding his modesty, but, first, that we may not form any earthly conception of him; secondly, that, having known his kindness by which he draws us to him, we may cheerfully hasten to meet him; and, lastly, that our faith may not languish, though his condition be mean and despicable.

He shall not lift up his voice; that is, he shall create no disturbance; as we commonly say of a quiet and peaceable man, “He makes no great noise.” 152 And indeed he did not boast of himself to the people, but frequently forbade them to publish his miracles, that all might learn that his power and authority was widely different from that which kings or princes obtain, by causing themselves to be loudly spoken of in order to gain the applause of the multitude. (Mat 8:4; Mar 5:43; Luk 8:56.)

Calvin: Isa 42:3 - A bruised reed he shall not break // Nor will he quench the smoking flax // He shall bring forth judgment in truth 3.A bruised reed he shall not break After having declared in general that Christ will be unlike earthly princes, he next mentions his mildness in thi...

3.A bruised reed he shall not break After having declared in general that Christ will be unlike earthly princes, he next mentions his mildness in this respect, that he will support the weak and feeble. This is what he means by the metaphor of “the bruised reed,” that he does not wish to break off and altogether crush those who are half-broken, but, on the contrary, to lift up and support them, so as to maintain and strengthen all that is good in them.

Nor will he quench the smoking flax This metaphor is of the same import with the former, and is borrowed from the wicks of lamps, which may displease us by not burning clearly or by giving out smoke, and yet we do not extinguish but trim and brighten them. Isaiah ascribes to Christ that forbearance by which he bears with our weakness, which we find to be actually fulfilled by him; for wherever any spark of piety is seen, he strengthens and kindles it, and if he were to act towards us with the utmost rigor, we should be reduced to nothing. Although men therefore totter and stumble, although they are even shaken or out of joint, yet he does not at once cast them off as utterly useless, but bears long, till he makes them stronger and more steadfast.

God gave a manifestation of this meekness when he appointed Christ to begin the discharge of his office as ambassador; for the Holy Spirit was sent from heaven in the shape of a dove, which was a token of nothing but mildness and gentleness. (Mat 3:16; Mar 1:10; Luk 3:22; Joh 1:32.) And indeed the sign perfectly agrees with the reality; for he makes no great noise, and does not render himself an object of terror, as earthly kings commonly do, and does not wish to harass or oppress his people beyond measure, but, on the contrary, to soothe and comfort them. Not only did he act in this manner when he was manifested to the world, but this is what he daily shows himself to be by the gospel. Following this example, the ministers of the gospel, who are his deputies, ought to shew themselves to be meek, and to support the weak, and gently to lead them in the way, so as not to extinguish in them the feeblest sparks of piety, but, on the contrary, to kindle them with all their might. But that we may not suppose that this meekness holds out encouragement to vices and corruptions, he adds —

He shall bring forth judgment in truth Although Christ soothes and upholds the weak, yet he is very far from using the flatteries which encourage vices; and therefore we ought to correct vices without flattery, which is in the highest degree inconsistent with that meekness. We ought therefore to guard diligently against extremes; that is, we must neither crush the minds of the weak by excessive severity, nor encourage by our smooth language anything that is evil.

That we may better understand who those persons are towards whom, following the example of Christ, we ought to exercise this mildness, we ought to weigh carefully the Prophet’s words. He calls them “a bruised reed” and “smoking wick.” These words do not apply to those who boldly and obstinately resist, nor to those who are fierce and headstrong; for such persons do not deserve this forbearance, but rather must be broken and crushed, as by the strokes of a hammer, by the severity of the word. While he praises meekness, he at the same time shews to whom it is adapted, and at what time and in what manner it ought to be employed; for it is not suitable to hardened and rebellious persons, or to those whose rage sends forth flames, but to those who are submissive, and who cheerfully yield to the yoke of Christ.

The word smoking shews that he maintains and cherishes not darkness, but sparks, though feeble and hardly perceptible. Wherever then there is impiety and stubbornness, there we must act with the utmost severity, and exercise no forbearance; but, on the other hand, where there are vices that have not gone beyond endurance, yet by gentleness of this nature, instead of encouraging, we must correct and reform them; for we must always pay regard chiefly to truth, of which he speaks, that vices may not be concealed, and thus acquire a secret corruption, but that the weak may be gradually trained to sincerity and uprightness. These words, therefore, relate to those persons who, amidst many deficiencies, have integrity of mind, and earnestly desire to follow true religion, or, at least, in whom we see some good beginning. It is clearly shewn by many passages (Mat 12:39) how severely Christ deals with despisers; for he is constrained to employ “a rod of iron” to crush those who do not submit to be governed by his shepherd’s crook. As he justly declares that “his yoke is easy, and his burden is light,” (Mat 11:30,) to willing disciples, so with good reason does David arm him with “a scepter of iron” (Psa 2:9) to break his enemies in pieces, and declare that he will be wet with their blood. (Psa 110:6.)

Calvin: Isa 42:4 - He shall not faint, nor be discouraged // And the isles shall wait for his law // The isles 4.He shall not faint, nor be discouraged The Prophet alludes to the preceding verse, and confirms what he formerly said, that Christ will indeed be m...

4.He shall not faint, nor be discouraged The Prophet alludes to the preceding verse, and confirms what he formerly said, that Christ will indeed be mild and gentle towards the weak, but that he will have no softness or effeminacy; for he will manfully execute the commission which he has received from the Father. This is what he means when he says that “he shall not faint;” and in this verb יכהה (yichheh) there is an allusion to a former verse, in which he spoke of “smoking flax.” Now, he shews what is the true moderation of meekness, not to turn aside to excessive indulgence; for we ought to use it in such a manner as not to swerve from our duty. Many persons wish to profit by the name of gentleness, so as to gain the applause and esteem of the world, but at the same time betray truth in a base and shameful manner.

I remember that there were in a populous city two preachers, one of whom boldly and loudly reproved vices, while the other endeavored to gain the favor of the people by flatteries. This fawning preacher, who was expounding the Prophet Jeremiah, lighted on a passage full of the mildest consolation, and having found, as he imagined, a fit opportunity, began to declaim against those harsh and severe reprovers who are wont to terrify men by thunderbolts of words. But on the following day, when the Prophet changed his subject and sharply rebuked wicked men with his peculiar vehemence of style, the wretched flatterer was constrained to encounter bitter scorn by retracting the words which were fresh in the recollection of all his hearers. Thus the temporary favor which he had gained speedily vanished, when he revealed his own disposition, and made himself abhorred by the good and the bad.

We must therefore distinguish between the submissive and the obstinate, that we may not abuse that mildness by using it on every occasion. Yet Isaiah declares that Christ’s fortitude will be unshaken, so that it shall surmount every obstacle; for by these words, Till he put judgment, he means that the ministry of Christ will be so efficacious that the fruit of his doctrine shall be manifested. He does not merely say, “Till he shall have made known the will of his Father,” but “Till he establish judgment,” that is, as we formerly said, the proper exercise of government. Christ’s ministry, therefore, he testifies, will not be unfruitful, but will have such efficacy that men shall be reformed by it.

This must not be limited to the person of Christ, but extends to the whole course of the gospel; for he not only discharged the embassy committed to him for three years, but continues to discharge the same embassy every day by means of his servants. Yet we are reminded that it is impossible for us to discharge that office without being laid under the necessity of suffering many annoyances, and sustaining contests so severe and dangerous, that we shall be almost overwhelmed and ready to abandon everything. Still we must not desist, but persevere constantly in our duty, and run to the very end; and therefore the Prophet testifies that Christ will be so steadfast that he will pursue his calling to the end; and, following his example, we ought boldly to persevere.

And the isles shall wait for his law Here he employs the word Law to mean “doctrine,” as the Hebrew word for “law” is derived from a verb which signifies to teach; 153 and thus the prophets are accustomed to speak of the gospel, in order to shew that it will not be new or contrary to what was taught by Moses.

The isles We have formerly shewn that the Hebrew writers give the name of isles to countries beyond the sea.

The Prophet confirms the former statement, by which it was declared that Christ had been appointed not only for the Jews, but also for the Gentiles, though they had nothing in common with the Jewish commonwealth. In short, that promise relates to all nations, that the advantages of this restoration and reformation may be shared by every part of the world.

By the word wait, he means that the elect will eagerly embrace the gospel offered to them; for the Lord displays in it the power of his election, when “they who wandered in darkness,” (Mat 4:16,) as soon as they hear the voice of the gospel, embrace it with the utmost eagerness, and although they formerly wandered, like scattered and lost sheep, yet hear immediately the voice of the shepherd, and cheerfully submit to him, as Christ himself has also spoken. (Joh 10:16.) Hence we learn that the saying of Augustine is exceedingly true, “that many sheep wander out of the folds, while wolves frequently dwell within the folds.” This attention is the work of God, when men who thought that they were wise give up their own judgment, and have to learn the gospel of Christ, so as to depend entirely on this teacher.

Calvin: Isa 42:5 - Thus saith Jehovah 5.Thus saith Jehovah He confirms what he said in the beginning of the chapter about the reign of Christ, that he will renew and restore all things; a...

5.Thus saith Jehovah He confirms what he said in the beginning of the chapter about the reign of Christ, that he will renew and restore all things; and as this might be thought to be incredible, he has here added a magnificent description of the power of God, by which our faith ought to be confirmed, especially when the outward aspect of things is directly contrary. On this account he brings forward clear proofs of the power of God, that all may be aroused by the mention of them, and may be convinced that he who created all things out of nothing, who spread out the heavens, who produced vegetation, who gave life to animals, and who upholds and defends all things by his power, will easily perform what he promises concerning the reign of Christ. These forms of expression remind us that we ought always to consider the power of God, that we may be fully convinced of the authority and undoubted certainty of his word; for it is not without reason that Isaiah makes this preface, but in order to remove every doubt, because nothing is too hard for God, who keeps the whole world in subjection to his authority; and in the following chapters he will employ similar modes of expression.

האל ( hael) is rendered by some “powerful,” and by others “God;” but it is of little consequence, for the meaning is the same; because he exhibits his power and majesty, and adorns him with this variety of titles, that we may know that he will easily restore all that is fallen and laid low.

Calvin: Isa 42:6 - I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness // And will hold thee by thy hand // I will keep thee // And will place thee for a covenant // For a light of the Gentiles 6.I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness He again repeats the name of God, in which we ought to supply what he stated in the former verse about ...

6.I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness He again repeats the name of God, in which we ought to supply what he stated in the former verse about his power. It is generally thought that this points out the end of Christ’s calling, that he was sent by the Father to establish “justice” among men, who are destitute of it so long as they have not Christ, and, being given up to all the corruptions of crimes and vices, are held captive under the tyranny of Satan. But because the word “righteousness” has a more extensive signification, I pass by that ingenious distinction; for it is not even said that he shall be called “to righteousness,” but this phraseology ought to be viewed as equivalent to the adverbial expression, “righteously,” or “in a holy manner.” I rather suppose the meaning to be, that Christ was “called in righteousness,” because his calling is lawful, and therefore shall be firm and secure. We know that what is not done in a proper and regular manner cannot be of long duration. Or perhaps it will be thought preferable to view it thus, that God, in appointing Christ to restore the Church, seeks no reason but from himself and his own righteousness; but it is certain that this word denotes stability, as if he had said, “faithfully.”

And will hold thee by thy hand By “the holding of the hand” he means the immediate assistance of God; as if he had said, “I will direct and establish thee in the calling to which I have appointed thee. In a word, as thy calling is righteous, so I will defend and uphold thee, as if by taking hold of thy hand I were thy leader.”

I will keep thee This word “keep” plainly shews what is the meaning of holding by the hand, namely, that Christ will be directed by the Father in such a manner that he shall have him as his protector and guardian, shall enjoy his assistance, and, in short, shall feel his presence in all things.

And will place thee for a covenant He now states the reason why God promises that he will be a guardian to Christ. Besides, the Prophet spoke of the Jews and the Gentiles separately; not that they differ by nature, or that the one is more excellent than the other, (for all need the grace of God, (Rom 3:23,) and Christ has brought salvation to all indiscriminately,) but because the Lord assigned the first rank to the Jews, (Mat 10:6,) it was therefore proper that they should be distinguished from the others. Accordingly, before “the partition-wall” (Eph 2:14) was thrown down, they excelled, not by their merit, but by the favor of God, because with them in the first instance the covenant of grace was made.

It may be objected, “Why is Christ appointed to a covenant which was ratified long before? for, more than two thousand years before, God had adopted Abraham, and thus the origin of the distinction was long previous to the coming of Christ.” I reply, the covenant which was made with Abraham and his posterity had its foundation in Christ; for the words of the covenant are these, “In thy seed shall all nations be blessed.” (Gen 22:18.) And the covenant was ratified in no other manner than in the seed of Abraham, that is, in Christ, by whose coming, though it had been previously made, it was confirmed and actually sanctioned. Hence also Paul says, “that the promises of God are yea and amen in Christ,” (2Co 1:20,) and in another passage calls Christ “the minister of circumcision, to fulfill the promises which were given to the fathers.” (Rom 15:8.) Still more clearly does he declare that Christ is “the peace” of all, so that they who were formerly separated are united in him, and both they who were far off and they who were near are thus reconciled to God. (Eph 2:17.) Hence also it is evident that Christ was promised, not only to the Jews, but to the whole world.

For a light of the Gentiles We have here another clear proof of the calling of the Gentiles, since he expressly states that Christ was appointed to be “a light” to them. He calls him a light, because the Gentiles were plunged in the deepest and thickest darkness, at the time when the Lord illuminated none but the Jews. Now, then, the blame lies solely with ourselves, if we do not become partakers of this salvation; for he calls all men to himself, without a single exception, and gives Christ to all, that we may be illuminated by him. Let us only open our eyes, he alone will dispel the darkness, and illuminate our minds by the “light” of truth.

Calvin: Isa 42:7 - That thou mayest open the eyes of the blind 7.That thou mayest open the eyes of the blind Here he explains more fully for what end Christ shall be sent by the Father, that we may see more clear...

7.That thou mayest open the eyes of the blind Here he explains more fully for what end Christ shall be sent by the Father, that we may see more clearly what advantage he yields us, and how much we need his assistance. He reminds all men of their “blindness,” that they may acknowledge it, if they wish to be illuminated by Christ. In short, under these metaphors he declares what is the condition of men, till Christ shine upon them as their Redeemer; that is, that they are most wretched, empty, and destitute of all blessings, and surrounded and overwhelmed by innumerable distresses, till they are delivered by Christ.

Now, though the Prophet addresses Christ himself, yet he has in his eye believers, that they may know that in him they ought to trust, and may not doubt that a remedy will be provided for all their distresses, if they implore his aid. God does not here enjoin Christ what he shall do, as if he needed to be taught or to receive commandments; but he addresses him for our sake, that we may know why the Father sent him; as he says also, (Psa 2:7,) “I will make known the decree; ask of me, I will give thee the Gentiles;” for in that passage the rank and authority of Christ are declared, that we may know that the Father has bestowed on him the highest authority, in order that we may more securely place all our hope and confidence in him.

Calvin: Isa 42:8 - I am Jehovah // This is my name // And I will not give my glory to another; // Nor my praise to graven images 8.I am Jehovah Hence infer what is the nature and extent of the disease of unbelief, since the Lord can hardly satisfy himself with any words to expr...

8.I am Jehovah Hence infer what is the nature and extent of the disease of unbelief, since the Lord can hardly satisfy himself with any words to express the cure of it. By nature we are prone to distrust, and do not believe God when he speaks, till he entirely subdue our stubbornness. Besides, we continually fall back into the same fault through our levity, unless he employ many bridles to restrain us. Again, therefore, he returns to that confirmation of which we have spoken formerly, that his promises may remain unshaken.

This is my name הוא ( hu) is sometimes taken for a substantive, so as to be a proper name of God; 154 but I explain it in a more simple manner, “It is my name,” that is, “Jehovah is my own name, and cannot lawfully be given to any other.” In a word, by this expression he seals all that was said about the office of Christ, and adds as it were a seal to the promise: “He who declareth these things testifieth that he alone is God, and that this name dwelleth in him alone.”

And I will not give my glory to another; that is, “I will not suffer my glory to be diminished, which it would be, if I were found to be false or fickle in my promises.” He therefore declares that he will abide by his promises, because he wishes to vindicate his glory and preserve it entire, that it may not be in any respect diminished.

This is a remarkable passage, by which we are taught that the glory of God is chiefly visible in his fulfillment of what he has promised. And hence we obtain a singular confirmation of our faith, that the Lord never deceives, never swerves from his promises, and nothing can hinder what he has once determined. But since Satan, by amazing arts, endeavors to obscure this glory of God, and to bestow it on men and on false gods, he therefore testifies that he will not permit himself to be regarded as fickle or deceitful in his promises.

Nor my praise to graven images A contrast is drawn between the only God and idols with reference to time; for, had not God been the Redeemer of his people, unbelievers would have boasted as if true religion had been false and useless. God therefore declares that he will not permit wicked men to triumph by oppressing the Church; and, beyond all doubt, God has hitherto spared us, and still deals so gently with us, in order that he may not expose his Gospel to the blasphemous reproaches of the Papists. We ought to draw from this a universal doctrine, namely, that the Lord wishes that his glory may remain unimpaired; for he defends and maintains it everywhere with the utmost zeal, in order to shew that he is exceedingly jealous of it, (Exo 20:5,) and does not permit the smallest part of it to be given to another.

Calvin: Isa 42:9 - The former things // Behold! they came // Before they spring forth 9.The former things He now recalls to remembrance the former predictions, by the fulfillment of which he shews that confidence ought to be placed in ...

9.The former things He now recalls to remembrance the former predictions, by the fulfillment of which he shews that confidence ought to be placed in him for the future; for what we have known by actual experience ought to tend greatly to confirm our belief. It is as if he had said, “I have spoken so frequently to your fathers, and you have found me to be true in all things; and yet you cannot place confidence in me about future events: the experience of past transactions produces no effect upon you, and does not excite you to do better.” God’s favors, therefore, ought to be mentioned by us in such a manner that, whenever our salvation lies concealed in hope, we may rest on the word of God, and be confirmed by it during the whole course of our life.

Behold! they came 155 By the adverb behold, he points out, as with the finger, that they had learned by experience, that God is not false, and did not; speak in vain by the prophets; because clear proofs openly testified and proclaimed the truth of God.

Before they spring forth 156 He distinguishes God from idols by this mark, that he alone knows and predicts future events, but idols do not; know them. As to the greater part of the responses which were given by the gods of the Gentiles, we have formerly seen that they were either false or ambiguous; for they who relied on them were often shamefully deceived, and this is the reward which they richly deserved. And if at first sight the event corresponded, this plunged them deeper in eternal perdition; and by the righteous judgment of God it was brought about that Satan imposed upon them by such delusions. Far otherwise was it with the sacred oracles, by which the Church, for her own advantage and salvation, was at one time brought to repentance, and at another time encouraged to entertain favorable hope, that she might not sink under the burden of punishments. It remains a settled principle, that all that God has foretold is verified by the event; for he rules and directs all things by his providence.

Calvin: Isa 42:10 - Sing to Jehovah // A new song 10.Sing to Jehovah He now exhorts the people to gratitude; for God’s favors ought always to excite us, by the remembrance of them, to give thanks a...

10.Sing to Jehovah He now exhorts the people to gratitude; for God’s favors ought always to excite us, by the remembrance of them, to give thanks and to celebrate his praises. Besides, by that exhortation he calls believers to behold the prophecy as actually accomplished, and confirms those promises of which he spoke. We ought to observe this as the design of the Prophet, that there is no reason why believers, though they are severely oppressed, should give way to sorrow, but that good hope ought to encourage them to gladness, that they may now prepare to render thanksgiving.

The subject of this song is, that Christ has been revealed to the world, and sent by the Father, in order to relieve the miseries of his Church, and to restore her to perfect order, and indeed, as it were, to renew the whole world. As it was difficult to believe this, the Prophet wished to remove every doubt, in order to fix these predictions more deeply in their hearts. Nor ought we to wonder that the Prophet labors so hard to arouse them when they were reduced to the greatest straits, and had no longer any hope of safety. The mere aspect of things might shake their faith, and even produce suspicion that all that the prophets had foretold was unfounded and absurd. The object, of this exhortation therefore is, that when affairs are utterly desperate, they should be cheerful and rely on these promises.

A new song By new he means an excellent, beautiful, and elegant song, not one that is ordinary or common, but a song which may arouse men to admiration, as relating to the extraordinary grace of God, of which there had never been so remarkable an example. In this sense it is also used in Psa 33:3, and Psa 96:1 New is here contrasted with what is Ordinary, and thus he extols the infinite mercy of God, which was to be revealed in Christ, and which ought therefore to be celebrated and sung with the highest praises. Hence we infer that each of us ought to be the more zealous in proclaiming the praises of God, in proportion to the greater number of favors which we have received. It is indeed the duty of all men to sing praise to God, for there is no person who is not bound to it by the strongest obligations; but more lofty praises ought to proceed from those on whom more valuable gifts have been bestowed. Now, since God has laid open the fountain of all blessings in Christ, and has displayed all spiritual riches, we need not wonder if he demand that we offer to him an unwonted and excellent sacrifice of praise.

It ought to be observed that this song cannot be sung but by renewed men; for it ought to proceed from the deepest feeling of the heart, and therefore we need the direction and influence of the Spirit, that we may sing those praises in a proper manner. Besides, he does not exhort one or a few nations to do this, but all the nations in the world; for to all of them Christ was sent.

Calvin: Isa 42:11 - Let the desert and it’s cities cry aloud // The towns where Kedar dwells 11.Let the desert and it’s cities cry aloud While the Prophet includes all the parts of the world, he mentions particularly those which were better...

11.Let the desert and it’s cities cry aloud While the Prophet includes all the parts of the world, he mentions particularly those which were better known to the Jews; for on the west Judea had the sea, and on the east the desert and Arabia. When he speaks of the tents of Kedar, the desert, and the rocks, he means Arabia; but it is a figure of speech by which a part is taken for the whole, for it includes the whole of the east. It is as if he had said, that from the rising to the setting of the sun these praises shall be heard; for God shall be worshipped everywhere, though formerly he was worshipped in Judea alone; and thus the state of affairs shall be changed, and that praise shall be beard in the most distant parts of the earth. 157

The towns where Kedar dwells He mentions Kedar, because the Scenite 158 Arabians, as is well known, dwelt in tents. But he employs the word towns, while he is speaking of a desert; and therefore it ought to be remarked, that desert denotes not only the vast wilderness which lay between Judea and Arabia, but the more distant countries which were commonly designated from that part which was adjoining to them, as some people give the name of “mountainous” to those plains which lie beyond the mountains; for the common people have their attention so much directed to what they see close at hand, that they suppose them to resemble other places that are more distant. Yet the Prophet here exalts and magnifies the greatness of the grace of God, in reaching even rude and barbarous nations, whose savage cruelty was well known.

Calvin: Isa 42:12 - Let them give glory to Jehovah 12.Let them give glory to Jehovah He explains what the nature of that shouting will be, that is, to celebrate the praises of God; for his goodness an...

12.Let them give glory to Jehovah He explains what the nature of that shouting will be, that is, to celebrate the praises of God; for his goodness and mercy shall be everywhere seen; and therefore he enjoins them to celebrate this redemption with a cheerful voice, because the blessed consequences of it shall be shared by all the nations. And thus we are reminded to cry aloud in the present day with the greatest earnestness when we proclaim the praises of God, that we ourselves may be inflamed, and may excite others by our example to act in the same manner; for to be lukewarm, or to mutter, or to sing, as the saying is, to themselves and to the muses, is impossible for those who have actually tasted the grace of God.

Calvin: Isa 42:13 - Jehovah like a giant // Will go forth // And as a warrior 13.Jehovah like a giant What Isaiah now adds is intended to surmount the temptations of believers. He ascribes to God strength and power, that they m...

13.Jehovah like a giant What Isaiah now adds is intended to surmount the temptations of believers. He ascribes to God strength and power, that they may know that they shall find in him a sure defense; for in adversity we are perplexed, because we doubt whether or not God will be able to render us assistance, especially when by delaying he appears in some measure to reject our prayers; and therefore the Prophet loudly extols the power of God, that all may learn to rely and place their confidence in him.

Will go forth The going forth that is here mentioned must be taken metaphorically; for God seemed to be concealed at the time when he permitted his people to be affiicted and oppressed without any appearance of aid; and therefore the word means “to come forth publicly for the sake of giving assistance.” This is confirmed by what follows.

And as a warrior When he attributes to God burning indignation, with which he rushes forth “like a warrior” against his enemies, the comparisons are drawn from human feelings, and declare to us the powerful assistance of God, which would not otherwise make a sufficiently powerful impression on our minds. He therefore accommodates himself to our capacity, as we have often said, that we may know how ardently he desires to preserve us, and how much he is distressed by the affliction and oppression of believers, and likewise how terrible is his anger, whenever he girds himself for battle.

We ought always to observe that peculiar season which the Prophet had in his eye, to which these predictions must be applied; for while the enemies were becoming more and more fierce, and were taunting a wretched people, it was the duty of believers to look at something quite different from what they beheld with their eyes, and to believe that God is sufficiently powerful to subdue their enemies, and rescue them out of their hands. Nor was it only during the captivity that it was of importance for them to have their sorrow alleviated by this promise, but almost till the coming of Christ; for they were continually and painfully constrained to encounter severe distresses, as is evident from history.

Calvin: Isa 42:14 - I have kept silence // For a long time // Like a woman in labor // I will destroy and swallow at once 14.I have kept silence The Prophet meets the temptations which commonly give us great uneasiness, when God delays his aid. We are tempted by impatien...

14.I have kept silence The Prophet meets the temptations which commonly give us great uneasiness, when God delays his aid. We are tempted by impatience, and dread that his promises are false. We reckon it unreasonable that God should be silent, and fall asleep, so to speak, while the wicked carry themselves high; that he should be cool, while they burn with eagerness to do mischief; and that he should wink at their crimes, while they keenly pursue every kind of cruelty. When their minds were distressed and almost overwhelmed, the Prophet wished to comfort them, that they might not think that God had forsaken them, though everything appeared to be desperate.

For a long time He expressly mentions “the great length of time,” that their hearts might not languish through the tedious delay; for when they had been broken down by almost incessant calamities since the death of Jehoshaphat, it was very hard and distressing to spend seventy years in captivity. Nor was even this the end of their afflictions, and therefore they needed to be carefully admonished, that although God do not immediately send relief, still believers will suffer nothing by the delay, provided that they wait with patience. By these words he also rebukes unbelievers, who, trusting to his forbearance, freely indulged in every kind of wickedness; and therefore God declares that, although he has refrained and been a silent spectator, he is not on that account deprived of his power.

Like a woman in labor By this metaphor he expresses astonishing warmth of love and tenderness of affection; for he compares himself to a mother who singularly loves her child, though she brought him forth with extreme pain. It may be thought that these things are not applicable to God; but in no other way than by such figures of speech can his ardent love towards us be expressed. He must therefore borrow comparisons from known objects, in order to enable us to understand those which are unknown to us; for God loves very differently from men, that is, more fully and perfectly, and, although he surpasses all human affections, yet nothing that is disorderly belongs to him.

Besides, he intended also to intimate that the redemption of his people would be a kind of birth, that the Jews might know that the grave would serve them for a womb, and that thus, in the midst of corruption, they might entertain the hope of salvation. Although he produced a new Church for himself without pain or effort, yet, in order to exhibit more fully the excellence of his grace in this new birth, he not inappropriately attributes to himself the cry of “a woman in labor.”

I will destroy and swallow at once Because that comparison of a travailing woman might somewhat degrade the majesty and power of God, the Prophet determined to add here a different feeling. So far then as relates to love, he says that God resembles a mother; so far as relates to power, he says that he resembles a lion or a giant.

Calvin: Isa 42:15 - NO PHRASE 15.=== I === will reduce mountains and hills to a wilderness. The Prophet means that all the defences and military forces on which the wicked plume ...

15.=== I === will reduce mountains and hills to a wilderness. The Prophet means that all the defences and military forces on which the wicked plume themselves shall not prevent God from setting his people at liberty. It was necessary that this should be added to the former statements; for when we see enemies exceedingly powerful, and almost invincible, we tremble, and do not look for God’s assistance, which would be necessary to keep our faith strong. On this point, therefore, the Prophet dwells, in order to shew that no power or army whatsoever can resist the Lord when he wishes to deliver his people. In short, he shews that there shall be such a revolution, that they who formerly were most powerful shall be crushed, and shall gain nothing by all their attempts against him.

Such appears to me to be the plain meaning of this passage, and there is no necessity for entering into ingenious speculations, as some have done, who, in an allegorical interpretation of these words, pronounce that by “mountains and hills” are meant cities, and by herbage the men who inhabit them. But there is no necessity for pursuing such refinements; for he simply declares that God is sufficiently powerful to fulfill his promises and deliver his Church, because he will easily surmount all the difficulties which present themselves to our eyes. This statement corresponds also to other predictions which we have formerly seen, in which the Prophet taught that as soon as God has determined to assist his people, his power is not limited to natural means, but miraculously breaks through every obstruction that appears to hinder his passage.

Calvin: Isa 42:16 - And I will lead the blind // And will turn darkness before them into light 16.And I will lead the blind After having shewn that the strength of the enemies cannot prevent God from delivering his people, he proceeds with that...

16.And I will lead the blind After having shewn that the strength of the enemies cannot prevent God from delivering his people, he proceeds with that consolation to which he had formerly adverted. He describes by the word blind those whose affairs are so difficult, and intricate, and disordered, that they know not to what hand to turn, or in what direction to flee, and, in short, who see no means of escape, but deep gulfs on every hand. When our affairs proceed smoothly enough, a plain and easy path is placed before our eyes; and, in like manner, when our affairs are painful and distressing, and especially when they hold out no hope of relief, but threaten destruction to us, and are covered with deep and melancholy darkness, we are blinded. When we have thus no means of escape, the Prophet tells us that at that very time we ought, especially to hope and to look for assistance from the Lord.

It is often advantageous to us also to have no way open to us, to be straitened and hemmed in on every hand, and even to be blinded, that we may learn to depend solely on God’s assistance and to rely on him; for, so long as a plank is left on which we think that we can seize, we turn to it with our whole heart. While we are driven about in all directions, the consequence is, that the remembrance of heavenly grace fades from our memory. If, therefore, we desire that God should assist us and relieve our adversity, we must be blind, we must turn away our eyes from the present condition of things, and restrain our judgment, that we may entirely rely on his promises. Although this blindness is far from being pleasant, and shews the weakness of our mind, yet, if we judge from the good effects which it produces, we ought not greatly to shun it; for it is better to be “blind” persons guided by the hand of God, than, by excessive sagacity, to form labyrinths for ourselves.

And will turn darkness before them into light When he promises that he will give “light” instead of “darkness,” he confirms what has been already said; and therefore, although we see not even a ray of light in adversity, yet we ought not to despair of God’s assistance, but at that very time we ought especially to embrace his promises; for the Lord will easily change darkness into light, make straight the crooked windings, and lead us into the path, that we may walk with safety. Yet let us perceive that these things are promised to believers alone, who intrust themselves to God, and allow themselves to be governed by him; and, in short, who have known their blindness, and willingly follow him as their leader, and amidst the darkness of afflictions patiently wait for the dawn of grace. To those only who abide by his promises does he stretch out his hand, and not to the wise men 159 who wish to see in spite of him, or who are carried headlong by unlawful schemes.

Calvin: Isa 42:17 - They shall be driven back // And say to a molten image, Ye are our gods 17.They shall be driven back This enables us to see more clearly to whom the former doctrine relates, for it distinguishes between the worshippers of...

17.They shall be driven back This enables us to see more clearly to whom the former doctrine relates, for it distinguishes between the worshippers of God and the worshippers of idols. The Lord will be a leader to his own people, but, on the other hand, they who worship idols shall be ashamed As if he had said, that here the Lord gives us a choice, either to be saved by his grace, or to perish miserably; for all that place their hope of salvation in idols shall perish, but they who trust in the word of God are certain of salvation; because, though they often are heavily afflicted, yet he will not allow their hope to be put to shame in the end, but by the result will prove that he did not in vain lay down this distinction.

And say to a molten image, Ye are our gods It is certain that by these two marks are described all idolaters who place their hope in any one else than in God alone; for, although idolaters do not bow down before their idols, yet, by attaching divinity to them, they offer blasphemy to the only and true God; for the chief part of the worship of God consists in faith and calling upon him, both of which the Prophet here describes. It may be asked, Were they so stupid as to say to an image, “Thou art my god?” for all superstitious persons confessed that God is in heaven, and did not openly ascribe divinity to wood or stone. I reply, all idolaters ascribe to images the power of God, though they acknowledge that he is in heaven; for, when they flee to statues and images, when they make and perform vows to them, they undoubtedly ascribe to them what belongs to God. It is in vain for them, therefore, to cloak their ignorance under plausible excuses, for they reckon wood and stone to be gods, and offer the highest insult to God; and consequently, the Prophet did not employ exaggerated language, or falsely accuse them of being idolaters; for it is plainly testified by their words and speeches, when they call their idols and images gods. Even though they did not utter a word, their madness is openly manifested by their imagining that they cannot reach the hand or the ear of God without bowing down before images to utter their prayers. The object of these statements is, that all may understand that no man will be saved but, he who trusts in God alone.

Calvin: Isa 42:18 - O ye deaf, hear, and ye blind 18.O ye deaf, hear, and ye blind He now employs these words, “blind” and “deaf,” in a sense different from that in which he formerly employed...

18.O ye deaf, hear, and ye blind He now employs these words, “blind” and “deaf,” in a sense different from that in which he formerly employed them, (verse 16,) when he metaphorically described those who had no understanding, and who were overwhelmed by such a mass of afflictions that they were blinded by their sorrow; for here he gives the name of blind to those who shut their eyes in the midst of light, and do not behold the works of God; and the name of deaf to those who refuse to hear him, and sink down into stupidity and slothfulness amidst the dregs of their ignorance. He therefore condemns the Jews for “blindness,” or rather, in my own opinion, he condemns all men; for, while he directly reproaches the Jews because “in hearing they do not hear, and in seeing they do not see,” (Isa 6:9; Mat 13:13,) yet this applies in some measure to the Gentiles, to whom God revealed himself by his creatures, on whose hearts and consciences also he impressed the knowledge of him, and to whom he had made and would still make known his wonderful works. By demanding attention, he pronounces that there is nothing that hinders them from comprehending the truth and power of God, except that they are “deaf and blind.” Nor is this unaccompanied by malice and ingratitude; for he openly instructs them concerning his power, and gives them very striking proofs of it; but no one gives attention to his doctrine or to his wonderful actions, and the consequence is, that they are willingly “blind.” Thus the Prophet shews that the fault lies wholly with men in not perceiving the power of God.

Calvin: Isa 42:19 - Who is blind but my servant? // My messenger whom I send 19.Who is blind but my servant? There are some who interpret this verse as if the Prophet were describing the reproaches which wicked men are accusto...

19.Who is blind but my servant? There are some who interpret this verse as if the Prophet were describing the reproaches which wicked men are accustomed to throw out against the prophets; for they retort on the Lord’s servants those reproofs and accusations which they cannot endure. “Whom dost thou accuse of blindness? Whom dost thou call deaf? Take that to thyself. Who is blind but thou?” They think, therefore, that it is as if the Lord expostulated with the Jews in this manner; “I see that you reckon my prophets to be blind and deaf.” But we shall immediately see that this interpretation does not agree with the context, for the Prophet afterwards explains (verse 20) why he calls them “blind.” It is because, while they see many things, they pay no attention to them. Indeed, this does not at all apply to the prophets, and therefore let us follow the plain and natural meaning.

Isaiah had accused all men of blindness, but especially the Jews, because they ought to have seen more clearly than all the rest; for they had not only some ordinary light and understanding, but enjoyed the word, by which the Lord abundantly revealed himself to them. Although, therefore, all the rest were blind, yet the Jews ought to have seen and known God, seeing that they were illuminated by his Law and doctrine, as by a very bright lamp. Besides, Isaiah afterwards addresses the Jews in this manner,

“Arise, O Jerusalem, and be illuminated; for darkness shall be on all the earth, but the Lord shall shine on thee.” (Isa 60:1.)

Because the Jews shut their eyes amidst such clear light, that is the reason why he addresses to them this special reproof. As if he had said, “In vain do I debate with those who are alienated from me, and it is not so wonderful that they are blind; but it is monstrous that this should have happened to my servants (before whose eyes light has been placed) to be deaf to the doctrine which sounds continually in their ears. For these things are so clear that the blind might see them, and so loud that the deaf might hear them; but in vain do I speak to them, for nothing can be more dull or stupid; and, instead of seeing and hearing better than all others, as they ought to have done, none can be found either more deaf or more blind.”

My messenger whom I send From the human race universally the Prophet gradually descends to the Jews, and next to the priests, who were leading persons, and might be regarded as occupying the highest rank. It belonged to their once to interpret the Law, and to set a good example before others, and, in short, to point out the way of salvation. It was from “the priest’s mouth” that they were commanded to “seek the Law.” (Mal 2:7.) The Prophet complains, therefore, that they who ought to have led the way to others were themselves blind.

Some view the word servant as relating to Isaiah, and others to Christ, and think that he, as well as Isaiah, is accused of blindness; but this has nothing to do with the Prophet’s meaning. Thus, he magnifies by comparison the complaint which he lately made about the slothfulness of the Jews; for they were more deeply in fault than others, but the heaviest blame lay on the priests who were their leaders. Let us therefore learn, that the nearer we approach to God, and the higher the rank to which we are elevated, we shall be the less excusable. For the same reason he applies the term perfect to those who ought to have been perfect; for he mentions reproachfully that perfection from which they had fallen by wicked revolt, and thus had basely profaned a most excellent gift of God. Having possessed a “perfect” rule of righteousness, it lay with themselves alone to follow it.

Calvin: Isa 42:20 - Seeing many things 20.Seeing many things The Prophet himself explains what is the nature of this blindness of which he spoke, and shews that it is double; and this shew...

20.Seeing many things The Prophet himself explains what is the nature of this blindness of which he spoke, and shews that it is double; and this shews clearly that he spoke of the Jews, who by wicked contempt had quenched God’s light. Our guilt will be double when we shall come to the judgment-seat of God, if we shut our eyes when he exhibits the light, and shut our ears when he teaches by his word. The heathen nations will indeed be without excuse; but the Jews and others to whom the Lord revealed himself in so many ways, will deserve double condemnation for having refused to see or hear God. We, therefore, who have so many and so illustrious examples set before us at the present day, ought to dread this judgment; for in many persons there will now be found not less blindness or obduracy than formerly existed among the Jews, and not more excusable.

Calvin: Isa 42:21 - The Lord is well pleased 21.The Lord is well pleased In order to aggravate still more the guilt of the Jews, he now shews that it was not God who prevented them from leading ...

21.The Lord is well pleased In order to aggravate still more the guilt of the Jews, he now shews that it was not God who prevented them from leading a prosperous and happy life. He had already said that the distresses and afflictions which they endure are the punishment of their blindness, which they have voluntarily brought upon themselves; and now he brings forward as an addition and crowning point of the accusation, that by their obstinacy they reject all relief.

This passage is interpreted in various ways. Some render it, “The Lord hath so willed it;” others, “He is merciful;” but, for my own part, I have translated it, “The Lord is willing,” that is, disposed and inclined to deliver his people, and that for the purpose of magnifying his Law and extolling his righteousness. Thus God assigns the reason why he is ready to aid those who are unworthy, that he wishes to spread his glory in their salvation, that in this manner his righteousness may be illustriously displayed, and that his Law may prevail and flourish. As to the heavy calamities that have come on the Jews, the reason is, that of their own accord they have resolved to be blind, and to bring afflictions on themselves, instead of obeying God; for otherwise the Lord would have wished to enrich and exalt them. Others view it thus, “The Lord wishes to magnify his Law, because he wishes to appear to be faithful in punishing the Jews, as he had threatened them by his Law;” and thus they consider “righteousness” to denote the punishment and vengeance which God inflicts on a wicked people.

Others render it, “For his righteous one,” and refer it to Christ; but they mistake the meaning of the word צדקו , (tzidko,) and unquestionably he speaks of righteousness, and means that the Lord would willingly have displayed the magnificence of his promises:, and would have given proofs of his righteousness in preserving his people, if they had not shewn themselves to be ungrateful and unworthy. Some think that the Lord here offers an excuse for himself, because, when the people whom he had adopted were exposed to so many evils, it appeared as if his truth were shaken, and that the Prophet intended to meet this calumny, for they were seized and became a prey, not because the Lord delights in their miseries, but because he prefers his righteousness to everything else.

For my own part, I explain it simply to mean, “The Lord, for the sake of doing honor to his Law, was inclined to do good to his people, in order that his glory and righteousness might shine forth in it; but his people shewed themselves to be unworthy of so great a favor; and, therefore, by their own obduracy they made their wounds incurable.” Besides, we ought to learn from this passage the reason why the Lord bestows so many favors on his Church. It is, that he may promote his Law, that is, that he may bring men to honor his majesty, and that his truth may shine more and more. When he says that the Lord is willing and inclined; he shews plainly that he is not induced to it by any one else than by himself; but he expresses it more fully, when he adds, on account of his righteousness; for he excludes everything that men could bring. Nor is the Lord prompted by any other consideration to do good, than because he is righteous; for no merit or worth will be found among men. But this reason applied especially to the Jews, whom alone he deigned to adopt.

Calvin: Isa 42:22 - But this people // They shall be made a spoil 22.But this people Isaiah now declares that it is through their own fault that the people are miserable and appointed to destruction, because they re...

22.But this people Isaiah now declares that it is through their own fault that the people are miserable and appointed to destruction, because they reject God, who would otherwise have been inclined to do good to them, and because they deliberately set aside all remedies, and wish for death, as is commonly the case with men who are past hope. Thus he excuses God in such a manner as to bring a heavy accusation against the people, because they have rejected him by their ingratitude, and have abused his fatherly kindness. Yet, as I remarked a little before, he mentions these things, not so much for the sake of excusing God, as of bringing a bitter complaint, that his countrymen have leagued to their destruction; because, as if on set purpose, they have precipitated themselves into many calamities. If, then, we see the Church, at the present day, in a ruinous and revolting condition, we ought to ascribe it to our iniquities and transgressions, by which we do not suffer God to do good to us.

The copulative ו (vau) is rendered by some therefore; but I have preferred to translate it but; for it states a contrast to that desire by which the Lord declared that he was prompted to defend his people, if they had permitted it. I choose to interpret הפח (hapheach) as a gerundial participle, about to be snared; for he speaks of a nation which was about to be led into captivity. As to בהורים , ( bahurim,) I think that two words, instead of one, are here used to signify in dens; for to translate the word young men, appears to me to be at variance with the context.

They shall be made a spoil They who interpret this as relating to the whole human race, who have no Savior but Christ, (Joh 8:36,) adduce nothing that corresponds to the Prophet’s meaning; for he simply declares that the people shall perish without hope of deliverance, because they rejected the grace of God. Let us infer from this what must befall us, if we do not in due time embrace the grace of God offered to us. We shall certainly deserve to be deprived of all aid, to be exposed as a prey and a spoil, and utterly to perish.

Calvin: Isa 42:23 - Who is there among you? // Who shall hearken for the time to come? 23.Who is there among you? Isaiah continues the same subject; for he means that the Jews are and will be so stupid, that they will not see, even when...

23.Who is there among you? Isaiah continues the same subject; for he means that the Jews are and will be so stupid, that they will not see, even when they are warned; and he expressly addresses them, because, while they ought to have been better educated and taught than others, yet they understood nothing, and did not observe the judgments of God, even though they were exceedingly manifest.

Who shall hearken for the time to come? That is, who, being at length subdued by afflictions, repents, though it be late. We see, then, how this astonishment aggravates the criminality of their madness, because they will always refuse to be taught. Yet let us learn what is the use of threatenings and punishments; for God does not reprove our crimes, or punish us for them, as if he delighted in taking vengeance, or demanded some recompense, but that we may be on our guard “for the time to come.”

Calvin: Isa 42:24 - Who gave Jacob for a prey? // Hath not Jehovah? // Because we have sinned against him // And they would not walk in his ways 24.Who gave Jacob for a prey? These are the matters which Isaiah complains that the Jews did not observe; for they thought either that the sufferings...

24.Who gave Jacob for a prey? These are the matters which Isaiah complains that the Jews did not observe; for they thought either that the sufferings which they endured happened by chance, or that they had not the same strength to resist as their fathers had, and that this was the reason why they were conquered by their enemies. In short, having their minds fully occupied with external causes, they did not at the same time observe the threatenings which had been so frequently denounced by the prophets, nor attend to the judgments of God; and therefore the Prophet drags them before the heavenly throne, by declaring that God is the author of these judgments.

Hath not Jehovah? They could not believe that the calamities which they suffered proceeded from God, as the just punishment of their sins; and we know that there is nothing which men can now be with more difficulty persuaded to believe. Everybody acknowledges that God is the author of all things, but if you ask whether or not all adverse events are God’s chastisements, they will be ashamed to confess it; for men are distracted by a variety of thoughts, and, being prejudiced by their opinion of fortune, turn their minds and hearts to this or that cause rather than to God.

Because we have sinned against him Isaiah next points out the cause of so grievous destruction, the sins of the people, which the Lord justly punished. In like manner, Moses had also shewn,

“How would a thousand flee from the face of one? Doth not the Lord pursue you, and shut you up in the hands of the enemy?” (Deu 32:30.)

We wonder every day at many things which happen contrary to our expectation, and yet we do not acknowledge that the cause lies with ourselves. It is therefore necessary that we be hard pressed and constrained by violence to confess our fault, and consequently this doctrine must be often stated and repeated.

That men may not accuse God of cruelty, the Prophet adds, that he does it for a just cause; for he does not rush forward 160 to inflict punishment, if he be not constrained by necessity, and he takes no pleasure in our afflictions; and, therefore, we must here observe two separate things. First, no evil happens to us, but from the Lord, so that we must not think that anything happens either by chance or by any external cause. Secondly, we suffer no evil whatever, but for a just cause, because we have sinned against God. In vain, therefore, do men accuse God of cruelty; for we ought to acknowledge his righteous judgments in the chastisements which he deservedly inflicts.

And they would not walk in his ways Here the Prophet aggravates the guilt of the Jews, but changes the person, because he formerly included himself along with others, as being a member of that body, and confessed his guilt. Not that he resembled the great body of the people, or approved of their crimes; but because, amidst such a huge mass of vices, he could not be free from being in some degree infected by the contagion, like other parts of the body. Because he was widely different from the great body of the people, he changes the person, and adds, “They would not;” by which he declares that such deep-rooted obduracy is offensive to him, so that he cannot in any way either conceal it or express his approbation of it; for the subject now in hand is not ordinary vices, but contempt and rejection of God, manifested by fiercely and haughtily shaking off his yoke. This is the reason why Isaiah excludes himself from their number.

If these things justly befell the Jews, let us know that the same punishment hangs over us and the whole world, if we do not take warning and repent. We see how kindly the Lord invites us to himself, in how many ways he expresses his good-will towards us, how graciously he testifies that he will be reconciled, though he has been offended. Having now been so often and so kindly invited by God, and having experienced his mercy, if we refuse to listen to him, we shall undoubtedly feel that the ruin which they experienced belongs equally to all rebels.

Calvin: Isa 42:25 - Therefore he hath poured upon him // And the strength of war // And he gave no heed to it // And he laid it not to heart 25.Therefore he hath poured upon him Because the chastisements by which the Lord had begun, and would afterwards continue, to punish the Jews, were v...

25.Therefore he hath poured upon him Because the chastisements by which the Lord had begun, and would afterwards continue, to punish the Jews, were very severe, the Prophet employs metaphorical language to express their vehemence. He says that the Lord poureth out his fury, as if a thunderbolt were discharged with violence, or as if waters burst forth, to spread devastation far and wide on the surrounding country; just as, at the deluge, when

“the flood-gates of the deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened,” (Gen 7:11,)

the waters burst forth with prodigious force and violence.

And the strength of war He next employs a different figure, that God assembles his forces to make war, that he may attack the people with unrelenting hostility. If this be supposed to mean the enemies whom the Lord raised up against the Jews, I do not greatly object to the interpretation; for it is certain that they were raised up by the judgment of God. What else was Nebuchadnezzar than God’s scourge? (Jer 51:20.) But, for my own part, I think that this also ought to be viewed as metaphorical language, meaning that “God rushes forth violently, like an armed enemy, and pours out his fury on the people.” He has various ways of making war; for he chastises his people sometimes by famine, sometimes by war, and sometimes by pestilence; and therefore I think that he includes here scourges of every kind by which the Lord strikes his people. If we sometimes think that they are too harsh and severe, let us consider how heinous our sins are; for we shall not find that he is immoderate or excessively severe in inflicting punishment.

And he gave no heed to it Again the Prophet exclaims against that gross stupidity with which the Jews were struck, so that they did not perceive their affliction, nor raise their eyes to heaven, so as to acknowledge that the Lord was the avenger and author of it. 161

And he laid it not to heart To “lay a thing to heart” is to consider attentively and diligently; for if this thought came into our minds, and were deeply engraven on our hearts, “God is judge, and hath justly punished us,” we should immediately repent. At present the whole world is oppressed by so many calamities, that there is scarcely a spot that is free from the wrath of God; yet no person gives heed to it, but all fiercely and rebelliously contend with him; and therefore we need not wonder that he inflicts on men such dreadful punishment, and pours out his wrath on all sides, when the world opposes him with inveterate rebellion.

Defender: Isa 42:1 - Behold my servant The "servant" of Jehovah is the Son of God in His human incarnation. Although He is sent first to Israel as its Messiah, He will also bring salvation ...

The "servant" of Jehovah is the Son of God in His human incarnation. Although He is sent first to Israel as its Messiah, He will also bring salvation to all nations of the world (Isa 42:6)."

Defender: Isa 42:3 - he not break This prophecy is fulfilled by Jesus (Mat 12:20, Mat 12:21)."

This prophecy is fulfilled by Jesus (Mat 12:20, Mat 12:21)."

Defender: Isa 42:5 - cometh out of it This is a remembrance that God had created the plants, the animals and man out of the elements of the earth, and He had also given breath and spirit t...

This is a remembrance that God had created the plants, the animals and man out of the elements of the earth, and He had also given breath and spirit to man (compare Gen 1:12, Gen 1:24; Gen 2:7)."

Defender: Isa 42:9 - new things do I declare Only God, who created time and is therefore independent of time, can predict future events with certainty. The Bible is unique in all literature, with...

Only God, who created time and is therefore independent of time, can predict future events with certainty. The Bible is unique in all literature, with hundreds of fulfilled prophecies given hundreds and thousands of years before their fulfillment. This is a certain mark of divine inspiration."

TSK: Isa 42:1 - my servant // whom I // mine elect // my soul // I have // he shall my servant : Isa 43:10, Isa 49:3-6, Isa 52:13, Isa 53:11; Mat 12:18-20; Phi 2:7 whom I : Isa 49:7, Isa 49:8, Isa 50:4-9; Joh 16:32 mine elect : Psa 89...

TSK: Isa 42:2 - -- Zec 9:9; Mat 11:29, Mat 12:16-20; Luk 17:20; 2Ti 2:24; 1Pe 2:23

TSK: Isa 42:3 - bruised // smoking // quench // he shall bruised : Isa 35:3, Isa 35:4, Isa 40:11, Isa 40:29-31, Isa 50:4, Isa 50:10, Isa 57:15-18, Isa 61:1-3, Isa 66:2; Psa 103:13, Psa 103:14; Psa 147:3; Jer...

TSK: Isa 42:4 - shall not // discouraged // and the isles shall not : Isa 9:7, Isa 49:5-10, Isa 52:13-15, Isa 53:2-12; Joh 17:4, Joh 17:5; Heb 12:2-4; 1Pe 2:22-24 discouraged : Heb. broken and the isles : Isa...

TSK: Isa 42:5 - he that created // he that spread // he that giveth he that created : Isa 40:12, Isa 40:22, Isa 40:28, Isa 44:24, Isa 45:12, Isa 45:18, Isa 48:13; Psa 102:25, Psa 102:26, 104:2-35; Jer 10:12, Jer 32:17;...

TSK: Isa 42:6 - called // and will hold // and give // a light called : Isa 32:1, Isa 43:1, Isa 45:13, Isa 49:1-3; Psa 45:6, Psa 45:7; Jer 23:5, Jer 23:6, Jer 33:15, Jer 33:16; Rom 3:25, Rom 3:26; Heb 1:8, Heb 1:9...

TSK: Isa 42:7 - open // to bring open : Isa 42:16, Isa 29:18, Isa 35:5; Psa 146:8; Mat 11:5; Luk 24:45; Joh 9:39; Act 26:18; 2Co 4:6; Eph 1:17, Eph 1:18; Rev 3:18 to bring : Isa 42:22...

TSK: Isa 42:8 - that is // my glory that is : Exo 3:13-15, Exo 4:5; Psa 83:18; Joh 8:58 my glory : Isa 48:11; Exo 20:3-5, Exo 34:14; Joh 5:23

TSK: Isa 42:9 - the former // new things the former : Gen 15:12-16; Jos 21:45, Jos 23:14, Jos 23:15; 1Ki 8:15-20, 1Ki 11:36 new things : Isa 41:22, Isa 41:23, Isa 43:19, Isa 44:7, Isa 44:8, I...

TSK: Isa 42:10 - Sing // ye that go // all that is therein // the isles Sing : Isa 24:14-16, Isa 44:23, Isa 49:13, Isa 65:14; Psa 33:3, Psa 40:3, Psa 96:1-3, Psa 98:1-4, Psa 117:1, Psa 117:2; Rom 15:9-11; Rev 5:9, Rev 14:3...

TSK: Isa 42:11 - Let the wilderness // Kedar // let the inhabitants Let the wilderness : Isa 32:16, Isa 35:1, Isa 35:6, Isa 40:3, Isa 41:18, Isa 41:19, Isa 43:19; Psa 72:8-10 Kedar : Isa 60:7; Gen 25:23; Psa 120:5 let ...

TSK: Isa 42:12 - -- Isa 24:15, Isa 24:16, Isa 66:18, Isa 66:19; Psa 22:27, Psa 96:3-10, Psa 117:1, Psa 117:2; Rom 15:9-11; Rev 5:9, Rev 5:10, Rev 7:9-12

TSK: Isa 42:13 - as a mighty // jealousy // shall cry // prevail as a mighty : Isa 59:16-19, Isa 63:1-4; Exo 15:1-3; Psa 78:65, Psa 110:5, Psa 110:6; Jer 25:30 jealousy : Nah 1:2; Zep 1:18, Zep 3:8 shall cry : Isa 3...

as a mighty : Isa 59:16-19, Isa 63:1-4; Exo 15:1-3; Psa 78:65, Psa 110:5, Psa 110:6; Jer 25:30

jealousy : Nah 1:2; Zep 1:18, Zep 3:8

shall cry : Isa 31:4; Hos 11:10; Joe 3:16; Amo 1:2

prevail : or, behave himself mightily, Psa 118:16

TSK: Isa 42:14 - long time // devour long time : Job 32:18, Job 32:20; Psa 50:2, Psa 83:1, Psa 83:2; Ecc 8:11, Ecc 8:12; Jer 15:6, Jer 44:22; Luk 18:7; 2Pe 3:9, 2Pe 3:10,2Pe 3:15 devour :...

TSK: Isa 42:15 - -- Isa 2:12-16, Isa 11:15, Isa 11:16, Isa 44:27, Isa 49:11, Isa 50:2; Psa 18:7, Psa 107:33, Psa 107:34, Psa 114:3-7; Jer 4:24; Nah 1:4-6; Hab 3:6-10; Hag...

TSK: Isa 42:16 - I will bring // lead // crooked // straight // and not I will bring : Isa 29:18, Isa 29:24, Isa 30:21, Isa 32:3, Isa 35:5, Isa 35:8, Isa 48:17, Isa 54:13, Isa 60:1, Isa 60:2, Isa 60:19, Isa 60:20; Jer 31:8...

TSK: Isa 42:17 - be greatly // say to be greatly : Isa 1:29, Isa 44:11, Isa 45:16, Isa 45:17; Psa 97:7; Jer 2:26, Jer 2:27; Hab 2:18-20 say to : Isa 44:17; Exo 32:4, Exo 32:8

TSK: Isa 42:18 - ye deaf ye deaf : Isa 29:18, Isa 43:8; Exo 4:11; Pro 20:12; Mar 7:34-37; Luk 7:22; Rev 3:17, Rev 3:18

TSK: Isa 42:19 - Who is blind Who is blind : Isa 6:9, Isa 29:9-14, Isa 56:10; Jer 4:22, Jer 5:21; Eze 12:2; Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15, Mat 15:14-16; Mat 23:16-24; Mar 8:17, Mar 8:18; Jo...

TSK: Isa 42:20 - Seeing // opening Seeing : Isa 1:3, Isa 48:6-8; Num 14:22; Deu 4:9, Deu 29:2-4; Neh 9:10-17; Psa 106:7-13; Psa 107:43; Joh 9:37-40, Joh 11:37-50 opening : Isa 58:2; Jer...

TSK: Isa 42:21 - well // he will // it well : Isa 1:24-27, Isa 46:12, Isa 46:13; Psa 71:16, Psa 71:19, Psa 85:9-12; Dan 9:24-27; Mat 3:17, Mat 5:17; Mat 17:5; Joh 8:29, Joh 15:10; Rom 3:25,...

TSK: Isa 42:22 - a people // they are all of them snared // are hid // a spoil a people : Isa 1:7, Isa 18:2, Isa 36:1, Isa 52:4, Isa 52:5, Isa 56:9; Jer 50:17, Jer 51:34, Jer 51:35, Jer 52:4-11; Luk 19:41-44, Luk 21:20-24 they ar...

a people : Isa 1:7, Isa 18:2, Isa 36:1, Isa 52:4, Isa 52:5, Isa 56:9; Jer 50:17, Jer 51:34, Jer 51:35, Jer 52:4-11; Luk 19:41-44, Luk 21:20-24

they are all of them snared : or, in snaring all the young men of them

are hid : Isa 42:7, Isa 14:17, Isa 45:13; Psa 102:20; Jer 52:31

a spoil : Heb. a treading, Isa 51:23; Deu 28:29-33; Psa 50:22

TSK: Isa 42:23 - will give // time to come will give : Isa 1:18-20, Isa 48:18; Lev 26:40-42; Deu 4:29-31, Deu 32:29; Pro 1:22, Pro 1:23; Jer 3:4-7, Jer 3:13; Mic 6:9; Mat 21:28-31; Act 3:19, Ac...

TSK: Isa 42:24 - -- Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6, Isa 45:7, Isa 47:6, Isa 50:1, Isa 50:2, Isa 59:1, Isa 59:2, Isa 63:10; Deu 28:49, Deu 32:30; Jdg 2:14; Jdg 3:8, Jdg 10:7; 2Ch 15:6...

TSK: Isa 42:25 - he hath poured // and it hath // he knew // yet he laid he hath poured : Lev. 26:15-46; Deu 32:22; Psa 79:5, Psa 79:6; Eze 7:8, Eze 7:9, Eze 20:34, Eze 22:21, Eze 22:22; Nah 1:6; Rev. 16:1-21 and it hath : ...

he hath poured : Lev. 26:15-46; Deu 32:22; Psa 79:5, Psa 79:6; Eze 7:8, Eze 7:9, Eze 20:34, Eze 22:21, Eze 22:22; Nah 1:6; Rev. 16:1-21

and it hath : 2Ki 25:9

he knew : Isa 9:13; Jer 5:3; Hos 7:9; Rev 9:18-21, Rev 16:9

yet he laid : Isa 57:11; Mal 2:2

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Poole: Isa 42:1 - Whom I uphold // Mine elect // Delighteth // I have put my Spirit upon him // Shall bring forth // Judgment // to the Gentiles // To the Gentiles Whom I uphold whom I will assist and enable to do and suffer all those things which belong to his office to do. Mine elect chosen by me to this gre...

Whom I uphold whom I will assist and enable to do and suffer all those things which belong to his office to do.

Mine elect chosen by me to this great work of mediation and redemption, to which he is said to be sealed and sent, Joh 6:27,29 , and predestinated , 1Pe 1:20 , and chosen of God , 1Pe 2:4 .

Delighteth or, as this same word is oft rendered, is well-pleased, both for himself and for all his people, being fully satisfied with that sacrifice which he shall offer up to me.

I have put my Spirit upon him I have furnished him with that abundance and eminency of gifts and graces which are necessary for the discharge of his high and hard employment.

Shall bring forth shall publish or show , as this word is translated, Mat 12:18 ; shall bring to light what before was hid in his breast, or in his Father’ s bosom.

Judgment: this word is very ambiguous, and elsewhere is put for punishment, which cannot be meant here, because the whole context speaks of his mercy and sweetness, and not of his severity; but here it is clearly put for God’ s law , as this very word is expounded here below, Isa 42:4 , and as it is frequently used in the Holy Scriptures, as Ps 119 , and elsewhere: which also best agrees with the bringing forth or publishing of it here mentioned, publication being necessarily required and constantly used about laws. And this interpretation is confirmed by the following words,

to the Gentiles For the great things which Christ published unto all the world, both Jews and Gentiles, was nothing else but the law, and will, and counsel of God concerning man’ s salvation, and the way and means of obtaining it.

To the Gentiles not only to the Jews, to whom the knowledge of God’ s laws had been hitherto appropriated, but to the heathen’ nations of the world.

Poole: Isa 42:2 - He shall not cry // Nor lift up // Nor cause his voice to be heard in the street He shall not cry either, 1. In a way of contention, as anger is oft accompanied with clamour, Eph 4:31 . Or, 2. In a way of ostentation. It seems t...

He shall not cry either,

1. In a way of contention, as anger is oft accompanied with clamour, Eph 4:31 . Or,

2. In a way of ostentation. It seems to be meant both ways, by comparing this place with Mat 12:16,17,20 . He shall neither erect nor manage his kingdom with violence and outward pomp and state, as Worldly princes do, but with meekness and humility.

Nor lift up his voice, which is easily understood out of the following clause, and from many other scriptures, where that word is added to this verb to complete the phrase.

Nor cause his voice to be heard in the street as contentious and vain-glorious persons frequently do.

Poole: Isa 42:3 - A bruised reed shall he not break // The smoking flax shall he not quench // He shall bring forth judgment unto truth // bring forth // bringing forth judgment A bruised reed shall he not break he will not break it to pieces, but rather will strengthen and bind it up. It is a common figure, whereby more is u...

A bruised reed shall he not break he will not break it to pieces, but rather will strengthen and bind it up. It is a common figure, whereby more is understood than was expressed, and one contrary is left to be gathered from another, of which many instances have been given in former texts. The sense is plainly this, Christ will not deal roughly and rigorously with those that come to him, but he will use all gentleness and kindness to them, passing by their greatest sins, bearing with their present infirmities, cherishing and encouraging the smallest beginnings of grace, comforting and healing wounded consciences, and the like.

The smoking flax shall he not quench the same thing is repeated in other words, to give us the greater assurance of the truth of it. That wick of a candle (called flax metonymically, because it is made of flax) which is almost extinct, and doth only smoke and not flame, he will not utterly quench, but will revive and kindle it again.

He shall bring forth judgment unto truth: judgment may be here taken either,

1. For the law or will of God, or the doctrine of the gospel, which he will

bring forth , i.e. publish, which he will do unto , or in , or with , or according to (for this preposition is used all those ways) truth, i.e. truly and faithfully, not concealing nor corrupting it, as false teachers commonly do. So this is a character like that which is given to Christ, Mat 22:16 , Thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth ; and thus this phrase of bringing forth judgment is taken here, as it is Isa 42:1 . Or,

2. For the cause which is debated, or for the sentence which is given in the cause, as this word is most frequently used, which he will bring forth, i.e. bring to light, or discover, or publish; and this he will do according to truth and equity, and not unjustly and partially, as corrupt judges use to give sentence against the poor and meek. In this sense this very phrase of

bringing forth judgment is taken Psa 37:6 . And this sense seems to be favoured, both by the consideration of the quality of the persons, to whom this judgment is here implied to be brought forth, who are called bruised reeds , and smoking flax , whereby they are supposed to be persons discouraged and oppressed, and in a contest with themselves, or with their spiritual adversaries, about the state of their souls; as also by comparing this place with Mat 12:20 , where these very words are quoted, and thus rendered, till he send forth judgment unto victory , i.e. till judgment or sentence be given for him, in which case a man is said to be victorious in judgment. If it be said for the former interpretation, that it seems most reasonable to understand judgment here as it is understood Isa 42:1,4 , and bringing forth judgment here as it is taken, Isa 42:1 , it may be truly and fairly answered, that it is a very common thing in Scripture for the same words or phrases to be used in several senses, not only in two neighbouring verses, but sometimes also in the very same verse, whereof I have formerly given divers instances.

Poole: Isa 42:4 - He shall not fail, nor be discouraged // Till he have set judgment in the earth // The isles // Shall wait for his law He shall not fail, nor be discouraged though he be thus meek, and gentle, yet he is also courageous and resolute against all the great and many diffi...

He shall not fail, nor be discouraged though he be thus meek, and gentle, yet he is also courageous and resolute against all the great and many difficulties and conflicts to which he will be exposed, and will not give over till he have finished his work; or, as others render the words, He shall not be darkened (this glorious light shall not be eclipsed or obscured; or, He shall shine forth brightly and gloriously, as the LXX. render this word) nor broken by all the attempts and vigorous endeavours of his enemies who design it.

Till he have set judgment in the earth till he have published and established his law or doctrine (as this judgment is expounded in the next clause) among the nations of the earth. And this word till respects only the time past, but not the time to come, as if he would then fail , or be discouraged , when once he had

set judgment on the earth which is contrary to reason, and to other evident scriptures. And so this word is used, Gen 28:15 Psa 71:18 Mat 1:25 .

The isles the countries remote from Judea, to which God’ s law was now confined, as this word is oft used.

Shall wait for his law shall gladly receive his doctrine and commands from time to time.

Poole: Isa 42:5 - -- This large description of God’ s infinite power is here seasonably added, to give them assurance of the certain accomplishment of these great a...

This large description of God’ s infinite power is here seasonably added, to give them assurance of the certain accomplishment of these great and wonderful promises, which otherwise would seem incredible.

Poole: Isa 42:6 - Have called thee in righteousness // Will hold thine hand // Will keep thee // Give thee for a covenant // Of the people // For a light of the Gentiles Have called thee in righteousness to declare my righteousness, as is said, Rom 3:26 , or my faithfulness, which is frequently called righteousness ...

Have called thee in righteousness to declare my righteousness, as is said, Rom 3:26 , or my faithfulness, which is frequently called righteousness in Scripture; according to my promise long since made, and oft-renewed. As the former verse asserted God’ s power, so this clause declares his will and firm purpose and obligation to effect this work, and both together evince the certainty and necessity of it.

Will hold thine hand will give thee counsel and strength for thy high and hard work.

Will keep thee that thou shalt not fail in, nor be hindered by, thine enemies from the accomplishment of thy work.

Give thee for a covenant to be the Angel of the covenant, as Christ is called, Mal 3:1 ; or the Mediator, in and by whom my covenant of grace is made and confirmed with mankind.

Of the people either of my people, the Jews; or, indefinitely or universally, of all people, not only Jews, but Gentiles also, as it follows.

For a light of the Gentiles to enlighten them with true and saving knowledge, and to direct them in the right way to true happiness, from which they had miserably wandered. He alludes to God’ s fiery pillar, which enlightened and directed the Israelites in the wilderness.

Poole: Isa 42:7 - The blind eyes // The prisoners The blind eyes the eyes of their minds blinded with long ignorance, and deep prejudice, and inveterate error, and by the power and policy of the god ...

The blind eyes the eyes of their minds blinded with long ignorance, and deep prejudice, and inveterate error, and by the power and policy of the god of this world, 2Co 4:4 , which nothing but the almighty power of God could cure.

The prisoners sinners, unto are taken captive by the devil at his will, as we read, 2Ti 2:26 , and as daily experience showeth, and who are enslaved and chained by their own lusts, and made free-men only by Christ, Joh 8:32,36 . Compare this portion of Scripture with Isa 61:1 , and both with Luk 4:17-21 , where it is said to be fulfilled in and by Christ.

Poole: Isa 42:8 - I am the Lord // That is my name // My glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images I am the Lord Heb. Jehovah ; who have all being in and of myself, and give being to all my creatures, and to all my promises, as this name signifies...

I am the Lord Heb. Jehovah ; who have all being in and of myself, and give being to all my creatures, and to all my promises, as this name signifies. The everlasting, and unchangeable, and omnipotent God, who therefore both can and will fulfil all my promises, and plead the cause and set up the kingdom of my Son in spite of all opposition, and destroy all those idols which are set up against him and inc.

That is my name which I must own and justify to the world. He seems to allude to Exo 3:14,15 6:3 .

My glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images I will not any longer suffer that honour and worship which is peculiar to me to be given to idols, as it hath been, but I will by Christ and the gospel abolish idolatry in the world.

Poole: Isa 42:9 - The former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare // Before they spring forth I tell you of them The former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: as all things which I have formerly promised or foretold have exactly come to pass i...

The former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: as all things which I have formerly promised or foretold have exactly come to pass in their proper seasons, and not one of them failed, as was noted, Jos 23:14 ; so you have great reason to believe that what I now promise, though it be new and strange to you, shall infallibly be accomplished.

Before they spring forth I tell you of them that when they come to pass, you may know that I am God, and that this is my work. Compare Joh 13:19 .

Poole: Isa 42:10 - Sing unto the Lord a new song // From the end of the earth // Ye that go down to the sea Sing unto the Lord a new song upon this new and great occasion, the calling and salvation of the world by Christ. From the end of the earth all nat...

Sing unto the Lord a new song upon this new and great occasion, the calling and salvation of the world by Christ.

From the end of the earth all nations, from one end of the earth. to another, who shall be sharers in this mercy.

Ye that go down to the sea & c.; you that go by sea, carry these glad tidings from Judea, where Christ was born, and lived, and died, and published the gospel, unto the remotest parts of the earth, that they may join with you in singing forth God’ s praises for his marvellous kindness and grace to them.

Poole: Isa 42:11 - The wilderness // Kedar // Let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains The wilderness those parts of the world which are now like a wilderness; not literally, for he speaks of their cities in the next clause, but spiritu...

The wilderness those parts of the world which are now like a wilderness; not literally, for he speaks of their cities in the next clause, but spiritually, desolate and forsaken of God, dry and destitute of the waters of God’ s grace, and barren of all good fruits.

Kedar the Arabians; which were a heathenish and barbarous people, and well known to the Jews, and are synecdochically put for all nations in the same circumstances.

Let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains: having mentioned cities and villages, he now adds those who dwell upon rocks and mountains, which are commonly more savage and ignorant than others, and therefore harder to be taught and reformed.

Poole: Isa 42:12 - -- In the remotest parts of the world, as well as in Arabia, which was near to them.

In the remotest parts of the world, as well as in Arabia, which was near to them.

Poole: Isa 42:13 - Shall go forth // He shall stir up jealousy // He shall cry, yea, roar Shall go forth to wit, to war, or battle, as this phrase is used, Num 1:3,28 2Sa 11:1 . He shall stir up jealousy he shall stir up himself, and his...

Shall go forth to wit, to war, or battle, as this phrase is used, Num 1:3,28 2Sa 11:1 .

He shall stir up jealousy he shall stir up himself, and his strength, and anger, against the obstinate and implacable enemies of his Son and gospel.

He shall cry, yea, roar as a lion doth upon his prey, and as soldiers do when they begin the battle.

Poole: Isa 42:14 - I have long time held my peace // Now will I cry like a travailing woman // I will destroy and devour at once I have long time held my peace I have for many ages suffered the devil and his servants, tyrants, and idolaters, and persecutors to prevail in the wo...

I have long time held my peace I have for many ages suffered the devil and his servants, tyrants, and idolaters, and persecutors to prevail in the world, to afflict my people, and to hinder the entertainment of my doctrine and worship in the world.

Now will I cry like a travailing woman now I will bring forth and accomplish that glorious work which I have long conceived in my mind.

I will destroy and devour at once I will suddenly and utterly destroy the incorrigible enemies of my truth, and of my Son’ s kingdom. He alludes to those wild beasts which open their mouths wide, and devour all their prey at one morsel, or at one time.

Poole: Isa 42:15 - I will make waste mountains and hills // I will dry up the pools I will make waste mountains and hills not dry and barren ones, for these were waste already, but such as are clothed with grass and herbs, as the fol...

I will make waste mountains and hills not dry and barren ones, for these were waste already, but such as are clothed with grass and herbs, as the following words imply; which is to be understood metaphorically, of God’ s destroying his most lofty and flourishing enemies, who are oft compared in Scripture unto mountains and hills.

I will dry up the pools I will remove all impediments out of the way; which is expressed in the prophetical dialect, by drying up Euphrates, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared , Rev 16:12 . He seems to allude to that which God did in drying up first the Red Sea, and then Jordan, to give his people passage into Canaan. And this exposition is confirmed by the following verse.

Poole: Isa 42:16 - The blind // By a way that they know not // I will make darkness light before them, and crooked things straight // And not forsake them The blind the Gentiles, who were blind, and were called so, above, Isa 42:7 , and in many other places of Scripture, and were so accounted by the Jew...

The blind the Gentiles, who were blind, and were called so, above, Isa 42:7 , and in many other places of Scripture, and were so accounted by the Jews.

By a way that they know not by the way of truth, which hitherto hath been hidden from them, until by my word and Spirit I revealed it to them.

I will make darkness light before them, and crooked things straight I will take away all hinderances, and give them all advantages and conveniences for their journey. I will direct them in the right way. I will enlighten their dark minds, and rectify their perverse wills and affections.

And not forsake them until I have brought them with safety and comfort to the end of their journey.

Poole: Isa 42:17 - -- This may be understood either, 1. Of the converted Gentiles; who shall be turned back from their former sinful course, and shall sincerely grieve...

This may be understood either,

1. Of the converted Gentiles; who shall be turned back from their former sinful course, and shall sincerely grieve, and be ashamed that they did trust, &c., as the word may be rendered; that they should ever be guilty of such wickedness and madness to worship and trust in idols. Or rather,

2. Of those Gentiles who, when their brethren embraced the true God and Christ, persisted obstinately in their idolatrous courses, who shall be confounded and destroyed; for this phrase of being turned back is generally used in Scripture in a bad sense; or of them who are overthrown, or put to flight in battle, as Psa 9:3 35:4 70:2,3 , &c. And the like I may say of being ashamed , or confounded , or put to shame , especially where this phrase is joined with the other, as it is in the two places of the Psalms last quoted.

Poole: Isa 42:18 - -- O you, whosoever you are, whether Jews or Gentiles, which shall resist this clear light, and obstinately continue in your former errors, attend dili...

O you, whosoever you are, whether Jews or Gentiles, which shall resist this clear light, and obstinately continue in your former errors, attend diligently to my words, and consider these mighty works of God.

Poole: Isa 42:19 - Who is blind, but my servant? // My messenger // That I sent // As he that is perfect // As the Lord’ s servant Who is blind, but my servant? but no people under heaven are so blind as the Jews, who call themselves my servants and people, who will not receive t...

Who is blind, but my servant? but no people under heaven are so blind as the Jews, who call themselves my servants and people, who will not receive their Messiah, though he be recommended to them with such evident and illustrious signs and miraculous works, as force belief from the most unbelieving and obstinate Gentiles.

My messenger my messengers, the singular number being put for the plural, as it is commonly in Scripture.

That I sent the priests and other teachers whom I appointed to instruct my people in the right way.

As he that is perfect as the most eminent teachers and rulers of the Jews, whom he calleth perfect , either because it was their duty to know and teach the way and truth of God perfectly; or rather sarcastically, because they pretended to greater perfection, and proudly called themselves rabbies and masters , as our Saviour observed, and despised the people as cursed, and not knowing the law, Joh 7:49 , and derided Christ for calling them blind , Joh 9:40 .

As the Lord’ s servant which rifle, as it was given to the Jewish people in the first clause of the verse, so here it scents to be given to the priests, because they were called and obliged to be the Lord’ s servants in a special and eminent manner.

Poole: Isa 42:20 - -- Thou dost not seriously and impartially consider the plain word and the wonderful works of God, of which thine ears and eyes have been witnesses, wh...

Thou dost not seriously and impartially consider the plain word and the wonderful works of God, of which thine ears and eyes have been witnesses, which are abundantly sufficient for the conviction of any considering man.

Poole: Isa 42:21 - Is well-pleased // He will magnify the law, and make it honourable Is well-pleased to wit, with you; or, as this word is most commonly used, hath a good-will to you or to this people ; which may be understood out ...

Is well-pleased to wit, with you; or, as this word is most commonly used, hath a good-will to you or to this people ; which may be understood out of the following verse, as is very usual in sacred Scripture. The meaning seems to be this; Although thou art a wicked people, that rebellest against the clearest light, and therefore God might justly destroy thee suddenly; yet he is very unwilling to do it, and will patiently wait for thy repentance, that he may be gracious unto thee. For his righteousness’ sake ; not for thy sake, for thou deservest no such thing from him, but for the glory of his own faithfulness, in fulfilling that promise and covenant which he made with thy pious progenitors for themselves and for their seed.

He will magnify the law, and make it honourable he will maintain the honour of his law, and therefore is not forward to destroy you, who profess God’ s law, and the true religion, lest his law should upon that occasion be exposed to contempt.

Poole: Isa 42:22 - But this is a people robbed and spoiled // They are all of them snared in holes, and they are hid in prison-houses // None delivereth; none saith, Restore But this is a people robbed and spoiled: but notwithstanding this great respect which God hath to his law, and to his people for the sake of his law,...

But this is a people robbed and spoiled: but notwithstanding this great respect which God hath to his law, and to his people for the sake of his law, it is apparent that God hath severely scourged you for your sins; and therefore take heed that you do not provoke him by your obstinate infidelity, lest he cast you off for ever.

They are all of them snared in holes, and they are hid in prison-houses they are, or have been, taken in snares made by their own hands, and by God’ s just judgment delivered into the hands of their enemies, and by them cast into pits, or dungeons, and prisons.

None delivereth; none saith, Restore none afford them either pity or help in their extremities.

Poole: Isa 42:23 - -- Oh that you would learn from your former and dear bought experiences to be wiser for the future, and not to provoke God to your own total and final ...

Oh that you would learn from your former and dear bought experiences to be wiser for the future, and not to provoke God to your own total and final ruin!

Poole: Isa 42:24 - -- Do not flatter yourselves with a conceit of impunity, because you are a people whom God hath favoured and endowed with many and great privileges, wh...

Do not flatter yourselves with a conceit of impunity, because you are a people whom God hath favoured and endowed with many and great privileges, which the Jews were very prone to do, as we see, Jer 7:4 , &c., and elsewhere; for as God hath punished you formerly, doubt not but if you continue to sin, he will proceed in punishing you more and more for your sins.

Poole: Isa 42:25 - The fury of his anger, and the strength of battle // Yet he knew not The fury of his anger, and the strength of battle most grievous judgments. Yet he knew not they were secure and stupid under God’ s judgments,...

The fury of his anger, and the strength of battle most grievous judgments.

Yet he knew not they were secure and stupid under God’ s judgments, neither fearing them when threatened, nor truly sensible of God’ s hand in them, and of the causes of God’ s displeasure against them, and of the means of cure.

Haydock: Isa 42:1 - My servant My servant. Christ, who, according to his humanity, is the servant of God, (Challoner) and Redeemer of others; none else being able to satisfy for t...

My servant. Christ, who, according to his humanity, is the servant of God, (Challoner) and Redeemer of others; none else being able to satisfy for themselves. (Worthington) (Philippians ii. 7.) (Calmet) ---

This passage clearly refers to the Messias, (Chaldean; Kimchi) who was prefigured by Cyrus, ver. 6. (Calmet) (Hugo.) ---

It is quoted by St. Matthew (xii. 18.) who has some variations both from the Hebrew and the Septuagint, (Calmet) particularly the first part of ver. 4., which the Septuagint renders, "He shall shine, and shall not be broken."

Haydock: Isa 42:4 - Islands Islands. Septuagint and St. Matthew, "the Gentiles shall hope in his name." (Haydock)

Islands. Septuagint and St. Matthew, "the Gentiles shall hope in his name." (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 42:6 - Gentiles Gentiles. This was literally verified in Christ. Cyrus is also styled the just, (chap. xli. 26.) and gave liberty to many nations.

Gentiles. This was literally verified in Christ. Cyrus is also styled the just, (chap. xli. 26.) and gave liberty to many nations.

Haydock: Isa 42:7 - House House. The Jews out of captivity, prefigured the redemption of mankind. These miracles proved that Jesus was the Messias, Luke vii. 22.

House. The Jews out of captivity, prefigured the redemption of mankind. These miracles proved that Jesus was the Messias, Luke vii. 22.

Haydock: Isa 42:8 - Things Things. They shall not partake of my divinity. Our Saviour was truly God, Philippians ii. 6.

Things. They shall not partake of my divinity. Our Saviour was truly God, Philippians ii. 6.

Haydock: Isa 42:9 - Them Them. The completion of former predictions enforces the belief of those which are yet to come. (Calmet)

Them. The completion of former predictions enforces the belief of those which are yet to come. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 42:10 - All All. Literally, "its fullness," (Haydock) sailors, (Calmet) and fishes. (Haydock) --- He concludes with a canticle.

All. Literally, "its fullness," (Haydock) sailors, (Calmet) and fishes. (Haydock) ---

He concludes with a canticle.

Haydock: Isa 42:11 - Cedar // Petra Cedar, or the Jews in exile in the desert Arabia, Psalm cxix. 5. (Calmet) --- The people dwell in tents. (Roger. ii. 5.) --- Petra. A city that...

Cedar, or the Jews in exile in the desert Arabia, Psalm cxix. 5. (Calmet) ---

The people dwell in tents. (Roger. ii. 5.) ---

Petra. A city that gives name to Arabia Petrזa. (Challoner)

Haydock: Isa 42:13 - Enemies Enemies. The Chaldeans, (Calmet) by the hand of Cyrus.

Enemies. The Chaldeans, (Calmet) by the hand of Cyrus.

Haydock: Isa 42:15 - Pools Pools. Cyrus deluged the country about Babylon, chap. xiii., and xxi. 1. (Haydock) --- The proud and covetous, who expected Christ to give them ki...

Pools. Cyrus deluged the country about Babylon, chap. xiii., and xxi. 1. (Haydock) ---

The proud and covetous, who expected Christ to give them kingdoms, were deceived. He came to teach humility, and to grant eternal rewards. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 42:16 - Blind Blind captives, or converts to Christianity.

Blind captives, or converts to Christianity.

Haydock: Isa 42:18 - Deaf Deaf Jews, who would not listen to the prophets, ver. 19. (Calmet)

Deaf Jews, who would not listen to the prophets, ver. 19. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 42:19 - Sold Sold. Hebrew Cimshullam, (Haydock) the perfect, or favoured. The Turks call "believers" Musselmans. (Calmet)

Sold. Hebrew Cimshullam, (Haydock) the perfect, or favoured. The Turks call "believers" Musselmans. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 42:22 - Men Men, whom they corrupt by their bad example. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "their young men are in chains," during the last wars, and the captivity of Juda...

Men, whom they corrupt by their bad example. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "their young men are in chains," during the last wars, and the captivity of Juda. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 42:24 - We We. Septuagint, "they have sinned," which seems preferable. (Haydock)

We. Septuagint, "they have sinned," which seems preferable. (Haydock)

Gill: Isa 42:1 - Behold my servant, whom I uphold // mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth // I have put my Spirit upon him // he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles Behold my servant, whom I uphold,.... The Targum is, "behold my servant the Messiah;'' and Kimchi on the place says, this is the King Messiah; a...

Behold my servant, whom I uphold,.... The Targum is,

"behold my servant the Messiah;''

and Kimchi on the place says, this is the King Messiah; and so Abarbinel f interprets it of him, and other Jewish writers, and which is right; for the prophet speaks not of himself, as Aben Ezra thinks; nor of Cyrus, as Saadiah Gaon; nor of the people of Israel, as Jarchi; but of Christ, as it is applied, Mat 12:17 who is spoken of under the character of a "servant", as he is; not as a divine Person, for as such he is the Son of God; but as man, and in his office as Mediator; a servant of the Lord, not of angels, or men, but of his divine Father; who chose him, called and sent him, and assigned him his work; which was principally the redemption of his people, and which he diligently, faithfully, and fully performed; in which he was "upheld" as man and Mediator by his Father, not only in his being as man, but was strengthened and helped in his mediatorial service so that he did not sink under the mighty weight of the sins of his people, or of the wrath of God: or, "whom I lean upon" g; as a master on his servant, so Kimchi; he relied on him to do the work he undertook; he trusted him with his own glory, and the salvation of his people. This prophecy is ushered in with a "behold"; exciting attention to what is said concerning Christ, as of the greatest importance; directing the eye of faith to him for righteousness and salvation; and as expressive of admiration at him, that he who was the Son of God should become a servant, and undertake the salvation of men:

mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth: this character of "elect" may respect the choice of the human nature to the grace of union with the Son of God; which was chosen out from among the people, and separated from them for that purpose; and was preordained to be the Lamb slain for the redemption of man, and appointed to glory; and likewise the choice of Christ to office, to be the Mediator between God and man; to be the Saviour and Redeemer of the Lord's people; to be the Head of the church, and to be the foundation and the corner stone of that spiritual building; and to be the Judge of quick and dead: and with him, as such, was the Lord "well pleased, or delighted"; with his person; as the Son of God; and with all his chosen, as considered in him; with what he did as his servant; with the righteousness he wrought out; with the sacrifice he offered up; and with his sufferings and death, through which peace and reconciliation were made with God for sinners:

I have put my Spirit upon him; my Holy Spirit, as the Targum; not on him as a divine Person, as such he needed him not; but as man, with which he was filled without measure at his incarnation, and which rested upon him, and qualified him for his work and office, as Prophet, Priest, and King:

he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles; the Gospel, the produce of divine wisdom; the Gospel of God, whose judgment is according to truth; the rule of human judgment in things spiritual and saving, and by which Christ judges and rules in the hearts of his people; this he brought forth out of his Father's bosom, out of his own heart, and published it in person to the Jews, and by his apostles to the converted by it, became subject to his rule and government. Gentiles, who being converted by it, became subject to his rule and government.

Gill: Isa 42:2 - He shall not cry // neither shall he accept any person // nor cause his voice to be heard in the street He shall not cry,..... According to Aben Ezra and Kimchi, as a judge in court is obliged to extend his voice that he may be heard: the Evangelist Matt...

He shall not cry,..... According to Aben Ezra and Kimchi, as a judge in court is obliged to extend his voice that he may be heard: the Evangelist Matthew renders it, "he shall not strive"; or contend in a disputatious way, about mere words and things to no profit, or litigate a point in law; he shall bring no complaints, or enter an action against any, but rather suffer wrong, as he advises his followers, Mat 5:40, for this does not respect the lowness of his voice in his ministry; in this sense he often cried, as Wisdom is said to do, Pro 1:20, "nor lift up"; that is, his voice, as Jarchi, Kimchi, and Ben Melech supply it; or, as others, he shall not lift up faces, or accept persons; and so the Vulgate Latin version renders it,

neither shall he accept any person; or the person of any man, which is true of Christ; but the former sense seems best, which agrees with what goes before and follows after:

nor cause his voice to be heard in the street; his voice was heard in the street in a ministerial way; he sometimes preached in the street, as in many other public places, Luk 13:26, but not in a clamorous contentious way; not in an opprobrious and menacing manner; nor in a way of ostentation, boasting of himself, his doctrines, and miracles, but behaved with great humility and meekness; his kingdom was without pomp and noise, which worldly princes are attended with; but this was not to be, nor was it his case; See Gill on Mat 12:19.

Gill: Isa 42:3 - A bruised reed shall not break // and the smoking flax shall he not quench // he shall bring forth judgment unto truth A bruised reed shall not break,.... The tenderness of Christ to weak and ignorant persons is here and in the next clause expressed; by whom young conv...

A bruised reed shall not break,.... The tenderness of Christ to weak and ignorant persons is here and in the next clause expressed; by whom young converts or weak believers seem to be designed; who are compared to a "reed", because worthless with respect to God, whom they cannot profit; and in the view of men, who reckon them as nothing; and in themselves, and in their own view, who judge themselves unworthy of the least of mercies; and because they are weak, not only as all men are, of which weakness they are sensible; but they are weak in grace, especially in faith, and have but little hope, their love is the strongest; and because they are wavering like the reed, tossed to and fro with every wind of doctrine, and shaken with the temptations of Satan, and disturbed with many doubts and fears; and are like a "bruised" reed that is squeezed, and almost broke to pieces, and so of no use; these are broken in heart, under a sense of sin and unworthiness; whose spirits are bruised and wounded with it, and whose hearts are contrite on account of it. On these Christ does not lay his iron rod, but holds out the golden sceptre of his grace to them; he does not call them to service and sufferings beyond their strength; but strengthens, supports, and upholds them with the right hand of his righteousness; he binds up their broken hearts, having poured in the balm of Gilead, his own blood, and the wine and oil of his love; he encourages them in their application to him for salvation, and manifests his pardoning grace, and restores comforts to them, and revives their souls:

and the smoking flax shall he not quench; or, "the wick of a candle; h" which just going out, has some heat, a little light, smokes, and is offensive; so the persons intended by it are fired or lighted by the divine word; have some heat of affection in them to spiritual things, but have but little light; into the corruption of nature into the glories of Christ's person; into the doctrines of the Gospel; into the everlasting love of God, and the covenant of grace; and but little light of joy and comfort, and this almost gone, and seemingly ready to go out; and yet Christ will not extinguish it, or suffer it to be extinct; he does not discourage small beginnings of grace, or despise the day of small things; he blows up their light into a flame; he increases their spiritual light and knowledge; supplies them with the oil of grace; trims, snuffs, and causes their lamps to burn brighter. The Targum is,

"the meek, who are like to a bruised reed, shall not be broken; and the poor, who are as obscure as flax (or a lamp ready to go out), shall not be extinct:''

he shall bring forth judgment unto truth; which some understand of Christ's severity to wicked men, in opposition to his tenderness to his own people; see Isa 11:4, others of the Gospel, as preached by him in truth, as in Isa 42:1, but rather it designs the power of his Spirit and grace accompanying the word, to the carrying on of his own work in the hearts of his people; which, though attended with many difficulties and discouragements, shall go on, and be performed; grace will break through all obstructions, and prove victorious at last; see Mat 12:20.

Gill: Isa 42:4 - He shall not fail // nor be discouraged // nor be broken // till he have set judgment in the earth // and the isles shall wait for his law He shall not fail,.... For want of strength to go through the work of redemption: or, "grow dim" i and dark, as a lamp for want of oil, or as the wick...

He shall not fail,.... For want of strength to go through the work of redemption: or, "grow dim" i and dark, as a lamp for want of oil, or as the wick of a candle ready to go out. Hence the Septuagint version, "he shall shine k"; in the glory of his person, as the Son of God; in the fulness of his grace, as Mediator, which shall never fail; and in the hearts of his people by his Spirit; and in his Gospel published to the world:

nor be discouraged; at the number, power, and menaces of his enemies, he had to grapple with, sin, Satan, the world, and death: or,

nor be broken l; with the weight of all the sins of his people upon him; and with a sense of divine wrath; and with the whole punishment due unto them, inflicted on him, enough to have broke the backs and spirits of men and angels; but he stood up under the mighty load, and did not sink beneath it, but endured all with an invincible courage and resolution of mind:

till he have set judgment in the earth; fully satisfied the justice of God for the sins of his people, and performed the work of their redemption in righteousness; and then he sent and settled his Gospel in the world, proclaiming the same; and fixed a set of Gospel ordinances to continue the remembrance of it, till his second coming. Maimonides m produces this passage to prove that the Messiah shall die, because it is said, "he shall not fail--till", &c.; but this does not signify that he should fail afterwards, but that he should continue always:

and the isles shall wait for his law; his doctrine or Gospel, the law or doctrine of faith, particularly that of justification by his righteousness, with every other; this the inhabitants of the islands, or distant countries, the Gentiles, should be desirous of hearing, readily embrace and receive, and trust in Christ, made known to them in it. The Septuagint version is, "and in his name shall the Gentiles trust"; and so in Mat 12:20.

Gill: Isa 42:5 - Thus saith God the Lord // he that created the heavens, and stretched them out // he that spread forth the earth // and that which cometh out of it // he that giveth breath unto the people upon it // and spirit to them that walk therein Thus saith God the Lord,.... The God of the world, as the Targum. This, with what follows, is a preface to the call of Christ, to the great work of re...

Thus saith God the Lord,.... The God of the world, as the Targum. This, with what follows, is a preface to the call of Christ, to the great work of redemption; setting forth the greatness of God as a Creator, that calls him to it, and thereby encouraging him as man and Mediator in it, as well as the faith of his people to regard him as their Saviour and Redeemer, and believe that this work he was called unto should be performed by him; for what is it that God, the Creator of all things, cannot do?

he that created the heavens, and stretched them out: he first made them out of nothing, and stretched out the firmament of them as a curtain and canopy over the earth, and them as a tent for himself to dwell in, Isa 40:22,

he that spread forth the earth; into the length and breadth it has, for man and beast to dwell on it:

and that which cometh out of it; grass, herbs, and trees, which he has spread all over it:

he that giveth breath unto the people upon it; as he did to man at first, he breathed into him the breath of life, and as he gives to all since, Gen 2:7,

and spirit to them that walk therein; not only breath in common with the beasts of the field, and other creatures, but a rational spirit, or a reasonable soul, an intellective faculty, a capacity of understanding things, as brutes have not. Jarchi interprets this of the Holy Spirit, which God gives to them that walk before him.

Gill: Isa 42:6 - I the Lord have called thee in righteousness // and will hold thine hand // and will keep thee // and give thee for a covenant of the people // for a light of the Gentiles I the Lord have called thee in righteousness,.... Not the Prophet Isaiah, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra interpret it; nor the people of Israel, as Kimchi; b...

I the Lord have called thee in righteousness,.... Not the Prophet Isaiah, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra interpret it; nor the people of Israel, as Kimchi; but the Messiah, whom Jehovah called to the office of Mediator, in a righteous way and manner, consistent with his own perfections; and not against the will of Christ, but with his full consent: or, "unto righteousness", as some n; so the Arabic version; to fulfil his righteous purposes, concerning the welfare and salvation of his people; to perform his righteous promises of his coming, and of good things by him; to show his strict vindictive justice against sin, in the punishment of it; and to bring in an everlasting righteousness for his people: or it may be rendered, "I have called thee with righteousness o"; Christ came a righteous Person, holy in his nature, harmless in his life, and truly deserved the character of Jesus Christ the righteous:

and will hold thine hand: denoting his presence with him, and nearness unto him; his favour and affection for him; his counsel and direction of him; the support and assistance he gave him; and the strength he received from him as man, to go through his work:

and will keep thee; as the apple of his eye, being dear unto him; from being hurt by his enemies till the time came to be delivered into their hands; and from miscarrying in his work; and from the power of the grave, so as to be long detained in it:

and give thee for a covenant of the people; Christ is a covenantee, a party concerned in the covenant of grace; the representative of his people in it; the surety, Mediator, messenger, and ratifier of it; the great blessing in it; the sum and substance of it; all the blessings and promises of it are in him, and as such he is "given"; it is of God's free grace that he was appointed and intrusted with all this in eternity, and was sent in time to confirm and secure it for "the people"; given him of his Father, redeemed by him and to whom the Spirit applies the blessings and promises of the covenant; even the elect of God, both among Jews and Gentiles, especially the latter, as follows:

for a light of the Gentiles; who were in the dark as to the true knowledge of God and Jesus Christ, and the way of righteousness and salvation by him, and of all divine and spiritual things; now Christ, through the ministry of the word by his Spirit, was a light unto them; by which they were enlightened into their own state and condition by nature, and into the knowledge of himself, and the mysteries of grace.

Gill: Isa 42:7 - To open the blind eyes // to bring out the prisoners from the prison // and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house To open the blind eyes,.... Of the idolatrous Gentiles, who were spiritually blind, and knew not the wretchedness of their case; the exceeding sinfuln...

To open the blind eyes,.... Of the idolatrous Gentiles, who were spiritually blind, and knew not the wretchedness of their case; the exceeding sinfulness of sin; their need of a Saviour, and who he was; as they did, when their eyes were opened by means of the Gospel sent among them, through the energy of the divine Spirit; for this is a work of almighty power and efficacious grace:

to bring out the prisoners from the prison; who were concluded in sin, shut up in unbelief, and under the law, the captives of Satan, and held fast prisoners by him and their own lusts, under the dominion of which they were:

and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house: of sin, Satan, and the law; being under which, they were in a state of darkness and ignorance as to things divine and spiritual. The allusion is to prisons, which are commonly dark places. Vitringa, by the "prisoners", understands the Jews shut up under the law; and by those in "darkness" the Gentiles, destitute of all divine knowledge.

Gill: Isa 42:8 - I am the Lord, that is my name // and my glory will I not give to another // neither my praise to graven images I am the Lord, that is my name,.... Jehovah, a name expressive of his self-existence, eternity, and immutability; a name by which be made himself know...

I am the Lord, that is my name,.... Jehovah, a name expressive of his self-existence, eternity, and immutability; a name by which be made himself known to Israel of old, and which is peculiar to him, and does not belong to another, and so distinguishes him from all false gods; see Exo 3:14 or, "Hu is my name" p; to which αυτος, "he himself the same", answers; see Psa 102:27, compared with Heb 13:8 and this is one of the names of God with the Jews q; as Hou is with the Turks to this day; which, in Arabic, signifies "him": that is, God, as Monsieur Thevenot r observes; see Isa 48:12,

and my glory will I not give to another; that is, to another god, to a strange god, to an idol; as that has not the nature, it ought not to have the name of deity, nor divine worship given to it: this the Lord will not admit of, but will punish those, be they Heathens, or are called Christians, that give the glory to idols that is due unto his name. This is not to be understood to the exclusion of the Son and Spirit, who are with the Father the one Jehovah, and share in the same glory; the Son is the brightness of his Father's glory, and the Spirit is the Spirit of glory, Heb 1:3 nor will he suffer the glory of the justification, salvation, and conversion of men, to be given to their works, will, and power, which is entirely due to his own grace, to the blood and righteousness of his Son, and to the energy of the divine Spirit:

neither my praise to graven images; which serves to explain the former clause, what is meant by his "glory", and who by "another", to whom he will not give it. Papists should observe this, for it respects not merely or only the graven images of the Heathens, but chiefly those among them that bear the Christian name; for this relates to New Testament times. The Targum is,

"and my glory, in which I am revealed to you, I will not give to another people; nor my praise to worshippers of images.''

Gill: Isa 42:9 - Behold, the former things are come to pass // and new things do I declare // before they spring up I tell you of them Behold, the former things are come to pass,.... Which the Lord had foretold in former times, as to Abraham, concerning the affliction of his posterity...

Behold, the former things are come to pass,.... Which the Lord had foretold in former times, as to Abraham, concerning the affliction of his posterity in Egypt, the bringing them out from thence, and settling them in the land of Canaan; and other things by Moses and Joshua, and other prophets; and by Isaiah; and particularly the captivity of the ten tribes, which was now come to pass in the times of Hezekiah:

and new things do I declare; as the captivity of Judah and Benjamin, and their restoration by Cyrus; and more especially the mission and incarnation of Christ, his sufferings and death, and redemption and salvation by him; which were not only things to come, but new things, famous and excellent ones:

before they spring up I tell you of them or "before they bud forth" r; while the seeds of them were under ground, sown in the purposes and decrees of God, he spoke of them in prophecy; and now former prophecies being fulfilled, and new ones delivered out, concerning things of which there was no appearance, and yet there was the greatest reason to believe their accomplishment, from the fulfilment of the former; this must be a strong proof and confirmation of the Lord being the true God, and the only one.

Gill: Isa 42:10 - Sing unto the Lord a new song // and his praise from the end of the earth // ye that go down into the sea // and all that is therein // the isles, and the inhabitants thereof Sing unto the Lord a new song,.... On account of the new things before prophesied of, and now done; on account of redemption and salvation by Christ, ...

Sing unto the Lord a new song,.... On account of the new things before prophesied of, and now done; on account of redemption and salvation by Christ, and the conversion of the Gentiles through the light of the Gospel brought among them; the song of redeeming love, and for the Gospel, and regenerating grace; and not the Jews only, but the Gentiles also, are called upon to sing this song, as having a special share in the blessings, the subject of it: hence it follows,

and his praise from the end of the earth; thither the Gospel being sent, and there made effectual to the conversion of many, these are exhorted to sing and show forth the praises of him who had called them out of Heathenish blindness and darkness into the marvellous light of the Gospel and grace of God:

ye that go down into the sea; in ships, that trade by sea; such as the Phoenicians, Tyrians, and Sidonians, to whom the Gospel came, and where it was preached with success, to the conversion of many of them, and therefore had reason to join in this new song; see Act 11:19 or such that went by sea to distant parts, on purpose to publish the Gospel, as Paul, Barnabas, Silas, and Timothy; and who, succeeding in their work, had reason to rejoice; see Act 13:4,

and all that is therein: or "the fulness of it" s; meaning not the fishes in it, but the islands of it, as next explained:

the isles, and the inhabitants thereof; as Cyprus, Crete, and other isles, which heard the joyful sound of the Gospel, and embraced it, Act 13:4, and, as the sea often denotes the western part of the world from Judea, this may design the European parts of it, and the islands in it, particularly ours of Great Britain and Ireland, whither the Gospel came very early.

Gill: Isa 42:11 - Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice // the villages that Kedar doth inhabit // let the inhabitants of the rock sing // let them shout from the top of the mountains Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice,.... The eastern part of the world, Arabia Deserta, and the inhabitants of the cities wh...

Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice,.... The eastern part of the world, Arabia Deserta, and the inhabitants of the cities which were in it:

the villages that Kedar doth inhabit; or the "courts" t, or tents, the Kedarenes inhabited, who were Arabians, and dwelt in tents, which they pitched here and there, for the convenience of their flocks; and so the Targum,

"the Arabians that inhabit the wilderness shall praise:''

let the inhabitants of the rock sing: or of Petra, which Jerom says was a city of Palestine. It was the metropolis of Arabia Petraea, which whole country may be here meant, and the inhabitants of it, who had reason to sing for joy, when the Gospel was preached unto them; as it was by the Apostle Paul in Arabia, Gal 1:17,

let them shout from the top of the mountains; the wild, savage, and barbarous people that dwell there, but now become civilized, as well as evangelized, by the Gospel; or the messengers and ministers of the word, whose feet on those mountains were beautiful, bringing the good tidings of peace and salvation by Christ. The Targum interprets this of the resurrection of the dead,

"the dead, when they shall go out of the house of their world, from the tops of the mountains shall lift up their voice u.''

Gill: Isa 42:12 - Let them give glory unto the Lord // and declare his praise in the islands Let them give glory unto the Lord,.... For all the great and good things he has done for them, in sending his Gospel to them, calling them by his grac...

Let them give glory unto the Lord,.... For all the great and good things he has done for them, in sending his Gospel to them, calling them by his grace, enlightening their minds, and revealing his Son in them, and making them partakers of the blessings of his grace, and entitling them to eternal glory and happiness:

and declare his praise in the islands; as on the western continent, and the isles of it; so on the eastern continent, and the islands of it, the islands of Greece, the islands in the Aegean sea.

Gill: Isa 42:13 - The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man // conquering and to conquer // making the weapons of warfare // mighty // bring into captivity every thought to the obedience of // he shall stir up jealousy like a man of war // he shall cry, yea, roar // he shall prevail against his enemies The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man,.... In the ministry of the word, conquering and to conquer; girding his "sword" on his thigh; causing his ...

The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man,.... In the ministry of the word,

conquering and to conquer; girding his "sword" on his thigh; causing his "arrows" to be sharp in the hearts of his enemies; clothing the word with power;

making the weapons of warfare, put into the hands of his ministering servants,

mighty, to pull down the "strong holds" of sin and Satan, to cast: down the proud "imaginations" of men's hearts, and to

bring into captivity every thought to the obedience of himself; or in the army of Constantine, whom he used as his instrument for the destruction of the Pagan empire, and of Paganism in it, and for the establishment of Christianity:

he shall stir up jealousy like a man of war; or "a man of wars" x; that has been used to fight battles; Christ is represented as a warrior, Rev 19:11, his church is in a warfare state; his subjects are soldiers; his ministers are his generals under him, and with them he goes forth, and stirs up his own jealousy, his wrath and fury against his enemies, and takes vengeance on them, and the jealousy of his ministers and people, for his own glory:

he shall cry, yea, roar; not only shout aloud, as soldiers do, when they make an onset, but make a hideous noise, as the old Romans did, to frighten and dispirit their enemies. Christ, in the ministry of the word, not only cries, and calls, and invites souls, sensible of themselves and their condition, to come unto him, and partake of his grace; but he roars as the Lion of the tribe of Judah, and threatens impenitent and unbelieving sinners with his wrath and vengeance:

he shall prevail against his enemies: he shall conquer and subdue them by his Spirit and grace, and make them his willing people in the day of his power; and such who will not have him to reign over them, he will rule them with a rod of iron, and break them in pieces as a potter's vessel.

Gill: Isa 42:14 - I have long time holden my peace // I have been still, and refrained myself // now will I cry like a travailing woman // I will destroy and devour at once I have long time holden my peace,.... For many hundred years the Lord suffered the Gentile world to walk in their own ways, to worship their idols, an...

I have long time holden my peace,.... For many hundred years the Lord suffered the Gentile world to walk in their own ways, to worship their idols, and took no notice of them; he winked at and overlooked their times of ignorance, and did not bring down his vengeance upon them, nor stir up all his wrath; nor indeed did he send any among them, to reprove and convince them of their errors, and threaten them with "ruin", in case of their continuance in them:

I have been still, and refrained myself; had been silent, and said nothing against them in a providential way, but curbed and kept in his wrath and displeasure at their idolatry, as a woman in travail "holds in" y her breath as long as she can; to which the allusion is, as appears by what follows:

now will I cry like a travailing woman; when sharp pains are upon her, and just going to be delivered; and that so loud as to be heard all over the house. This may be taken in a good sense; the ministers of the Gospel travail in birth, and Christ in them, until he is formed in the hearts of men by regenerating and converting grace, Gal 4:19 and in an ill sense; for swift and sudden destruction, which should come on his enemies, as travail on a woman with child. So the Targum,

"as pains on a woman with child, my judgment shall be revealed (or exposed) upon them.''

I will destroy and devour at once; all enemies that should oppose him in the spread of the Gospel, in the destruction of Paganism, and establishment of Christianity in the Roman empire, who are described in the next verse.

Gill: Isa 42:15 - I will make waste mountains and hills // and dry up all their herbs // and I will make the rivers islands, and dry up the pools I will make waste mountains and hills,.... Kingdoms, greater and lesser; kings and governors, as Jarchi interprets it; and so Kimchi understands it of...

I will make waste mountains and hills,.... Kingdoms, greater and lesser; kings and governors, as Jarchi interprets it; and so Kimchi understands it of the kings of the nations; by them are meant the emperors of Rome, and their governors under them, that set themselves against Christ and his Gospel, but were overcome by him; these mountains and hills became a plain before him: "every mountain and island were moved out of their places, and the kings of the earth, and the great men, &c. hid themselves in the dens, and in the rocks of the mountains, and called upon them to fall on them, and hide them from the wrath of the Lamb", Rev 6:14,

and dry up all their herbs; the common people, and common soldiers that were with them, and on their side; comparable, for smallness, weakness, and number, to the grass of the mountains and hills:

and I will make the rivers islands, and dry up the pools; extirpate all the remains of idolatry, rivers and fountains being sacred with the Heathens, as mountains and hills were places where sacrifices were offered to idols. Unless by it rather should be meant, that the Lord would remove all impediments out of the way of his people, or which were obstacles of their conversion; just as he dried up the waters of the Red sea and Jordan, to make way for the people of Israel; to which the allusion may be, and which agrees with the following words.

Gill: Isa 42:16 - And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not // I will lead them in paths that they have not known // I will make darkness light before them // and crooked things straight // these things will I do unto them, and not forsake them And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not,.... The Targum interprets this of the people of Israel, thus, "I will lead the house of Isr...

And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not,.... The Targum interprets this of the people of Israel, thus,

"I will lead the house of Israel, which are like to the blind, in a way which they knew not.''

But it is better to understand it of the Gentiles, who, before the light of the Gospel came among them, were blind as to the true knowledge of God, and especially as in Christ; and of Christ, and the way of peace, life, and salvation by him; and of themselves, and their miserable estate and condition; and of the Spirit of God, and his operations; and of the Scriptures, the Gospel, and the doctrines of it; and which is the case of all men in a state of nature: but the Lord, by his Spirit, opens the eyes of their understandings, and shows them those things they were blind in, and ignorant of, and brings them by a way they knew not before; which way is Christ, the only way to the Father; the way of peace, righteousness, and life; the way to heaven, and eternal happiness: this they knew not before, but thought they must make their own way to God, and their peace with him; must be justified by their own works, and work out their own salvation; but, in conversion, this way to Christ is made known and plain unto them; and in this way the Lord brings all his people to eternal glory:

I will lead them in paths that they have not known; in the paths of duty and truth; in the paths of faith, righteousness, and holiness, and in the ordinances of the Gospel; which they were aliens and strangers to before:

I will make darkness light before them; by going before them himself, as before the children of Israel in a pillar of fire by night; by giving his word to enlighten them; by granting his good Spirit, as a spirit of illumination to them; and by lifting up the light of his countenance on them:

and crooked things straight; remove all obstructions, bear them up under all discouragements, and carry them through all difficulties:

these things will I do unto them, and not forsake them; which may be depended upon, being promised by him that is able to perform, is true, and faithful, and changes not; and, when done, shall not be the last done for them; he will never leave them, nor forsake them, till he has brought them safe to glory.

Gill: Isa 42:17 - They shall be turned back // they shall be greatly ashamed that trust in graven images // that say to the molten images, ye are our gods They shall be turned back,.... Either from their former course, from their idolatry and their idols, and be converted, and turn to the living God; or ...

They shall be turned back,.... Either from their former course, from their idolatry and their idols, and be converted, and turn to the living God; or it may be understood of such Gentiles as were not converted, when others were, who should be put to flight, and should fly to the rocks and mountains to hide and cover them from the wrath of God; for this phrase is used of the overthrow of enemies, of their being obliged to turn their backs and flee:

they shall be greatly ashamed that trust in graven images; as converted persons when they come to be convinced of the folly of their idolatrous practices are; and if not converted, yet are confounded when they find their idols cannot help and assist them, nor deliver them out of their trouble:

that say to the molten images, ye are our gods; as the Israelites did to the molten calf made by Aaron; and the stupidity of the one and the other is much alike; this of the Gentiles, and that of the Israelites.

Gill: Isa 42:18 - Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see. Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see. Jarchi and Kimchi think these words are spoken to Israel, who, as Aben Ezra says, were deaf and bl...

Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see. Jarchi and Kimchi think these words are spoken to Israel, who, as Aben Ezra says, were deaf and blind in heart; but they are rather an exhortation to the Gentiles that remained impenitent and unbelieving, and who were deaf to the voice of the Gospel, and blind as to the knowledge of it; and the purport of the exhortation is, that they would make use of their external hearing and sight, which they had, that they might attain to a spiritual hearing and understanding of divine things; "for faith comes by hearing, and hearing the word of God", Rom 10:17 to hear the Gospel preached, and to look into the Scriptures, and read the word of God, are the means of attaining light and knowledge in spiritual things; and these are within the compass of natural men, who are internally deaf and blind.

Gill: Isa 42:19 - Who is blind, but my servant // who is blind, as he that is perfect Who is blind, but my servant?.... Kimchi, taking the former words to be spoken to the Jews, thinks this is their reply; who will say in answer to it, ...

Who is blind, but my servant?.... Kimchi, taking the former words to be spoken to the Jews, thinks this is their reply; who will say in answer to it, why do ye call us blind and deaf? who so blind and deaf as Isaiah the prophet, the servant of the Lord, his messenger, and a perfect one as he is called? but as the preceding words are spoken to the Gentiles, here the Lord does as it were correct himself, as if he should say, why do I call the Gentiles blind and deaf, when the people of the Jews, who call themselves my servants, and pretend to serve and worship me, yet there are none so blind as they in spiritual things? though they have so many opportunities and advantages of light and knowledge, yet shut their eyes wilfully against the light; hence the people and their guides, the Scribes and Pharisees, are often called "blind" by our Lord, to whose times this passage refers, Mat 15:14; "or deaf, as my messenger that I sent?" not the Prophet Isaiah, but some other, who did not attend to what he was charged with, and did not perform his office aright; it may design in general the priests and Levites, who were the messengers of the Lord of hosts to instruct the people; and yet these were deaf to the messages that God gave them, and they were to deliver to the people: or it may be rendered, "or deaf, but, or as, to whom I send my messenger" z; or messengers, as the Vulgate Latin version; and so the Targum,

"and sinners to whom I send my prophets;''

and so it may respect the body of the people as before, who were deaf to John the Baptist, the messenger sent before the Lord; to Christ himself, and his ministry, and to his apostles, who were first sent to them:

who is blind, as he that is perfect? who pretended to be so, as the young man who thought he had kept all the commandments, and as Saul before conversion, and all the Pharisees, those self-righteous persons who needed no repentance, and yet who so blind as they? and indeed, had they not been blind to themselves, they could never have thought themselves perfect; and yet when they were told they were so, could not bear it, Mat 19:20, and blind, as the Lord's servant? which is repeated for the further confirmation of it, and more clearly to show whose servant is meant.

Gill: Isa 42:20 - Seeing many things, but thou observest not // opening the ears, but he heareth not Seeing many things, but thou observest not,.... The Scribes and Pharisees, saw Christ in the flesh; they saw the miracles he did; they saw the blind r...

Seeing many things, but thou observest not,.... The Scribes and Pharisees, saw Christ in the flesh; they saw the miracles he did; they saw the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers cleansed, the deaf hear, and the dead raised; yet they did not give note to these things, and keep them in their minds, and regard them as clear proofs of his being the Messiah:

opening the ears, but he heareth not; they heard John Baptist preach, the forerunner of Christ, and the testimony he bore of him; they heard Christ himself and his apostles; they sometimes opened their ears, and seemed to listen and hear with attention, and wonder at what they heard; and some would own, that never man spake like Jesus; and yet understood not his speech, and hardened their hearts against him; they saw many things with their bodily eyes, but perceived them not with the eyes of their understandings; they heard with their ears, but understood not in their hearts; for their eyes were shut and their ears heavy, Isa 6:9.

Gill: Isa 42:21 - The Lord is well pleased for his righteousness sake // he magnified them with the law, and made them honourable // he will magnify the law, and make it honourable The Lord is well pleased for his righteousness sake,.... This may be either understood of what the Lord had done for these people in time past, and wh...

The Lord is well pleased for his righteousness sake,.... This may be either understood of what the Lord had done for these people in time past, and which is mentioned as an aggravation of their stupidity, disobedience, and ingratitude; he had delighted in them, and chose them above all people upon the earth, and distinguished them with his favours, which he did for the sake of his own righteousness or faithfulness to his promises made to their fathers:

he magnified them with the law, and made them honourable a; gave them a law which made them great and honourable in the esteem of others; see Deu 10:15 or it may be interpreted of what the Lord would do hereafter, either in a way of grace and favour; that though they were now so ignorant and disobedient, yet in the times of salvation, in the days of the Messiah, these blind shall see, and deaf shall hear, not for their sakes, but for his righteousness sake; when he will magnify his law and make it honourable, and the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of him; this way go the Jewish commentators: or rather in a way of judgment, that the Lord would be well pleased in glorifying his justice or righteousness, in the rejection of such a blind and stupid people, who refused to receive the Messiah, against so much light and evidence; and would "magnify the law", and support the authority of it, and "make it honourable", by punishing the transgressors of it; but I am inclined to think that this has respect to a remnant among these people, according to the election of grace; or to the Lord's people in common, whether Jews or Gentiles, with whom he "is well pleased", or in whom he delights. The Lord is well pleased with his Son, and with him as his servant, as Mediator, for his righteousness sake, as in Isa 42:1 to which there may be some respect; and he is well pleased with all his people as considered in him; the love he bears to them, is a love of complacency and delight: the choice he has made of them; the things he has laid up for them; the care of their persons in Christ, and salvation by him; the marrying of them to him, and the taking them into his family, show how well pleased he is with them: he delights in them, as they are regenerated and sanctified by his Spirit; the exercise of their graces, and the performance of their duties and services, are acceptable to him through Christ; his presence with them, the fellowship with himself he grants unto them, the account he makes of them as his jewels, fully demonstrate his well pleasedness in them: but this is not on their own account; for they are polluted and loathsome creatures in themselves, guilty of sin, deserving of wrath; and not for any righteousness of their own, which is imperfect, filthy, and not answerable to the law; which, instead of being made honourable, is dishonoured by it; there is no justification by it, and no acceptance with God through it; but for the sake of the righteousness of Christ, which is perfect, pure, and spotless; which justifies from all sin, and makes comely and beautiful, and glorifies the justice of God, as well as his righteous law, as follows:

he will magnify the law, and make it honourable: that is he for whose righteousness sake God is well pleased: the law of God is great and honourable in itself, from the author, matter, and usefulness of it; and it becomes more so by Christ the Son of God being made under it; by his perfect obedience to it, and by his bearing the penalty of it, in the room and stead of his people; and by holding it forth in his hands, as a rule of walk and conversation to them; by all which it receives more honour and glory than by all the obedience of creatures to it, angels or men, though ever so perfect.

Gill: Isa 42:22 - But this is a people robbed and spoiled // they are all of them snared in holes // and they are hid in prison houses // and they are for a prey, and none delivereth // for a spoil, and none saith, restore But this is a people robbed and spoiled,.... The Jewish people, who shut their eyes against the clear light of the Gospel, and turned a deaf ear to Ch...

But this is a people robbed and spoiled,.... The Jewish people, who shut their eyes against the clear light of the Gospel, and turned a deaf ear to Christ, and to his ministers, rejected him, and persecuted them; these were robbed and plundered by the Roman soldiers of all their riches and treasures, when the city of Jerusalem was taken:

they are all of them snared in holes; such of them as escaped and hid themselves in holes, and caverns, and dens of the earth, were laid in wait for and taken, and dragged out, as beasts are taken in a pit, and with a snare. Josephus b says, some the Romans killed, some they carried captive, some they searched out lurking in holes underground, and, breaking up the ground, took them out and slew them:

and they are hid in prison houses; being taken by their enemies out of their holes, they were put in prisons, some of them, and there lay confined, out of which they could not deliver themselves:

and they are for a prey, and none delivereth; when they were taken by the Chaldeans, and became a prey to them, in a few years they had a deliverer, Cyrus, but now they have none:

for a spoil, and none saith, restore; there is none to be an advocate for them; no one that asks for their restoration; for almost seventeen hundred years a they have been in this condition, and yet none of the kings and princes of the earth have issued a proclamation for their return to their own land, as Cyrus did; and no one moves for it, either from among themselves or others.

Gill: Isa 42:23 - Who among you will give ear to this // who will hearken and hear for the time to come Who among you will give ear to this?.... To this prophecy of your destruction, and to what follows concerning it: who will hearken and hear for the...

Who among you will give ear to this?.... To this prophecy of your destruction, and to what follows concerning it:

who will hearken and hear for the time to come? and receive instruction from hence, and repent and reform? none at all; so blind, and deaf, and stupid, were they both before, and at their destruction, and even ever since; they take no notice of the hand of God upon them, nor hearken to the rod, any more than to the word of God; which seems to be what is meant by "the time to come", or "hereafter"; and this will be their case till the veil is taken away, and then they shall see and hear, and turn to the Lord.

Gill: Isa 42:24 - Who gave Jacob for a spoil, and Israel to the robbers // did not the Lord, he against whom we have sinned // for they would not walk in his ways // neither were they obedient unto his law Who gave Jacob for a spoil, and Israel to the robbers?.... To the Roman soldiers, to be spoiled and robbed by them? this was not owing to chance and f...

Who gave Jacob for a spoil, and Israel to the robbers?.... To the Roman soldiers, to be spoiled and robbed by them? this was not owing to chance and fortune, or to the superior skill and power of the Roman army:

did not the Lord, he against whom we have sinned? he did, but not without cause; he was justly provoked to it by the sins of the Jews, which were the meritorious and procuring causes of it; yet the Roman army could not have taken their city and plundered it had it not been the will of God, who for their sins, delivered it up to them; even Titus, the Heathen emperor, himself saw the hand of God in it, and acknowledged it;

"God favouring us (says he c) we have made war; it is God that drew the Jews out of those fortresses; for what could human hands and machines do against such towers?''

for they would not walk in his ways; in Christ, the way, the truth, and the life; nor in the ways of his commandments; or in the ordinances of the Gospel; all which they rejected:

neither were they obedient unto his law; or "doctrine" d; the doctrine of the Gospel, particularly the doctrine of justification by faith in the righteousness of Christ; they went about to establish their own righteousness, and did not submit to his; and also every other doctrine respecting the person, office, and grace of Christ, whom they disbelieved, and refused to receive.

Gill: Isa 42:25 - Therefore he hath poured upon him the fury of his anger // and the strength of battle // and it hath set him on fire round about, yet he knew not; and it burned him, yet he laid it not to heart Therefore he hath poured upon him the fury of his anger,.... The Lord was angry with these people for their rejection of the Messiah, and contempt of ...

Therefore he hath poured upon him the fury of his anger,.... The Lord was angry with these people for their rejection of the Messiah, and contempt of his Gospel; and therefore his wrath came upon them to the uttermost, not in some small drops, but in great abundance, to the utter ruin of their nation, city, and temple. Josephus says e,

"the Romans came to subdue Palestine, but their coming was the pouring out of the heat of the wrath of the Lord:''

and the strength of battle; or "war"; all the miseries and calamities that are the effects of war. The Targum is,

"he hath brought upon them the strength of his warriors;''

the Roman soldiers:

and it hath set him on fire round about, yet he knew not; and it burned him, yet he laid it not to heart; the Roman army set fire first to the lower part of the city of Jerusalem, and then the higher f, and wholly consumed it; and yet this has not to this day brought this people to lay it to heart, to consider and observe the true reason of it, their rejection of the Messiah.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 42:1 Like the ideal king portrayed in Isa 11:1-9, the servant is energized by the divine spirit and establishes justice on the earth.

NET Notes: Isa 42:2 Heb “he will not cause his voice to be heard in the street.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:3 Heb “faithfully he will bring out justice” (cf. NASB, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 42:4 Or “his law” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV) or “his instruction” (NLT).

NET Notes: Isa 42:5 Heb “and spirit [i.e., “breath”] to the ones walking in it” (NAB, NASB, and NRSV all similar).

NET Notes: Isa 42:6 Or “the Gentiles” (so KJV, ASV, NIV); the same Hebrew word can be translated “nations” or “Gentiles” depending on ...

NET Notes: Isa 42:7 This does not refer to hardened, dangerous criminals, who would have been executed for their crimes in ancient Near Eastern society. This verse refers...

NET Notes: Isa 42:9 Heb “before they sprout up, I cause you to hear.” The pronoun “you” is plural, referring to the people of Israel. In this vers...

NET Notes: Isa 42:10 Or “islands” (NASB, NIV); NLT “distant coastlands.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:12 Heb “and his praise in the coastlands [or “islands”] let them declare.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:13 Or perhaps, “he triumphs over his enemies” (cf. NIV); NLT “will crush all his enemies.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:14 The imagery depicts the Lord as a warrior who is eager to fight and can no longer hold himself back from the attack.

NET Notes: Isa 42:15 The imagery of this verse, which depicts the Lord bringing a curse of infertility to the earth, metaphorically describes how the Lord will destroy his...

NET Notes: Isa 42:16 Heb “and the rough ground into a level place.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:17 Heb “be ashamed with shame”; ASV, NASB “be utterly put to shame.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:18 Heb “look to see”; NAB, NCV “look and see”; NRSV “look up and see.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:19 Heb “Who is blind but my servant, and deaf like my messenger I send? Who is blind like my commissioned one, blind like the servant of the Lord?&...

NET Notes: Isa 42:20 Heb “but you do not guard [i.e., retain in your memory]”; NIV “but have paid no attention.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:21 Heb “The Lord was pleased for the sake of his righteousness [or “justice”], he was magnifying [the] law and was making [it] glorious...

NET Notes: Isa 42:22 Heb “they became loot and there was no one rescuing, plunder and there was no one saying, ‘Bring back’.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:23 The interrogative particle is understood in the second line by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

NET Notes: Isa 42:24 Heb “they were not willing in his ways to walk, and they did not listen to his law.”

NET Notes: Isa 42:25 Heb “and it burned against him, but he did not set [it] upon [the] heart.”

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:1 Behold ( a ) my servant, ( b ) whom I uphold; my elect, [in whom] my soul ( c ) delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth ( d ) ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:2 He shall not ( e ) cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street. ( e ) His coming will not be with pomp and noise, as earthly prin...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:3 A ( f ) bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking ( g ) flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment to ( h ) truth. ( f ) He will ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:4 He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he hath ( i ) set judgment in the earth: and the ( k ) isles shall wait for his law. ( i ) Till he has set...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:6 I the LORD have called thee in ( l ) righteousness, and will hold ( m ) thy hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a ( n ) covenant of the people...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:8 I [am] the LORD: that [is] my name: and my ( o ) glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images. ( o ) I will not permit my glo...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:9 Behold, the former things have ( p ) come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them. ( p ) As in time past I ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:11 Let the wilderness and its cities lift up [their voice], the villages [that] ( q ) Kedar doth inhabit: let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:13 The LORD shall go forth as a ( r ) mighty man, he shall stir up jealousy like a man of war: he shall cry, yea, roar; he shall prevail against his enem...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:14 I have long time held my peace; I have been still, [and] restrained myself: [now] will I cry like a ( s ) travailing woman; I will destroy and devour ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:16 And I will bring the ( t ) blind by a way [that] they knew not; I will lead them in paths [that] they have not known: I will make darkness light befor...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:19 Who [is] blind, but my ( u ) servant? or deaf, as my ( x ) messenger [that] I sent? who [is] blind as [he that is] ( y ) perfect, and blind as the LOR...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:22 But this [is] a people ( z ) robbed and plundered; [they are] all of them snared in holes, and they are hid in prison houses: they are for a prey, and...

Geneva Bible: Isa 42:23 Who among you will give ear to this? [who] will hearken and hear for ( b ) the time to come? ( b ) Meaning, God's wrath.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 42:3-4 - A Libation To Jehovah Christ The Arrester Of Incipient Evil And The Nourisher Of Incipient Good A bruised reed shall He not break, and the smoking flax shall He not quench...

Maclaren: Isa 42:16 - A Libation To Jehovah The Blind Man's Guide I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known: I will make darkness li...

MHCC: Isa 42:1-4 - --This prophecy was fulfilled in Christ, Mat 12:17. Let our souls rely on him, and rejoice in him; then, for his sake, the Father will be well-pleased w...

MHCC: Isa 42:5-12 - --The work of redemption brings back man to the obedience he owes to God as his Maker. Christ is the light of the world. And by his grace he opens the u...

MHCC: Isa 42:13-17 - --The Lord will appear in his power and glory. He shall cry, in the preaching of his word. He shall cry aloud in the gospel woes, which must be preached...

MHCC: Isa 42:18-25 - --Observe the call given to this people, and the character given of them. Multitudes are ruined for want of observing that which they cannot but see; th...

Matthew Henry: Isa 42:1-4 - -- We are sure that these verses are to be understood of Christ, for the evangelist tells us expressly that in him this prophecy was fulfilled, Mat 12:...

Matthew Henry: Isa 42:5-12 - -- Here is I. The covenant God made with and the commission he gave to the Messiah, Isa 42:5-7, which are an exposition of Isa 42:1, Behold my servant...

Matthew Henry: Isa 42:13-17 - -- It comes all to one whether we make these verses (as some do) the song itself that is to be sung by the Gentile world or a prophecy of what God will...

Matthew Henry: Isa 42:18-25 - -- The prophet, having spoken by way of comfort and encouragement to the believing Jews who waited for the consolation of Israel, here turns to those a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:1 - -- The hēn (behold) in Isa 41:29 is now followed by a second hēn . With the former, Jehovah pronounced sentence upon the idolaters and their id...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:2 - -- The prophet then proceeds to describe how the servant of Jehovah will manifest Himself in the world outside Israel by the promulgation of this right...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:3 - -- With this unassuming appearance there is associated a tender pastoral care. "A bruised reed He does not break, and a glimmering wick He does not pu...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:4 - -- The figures in Isa 42:3 now lead to the thought that the servant of God will never be extinguished or become broken Himself. "He will not become f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:5-7 - -- The words of Jehovah are now addressed to His servant himself. He has not only an exalted vocation, answering to the infinite exaltation of Him from...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:8 - -- Jehovah pledges His name and honour that this work of the Servant of Jehovah will be carried into effect. "I am Jehovah; that is my name, and my gl...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:9 - -- First the overthrow of idolatry, then the restoration of Israel and conversion of the Gentiles: this is the double work of Jehovah's zeal which is a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:10-13 - -- The prediction of these "new things,"which now follows, looks away from all human mediation. They are manifestly the work of Jehovah Himself, and co...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:14 - -- The period of punishment has now lasted sufficiently long; it is time for Jehovah to bring forth the salvation of His people. "I have been silent e...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:15 - -- The delivery takes place, and the whole world of nature undergoes a metamorphosis, which is subservient to the great work of the future. "I make wa...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:16 - -- The great thing which is brought to pass by means of this catastrophe is the redemption of His people. "And I lead the blind by a way that they kno...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:17 - -- In connection with this, the following v. declares what effect this double manifestation will produce among the heathen. "They fall back, are put d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:18 - -- The thought which connects the second half with the first is to be found in the expression in Isa 42:16, "I will bring the blind by a way."It is the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:19 - -- The next v. states who these self-willed deaf and blind are, and how necessary this arousing was. "Who is blind, but my servant? and deaf, as my me...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:20-22 - -- The reproof, which affects Israel a potiori , now proceeds still further, as follows. "Thou hast seen much, and yet keepest not; opening the ears...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 42:23-25 - -- When they ceased to be deaf to this crying contradiction, they would recognise with penitence that it was but the merited punishment of God. "Who a...

Constable: Isa 40:1--55:13 - --IV. Israel's calling in the world chs. 40--55 This part of Isaiah picks up a theme from chapters 1-39 and develo...

Constable: Isa 40:1--48:22 - --A. God's grace to Israel chs. 40-48 These chapters particularly address the questions of whether God cou...

Constable: Isa 41:1--44:23 - --2. The servant of the Lord 41:1-44:22 There is an emphasis on the uniqueness of the Lord compare...

Constable: Isa 41:1--42:10 - --God's promises to His servants 41:1-42:9 The intent of this unit of material was to assu...

Constable: Isa 41:21--42:10 - --The ministering servant, Messiah 41:21-42:9 How is it clear that Yahweh and not the idols directs world history? Yahweh alone can predict the future a...

Constable: Isa 42:10--44:23 - --God's purposes for His servants 42:10-44:22 The section of Isaiah that I have titled "Go...

Constable: Isa 42:10--43:8 - --The certainty of redemption 42:10-43:7 God had not forgotten nor was He unable to deliver His people. Their redemption was certain. "This vision of wh...

Guzik: Isa 42:1-25 - The Servant's Song Isaiah 42 - The Servant's Song A. The LORD speaks of His Servant. 1. (1-4) The character of the Servant. Behold! My Servant whom I uphold, My Elec...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...