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Teks -- 1 Samuel 22:1-23 (NET)

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Konteks
David Goes to Adullam and Mizpah
22:1 So David left there and escaped to the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and the rest of his father’s family learned about it, they went down there to him. 22:2 All those who were in trouble or owed someone money or were discontented gathered around him, and he became their leader. He had about four hundred men with him. 22:3 Then David went from there to Mizpah in Moab, where he said to the king of Moab, “Please let my father and mother stay with you until I know what God is going to do for me.” 22:4 So he had them stay with the king of Moab; they stayed with him the whole time that David was in the stronghold. 22:5 Then Gad the prophet said to David, “Don’t stay in the stronghold. Go to the land of Judah.” So David left and went to the forest of Hereth.
Saul Executes the Priests
22:6 But Saul found out the whereabouts of David and the men who were with him. Now Saul was sitting at Gibeah under the tamarisk tree at an elevated location with his spear in hand and all his servants stationed around him. 22:7 Saul said to his servants who were stationed around him, “Listen up, you Benjaminites! Is Jesse’s son giving fields and vineyards to all of you? Or is he making all of you commanders and officers? 22:8 For all of you have conspired against me! No one informs me when my own son makes an agreement with this son of Jesse! Not one of you feels sorry for me or informs me that my own son has commissioned my own servant to hide in ambush against me, as is the case today!” 22:9 But Doeg the Edomite, who had stationed himself with the servants of Saul, replied, “I saw this son of Jesse come to Ahimelech son of Ahitub at Nob. 22:10 He inquired of the Lord for him and gave him provisions. He also gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.” 22:11 Then the king arranged for a meeting with the priest Ahimelech son of Ahitub and all the priests of his father’s house who were at Nob. They all came to the king. 22:12 Then Saul said, “Listen, son of Ahitub.” He replied, “Here I am, my lord.” 22:13 Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and this son of Jesse? You gave him bread and a sword and inquired of God on his behalf, so that he opposes me and waits in ambush, as is the case today!” 22:14 Ahimelech replied to the king, “Who among all your servants is faithful like David? He is the king’s son-in-law, the leader of your bodyguard, and honored in your house! 22:15 Was it just today that I began to inquire of God on his behalf? Far be it from me! The king should not accuse his servant or any of my father’s house. For your servant is not aware of all this– not in whole or in part!” 22:16 But the king said, “You will surely die, Ahimelech, you and all your father’s house! 22:17 Then the king said to the messengers who were stationed beside him, “Turn and kill the priests of the Lord, for they too have sided with David! They knew he was fleeing, but they did not inform me.” But the king’s servants refused to harm the priests of the Lord. 22:18 Then the king said to Doeg, “You turn and strike down the priests!” So Doeg the Edomite turned and struck down the priests. He killed on that day eighty-five men who wore the linen ephod. 22:19 As for Nob, the city of the priests, he struck down with the sword men and women, children and infants, oxen, donkeys, and sheep– all with the sword. 22:20 But one of the sons of Ahimelech son of Ahitub escaped and fled to David. His name was Abiathar. 22:21 Abiathar told David that Saul had killed the priests of the Lord. 22:22 Then David said to Abiathar, “I knew that day when Doeg the Edomite was there that he would certainly tell Saul! I am guilty of all the deaths in your father’s house! 22:23 Stay with me. Don’t be afraid! Whoever seeks my life is seeking your life as well. You are secure with me.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abiathar a son of Ahimelech; a high priest and counselor of David,son of Ahimelech (Ahitub I Ithamar Aaron); counselor of David
 · Adullam a resident of the town of Adullam
 · Ahimelech priest (Eli Ithamar) of Nob, whom Saul killed; Ahimelech I,a priest, Ahimelech II; son of Abiathar son of Ahimelech I,a man who was part of David's fugitive band; a Hittite
 · Ahitub chief priest Ahitub I; son of Phinehas II son of Eli,chief priest Ahitub II; son of Amariah I (WZ-466),chief priest, Ahitub III; son of Amariah II
 · Benjaminite the tribe of Benjamin of Israel
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Doeg a man from Edom who was chief of Saul's herdsmen
 · Edomite resident(s) of the region of Edom
 · Gad the tribe of Israel descended from Gad, the son of Jacob,the man; the son of Jacob and Zilpah,the tribe of Gad in Israel,a prophet and long time advisor to King David
 · Gibeah a town of Judah 8 km north of Jerusalem, 5 km east of Gibeon (SMM)
 · Goliath a Philistine giant from Gath,a Philistine giant from Gath killed by Elhanan.
 · Hereth a forest near Adullam and Keilah
 · Jesse a son of Obed; the father of David the king and ancestor of Jesus,son of Obed of Judah; father of David
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Mizpeh a town of Moab
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Nob a town 5 or 6 kilometers NE of Jerusalem
 · Philistines a sea people coming from Crete in 1200BC to the coast of Canaan
 · Saul the sixth king of Edom,son of Simeon and a Canaanite woman,son of Uzziah of Kohath son of Levi


Topik/Tema Kamus: David | Abiathar | Ahimelech | Nob | SAMUEL, BOOKS OF | Jesse | Saul | Mizpah | JUDGE | Ahitub | Malice | Holy Spirit | Rulers | Doeg | Ahijah | LAW OF MOSES | Government | Accusation, False | Adullam | Lies and Deceits | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 22:2 - Debt Probably poor debtors, whom the creditors were obliged to spare, Exo 22:25. And though their persons were with David, yet their lands and goods were l...

Probably poor debtors, whom the creditors were obliged to spare, Exo 22:25. And though their persons were with David, yet their lands and goods were liable to their creditors.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:2 - Captain over them He did not maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them t...

He did not maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them to the practice of all justice and honesty.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:3 - 'Till I know, &c. _He expresses his hopes very modestly, as one that had entirely cast himself upon God, and committed his way to him, trusting not in his own arts or a...

_He expresses his hopes very modestly, as one that had entirely cast himself upon God, and committed his way to him, trusting not in his own arts or arms, but in the wisdom, power and goodness of God.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:4 - Hold In holds; the singular number being put for the plural; as is frequent; that is, as long as David was forced to go from place to place, and from hold ...

In holds; the singular number being put for the plural; as is frequent; that is, as long as David was forced to go from place to place, and from hold to hold, to secure himself: for it concerned David to secure his father, and he did doubtless secure him for all that time; and not only while he was in the hold of Mizpeh, or of Adullam, which was but a little while.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:5 - Abide not Do not shut up thyself here.

Do not shut up thyself here.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:5 - Judah Go and shew thyself in the land of Judah, that thou mayest publicly put in thy claim to the kingdom after Saul's death; and that thy friends may be in...

Go and shew thyself in the land of Judah, that thou mayest publicly put in thy claim to the kingdom after Saul's death; and that thy friends may be invited and encouraged to appear on thy behalf. Hereby also God would exercise David's faith, and wisdom, and courage; and so prepare him for the kingdom.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:6 - Spear It seems, as an ensign of majesty, for in old times kings carried a spear instead of a sceptre.

It seems, as an ensign of majesty, for in old times kings carried a spear instead of a sceptre.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:7 - Ye Benjamites You that are of my own tribe and kindred, from whom David designs to translate the kingdom to another tribe. Will he distribute profits and preferment...

You that are of my own tribe and kindred, from whom David designs to translate the kingdom to another tribe. Will he distribute profits and preferments among you Benjamites, as I have done? Will he not rather prefer those of his own tribe before you?

Wesley: 1Sa 22:8 - That all, &c. _See the nature of jealousy, and its arts of wheedling to extort discoveries of things that are not.

_See the nature of jealousy, and its arts of wheedling to extort discoveries of things that are not.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:10 - He enquired David chargeth him with the sin of lying, Psa 52:3, and it is not improbable, that he told many lies not here expressed; and withal, he was guilty of ...

David chargeth him with the sin of lying, Psa 52:3, and it is not improbable, that he told many lies not here expressed; and withal, he was guilty of concealing part of the truth, which in this case he was obliged to declare for Ahimelech's just defence, namely, the artifice whereby David circumvented Ahimelech: making him believe, that he was then going upon the king's business, so that the service he did to David, was designed in honour to Saul.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:11 - The priests Of the house of Eli, which God had threatened to cut off, 1Sa 2:31.

Of the house of Eli, which God had threatened to cut off, 1Sa 2:31.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:14 - And said He doth not determine the difference between Saul and David; nor affirm what David now was: but only declared what David formerly had been, and what h...

He doth not determine the difference between Saul and David; nor affirm what David now was: but only declared what David formerly had been, and what he was still, for anything he knew to the contrary.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:15 - Knew nothing of all this Of any design against thee.

Of any design against thee.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:18 - The Edomite This is noted to wipe off the stain of this butchery from the Israelitish nation, and to shew, why he was so ready to do it, because he was one of tha...

This is noted to wipe off the stain of this butchery from the Israelitish nation, and to shew, why he was so ready to do it, because he was one of that nation which had an implacable hatred against all Israelites, and against the priests of the Lord.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:19 - Both men, &c. _In all the life of Saul, there is no wickedness to be compared to this. He appears now to be wholly under the power of that evil spirit which had lon...

_In all the life of Saul, there is no wickedness to be compared to this. He appears now to be wholly under the power of that evil spirit which had long tormented him. And this destruction could not but go to the heart of every pious Israelite, and make them wish a thousand times, they had been content with the government of Samuel.

Wesley: 1Sa 22:20 - Abiathar Who by his father's death was now high-priest.

Who by his father's death was now high-priest.

JFB: 1Sa 22:1 - David . . . escaped to the cave Adullam Supposed to be that now called Deir-Dubban, a number of pits or underground vaults, some nearly square, and all about fifteen or twenty feet deep, wit...

Supposed to be that now called Deir-Dubban, a number of pits or underground vaults, some nearly square, and all about fifteen or twenty feet deep, with perpendicular sides, in the soft limestone or chalky rocks. They are on the borders of the Philistine plain at the base of the Judea mountains, six miles southwest from Beth-lehem, and well adapted for concealing a number of refugees.

JFB: 1Sa 22:1 - his brethren and all his father's house . . . went down To escape the effects of Saul's rage, which seems to have extended to all David's family. From Beth-lehem to Deir-Dubban it is, indeed, a descent all ...

To escape the effects of Saul's rage, which seems to have extended to all David's family. From Beth-lehem to Deir-Dubban it is, indeed, a descent all the way.

JFB: 1Sa 22:2 - every one that was in distress (See on Jdg 11:3).

(See on Jdg 11:3).

JFB: 1Sa 22:3 - David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab "Mizpeh" signifies a watchtower, and it is evident that it must be taken in this sense here, for it is called "the hold" or fort (1Sa 22:4). The king ...

"Mizpeh" signifies a watchtower, and it is evident that it must be taken in this sense here, for it is called "the hold" or fort (1Sa 22:4). The king of Moab was an enemy of Saul (1Sa 14:47), and the great-grandson of Ruth, of course, was related to the family of Jesse. David, therefore, had less anxiety in seeking an asylum within the dominions of this prince than those of Achish, because the Moabites had no grounds for entertaining vindictive feelings against him, and their enmity, to Saul rendered them the more willing to receive so illustrious a refugee from his court.

JFB: 1Sa 22:5 - the prophet Gad said unto David, Abide not in the hold This sound advice, no doubt, came from a higher source than Gad's own sagacity. It was right to appear publicly among the people of his own tribe, as ...

This sound advice, no doubt, came from a higher source than Gad's own sagacity. It was right to appear publicly among the people of his own tribe, as one conscious of innocence and trusting in God; and it was expedient that, on the death of Saul, his friends might be encouraged to support his interest.

JFB: 1Sa 22:5 - forest of Hareth Southwest of Jerusalem.

Southwest of Jerusalem.

JFB: 1Sa 22:6 - Saul abode . . . under a tree in Ramah Literally, "under a grove on a hill." Oriental princes frequently sit with their court under some shady canopy in the open air. A spear was the early ...

Literally, "under a grove on a hill." Oriental princes frequently sit with their court under some shady canopy in the open air. A spear was the early scepter.

JFB: 1Sa 22:7-8 - Hear now, ye Benjamites This was an appeal to stimulate the patriotism or jealousy of his own tribe, from which he insinuated it was the design of David to transfer the kingd...

This was an appeal to stimulate the patriotism or jealousy of his own tribe, from which he insinuated it was the design of David to transfer the kingdom to another. This address seems to have been made on hearing of David's return with his four hundred men to Judah. A dark suspicion had risen in the jealous mind of the king that Jonathan was aware of this movement, which he dreaded as a conspiracy against the crown.

JFB: 1Sa 22:9 - Doeg . . . set over the servants Septuagint, "the mules of Saul."

Septuagint, "the mules of Saul."

JFB: 1Sa 22:10 - he inquired of the Lord for him Some suppose that this was a malicious fiction of Doeg to curry favor with the king, but Ahimelech seems to acknowledge the fact. The poor simple-mind...

Some suppose that this was a malicious fiction of Doeg to curry favor with the king, but Ahimelech seems to acknowledge the fact. The poor simple-minded high priest knew nothing of the existing family feud between Saul and David. The informer, if he knew it, said nothing of the cunning artifice by which David obtained the aid of Ahimelech. The facts looked against him, and the whole priesthood along with him were declared abettors of conspiracy [1Sa 22:16-17].

JFB: 1Sa 22:17-18 - the footmen that stood about him His bodyguard, or his runners (1Sa 8:11; 2Sa 15:1; 1Ki 1:5; 1Ki 14:28), who held an important place at court (2Ch 12:10). But they chose rather to dis...

His bodyguard, or his runners (1Sa 8:11; 2Sa 15:1; 1Ki 1:5; 1Ki 14:28), who held an important place at court (2Ch 12:10). But they chose rather to disobey the king than to offend God by imbruing their hands in the blood of his ministering servants. A foreigner alone (Psa 52:1-3) could be found willing to be the executioner of this bloody and sacrilegious sentence. Thus was the doom of the house of Eli fulfilled [1Sa 2:30-36].

JFB: 1Sa 22:19 - Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword The barbarous atrocities perpetrated against this city seem to have been designed to terrify all the subjects of Saul from affording either aid or an ...

The barbarous atrocities perpetrated against this city seem to have been designed to terrify all the subjects of Saul from affording either aid or an asylum to David. But they proved ruinous to Saul's own interest, as they alienated the priesthood and disgusted all good men in the kingdom.

JFB: 1Sa 22:20-23 - one of the sons of Ahimelech . . . escaped This was Abiathar, who repaired to David in the forest of Hareth, rescuing, with his own life, the high priest's vestments (1Sa 23:6, 1Sa 23:9). On he...

This was Abiathar, who repaired to David in the forest of Hareth, rescuing, with his own life, the high priest's vestments (1Sa 23:6, 1Sa 23:9). On hearing his sad tale, David declared that he had dreaded such a fatal result from the malice and intriguing ambition of Doeg; and, accusing himself as having been the occasion of all the disaster to Abiathar's family, David invited him to remain, because, firmly trusting himself in the accomplishment of the divine promise, David could guarantee protection to him.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:1 - The cave Adullam The cave Adullam - This was in the tribe of Judah, and, according to Eusebius and Jerome, ten miles eastward of what they call Eleutheropolis.

The cave Adullam - This was in the tribe of Judah, and, according to Eusebius and Jerome, ten miles eastward of what they call Eleutheropolis.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:2 - And every one that was in distress - debt - discontented And every one that was in distress - debt - discontented - It is very possible that these several disaffected and exceptionable characters might at ...

And every one that was in distress - debt - discontented - It is very possible that these several disaffected and exceptionable characters might at first have supposed that David, unjustly persecuted, would be glad to avail himself of their assistance that he might revenge himself upon Saul, and so they in the mean time might profit by plunder, etc. But if this were their design they were greatly disappointed, for David never made any improper use of them. They are never found plundering or murdering; on the contrary, they always appear under good discipline, and are only employed in services of a beneficent nature, and in defense of their country. Whatever they were before they came to David, we find that he succeeded in civilizing them, and making profitable to the state those who were before unprofitable. It is not necessary to strain the words of the original in order to prove that these were oppressed people, and not exceptionable characters, as some have done.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:3 - He said unto the king of Moab He said unto the king of Moab - David could not trust his parents within the reach of Saul, and he found it very inconvenient to them to be obliged ...

He said unto the king of Moab - David could not trust his parents within the reach of Saul, and he found it very inconvenient to them to be obliged to go through all the fatigues of a military life, and therefore begs the king of Moab to give them shelter. The king of Moab, being one of Saul’ s enemies, would be the more ready to oblige a person from whom he might at least expect friendship, if not considerable services.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:5 - Get thee into the land of Judah Get thee into the land of Judah - Gad saw that in this place alone he could find safety.

Get thee into the land of Judah - Gad saw that in this place alone he could find safety.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:6 - Saul abode in Gibeah Saul abode in Gibeah - Saul and his men were in pursuit of David, and had here, as is the general custom in the East, encamped on a height, for so R...

Saul abode in Gibeah - Saul and his men were in pursuit of David, and had here, as is the general custom in the East, encamped on a height, for so Ramah should be translated, as in the margin. His spear, the ensign of power (see on 1Sa 18:11 (note)), was at hand, that is stuck in the ground where he rested, which was the mark to the soldiers that there was their general’ s tent

Clarke: 1Sa 22:6 - And all his servants were standing about him And all his servants were standing about him - That is, they were encamped around him, or perhaps here there is a reference to a sort of council of ...

And all his servants were standing about him - That is, they were encamped around him, or perhaps here there is a reference to a sort of council of war called by Saul for the purpose of delivering the speech recorded in the following verses.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:8 - There is none that showeth me There is none that showeth me - He conjectured that Jonathan had made a league with David to dethrone him, and he accuses them of disloyalty for not...

There is none that showeth me - He conjectured that Jonathan had made a league with David to dethrone him, and he accuses them of disloyalty for not making the discovery of this unnatural treason. Now it was impossible for any of them to show what did not exist, no such league having ever been made between David and Jonathan.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:9 - Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul - In 1Sa 21:7 he is said to be the chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Saul, and the ...

Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul - In 1Sa 21:7 he is said to be the chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Saul, and the Septuagint intimate that he was over the mules of Saul. Probably he was what we call the king’ s equery or groom.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:10 - And he inquired of the Lord for him And he inquired of the Lord for him - This circumstance is not related in history; but it is probably true, as David would most naturally wish to kn...

And he inquired of the Lord for him - This circumstance is not related in history; but it is probably true, as David would most naturally wish to know where to direct his steps in this very important crisis.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:14 - And who is so faithful And who is so faithful - The word נאמן neeman , which we here translate faithful, is probably the name of an officer. See the note on Num 12:7.

And who is so faithful - The word נאמן neeman , which we here translate faithful, is probably the name of an officer. See the note on Num 12:7.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:15 - Did I then begin to inquire of God Did I then begin to inquire of God - He probably means that his inquiring now for David was no new thing, having often done so before, and without e...

Did I then begin to inquire of God - He probably means that his inquiring now for David was no new thing, having often done so before, and without ever being informed it was either wrong in itself, or displeasing to the king. Nor is it likely that Ahimelech knew of any disagreement between Saul and David. He knew him to be the king’ s son-in-law, and he treated him as such.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:17 - But the servants of the king would not But the servants of the king would not - They dared to disobey the commands of the king in a case of such injustice, inhumanity, and irreligion.

But the servants of the king would not - They dared to disobey the commands of the king in a case of such injustice, inhumanity, and irreligion.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:18 - And Doeg - fell upon the priests And Doeg - fell upon the priests - A ruthless Edomite, capable of any species of iniquity

And Doeg - fell upon the priests - A ruthless Edomite, capable of any species of iniquity

Clarke: 1Sa 22:18 - Fourscore and five persons Fourscore and five persons - The Septuagint read τριακοσιους και πεντε ανδρας, three hundred and five men; and Josephus ha...

Fourscore and five persons - The Septuagint read τριακοσιους και πεντε ανδρας, three hundred and five men; and Josephus has three hundred and eighty-five men. Probably the eighty-five were priests; the three hundred, the families of the priests; three hundred and eighty-five being the whole population of Nob

Clarke: 1Sa 22:18 - That did wear a linen ephod That did wear a linen ephod - That is, persons who did actually administer, or had a right to administer, in sacred things. The linen ephod was the ...

That did wear a linen ephod - That is, persons who did actually administer, or had a right to administer, in sacred things. The linen ephod was the ordinary clothing of the priests.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:19 - And Nob - smote he with the edge of the sword And Nob - smote he with the edge of the sword - This is one of the worst acts in the life of Saul; his malice was implacable, and his wrath was crue...

And Nob - smote he with the edge of the sword - This is one of the worst acts in the life of Saul; his malice was implacable, and his wrath was cruel, and there is no motive of justice or policy by which such a barbarous act can be justified.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:20 - Abiathar, escaped Abiathar, escaped - This man carried with him his sacerdotal garments, as we find from 1Sa 23:6, 1Sa 23:9.

Abiathar, escaped - This man carried with him his sacerdotal garments, as we find from 1Sa 23:6, 1Sa 23:9.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:22 - I knew it that day I knew it that day - When I saw Doeg there, I suspected he would make the matter known to Saul

I knew it that day - When I saw Doeg there, I suspected he would make the matter known to Saul

Clarke: 1Sa 22:22 - I have occasioned the death of all the persons I have occasioned the death of all the persons - I have been the innocent cause of their destruction.

I have occasioned the death of all the persons - I have been the innocent cause of their destruction.

Clarke: 1Sa 22:23 - He that seeketh my life seeketh thy life He that seeketh my life seeketh thy life - The enmity of Saul is directed against thee as well as against me, and thou canst have no safety but in b...

He that seeketh my life seeketh thy life - The enmity of Saul is directed against thee as well as against me, and thou canst have no safety but in being closely attached to me; and I will defend thee even at the risk of my own life. This he was bound in duty and conscience to do.

Defender: 1Sa 22:4 - king of Moab Although Moab was a traditional enemy of Israel, David had family ties there through his Moabite great-grandmother Ruth (Rth 4:21, Rth 4:22). Because ...

Although Moab was a traditional enemy of Israel, David had family ties there through his Moabite great-grandmother Ruth (Rth 4:21, Rth 4:22). Because of Saul's campaign against David, David's own family was in jeopardy, and he felt they would be safer out of the country.

Defender: 1Sa 22:4 - in the hold The "hold" was the stronghold in the cave of Adullam. Psa 57:1-11 was written while David was in the cave. It was also during this time that three of ...

The "hold" was the stronghold in the cave of Adullam. Psa 57:1-11 was written while David was in the cave. It was also during this time that three of his mighty men undertook to bring him water from the well at Bethlehem (1Ch 11:15-19)."

Defender: 1Sa 22:5 - Gad Gad the prophet was apparently later chosen by David from "the school of the prophets" to be his personal seer (1Ch 21:9).

Gad the prophet was apparently later chosen by David from "the school of the prophets" to be his personal seer (1Ch 21:9).

Defender: 1Sa 22:5 - land of Judah It was not fitting that the future king of Judah should distrust God's ability to keep him safe in his own land."

It was not fitting that the future king of Judah should distrust God's ability to keep him safe in his own land."

Defender: 1Sa 22:20 - Abiathar Abiathar had apparently been with his father Ahimelech when David and his men received the showbread from them (Mar 2:26). Abiathar became David's pri...

Abiathar had apparently been with his father Ahimelech when David and his men received the showbread from them (Mar 2:26). Abiathar became David's priest, but was later deposed by Solomon (1Ki 2:27), for he was destined to be the last priest in the line of Eli."

Defender: 1Sa 22:21 - slain the Lord'S priests Saul continues to compound his sin, begun so innocuously by acting as a priest (1Sa 13:9), by now murdering an entire city of priests (1Sa 22:19). How...

Saul continues to compound his sin, begun so innocuously by acting as a priest (1Sa 13:9), by now murdering an entire city of priests (1Sa 22:19). However, Abiathar was destined to be the last priest in the line of Eli (1Ki 2:27)."

TSK: 1Sa 22:1 - David // the cave // Adullam David : 1Sa 21:10-15; Psa 34:1, Psa 57:1 *titles the cave : Jos 12:15, Jos 15:35; 2Sa 23:13, 2Sa 23:14; 1Ch 11:15; Psa 142:1 *title Mic 1:3, Mic 1:15;...

David : 1Sa 21:10-15; Psa 34:1, Psa 57:1 *titles

the cave : Jos 12:15, Jos 15:35; 2Sa 23:13, 2Sa 23:14; 1Ch 11:15; Psa 142:1 *title Mic 1:3, Mic 1:15; Heb 11:38

Adullam : Adullam was a city of Judah; and, according to Eusebius, ten miles (Jerome says eleven) eastward from Eleutheropolis.

TSK: 1Sa 22:2 - distress // was in debt // discontented // a captain distress : Jdg 11:3; Mat 11:12, Mat 11:28 was in debt : Heb. had a creditor, Mat 18:25-34 discontented : Heb. bitter of soul, 1Sa 1:10, 1Sa 30:6; Jdg ...

distress : Jdg 11:3; Mat 11:12, Mat 11:28

was in debt : Heb. had a creditor, Mat 18:25-34

discontented : Heb. bitter of soul, 1Sa 1:10, 1Sa 30:6; Jdg 18:25; 2Sa 17:8; Pro 31:6 *marg.

a captain : 1Sa 9:16, 1Sa 25:15, 1Sa 25:16, 1Sa 30:22-24; 2Sa 5:2; 2Ki 20:5; 1Ch 11:15-19; Psa 72:12-14; Mat 9:12, Mat 9:13; Heb 2:10

TSK: 1Sa 22:3 - Mizpeh // the king // Let my father // till I know Mizpeh : Jdg 11:29 the king : 1Sa 14:47; Rth 1:1-4, Rth 4:10, Rth 4:17 Let my father : Gen 47:11; Exo 20:12; Mat 15:4-6; 1Ti 5:4 till I know : 1Sa 3:1...

TSK: 1Sa 22:4 - in the hold in the hold : 2Sa 23:13, 2Sa 23:14; 1Ch 12:16, Gad, 2Sa 24:11; 1Ch 21:9, 1Ch 29:29; 2Ch 29:25, depart, 1Sa 23:1-6; Neh 6:11; Psa 11:1; Isa 8:12-14, Da...

TSK: 1Sa 22:6 - tree // spear tree : or, grove in a high place spear : 1Sa 18:10, 1Sa 19:9, 1Sa 20:33

tree : or, grove in a high place

spear : 1Sa 18:10, 1Sa 19:9, 1Sa 20:33

TSK: 1Sa 22:7 - the son of Jesse // give // captains the son of Jesse : 1Sa 22:9, 1Sa 22:13, 1Sa 18:14, 1Sa 20:27, 1Sa 20:30, 1Sa 25:10; 2Sa 20:1; 1Ki 12:16; Isa 11:1, Isa 11:10 give : 1Sa 8:14, 1Sa 8:15...

TSK: 1Sa 22:8 - showeth me // that my son showeth me : Heb. uncovereth mine ear, 1Sa 20:2; Job 33:16 *marg. that my son : 1Sa 18:3, 1Sa 20:8, 1Sa 20:13-17, 1Sa 20:30-34, 1Sa 20:42, 1Sa 23:16-1...

showeth me : Heb. uncovereth mine ear, 1Sa 20:2; Job 33:16 *marg.

that my son : 1Sa 18:3, 1Sa 20:8, 1Sa 20:13-17, 1Sa 20:30-34, 1Sa 20:42, 1Sa 23:16-18

TSK: 1Sa 22:9 - Doeg // Ahimelech // Ahitub Doeg : He is also said to be ""the chiefest of the herdsmen that belonged to Saul;""and the Septuagint intimates that he was over the mules of Saul. ...

Doeg : He is also said to be ""the chiefest of the herdsmen that belonged to Saul;""and the Septuagint intimates that he was over the mules of Saul. He may have been what we call the king’ s equerry or groom. 1Sa 21:7; Psa 52:1 *title Psa 52:1-5; Pro 19:5, Pro 29:12; Eze 22:9; Mat 26:59-61

Ahimelech : 1Sa 21:1-15

Ahitub : 1Sa 14:3

TSK: 1Sa 22:10 - he inquired // him victuals he inquired : 1Sa 22:13, 1Sa 22:15, 1Sa 23:2, 1Sa 23:4, 1Sa 23:12, 1Sa 30:8; Num 27:21 him victuals : 1Sa 21:6-9

TSK: 1Sa 22:11 - sent to call sent to call : Rom 3:15

sent to call : Rom 3:15

TSK: 1Sa 22:12 - thou son // Here I am thou son : 1Sa 22:7, 1Sa 22:13 Here I am : Heb. Behold me, 2Sa 9:6; Isa 65:1

thou son : 1Sa 22:7, 1Sa 22:13

Here I am : Heb. Behold me, 2Sa 9:6; Isa 65:1

TSK: 1Sa 22:13 - Why have Why have : 1Sa 22:8; Psa 119:69; Amo 7:10; Luk 23:2-5

TSK: 1Sa 22:14 - And who // the king’ s // goeth And who : 1Sa 19:4, 1Sa 19:5, 1Sa 20:32, 1Sa 24:11, 1Sa 26:23; 2Sa 22:23-25; Pro 24:11, Pro 24:12, Pro 31:8, Pro 31:9 the king’ s : 1Sa 22:13, 1S...

TSK: 1Sa 22:15 - Did I then // less or more Did I then : He seems to intimate, that his enquiring now for David was no new thing, having often done so before, without ever being informed it was ...

Did I then : He seems to intimate, that his enquiring now for David was no new thing, having often done so before, without ever being informed it was wrong in itself or displeasing to the king., the servant, Gen 20:5, Gen 20:6; 2Sa 15:11; 2Co 1:12; 1Pe 3:16, 1Pe 3:17

less or more : Heb. little or great, 1Sa 25:36

TSK: 1Sa 22:16 - Thou shalt // and Thou shalt : 1Sa 14:44, 1Sa 20:31; 1Ki 18:4, 1Ki 19:2; Pro 28:15; Dan 2:5, Dan 2:12, Dan 3:19, Dan 3:20; Act 12:19 and : Deu 24:16; Est 3:6; Mat 2:16

TSK: 1Sa 22:17 - footmen // slay the priests // would not footmen : or, guard, Heb. runners, 1Sa 8:11; 2Sa 15:1; 1Ki 1:5 slay the priests : 1Sa 22:13, 1Sa 20:33, 1Sa 25:17; 1Ki 18:4 would not : 1Sa 14:45; Exo...

footmen : or, guard, Heb. runners, 1Sa 8:11; 2Sa 15:1; 1Ki 1:5

slay the priests : 1Sa 22:13, 1Sa 20:33, 1Sa 25:17; 1Ki 18:4

would not : 1Sa 14:45; Exo 1:17; 2Ki 1:13, 2Ki 1:14; Act 4:19

TSK: 1Sa 22:18 - Doeg // he fell // fourscore // a linen ephod Doeg : 1Sa 22:9 he fell : 2Ch 24:21; Hos 5:11, Hos 7:3; Mic 6:16; Zep 3:3; Act 26:10, Act 26:11 fourscore : The LXX read, τριακοσιους κ...

Doeg : 1Sa 22:9

he fell : 2Ch 24:21; Hos 5:11, Hos 7:3; Mic 6:16; Zep 3:3; Act 26:10, Act 26:11

fourscore : The LXX read, τριακοσιους και πεντε ανδρας , ""three hundred and five men;""and Josephus, ""three hundred and eighty-five men.""Probably the eighty-five were priests and the three hundred the families of the priests; three hundred and eighty-five being the whole population of Nob. 1Sa 2:30-33, 1Sa 2:36, 1Sa 3:12-14

a linen ephod : 1Sa 2:28; Exo 28:40

TSK: 1Sa 22:19 - Nob // men // with the edge Nob : 1Sa 22:9, 1Sa 22:11, 1Sa 21:1; Neh 11:32; Isa 10:32 men : 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 15:9; Jos 6:17, Jos 6:21; Hos 10:14; Jam 2:13 with the edge : This is on...

Nob : 1Sa 22:9, 1Sa 22:11, 1Sa 21:1; Neh 11:32; Isa 10:32

men : 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 15:9; Jos 6:17, Jos 6:21; Hos 10:14; Jam 2:13

with the edge : This is one of the worst acts of Saul’ s lifecaps1 . hcaps0 is malice was implacable, and his wrath cruel; and there is no motive of justice or policy by which such a barbarous massacre can be justified.

TSK: 1Sa 22:20 - one // escaped one : 1Sa 23:6, 1Sa 30:7; 2Sa 20:25; 1Ki 2:26, 1Ki 2:27 escaped : 1Sa 2:33, 1Sa 4:12; Job 1:15-17, Job 1:19

TSK: 1Sa 22:22 - I have occasioned I have occasioned : 1Sa 21:1-9; Psa 44:22

I have occasioned : 1Sa 21:1-9; Psa 44:22

TSK: 1Sa 22:23 - he that seeketh // but with me he that seeketh : 1Ki 2:26; Mat 24:9; Joh 15:20, Joh 16:2, Joh 16:3; Heb 12:1-3 but with me : Joh 10:28-30, Joh 17:12, Joh 18:9

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Sa 22:1 - The cave Adullam // They went down thither to him The cave Adullam a place of considerable strength, 2Sa 23:13 1Ch 11:15 , in the land of Judah, Jos 15:21,35 , which being his own tribe, and the tri...

The cave Adullam a place of considerable strength, 2Sa 23:13 1Ch 11:15 , in the land of Judah, Jos 15:21,35 , which being his own tribe, and the tribe to which God had first promised the kingdom, Gen 49:10 , he hoped for some protection and assistance there.

They went down thither to him partly, to comfort and assist him; partly, to secure themselves at the present from Saul’ s rage, which they knew to be fierce and cruel, and thought he might extend it to David’ s friends; especially, because they had so lately entertained him, 1Sa 20:6,29 ; and partly, that they might share with David in his honour and advancement; which they now concluded certain and near, though it was interrupted with some difficulties.

Poole: 1Sa 22:2 - Every one that was in distress // Every one that was in debt // Answ // Every one that was discontented // He became a captain over them Every one that was in distress through want, or oppression, or otherwise. Every one that was in debt How could David receive and countenance such p...

Every one that was in distress through want, or oppression, or otherwise.

Every one that was in debt How could David receive and countenance such persons to the wrong of their creditors?

Answ

1. David might be ignorant of their debts; and it is most likely they concealed that, and pretended other causes of their coming to him, as the protection of the innocent, and the defence of his just rights, &c.

2. They might be, and probably were, poor debtors, whom their creditors were obliged to spare and favour, Exo 22:25 . And though their persons were with David, yet their land and goods were liable to their creditors.

Every one that was discontented or, bitter in soul, i.e. in an afflicted and calamitous condition.

He became a captain over them he did not justify nor maintain any injustice or wickedness, which some of them possibly might be guilty of; but, on the contrary, he instructed and obliged them to the practice of all justice and honesty; as appears from 1Sa 25:15 ; and he only used them for his just defence.

Poole: 1Sa 22:3 - Mizpeh of Moab // He said unto the king of Moab // My father and my mother // Till I know what God will do for me Mizpeh of Moab so called, to distinguish it from that Mizpeh, 1Sa 7:5 . He said unto the king of Moab partly because he was related to and descende...

Mizpeh of Moab so called, to distinguish it from that Mizpeh, 1Sa 7:5 .

He said unto the king of Moab partly because he was related to and descended from one of his people, Rth 4:10 ; and partly because he was Saul’ s enemy, 1Sa 14:47 , and therefore more likely to be David’ s friend.

My father and my mother who being very aged, were not able to endure those journeys and hardships which David foresaw that he was likely to be exposed to.

Till I know what God will do for me till I see the accomplishment of God’ s promise made to me.

Poole: 1Sa 22:4 - Before the king of Moab // In the hold Before the king of Moab into his presence, that he might see them, and give them leave to dwell in his dominion. In the hold either, 1. In Mizpeh ...

Before the king of Moab into his presence, that he might see them, and give them leave to dwell in his dominion.

In the hold either,

1. In Mizpeh of Moab, which was a very strong hold. But it is apparent he speaks of some hold where his father and mother were exposed to fear and danger from Saul, which they were not in the king of Moab’ s royal city. Or,

2. In the cave of Adullam, mentioned above, 1Sa 22:1 . Or,

3. In holes; the singular number being put for the plural, as is frequent; i.e. as long as David was forced to go from place to place, and from hold to hold, to secure himself; for it concerned David to secure his father, and he did doubtless secure him for all that time; and not only whilst he was in the hold of Mizpeh, or of Adullam, which was but a little while.

Poole: 1Sa 22:5 - Abide not in the hold // Get thee into the land of Judah // In the forest of Hareth Abide not in the hold do not shut up thyself in holes and holds. Get thee into the land of Judah go and show thyself in the land of Judah, that tho...

Abide not in the hold do not shut up thyself in holes and holds.

Get thee into the land of Judah go and show thyself in the land of Judah, that thou mayst publicly put in thy claim to the kingdom after Saul’ s death, and that thy friends may be invited and encouraged to appear on thy behalf. Hereby also God would exercise David’ s faith, and wisdom, and courage; and so prepare him for the kingdom, and uphold and increase his reputation among the people.

In the forest of Hareth there were many caves and lurking-places.

Poole: 1Sa 22:6 - In Ramah // Having his spear in his hand In Ramah i.e. in the territory of Gibeah, in or near (for so the Hebrew particle is oft used, as hath been showed) Ramah . Or, in the town of Gibea...

In Ramah i.e. in the territory of Gibeah, in or near (for so the Hebrew particle is oft used, as hath been showed) Ramah . Or, in the town of Gibeah— in a high place; for so the word Ramah unquestionably signifies; and so it is here rendered by some, both ancient and modern, interpreters.

Having his spear in his hand either as an ensign of majesty, for in old times kings carried a spear instead of a sceptre; as Justin and others note; or as an instrument of self-defence or cruelty, as occasion required.

Poole: 1Sa 22:7 - Ye Benjamites // Benjamites Ye Benjamites you that are of my own tribe and kindred, from whom David designs to translate the kingdom to another tribe, will he distribute profits...

Ye Benjamites you that are of my own tribe and kindred, from whom David designs to translate the kingdom to another tribe, will he distribute profits and preferments amongst you

Benjamites as I have done, and intend still to do? will he not rather prefer those of his own tribe before you?

Poole: 1Sa 22:8 - My son hath made a league with the son of Jesse // To lie in wait My son hath made a league with the son of Jesse: this he suspected, partly from Jonathan’ s passionate love for David, which he had formerly and...

My son hath made a league with the son of Jesse: this he suspected, partly from Jonathan’ s passionate love for David, which he had formerly and constantly declared; and from his late discontent and departure from his father, mentioned 1Sa 20:34 ; and partly from David’ s confidence, in invading the land with four hundred men, which he thought he would never presume to do, without some encouragement or promise of assistance from Jonathan.

To lie in wait i.e. to design against my crown and life (which will appear to be a most groundless suspicion and false accusation).

Poole: 1Sa 22:9 - See Poole "1Sa 21:7" See Poole "1Sa 21:7" .

See Poole "1Sa 21:7" .

Poole: 1Sa 22:10 - He inquired of the Lord for him He inquired of the Lord for him: this is not recorded 1Sa 21 , and therefore some think that Doeg, to curry favour with Saul, feigned this; for it is...

He inquired of the Lord for him: this is not recorded 1Sa 21 , and therefore some think that Doeg, to curry favour with Saul, feigned this; for it is certain David chargeth him with the sin of lying, Psa 52:3 , though it is not improbable that he told other lies also, not here expressed; and withal, he was guilty of concealing part of the truth, which in this case he was also obliged to declare for Ahimelech’ s just defence, to wit, the cunning pretence and artifice whereby David circumvented Ahimelech. Others think this was true, because Ahimelech seems to confess it, 1Sa 22:15 , though that may be spoken by way of concession. If it were so as Doeg declares, this was no new thing. Then he might add that it was not so, though this be not here mentioned; for it is evident that all his answer or apology is not here expressed; for here is not a word of the victuals or sword which he gave him.

Poole: 1Sa 22:11 - All his father’ s house All his father’ s house of the house of Eli, which God had threatened to cut off, 1Sa 2:31 .

All his father’ s house of the house of Eli, which God had threatened to cut off, 1Sa 2:31 .

Poole: 1Sa 22:12 - Thou son of Ahitub Thou son of Ahitub he shows his contempt and anger, that he would not vouchsafe to name him: See Poole "1Sa 20:27" .

Thou son of Ahitub he shows his contempt and anger, that he would not vouchsafe to name him: See Poole "1Sa 20:27" .

Poole: 1Sa 22:14 - -- He doth not determine the differences between Saul and David, nor affirm what David now was; but only declared what David had formerly been, both re...

He doth not determine the differences between Saul and David, nor affirm what David now was; but only declared what David had formerly been, both really, and in public fame and opinion.

Poole: 1Sa 22:15 - Any thing // Thy servant knew nothing of all this Any thing or, this thing , to wit, which thou now chargest me with, that I should assist David in any evil design against thee. Thy servant knew no...

Any thing or, this thing , to wit, which thou now chargest me with, that I should assist David in any evil design against thee.

Thy servant knew nothing of all this or, of thy suspicion concerning him. For as for Saul’ s attempts upon David, well might Ahimelech impute them wholly to the violence of Saul’ s passion and disease, seeing even Jonathan did so, as may be gathered from 1Sa 20:2 .

Poole: 1Sa 22:17 - -- Choosing rather to offend the king, by disobeying his wicked and bloody command, than to offend God, by shedding the blood of such innocent and sacr...

Choosing rather to offend the king, by disobeying his wicked and bloody command, than to offend God, by shedding the blood of such innocent and sacred persons.

Poole: 1Sa 22:18 - Turn thou // The Edomite // Slew on that day fourscore and five persons // That did wear a linen ephod Turn thou or, go about , to wit, from man to man, till thou hast killed all. The Edomite which is noted to wipe off the stain of this butchery fro...

Turn thou or, go about , to wit, from man to man, till thou hast killed all.

The Edomite which is noted to wipe off the stain of this butchery from the Israelitish nation, and to show why he was so ready to do it, because he was one of that nation which had an implacable hatred against all Israelites, and against the priests of the Lord.

Slew on that day fourscore and five persons with his own hand; which was not difficult, when no resistance was made.

That did wear a linen ephod not at that time, as some fancy, but usually; such as used to minister to the Lord in a linen ephod, which priests and Levites used to do. See Exo 28:40 , &c.; 1Sa 2:18 .

Poole: 1Sa 22:19 - He He either Saul, or Doeg, with the help of some others whom Saul appointed to that work. By this barbarous and bloody fact Saul thought to affright al...

He either Saul, or Doeg, with the help of some others whom Saul appointed to that work. By this barbarous and bloody fact Saul thought to affright all his subjects from giving any countenance or assistance to David.

Poole: 1Sa 22:20 - Abiathar // Fled after David Abiathar by his father’ s death, was now high priest, Fled after David to Keilah, 1Sa 23:6,7 .

Abiathar by his father’ s death, was now high priest,

Fled after David to Keilah, 1Sa 23:6,7 .

Poole: 1Sa 22:22 - I knew it I knew it his malice and ambition made me suspect that he would do it.

I knew it his malice and ambition made me suspect that he would do it.

Poole: 1Sa 22:23 - -- Because God will certainly preserve me to the kingdom which he hath promised; and I by his help will protect thee.

Because God will certainly preserve me to the kingdom which he hath promised; and I by his help will protect thee.

Haydock: 1Sa 22:1 - For him? For him? We might read without an interrogation, "I have to-day begun...." (Chaldean) never suspecting that it would be disagreeable to the king. (...

For him? We might read without an interrogation, "I have to-day begun...." (Chaldean) never suspecting that it would be disagreeable to the king. (Calmet) ---

His character and his declarations, led me to conclude quite the contrary, so that I cannot lawfully be accused of any conspiracy. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:1 - Odollam // Thither Odollam, about two days' journey from Geth, (Salien) nine miles east of Eleutheropolis, in the tribe of Juda. (Eusebius) (Calmet) --- Josue xii. 1...

Odollam, about two days' journey from Geth, (Salien) nine miles east of Eleutheropolis, in the tribe of Juda. (Eusebius) (Calmet) ---

Josue xii. 15., and 2 Machabees xii. 38. (Menochius) ---

Thither, to avoid the fury of Saul, which fell so heavy upon the priests, ver. 16. The most warlike sons of Gad came hither also, to join David, 1 Paralipomenon xii. 8. (Abulensis) (Salien, the year of the world 2973.)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:2 - Men Men. His title to the crown was incontestable, so that he might justly make war, particularly in his own defence, and receive those who flocked to h...

Men. His title to the crown was incontestable, so that he might justly make war, particularly in his own defence, and receive those who flocked to him to screen themselves from the persecution of Saul, and from their debtors, whom they would thus enable themselves to repay in time, by the plunder which they would take from the enemy. David maintained the strictest discipline, and withheld his men from making any disturbance, always manifesting the greatest respect for the person of the king. (Calmet) ---

The soldiers of Jephte were of the same description as these of David, Judges xi. 3. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:3 - Of Moab Of Moab, to distinguish it from the city of Benjamin, where Samuel had assembled the people; (Menochius) and perhaps also from the birth-place of Jep...

Of Moab, to distinguish it from the city of Benjamin, where Samuel had assembled the people; (Menochius) and perhaps also from the birth-place of Jephte, unless the Moabites had taken possession again of that part of Galaad. (Calmet) ---

Saul had made war upon this king, so that he was more ready to protect David, who departing soon after, by the admonition of Gad, (ver. 5.; Calmet) left those who could not follow him under his care. In the mean time he lived on plunder, taken from the surrounding enemies, (Tostat) and was joined by 200 men from the tribes of Benjamin and of Juda, (1 Paralipomenon xii. 16,) with Amasai, his nephew, by his sister Abigail, at their head. (Salien, the year before Christ 1079.)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:4 - The hold The hold. The strong hold, or fortress of Maspha. (Challoner) --- It signifies "a watch-tower." (Haydock) --- In this place the parents of David...

The hold. The strong hold, or fortress of Maspha. (Challoner) ---

It signifies "a watch-tower." (Haydock) ---

In this place the parents of David probably finished their days, as we find no farther mention of them. (Salien)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:5 - Haret // Rama Haret, west of Jerusalem. Septuagint read "the town of Haret," (Eusebius) or "Sarec." (Menochius) --- Rama, "the height," in Gabaa. (Calmet) ---...

Haret, west of Jerusalem. Septuagint read "the town of Haret," (Eusebius) or "Sarec." (Menochius) ---

Rama, "the height," in Gabaa. (Calmet) ---

God would not suffer David and his followers to continue long among the infidels, for fear of danger. (Menochius) ---

The hero shews his ready obedience to the word of the unknown prophet, and is willing again to expose himself in the midst of Saul's dominions. (Salien)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:7 - Jemini Jemini. Benjamites, my countrymen. Saul approaches them with being too little concerned about his interests, and falsely accuses his own son, who, ...

Jemini. Benjamites, my countrymen. Saul approaches them with being too little concerned about his interests, and falsely accuses his own son, who, it seems, had retired from court, after his father had attempted to kill him. But he shewed no signs of disloyalty. (Calmet) ---

The king mentions the league between Jonathan and David, on suspicion, chap. xx. 23. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:9 - Servants Servants, or herdsmen, chap. xxi. 7. Septuagint, "the Syrian, who was set over the mules of Saul." (Haydock) --- Informers are a set of men destru...

Servants, or herdsmen, chap. xxi. 7. Septuagint, "the Syrian, who was set over the mules of Saul." (Haydock) ---

Informers are a set of men destructive to the public," says Tacitius, Hist. i. 4.

Haydock: 1Sa 22:10 - Consulted Consulted. Some think this was a falsehood, as it is not mentioned before. (Hugo) --- but Achimelech does not deny the fact, ver. 15. (Calmet)

Consulted. Some think this was a falsehood, as it is not mentioned before. (Hugo) ---

but Achimelech does not deny the fact, ver. 15. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:12 - Achitob Achitob. He gives him no honourable title, no more than David, (ver. 7, &c.) out of disrespect. (Menochius)

Achitob. He gives him no honourable title, no more than David, (ver. 7, &c.) out of disrespect. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:14 - Faithful....and honourable Faithful....and honourable, are titles given to people of great distinction at court, chap. ix. 6., Numbers xii. 7., and Genesis xxxiv. 19.

Faithful....and honourable, are titles given to people of great distinction at court, chap. ix. 6., Numbers xii. 7., and Genesis xxxiv. 19.

Haydock: 1Sa 22:17 - Messengers // Lord Messengers. Hebrew, "runners." These officers remained at court and were people of great account, (Calmet) like the king's guards, 2 Kings xv. 1., ...

Messengers. Hebrew, "runners." These officers remained at court and were people of great account, (Calmet) like the king's guards, 2 Kings xv. 1., and 3 Kings i. 5. (Haydock) ---

Lord, out of reverence, and being convinced of their innocence. (Menochius) ---

The obedience which we owe to superiors is subordinate to that which we must always shew towards God and justice. (Calmet) ---

Saul unjustly condemned them as the abettors of his competitor. (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:18 - Five // Ephod Five. Josephus read "385." Septuagint, "305." --- Ephod. They all appeared in this dress, as they were priests. (Calmet) --- It was different ...

Five. Josephus read "385." Septuagint, "305." ---

Ephod. They all appeared in this dress, as they were priests. (Calmet) ---

It was different from the sacred ephod. (Abulensis) ---

Thus the posterity of Heli was almost entirely cut off, as God had threatened, chap. ii. (Du Hamel; Tirinus)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:19 - Sword Sword. Saul, now abandoned God, acts against all law. He probably, on this occasion, destroyed the inhabitants of Gabaon, to make place for the tab...

Sword. Saul, now abandoned God, acts against all law. He probably, on this occasion, destroyed the inhabitants of Gabaon, to make place for the tabernacle, which was removed hither. (Calmet) See chap. xxvii. 12. ---

He might also appoint Achitob high priest, the father of Sadoc, who supplanted Abiathar, 1 Paralipomenon xii., and xvi. 29. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:20 - Escaped Escaped. He had perhaps remained at Nobe, to do duty. (Menochius) --- God was pleased to reserve him, (Calmet) to convey the sacred ornaments of t...

Escaped. He had perhaps remained at Nobe, to do duty. (Menochius) ---

God was pleased to reserve him, (Calmet) to convey the sacred ornaments of the high priest to David. (Haydock) ---

St. Bachiarius looks upon the slaughtered priests as martyrs. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 1Sa 22:22 - House House. Literally, "I am guilty," &c. (Haydock) --- "Good people acknowledge a fault, where there is none." (St. Gregory) --- David was aware of ...

House. Literally, "I am guilty," &c. (Haydock) ---

"Good people acknowledge a fault, where there is none." (St. Gregory) ---

David was aware of the malicious temper of Doeg, but he could not prevent its evil effects, as he had applied to the high priest without perceiving that he was there. (Haydock) ---

He received Abiathar at Ceila, which he had protected against the Philistines, chap. xxii.

Haydock: 1Sa 22:23 - Saved Saved. We will be as one soul. On this occasion David composed the 51st Psalm, Quid gloriaris, to reprobate the conduct of Doeg. (Salien) --- W...

Saved. We will be as one soul. On this occasion David composed the 51st Psalm, Quid gloriaris, to reprobate the conduct of Doeg. (Salien) ---

We may consider David as the fourth in order of the sacred writers, as he appears after Moses, Josue, and Samuel. (Haydock)

Gill: 1Sa 22:1 - David therefore departed from thence // and escaped to the cave Adullam // and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it // they went down thither to him David therefore departed from thence,.... From Gath, being driven by Achish from his court, and let go by his servants, and glad he was of the deliver...

David therefore departed from thence,.... From Gath, being driven by Achish from his court, and let go by his servants, and glad he was of the deliverance:

and escaped to the cave Adullam; which was no doubt near to a city of the same name in the tribe of Judah, of which See Gill on Jos 15:35; this being a strong place, and in his own tribe, he might hope to be in greater safety; here he penned his hundred forty second psalm, see Psa 142:1,

and when his brethren and all his father's house heard it; that he was come thither:

they went down thither to him; to visit and comfort him, counsel and assist him all they could; and chiefly to secure themselves from the rage and malice of Saul, who they might fear would fall upon them, and avenge himself on them for David's sake.

Gill: 1Sa 22:2 - And everyone that was in distress // and everyone that was in debt // and everyone that was discontented // gathered themselves unto him // and he became a captain over them // and there were with him about four hundred men And everyone that was in distress,.... In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in the...

And everyone that was in distress,.... In straitened circumstances, through the oppression of men, through poverty, and afflictive providences in their families:

and everyone that was in debt; and not able to pay their debts, and whose creditors were pressing upon them:

and everyone that was discontented; with Saul's government and conduct: or "bitter in soul" x; distressed and uneasy in their minds, being pinched with want, or pressed with sore afflictions, which made them very disconsolate: these

gathered themselves unto him; to help him, or rather to be helped by him; hoping in time things would take a favourable turn with him, and he should be advanced to the throne, and so their circumstances would be mended thereby:

and he became a captain over them; they enlisted themselves in his service, and he took the command of them; he might not know the circumstances of those in debt, nor of any of them thoroughly, nor their views in joining him; however he meant not to shelter them from paying their just debts if able, nor to encourage them in disloyalty to their king, only to make use of them for his own preservation for the present. In this he was a type of Christ, who receives sinners distressed with a sense of sin, discontented in their present state, and in debt, and, unable to pay their debts; see Mat 11:28,

and there were with him about four hundred men; among whom some think were the three mighty men spoken of in 2Sa 23:13.

Gill: 1Sa 22:3 - And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab // and he said unto the king of Moab, let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth // and be with you // till I know what God will do for me And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab,.... So called to distinguish it from a place of the same name in the land of Israel; which Junius says is the...

And David went thence to Mizpeh of Moab,.... So called to distinguish it from a place of the same name in the land of Israel; which Junius says is the same with Malle, and signifies a fortified place, and refers to the Apocrypha:"And how that many of them were shut up in Bosora, and Bosor, and Alema, Casphor, Maked, and Carnaim; all these cities are strong and great:'' (1 Maccabees 5:26)here he might think himself safer, though in an enemy's country, than in the land of Israel:

and he said unto the king of Moab, let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth; out of the land of Israel, or out of the cave of Adullam, whither they were come to him:

and be with you; if not with the king of Moab at his court, yet in some part or other of his country, where they might be safe from the rage of Saul:

till I know what God will do for me; on whose power and providence he wholly relied, and not upon the men that flocked to him, nor upon his own power and policy, courage and wisdom; he knew the promise of God to him, and he put his trust in him for the performance of it; but knew not the time, nor way, and manner, in which it would be performed; and expected in the meanwhile to be obliged to remove from place to place; and considering that his aged parents were not fit for such quick and sudden motions, and long flights, he provided as well as he could for their settlement; which was an instance of his filial affection for them, and piety towards them. His father's name is well known, Jesse, Rth 4:22, &c. but his mother's name is nowhere mentioned; the Jews say her name was Natzbet, the daughter of Adal y.

Gill: 1Sa 22:4 - And he brought them before the king of Moab // and they dwelt with him all the whole time that David was in the hold And he brought them before the king of Moab,.... Having leave from him for it, and left them with him; so the Targum,"caused them to remain before him...

And he brought them before the king of Moab,.... Having leave from him for it, and left them with him; so the Targum,"caused them to remain before him:"

and they dwelt with him all the whole time that David was in the hold; either in the cave of Adullam, as some think; or rather at Mizpeh in Moab, which might be a fortified place; or the sense may be, while he was in any hold in those parts, as he might go from one to another; what became of David's parents afterwards, we nowhere else read. The Jews z say the king of Moab slew his father and his mother, and his brethren, all but one, whom Nahash the Ammonite preserved; and is the kindness David speaks of, 2Sa 10:2; and if this was the case, now it was that his father and mother forsook him, and God took him up, Psa 27:10.

Gill: 1Sa 22:5 - And the prophet Gad said unto David // abide not in the hold, depart, and get thee into the land of Judah // then David departed // and came into the forest of Hareth And the prophet Gad said unto David,.... Who either accompanied him in his exile, or was sent unto him on this account, being one of the company of th...

And the prophet Gad said unto David,.... Who either accompanied him in his exile, or was sent unto him on this account, being one of the company of the prophets, over whom Samuel was president, 1Sa 19:20,

abide not in the hold, depart, and get thee into the land of Judah; this seems to confirm it that the hold David was in was not the cave of Adullam, because that was in the tribe of Judah; but rather some hold in the land of Moab, which he is directed by the prophet to leave, and go into the country of Judah, his own tribe, where Saul would not be so forward to pursue him, and where he would be among his friends, and in the way, upon Saul's death, to be anointed king over Judah; besides, appearing more openly would show the innocence of his cause, and his confidence in the Lord, more than to lurk about in a foreign land:

then David departed; from "Mizpeh" in "Moab"; or, however, from the hold in which he was:

and came into the forest of Hareth; where he would have places and opportunity enough to hide himself as he saw fit. Jerom a speaks of a village called Arath, where David abode, to the west of Jerusalem. Kimchi says this was a dry barren place, but for the sake of David it was made by the Lord a well watered and fruitful one.

Gill: 1Sa 22:6 - When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him // now Saul abode in Gibeah, under a tree in Ramah // having his spear in his hand // and all his servants were standing about him When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him,.... That it was known where David was, and what number of men were gathere...

When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him,.... That it was known where David was, and what number of men were gathered to him, and that they now openly appeared in the tribe of Judah; for some time Saul had heard nothing of him, but now a report had reached his ears that David was in arms, and at the head of a number of men; which now greatly alarmed Saul, and possessed him with fears and jealousies of his people, and all about him:

now Saul abode in Gibeah, under a tree in Ramah; this was Gibeah of Saul, and in or near which was a place called Ramah, or an high place, as the word signifies, on which was a remarkable tree, and under that Saul abode, being a proper shelter for him from any inclemency of the weather; for this was not Ramah where Samuel dwelt, though the Jews in the Talmud b so think, and metaphorically understand the tree in it of Samuel in Ramah praying for him, by means of which he continued two years in the height of his kingdom; but this was a tree in a literal sense. R. Jonah c says it is possible it might be the same which in Arabia is called Ethel, and is like to a tamarisk tree:

having his spear in his hand: ready to defend himself, and revenge his enemies; or rather which he held as a sceptre in his hand; See Gill on 1Sa 20:33,

and all his servants were standing about him; in reverence of him, and honour to him, waiting upon him, and ready to obey his orders: these were his courtiers, or his guards, or both.

Gill: 1Sa 22:7 - Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him // hear now, ye Benjamites // will the son of Jesse give everyone of you fields and vineyards // and make you all captains of thousands and captains of hundreds Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him,.... He took this opportunity of addressing them in the following manner, upon the report of Dav...

Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him,.... He took this opportunity of addressing them in the following manner, upon the report of David being at the head of a certain number of men:

hear now, ye Benjamites; for Saul being of the tribe of Benjamin, his courtiers and his bodyguards chiefly, if not altogether, consisted of persons of that tribe; and therefore as they were under obligation to him, and ought to abide by him, and adhere closely to him, so it was the more ungrateful in them, as he thought, not to be concerned for his honour and interest:

will the son of Jesse give everyone of you fields and vineyards; as Saul had done, or was capable of doing, and would do if they were faithful to him; whereas it was not in the power of David, whom in contempt he calls the son of Jesse, to do it; and even should he ever be king, and in his power to make such donations, it cannot be thought he would give them to them, but to the favourites of his own tribe:

and make you all captains of thousands and captains of hundreds; which he now could not do, since he had with him but four hundred men in all; and should his army increase, and the kingdom come into his hands, so far would all of them be from being advanced to posts in the army, that it was probable none of them would, but those of his own tribe and party.

Gill: 1Sa 22:8 - That all of you have conspired against me // and there is none that showeth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse // and there is none of you that is sorry for me // or showeth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me to lie in wait, as at this day That all of you have conspired against me,.... For though they had not revolted from him, and been guilty of overt acts of treason, yet since they did...

That all of you have conspired against me,.... For though they had not revolted from him, and been guilty of overt acts of treason, yet since they did not discover to him what he supposed they knew, and showed no concern for the circumstances in which he was, he interpreted this a conspiracy against him:

and there is none that showeth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse; Saul did not know this certainly, he only suspected it from the strict and close friendship between them, and imagined that some of his servants were acquainted with it, though they kept it from him; whereas none knew of it but Jonathan and David themselves:

and there is none of you that is sorry for me; concerned, troubled, and grieved, that he should be in such circumstances, his own son and his son-in-law in league against him: or, as De Dieu renders it, were not "solicitous" for him, cared not how things went with him, or, against him:

or showeth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me to lie in wait, as at this day? which he concluded was the case, from Jonathan's not appearing at court since Saul cast the javelin at him, 1Sa 19:10; or, however, if he did, his countenance showed he was uneasy and discontented, and displeased with Saul; and, besides, he could not think that David, with such a handful of men he had with him, would ever attempt to invade his kingdom, and seize his crown and throne, unless he was privately encouraged by his own son; and David's being either in the cave of Adullam, or forest of Hareth, whichever of them Saul heard of, he interpreted as lying in wait for him, whereas it was only for the security of himself; and what Saul took ill of his servants was, that none of them apprized him of his son's concern in this matter.

Gill: 1Sa 22:9 - Then answered Doeg the Edomite // (which was set over the servants of Saul) // and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub Then answered Doeg the Edomite,.... Josephus d calls him a Syrian, and so the Septuagint version; see 1Sa 21:7; being full of enmity to David, and wil...

Then answered Doeg the Edomite,.... Josephus d calls him a Syrian, and so the Septuagint version; see 1Sa 21:7; being full of enmity to David, and willing to curry favour with Saul, and eager of further preferment, which Saul seemed to promise; and being more forward than the rest of his servants, prevented them and spoke first:

(which was set over the servants of Saul): over his herdsmen; see 1Sa 21:7,

and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub; in imitation of Saul, he calls David by way of contempt the son of Jesse; and signifies that what he had to say of him was not by report, but he himself was an eyewitness of his coming to Nob, a city of the priests, and to Ahimelech the high priest there, and of what passed between them.

Gill: 1Sa 22:10 - And he inquired of the Lord for him // and gave him victuals // and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine And he inquired of the Lord for him,.... Which not being expressed before, some have taken it to be a lie of Doeg's, he being charged with lying by Da...

And he inquired of the Lord for him,.... Which not being expressed before, some have taken it to be a lie of Doeg's, he being charged with lying by David, Psa 52:3; but it is not at all improbable that David should desire him to inquire of the Lord for him, and that he did; and he seems to acknowledge it, 1Sa 22:15; but according to the Jewish writers Doeg meant by this to prove a charge of treason both against David and Ahimelech; that the former made himself king, and the latter owned him to be so, since inquiry by Urim and Thummim was not made for a private person, but for a king e:

and gave him victuals; hallowed bread, loaves of shewbread, which none but priests might eat of; such was his kindness to him:

and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine; which David took from him, and slew him with it. All this was true, but then he acted the deceitful part, with which he is charged in the above psalms, in not declaring how David had imposed upon the priest, by pretending he was sent in haste on the king's business; which was the reason he was so ill provided with servants, food, and armour; which if Doeg had reported faithfully, as he ought to have done, would have saved the credit and life of the priest, and of his family.

Gill: 1Sa 22:11 - Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub // and all his father's house // the priests that were in Nob // and they came all of them to the king Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub,.... Sent messengers to him, and summoned him to appear before him: and all his ...

Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub,.... Sent messengers to him, and summoned him to appear before him:

and all his father's house; the family of Eli, which God had threatened to destroy, and now the time was hastening on:

the priests that were in Nob; in which dwelt none but priests, at least these were the chief of the inhabitants, and therefore called the city of the priests, 1Sa 22:19,

and they came all of them to the king; not being conscious of any evil they had committed, or that could be charged upon them; or otherwise they would not have appeared, but would have fled to David for protection.

Gill: 1Sa 22:12 - And Saul said, hear now, thou son of Ahitub // and he answered, here I am, my lord And Saul said, hear now, thou son of Ahitub,.... The charge exhibited against him; in contempt of him, he does not so much as call him by his name, no...

And Saul said, hear now, thou son of Ahitub,.... The charge exhibited against him; in contempt of him, he does not so much as call him by his name, nor give him the title of his office, as high priest; though he was the second person in the kingdom, and to whose office a few years ago the civil government was annexed:

and he answered, here I am, my lord; giving due honour to Saul, though he received none from him, and appearing with great boldness, as having a clear conscience, and so ready to hear what was to be said unto him.

Gill: 1Sa 22:13 - And Saul said unto him, why have ye conspired against me // thou, and the son of Jesse // in that thou hast given him bread and a sword // and hast inquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait as at this day And Saul said unto him, why have ye conspired against me, thou, and the son of Jesse?.... No less than treason and rebellion is he charged with, in...

And Saul said unto him, why have ye conspired against me,

thou, and the son of Jesse?.... No less than treason and rebellion is he charged with, in conjunction with David; the proof follows:

in that thou hast given him bread and a sword; the shewbread, and the sword of Goliath, 1Sa 21:6, and so had furnished him with food and arms; one that he suggests was in rebellion against him, and therefore he must be involved in the same crime; but the stronger proof follows

and hast inquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait as at this day: inquired of the Lord for him by Urim and Thummim, to know his mind in this affair, and thereby encouraged him to rise up in rebellion against him, and to lie in wait, as he did at the present time, watching for an opportunity to seize his crown and kingdom.

Gill: 1Sa 22:14 - Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said // and who is so faithful amongst thy servants as David // which is the king's son in law // and goeth at thy bidding // and is honourable in thine house Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said,.... First with respect to David, and then with regard to himself; with respect to David as follows: and...

Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said,.... First with respect to David, and then with regard to himself; with respect to David as follows:

and who is so faithful amongst thy servants as David; I considered him, as if he should say, as a servant of thine, upon an errand of thine, and doing thy business; and as a faithful one, none more so, and as such I valued and regarded him, not as a rebel to thee, having no such thought of him:

which is the king's son in law; who has behaved himself so well, and thou hast entertained such an opinion of him, as to take him into thy family, and marry thy daughter to him; wherefore showing him favour, and doing him honour, was doing honour to thee and thy family, and surely there can be no blame in that:

and goeth at thy bidding; has always been ready to execute thy commands, and obey thine orders, let them be what they will; as to go out against an enemy, and fight Saul's battles for him:

and is honourable in thine house? behaved honourably there, and highly esteemed by all, as well as had the honour bestowed upon him to be the king's son-in-law, and made captain of a thousand; and therefore who could think that showing respect to such a man could be deemed treason and conspiracy, or he be thought to be a traitor to the king? and then with respect to himself he answers,

Gill: 1Sa 22:15 - Did I then begin to inquire of God for him // be it far from me // let not the king impute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the house of my father // for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more Did I then begin to inquire of God for him?.... Was this the first time of inquiring of God for him? no; I have done this many a time, when he has bee...

Did I then begin to inquire of God for him?.... Was this the first time of inquiring of God for him? no; I have done this many a time, when he has been going upon the king's business, engaging in war with his enemies; he has then consulted the Lord by me, and I have inquired of the Lord for him, as I now did; and which I did as innocently, and as much for the king's service, as ever I did any. Kimchi observes it may be read without the interrogation, "that day I began to inquire of God for him"; it was the first time I ever did, and I did not know it would have been grievous to thee, or have given thee any disturbance or uneasiness. I did not know that he fled from thee, or was not in thy service, and upon thy business; had I known it, I would never have done it, and as it is the first time it shall be the last:

be it far from me; from doing such a thing, had I known it to be disagreeable to thee, or how David stood with thee:

let not the king impute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the house of my father; charge me or them with the crime of treason, or conspiracy against him, or with aiding:, assisting, and abetting traitors and conspirators:

for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more; was entirely ignorant of this affair; which plain, honest, account of things, one might have thought, would have been satisfying to Saul; but it seems it was not by what follows.

Gill: 1Sa 22:16 - And the king said, thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech // thou, and all thy father's house And the king said, thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech,.... He pronounces the sentence himself, without taking the opinion and advice of others, or furth...

And the king said, thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech,.... He pronounces the sentence himself, without taking the opinion and advice of others, or further time; which was an act of arbitrary power, and upon an innocent person, which was an act of great injustice:

thou, and all thy father's house; more unrighteous still; but God suffered him to do this to fulfil his will, and execute his threatenings against the house of Eli, which was this priest's father's house, for former wickedness; but this is no excuse for, nor extenuation of the sin of, Saul.

Gill: 1Sa 22:17 - And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him // turn and slay the priests of the Lord // because their hand also is with David // and because they knew when he fled, and did not show it to me // but the servants of the king would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the Lord And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him,.... Or the "runners" f; the running footmen, that used to run before him when he went out fro...

And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him,.... Or the "runners" f; the running footmen, that used to run before him when he went out from place to place, and were here waiting on him, ready to set out whenever he should give the orders to go elsewhere. The tradition of the Jews is, that these were Abner and Amasa g; but, as Kimchi observes, they were not footmen, but princes, captains in the army, and the first of them the general of it:

turn and slay the priests of the Lord; he owns them to be the priests of the Lord, and calls them so, and yet gave orders to put them to death, though innocent; one would have thought this their character would have flown in his face, and stung his conscience, and deterred him from so foul a fact:

because their hand also is with David; as well as Ahimelech; which did not at all appear, nor that they had so much as seen him at Nob, only Ahimelech; and still less that they had entered into a conspiracy with him:

and because they knew when he fled, and did not show it to me; which also was false; they knew nothing of the flight of David, and therefore could not discover it to the king:

but the servants of the king would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the Lord; their consciences would not suffer them to do it; they refused to obey the king's orders, and chose rather to expose themselves to his resentment, than to be guilty of such a crime. Saul's footmen had more sense of honour, justice, and truth, than he himself had, and were worthy of praise; but they would have been deserving of more, if they could not have prevailed upon him by entreaties and remonstrances to have forborne such a bloody execution, instead of being the tame spectators of it, they had taken him, and bound him as a madman, and so facilitated the escape of the priests, and prevented this shocking scene of wickedness.

Gill: 1Sa 22:18 - And the king said to Doeg, turn thou and fall upon the priests // and Doeg the Edomite turned // and fell upon the priests // and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod And the king said to Doeg, turn thou and fall upon the priests,.... For determined he was they should die; if one would not put them to death, another...

And the king said to Doeg, turn thou and fall upon the priests,.... For determined he was they should die; if one would not put them to death, another should, and who so fit for this bloody work as the false accuser of them, and false witness against them?

and Doeg the Edomite turned; immediately, he at once obeyed the king's orders, as brutish as they were:

and fell upon the priests; with his sword in hand:

and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod; not the ephod of Urim and Thummim, which was only worn by the high priest, but a garment wholly linen, worn by common priests; the Targum is,"who are fit to be clothed with a linen ephod;''not that they were clothed with it, but were deserving of it; or it designs the great and more honourable among the servants of the Lord, as Kimchi observes, for such were clothed with this garment, as Samuel and David; and he thinks it suggests, that more were slain than these; and the Septuagint version makes them to be eight hundred five, and Josephus h three hundred eighty five; in the slaying of whom, as the same writer says, Doeg was assisted by some wicked men like himself; and the slaughter did not end here, as the 1Sa 22:19 shows.

Gill: 1Sa 22:19 - And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword // both men and women, children and sucklings // and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword,.... Either Doeg or Saul; who, as Josephus i says, sent men thither to slay all ...

And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword,.... Either Doeg or Saul; who, as Josephus i says, sent men thither to slay all the inhabitants of it:

both men and women, children and sucklings; not sparing sex nor age:

and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword; Saul, who was so tender hearted and merciful in the case of the Amalekites, when his orders from the Lord were utterly to destroy them, 1Sa 15:2, that he spared their king, and the best of their cattle, 1Sa 15:7; yet now so cruel to a city of the priests, as to destroy all the inhabitants of it, and cattle in it; and yet this bloody affair of Saul's is not taken notice of afterwards, only his slaughter of the Gibeonites, 2Sa 21:1; and Abarbinel is of opinion, that the inhabitants of this place were Gibeonites, who were hewers of wood, and drawers of water, to the house of the Lord here, Jos 9:23. Now Saul was the more severe this city, to deter others from joining with David, who, if they did, must expect the same treatment.

Gill: 1Sa 22:20 - And one of the sons of Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped // and fled after David And one of the sons of Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped,.... Who very probably was left by his father to take care of the sanctua...

And one of the sons of Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped,.... Who very probably was left by his father to take care of the sanctuary, and the holy things in it, when he and the rest of the priests were summoned to appear before Saul; who having heard of his bloody execution of them, before his messengers could get to Nob, took, the ephod, with the Urim and Thummim, and made his escape, as appears from 1Sa 23:6; this man succeeded his father in the high priesthood, and continued in it until the times of Solomon:

and fled after David; who was now removed, or removing from the forest of Hareth to Keilah, whither Abiathar followed him, and came to him there, 1Sa 23:6, and with whom only he could be safe, and therefore it was right to flee unto him.

Gill: 1Sa 22:21 - And Abiathar showed David that Saul had slain the Lord's priests. And Abiathar showed David that Saul had slain the Lord's priests. Of which perhaps he had not as yet heard; though tidings of such a nature generally ...

And Abiathar showed David that Saul had slain the Lord's priests. Of which perhaps he had not as yet heard; though tidings of such a nature generally fly swiftly; and a sorrowful shocking account he had to give, and which was so to David.

Gill: 1Sa 22:22 - And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day // when Doeg the Edomite was there // that he would surely tell Saul // I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day,.... That is, he thought in his mind at that time: when Doeg the Edomite was there; at Nob; in t...

And David said unto Abiathar, I knew it that day,.... That is, he thought in his mind at that time:

when Doeg the Edomite was there; at Nob; in the tabernacle, at the same time that David was there:

that he would surely tell Saul; that he saw David there, and what passed between him and Ahimelech; he knew he was a spiteful mischievous man; that he was a true Edomite, though a proselyte, and bore hatred and enmity in his mind against an Israelite, and especially an Israelite indeed, as David was:

I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father's house: or have been the cause of all the evils that befell them, and the death they were put unto, not with design, but by accident; and it grieved him that he should be any ways an accessory thereunto, though without intention.

Gill: 1Sa 22:23 - Abide thou with me, fear not // for he that seeketh my life seeketh thy life // but with me thou shalt be in safeguard Abide thou with me, fear not,.... He appeared to be in a fright; which is not to be wondered at, as not knowing what to do, and where to go and provid...

Abide thou with me, fear not,.... He appeared to be in a fright; which is not to be wondered at, as not knowing what to do, and where to go and provide for his safety; when, to allay his fears, and make him easy, David invites and encourages him to stay with him, and not be afraid of Saul, nor any other:

for he that seeketh my life seeketh thy life; or, as Kimchi observes, it may be interpreted, "my life he seeks who seeks thy life"; we are in the same circumstances, and have the same common enemy, and therefore it is best and safest to be together; as the Targum,"he that seeks to kill me seeks to kill thee;''and as Jarchi adds, he that loves me will love thee, and he that keeps my life will keep thine:

but with me thou shalt be in safeguard; intimating, that he would be as careful of him as of himself; and that for this reason, as Ben Gersom suggests, because he brought the ephod with the Urim and Thummim with him, by which he could inquire of God for him; but this was the thing David was confident of, that God would preserve him, and raise him to the kingdom, and therefore Abiathar might be sure of safety with him: at this time he penned the fifty second psalm, which shows the frame of spirit he was now in; see Psa 52:1.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:1 Heb “house.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:2 Heb “to.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:3 Heb “go forth.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:4 Heb “all the days.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:6 Heb “and Saul heard that David and the men who were with him were known.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:7 Heb “officers of a thousand and officers of a hundred.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:8 Heb “uncovers my ear.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:13 Heb “rises up against.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:15 Heb “small or great.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:17 Heb “to extend their hand to harm.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:18 The number is confused in the Greek ms tradition. The LXX, with the exception of the Lucianic recension, has the number 305. The Lucianic recension, a...

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:22 The translation follows the LXX, which reads “I am guilty,” rather than the MT, which has “I have turned.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 22:23 Or “the one who.” This may refer specifically to Saul, in which case David acknowledges that Abiathar’s life is endangered because o...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:1 David therefore departed thence, and escaped to the cave ( a ) Adullam: and when his brethren and all his father's house heard [it], they went down th...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:3 And David went thence to Mizpeh of ( b ) Moab: and he said unto the king of Moab, Let my father and my mother, I pray thee, come forth, [and be] with ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:4 And he ( c ) brought them before the king of Moab: and they dwelt with him all the while that David was in ( d ) the hold. ( c ) For he feared the ra...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:6 When Saul heard that David was ( e ) discovered, and the men that [were] with him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a tree in Ramah, having his spear i...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:7 Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye ( f ) Benjamites; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:8 That all of you have conspired against me, and [there is] none that sheweth me that my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and [there is] no...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:11 Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father's house, ( h ) the priests that [were] in Nob: and they came al...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:15 ( i ) Did I then begin to enquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute [any] thing unto his servant, [nor] to all the house of m...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:17 And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also [is] with David, and because ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 22:20 And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, ( l ) escaped, and fled after David. ( l ) This was God's providence, who accordi...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 1Sa 22:1-5 - --See what weak instruments God sometimes uses, to bring about his own purposes. The Son of David is ready to receive distressed souls, who will be comm...

MHCC: 1Sa 22:6-19 - --See the nature of jealous malice and its pitiful arts. Saul looks upon all about him as his enemies, because they do not just say as he says. In Ahime...

MHCC: 1Sa 22:20-23 - --David greatly lamented the calamity. It is great trouble to a good man to find himself any way the cause of evil to others. He must have been much pai...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 22:1-5 - -- Here, I. David shelters himself in the cave of Adullam, 1Sa 22:1. Whether it was a natural or artificial fastness does not appear; it is probable th...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 22:6-19 - -- We have seen the progress of David's troubles; now here we have the progress of Saul's wickedness. He seems to have laid aside the thoughts of all o...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 22:20-23 - -- Here is, 1. The escape of Abiathar, the son of Ahimelech, out of the desolations of the priests' city. Probably when his father went to appear, upon...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:1-5 - -- Having been driven away by Achish, the Philistian king at Gath, Davidtook refuge in the cave Adullam, where his family joined him. The cave Adullam ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:6-7 - -- Murder of the Priests by Saul. - 1Sa 22:6. When Saul heard that David andthe men with him were known , i.e., that information had been received ast...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:8 - -- "That you have all of you conspired against me, and no one informs me ofit, since my son makes a covenant with the son of Jesse." בּכרת , lit. ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:9-10 - -- The Edomite Doeg could not refrain from yielding to this appeal, andtelling Saul what he had seen when staying at Nob; namely, thatAhimelech had inq...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:11-15 - -- On receiving this information, Saul immediately summoned the priestAhimelech and "all his father's house," i.e., the whole priesthood, to Nob,to ans...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:16-17 - -- Notwithstanding this truthful assertion of his innocence, Saul pronouncedsentence of death, not only upon the high priest, but upon all the priestsa...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:18 - -- Saul then commanded Doeg to cut down the priests, and he at onceperformed the bloody deed. On the expression "wearing the linen ephod," compare the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:19 - -- But not content with even this revenge, Saul had the whole city of Nobdestroyed, like a city that was laid under the ban (vid., Deu 13:13.). Socompl...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 22:20-23 - -- The only one of the whole body of priests who escaped this bloody deathwas a son of Ahimelech, named Abiathar, who "fled after David," i.e., toDavid...

Constable: 1Sa 16:1--31:13 - --IV. SAUL AND DAVID 1 Sam. 16--31 The basic theme in Samuel, that blessing, and in particular fertility of all ki...

Constable: 1Sa 21:1--30:31 - --C. David in Exile chs. 21-30 In chapters 21-30 we see David's forces growing stronger and stronger while...

Constable: 1Sa 21:1--22:23 - --1. David's initial movements chs. 21-22 "The two chapters comprise a literary unit of three sect...

Constable: 1Sa 22:1-2 - --David's flight to Adullam 22:1-2 The town of Adullam (lit. refuge) stood a mile or two s...

Constable: 1Sa 22:3-4 - --David's flight to Moab 22:3-4 Moab was a reasonable place for David's parents to seek pr...

Constable: 1Sa 22:5 - --David's flight to the forest of Hereth 22:5 Gad appears to have been a prophet who remai...

Constable: 1Sa 22:6-23 - --Saul's slaughter of the priests 22:6-23 The writer's attention focused next on Saul's ac...

Guzik: 1Sa 22:1-23 - David at Adullam Cave, Saul Murders the Priests 1 Samuel 22 - David at Adullam Cave, Saul Murders the Priests A. David at Adullam cave. 1. (1a) David's distress at Adullam. David therefore depar...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL. The two were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could be called the Book o...

JFB: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) OF ELKANAH AND HIS TWO WIVES. (1Sa 1:1-8) HANNAH'S PRAYER. (1Sa 1:9-18) SAMUEL BORN. (1Sa 1:20) HANNAH'S SONG IN THANKFULNESS TO GOD. (1Sa 2:1-11) TH...

TSK: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The First Book of SAMUEL, otherwise called " The First Book of the KINGS."

TSK: 1 Samuel 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 1Sa 22:1, Companies resort unto David at Adullam; 1Sa 22:3, At Mizpeh he commends his parents unto the king of Moab; 1Sa 22:5, Admonished...

Poole: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL OTHERWISE CALLED THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS. THE ARGUMENT. IT is not certainly known who was the penman of this Book, or whe...

Poole: 1 Samuel 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) SAMUEL CHAPTER 22 David cometh to Adullam, where companies resort to him, 1Sa 22:1,2 . He goeth to Mizpeh, and commendeth his parents to the king ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) In this book we have an account of Eli, and the wickedness of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement of Saul to ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (1Sa 22:1-5) David at Adullam, Many resort to him. (1Sa 22:6-19) Saul destroys the priests of Nob. (1Sa 22:20-23) Abiathar escapes to David.

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Samuel This book, and that which follows it, bear the name of Samuel in the title, ...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) David, being driven from Achish, returns into the land of Israel to be hunted by Saul. I. David sets up his standard in the cave of Adullam, enter...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title First and Second Samuel were originally one book called the Book of...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) Outline I. Eli and Samuel chs. 1-3 A. The change from barrenness to fertility 1:1-2:10 ...

Constable: 1 Samuel 1 Samuel Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English...

Haydock: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL; otherwise called, THE FIRST BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This and the following Book are called by the Hebrews, the...

Gill: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 1 SAMUEL This book, in the Hebrew copies, is commonly called Samuel, or the Book of Samuel; in the Syriac version, the Book of Samu...

Gill: 1 Samuel 22 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO FIRST SAMUEL 22 This chapter gives us an account of the flight of David from place to place, from Gath to the cave of Adullam, wher...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


TIP #15: Gunakan tautan Nomor Strong untuk mempelajari teks asli Ibrani dan Yunani. [SEMUA]
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