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Teks -- Habakkuk 3:1-19 (NET)

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Habakkuk’s Vision of the Divine Warrior
3:1 This is a prayer of Habakkuk the prophet: 3:2 Lord, I have heard the report of what you did; I am awed, Lord, by what you accomplished. In our time repeat those deeds; in our time reveal them again. But when you cause turmoil, remember to show us mercy! 3:3 God comes from Teman, the sovereign one from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor covers the skies, his glory fills the earth. 3:4 He is as bright as lightning; a two-pronged lightning bolt flashes from his hand. This is the outward display of his power. 3:5 Plague goes before him; pestilence marches right behind him. 3:6 He takes his battle position and shakes the earth; with a mere look he frightens the nations. The ancient mountains disintegrate; the primeval hills are flattened. He travels on the ancient roads. 3:7 I see the tents of Cushan overwhelmed by trouble; the tent curtains of the land of Midian are shaking. 3:8 Is the Lord mad at the rivers? Are you angry with the rivers? Are you enraged at the sea? Is this why you climb into your horse-drawn chariots, your victorious chariots? 3:9 Your bow is ready for action; you commission your arrows. Selah. You cause flash floods on the earth’s surface. 3:10 When the mountains see you, they shake. The torrential downpour sweeps through. The great deep shouts out; it lifts its hands high. 3:11 The sun and moon stand still in their courses; the flash of your arrows drives them away, the bright light of your lightning-quick spear. 3:12 You furiously stomp on the earth, you angrily trample down the nations. 3:13 You march out to deliver your people, to deliver your special servant. You strike the leader of the wicked nation, laying him open from the lower body to the neck. Selah. 3:14 You pierce the heads of his warriors with a spear. They storm forward to scatter us; they shout with joy as if they were plundering the poor with no opposition. 3:15 But you trample on the sea with your horses, on the surging, raging waters.
Habakkuk Declares His Confidence
3:16 I listened and my stomach churned; the sound made my lips quiver. My frame went limp, as if my bones were decaying, and I shook as I tried to walk. I long for the day of distress to come upon the people who attack us. 3:17 When the fig tree does not bud, and there are no grapes on the vines; when the olive trees do not produce, and the fields yield no crops; when the sheep disappear from the pen, and there are no cattle in the stalls, 3:18 I will rejoice because of the Lord; I will be happy because of the God who delivers me! 3:19 The sovereign Lord is my source of strength. He gives me the agility of a deer; he enables me to negotiate the rugged terrain. (This prayer is for the song leader. It is to be accompanied by stringed instruments.)
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Cushan a people; Arab tribes living near Edom (NIVfn)
 · Habakkuk a prophet who wrote the eighth book of the minor prophets
 · Midian resident(s) of the region of Midian
 · Paran a wilderness of East central Sinai peninsula (IBD)
 · sea the Dead Sea, at the southern end of the Jordan River,the Mediterranean Sea,the Persian Gulf south east of Babylon,the Red Sea
 · Selah a musical notation for crescendo or emphasis by action (IBD)
 · Shigionoth a highly emotional poetic form (NASB margin)
 · Teman son of Eliphaz son of Esau,a chief of Edom,a town or region of Edom


Topik/Tema Kamus: Poetry | Habakkuk | Music | Psalms | Readings, Select | God | Cushan | BUSH, BURNING | DEATH | Shiggaion | Faith | GOOD, CHIEF | Chariot | Poor | Horn | Messiah | Joy | Bolt | Selah | Prophets | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Hab 3:1 - Upon Sigionoth A musical instrument.

A musical instrument.

Wesley: Hab 3:2 - Thy speech In answer to the inquiry made Hab 1:13-14.

In answer to the inquiry made Hab 1:13-14.

Wesley: Hab 3:2 - Was afraid Trembled at what thou speakest.

Trembled at what thou speakest.

Wesley: Hab 3:2 - In the midst of the years Even before the seventy years are expired.

Even before the seventy years are expired.

Wesley: Hab 3:2 - Make known Thy truth, wisdom, power, and compassion.

Thy truth, wisdom, power, and compassion.

Wesley: Hab 3:3 - God The God of our fathers, discovered himself from Teman, a mountain not far from mount Sinai, where the law was given.

The God of our fathers, discovered himself from Teman, a mountain not far from mount Sinai, where the law was given.

Wesley: Hab 3:3 - Paran Near Sinai.

Near Sinai.

Wesley: Hab 3:3 - His glory This the prophet mentions as a support of his faith, that God so gloriously appeared among their fathers.

This the prophet mentions as a support of his faith, that God so gloriously appeared among their fathers.

Wesley: Hab 3:3 - Full of his praise Of works which were worthy of all praise.

Of works which were worthy of all praise.

Wesley: Hab 3:4 - As the light Pure, clear as the sun, but much more dazzling.

Pure, clear as the sun, but much more dazzling.

Wesley: Hab 3:4 - His hand The face of Moses shined; the face, yea, hands of our God, shine with glorious light.

The face of Moses shined; the face, yea, hands of our God, shine with glorious light.

Wesley: Hab 3:4 - There In that light wherewith he appeared.

In that light wherewith he appeared.

Wesley: Hab 3:4 - The hiding Which discovered much of it, but hid much more; it was light inaccessible.

Which discovered much of it, but hid much more; it was light inaccessible.

Wesley: Hab 3:5 - Before him When God was leading the Israelites out of Egypt, he made the pestilence go before him, so preparing room for his people.

When God was leading the Israelites out of Egypt, he made the pestilence go before him, so preparing room for his people.

Wesley: Hab 3:6 - He stood Gave his presence with Joshua, as one that stood by while the work was done.

Gave his presence with Joshua, as one that stood by while the work was done.

Wesley: Hab 3:6 - The land The promised land.

The promised land.

Wesley: Hab 3:6 - He beheld Looked with a frowning countenance.

Looked with a frowning countenance.

Wesley: Hab 3:6 - Drove asunder Cast them out, his eye did this, for he looked on them, and did this.

Cast them out, his eye did this, for he looked on them, and did this.

Wesley: Hab 3:6 - His ways The wisdom, goodness, justice, holiness, and power of God, which he shews in governing his people.

The wisdom, goodness, justice, holiness, and power of God, which he shews in governing his people.

Wesley: Hab 3:7 - The tents The people that dwelt in them.

The people that dwelt in them.

Wesley: Hab 3:7 - Arabia Near whose borders Israel marched.

Near whose borders Israel marched.

Wesley: Hab 3:7 - In affliction In fear and pain, lest that mighty people should fall on them.

In fear and pain, lest that mighty people should fall on them.

Wesley: Hab 3:7 - The curtains Those that dwelt within them; these people dwelt in tents, which were made up on the sides with curtains.

Those that dwelt within them; these people dwelt in tents, which were made up on the sides with curtains.

Wesley: Hab 3:8 - The sea The Red Sea.

The Red Sea.

Wesley: Hab 3:8 - Ride As a general in the head of his army.

As a general in the head of his army.

Wesley: Hab 3:8 - Upon thine horses Alluding to the manner of men.

Alluding to the manner of men.

Wesley: Hab 3:8 - Salvation No; but he came to save his people.

No; but he came to save his people.

Wesley: Hab 3:9 - Thy bow One part of armour is put for the whole. The Lord is represented as armed, in readiness to smite through all his enemies.

One part of armour is put for the whole. The Lord is represented as armed, in readiness to smite through all his enemies.

Wesley: Hab 3:9 - According to the oaths In pursuance of his oath made to our fathers, and their posterity.

In pursuance of his oath made to our fathers, and their posterity.

Wesley: Hab 3:9 - Cleave the earth When they were to march through a dry and thirsty land.

When they were to march through a dry and thirsty land.

Wesley: Hab 3:10 - Overflowing The inundation which at that season was wont to be very great in and round Jordan, passed away at the word of God; the waters below flowed, and ran fr...

The inundation which at that season was wont to be very great in and round Jordan, passed away at the word of God; the waters below flowed, and ran from those above, which stood on a heap to make a path for Israel.

Wesley: Hab 3:10 - The deep Either the deep channel in which Jordan flowed, or the Red Sea with dreadful roaring parted its waters.

Either the deep channel in which Jordan flowed, or the Red Sea with dreadful roaring parted its waters.

Wesley: Hab 3:10 - Lift up his hands Its waves which stood on an heap.

Its waves which stood on an heap.

Wesley: Hab 3:11 - Stood still At the prayer of Joshua.

At the prayer of Joshua.

Wesley: Hab 3:11 - In the light Which was most miraculously continued.

Which was most miraculously continued.

Wesley: Hab 3:13 - With thine anointed Under the conduct of thine anointed, Joshua, the type of the Messiah.

Under the conduct of thine anointed, Joshua, the type of the Messiah.

Wesley: Hab 3:13 - Thou woundest Gavest a deadly wound to the kings of Canaan.

Gavest a deadly wound to the kings of Canaan.

Wesley: Hab 3:13 - The house of the wicked The courts of these kings were houses of the vilest wickedness.

The courts of these kings were houses of the vilest wickedness.

Wesley: Hab 3:13 - By discovering Destroying all from head to foot.

Destroying all from head to foot.

Wesley: Hab 3:14 - Villages All the cities and all the unwalled towns.

All the cities and all the unwalled towns.

Wesley: Hab 3:14 - They The inhabitants of Canaan.

The inhabitants of Canaan.

Wesley: Hab 3:14 - As a whirlwind With violence invading me on every side.

With violence invading me on every side.

Wesley: Hab 3:14 - To scatter To disperse and drive away the Israelites.

To disperse and drive away the Israelites.

Wesley: Hab 3:14 - Their rejoicing They rejoiced in full confidence of swallowing up Israel unawares.

They rejoiced in full confidence of swallowing up Israel unawares.

Wesley: Hab 3:15 - Didst walk Thou heldest on thy way, from thy entering in on the east of the land, to the west thereof.

Thou heldest on thy way, from thy entering in on the east of the land, to the west thereof.

Wesley: Hab 3:16 - When I heard What dreadful desolations God threatened against Israel.

What dreadful desolations God threatened against Israel.

Wesley: Hab 3:16 - My heart trembled Another effect of surprising fears and astonishment.

Another effect of surprising fears and astonishment.

Wesley: Hab 3:16 - Rottenness A decay of all my strength.

A decay of all my strength.

Wesley: Hab 3:16 - That I might rest These fears made me betake myself to God, that I might rest in him.

These fears made me betake myself to God, that I might rest in him.

Wesley: Hab 3:16 - He The king of Babylon.

The king of Babylon.

Wesley: Hab 3:16 - The people The Jews.

The Jews.

Wesley: Hab 3:17 - The labour The labour bestowed upon the olive.

The labour bestowed upon the olive.

Wesley: Hab 3:17 - Yield no meat Corn.

Corn.

Wesley: Hab 3:17 - Flock Of sheep.

Of sheep.

Wesley: Hab 3:19 - Like hinds feet That I may escape to God my refuge.

That I may escape to God my refuge.

Wesley: Hab 3:19 - He will make me To conquer and triumph.

To conquer and triumph.

JFB: Hab 3:1 - prayer The only strictly called prayers are in Hab 3:2. But all devotional addresses to God are called "prayers" (Psa 72:20). The Hebrew is from a root "to a...

The only strictly called prayers are in Hab 3:2. But all devotional addresses to God are called "prayers" (Psa 72:20). The Hebrew is from a root "to apply to a judge for a favorable decision." Prayers in which praises to God for deliverance, anticipated in the sure confidence of faith, are especially calculated to enlist Jehovah on His people's side (2Ch 20:20-22, 2Ch 20:26).

JFB: Hab 3:1 - upon Shigionoth A musical phrase, "after the manner of elegies," or mournful odes, from an Arabic root [LEE]; the phrase is singular in Psa 7:1, title. More simply, f...

A musical phrase, "after the manner of elegies," or mournful odes, from an Arabic root [LEE]; the phrase is singular in Psa 7:1, title. More simply, from a Hebrew root to "err," "on account of sins of ignorance." Habakkuk thus teaches his countrymen to confess not only their more grievous sins, but also their errors and negligences, into which they were especially likely to fall when in exile away from the Holy Land [CALVIN]. So Vulgate and AQUILA, and SYMMACHUS. "For voluntary transgressors" [JEROME]. Probably the subject would regulate the kind of music. DELITZSCH and HENDERSON translate, "With triumphal music," from the same root "to err," implying its enthusiastic irregularity.

JFB: Hab 3:2 - I have heard thy speech Thy revelation to me concerning the coming chastisement of the Jews [CALVIN], and the destruction of their oppressors. This is Habakkuk's reply to God...

Thy revelation to me concerning the coming chastisement of the Jews [CALVIN], and the destruction of their oppressors. This is Habakkuk's reply to God's communication [GROTIUS]. MAURER translates, "the report of Thy coming," literally, "Thy report."

JFB: Hab 3:2 - and was afraid Reverential fear of God's judgments (Hab 3:16).

Reverential fear of God's judgments (Hab 3:16).

JFB: Hab 3:2 - revive thy work Perfect the work of delivering Thy people, and do not let Thy promise lie as if it were dead, but give it new life by performing it [MENOCHIUS]. CALVI...

Perfect the work of delivering Thy people, and do not let Thy promise lie as if it were dead, but give it new life by performing it [MENOCHIUS]. CALVIN explains "thy work" to be Israel; called "the work of My hands" (Isa 45:11). God's elect people are peculiarly His work (Isa 43:1), pre-eminently illustrating His power, wisdom, and goodness. "Though we seem, as it were, dead nationally, revive us" (Psa 85:6). However (Psa 64:9), where "the work of God" refers to His judgment on their enemies, favors the former view (Psa 90:16-17; Isa 51:9-10).

JFB: Hab 3:2 - in the midst of the years Namely, of calamity in which we live. Now that our calamities are at their height; during our seventy years' captivity. CALVIN more fancifully explain...

Namely, of calamity in which we live. Now that our calamities are at their height; during our seventy years' captivity. CALVIN more fancifully explains it, in the midst of the years of Thy people, extending from Abraham to Messiah; if they be cut off before His coming, they will be cut off as it were in the midst of their years, before attaining their maturity. So BENGEL makes the midst of the years to be the middle point of the years of the world. There is a strikingly similar phrase (Dan 9:27), In the midst of the week. The parallel clause, "in wrath" (that is, in the midst of wrath), however, shows that "in the midst of the years" means "in the years of our present exile and calamity."

JFB: Hab 3:2 - make known Made it (Thy work) known by experimental proof; show in very deed, that this is Thy work.

Made it (Thy work) known by experimental proof; show in very deed, that this is Thy work.

JFB: Hab 3:3 - God Singular in the Hebrew, "Eloah," instead of "Elohim," plural, usually employed. The singular is not found in any other of the minor prophets, or Jerem...

Singular in the Hebrew, "Eloah," instead of "Elohim," plural, usually employed. The singular is not found in any other of the minor prophets, or Jeremiah, or Ezekiel; but it is in Isaiah, Daniel, Job, and Deuteronomy.

JFB: Hab 3:3 - from Teman The country south of Judea and near Edom, in which latter country Mount Paran was situated [HENDERSON]. "Paran" is the desert region, extending from t...

The country south of Judea and near Edom, in which latter country Mount Paran was situated [HENDERSON]. "Paran" is the desert region, extending from the south of Judah to Sinai. Seir, Sinai, and Paran are adjacent to one another, and are hence associated together, in respect to God's giving of the law (Deu 33:2). Teman is so identified with Seir or Edom, as here to be substituted for it. Habakkuk appeals to God's glorious manifestations to His people at Sinai, as the ground for praying that God will "revive His work" (Hab 3:2) now. For He is the same God now as ever.

JFB: Hab 3:3 - Selah A musical sign, put at the close of sections and strophes, always at the end of a verse, except thrice; namely, here, and Hab 3:9, and Psa 55:19; Psa ...

A musical sign, put at the close of sections and strophes, always at the end of a verse, except thrice; namely, here, and Hab 3:9, and Psa 55:19; Psa 57:3, where, however, it closes the hemistich. It implies a change of the modulation. It comes from a root to "rest" or "pause" [GESENIUS]; implying a cessation of the chant, during an instrumental interlude. The solemn pause here prepares the mind for contemplating the glorious description of Jehovah's manifestation which follows.

JFB: Hab 3:3 - earth . . . full of his praise That is, of His glories which were calculated to call forth universal praise; the parallelism to "glory" proves this to be the sense.

That is, of His glories which were calculated to call forth universal praise; the parallelism to "glory" proves this to be the sense.

JFB: Hab 3:4 - as the light Namely, of the sun (Job 37:21; Pro 4:18).

Namely, of the sun (Job 37:21; Pro 4:18).

JFB: Hab 3:4 - horns The emblem of power wielded by "His hand" [LUDOVICUS DE DIEU]. "Rays" emanating from "His hand," compared by the Arabs to the horns of the gazelle (co...

The emblem of power wielded by "His hand" [LUDOVICUS DE DIEU]. "Rays" emanating from "His hand," compared by the Arabs to the horns of the gazelle (compare "hind of the morning," Psa 22:1, title, Margin). The Hebrew verb for to "emit rays," is from the root meaning "horns" (Exo 34:29-30, Exo 34:35) [GROTIUS]. The rays are His lightnings (Psa 18:8), [MAURER].

JFB: Hab 3:4 - there In that "brightness." In it, notwithstanding its brilliancy, there was but the veil "(the hiding) of His power." Even "light," God's "garment," covers...

In that "brightness." In it, notwithstanding its brilliancy, there was but the veil "(the hiding) of His power." Even "light," God's "garment," covers, instead of revealing fully, His surpassing glory (Psa 104:2) [HENDERSON]. Or, on Mount Sinai [DRUSIUS]. (Compare Exo 24:17). The Septuagint and Syriac versions read for "there," He made a hiding, &c.; He hid Himself with clouds. English Version is better, which CALVIN explains, there is said to be "a hiding of God's power," because God did not reveal it indiscriminately to all, but specially to His people (Psa 31:20). The contrast seems to me to be between the "horns" or emanations out of His power ("hand"), and that "power" itself. The latter was hidden, whereas the "horns" or emanations alone were manifested. If the mere scintillations were so awfully overwhelming, how much more so the hidden power itself! This was especially true of His manifestation at Sinai (Psa 18:11; compare Isa 45:15, Isa 45:17).

JFB: Hab 3:5 - pestilence To destroy His people's foes (1Sa 5:9, 1Sa 5:11). As Jehovah's advent is glorious to His people, so it is terrible to His foes.

To destroy His people's foes (1Sa 5:9, 1Sa 5:11). As Jehovah's advent is glorious to His people, so it is terrible to His foes.

JFB: Hab 3:5 - burning coals Psa 18:8 favors English Version. But the parallelism requires, as the Margin translates, "burning disease" (compare Deu 32:24; Psa 91:6).

Psa 18:8 favors English Version. But the parallelism requires, as the Margin translates, "burning disease" (compare Deu 32:24; Psa 91:6).

JFB: Hab 3:5 - went . . . at his feet That is, after Him, as His attendants (Jdg 4:10).

That is, after Him, as His attendants (Jdg 4:10).

JFB: Hab 3:6 - He stood, and measured the earth Jehovah, in His advance, is represented as stopping suddenly, and measuring the earth with His all-seeing glance, whereat there is universal consterna...

Jehovah, in His advance, is represented as stopping suddenly, and measuring the earth with His all-seeing glance, whereat there is universal consternation. MAURER, from a different root, translates, "rocked the earth"; which answers better to the parallel "drove asunder"; the Hebrew for which latter, however, may be better translated, "made to tremble."

JFB: Hab 3:6 - everlasting mountains Which have ever been remembered as retaining the same place and form from the foundation of the world.

Which have ever been remembered as retaining the same place and form from the foundation of the world.

JFB: Hab 3:6 - did bow As it were, in reverent submission.

As it were, in reverent submission.

JFB: Hab 3:6 - his ways are everlasting His marvellous ways of working for the salvation of His people mark His everlasting character: such as He was in His workings for them formerly, such ...

His marvellous ways of working for the salvation of His people mark His everlasting character: such as He was in His workings for them formerly, such shall He be now.

JFB: Hab 3:7 - the tents That is, the dwellers.

That is, the dwellers.

JFB: Hab 3:7 - Cushan The same as Cush; made "Cush-an" to harmonize with "Midi-an" in the parallel clause. So Lotan is found in the Hebrew of Genesis for Lot. BOCHART there...

The same as Cush; made "Cush-an" to harmonize with "Midi-an" in the parallel clause. So Lotan is found in the Hebrew of Genesis for Lot. BOCHART therefore considers it equivalent to Midian, or a part of Arabia. So in Num 12:1, Moses' Midianite wife is called an Ethiopian (Hebrew, Cushite). MAURER thinks the dwellers on both sides of the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea, are meant; for in Hab 3:6 God's everlasting or ancient ways of delivering His people are mentioned; and in Hab 3:8, the dividing of the Red Sea for them. Compare Miriam's song as to the fear of Israel's foes far and near caused thereby (Exo 15:14-16). Hebrew expositors refer it to Chushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, or Syria, the first oppressor of Israel (Jdg 3:8, Jdg 3:10), from whom Othniel delivered them. Thus the second hemistich of the verse will refer to the deliverance of Israel from Midian by Gideon (Jdg. 6:1-7:25) to which Hab 3:11 plainly refers. Whichever of these views be correct, the general reference is to God's interpositions against Israel's foes of old.

JFB: Hab 3:7 - in affliction Rather, "under affliction" (regarded) as a heavy burden. Literally, "vanity" or "iniquity," hence the punishment of it (compare Num 25:17-18).

Rather, "under affliction" (regarded) as a heavy burden. Literally, "vanity" or "iniquity," hence the punishment of it (compare Num 25:17-18).

JFB: Hab 3:7 - curtains The coverings of their tents; the shifting habitations of the nomad tribes, which resembled the modern Bedouins.

The coverings of their tents; the shifting habitations of the nomad tribes, which resembled the modern Bedouins.

JFB: Hab 3:7 - tremble Namely, at Jehovah's terrible interposition for Israel against them.

Namely, at Jehovah's terrible interposition for Israel against them.

JFB: Hab 3:8 - Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? "Was the cause of His dividing the Red Sea and Jordan His displeasure against these waters?" The answer to this is tacitly implied in "Thy chariots of...

"Was the cause of His dividing the Red Sea and Jordan His displeasure against these waters?" The answer to this is tacitly implied in "Thy chariots of salvation." "Nay; it was not displeasure against the waters, but His pleasure in interposing for His people's salvation" (compare Hab 3:10).

JFB: Hab 3:8 - thy chariots In antithesis to Thy foe, Pharaoh's chariots," which, notwithstanding their power and numbers, were engulfed in the waters of destruction. God can mak...

In antithesis to Thy foe, Pharaoh's chariots," which, notwithstanding their power and numbers, were engulfed in the waters of destruction. God can make the most unlikely means work for His people's salvation (Exo 14:7, Exo 14:9, Exo 14:23, Exo 14:25-28; Exo 15:3-8, Exo 15:19). Jehovah's chariots are His angels (Psa 68:17), or the cherubim, or the ark (Jos 3:13; Jos 4:7; compare Son 1:9).

JFB: Hab 3:9 - bow . . . made . . . naked That is, was drawn forth from its cover, in which bows usually were cased when not in use. Compare Isa 22:6, "Kir uncovered the shield."

That is, was drawn forth from its cover, in which bows usually were cased when not in use. Compare Isa 22:6, "Kir uncovered the shield."

JFB: Hab 3:9 - according to the oaths of the tribes even thy word That is, Thy oaths of promise to the tribes of Israel (Psa 77:8; Luk 1:73-74). Habakkuk shows that God's miraculous interpositions for His people were...

That is, Thy oaths of promise to the tribes of Israel (Psa 77:8; Luk 1:73-74). Habakkuk shows that God's miraculous interpositions for His people were not limited to one time, but that God's oaths to His people are sure ground for their always expecting them. The mention of the tribes, rather than Abraham or Moses, is in order that they may not doubt that to them belongs this grace of which Abraham was the depository [CALVIN and JEROME]. MAURER translates, "The spears were glutted with blood, the triumphal song!" that is, no sooner did Jehovah begin the battle by baring His bow, than the spears were glutted with blood and the triumphal song sung.

JFB: Hab 3:9 - Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers The result of the earthquake caused by God's approach [MAURER]. GROTIUS refers it to the bringing forth water from the rock (Exo 17:6; Num 20:10-11; P...

The result of the earthquake caused by God's approach [MAURER]. GROTIUS refers it to the bringing forth water from the rock (Exo 17:6; Num 20:10-11; Psa 78:15-16; Psa 105:4). But the context implies not the giving of water to His people to drink, but the fearful physical phenomena attending Jehovah's attack on Israel's foes.

JFB: Hab 3:10 - The mountains Repetition with increased emphasis of some of the tremendous phenomena mentioned in Hab 3:6.

Repetition with increased emphasis of some of the tremendous phenomena mentioned in Hab 3:6.

JFB: Hab 3:10 - overflowing of the water passed by Namely, of the Red Sea; and again, of the Jordan. God marked His favor to His people in all the elements, causing every obstacle, whether mountains or...

Namely, of the Red Sea; and again, of the Jordan. God marked His favor to His people in all the elements, causing every obstacle, whether mountains or waters, which impeded their progress, to "pass away" [CALVIN]. MAURER, not so well, translates, "torrents (rains) of water rush down."

JFB: Hab 3:10 - lifted . . . hands on high Namely, its billows lifted on high by the tempest. Personification. As men signify by voice or gesture of hand that they will do what they are command...

Namely, its billows lifted on high by the tempest. Personification. As men signify by voice or gesture of hand that they will do what they are commanded, so these parts of nature testified their obedience to God's will (Exo 14:22; Jos 3:16; Psa 77:17-18; Psa 114:4).

JFB: Hab 3:11 - sun . . . moon stood still At Joshua's command (Jos 10:12-13). MAURER wrongly translates, "stand" (withdrawn, or hidden from view, by the clouds which covered the sky during the...

At Joshua's command (Jos 10:12-13). MAURER wrongly translates, "stand" (withdrawn, or hidden from view, by the clouds which covered the sky during the thunders).

JFB: Hab 3:11 - light of thine arrows Hail mixed with lightnings (Jos 10:10-11).

Hail mixed with lightnings (Jos 10:10-11).

JFB: Hab 3:11 - they went The sun and moon "went," not as always heretofore, but according to the light and direction of Jehovah's arrows, namely, His lightnings hurled in defe...

The sun and moon "went," not as always heretofore, but according to the light and direction of Jehovah's arrows, namely, His lightnings hurled in defense of His people; astonished at these they stood still [CALVIN]. MAURER translates, "At the light of Thine arrows (which) went" or flew.

JFB: Hab 3:12 - march Implying Jehovah's majestic and irresistible progress before His people (Jdg 5:4; Psa 68:7). Israel would not have dared to attack the nations, unless...

Implying Jehovah's majestic and irresistible progress before His people (Jdg 5:4; Psa 68:7). Israel would not have dared to attack the nations, unless Jehovah had gone before.

JFB: Hab 3:12 - thresh (Mic 4:13).

JFB: Hab 3:13 - with thine anointed With Messiah; of whom Moses, Joshua, and David, God's anointed leaders of Israel, were the types (Psa 89:19-20, Psa 89:38). God from the beginning del...

With Messiah; of whom Moses, Joshua, and David, God's anointed leaders of Israel, were the types (Psa 89:19-20, Psa 89:38). God from the beginning delivered His people in person, or by the hand of a Mediator (Isa 63:11). Thus Habakkuk confirms believers in the hope of their deliverance, as well because God is always the same, as also because the same anointed Mediator is ready now to fulfil God's will and interpose for Israel, as of old [CALVIN]. MAURER translates to suit the parallelism, "for salvation to Thine anointed," namely, Israel's king in the abstract, answering to the "people" in the former clause (compare Psa 28:8; Lam 4:20). Or Israel is meant, the anointed, that is, consecrated people of Jehovah (Psa 105:15).

JFB: Hab 3:13 - woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked Probably an allusion to Psa 68:21. Each head person sprung from and belonging to the house of Israel's wicked foes; such as Jabin, whose city Hazor wa...

Probably an allusion to Psa 68:21. Each head person sprung from and belonging to the house of Israel's wicked foes; such as Jabin, whose city Hazor was "the head of all the kingdoms" of Canaan (Jos 11:10; compare Jdg 4:2-3, Jdg 4:13).

JFB: Hab 3:13 - discovering the foundation Thou destroyedst high and low. As "the head of the house" means the prince, so the "foundation" means the general host of the enemy.

Thou destroyedst high and low. As "the head of the house" means the prince, so the "foundation" means the general host of the enemy.

JFB: Hab 3:13 - unto the neck Image from a flood reaching to the neck (Isa 8:8; Isa 30:28). So God, by His wrath overflowing on the foe, caused their princes' necks to be trodden u...

Image from a flood reaching to the neck (Isa 8:8; Isa 30:28). So God, by His wrath overflowing on the foe, caused their princes' necks to be trodden under foot by Israel's leaders (Jos 10:24; Jos 11:8, Jos 11:12).

JFB: Hab 3:14 - strike . . . with his staves With the "wicked" (Hab 3:13) foe's own sword (MAURER translates, "spears") (Jdg 7:22).

With the "wicked" (Hab 3:13) foe's own sword (MAURER translates, "spears") (Jdg 7:22).

JFB: Hab 3:14 - head of his villages Not only kings were overthrown by God's hand, but His vengeance passed through the foe's villages and dependencies. A just retribution, as the foe had...

Not only kings were overthrown by God's hand, but His vengeance passed through the foe's villages and dependencies. A just retribution, as the foe had made "the inhabitants of Israel's villages to cease" (Jdg 5:7). GROTIUS translates, "of his warriors"; GESENIUS, "the chief of his captains."

JFB: Hab 3:14 - to scatter me Israel, with whom Habakkuk identifies himself (compare Hab 1:12).

Israel, with whom Habakkuk identifies himself (compare Hab 1:12).

JFB: Hab 3:14 - rejoicing . . . to devour the poor secretly "The poor" means the Israelites, for whom in their helpless state the foe lurks in his lair, like a wild beast, to pounce on and devour (Psa 10:9; Psa...

"The poor" means the Israelites, for whom in their helpless state the foe lurks in his lair, like a wild beast, to pounce on and devour (Psa 10:9; Psa 17:12).

JFB: Hab 3:15 - Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses (Hab 3:8). No obstacle could prevent Thy progress when leading Thy people in safety to their inheritance, whether the Red Sea, Jordan, or the figurat...

(Hab 3:8). No obstacle could prevent Thy progress when leading Thy people in safety to their inheritance, whether the Red Sea, Jordan, or the figurative waves of foes raging against Israel (Psa 65:7; Psa 77:19).

JFB: Hab 3:16 - When I heard . . . trembled Namely, at the judgments which God had declared (Hab. 1:1-17) were to be inflicted on Judea by the Chaldeans.

Namely, at the judgments which God had declared (Hab. 1:1-17) were to be inflicted on Judea by the Chaldeans.

JFB: Hab 3:16 - belly The bowels were thought by the Hebrews to be the seat of yearning compassion (Jer 31:20). Or "heard" may refer to Hab 3:2, "When I heard as to Jehovah...

The bowels were thought by the Hebrews to be the seat of yearning compassion (Jer 31:20). Or "heard" may refer to Hab 3:2, "When I heard as to Jehovah's coming interposition for Israel against the Chaldeans being still at some distance" (Hab 2:3); so also the voice" [MAURER].

JFB: Hab 3:16 - at the voice Of the divine threatenings (Hab 1:6). The faithful tremble at the voice alone of God before He inflicts punishment. Habakkuk speaks in the person of a...

Of the divine threatenings (Hab 1:6). The faithful tremble at the voice alone of God before He inflicts punishment. Habakkuk speaks in the person of all the faithful in Israel.

JFB: Hab 3:16 - trembled in myself That is, I trembled all over [GROTIUS].

That is, I trembled all over [GROTIUS].

JFB: Hab 3:16 - that I might rest in the day of trouble The true and only path to rest is through such fear. Whoever is securely torpid and hardened towards God, will be tumultuously agitated in the day of ...

The true and only path to rest is through such fear. Whoever is securely torpid and hardened towards God, will be tumultuously agitated in the day of affliction, and so will bring on himself a worse destruction; but he who in time meets God's wrath and trembles at His threats, prepares the best rest for himself in the day of affliction [CALVIN]. HENDERSON translates, "Yet I shall have rest." Habakkuk thus consoling his mind, Though trembling at the calamity coming, yet I shall have rest in God (Isa 26:3). But that sentiment does not seem to be directly asserted till Hab 3:17, as the words following at the close of this verse imply.

JFB: Hab 3:16 - when he cometh up unto the people, he will invade Rather (as English Version is a mere truism), connected with the preceding clause, "that I might rest . . . when he (the Chaldean foe) cometh up unto ...

Rather (as English Version is a mere truism), connected with the preceding clause, "that I might rest . . . when he (the Chaldean foe) cometh up unto the people (the Jews), that he may cut them off" [CALVIN]. The Hebrew for "invade" means, to rush upon, or to attack and cut off with congregated troops.

JFB: Hab 3:17 - -- Destroy the "vines" and "fig trees" of the carnal heart, and his mirth ceases. But those who when full enjoyed God in all, when emptied can enjoy all ...

Destroy the "vines" and "fig trees" of the carnal heart, and his mirth ceases. But those who when full enjoyed God in all, when emptied can enjoy all in God. They can sit down upon the heap of ruined creature comforts, and rejoice in Him as the "God of their salvation." Running in the way of His commandments, we outrun our troubles. Thus Habakkuk, beginning his prayer with trembling, ends it with a song of triumph (Job 13:15; Psa 4:7; Psa 43:3, Psa 43:5).

JFB: Hab 3:17 - labour of the olive That is, the fruit expected from the olive.

That is, the fruit expected from the olive.

JFB: Hab 3:17 - fail Literally, "lie," that is, disappoint the hope (Isa 58:11, Margin).

Literally, "lie," that is, disappoint the hope (Isa 58:11, Margin).

JFB: Hab 3:17 - fields From a Hebrew root meaning "to be yellow"; as they look at harvest-time.

From a Hebrew root meaning "to be yellow"; as they look at harvest-time.

JFB: Hab 3:17 - meat Food, grain.

Food, grain.

JFB: Hab 3:17 - cut off That is, cease.

That is, cease.

JFB: Hab 3:18 - yet I will rejoice The prophet speaks in the name of his people.

The prophet speaks in the name of his people.

JFB: Hab 3:19 - hinds' feet . . . walk upon . . . high places Habakkuk has here before his mind Psa 18:33-34; Deu 32:13. "Hinds' (gazelles') feet" imply the swiftness with which God enables him (the prophet and h...

Habakkuk has here before his mind Psa 18:33-34; Deu 32:13. "Hinds' (gazelles') feet" imply the swiftness with which God enables him (the prophet and his people) to escape from his enemies, and return to his native land. The "high places" are called "mine," to imply that Israel shall be restored to his own land, a land of hills which are places of safety and of eminence (compare Gen 19:17; Mat 24:16). Probably not only the safety, but the moral elevation, of Israel above all the lands of the earth is implied (Deu 33:29).

JFB: Hab 3:19 - on my stringed instruments Neginoth. This is the prophet's direction to the precentor ("chief singer") as to how the preceding ode (Hab. 3:1-19) is to be performed (compare Psa ...

Neginoth. This is the prophet's direction to the precentor ("chief singer") as to how the preceding ode (Hab. 3:1-19) is to be performed (compare Psa 4:1; Psa 6:1, titles). The prophet had in mind a certain form of stringed instrument adapted to certain numbers and measures. This formula at the end of the ode, directing the kind of instrument to be used, agrees with that in the beginning of it, which directs the kind of melody (compare Isa 38:20).

Clarke: Hab 3:1 - A prayer of Habakkuk - upon Shigionoth A prayer of Habakkuk - upon Shigionoth - See the note on the title of Psalm 7 (note), where the meaning of Shiggaion is given. The Vulgate has, pro ...

A prayer of Habakkuk - upon Shigionoth - See the note on the title of Psalm 7 (note), where the meaning of Shiggaion is given. The Vulgate has, pro ignorantiis , for ignorances, or sins committed in ignorance; and so it is understood by the Chaldee. The Syriac has nothing but merely, A prayer of Habakkuk. And the Septuagint, instead of Shigionoth, have μετα ῳδης, with a hymn, which is copied by the Arabic

I suspect that the title here given is of a posterior date to the prophecy. It appears to interrupt the connection between this and the termination of the preceding verse. See them together: -

Hab 2:20 : "But the Lord is in his holy temple:
Be silent before him, all the earth

Hab 3:1 : O Lord, I have heard thy speech:
I have feared, O Lord, thy work.
As the years approach thou hast shown;
As the years approach thou makest known.
In wrath thou rememberest mercy.

The prophet may here refer to the speech which God had communicated to him, Hab 1:1-11, 2:4-20, and the terror with which he was struck, because of the judgments denounced against Jerusalem. I have followed the version of Apb. Newcome in this first verse. The critical reader may consult his notes, and the various readings of Kennicott and De Rossi.

Clarke: Hab 3:2 - In the midst of the years In the midst of the years - בקרב שנים bekereb shanim , "As the years approach."The nearer the time, the clearer and fuller is the predictio...

In the midst of the years - בקרב שנים bekereb shanim , "As the years approach."The nearer the time, the clearer and fuller is the prediction; and the signs of the times show that the complete fulfillment is at hand. But as the judgments will be heavy, (and they are not greater than we deserve), yet, Lord, in the midst of wrath - infliction of punishment - remember mercy, and spare the souls that return unto thee with humiliation and prayer.

Clarke: Hab 3:3 - God came from Teman God came from Teman - Bp. Lowth observes: "This is a sudden burst of poetry, in the true spirit of the ode; the concealed connection being that God,...

God came from Teman - Bp. Lowth observes: "This is a sudden burst of poetry, in the true spirit of the ode; the concealed connection being that God, who had formerly displayed such power in delivering the Israelites from Egyptian slavery, might succor their posterity in a like wonderful manner."Hence the prophet selects the most striking facts of that first deliverance; and to decorate and render them impressive, brings forth all the powers of his genius, in all the strength and elegance of his language. "What crowns the sublimity of this piece,"says Bp. Lowth, "is the singular elegance of the close; and were it not that antiquity has here and there thrown its veil of obscurity over it, there could not be conceived a more perfect and masterly poem of its kind."See, for more particulars, his twenty-eighth Prelection

I shall endeavor to show the facts in the deliverance from Egypt, to which the prophet refers

Clarke: Hab 3:3 - Teman Teman - This was a city, the capital of a province of Idumea, to the south of the land of Canaan. Num 20:21; Jer 49:7

Teman - This was a city, the capital of a province of Idumea, to the south of the land of Canaan. Num 20:21; Jer 49:7

Clarke: Hab 3:3 - Paran Paran - Was a city which gave its name to a province in Arabia Petraea. Gen 21:21; Deu 33:2

Paran - Was a city which gave its name to a province in Arabia Petraea. Gen 21:21; Deu 33:2

Clarke: Hab 3:3 - Selah Selah - This word is not well known; probably it means a pause or alteration in the music. See it in the Psalms, and its explanation there

Selah - This word is not well known; probably it means a pause or alteration in the music. See it in the Psalms, and its explanation there

Clarke: Hab 3:3 - His glory covered the heavens His glory covered the heavens - His glory when he descended on Mount Sinai, and in the pillar of fire by night

His glory covered the heavens - His glory when he descended on Mount Sinai, and in the pillar of fire by night

Clarke: Hab 3:3 - The earth was full of his praise The earth was full of his praise - All the land was astonished at the magnificence of his works in behalf of his people. Instead of praise, some tra...

The earth was full of his praise - All the land was astonished at the magnificence of his works in behalf of his people. Instead of praise, some translate splendor. The whole land was illuminated by his glory.

Clarke: Hab 3:4 - He had horns coming out of his hand He had horns coming out of his hand - קרנים karnayim , rays. His hand - his power - was manifested in a particular place, by the sudden issuin...

He had horns coming out of his hand - קרנים karnayim , rays. His hand - his power - was manifested in a particular place, by the sudden issuing out of pencils of rays, which diverged in coruscations of light, so as to illuminate the whole hemisphere. Yet "there was the hiding of his power."His Majesty could not be seen, nor any kind of image, because of the insufferable splendor. This may either refer to the lightnings on Mount Sinai or to the brightness which occasionally proceeded from the shechinah or glory of God between the cherubim, over the mercy-seat. See Capellus and Newcome. If lightnings are intended, the dense cloud from which they proceeded may be meant by the "hiding of his power;"for when the lightnings burst forth, his power and energy became manifest

Probably from this the Jupiter Keraunos or Jupiter Brontes of the heathens was borrowed; who is always represented with forked or zigzag lightnings in his hand.

Clarke: Hab 3:5 - Before him went the pestilence Before him went the pestilence - This plague was several times inflicted on the disobedient Israelites in the wilderness; see Num 11:33; Num 14:37; ...

Before him went the pestilence - This plague was several times inflicted on the disobedient Israelites in the wilderness; see Num 11:33; Num 14:37; Num 16:46; and was always the proof that the just God was then manifesting his power among them

Clarke: Hab 3:5 - Burning coals event forth at his feet Burning coals event forth at his feet - Newcome translates, "And flashes of fire went forth after him."The disobedient Israelites were consumed by a...

Burning coals event forth at his feet - Newcome translates, "And flashes of fire went forth after him."The disobedient Israelites were consumed by a fire that went out from Jehovah; see Lev 10:2; Num 11:1; Num 16:35. And the burnt-offering was consumed by a fire which came out from before Jehovah, Lev 11:24.

Clarke: Hab 3:6 - He stood, and measured the earth He stood, and measured the earth - ארץ erets , the land; he divided the promised land among the twelve tribes. This is the allusion; and this th...

He stood, and measured the earth - ארץ erets , the land; he divided the promised land among the twelve tribes. This is the allusion; and this the prophet had in his eye. God not only made a general assignment of the land to the Hebrews; but he even divided it into such portions as the different families required. Here were both power and condescension. When a conqueror had subdued a country, he divided it among his soldiers. Among the Romans, those among whom the conquered lands were divided were termed beneficiary ; and the lands beneficia , as being held on the beneficence of the sovereign

Clarke: Hab 3:6 - He beheld, and drove asunder the nations He beheld, and drove asunder the nations - The nations of Canaan, the Hittites, Hivites, Jebusites, etc., and all who opposed his people. Even his l...

He beheld, and drove asunder the nations - The nations of Canaan, the Hittites, Hivites, Jebusites, etc., and all who opposed his people. Even his look dispersed them

Clarke: Hab 3:6 - The everlasting mountains were scattered The everlasting mountains were scattered - Or, broken asunder. This may refer to the convulsions on Mount Sinai; and to the earth quake which announ...

The everlasting mountains were scattered - Or, broken asunder. This may refer to the convulsions on Mount Sinai; and to the earth quake which announced the descent of the Most High. See Exo 19:18. "God occupied the summit of the eternal Mount Sinai; and led his people over the eternal mountains of Arabia Petraea; and this sense is preferable to the figurative one, that his ways or doings are predetermined front everlasting."- Newcome

The epithets עד ad , and עולם olam , eternal, and everlasting, are applied to mountains and immense rocks, because no other parts of nature are less subject to decay or change, than these immense masses of earth and stone, and that almost indestructible stone, granite, out of which Sinai appears to be formed. A piece of the beautiful granite of this mountain now lies before me. This is a figurative description of the passage of the Israelites through the deserts of Arabia, over mountains, rocks, and through the trackless wilderness; over and through which God, by his power and providence, gave them a safe passage

The following beautiful piece from the Fragments of Aeschylus will illustrate the preceding description, and please the learned reader

Χωριζε θνητων τον Θεον, και μη δοκει

Ομοιον αυτῳ σαρκινον καθεσταναι·

Ουκ οισθα δ αυτον· ποτε μεν ὡς πυρ φαινεται

Απλαστον ὁρμῃ ποτε δ ὑδωρ, ποτε δε γνοφος.

Και θηρσιν αυτος γινεται παρεμφερης,

Ανεμῳ, νεφει τε, κᾳστραπῃ, βροντῃ, βροχῃ.

Ὑπηρετει δ αυτῳ θαλασσα, και πετραι,

Και πασα πηγη, χ ὑδατος συστηματα·

Τρεμει δ ορη και γαια και πελωριος

Βυθος θαλασσης, κωρεων ὑψος μεγα,

Οταν επιβλεψῃ γοργον ομμα δεσποτου.

Aeschyli Fragm

Confound not God with man; nor madly dee

His form is mortal, and of flesh like thine

Thou know’ st him not. Sometimes like fire he glow

In wrath severe; sometimes as water flows

In brooding darkness now his power conceal

And then in brutes that mighty power reveals

In clouds tempestuous we the Godhead find

He mounts the storm, and rides the winged wind

In vivid lightnings flashes from on high

In rattling thunders rends the lowering sky

Fountains and rivers, seas and floods obey

And ocean’ s deep abyss yields to his sway

The mountains tremble, and the hills sink down

Crumbled to dust by the Almighty’ s frown

When God unfolds the terrors of his eye

All things with horror quake, and in confusion lie

J. B. B. Clarke.

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Clarke: Hab 3:7 - I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction - Cush is Arabia. The Arabians dwelt in tents, hence they were called Scenitae. When the Lord appeared on Mo...

I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction - Cush is Arabia. The Arabians dwelt in tents, hence they were called Scenitae. When the Lord appeared on Mount Sinai, the Arabs of the Red Sea abandoned their tents, being terror-struck; and the Midianites also were seized with fear. See the desolation wrought among this people by Phinehas, Num 31:1, etc., on account of their having enticed the Israelites to idolatry, Num 25:1, etc. Either Cush and Midian lay contiguous to each other; or, these names are poetically used to express the same place.

Clarke: Hab 3:8 - Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? - Floods; here is a reference to the passage of the Red Sea. The Lord is represented as heading his troo...

Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? - Floods; here is a reference to the passage of the Red Sea. The Lord is represented as heading his troops, riding in his chariot, and commanding the sea to divide, that a free passage might be left for his army to pass over.

Clarke: Hab 3:9 - Thy bow was made quite naked Thy bow was made quite naked - That is, it was drawn out of its case; as the arrows had their quiver, so the bows had their cases. A fine oriental b...

Thy bow was made quite naked - That is, it was drawn out of its case; as the arrows had their quiver, so the bows had their cases. A fine oriental bow and bow-case, with quiver and arrows, are now before me; they show with what propriety Jehovah is represented as taking his bow out of its case, in order to set his arrow upon the cord, to shoot at his enemies. It is not the drawing out, or making bare the arrow, that is mentioned here; but the taking the bow out of its case to prepare to shoot

This verse appears to be an answer to the questions in the preceding: "Was the Lord displeased,"etc. The answer is, All this was done "according to the oaths of the tribes;"the covenant of God, frequently repeated and renewed, which he made with the tribes, to give them the land of the Canaanites for their inheritance

Clarke: Hab 3:9 - Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers - Or, "Thou didst cleave the streams of the land."Or, "Thou cleavedst the dry land into rivers."This may be ...

Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers - Or, "Thou didst cleave the streams of the land."Or, "Thou cleavedst the dry land into rivers."This may be a reference to the passage of Jordan, and transactions at Arnon and the brook Jabbok. See Num 21:13-15

In this verse we have Selah again, which, as before, may signify a pause, or some alteration in the music.

Clarke: Hab 3:10 - The mountains saw thee The mountains saw thee - This is the continued answer to the questions in Hab 3:8. These are figures highly poetic, to show with what ease God accom...

The mountains saw thee - This is the continued answer to the questions in Hab 3:8. These are figures highly poetic, to show with what ease God accomplished the most arduous tasks in behalf of his people. As soon as the mountains saw him, they trembled, they were in pangs. When he appeared, the sea fled to right and left, to give him a passage. "It uttered its voice."The separation of the waters occasioned a terrible noise. "And it lifted up its hands on high."Its waters, being separated, stood in heaps on the right hand and left. These heaps or waves are poetically represented here as the hands of the sea.

Clarke: Hab 3:11 - The sun and moon stood still The sun and moon stood still - This was at the prayer of Joshua, when he fought against the Amorites. See Jos 10:11-12 (note), and the notes there

The sun and moon stood still - This was at the prayer of Joshua, when he fought against the Amorites. See Jos 10:11-12 (note), and the notes there

Clarke: Hab 3:11 - At the light of thine arrows they went At the light of thine arrows they went - I think we should translate: - By their light, thine arrows went abroad; By their brightness, the lightning...

At the light of thine arrows they went - I think we should translate: -

By their light, thine arrows went abroad; By their brightness, the lightning of thy spear

Calvin very justly remarks that the arrows and spears of the Israelites are called those of God, under whose auspices the people fought: the meaning is, that by the continuation of the light of the sun and moon, then stayed in their course, the Israelites saw how to continue the battle, till their enemies were all defeated.

Clarke: Hab 3:12 - Thou didst march through the land Thou didst march through the land - This refers to the conquest of Canaan. God is represented as going at the head of his people as general-in-chief...

Thou didst march through the land - This refers to the conquest of Canaan. God is represented as going at the head of his people as general-in-chief; and leading them on from conquest to conquest - which was the fact

Clarke: Hab 3:12 - Thou didst thresh the heathen in anger Thou didst thresh the heathen in anger - Thou didst tread them down, as the oxen do the sheaves on the threshing-floor.

Thou didst thresh the heathen in anger - Thou didst tread them down, as the oxen do the sheaves on the threshing-floor.

Clarke: Hab 3:13 - Thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people Thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people - Their deliverance would not have been effected but through thy interference

Thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people - Their deliverance would not have been effected but through thy interference

Clarke: Hab 3:13 - For salvation with thine anointed For salvation with thine anointed - That is, with Joshua, whom God had anointed, or solemnly appointed to fill the place of Moses, and lead the peop...

For salvation with thine anointed - That is, with Joshua, whom God had anointed, or solemnly appointed to fill the place of Moses, and lead the people into the promised land. If we read, with the common text, משיחך meshichecha , "thy anointed,"the singular number, Joshua is undoubtedly meant, who was God’ s instrument to put the people in possession of Canaan: but if, with several MSS. and some copies of the Septuagint, we read משיחיך meshicheycha , "thy anointed ones,"the Israelites must be intended. They are frequently called God’ s anointed, or God’ s saints. The sense is very far-fetched when applied to Jesus Christ

Clarke: Hab 3:13 - Thou woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked Thou woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked - This alludes to the slaying of the first-born through all the land of Egypt. These were the...

Thou woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked - This alludes to the slaying of the first-born through all the land of Egypt. These were the heads of the houses or families

Clarke: Hab 3:13 - By discovering the foundation unto the neck By discovering the foundation unto the neck - The general meaning of this clause is sufficiently plain: the government of these lands should be utte...

By discovering the foundation unto the neck - The general meaning of this clause is sufficiently plain: the government of these lands should be utterly subverted; the very foundations of it should be razed. But what means unto the neck, עד צואר ad tsavvar ? Several critics read עד צור ad tsar , "Unto the Rock,"that on which the house is founded: and this very intelligible reading is obtained by the omission of a single letter, א aleph , from the word צוער, This conjecture has been adopted by Newcome, though unsupported either by MS. or version. But is the conjecture necessary? I think not: read the verse as it ought to be read, and all will be plain. "Thou hast wounded the head even unto the neck, in the house of the wicked, by laying bare the foundation."The whole head, neck, and all are cut off. There was no hope left to the Egyptians, because the first-born of every family was cut off, so that the very foundation was laid bare, no first-born being left to continue the heirship of families.

Clarke: Hab 3:14 - Thou didst strike through Thou didst strike through - The Hebrew will bear this sense: "Thou hast pierced amidst their tribes the head of their troops,"referring to Pharaoh a...

Thou didst strike through - The Hebrew will bear this sense: "Thou hast pierced amidst their tribes the head of their troops,"referring to Pharaoh and his generals, who came like a whirlwind to fall upon the poor Israelites, when they appeared to be hemmed in by sea, and no place for their escape. If we follow the common reading, it seems to intimate that the troops of Pharaoh, in their confusion (for God shone out upon them from the cloud) fell foul of each other; and with their staves, or weapons, slew one another: but the head of the villages or towns, i.e., Pharaoh was drowned with his army in the Red Sea.

Clarke: Hab 3:15 - Thou didst walk through the sea Thou didst walk through the sea - There was no occasion to hurry across; all was safe, for God had divided the waters: and his terrible cloud had re...

Thou didst walk through the sea - There was no occasion to hurry across; all was safe, for God had divided the waters: and his terrible cloud had removed from before, and stood behind them, so that it was between them and the Egyptians. See Exo 14:19, Exo 14:20.

Clarke: Hab 3:16 - When I heard, my belly trembled When I heard, my belly trembled - The prophet, having finished his account of the wonders done by Jehovah, in bringing their fathers from Egypt into...

When I heard, my belly trembled - The prophet, having finished his account of the wonders done by Jehovah, in bringing their fathers from Egypt into the promised land, now returns to the desolate state of his countrymen, who are shortly to be led into captivity, and suffer the most grievous afflictions; and although he had a sure word of prophecy that they should be ultimately delivered, yet the thoughts of the evils they must previously endure filled his soul with terror and dismay; so that he wishes to be removed from earth before this tribulation should come, that his eyes might not behold the desolations of his country

When he (Nebuchadnezzar) cometh up unto the people, (the Jews), he will invade them (overpower and carry them away captive) with his troops.

Clarke: Hab 3:17 - Although the fig tree shall not blossom Although the fig tree shall not blossom - תפרח tiphrach , "shall not flourish,"shall not put forth its young figs, for the fig tree does not bl...

Although the fig tree shall not blossom - תפרח tiphrach , "shall not flourish,"shall not put forth its young figs, for the fig tree does not blossom. The young figs appear as soon as the old ones are ripe, as I have often had occasion to observe

This verse most nervously paints the desolate state of the land of Judea during the captivity. In its hemistich form, it may be translated thus: -

For the fig tree shall not flourish

And there shall be no fruit on the vines

The fruit of the olive shall fail

And the fields shall supply no food

The flocks shall be cut off from the fold

And no herds shall be found in the stalls

Yet in Jehovah will I exult

I will joy in the God of my salvation

The Vulgate has: -

Yet I in the Lord will rejoice

And will exult in Jesus my God

The Targum countenances this version: -

ואנא במימרא דיי אבוע veana bemeimra dayai abua , "But in the Word of the Lord will I rejoice,"i.e., the personal, substantial Word of Jehovah

These two verses give the finest display of resignation and confidence that I have ever met with. He saw that evil was at hand, and unavoidable, he submitted to the dispensation of God, whose Spirit enabled him to paint it in all its calamitous circumstances. He knew that God was merciful and gracious. He trusted to his promise, though all appearances were against its fulfillment; for he knew that the word of Jehovah could not fail, and therefore his confidence is unshaken

No paraphrase can add any thing to this hymn, which is full of inexpressible dignity and elegance, leaving even its unparalleled piety out of the question.

Clarke: Hab 3:19 - The Lord God is my strength The Lord God is my strength - This is an imitation, if not a quotation, from Psa 18:32-33 (note), where see the notes

The Lord God is my strength - This is an imitation, if not a quotation, from Psa 18:32-33 (note), where see the notes

Clarke: Hab 3:19 - Will make me to walk upon mine high places Will make me to walk upon mine high places - This last verse is spoken in the person of the people, who seem to anticipate their restoration; and th...

Will make me to walk upon mine high places - This last verse is spoken in the person of the people, who seem to anticipate their restoration; and that they shall once more rejoice in the hills and mountains of Judea

Clarke: Hab 3:19 - To the chief singer on my stringed instruments To the chief singer on my stringed instruments - This line, which is evidently a superscription, leads me to suppose that when the prophet had compl...

To the chief singer on my stringed instruments - This line, which is evidently a superscription, leads me to suppose that when the prophet had completed his short ode, he folded it up, with the above direction to the master singer, or leader of the choir, to be sung in the temple service. Many of the Psalms are directed in the same way. "To the master singer;"or, "chief musician;"to be sung, according to their nature, on different kinds of instruments, or with particular airs or tunes

Neginoth , נגינות which we translate stringed instruments, means such as were struck with a plectrum, or excited by some kind of friction or pulsation; as violins and cymbals or tambourines are. I do not think that the line makes any part of the prophecy, but merely the superscription or direction of the work when it was finished. The ending will appear much more dignified, this line being separated from it

Calvin: Hab 3:1 - NO PHRASE There is no doubt but that the Prophet dictated this form of prayer for his people, before they were led into exile, that they might always exercise ...

There is no doubt but that the Prophet dictated this form of prayer for his people, before they were led into exile, that they might always exercise themselves in the study of religion. We indeed know that God cannot be rightly and from the heart worshipped but in faith. Hence, in order to confine the dispersed Israelites within due limits, so that they might not fall away from true religion, the Prophet here sets before them the materials of faith, and stimulates them to prayer: and we know, that our faith cannot be supported in a better way than by the exercise of prayer.

Let us then bear in mind, that the way of fostering true religion, prescribed here to the miserable Israelites while dispersed in their exile, was to look up to God daily, that they might strengthen their faith; for they could not have otherwise continued in their obedience to God. They would, indeed, have wholly fallen away into the superstitions of the Gentiles, had not the memory of the covenant, which the Lord had made with them, remained firm in their hearts: and we shall presently see that the Prophet lays much stress upon this circumstance.

He calls it his own prayer, 48 not because he used it himself privately, or composed it for himself, but that the prayer might have some authority among the people; for they knew that a form of prayer dictated for them by the mouth of a Prophet, was the same as though the Spirit itself was to show them how they were to pray to God. The name, then, of Habakkuk is added to it, not because he used it himself, but that the people might be more encouraged to pray, when they knew that the Holy Spirit, through the Prophet, had become their guide and teacher.

There is some difficulty connected with the word שגינות , sheginut. The verb שגג , shegag, or שגה , shege, means, to act inconsiderately; and from שגה , shege, is derived שגיון , shegiun. Many render it, ignorance; some, delight. Some think it to be the beginning of a song; others suppose it to be a common melody; and others, a musical instrument. Thus interpreters differ. In the seventh Psalm David, no doubt, calls either a song or some musical instrument by the word שגיון , shegiun. Yet some think that David bears testimony there to his own innocency; and that, as he was not conscious of having done wrong, his own innocency is alone signified by the title: but this is a strained view. The word is taken in this place, almost by common consent, for ignorances: and we know that the Hebrews denominate by ignorances all errors or falls which are not grievous, and such things as happen through inadvertence; and by this word they do not extenuate their faults, but acknowledge themselves to be inconsiderate when they offend. Then שגיון , shegiun, is no excusable ignorance, which men lay hold on as a pretext; but an error of folly and presumptions, when men are not sufficiently attentive to the word of God. But perhaps the word שגינות , sheginut, being here in the plural number, ought to be taken for musical instruments. Yet as I would not willingly depart from a received opinion, and as there is no necessity in this case to constrain us to depart from it, let us follow what had been already said,—that the Prophet dictates here for his people a form of prayer for ignorances, that is, that they could not otherwise hope for God’s forgiveness than by seeking his favor. 49 And how can we be reconciled to God, except by his not imputing to us our sins?

But the Prophet, by asking for the pardons of ignorances, does not omit more grievous sins; but intimates that though their conscience does not reprove men, they are yet not on that account innocent and without guilt; for they often inconsiderately fall, and their faults are not to be excused for inadvertence. It is, then, the same thing as though the Prophet reminded his own people, that there was no remedy for them in adversity but by fleeing to God, and fleeing as suppliants, in order to solicit his forgiveness; and that they were not only to acknowledge their more grievous sins, but also to confess that they were in many respects guilty; for they might have fallen through error a thousand times, as we are inconsiderate almost through the whole course of our life. We now, then, perceive what this word means, and why the Prophet spoke rather of ignorances than of other sins. But I shall not proceed farther now, as there is some other business.

Calvin: Hab 3:2 - NO PHRASE The Prophet says here, in the name of the whole people, that he was terrified by the voice of God, for so I understand the word, though in many place...

The Prophet says here, in the name of the whole people, that he was terrified by the voice of God, for so I understand the word, though in many places it means report, as some also explain it in this place. But as the preaching of the Gospel is called in Isa 53:1, שמעה , shemoe, report, it seems to me more suitable to the present passage to render it the voice of God; for the general sentiment, that the faithful were terrified at the report of God, would be frigid. It ought rather to be applied to the Prophecies which have been already explained: and doubtless Habakkuk did not intend here to speak only in general of God’s power; but, as we have seen in the last lecture, he humbly confesses the sins of the people, and then prays for forgiveness. It is then not to be doubted but that he says here, that he was terrified by the voice of God, that is, when he heard him threatening punishment so grievous. He then adds, Revive thy work in the middle of the years, and make it known. At last, by way of anticipation, he subjoins, that God would remember his mercy, though justly offended by the sins of the people.

But by saying, that he feared the voice of God, he makes a confession, or gives an evidence of repentance; for we cannot from the heart seek pardon, unless we be first made humble. When a sinner is not displeased with himself, and confesses not his guilt, he is not deserving of mercy. We then see why the Prophet speaks here of fear; and that is, that he might thus obtain for himself and for others the favor of God; for as soon as a sinner willingly condemns himself, and does not do this formally, but seriously from the heart, he is already reconciled to God; for God bids us in this way to anticipate his judgement. This is one thing. But if it be asked, for what purpose the Prophet heard God’s voice; the obvious answer is,—that as it is not the private prayer of one person, but of the whole Church, he prescribes here to the faithful the way by which they were to obtain favor from God, and turn him to mercy; and that is, by dreading his threatening and by acknowledging that whatever God threatened by his Prophets was near at hand.

Then follows the second clause, Jehovah! in the middle of the years revive thy work. By the work of God he means the condition of his people or of the Church. For though God is the creator of heaven and earth, he would yet have his own Church to be acknowledged to be, as it were, his peculiar workmanship, and a special monument of his power, wisdom, justice, and goodness. Hence, by way of eminence, he calls here the condition of the elect people the work of God; for the seed of Abraham was not only a part of the human race, but was the holy and peculiar possession of God. Since, then, the Israelites were set apart by the Lord, they are rightly called his work; as we read in another place,

“The work of thine hands thou wilt not despise,”
Psa 138:8.

And God often says, “This is my planting,” “This is the work of my hands,” when he speaks of his Church.

By the middle of the years, he means the middle course, as it were, of the people’s life. For from the time when God chose the race of Abraham to the coming of Christ, was the whole course, as it were, of their life, when we compare the people to a man; for the fullness of their age was at the coming of Christ. If, then, that people had been destroyed, it would have been the same as though death were to snatch away a person in the flower of his age. Hence the Prophet prays God not to take away the life of his people in the middle of their course; for Christ having not come, the people had not attained maturity, nor arrived at manhood. In the middle, then, of the years thy work revive; that is, “Though we seem destined to death, yet restore us.” Make it known, he says, in the middle of the years; that is, “Show it to be in reality thy work.” 51

We now apprehend the real meaning of the Prophet. After having confessed that the Israelites justly trembled at God’s voice, as they saw themselves deservedly given up to perdition, he then appeals to the mercy of God, and prays God to revive his own work. He brings forward here nothing but the favor of adoption: thus he confesses that there was no reason why God should forgive his people, except that he had been pleased freely to adopt them, and to choose them as his peculiar people; for on this account it is that God is wont to show his favor towards us even to the last. as, then, this people had been once chosen by God, the Prophet records this adoption and prays God to continue and fulfill to the end what he had begun. With regard to the half course of life, the comparison ought to be observed; for we see that the race of Abraham was not chosen for a short time, but until Christ the Redeemer was manifested. Now we have this in common with the ancient people, that God adopts us, that he may at length bring us into the inheritance of eternal life. Until, then, the work of our salvation is completed, we are, as it were, running our course. We may therefore adopt this form of prayer, which is prescribed for us by the Holy Spirit,—that God would not forsake his own work; in the middle of our course.

What he now subjoins— in wrath remember mercy, is intended to anticipate an objection; for this thought might have occurred to the faithful—“there is no ground for us to hope pardon from God, whom we have so grievously provoked, nor is there any reason for us to rely any more on the covenant which we have so perfidiously violated.” The Prophet meets this objection, and he flees to the gracious favor of God, however much he perceived that the people would have to suffer the just punishment of their sins, such as they deserved. He then confesses that God was justly angry with his people, and yet that the hope of salvation was not on that account closed up, for the Lord had promised to be propitious. Since God then is not inexorable towards his people—nay, while he chastises them he ceases not to be a father; hence the Prophet connects here the mercy of God with his wrath.

We have elsewhere said that the word wrath is not to be taken according to its strict sense, when the faithful or the elect are spoken of; for God does not chastise them because he hates them; nay, on the contrary, he thereby manifests the care he has for their salvations. Hence the scourges by which God chastises his children are testimonies of his love. But the Scripture represents the judgement with which God visits his people as wrath, not towards their persons but towards their sins. Though then God shows love to his chosen, yet he testifies when he punishes their sins that iniquity is hated by him. When God then comes forth as it were as a judge, and shows that sins displease him, he is said to be angry with the faithful; and there is also in this a reference to the perceptions of men; for we cannot, when God chastises us, do otherwise than feel the accusations of our own conscience. Hence then is this hatred; for when our conscience condemns us we must necessarily acknowledge God to be angry with us, that is with respect to us. When therefore we provoke God’s wrath by our sins we feel him to be angry with us; but yet the Prophet collects together things which seem wholly contrary—even that God would remember mercy in wrath; that is, that he would show himself displeased with them in such a way as to afford to the faithful at the same time some taste of his favor and mercy by finding him to be propitious to them.

We now then perceive how the Prophet had joined the last clause to the foregoing. Whenever, then, the judgement of the flesh would lead us to despair, let us ever set up against it this truth—that God is in such a way angry that he never forgets his mercy—that is, in his dealings with his elect. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:3 - NO PHRASE This verse interpreters explain in two ways. Some construe the verb in the future tense in the past time—“God went forth from Teman, and the holy...

This verse interpreters explain in two ways. Some construe the verb in the future tense in the past time—“God went forth from Teman, and the holy one from mount Paran”; for a verb in the past tense follows. But others consider it to be in the optative mood—“May God come, or go forth, from Teman, and the holy one from mount Paran;” as though the Prophet prayed God to come as the defender of his people from mount Sinai, where the law was promulgated and the covenant ratified, which God had formerly made with Abraham and his posterity. I rather subscribe to their opinion who think that the manifestation of God, by which he had testified that he was the guardian of that people, is repeated by the Prophet. As, then, God had so made known his glory on mount Sinai, that it was evident that that nation was under his protection, so the Prophet, with the view of strengthening himself and others, records what was well known among the whole people—that is, that the law was given on mount Sinai, which was a testimony of singular favor; for God then by a new pledge testified, that the covenant formerly made with Abraham was firm and inviolable. The reason why Habakkuk does not mention mount Sinai, but Teman and Paran, seems to some to be this—because these mountains were nearer the Holy Land, though this view, I fear, will appear too refined; I therefore take this simple view—that instead of mentioning mount Sinai, he paraphrastically designates it by mount Paran and the desert of Teman. Some suppose these to be two mountains; but I know not whether Teman ought to be understood only as a mountain; it seems on the contrary to have been some large tract of country. It was a common thing among the Jews to add this name when they spoke of the south, as many nations were wont to give to winds the names of some neighboring places; so when the Jews wished to designate a wind from Africa, they called it Teman. “It is a Teman wind;” and so when they spoke of the south, they said Teman.

However this may be, it is certain that the desert of Teman was nigh to Sinai, and also that mount Paran was connected with that desert. As then they were places towards the south, and nigh to mount Sinai, where the law had been proclaimed, the Prophet records here, in order to strengthen the faith of the whole people, that God had not in vain gone forth once from Teman, and there appeared in his celestial power; for God then openly showed, that he took under his guardianship the children of Abraham, and that the covenant which he had formerly made with him was not vain or of no effect. Since, then, God had testified this in so remarkable and wonderful a manner, the Prophet brings forward here that history which tended especially to confirm the faith of the godly—God went forth once from Teman, and the holy one from mount Paran.

For it was not God’s will that the memory of that manifestation should be obliterated; but he had once appeared with glory so magnificent, that the people might feel assured that they would ever be safe, for they were protected by God’s hand, and that full of power, as the fathers had once known by manifest and visible evidences; and hence the Prophet represents God’s going forth from mount Paran as a continued act, as though he rendered himself visible chiefly from that place. Nor is this representation new; for we see, in many other places, a living picture, as it were, set before the eyes of the faithful, in order to strengthen them in their adversity, and to make them assured that they shall be safe through God’s presence. The Lord, indeed, did not daily fulminate from heaven, nor were there such visible indications of his presence as on mount Sinai; but it behaved the people to feel assured that he was the same God who had given to their fathers such clear evidence of his power, and that he is also at this time, and to the end of the world, endued with the same power, though it be not rendered visible.

We now then apprehend the design of the Prophet: God then came from Teman, and the holy one from mount Paran. We must also observe, that the minds of the godly were recalled to the spectacle on mount Sinai, when they were drawn away into exile, or when they were in the power of their enemies. They might indeed have then supposed, that they were wholly forsaken. Obliterated then must have been the memory of that history, had not this remedy been introduced. It is, therefore, the same as though the Prophet had said—“Though God now hides his power, and gives no evidence of his favor, yet think not that he formerly appeared in vain to your fathers as one clothed with so great a power, when the law was proclaimed on mount Sinai. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:4 - NO PHRASE He confirms the declaration which I have explained that God, when he intended his presence to be made known to his people, gave evidences of his wond...

He confirms the declaration which I have explained that God, when he intended his presence to be made known to his people, gave evidences of his wonderful power, capable of awakening the minds of all. He then says, that the brightness was like light. By the word אור , aur, is doubtless meant the light, which diffuses itself through the whole world, and proceeds from the sun. Then he says, that the brightness which appeared on mount Sinai was equal to the light of the sun, capable of filling the whole world. He adds, that horns were to him from the hand. Some render it, splendor; but קרן , coren, properly means a horn, and קרנים , corenium, is here in the dual number: it is therefore more probable, that the Prophet ascribes horns to God, carried in both hands; and it more corresponds with what immediately follows, that “there was the hiding of his strength,” or that “there was his power hidden.” They who render the word, splendours, think that what had been said is repeated, that is, that the brightness was like light; but they are mistaken, for we may collect from the verse that two different things are expressed by the Prophet: he first speaks of the visible form of God; and then he adds his power, designating it metaphorically by horns, which is common in Scripture. Indeed this mode of speaking occurs often. He then says, that God came armed with power, when he gave the law to his people; for he bore horns in his hands, where his strength was hid. 53

As to the word hiding, some indeed give this refined view, that God then put forth his strength, which was before hidden. But this is a very strained explanation. To me it seems evident, that the Prophet in the first place says, that God’s glory was conspicuous, capable of irradiating the whole world like the light of the sun; and he then adds, that this splendor was connected with power, for God carried horns in both his hands, where his strength was laid: and he says, that it was hid, because God did not intend to make known his power indiscriminately throughout the world, but peculiarly to his own people; as it is also said in Psa 31:20, that

“the greatness of his goodness is laid up for the faithful alone,
who fear and reverence him.”

As then it is said, that the goodness of God is laid up for the faithful, for they enjoy it as children and members of the household; so also the power of God is said to be laid up, because he testifies that he is armed with power to defend his Church, that he may render safe the children of Abraham, whom he has taken under his protection. It afterwards follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:5 - NO PHRASE The Prophet repeats here, that God came armed to defend his people, when he went forth from Teman; for he connects with it here the deliverance of th...

The Prophet repeats here, that God came armed to defend his people, when he went forth from Teman; for he connects with it here the deliverance of the people. He does not indeed speak only of the promulgation of the law, but encourages all the godly to confidence; for God, who had once redeemed their fathers from Egypt, remained ever like himself, and was endued with the same power.

And he says, that before God’s face walked the pestilence; this is to be referred to the Egyptians; and that ignited coal proceeded from his feet. Some render רשף , reshoph, exile; but its etymology requires it to be rendered burning or ignited coal, and there is no necessity to give it another meaning. 54

The import of the whole is—that God had put to flight all the enemies of his people; for we know that the Egyptians were smitten with various plagues, and that the army of Pharaoh was drowned in the Red Sea. Hence, the Prophet says, that God had so appeared from Teman, that the pestilence went before him, and then the ignited coal; in short, that the pestilence and ignited coal were God’s officers, which were ready to perform his commands: as when a king or a judge, having attendants, commands them to put this man in prison, and to punish another in a different way; so the Prophet, giving us a representation of God, says, that all kinds of evils were ready to obey his orders, and to destroy his and their enemies. He does not then intend here to terrify the faithful in mentioning the pestilence and the ignited coal; but, on the contrary, to set before their eyes evidences of God’s power, by which he could deliver them from the hand of their enemies, as he had formerly delivered their fathers from Egypt. By God’s feet, he then means his going forth or his presence; for I do not approve of what some have said, that ignited coals followed, when pestilence had preceded; for both clauses are given in the same way. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:6 - NO PHRASE He says that God possessed every power to subdue the earth to himself, and that he could at his will destroy it, yea, dissolve mountains as veil as n...

He says that God possessed every power to subdue the earth to himself, and that he could at his will destroy it, yea, dissolve mountains as veil as nations. Some of the Jews understood this of the ark, which stood at that time in Gilead. They then suppose that the Prophet meant this in short—that when God chose a place for the ark of the covenant in Gilgal, that he determined then what he would do, and that he then in his secret counsel divided the land, so that each should have his portion by lot. This, it is true, was accomplished shortly after, for Joshua, as we know, divided it by lot between the tribes. But what the Jews affirm of the ark seems to me strained and frigid. Habakkuk, on the contrary, means by the word stand, that God was openly conspicuous, like him who assumes an erect posture, so that he is seen at a distance. In this sense we are to take the expression that God stood.

The measuring, of the earth is not to be confined to Judea, but is to be extended to the whole world. God, he says, has measured the earth. To measure the earth is what properly belongs to a sovereign king; and it is done that he may assign to each his portion. Except God, then, had a sovereign right over the earth and the whole world, Habakkuk would not have ascribed to him this office; and this we learn from the verse itself, for he immediately subjoins, that the nations, as it were, melted away, that the mountains were destroyed, that the hills were bowed down

We hence see that by earth we are not to understand Judea only, but the whole world; as though he had said, that when God appeared on mount Sinai, he made it fully evident that the earth was under his power and authority, so that he could determine whatever he pleased, and prescribe limits to all nations. For he does not speak of God here as having, like a surveyor, a measuring line; but he says, that he measured the earth as one capable even then of changing the boundaries of the whole world; nay, he intimates that it was he himself who had at first created the earth and assigned it to men. It is indeed true that the nations did not then melt away, nor were the mountains demolished, nor the hills bowed down; but the Prophet simply means, that God’s power then appeared, which was capable of shaking the whole world.

But he calls these the mountains of eternity and the hills ages, which had been from the beginning fixed on their own foundations. For if an earthquake happens on a plain, it seems less wonderful; and then if any of those mountains cleave, which are not so firmly fixed, it may be on account of some hollow places; for when the winds fill the caverns, they are forced to burst, and they cleave the mountains and the earth. But the Prophet relates an unusual thing, and wholly different from the ordinary course of nature—that the mountains of eternity, which had been from the beginning, and had remained without any change, were thus demolished and bowed down. In short, the Prophet intended by all means to raise up to confidence the minds of the godly, so that they should become fully persuaded that God’s power to deliver them would be the same as that which their fathers had formerly experienced; for there is no other support under adverse, and especially under despairing circumstances, than that the faithful should know that they are still under the protection of that God who has adopted them. This is the reason why the Prophet amplifies, in so striking a manner, on the subject of God’s power.

And hence also he subjoins, that the ways of ages are those of God. Some render the clause, “the ways of the world.” The word עולם , oulam, however, means properly an age, or perpetual time. The Prophet, I have no doubt, means by ways of ages, the wonderful means which God is wont to adopt for the defense of his Church; for we are ever wont to reduce God’s wonder to our own understanding, while it is his purpose to perfect, in a manner that is wonderful, the work of our salvation. Hence the Prophet bids the faithful here to raise upwards their thoughts, and to conceive something greater of God’s power than what they can naturally comprehend. If we take the ways of eternity, in this sense, then they are to be understood as in opposition to those means which are known and usual. They are his daily ways, when the sun rises and sets, when the spring succeeds the winter, when the earth produces fruit; though even these are so many miracles, yet they are his common ways. But God has ways of eternity that is he has means unknown to us by which he can deliver us from death, whenever it may please him.

But yet, if any prefer taking the ways of eternity as signifying the continued power of God, which has ever appeared from the beginning, the sense would be appropriate and not less useful: for it especially avails to confirm our faith, when we consider that God’s power has ever been the same from the creation of heaven and earth, that it has never been lessened or undergone any change. Since, then, God has successively manifested his power through all ages, we ought hence to learn that we have no reason to despair, though he may for a time conceal his hand; for he is not on that account deprived of his right. He ever retains the sovereignty of the world. We ought, then, to be attentive to the ways of ages, that is, to the demonstration of that power, which was manifested in the creation of the world, and still continues to be manifested. 55 It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:7 - NO PHRASE The Prophet relates here, no doubt, whatever might bring comfort to the miserable Jews, as they thought themselves rejected and in a manner alienated...

The Prophet relates here, no doubt, whatever might bring comfort to the miserable Jews, as they thought themselves rejected and in a manner alienated from God. Hence the Prophet mentions here other deliverances, which were clear evidences of God’s constant favor towards his chosen people. He had hitherto spoken of their redemption, and he will presently return to the same subject: but he introduces here other histories; as though he had said, that it was not only at one time that God had testified how much he loved the race of Abraham, and how inviolable was the covenant he had made; but that he had given the same testimonies at various times: for as he had also defended his people against other enemies, the conclusion was obvious, that God’s hand was thus made manifest, that the children of Abraham might know that they were not deceived, when they were adopted by him.

Hence Habakkuk mentions the tents of Cushan as another evidence of God’s power in preserving his people, and the curtains of Midian; for we know how wonderful was the work, when the Jews were delivered by the hand of Gideon; and the same was the case with respect to the king of Chosen.

We now, then, understand the design of the Prophet: for as he knew that the time was near when the Jews might succumb to despair in their great adversities, he reminds them of the evidences of God’s favor and power, which had been given to their fathers, that they might entertain firm hope in time to come, and be fully persuaded that God would be their deliverer, as he had been formerly to their fathers.

Calvin: Hab 3:8 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here applies the histories to which he has already referred, for the purpose of strengthening the hope of the faithful; so that they migh...

The Prophet here applies the histories to which he has already referred, for the purpose of strengthening the hope of the faithful; so that they might know these to be so many proofs and pledges of God’s favor towards them, and that they might thus cheerfully look for his aid, and not succumb to temptation in their adversities. When he asks, was God angry with the rivers and the sea, he no doubt intended in this way to awaken the thoughts of the faithful, that they might consider the design of God in the works which he had already mentioned; for it would have been unreasonable that God should show his wrath against rivers and the sea; why should he be angry with lifeless elements? The Prophet then shows that God had another end in view when he dried the sea, when he stopped the course of Jordan, and when he gave other evidences of his power. Doubtless God did not regard the sea and the rivers; for that would have been unreasonable. It then follows that these changes were testimonies of God’s favor towards his Church: and hence the Prophet subjoins, that God rode on his horses, and that his chariots were for salvation to his people. 57 We now perceive the Prophet’s meaning, which interpreters have not understood, or at least have not explained.

We now, then, see why the Prophet puts these questions: and a question has much more force when it refers to what is in no way doubtful. What! can God be angry with rivers? Who can imagine God to be so unreasonable as to disturb the sea and to change the nature of things, when a certain order has been established by his own command? Why should he dry the sea, except he had something in view, even the deliverance of his Church? except he intended to save his people from extreme danger, by stretching forth his hand to the Israelites, when they thought themselves utterly lost? He therefore denies, that when God dried the Red Sea, and when he stopped the flowing of Jordan, he had put forth his power against the sea or against the river, as though he was angry with them. The design of God, says the Prophet, was quite another; for God rode on his horses, that is, he intended to show that all the elements were under his command, and that for the salvation of his people. That God, then, might be the redeemer of his Church, he constrained Jordan to turn back its course, he constrained the Red Sea to make a passage for his miserable captives, who would have otherwise been exposed to the slaughter of their enemies. There was indeed no hope of saving Israel, without a passage being suddenly opened to them through the Red Sea.

Hence all these miracles were designed to show that God had become the redeemer of his Church, and had put forth his power for the salvation of those whom he had taken under his protection: and it is easy from this fact to conclude, that the same help ought to be expected from God by posterity; for God was not induced by some sudden impulse to change the nature of things, but exhibited a proof of his favor: and his grace is perpetual, and flows in an even course, though not according to the apprehension of men; for it suffers some interruptions, because God exercises the faithful under the cross; yet his goodness never ceases. It hence follows that the faithful are to entertain hope; for God, when he pleases, and when he sees it expedient, will really show the same power which was formerly exhibited to the fathers. It now follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:9 - NO PHRASE The Prophet explains the same thing more clearly in this verse—that the power of God was formerly manifested for no other reason but that the child...

The Prophet explains the same thing more clearly in this verse—that the power of God was formerly manifested for no other reason but that the children of Abraham might be taught to expect from him a continued deliverance: for he says that the bow of God was made bare. By the bow, he means also the sword and other weapons; as though he had said, that God was then armed, as we have found declared before. God therefore was then furnished with weapons, and marched to the battle, having undertaken the cause of his chosen people, that he might defend them against the wicked. Since it was so, we hence see that these miracles were not to avail only for one period, but were intended perpetually to encourage the faithful to look ever for the aid of God, even in the midst of death; for he can find escapes, though they may not appear to us.

We now see the import of the text; but he emphatically adds, The oaths of the tribes; for hereby he more fully confirms that God had not then assisted the children of Abraham, so as to discard them afterwards; but that he had really proved how true he was in his promises; for by the oaths of (or to) the tribes he means the covenant that God had made not only with Abraham, but also with his posterity for ever. He puts oaths in the plural number, because God had not only once promised to be a God to Abraham and to his seed, but had often repeated the same promise, in order that faith might be rendered more certain, inasmuch as we have need of more than one thing to confirm us. For we see how our infirmity always vacillates, unless God supplies us with many props. As, then, God had often confirmed his servant Abraham, the Prophet speaks here of his oaths: but then as to the substance, the oath of God is the same; which was, that he had taken the race of Abraham under his protection, and promised that they should be to him a peculiar people, and, especially, that he had united the people under one head; for except Christ had been introduced, that covenant of God would not have been ratified nor valid. As, then, God had once included every thing when he said to Abraham, “I am God Almighty, and I shall be a God to you and to your children;” it is certain that nothing was added when God afterwards confirmed the faith of Abraham: but yet the Prophet does not without reason use the plural number; it was done, that the faithful might recomb with less fear on God’s promise, seeing, that it had been so often and by so many words confirmed.

He calls them too the oaths to the tribes: for though God had spoken to Abraham and afterwards to Moses, yet the promise was deposited in the hands of Abraham, and of the patriarchs, and afterwards in those of Moses, that the people might understand that it belonged equally to them; for it would have been no great matter to promise what we read of to a few men only. But Abraham was as it were the depository; and it was a certain solemn stipulation made with his whole race. We hence see why the Prophet here mentions the tribes rather than Abraham, or the patriarchs or Moses. He had indeed a special regard to those of his own time, in order to confirm them, that they might not doubt but that God would extend to them also the same power. How so? Because God had formerly wrought in a wonderful manner for the deliverance of his people. Why? That he might prove himself to be true and faithful. In what respect? Because he had said, that he would be the protector of his people; and he did not adopt a few men only, but the whole race of Abraham. Since it was so, why should not his posterity hope for that which they knew was promised to their fathers? for the truth of God can never fail. Though many ages had passed away, the faith of his people ought to have remained certain, for God intended to show himself to be the same as he had been formerly known by their fathers.

He afterwards adds אמר , amer, which means a word or speech; but it is to be taken here for a fixed and an irrevocable word. The word, אמר , amer, he says; that is, as they say, the word and the deed: for when we say, that words are given, we often understand that those who liberally promise are false men, and that we are only trifled with and disappointed when we place confidence in them. But the term, word, is sometimes taken in a good sense. “This is the word,” we often say, when we intend to remove every doubt. We now then perceive what the Prophet meant by adding אמר , amer, the word. “O Lord, thou hast not given mere words to a people; but what has proceeded from thy mouth has been found to be true and valid. Such, therefore, is and faithfulness in thy promises, that we ought not to entertain the least doubt as to the event. As soon as thou givest to us any hope, we ought to feel assured of its accomplishment, as though it were not a word but the exhibition of the thing itself.” In short, by this term the Prophet commends the faithfulness of God, lest we should harbour doubts as to his promises. 58

He then says, that by rivers had been cleft the earth. He refers, I doubt not, to the history we read in Num 14:0; for the Lord, when the people were nearly dead through thirst, drew forth water from the rock, and caused a river to flow wherever the people journeyed. As then he had cleft the earth to make a perpetual course for the stream, and thus supplied the people in dry places with abundance of water, the Prophet says here, that the earth had been cleft by rivers or streams. It was indeed but one river; but he amplifies, and justly so, that remarkable work of God. He afterwards adds—

Calvin: Hab 3:10 - The stream Habakkuk proceeds with the history of the people’s redemption. We have said what his object was, even this that the people, though in an extreme st...

Habakkuk proceeds with the history of the people’s redemption. We have said what his object was, even this that the people, though in an extreme state of calamity, might yet entertain hope of God’s favor; for he became not a Redeemer to the race of Abraham for one time, but that he might continue the same favor to them to the end.

He says that mountains had seen and grieved. Some explain this allegorically of kings, and say, that they grieved when envy preyed on them: but this view is too strained. The Prophet, I have no doubt, means simply, that the mountains obeyed God, so as to open a way for his people. At the same time, the verb חול , chul, signifies not only to grieve, but also to bring forth, and then to fall and to abide in the same place. We might then with no less propriety read thus— see thee did the mountains, and were still, or fell down; that is, they were subservient to thy command, and did not intercept the way of thy people. I think the real meaning of the Prophet to be, that God had formerly imprinted on all the elements evident marks of his paternal favor, so that the posterity of Abraham might ever confide in him as their deliverer in all their distresses: and even the context requires this meaning; for he subjoins -

The stream or the inundation of waters, etc. : and this second part cannot be explained allegorically. We then see, that the import of the words is—That God removed all obstacles, so that neither mountains, nor waters, nor sea, nor rivers, intercepted the passage of the people. He says now, that the inundation of waters had passed away. This applies both to Jordan and to the Red Sea; for God separated the Red Sea, so that the waters stood apart, contrary to the laws of nature, and the same thing happened to Jordan; for the flowing of the water was stayed, and a way was opened, so that the people passed over dryshod into the land of Canaan. Thus took place what is said by the Prophet, the stream of waters passed away. We indeed know that such is the abundance of waters in the sea and in the rivers, that they cannot be dried up: when therefore waters disappear, it is what is beyond the course of nature. The Prophet, therefore, records this miracle, that the faithful might know, that though the whole world were resisting, their salvation would still be certain; for the Lord can surmount whatever impediments there may be.

He then ascribes life to waters; for he says, that the abyss gave its voice, and also, that the deep lifted up its hands; or that the abyss with uplifted hands was ready to obey God. It is a striking personification; for though the abyss is void of intelligence, and it cannot speak, yet the Prophet says, that the abyss with its voice and uplifted hands testified its obedience, when God would have his people to pass through to the promised land. When anxious to testify our obedience, we do this both with our voice and in our gesture. When any one is willing to do what is commanded, he says, “Here I am,” or “I promise to do this.” As, then, servants respond to others, so the Prophet says, that a voice was uttered by the abyss. The abyss indeed uttered no voice; but the event itself surpassed all voices. Now when a whole people meet together, they raise their hands; for their consent cannot be understood except by the outstretching of the hands, and hence came the word hand-extending, χειροτονια. This similitude the Prophet now takes, and says, that the abyss raised up its hands; that is, shows its consent by this gesture. As when men declare by this sign that they will do what they are bidden; so also the abyss lifted up its hands. If we read, The deep raised up its hands, the sense will be the same. 59 Let us proceed -

Calvin: Hab 3:11 - NO PHRASE Here the Prophet refers to another history; for we know that when Joshua fought, and when the day was not long enough to slay the enemies, the day wa...

Here the Prophet refers to another history; for we know that when Joshua fought, and when the day was not long enough to slay the enemies, the day was prolonged according to his prayer, (Jos 10:12.) He seems indeed to have authoritatively commanded the sun to stay its course: but there is no doubt, but that having been answered as to his prayer, when he expressed this, he commanded the sun, as he did, through the secret impulse of the Holy Spirit: and we know that the sun would not have stopped in its course, except the moon also was stayed. There must indeed have been the same action as to these two luminaries.

Hence Habakkuk says, that the sun and moon stood still in their habitation; that is, that the sun then rested as it were in its dwelling. When it was hastening in its course, it then stood still for the benefit of God’s people. The sun then and the moon stood, —How? At the light of thy arrows shall they walk. Some refer this to the pillar of fire, as though the Prophet had said, that the Israelites walked by that light, by which God guided them: but I doubt not but that this is said of the sun. The whole sentence is thus connected—that the sun and moon walked, not as from the beginning, but at the light of God’s arrows; that is, when instead of God’s command, which the sun had received from the beginning as its direction, the sun had God’s arrows, which guided it, retarded its course, or restrained the velocity which it had before. There is then an implied contrast between the progress of the sun which it had by nature to that day, and that new direction, when the sun was retained, that it might give place to the arrows of God, and to the sword and the spear; for by the arrows and the spear he means nothing else but the weapons of the elect people; for we know, that when that people fought under the protection of God, they were armed as it were from above. As then it is said of Gideon, “The sword of God and of Gideon;” so also in this place the Prophet calls whatever armor the people of Israel had, the arrows of God and his spear; for that people could not move—no, not a finger’s breadth—without the command of God. The sun then was wont before to regard the ordinary command, of which we read in Genesis; but it was then directed for another purpose: for it had regard to the arrows of God flying on the earth as lightning; and it had regard to the arrows, as though it stood astonished and dared not to advance. Why? because it behoved it to submit to God while he was carrying on war. 60 We now then perceive how much kindness is included in these words.

What, therefore, we have already referred to, ought to be borne in mind—that in this place there is no frigid narrative, but such things are brought before the faithful as avail to confirm their hope, that they may feel assured, that the power of God is sufficient for the purpose of delivering them; for it was for this end that he formerly wrought so many miracles. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:12 - NO PHRASE The Prophet relates here the entrance of the people into the land of Canaan, that the faithful might know that their fathers would not have obtained ...

The Prophet relates here the entrance of the people into the land of Canaan, that the faithful might know that their fathers would not have obtained so many victories had not God put forth the power and strength of his hand. Hence he says, that God himself had trampled on the land in anger. For how could the Israelites have dared to attack so many nations, who had lately come forth from so miserable a bondage? They had indeed been in the desert for forty years; but they were always trembling and fearful, and we also know that they were weak and feeble. How then was it, that they overcame most powerful kings? that they made war with nations accustomed to war? Doubtless God himself trod down the land in his wrath, and also threshed the nations: as it is said in Psa 44:5,

“It was not by their own sword that they got the land of Canaan; neither their own power, nor their own hand saved them; but the Lord showed favor to them, and became their Deliverer.”

Justly then does the Prophet ascribe this to God, that he himself walked over the land; for otherwise the Israelites would never have dared to move a foot. Doubtless, they could never have been settled in that land, had not God gone before them. Hence when God did tread on the land in his anger, then it became a quiet habitation to the children of Abraham; warlike nations were then easily and without much trouble conquered by the Israelites, though they were previously very weak.

We now see, that the Prophet sets forth here before the eyes of the people their entrance into the land, that they might know that God did not in vain put to flight so many nations at one time; but that the land of Canaan might be the perpetual inheritance of his chosen people.

The Prophet changes often the tenses of the verbs, inconsistently with the common usage of the Hebrew language; but it must be observed, that he so refers to those histories, as though God were continually carrying on his operations; and as though his presence was to be looked for in adversities, the same as what he had granted formerly to the fathers. Hence the change of tenses does not obscure the sense, but, on the contrary, shows to us the design of the Prophet, and helps us to understand the meaning. It follows at length -

Calvin: Hab 3:13 - Thou wentest forth The Prophet applies again to the present state of the people what he had before recorded—that God went forth with his Christ for the salvation of h...

The Prophet applies again to the present state of the people what he had before recorded—that God went forth with his Christ for the salvation of his people. Some consider that there is understood a particle of comparison, and repeat the verb twice, “As thou didst then go forth for the deliverance of thy people, so now wilt thou go forth for the deliverance of thy people with thy Christ.” But this repetition is strained. I therefore take the words of the Prophet simply as they are—that God went forth for the deliverance of his people. But when God’s people are spoken of, their gratuitous adoption must ever be remembered. How was it that the children of Abraham became the peculiar people of God? Did this proceed from any worthiness? Did it come to them naturally? None of these things can be alleged. Though then they differed in nothing from other nations, yet God was pleased to choose them to be a people to himself. By the title, the people of God, is therefore intimated their adoption. Now this adoption was not temporary or momentary, but was to continue to the end. Hence it was easy for the faithful to draw this conclusion—that they were to hope from God the same help as what he had formerly granted to the fathers.

Thou wentest forth, he says, for the salvation, for the salvation of thy people. He repeats the word salvation, and not without reason; for he wished to call attention to this point, as when he had said before—that God had not in vain manifested, by so many miracles, his power, as though he were angry with the sea and with rivers, but had respect to the preservation of his people. Since then the salvation of the Church has ever been the design of God in working miracles, why should the faithful be now cast down, when for a time they were oppressed by adversities? for God ever remains the same: and why should they despond, especially since that ancient deliverance, and also those many deliverances, of which he had hitherto spoken, are so many evidences of his everlasting covenant. These indeed ought to be connected with the word of God; that is, with that promise, according to which he had received the children of Abraham into favor for the purpose of protecting them to the end. “For salvation, for salvation,” says the Prophet, and that of his elect people.

He adds, with thy Christ. This clause still more confirms what Habakkuk had in view—that God had been from the beginning the deliverer of his people in the person of the Mediator. When God, therefore, delivered his people from the hand of Pharaoh, when he made a way for them to pass through the Red Sea, when he redeemed them by doing wonders, when he subdued before them the most powerful nations, when he changed the laws of nature in their behalf—all these things he did through the Mediator. For God could never have been propitious either to Abraham himself or to his posterity, had it not been for the intervention of a Mediator. Since then it has ever been the office of the Mediator to preserve in safety the Church of God, the Prophet takes it now for granted, that Christ was now manifested in much clearer light than formerly; for David was his lively image, as well as his successors. God then gave a living representation of his Christ when he erected a kingdom in the person of David; and he promised that this kingdom should endure as long as the sun and moon should shine in the heavens. Since, then, there were in the time of Habakkuk clearer prophecies than in past times respecting the eternity of this kingdom, ought not the people to have taken courage, and to have known of a certainty that God would be their Deliverer, when Christ should come? We now then apprehend the meaning of the Prophet. 61 But I cannot now go farther; I shall defer the subject until tomorrow.

Calvin: Hab 3:14 - NO PHRASE At the beginning of this verse the Prophet pursues the same subject—that God had wounded all the enemies of his people; and he says that the head o...

At the beginning of this verse the Prophet pursues the same subject—that God had wounded all the enemies of his people; and he says that the head of villages or towns had been wounded, though some think that פרזים , perezim, mean rather the inhabitants of towns; for the Hebrews call fortified towns or villages פרזות , perezut, and the word is commonly found in the feminine gender; but as it is here a masculine noun, it is thought that it means the inhabitants. At the same time this does not much affect the subject; for the Prophet simply means, that not only things had been overthrown by God’s hand, but also all the provinces under their authority; as though he had said that God’s vengeance, when his purpose was to defend his people, advanced through all the villages and through every region, so that not a corner was safe. 62 But we must also notice what follows— with his rods. The Prophet means that the wicked had been smitten by their own sword. Though the word rods is put here, it is yet to be taken for all kinds of instruments or weapons; it is the same as though it was said that they had been wounded by their own hands. 63

We now perceive the import of this clause—that God not only put forth his strength when he purposed to crush the enemies of his people, but that he had also smitten them with infatuation and madness, so that they destroyed themselves by their own hands. And this was done, as in the case of the Midianites, who, either by turning their swords against one another, fell by mutual wounds, or by slaying themselves, perished by their own hands. (Jud 7:2.) We indeed often read of the wicked that they ensnared themselves, fell into the pit which they had made, and, in short, perished through their own artifices; and the Prophet says here that the enemies of the Church had fallen, through God’s singular kindness, though no one rose up against them; for they had transfixed or wounded themselves by their own staff. Some read—“Thou hast cursed his sceptres and the head of his villages;” but the interpretation which I have given is much more appropriate.

He adds, that they came like a whirlwind. It is indeed a verb in the future tense; but the sentence must be thus rendered—“When they rushed as a whirlwind to cast me down, when their exultation was to devour the poor in their hiding-places.” It is indeed only a single verb, but it comes from סער , sor, which means a whirlwind, and we cannot render it otherwise than by a paraphrase. They rushed, he says, like a whirlwind. The Prophet here enlarges on the subject of God’s power, for he had checked the enemies of his people when they rushed on with so much impetuosity. Had their advance been slow God might have frustrated their attempts without a miracle, but as their own madness rendered them precipitate, and made them to be like a whirlwind, God’s power was more clearly known in restraining such violence. We now understand the import of what is here said; for the Prophet’s special object is not to complain of the violent and impetuous rage of enemies, but to exalt the power of God in checking the violent assaults of those enemies whom he saw raging against his people.

He subjoins, their exultation was to devour the poor. He intimates that there was nothing in the world capable of resisting the wicked, had not God brought miraculous help from heaven; for when they came to devour the poor, they came not to wage war, but to devour the prey like wild beasts. Then he says, to devour the poor in secret. He means, that the people of God had no strength to resist, except help beyond all hope came from heaven. 64

The import of the whole is—that when the miserable Israelites were without any protection, and exposed to the rage and cruelty of their enemies, they had been miraculously helped; for the Lord destroyed their enemies by their own swords; and that when they came, as it were to enjoy a victory, to take the prey, they were laid prostrate by the hand of God: hence his power shone forth more brightly. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:15 - NO PHRASE Some read, “Thou hast trodden thy horses in the sea;” but it is a solecism, that is quite evident. Others, “Thou hast trodden in the sea by thy...

Some read, “Thou hast trodden thy horses in the sea;” but it is a solecism, that is quite evident. Others, “Thou hast trodden in the sea by thy horses.” But what need is there of seeking such strained explanations, since the verb דרך , darek, means to go or to march? The Prophet’s meaning is by no means doubtful—that God would make a way for himself in the sea, and on his own horses. How? even when great waters were gathered into a mass. The Prophet again refers to the history of the passage through the Red Sea; for it was a work of God, as it has been said, worthy of being remembered above all other works: it is therefore no wonder that the Prophet dwells so much in setting forth this great miracle. Thou then didst make a way for thy horses —where? in the sea; which was contrary to nature. And then he adds, The heap of waters: for the waters had been gathered together, and a firm and thick mass appeared, which was not according to nature; for we know that water is a fluid, and that hardly a drop of water can stand without flowing. 65 How then was it that he stopped the course of Jordan, and that the Red Sea was divided? These were evidences of God’s incomprehensible power, and rightly ought these to have added courage to the faithful, knowing, as they ought to have done, that nothing could have opposed their salvation, which God was not able easily to remove, whenever it pleased him. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:16 - Enter Those interpreters are mistaken in my view, who connect the verb, “I have heard,” with the last verse, as though the Prophet had said, that he ha...

Those interpreters are mistaken in my view, who connect the verb, “I have heard,” with the last verse, as though the Prophet had said, that he had conceived dread from those evidences of God’s power: for the Prophet had no occasion to fear in regarding God as armed with unexpected power for the salvation of his people; there was no reason for such a thing. Hence these things do not agree together. But he returns again to that dread which he had entertained on account of God’s voice in those terrific threatenings which we before referred to. We must always bear in mind the Prophet’s design—that his object was to humble the faithful, that they might suppliantly acknowledge to God their sins and solicit his forgiveness. His purpose also was to animate them with strong hope, that they might nevertheless look for deliverance. He had already said at the beginning, “Lord, I have heard thy voice; I feared.” He now repeats the same thing: for if he had spoken only of that terrific voice, the faithful might have been overwhelmed with despair; he therefore wished opportunely to prevent this evil, by interposing what might have comforted them. For this reason he recited these histories, by which God had proved that he was armed with invincible power to save his Church. Having done this, he applies his general doctrine to present circumstances, and says, “I have heard.” What had he heard? even those judgements with which God had determined to visit the contumacy of his people. Since, then, God had threatened his people with a horrible destruction, the Prophet says now, that he had heard and trembled, so that he had been confounded. He speaks in the singular number; but this was done, as we have said, because he represented the whole people, as was the case before (which escaped my notice) when he said, his enemies came like whirlwind to cast him down; for certainly he did not then speak of himself but of the ancient people. As, then, the Prophet here undertakes the cause of the whole Church, he speaks as though he were the collective body of the people: and so he says that he had heard; but the faithful speak here as with one mouth, that they had heard, and that their inside trembled

Some read, “I was dismayed, or I feared, and my inside trembled at his voice.” He takes קול , kul, voice, not for report, but, as it has been said, for threatening. The faithful, then, declare here, that they dreaded the voice of God, before he had executed his judgements, or before he inflicted the punishment which he had threatened. He says, quiver did my lips. The verb צלל , tsalel, means sometimes to tingle, and so some render it here, “Tingle did my lips;” but this is not suitable, and more tolerable is the rendering of others, “Palpitate did my lips.” The Hebrews say that what is meant is that motion in the lips which fear or trembling produces. I therefore render the words, “quiver did my lips;” as when one says in our language, Mes levres ont barbate; that is, when the whole body shakes with trembling, not only a noise is made by the clashing of the teeth, but an agitation is also observed in the lips.

Enter, he says, did rottenness into my bones and within myself I made a noise, (it is the verb רגז , regaz, again,) or I trembled. No doubt the Prophet describes here the dread, which could not have been otherwise than produced by the dreadful vengeance of God. It hence follows that he does not treat here of those miracles which were, on the contrary, calculated to afford an occasion of rejoicing both to the Prophet and to the whole of the chosen people; but that the vengeance of God, such as had been predicted, is described here.

He now adds, That I may rest in the day of affliction 66 There seems to be here an inconsistency—that the Prophet was affected with grief even to rottenness, that he trembled throughout his members with dread, and now that all this availed to produce rest. But we must inquire how rest is to be obtained through these trepidations, and dreads, and tremblings. We indeed know that the more hardened the wicked become against God, the more grievous ruin they ever procure for themselves. But there is no way of obtaining rest, except for a time we tremble within ourselves, that is, except God’s judgement awakens us, yea, and reduces us almost to nothing. Whosoever therefore securely slumbers, will be confounded in the day of affliction; but he who in time anticipates the wrath of God, and is touched with fear, as soon as he hears that God the judge is at hand, provides for himself the most secure rest in the day of affliction. We now then see, that the right way of seeking rest is set forth here by the Prophet, when he says, that he had been confounded, and that rottenness had entered into his bones that he could have no comfort, except he pined away as one half-dead: and the design of the Prophet, as I have already said, was to exhort the faithful to repentance. But we cannot truly and from the heart repent, until our sins become displeasing to us: and the hatred of sin proceeds from the fear of God, and that sorrow which Paul regards as the mother of repentance. (2Co 7:10.)

This exhortation is also very necessary for us in the present day. We see how inclined we are by nature to indifference; and when God brings before us our sins, and then sets before us his wrath, we are not moved; and when we entertain any fear, it soon vanishes. Let us, then, know that no rest can be to us in the day of distress, except we tremble within ourselves, except dread lays hold on all our faculties, and except all our soul becomes almost rotten. And hence it is said in Psa 4:4, “Tremble, and ye shall not sin.” And Paul also shows that the true and profitable way of being angry is, when one is angry with his sins (Eph 4:26,) and when we tremble within ourselves. In the same manner does the Prophet describe the beginnings of repentance, when he says, that the faithful trembled in their bowels, and were so shaken within, that even their lips quivered, and, in short, (and this is the sum of the whole,) that all their senses felt consternation and fear.

He says, When he shall ascend: he speaks, no doubt, of the Chaldeans; When therefore the enemy shall ascend against the people, that he may cut them off: for גדה or גוד , gade or gud, means to cut off, and it means also to gather, and so some render it, “that he may gather them:” but the other meaning is better, “when the enemy shall ascend, that he may cut them off.” If one would have the word God to be understood, I do not object: for the Prophet does not otherwise speak of the Chaldeans than as the ministers and executioners of God’s wrath.

In short, he intimates, that they who had been moved and really terrified by God’s vengeance, would be in a quiet state when God executed his judgements. How so? because they would calmly submit to the rod, and look for a happy deliverance from their evils; for their minds would be seasonably prepared for patience, and then the Lord would also console them, as it is said in Psa 51:17, that he despises not contrite hearts. When, therefore, the faithful are in a suitable time humbled, and when they thus anticipate the judgement of God, they then find a rest prepared for them in his bosom. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:17 - NO PHRASE The Prophet declares now at large what that rest would be of which he had spoken; it would be even this—that he would not cease to rejoice in God, ...

The Prophet declares now at large what that rest would be of which he had spoken; it would be even this—that he would not cease to rejoice in God, even in the greatest afflictions. He indeed foresees how grievous the impending punishment would be, and he warns also and arouses the faithful, that they might perceive the approaching judgement of God. He says, Flourish shall not the fig, and no fruit shall be on the vines; fail shall the olive. First, the fig shall not flourish; then, the fields shall produce nothing; and lastly, the cattle and the sheep shall fail. Though the figs produce fruit without flowering, it is not yet an improper use of פרח , perech, which means strictly to bud. 67 He means that the desolation of the land was nigh at hand, and that the people would be reduced to extreme poverty. But it was an instance of rare virtue, to be able to rejoice in the Lord, when occasions of sorrow met him on every side.

The Prophet then teaches us what advantage it is to the faithful seasonably to submit to God, and to entertain serious fear when he threatens them, and when he summons them to judgement; and he shows that though they might perish a hundred times, they would yet not perish, for the Lord would ever supply them with occasions of joy, and would also cherish this joy within, so as to enable them to rise above all their adversities. Though, then, the land was threatened with famine, and though no food would be supplied to them, they would yet be able always to rejoice in the God of their salvation; for they would know him to be their Father, though for a time he severely chastised them. This is a delineation of that rest of which he made mention before.

The import of the whole is—“Though neither the figs, nor the vines, nor the olives, produce any fruit, and though the field be barren, though no food be given, yet I will rejoice in my God;” that is, our joy shall not depend on outward prosperity; for though the Lord may afflict us in an extreme degree, there will yet be always some consolation to sustain our minds, that they may not succumb under evils so grievous; for we are fully persuaded, that our salvation is in God’s hand, and that he is its faithful guardian. We shall, therefore, rest quietly, though heaven and earth were rolled together, and all places were full of confusion; yea, though God fulminated from heaven, we shall yet be in a tranquil state of mind, looking for his gratuitous salvation.

We now perceive more clearly, that the sorrow produced by the sense of our guilt is recommended to us on account of its advantage; for nothing is worse than to provoke God’s wrath to destroy us; and nothing is better than to anticipate it, so that the Lord himself may comfort us. We shall not always escape, for he may apparently treat us with severity; but though we may not be exempt from punishment, yet while he intends to humble us, he will give us reasons to rejoice: and then in his own time he will mitigate his severity, and by the effects will show himself propitious to us. Nevertheless, during the time when want or famine, or any other affliction, is to be borne, he will render us joyful with this one consolation, for, relying on his promises, we shall look for him as the God of our salvation. Hence, on one side Habakkuk sets the desolation of the land; and on the other, the inward joy which the faithful never fail to possess, for they are upheld by the perpetual favor of God. And thus he warns, as I have said, the children of God, that they might be prepared to bear want and famine, and calmly to submit to God’s chastisements; for had he not exhorted them as he did, they might have failed a hundred times.

We may hence gather a most useful doctrine,—That whenever signs of God’s wrath meet us in outward things, this remedy remains to us—to consider what God is to us inwardly; for the inward joy, which faith brings to us, can overcome all fears, terrors, sorrows and anxieties.

But we must notice what follows, In the God of my salvation: for sorrow would soon absorb all our thoughts, except God were present as our preserver. But how does he appear as such to the faithful? even when they estimate not his love by external things, but strengthen themselves by embracing the promise of his mercy, and never doubt but that he will be propitious to them; for it is impossible but that he will remember mercy even while he is angry. It follows—

Calvin: Hab 3:19 - He will make He confirms the same truth,—that he sought no strength but in God alone. But there is an implied contrast between God and those supports on which m...

He confirms the same truth,—that he sought no strength but in God alone. But there is an implied contrast between God and those supports on which men usually lean. There is indeed no one, who is not of a cheerful mind, when he possesses all necessary things, when no danger, no fear is impending: we are then courageous when all things smile on us. But the Prophet, by calling God his strength, sets him in opposition to all other supports; for he wishes to encourage the faithful to persevere in their hope, however grievously God might afflict them. His meaning then is,—that even when evils impetuously rage against us, when we vacillate and are ready to fall every moment, God ought then to be our strength; for the aid which he has promised for our support is all-sufficient. We hence see that the Prophet entertained firm hope, and by his example animated the faithful, provided they had God propitious, however might all other things fail them.

He will make, he says, my feet like those of hinds. I am inclined to refer this to their return to their own country, though some give this explanation,—“God will give the swiftest feet to his servants, so that they may pass over all obstacles to destroy their enemies;” but as they might think in their exile that their return was closed up against them, the Prophet introduces this most apt similitude, that God would give his people feet like those of hinds, so that they could climb the precipices of mountains, and dread no difficulties: He will then, he says, give me the feet of hinds, and make me to tread on my high places. Some think that this was said with regard to Judea, which is, as it is well known, mountainous; but I take the expression more simply in this way,—that God would make his faithful people to advance boldly and without fear along high places: for they who fear hide themselves and dare not to raise up the head, nor proceed openly along public roads; but the Prophet says, God will make me to tread on any high places

He at last adds, To the leader on my beatings. The first word some are wont to render conqueror. This inscription, To the leader, למנצח , lamenatsech, frequently occurs in the Psalms. To the conqueror, is the version of some; but it means, I have no doubt, the leader of the singers. Interpreters think that God is signified here by this title, for he presides over all the songs of the godly: and it may not inaptly be applied to him as the leader of the singers, as though the Prophet had said,—“God will be a strength to me; though I am weak in myself, I shall yet be strong in him; and he will enable me to surmount all obstacles, and I shall proceed boldly, who am now like one half-dead; and he will thus become the occasion of my song, and be the leader of the singers engaged in celebrating his praises, when he shall deliver from death his people in so wonderful a manner.” We hence see that the connection is not unsuitable, when he says, that there would be strength for him in God; and particularly as giving of thanks belonged to the leader or the chief singer, in order that God’s aid might be celebrated, not only privately but at the accustomed sacrifices, as was usually the case under the law. Those who explain it as denoting the beginning of a song, are extremely frigid and jejune in what they advance; I shall therefore pass it by.

He adds, on my beatings. This word, נגינות , neginoth, I have already explained in my work on the Psalms. Some think that it signifies a melody, others render it beatings ( pulsationes) or notes ( modos;) and others consider that musical instruments are meant. 68 I affirm nothing in a doubtful matter: and it is enough to bear in mind what we have said,—that the Prophet promises here to God a continual thanksgiving, when the faithful were redeemed, for not only each one would acknowledge that they had been saved by God’s hand, but all would assemble together in the Temple, and there testify their gratitude, and not only with their voices confess God as their Deliverer, but also with instruments of music, as we know it to have been the usual custom under the Law.

Defender: Hab 3:1 - Shigionoth "Shigionoth" refers to a distinctive type of music, sung in a spirit of victory and excitement. Habakkuk's book is the most poetic of all the prophets...

"Shigionoth" refers to a distinctive type of music, sung in a spirit of victory and excitement. Habakkuk's book is the most poetic of all the prophets, and this last chapter is an actual psalm."

Defender: Hab 3:2 - was afraid This psalm, designed to be sung as a prayer hymn, seeks both to review God's works of old for His people, as a means of encouraging them in relation t...

This psalm, designed to be sung as a prayer hymn, seeks both to review God's works of old for His people, as a means of encouraging them in relation to the troubles that were coming, and also to assure that God's ancient promises will surely be fulfilled.

Defender: Hab 3:2 - revive thy work Although God's warnings surely were enough to make them afraid, Habakkuk and the people could still pray for revival and for God to be merciful, even ...

Although God's warnings surely were enough to make them afraid, Habakkuk and the people could still pray for revival and for God to be merciful, even in His wrath against their sins."

Defender: Hab 3:3 - Teman "Teman" is synonymous with the land of Edom, and "Paran" is in the adjacent Sinai wilderness. Habakkuk here refers partially to God's leading His peop...

"Teman" is synonymous with the land of Edom, and "Paran" is in the adjacent Sinai wilderness. Habakkuk here refers partially to God's leading His people in their Exodus from Egypt, with the veiled revelation of His glory on Mount Sinai. However, the dramatic events described following the "Selah" pause did not take place at that time. The literal fulfillment must be at His glorious coming following the great tribulation of the end-times. It seems that Habakkuk's prophetic vision, on which his psalm was based, contained a blending of both God's past miraculous deliverances of His people and also the future deliverances of which these had been a type."

Defender: Hab 3:4 - as the light In the vision of Christ in His glory, John saw "in his right hand seven stars" (Rev 1:16) radiating their light; the "horns" or "rays" coming out of H...

In the vision of Christ in His glory, John saw "in his right hand seven stars" (Rev 1:16) radiating their light; the "horns" or "rays" coming out of His hand in Habakkuk's vision may correspond to these (Rev 21:23)."

Defender: Hab 3:6 - measured the earth This scene is similar to that in Rev 10:2 : "he set his right foot upon the sea, and his left foot on the earth," claiming the world as His possession...

This scene is similar to that in Rev 10:2 : "he set his right foot upon the sea, and his left foot on the earth," claiming the world as His possession. The judgments on the nations, the scattering of the everlasting mountains and perpetual hills - such things may have been prefigured by the events at the Exodus, but their literal occurrence is yet future (Rev 6:12-17)."

Defender: Hab 3:11 - stood still When "the sun stood still, and the moon stayed ... about a whole day ... the Lord fought for Israel" (Jos 10:13, Jos 10:14). There has never been anot...

When "the sun stood still, and the moon stayed ... about a whole day ... the Lord fought for Israel" (Jos 10:13, Jos 10:14). There has never been another day like that in all history, but in the new earth, "the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon: for ... there shall be no night there" (Rev 21:23; Rev 22:5). The sun and the moon will still exist, however, and there will even be months measured in the holy city (Rev 22:2)."

Defender: Hab 3:13 - thine anointed 'Thine anointed" is referring to "thy Messiah" or "thy Christ." This passage surely must refer to the return of Christ in glory "for the salvation of ...

'Thine anointed" is referring to "thy Messiah" or "thy Christ." This passage surely must refer to the return of Christ in glory "for the salvation of thy people."

Defender: Hab 3:13 - the head The "head out of the house of the wicked," if taken literally, must refer to the coming Man of Sin who will rule over all nations for a brief time in ...

The "head out of the house of the wicked," if taken literally, must refer to the coming Man of Sin who will rule over all nations for a brief time in the last days. Even more directly, it seems to refer to Satan, who will energize and indwell the Man of Sin. When Christ returns, "he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked" (Isa 11:4). "Then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming" (2Th 2:8). He shall fatally "bruise thy head" (Gen 3:15) as God told Satan long ago in the garden of Eden."

Defender: Hab 3:18 - Yet will I rejoice The scene here returns to the desolate years just ahead, during the coming exile. In view of God's glorious promises for the future, however, there is...

The scene here returns to the desolate years just ahead, during the coming exile. In view of God's glorious promises for the future, however, there is always cause for rejoicing in the Lord."

TSK: Hab 3:1 - prayer // upon Shigionoth prayer : Psa. 86:1-17 *title Psa. 90:1-17 *title upon Shigionoth : or, according to variable songs, or tunes, called in Hebrew, Shigionoth. Psa. 7:1-1...

prayer : Psa. 86:1-17 *title Psa. 90:1-17 *title

upon Shigionoth : or, according to variable songs, or tunes, called in Hebrew, Shigionoth. Psa. 7:1-17 *title

TSK: Hab 3:2 - I have // speech // O Lord // revive // in the // in wrath I have : Hab 3:16, Hab 1:5-10; Exo 9:20,Exo 9:21; 2Ch 34:27, 2Ch 34:28; Job 4:12-21; Psa 119:120; Isa 66:2; Jer 36:21-24; Dan 8:17; Heb 11:7, Heb 12:2...

TSK: Hab 3:3 - came // from // Teman // Paran // Selah // His glory // and the earth came : Jdg 5:4, Jdg 5:5; Psa 68:7, Psa 68:8; Isa 64:3 from : Gen 36:11; Jer 49:7; Amo 1:12; Oba 1:9 Teman : or, the south Paran : Gen 21:21; Num 10:12...

TSK: Hab 3:4 - brightness // horns coming out of his hand // the hiding brightness : Exo 13:21, Exo 14:20; Neh 9:12; Psa 104:2; Isa 60:19, Isa 60:20; Mat 17:2; 1Ti 6:16; Rev 21:23, Rev 22:5 horns coming out of his hand : o...

brightness : Exo 13:21, Exo 14:20; Neh 9:12; Psa 104:2; Isa 60:19, Isa 60:20; Mat 17:2; 1Ti 6:16; Rev 21:23, Rev 22:5

horns coming out of his hand : or, bright beams out of his side

the hiding : Job 26:14; Pro 18:10

TSK: Hab 3:5 - went // and // burning coals went : Exo 12:29, Exo 12:30; Num 14:12, Num 16:46-49; Psa 78:50,Psa 78:51; Nah 1:2, Nah 1:3 and : Psa 18:7-13 burning coals : or, burning diseases, De...

went : Exo 12:29, Exo 12:30; Num 14:12, Num 16:46-49; Psa 78:50,Psa 78:51; Nah 1:2, Nah 1:3

and : Psa 18:7-13

burning coals : or, burning diseases, Deu 32:24

TSK: Hab 3:6 - and measured // and drove // the everlasting // his and measured : Exo 15:17, Exo 21:31; Num. 34:1-29; Deu 32:8; Act 17:26 and drove : Jos 10:42, Jos 11:18-23; Neh 9:22-24; Psa 135:8-12 the everlasting ...

TSK: Hab 3:7 - saw the // Cushan // in affliction // Midian saw the : Exo 15:14-16; Num 22:3, Num 22:4; Jos 2:10, Jos 9:24 Cushan : or, Ethiopia, Gen 10:6, Gen 10:7 in affliction : or, under affliction, or vani...

saw the : Exo 15:14-16; Num 22:3, Num 22:4; Jos 2:10, Jos 9:24

Cushan : or, Ethiopia, Gen 10:6, Gen 10:7

in affliction : or, under affliction, or vanity

Midian : Gen 25:1-4; Num 31:2-12; Psa 83:5-10

TSK: Hab 3:8 - the Lord // ride // of salvation the Lord : Exo 14:21, Exo 14:22; Jos 3:16, Jos 3:17; Psa 114:3, Psa 114:5; Isa 50:2; Nah 1:4; Mar 4:39; Rev 16:12 ride : Hab 3:15; Deu 33:26, Deu 33:2...

TSK: Hab 3:9 - bow // according // Selah // Thou // the earth with rivers bow : Deu 32:23; Psa 7:12, Psa 7:13, Psa 35:1-3; Isa 51:9, Isa 51:10, Isa 52:10; Lam 2:4 according : Gen 15:18-21, Gen 17:7, Gen 17:8, Gen 22:16-18, G...

TSK: Hab 3:10 - mountains // the overflowing // the deep mountains : Hab 3:6; Exo 19:16-18; Jdg 5:4, Jdg 5:5; Psa 68:7, Psa 68:8, Psa 77:18, Psa 97:4, Psa 97:5, Psa 114:4, Psa 114:6; Isa 64:1, Isa 64:2; Jer ...

TSK: Hab 3:11 - sun // habitation // at the light of thine arrows they went sun : Jos 10:12, Jos 10:13; Isa 28:21, Isa 38:8 habitation : Psa 19:4 at the light of thine arrows they went : or, thine arrows walked in the light, J...

sun : Jos 10:12, Jos 10:13; Isa 28:21, Isa 38:8

habitation : Psa 19:4

at the light of thine arrows they went : or, thine arrows walked in the light, Jos 10:11; Psa 18:12-14, Psa 77:17, Psa 77:18, Psa 144:5, Psa 144:6

TSK: Hab 3:12 - didst march // thresh didst march : Num 21:23-35; Josh. 6:1-12:24; Neh 9:22-24; Psa 44:1-3, Psa 78:55; Act 13:19 thresh : Jer 51:33; Amo 1:3; Mic 4:12, Mic 4:13

didst march : Num 21:23-35; Josh. 6:1-12:24; Neh 9:22-24; Psa 44:1-3, Psa 78:55; Act 13:19

thresh : Jer 51:33; Amo 1:3; Mic 4:12, Mic 4:13

TSK: Hab 3:13 - wentest // with // thou woundedst // discovering wentest : Exo 14:13, Exo 14:14, Exo 15:1, Exo 15:2; Psa 68:7, Psa 68:19-23 with : Psa 77:20, Psa 89:19-21, Psa 99:6, Psa 105:15, Psa 105:26; Isa 63:11...

TSK: Hab 3:14 - the head // they // came out // their the head : Exo 11:4-7, Exo 12:12, Exo 12:13, Exo 12:29, Exo 12:30, Exo 14:17, Exo 14:18; Psa 78:50,Psa 78:51, Psa 83:9-11 they : Exo 14:5-9, Exo 15:9,...

TSK: Hab 3:15 - walk // heap walk : Hab 3:8; Psa 77:19 heap : or, mud

walk : Hab 3:8; Psa 77:19

heap : or, mud

TSK: Hab 3:16 - I heard // my belly // that I // he will // invade them I heard : Hab 3:2, Hab 1:5-11 my belly : Psa 119:120; Jer 23:9; Eze 3:14; Dan 8:27, Dan 10:8 that I : Psa 91:15, Psa 94:12, Psa 94:13; Isa 26:20,Isa 2...

TSK: Hab 3:17 - the fig tree // fail the fig tree : Deu 28:15-18, Deu 28:30-41; Jer 14:2-8; Joe 1:10-13, Joe 1:16-18; Amo 4:6-10; Hag 2:16, Hag 2:17 fail : Heb. lie

TSK: Hab 3:18 - I will rejoice // the God I will rejoice : Deu 12:18; 1Sa 2:1; Job 13:15; Psa 33:1, Psa 46:1-5, Psa 85:6, Psa 97:12, Psa 104:34; Psa 118:15, Psa 149:2; Isa 41:16, Isa 61:10; Ze...

TSK: Hab 3:19 - my strength // like // to walk // stringed instruments my strength : Psa 18:1, Psa 27:1, Psa 46:1; Isa 12:2, Isa 45:24; Zec 10:12; 2Co 12:9, 2Co 12:10; Eph 3:16; Phi 4:13; Col 1:11 like : 2Sa 22:34; Psa 18...

my strength : Psa 18:1, Psa 27:1, Psa 46:1; Isa 12:2, Isa 45:24; Zec 10:12; 2Co 12:9, 2Co 12:10; Eph 3:16; Phi 4:13; Col 1:11

like : 2Sa 22:34; Psa 18:33

to walk : Deu 32:13, Deu 33:29; Isa 58:14

stringed instruments : Heb. Neginoth, Psa 4:1-8, Psa 6:1-10, Psa 54:1-7, 55:1-23, Psa 67:1-7, Psa 76:1-12 *titles

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Poole: Hab 3:1 - A prayer // Shigionoth A prayer: the prophet required the earth Should be silent before God, and now gives them example; he waits on and prays to God in his holy temple: s...

A prayer: the prophet required the earth Should be silent before God, and now gives them example; he waits on and prays to God in his holy temple: some say it is a prayer of intercession, and that the word carrieth it so. Habakkuk the prophet: see Hab 1:1 .

Shigionoth a musical note, say some, and such note as the Jews have no certain knowledge of. Others say Shigionoth is ignorances, which the prophet doth confess, and sueth for the pardon of; both he and the people had erred, were offended at the darkness of Divine providences, and needed pardon as well as instruction: or it may be a prayer on occasion of the many and great changes Providence wrought in the affairs of the world and the church.

Poole: Hab 3:2 - I have heard // Thy speech // Was afraid // Revive // Thy work // In the midst of the years // Make known // In wrath I have heard received answer to the inquiry made Hab 1:13-17 , whether by voice from heaven, or by inward illumination or irradiation of the mind, or...

I have heard received answer to the inquiry made Hab 1:13-17 , whether by voice from heaven, or by inward illumination or irradiation of the mind, or any other way of impression from the prophetic Spirit, needs not be inquired.

Thy speech the report or declaration God made to him concerning the future corrections of his own people, and the devastations Babylon would make among them; and next, the destruction which should fall upon the Babylonians by the Medes and Persians, which is summarily set down, Hab 2 .

Was afraid trembled at the apprehension of these sad things, which both we and they were to suffer; he saw them as certain and grievous.

Revive not only keep alive, but somewhat refresh, renew, give some new strength to thy church and people, who wait for thee.

Thy work thy church, called, Isa 45:11 , as here, God’ s work, in an eminent manner, above other people; so the apostle, we are his workmanship, Eph 2:10 : or else by work may be meant, the returning of the captivity, and restoring them to their own land, which was the great thing God did promise to do for them; and the prophet prays for some kindness from the Lord, that may be a revival of the hope, assurance, and joy of it.

In the midst of the years: it is not needful we report the different account of these years, and the precise midst of them assigned by some; perhaps it may point to that time when Evil-merodach exalted Jehoiachin out of prison, which, 2Ki 25:27 , was in the 37th year of their captivity; but I rather think it is more vulgarly to be taken for any time within the term of the sad and troublesome days which would last seventy years.

Make known: it is an affectionate request, and (as such often are) somewhat abrupt; make known either thy truth, or wisdom, or power, or compassion, or all; make it known that thou art our God, and we thy people, that thou still hast a care of us: or what next follows makes the sense full.

In wrath whilst thy just displeasure burns against us for our sins,

remember mercy make it appear thou hast not forgotten to be gracious, let thy people see thou rememberest mercy towards them.

I have heard received answer to the inquiry made Hab 1:13-17 , whether by voice from heaven, or by inward illumination or irradiation of the mind, or any other way of impression from the prophetic Spirit, needs not be inquired.

Thy speech the report or declaration God made to him concerning the future corrections of his own people, and the devastations Babylon would make among them; and next, the destruction which should fall upon the Babylonians by the Medes and Persians, which is summarily set down, Hab 2 .

Was afraid trembled at the apprehension of these sad things, which both we and they were to suffer; he saw them as certain and grievous.

Revive not only keep alive, but somewhat refresh, renew, give some new strength to thy church and people, who wait for thee.

Thy work thy church, called, Isa 45:11 , as here, God’ s work, in an eminent manner, above other people; so the apostle, we are his workmanship, Eph 2:10 : or else by work may be meant, the returning of the captivity, and restoring them to their own land, which was the great thing God did promise to do for them; and the prophet prays for some kindness from the Lord, that may be a revival of the hope, assurance, and joy of it.

In the midst of the years: it is not needful we report the different account of these years, and the precise midst of them assigned by some; perhaps it may point to that time when Evil-merodach exalted Jehoiachin out of prison, which, 2Ki 25:27 , was in the 37th year of their captivity; but I rather think it is more vulgarly to be taken for any time within the term of the sad and troublesome days which would last seventy years.

Make known: it is an affectionate request, and (as such often are) somewhat abrupt; make known either thy truth, or wisdom, or power, or compassion, or all; make it known that thou art our God, and we thy people, that thou still hast a care of us: or what next follows makes the sense full.

In wrath whilst thy just displeasure burns against us for our sins,

remember mercy make it appear thou hast not forgotten to be gracious, let thy people see thou rememberest mercy towards them.

I have heard received answer to the inquiry made Hab 1:13-17 , whether by voice from heaven, or by inward illumination or irradiation of the mind, or any other way of impression from the prophetic Spirit, needs not be inquired.

Thy speech the report or declaration God made to him concerning the future corrections of his own people, and the devastations Babylon would make among them; and next, the destruction which should fall upon the Babylonians by the Medes and Persians, which is summarily set down, Hab 2 .

Was afraid trembled at the apprehension of these sad things, which both we and they were to suffer; he saw them as certain and grievous.

Revive not only keep alive, but somewhat refresh, renew, give some new strength to thy church and people, who wait for thee.

Thy work thy church, called, Isa 45:11 , as here, God’ s work, in an eminent manner, above other people; so the apostle, we are his workmanship, Eph 2:10 : or else by work may be meant, the returning of the captivity, and restoring them to their own land, which was the great thing God did promise to do for them; and the prophet prays for some kindness from the Lord, that may be a revival of the hope, assurance, and joy of it.

In the midst of the years: it is not needful we report the different account of these years, and the precise midst of them assigned by some; perhaps it may point to that time when Evil-merodach exalted Jehoiachin out of prison, which, 2Ki 25:27 , was in the 37th year of their captivity; but I rather think it is more vulgarly to be taken for any time within the term of the sad and troublesome days which would last seventy years.

Make known: it is an affectionate request, and (as such often are) somewhat abrupt; make known either thy truth, or wisdom, or power, or compassion, or all; make it known that thou art our God, and we thy people, that thou still hast a care of us: or what next follows makes the sense full.

In wrath whilst thy just displeasure burns against us for our sins,

remember mercy make it appear thou hast not forgotten to be gracious, let thy people see thou rememberest mercy towards them.

Poole: Hab 3:3 - God // Teman // The Holy One of Israel // Mount Paran // Selah // His glory // The earth // was full of his praise God the God of our fathers, our God, came; appeared, discovered himself, for that is his coming, who, since he fills all places at all times, cannot ...

God the God of our fathers, our God, came; appeared, discovered himself, for that is his coming, who, since he fills all places at all times, cannot be said to come by any change of place.

Teman either appellatively, the south, or else as a proper name of a mountain or country. so called from Teman, son of Eliphaz, and grandson of Esau. It is also called Seir, or is one particular hill among those many which make up Mount Seir. It was not far from Mount Sinai, where the law was given, and the prophet hath respect to that Deu 33:2 , where God appeared in a manner equally glorious and terrible,

The Holy One of Israel

Mount Paran which was a name to wilderness, plains, and a mountain, of which the prophet here speaketh, and in Deu 33:2 it is said God shined thence. This the prophet mentions as a support of his faith, as an encouragement to others, as a motive why God should renew his work among them, since he so gloriously appeared among their fathers, and made a covenant with them.

Selah: to the argument he addeth this to awaken us to attention.

His glory lightnings and thunders, and fire and smoke, tokens of the power, majesty, and greatness of God, at the sight whereof Moses himself trembled. Covered, overspread, intercepted, and obscured, the heavens; that part of the visible heavens under which Israel then encamped.

The earth that part of the earth where this was done,

was full of his praise of works which deserved then, and still do deserve, to be had in remembrance, with praise to God who did them.

Poole: Hab 3:4 - His brightness // Horns // Out of his hand // There His brightness that lustre in which God appeared, that unparalleled splendour which shined from him, was as the light; pure, clear as the sun, but mu...

His brightness that lustre in which God appeared, that unparalleled splendour which shined from him, was as the light; pure, clear as the sun, but much more dazzling and overcoming.

Horns: some read it beams or rays of light, and so the Hebrew will bear, and thus it is plain.

Out of his hand: our God is all glory and light; Moses’ s face shined; the face, yea hands, of our God shine with glorious light; he dwelleth in light.

There either in that place where he thus appeared, or in that light wherewith he appeared

Poole: Hab 3:5 - Before him // The pestilence // Burning coals // Went forth // At his feet Before him: when God was leading the Israelites out of Egypt into Canaan, he made the pestilence to go before him, so preparing room for his people. ...

Before him: when God was leading the Israelites out of Egypt into Canaan, he made the pestilence to go before him, so preparing room for his people.

The pestilence which wasted the inhabitants of Canaan, swept them out.

Burning coals burning fevers, and other distempers of fiery and destructive nature, which destroyed the accursed nations.

Went forth as sent, and observing the way he directed.

At his feet kept even pace, or waited on him, were his immediate forerunners. All this mentioned as arguments to prevail for somewhat like these for Israel, and against Israel’ s enemies. O God, revive some such work amidst us.

Poole: Hab 3:6 - He stood // Measured // He beheld // Drove asunder // The nations // The everlasting mountains were scattered // The perpetual hills did bow // His ways are everlasting He stood gave his presence with Joshua and others, as one that stood by while the work was done. Measured: he divided to them their inheritance, an...

He stood gave his presence with Joshua and others, as one that stood by while the work was done.

Measured: he divided to them their inheritance, and did this without toil or difficulty, his very presence with his people was enough to make it known what he allotted to them. The earth; the Promised Land.

He beheld looked with a frowning countenance, with anger in his eye.

Drove asunder cast them out, or caused them to flee, as many did out of that country; his eye did this, for he looked on them and did this.

The nations the cursed nations.

The everlasting mountains were scattered either literally understood, as Nah 1:5 , and may relate to that the psalmist minds, Psa 114:4,6 , when the whole mount, all the mountainous parts of Sinai, tremble, Exo 19:18 , &c.; or figuratively, the state of these nations, seeming as immovable as mountains, yet soon shook and dissolved, before the rebuke of the Lord.

The perpetual hills did bow an elegant immutation of the phrase, to illustrate and confirm the same thing.

His ways are everlasting the wisdom, goodness, justice, holiness, faithfulness, and power of God, which he showeth in the methods of his governing his church and people, are everlasting, they are the same, and where the same circumstances concur the same effects of his power may be hoped for. So the prophet pursueth the argument; they are everlasting loving-kindnesses with which he embraceth his church.

Poole: Hab 3:7 - I saw // The tents // In affliction // The curtains // The land // Did tremble I saw not with the eye, but with his mind and understanding, in reading the history of Israel’ s travels. The tents for the people that dwelt ...

I saw not with the eye, but with his mind and understanding, in reading the history of Israel’ s travels.

The tents for the people that dwelt in them. Of Cushan ; some say of Cushen-rishathaim, in Othniel’ s time, and under his victories over them; but I rather think it is meant of the Ethiopians, on the confines of Arabia, that land of Cush, near whose borders Israel’ s march through and encampings in the wilderness had very often lain.

In affliction in fear and pain, lest that mighty people, under the conduct of their general, (famed for miracles,) should, as a violent storm, fall on them and despoil them.

The curtains for those that dwell within them; these people dwelt in tents, and these made up on the sides with curtains.

The land people of the land. Midian; a people sprung from one of Abraham’ s sons by Keturah, who gave his name Midian to the land, as well as to the people.

Did tremble were sore afraid of the arms of Israel, which at last, by God’ s express direction, were employed against Midian, and cut off five kings, and destroyed the country. These terrible things our God, whose ways are everlasting, hath done to carry our fathers from Egypt to Canaan: let him, who is our God, still revive his work, &c.

Poole: Hab 3:8 - The rivers // The sea // Didst ride // Thy chariots of salvation The prophet recalls to memory the miraculous dividing of the Red Sea and Jordan, when God divided them to make a passage for his people, when by a m...

The prophet recalls to memory the miraculous dividing of the Red Sea and Jordan, when God divided them to make a passage for his people, when by a miracle he made the devouring element to be a safeguard to his people, when it was not displeasure against the sea or the river, but favour to Israel, that moved him to do this. The prophet repeats the question, to impress the mind of the captive Jews with deeper apprehensions of the mercy of their God.

The rivers: see Nah 1:4 .

The sea the Red Sea.

Didst ride as a general at the head of his army, leading them forward on some great exploit. Upon thine horses; alluding to the manner of men, with whom horses are of greatest, strongest, and stateliest preparations against an enemy; but these were not designed against the sea as against an enemy.

Thy chariots of salvation: but with these horses are joined (for the decorum of the figure) chariots, that are chariots of salvation for his people: cheer up then, the Lord hath the same love and power still.

Poole: Hab 3:9 - Thy bow // Was made quite naked // According to the oaths of the tribes // oaths // tribes // Even thy word // Selah // Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers Thy bow one part of armour put for the whole; or else the Lord here is represented as armed, in readiness to smite through all enemies, having his bo...

Thy bow one part of armour put for the whole; or else the Lord here is represented as armed, in readiness to smite through all enemies, having his bow in his hand.

Was made quite naked the case taken off, that when it was to be used there might be no delay.

According to the oaths of the tribes in pursuance of his oath made to our fathers: he promised, and confirmed the promise by oath, that he would drive out the Canaanites, and this oath is here called

oaths because repeated and renewed at several times; and it is oaths of , i.e. to, the tribes, to raise their hope in their present low condition not Abraham here mentioned, lest they should be upbraided with degenerating and losing the right to the promises; but it is

tribes the right is in them.

Even thy word of promise.

Selah note it well.

Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers: when they were to march through a dry and thirsty land where no water was, how should they subsist? What good to be defended from perishing by the sword of an enemy, and be left to perish for want of refreshing waters? This then is added to complete the mercy; our God made rivers in the desert for them, and satisfied them with streams out of the flinty rock.

Poole: Hab 3:10 - The mountains // Saw // Trembled // trembled // The overflowing // Passed by // The deep // Uttered his voice // Lifted up his hands // hands // On high The mountains literally taken, it is an elegant hyperbole, expressing to us the glorious effects of God’ s power and presence; and thus Sinai an...

The mountains literally taken, it is an elegant hyperbole, expressing to us the glorious effects of God’ s power and presence; and thus Sinai and the contiguous hills, the whole mount, Exo 19:18 , are intended: or if you take it figuratively, these are kings and states, whose hieroglyphics in Scripture are mountains.

Saw were sensible of, showed they were sensible of his approach and presence.

Trembled were grieved; so it will well suit to mountains metaphorically taken, it was grief to the kings and states to see God own, conduct, and prosper Israel, Num 22:3 ; Josh. it. 9-11: or

trembled i.e. were shaken as with an earthquake, Exo 19:18 Psa 68:8 114:4,6 ; so it suits the letter of the text.

The overflowing the inundation, which at that season was wont to be very great, the mighty floods on Jordan.

Passed by passed away, i.e. at the word of God the waters below flowed and ran away from those above, which stood on a heap, to make a path for Israel.

The deep either the deep channel in which Jordan flowed, the very bottom of the river, appeared; or the deep, i.e. the Red Sea.

Uttered his voice with dreadful roaring, like a mighty voice, parted its waters; divided, but with great and terrible noise, in this unusual commotion.

Lifted up his hands testified its obedience to the command of God, as by lifting up the hand one doth at distance signify his ready compliance with the command, or direction: or

hands i.e. sides; so when the upper waters stood on a heap, both in Jordan and the Red Sea, they appeared as with sides or flankers unto the Israelites.

On high like a mountain, visible and conspicuous to all.

The mountains literally taken, it is an elegant hyperbole, expressing to us the glorious effects of God’ s power and presence; and thus Sinai and the contiguous hills, the whole mount, Exo 19:18 , are intended: or if you take it figuratively, these are kings and states, whose hieroglyphics in Scripture are mountains.

Saw were sensible of, showed they were sensible of his approach and presence.

Trembled were grieved; so it will well suit to mountains metaphorically taken, it was grief to the kings and states to see God own, conduct, and prosper Israel, Num 22:3 ; Josh. it. 9-11: or

trembled i.e. were shaken as with an earthquake, Exo 19:18 Psa 68:8 114:4,6 ; so it suits the letter of the text.

The overflowing the inundation, which at that season was wont to be very great, the mighty floods on Jordan.

Passed by passed away, i.e. at the word of God the waters below flowed and ran away from those above, which stood on a heap, to make a path for Israel.

The deep either the deep channel in which Jordan flowed, the very bottom of the river, appeared; or the deep, i.e. the Red Sea.

Uttered his voice with dreadful roaring, like a mighty voice, parted its waters; divided, but with great and terrible noise, in this unusual commotion.

Lifted up his hands testified its obedience to the command of God, as by lifting up the hand one doth at distance signify his ready compliance with the command, or direction: or

hands i.e. sides; so when the upper waters stood on a heap, both in Jordan and the Red Sea, they appeared as with sides or flankers unto the Israelites.

On high like a mountain, visible and conspicuous to all.

The mountains literally taken, it is an elegant hyperbole, expressing to us the glorious effects of God’ s power and presence; and thus Sinai and the contiguous hills, the whole mount, Exo 19:18 , are intended: or if you take it figuratively, these are kings and states, whose hieroglyphics in Scripture are mountains.

Saw were sensible of, showed they were sensible of his approach and presence.

Trembled were grieved; so it will well suit to mountains metaphorically taken, it was grief to the kings and states to see God own, conduct, and prosper Israel, Num 22:3 ; Josh. it. 9-11: or

trembled i.e. were shaken as with an earthquake, Exo 19:18 Psa 68:8 114:4,6 ; so it suits the letter of the text.

The overflowing the inundation, which at that season was wont to be very great, the mighty floods on Jordan.

Passed by passed away, i.e. at the word of God the waters below flowed and ran away from those above, which stood on a heap, to make a path for Israel.

The deep either the deep channel in which Jordan flowed, the very bottom of the river, appeared; or the deep, i.e. the Red Sea.

Uttered his voice with dreadful roaring, like a mighty voice, parted its waters; divided, but with great and terrible noise, in this unusual commotion.

Lifted up his hands testified its obedience to the command of God, as by lifting up the hand one doth at distance signify his ready compliance with the command, or direction: or

hands i.e. sides; so when the upper waters stood on a heap, both in Jordan and the Red Sea, they appeared as with sides or flankers unto the Israelites.

On high like a mountain, visible and conspicuous to all.

The mountains literally taken, it is an elegant hyperbole, expressing to us the glorious effects of God’ s power and presence; and thus Sinai and the contiguous hills, the whole mount, Exo 19:18 , are intended: or if you take it figuratively, these are kings and states, whose hieroglyphics in Scripture are mountains.

Saw were sensible of, showed they were sensible of his approach and presence.

Trembled were grieved; so it will well suit to mountains metaphorically taken, it was grief to the kings and states to see God own, conduct, and prosper Israel, Num 22:3 ; Josh. it. 9-11: or

trembled i.e. were shaken as with an earthquake, Exo 19:18 Psa 68:8 114:4,6 ; so it suits the letter of the text.

The overflowing the inundation, which at that season was wont to be very great, the mighty floods on Jordan.

Passed by passed away, i.e. at the word of God the waters below flowed and ran away from those above, which stood on a heap, to make a path for Israel.

The deep either the deep channel in which Jordan flowed, the very bottom of the river, appeared; or the deep, i.e. the Red Sea.

Uttered his voice with dreadful roaring, like a mighty voice, parted its waters; divided, but with great and terrible noise, in this unusual commotion.

Lifted up his hands testified its obedience to the command of God, as by lifting up the hand one doth at distance signify his ready compliance with the command, or direction: or

hands i.e. sides; so when the upper waters stood on a heap, both in Jordan and the Red Sea, they appeared as with sides or flankers unto the Israelites.

On high like a mountain, visible and conspicuous to all.

Poole: Hab 3:11 - The sun and moon stood still // Habitation // At the light of thine arrows they went // They // thine arrows walked in the light The sun and moon stood still: though the sun rejoice as a giant to run his race, and had constantly come out of his chamber to run it about two thous...

The sun and moon stood still: though the sun rejoice as a giant to run his race, and had constantly come out of his chamber to run it about two thousand five hundred years past, yet now he stops his course, and with his stay puts stop to the motion of moon and stars, at the command of God’ s minister and Israel’ s captain, Jos 10:12,13 .

Habitation so the psalmist, Psa 19:4 , speaks of a pavilion or tabernacle pitched for the sun, where at Joshua’ s word, seconded with the word of Joshua’ s and Israel’ s God, he makes a halt as it were, stands at the door of his tabernacle to behold and forward the strange work, the miraculous overthrow of the five conspiring kings.

At the light of thine arrows they went: as we read the words they seem somewhat obscure and perplexed, yet very intelligible in this paraphrase: at the light, according to the light which thine arrows gave by their glittering heads, polished shafts, and bright feathers; in their flight thine arrows, O God, for these were the arrows of Israel and thine arrows too, as the sword of Gideon was the sword of the Lord.

They i.e. sun and moon, went, directed their course, and took their way compliant with the flights of these arrows, not hastening to the place of their going down whilst Israel had arrows to shoot, or enemies that day to discomfit, whilst they were to lift up a spear against any enemy that day. The marginal reading of these words is much plainer:

thine arrows walked in the light ( which was miraculously continued,) and thy spears walked in the brightness of the lightning (as I venture for once to read the words from the Hebrew); so dreadful was that day to the enemy, so joyful to Israel. O let some such day arise on captive Jews, revive thy works of old: so the prophet prays.

Poole: Hab 3:12 - Thou // didst march // In indignation // Thou didst thresh // the heathen Thou our God, didst march as the victorious Conqueror leading still thine armies, the tribes of Israel, through the land of Canaan, to subdue the r...

Thou our God,

didst march as the victorious Conqueror leading still thine armies, the tribes of Israel, through the land of Canaan, to subdue the remainders of thine enemies and theirs, and to give thine Israel possession of the Promised Land.

In indignation against them for their sins.

Thou didst thresh break to pieces,

the heathen the nation: devoted to destruction; these were cut in pieces by the sword of Israel.

Poole: Hab 3:13 - Thou wentest forth // For the salvation // Of the people // Even for salvation // With thine anointed // Thou woundedst the head // Out of the house // Of the wicked // By discovering the foundation unto the neck // Selah Thou wentest forth: pursuant of his metaphor, the prophet speaks of God as marching on before his people; or it may refer to the ark, a token of God&...

Thou wentest forth: pursuant of his metaphor, the prophet speaks of God as marching on before his people; or it may refer to the ark, a token of God’ s presence before the people.

For the salvation to complete the salvation begun in bringing them out of Egypt, and carrying them through the wilderness, and to be finished in settling them in Canaan.

Of the people thy chosen people, the tribes of thine inheritance.

Even for salvation: it is repeated for confirmation, and to affect us with the greatness of the mercy.

With thine anointed or, for thine anointed, i.e. all Israel; or under the conduct of thine anointed, Joshua, type of the Messiah, by whose hand all these great things were done.

Thou woundedst the head gavest a deadly wound to the princes and kings of Canaan, enemies to Israel, who were cut off, and their families utterly destroyed.

Out of the house royal palaces, or ancient dwellings, and settled habitations; of which slaughter of Canaanitish kings, see Psa 136:17-20 .

Of the wicked the courts of these kings were houses of greatest wickednesses, for which they were destroyed.

By discovering the foundation unto the neck: razing the foundations of their power, and destroying all from foot to head.

Selah: all which is to be heeded, and well minded.

Poole: Hab 3:14 - Thou // didst strike through with his staves // The head of his villages // They // Came out as a whirlwind // To scatter // Their rejoicing was as to devour // The poor // Secretly Thou O God, didst strike through with his staves either meant of the staves or arms of the Canaanitish kings which they lifted up against Israel, t...

Thou O God,

didst strike through with his staves either meant of the staves or arms of the Canaanitish kings which they lifted up against Israel, thereby provoking Israel to fight, in which being overcome, they perished by their own arms taken from them; or it may be meant of the weapons of Joshua and Israel, called staves, for that they were arrows and spears, which are armed staves: or it might be translated tribes; so with the tribes of Israel, the tribes of God’ s anointed, or by them, were these Canaanites destroyed.

The head of his villages all the cities, and all the unwalled towns; for so Israel destroyed the daughters with the mothers, i.e. the villages with the cities.

They the inhabitants of Canaan, but particularly the five kings, Hab 3:11 ; of whose conspiracy you read Jos 10 , which see.

Came out as a whirlwind with violence invading every side; a tempest made up of contrary winds and exhalations, moving as violently as irregularly.

To scatter to disperse and drive away from the earth.

Their rejoicing was as to devour the joy they took was such as is the joy of men who take the spoil of enemies, and come to feast, not fight; they dreamed of nothing else but eating up God’ s people as they would eat bread.

The poor helpless and friendless as they seemed to be, poor Israel.

Secretly either by secret conspiracy, or by secret execution of the plot they laid against Israel.

Poole: Hab 3:15 - Thou // didst walk // Through // the sea // the heap of great waters // the great sea Thou O God, or thou, O Israel, notwithstanding all plots and opposition, didst walk heldest on thy way, and walkedst from thy entering on the east ...

Thou O God, or thou, O Israel, notwithstanding all plots and opposition,

didst walk heldest on thy way, and walkedst from thy entering on the east of the land to the west thereof; from Beth-el, Jordan, and Jericho on the east, where they entered the land that lay within Jordan.

Through rather to, (as Junius, Tremellius, and Grotius,)

the sea the most western parts Of all the land God gave; they took possession from east to west, to the great sea, the western sea, the mightiest sea the Jews of that time knew, called here by way of eminency

the heap of great waters called

the great sea Eze 47:10,15,19,20 , as Jos 9:1 . So was fulfilled what was promised, and they took possession of that was estated on them, Jos 1:3,4 . I rather refer this 15th verse in this manner, than, with most interpreters, to the Red Sea, which is to me a repetition unseemly for so short and elegant an enumeration of God’ s wonderful deliverances and blessings to Israel, from their leaving Egypt to their settling in Canaan.

Poole: Hab 3:16 - When I heard // My belly // At the voice // I trembled in myself // When he cometh up // Unto the people // He will invade them // With his troops When I heard what dreadful desolations God threatened against Israel, Hab 1:5-11 , for of those he now speaketh and meditateth, having finished his e...

When I heard what dreadful desolations God threatened against Israel, Hab 1:5-11 , for of those he now speaketh and meditateth, having finished his elegant description of God’ s wonderful works of mercy toward Israel of old, and left them as a foundation of comfort and hope.

My belly or heart, or bowels, or inward parts, Pro 20:27 , trembled; another effect and sign of surprising fears and astonishment.

At the voice at the mere report. Rottenness entered into my bones; a consumption and decay of all my strength; a languishing of my spirits, and a declining of my rigour: a very usual effect of great fears.

I trembled in myself I was all shaken, as with an earthquake, no part was free or unshaken. That I might rest in the day of trouble; these fears awakened my remembrance of that God, and those wonders which I have recounted; these fears have occasioned my search into this mystery of Providence, that, understanding it I might, as I do, betake myself to God, and his covenanted mercies, that I may rest in him, who will make it go well with the righteous, even with those righteous who shall live to see and feel the troubles of those days.

When he cometh up the king of Babylon, with all his bitter and cruel nations, bent on violence and rapine.

Unto the people against the Jews, my people, saith the prophet.

He will invade them with mighty force, and cut in pieces, make most bloody work among them.

With his troops with numerous armies, and spoil in troops, where what one leaves another will take; where none escape the fury of some or other in the troops: see this accomplished 2Ki 25 .

Poole: Hab 3:17 - Although the fig tree // Neither shall fruit be in the vines // The labour of the olive // Shall fail // The fields // The flock // No herd in the stall To war foreseen the prophet supposeth famine, and describeth the most grievous, as indeed it fell out. Although the fig tree which was in that cou...

To war foreseen the prophet supposeth famine, and describeth the most grievous, as indeed it fell out.

Although the fig tree which was in that country a very considerable part of their provision to live upon,

shall not blossom not give the least sign of bringing forth fruit.

Neither shall fruit be in the vines which were also the riches and provision of those countries.

The labour of the olive either labour bestowed upon the olive, or the fruit which the olive brings forth, called here labour by an allusion to our labour.

Shall fail disappoint the expectation of both dresser and eater.

The fields ploughed and sown, shall yield no meat; corn for bread.

The flock of sheep, kept out in the field, shall be cut off, either by wolf, murrain, or by the wasting Babylonians,

from the fold where they were wont to be safe. now they are in greatest danger, and that because they may be swept away all at once.

No herd in the stall greater cattle kept in the stall for labour, or for feeding.

To war foreseen the prophet supposeth famine, and describeth the most grievous, as indeed it fell out.

Although the fig tree which was in that country a very considerable part of their provision to live upon,

shall not blossom not give the least sign of bringing forth fruit.

Neither shall fruit be in the vines which were also the riches and provision of those countries.

The labour of the olive either labour bestowed upon the olive, or the fruit which the olive brings forth, called here labour by an allusion to our labour.

Shall fail disappoint the expectation of both dresser and eater.

The fields ploughed and sown, shall yield no meat; corn for bread.

The flock of sheep, kept out in the field, shall be cut off, either by wolf, murrain, or by the wasting Babylonians,

from the fold where they were wont to be safe. now they are in greatest danger, and that because they may be swept away all at once.

No herd in the stall greater cattle kept in the stall for labour, or for feeding.

To war foreseen the prophet supposeth famine, and describeth the most grievous, as indeed it fell out.

Although the fig tree which was in that country a very considerable part of their provision to live upon,

shall not blossom not give the least sign of bringing forth fruit.

Neither shall fruit be in the vines which were also the riches and provision of those countries.

The labour of the olive either labour bestowed upon the olive, or the fruit which the olive brings forth, called here labour by an allusion to our labour.

Shall fail disappoint the expectation of both dresser and eater.

The fields ploughed and sown, shall yield no meat; corn for bread.

The flock of sheep, kept out in the field, shall be cut off, either by wolf, murrain, or by the wasting Babylonians,

from the fold where they were wont to be safe. now they are in greatest danger, and that because they may be swept away all at once.

No herd in the stall greater cattle kept in the stall for labour, or for feeding.

To war foreseen the prophet supposeth famine, and describeth the most grievous, as indeed it fell out.

Although the fig tree which was in that country a very considerable part of their provision to live upon,

shall not blossom not give the least sign of bringing forth fruit.

Neither shall fruit be in the vines which were also the riches and provision of those countries.

The labour of the olive either labour bestowed upon the olive, or the fruit which the olive brings forth, called here labour by an allusion to our labour.

Shall fail disappoint the expectation of both dresser and eater.

The fields ploughed and sown, shall yield no meat; corn for bread.

The flock of sheep, kept out in the field, shall be cut off, either by wolf, murrain, or by the wasting Babylonians,

from the fold where they were wont to be safe. now they are in greatest danger, and that because they may be swept away all at once.

No herd in the stall greater cattle kept in the stall for labour, or for feeding.

Poole: Hab 3:18 - in the Lord // I will joy in the God of my salvation As for my part, I will, saith the prophet, rejoice; look for joy, expect matter of rejoicing in the Lord who will preserve a remnant and redeem th...

As for my part, I will, saith the prophet, rejoice; look for joy, expect matter of rejoicing

in the Lord who will preserve a remnant and redeem them, who will rebuke Babylon, and will very strangely destroy it.

I will joy in the God of my salvation: the prophet renews his own faith, and confirms ours. All shall end in salvation to him and believers.

Poole: Hab 3:19 - He will make my feet like hinds’ feet // He will make me to walk upon mine high places // To the chief singer The prophet had in his own, and in the name of all the godly, made a full profession of his faith, and resolution to behave himself with joy in mids...

The prophet had in his own, and in the name of all the godly, made a full profession of his faith, and resolution to behave himself with joy in midst of troubles, Hab 3:17,18 ; now he gives us account on what ground he speaks so, it is not in his own strength he can do it, but it is because the Lord God is his strength.

He will make my feet like hinds’ feet that I may escape to God my refuge to that safe mountain of salvation, that I may at last flee from Babylon to Judea, to Jerusalem.

He will make me to walk upon mine high places to my native country, to my beloved city, and thy more beloved temple, which were built like high places to that munition of rocks, &c., Deu 32:13 Isa 33:16 . My God will return my captivity, and when I am set at liberty, as I shall be, by Cyrus, my God will be my strength, that, as a hind let loose, I may hasten to the mountains of Israel.

To the chief singer let this be kept on record for public use, this be a pattern for others as well as it is a declaration of my faith, hope, desire, and prayer.

Haydock: Hab 3:1 - For ignorances For ignorances. That is, for the sins of his people. In the Hebrew it is shignoth: which some take to signify a musical instrument, or tune, with...

For ignorances. That is, for the sins of his people. In the Hebrew it is shignoth: which some take to signify a musical instrument, or tune, with which this sublime prayer and canticle was to be sung. (Challoner) ---

The term is omitted in several Latin manuscripts. The precise import cannot be ascertained; yet it seems to imply a song of comfort. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "with a canticle." (Haydock) ---

St. Jerome follows Aquila and Symmachus, and the 5th edition. Theodot.[Theodotion?] has, "for voluntary" transgressions. (Calmet) ---

All sins proceed in some degree from ignorance, (Worthington) and are all the effects of free-will. (Haydock) ---

The prophet prays to be freed from sin, and foretells the corning of Christ, &c. (Worthington) ---

The :Fathers apply this canticle to Him, as the Church herself does in her office. We cannot go astray, following such guides. Yet some think that an allusion is made to the return from captivity, and from Egypt, which were noble figures of the world's redemption. The prophet concludes with adoring the ways of God, (Calmet) which at first he had not comprehended. (Haydock) ---

He is astonished at God's mercy, in becoming incarnate for man's sake. (Worthington)

Haydock: Hab 3:2 - Thy hearing // Work // Years // Make Thy hearing, &c. That is, thy oracles, the great and wonderful things thou hast revealed to me: and I was struck with a reverential fear and awe. (...

Thy hearing, &c. That is, thy oracles, the great and wonderful things thou hast revealed to me: and I was struck with a reverential fear and awe. (Challoner) ---

I saw that the unjust would not escape. (Calmet) ---

Work. The great work of the redemption of man, which thou wilt bring to life and light in the midst of the years, when our calamities and miseries shall be at their height. (Challoner) ---

Years, at the time appointed. (Worthington) ---

Septuagint read, "Lord, I considered thy works, and was astonished; in the midst of two living creatures, or lives, thou shalt be known," (Haydock) or found, between an ox and an ass, as the Church has it. (Nat. and and Circumc.[Nativity and Circumcision?]) (Worthington) ---

Christ appeared when the world was most dissolute. (Menochius) ---

The tradition of two animals being near the crib where he was born, is not of earlier date than about the fifth century. Some explain this of the Father between the Son and the Holy Ghost; others of Christ between the thieves, or the two testaments, or collecting his Church from Jews and Gentiles, &c. (Sanct.; Calmet) ---

Moderns agree with St. Jerome's version. The prophet begs that God would perform his ancient miracles in his days, (Calmet) by relieving the captives, as he had formerly delivered their ancestors. (Haydock) ---

Make. Hebrew and Septuagint, "when the years approach, thou shalt be made known; when the time shall come, thou shalt be manifested; when my soul shall be troubled, in wrath thou," &c. (Haydock) ---

God never shuts the gate of mercy to the penitent, Nahum i. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:3 - South South. God himself will come to give us his law, and to conduct us into the true land of promise: as heretofore he came from the south, (in the Hebr...

South. God himself will come to give us his law, and to conduct us into the true land of promise: as heretofore he came from the south, (in the Hebrew Teman ) and from Mount Pharan, to give his law to his people in the desert. See Deuteronomy xxxiii. 2. (Challoner) ---

Septuagint render, "the shady and thick mount, Diapsalma." St. Jerome, Pharan semper. Hebrew, Sela, Psalm ix. (Worthington) ---

The term seems to denote a pause. There might be many in the same canticle, (Calmet) as we find three here, (ver. 9, 13) and many placed at irregular distances in the Psalms. (Haydock) ---

The Hebrews had long sojourned in the Stony Arabia, under the guidance of the Lord. We should render in the past time to ver. 16. (Calmet). ---

Christ was born (Haydock) at Bethlehem, to the south of Jerusalem, (Worthington) and had given the law, as a Jew interpreted this passage to St. Jerome. He was probably a convert. (Haydock)

Haydock: Hab 3:4 - Horns // Fulmine terres // Hid Horns, &c. That is, strength and power, which by a Hebrew phrase are called horns: or beams of light, which come forth from his hands: or it may ...

Horns, &c. That is, strength and power, which by a Hebrew phrase are called horns: or beams of light, which come forth from his hands: or it may allude to the cross, in the horns of which the hands of Christ were fastened, where his strength was hidden, by which he overcame the world, and drove out death and the devil. (Challoner) ---

Horns may also designate the nails, the prints of which remained in our Saviour's hands after his glorious resurrection. (Haydock) ---

God appeared hurling his thunderbolts (ver. 11., and Psalm xvii. 16.; Calmet) with a fiery law in his right hand, all shining with glory, Exodus xix. 18., and xxxiv. 29., and Deuteronomy v. 22. (Haydock) ---

Sinai seemed to be all on fire. Nothing can resist lightning. (Calmet). ---

Fulmine terres. (Virgil, Æneid i.) ---

Hid, Septuagint, "and he has placed the strong love of his power," (Haydock) Jesus Christ, who has given his life for us. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:5 - Death // Devil Death, &c. Both death and the devil shall be the executioners of his justice against his enemies; as they were heretofore against the Egyptians and ...

Death, &c. Both death and the devil shall be the executioners of his justice against his enemies; as they were heretofore against the Egyptians and Chanaanites. (Challoner) ---

Hebrew daber, (Haydock) according to the different pronunciation, is rendered "the word" by the Septuagint and Theo.[Theodotion?]; "the plague," by Aquila, &c. After Christ was baptized, the devil came to tempt him. (St. Jerome) ---

Devil. Hebrew resheph, (Haydock) or "bird," (Symmachus, &c.) means "creeping on the belly," as is explained by the Jews of the devil, who tempted our first parents. (St. Jerome) ---

Moderns (Haydock) follow the Chaldean and understand the carbuncle. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "burning coals:" marg.[marginal note,] "diseases," (Haydock) resembling the pestilence. God destroyed his enemies and the murmuring Hebrews. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "and it (the word) shall go out into the fields behind his feet." God's will shall be published in the field of the world, (Haydock) when the gospel shall he preached to the Gentiles.

Haydock: Hab 3:6 - Measured // He beheld // Mountains Measured . Septuagint, "the earth was troubled," (Calmet) or shaken. (Haydock) --- He beheld. One look of his eye is enough to melt all the natio...

Measured . Septuagint, "the earth was troubled," (Calmet) or shaken. (Haydock) ---

He beheld. One look of his eye is enough to melt all the nations, and to reduce them to nothing. For all heaven and earth disappear when they come before his light, Apocalypse xx. 11. (Challoner) ---

The Chanaanites were dismayed at the approach of God's people. He routed the nations, and determined the portion which he had chosen for Israel, Josue ii. 9. (Calmet) ---

Mountains. By the mountains and hills are signified the great ones of the world, that persecute the Church, whose power was quickly crushed by the Almighty. (Challoner) ---

The roughest roads in the wilderness were made smooth. God is poetically described at the head of his people, Deuteronomy viii. 4., and xxxiii. 15., and Psalm lxxv. 5. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:7 - Ethiopia Ethiopia, the land of the Blacks, and Madian, are here taken for the enemies of God and his people, who shall perish for their iniquity. (Challo...

Ethiopia, the land of the Blacks, and Madian, are here taken for the enemies of God and his people, who shall perish for their iniquity. (Challoner) ---

Chus peopled that part of Arabia. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew has Chusan, perhaps to rhyme with Madian; though some think that Chusan (defeated by Othoniel) and Madian (over whom Gedeon gained a complete victory) are designated, Judges ii and vi. When the Hebrews had crossed the Red Sea, the Arabs and Madianites removed their tents in great trepidation. (Calmet) ---

These nations dwelt chiefly under tents, or skins, which would be removed in time of war. (Worthington)

Haydock: Hab 3:8 - With the rivers // Horses With the rivers, &c. He alludes to the wonders wrought heretofore by the Lord in favour of his people Israel, when the waters of the rivers, viz., ...

With the rivers, &c. He alludes to the wonders wrought heretofore by the Lord in favour of his people Israel, when the waters of the rivers, viz., of Arnon and Jordan, and of the Red Sea, retired before their face; when he came as it were with his horses and chariots to save them; when he took up his bow for their defence, in consequence of the oath he had made to their tribes; when the mountains trembled, and the deep stood with its waves raised up in a heap, as with hands lifted up to heaven; when the sun and moon stood still at his command, &c., to comply with his anger, not against the rivers and sea, but against the enemies of his people. How much more will he do in favour of his Son, and against the enemies of his Church! (Challoner) ---

Horses: the ark of the covenant. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:9 - Take // Rivers Take. Septuagint bend thy bow over the sceptres, says the Lord, Dinpsalma." Sela is neglected by the Vulgate or (Haydock) by S. Jerome, as having...

Take. Septuagint bend thy bow over the sceptres, says the Lord, Dinpsalma." Sela is neglected by the Vulgate or (Haydock) by S. Jerome, as having no meaning. (Calmet) ---

Yet we find in the edition of his works he renders it, for ever; and here observes, that the Lord "always dwells with his saints," and attacks vices by their mouths. ---

Rivers. Septuagint, "the earth shall be cut by rivers." (Haydock) ---

Greek historians mention several rivers which have appeared or ceased to flow in consequence of earthquakes. The apostles, moved by Christ, water the world and form the Church. (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Hab 3:10 - Grieved Grieved. They seemed full of surprise, as in labour, (Hebrew) and the abyss spoke in its manner, (Calmet) obeying thy voice, and letting the Israel...

Grieved. They seemed full of surprise, as in labour, (Hebrew) and the abyss spoke in its manner, (Calmet) obeying thy voice, and letting the Israelites pass. (Haydock) (Psalm lxxiii. 15., and cxiii. 3., and Numbers xxi. 13. (Calmet) ---

"Earth, sea, and rocks quake at the sight of God." (Æschyl.) (Haydock) ---

Septuagint are obscure, (Calmet) "Peoples shall behold thee, and grieve, (or be in labour: Greek: odinesousi has both meanings; St. Jerome) dividing the waters of the passage, the abyss," &c. Other cop.[copies?] read, "Thou, Lord, wilt divide," which S. Jerome explains of heresies, which soon disappear. (Haydock)

Haydock: Hab 3:11 - Go Go. The five kings shall flee at the descent of Bethoron; or the heavenly body shall proceed at thy command, at the signal given by thunder, Josue x....

Go. The five kings shall flee at the descent of Bethoron; or the heavenly body shall proceed at thy command, at the signal given by thunder, Josue x. 11.

Haydock: Hab 3:13 - Christ // Head // Neck Christ. This may well be explained of the incarnation. God was touched at the miseries of his people, and rescued them by Moses. (Calmet) --- The...

Christ. This may well be explained of the incarnation. God was touched at the miseries of his people, and rescued them by Moses. (Calmet) ---

Theodotion and Symmachus, "Ebionite, half Christians," give a Jewish interpretation, "to save thy Christ." Aquila, though a Jew, and the 5th edition agree with us; but the 6th edition best explains the mystery, "through Jesus, thy Christ." (St. Jerome) ---

Head, &c. Such was Pharao heretofore; such shall antichrist be hereafter. (Challoner) ---

It may also be understood of Nabuchodonosor and of all persecutors. (Haydock) ---

Cyrus cut off Baltassar; Christ will destroy antichrist, (2 Thessalonians ii.; Menochius) the head of the wicked congregation, Isaias xi. 4. (Worthington) ---

Neck, or root. Pharao's eldest son perished, Exodus xiv. 17. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:14 - Sceptres Sceptres. The nobles were drowned (Haydock) with their king, (Calmet) when they expected an easy prey, Exodus xiii. 9. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "thou...

Sceptres. The nobles were drowned (Haydock) with their king, (Calmet) when they expected an easy prey, Exodus xiii. 9. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "thou hast pierced the chief of their troops in the midst of tribes," or sticks, as the Egyptians perhaps slew each other. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:15 - Sea Sea, &c., to deliver thy people from the Egyptian bondage; and thou shalt work the like wonders, in the spiritual way, to rescue the children of thy ...

Sea, &c., to deliver thy people from the Egyptian bondage; and thou shalt work the like wonders, in the spiritual way, to rescue the children of thy Church from their enemies. (Challoner) ---

The waters stood up like mountains, while God seemed to pass in his triumphal car. (Calmet)

Haydock: Hab 3:16 - I have heard // Me // People // Girded I have heard, &c., viz., the evils that are now coming upon the Israelites for their sins; and that shall come hereafter upon all impenitent sinners:...

I have heard, &c., viz., the evils that are now coming upon the Israelites for their sins; and that shall come hereafter upon all impenitent sinners: and the foresight that I have of these miseries makes me willing to die, that I may be at rest, before this general tribulation comes, in which all good things shall be withdrawn from the wicked. (Challoner) ---

The five woes denounced [in] chap. ii. make the deepest impression upon me. (Haydock) ---

I fear lest I should sin. (St. Jerome) ---

The thought of so many wonders makes me speechless. (Calmet) ---

Me. Let me find rest in the grave, like Job. (Haydock) ---

I trust that God will raise me up. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew, "rottenness hath entered,....and I trembled in myself." Septuagint, ( 15 ) "horses, troubling many waters: ( 16 ) I watched, and my belly was filled with fear at the voice of the prayer of my lips, and trembling entered my bones, and under me my strength (or frame, Greek: exis; some read Greek: ischus ) was troubled. I shall rest in the day of my tribulation, to go up to the people of my parish," or neighbourhood; Greek: paroikias. (Haydock) ---

People, &c. That I may join the happy company in the bosom of Abraham, that are girded; that is, prepared for their journey, by which they shall attend their Lord, when he shall ascend into heaven. To which high and happy place, my Jesus, that is, my Saviour, the great conqueror of death and hell, shall one day conduct me rejoicing and singing psalms of praise, ver. 18., and 19. (Challoner) ---

Girded. Hebrew, "transmigration or desolation." Habacuc was mercifully allowed by Providence to dwell in Juda, when almost all were led away. He was transported through the air to feed Daniel, (Daniel xiv. 32.) where he might see his brethren, as he here insinuates, having relied on God's mercy, ver. 2. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "when he cometh up unto the people, he will invade them with his troops; (marg.[marginal note,] "cut them in pieces") 17. Although the," &c. When all shall be ravaged, I will still hope. (Haydock) ---

All must be patiently endured, that we may rest at last. (Worthington)

Haydock: Hab 3:17 - Fail // Spem mentita seges // Fold Fail. Literally, "lie," (Haydock) or frustrate our expectations. (Calmet) --- Spem mentita seges. (Hor.[Horace?] i. ep. 7.) --- Fold. Septuag...

Fail. Literally, "lie," (Haydock) or frustrate our expectations. (Calmet) ---

Spem mentita seges. (Hor.[Horace?] i. ep. 7.) ---

Fold. Septuagint, "food."

Haydock: Hab 3:18 - Jesus Jesus. Hebrew yishi, "my (Haydock) salvation." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "saviour." Chaldean, "redeemer." (Haydock) --- Jesus was the desire o...

Jesus. Hebrew yishi, "my (Haydock) salvation." (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "saviour." Chaldean, "redeemer." (Haydock) ---

Jesus was the desire of all nations, and he imparts true joy to the faithful, John viii. 56. (Calmet) ---

At the last day, plagues similar to those of Egypt will occur; but the elect shall rejoice. (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Hab 3:19 - Places // Lamnatseach binginothai Places. I shall escape the fury of the Chaldeans, and sing a hymn of thanksgiving. (Calmet) --- "The conqueror singing psalms" may be unconnected ...

Places. I shall escape the fury of the Chaldeans, and sing a hymn of thanksgiving. (Calmet) ---

"The conqueror singing psalms" may be unconnected with the rest, (Haydock) and designed to shew that the hymn was intended for religious meetings. It may signify, "To the chief over the female musicians." (Calmet) ---

Lamnatseach binginothai. Protestants, "to the chief singer on my stringed instruments:" marg.[marginal note,] "Neginoth." Septuagint, "He will order my feet unto perfection. He will establish me upon the heights, to gain the victory in his canticle." (Haydock) ---

I shall exchange my former complaints for songs of praise, and be crowned by Jesus. (St. Jerome)

Gill: Hab 3:1 - A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet upon Shigionoth. A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet upon Shigionoth. Of the name, character, and office of the prophet; see Gill on Hab 1:1. This chapter is entitled a "...

A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet upon Shigionoth. Of the name, character, and office of the prophet; see Gill on Hab 1:1. This chapter is entitled a "prayer" of his, a supplicatory one, put up in an humble and earnest manner, and in the exercise of faith, and under the influence of a spirit of prophecy. He before had a vision of the coming of Christ, and of what enemies would rise up, and obstruct his kingdom and interest in the world; and here lie prays that these obstructions might be removed, and that the kingdom of Christ, in its full extent and glory, might take place in the world; and is a prayer of faith, as he prayed it might be, he believed it would be; and left this prayer behind him, for the use and instruction of the church in all ages, until the whole should be accomplished. It seems to be composed after the manner of the psalms of David, to make it the more pleasant and agreeable; and that it might be the more regarded, and be more fitted for the public use and service of the sanctuary: this appears from the style of it, which is poetical, lofty, and sublime; from the frequent use of the word "Selah", peculiar to the psalms of David, Hab 3:3 and from the direction of it to the chief singer on the stringed instruments, Hab 3:19 and from the phrase "upon", or "according to Shigionoth" here, which the Septuagint version renders "with a song"; and so the Arabic version, "after the manner of a song"; for this word seems to be the plural of Shiggaion, the title of the seventh psalm Psa 7:1; which was either the name, title, or first word of some song or songs, according to which this was to be sung; or the name of the tune with which it was to be sung; or of the instrument on which was to be sung: it very probably designs, and may called, an "erratic" or "wandering" song, because of the variableness of its metre, and of its tune. The Vulgate Latin version wrongly interprets it, "for ignorances"; as if this was a prayer of the prophet's for the pardon sins of error and ignorance committed by himself, or by others, or both; which sense is favoured by the Targum,

"a prayer which Habakkuk the prophet prayed, when it was revealed unto him concerning the length (of time) which (God) gave to the wicked; that, if they would return to the law with a perfect heart, they should be forgiven all the sins which they had committed before him as ignorance:''

but there does not appear throughout the whole prayer one single petition for the pardon of any sin at all.

Gill: Hab 3:2 - O Lord, I have heard thy speech, and was afraid // O Lord, revive thy work in the midst of the years // in the midst of the years make known // in wrath remember mercy O Lord, I have heard thy speech, and was afraid,.... Or, "thy hearing" p; which the Lord had caused to be heard from and of himself; the report that ...

O Lord, I have heard thy speech, and was afraid,.... Or, "thy hearing" p; which the Lord had caused to be heard from and of himself; the report that had been made to him, and other prophets before him, particularly Isaiah, who says, "who hath believed our report?" Isa 53:1 where the same phrase is used as here: though it seems here not so much to regard the evangelical part of that report, concerning the coming of Christ, his sufferings and death, in order obtain redemption and salvation for his people; for this would have been, and was, matter of joy, and not of fear and consternation: but the truth is this, the Lord in the preceding speech, being a report he made to the prophet concerning the Messiah, had signified that Christ would have many enemies from the Jews and from the Gentiles, from Rome Pagan and Rome Papal; that the church of Christ would meet with great afflictions and persecutions, and be attended with many conflicts, temptations, and difficulties; that the interest of the Redeemer would be sometimes very low, and the work of the Lord at a stand in the world, yea, seemingly dead, quite lost and gone; this is what caused the fear and distress in the prophet's mind, and gave him that pain and uneasiness: and hence the following petition,

O Lord, revive thy work in the midst of the years; which refers not to the deliverance from the Babylonish captivity, which was fixed to a term of years, when, and not before, not in the midst of them it would be wrought; but to the great work of the Lord in the times of the Gospel. There is a double reading of these words in the Septuagint version of them, and both very different from the Hebrew text. The one is, "in the midst of two lives thou shalt be known"; the life that now is, and that which is to come. The other, by a change of the accent, is, "in the midst of two animals thou shall be known"; so the Arabic version. Theodoret makes mention of both, and inclines to the former;

"some (he says) by two animals understand angels and men; some the incorporeal powers near the divine Glory, the cherubim and seraphim; others the Jews and Babylonians; but to me it seems that the prophet does not say animals, but lives, the present and future, in the midst of which he was a just Judge:''

but the latter reading is followed by many of the ancients, whose different senses are given by Jerom on the place; some interpreting them of the Son and Spirit, by whom the Father is made known; others of the two cherubim in Exodus, and of the two seraphim in Isaiah; and there were some who understood them of the two Testaments, the Old and New, in the midst of which the Lord may be known; and others of Christ's being crucified between two thieves, by which be might be known: but, besides these different sentiments, many of the ancients concluded from hence that Christ lay in the manger between two animals, the ox and the ass, and to which they refer in their ancient hymns q; but though this is a wrong version of the text, and a wrong sense which is put upon it, together with Isa 1:3; yet, as Burkius observes, there is in this mistake a certain and ancient truth, that the text of Habakkuk belongs to the work of God in Christ, and especially to the nativity of our Lord Jesus; and so some later writers apply this to the wonderful work of the incarnation of Christ, that new, unheard of, and amazing thing the Lord would work in the earth; the promise of which, being delayed, might seem to be dead; and therefore it is entreated it might be revived, and the performance of it hastened; and others to the work of redemption by Christ, which the Father gave him to do, and he promised to come and perform; but, being deferred, the Old Testament saints were impatient of it. Cocceius and Van Till restrain it to the resurrection of Christ from the dead, his coming being prophesied of before; and render the words, "O Lord, thy work is his life r, in the midst of the years"; the resurrection of Christ from the dead, or the quickening of him, is prophesied of in many places as a work that would be done, and in which the hope and expectation of the saints were placed; this being a work of great importance both to Christ, his exaltation and glory, and to his people; their quickening together with him; their regeneration, or passing from death to life; their justification of life, and resurrection from the dead, depending upon it; and this is the Lord's work, and owing to the exceeding greatness of his power, and is frequently ascribed to God the Father, who raised Christ from the dead, and gave him glory: and this was "in the midst of the years", or between the years of the Old and of the New Testament; the former was the year of God's longsuffering and forbearance, the time when the Jewish church, like children, were under governors and tutors, until the time appointed of the Father; the latter is the acceptable year of the Lord, and the year of the redeemed; and between these two years, at the end of the one, and the beginning of the other, the Messiah came, was cut off or died, and was quickened and raised again: but I should choose rather to understand this more generally of the work of the Lord in the Christian churches throughout the whole Gospel dispensation, or at least in some certain periods of it. The church itself is the work of the hands of the Lord, Isa 45:11 which sometimes has seemed to have been in a very dead and lifeless state and condition, as in the dark times of Popery; and though there was a reviving of it upon the Reformation, yet there has been a decline since; and the Sardian church state, in which we now are, is described as having a "name", that it "lives", and yet is "dead"; and the interest of religion, and the church of Christ, will be lower still when the witnesses are slain, and their dead bodies lie unburied, before the Spirit of the Lord enters into them, and revives them: now the prophet having in view these various intervals, and especially the last, prays for a reviving of the interest and church of Christ, and the work of the Lord in it; and which will be done when Christ will come in a spiritual manner, and destroy antichrist; when the Spirit will be poured down plentifully from on high; when the Gospel will be purely and powerfully preached all over the world; when the ordinances of it will be administered as at the beginning; when multitudes of churches will be raised and formed, the Jews will be converted, and the fulness of the Gentiles brought in: this will be a reviving time indeed! and there never will be a thorough one till this time comes; and this will be in "the midst of the years"; between the years of the reign of antichrist, the 1260 days or years of it, which will now expire, and the thousand years of Christ's personal reign on earth; between these two will be this reviving time or spiritual reign of Christ s. The words may to good purpose be applied to the work of grace in the hearts of true believers in Christ, which is the Lord's work, and his only; not men, not ministers, not angels, but Jehovah only is the author and finisher of it. This sometimes seems as it were to be dead, when the graces of the Spirit are not in exercise; when saints are in dead and lifeless frames of soul; when they are backward to spiritual and religious exercises; when the world, and the things of it, have got power over them, and they are unconcerned for the things of Christ, the honour of his name, and the good of their own souls; when they are under the power of some sin, and are carried captive by it, as was the case of David, Peter, and others: now this work is revived, when the graces of the Spirit are called forth again into lively exercise; when the affections go out strongly after divine objects and things; when the thoughts of the mind, and the meditations of the heart, are on spiritual subjects; when the talk and conversation turns chiefly on things of a religious and heavenly nature; when there is a forwardness to spiritual exercises, a stirring up of themselves and others to them, and a continuance in them; when there is a visible growing in grace, and a fruitfulness in every good work: this is to be prayed for, and is from the Lord; and is owing to his setting his hand a second time to the work; to his being as the dew to his people; to Christ the sun of righteousness arising on them, with healing in his wings; and to the south wind of the Spirit blowing upon them, and causing their spices to flow out; and this is desirable in the midst of their years, before the years come on in which they have no pleasure, or before they go hence, and be no more:

in the midst of the years make known; which Cocceius and Van Till restrain to the notification of Christ's resurrection from the dead by the ministry of the Gospel, for the benefit of the Lord's people, both Jews and Gentiles; as being a matter of great consequence to them, and for the confirmation of the Christian religion, as it undoubtedly was: but it seems better to understand it in a more general sense, that God would make known more of himself, as the covenant God and Father of his people, of his mind and will, of his love, grace, and mercy in Christ; that he would make known more of Christ, of his person, offices, and grace; that he would make known more clearly the work of his Spirit and grace upon their hearts, and display his power, and the efficacy of his grace, in reviving it, and carrying it on; that he would make known more largely his covenant and promises, his truth and faithfulness in the performance of them; that he would grant a larger measure of knowledge of all divine things of the Gospel, and the truths of it; such as is promised, and is expected will be in the latter day, when the earth shall be everywhere filled with the knowledge of the Lord, Hab 2:14,

in wrath remember mercy; the above interpreters refer this to the time of God's wrath and vengeance upon the Jewish nation for their rejection of the Messiah; and which the prophet does not pray might be averted, but that mercy might be remembered to his own people among them, as was; who had the Gospel first preached to them, and were called by grace and saved; and who had an opportunity given them of escaping from Jerusalem, before the destruction of that city: but it may be more agreeable to interpret this of the state of the churches of Christ and true believers; who, when under affliction and distress, or in temptation and desertion, are ready to conclude that God is dealing with them in wrath; and whom the prophet personates, and by him they are taught to pray, that at such seasons God would remember his covenant, his promises, his lovingkindness and tender mercies, the favour he bears to his own people, and smile on them again, and comfort their souls.

Gill: Hab 3:3 - God came from Teman // and the Holy One from Mount Paran // Selah // his glory covered the heavens // and the earth was full of his praise God came from Teman,.... Or, "may God come from Teman" t; since it is part of the prayer of Habakkuk: or, as "from Teman" u; as he of old came from th...

God came from Teman,.... Or, "may God come from Teman" t; since it is part of the prayer of Habakkuk: or, as "from Teman" u; as he of old came from thence, a city in the land of Edom, Jer 49:7 it was five miles from Petra, in Idumea, where was Mount Seir, from whence the Lord arose, and shone forth from Mount Paran, at the giving of the law, Deu 33:2 to which the allusion is here. So the Targum,

"at the giving of the law to his people, God was revealed from the south;''

for so Teman signifies. The prophet, to encourage his own faith, and the faith of others, takes notice, in this and the following verses, of the instances of the grace, goodness, and power of God to his people Israel, in appearing to them at Mount Sinai, going before them in the wilderness, destroying their enemies, casting them out before them, and introducing them into the land of Canaan, and settling them there; suggesting, that he that had done these great and wonderful things would support and maintain, carry on and promote, his own kingdom and interest in the world; in order to which the prophet prays to God the Father for the coming of his Son, either in the flesh, that the incarnate God would appear in the world, and set up his kingdom in it; or, in prayer, he prophesies of it, and expresses his faith in it: "God cometh from the south"; or, "he shall come" w, as it may be rendered: he knew, from the prophecy of Micah, that he that was to be ruler in Israel was to come from Bethlehem, Mic 5:2 which lay to the south of Jerusalem; and from hence he expected him, and believed he would come, and prayed for it as being most desirable and welcome: or else this respects the coming of the Messiah, in the ministration of the word to Jews and Gentiles, after his resurrection from the dead, and ascension to heaven, and the pouring forth of his Spirit on the day of Pentecost; that as the Lord came from the places here mentioned, when he gave the law on Mount Sinai, so he would send forth his Gospel out of Zion and Jerusalem, and go forth himself along with it, riding in his glory, and in his majesty, conquering and to conquer; causing his ministers to triumph in him, and by them subdue multitudes of souls to him, both in Judea, and in the Gentile world, whereby his kingdom might appear in it:

and the Holy One from Mount Paran; or, "even the Holy One" x; that came or shined forth "from Mount Paran" formerly; for it was Christ then that appeared on Mount Sinai, and gave to Moses the lively oracles of God; see Psa 68:17 he, as he is truly God, God manifest in the flesh, "Immanuel", God with us; so he is the holy One of God, infinitely and essentially holy, as a divine Person; and holy, and harmless, and without sin in his human nature and life; and is the sanctifier and sanctification of his people. Mount Paran was situated to the south of the land of Canaan, as well as Teman, which so signifies, as before observed. It is called by Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, and others, Strobilus, from its likeness to a pineapple. It had its name from the city Paran, which lay between Egypt and Arabia y; see 1Ki 11:18 which Jerom says z was three days' journey from Aila to the east; mention is made of Ail, or Elparan in Gen 14:6 near to which was the wilderness of Paran, frequently spoken of in Scripture, Gen 21:21 the same which Josephus a calls the valley or plain of Pharan, where Simon of Gerasa made caves and dens, and hid the treasure he plundered from the people: according to Adrichomius b, it was a most dreadful barren desert, where nothing grew, or was to be had, through which the children of Israel journeyed; and was sometimes taken for the first part of the desert of Arabia, near Mount Sinai, and sometimes for the last part of it, towards the land of promise; sometimes it was called the desert of Sin, and sometimes the desert of Sinai, from that mountain; but its most general name was that of Paran, and contained eleven days' journey from Mount Sinai to Kadeshbarnea. Mount Paran (he says c) is thick and shady, near to Mount Sinai, and even "contiguous", as it should seem to be from Deu 33:2 to which the reference is here. So Hillerus d interprets it, "full of boughs", or "branches"; or else he would have it to signify "the corner of Aran", the son of Dishan, a son of Seir the Horite, who inhabited this country; see Gen 36:20 and both Teman and Paran being to the south, may point to the place of the Redeemer, by whom the great work was to be done, referred unto. Jerom says he heard a Hebrew man discourse on this passage, thus,

"that Bethlehem lies to the south, where the Lord and Saviour was born: and that he it is of whom it is here said, "the Lord shall come from the south"; that is, shall be born in Bethlehem, and thence arise; and because he who is born in Bethlehem formerly gave the law on Mount Sinai, he is "the Holy One" that came from "Mount Paran"; seeing Paran is a place near to Mount Sinai; and the word "Selah" signifies "always"; and the sense is, he who is born in Bethlehem, and who on Mount Sinai, that is, on Mount Paran, gave the law, always is the author and giver of all blessings, past, present, and to come.''

The word

Selah stands here in the middle of the verse. It is interpreted, by several of the Jewish writers, "for ever", as by the aforementioned Hebrew; and by others as an affirmation, and render it, "verily, truly", as answering to "Amen". Some understand it as a pause or full stop, denoting attention to something said that is remarkable; and others take it to be a note, directing the singer to the elevation of his voice, where it stands; and so it is no other than a musical note; hence the Septuagint render it διαψαλμα. A very learned man e has wrote a dissertation upon it, showing that it is one of the names of God; and used differently, as the sense requires, either in the vocative case, as "Selah", that is, O God; or in the other cases, of God, to God, &c.:

his glory covered the heavens; that is, the glory of God, the Holy One, when he came, or should come: this was true of him when he descended on Mount Sinai, and his glory abode upon it; and the sight of his glory was like devouring fire; and the elders saw the God of Israel, under whose feet was as a paved work of sapphire, and as the body of heaven in its clearness; yea, so great as to make the light and glory of the celestial bodies useless, even to cover and hide the shining of them; see Exo 24:10 and may respect the glorious appearances at the birth of Christ, when the heavenly host descended, and sung Glory to God in the highest, and when the glory of the Lord shone round about the shepherds, Luk 2:9 and at his baptism, when the heavens were opened, the Father's voice was heard, and the Spirit descended on Christ, as a dove; and at his transfiguration, when his face shone as the sun; and Moses and Elias appeared in glorious forms, and a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice was heard from the excellent Glory, Mat 3:16 or rather it may be, this may respect Christ as the brightness of his Father's glory, and the glory of God in the face of Christ, as set forth in the light of the glorious Gospel of Christ, when carried throughout the world by his apostles; whereby his glory was so spread in it, that the heavens were covered with it, and declared it; yea, it was set above the heavens, and the name of the Lord became excellent in all the earth, as follows; see Psa 19:1,

and the earth was full of his praise; with the words of his praise, as the Targum; so the fame of the mighty things done by the Lord in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, for his people, reached the nations of the world, and especially those of the land of Canaan, and struck them with awe and dread, Jos 2:9 and the fame of Christ, his miracles and doctrines, went through the land of Israel, and all Syria; and multitudes glorified God, and praised him for what was done by him, Mat 4:23 and more especially the earth was filled with his glory and praise when his Gospel was carried into all the parts of it by his apostles; which occasioned universal joy to all sensible sinners, and filled their hearts and mouths with praise to God for such a Saviour, and for such blessings of grace and good things that came by him: or, "the earth was full of his light" f; of the light of his Gospel, and of the knowledge of himself by it.

Gill: Hab 3:4 - And his brightness was as the light // he had horns coming out of his hand // and there was the hiding of his power And his brightness was as the light,.... Of fire, of devouring fire on the top of the mount, to which the sight of his glory was like, Exo 24:16 to w...

And his brightness was as the light,.... Of fire, of devouring fire on the top of the mount, to which the sight of his glory was like, Exo 24:16 to which Kimchi refers it. Aben Ezra thinks the pillar of fire is intended, in which the Lord went before his people in the wilderness, Exo 13:21 or as the light and splendour of Bereshith, as the Targum, of that primogenital light which was produced on the first day of the creation; or as the light of the seven days of the creation, as Jarchi; see Isa 30:26 or rather as the light of the sun shining in its full strength, Christ being the light of the world, and the sun of righteousness; and so may describe him as the brightness of his Father's glory; or his glory, as the only begotten of the Father, seen by his own disciples in the days of his flesh, shining through his works and miracles; or as exhibited in the light of his glorious Gospel, which is the great light that shined on men; and in and by which they that sat in darkness saw light, and who were darkness itself were made light in the Lord: what a glory, lustre, brightness, and light, did the Gospel spread in the world at the first publication of it!

he had horns coming out of his hand; which the Jewish interpreters understand of Moses having horns or beams of light and glory from the hand and power of God, when he conversed with him on the mount, and the skin of his face shone, where the same word is used as here, Exo 34:29 though some of them interpret it of the two tables of the law, which came from the hand of the Lord, edged with glory and brightness, and looked like fire; hence called a "fiery law", Deu 33:2. The words may be rendered, as in the margin, "he had beams" coming "out of his side" g; and be understood of Christ, who has beams and rays of glory on all sides of him, all around him; he is all glory h; he is crowned with glory and honour, and highly exalted at his Father's right hand, above all principalities and powers: and "horns" being an emblem of power and might, authority and dominion, the phrase may denote that power and authority in heaven and in earth are given to him as Mediator, and exercised by him. Van Till observes, that the word "horn" is a military term, and is used for the wings of armies, the right and left; and as Christ is here described as a General of an army, marching forth in a warlike manner; these may denote the armies or companies under him, at his hand, and under his command, accoutred, and ready to obey his orders; and particularly may have respect to the division made among the apostles, whom he sent forth to subdue men to him; committing the Gospel of the circumcision to Peter, and of the uncircumcision to Paul, Gal 2:7 whose ministrations were made successful to the pulling down of the strong holds of sin and Satan, and reducing many to the obedience of Christ:

and there was the hiding of his power; that is, in his hand; there his power, which before was hidden, was made manifest; and yet so little displayed, in comparison of what it is in itself, that it may be rather said to be hid than revealed; or there, in his hand, lies his power, with which he hides and covers his people in the day of battle; especially his ministering servants, whom he holds in his right hand, and preserves them amidst a thousand dangers and difficulties, and keeps them for further usefulness; see Act 18:10. The Targum is,

"sparks went out from the chariot of his glory; there he revealed his majesty, which was hid from the children of men, with sublime power.''

Aben Ezra thinks the ark is meant by "the hiding of his power", called "the ark of his strength", Psa 132:8.

Gill: Hab 3:5 - Before him went the pestilence // and burning coals went forth at his feet Before him went the pestilence,.... Either in the land of Egypt, when he marched through that, and slew all their firstborn, Psa 78:50 or rather whic...

Before him went the pestilence,.... Either in the land of Egypt, when he marched through that, and slew all their firstborn, Psa 78:50 or rather which he sent before him, and Israel his people among the nations of the land of Canaan, with other diseases and judgments, and destroyed them to make way for his people, which may be here alluded to, Exo 23:27 and may point at the judgments of God, and those pestilential diseases which seized upon the persecutors of the Christians, both among the Jews, as Herod, Act 12:23 and among the Gentiles, as many of the Roman emperors, who died violent and grievous deaths; and particularly it may regard the pestilence, famine, and other sore judgments preceding the destruction of Jerusalem, and the inhabitants of it, for their rejection and crucifixion of the Messiah:

and burning coals went forth at his feet; which some understand of hailstones mingled with fire, to which the allusion may be, being one of the plagues of Egypt, Exo 9:23. Some interpret it of hot diseases, burning fevers, so Kimchi; which are at the command of God, and sent forth by him when he pleases, to do his will. The ancient fathers expound all this of the destruction of death, and the devil, and his principalities, by Christ upon the cross; and the Targum is,

"from before him was sent forth the angel of death, and his word went forth in a flame of fire;''

but this seems to have respect to the burning of the city and temple of Jerusalem, which was done by the Romans as instruments, but according to the direction, order, and will of Christ, Mat 22:7 see Psa 18:12.

Gill: Hab 3:6 - He stood and measured the earth // he beheld, and drove asunder the nations // and the everlasting mountains were scattered // the perpetual hills did bow // his ways are everlasting He stood and measured the earth,.... This alludes to the ark of the Lord, the symbol of his presence, standing and abiding at Gilgal for the space of ...

He stood and measured the earth,.... This alludes to the ark of the Lord, the symbol of his presence, standing and abiding at Gilgal for the space of fourteen years, while the land of Canaan was subdued by Joshua; and then measured out by him, and divided by lot, as an inheritance to the children of Israel, according to the direction and appointment of the Lord, Jos 13:1 &c.: here it may have respect to the mission of the apostles into the various parts of the world, and the distribution of it among them; some being sent into one part, and some into another, called their particular line and measure, 2Co 10:14 some into India, others into Ethiopia; some into Asia, and others into Europe; by which means the Gospel was preached everywhere, and great part of the world became Christians:

he beheld, and drove asunder the nations; with a look of his he made them give way; he drove the Canaanites out of the land, and separated them from one another, and scattered them about, to make room for his people Israel, Psa 78:55,

and the everlasting mountains were scattered; or, "were broken" i:

the perpetual hills did bow; the mountains and hills that were from the beginning of the creation, that were settled upon their bases, and never moved, now trembled, shook, and bowed, as Sinai and others did, at the presence of the God of Israel; see Jdg 5:5 or rather, figuratively, these may design the kingdoms and states, kings and princes, greater and lesser, belonging to the land of Canaan, which were shaken, moved, and taken by the Israelites, and brought into subjection to them; and in like manner kings and kingdoms, comparable to mountains and hills, through the preaching of the Gospel, and the power of Christ attending it, were brought to yield unto him, at the downfall of Paganism in the Roman empire: this is signified by every mountain and island being moved out of their places, and kings and great men calling to the rocks and mountains to fall on them, and hide them from the wrath of the Lamb, Rev 6:14,

his ways are everlasting; and what he has done in ages past he can do again; his power, his wisdom, and his grace, are unchangeably the same; and all he does in time, every step he takes, is according to his counsels, purposes, and decrees in eternity, which infallibly come to pass; nor can he be hindered and frustrated in the execution of them; as he has begun, he will go on; as he has set up his kingdom in the world, he will support and maintain it; and though there are many obstructions and remoras in the way of it, he will go on, and remove them, until he has thoroughly established it, and brought it to its highest glory, which he has designed; all mountains and hills are nothing before him; he can soon make them a plain; see Rev 11:15, or, "the ways of the world k are his"; the world is under his government, and all things in it subject to his providence; he can rule and overrule all things for his own glory, and the good of his interest, and he will do it; everything is subject to his control, and under his direction; not a step can be taken without his will. This the prophet observes along with the above things, to encourage the faith and expectation of the saints, that the work of the Lord will be revived, and his kingdom and interest promoted and established in the world; though there may, and will, be many difficulties and distresses previous to it.

Gill: Hab 3:7 - I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction // the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction,.... The same with Cush or Ethiopia; hence the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions render it, "the tents of ...

I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction,.... The same with Cush or Ethiopia; hence the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions render it, "the tents of the Ethiopians"; and these are the same with "the curtains of Midian" in the next clause, tents being made of curtains, and the Ethiopians and Midianites the same people; so the daughter of the priest of Midian, whom Moses married, is called an Ethiopian woman, Exo 2:21. This seems to have respect to that panic which seized the neighbouring nations by whom the Israelites passed, as well as the Canaanites, into whose land they were marching, when they heard what wonderful things were done for them in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, which was predicted by Moses in Exo 15:14 and not only fulfilled in the Canaanites, as appears from what Rahab says, Jos 2:9 but particularly in the Moabites and Midianites, who sent to each other, and consulted together against Israel; and, by the advice of Balaam, found ways and means to draw them into fornication, and so to idolatry; for which the Israelites having suffered, were stirred up to avenge themselves on them, and slew five of their kings, and a great multitude of their people; and so the words may be rendered, "for iniquity" l; and the word is often used for idolatry; that is, for the sin they drew the Israelites into, they were brought into trembling and great distress, which the prophet saw, perceived, and understood by reading the history of those times; see Num 22:3 though the Jewish commentators, and others, generally refer this to the case of Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia, who carried Israel into captivity, from whence they were delivered by Othniel, who prevailed against Cushan, and into whose hands he fell; and so then he and his people were seen in affliction, Jdg 3:7 but Cushan here is not the name of a man, but of a country: and whereas it follows,

the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble; this is thought to refer to the times of Gideon, when the Midianites were overcome by him with three hundred men, and in their fright fell upon and destroyed each other; signified by a barley cake tumbling into the host of Midian, and overturning a tent, as represented in a dream to one of Gideon's men, Jdg 7:13 but the former reference seems best; and it should be observed, that Cush or Ethiopia, and Midian, were parts of Arabia; for not only the Arabians are said to be near the Ethiopians, or at the hand of the Cushites, 2Ch 21:16 but Sinai, a part of Horeb, where Moses fed the flock of his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, is expressly said to be in Arabia; compare Exo 3:1 and with those Arabians called Scenitae, from their dwelling in tents, agree the characters in the text: now the people inhabiting those places, the prophet foresaw by a spirit of prophecy "under vanity" m, as it may be rendered; that is, "subject" to it, as the whole Gentile world was, Rom 8:20 or under the power of idolatry; but it was foretold that these should be converted in Gospel times, Psa 68:31 which was brought about, partly by the Apostles Matthew and Matthias, said to be sent into Ethiopia; and partly by the Ethiopian eunuch, converted and baptized by Philip, who doubtless was the means of spreading the Gospel in his own country, when returned to it, Act 8:27 and chiefly by the Apostle Paul, who went into Arabia, and preached there, quickly after his conversion; and here were churches in the first times of Christianity; See Gill on Gal 1:17 and at this time Cushan or Ethiopia was in affliction; and the Midianites trembled, such of them to whom the word came in power, and they were made sensible of their danger and misery, as the apostle did, the instrument of their conversion, Act 9:6 once more, as an Ethiopian is an emblem of a man in a state of nature, and describes very aptly wicked and profligate persons, apostates from religion, and such as are persecutors of good men, Jer 13:23 it may design such here; and be expressive of their distress and trouble, the fear and dread they would be seized with on seeing Christianity prevail, and Paganism falling in the Roman empire; which distress and trembling are in a very lively manner set forth in Rev 6:15.

Gill: Hab 3:8 - Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? was thine anger against the rivers // was thy wrath against the sea, that thou didst ride upon thine horses and thy chariots of salvation Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? was thine anger against the rivers?.... Referring, as is commonly thought, either to the rivers in Egypt ...

Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? was thine anger against the rivers?.... Referring, as is commonly thought, either to the rivers in Egypt turned into blood, which was one of the plagues of that land, Exo 7:20 when the resentment of the Lord was not so much against them as against the Egyptians; and as a punishment of them for drowning the infants of the Israelites in them, and in order to obtain the dismissal of his people from that land: or else to the river Jordan, called "rivers", because of the largeness of it, and the abundance of water in it; against which the Lord was not angry, when he divided the waters of it, which was done only to make a passage through it for his people into the land of Canaan, Jos 3:16,

was thy wrath against the sea, that thou didst ride upon thine horses and thy chariots of salvation? the Red sea, when a strong east wind was sent, and divided the waters of it, which was no mark of displeasure against that; but for the benefit of the people of Israel, that they might pass through it as on dry land; and for the destruction of Pharaoh and his hosts, who, entering into it with his horses and chariots, were drowned; the Lord coming forth against him, riding on his horses and chariots, the pillar of fire and cloud, by which he defended Israel, and through which he looked, and discomfited the host of the Egyptians, and wrought salvation for his people; see Exo 14:19 with which compare Psa 114:3. The clouds are the chariots of the Lord, Psa 104:3 so angels, who are sometimes signified by horses and chariots, Psa 18:10 Zec 1:8 and here they may design the angels of Michael, or Christ, Rev 12:7 the Christian emperors, Constantine and Theodosius, whom the Lord raised up, and made use of as instruments to demolish Paganism, establish Christianity, and deliver and save his people from their persecutors, who came in like a flood upon them; and who, for their number and force, were comparable to rivers, yea, to the sea; and upon whom the Lord showed some manifest tokens of his wrath and displeasure; so people, tongues, and nations, are compared to many waters, Rev 17:15 and monarchs and their armies, Isa 8:7 and the Targum here interprets the rivers of kings and their armies: and it may be observed that some parts of the Roman empire are signified by the sea, and rivers and fountains of waters, on which the blowing of the second and third trumpets brought desolation; as the antichristian states are described by the same, on which the second and third vials of God's wrath will be poured, when he will indeed be displeased and angry with the rivers and the sea, figuratively understood, Rev 8:8.

Gill: Hab 3:9 - Thy bow was made quite naked // according to the oaths of the tribes, even thy word. Selah // Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers Thy bow was made quite naked,.... It was took out of its case, and arrows out of their quiver, and these made use of against the enemies of his people...

Thy bow was made quite naked,.... It was took out of its case, and arrows out of their quiver, and these made use of against the enemies of his people: this is put for all weapons of war; the sword was unsheathed, and all military weapons employed, and the power of the Lord was exerted; or, as the Targum,

"the Lord was revealed in his power;''

fighting the battles of his people, as in the times of Joshua:

according to the oaths of the tribes, even thy word. Selah. That is, to fulfil his word of promise, to which he had annexed his oaths, he at several times swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to the fathers of the Israelites, that he would put them in possession of the land of Canaan; and which being worthy of notice, and to be remarked, the word "Selah" is added. So the Targum,

"in revealing thou art revealed in thy power, because of thy covenant which thy word made with the tribes for ever.''

The "bow" here is an emblem of the Gospel, with which Christ the Captain of our salvation, the antitype of Joshua, went forth, more especially in the first ages of Christianity, conquering and to conquer, Rev 6:2. The arrows of this bow are the doctrines of the Gospel, which are sharp in the heart of Christ's enemies, his elect; who are so in a state of nature, whereby they are brought into subjection to him, Psa 45:5 and hereby the promises of God confirmed by his oaths are accomplished, that the spiritual seed of Christ shall endure for ever; or he shall never want a seed to serve him, Psa 89:35,

Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers; which is generally supposed to allude to the smiting of the rock, from whence waters gushed out, and ran in dry places like a river; for which channels or canals were made in the earth, in which they flowed and followed the Israelites wherever they went, and supplied man and beast with water. So the Targum,

"for thou didst break strong rocks, rivers came forth overflowing the earth;''

see Psa 105:41 but this seems to be going back in the history; rather therefore this refers to the rivers formed in the land of Canaan, whereby it became fertile; hence it is called a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, that spring out of valleys and hills, Deu 8:7. This may respect, in futurity, either the provisions of grace, and the large abundance of the blessings of it, made for the supply and satisfaction of the children of God in times of distress and difficulty, Isa 41:17 or that help and assistance against, protection and deliverance from, the flood of persecution, cast out after the church by Satan, in order to overwhelm her, by the earth opening its mouth, and swallowing up the flood, Rev 12:15.

Gill: Hab 3:10 - The mountains saw thee, and they trembled // the overflowing of the water passed by // the deep uttered his voice, and lifted up hands on high The mountains saw thee, and they trembled,.... At the power and presence of God, as Sinai of old; See Gill on Hab 3:6 by which are signified mighty p...

The mountains saw thee, and they trembled,.... At the power and presence of God, as Sinai of old; See Gill on Hab 3:6 by which are signified mighty people and nations, kings and great men, struck with terror at the amazing providence of God in the world, on the behalf of his own people, and against their enemies; see Rev 6:14,

the overflowing of the water passed by; which is usually referred to the overflowing of the river Jordan at the time of the passage of the Israelites through it, when the waters above stood and rose up as a heap, and those below failed, and were cut off, and passed away into the salt sea, Jos 3:15 but perhaps it may refer to the times of David, when he conquered all his enemies round about, who were like an overflowing flood; but now passed away, particularly the Philistines, who had always been very troublesome to Israel, but now were overcome by David at Baalperazim; where the Lord, on the contrary, broke forth upon his enemies as the breach of waters, from whence the place had its name, 2Sa 5:20 and as this respects time that was then to come, when this prayer was made, it may regard the flood of persecution, which ceased in Constantine's time, when Paganism was abolished, and Christianity established; concerning which it might be said, "the winter is past, the rain is over and gone", Son 2:11 and the word n here used signifies a large shower of rain, causing an inundation, a storm, a tempest; and so fitly expresses the violence of persecution, now at an end:

the deep uttered his voice, and lifted up hands on high; language very poetical, exceeding striking, very beautiful and elegant. It is generally understood of the deep waters of the Red sea, or of Jordan, or both, when divided for the Israelites to pass through; at which time, when they rose up, they made a great noise, and stood on a heap; and so the phrases are expressive of the roaring and raging of them as they rose up, which was as if they had spoken; and of the position in which they were, standing up on high, as if they had hands, and these lifted up: but rather they figuratively refer to the mighty nations conquered by David, who asked favour and mercy of him, and signified their subjection to him; and, having respect to times to come, may denote the subjection of the multitude of people and nations in the Roman empire to Christ, when heathenism was abolished in it; and the joy and rejoicing of Christians upon it, and the ceasing of persecution in it, even high and low, rich and poor, all ranks and degrees of men; height and depth, men in high or low circumstances, signified by the depth uttering his voice, and the height lifting up its hands, in token of praise and thankfulness; for so the latter clause may be rendered, "the height lifted up his hands" o; and answers to the deep in the preceding clause; agreeable to this sense is Jarchi's note,

""the deep uttered his voice": the inhabitants of the earth praised him; "the height lifted up his hands"; the host of heaven confessed unto him;''

every creature in heaven, on the earth, and under the earth, and in the sea, ascribed blessing, honour, glory, and power, to the Lord on this occasion, Rev 5:13. The Targum is,

"the powers on high stood wondering;''

amazed at what was done, and lifted up their hands with astonishment.

Gill: Hab 3:11 - The sun and moon stood still in their habitation // at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear The sun and moon stood still in their habitation,.... This is generally thought to refer to the miracle in the times of Joshua, Jos 10:12 but a diffe...

The sun and moon stood still in their habitation,.... This is generally thought to refer to the miracle in the times of Joshua, Jos 10:12 but a different word is there used, especially of the standing still of the sun; nor are the sun and moon said there to stand in their habitation; nor will the series of the history of times past, or the thread of prophecy of things to come, admit of this reference; nor do the words express the clear shining of the sun and moon at their standing still, but the reverse; for the phrase, "in their habitation", may be rendered, "within their tent" p, or pavilion; See Gill on Psa 19:4; which is no other than their being encompassed and covered with clouds; which is just such a pavilion as God is said to be in, when "darkness was his secret place; his pavilion round about him dark waters and thick clouds of the skies", Psa 18:11 and so is expressive of the dark times of antichrist, which followed, when the Pagan persecutions were over, Christianity supported by secular powers, and the Christian churches raised to the height of riches and honour; and then the man of sin showed himself, the pope of Rome took upon him the title of universal bishop, and introduced false doctrines, strange worship, and bad discipline, into the church, and obscured the glorious light of it; and Mahomet also arose with his locusts, the Saracens, out of the bottomless pit opened, from whence came a smoke which darkened the sun and air, Rev 9:1,

at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear; the commonly received sense of the words is, either at the light and shining of the sun and moon, when they stood still in Joshua's time; the arrows of the Almighty, and the lightning of his spear, that is, hailstones mingled with fire, and thunder, and lightning, which the heathens call Jupiter's arrows; these steered their course, being directed against the enemies of the Lord's people, and fought for them, Jos 10:10 or at the light of these, which looked very bright and dazzling through the rays of the sun upon them, the Israelites marched against their enemies, and avenged themselves on them: but these bright arrows and glittering spear, and the light and shining of them, seem to design no other than the weapons of the Christian ministry or warfare; the Gospel, and the doctrines of it; the light of which broke forth at the Reformation, the same that is meant by the "morning star", Rev 2:28 irradiated by which, the ministers of it especially went forth with courage against their antichristian enemies, and prevailed, and spread the Gospel in many countries. It may be rendered as a petition, "let them walk at the light" q, &c.; a prayer of faith that it might be, and which is a prophecy that it would be.

Gill: Hab 3:12 - Thou didst march through the land with indignation // thou didst thresh the heathen in anger Thou didst march through the land with indignation,.... Not the land of Canaan, fighting against the inhabitants of it, dispossessing them to make roo...

Thou didst march through the land with indignation,.... Not the land of Canaan, fighting against the inhabitants of it, dispossessing them to make room for the Israelites, whatever allusion may be to it; but the antichristian land, the whole Romish jurisdiction, and all the states of it, through which the Lord will march in wrath and fury, when he pours out the vials of it upon them; or this is desired, and prayed for; for it may be rendered, "do thou march through the land" r, &c.; foreseeing and believing that he would:

thou didst thresh the heathen in anger; or, "do thou thresh" s, &c.; these are the Papists, called heathens and Gentiles in Scripture, because of the heathenish customs and practices they have introduced into the Christian religion, Psa 10:16 these are the nations that will be gathered together like sheaves of grain on a floor to be threshed; and when Zion the church of Christ, and Christian princes, will be called upon to arise, and thresh them; and the Lord by them will do it, namely, separate his own people from them, which are like wheat, and utterly destroy them, as chaff and stubble, Mic 4:12.

Gill: Hab 3:13 - Thou wentest forth for the salvation of that people, even for salvation with thine anointed // thou woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked // by discovering the foundation unto the neck // Selah Thou wentest forth for the salvation of that people, even for salvation with thine anointed,.... Or, "thy Messiah"; which Kimchi and Ben Melech inter...

Thou wentest forth for the salvation of that people, even for salvation with thine anointed,.... Or, "thy Messiah"; which Kimchi and Ben Melech interpret of Messiah the son of David; and read and give the sense of the words thus,

"as thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people, by bringing them into the land of Canaan, so do thou go forth for salvation with thy Messiah.''

God of old went forth in his power and providence for the salvation of his people, whom he chose above all people to be his special and peculiar people; making use of Moses and Aaron in bringing them out of Egypt, and leading them through the wilderness, and of Joshua to introduce them, and settle them in the land of Canaan; who were all types of Christ in the salvation of the chosen people. Joshua particularly was a type of Jesus; they agree in their name, which signifies a Saviour the salvation of God, or God the salvation; and in their character, office, and usefulness to the people of God, Jesus is the Lord's "anointed"; anointed with the Holy Ghost, the oil of gladness, above his fellows, which he received without measure; anointed to the office of Prophet, Priest, and King; and from whom his people receive the unction, and are denominated Christians, or anointed ones: and the "people" of God, for whose salvation he went forth with him, are not all mankind, who are not all saved; nor the people of the Jews only, or all of them; but a peculiar people, out of Jews and Gentiles, loved with a special love; chosen to salvation, secured in the covenant of grace, and given to Christ as his portion and people, and so saved by him, Mat 1:21. The "salvation" of them is a spiritual one, a salvation from all their sins; from the power and dominion, pollution and guilt, the damning power of them, and at last from the very being of them; as well as from Satan, the law, death, hell, and wrath to come: it is perfect and complete, and endures for ever. Jehovah the Father "went forth" with Christ his Son for this salvation, in his purposes and decrees concerning it; in his council and covenant relating to it; in the mission of him into this world to effect it; and by helping and assisting him in it, as man and Mediator. The words may be rendered, "thou wentest forth"; or, "thou goest forth"; thou wilt do so; and mayest thou do so, "to save thy people, to save thy anointed" t; and so respect not the salvation of Israel by Moses or Joshua; nor the spiritual and eternal salvation of God's elect by the Messiah; but the salvation of the Lord's people from mystical Babylon, from the oppression and tyranny of antichrist, and from all his false doctrines, superstition, and idolatry, and ruin by them; and particularly the salvation of the two witnesses, the two olive trees, the two anointed ones that stand before the Lord of the whole earth; the singular being put for the plural, "anointed" for "anointed ones"; and so the Alexandrian copy of the Septuagint version, and the Arabic version, render it, "thy Christs", or "thy anointed ones"; now this will be done when the Lord shall go forth in his power and providence, and quicken and raise their dead bodies, when they have lain three days and a half, and shall cause them to ascend to heaven in the sight of their enemies; see Zec 4:14,

thou woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked; not the princes of the families of the land of Canaan, as some; nor the first born of Pharaoh's family in Egypt, or him and his host at the Red sea, as, others; nor Goliath of Gath, smitten by David, as Burkius; nor Satan and his principalities and powers by Christ on the cross; but antichrist the man of sin, that wicked and lawless one, who is at the bead of a wicked house or family, the antichristian party; who received a wound at the Reformation; and ere long the kings of the earth will hate the whore, eat her flesh, and burn her with fire; and Christ, will utterly consume and destroy this wicked one with the breath of his mouth, and the brightness of his coming, Rev 13:3 see Psa 110:6. Kimchi and Ben Melech interpret this of the head of the army of wicked Gog, the king of Magog, taking it to belong to future time; and so some render all those phrases, "thou wilt go forth, thou wilt wound" u, &c.:

by discovering the foundation unto the neck; or "razing the foundation", as in Psa 137:7. There seems to be a double metaphor in the words, expressing the utter ruin and destruction of antichrist and his party; who, being compared to a building, will be demolished, and razed to the very foundation; that will be dug up, and laid bare, and no trace of an edifice to be seen any more; and, being compared to a human body, will be plunged into such distresses and calamities, as to be as it were up to the neck in them, from whence there is no escape and deliverance. Some understand this of the princes of this head, or of his friends, and those of his family that are nearest to him, as the neck is to the head; or of the whole body of the people under him, of which he will be deprived; and so be as a head without a body, and who cannot long survive them.

Selah is added as a mark of attention, something of moment and importance being observed.

Gill: Hab 3:14 - Thou didst strike through with his staves the head of his villages // they came out as a whirlwind to scatter me // their rejoicing was as to devour the poor secretly Thou didst strike through with his staves the head of his villages,.... Of his warriors, mighty men, princes; so the Vulgate Latin, Septuagint, Syriac...

Thou didst strike through with his staves the head of his villages,.... Of his warriors, mighty men, princes; so the Vulgate Latin, Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions; or of his armies, as Jarchi and Kimchi; which some interpret of Pharaoh and his host, who were destroyed by the steps and methods which they themselves took, going into the sea of themselves, and so were struck through with their own staves: others of the princes and armies of the Canaanites, who destroyed one another with their own weapons of war, as the Midianites did; though we have no instance of it on record: others of Goliath, as Burkius, called before "the head out of the house of the wicked", with respect to his rise from Gath; here, "the head of his Pagans", as he renders it, or Gentiles, with respect to his preeminence over the common soldiers, and all the Philistines: others of Sennacherib and his army, as Jarchi; but Kimchi's sense is much better, who interprets it of Gog and his army; and which, if understood of the Turk, the eastern antichrist, is not amiss; and so, as the western antichrist and his destruction are pointed at in the preceding verse Hab 3:13, the ruin of the other is intimated here; whose armies are expressed by a word which sometimes has the signification of villages; because he said, "I will go up to the land of unwalled villages", Eze 38:11 in the land of Judea about Jerusalem, where he will distribute and quarter his soldiers; and where he and they at the head of them in these villages will be cut to pieces with their own weapons; as it is said, "every man's sword shall be against his brother", Eze 38:21, Cocceius and Van Till render the words, "thou hast designed", marked out, or expressed by name, "in his tribes, the head of his villages"; and understand them, not of the enemy, but of Christ the anointed One, and his people; the Protestants, or reformed churches, who, being separated from antichrist, are represented as divided into tribes, and as dwelling in villages alone, and in separate states and kingdoms; and suppose that God has designed in his purposes and decrees some particular place, called the head or beginning of these villages, where his great and glorious work in the latter day will first appear; but what and where that place is is not said:

they came out as a whirlwind to scatter me; the prophet representing the true Israel, or the whole church of Christ: it is not unusual for mighty armies to be compared to a whirlwind coming forth with great force, suddenly and swiftly; see Jer 4:13 and particularly it is said of the army of Gog or the Turk, which shall invade Judea, in order to dispossess the Jews of their land, when converted and returned to it; "thou shall ascend and come like a storm, thou shall be like a cloud, to cover the land, thou and all thy bands, and many people with thee", Eze 38:9 who will think to scatter the people of the Jews again among the nations, as they have been:

their rejoicing was as to devour the poor secretly; the poor people of the Jews, to strip them of their substance, to carry off their gold and silver, their cattle and their goods; and which they thought they should as easily accomplish as a rich man gets the mastery over a poor man, and ruins him, that has none to help him; and that they should do this in a still, private, secret manner, so as that the Christian princes should have no knowledge of it, and come in to their assistance; and this they rejoiced at in themselves, and pleased themselves with it; see Eze 38:10. The above interpreters render this clause as a prayer, "let them tremble for fear": or be filled with horror, who come "to scatter me, whose rejoicing is as to devour the poor in secret"; which is interpreted of the Papists being terrified by some Christian princes, since the Reformation, from carrying some of their designs into execution; and of the clandestine arts and secret methods the Jesuits particularly use to do injury to the interest of Christ and true religion.

Gill: Hab 3:15 - Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses // through the heap of many waters Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses,.... And as thou didst of old, so do again; as Jehovah walked through the Red sea in a pillar of clo...

Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses,.... And as thou didst of old, so do again; as Jehovah walked through the Red sea in a pillar of cloud and fire, which were his horses and chariots, and destroyed the Egyptians; so may he walk through another sea by his instruments, and destroy the enemies of his church and people; See Gill on Hab 3:8. The "sea" here signifies the world, compared to it for the multitude of its people; the noise, fluctuation, and uncertainty of all things in it; and particularly the Roman empire, the sea out of which the antichristian beast arose, Rev 13:1. The "horses" are the angels or Christian princes, with whom the Lord will walk in majesty, and in the greatness of his strength, pouring out the vials of his wrath on the antichristian states:

through the heap of many waters; or "the clay", or "mud of many waters" w; that lies at the bottom of them; which being walked through and trampled on by horses, is raised up, and "troubles" them, as the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it: these "many waters" are those on which the whore of Rome is said to sit; and which are interpreted of people, multitudes, nations, and tongues, Rev 17:1 and the "mud" of them is expressive of their pollution and corruption, with her false doctrines, idolatry, superstition, and immoralities; and of their disturbed state and condition, through the judgments of God upon them, signified by his horses walking through them; trampling upon them in fury; treating them with the utmost contempt; treading them like mire and clay, and bringing upon them utter ruin and destruction.

Gill: Hab 3:16 - When I heard, my belly trembled // my lips quivered at the voice // rottenness entered into my bones // and I trembled in myself // that I might rest in the day of trouble // when he cometh up unto the people, he will invade them with his troops When I heard, my belly trembled,.... His bowels, his heart within him, at the report made of what would come to pass in future time; and not so much a...

When I heard, my belly trembled,.... His bowels, his heart within him, at the report made of what would come to pass in future time; and not so much at hearing of the judgments of God that should come upon the enemies of his Church, antichrist and his followers; though even these are awful and tremendous to good men; see Psa 119:120 but upon hearing what troubles and distresses would come upon the churches of Christ, previous to these, afterwards called a day of trouble in this verse, and more particularly described in the next Hab 3:17,

my lips quivered at the voice; at the voice of these words, as the Targum; at the voice of the Lord, expressing and foretelling these calamities, through fear and dread, consternation and amazement; under which circumstances the natural heat of the outward parts of the body retires to defend the heart, and leaves them trembling and quivering, particularly the lips, so that they lose their use for a time; and a person in such a case can hardly speak:

rottenness entered into my bones; he became weak and without strength, as if he had long been in a wasting consumption; or was at once deprived of all his strength, and it was turned into corruption; see Dan 10:8,

and I trembled in myself; within himself, in all his inward parts, as well as in his outward parts: or, "under myself" x; was not able to keep his place, could not stand upon the ground that was under him; his knees trembled, as the Syriac version:

that I might rest in the day of trouble; rather, as Noldius y renders the particle, "yet", or "notwithstanding, I shall rest in the day of trouble"; which had been represented to him in vision; and which he had a sight of by a spirit of prophecy, as coming upon the church of Christ, and had given him that concern before expressed. The Syriac version of this and the next clause, which it joins, is, "he showed me the day of calamity, which is about to come upon the people". Here begins the prophet's expression of his strong faith and joy in the midst of all the distresses he saw were at hand; herein representing the church, and all true believers helped to exercise faith in those worst of times. This "day of trouble" is the same with the hour of temptation that shall come upon all the earth to try the inhabitants of it; the time of the slaying of the witnesses, which will be such a time of trouble as never was in the world; see Rev 3:10. The "rest" the people of God will have then, which the prophet had faith in for them, will lie in the Lord's protection and keeping of his people; his perfections, power, and providence, are the chambers of rest and safety he will call them unto, and the shadow of his wings, which they will make their refuge till these calamities and indignation be overpast, Isa 26:20

when he cometh up unto the people, he will invade them with his troops; or rather "him"; not "the people"; the people of God, "he" the Lord or Christ comes unto; but the enemy of them: this is the ground of the prophet's faith and confidence before expressed, or of the church's he personated; namely, that when Christ, Michael the great Prince, should come up to his people, appear for them, and stand on their side, he would lead his troops and march his army against their grand enemy antichrist; and "cut him to pieces" z, as some render the word: so Christ is represented as a mighty warrior, marching at the head of his troops, the armies of heaven following him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, who are the called, chosen, and faithful; and with these he will fall upon the beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the earth, gathered together at Armageddon, and utterly destroy them, Rev 16:14.

Gill: Hab 3:17 - Although the fig tree shall not blossom // neither shall fruit be in the vines // the labour of the olive shall fail // and the fields shall yield no meat // the flock shall be cut off from the fold // and there shall be no herd in the stalls Although the fig tree shall not blossom,.... Or rather, as the Septuagint version, "shall not bring forth fruit"; since the fig tree does not bear blo...

Although the fig tree shall not blossom,.... Or rather, as the Septuagint version, "shall not bring forth fruit"; since the fig tree does not bear blossoms and flowers, but puts forth green figs at once. This was a tree common in the land of Canaan, and its fruit much in use, and for food; hence we read of cakes of figs among the provisions Abigail brought to David, 1Sa 25:18 so that, when there was a scarcity of these, it was a bad time:

neither shall fruit be in the vines; no grapes, or clusters of them, out of which wine was pressed; a liquor very refreshing and reviving to nature; and is said to cheer God and man, being used in sacrifices and libations to God, and the common drink of men, Jdg 9:13 so that, when it failed, it was a public calamity:

the labour of the olive shall fail; or "lie" a; disappoint the expectation of those who planted and cultivated it with much toil and labour, it not producing fruit as looked for. This tree yielded berries of an agreeable taste, and out of which oil was extracted, the Jews used instead of butter, and for various purposes; so that, when it failed of fruit, it was a great loss on many accounts:

and the fields shall yield no meat; the grass fields no herbage for beasts; the grain fields no grain for man; the consequence of which must be a famine to both; and this must be very dismal and distressing:

the flock shall be cut off from the fold; flocks of sheep; either by the hand of God, some disease being sent among them; or by the hand of man, drove off by the enemy, or killed for their use; so that the folds were empty of them, and none to gather into them:

and there shall be no herd in the stalls; or oxen in the stables, where they are kept, and have their food; or stalls in which they are fattened for use; and by all these are signified the necessaries of life, which, when they fail, make a famine, which is a very distressing case; and yet, in the midst of all this, the prophet, representing the church, expresses his faith and joy in the Lord, as in the following verse Hab 3:18; though all this is to be understood, not so much in a literal as in a figurative sense. "Fig trees, vines", and "olives", are often used as emblems of truly gracious persons, Son 2:13 partly because of their fruitfulness in grace and good works, and partly because of their perseverance therein; all these trees being fruitful ones; and some, as the olive, ever green: of such persons there is sometimes a scarcity, as is complained of in the times of David and Micah, Psa 12:1 and especially there will be in the latter day; for righteous and merciful men will be taken away from the evil to come, Isa 57:1 and, however, there will be very few lively, spiritual, and fruitful Christians, such as abound in the exercise of grace, and are diligent in the discharge of duty; for, when the Son of Man cometh, he will not find faith on the earth; and he will find the virgins sleeping, Luk 18:8. The "fields not" yielding "meat" may signify that the provisions of the house of God will be cut off; there will be no ministration of the word, or administration of ordinances; the word of the Lord will be scarce, rare, and precious; there will be a famine, not of bread and of water, but of hearing the word of the Lord; one of the days of the Son of Man will be desired, but not enjoyed; so no spiritual food in the use of means to be had; a very uncomfortable time this will be, Amo 8:11 Luk 17:22. The "flock" being "cut off from the fold" may denote that the sheep of Christ will be given up to the slaughter of the enemy, or be scattered abroad in this dark and cloudy day of persecution; so that there will be no fold, no flock, no sheep gathered together; and perhaps such will be the case, that there will not be one visible congregated church in due order throughout the whole world; all will be broke up, and dispersed here and there: no "herd" or "oxen in the stall" may signify that the ministers of the Gospel, compared to oxen for their strength, industry, and laboriousness in the work of the Lord, will be removed, or not suffered to exercise their ministry, nor be encouraged by any in it: this will be the case at the slaying of the witnesses, and a most distressing time it will be; and yet the prophet, or the church represented by him, expresses an uncommon frame of spirit in the following verse Hab 3:18. The Targum interprets all this figuratively of each of the monarchies of the world, which should be no more;

"the kingdom of Babylon shall not continue, nor shall it exercise dominion over Israel; the kings of the Medes shall be killed; and the mighty men of Greece shall not prosper; and the Romans shall be destroyed, and shall not collect tribute from Jerusalem; therefore for the wonder, and for the redemption, thou shalt work for thy Messiah; and for the rest of thy people who shall remain, they shall praise, saying: the prophet said;''

as follows:

Gill: Hab 3:18 - Yet I will rejoice in the Lord // I will joy in the God of my salvation Yet I will rejoice in the Lord,.... In the Word of the Lord, as the Targum; the essential Word of the Lord, the Lord Jesus Christ; in his person, the ...

Yet I will rejoice in the Lord,.... In the Word of the Lord, as the Targum; the essential Word of the Lord, the Lord Jesus Christ; in his person, the greatness and glory of it; in his offices, as Prophet, Priest, and King, the only Mediator and Saviour; in his relations, as head and husband, father, brother, friend; in his fulness, grace, and righteousness; in his spiritual presence, and comfortable communion with him, which may be expected in a remarkable manner after the above day of trouble is over; and in his personal appearance, which will shortly be, and when his tabernacle will be with men on earth:

I will joy in the God of my salvation; in Christ, who is God, and so able to save his people; to make everything he did and suffered in human nature effectual and available to them; to supply all their wants, and to keep what they commit unto him, and to preserve them safe to his kingdom and glory: and who also joy in the salvation of their God, or which he is the author of, both temporal and spiritual, especially the latter; which is so great and glorious in itself, so suitable to their case, so complete and perfect, and makes so much for the glory of all the divine perfections, and is all of free grace, and lasts for ever: this salvation is peculiar to the people of God; it is theirs, and theirs only; it is what they choose and prefer to all other ways of salvation; it is brought and applied to them by the Spirit, and which they appropriate to themselves under his witnessings; and then it is they can and do rejoice: particularly salvation and deliverance from antichristianism, in all the branches of it, may be chiefly pointed at as the matter and ground of joy; and the enjoyment of Gospel privileges in the full extent of them; the word and ordinances in their power and purity; and the presence of Christ in them.

Gill: Hab 3:19 - The Lord God is my strength // and he will make my feet like hinds' feet // and he will make me to walk upon mine high places // to the chief singer // on my stringed instruments The Lord God is my strength,.... The author and giver of natural and spiritual strength, as he is to all his people; he is the strength of their hear...

The Lord God is my strength,.... The author and giver of natural and spiritual strength, as he is to all his people; he is the strength of their hearts when ready to faint and sink, and of their graces, faith, hope, love, patience, &c. and continues and increases them, and draws them forth into lively acts and exercise; and of their lives, natural and spiritual, which he supports and maintains, secures and defends; from him they have their strength to perform the duties of religion; to oppose their spiritual enemies, sin, Satan, and the world; and to bear them up under all trials and afflictions, and carry them through them, and deliver out of them, and which is principally intended here: the church, though in distress, and pressed with sorrows, yet believed the strength of Christ would be made perfect in her weakness, and she should be upheld by him under all, and brought out of it:

and he will make my feet like hinds' feet; swift as they, as the Targum, which are very swift; and on account of the swiftness of them is the comparison used: and which is to be understood, not barely of the Jews being swift of foot to return to their own country, when the time of their conversion is come; or to pursue their enemies, as Kimchi; that is, Gog or the Turks, having got the victory over them: but of all Christians, whose feet will be swift to run, in a lively cheerful manner, the way of Christ's commandments; their souls being strengthened, and their hearts enlarged with the love and grace of God; and to surmount with ease all difficulties and obstructions that lie in their way: and chiefly this regards the ministers of the Gospel, and the swift progress they will make in spreading it in the world; as the apostles and first ministers of the word, having their feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace, went swiftly through all parts of the world, even to the ends of the earth, with it; so in the latter day many will run to and fro, everywhere preaching the everlasting Gospel to all nations; the knowledge of it shall greatly increase; see Dan 12:4 this passage seems to be taken out of Psa 18:33 and there may be not only an allusion to the swiftness of those creatures, but to the strength and firmness of their feet; so that they can go upon rocks and mountains securely, and tread and walk, and even run upon them with safety; and this sense is directed to, not only by what follows, concerning "walking" on "high places"; but by the word here used, which signifies to "make", or "set", fix, place, order, and settle b; and this agrees with the nature of those creatures, whose feet are not only swift, but firm; they tread sure and stable; hence hinds and harts are by the poets c called the "brasen footed hinds", or "harts"; because of the firmness and stability of their going; and it is an observation of Jarchi's d, that the feet of the females stand firmer and more upright than the feet of the males; wherefore, both here, and in Psa 18:33, not harts, but hinds, are made mention of; and so this may also denote the stability of the saints in those times, both ministers and common Christians, in the exercise of grace, and in the performance of duty; their hearts will be established in the faith of Christ, and in love to him, and in the hope of eternal life by him; all which they will be settled in, and will hold fast, and not let go; and will be steadfast and immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord their God; and so in the Gospel of Christ, and in the ordinances of it, their souls will be established in and with the doctrines of grace, and will continue steadfastly in them, and abide by and keep the ordinances as they have been delivered to them; nor will any difficulties, which may seem like hills and mountains, and cragged rocks, deter or discourage them, or move them from the hope of the Gospel, or from their duty; but they shall walk on securely and firmly:

and he will make me to walk upon mine high places: meaning not so much the high places of the land of Judea, some part of it being mountainous, though there may be some reference to them; but it signifies the exalted state of the church after the troublesome times, when it shall be exalted above the hills, and established on the top of the mountains; when Christ the Lamb, with his 144,000 sealed ones, shall stand upon Mount Zion with harps in their hands, having gotten the victory over the antichristian beast and his image; and when the saints shall have the dominion of the world; and the kingdom and the greatness of it, under the whole heaven, shall be given to them, Isa 2:2 as well as they shall be in lively, spiritual, and heavenly frames of soul; mount up with wings, as eagles; soar aloft in the exercise of faith; dwell on high in the contemplation of divine things; have their affections set on things above; and their conversation in heaven while they are on earth: especially this may be said of them when they shall have the glory of God upon them in the New Jerusalem state, and shall dwell in the new heavens and the new earth, with Christ at the head of them; and when they shall possess the ultimate glory in the highest heavens to all eternity; see Deu 33:29 and thus ends this prayer of Habakkuk; which serves to draw out the desires of good men after the flourishing estate of the kingdom and interest of Christ; to assist their faith in the belief, hope, and expectation of it; and to lead their views to its summit and perfection, notwithstanding all the difficulties and discouragements that may lie in its way: and being of so much moment and importance, that it might remain and continue, and be of use to the church in succeeding ages, the prophet delivered or directed it

to the chief singer, to be set to tune, and sung by him, as David's prayers, and others, sometimes were, and to be preserved for future usefulness; and this he would have sung (he says)

on my stringed instruments; which were either invented by him, or used by him in the temple, or were his own property: or he sent this prayer or ode to him who was over these instruments, had the care and use of them; and which were such as were to be stricken with the hand, bone, or quill; and are the same that are called "Neginoth" in the title of the fourth Psalm Psa 4:1, and others.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Hab 3:1 The Hebrew text adds עַל שִׁגְיֹנוֹת (’al shigyonot, “...

NET Notes: Hab 3:2 Heb “in turmoil remember [to show] compassion.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:3 Heb “praise.” This could mean that the earth responds in praise as God’s splendor is observed in the skies. However, the Hebrew term...

NET Notes: Hab 3:4 Heb “and there [is] the covering of his strength”; or “and there is his strong covering.” The meaning of this line is unclear....

NET Notes: Hab 3:5 Heb “goes out at his feet.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:6 Heb “ancient ways [or, “doings”] are his.” The meaning of this line is unclear. Traditionally it has been translated, “h...

NET Notes: Hab 3:7 R. D. Patterson takes תַּחַת אֲוֶן (takhat ’aven) in the first line as a place...

NET Notes: Hab 3:8 Or “chariots of deliverance.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:9 As the Lord comes in a thunderstorm the downpour causes streams to swell to river-like proportions and spread over the surface of the ground, causing ...

NET Notes: Hab 3:10 Lifting the hands here suggests panic and is accompanied by a cry for mercy (see Ps 28:2; Lam 2:19). The forces of chaos cannot withstand the LordR...

NET Notes: Hab 3:11 Heb “at the brightness of the lightning of your spear.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:13 Heb “laying bare [from] foundation to neck.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:14 Heb “their rejoicing is like devouring the poor in secret.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:15 Heb “the foaming of the mighty [or “many”] waters.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:16 Heb “to come up toward.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:17 Or “are cut off.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:18 Or “in.”

NET Notes: Hab 3:19 Heb “For the leader, on my stringed instruments.”

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:1 A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet ( a ) upon Shigionoth. ( a ) "upon Shigionoth" or "for the ignorance". The prophet instructs his people to pray to G...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:2 ( b ) O LORD, I have heard thy speech, [and] was afraid: O LORD, revive thy ( c ) work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:3 God came from ( d ) Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise. ( d ) Teman...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:4 And [his] brightness was as the light; ( e ) he had horns [coming] out of his hand: and there [was] the hiding of his power. ( e ) By which is meant ...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:6 He stood, and measured the earth: he beheld, and drove asunder the nations; and the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills did bow:...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:7 ( g ) I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction: [and] the curtains of the land of Midian trembled. ( g ) The iniquity of the king of Syria in vexing y...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:8 Was the LORD displeased against the ( h ) rivers? [was] thy anger against the rivers? [was] thy wrath against the sea, that thou didst ride ( i ) upon...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:9 Thy ( k ) bow was made quite naked, [according] to the ( l ) oaths of the tribes, [even thy] word. Selah. Thou ( m ) didst cleave the earth with river...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:10 The mountains saw thee, [and] they trembled: the overflowing of the water ( n ) passed by: the deep uttered his voice, [and] lifted up his hands on hi...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:11 The ( o ) sun [and] moon stood still in their habitation: ( p ) at the light of thy arrows they went, [and] at the shining of thy glittering spear. (...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:13 Thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people, [even] for salvation with thy ( q ) anointed; thou didst wound the head out of the house of the wi...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:14 Thou didst ( s ) strike through with his staffs the head of his villages: they came out as a whirlwind to scatter me: their rejoicing [was] as to devo...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:16 When I ( t ) heard, my belly trembled; my lips quivered at the voice: rottenness entered into my bones, and I trembled in myself, that I might rest in...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:18 Yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will joy ( y ) in the God of my salvation. ( y ) He declares in what the joy of the faithful consists, though they ...

Geneva Bible: Hab 3:19 The LORD God [is] my strength, and he will make my feet like hinds' [feet], and he will make me to walk upon my high places. ( z ) To the chief singer...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Hab 3:19 - A Libation To Jehovah The Ideal Devout Life The Lord God is my Strength, and He will make my feet like hinds' feet, and He will make me to walk upon mine high places.'--Ha...

MHCC: Hab 3:1-2 - --The word prayer seems used here for an act of devotion. The Lord would revive his work among the people in the midst of the years of adversity. This m...

MHCC: Hab 3:3-15 - --God's people, when in distress, and ready to despair, seek help by considering the days of old, and the years of ancient times, and by pleading them w...

MHCC: Hab 3:16-19 - --When we see a day of trouble approach, it concerns us to prepare. A good hope through grace is founded in holy fear. The prophet looked back upon the ...

Matthew Henry: Hab 3:1-2 - -- This chapter is entitled a prayer of Habakkuk. It is a meditation with himself, an intercession for the church. Prophets were praying men; this pr...

Matthew Henry: Hab 3:3-15 - -- It has been the usual practice of God's people, when they have been in distress and ready to fall into despair, to help themselves by recollecting t...

Matthew Henry: Hab 3:16-19 - -- Within the compass of these few lines we have the prophet in the highest degree both of trembling and triumphing, such are the varieties both of the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:1 - -- The song has a special heading, after the fashion of the psalms, in which the contents, the author, and the poetical character of the ode are indica...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:2 - -- "Jehovah, I have heard Thy tidings, am alarmed. Jehovah, Thy work, in the midst of the years call it to life, in the midst of the years make it kno...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:3-15 - -- Coming of the Lord to judge the nations and to redeem His people. The description of this theophany rests throughout upon earlier lyrical descripti...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:4-5 - -- A splendour shines or arises like the light. תּהיה does not point back to תּהלּתו , "splendour like the sun will His glory be"(Hitzig); b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:6-7 - -- "He stands, and sets the earth reeling: He looks, and makes nations tremble; primeval mountains burst in pieces, the early hills sink down: His are...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:8-9 - -- To the impression produced upon the nations by the coming of the Lord to judge the world, there is now appended in Hab 3:8. a description of the exe...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:9 - -- God has already made bare the bow, to shoot His arrows at the foe. תּעור , third pers. imperf. niph. of עוּר , equivalent to ערר (Isa ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:10 - -- "The mountains see Thee, they writhe: a shower of waters passes along: the abyss lifts up its voice, it lifts up its hands on high. Hab 3:11. Sun,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:11 - -- The chaotic condition into which the earth has been brought is heightened by the darkness in which the heaven clothes itself. Sun and moon, which gi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:12-15 - -- In Hab 3:12 there follows a description of the judgment upon the nations for the rescue of the people of God. Hab 3:12. "In fury Thou walkest throu...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:16-17 - -- Hab 3:16-19 form the second part of the psalm, in which the prophet describes the feelings that are produced within himself by the coming of the Lor...

Keil-Delitzsch: Hab 3:18-19 - -- Although trembling on account of the approaching trouble, the prophet will nevertheless exult in the prospect of the salvation that he foresees. Hab...

Constable: Hab 3:1-19 - --III. Habakkuk's hymn in praise of Yahweh ch. 3 Having received the revelation that Yahweh would destroy Babylon,...

Constable: Hab 3:1 - --A. The introduction to the hymn 3:1 Habakkuk's prayer is hymnic in form, like many of the psalms (cf. Ps...

Constable: Hab 3:2 - --B. The prayer for revival 3:2 The prophet acknowledged that he had received the Lord's revelation (cf. 2...

Constable: Hab 3:3-15 - --C. The vision of God 3:3-15 Habakkuk moved from petition to praise in his prayer. He recalled God's grea...

Constable: Hab 3:3-7 - --1. Yahweh's awesome appearance 3:3-7 3:3 The prophet pictured Yahweh as arising over His people like the rising sun, appearing over Teman, a large tow...

Constable: Hab 3:8-15 - --2. Yahweh's angry actions 3:8-15 Habakkuk now changed from describing the manifestation of God and the inanimate and animate reactions to it to a desc...

Constable: Hab 3:16-19 - --D. The commitment to faith 3:16-19a 3:16 Habakkuk trembled all over as he awaited the day of Babylon's invasion of Judah, the day of her distress. He ...

Constable: Hab 3:19 - --E. The concluding musical notation 3:19b The final footnote to this book gives direction to the choir di...

Guzik: Hab 3:1 - The Prophet's Prayer Habakkuk 3 - The Prophet's Prayer A. Seeking revival from the God of all power. 1. (1-2) A plea for revival. A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, on ...